WorldWideScience

Sample records for beta distributions

  1. Constructions for a bivariate beta distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Olkin, Ingram; Trikalinos, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    The beta distribution is a basic distribution serving several purposes. It is used to model data, and also, as a more flexible version of the uniform distribution, it serves as a prior distribution for a binomial probability. The bivariate beta distribution plays a similar role for two probabilities that have a bivariate binomial distribution. We provide a new multivariate distribution with beta marginal distributions, positive probability over the unit square, and correlations over the full ...

  2. Parametrizing the exoplanet eccentricity distribution with the Beta distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Kipping, David M.

    2013-01-01

    It is suggested that the distribution of orbital eccentricities for extrasolar planets is well-described by the Beta distribution. Several properties of the Beta distribution make it a powerful tool for this purpose. For example, the Beta distribution can reproduce a diverse range of probability density functions (PDFs) using just two shape parameters (a and b). We argue that this makes it ideal for serving as a parametric model in Bayesian comparative population analysis. The Beta distributi...

  3. Reliability for some bivariate beta distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadarajah Saralees

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the area of stress-strength models there has been a large amount of work as regards estimation of the reliability R=Pr( Xdistributions when X and Y are independent random variables belonging to the same univariate family. In this paper, we consider forms of R when ( X,Y follows a bivariate distribution with dependence between X and Y . In particular, we derive explicit expressions for R when the joint distribution is bivariate beta. The calculations involve the use of special functions.

  4. Beta-hypergeometric probability distribution on symmetric matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Hassairi, Abdelhamid; Masmoudi, Mouna

    2012-01-01

    Some remarkable properties of the beta distribution are based on relations involving independence between beta random variables such that a parameter of one among them is the sum of the parameters of an other (see (1.1) et (1.2) below). Asci, Letac and Piccioni \\cite{6} have used the real beta-hypergeometric distribution on $ \\reel$ to give a general version of these properties without the condition on the parameters. In the present paper, we extend the properties of the real beta to the beta...

  5. Free infinite divisibility for beta distributions and related ones

    OpenAIRE

    Hasebe, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    We prove that many of beta, beta prime, gamma, inverse gamma, Student t- and ultraspherical distributions are freely infinitely divisible, but some of them are not. The latter negative result follows from a local property of probability density functions. Moreover, we show that the Gaussian, many of ultraspherical and Student t-distributions have free divisibility indicator 1.

  6. Free infinite divisibility for beta distributions and related ones

    OpenAIRE

    Hasebe, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    We prove that many of beta, beta prime, gamma, inverse gamma, Student t- and ultraspherical distributions are freely infinitely divisible, but some of them are not. The latter negative result follows from a local property of probability density functions. Moreover, we show that the Gaussian, ultraspherical and many of Student t-distributions have free divisibility indicator 1.

  7. Library Book Circulation and the Beta-Binomial Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, E.; Sichel, H. S.

    1987-01-01

    Argues that library book circulation is a binomial rather than a Poisson process, and that individual book popularities are continuous beta distributions. Three examples demonstrate the superiority of beta over negative binomial distribution, and it is suggested that a bivariate-binomial process would be helpful in predicting future book…

  8. Closed-form expressions for moments of a class of beta generalized distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Cordeiro, Gauss M.; Nadarajah, Saralees

    2011-01-01

    For the first time, we derive explicit closed-form expressions for moments of some beta generalized distributions including the beta gamma, beta normal, beta beta, beta Student t and beta F distributions. These expressions are given as infinite weighted sums of well-known special functions for which numerical routines for computation are available.

  9. Distribution of beta-amyloid in the canine brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Y; White, R G; Bobik, M; Marks, J S; Russell, M J

    1997-03-01

    The distribution of amyloid-beta protein (A beta) in the canine brain was demonstrated by immunochemistry on serially sectioned tissues from 10 aged mixed breed dogs. Summation of quantitative data and relegation to anatomical sites for the 10 dogs showed A beta to be widely distributed in the cortex and hippocampus while completely absent in the brain stem and cerebellum. The highest density of A beta was in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Cortical areas exhibiting the greatest A beta deposition were the posterior and medial suprasylvius gyrus and the proreus gyrus of the frontal lobe. Unlike humans the canine entorhinal cortex, amygdala, basal ganglia and olfactory bulbs were rarely affected. This suggested that the highly developed olfactory pathways of the canine are generally spared from A beta deposition. PMID:9141082

  10. On Gamow-Teller strength distributions for $\\beta\\beta$-decaying nuclei within continuum-QRPA

    CERN Document Server

    Igashov, S Yu; Faessler, Amand; Urin, M H

    2010-01-01

    An isospin-selfconsistent pn-continuum-QRPA approach is formulated and applied to describe the Gamow-Teller strength distributions for $\\beta\\beta$-decaying open-shell nuclei. The calculation results obtained for the pairs of nuclei $^{76}$Ge-Se, $^{100}$Mo-Ru, $^{116}$Cd-Sn, and $^{130}$Te-Xe are compared with available experimental data.

  11. Estimation of Parameters of the Beta-Extreme Value Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Iqbal

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper The Beta Extreme Value Type (III distribution which is developed by Zafar and Aleem (2007 is considered and parameters are estimated by using moments of the Beta-Extreme Value (Type III Distribution when the parameters ‘m’ & ‘n’ are real and moments of the Beta-Extreme Value (Type III Distribution when the parameters ‘m��� & ‘n’ are integers and then a Comparison between rth moments about origin when parameters are ‘m’ & ‘n’ are real and when parameters are ‘m’ & ‘n’ are integers. At the end second method, method of Maximum Likelihood is used to estimate the unknown parameters of the Beta Extreme Value Type (III distribution.

  12. Beta Distribution of Surface Elevation of Random Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军; 徐德伦

    2001-01-01

    A probability density function (PDF) is derived of beta distribution with both λ3 (skewness) and λ4 (kurtosis) as parameters for weakly nonlinear wave surface elevation by use of a method recently proposed by Srokosz. This PDF not only has a simpler form than the well-known Gram-Charlier Series PDF derived by Longuet-Higgins, but also overcomes an obvious shortcoming of the latter that when the series is unsuitably truncated, the resulting PDF is locally negative. To test the derived beta PDF, laboratorial experiments of wind waves are conducted. The experimental data indicate that the theoretical requirements of the parameters in the beta PDF are fulfilled. The experimental results show that the present PDF is in better agreement with the measured data than the beta PDF only including parameter λ3, and also than the Gram-Charlier Series PDF truncated up to the term of H6.

  13. Reliability for some bivariate beta distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Nadarajah Saralees

    2005-01-01

    In the area of stress-strength models there has been a large amount of work as regards estimation of the reliability R=Pr( Xdistributions when X and Y are independent random variables belonging to the same univariate family. In this paper, we consider forms of R when ( X,Y ) follows a bivariate distribution with dependence between X and ...

  14. A COMPOUND OF ZERO TRUNCATED GENERALIZED NEGATIVE BINOMIAL DISTRIBUTION WITH GENERALIZED BETA DISTRIBUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Adil Rashid; Tariq .R. Jan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a chronological overview of the recent developments in thecompounding of distributions. An attempt has been made to obtain a compound of zero truncatedgeneralized negative binomial distribution (Ztgnbd) with that of Generalized Beta Distribution(GBD). Factorial and ordinary crude moments of some zero truncated compound distributionshave also been discussed. The compound is then specialized by varying the value of β in((Ztgnbd)).

  15. A COMPOUND OF ZERO TRUNCATED GENERALIZED NEGATIVE BINOMIAL DISTRIBUTION WITH GENERALIZED BETA DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we provide a chronological overview of the recent developments in thecompounding of distributions. An attempt has been made to obtain a compound of zero truncatedgeneralized negative binomial distribution (Ztgnbd with that of Generalized Beta Distribution(GBD. Factorial and ordinary crude moments of some zero truncated compound distributionshave also been discussed. The compound is then specialized by varying the value of β in((Ztgnbd.

  16. Certain Family of Some Beta Distributions Arising from Distribution of Randomly Weighted Average

    OpenAIRE

    Roozegar, Rasool

    2015-01-01

    We give the exact distribution of the average of n independent beta random variables weighted by the selected cuts of (0, 1) by the order statistics of a random sample of size n-1 from the uniform distribution U(0,1), for each n. A new integral transformation that is similar to generalized Stieltjes transform is given with various properties. The result of Soltani and Roozegar [On distribution of randomly ordered uniform incremental weighted averages: Divided difference approach. Statist Prob...

  17. Dust Distribution in the beta Pictoris Circumstellar Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmic, Mirza; Artymowicz, Pawel

    2009-01-01

    We present 3-D models of dust distribution around beta Pictoris that produce the best fits to the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys' (HST/ACS) images obtained by Golimowski and co-workers. We allow for the presence of either one or two separate axisymmetric dust disks. The density models are analytical, radial two-power-laws joined smoothly at a cross-over radius with density exponentially decreasing away from the mid-plane of the disks. Two-disk models match the data best, yielding a reduced chi^2 of ~1.2. Our two-disk model reproduces many of the asymmetries reported in the literature and suggests that it is the secondary (tilted) disk which is largely responsible for them. Our model suggests that the secondary disk is not constrained to the inner regions of the system (extending out to at least 250 AU) and that it has a slightly larger total area of dust than the primary, as a result of slower fall-off of density with radius and height. This surprising result raises many questions about th...

  18. Gamow-Teller strength distributions for double-beta-decaying nuclei within continuum-QRPA

    OpenAIRE

    Igashov, S. Yu.; Rodin, V. A.; Urin, M.H.; Faessler, A.

    2007-01-01

    A version of the pn-continuum-QRPA is outlined and applied to describe the Gamow-Teller strength distributions for $\\beta\\beta$-decaying open-shell nuclei. The calculation results obtained for the pairs of nuclei $^{116}$Cd-Sn and $^{130}$Te-Xe are compared with available experimental data.

  19. The statistical properties of the angular distribution of beta delayed protons from oriented nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, N J; Wöhr, A

    2000-01-01

    Statistical model of beta -delayed proton emission is briefly reviewed. Theory of angular distribution of beta -delayed proton emission from nuclear states oriented at low temperatures is discussed and the design of the first trial experiment using /sup 118 /Cs oriented at low temperature at the ISOLDE/NICOLE facility at CERN is described. (14 refs).

  20. Uniform Asymptotic Normality of the Matrix-variate Beta-distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai Can LI; He TANG

    2012-01-01

    With the upper bound of Kullback-Leibler distance between a matrix variate Beta-distribution and a normal distribution,this paper gives the conditions under which a matrix-variate Betadistribution will approach uniformly and asymptotically a normal distribution.

  1. On k-Gamma and k-Beta Distributions and Moment Generating Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauhar Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present paper is to define k-gamma and k-beta distributions and moments generating function for the said distributions in terms of a new parameter k>0. Also, the authors prove some properties of these newly defined distributions.

  2. The pharmacokinetics, distribution and degradation of human recombinant interleukin 1 beta in normal rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, J; Wogensen, L D; Welinder, B;

    1991-01-01

    distribution (T1/2 alpha) and elimination phases (T1/2 beta) of human recombinant interleukin 1 beta (rIL-1 beta), and its tissue distribution and cellular localization by means of mono-labelled, biologically active 125I-rIL-1 beta. After intravenous (i.v.) injection, 125I-rIL-1 beta was eliminated from the......Based upon in vivo rat experiments it was recently suggested that interleukin 1 in the circulation may be implicated in the initial events of beta-cell destruction leading to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in humans. The aim of the present study was to estimate half-lives of...... circulation with a T1/2 alpha of 2.9 min and a T1/2 beta of 41.1 min. The central and peripheral volume of distribution was 20.7 and 19.1 ml/rat, respectively, and the metabolic clearance rate was 16.9 ml/min/kg. The kidney and liver showed the highest accumulation of tracer, and autoradiography demonstrated...

  3. Chromosome aberration analysis based on a beta-binomial distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyses carried out here generalized on earlier studies of chromosomal aberrations in the populations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, by allowing extra-binomial variation in aberrant cell counts corresponding to within-subject correlations in cell aberrations. Strong within-subject correlations were detected with corresponding standard errors for the average number of aberrant cells that were often substantially larger than was previously assumed. The extra-binomial variation is accomodated in the analysis in the present report, as described in the section on dose-response models, by using a beta-binomial (B-B) variance structure. It is emphasized that we have generally satisfactory agreement between the observed and the B-B fitted frequencies by city-dose category. The chromosomal aberration data considered here are not extensive enough to allow a precise discrimination between competing dose-response models. A quadratic gamma ray and linear neutron model, however, most closely fits the chromosome data. (author)

  4. Spectral distribution Method for neutrinoless double beta decay: Results for $^{82}$Se and $^{76}$Ge

    CERN Document Server

    Kota, V K B

    2016-01-01

    Statistical spectral distribution method based on shell model and random matrix theory is developed for calculating neutrinoless double beta decay nuclear transition matrix elements. First results obtained for $^{82}$Se and $^{76}$Ge using the spectral method are close to the available shell model results.

  5. Directional distributions of beta-rays emitted from oriented nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A unique ultralow-temperature nuclear orientation facility was developed with which the directional distributions of β-rays emitted from statically polarized nuclei can be observed, for the first time, at many angles with respect to the polarization axis. Nuclei can be polarized in bulk by imbedding them in an appropriate ferromagnetic host, which is cooled to near absolute zero temperature and is magnetized to saturation with an externally applied field. The polarization axis is defined by the direction of this applied field. The two distinguishing features of the new system are the following: the necessary temperature of about 0.010K can be maintained very accurately for as long as is necessary by a 3He/4He dilution refrigerator; and the polarization axis can be rotated, while the source and the detector are kept stationary, by varying the external fields applied by intersecting magnetic loops. These loops leak a negligible amount of magnetic flux into the region traversed by the β rays, and thus leave β-ray trajectories essentially unaltered. In the first experiment performed on the facility, the angular dependence of the parity-violating term in the directional distribution function for β rays emitted from polarized 60Co nuclei was directly measured for the first time. The results were found to be consistent with the accepted theories of nuclear β decay. Additional fundamental experiments possible with this new facility involving parity violation, isospin nonconservation, and time-reversal invariance are discussed

  6. Molecular mass distribution and epitopes of the beta lactoglobulin submitted to hydrolysis pre-transglutaminase treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villas-Boas, M.B.; Zollner, R.L.; Netto, F.M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Paes Leme, A.F. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Benede, S.; Molina, E. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The {beta}-Lactoglobulin ({beta}-Lg) is a whey protein with important nutritional proper ties but very resistant to pepsin digestion and consequently highly antigenic. This protein can be modified by transglutaminase (TG) although it is required a pretreatment to increase their susceptibility to the TG action. In the present study the hydrolysis pre-TG treatment was used to improve the TG accessibility on {beta}-Lg and the MM distribution and antigenic fragments were evaluated. For pre-TG treatment, the {beta}-Lg (Davisco Inc.) was hydrolyzed with bromelain (3% of {beta}-Lg w/w in distilled water; 25 U enzyme g{sup 1} of substrate, pH 7.5, 240 min) and then polymerized by TG (7% hydrolysate, 10U TG g{sup 1} protein, 50 C/180 min). The samples were evaluated by SDS-PAGE/tricine and by RP-nanoUPLC (nanoAcquity UPLC, Waters) coupled with nano-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry on a Q-Tof Ultima API mass spectrometer (MicroMass/Waters) at LNBio. The products were also submitted to pepsin digestion and the peptide identification was performed by RP-HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC-MS/MS, Brucker) with support from CIAL. The {beta}-Lg hydrolysed by bromelain and polymerized by TG had a broad MM distribution. The intact mass analysis indicated that the non modified {beta}Lg -A showed 18.362 Da and the non modified {beta}Lg -B 18.274 Da, which is in agreement with the theoretical corresponding masses. The use of bromelain pre-TG treatment resulted in polymers with MM from 61.052 to 67.654 Da, although some non modified protein was still present. In addition, the non modified {beta}-Lg showed fragments that present high antigenicity (such as Leu{sub 95} - Leu{sub 104}, Asp{sub 95} - Phe{sub 105}, Tyr{sub 42} - Leu{sub 54}, lle{sub 29} - Val{sub 41}), previously identified as IgE-binding epitopes. After hydrolysis following by TG treatment the fragment Tyr{sub 42} - Leu{sub 54} was still present, however the other fragments that were observed in the non

  7. Tail universalities in rank distributions as an algebraic problem: the beta-like function

    CERN Document Server

    Naumis, Gerardo G

    2007-01-01

    Although power laws of the Zipf type have been used by many workers to fit rank distributions in different fields like in economy, geophysics, genetics, soft-matter, networks etc., these fits usually fail at the tails. Some distributions have been proposed to solve the problem, but unfortunately they do not fit at the same time both ending tails. We show that many different data in rank laws, like in granular materials, codons, author impact in scientific journal, etc. are very well fitted by a beta-like function. Then we propose that such universality is due to the fact that a system made from many subsystems or choices, imply stretched exponential frequency-rank functions which qualitatively and quantitatively can be fitted with the proposed beta-like function distribution in the limit of many random variables. We prove this by transforming the problem into an algebraic one: finding the rank of successive products of a given set of numbers.

  8. Developments for a measurement of the beta -- nu correlation and determination of the recoil charge-state distribution in 6He beta decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ran

    The beta-nu of a pure Gamow-Teller beta decay such as the 6He decay is sensitive to tensor-type weak currents predicted by theories beyond the Standard Model. An experiment is developed at University of Washington aiming at measuring the coefficient a_{beta-nu} of 6He decays to the 0.1% level and looking for its deviation from the Standard-Model prediction -1/3 using laser-trapped 6He atoms. The beta particle is detected by a scintillator and a multi-wire proportional chamber, and the recoil ion is detected by a microchannel plate with delay-line anodes for position readouts. a_{beta-nu} is extracted by fitting the measured time-of-flight spectrum of the recoil ions to templates generated by Monte Carlo simulations. This dissertation describes the developments of this experiment for the intermediate goal of a 1% level a_{beta-nu} measurement, such as the detector design, Monte Carlo simulation software, and data analysis frame work. Particularly, detector calibrations are described in detail. The analysis of a 2% level proof-of-principle run in October 2015 is presented as well. Shake-off probabilities for decays of trapped 6He atoms matter for the high-precision a_{beta-nu} measurement. The charge state distribution of recoil ions is obtained by analyzing their time-of-flight distribution using the same experimental setups for the a_{beta-nu} measurement. An analysis approach that is independent of the beta-nu correlation is developed. The measured upper limit of the double shake-off probability is 2x10. {-4} at 90% confidence level. This result is 100 times lower than the most recent calculation by Schulhoff and Drake. This disagreement is significant for the a_{beta-nu} measurement and needs to be addressed by improved atomic theory calculations.

  9. Recoil ion charge state distribution following the beta(sup +) decay of {sup 21}Na

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scielzo, Nicholas D.; Freedman, Stuart J.; Fujikawa, Brian K.; Vetter, Paul A.

    2003-01-03

    The charge state distribution following the positron decay of 21Na has been measured, with a larger than expected fraction of the daughter 21Ne in positive charge states. No dependence on either the positron or recoil nucleus energy is observed. The data is compared to a simple model based on the sudden approximation. Calculations suggest a small but important contribution from recoil ionization has important consequences for precision beta decay correlation experiments detecting recoil ions.

  10. Recoil ion charge state distribution following the beta(sup +) decay of 21Na

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charge state distribution following the positron decay of 21Na has been measured, with a larger than expected fraction of the daughter 21Ne in positive charge states. No dependence on either the positron or recoil nucleus energy is observed. The data is compared to a simple model based on the sudden approximation. Calculations suggest a small but important contribution from recoil ionization has important consequences for precision beta decay correlation experiments detecting recoil ions

  11. A joint finite mixture model for clustering genes from independent Gaussian and beta distributed data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yli-Harja Olli

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cluster analysis has become a standard computational method for gene function discovery as well as for more general explanatory data analysis. A number of different approaches have been proposed for that purpose, out of which different mixture models provide a principled probabilistic framework. Cluster analysis is increasingly often supplemented with multiple data sources nowadays, and these heterogeneous information sources should be made as efficient use of as possible. Results This paper presents a novel Beta-Gaussian mixture model (BGMM for clustering genes based on Gaussian distributed and beta distributed data. The proposed BGMM can be viewed as a natural extension of the beta mixture model (BMM and the Gaussian mixture model (GMM. The proposed BGMM method differs from other mixture model based methods in its integration of two different data types into a single and unified probabilistic modeling framework, which provides a more efficient use of multiple data sources than methods that analyze different data sources separately. Moreover, BGMM provides an exceedingly flexible modeling framework since many data sources can be modeled as Gaussian or beta distributed random variables, and it can also be extended to integrate data that have other parametric distributions as well, which adds even more flexibility to this model-based clustering framework. We developed three types of estimation algorithms for BGMM, the standard expectation maximization (EM algorithm, an approximated EM and a hybrid EM, and propose to tackle the model selection problem by well-known model selection criteria, for which we test the Akaike information criterion (AIC, a modified AIC (AIC3, the Bayesian information criterion (BIC, and the integrated classification likelihood-BIC (ICL-BIC. Conclusion Performance tests with simulated data show that combining two different data sources into a single mixture joint model greatly improves the clustering

  12. The pharmacokinetics, distribution and degradation of human recombinant interleukin 1 beta in normal rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wogensen, L D; Welinder, B; Hejnaes, K R;

    1991-01-01

    circulation with a T1/2 alpha of 2.9 min and a T1/2 beta of 41.1 min. The central and peripheral volume of distribution was 20.7 and 19.1 ml/rat, respectively, and the metabolic clearance rate was 16.9 ml/min/kg. The kidney and liver showed the highest accumulation of tracer, and autoradiography demonstrated...... that 125I-rIL-1 beta was localized to the proximal tubules in the kidney and to the hepatocytes in the liver. Furthermore, grains were localized to the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Tracer-bound proteins corresponding to intact 125I-rIL-1 beta were found in the circulation after i.......v., intraperitoneal (i.p.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) injections, as demonstrated by high performance size exclusion chromatography, trichloracetic acid precipitation and SDS-PAGE until 5 h after tracer injection. Pre-treatment with 'cold' rIL-1 beta enhanced degradation of a subsequent injection of tracer. The route of...

  13. Online learning of a Dirichlet process mixture of Beta-Liouville distributions via variational inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wentao; Bouguila, Nizar

    2013-11-01

    A large class of problems can be formulated in terms of the clustering process. Mixture models are an increasingly important tool in statistical pattern recognition and for analyzing and clustering complex data. Two challenging aspects that should be addressed when considering mixture models are how to choose between a set of plausible models and how to estimate the model's parameters. In this paper, we address both problems simultaneously within a unified online nonparametric Bayesian framework that we develop to learn a Dirichlet process mixture of Beta-Liouville distributions (i.e., an infinite Beta-Liouville mixture model). The proposed infinite model is used for the online modeling and clustering of proportional data for which the Beta-Liouville mixture has been shown to be effective. We propose a principled approach for approximating the intractable model's posterior distribution by a tractable one-which we develop-such that all the involved mixture's parameters can be estimated simultaneously and effectively in a closed form. This is done through variational inference that enjoys important advantages, such as handling of unobserved attributes and preventing under or overfitting; we explain that in detail. The effectiveness of the proposed work is evaluated on three challenging real applications, namely facial expression recognition, behavior modeling and recognition, and dynamic textures clustering. PMID:24808617

  14. Distribution of estrogens, 17{beta}-estradiol and estrone, in Canadian municipal wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servos, M.R.; Bennie, D.T.; Burnison, B.K.; Jurkovic, A.; McInnis, R.; Neheli, T.; Schnell, A.; Seto, P.; Smyth, S.A.; Ternes, T.A

    2005-01-05

    The distribution of female hormones, 17{beta}-estradiol and estrone, was determined in effluents of 18 selected municipal treatment plants across Canada. Replicate 24-h composite samples were collected from the influent and final effluent of each treatment plant, and the removal efficiency compared to the operational characteristics of the plants. In conventional activated sludge and lagoon treatment systems, the mean concentrations of 17{beta}-estradiol and estrone in influent were 15.6 ng/l (range 2.4-26 ng/l) and 49 ng/l (19-78 ng/l). In final effluents, the mean concentrations of both 17{beta}-estradiol and estrone were reduced to 1.8 ng/l (0.2-14.7 ng/l) and 17 ng/l (1-96 ng/l), respectively. 17{beta}-estradiol was removed effectively, >75% and as high as 98%, in most of the conventional mechanical treatment systems with secondary treatment. The removal of estrone was much more complex with removal varying from 98% to situations where the concentrations in the effluent were elevated above that detected in the influent. The estrogenicity, measured using a transfected estrogen receptor in yeast (YES) assay, was also variable, ranging from high removal to elevations of estrogenicity in final effluent. Although the apparent removals were not statistically correlated with either hydraulic (HRT) or solid (SRT) retention times, plants or lagoons with high SRT were very effective at reducing the levels of hormones. Well-operated plants that achieved nitrification also tended to have higher removal of hormones than those that did not nitrify. Laboratory aerobic reactor experiments confirmed the rapid removal of 17{beta}-estradiol, estrone, and estrogenicity when exposed to sewage slurries.

  15. The progression and topographic distribution of interleukin-1beta expression after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C A; Loddick, S A; Toulmond, S; Stroemer, R P; Hunt, J; Rothwell, N J

    1999-01-01

    The cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) has been implicated in the exacerbation of ischemic damage in the brains of rodents. This study has ascertained the cellular localization and chronologic and topographic distribution of pro/mature interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) protein 0.5, 1, 2, 6, 24, and 48 hours after ischemia by subjecting rats to permanent unilateral occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Interleukin-1beta was localized immunocytochemically in vibratome sections of perfusion-fixed brains. The cells that expressed IL-1beta had the morphologic features of microglia and macrophages. Interleukin-1beta was first detected 1 hour after occlusion in ipsilateral meningeal macrophage-like cells. By 6 hours, pro/mature IL-1beta-immunoreactive (IL-1(beta)ir) putative microglia were present in the ischemic cerebral cortex, corpus callosum, caudoputamen, and surrounding tissue. By 24 and 48 hours after ischemia, the number and spread of IL-1(beta)ir cells increased greatly, including those resembling activated microglia and macrophages, as the core of the infarct became infiltrated. Interleukin-1(beta)ir cells also were present in apparently undamaged tissue, adjacent to the lesion ipsilaterally, and contralaterally in the cerebral cortex, dorsal corpus callosum, dorsal caudoputamen, and hippocampus. These results support the functional role of IL-1 in ischemic brain damage and reveal a distinct temporal and spatial expression of IL-1beta protein in cells believed to be microglia and macrophages. PMID:9886359

  16. Distributional Assumptions in Educational Assessments Analysis: Normal Distributions versus Generalized Beta Distribution in Modeling the Phenomenon of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Jose Alejandro Gonzalez; Moraga, Paulina Saavedra; Del Pozo, Manuel Freire

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the generalized beta (GB) model as a new modeling tool in the educational assessment area and evaluation analysis, specifically. Unlike normal model, GB model allows us to capture some real characteristics of data and it is an important tool for understanding the phenomenon of learning. This paper develops a contrast with the…

  17. MCNP(TM) Release 6.1.1 beta: Creating and Testing the Code Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Lawrence J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Casswell, Laura [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-06-12

    This report documents the preparations for and testing of the production release of MCNP6™1.1 beta through RSICC at ORNL. It addresses tests on supported operating systems (Linux, MacOSX, Windows) with the supported compilers (Intel, Portland Group and gfortran). Verification and Validation test results are documented elsewhere. This report does not address in detail the overall packaging of the distribution. Specifically, it does not address the nuclear and atomic data collection, the other included software packages (MCNP5, MCNPX and MCNP6) and the collection of reference documents.

  18. Curve fitting of the corporate recovery rates: the comparison of Beta distribution estimation and kernel density estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongda Chen

    Full Text Available Recovery rate is essential to the estimation of the portfolio's loss and economic capital. Neglecting the randomness of the distribution of recovery rate may underestimate the risk. The study introduces two kinds of models of distribution, Beta distribution estimation and kernel density distribution estimation, to simulate the distribution of recovery rates of corporate loans and bonds. As is known, models based on Beta distribution are common in daily usage, such as CreditMetrics by J.P. Morgan, Portfolio Manager by KMV and Losscalc by Moody's. However, it has a fatal defect that it can't fit the bimodal or multimodal distributions such as recovery rates of corporate loans and bonds as Moody's new data show. In order to overcome this flaw, the kernel density estimation is introduced and we compare the simulation results by histogram, Beta distribution estimation and kernel density estimation to reach the conclusion that the Gaussian kernel density distribution really better imitates the distribution of the bimodal or multimodal data samples of corporate loans and bonds. Finally, a Chi-square test of the Gaussian kernel density estimation proves that it can fit the curve of recovery rates of loans and bonds. So using the kernel density distribution to precisely delineate the bimodal recovery rates of bonds is optimal in credit risk management.

  19. A Bayesian beta distribution model for estimating rainfall IDF curves in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Carlos H. R.; Kwon, Hyun-Han; Kim, Jin-Young

    2016-09-01

    The estimation of intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves for rainfall data comprises a classical task in hydrology studies to support a variety of water resources projects, including urban drainage and the design of flood control structures. In a changing climate, however, traditional approaches based on historical records of rainfall and on the stationary assumption can be inadequate and lead to poor estimates of rainfall intensity quantiles. Climate change scenarios built on General Circulation Models offer a way to access and estimate future changes in spatial and temporal rainfall patterns at the daily scale at the utmost, which is not as fine temporal resolution as required (e.g. hours) to directly estimate IDF curves. In this paper we propose a novel methodology based on a four-parameter beta distribution to estimate IDF curves conditioned on the observed (or simulated) daily rainfall, which becomes the time-varying upper bound of the updated nonstationary beta distribution. The inference is conducted in a Bayesian framework that provides a better way to take into account the uncertainty in the model parameters when building the IDF curves. The proposed model is tested using rainfall data from four stations located in South Korea and projected climate change Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) scenarios 6 and 8.5 from the Met Office Hadley Centre HadGEM3-RA model. The results show that the developed model fits the historical data as good as the traditional Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution but is able to produce future IDF curves that significantly differ from the historically based IDF curves. The proposed model predicts for the stations and RCPs scenarios analysed in this work an increase in the intensity of extreme rainfalls of short duration with long return periods.

  20. A preliminary optical and electron microscopic study of the beta(1) integrin distribution pattern of human osteosarcoma-derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banai, Kiarash; Brady, Ken; McDonald, Fraser

    2004-07-01

    Immunogold labelling was used to study the organisation of the beta(1) integrins on osteosarcoma-derived osteoblasts (Saos-2 and MG-63). Monolayers of cells were prepared in multiwell culture plates on both uncovered and collagen-covered coverslips, and beta(1) integrins were primarily labelled using mouse monoclonal antibodies to beta(1) integrins. Indirect immunofluorescence labels using an anti-mouse fluorescein-conjugated goat antibody showed an even distribution of the beta(1) integrins on the cell membranes of all cell types used. A concentration of 2 microg/ml of the primary antibodies and a 1:100 dilution of the secondary antibodies were determined as the optimal concentration for labelling to use with indirect localisation of the primary antibodies gold conjugated to goat anti-mouse antibodies and viewed under an electron microscope. Ten nanometre gold particles were used for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and 40 nm gold particles for scanning electron microscopy. TEM showed that beta(1) integrins were mainly clustered on the cell membrane processes with less labelling on the cell membranes themselves. The distribution of beta(1) integrins on osteosarcoma cells supports the concept that integrins may function by forming focal adhesions at the site of the cytoplasmic membrane processes. PMID:15241608

  1. Assessing the gluten content in wheat as an expression of the nutrition deficit, through beta distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pîslea, Daniela; Boldea, Marius; Sala, Florin

    2013-10-01

    The laboratory analysis of the gluten content of wheat in relation to the doses of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium used for fertilizing the soil reveals positive correlation between the two variables. The gluten content in wheat grains is an extremely important quality index in bread manufacturing. One of the farmers' objectives is to obtain high values of this index. The quality of bread manufacturing products is very sensitive to any changes in the percentage share of this indicator. The minimum limit of gluten accepted for bread manufacturing is 26%; even a small variation, of one percentage, of gluten, over this limit, changes the quality of the wheat yield, with considerable effects on the quality of bread. Therefore, farmers are interested in using crop technologies and especially fertilization in order to obtain wheat with high gluten content. Of the nutritive macronutrients, nitrogen plays a significant role in ensuring high gluten content. The definition domain of the measurements is (0;1). This ratio is not constant, but it has a tendency towards a certain medium value, depending on the chemical fertilizers, on fertilization. It follows that the statistic distribution which evaluates the phenomenon is the beta distribution.

  2. Coexistence of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in the rabbit heart: quantitative analysis of the regional distribution by (-)-3H-dihydroalprenolol binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We determined the amount of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in right and left atria and ventricles of rabbits. For this purpose inhibition of specific (-)-3H-dihydroalprenolol [(-)-3H-DHA] binding (5 nM) by beta 1-selective (practolol, metoprolol) and beta 2-selective (zinterol, IPS 339) adrenergic drugs was determined and analyzed by pseudo-Scatchard (Hofstee) plots. For both atria, inhibition of binding by the four selective beta-adrenergic drugs resulted in non-linear Hofstee plots, suggesting the coexistence of both beta-adrenoceptor subtypes. From these plots we calculated a beta 1:beta 2-adrenoceptor ratio of 72:28 for the right atrium and of 82:18 for the left. In contrast, only a very small amount of beta 2-adrenoceptors (approximately 5-7% of the total beta-adrenoceptor population) could be detected in the ventricles. For comparison we analyzed the inhibition of specific (-)-3H-DHA binding in tissues with homogeneous population of beta-adrenoceptors (beta 1:guinea pig left ventricle; beta 2: cerebellum of mature rats). For both tissues the four selective beta-adrenergic drugs showed linear Hofstee plots, demonstrating that in tissues with homogeneous beta-receptor population interaction of each drug with the receptor followed simple mass-action kinetics. We conclude that beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors coexist in rabbit atria while the ventricles are predominantly endowed the beta 1-adrenoceptors

  3. Coexistence of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in the rabbit heart: quantitative analysis of the regional distribution by (-)-/sup 3/H-dihydroalprenolol binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodde, O.E.; Leifert, F.J.; Krehl, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    We determined the amount of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in right and left atria and ventricles of rabbits. For this purpose inhibition of specific (-)-/sup 3/H-dihydroalprenolol ((-)-/sup 3/H-DHA) binding (5 nM) by beta 1-selective (practolol, metoprolol) and beta 2-selective (zinterol, IPS 339) adrenergic drugs was determined and analyzed by pseudo-Scatchard (Hofstee) plots. For both atria, inhibition of binding by the four selective beta-adrenergic drugs resulted in non-linear Hofstee plots, suggesting the coexistence of both beta-adrenoceptor subtypes. From these plots we calculated a beta 1:beta 2-adrenoceptor ratio of 72:28 for the right atrium and of 82:18 for the left. In contrast, only a very small amount of beta 2-adrenoceptors (approximately 5-7% of the total beta-adrenoceptor population) could be detected in the ventricles. For comparison we analyzed the inhibition of specific (-)-/sup 3/H-DHA binding in tissues with homogeneous population of beta-adrenoceptors (beta 1:guinea pig left ventricle; beta 2: cerebellum of mature rats). For both tissues the four selective beta-adrenergic drugs showed linear Hofstee plots, demonstrating that in tissues with homogeneous beta-receptor population interaction of each drug with the receptor followed simple mass-action kinetics. We conclude that beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors coexist in rabbit atria while the ventricles are predominantly endowed the beta 1-adrenoceptors.

  4. Habitat heterogeneity drives the geographical distribution of beta diversity: the case of New Zealand stream invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Astorga, Anna; Death, Russell; Death, Fiona; Paavola, Riku; Chakraborty, Manas; Muotka, Timo

    2014-01-01

    To define whether the beta diversity of stream invertebrate communities in New Zealand exhibits geographical variation unexplained by variation in gamma diversity and, if so, what mechanisms (productivity, habitat heterogeneity, dispersal limitation, disturbance) best explain the observed broad-scale beta diversity patterns. We sampled 120 streams across eight regions (stream catchments), spanning a north–south gradient of 12° of latitude, and calculated beta diversity (with both species rich...

  5. Presumption of the energy-spectrum of high-energy electron beam based on the beta-distribution model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy spectra of high-energy electron beams used in radiotherapy are the most important data for evaluating absorbed doses and/or dose distributions in the body of a patient. However, it is impossible to measure the actual spectra of a high-energy electron beam. In this study, we suggest a method to presume the spectra of high-energy electron beams by use of the beta distribution model. The procedure of this method is as follows: (1) the spectrum of the high-energy electron beam was assumed to have a maximum energy Emax, and α, β parameters of the beta probability density function. (2) The percentage depth dose (PDD) based on the assumed spectrum was calculated by a Monte Carlo simulation. (3) The best matching energy spectrum was searched in comparison with the experimental PDD curves. Finally, the optimal energy spectrum of the electron beam was estimated after reiterating the process from (1) to (3). With our method, the measured PDD curves were optimally simulated following the experimental data. It appeared that the assumed spectra approximated well to the actual spectra. However, the error between the assumed and experimental data was observed in the region under the incident surface. We believe this was due to the influence of low-energy electrons scattered at installed collimators, etc. In order to simulate PDDs in this region accurately, a further correction process is required for a spectrum based on the beta distribution model. (author)

  6. Credible Intervals for Precision and Recall Based on a K-Fold Cross-Validated Beta Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Li, Jihong

    2016-08-01

    In typical machine learning applications such as information retrieval, precision and recall are two commonly used measures for assessing an algorithm's performance. Symmetrical confidence intervals based on K-fold cross-validated t distributions are widely used for the inference of precision and recall measures. As we confirmed through simulated experiments, however, these confidence intervals often exhibit lower degrees of confidence, which may easily lead to liberal inference results. Thus, it is crucial to construct faithful confidence (credible) intervals for precision and recall with a high degree of confidence and a short interval length. In this study, we propose two posterior credible intervals for precision and recall based on K-fold cross-validated beta distributions. The first credible interval for precision (or recall) is constructed based on the beta posterior distribution inferred by all K data sets corresponding to K confusion matrices from a K-fold cross-validation. Second, considering that each data set corresponding to a confusion matrix from a K-fold cross-validation can be used to infer a beta posterior distribution of precision (or recall), the second proposed credible interval for precision (or recall) is constructed based on the average of K beta posterior distributions. Experimental results on simulated and real data sets demonstrate that the first credible interval proposed in this study almost always resulted in degrees of confidence greater than 95%. With an acceptable degree of confidence, both of our two proposed credible intervals have shorter interval lengths than those based on a corrected K-fold cross-validated t distribution. Meanwhile, the average ranks of these two credible intervals are superior to that of the confidence interval based on a K-fold cross-validated t distribution for the degree of confidence and are superior to that of the confidence interval based on a corrected K-fold cross-validated t distribution for the

  7. Dynamics and spatial distribution of beta-lactamase expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, N.; Hentzer, Morten; Andersen, Jens Bo; Ciofu, O.; Givskov, Michael Christian; Høiby, N.

    2004-01-01

    The development of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics is a problem in the treatment of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis. The main resistance mechanism is high-level expression of the chromosomally encoded AmpC beta-lactamase of P. aeruginosa...... cells growing in biofilms. Several genes have been shown to influence the level of ampC expression, but little is known about the regulation of ampC expression in P. aeruginosa biofilms. To study the expression of ampC in P. aeruginosa biofilms, we constructed a reporter that consisted of the fusion of...... the ampC promoter to gfp(ASV) encoding an unstable version of the green fluorescent protein. In vitro biofilms of P. aeruginosa were exposed to the beta-lactam antibiotics imipenem and ceftazidime. Sub-MICs of imipenem significantly induced the monitor system of the biofilm bacteria in the peripheries...

  8. Analytical approximation of the dose distribution from point beta-sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method for analytical calculation of the beta-ray dose from point sources which accounts for the total beta-spectrum shape are presented and the results are compared to calculations of Loevinger and the Monte-Carlo groups. The most important feature is that it can be used for the resultant sum of several spectra and also for distorted or experimentally measured spectra. The method uses tabulated values for the specific energy lost and calculated or measured values for the shape of the total spectrum from nuclide or mixture of nuclides. The approach have been tested with isotopes with different beta-ray shapes(90Sr, 90Y) and in the presence of conversion electrons - 137Cs. 106Rh is included because of high Emax = 3.54 MeV. The agreement of the proposed method with the Monte-Carlo simulations is very good. The chosen spectra are with very different initial shape, which confirms the applicability of the approach. The major deviation is for the large distances due to the limited accuracy of the Loevinger method. The approach can be used for the soft biological tissue and for other than point sources. For the skin contamination it is necessary the backscattering electrons to be taken into account. An initial version of the approach has been used for calculations of beta-ray doses due to hot particles after the Chernobyl accident

  9. Measurement of beta-radioactivity distribution in soil by use of fiber-type radiophotoluminescence glass dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiber-type radiophotoluminescence (RPL) glass dosimeters were satisfactorily made from reagent-grade powders of NaPO3, Al(PO3)3 and AgCl for the measurement of beta-radioactivity distribution in soil. The fiber-type glass dosimeters were covered with thin polyethylene film for the protection of the glass dosimeters against direct contact to soil particles. The RPL intensity of fiber-type glass dosimeters was successfully measured with a confocal microscope together with an ultraviolet pulsed laser. Depth-directional radioactive-cesium distribution in soil at Fukushima was well measured with the fiber-type RPL glass dosimeters and the confocal microscope system. -- Highlights: ► Fiber-type radiophotoluminescence (RPL) glass dosimeters were satisfactorily made. ► The RPL intensity of a glass dosimeter was well measured with a laser microscope. ► Radioactive-cesium distribution in soil was well measured with glass dosimeters

  10. Beta Test Plan for Advanced Inverters Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoke, A.; Chakraborty, S.; Basso, T.; Coddington, M.

    2014-01-01

    This document provides a preliminary (beta) test plan for grid interconnection systems of advanced inverter-based DERs. It follows the format and methodology/approach established by IEEE Std 1547.1, while incorporating: 1. Upgraded tests for responses to abnormal voltage and frequency, and also including ride-through. 2. A newly developed test for voltage regulation, including dynamic response testing. 3. Modified tests for unintentional islanding, open phase, and harmonics to include testing with the advanced voltage and frequency response functions enabled. Two advanced inverters, one single-phase and one three-phase, were tested under the beta test plan. These tests confirmed the importance of including tests for inverter dynamic response, which varies widely from one inverter to the next.

  11. Small-area fiber-coupled scintillation camera for imaging beta-ray distributions intraoperatively

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, L. R.; Tornai, Martin P.; Levin, C. S.; Park, J.; Atac, Muzaffer; Cline, David B.; Hoffman, Eric G.

    1995-09-01

    A small area, imaging, scintillation probe is being developed for locating small amounts of radio-labeled malignant tissue during surgery. Preliminary in brain surgery, avoiding the removal of excess tissue is a priority. It is possible to locate the main body of a brain tumor both before and during surgery, but once the bulk of the tumor is excised the identification of residual malignant tissue is difficult. A probe that covers an area of 1-2 cm(superscript 2) with an intrinsic resolution of 1-2 mm could locate small tumor masses that pose a threat of recurrence of the disease, and prevent removal of healthy tissue. A pre-operative injection of tumor seeking, beta emitting radiopharmaceutical (e.g. (superscript 18)fluorodeoxyuridine-FDUR-) will label the tumor. The limited range of beta-rays ensures proximity upon successful detection. Plastic scintillators are used for beta detection, and visible light photon counters (VLPCs) detect the scintillation light. For maneuverability in and around the surgical cavity, the scintillators are coupled to the VLPCs via 2 m of optical fiber. An imaging device can cover the tissue bed in a time compatible with surgery, as opposed to a single element detector on the order of 1-2 mm in size with comparable resolution. An imager also distinguishes high background rates (such as from annihilation gammas in FDUR) and concentrations of activity.

  12. $\\beta$- decay of $^{58}$Zn. A critical test for the charge-exchange reaction as a probe for the $\\beta$- decay strength distribution

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % IS353 \\\\ \\\\ Due to its importance in fundamental physics and astrophysics, a great effort both theoretically and experimentally is devoted to study Gamow Teller (GT)-strength. The GT-strength and its distribution play a key role in late stellar evolution. During the pre-supernova core-collapse of massive stars, the electron capture and nuclear $\\beta$ -decay determine the electron-to-baryon ratio, which influences the infall dynamics and the mass of the final core. The cross-section of the charge-exchange reaction at forward angles with energies above 100~MeV is expected to be proportional to the squares of Fermi and GT matrix elements. This proportionality should provide a Q-value free method to probe the weak interaction strength and renormalization effects in nuclei. Thus charge-exchange reactions are often used to determine the experimental GT-strength. However, the connection between the GT-strength and the cross-section of the charge-exchange reaction is partially model-dependent and the question aris...

  13. Assessment of ocular beta radiation dose distribution due to 106Ru/106Rh brachytherapy applicators using MCNPX Monte Carlo code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilseia Aparecida Barbosa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Melanoma at the choroid region is the most common primary cancer that affects the eye in adult patients. Concave ophthalmic applicators with 106Ru/106Rh beta sources are the more used for treatment of these eye lesions, mainly lesions with small and medium dimensions. The available treatment planning system for 106Ru applicators is based on dose distributions on a homogeneous water sphere eye model, resulting in a lack of data in the literature of dose distributions in the eye radiosensitive structures, information that may be crucial to improve the treatment planning process, aiming the maintenance of visual acuity. Methods: The Monte Carlo code MCNPX was used to calculate the dose distribution in a complete mathematical model of the human eye containing a choroid melanoma; considering the eye actual dimensions and its various component structures, due to an ophthalmic brachytherapy treatment, using 106Ru/106Rh beta-ray sources. Two possibilities were analyzed; a simple water eye and a heterogeneous eye considering all its structures. Two concave applicators, CCA and CCB manufactured by BEBIG and a complete mathematical model of the human eye were modeled using the MCNPX code. Results and Conclusion: For both eye models, namely water model and heterogeneous model, mean dose values simulated for the same eye regions are, in general, very similar, excepting for regions very distant from the applicator, where mean dose values are very low, uncertainties are higher and relative differences may reach 20.4%. For the tumor base and the eye structures closest to the applicator, such as sclera, choroid and retina, the maximum difference observed was 4%, presenting the heterogeneous model higher mean dose values. For the other eye regions, the higher doses were obtained when the homogeneous water eye model is taken into consideration. Mean dose distributions determined for the homogeneous water eye model are similar to those obtained for the

  14. Distribution of beta-adrenergic receptors in failing human myocardium. Implications for mechanisms of down-regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The density of beta-adrenergic receptors is reduced in crude membranes prepared from failing human myocardium. We used quantitative autoradiography of radioligand binding sites in intact tissue slices to determine whether the total tissue content of receptors is reduced and to characterize the transmural distribution of receptors in cardiac myocytes and the coronary vasculature in hearts obtained from nine cardiac transplant patients with severe congestive failure. Binding of [125Iodo]cyanopindolol to transmural slices of human myocardium was rapid, saturable, stereoselective, and displaceable by agonists and antagonists with an appropriate rank order of potency. Binding isotherms in four normal and nine failing ventricles showed a significant reduction in the total tissue content of beta-receptors in failing myocardium (38.3 +/- 2.0 fmol/mg protein) compared with normal tissue (52.4 +/- 1.7 fmol/mg protein, p = 0.038). In the normal ventricles, the greatest receptor density was observed autoradiographically in myocytic regions of the subendocardium. Receptor density of the coronary arterioles was approximately 70% of that in adjacent myocytic regions. The density of binding sites in both myocytic regions and arterioles was diminished in all regions of the failing ventricles, but down-regulation was due primarily to a selective reduction of beta-receptors of subendocardial myocytes (63 +/- 5% of subepicardial receptor density vs. 115 +/- 6% in controls, p less than 0.0001). These observations indicate that down-regulation occurs nonuniformly in the transmural distribution and thus is likely not related simply to elevated circulating catecholamine levels

  15. Insulin resistance and beta-cell function in different ethnic groups in Kenya: the role of abdominal fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, D L; Faurholt-Jepsen, D; Faerch, K; Mwaniki, D L; Boit, M K; Kilonzo, B; Tetens, I; Friis, H; Borch-Johnsen, K

    2014-02-01

    Little is known about the pathophysiology of diabetes in Africans. Thus, we assessed whether insulin resistance and beta-cell function differed by ethnicity in Kenya and whether differences were modified by abdominal fat distribution. A cross-sectional study in 1,087 rural Luo (n = 361), Kamba (n = 378), and Maasai (n = 348) was conducted. All participants had a standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Venous blood samples were collected at 0, 30, and 120 min. Serum insulin was analysed at 0 and 30 min. From the OGTT, we assessed the homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance by computer model, early phase insulin secretion, and disposition index (DI) dividing insulin secretion by insulin resistance. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) thickness were carried out by ultrasonography. Linear regression analyses were done to assess ethnic differences in insulin indices. The Maasai had 32 and 17% higher insulin resistance than the Luo and Kamba, respectively (p Maasai compared to the Luo (p Maasai compared to the Luo and Kamba, respectively. Adjustments of SAT (range 0.1-7.1 cm) and VAT (range 1.5-14.2 cm) largely explained these inter-group differences with the Maasai having the highest combined abdominal fat accumulation. The Maasai had the highest insulin resistance and secretion, but the lowest relative beta-cell function compared to the Luo and Kamba. These differences were primarily explained by abdominal fat distribution. PMID:23563691

  16. Non-parametric asymptotic statistics for the Palm mark distribution of \\beta-mixing marked point processes

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrich, Lothar; Schmidt, Volker

    2012-01-01

    We consider spatially homogeneous marked point patterns in an unboundedly expanding convex sampling window. Our main objective is to identify the distribution of the typical mark by constructing an asymptotic \\chi^2-goodness-of-fit test. The corresponding test statistic is based on a natural empirical version of the Palm mark distribution and a smoothed covariance estimator which turns out to be mean-square consistent. Our approach does not require independent marks and allows dependences between the mark field and the point pattern. Instead we impose a suitable \\beta-mixing condition on the underlying stationary marked point process which can be checked for a number of Poisson-based models and, in particular, in the case of geostatistical marking. Our method needs a central limit theorem for \\beta-mixing random fields which is proved by extending Bernstein's blocking technique to non-cubic index sets and seems to be of interest in its own right. By large-scale model-based simulations the performance of our t...

  17. Effects of 17beta-estradiol on distribution of primordial germ cell migration in male chicks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Mei Jin; Yi-Xiang Zhang; Zan-Dong Li

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess whether exogenous estradiol has any effect on migration of primordial germ cells (PGCs) in the chick. Methods: Fertilized eggs were treated with 17beta-estradiol (Ez) (80 lag/egg) at stage X (day 0 of incubation),stages 8-10 (incubation 30 h) and 13-15 (incubation 55 h). Controls received vehicle (emulsion) only. Changes in PGC number were measured on different days according to developmental stages. Results: In male right gonads,but not in female left gonads, at stages 28-30 (incubation 132 h) significant decreases in the mean number of PGCs aggregating were observed compared with the controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: The present study provides evidence that E2 has significant effects on the localization of PGCs in male fight, but not female left, gonads of chicken embryos at stages28-30, compared with controls.

  18. Calculation of beta-ray dose distributions from ophthalmic applicators and comparison with measurements in a model eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose distributions throughout the eye, from three types of beta-ray ophthalmic applicators, were calculated using the EGS4, ACCEPT 3.0, and other Monte Carlo codes. The applicators were those for which doses were measured in a recent international intercomparison [Med. Phys. 28, 1373 (2001)], planar applicators of 106Ru-106Rh and 90Sr-90Y and a concave 106Ru-106Rh applicator. The main purpose was to compare the results of the various codes with average experimental values. For the planar applicators, calculated and measured doses on the source axis agreed within the experimental errors (106Ru-106Rh and 5 mm for 90Sr-90Y. At greater distances the measured values are larger than those calculated. For the concave 106Ru-106Rh applicator, there was poor agreement among available calculations and only those calculated by ACCEPT 3.0 agreed with measured values. In the past, attempts have been made to derive such dose distributions simply, by integrating the appropriate point-source dose function over the source. Here, we investigated the accuracy of this procedure for encapsulated sources, by comparing such results with values calculated by Monte Carlo. An attempt was made to allow for the effects of the silver source window but no corrections were made for scattering from the source backing. In these circumstances, at 6 mm depth, the difference in the results of the two calculations was 14%-18% for a planar 106Ru-106Rh applicator and up to 30% for the concave applicator. It becomes worse at greater depths. These errors are probably caused mainly by differences between the spectrum of beta particles transmitted by the silver window and those transmitted by a thickness of water having the same attenuation properties

  19. On the theories of angular distribution and correlation of beta and gamma radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.R. de

    1952-01-01

    In both phenomena of angular distribution and angular correlation, one has nuclear radiation from ensembles of nuclei with an unequal population of the magnetic sub-levels. This population is described by appropriate “orientation parameters”. On this basis the theories of the directional as well as

  20. Mixed and Mixture Regression Models for Continuous Bounded Responses Using the Beta Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuilen, Jay; Smithson, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Doubly bounded continuous data are common in the social and behavioral sciences. Examples include judged probabilities, confidence ratings, derived proportions such as percent time on task, and bounded scale scores. Dependent variables of this kind are often difficult to analyze using normal theory models because their distributions may be quite…

  1. Regional and ethnic distribution of beta thalassemia mutations and effect of consanguinity in patients referred for prenatal diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the regional and ethnic distribution of beta thalassemia mutation and the effect of consanguinity in patients referred for prenatal diagnosis of beta b-thalassemia and to target the high risk population for screening. A total of 499 couples were referred to Gentec Lab., Lahore, from all over Pakistan for prenatal diagnosis of b-thalassemia. After counseling, chorionic villus sampling was done between 10-16 weeks of gestation. DNA analysis was done by Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS) for type of mutation in the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi. Ethnicity, race and consanguineous relationship of parents was determined.b-thalassemia was prevalent in Punjabis (60.7%) followed by Saraikees (25.5%). Castewise it was most frequent in Rajputs followed by Jatts, Arain, Sheikhs and Pathans. 56.7% of the couples were first cousins and 19.8% were relatives. The commonest mutations were Frameshift 8-9 (Fr8-9) 33.5%, Intervening Sequence 1-5 (IVS 1-5) 17.2%, Fr4142 - 8%, IVS 1-1 - 5.2%, Deletion 619 (Del 619) 4.2% and Codon 5 (Cd 5) - 4.2%. In samples sent for analysis, 53.1% turned out to be carriers (trait), 25.3% were diseased (thalassemia major) and 21.6% were normal. P-value of all results was less than 0.001. In this series, the highest frequency was found in Punjabi Rajputs. The commonest mutation was Fr 8-9. Most parents were first cousins. Premarital thalassemia carrier testing can effectively reduce the disease. (author)

  2. Co-beta Zeolite Highly Active in Propane-SCR-NOx in the Presence of Water Vapor: Effect of Zeolite Preparation and Al Distribution in the Framework

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čapek, Libor; Dědeček, Jiří; Wichterlová, Blanka

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 227, č. 2 (2004), s. 352-366. ISSN 0021-9517 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P04OCD15.20 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : Co-beta * SCR -NOx * Al distribution in zeolites Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.063, year: 2004

  3. BETA-S, Multi-Group Beta-Ray Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: BETA-S calculates beta-decay source terms and energy spectra in multigroup format for time-dependent radionuclide inventories of actinides, fission products, and activation products. Multigroup spectra may be calculated in any arbitrary energy-group structure. The code also calculates the total beta energy release rate from the sum of the average beta-ray energies as determined from the spectral distributions. BETA-S also provides users with an option to determine principal beta-decaying radionuclides contributing to each energy group. The CCC-545/SCALE 4.3 (or SCALE4.2) code system must be installed on the computer before installing BETA-S, which requires the SCALE subroutine library and nuclide-inventory generation from the ORIGEN-S code. 2 - Methods:Well-established models for beta-energy distributions are used to explicitly represent allowed, and 1., 2. - and 3. -forbidden transition types. Forbidden non-unique transitions are assumed to have a spectral shape of allowed transitions. The multigroup energy spectra are calculated by numerically integrating the energy distribution functions using an adaptive Simpson's Rule algorithm. Nuclide inventories are obtained from a binary interface produced by the ORIGEN-S code. BETA-S calculates the spectra for all isotopes on the binary interface that have associated beta-decay transition data in the ENSDF-95 library, developed for the BETA-S code. This library was generated from ENSDF data and contains 715 materials, representing approximately 8500 individual beta transition branches. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The algorithms do not treat positron decay transitions or internal conversion electrons. The neglect of positron transitions in inconsequential for most applications involving aggregate fission products, since most of the decay modes are via electrons. The neglect of internal conversion electrons may impact on the accuracy of the spectrum in the low

  4. Molecular mass distribution and epitopes of the beta lactoglobulin submitted to hydrolysis pre-transglutaminase treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The β-Lactoglobulin (β-Lg) is a whey protein with important nutritional proper ties but very resistant to pepsin digestion and consequently highly antigenic. This protein can be modified by transglutaminase (TG) although it is required a pretreatment to increase their susceptibility to the TG action. In the present study the hydrolysis pre-TG treatment was used to improve the TG accessibility on β-Lg and the MM distribution and antigenic fragments were evaluated. For pre-TG treatment, the β-Lg (Davisco Inc.) was hydrolyzed with bromelain (3% of β-Lg w/w in distilled water; 25 U enzyme g1 of substrate, pH 7.5, 240 min) and then polymerized by TG (7% hydrolysate, 10U TG g1 protein, 50 C/180 min). The samples were evaluated by SDS-PAGE/tricine and by RP-nanoUPLC (nanoAcquity UPLC, Waters) coupled with nano-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry on a Q-Tof Ultima API mass spectrometer (MicroMass/Waters) at LNBio. The products were also submitted to pepsin digestion and the peptide identification was performed by RP-HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC-MS/MS, Brucker) with support from CIAL. The β-Lg hydrolysed by bromelain and polymerized by TG had a broad MM distribution. The intact mass analysis indicated that the non modified βLg -A showed 18.362 Da and the non modified βLg -B 18.274 Da, which is in agreement with the theoretical corresponding masses. The use of bromelain pre-TG treatment resulted in polymers with MM from 61.052 to 67.654 Da, although some non modified protein was still present. In addition, the non modified β-Lg showed fragments that present high antigenicity (such as Leu95 - Leu104, Asp95 - Phe105, Tyr42 - Leu54, lle29 - Val41), previously identified as IgE-binding epitopes. After hydrolysis following by TG treatment the fragment Tyr42 - Leu54 was still present, however the other fragments that were observed in the non modified β-Lg were not detected by LC-MS/MS, suggesting that structural change occurred in the protein after

  5. Distribution of beta-globin haplotypes among the tribes of southern Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Aastha; Khurana, Priyanka; Mitra, Siuli; Raicha, Bhavesh; Saraswathy, K N; Italia, Yazdi M; Kshatriya, Gautam K

    2013-06-01

    The present study was carried out in Indo-European speaking tribal population groups of southern Gujarat (India) to elucidate the allelic and haplotypic content of β-globin system in individuals with HbAA genotypes. 6 neutral restriction sites of the β-globin system were analysed and various statistical parameters were estimated to draw meaningful interpretations. All the 6 sites were found to be polymorphic and most were in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium in the studied group. Haplotypes were constructed using two different combinations of the 6 restriction sites analysed. Analysis of the 5 sites revealed a set of three predominant haplotypes, '+----', '-++-+' and '-+-++'; and haplotypes '+--', '++-' and '+++' were found to be the most frequent when the 3 sites were used to construct the haplotypes. Haplotypic heterozygosity levels (>83%) observed in the present study group were comparable to those observed in African and Afro-American populations and greater than other world populations. All the ancestral haplotypes, +-----, -++-+, -+-++ and ----+ were found in the study group. The distribution pattern of various haplotypes was consistent with the global pattern. The paucity of comparable data from other Indian populations restricted one from making interpretations about the study group's relationships with other Indian populations but the results were indicative of older population histories or experience of gene flow by the study group and their affinities with populations of southern India. PMID:23500448

  6. Phylogenetic sequence analysis, recombinant expression, and tissue distribution of a channel catfish estrogen receptor beta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhenfang; Gale, William L.; Chang, Xiaotian; Langenau, David; Patino, Reynaldo; Maule, Alec G.; Densmore, Llewellyn D.

    2000-01-01

    An estrogen receptor β (ERβ) cDNA fragment was amplified by RT-PCR of total RNAextracted from liver and ovary of immature channel catfish. This cDNA fragment was used to screen an ovarian cDNA library made from an immature female fish. A clone was obtained that contained an open reading frame encoding a 575-amino-acid protein with a deduced molecular weight of 63.9 kDa. Maximum parsimony and Neighbor Joining analyses were used to generate a phylogenetic classification of channel catfish ERβ on the basis of 25 full-length teleost and tetrapod ER sequences. The consensus tree obtained indicated the existence of two major vertebrate ER subtypes, α and β. Within each subtype, and in accordance with established phylogenetic relationships, teleost and tetrapod ER were monophyletic confirming the results of a previous analysis (Z. Xiaet al., 1999, Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 113, 360–368). Extracts of COS-7 cells transfectedwith channel catfish ERβ cDNA bound estrogen with high affinity (Kd = 0.21 nM) and specificity. The affinity of channel catfish ERβ for estrogen was higher than previously reported for channel catfish ERα. As determined by qualitative RT-PCR, the tissue distributions of ERα and ERβ were similar but not identical. Both ER subtypes were present in ovary and testis. ERα was found in all other tissues examined from juvenile and mature fish of both sexes. ERβ was also found in most tissues except, in most cases, whole blood and head kidney. Interestingly, the pattern of expression of ER subtypes in head kidney always corresponded to the pattern in whole blood. In conclusion, we isolated a channel catfish ERβ with ligand-binding affinity and tissue expression patterns different from ERα. Also, we confirmed the validity of our previously proposed general classification scheme for vertebrate ER into α and β subtypes and within each subtype, into teleost and tetrapod clades.

  7. Color threshold and ratio of S100 beta, MAP5, NF68/200, GABA & GAD. I. Distribution in inner ear afferents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermin, C. D.; Martin, D. S.; Hara, H.

    1997-01-01

    Afferents of chick embryos (Gallus domesticus) VIIIth nerve were examined at E3, E6, E9, E13, El7, and hatching (NH) for anti-S100 beta, anti-MAP5, anti-GABA, anti-GAD and anti-NF68/200 stain. Different ages were processed together to determine if the distribution of these antibodies changed during synaptogenesis and myelination. Color thresholding showed that saturation of pixels changed for S100 beta only 5%, for NF68/200 10%, and for MAP5, 10%, between E9-NH. Color ratio of NF68/200 over MAP5 was 1.00 at E13 and 0.25 at E16 and NH. S100 beta, GABA and GAD were co-expressed on nerve endings at the edge of the maculae and center of the cristae, whereas hair cells in the center of the maculae expressed either S100 beta or GABA, but not both. S100 beta/NF68/200 shared antigenic sites on the chalices, but NF68/200 expression was higher than S100 beta in the chalices at hatching. MAP5 was expressed in more neurons than NF68/200 at E11, whereas NF68/200 was more abundant than MAP5 at hatching. The results suggest that: 1) the immunoexpression of these neuronal proteins is modulated concomitantly with the establishment of afferent synapses and myelination; 2) S100 beta may serve a neurotrophic function in the chalices where it is co-expressed with the neurotransmitter GABA and its synthesizing enzyme GAD.

  8. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, excretion, and metabolite profiling of PEGylated rFIX (nonacog beta pegol, N9-GP) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternebring, Ola; Christensen, Jesper Kammersgaard; Bjørnsdottir, Inga

    2016-09-20

    Nonacog beta pegol (N9-GP) is a novel recombinant factor IX conjugated with a 40-kDa branched polyethylene glycol (PEG) to extend plasma half-life (t½) compared with native FIX, developed for the treatment of haemophilia B. This is the first time distribution, metabolism, and excretion data of N9-GP have been presented. ADME studies were performed using single i.v. doses of radiolabelled N9-GP administered to rats, focussing on the biological fate of the 40-kDa PEG. Results indicated that N9-GP-related radioactivity was distributed throughout the body, being most abundant in highly vascularised tissues, and with lowest levels seen in the central nervous system. N9-GP was cleared from plasma within 1week after dosing, while total radioactivity was eliminated more slowly, in a more pronounced biphasic manner. N9-GP seems to be cleared via receptor-mediated uptake (e.g., in the liver) or via the reticuloendothelial system with subsequent proteolysis. PEG is thereafter either cleared alongside the protein or released back into circulation. Furthermore, N9-GP-related radioactivity was excreted in both faeces and urine as 40kDa PEG and degradation products. Some PEG-related radioactivity (not in any particular organ) was present in the carcass 12weeks postdose, consistent with the long terminal elimination t½ of plasma radioactivity. As shown here for N9-GP, and previously for other protein-PEG conjugate products, disposition kinetics of conjugates and individual constituents appears to be compound specific. In addition to the size/structure of the PEG and protein moieties, protein-specific clearance pathways may contribute to the disposition of intact conjugate and PEG moiety. PMID:27378188

  9. The possibilities of autoradiographic imaging of the distribution of beta-emitting substances in dynamic processes by means of a gamma scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possibilities of imaging the distribution of beta-emitting substances by means of a gamma scintillation camera are described. The sensitivity and the resolving power of the gamma scintillation camera was tested by means of a 140 KeV-high resolution collimator and a newly developed lead collimator with smaller hole diameter and hole distance. As an example for tests of imaging dynamic processes the transportation of 32P-labelled defoliant in a tomato plant is examined. (author)

  10. The Peculiar Shape of the Beta_(app)-z Distribution Seen in Radio Loud AGN Jets Is Explained Simply and Naturally In the Local Quasar Model

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, M B

    2008-01-01

    Recently, it was argued that the log(z)-m_{v} plot of 106,000 AGN galaxies could be interpreted as an evolutionary path followed by local AGN galaxies as they age. It was suggested that these objects are born as quasars with a high intrinsic redshift component that decreases with time. When the intrinsic component is large it causes them to be pushed above the standard candle line for brightest radio galaxies on a log(z)-m_{v} plot. In the jets of radio loud AGN galaxies, Beta_(app) is the apparent transverse velocity of the ejected material relative to the speed of light. In the cosmological redshift (CR) model the Beta_(app) vs z distribution has a peculiar shape, and there have been several attempts to explain it. In agreement with the model proposed to explain the log(z)-m_{v} plot, it is shown here that the peculiar shape of the Beta_(app)-z distribution in the CR model is exactly what is expected if the sources are local but their large intrinsic redshifts are assumed to be cosmological in the calculati...

  11. Beta Thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, etc.), Southeast Asian and Chinese descent. 1 Beta Thalassemia ßß Normal beta globin ... then there is a 25% chance with each pregnancy that their child will inherit two abnormal beta ...

  12. Distribution of endogenous retinoids, retinoid binding proteins (RBP, CRABPI) and nuclear retinoid X receptor $\\beta$ (RXR$\\beta$) in the porcine embryo

    OpenAIRE

    Schweigert, Florian; Siegling, Christiane; Tzimas, Georg; Seeger, Johannes; Nau, Heinz

    2002-01-01

    International audience Retinoids are important signalling molecules in the development of limbs and in the determination of the anterior-posterior orientation of the embryo. The present study examined the content and distribution of retinoic acid, retinol and retinyl esters in porcine embryos during early gestation (gestation days 22-30) macroscopically and microscopically by its autofluorescence and by HPLC. Macroscopically, the yellowish-greenish autofluorescence characteristic of vitami...

  13. Frequency distribution of sickle cell anemia, sickle cell trait and sickle/beta-thalassemia among anemic patients in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Elsayid, Mohieldin; Al-Shehri, Mohammed Jahman; Alkulaibi, Yasser Abdullah; Alanazi, Abdullah; Qureshi, Shoeb

    2015-01-01

    Background: Notwithstanding, the growing incidence of sickle cell hemoglobinopathies (SCH) such as sickle cell anemia (SCA) or sickle cell disease, sickle/beta-thalassemia; the exact prevalence remains obscure in Saudi Arabia. Hence, this study is an attempt to determine the frequency of SCA and sickle cell trait (SCT) among all anemic patients with SCH treated at the King Abdul-Aziz Medical City (KAMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, the hemoglobin (Hb) S and other Hb patterns (Hb AS and...

  14. An atlas of selected beta-ray spectra and depth-dose distributions in lithium fluoride and soft tissue generated by a fast Monte-Carlo-based sampling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samei, Ehsan; Kearfott, Kimberlee J.; Gillespie, Timothy J.; Chris Wang, C.-K.

    1996-12-01

    A method to generate depth-dose distributions due to beta radiation in LiF and soft tissue is proposed. In this method, the EGS4 Monte Carlo radiation transport code is initially used to generate a library of monoenergetic electron depth-dose distributions in the material for electron energies in the range of 10 keV to 5 MeV in 10 keV increments. A polynomial least-squares fit is applied to each distribution. In addition, a theoretical model is developed to generate beta-ray energy spectra of selected radionuclides. A standard Monte Carlo random sampling technique is then employed to sample the spectra and generate the depth-dose distributions in LiF and soft tissue. The proposed method has an advantage over more traditional methods in that the actual radiation transport in the media is performed only once for a set of monoenergetic cases and the beta depth-dose distributions are easily generated by sampling this previously-acquired database in a matter of minutes. This method therefore reduces the demand on computer resources and time. The method can be used to calculate depth-dose distribution due to any beta-emitting nuclide or combination of nuclides with up to ten beta components.

  15. Dosimetry analysis of distributions radials dose profiles of 90Sr + 90Y beta therapy applicators using the MCNP-4C code and radio chromium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although they are no longer manufactured, the applicators of 90Sr + 90Y acquired in the decades of 1990 are still in use, by having half-life of 28.5 years. These applicators have calibration certificate given by their manufacturers, where few have been re calibrated. Thus it becomes necessary to accomplish thorough dosimetry of these applicators. This paper presents a dosimetric analysis distribution radial dose profiles for emitted by an 90Sr + 90Y beta therapy applicator, using the MCNP-4C code to simulate the distribution radial dose profiles and radio chromium films to get them experimentally . The results with the simulated values were compared with the results of experimental measurements, where both curves show similar behavior, which may validate the use of MCNP-4C and radio chromium films for this type of dosimetry. (author)

  16. Dosimetry analysis of distribution radial dose profiles of 90Sr + 90Y beta therapy applicators using the MCNP-4C code and radio chromium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although they are no longer manufactured, the applicators of 90Sr +90Y acquired in the decades of 1990 are still in use, by having half-life of 28.5 years. These applicators have calibration certificate given by their manufacturers, where few have been recalibrated. Thus it becomes necessary to accomplish thorough dosimetry of these applicators. This paper presents a dosimetric analysis distribution radial dose profiles for emitted by an 90Sr+90Y beta therapy applicator, using the MCNP-4C code to simulate the distribution radial dose profiles and radiochromium films to get them experimentally . The results with the simulated values were compared with the results of experimental measurements, where both curves show similar behavior, which may validate the use of MCNP-4C and radiochromium films for this type of dosimetry. (author)

  17. Non-parametric asymptotic statistics for the Palm mark distribution of \\beta-mixing marked point processes

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrich, Lothar; Lück, Sebastian; Schmidt, Volker

    2012-01-01

    We consider spatially homogeneous marked point patterns in an unboundedly expanding convex sampling window. Our main objective is to identify the distribution of the typical mark by constructing an asymptotic \\chi^2-goodness-of-fit test. The corresponding test statistic is based on a natural empirical version of the Palm mark distribution and a smoothed covariance estimator which turns out to be mean-square consistent. Our approach does not require independent marks and allows dependences bet...

  18. Distribution of serum lipids and lipoproteins in patients with beta thalassaemia major; an epidemiological study in young adults from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbetseas John

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beta-thalassaemia major (b-TM has been defined as a combination of chronic hemolytic anemia, iron storage disease and myocarditis, and it has been associated with premature death especially due to heart failure. To the best of our knowledge the status of blood lipids in these patients has rarely been investigated. Thus, we assessed the levels of lipids and lipoproteins in a sample of cardiovascular disease free adult men and women with b-TM. Methods During 2003 we enrolled 192 consecutive patients with b-TM that visited our Institution for routine examinations. The Institution is considered the major reference center for b-TM in Greece. Of the 192 patients, 88 were men (25 ± 6 years old and 104 women (26 ± 6 years old. Fasting blood lipid levels were measured in all participants. Results Data analysis revealed that 4% of men and 2% of women had total serum cholesterol levels > 200 mg/dl, and 11% of men and 17% of women had triglyceride levels > 150 mg/dl. In addition, mean HDL cholesterol levels were 32 ± 11 mg/dl in men and 38 ± 10 mg/dl in women, lipoprotein-a levels were 8.3 ± 9 mg/dl in men and 8.8 ± 9 mg/dl in women, apolipoprotein-A1 levels were 111 ± 17 mg/dl in men and 123 ± 29 mg/dl in women, and apolipoprotein-B levels were 60 ± 20 mg/dl in men and 59 ± 14 mg/dl in women. Total-to-HDL cholesterol ratios were 3.7 ± 1.2 and 3.8 ± 1.5 in men and women, respectively. Conclusions The majority of the patients had blood lipid levels (by the exception of HDL-cholesterol within the normal range, and consequently the prevalence of lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities was much lower as compared to the general population of the same age. Interestingly, is that the total – to HDL cholesterol ratio was high in our patients, and may underline the importance of this index for the prognosis of future cardiac events in these patients.

  19. 基于β-二项分布的结构易损性分析%Structural fragility estimation with beta-binomial distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘骁骁; 吴子燕; 王其昂

    2014-01-01

    易损性曲线建立过程中受激励不确定性和结构参数不确定性的影响,会引起结构或构件观测结果的统计相关性。为此,本文提出基于β-二项分布的结构易损性分析方法。该方法根据性能量化指标阈值和 Monte Carlo模拟确定震后观测结果,采用β-二项分布探讨震后观测值的统计相关性;结合对数回归模型,推导了改进β-二项分布的累积分布函数,计算结构失效概率;通过累积对数正态分布拟合易损性曲线,比较了观测失效样本数与观测失效概率统计相关性对易损性的影响,并与未考虑统计相关性的传统易损性曲线作对比。某8层钢筋混凝土框架-剪力墙结构的算例表明,考虑统计相关性的易损性较传统易损性偏大,且结构遭受8度以上地震作用时,考虑失效样本数统计相关性的易损性使预测结果更为保守,利于工程安全。%The uncertainty of seismic excitation and structural parameters in the process of establishing fragility curves leads to statistical dependence among observations,which has been neglected in past applications.In this paper,a new methodology based on beta-binomial distribution to calculate structural fragility is presented.Observations indicating the states (failure or survival)are confirmed via quantita-tive indicators threshold as well as Monte Carlo after each earthquake.Beta-Binomial distribution is ad-dressed to discuss the statistical dependence among observations.Improved cumulative beta-binomial dis-tribution function is derivation to calculate failure probability combined with logistic regression model. Seismic vulnerability curve can be fitted by means of cumulative lognormal distribution,which is com-pared with traditional fragility that of neglecting statistical dependence among observations and fragility curve considering statistical dependence among observed failure rates.A seat eight floors reinforced con

  20. Combination of digital autoradiography and alpha track analysis to reveal the distribution of definite alpha- and beta-emitting nuclides in contaminated samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital autoradiography using Imaging Plate is commonly employed for searching 'hot' particles in the contaminated soil, sediment and aerosol probes. However digital radiography images combined with Alpha Track radiography data could provide much more information about micro-distribution of different alpha- and beta- nuclides. The discrimination method to estimate the distribution of radionuclides that are the main contributors to the total radioactivity (90Sr/90Y, 137Cs, 241Am) has been developed on the case of artificial reservoir V-17 (PA 'Mayak'). The bottom sediments and hydrobionts probes collected from V-17 along with the standards of 137Cs, 90Sr/90Y and 241Am have been exposed for a short time (15 min) using a stack of 3 Imaging Plates (Cyclone Plus Storage Phosphor System, Perkin Elmer). The attenuation of photostimulated luminescence (PSL) intensity from layer to layer of the Imaging Plates depends on the type and energy of radiation. Integrated approach using PSL attenuation in the samples and standards (digital radiography) along with Alpha Track radiography and gamma-spectroscopy of the preparation was used to estimate the contribution of the main nuclides in specific parts of contaminated samples. The observation of the 90Sr/90Y and 137Cs activity maxima could help to find the phases which are responsible for preferential sorption of the nuclides. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  1. Heart rate distribution and predictors of resting heart rate after initiation of beta-blocker treatment in patients with coronary artery disease: REsults of Sympathetic Evaluation And Research of China(RESEARCH) study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ying-xin; LI Yue-ping; GAO Fei; MA Han-ying; WANG Zhi-jian; HAN Hong-ya; SHEN Hua

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of heart rate as secondary prevention strategies for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is emphasized by multiple guidelines.However,limited information is available on the heart rate distribution and the change patterns of resting heart rate when initiating beta-blocker therapy among Chinese patients with CAD.Methods The REsults of Sympathetic Evaluation And Research of China (RESEARCH) study is a multi-centre,prospective,observational study involving 147 centers in 23 cities across China.All eligible beta-blocker naive patients were prescribed with metroprolol succinate.Initial dosage and target heart rate were selected at the discretion of their physicians in charge according to their usual institutional practice.The heart rate distribution and the change patterns of resting heart rate after initiation of beta-blocker therapy were observed.Results The majority of patients (63.6%) were prescribed with 47.5 mg metroprolol succinate.At baseline,there were only 17.4% of patients whose heart rate was less than 70 beats per minute,and the proportion reached 42.5% and 79.1%,one month and two months after initiation of beta-blockers,respectively.Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that baseline heart rate (B=0.900,SE=0.006,t=141.787,P<0.0001) and the dosage (B=-0.007,SE=0.002,t=-3.242,P=0.001) were independent predictors of resting heart rate 2 months after beta-blocker therapy.Conclusions Resting heart rate is not optimally controlled in a broadly representative cohort of Chinese outpatients with CAD even after initiation of β-blocker therapy,and baseline heart rate and the dosage of beta-blocker are both independent predictors of resting heart rate after β-blocker therapy.

  2. Human type 2 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase mRNA and protein distribution in placental villi at mid and term pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plante Julie

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During human pregnancy, the placental villi produces high amounts of estradiol. This steroid is secreted by the syncytium, which is directly in contact with maternal blood. Estradiol has to cross placental foetal vessels to reach foetal circulation. The enzyme 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (17beta-HSD2 was detected in placental endothelial cells of foetal vessels inside the villi. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of estradiol to estrone, and of testosterone to androstenedione. It was proposed that estradiol level into foetal circulation could be regulated by 17beta-HSD2. Methods We obtained placentas from 10 to 26 6/7 weeks of pregnancy from women undergoing voluntary termination of pregnancy, term placentas were collected after normal spontaneous vaginal deliveries. We quantified 17beta-HSD2 mRNA levels in mid-gestation and term human placenta by RT-QPCR. We produced a new anti-17beta-HSD2 antibody to study its spatio-temporal expression by immunohistochemistry. We also compared steroid levels (testosterone, estrone and estradiol and 17beta-HSD2 mRNA and protein levels between term placenta and endometrium. Results High 17beta-HSD2 mRNA and protein levels were found in both mid-gestation and term placentas. However, we showed that 17beta-HSD2 mRNA levels increase by 2.27 fold between mid-gestation and term. This period coincides with a transitional phase in the development of the villous vasculature. In mid-gestation placenta, high levels of 17beta-HSD2 were found in mesenchymal villi and immature intermediate villi, more precisely in endothelial cells of the stromal channel. At term, high levels of 17beta-HSD2 were found in the numerous sinusoidal capillaries of terminal villi. 17beta-HSD2 mRNA and protein levels in term placentas were respectively 25.4 fold and 30 to 60 fold higher than in the endometrium. Steroid levels were also significantly higher in term placenta than in the endometrium. Conclusion

  3. The decisive role of the distribution of Al in the framework of beta zeolites on the structure and activity of Co ion species in propane-SCR-NOx in the presence of water vapour

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čapek, Libor; Dědeček, Jiří; Sazama, Petr; Wichterlová, Blanka

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 272, č. 1 (2010), s. 44-54. ISSN 0021-9517 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN100400702; GA AV ČR IAA400400904 Grant ostatní: EU Network of Excellence IDECAT(XE) NMP 3-CT-2005-011730 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : Co-beta zeolites * Al distribution * SCR -NOx Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.415, year: 2010

  4. Distribution of beta-endorphin and substance P in the shoulder joint of the dog before and after a low impact exercise programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, S; Kincaid, S A; Baird, A N; Kammermann, J R

    2002-04-01

    Beta-endorphin and substance P were immunolocalized in the articular cartilage, synovial membrane and fibrous joint capsule of dogs. Twelve adult greyhounds were randomly assigned to one of three groups: control, limited exercise, or regimented exercise. On day 0, biopsies of articular cartilage and joint capsule were obtained from the left shoulder joints of dogs receiving limited and regimented exercise. On day 72, biopsies of joint capsule from right and left shoulders and articular cartilage from the right shoulder joint were analysed for the presence of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) and for immunolocalization of substance P and beta-endorphin. Regimented exercise increased the presence of GAGs and immunolocalization of substance P and beta-endorphin in articular cartilage and synovial membrane compared to day 0 biopsies and untreated controls. Localization of beta-endorphin became prominent in and around the chondrocytes. Substance P was increased in chondrocytes and extracellular matrix. Concomitant changes in localization of beta-endorphin and substance P may have a role in the modulation of the microphysiological environment, metabolism, or function of joint tissues in response to low-impact exercise. PMID:12047242

  5. In vitro susceptibility and distribution of beta-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae causing intra-abdominal infections in North America 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoban, Daryl J; Badal, Robert; Bouchillon, Sam; Hackel, Meredith; Kazmierczak, Krystyna; Lascols, Christine; Hawser, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    The Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends has been monitoring the activity of antimicrobials indicated for the treatment of intra-abdominal infections since 2004. This report documents the in vitro activity of several recommended antimicrobials against 3449 gram-negative bacilli isolated from the 30 and 25 participating sites in North America in 2010-2011, respectively, and characterizes the extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) identified in ESBL-positive and ertapenem-non-susceptible isolates of Enterobacteriaceae. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Serratia marcescens, and Morganella morgannii were the most common species isolated. The incidence of beta-lactamase production was 8.8% and 8.9% for E. coli and K. pneumoniae, respectively. Overall the most active antimicrobials were amikacin, piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem, and ertapenem, although beta-lactamase production reduced the activity of most agents. Characterization of beta-lactamase genes determined that bla(SHV), bla(CTX-M), bla(AmpC), and bla(KPC) were commonly found in most beta-lactamase-positive isolates. PMID:24813688

  6. Study of the time and space distribution of {beta}{sup +} emitters from 80MeV/u carbon ion beam irradiation on PMMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agodi, C. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud dell' INFN, Catania (Italy); Bellini, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud dell' INFN, Catania (Italy); Collamati, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Cuttone, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud dell' INFN, Catania (Italy); De Lucia, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); De Napoli, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud dell' INFN, Catania (Italy); Di Domenico, A.; Faccini, R.; Ferroni, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Fiore, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Roma (Italy); Gauzzi, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Iarocci, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per l' Ingegneria, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Roma (Italy); Marafini, M., E-mail: michela.marafini@roma1.infn.it [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche ' E. Fermi' , Roma (Italy); Mattei, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Roma Tre Universita di Roma, Roma (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Paoloni, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); and others

    2012-07-15

    Proton and carbon ion therapy is an emerging technique used for the treatment of solid cancers. The monitoring of the dose delivered during such treatments and the on-line knowledge of the Bragg peak position is still a matter of research. A possible technique exploits the collinear 511keV photons produced by positrons annihilation from {beta}{sup +} emitters created by the beam. This paper reports rate measurements of the 511keV photons emitted after the interactions of a 80MeV/u fully stripped carbon ion beam at the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS) of INFN, with a poly-methyl methacrylate target. The time evolution of the {beta}{sup +} rate was parametrized and the dominance of {sup 11}C emitters over the other species ({sup 13}N, {sup 15}O, {sup 14}O) was observed, measuring the fraction of carbon ions activating {beta}{sup +} emitters to be (10.3{+-}0.7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}. The average depth in the PMMA of the positron annihilation from {beta}{sup +} emitters was also measured, D{sub {beta}{sup +}}=5.3{+-}1.1mm, to be compared to the expected Bragg peak depth D{sub Bragg}=11.0{+-}0.5mm obtained from simulations.

  7. Beta decay of 31Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complete study of 31Ar beta decay has been made by high-resolution charged-particle and gamma-ray spectroscopy. Beta-delayed radiation was detected by an array of three charged-particle detectors and a large-volume germanium detector. Fifteen new energy levels were discovered in 31Cl. The beta-strength distribution, measured to 14.5 MeV, is compared with a shell-model calculation in the full sd space. The quenching of the Gamow-Teller strength and the isospin impurity of the IAS in 31Cl are discussed. (orig.)

  8. Study of the time and space distribution of $\\beta^+$ emitters from $80\\ \\mega\\electronvolt/$u carbon ion beam irradiation on PMMA

    CERN Document Server

    Agodi, C; Cirrone, G A P; Collamati, F; Cuttone, G; De Lucia, E; De Napoli, M; Di Domenico, A; Faccini, R; Ferroni, F; Fiore, S; Gauzzi, P; Iarocci, E; Marafini, M; Mattei, I; Paoloni, A; Patera, V; Piersanti, L; Romano, F; Sarti, A; Sciubba, A; Voena, C

    2012-01-01

    Proton and carbon ion therapy is an emerging technique used for the treatment of solid cancers. The monitoring of the dose delivered during such treatments and the on-line knowledge of the Bragg peak position is still a matter of research. A possible technique exploits the collinear $511\\ \\kilo\\electronvolt$ photons produced by positrons annihilation from $\\beta^+$ emitters created by the beam. This paper reports rate measurements of the $511\\ \\kilo\\electronvolt$ photons emitted after the interactions of a $80\\ \\mega\\electronvolt / u$ fully stripped carbon ion beam at the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS) of INFN, with a Poly-methyl methacrylate target. The time evolution of the $\\beta^+$ rate was parametrized and the dominance of $^{11}C$ emitters over the other species ($^{13}N$, $^{15}O$, $^{14}O$) was observed, measuring the fraction of carbon ions activating $\\beta^+$ emitters $A_0=(10.3\\pm0.7)\\cdot10^{-3}$. The average depth in the PMMA of the positron annihilation from $\\beta^+$ emitters was also meas...

  9. Abstraction Mechanisms in the BETA Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger;

    1983-01-01

    The BETA programming language is developed as part of the BETA project. The purpose of this project is to develop concepts, constructs and tools in the field of programming and programming languages. BETA has been developed from 1975 on and the various stages of the language are documented in [BETA...... a]. The application area of BETA is programming of embedded as well as distributed computing systems. For this reason a major goal has been to develop constructs that may be efficiently implemented. Furthermore the BETA language is intended to have a few number of basic but general constructs...... to SMALLTALK, BETA is a language in the ALGOL 60 ([ALGOL]) family. SIMULA 67 is a system description and a programming language. The DELTA language ([DELTA]) is a system description language only, allowing description of full concurrency, continuous change and component interaction, developed from a SIMULA...

  10. News on $\\beta$-delayed particle emission from $^{14}$Be

    CERN Document Server

    Jeppesen, H; Borge, M J G; Cederkäll, J; Fynbo, H O U; Fedoseyev, V N; Hansper, V Y; Jonson, B; Markenroth, K; Mishin, V I; Nilsson, T; Nyman, G; Riisager, K; Tengblad, O; Wilhelmsen Rolander, K

    2002-01-01

    $\\beta$-delayed charged particles from $^{14}$Be have been measured and give an upper limit on $\\beta$-delayed $\\alpha$-particles of B($\\beta\\alpha$) < $\\,6.7\\times\\!10^{-5}$ and a tentative branching ratio on $\\beta$-delayed tritons of $7.5\\times\\!10^{-5}$ < B($\\beta$t) < $\\,3.9\\times\\!10^{-4}$. We combine the knowledge on $\\beta$-delayed particles from $^{14}$Be to deduce information on the $\\beta$-strength distribution.

  11. In trangenic rice, alpha- and beta-tubulin regulatory sequences control GUS amount and distribution through intron mediated enhancement and intron dependent spatial expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianì, Silvia; Altana, Andrea; Campanoni, Prisca; Morello, Laura; Breviario, Diego

    2009-04-01

    The genomic upstream sequence of the rice tubulin gene OsTub6 has been cloned, sequenced and characterized. The 5'UTR sequence is interrupted by a 446 bp long leader intron. This feature is shared with two other rice beta-tubulin genes (OsTub4 and OsTub1) that, together with OsTub6, group in the same clade in the evolutionary phylogenetic tree of plant beta-tubulins. Similarly to OsTub4, the leader intron of OsTub6 is capable of sustaining intron mediated enhancement (IME) of gene expression, in transient expression assays. A general picture is drawn for three rice alpha-tubulin and two rice beta-tubulin genes in which the first intron of the coding sequence for the formers and the intron present in the 5'UTR for the latters, are important elements for controlling gene expression. We used OsTua2:GUS, OsTua3:GUS, OsTub4:GUS and OsTub6:GUS chimeric constructs to investigate the in vivo pattern of beta-glucuronidase (GUS) expression in transgenic rice plants. The influence of the regulatory introns on expression patterns was evaluated for two of them, OsTua2 and OsTub4. We have thus characterized distinct patterns of expression attributable to each tubulin isotype and we have shown that the presence of the regulatory intron can greatly influence both the amount and the actual site of expression. We propose the term Intron Dependent Spatial Expression (IDSE) to highlight this latter effect. PMID:18668337

  12. Beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) and isomers : distribution in different food web compartments of Thau lagoon, French Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Reveillon, D.; Abadie, E; Sechet, V.; Masseret, Estelle; Hess, P.; Amzil, Z.

    2015-01-01

    The neurotoxin BMAA (beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine) and its isomer DAB (2,4-diaminobutyric acid) have been detected in seafood worldwide, including in Thau lagoon (French Mediterranean Sea). A cluster of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disease associated with BMAA, has also been observed in this region. Mussels, periphyton (i.e. biofilms attached to mussels) and plankton were sampled between July 2013 and October 2014, and analyzed using HILIC-MS/MS. BMAA, DAB and AEG ...

  13. Histochemical studies on genetical control of hormonal enzyme inducibility in the mouse. III. Beta-glucuronidase distribution pattern of epididymis in different genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blecher, S R; Kirkeby, S

    1979-01-01

    correlated with previous data for alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase. Differences between sites of granular and diffuse reaction product for these two enzymes are recorded. Possible interpretations of these findings in terms of intracellular localization of enzymes are discussed. Studies on different strains...... reveal regular differences in histochemical organization between mice of various genotypes. Histochemical data which imply androgen inducibility of beta-glucuronidase in mouse epididymis are preliminary noted....

  14. Effect of Sertraline on Current-Source Distribution of the High Beta Frequency Band: Analysis of Electroencephalography under Audiovisual Erotic Stimuli in Healthy, Right-Handed Males

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Hyun, Jae Seog; Kwon, Oh-Young

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the cerebral changes in high beta frequency oscillations (22-30 Hz) induced by sertraline and by audiovisual erotic stimuli in healthy adult males. Materials and Methods Scalp electroencephalographies (EEGs) were conducted twice in 11 healthy, right-handed males, once before sertraline intake and again 4 hours thereafter. The EEGs included four sessions recorded sequentially while the subjects were resting, watching a music video, resting, and ...

  15. C3 polymorphism in beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germenis, A; Kalantzi, M; Karamerou, A; Politi, C; Fertakis, A

    1984-01-01

    The distribution of phenotypes and gene frequencies of the third component of complement (C3) were studied in 106 beta-thalassemic patients and in 112 carriers of the beta-thalassemia trait. A statistically significant association was found between the C3F gene and homozygous beta-thalassemia. It can be suggested that this association may be related with the high incidence of infections encountered in these patients. PMID:6419525

  16. Effect of 17 beta-oestradiol on growth curves and flow cytometric DNA distribution of two human breast carcinomas grown in nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brünner, N; Spang-Thomsen, M; Vindeløv, L;

    1983-01-01

    The effect of 17 beta-oestradiol on a "receptor positive" and on a "receptor negative" human breast carcinoma grown in nude mice was studied. Experimental growth data were used to determine the effect on tumour growth. Flow cytometric DNA analysis (FCM) performed on tumour tissue obtained by...... sequential fine-needle aspirations was used to estimate the effect on the cell cycle. In the receptor-positive breast carcinoma, oestradiol induced complete tumour regression and characteristic cell cycle changes. In the receptor-negative breast carcinoma, no changes in tumour growth and cell cycle...

  17. Beta cell count instead of beta cell mass to assess and localize growth in beta cell population following pancreatic duct ligation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Chintinne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pancreatic-tail duct ligation (PDL in adult rodents has been reported to induce beta cell generation and increase beta cell mass but increases in beta cell number have not been demonstrated. This study examines whether PDL increases beta cell number and whether this is caused by neogenesis of small clusters and/or their growth to larger aggregates. METHODOLOGY: Total beta cell number and its distribution over small (100 µm clusters was determined in pancreatic tails of 10-week-old mice, 2 weeks after PDL or sham. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PDL increased total beta cell mass but not total beta cell number. It induced neogenesis of small beta cell clusters (2.2-fold higher number which contained a higher percent proliferating beta cells (1.9% Ki67+cells than sham tails (<0.2%; their higher beta cell number represented <5% of total beta cell number and was associated with a similar increase in alpha cell number. It is unknown whether the regenerative process is causally related to the inflammatory infiltration in PDL-tails. Human pancreases with inflammatory infiltration also exhibited activation of proliferation in small beta cell clusters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The PDL model illustrates the advantage of direct beta cell counts over beta cell mass measurements when assessing and localizing beta cell regeneration in the pancreas. It demonstrates the ability of the adult mouse pancreas for neogenesis of small beta cell clusters with activated beta cell proliferation. Further studies should investigate conditions under which neoformed small beta cell clusters grow to larger aggregates and hence to higher total beta cell numbers.

  18. N-cadherin mediated distribution of beta-catenin alters MAP kinase and BMP-2 signaling on chondrogenesis-related gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarresi, Rozbeh; Lafond, Toulouse; Roman-Blas, Jorge A; Danielson, Keith G; Tuan, Rocky S; Seghatoleslami, M Reza

    2005-05-01

    We have examined the effect of calcium-dependent adhesion, mediated by N-cadherin, on cell signaling during chondrogenesis of multipotential embryonic mouse C3H10T1/2 cells. The activity of chondrogenic genes, type II collagen, aggrecan, and Sox9 were examined in monolayer (non-chondrogenic), and micromass (chondrogenic) cultures of parental C3H10T1/2 cells and altered C3H10T1/2 cell lines that express a dominant negative form of N-cadherin (delta390-T1/2) or overexpress normal N-cadherin (MNCD2-T1/2). Our findings show that missexpression or inhibition of N-cadherin in C3H10T1/2 cells results in temporal and spatial changes in expression of the chondrogenic genes Sox9, aggrecan, and collagen type II. We have also analyzed activity of the serum response factor (SRF), a nuclear target of MAP kinase signaling implicated in chondrogenesis. In semi-confluent monolayer cultures (minimum cell-cell contact) of C3H10T1/2, MNCD2-T1/2, or delta390-T1/2 cells, there was no significant change in the pattern of MAP kinase or bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) regulation of SRF. However, in micromass cultures, the effect of MAP kinase and BMP-2 on SRF activity was proportional to the nuclear localization of beta-catenin, a Wnt stabilized cytoplasmic factor that can associate with lymphoid enhancer-binding factor (LEF) to serve as a transcription factor. Our findings suggest that the extent of adherens junction formation mediated by N-cadherin can modulate the potential Wnt-induced nuclear activity of beta-catenin. PMID:15723280

  19. [Survey of the antibiotic sensitivity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in France and the distribution of beta-lactam resistance mechanisms: the GERPB 1999 study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, J D; Leblanc, F; Fabre, R; Fourticq-Esqueöute, A

    2001-09-01

    A prospective survey was carried out in october 1999 in 15 french teaching hospitals. Average susceptibility rates, determined by minimal inhibitory concentrations, for the 738 non-repetitive strains of P. aeruginosa isolated were: ticarcillin, 58%, ticarcillin + clavulanic acid, 56%, piperacillin, 73%, piperacillin + tazobactam, 82%, ceftazidime, 76%, cefepime, 53%, cefpirome, 36%, aztreonam, 58%, imipenem, 81%, amikacin, 62%, tobramycine, 71% and, ciprofloxacin, 60%. Among the 75% serotypable strains, the most frequent serotypes were: O:6 (15.3%), O:11 (14.5%), O:1 (10.4%), O:3 (7.9%), O:4 (6.1%) and O:12 (6.1%). The serotype O:12 was the most resistant to antibiotics. Forty-two percent of the strains were resistant or presented an intermediate susceptibility to ticarcillin. Mechanisms were as follow: 14.5% non enzymatic mechanism, 12.5% overproduction of the constitutive cephalosporinase, 7.1% transferable betalactamase and, 6.9% combination of these mechanisms. Among the 67 transferable betalactamases: 48 (71.6%) were PSE-1, 12 (19.4%) TEM-2 and 6 (7.5%) oxacillinases. One extended spectrum betalactamase was characterized. Among the cephalosporines tested, cefepime was less affected by the overproduction of constitutive cephalosporinase. Ceftazidime, remained the best cephalosporin except against the strains overexpressing the chromosomal type 1 beta-lactamase. Resistance to tobramycin was mainly due to enzymatic mechanisms with a high level of resistance. Decreased susceptibility was more frequent for amikacin than for tobramycin. This was probably related with non enzymatic mechanisms. PMID:11642015

  20. The Beta-MANOVA Ensemble with General Covariance

    OpenAIRE

    Dubbs, Alexander; Edelman, Alan

    2013-01-01

    We find the joint generalized singular value distribution and largest generalized singular value distributions of the $\\beta$-MANOVA ensemble with positive diagonal covariance, which is general. This has been done for the continuous $\\beta > 0$ case for identity covariance (in eigenvalue form), and by setting the covariance to $I$ in our model we get another version. For the diagonal covariance case, it has only been done for $\\beta = 1,2,4$ cases (real, complex, and quaternion matrix entries...

  1. Characterization of footprint-scale surface soil moisture variability using Gaussian and beta distribution functions during the Southern Great Plains 1997 (SGP97) hydrology experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Dongryeol; Famiglietti, James S.

    2005-01-01

    The behavior of satellite footprint-scale surface soil moisture probability density functions (PDF) was analyzed using 50-km-scale samples taken from soil moisture images collected during the Southern Great Plains 1997 (SGP97) hydrology experiment. Under the observed wetness conditions, soil moisture variability generally peaked in the midrange of mean soil moisture content and decreased toward the wet and dry ends, while in the midrange it was more widely distributed. High variability in the...

  2. Levered and unlevered Beta

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2003-01-01

    We prove that in a world without leverage cost the relationship between the levered beta ( L) and the unlevered beta ( u) is the No-costs-of-leverage formula: L = u + ( u - d) D (1 - T) / E. We also analyze 6 alternative valuation theories proposed in the literature to estimate the relationship between the levered beta and the unlevered beta (Harris and Pringle (1985), Modigliani and Miller (1963), Damodaran (1994), Myers (1974), Miles and Ezzell (1980), and practitioners) and prove that all ...

  3. Betting Against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    .S. equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures; (2) A betting-against-beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns; (3) When funding constraints tighten, the return of the...

  4. Forward-Looking Betas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Vainberg, Gregory

    Few issues are more important for finance practice than the computation of market betas. Existing approaches compute market betas using historical data. While these approaches differ in terms of statistical sophistication and the modeling of the time-variation in the betas, they are all backward-...

  5. Regional differences in islet distribution in the human pancreas--preferential beta-cell loss in the head region in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Wang

    Full Text Available While regional heterogeneity in islet distribution has been well studied in rodents, less is known about human pancreatic histology. To fill gaps in our understanding, regional differences in the adult human pancreas were quantitatively analyzed including the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D. Cadaveric pancreas specimens were collected from the head, body and tail regions of each donor, including subjects with no history of diabetes or pancreatic diseases (n = 23 as well as patients with T2D (n = 12. The study further included individuals from whom islets were isolated (n = 7 to study islet yield and function in a clinical setting of islet transplantation. The whole pancreatic sections were examined using an innovative large-scale image capture and unbiased detailed quantitative analyses of the characteristics of islets from each individual (architecture, size, shape and distribution. Islet distribution/density is similar between the head and body regions, but is >2-fold higher in the tail region. In contrast to rodents, islet cellular composition and architecture were similar throughout the pancreas and there was no difference in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in islets isolated from different regions of the pancreas. Further studies revealed preferential loss of large islets in the head region in patients with T2D. The present study has demonstrated distinct characteristics of the human pancreas, which should provide a baseline for the future studies integrating existing research in the field and helping to advance bi-directional research between humans and preclinical models.

  6. ASSESSMENTOF BETA PARTICLE FLUX FROM SURFACE CONTAMINATION AS A RELATIVE INDICATOR FOR RADIONUCLIDE DISTRIBUTION ON EXTERNAL SURFACES OF A MULTI-STORY BUILDING IN PRIPYAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.

    2009-11-17

    How would we recover if a Radiological Dispersion Device (e.g., dirty bomb) or Improvised Nuclear Device were to detonate in a large city? In order to assess the feasibility of remediation following such an event, several issues would have to be considered, including the levels and characteristics of the radioactive contamination, the availability of the required resources to accomplish decontamination, and the planned future use of the city's structures and buildings. Presently little is known about the distribution, redistribution, and migration of radionuclides in an urban environment. However, Pripyat, a city substantially contaminated by the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, may provide some answers. The main objective of this study was to determine the radionuclide distribution on a Pripyat multi-story building, which had not been previously decontaminated and therefore could reflect the initial fallout and its further natural redistribution on external surfaces. The 7-story building selected was surveyed from the ground floor to the roof on horizontal and vertical surfaces along seven ground-to-roof transections. Some of the results from this study indicate that the upper floors of the building had higher contamination levels than the lower floors. The authors consequently recommend that existing decontamination procedures for tall structures be re-examined and modified accordingly.

  7. Assessment of beta particle flux from surface contamination as a relative indicator for radionuclide distribution on external surfaces of a multistory building in Pripyat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfán, Eduardo B; Gaschak, Sergii P; Maksymenko, Andriy M; Jannik, G Tim; Marra, James C; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Donnelly, Elizabeth H

    2011-02-01

    Several issues should be considered when assessing the feasibility of remediation following the detonation of a radiological dispersion device (e.g., dirty bomb) or improvised nuclear device in a large city. These issues include the levels and characteristics of the radioactive contamination, the availability of resources required for decontamination, and the planned future use of the city's structures and buildings. Presently, little is known about the distribution, redistribution, and migration of radionuclides in an urban environment. However, Pripyat, a city substantially contaminated by the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in April 1986, may provide some answers. The main objective of this study was to determine the radionuclide distribution on a Pripyat multistory building that had not been decontaminated and, therefore, could reflect the initial fallout and its further natural redistribution on external surfaces over 23 y. The seven-story building selected was surveyed from the ground floor to the roof on horizontal and vertical surfaces along seven ground-to-roof transections. Some results from this study indicate that the upper floors of the building had higher contamination levels than the lower floors. Consequently, the authors recommend that thorough decontamination should be considered for all the floors of tall buildings (not just lower floors). PMID:21399438

  8. Distribution of alpha and beta thalassaemia genotypes in childbearing age people in Shanwei%汕尾市育龄人群中α、β地中海贫血基因型的分布调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙妙婷; 董响波; 黄琦玲

    2014-01-01

    objective To understand the distribution of alpha and beta thalassaemia genotypes in childbearing age people in Shanwei.Methods Pregnant woment and their spouses 1200 cases were chosen from the hospitals of each area from January 1st to December 1st 2013 as study objects using cluster sampling method.Alpha beta thalassaemia were investigated respectively.Results Among the 1200 blood samples,6 kinds of alpha thalassaemia genotypes were detected,with a total of 62 cases,63 alleles.The alpha thalassaemia gene carrying rate was 5.25% (63/1200).The genotype composition:31-a3.7/aa,49.21% of the total; 18-aSEA/aa,28.57% of the total; 7-a4.2/aa,11.11% of the total; 2-aTHAI/aa,3.17% of the total; 3--SEA/--SEA,4.76% of the total; 2-aCSa/aa,3.17% of the total.13 cases were detected with beta thalassemia gene,with a beta thalassemia gene carrying rate of 1.08%.There were five genetic types of beta thalassemia gene including IVS-2-654 (C → T) and-28 (A → G) (both accounted for 23.08%),CD41/42 (-TCTT) (30.77%),CD17 (A → T) (15.38%),and beta ECD26 (C → A) (7.69%).Conclusions The alpha thalassaemia gene carrying rate and beta thalassaemia carrying rate of Shanwei are relatively lower among the whole province.However,but the analysis of the data showed that the carrying rate was high,thalassaemia genes were carried mainly by people,most of which are natives,in regions with complex genetic background.%目的 了解汕尾市育龄人群中α、β地中海贫血基因型的分布情况.方法 采用整群抽样方法选择2013年1月1日至2013年12月31日各地区部分住院分娩和引产的孕产妇、配偶共计1200例作为研究对象,分别进行α-地中海贫血和β-地中海贫血调查.结果 在1200份血液标本中共计检测出6种α-地中海贫血基因型,共计62例,63个等位基因,α-地中海贫血基因携带率为5.25%(63/1200).其基因型构成比:-a3.7/aa 31个,占总数的49.21%;-aSEA/aa 18个,占总数的28.57

  9. Fission product migration in intact fuel rods. S176 experiments 1-5: Gamma spectrometric and beta autoradiography results on radial fission product distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the third of a group which present the results obtained during the first 5 experiments in the S176 series of irradiation experiments. The aim of this series is to provide information on the distribution of fission products in intact irradiated fuel rods, both within the UO2, fuel and on the inside of the Zircaloy clad. Fuel rods, previously irradiated to appreciable burnups in the Aagesta R3 reactor, after cooling, are reirradiated in the Studsvik R2 test reactor for short periods to build up significant inventories of short-lived fission products of interest. The irradiation conditions are well defined. Examination of sections of fuel and clad within a short time after removal from the reactor is performed by means of high-resolution Ge(Li) gamma spectrometry. The fuel sections are also examined metallographically to determine fuel structure, and by β autoradiography

  10. Beta-globin gene haplotypes among cameroonians and review of the global distribution: is there a case for a single sickle mutation origin in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitoungui, Valentina J Ngo; Pule, Gift D; Hanchard, Neil; Ngogang, Jeanne; Wonkam, Ambroise

    2015-03-01

    Studies of hemoglobin S haplotypes in African subpopulations have potential implications for patient care and our understanding of genetic factors that have shaped the prevalence of sickle cell disease (SCD). We evaluated HBB gene cluster haplotypes in SCD patients from Cameroon, and reviewed the literature for a global distribution. We reviewed medical records to obtain pertinent socio-demographic and clinical features for 610 Cameroonian SCD patients, including hemoglobin electrophoresis and full blood counts. RFLP-PCR was used to determine the HBB gene haplotype on 1082 chromosomes. A systematic review of the current literature was undertaken to catalogue HBB haplotype frequencies in SCD populations around the world. Benin (74%; n = 799) and Cameroon (19%; n = 207) were the most prevalent haplotypes observed among Cameroonian patients. There was no significant association between HBB haplotypes and clinical life events, anthropometric measures, hematological parameters, or fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels. The literature review of the global haplotype distributions was consistent with known historical migrations of the people of Africa. Previously reported data from Sudan showed a distinctly unusual pattern; all four classical haplotypes were reported, with an exceptionally high proportion of the Senegal, Cameroon, and atypical haplotypes. We did not observe any significant associations between HBB haplotype and SCD disease course in this cohort. Taken together, the data from Cameroon and from the wider literature suggest that a careful reassessment of African HBB haplotypes may shed further light on the evolutionary dynamics of the sickle allele, which could suggest a single origin of the sickle mutation. PMID:25748438

  11. Characterization of the papilionoid-Burkholderia interaction in the Fynbos biome: The diversity and distribution of beta-rhizobia nodulating Podalyria calyptrata (Fabaceae, Podalyrieae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Benny; Van Cauwenberghe, Jannick; Verstraete, Brecht; Chimphango, Samson; Stirton, Charles; Honnay, Olivier; Smets, Erik; Sprent, Janet; James, Euan K; Muasya, A Muthama

    2016-02-01

    The South African Fynbos soils are renowned for nitrogen-fixing Burkholderia associated with diverse papilionoid legumes of the tribes Crotalarieae, Hypocalypteae, Indigofereae, Phaseoleae and Podalyrieae. However, despite numerous rhizobial studies in the region, the symbiotic diversity of Burkholderia has not been investigated in relation to a specific host legume and its geographical provenance. This study analyzed the diversity of nodulating strains of Burkholderia from the legume species Podalyria calyptrata. Diverse lineages were detected that proved to be closely related to Burkholderia taxa, originating from hosts in other legume tribes. By analyzing the genetic variation of chromosomal (recA) and nodulation (nodA) sequence data in relation to the sampling sites we assessed the geographical distribution patterns of the P. calyptrata symbionts. Although we found a degree of genetically differentiated rhizobial populations, a correlation between genetic (recA and nodA) and geographic distances among populations was not observed, suggesting high rates of dispersal and rhizobial colonization within Fynbos soils. PMID:26689612

  12. MHD turbulence and distributed chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Bershadskii, A

    2016-01-01

    It is shown, using results of recent direct numerical simulations, that spectral properties of distributed chaos in MHD turbulence with zero mean magnetic field are similar to those of hydrodynamic turbulence. An exception is MHD spontaneous breaking of space translational symmetry, when the stretched exponential spectrum $\\exp(-k/k_{\\beta})^{\\beta}$ has $\\beta=4/7$.

  13. Koedam {beta} factors revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawler, J.E. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Doughty, D.A. [Perkin-Elmer Optoelectronics, Santa Clara, CA (United States); Lister, G.G. [OSRAM SYLVANIA Inc., Beverly, MA (United States)

    2002-07-21

    A Koedam {beta} factor makes it possible to compute the total output power in line radiation from a positive column discharge using a single radiance measurement normal to an aperture in the wall. The results of analytic derivations of {beta} factors are presented for columns with uniform ({beta}=1.0) and parabolic ({beta}=0.75) excitation rates per unit volume and with negligible opacity. A Monte Carlo code for simulating radiation trapping with a spatially uniform density of absorbing atoms is then used to determine {beta} factors as a function of opacity. The code includes partial frequency redistribution and a Voigt line shape with radiative broadening, resonance collisional broadening, and Doppler broadening. The resulting {beta} factors are found to be nearly independent of opacity over a wide range of column radii for spectral line shapes dominated by Doppler broadening or by resonance collisional broadening. Additional Monte Carlo simulations are used to study {beta} factors as a function of a non-uniform density of absorbing atoms from radial cataphoresis with line shapes dominated by Doppler broadening, foreign gas broadening, and resonance collisional broadening. Radial cataphoresis is found to increase {beta} factors in all cases. Geometrical effects, refraction, and imperfect transmission at the glass wall are studied and found to decrease {beta} factors. (author)

  14. Beta-energy averaging and beta spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple yet highly accurate method for approximately calculating spectrum-averaged beta energies and beta spectra for radioactive nuclei is presented. This method should prove useful for users who wish to obtain accurate answers without complicated calculations of Fermi functions, complex gamma functions, and time-consuming numerical integrations as required by the more exact theoretical expressions. Therefore, this method should be a good time-saving alternative for investigators who need to make calculations involving large numbers of nuclei (e.g., fission products) as well as for occasional users interested in restricted number of nuclides. The average beta-energy values calculated by this method differ from those calculated by ''exact'' methods by no more than 1 percent for nuclides with atomic numbers in the 20 to 100 range and which emit betas of energies up to approximately 8 MeV. These include all fission products and the actinides. The beta-energy spectra calculated by the present method are also of the same quality

  15. Measurement of the beta asymmetry in neutron beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron beta decay is the simplest semi-leptonic weak decay and described accurately by the standard model using the first CKM-matrix element and the ratio of vector and axial vector couplings, λ. With more than a dozen observables it is a sensitive probe for investigating the nature of weak interaction and to search for physics beyond the standard model. In the past, measuring the beta asymmetry A in polarized neutron decay has been the most precise way of determining λ and nowadays it allows - together with other observables - to derive limits on non-standard model interactions, such as scalar and tensor couplings. The neutron decay spectrometer Perkeo III was installed at the PF1B cold neutron beam site at the Institut Laue-Langevin to measure the beta asymmetry. By using a pulsed beam combined with an improved detector design a significant reduction of several systematic uncertainties has been achieved compared to the predecessor, Perkeo II. In this talk recent results of the measurements with Perkeo III will be presented. In particular, we show the energy distribution of the electrons together with the calibration tools for the detectors.

  16. Double beta decay experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Barabash, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    The present status of double beta decay experiments is reviewed. The results of the most sensitive experiments are discussed. Proposals for future double beta decay experiments with a sensitivity to the $$ at the level of (0.01--0.1) eV are considered.

  17. Negative Beta Encoder

    CERN Document Server

    Kohda, Tohru; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2008-01-01

    A new class of analog-digital (A/D), digital-analog (D/A) converters as an alternative to conventional ones, called $\\beta$-encoder, has been shown to have exponential accuracy in the bit rates while possessing self-correction property for fluctuations of amplifier factor $\\beta$ and quantizer threshold $\

  18. Betting against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model's five central predictions: (1) Because constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for...

  19. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  20. Association behavior of native beta-lactoglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verheul, M.; Pedersen, J.S.; Roefs, S.P.F.M.;

    1999-01-01

    The association behavior of beta-lactoglobulin has been studied by small-angle neutron scattering as a function of protein concentration, temperature, pH, and NaCl concentration of the solution. By indirect Fourier transformation of the spectra, pair-distance distribution functions for the various...

  1. Imperfect World of beta beta-decay Nuclear Data Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritychenko, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). NNDC

    2015-01-03

    The precision of double-beta ββ-decay experimental half lives and their uncertainties is reanalyzed. The method of Benford's distributions has been applied to nuclear reaction, structure and decay data sets. First-digit distribution trend for ββ-decay T2v1/2 is consistent with large nuclear reaction and structure data sets and provides validation of experimental half-lives. A complementary analysis of the decay uncertainties indicates deficiencies due to small size of statistical samples, and incomplete collection of experimental information. Further experimental and theoretical efforts would lead toward more precise values of-decay half-lives and nuclear matrix elements.

  2. Beta-carotene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and deterioration of the lining of the mouth (oral mucositis). Taking beta-carotene by mouth doesn’t appear to prevent the development of oral mucositis during radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Pancreatic cancer. Taking ...

  3. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physics potential of neutrinoless double beta decay is discussed. Furthermore, experimental considerations as well as the current status of experiments are presented. Finally, an outlook towards the future, work on nuclear matrix elements and alternative processes is given. (author)

  4. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kai Zuber

    2012-10-01

    The physics potential of neutrinoless double beta decay is discussed. Furthermore, experimental considerations as well as the current status of experiments are presented. Finally, an outlook towards the future, work on nuclear matrix elements and alternative processes is given.

  5. [High beta tokamak research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our activities on High Beta Tokamak Research during the past 20 months of the present grant period can be divided into six areas: reconstruction and modeling of high beta equilibria in HBT; measurement and analysis of MHD instabilities observed in HBT; measurements of impurity transport; diagnostic development on HBT; numerical parameterization of the second stability regime; and conceptual design and assembly of HBT-EP. Each of these is described in some detail in the sections of this progress report

  6. High beta multipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multipoles are being employed as devices to study fusion issues and plasma phenomena at high values of beta (plasma pressure/magnetic pressure) in a controlled manner. Due to their large volume, low magnetic field (low synchrotron radiation) region, they are also under consideration as potential steady state advanced fuel (low neutron yield) reactors. Present experiments are investigating neoclassical (bootstrap and Pfirsch-Schlueter) currents and plasma stability at extremely high beta

  7. Autoregressive conditional beta

    OpenAIRE

    Yunmi Kim

    2012-01-01

    The capital asset pricing model provides various predictions about equilibrium expected returns on risky assets. One key prediction is that the risk premium on a risky asset is proportional to the nondiversifiable market risk measured by the asset's beta coefficient. This paper proposes a new method for estimating and drawing inferences from a time-varying capital asset pricing model. The proposed method, which can be considered a vector autoregressive model for multiple beta coefficients, is...

  8. Beta-secretase-cleaved amyloid precursor protein in Alzheimer brain: a morphologic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennvik, Kristina; Bogdanovic, N; Volkmann, Inga; Fastbom, J; Benedikz, Eirikur

    2004-01-01

    (beta-sAPP) in brain tissue sections from the frontal, temporal and occipital lobe. Strong granular beta-sAPP staining was found throughout the gray matter of all three areas, while white matter staining was considerably weaker. beta-sAPP was found to be localized in astrocytes and in axons. We found...... the beta-sAPP immunostaining to be stronger and more extensive in gray matter in Alzheimer disease (AD) cases than controls. The axonal beta-sAPP staining was patchy and unevenly distributed for the AD cases, indicating impaired axonal transport. beta-sAPP was also found surrounding senile plaques and......beta-amyloid (Abeta) is the main constituent of senile plaques seen in Alzheimer's disease. Abeta is derived from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) via proteolytic cleavage by proteases beta- and gamma-secretase. In this study, we examined content and localization of beta-secretase-cleaved APP...

  9. Extrasynaptic location of laminin beta 2 chain in developing and adult human skeletal muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Wewer, U M; Thornell, L. E.; Loechel, F; Zhang, X.; Durkin, M. E.; Amano, S; Burgeson, R. E.; Engvall, E; Albrechtsen, R.; Virtanen, I.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the distribution of the laminin beta 2 chain (previously s-laminin) in human fetal and adult skeletal muscle and compared it to the distribution of laminin beta 1. Immunoblotting and transfection assays were used to characterize a panel of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to the laminin beta 2 chain. We found that laminin beta 1 chain was detected at all times during development from 10 weeks of gestation. Laminin beta 2 chain was first detected in 15 to 22-week-old f...

  10. Double beta decay experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The great sensitivity of double beta decay to neutrino mass and right handed currents has motivated many new and exciting attempts to observe this elusive nuclear phenomenon directly. Experiments in operation and other coming on line in the next one or two years are expected to result in order-of-magnitude improvements in detectable half lives for both the two-neutrino and no-neutrino modes. A brief history of double beta decay experiments is presented together with a discussion of current experimental efforts, including a gas filled time projection chamber being used to study selenium-82. (author)

  11. Plasma beta HCG determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are three important indications for the early diagnosis of pregnancy through the determination of the beta sub-unit of chorionic gonadotrophin using radioimmunoassay: 1) some patient's or doctor's anxiety to discover the problem; 2) when it will be necessary to employ diagnostic or treatment procedures susceptible to affect the ovum; and 3) in the differential diagnosis of amenorrhoea, uterine hemorrhage and abdominal tumors. Other user's are the diagnosis of missed absortion, and the diagnosis and follow-up of chrorioncarcinoma. The AA. studied 200 determinations of plasma beta-HCG, considering the main difficulties occuring in the clinical use of this relevant laboratory tool in actual Obstetrics. (author)

  12. Beta and Gamma Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Gaffney, C. F.; Clark, P. A.;

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and/or theoretical estimates are presented concerning, (i) attenuation within the sample of beta and gamma radiation from the soil, (ii) the gamma dose within the sample due to its own radioactivity, and (iii) the soil gamma dose in the proximity of boundaries between regions of...... differing radioactivity. It is confirmed that removal of the outer 2 mm of sample is adequate to remove influence from soil beta dose and estimates are made of the error introduced by non-removal. Other evaluations include variation of the soil gamma dose near the ground surface and it appears that the...

  13. Weak interaction studies from nuclear beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies performed at the theoretical nuclear physics division of the Laboratory of Nuclear Studies, Osaka University, are reported. Electron spin density and internal conversion process, nuclear excitation by electron transition, beta decay, weak charged current, and beta-ray angular distributions in oriented nuclei have been studied. The relative intensity of internal conversion electrons for the case in which the radial wave functions of orbital electrons are different for electron spin up and down was calculated. The calculated value was in good agreement with the experimental one. The nuclear excitation following the transition of orbital electrons was studied. The calculated probability of the nuclear excitation of Os189 was 1.4 x 10-7 in conformity with the experimental value 1.7 x 10-7. The second class current and other problems on beta-decay have been extensively studied, and described elsewhere. Concerning weak charged current, the effects of all induced terms, the time component of main axial vector, all partial waves of leptons, Coulomb correction for the electrons in finite size nuclei, and radiative correction were studied. The beta-ray angular distribution for the 1+ -- 0+ transition in oriented B12 and N12 was investigated. In this connection, investigation on the weak magnetism to include all higher order corrections for the evaluation of the spectral shape factors was performed. Other works carried out by the author and his collaborators are also explained. (Kato, T.)

  14. Evaluation of neutrino masses from $m_{\\beta\\beta}$ values

    CERN Document Server

    Khrushchov, V V

    2008-01-01

    A neutrino mass matrix is considered under conditions of the CP invariance and the negligible reactor mixing $\\theta_{13}$ angle. Absolute mass values for three neutrinos are evaluated in normal and inverted hierarchy spectra on the ground of data for oscillation mixing neutrino parameters and effective neutrino mass entering into a probability of neutrinoless two beta decay $m_{\\beta\\beta}$ values.

  15. Low-beta structures

    OpenAIRE

    M. Vretenar(CERN, Geneva, Switzerland)

    2012-01-01

    'Low-beta' radio-frequency accelerating structures are used in the sections of a linear accelerator where the velocity of the particle beam increases with energy. The requirement for space periodicity to match the increasing particle velocity led to the development of a large variety of structures, both normal and superconducting, which are described in this lecture.

  16. Applied Beta Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of beta and/or nonpenetrating exposure results is complicated and past techniques and capabilities have resulted in significant inaccuracies in recorded results. Current developments have resulted in increased capabilities which make the results more accurate and should result in less total exposure to the work force. Continued development of works in progress should provide equivalent future improvements.

  17. Roughing up Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Li, Sophia Zhengzi; Todorov, Viktor

    Motivated by the implications from a stylized equilibrium pricing framework, we investigate empirically how individual equity prices respond to continuous, or \\smooth," and jumpy, or \\rough," market price moves, and how these different market price risks, or betas, are priced in the cross-section...

  18. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Päs, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    We review the potential to probe new physics with neutrinoless double beta decay $(A,Z) \\to (A,Z+2) + 2 e^-$. Both the standard long-range light neutrino mechanism as well as short-range mechanisms mediated by heavy particles are discussed. We also stress aspects of the connection to lepton number violation at colliders and the implications for baryogenesis.

  19. Applied Beta Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of beta and/or nonpenetrating exposure results is complicated and past techniques and capabilities have resulted in significant inaccuracies in recorded results. Current developments have resulted in increased capabilities which make the results more accurate and should result in less total exposure to the work force. Continued development of works in progress should provide equivalent future improvements

  20. Interferon Beta-1b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon beta-1b injection is used to reduce episodes of symptoms in patients with relapsing-remitting (course ... and problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1b is in a class of medications ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: beta thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Disease Control and Prevention Centre for Genetics Education (Australia) Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory: Your Genes Your Health Disease InfoSearch: Beta Thalassemia Genomics Education Programme (UK) MalaCards: dominant beta-thalassemia Merck Manual ...

  2. Source preparations for alpha and beta measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    Regarding alpha particle emitters subject for environmental studies, electrodeposition or co-precipitation as fluorides are the most common methods. For electro deposition stainless steel is generally used as cathode material but also other metals such as Ni, Ag, and Cu showed promising results. The use of other anode material than platinum, such as graphite should be investigated. For other purposes such as optimal resolution other more sophisticated methods are used but often resulting in poorer recovery. For beta particle emitters the type of detection system will decide the source preparation. Similar methods as for alpha particle emitters, electrodeposition or precipitation techniques can be used. Due to the continuous energy distribution of the beta pulse height distribution a high resolution is not required. Thicker sources from the precipitates or a stable isotopic carrier can be accepted but correction for absorption in the source must be done. (au)

  3. Source preparations for alpha and beta measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regarding alpha particle emitters subject for environmental studies, electrodeposition or co-precipitation as fluorides are the most common methods. For electro deposition stainless steel is generally used as cathode material but also other metals such as Ni, Ag, and Cu showed promising results. The use of other anode material than platinum, such as graphite should be investigated. For other purposes such as optimal resolution other more sophisticated methods are used but often resulting in poorer recovery. For beta particle emitters the type of detection system will decide the source preparation. Similar methods as for alpha particle emitters, electrodeposition or precipitation techniques can be used. Due to the continuous energy distribution of the beta pulse height distribution a high resolution is not required. Thicker sources from the precipitates or a stable isotopic carrier can be accepted but correction for absorption in the source must be done. (au)

  4. Beta gets better with age

    OpenAIRE

    Tomunen, Tuomas

    2015-01-01

    The objective of my thesis is to study the cause for the low beta anomaly, which is an observation that the high beta stocks perform poorly relative to the low beta stocks. Based on earlier findings, I hypothesize that if a stock has high investor attention, its price overreacts to market-wide shocks, which results in a positive measurement error in its beta. Simultaneously, high attention causes overpricing, because the stock overreacts more often to positive shocks than to negat...

  5. Evidence for the presence of beta 3-adrenergic receptor mRNA in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, M; Carillon, C; Coquerel, A; Le Fur, G; Ferrara, P; Caput, D; Shire, D

    1995-04-01

    The beta 3-adrenergic receptor (AR) is widely distributed in peripheral tissues, but up to now it has not been detected in the central nervous system. By using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, we found the beta 3-AR mRNA to be present in all the regions of the human brain we investigated. The quantities found were very low compared to those of the beta 1-AR and beta 2-AR mRNAs, being hardly detectable in adult brain. In contrast, the brain of very young infants contained about 100 times more beta 3-AR mRNA than the adult brain, whereas the amounts of beta 1-AR and beta 2-AR transcripts were essentially the same. In addition, using PCR we have cloned a central beta 3-AR coding region from a human frontal cortex cDNA library and have found it to be identical to the corresponding peripheral sequence. PMID:7609625

  6. Extrasynaptic location of laminin beta 2 chain in developing and adult human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Thornell, L E; Loechel, F; Zhang, X; Durkin, M E; Amano, S; Burgeson, R E; Engvall, E; Albrechtsen, R; Virtanen, I

    1997-01-01

    to the laminin beta 2 chain. We found that laminin beta 1 chain was detected at all times during development from 10 weeks of gestation. Laminin beta 2 chain was first detected in 15 to 22-week-old fetal skeletal muscle as distinct focal immunoreactivity in the sarcolemmal basement membrane area of...... some myofibers. In the adult skeletal muscle, laminin beta 2 chain immunoreactivity was found along the entire perimeter of each of the individual myofibers in a large series of different muscles studied. Laminin beta 2 chain was similarly found in the skeletal muscle basement membranes in patients......We have investigated the distribution of the laminin beta 2 chain (previously s-laminin) in human fetal and adult skeletal muscle and compared it to the distribution of laminin beta 1. Immunoblotting and transfection assays were used to characterize a panel of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies...

  7. Misleading Betas: An Educational Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, James; Halcoussis, Dennis; Phillips, G. Michael

    2012-01-01

    The dual-beta model is a generalization of the CAPM model. In the dual-beta model, separate beta estimates are provided for up-market and down-market days. This paper uses the historical "Anscombe quartet" results which illustrated how very different datasets can produce the same regression coefficients to motivate a discussion of the…

  8. Radiation synthesis of gelatin/CM-chitosan/{beta}-tricalcium phosphate composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Ying [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xu Ling, E-mail: lingxu@pku.edu.cn [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang Xiangmei; Zhao Yinghui [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wei Shicheng, E-mail: sc-wei@pku.edu.cn [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhai Maolin [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2012-05-01

    A series of biodegradable composite scaffolds was fabricated from an aqueous solution of gelatin, carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) and {beta}-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) by radiation-induced crosslinking at ambient temperature. Ultrasonic treatment on the polymer solutions significantly influenced the distribution of {beta}-TCP particles. An ultrasonic time of 20 min, followed by 30 kGy irradiation induced a crosslinked scaffold with homogeneous distribution of {beta}-TCP particles, interconnected porous structure, sound swelling capacity and mechanical strength. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction analysis indicated that {beta}-TCP successfully incorporated with the network of gelatin and CM-chitosan. In vivo implantation of the scaffold into the mandible of beagle dog revealed that the scaffolds had excellent biocompatibility and the presence of {beta}-TCP can accelerate bone regeneration. The comprehensive results of this study paved way for the application of gelatin/CM-chitosan/{beta}-TCP composite scaffolds as candidate of bone tissue engineering material. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation induced a crosslinked scaffold with interconnected porous structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrasonic time of 20 min led to homogenerously distribution of {beta}-TCP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing amount of {beta}-TCP would restrict the swelling properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proper fraction of {beta}-TCP will promote the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hybrid of {beta}-TCP promoted the bone regeneration of the mandibles of beagle dogs.

  9. Sizeable beta-strength in 31Ar (beta 3p) decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Koldste, G.; Blank, B.; J. G. Borge, M.;

    2014-01-01

    We present for the first time precise spectroscopic information on the recently discovered decay mode beta-delayed 3p-emission. The detection of the 3p events gives an increased sensitivity to the high energy part of the Gamow-Teller strength distribution from the decay of 31Ar revealing that as...... much as 30% of the strength resides in the beta-3p decay mode. A simplified description of how the main decay modes evolve as the excitation energy increases in 31Cl is provided....

  10. Beta-thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Origa Raffaella

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands, dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes, gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely

  11. Beta and muon decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These notes represent a series of lectures delivered by the authors in the Junta de Energia Nuclear, during the Spring term of 1965. They were devoted to graduate students interested in the Theory of Elementary Particles. Special emphasis was focussed into the computational problems. Chapter I is a review of basic principles (Dirac equation, transition probabilities, final state interactions.) which will be needed later. In Chapter II the four-fermion punctual Interaction is discussed, Chapter III is devoted to the study of beta-decay; the main emphasis is given to the deduction of the formulae corresponding to electron-antineutrino correlation, electron energy spectrum, lifetimes, asymmetry of electrons emitted from polarized nuclei, electron and neutrino polarization and time reversal invariance in beta decay. In Chapter IV we deal with the decay of polarized muons with radiative corrections. Chapter V is devoted to an introduction to C.V.C. theory. (Author)

  12. Integration of BETA with Eclipse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Enevoldsen, Mads Brøgger

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents language interoperability issues appearing in order to implement support for the BETA language in the Java-based Eclipse integrated development environment. One of the challenges is to implement plug-ins in BETA and be able to load them in Eclipse. In order to do this, some form...... of language interoperability between Java and BETA is required. The first approach is to use the Java Native Interface and use C to bridge between Java and BETA. This results in a workable, but complicated solution. The second approach is to let the BETA compiler generate Java class files. With this...... approach it is possible to implement plug-ins in BETA and even inherit from Java classes. In the paper the two approaches are described together with part of the mapping from BETA to Java class files. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/15710661...

  13. COM Support in BETA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1999-01-01

    Component technologies based on binary units of independent production are some of the most important contributions to software architecture and reuse during recent years. Especially the COM technologies and the CORBA standard from the Object Management Group have contributed new and interesting ...... principles for software architecture, and proven to be useful in parctice. In this paper ongoing work with component support in the BETA language is described....

  14. Beta decay for pedestrians

    CERN Document Server

    Lipkin, Harry Jeannot

    1962-01-01

    The ""pedestrian approach"" was developed to describe some essentially simple experimental results and their theoretical implications in plain language. In this graduate-level text, Harry J. Lipkin presents simply, but without oversimplification, the aspects of beta decay that can be understood without reference to the formal theory; that is, the reactions that follow directly from conservation laws and elementary quantum mechanics.The pedestrian treatment is neither a substitute for a complete treatment nor a watered-down version.

  15. Structure and diversity of the T cell antigen receptor beta-chain in a teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partula, S; de Guerra, A; Fellah, J S; Charlemagne, J

    1995-07-15

    Cell-mediated immunity (e.g., allograft rejection) is found in all vertebrates, and these reactions are known to depend on thymus-derived cells in amphibian, avian, and mammalian species. The participation of peripheral T cell-like lymphocytes subpopulations to fish immunity is now well documented, but the developmental origin, migration, and peripheral tissue distribution of these cells remain practically unknown. This is mainly due to the difficulty of efficiently thymectomizing fish at an early stage of development and to the lack of Ab strictly specific for thymocytes and T cell surface Ag. One strategy for analyzing T cell biology in fish would be to characterize the genes encoding polypeptides homologous to the TCR molecules. This report describes cDNA clones from the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) that have sequences very similar to amphibian, avian, and mammalian TCR beta-chains. Three complete trout V beta segments belonging to different families were analyzed; one of them had limited amino acid sequence similarity to the human V beta 20 family. The 10 trout beta-chain-joining segments all retain the invariant mammalian J beta residues, and comparison of 66 V beta-J beta junctions led to the identification of a D beta-like sequence (GGACAGGG) that is shorter than but very similar to the chicken D beta and mammalian D beta 1 sequences. There is considerable diversity at the V beta-D beta and D beta-J beta junctions, suggesting the presence of N-nucleotides. The trout C beta extracellular domain is shorter than mammalian C beta, and the hinge region has no cysteine residue. The transmembrane C beta domain contains a lysine residue that in mammals is thought to be involved in charged interactions with members of the CD3 complex. PMID:7608547

  16. Dosimetry analysis of distribution radial dose profiles of {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y beta therapy applicators using the MCNP-4C code and radio chromium films; Analise dosimetrica de perfis de distribuicoes radiais de doses relativas de um aplicador de betaterapia de {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y utilizando o codigo MCNP-4C e filmes radiocromicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, T.S.; Yoriyaz, H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fernandes, M.A.R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Servico de Radioterapia; Louzada, M.J.Q. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Aracatuba, SP (Brazil). Curso de Medicina Veterinaria

    2010-07-01

    Although they are no longer manufactured, the applicators of {sup 90}Sr +{sup 90}Y acquired in the decades of 1990 are still in use, by having half-life of 28.5 years. These applicators have calibration certificate given by their manufacturers, where few have been recalibrated. Thus it becomes necessary to accomplish thorough dosimetry of these applicators. This paper presents a dosimetric analysis distribution radial dose profiles for emitted by an {sup 90}Sr+{sup 90}Y beta therapy applicator, using the MCNP-4C code to simulate the distribution radial dose profiles and radiochromium films to get them experimentally . The results with the simulated values were compared with the results of experimental measurements, where both curves show similar behavior, which may validate the use of MCNP-4C and radiochromium films for this type of dosimetry. (author)

  17. Dosimetry analysis of distributions radials dose profiles of {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y beta therapy applicators using the MCNP-4C code and radio chromium films; Analise dosimetrica de perfis de distribuicoes radias de doses relativas de um aplicador de betaterapia de {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y utilizando o codigo MCNP-4C e filmes radiocromicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Talita S.; Yoriyaz, Helio [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fernandes, Marco A.R., E-mail: tasallesc@gmail.co [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Servico de Radioterapia; Louzada, Mario J.Q. [UNESP, Aracatuba, SP (Brazil). Curso de Medicina Veterinaria

    2011-07-01

    Although they are no longer manufactured, the applicators of {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y acquired in the decades of 1990 are still in use, by having half-life of 28.5 years. These applicators have calibration certificate given by their manufacturers, where few have been re calibrated. Thus it becomes necessary to accomplish thorough dosimetry of these applicators. This paper presents a dosimetric analysis distribution radial dose profiles for emitted by an {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y beta therapy applicator, using the MCNP-4C code to simulate the distribution radial dose profiles and radio chromium films to get them experimentally . The results with the simulated values were compared with the results of experimental measurements, where both curves show similar behavior, which may validate the use of MCNP-4C and radio chromium films for this type of dosimetry. (author)

  18. LHCb: $2\\beta_s$ measurement at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Conti, G

    2009-01-01

    A measurement of $2\\beta_s$, the phase of the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ oscillation amplitude with respect to that of the ${\\rm b} \\rightarrow {\\rm c^{+}}{\\rm W^{-}}$ tree decay amplitude, is one of the key goals of the LHCb experiment with first data. In the Standard Model (SM), $2\\beta_s$ is predicted to be $0.0360^{+0.0020}_{-0.0016} \\rm rad$. The current constraints from the Tevatron are: $2\\beta_{s}\\in[0.32 ; 2.82]$ at 68$\\%$CL from the CDF experiment and $2\\beta_{s}=0.57^{+0.24}_{-0.30}$ from the D$\\oslash$ experiment. Although the statistical uncertainties are large, these results hint at the possible contribution of New Physics in the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ box diagram. After one year of data taking at LHCb at an average luminosity of $\\mathcal{L}\\sim2\\cdot10^{32}\\rm cm^{-2} \\rm s^{-1}$ (integrated luminosity $\\mathcal{L}_{\\rm int}\\sim 2 \\rm fb^{-1}$), the expected statistical uncertainty on the measurement is $\\sigma(2\\beta_s)\\simeq 0.03$. This uncertainty is similar to the $2\\beta_s$ value predicted by the SM.

  19. On the spectrum of secondary electrons emitted during nuclear $\\beta^{-}$-decay in few-electron atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Frolov, Alexei M

    2015-01-01

    Ionization of light atoms and ions during nuclear $\\beta^{-}$-decay is considered. We determine the velocity/momentum spectrum of secondary electrons emitted during nuclear $\\beta^{-}$-decay in one-electron tritium atom. The same method can be applied to describe velocity/momentum distributions of secondary electrons emitted from $\\beta^{-}$-decaying few-electron atoms and molecules.

  20. Power output and efficiency of beta-emitting microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current standard methods to calculate the dose of radiation emitted during medical applications by beta-minus emitting microspheres rely on an over-simplistic formalism. This formalism is a function of the average activity of the radioisotope used and the physiological dimensions of the patient only. It neglects the variation in energy of the emitted beta particle due to self-attenuation, or self-absorption, effects related to the finite size of the sphere. Here it is assumed the sphere is comprised of a pure radioisotope with beta particles being emitted isotropically throughout the material. The full initial possible kinetic energy distribution of a beta particle is taken into account as well as the energy losses due to scattering by other atoms in the microsphere and bremsstrahlung radiation. By combining Longmire’s theory of the mean forward range of charged particles and the Rayleigh distribution to take into account the statistical nature of scattering and energy straggling, the linear attenuation, or self-absorption, coefficient for beta-emitting radioisotopes has been deduced. By analogy with gamma radiation transport in spheres, this result was used to calculate the rate of energy emitted by a beta-emitting microsphere and its efficiency. Comparisons to standard point dose kernel formulations generated using Monte Carlo data show the efficacy of the proposed method. Yttrium-90 is used as a specific example throughout, as a medically significant radioisotope, frequently used in radiation therapy for treating cancer. - Highlights: • Range-energy relationship for the beta particles in yttrium-90 is calculated. • Formalism for the semi-analytical calculation of self-absorption coefficients. • Energy-dependent self-absorption coefficient calculated for yttrium-90. • Flux rate of beta particles from a self-attenuating radioactive sphere is shown. • The efficiency of beta particle emitting radioactive microspheres is calculated

  1. Beta delayed alpha emission from the neutron deficient rare earth isotopes 152Tm and 150Ho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of beta-delayed proton emission is a well known method to aid the determination of the beta strength distribution in nuclei far from the stability line. At the neutron deficient side of the nuclear chart the process of proton or alpha emission from excited states is energetically allowed when one goes far enough from stability. However, beta-delayed alphas have seldom been measured for nuclei heavier than A = 20. Here we present a study of the beta-delayed alpha-particle emission from 152Tm and 150Ho and their importance in the full B(GT) distribution.

  2. Kernel Oriented Generator Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Bekker, A.; Arashi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Matrix variate beta (MVB) distributions are used in different fields of hypothesis testing, multivariate correlation analysis, zero regression, canonical correlation analysis and etc. In this approach a unified methodology is proposed to generate matrix variate distributions by combining the kernel of MVB distributions of different types with an unknown Borel measurable function of trace operator over matrix space, called generator component. The latter component is a principal element of the...

  3. Xeroradiography in. beta. -thalassaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scutellari, P.N.; Orzincolo, C.; Tamarozzi, R.

    1985-01-01

    Xeroradiographic investigations of the skull, hand, and elbow were performed on 27 patients with homozygous ..beta..-thalassaemia. The results were compared with plain radiographic examinations. Xeroradiography, because of its technical properties (i.e. edge contrast enhancement and wide latitude), was shown to demonstrate cortical thinning of long bones, swelling of the diploic space in the skull, and reticulated patterns in the elbow better than standard radiography. Moreover, the use of 'positive' mode imaging was shown to have advantages in the study of the skull and extremities.

  4. Realized Beta GARCH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger; Voev, Valeri Radkov

    2014-01-01

    particularly useful for modeling financial returns during periods of rapid changes in the underlying covariance structure. When applied to market returns in conjunction with returns on an individual asset, the model yields a dynamic model specification of the conditional regression coefficient that is known as...... conditional beta series during the financial crises.......We introduce a multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model that incorporates realized measures of variances and covariances. Realized measures extract information about the current levels of volatilities and correlations from high-frequency data, which is...

  5. Beta particle dose rates to micro-organisms in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were made to estimate the beta-particle dose rates to micro-organisms of various sizes in soil. The small insects and organisms living in soil are constantly exposed to beta-radiation arising from naturally occuring radionuclides in soil as in this case no overlying tissue shields them. The technique of measuring beta-particle dose rate consisted of using of a thin plastic scintillator to measure the pulse height distribution as the beta particle traverses the scintillator. The integrated response was determined by the number and size of the photomultiplier pulses. From the data of soil analyses it was estimated that typically about 29% of the beta particles emitted per gm. of soil were contributed by the U/Ra series, 21% by the Th series and about 50% by potassium. By combining the individual spectra of these three radionuclides in the proportion found in a typical soil, a resultant spectrum was computed representing the energy distribution of the beta particles. The dose rate received by micro-organisms of different shape and size in soil was derived from the equilibrium dose rates combined with a 'Geometrical Factor' of the organisms. For small organisms, the dose rates did not vary between the spherical and cylindrical types, but in the case of larger organisms, the dose rates were found to be greater for the spherical types of the same diameter. (auth.)

  6. Power output and efficiency of beta-emitting microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheneler, David; Ward, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Current standard methods to calculate the dose of radiation emitted during medical applications by beta-minus emitting microspheres rely on an over-simplistic formalism. This formalism is a function of the average activity of the radioisotope used and the physiological dimensions of the patient only. It neglects the variation in energy of the emitted beta particle due to self-attenuation, or self-absorption, effects related to the finite size of the sphere. Here it is assumed the sphere is comprised of a pure radioisotope with beta particles being emitted isotropically throughout the material. The full initial possible kinetic energy distribution of a beta particle is taken into account as well as the energy losses due to scattering by other atoms in the microsphere and bremsstrahlung radiation. By combining Longmire's theory of the mean forward range of charged particles and the Rayleigh distribution to take into account the statistical nature of scattering and energy straggling, the linear attenuation, or self-absorption, coefficient for beta-emitting radioisotopes has been deduced. By analogy with gamma radiation transport in spheres, this result was used to calculate the rate of energy emitted by a beta-emitting microsphere and its efficiency. Comparisons to standard point dose kernel formulations generated using Monte Carlo data show the efficacy of the proposed method. Yttrium-90 is used as a specific example throughout, as a medically significant radioisotope, frequently used in radiation therapy for treating cancer.

  7. Double beta decay: present status

    OpenAIRE

    Barabash, A. S.

    2008-01-01

    The present status of double beta decay experiments (including the search for $2\\beta^{+}$, EC$\\beta^{+}$ and ECEC processes) are reviewed. The results of the most sensitive experiments are discussed. Average and recommended half-life values for two-neutrino double beta decay are presented. Conservative upper limits on effective Majorana neutrino mass and the coupling constant of the Majoron to the neutrino are established as $ < 0.75$ eV and $ < 1.9 \\cdot 10^{-4}$, respectively. Proposals fo...

  8. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.

    2010-03-23

    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  9. Scintillator based beta batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensing, Noa M.; Tiernan, Timothy C.; Shirwadkar, Urmila; O'Dougherty, Patrick; Freed, Sara; Hawrami, Rastgo; Squillante, Michael R.

    2013-05-01

    Some long-term, remote applications do not have access to conventional harvestable energy in the form of solar radiation (or other ambient light), wind, environmental vibration, or wave motion. Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc. (RMD) is carrying out research to address the most challenging applications that need power for many months or years and which have undependable or no access to environmental energy. Radioisotopes are an attractive candidate for this energy source, as they can offer a very high energy density combined with a long lifetime. Both large scale nuclear power plants and radiothermal generators are based on converting nuclear energy to heat, but do not scale well to small sizes. Furthermore, thermo-mechanical power plants depend on moving parts, and RTG's suffer from low efficiency. To address the need for compact nuclear power devices, RMD is developing a novel beta battery, in which the beta emissions from a radioisotope are converted to visible light in a scintillator and then the visible light is converted to electrical power in a photodiode. By incorporating 90Sr into the scintillator SrI2 and coupling the material to a wavelength-matched solar cell, we will create a scalable, compact power source capable of supplying milliwatts to several watts of power over a period of up to 30 years. We will present the latest results of radiation damage studies and materials processing development efforts, and discuss how these factors interact to set the operating life and energy density of the device.

  10. Nonthermally Dominated Electron Acceleration during Magnetic Reconnection in a Low-beta Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaocan; Guo, Fan; Hui LI; Li, Gang

    2015-01-01

    By means of fully kinetic simulations, we investigate electron acceleration during magnetic reconnection in a nonrelativistic proton--electron plasma with conditions similar to solar corona and flares. We demonstrate that reconnection leads to a nonthermally dominated electron acceleration with a power-law energy distribution in the nonrelativistic low-$\\beta$ regime but not in the high-$\\beta$ regime, where $\\beta$ is the ratio of the plasma thermal pressure and the magnetic pressure. The ac...

  11. Total absorption γ-ray spectroscopy of beta delayed neutron emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, E.; Algora, A.; Tain, J. L.; Rice, S.; Agramunt, J.; Zakari-Issoufou, A.-A.; Porta, A.; Fallot, M.; Jordan, M. D.; Molina, F.; Estevez, E.; Bowry, M.; Bui, V. M.; Caballero-Folch, R.; Cano-Ott, D.; Eloma, V.; Eronen, T.; Garcia, A.; Gomez-Hornillos, M. B.; Gorlychev, V.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kondev, F. G.; Martinez, T.; Moore, I.; Rissanen, J.; Ńystö, J.; Penttilä, H.; Kankainen, A.; Rubio, B.; Gelletly, W.; Perez, A.; Podolyak, Zs.; Regan, P. H.; Farrelly, G. F.; Weber, C.; Mendoza, E.; Igisol People

    2013-06-01

    Preliminary results of the data analysis of the beta decay of 94Rb using a novel - segmented- total absorption spectrometer are shown in this contribution. This result is part of a systematic study of important contributors to the decay heat problem in nuclear reactors. In this particular case the goal is to determine the beta intensity distribution below the neutron separation energy and the gamma/beta competition above.

  12. High beta-Lactamase Levels Change the Pharmacodynamics of beta-Lactam Antibiotics in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hengzhuang; Ciofu, Oana; Yang, Liang;

    2013-01-01

    , microtiter plates, and on alginate beads were treated with different concentrations of ceftazidime and imipenem. The kinetics of antibiotics on the biofilms was investigated in vitro by time-kill methods. Time-dependent killing of ceftazidime was observed in PAO1 biofilms, but concentration-dependent killing......Resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics is a frequent problem in Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. This resistance is mainly due to the hyperproduction of chromosomally encoded beta-lactamase and biofilm formation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the...... activity of ceftazidime was observed for beta-lactamase-overproducing biofilms of P. aeruginosa in all three models. Ceftazidime showed time-dependent killing on planktonic PAO1 and PA Delta DDh2Dh3. This difference is probably due to the special distribution and accumulation in the biofilm matrix of beta...

  13. An Extended Pareto Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Mead

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, a new continuous distribution, called the generalized beta exponentiated Pareto type I (GBEP [McDonald exponentiated Pareto] distribution, is defined and investigated. The new distribution contains as special sub-models some well-known and not known distributions, such as the generalized beta Pareto (GBP [McDonald Pareto], the Kumaraswamy exponentiated Pareto (KEP, Kumaraswamy Pareto (KP, beta exponentiated Pareto (BEP, beta Pareto (BP, exponentiated Pareto (EP and Pareto, among several others. Various structural properties of the new distribution are derived, including explicit expressions for the moments, moment generating function, incomplete moments, quantile function, mean deviations and Rényi entropy. Lorenz, Bonferroni and Zenga curves are derived. The method of maximum likelihood is proposed for estimating the model parameters. We obtain the observed information matrix. The usefulness of the new model is illustrated by means of two real data sets. We hope that this generalization may attract wider applications in reliability, biology and lifetime data analysis.

  14. A stochastic model of wealth distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, I; Bose, Indrani; Banerjee, Subhasis

    2005-01-01

    We propose a stochastic model of evolution of wealth in a society of economic agents. In the model, an agent can be in two states: inactive and active. Transitions between the states occur at random time intervals. In the active state, the rate at which wealth increases is greater than that in the inactive state. In both the states, wealth diminishes at a rate proportional to the current wealth. The probability density function describing the wealth distribution in the steady state is found to have the form of a beta distribution. Wealth distributions for the poor, middle and the rich classes are obtained separately. In economic literature, beta distribution and its generalisations, namely, the generalised beta distribution functions have been proposed to describe the income distributions of different economic societies. Our stochastic model provides a simple basis for the appearance of beta-type distributions.

  15. BETA SPECTRA. I. Negatrons spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 62 negatrons emitters have been computed introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. These spectra are plotted vs. energy, once normal i sed, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (Author)

  16. The best-beta CAPM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Zou

    2006-01-01

    The issue of 'best-beta' arises as soon as potential errors in the Sharpe-Lintner-Black capital asset pricing model (CAPM) are acknowledged. By incorporating a target variable into the investor preferences, this study derives a best-beta CAPM (BCAPM) that maintains the CAPM's theoretical appeal and

  17. RAVEN Beta Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert Arthur [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Congjian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maljovec, Daniel Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Talbot, Paul William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  18. RAVEN Beta Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  19. Beta Beams Implementation at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Beta Beam,the concept of generating a pure and intense (anti) neutrino beam by letting accelerated radioactive ions beta decay in a storage ring, called Decay Ring (DR), is the base of one of the proposed next generation neutrino oscillation facilities, necessary for a complete study of the neutrino oscillation parameter space. Sensitivities of the unknown neutrino oscillation parameters depend on the Decay Ring's ion intensity and of it's duty factor (the filled ratio of the ring). Therefore efficient ion production, stripping, bunching, acceleration and storing are crucial sub-projects under study and development within the Beta Beam collaboration. Specifically the feasibility of these tasks as parts of a Beta Beam implementation at CERN will be discussed in this report. The positive impact of the large {\\theta}13 indications from T2K on the Beta Beam performance will also be discussed.

  20. Intuitionistic Fuzzy Generalized Beta Closed Mappings

    OpenAIRE

    D. Jayanthi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we introduce intuitionistic fuzzy generalized beta closed mappings and intuitionistic fuzzy generalized beta open mappings. We investigate some of their properties. We also introduce intuitionistic fuzzy M-generalized beta closed mappings as well as intuitionistic fuzzy M-generalized beta open mappings. We provide the relation between intuitionistic fuzzy M-generalized beta closed mappings and intuitionistic fuzzy generalized beta closed mappings.

  1. Derivatives of the Incomplete Beta Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Boik

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The incomplete beta function is defined as where Beta(p, q is the beta function. Dutka (1981 gave a history of the development and numerical evaluation of this function. In this article, an algorithm for computing first and second derivatives of Ix,p,q with respect to p and q is described. The algorithm is useful, for example, when fitting parameters to a censored beta, truncated beta, or a truncated beta-binomial model.

  2. Derivatives of the Incomplete Beta Function

    OpenAIRE

    Robison-Cox, James F.; Robert J. Boik

    1998-01-01

    The incomplete beta function is defined as where Beta(p, q) is the beta function. Dutka (1981) gave a history of the development and numerical evaluation of this function. In this article, an algorithm for computing first and second derivatives of Ix,p,q with respect to p and q is described. The algorithm is useful, for example, when fitting parameters to a censored beta, truncated beta, or a truncated beta-binomial model.

  3. Laser heating of thermoluminescent films: Dose mapping applied to beta dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Setzkorn, R.; Prévost, H.; Gasiot, J.; Christensen, P.

    This work addresses radiation dose mapping based on scanning of laser heated thermoluminescent foils used for dose distribution analyses of beta radiation fields. Results are presented from dose homogeneity measurements, determination of depth-dose profile in tissue and studies of energy and...... suitable as extremity dosemeters for monitoring in beta radiation fields....

  4. Changes of laminin beta 2 chain expression in congenital muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohn, R D; Herrmann, R; Wewer, U M;

    1997-01-01

    We studied the distribution of laminin beta 2 chain in the skeletal muscle basement membrane of 16 patients with congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) by immunohistochemistry. A dramatic reduction in the laminin beta 2 staining was observed in four patients with classical merosin-negative CMD. A...

  5. Spatial Double Generalized Beta Regression Models: Extensions and Application to Study Quality of Education in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda-Cuervo, Edilberto; Núñez-Antón, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a proposed Bayesian extension of the generalized beta spatial regression models is applied to the analysis of the quality of education in Colombia. We briefly revise the beta distribution and describe the joint modeling approach for the mean and dispersion parameters in the spatial regression models' setting. Finally, we…

  6. High Temperature Stability of Potassium Beta Alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. M.; Kisor, A.; Ryan, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    None. From Objectives section: Evaluate the stability of potassium beta alumina under potassium AMTEC operating conditions. Evaluate the stability regime in which potassium beta alumina can be fabricated.

  7. Reliability for Beta Models

    OpenAIRE

    Nadarajah, Saralees

    2002-01-01

    In the area of stress-strength models there has been a large amount of work as regards estimation of the reliability R = Pr(X2 < X1 ) when X1 and X2 are independent random variables belonging to the same univariate family of distributions. The algebraic form for R = Pr(X2 < X1 ) has been worked out for the majority of the well-known distributions including Normal, uniform, exponential, gamma, weibull and pareto. However, there are still many other distributions for which th...

  8. A semiconductor beta ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of energy spectra of beta particles emitted from nuclei in beta-decay processes provides information concerning the mass difference of these nuclei between initial and final state. Moreover, experimental beta spectra yield information on the feeding of the levels in the daughter nucleus. Such data are valuable in the construction and checking of the level schemes. This thesis describes the design, construction, testing and usage of a detector for the accurate measurement of the mentioned spectra. In ch. 2 the design and construction of the beta spectrometer, which uses a hyper-pure germanium crystal for energy determination, is described. A simple wire chamber is used to discriminate beta particles from gamma radiation. Disadvantages arise from the large amounts of scattered beta particles deforming the continua. A method is described to minimize the scattering. In ch. 3 some theoretical aspects of data analysis are described and the results of Monte-Carlo simulations of the summation of annihilation radiation are compared with experiments. Ch. 4 comprises the results of the measurements of the beta decay energies of 103-108In. 87 refs.; 34 figs.; 7 tabs

  9. Beta Regression Finite Mixture Models of Polarization and Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, Michael; Merkle, Edgar C.; Verkuilen, Jay

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the application of finite-mixture general linear models based on the beta distribution to modeling response styles, polarization, anchoring, and priming effects in probability judgments. These models, in turn, enhance our capacity for explicitly testing models and theories regarding the aforementioned phenomena. The mixture…

  10. P53 and Beta-Catenin Activity during Estrogen treatment of Osteoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolman Kevin

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was undertaken to examine the relationship between the tumor suppressor gene p53 and the nuclear signaling protein beta-catenin during bone differentiation. Cross talk between p53 and beta-catenin pathways has been demonstrated and is important during tumorigenesis and DNA damage, where deregulation of beta catenin activates p53. In this study, we used estrogen treatment of osteoblasts as a paradigm to study the relationship between the two proteins during osteoblast differentiation. Results We exposed osteoblast-like ROS17/2.8 cells to 17-beta estradiol (E2, in a short term assay, and studied the cellular distribution and expression of beta-catenin. We found beta-catenin to be up regulated several fold following E2 treatment. Levels of p53 and its functional activity mirrored the quantitative changes seen in beta-catenin. Alkaline phosphatase, an early marker of osteoblast differentiation, was increased in a manner similar to beta-catenin and p53. In order to determine if there was a direct relationship between alkaline phosphatase expression and beta-catenin, we used two different approaches. In the first approach, treatment with LiCl, which is known to activate beta-catenin, caused a several fold increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. In the second approach, transient transfection of wild type beta-catenin into osteoblasts increased alkaline phosphatase activity two fold over basal levels, showing that beta catenin expression can directly affect alkaline phosphatase expression. However increase in beta catenin activity was not associated with an increase in its signaling activity through TCF/LEF mediated transcription. Immunofluorescence analyses of p53 and beta-catenin localization showed that E2 first caused an increase in cytosolic beta-catenin followed by the accumulation of beta-catenin in the nucleus. Nuclear p53 localization was detected in several cells. Expression of p53 was accompanied by

  11. Effect of beta blockade and beta stimulation on stage fright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantigan, C O; Brantigan, T A; Joseph, N

    1982-01-01

    Stage fright, physiologically the "fight or flight" reaction, is a disabling condition to the professional musician. Because it is mediated by the sympathetic nervous system, we have investigated the effects of beta blockade on musical performance with propranolol in a double blind fashion and the effects of beta stimulation using terbutaline. Stage fright symptoms were evaluated in two trials, which included a total of 29 subjects, by questionnaire and by the State Trai Anxiety Inventory. Quality of musical performance was evaluated by experienced music critics. Beta blockade eliminates the physical impediments to performance caused by stage fright and even eliminates the dry mouth so frequently encountered. The quality of musical performance as judged by experienced music critics is significantly improved. This effect is achieved without tranquilization. Beta stimulating drugs increase stage fright problems, and should be used in performing musicians only after consideration of the detrimental effects which they may have on musical performance. PMID:6120650

  12. The Age of Beta Pic

    OpenAIRE

    Navascues, D. Barrado y; Stauffer, J. R.; Song, I.; Caillault, J-P.

    1999-01-01

    We have reanalyzed data for the proposed moving group associated with beta Pic in order to determine if the group (or part of it) is real, and, if so, to derive an improved age estimate for beta Pic. By using new, more accurate proper motions from PPM and Hipparcos and a few new radial velocities, we conclude that on kinematic grounds, two M dwarfs have space motions that coincide with that of beta Pic to within 1 km/s with small error bars. Based on a CM diagram derived from accurate photome...

  13. Smart Beta or Smart Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kenneth Lillelund; Steenstrup, Søren Resen

    2016-01-01

    that smart beta investing probably will do better than passive market capitalization investing over time, we believe many are coming to a conclusion too quickly regarding active managers. Institutional investors are able to guide managers through benchmarks and risk frameworks toward the same well...... only superior to the common capitalization weighted index but also to their smart beta benchmark, even after cost for value, size, and low volatility funds. We encourage investors to increase the use of smart beta as benchmarks while still obtaining extra performance through active management—a concept...

  14. Experiments on double beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busto, J. [Neuchatel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique

    1996-11-01

    The Double Beta Decay, and especially ({beta}{beta}){sub 0{nu}} mode, is an excellent test of Standard Model as well as of neutrino physics. From experimental point of view, a very large number of different techniques are or have been used increasing the sensitivity of this experiments quite a lot (the factor of 10{sup 4} in the last 20 years). In future, in spite of several difficulties, the sensitivity would be increased further, keeping the interest of this very important process. (author) 4 figs., 5 tabs., 21 refs.

  15. Dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources; Dosimetria de fuentes {beta} extensas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Lallena R, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    In this work, we have been studied, making use of the Penelope Monte Carlo simulation code, the dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources in situations of spherical geometry including interfaces. These configurations are of interest in the treatment of the called cranealfaringyomes of some synovia leisure of knee and other problems of interest in medical physics. Therefore, its application can be extended toward problems of another areas with similar geometric situation and beta sources. (Author)

  16. Resistance training & beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation on hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Arazi; Hadi Rohani; Ahmad Ghiasi; Nasrin Abdi Keikanloo

    2015-01-01

    RESUMOIntroduction:In recent years, there was an increased interest on the effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation on skeletal muscle due to its anti-catabolic effects.Objectives:To investigate the effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, muscular strength and anabolic-catabolic hormones after resistance training.Methods:Twenty amateur male athletes were randomly assigned to supplement and control groups in a double-blind crossover design and participated i...

  17. Beet necrotic yellow vein virus accumulates inside resting spores and zoosporangia of its vector Polymyxa betae BNYVV infects P. betae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payton Mark

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodiophorids and chytrids are zoosporic parasites of algae and land plant and are distributed worldwide. There are 35 species belonging to the order Plasmodiophorales and three species, Polymyxa betae, P. graminis, and Spongospora subterranea, are plant viral vectors. Plasmodiophorid transmitted viruses are positive strand RNA viruses belonging to five genera. Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV and its vector, P. betae, are the causal agents for rhizomania. Results Evidence of BNYVV replication and movement proteins associating with P. betae resting spores was initially obtained using immunofluorescence labeling and well characterized antisera to each of the BNYVV proteins. Root cross sections were further examined using immunogold labeling and electron microscopy. BNYVV proteins translated from each of the four genomic and subgenomic RNAs accumulate inside P. betae resting spores and zoospores. Statistical analysis was used to determine if immunolabelling detected viral proteins in specific subcellular domains and at a level greater than in control samples. Conclusion Virus-like particles were detected in zoosporangia. Association of BNYVV replication and movement proteins with sporangial and sporogenic stages of P. betae suggest that BNYVV resides inside its vector during more than one life cycle stage. These data suggest that P. betae might be a host as well as a vector for BNYVV

  18. Characterization of a beta-catenin nuclear localization defect in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Cara; Mills, Kate M; Lui, Christina; Semaan, Crystal; Molloy, Mark P; Sharma, Manisha; Forwood, Jade K; Henderson, Beric R

    2016-02-15

    Beta-catenin plays a key role in transducing Wnt signals from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. Here we characterize an unusual subcellular distribution of beta-catenin in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, wherein beta-catenin localizes to the cytoplasm and membrane but atypically did not relocate to the nucleus after Wnt treatment. The inability of Wnt or the Wnt agonist LiCl to induce nuclear localization of beta-catenin was not due to defective nuclear transport, as the transport machinery was intact and ectopic GFP-beta-catenin displayed rapid nuclear entry in living cells. The mislocalization is explained by a shift in the retention of beta-catenin from nucleus to cytoplasm. The reduced nuclear retention is caused by unusually low expression of lymphoid enhancer factor/T-cell factor (LEF/TCF) transcription factors. The reconstitution of LEF-1 or TCF4 expression rescued nuclear localization of beta-catenin in Wnt treated cells. In the cytoplasm, beta-catenin accumulated in recycling endosomes, golgi and beta-COP-positive coatomer complexes. The peripheral association with endosomes diminished after Wnt treatment, potentially releasing β-catenin into the cytoplasm for nuclear entry. We propose that in MCF-7 and perhaps other breast cancer cells, beta-catenin may contribute to cytoplasmic functions such as ER-golgi transport, in addition to its transactivation role in the nucleus. PMID:26844628

  19. Beta particle monitor for surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A beta radiation detector which is capable of reliably detecting beta radiation emitted from a surface. An electrically conductive signal collector is adjustably mounted inside an electrically conductive enclosure which may define a single large opening for placing against a surface. The adjustable mounting of the electrically conductive signal collector can be based on the distance from the surface or on the expected beta energy range. A voltage source is connected to the signal collector through an electrometer or other display means for creating an electric field between the signal collector and the enclosure. Air ions created by the beta radiation are collected and the current produced is indicated on the electrometer or other display means. 2 figs

  20. Peginterferon Beta-1a Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms such as headaches, bone or muscle aches, fever, chills, and tiredness during your treatment with peginterferon beta- ... not go away: headache muscle or joint pain fever chills weakness Some side effects can be serious. If ...

  1. Beta-gamma discriminator circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major difficulty encountered in the determination of beta-ray dose in field conditions is generally the presence of a relatively high gamma-ray component. Conventional dosimetry instruments use a shield on the detector to estimate the gamma-ray component in comparison with the beta-ray component. More accurate dosimetry information can be obtained from the measured beta spectrum itself. At Los Alamos, a detector and discriminator circuit suitable for use in a portable spectrometer have been developed. This instrument will discriminate between gammas and betas in a mixed field. The portable package includes a 256-channel MCA which can be programmed to give a variety of outputs, including a spectral display, and may be programmed to read dose directly

  2. Recent double beta decay results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balysh, A. (Kurchatov Institute, 123 182 Moscow (Russian Federation)); Beck, M. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, W-6900 Heidelberg (Germany)); Belyaev, S.T. (Kurchatov Institute, 123 182 Moscow (Russian Federation)); Bensch, F.; Bockholt, J. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, W-6900 Heidelberg (Germany)); Demehin, A.; Gurov, A. (Kurchatov Institute, 123 182 Moscow (Russian Federation)); Heusser, G.; Hirsch, M.; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, W-6900 Heidelberg (Germany)); Kondratenko, I.; Lebedev, V.I. (Kurchatov Institute, 123 182 Moscow (Russian Federation)); Maier, B. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, W-6900 Heidelberg (Germany)); Mueller, A. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare LNGS, 67010 Assergi (Italy)); Petry, F.; Piepke, A.; Strecker, H.; Voellinger, M.; Zuber, K. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, W-6900 Heidelberg (Germany))

    1992-02-01

    The status and recent results of second generation [beta][beta]-experiments using isotopically enriched source materials are described. These experiments are at present the most sensitive tools to distinguish Dirac from Majorana neutrinos. The at present most advanced experimental techniques, namely the use of high-resolution calorimetric detectors and of time projection chambers are compared. New limits on the Majorana neutrino mass as well as for the Majoron-neutrino coupling are presented.

  3. Apollo applications of beta fiber glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimer, J.

    1971-01-01

    The physical characteristics of Beta fiber glass are discussed. The application of Beta fiber glass for fireproofing the interior of spacecraft compartments is described. Tests to determine the flammability of Beta fiber glass are presented. The application of Beta fiber glass for commercial purposes is examined.

  4. Synthesis of Beta Pyridyl Carbinol Tartrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Shukla

    1968-04-01

    Full Text Available A process for the synthesis of Beta pyridine carboxylic acid ethy1 ester starting from quinoline has been developed. Beta-pyridine carboxylic acid ethy1 ester on reduction with lithium aluminium hydride gave Beta-pyridy1 carbinol which on treatment tartaric acid yielded Beta-pyridy1 carbinol tartrate, a vaso dilator known in trade as "Ronicoltartrate".

  5. Index distribution of gaussian random matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Satya N; Nadal, Céline; Scardicchio, Antonello; Vivo, Pierpaolo

    2009-11-27

    We compute analytically, for large N, the probability distribution of the number of positive eigenvalues (the index N+) of a random N x N matrix belonging to Gaussian orthogonal (beta=1), unitary (beta=2) or symplectic (beta=4) ensembles. The distribution of the fraction of positive eigenvalues c=N+/N scales, for large N, as P(c,N) approximately = exp[-betaN(2)Phi(c)] where the rate function Phi(c), symmetric around c=1/2 and universal (independent of beta), is calculated exactly. The distribution has non-Gaussian tails, but even near its peak at c=1/2 it is not strictly Gaussian due to an unusual logarithmic singularity in the rate function. PMID:20366083

  6. PET imaging of dopamine transporters in the human brain using [{sup 11}C]-{beta}-CPPIT, a cocaine derivative lacking the 2{beta}-ester function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbaechler, Roland D.; Gucker, Pascale M.; Arigoni, Michele; Kneifel, Stefan; Vollenweider, Franz X.; Buck, Alfred; Burger, Cyrill; Berthold, Thomas; Bruehlmeier, Matthias; Schubiger, P. August; Ametamey, Simon M. E-mail: simon-mensah.ametamey@psi.ch

    2002-01-01

    The compound 3{beta}-(4'-chlorophenyl)-2{beta}-(3'-phenylisoxazol-5'-yl)tropane (CPPIT or RTI 177) is a 2{beta}-heterocyclic substituted cocaine congener with high in vitro selectivity and affinity for the dopamine transporter relative to serotonin and norepinephrine transporters. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo selectivity of [{sup 11}C]-{beta}-CPPIT and to determine whether [{sup 11}C]-{beta}-CPPIT may be a suitable alternative to existing DAT PET radioligands. [{sup 11}C]-{beta}-CPPIT was prepared by N-alkylation of the free amine with [{sup 11}C]methyl iodide. In mouse brain, the striatal binding of [{sup 11}C]-{beta}-CPPIT was reduced significantly by preinjecting the dopamine reuptake antagonist GBR 12909 (5 mg/kg). By contrast, radioactivity uptake in the brain was not affected significantly by the preinjection of citalopram (5 mg/kg) and desipramine (5 mg/kg), inhibitors for the serotonin and norepinephrine transporters, respectively. No effect was also observed by pretreatment with ketanserin (2.5 mg/kg) a compound with high affinity for the 5-HT{sub 2A}-receptor and the vesicular monoamine transporter. In a PET study with six healthy volunteers high striatal uptake was observed. The distribution pattern of [{sup 11}C]-{beta}-CPPIT was similar to the known distribution of the dopamine transporter in the human brain. Compared to {sup 123}I labeled {beta}-CIT, the rate of metabolic degradation of [{sup 11}C]-{beta}-CPPIT was almost twofold slower suggesting that bioisosteric heterocyclic substitution of the ester group at the 2{beta}-position of the tropane ring does have an influence on the rate of metabolism of [{sup 11}C]-{beta}-CPPIT. The rank order of the distribution volumes obtained via the one-tissue compartment model is also similar to the reported distribution of DAT. These preliminary results suggest that [{sup 11}C]-{beta}-CPPIT may be a useful PET radioligand for the visualization and quantification of

  7. Numerical calculation of relative dose rates from spherical 106Ru beta sources used in ophthalmic brachytherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Paiva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Concave beta sources of 106Ru/106Rh are used in radiotherapy to treat ophthalmic tumors. However, a problem that arises is the difficult determination of absorbed dose distributions around such sources mainly because of the small range of the electrons and the steep dose gradients. In this sense, numerical methods have been developed to calculate the dose distributions around the beta applicators. In this work a simple code in Fortran language is developed to estimate the dose rates along the central axis of 106Ru/106Rh curved plaques by numerical integration of the beta point source function and results are compared with other calculated data.

  8. Numerical calculation of relative dose rates from spherical 106Ru beta sources used in ophthalmic brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, Eduardo

    Concave beta sources of 106Ru/106Rh are used in radiotherapy to treat ophthalmic tumors. However, a problem that arises is the difficult determination of absorbed dose distributions around such sources mainly because of the small range of the electrons and the steep dose gradients. In this sense, numerical methods have been developed to calculate the dose distributions around the beta applicators. In this work a simple code in Fortran language is developed to estimate the dose rates along the central axis of 106Ru/106Rh curved plaques by numerical integration of the beta point source function and results are compared with other calculated data.

  9. Vasodilatory mechanisms of beta receptor blockade.

    OpenAIRE

    Rath, Géraldine; Balligand, Jean-Luc; Dessy, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    Beta-blockers are widely prescribed for the treatment of a variety of cardiovascular pathologies. Compared to traditional beta-adrenergic antagonists, beta-blockers of the new generation exhibit ancillary properties such as vasodilation through different mechanisms. This translates into a more favorable hemodynamic profile. The relative affinities of beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists towards the three beta-adrenoreceptor isotypes matter for predicting their functional impact on vasomotor contro...

  10. Tables of double beta decay data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tretyak, V.I. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine)]|[Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Zdesenko, Y.G. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1995-12-31

    A compilation of experimental data on double beta decay is presented. The tables contain the most stringent known experimental limits or positive results of 2{beta} transitions of 69 natural nuclides to ground and excited states of daughter nuclei for different channels (2{beta}{sup -}; 2{beta}{sup +}; {epsilon}{beta}{sup +}; 2{epsilon}) and modes (0{nu}; 2{nu}; 0{nu}M) of decay. (authors). 189 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Beta contamination monitor energy response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta contamination is monitored at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with portable handheld probes and their associated counters, smear counters, air-breathing continuous air monitors (CAM), personnel contamination monitors (PCM), and hand and foot monitors (HFM). The response of these monitors was measured using a set of anodized-aluminum beta sources for the five isotopes: Carbon-14, Technetium-99, Cesium-137, Chlorine-36 and Strontium/Yttrium-90. The surface emission rates of the sources are traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) with a precision of one relative standard deviation equal to 1.7%. All measurements were made in reproducible geometry, mostly using aluminum source holders. All counts, significantly above background, were collected to a precision of 1% or better. The study of the hand-held probes included measurements of six air gaps from 0.76 to 26.2 mm. The energy response of the detectors is well-parameterized as a function of the average beta energy of the isotopes (C14=50 keV, Tc99=85, Cs137=188, C136=246, and Sr/Y90=934). The authors conclude that Chlorine-36 is a suitable beta emitter for routine calibration. They recommend that a pancake Geiger-Mueller (GM) or gas-proportional counter be used for primarily beta contamination surveys with an air gap not to exceed 6 mm. Energy response varies about 30% from Tc99 to Sr/Y90 for the pancake GM detector. Dual alpha/beta probes have poor to negligible efficiency for low-energy betas. The rugged anodized sources represent partially imbedded contamination found in the field and they are provided with precise, NIST-traceable, emission rates for reliable calibration

  12. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay and High-Scale Baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Lukas; Huang, Wei-Chih

    2015-01-01

    The constraints on baryogenesis models obtained from an observation of neutrinoless double beta decay are discussed. The lepton number violating processes, which can underlie neutrinoless double beta decay, would together with sphaleron processes, which are effective in a wide range of energies, wash out any primordial baryon asymmetry of the universe. Typically, if a mechanism of neutrinoless double beta decay other than the standard light neutrino exchange is observed, typical scenarios of high-scale baryogenesis will be excluded. This can be achieved by different methods, e.g. through the observation in multiple isotopes or the measurement of the decay distribution. In addition, we will also highlight the connection with low energy lepton flavour violation and lepton number violation at the LHC.

  13. Beta-decay properties of $^{25}$Si and $^{26}$P

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J C; Äystö, J; Béraud, R; Blank, B; Canchel, G; Czajkowski, S; Dendooven, P; Ensallem, A; Giovinazzo, J; Guillet, N; Honkanen, J; Jokinen, A; Laird, A M; Lewitowicz, M; Longour, C; De Santos, F O; Peräjärvi, K; democrite-00023307, ccsd

    2004-01-01

    The $\\beta$-decay properties of the neutron-deficient nuclei $^{25}$Si and $^{26}$P have been investigated at the GANIL/LISE3 facility by means of charged-particle and $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy. The decay schemes obtained and the Gamow-Teller strength distributions are compared to shell-model calculations based on the USD interaction. B(GT) values derived from the absolute measurement of the $\\beta$-decay branching ratios give rise to a quenching factor of the Gamow-Teller strength of 0.6. A precise half-life of 43.7 (6) ms was determined for $^{26}$P, the $\\beta$- (2)p decay mode of which is described.

  14. In-trap decay spectroscopy for {beta}{beta} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Thomas

    2011-01-18

    The presented work describes the implementation of a new technique to measure electron-capture (EC) branching ratios (BRs) of intermediate nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. This technique has been developed at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. It facilitates one of TRIUMF's Ion Traps for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN), the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) that is used as a spectroscopy Penning trap. Radioactive ions, produced at the radioactive isotope facility ISAC, are injected and stored in the spectroscopy Penning trap while their decays are observed. A key feature of this technique is the use of a strong magnetic field, required for trapping. It radially confines electrons from {beta} decays along the trap axis while X-rays, following an EC, are emitted isotropically. This provides spatial separation of X-ray and {beta} detection with almost no {beta}-induced background at the X-ray detector, allowing weak EC branches to be measured. Furthermore, the combination of several traps allows one to isobarically clean the sample prior to the in-trap decay spectroscopy measurement. This technique has been developed to measure ECBRs of transition nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. Detailed knowledge of these electron capture branches is crucial for a better understanding of the underlying nuclear physics in {beta}{beta} decays. These branches are typically of the order of 10{sup -5} and therefore difficult to measure. Conventional measurements suffer from isobaric contamination and a dominating {beta} background at theX-ray detector. Additionally, X-rays are attenuated by the material where the radioactive sample is implanted. To overcome these limitations, the technique of in-trap decay spectroscopy has been developed. In this work, the EBIT was connected to the TITAN beam line and has been commissioned. Using the developed beam diagnostics, ions were injected into the Penning trap and systematic studies on injection and storage optimization were performed. Furthermore, Ge

  15. Cardiac glycoside-like structure and function of 5 beta,14 beta-pregnanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    5 beta-Reduction and 14 beta-substitution convert the planar progesterone molecule to the cardiac glycoside configuration--A and D rings of the steroid moiety are bent toward the alpha-face relative to the B and C rings. Potency of the 5 beta,14 beta-derivative in a [3H]ouabain binding assay or its ability to inhibit the sodium pump in red blood cells is enhanced by 3 beta-hydroxylation, 20 beta-hydroxylation, and 3 beta-glycosidation. Synthesis of 14,20 beta-dihydroxy-3 beta-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)- 5 beta,14 beta-pregnane from digitoxin is described. The glucoside is 1/20 as potent as ouabain and elicits prominent, sustained, positive inotropy in isolated cardiac muscle

  16. On some corrections to beta spectra measured by toroidal inron-free beta spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the investigations of the features of neutron-deficient isotopes to study low-intensity branches of positron decay ST-2 the iron-free beta spectrometer with toroidal magnetic field (light intensity approximately 20%, resolution ability approximately 1%) is used. The influence of the factors distorting β-spectra in case of the ST-2 spectrometer has been studied. In using the sources without the carriers the source thickness at Esub(β) > 100 keV doesn't distort the spectrum. The investigation of the dependence of 22Na positron counting at different energies on theckness of the substrate made it possible to determine the paremeters of backscattering. It was shown that the backgroud of the spectrometer in positron measuring regime at energies Esub(β) > 100 keV didn't depend on the energy. The measurements at the energies higher than maximum positron energy give directly the background value. According to experimental distribution of the lines of conversion electrons the analytical kind of response function of the spectrometer has been obtained. Spectral distribution of monochromatic electrons consists of the peak, described by Gauss distribution, and exponential ''tail'' in the direction of small energies. The investigations showed that with the help of the ST-2 beta spectrometer the decay positron btanches with the intensity up to 0.01% per decay may be determined with the accuracy 2-3 keV. There is principal possibility to study form factors of β-spectra

  17. The relevance of dose for low-energy beta emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific issues in risk assessment for low-energy beta emitters include specification of the radiation weighting factor, values of relative biological effectiveness for specific or accurate risk estimates, non-uniformities of dose within tissues and cells, and use of standard tissue weighting factors for non-uniform situations. Unusual features of low-energy beta emitters include: increased average ionisation density on subcellular (and cellular) scales; short ranges of the beta electrons; non-uniformity of the absorbed dose over subcellular, cellular, and tissue dimensions; reduced hit frequencies; nuclear transmutations; different chemical forms, influencing biokinetics and dose distributions; and large isotopic mass differences, particularly in the case of tritium and hydrogen. Many of these features are not included explicitly in conventional radiation protection dosimetry, although they may be partly included in experimental determinations of relative biological effectiveness. Theoretical and experimental studies have shown low-energy electrons to be particularly efficient in producing double-strand breaks in DNA, including complex double-strand breaks. Hence, on fundamental grounds, tritium beta particles should be expected to have greater biological effectiveness per unit absorbed dose than 60Co gamma-rays or orthovoltage x-rays. For practical purposes, and in view of the paucity of epidemiological estimates of risk from low-energy electrons, consideration should be given to applying a raised relative biological effectiveness, say of value 2, to all low-energy internal emitters, including beta particles and soft x-ray emissions.

  18. Methodology to determine the efficiency of a beta emitter gases monitor; Metodologia para determinacao da eficiencia de um monitor de gases emissores de particulas beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Marcos Rodrigues de

    1995-07-01

    This work presents a methodology developed to determinate the efficiency of air monitors used to measure the concentration of beta emitters noble gases in nuclear power stations. Efficiency values, obtained by means of theoretical computation are compared with experimental values. The experimental part of the work was performed using three different point beta source, to simulate small amounts of gas uniformly distributed in small volume. The comparison shows that theoretical an experimental values agree within 4,2 % for {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y, {sup 204}Tl and {sup 45}Ca beta sources. (author)

  19. Metabolic clearance rate and urinary clearance of purified beta-core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We injected a highly purified preparation of the beta-core molecule, a fragment of hCG beta excreted in pregnancy urine, into five men and three women to determine its kinetic parameters, MCR, and urinary clearance. The beta-core molecule was distributed in an initial volume [1950 +/- 156 (mean +/- SEM) mL/m2 body surface area] approximately equal to the estimated plasma volume. Its disappearance was multiexponential on a semilogarithmic plot, with a rapid phase t1/2 of 3.5 +/- 0.7 min and a slow phase t1/2 of 22.4 +/- 4.2 min. The transit time (the mean time spent by a molecule of beta-core in transit) was 20.6 +/- 2.1 min. The MCR was 192.0 +/- 8.0 mL/min.m2 body surface area. About 5% of the injected dose of beta-core was excreted into the urine in the first 30 min after injection, and low levels of excretion persisted for up to 7 days. The urinary clearance rate of beta-core was 13.7 +/- 1.4 mL/min.m2, accounting for about 8% of the elimination of beta-core from the plasma. The beta-core immunoreactivity in serum and urine was characterized by gel filtration and three independent RIA systems to show that its properties were indistinguishable from those of the injected beta-core. Serum levels of beta-core in pregnant women were less than 0.2 ng/mL, while the amounts excreted in their urine were as much as 5 mg/day. Based on these clearance parameters of beta-core in normal subjects, less than 0.2% of the beta-core excreted in pregnancy urine is derived by urinary clearance of plasma beta-core. Therefore, more than 99% of the beta-core excreted in pregnancy urine is derived from beta-core in a compartment separate from plasma. In particular, these data indicate that there is relatively little placental secretion of beta-core into plasma and that placental secretion does not account for the vast majority of beta-core in pregnancy urine

  20. 50 years forward: beta cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halban, Philippe A

    2015-08-01

    Our understanding of beta cell development and function has increased substantially these past 50 years but much remains to be learned before this knowledge can be put to clinical use. A comprehensive business plan will be necessary to develop a detailed molecular and functional blueprint of the beta cell in health and disease based on an integrated approach involving all necessary research disciplines. This blueprint will provide a platform for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of both major forms of diabetes, foremost among them beta cell replacement therapy. This is one of a series of commentaries under the banner '50 years forward', giving personal opinions on future perspectives in diabetes, to celebrate the 50th anniversary of Diabetologia (1965-2015). PMID:25957776

  1. Predicting Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Hirsch, M; Valle, J W F; Moral, A V; Ma, Ernest

    2005-01-01

    We give predictions for the neutrinoless double beta decay rate in a simple variant of the A_4 family symmetry model. We show that there is a lower bound for the neutrinoless double beta decay amplitude even in the case of normal hierarchical neutrino masses, corresponding to an effective mass parameter |m_{ee}| >= 0.17 \\sqrt{\\Delta m^2_{ATM}}. This result holds both for the CP conserving and CP violating cases. In the latter case we show explicitly that the lower bound on |m_{ee}| is sensitive to the value of the Majorana phase. We conclude therefore that in our scheme, neutrinoless double beta decay may be accessible to the next generation of high sensitivity experiments.

  2. Superfluid (quantum) turbulence and distributed chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Bershadskii, A

    2016-01-01

    Properties of distributed chaos in superfluid (quantum) turbulence have been studied using the data of recent direct numerical simulations (HVBK two-fluid model for He II, and a moving grid in the frames of Gross-Pitaevskii model of the Bose-Einstein condensates at low temperatures). It is found that for the viscous (normal) component of the velocity field in He II the viscosity dominates the distributed chaos with the stretched exponential spectrum $\\exp(-k/k_{\\beta})^{\\beta}$ and $\\beta = 2/3$. For the superfluid component the distributed chaos is dominated by the vorticity correlation integral with $\\beta =1/2$ (the soft spontaneous breaking of the space translational symmetry - homogeneity). For very low temperature the distributed chaos is tuned to the large-scale coherent motions: the viscous (normal) component is tuned to the fundamental mode, whereas the superfluid component is subharmonically tuned. For the Gross-Pitaevskii superfluid turbulence incompressible part of the energy spectrum (containing ...

  3. Mechanism of inactivation of alanine racemase by beta, beta, beta-trifluoroalanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alanine racemases are a group of PLP-dependent bacterial enzymes that catalyze the racemization of alanine, providing D-alanine for cell wall synthesis. Inactivation of the alanine racemases from the Gram-negative organism Salmonella typhimurium and Gram-positive organism Bacillus stearothermophilus with beta, beta, beta-trifluoroalanine has been studied. The inactivation occurs with the same rate constant as that for formation of a broad 460-490-nm chromophore. Loss of two fluoride ions per mole of inactivated enzyme and retention of [1-14C]trifluoroalanine label accompany inhibition, suggesting a monofluoro enzyme adduct. Partial denaturation (1 M guanidine) leads to rapid return of the initial 420-nm chromophore, followed by a slower (t1/2 approximately 30 min-1 h) loss of the fluoride ion and 14CO2 release. At this point, reduction by NaB3H4 and tryptic digestion yield a single radiolabeled peptide. Purification and sequencing of the peptide reveals that lysine-38 is covalently attached to the PLP cofactor. A mechanism for enzyme inactivation by trifluoroalanine is proposed and contrasted with earlier results on monohaloalanines, in which nucleophilic attack of released aminoacrylate on the PLP aldimine leads to enzyme inactivation. For trifluoroalanine inactivation, nucleophilic attack of lysine-38 on the electrophilic beta-difluoro-alpha, beta-unsaturated imine provides an alternative mode of inhibition for these enzymes

  4. Beta-ray dose assessment from skin contamination using a point kernel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a point kernel method to calculate beta-ray dose rate from skin contamination was introduced. The beta-ray doses rates were computed by performing numerical integration of the radial dose distribution around an isotropic point source of monoenergetic electrons called as point kernel. In this study, in-house code, based on MATLAB version 7.0.4 was developed to perform a numerical integration. The code generated dose distributions for beta-ray emitters from interpolated point kernel, and beta-ray dose rates from skin contamination were calculated by numerical integration. Generated dose distributions for selected beta-ray emitters agreed with those calculated by Cross et al within 20%, except at a longer distance where there are differences up to more than 100%. For a point source, calculated beta-ray doses were agreed well with those derived from Monte Carlo simulation. For a disk source, the differences were up to 17% at a deep region. Point kernel method underestimated beta-ray doses than Monte Carlo simulation. The code will be improved to deal with a three-dimensional source, shielding by cover material, air gap and contribution of photon to skin dose. For the sake of user's convenience, the code will be equipped with graphic user interface. (author)

  5. Buoyancy driven turbulence and distributed chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Bershadskii, A

    2016-01-01

    It is shown, using results of recent direct numerical simulations, laboratory experiments and atmospheric measurements, that buoyancy driven turbulence exhibits a broad diversity of the types of distributed chaos with its stretched exponential spectrum $\\exp(-k/k_{\\beta})^{\\beta}$. The distributed chaos with $\\beta = 1/3$ (determined by the helicity correlation integral) is the most common feature of the stably stratified turbulence (due to the strong helical waves presence). These waves mostly dominate spectral properties of the vertical component of velocity field, while the horizontal component is dominated by the diffusive processes both for the weak and strong stable stratification ($\\beta =2/3$). For the last case influence of the low boundary can overcome the wave effects and result in $\\beta =1/2$ for the vertical component of the velocity field (the spontaneous breaking of the space translational symmetry - homogeneity). For the unstably stratified turbulence in the Rayleigh-Taylor mixing zone the di...

  6. Generalized Parton Distributions and their Singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anatoly Radyushkin

    2011-04-01

    A new approach to building models of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is discussed that is based on the factorized DD (double distribution) Ansatz within the single-DD formalism. The latter was not used before, because reconstructing GPDs from the forward limit one should start in this case with a very singular function $f(\\beta)/\\beta$ rather than with the usual parton density $f(\\beta)$. This results in a non-integrable singularity at $\\beta=0$ exaggerated by the fact that $f(\\beta)$'s, on their own, have a singular $\\beta^{-a}$ Regge behavior for small $\\beta$. It is shown that the singularity is regulated within the GPD model of Szczepaniak et al., in which the Regge behavior is implanted through a subtracted dispersion relation for the hadron-parton scattering amplitude. It is demonstrated that using proper softening of the quark-hadron vertices in the regions of large parton virtualities results in model GPDs $H(x,\\xi)$ that are finite and continuous at the "border point'' $x=\\xi$. Using a simple input forward distribution, we illustrate the implementation of the new approach for explicit construction of model GPDs. As a further development, a more general method of regulating the $\\beta=0$ singularities is proposed that is based on the separation of the initial single DD $f(\\beta, \\alpha)$ into the "plus'' part $[f(\\beta,\\alpha)]_{+}$ and the $D$-term. It is demonstrated that the "DD+D'' separation method allows to (re)derive GPD sum rules that relate the difference between the forward distribution $f(x)=H(x,0)$ and the border function $H(x,x)$ with the $D$-term function $D(\\alpha)$.

  7. Constraining neutrinoless double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A class of discrete flavor-symmetry-based models predicts constrained neutrino mass matrix schemes that lead to specific neutrino mass sum-rules (MSR). We show how these theories may constrain the absolute scale of neutrino mass, leading in most of the cases to a lower bound on the neutrinoless double beta decay effective amplitude.

  8. *608440 LACTAMASE, BETA; LACTB [OMIM

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FIELD NO 608440 FIELD TI 608440 LACTAMASE, BETA; LACTB ;;MITOCHONDRIAL RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN L56; MR ... Chen et al. (2008) recorded weight, fat mass, and lean ... mass for Lpl heterozygous null mice, Lactb transge ... ifferent from those of controls, with the fat mass/lean ... mass ratio difference generally increasing over ti ...

  9. Monitor for alpha beta contamination of hands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following specifications of hands alpha beta contamination monitor are presented: the position of the hands, the detection and separation of alpha and beta, the information processing, the programming, the results presentation and general characteristics. (A.L.B.)

  10. How Do Beta Blocker Drugs Affect Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke More How do beta blocker drugs affect exercise? Updated:Aug 5,2015 Beta blockers are a ... about them: Do they affect your ability to exercise? The answer can vary a great deal, depending ...

  11. Interferon Beta-1a Intramuscular Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon beta-1a intramuscular injection is used to reduce the number of episodes of symptoms and slow ... and problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1a is in a class of medications ...

  12. Interferon Beta-1a Subcutaneous Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon beta-1a subcutaneous injection is used to reduce episodes of symptoms and slow the development of ... and problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1a is in a class of medications ...

  13. The beta subunit of casein kinase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Piontek, K; Schmidt-Spaniol, I; Issinger, O G

    1991-01-01

    cDNAs encoding the beta subunit of pig and mouse CKII were isolated. The porcine cDNA was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used for the production of anti-CKII-beta subunit specific antibodies.......cDNAs encoding the beta subunit of pig and mouse CKII were isolated. The porcine cDNA was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used for the production of anti-CKII-beta subunit specific antibodies....

  14. Beta adrenergic receptors in pigmented ciliary processes.

    OpenAIRE

    Trope, G. E.; Clark, B.

    1982-01-01

    Beta adrenergic receptors from membrane fragments of pigmented sheep eyes were studied and characterised by ligand binding techniques after the removal of melanin. In a representative experiment the beta max (total number of beta receptors) was 394.9 fmol/mg protein. The receptor affinity (Ka) was 440 pM. The potency series of drugs to displace 125I-HYP from the receptors was timolol = (-) propranolol greater than (+) propranolol greater than salbutamol greater than practolol. beta 1 Recepto...

  15. Theory of high-beta tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theoretical researches on high beta tokamak are reviewed. The ballooning mode instability is thought to be the most serious problem for the high beta tokamaks, and the theoretical results on the ballooning mode instability are discussed in detail. The experimental results in high beta belt pinch devices are also discussed. (author)

  16. Interferon Beta-1a Intramuscular Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon beta-1a intramuscular injection is used to reduce the number of episodes of symptoms and slow the development of disability in patients ... Interferon beta-1a intramuscular injection comes as a powder in vials to be mixed into a solution for injection. Interferon beta-1a intramuscular ...

  17. Beta measurements at Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory performed a two-step process to characterize the current beta measurement practices at DOE facilities. PNL issued a survey questionnaire on beta measurement practices to DOE facilities and reported the results. PNL measured beta doses and spectra at seven selected DOE facilities and compared selected measurement techniques in the facility environment. This report documents the results of the radiation field measurements and the comparison of measurement techniques at the seven facilities. Data collected included beta dose and spectral measurements at seven DOE facilities that had high beta-to-gamma ratios (using a silicon surface barrier spectrometer, a plastic scintillator spectrometer, and a multielement beta dosimeter). Other dosimeters and survey meters representative of those used at DOE facilities or under development were also used for comparison. Field spectra were obtained under two distinct conditions. Silicon- and scintillation-based spectrometer systems were used under laboratory conditions where high beta-to-gamma dose ratios made the beta spectra easier to observe and analyze. In the second case, beta spectrometers were taken into actual production and maintenance areas of DOE facilities. Analyses of beta and gamma spectra showed that 234Th- /sup 234m/Pa, 231Th, 137Cs, and 90Sr/90Y were the major nuclides contributing to beta doses at the facilities visited. Beta doses from other fission products and 60Co were also measured, but the potential for exposure was less significant. 21 refs., 64 figs., 18 tabs

  18. Combinatorial clustering and the beta negative binomial process

    OpenAIRE

    Broderick, Tamara; Mackey, Lester; Paisley, John; Jordan, Michael I

    2011-01-01

    We develop a Bayesian nonparametric approach to a general family of latent class problems in which individuals can belong simultaneously to multiple classes and where each class can be exhibited multiple times by an individual. We introduce a combinatorial stochastic process known as the negative binomial process (NBP) as an infinite-dimensional prior appropriate for such problems. We show that the NBP is conjugate to the beta process, and we characterize the posterior distribution under the ...

  19. Beta-adrenergic agonists as additive in beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Vedovatto; Camila Celeste Brandão Ferreira Ítavo; João Artêmio Marin Beltrame; Ricardo Carneiro Brumatti; Gumercindo Loriano Franco

    2014-01-01

    The agonists receptor beta-adrenergic (β-AA) are present in virtually all types of mammalian cells and are stimulated by catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine) produced by the organism itself. The β-AA agonists are synthetic substances with similar structure to these amines. When provided in the diet they alter the body composition of animals, affecting the distribution of nutrients toward to protein deposition, and decreasing lipogenesis. Although the mechanisms of action are not fu...

  20. Ex vivo evaluation of N-(3-[{sup 18}F]fluoropropyl)-2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-fluorophenyl)nortrop ane in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivula, Teija [Laboratory of Radiochemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Marjamaeki, Paeivi; Haaparanta, Merja; Fagerholm, Veronica; Groenroos, Tove [MediCity PET Laboratory, Turku PET Centre, Tykistoekatu 6 A, FI-20520 Turku (Finland); Lipponen, Tiina; Perhola, Outi [Laboratory of Radiochemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Vepsaelaeinen, Jouko [Department of Chemistry, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70210 Kuopio (Finland); Solin, Olof [Laboratory of Radiochemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); MediCity PET Laboratory, Turku PET Centre, Tykistoekatu 6 A, FI-20520 Turku (Finland)], E-mail: olof.solin@abo.fi

    2008-02-15

    Introduction: The dopamine transporter (DAT) ligand N-(3-fluoropropyl)-2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-fluorophenyl)nortropane ({beta}-CFT-FP) was labeled with fluorine-18, and its biodistribution was evaluated in rats ex vivo. Methods: The distribution of {sup 18}F radioactivity in the brain and peripheral organs and tissues was determined at several time points 5-120 min after intravenous injection of [{sup 18}F]{beta}-CFT-FP. Results: The highest brain uptake of [{sup 18}F]{beta}-CFT-FP was localized in the striatum; limbic structures also exhibited high uptake. Low uptake was found in the cerebellum. The highest ratio of striatum-to-cerebellum uptake, already reached within 5 min, was 3.1. Pretreatment with the selective DAT inhibitor GBR12909 significantly decreased [{sup 18}F]{beta}-CFT-FP uptake in the striatum. In most peripheral tissues, the highest uptake was found at 5 min, indicating fast washout of the radioligand. Some accumulation of {sup 18}F radioactivity was seen in bone as a function of time, reflecting defluorination of the radioligand. Conclusion: The results indicate that [{sup 18}F]{beta}-CFT-FP is a potential radioligand for studying DAT in vivo with positron emission tomography.

  1. Methodology to determine the efficiency of a beta emitter gases monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a methodology developed to determinate the efficiency of air monitors used to measure the concentration of beta emitters noble gases in nuclear power stations. Efficiency values, obtained by means of theoretical computation are compared with experimental values. The experimental part of the work was performed using three different point beta source, to simulate small amounts of gas uniformly distributed in small volume. The comparison shows that theoretical an experimental values agree within 4,2 % for 90Sr + 90Y, 204Tl and 45Ca beta sources. (author)

  2. First magnetic field models for recently discovered magnetic beta Cephei and slowly pulsating B stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hubrig, S; Schoeller, M; Briquet, M; Morel, T; De Cat, P

    2011-01-01

    In spite of recent detections of magnetic fields in a number of beta Cephei and slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars, their impact on stellar rotation, pulsations, and element diffusion is not sufficiently studied yet. The reason for this is the lack of knowledge of rotation periods, the magnetic field strength distribution and temporal variability, and the field geometry. New longitudinal field measurements of four beta Cephei and candidate beta Cephei stars, and two SPB stars were acquired with FORS2 at the VLT. These measurements allowed us to carry out a search for rotation periods and to constrain the magnetic field geometry for four stars in our sample.

  3. First measurement of several $\\beta$-delayed neutron emitting isotopes beyond N=126

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero-Folch, R; Agramunt, J; Algora, A; Ameil, F; Arcones, A; Ayyad, Y; Benlliure, J; Borzov, I N; Bowry, M; Calvino, F; Cano-Ott, D; Cortés, G; Davinson, T; Dillmann, I; Estrade, A; Evdokimov, A; Faestermann, T; Farinon, F; Galaviz, D; García, A R; Geissel, H; Gelletly, W; Gernhäuser, R; Gómez-Hornillos, M B; Guerrero, C; Heil, M; Hinke, C; Knöbel, R; Kojouharov, I; Kurcewicz, J; Kurz, N; Litvinov, Y; Maier, L; Marganiec, J; Marketin, T; Marta, M; Martínez, T; Martínez-Pinedo, G; Montes, F; Mukha, I; Napoli, D R; Nociforo, C; Paradela, C; Pietri, S; Podolyák, Zs; Prochazka, A; Rice, S; Riego, A; Rubio, B; Schaffner, H; Scheidenberger, Ch; Smith, K; Sokol, E; Steiger, K; Sun, B; Taín, J L; Takechi, M; Testov, D; Weick, H; Wilson, E; Winfield, J S; Wood, R; Woods, P; Yeremin, A

    2015-01-01

    The $\\beta$-delayed neutron emission probabilities of neutron rich Hg and Tl nuclei have been measured together with $\\beta$-decay half-lives for 20 isotopes of Au, Hg, Tl, Pb and Bi in the mass region N$\\gtrsim$126. These are the heaviest species where neutron emission has been observed so far. These measurements provide key information to evaluate the performance of nuclear microscopic and phenomenological models in reproducing the high-energy part of the $\\beta$-decay strength distribution. In doing so, it provides important constraints to global theoretical models currently used in $r$-process nucleosynthesis.

  4. Myocardial uptake of radioiodinated fatty acids under influence of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolic effects of Pindolol and Metoprolol on myocardial uptake and distribution of radioiodinated free fatty acids (131I-heptadecanoic acid) in the normal and acutely ischemic dog heart, are investigated. The study shows a decrease in uptake of 131I-heptadecanoic acid in the myocardium after administration of beta-blocking agents, which could have major implications: 1) for the administration of beta-blocking agents in the acute stage of myocardial infarction in clinical practice and 2) for the use of 131I-heptadecanoic acid as cardiac imaging agent in patients with or suspect for coronary artery disease whom are on beta-blocker therapy

  5. Beta-decay properties of Zr and Mo neutron-rich isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Sarriguren, P

    2010-01-01

    Gamow-Teller strength distributions, beta-decay half-lives, and beta-delayed neutron emission are investigated in neutron-rich Zr and Mo isotopes within a deformed quasiparticle random-phase approximation. The approach is based on a self-consistent Skyrme Hartree-Fock mean field with pairing correlations and residual separable particle-hole and particle-particle forces. Comparison with recent measurements of half-lives stresses the important role that nuclear deformation plays in the description of beta-decay properties in this mass region.

  6. Beta thalassaemia mutations in Turkish Cypriots.

    OpenAIRE

    Sozuoz, A; Berkalp, A; A. Figus; Loi, A; Pirastu, M.; Cao, A

    1988-01-01

    Using oligonucleotide hybridisation or restriction endonuclease analysis, we have characterised the molecular defect in 94 patients with thalassaemia major and four with thalassaemia intermedia of Turkish Cypriot descent. We found that four mutations, namely beta+ IVS-1 nt 110, beta zero IVS-1 nt, beta+ IVS-1 nt 6, and beta+ IVS-2 nt 745 were prevalent, accounting for 69.9%, 11.7%, 8.7%, and 5.6% respectively of the beta thalassaemia chromosomes. This information may help in the organisation ...

  7. Fouling of Heat Transfer Surfaces Related to beta-Lactoglobulin Denaturation During Heat Processing of Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalande, M; Tissier, J P

    1985-06-01

    Denaturation of beta-lactoglobulin during heating of milk in a plate heat exchanger has been investigated as an important factor in fouling the heat transfer surface. Using, on one hand, data on chemical composition of deposits obtained from biochemical analysis technics and, on the other hand, kinetic data of beta-Iactoglobulin denaturation, the distribution profile of deposits along the surface and the experimental fouling curves can be adequately predicted. PMID:20568150

  8. Symmetric Key Structural Residues in Symmetric Proteins with Beta-Trefoil Fold

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Jianhui; Li, Mingfeng; Huang, Yanzhao; Xiao, Yi

    2010-01-01

    To understand how symmetric structures of many proteins are formed from asymmetric sequences, the proteins with two repeated beta-trefoil domains in Plant Cytotoxin B-chain family and all presently known beta-trefoil proteins are analyzed by structure-based multi-sequence alignments. The results show that all these proteins have similar key structural residues that are distributed symmetrically in their structures. These symmetric key structural residues are further analyzed in terms of inter...

  9. Probing New Physics Models of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay with SuperNEMO

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, R; Baker, J; Barabash, A S; Basharina-Freshville, A; Bongrand, M; Brudanin, V; Caffrey, A J; Cebrián, S; Chapon, A; Chauveau, E; Dafni, Th; Deppisch, F F; Diaz, J; Durand, D; Egorov, V; Evans, J J; Flack, R; Fushima, K-I; Irastorza, I García; Garrido, X; Gómez, H; Guillon, B; Holin, A; Holy, K; Horkey, J J; Hubert, Ph; Hugon, C; Iguaz, F J; Ishihara, N; Jackson, C M; Jullian, S; Kauer, M; Kochetov, O; Konovalov, S I; Kovalenko, V; Lamhamdi, T; Lang, K; Lutter, G; Luzón, G; Mamedov, F; Marquet, Ch; Mauger, F; Monrabal, F; Nachab, A; Nasteva, I; Nemchenok, I; Nguyen, C H; Nomachi, M; Nova, F; Ohsumi, H; Pahlka, R B; Perrot, F; Piquemal, F; Povinec, P P; Richards, B; Ricol, J S; Riddle, C L; Rodríguez, A; Saakyan, R; Sarazin, X; Sedgbeer, J K; Serra, L; Shitov, Yu; Simard, L; Šimkovic, F; Söldner-Rembold, S; Štekl, I; Sutton, C S; Tamagawa, Y; Thomas, J; Timkin, V; Tretyak, V; Tretyak, Vl I; Umatov, V I; Vanyushin, I A; Vasiliev, R; Vasiliev, V; Vorobel, V; Waters, D; Yahlali, N; Žukauskas, A

    2010-01-01

    The possibility to probe new physics scenarios of light Majorana neutrino exchange and right-handed currents at the planned next generation neutrinoless double beta decay experiment SuperNEMO is discussed. Its ability to study different isotopes and track the outgoing electrons provides the means to discriminate different underlying mechanisms for the neutrinoless double beta decay by measuring the decay half-life and the electron angular and energy distributions.

  10. A note on the estimation of asset pricing models using simple regression betas

    OpenAIRE

    Kan, Raymond; Robotti, Cesare

    2009-01-01

    Since Black, Jensen, and Scholes (1972) and Fama and MacBeth (1973), the two-pass cross-sectional regression (CSR) methodology has become the most popular tool for estimating and testing beta asset pricing models. In this paper, we focus on the case in which simple regression betas are used as regressors in the second-pass CSR. Under general distributional assumptions, we derive asymptotic standard errors of the risk premia estimates that are robust to model misspecification. When testing whe...

  11. Beta-Negative Binomial Process and Exchangeable Random Partitions for Mixed-Membership Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Mingyuan

    2014-01-01

    The beta-negative binomial process (BNBP), an integer-valued stochastic process, is employed to partition a count vector into a latent random count matrix. As the marginal probability distribution of the BNBP that governs the exchangeable random partitions of grouped data has not yet been developed, current inference for the BNBP has to truncate the number of atoms of the beta process. This paper introduces an exchangeable partition probability function to explicitly describe how the BNBP clu...

  12. Beta-decay properties of Zr and Mo neutron-rich isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Sarriguren, P.; Pereira, J

    2010-01-01

    Gamow-Teller strength distributions, beta-decay half-lives, and beta-delayed neutron emission are investigated in neutron-rich Zr and Mo isotopes within a deformed quasiparticle random-phase approximation. The approach is based on a self-consistent Skyrme Hartree-Fock mean field with pairing correlations and residual separable particle-hole and particle-particle forces. Comparison with recent measurements of half-lives stresses the important role that nuclear deformation plays in the descript...

  13. Colloidal gold immunolabeling of immunoglobulin-binding sites and beta antigen in group B streptococci.

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, S E; Brady, L. J.; Boyle, M D

    1990-01-01

    We have characterized the immunoglobulin A (IgA)-Fc-binding properties and beta-antigen expression of several strains of group B streptococci by using ultrastructural immunocytochemistry. Colloidal gold-labeled tracers were used with intact and sectioned bacteria in order to gain information regarding the location and distribution of cell surface and cytoplasmic IgA-Fc-binding molecules and beta antigen. Colloidal gold (5- or 15-nm particles) was conjugated to IgA to characterize IgA-binding ...

  14. CRFR1 is expressed on pancreatic beta cells, promotes beta cell proliferation, and potentiates insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huising, Mark O; van der Meulen, Talitha; Vaughan, Joan M;

    2009-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), originally characterized as the principal neuroregulator of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, has broad central and peripheral distribution and actions. We demonstrate the presence of CRF receptor type 1 (CRFR1) on primary beta cells and show that...... MIN6 insulinoma line and primary rat islets with CRF also activates the MAPK signaling cascade leading to rapid phosphorylation of Erk1/2 in response to CRFR1-selective ligands, which induce proliferation in primary rat neonatal beta cells. Importantly, CRFR1 stimulates insulin secretion only during......1 on beta cells adds another layer of complexity to the intricate network of paracrine and autocrine factors and their cognate receptors whose coordinated efforts can dictate islet hormone output and regulate beta cell proliferation....

  15. Plan beta: Core or Cusp?

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Thomas; Lehnert, Matt

    2013-01-01

    The inner profile of Dark Matter (DM) halos remains one of the central problems in small-scale cosmology. At present, the problem can not be resolved in dwarf spheroidal galaxies due to a degeneracy between the DM profile and the velocity anisotropy beta of the stellar population. We discuss a method which can break the degeneracy by exploiting 3D positions and 1D line-of-sight (LOS) velocities. With the full 3D spatial information, we can determine precisely what fraction of each stars LOS motion is in the radial and tangential direction. This enables us to infer the anisotropy parameter beta directly from the data. The method is particularly effective if the galaxy is highly anisotropic. Finally, we argue that such a test could be applied to Sagittarius and potentially other dwarfs with RR Lyrae providing the necessary depth information.

  16. Beta spectrum of 185W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of the shape of the first forbidden beta transition of 185W is interesting from the point of view of the fact that this nucleus belongs to the deformed region 150185W is carried out employing an optimized Siegbahn-Slatis beta ray spectrometer and the result is compared with the theoretical shape factor incorporating Nilsson's wavefunctions using Simms formalism. The experimental shape factor is fitted to the correction factor C(W)=k(1+aW) with α=0.0026+-0.0432. The theoretical shape factor computed following the matrix elements due to Nilsson model is in good agreement with the present experimental shape factor. The value Λ(2.358) computed in the present measurement in the light of Nilsson model matrix elements of 185W is in agreement with the predicted value (2.4) of J.J. Fujita. (author)

  17. The Mechanism of $\\beta$-Delayed Two-Proton Emission

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The nucleus $^{31}$Ar seems to be the most prolific ${\\beta}$-2p precursor known to date and is at the same time the one with the largest production yields at ISOLDE, where the most sensitive experiments can be done. Our purpose with this experiment is to study the ${\\beta}$-2p branches in detail, search for ${\\beta}$-3p events, place them in the decay scheme and obtain information on the decay mechanism for ${\\beta}$-2p via the energy distribution and the angular correlation between the two protons. As a by product we shall also resolve existing inconsistencies in the level scheme.\\\\ \\\\ The nucleus $^{31}$Ar, produced in a cold plasma ion source unit by the impact of a 1 GeV proton beam of 0.5 Hz frequency, had an average yield over one week of 1.5 $^{31}$Ar atoms/s. The beam passed through the central hole of an annular Si detector ($\\Omega$ = 4.3~\\%) and stopped in a thin carbon foil tilted 45$^o$ with respect to the beam direction. A 70~\\% coaxial HPGe-detector ($\\Omega$~=~7.4~\\%) was located opposite to ...

  18. An ISPA-camera for $\\beta$-radiography

    CERN Document Server

    Puertolas, D; Leutz, H; Gys, Thierry; D'Ambrosio, C

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a new type of beta-camera based on an Imaging Silicon Pixel Array (ISPA)-tube combined with planar plastic scintillators or with SiY2O5(Ce)-scintillating powder. The ISPA-tube consists of a photocathode viewed at 3 cm distance by a silicon anode divided into 1024 rectangular (75 microm x 500 microm) detector pixels, each bump-bonded to its equally-sized electronic pixel. Depending on the beta-detector thickness we achieved spatial resolutions (FWHM) between 105 microm (63Ni source and 30 microm thick plastic scintillator) and 240 microm (90Sr-90Y source and 120 microm thick plastic scintillator) by covering the detectors with brass templates. With their four 60 microm wide slits oriented parallel to the long pixel edges we simulated small sized beta-strips. The impact of detector thickness is explained by multiple scattering, angular aperture of the template slits and scintillating light distribution at the ISPA-photocathode. Beta detection sensitivities were measured with calibrated...

  19. Beta emitters and radiation protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars

    2009-01-01

    , and 90Y, using data from a freely available database. Bremsstrahlung yields were calculated for 90Y shielded by lead, aluminium, or perspex. Bremsstrahlung spectrum from 90Y shielded by perspex was measured, and attenuation of spectrum by lead was calculated. Whole-body and finger doses to persons...... the outside of the primary shielding material. If suitable shielding is used and larger numbers of handlings are divided among several persons, then handling of beta emitters can be a safe procedure....

  20. Review of double beta experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Sarazin, X.

    2012-01-01

    C13-10-22.1 International audience This paper gives a review of the double beta experimental techniques and projects, in the search for the Majorana neutrino. The purpose of this review is to detail, for each technique, the different origins of background, how they can be identified, and how they can be reduced. Advantages and limitations of the different techniques are discussed. 1. Introduction The neutrino is one of the most puzzling elementary particle with very unique properties. I...

  1. Electrolytic hydrogen in beta titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permeation of electrolytic hydrogen through beta titanium foils with palladium coated surfaces was studied using Ti--11.5 Mo--6 Zr--4.5 Sn. Ion bombardment etching followed by thin film vapor deposition of palladium were used to produce oxide-free titanium specimens for electrochemical hydrogen permeation and embrittlement studies. A thin metallic foil is cathodically charged with hydrogen on one side while the other side is maintained at a sufficiently anodic potential so that all the diffusing hydrogen is oxidized and turned into an equivalent current. The current is analyzed to determine diffusivity and solubility of hydrogen. X-ray diffraction was also used to determine the effects of hydrogen on the lattice parameter. Permeation experiments conducted with basic cyanide solutions exhibited simple diffusion behavior. The diffusivity at 210C for hydrogen through the beta alloy was 5.60 (+-1.92) x 10-7 cm2/s. Anomalous permeation occurred with hydrogen chemical potentials in acidic and basic solutions without cyanide during the later stages of the approach to steady state in the charging. This behavior is consistent with the trapping model of hydrogen in metals of McNabb and Foster. Plastic deformation and spontaneous cracking at the wetted portion of the specimen were observed under extreme conditions during this anomalous behavior. Part of the deformation is found to be reversible. In the mandrel bend experiments on the embrittlement phenomenon, the transgranular cleavage mode of fracture occurred. Interstitially dissolved hydrogen expanded the bcc lattice of the beta titanium with accompanying diffraction line broadening. The lattice contracted upon removal of the hydrogen. The satisfactory performance of the beta alloy Ti--11.5 Mo--6 Zr--4.5 Sn, in moderate electrochemical environments results principally from the protective oxide film

  2. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Zuber, K.

    2014-01-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is the only process known so far able to test the neutrino intrinsic nature: its experimental observation would imply that the lepton number is violated by two units and prove that neutrinos have a Majorana mass components, being their own anti-particle. While several experiments searching for such a rare decay have been performed in the past, a new generation of experiments using different isotopes and techniques have recently released their results or are taki...

  3. Myokardinfarkt und Beta-Blocker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stühlinger H-G

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Im Rahmen eines akuten koronaren Syndroms (akuter Herzinfarkt, Angina pectoris kommt es, aufgrund eines Ungleichgewichtes zwischen Angebot und Bedarf, zu einem akuten Mangel an Sauerstoff im Herzmuskel. Ursache ist eine reduzierte Sauerstoffzufuhr durch verengte bzw. verschlossene Gefäße. Bis zur Behebung der Ursache vergehen oft mehrere Stunden. In dieser Phase muß - durch Verminderung des Sauerstoffbedarfs im Herzmuskel - eine Verlangsamung der Nekroseentwicklung erreicht werden. Das Ausmaß der Nekrose wird reduziert, somit die für die Langzeitprognose wichtige Linksventrikelfunktion verbessert. Eine Verminderung des Sauerstoffbedarfs erreicht man durch kontrollierte Frequenzsenkung mittels intravenöser Beta-Blockade. In optimaler Weise wird diese Methode durch die Anwendung eines kardioselektiven Beta-Blockers mit kurzer Halbwertszeit durchgeführt. Beta-Blocker haben nicht nur auf die Nekroseentwicklung, sondern auch auf die Inzidenz von Rhythmusstörungen - besonders in der Akutphase - Auswirkungen. Vor allem die mit dieser therapeutischen Maßnahme verbundene Reduktion von Kammerflimmern ist von großer Bedeutung.

  4. Distributed chaos in turbulent wakes

    CERN Document Server

    Bershadskii, A

    2016-01-01

    Soft and hard spontaneous breaking of space translational symmetry (homogeneity) have been studied in turbulent wakes by means of distributed chaos. In the case of the soft translational symmetry breaking the vorticity correlation integral $\\int_{V} \\langle {\\boldsymbol \\omega} ({\\bf x},t) \\cdot {\\boldsymbol \\omega} ({\\bf x} + {\\bf r},t) \\rangle_{V} d{\\bf r}$ dominates the distributed chaos and the chaotic spectra $\\exp-(k/k_{\\beta})^{\\beta }$ have $\\beta =1/2$. In the case of the hard translational symmetry breaking, control on the distributed chaos is switched from one type of fundamental symmetry to another (in this case to Lagrangian relabeling symmetry). Due to the Noether's theorem the relabeling symmetry results in the inviscid helicity conservation and helicity correlation integral $I=\\int \\langle h({\\bf x},t)~h({\\bf x}+{\\bf r}, t)\\rangle d{\\bf r}$ (Levich-Tsinober invariant) dominates the distributed chaos with $\\beta =1/3$. Good agreement with the experimatal data has been established for turbulent ...

  5. Achieving Fine Beta Grain Structure in a Metastable Beta Titanium Alloy Through Multiple Forging-Annealing Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafari, Ahmad; Ding, Yunpeng; Cui, Jianzhong; Xia, Kenong

    2016-07-01

    A coarse-grained (order of 1 mm) Ti-5553 metastable beta alloy was subjected to multiple passes of low-temperature forging and multiple forging plus annealing cycles, respectively. In the forging only processing, strain was concentrated in the shear bands formed and accumulated with each forging pass, resulting in a heterogeneous microstructure and eventual cracking along the shear bands. In contrast, the introduction of a short beta annealing after each forging step led to fine recrystallized grains (50 to 100 µm) formed in the shear bands, and a uniformly refined beta grain structure after four cycles. This is attributed to the strengthening effect of the fine grains, causing redistribution of most severe strains to the coarse grain region in the subsequent forging, consistent with the simulated results by finite element analysis. The analyses of the microstructures and simulated strain distributions revealed that the critical strain for recrystallization is between 0.2 and 0.5 and the strain to fracture to be ~0.8 to 0.9. The fine-grained (50 to 100 µm) beta alloy, however, fractured at a much smaller strain of <0.4 during the next forging step, owing to the formation of stress-induced martensitic α″ which is more prevalent in fine grains than in coarse ones.

  6. Development of a three-layer phoswich alpha-beta-gamma imaging detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Ishibashi, Hiroyuki

    2015-06-01

    For radiation monitoring at the sites of such nuclear power plant accidents as Fukushima Daiichi, radiation detectors are needed not only for gamma photons but also for alpha and beta particles because some nuclear fission products emit beta particles and gamma photons and some nuclear fuels contain plutonium that emits alpha particles. In some applications, imaging detectors are required to detect the distribution of plutonium particles that emit alpha particles and radiocesium in foods that emits beta particles and gamma photons. To solve these requirements, we developed an imaging detector that can measure the distribution of alpha and beta particles as well as gamma photons. The imaging detector consists of three-layer scintillators optically coupled to each other and to a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). The first layer, which is made of a thin plastic scintillator (decay time: ~5 ns), detects alpha particles. The second layer, which is made of a thin Gd2SiO5 (GSO) scintillator with 1.5 mol% Ce (decay time: 35 ns), detects beta particles. The third layer made of a thin GSO scintillator with 0.4 mol% Ce (decay time: 70 ns) detects gamma photons. Using pulse shape discrimination, the images of these layers can be separated. The position information is calculated by the Anger principle from 8×8 anode signals from the PSPMT. The images for the alpha and beta particles and the gamma photons are individually formed by the pulse shape discriminations for each layer. We detected alpha particle images in the first layer and beta particle images in the second layer. Gamma photon images were detected in the second and third layers. The spatial resolution for the alpha and beta particles was ~1.25 mm FWHM and less than 2 mm FWHM for the gamma photons. We conclude that our developed alpha-beta-gamma imaging detector is promising for imaging applications not only for the environmental monitoring of radionuclides but also for medical and molecular imaging.

  7. Longitudinal beta regression models for analyzing health-related quality of life scores over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunger Matthias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health-related quality of life (HRQL has become an increasingly important outcome parameter in clinical trials and epidemiological research. HRQL scores are typically bounded at both ends of the scale and often highly skewed. Several regression techniques have been proposed to model such data in cross-sectional studies, however, methods applicable in longitudinal research are less well researched. This study examined the use of beta regression models for analyzing longitudinal HRQL data using two empirical examples with distributional features typically encountered in practice. Methods We used SF-6D utility data from a German older age cohort study and stroke-specific HRQL data from a randomized controlled trial. We described the conceptual differences between mixed and marginal beta regression models and compared both models to the commonly used linear mixed model in terms of overall fit and predictive accuracy. Results At any measurement time, the beta distribution fitted the SF-6D utility data and stroke-specific HRQL data better than the normal distribution. The mixed beta model showed better likelihood-based fit statistics than the linear mixed model and respected the boundedness of the outcome variable. However, it tended to underestimate the true mean at the upper part of the distribution. Adjusted group means from marginal beta model and linear mixed model were nearly identical but differences could be observed with respect to standard errors. Conclusions Understanding the conceptual differences between mixed and marginal beta regression models is important for their proper use in the analysis of longitudinal HRQL data. Beta regression fits the typical distribution of HRQL data better than linear mixed models, however, if focus is on estimating group mean scores rather than making individual predictions, the two methods might not differ substantially.

  8. Metalo-beta-lactamases Metallo-beta-lactamases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Elisandro Mendes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos tem sido observada maior incidência de bacilos Gram-negativos resistentes a cefalosporinas de espectro ampliado no ambiente hospitalar, ocasionando, assim, maior uso de betalactâmicos mais potentes, como os carbapenens. A utilização de carbapenens exerce maior pressão seletiva sobre a microbiota hospitalar, o que pode ocasionar aumento da resistência a esses agentes. Entre os mecanismos de resistência a carbapenens mais comumente identificados estão a produção de betalactamases, como, por exemplo, as pertencentes à classe D de Ambler e as que pertencem à classe B de Ambler, ou metalo-beta-lactamases (MbetaL. Essas últimas hidrolisam todos betalactâmicos comercialmente disponíveis, sendo a única exceção o monobactam aztreonam. Desde o início da década de 1990, novos genes que codificam MbetaLs têm sido descritos em microrganismos clinicamente importantes, como Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter spp. e membros da família Enterobacteriaceae. O encontro desses microrganismos não-sensíveis a carbapenens pode ser submetido a metodologias fenotípicas para detecção da produção de MbetaL com o intuito de auxiliar a Comissão de Controle de Infecção Hospitalar (CCIH e prevenir a disseminação desses determinantes de resistência, uma vez que genes que codificam MbetaLs estão contidos em estruturas genéticas que propiciam sua mobilidade de forma muito efetiva, sendo então facilmente disseminados.Increase isolation of Gram-negative bacilli resistant to broad-spectrum cephalosporin has been observed during the last few years, thus determining the use of more potent beta-lactams, such as carbapenems. The use of these antimicrobial agents may lead to the emergence of carbapenem resistant Gram-negative bacilli in the nosocomial environment. Carbapenem resistance may be due to the production of Ambler class D beta-lactamase or Ambler class B beta-lactamase, also called metallo-beta-lactamase (MbetaL. Apart from

  9. Beta-dosimetry studies at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes three beta-dosimetry studies made recently at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first study was to determine the beta-gamma exposure rates at the Los Alamos Godiva IV Critical Assembly. The beta spectra from the assembly were evaluated using absorption curves and the beta-gamma dose-rate ratios were determined at various distances from the assembly. A comparison was made of the doses determined using two types of TLD personnel dosimeters and a film badge. The readings of an Eberline RO-7 instrument and the dose rates determined by TLDs were compared. Shielding provided by various metals, gloves, and clothing were measured. The second study was to determine the beta energy response of the Eberline RO-7 instrument based on measurements made with the PTB beta sources. This study required additional calibration points for the PTB sources which were made using extrapolation chamber measurements. The third study resulted in two techniques to determine the beta energy (E/sub max/) from the readings of this-window portable survey instruments. Both techniques are based on the readings obtained using aluminium filters. One technique is for field application, requires one filter, and provides a quick estimate of the beta energy in three energy groups: 1.5 MeV. The second technique is more complex requiring measurements with two or three filters, but gives the beta energy and the approximate shape of the beta spectrum. 9 references, 6 figures

  10. Dose point kernels for beta-emitting radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of the dose point kernel corresponding to a specific radionuclide is required to calculate the spatial dose distribution produced in a homogeneous medium by a distributed source. Dose point kernels for commonly used radionuclides have been calculated previously using as a basis monoenergetic dose point kernels derived by numerical integration of a model transport equation. The treatment neglects fluctuations in energy deposition, an effect which has been later incorporated in dose point kernels calculated using Monte Carlo methods. This work describes new calculations of dose point kernels using the Monte Carlo results as a basis. An analytic representation of the monoenergetic dose point kernels has been developed. This provides a convenient method both for calculating the dose point kernel associated with a given beta spectrum and for incorporating the effect of internal conversion. An algebraic expression for allowed beta spectra has been accomplished through an extension of the Bethe-Bacher approximation, and tested against the exact expression. Simplified expression for first-forbidden shape factors have also been developed. A comparison of the calculated dose point kernel for 32P with experimental data indicates good agreement with a significant improvement over the earlier results in this respect. An analytic representation of the dose point kernel associated with the spectrum of a single beta group has been formulated. 9 references, 16 figures, 3 tables

  11. On gaps in Rényi $\\beta$-expansions of unity for $\\beta > 1$ an algebraic number.

    OpenAIRE

    Verger-Gaugry, Jean-Louis

    2006-01-01

    Let $\\beta> 1$ be an algebraic number. We study the strings of zeros (“gaps”) in the Rényi $\\beta$ -expansion $d_{\\beta}(1)$ of unity which controls the set $\\mathbb{Z}_{\\beta}$ of $\\beta$-integers. Using a version of Liouville's inequality which extends Mahler's and Güting's approximation theorems, the strings of zeros in $d_{\\beta}(1)$ are shown to exhibit a “gappiness” asymptotically bounded above by $log(M(\\beta ))/ log(\\beta)$, where $M(\\beta)$ is the Mahler measure of $\\beta$ . The proo...

  12. Resistance training & beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation on hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOIntroduction:In recent years, there was an increased interest on the effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB supplementation on skeletal muscle due to its anti-catabolic effects.Objectives:To investigate the effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, muscular strength and anabolic-catabolic hormones after resistance training.Methods:Twenty amateur male athletes were randomly assigned to supplement and control groups in a double-blind crossover design and participated in four weeks resistance training. Before and after the test period fasting blood samples were obtained to determine anabolic (the growth hormone and testosterone and catabolic (cortisol hormones, and fat mass, lean body mass (LBM and muscular strength were measured. Dependent and independent t-tests were used to analyze data.Results:After the training period, there were no significant differen-ces between the groups with respect to fat mass, LBM and anabolic-catabolic hormones. HMB supplementation resulted in a significantly greater strength gain (p≤0.05.Conclusion:Greater increase in strength for HMB group was not accompanied by body composition and basal circulating anabolic-catabolic hormonal changes. It seems that HMB supplementation may have beneficial effects on neurological adaptations of strength gain.

  13. GSK3beta is involved in JNK2-mediated beta-catenin inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have recently reported that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK JNK1 downregulates beta-catenin signaling and plays a critical role in regulating intestinal homeostasis and in suppressing tumor formation. This study was designed to determine whether JNK2, another MAPK, has similar and/or different functions in the regulation of beta-catenin signaling. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used an in vitro system with manipulation of JNK2 and beta-catenin expression and found that activated JNK2 increased GSK3beta activity and inhibited beta-catenin expression and transcriptional activity. However, JNK2-mediated downregulation of beta-catenin was blocked by the proteasome inhibitor MG132 and GSK3beta inhibitor lithium chloride. Moreover, targeted mutations at GSK3beta phosphorylation sites (Ser33 and Ser37 of beta-catenin abrogated JNK2-mediated suppression of beta-catenin. In vivo studies further revealed that JNK2 deficiency led to upregulation of beta-catenin and increase of GSK3-beta phosphorylation in JNK2-/- mouse intestinal epithelial cells. Additionally, physical interaction and co-localization among JNK2, beta-catenin and GSK3beta were observed by immunoprecipitation, mammalian two-hybridization assay and confocal microscopy, respectively. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: In general, our data suggested that JNK2, like JNK1, interacts with and suppresses beta-catenin signaling in vitro and in vivo, in which GSK3beta plays a key role, although previous studies have shown distinct functions of JNK1 and JNK2. Our study also provides a novel insight into the crosstalk between Wnt/beta-catenin and MAPK JNKs signaling.

  14. Hyper-beta-alaninemia associated with beta-aminoaciduria and gamma-aminobutyricaciduaia, somnolence and seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriver, C R; Pueschel, S; Davies, E

    1966-03-24

    Hyper-beta-alaninemia was found in a somnolent, convulsing infant. Hyper-beta-aminoaciduria (beta-ala, betaAIB and taurine) was also observed, varying directly with plasma beta-alanine concentration. The beta-aminoaciduria is explained by the interaction between beta-alanine and a specific cellular-transport system with preference for beta-amino compounds. Gamma-aminobutyricaciduria was also observed, its excretion being independent of beta-alanine levels. Dietary modifications, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid and antibiotic therapy were not beneficial. Post-mortem tissues had elevated levels of beta-alanine and carnosine; GABA levels in brain were probably elevated for the age of the patient. A proposed block in beta-alanine-alpha-ketoglutarate transaminase would expand the free beta-alanine pool, thus increasing tissue carnosine. beta-Alanine is a central-nervous-system depressant. Associated inhibition of GABA transaminase and displacement of GABA from central-nervous-system binding sites would produce GABAuria and convulsions. PMID:17926374

  15. Beta-2-mikroglobulin ved medicinske sygdomme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1989-01-01

    Beta-2-microglobulin (beta 2M) is a low-molecular protein which is filtered freely over the glomeruli. Under normal circumstances, more than 99.9% is resorbed in the proximal tubuli of the kidneys and is metabolized there. In renal disease with damage to this segment of the nephron, eg acute tubulo......-interstitial nephropathy, increased quantities of beta 2M are excreted in the urine. If the rate of glomerular filtration is reduced, serum-beta 2M is increased and this is also the case in persons with increased cell division despite normal renal function. Serum-beta 2M is, therefore, raised in numerous malignant...... diseases and reflects the size of the tumour mass. During cytostatic treatment of myelomatosis and chronic lymphatic leukaemia, the serum-beta 2M levels decrease on remission and increase on relapse. In acute leukaemia and malignant lymphoma with infiltration of the CNS, similar conditions prevail for CSF...

  16. Geographical patterns in the beta diversity of China's woody plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhiheng; Fang, Jingyun; Tang, Zhiyao;

    2012-01-01

    with their environmental niches due to dispersal limitation induced by China’s topography and/or their low dispersal ability. The projected rapid climatic changes will likely endanger such species. Species dispersal processes should be taken into account in future conservation strategies in China........g. environmental niche versus dispersal limitation of species) remains elusive, and the influence of species range size has been poorly tested. Here, using distribution maps of 11 405 woody species in China (ca 9.6 ¿ 106 km2), we investigated 1) the geographical and directional patterns of beta diversity for all...... availability, climatic seasonality, habitat heterogeneity and human activities were used to evaluate the effects of environmental processes, while spatial distance was used to assess the influence of spatial processes. The results indicated significant directional patterns of beta diversity: the similarity...

  17. Experiments on double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Double Beta Decay, and especially (ββ)0ν mode, is an excellent test of Standard Model as well as of neutrino physics. From experimental point of view, a very large number of different techniques are or have been used increasing the sensitivity of this experiments quite a lot (the factor of 104 in the last 20 years). In future, in spite of several difficulties, the sensitivity would be increased further, keeping the interest of this very important process. (author) 4 figs., 5 tabs., 21 refs

  18. Event-related beta EEG-changes during passive and attempted foot movements in paraplegic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Putz, Gernot R; Zimmermann, Doris; Graimann, Bernhard; Nestinger, Kurt; Korisek, Gerd; Pfurtscheller, Gert

    2007-03-16

    A number of electroencephalographic (EEG) studies report on motor event-related desynchronization and synchronization (ERD/ERS) in the beta band, i.e. a decrease and increase of spectral amplitudes of central beta rhythms in the range from 13 to 35 Hz. Following an ERD that occurs shortly before and during the movement, bursts of beta oscillations (beta ERS) appear within a 1-s interval after movement offset. Such a post-movement beta ERS has been reported after voluntary hand movements, passive movements, movement imagination, and also after movements induced by functional electrical stimulation. The present study compares ERD/ERS patterns in paraplegic patients (suffering from a complete spinal cord injury) and healthy subjects during attempted (active) and passive foot movements. The aim of this work is to address the question, whether patients do have the same focal beta ERD/ERS pattern during attempted foot movement as healthy subjects do. The results showed midcentral-focused beta ERD/ERS patterns during passive, active, and imagined foot movements in healthy subjects. This is in contrast to a diffuse and broad distributed ERD/ERS pattern during attempted foot movements in patients. Only one patient showed a similar ERD/ERS pattern. Furthermore, no significant ERD/ERS patterns during passive foot movement in the group of the paraplegics could be found. PMID:17229403

  19. Beta blockers: A new role in chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Nagaraja, Archana S; Sadaoui, Nouara C.; Lutgendorf, Susan K.; Ramondetta, Lois M.; Sood, Anil K

    2013-01-01

    Beta-blockers are a class of drugs widely used to treat cardiac, respiratory and other ailments. They act by blocking beta-adrenergic receptor–mediated signalling. Studies in various cancers have shown that patients taking a beta-blocker have higher survival and lower recurrence and metastasis rates. This is supported by several preclinical and in vitro studies showing that adrenergic activation modulates apoptosis, promotes angiogenesis and other cancer hallmarks, and these effects can be ab...

  20. The pancreatic beta cell surface proteome

    OpenAIRE

    Stützer, I.; Esterházy, D.; Stoffel, M.

    2012-01-01

    The pancreatic beta cell is responsible for maintaining normoglycaemia by secreting an appropriate amount of insulin according to blood glucose levels. The accurate sensing of the beta cell extracellular environment is therefore crucial to this endocrine function and is transmitted via its cell surface proteome. Various surface proteins that mediate or affect beta cell endocrine function have been identified, including growth factor and cytokine receptors, transporters, ion channels and prote...

  1. Theoretical aspects of double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considerable effort has been expended recently in theoretical studies of double beta decay. Much of this work has focussed on the constraints this process places on gauge theories of the weak interaction, in general, and on the neutrino mass matrix, in particular. In addition, interesting nuclear structure questions have arisen in studies of double beta decay matrix elements. After briefly reviewing the theory of double beta decay, some of the progress that has been made in these areas is summarized. 25 references

  2. First forbidden beta decay in light nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millener, D.J.; Warburton, E.K.

    1984-01-01

    Beta decay matrix elements for the operators sigma dot del and sigma dot r are calculated for eight J/sup +/ ..-->.. J/sup -/ or J/sup -/ ..-->.. J/sup +/ beta transitions. Results using harmonic oscillator wave functions differ markedly from those using more realistic Woods-Saxon wave functions. A substantial contribution to the sigma dot del matrix elements from pion exchange currents is required to reproduce the experimental beta decay rates. 15 references.

  3. First forbidden beta decay in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta decay matrix elements for the operators sigma dot del and sigma dot r are calculated for eight J+ → J- or J- → J+ beta transitions. Results using harmonic oscillator wave functions differ markedly from those using more realistic Woods-Saxon wave functions. A substantial contribution to the sigma dot del matrix elements from pion exchange currents is required to reproduce the experimental beta decay rates. 15 references

  4. The Benchmark Beta, CAPM, and Pricing Anomalies.

    OpenAIRE

    Cheol S. Eun

    1994-01-01

    Recognizing that a part of the unobservable market portfolio is certainly observable, the author first reformulate the capital asset pricing model so that asset returns can be related to the 'benchmark' beta computed against a set of observable assets as well as the 'latent' beta computed against the remaining unobservable assets, and then shows that when the pricing effect of the latent beta is ignored, assets would appear to be systematically mispriced even if the capital asset pricing mode...

  5. Effect of transforming growth factor beta on synthesis of glycosaminoglycans by human lung fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The processes of lung growth, injury, and repair are characterized by alterations in fibroblast synthesis and interstitial distribution of extracellular matrix components. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), which is postulated to play a role in modulating lung repair, alters the distribution of several matrix components such as collagen and fibronectin. We studied the effect of TGF-beta on the synthesis and distribution of the various glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and whether these effects may explain its role in lung repair. Human diploid lung fibroblasts (IMR-90) were exposed to various concentrations of TGF-beta (0-5 nM) for variable periods of time (0-18 h). Newly synthesized GAGs were labeled with either [3H]glucosamine or [35S]sulfate. Individual GAGs were separated by size exclusion chromatography after serial enzymatic and chemical digestions and quantitated using scintillation counting. There was a dose-dependent increase in total GAG synthesis with maximal levels detected after 6 h of exposure. This increase was noted in all individual GAG types measured and was observed in both the cell associated GAGs (cell-matrix fraction) as well as the GAGs released into the medium (medium fraction). In the cell-matrix fraction, TGF-beta increased the proportion of heparan sulfate that was membrane bound as well as the proportion of dermatan sulfate in the intracellular compartment. In the medium fraction, TGF-beta increased the proportion of hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate released. We conclude that the role of TGF-beta in lung growth and repair may be related to increased synthesis of GAGs by human lung fibroblasts as well as alterations in the distribution of individual GAGs

  6. Effect of transforming growth factor beta on synthesis of glycosaminoglycans by human lung fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubaybo, B.A.; Thet, L.A. (Veterans Administration Medical Center, Allen Park, MI (USA))

    1990-09-01

    The processes of lung growth, injury, and repair are characterized by alterations in fibroblast synthesis and interstitial distribution of extracellular matrix components. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), which is postulated to play a role in modulating lung repair, alters the distribution of several matrix components such as collagen and fibronectin. We studied the effect of TGF-beta on the synthesis and distribution of the various glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and whether these effects may explain its role in lung repair. Human diploid lung fibroblasts (IMR-90) were exposed to various concentrations of TGF-beta (0-5 nM) for variable periods of time (0-18 h). Newly synthesized GAGs were labeled with either (3H)glucosamine or (35S)sulfate. Individual GAGs were separated by size exclusion chromatography after serial enzymatic and chemical digestions and quantitated using scintillation counting. There was a dose-dependent increase in total GAG synthesis with maximal levels detected after 6 h of exposure. This increase was noted in all individual GAG types measured and was observed in both the cell associated GAGs (cell-matrix fraction) as well as the GAGs released into the medium (medium fraction). In the cell-matrix fraction, TGF-beta increased the proportion of heparan sulfate that was membrane bound as well as the proportion of dermatan sulfate in the intracellular compartment. In the medium fraction, TGF-beta increased the proportion of hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate released. We conclude that the role of TGF-beta in lung growth and repair may be related to increased synthesis of GAGs by human lung fibroblasts as well as alterations in the distribution of individual GAGs.

  7. Fabrication of beta particles detector for RMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beta particles detector for RMS (radiation monitoring system) was fabricated to detect charged beta particles. The plastic scintillator was cutted, shaped, polished to make plastic disk for beta particles. The diameter of completed plastic scintillator disk is 40 mm and thickness is 1.5 mm. The mylar film and aluminium foil were used the front of plastic scintillator to intercept light and moisture. The completed plastic detector for RMS consist of the discriminator and counter were made by ULS (Co.). The absolute efficiency of plastic detector was 45.51% for beta particles (Sr/Y - 90)

  8. Sawtooth crashes at high beta on JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alper, B.; Huysmans, G.T.A.; Sips, A.C.C. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Nave, M.F.F. [Universidade Tecnica, Lisbon (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico

    1994-07-01

    The sawtooth crashes on JET display features which depend on beta. The main observation is a transient bulging of flux surfaces (duration inferior to 30 microsec.), which is predominantly on the low field side and extends to larger radii as beta increases. This phenomenon reaches the plasma boundary when beta{sub N} exceeds 0.5 and in these cases is followed by an ELM within 50 microsec. These sawtooth/ELM events limit plasma performance. Modelling of mode coupling shows qualitative agreement between observations of the structure of the sawtooth precursor and the calculated internal kink mode at high beta. (authors). 6 refs., 5 figs.

  9. $\\beta$-decay study of $^{77}$Cu

    CERN Document Server

    Patronis, N; Górska, M; Huyse, M; Kruglov, K; Pauwels, D; Van de Vel, K; Van Duppen, P; Van Roosbroeck, J; Thomas, J-C; Franchoo, S; Cederkäll, J; Fedosseev, V; Fynbo, H; Georg, U; Jonsson, O; Köster, U; Materna, T; Mathieu, L; Serot, O; Weissman, L; Müller, W F; Mishin, V I; Fedorov, D

    2009-01-01

    A beta-decay study of Cu-77 has been performed at the ISOLDE mass separator with the aim to deduce its beta-decay properties and to obtain spectroscopic information on Zn-77. Neutron-rich copper isotopes were produced by means of proton- or neutron-induced fission reactions on U-238. After the production, Cu-77 was selectively laser ionized, mass separated and sent to different detection systems where beta-gamma and beta-n coincidence data were collected. We report on the deduced half-live, decay scheme, and possible spin assignment of 77Cu.

  10. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebely Pal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows’ milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows’ milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows’ milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  11. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose

    OpenAIRE

    Sebely Pal; Keith Woodford; Sonja Kukuljan; Suleen Ho

    2015-01-01

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows’ milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows’ milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-...

  12. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen

    2015-09-01

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows' milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows' milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows' milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed. PMID:26404362

  13. Patterns of alpha, beta and gamma diversity of the herpetofauna in Mexico’s Pacific lowlands and adjacent interior valleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, A.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The latitudinal distribution patterns of alpha, beta and gamma diversity of reptiles, amphibians and herpetofauna were analyzed using individual binary models of potential distribution for 301 species predicted by ecological modelling for a grid of 9,932 quadrants of ~25 km2 each. We arranged quadrants in 312 latitudinal bands in which alpha, beta and gamma values were determined. Latitudinal trends of all scales of diversity were similar in all groups. Alpha and gamma responded inversely to latitude whereas beta showed a high latitudinal fluctuation due to the high number of endemic species. Alpha and gamma showed a strong correlation in all groups. Beta diversity is an important component of the herpetofauna distribution patterns as a continuous source of species diversity throughout the region.

  14. Effect of low doses beta irradiation on micromechanical properties of surface layer of injection molded polypropylene composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of beta radiation on the changes in the structure and selected properties (mechanical and thermal) was proved. Using low doses of beta radiation for 25% glass fiber filled polypropylene and its influence on the changes of micromechanical properties of surface layer has not been studied in detail so far. The specimens of 25% glass fiber filled PP were made by injection molding technology and irradiated by low doses of beta radiation (0, 15 and 33 kGy). The changes in the microstructure and micromechanical properties of surface layer were evaluated using FTIR, SEM, WAXS and instrumented microhardness test. The results of the measurements showed considerable increase in micromechanical properties (indentation hardness, indentation elastic modulus) when low doses of beta radiation are used. - Highlights: • Low doses of beta radiation significantly increase the hardness of surface layer. • Low doses of beta radiation significantly increase the stiffness surface layer. • Low doses of beta radiation significantly reduce creep of surface layer. • Beta radiation reduces the relative distribution of hydroxyl and carbonyl groups. • Low doses of beta radiation reduce the crystallinity and crystal size

  15. Beta attenuation transmission system (BATS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm2, of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A 90Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (μP) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined

  16. Beta attenuation transmission system (BATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, R.C.; Fullbright, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm/sup 2/, of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A /sup 90/Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (..mu..P) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined.

  17. Pion beta decay at PILAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposal to build PILAC presents the possibility of making an improved measurement of the pion beta decay rate. The rate for the decay π+ → π0e+νe is predicted by the Standard Model (SM) to be R(π+ → π0e+νe) = 0.3999 ± 0.0005 s-1. The best experimental number, from LAMPF Experiment 32, using in-flight decays, is R(π+ → π0e+νe) = 0.394 ± 0.0015 s-1. A precise measurement would test the SM by testing the unitarity of the Cabibbo- Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix, for which one analysis of the nuclear beta decay data has shown a 0.4% discrepancy. Thus an experiment at the 0. 2% level would be a significant one. Detailed study of possible designs will be needed, as well as extensive testing of components. The reduction of systematic errors to the 0.1% level can only be done over a period of years with a highly stable apparatus and beam. At a minimum, three years of occupancy of a beam line, with 800 hours per year, would be required. 23 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Challenges in Double Beta Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliviero Cremonesi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past ten years, neutrino oscillation experiments have provided the incontrovertible evidence that neutrinos mix and have finite masses. These results represent the strongest demonstration that the electroweak Standard Model is incomplete and that new Physics beyond it must exist. In this scenario, a unique role is played by the Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay searches which can probe lepton number conservation and investigate the Dirac/Majorana nature of the neutrinos and their absolute mass scale (hierarchy problem with unprecedented sensitivity. Today Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay faces a new era where large-scale experiments with a sensitivity approaching the so-called degenerate-hierarchy region are nearly ready to start and where the challenge for the next future is the construction of detectors characterized by a tonne-scale size and an incredibly low background. A number of new proposed projects took up this challenge. These are based either on large expansions of the present experiments or on new ideas to improve the technical performance and/or reduce the background contributions. In this paper, a review of the most relevant ongoing experiments is given. The most relevant parameters contributing to the experimental sensitivity are discussed and a critical comparison of the future projects is proposed.

  19. Association of heterocellular HPFH, beta(+)-thalassaemia, and delta beta(0)-thalassaemia: haematological and molecular aspects.

    OpenAIRE

    Cianetti, L; Care, A; Sposi, N M; Giampaolo, A; Calandrini, M; Petrini, M.; Massa, A.; Marinucci, M.; Mavilio, F; Ceccanti, M.

    1984-01-01

    An Italian family in which heterocellular hereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin (HPFH) interacts with both beta(+)- and delta beta-thalassaemia is described. The index case was an 8 year old girl who was presumed to inherit both heterocellular HPFH and beta (+)-thalassaemia from her mother and delta beta-thalassaemia from her father. She was healthy and never needed blood transfusions. The possible contribution of heterocellular HPFH to the less severe expression of the compound delta b...

  20. Clusters of conserved beta cell marker genes for assessment of beta cell phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert A Martens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND METHODOLOGY: The aim of this study was to establish a gene expression blueprint of pancreatic beta cells conserved from rodents to humans and to evaluate its applicability to assess shifts in the beta cell differentiated state. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of isolated beta cells were compared to those of a large panel of other tissue and cell types, and transcripts with beta cell-abundant and -selective expression were identified. Iteration of this analysis in mouse, rat and human tissues generated a panel of conserved beta cell biomarkers. This panel was then used to compare isolated versus laser capture microdissected beta cells, monitor adaptations of the beta cell phenotype to fasting, and retrieve possible conserved transcriptional regulators. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A panel of 332 conserved beta cell biomarker genes was found to discriminate both isolated and laser capture microdissected beta cells from all other examined cell types. Of all conserved beta cell-markers, 15% were strongly beta cell-selective and functionally associated to hormone processing, 15% were shared with neuronal cells and associated to regulated synaptic vesicle transport and 30% with immune plus gut mucosal tissues reflecting active protein synthesis. Fasting specifically down-regulated the latter cluster, but preserved the neuronal and strongly beta cell-selective traits, indicating preserved differentiated state. Analysis of consensus binding site enrichment indicated major roles of CREB/ATF and various nutrient- or redox-regulated transcription factors in maintenance of differentiated beta cell phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: Conserved beta cell marker genes contain major gene clusters defined by their beta cell selectivity or by their additional abundance in either neural cells or in immune plus gut mucosal cells. This panel can be used as a template to identify changes in the differentiated state of beta cells.

  1. An imidazoline compound completely counteracts interleukin-1[beta] toxic effects to rat pancreatic islet [beta] cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papaccio, Gianpaolo; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Pisanti, Francesco A; Galdieri, Michela; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2002-01-01

    In vitro studies have demonstrated that interleukin (IL)-1beta decreases insulin and DNA contents in pancreatic islet beta cells, causing structural damage, that it is toxic to cultured human islet beta cells and that it is able to induce apoptosis in these cells....

  2. Expressions of GSK-3beta, Beta-Catenin and PPAR-Gamma in Medulloblastoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Zhang; Lu Si; Yu Li; Can Mi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expressions of GSK-3beta, Beta-catenin and PPAR-gamma, and their relationship in medulloblastoma, and to explore their value in clinic application.Methods: Immunohistochemical staining with SP method was conducted to determine the expressions of GSK-3beta, Beta-catenin and PPAR-gamma in 48 cases of medulloblastoma and 10 normal cerebellar tissues.Results: The rate of abnormal expressions of beta-catenin and PPAR-gamma in MB was higher than that in normal. Conversely, GSK-3beta in MB was lower than that in the normal (P<0.05). Furthermore, in medulloblastoma, beta-catenin and GSK-3beta showed a negative correlation, PPAR-gamma and beta-catenin had a positive correlation.Conclusion: Abnormal expression of beta-catenin plays a crucial role in the development of medulloblastoma. Meanwhile, PPAR-gamma and GSK-3beta which are tightly related with beta-catenin are both involved in the genesis and development of medulloblastoma.

  3. Dosimetry of low-energy beta radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, J.

    1996-08-01

    Useful techniques and procedures for determination of absorbed doses from exposure in a low-energy {beta} radiation field were studied and evaluated in this project. The four different techniques included were {beta} spectrometry, extrapolation chamber dosimetry, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, and exoelectron dosimetry. As a typical low-energy {beta} radiation field a moderated spectrum from a {sup 14}C source (E{sub {beta}},{sub max} =156 keV) was chosen for the study. The measured response of a Si(Li) detector to photons (bremsstrahlung) showed fine agreement with the MC calculated photon response, whereas the difference between measured and MC calculated responses to electrons indicates an additional dead layer thickness of about 12 {mu}m in the Si(Li) detector. The depth-dose profiles measured with extrapolation chambers at two laboratories agreed very well, and it was confirmed that the fitting procedure previously reported for {sup 147}Pm depth-dose profiles is also suitable for {beta} radiation from {sup 14}C. An increasing difference between measured and MC calculated dose rates for increasing absorber thickness was found, which is explained by limitations of the EGS4 code for transport of very low-energy electrons (below 10-20 keV). Finally a study of the thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) response of BeO thin film dosemeters to {beta} radiation for radiation fields with maximum {beta} energies ranging from 67 keV to 2.27 MeV is reported. For maximum {beta} energies below approximately 500 keV, a decrease in the response amounting to about 20% was observed. It is thus concluded that a {beta} dose higher than about 10 {mu}Gy can be measured with these dosemeters to within 0 to -20% independently of the {beta}energy for E{sub {beta}},{sub max} values down to 67 keV. (au) 12 tabs., 38 ills., 71 refs.

  4. [Hemoglobin C -- beta-thalassemia disease and homozygous beta-thalassemia in a black African family (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset, P; Fall, M; Oudart, J L

    1975-01-01

    The study of a Malian family has allowed to prove existence of two types of beta-thalassemia genes: the beta0 gene which suppresses the synthesis of the beta chain into cis position and the beta+ gene which slows down only partially this synthesis. The difference between this two genes has been possible owing to the hemoglobin C found in this family and induced by the betaC mutated gene. The segregation of the four genes betaA, betaC, beta0 thal, and beta+ thal. has allowed to compare all the possible phenotypes deriving from the combinations by two of these allelic genes. PMID:128735

  5. Search for beta sup - and beta sup -beta sup - decays of sup 4 sup 8 Ca

    CERN Document Server

    Bakalyarov, A; Barabash, A; Briançon, C; Brudanin, V; Egorov, V; Hubert, F; Hubert, P; Kovalik, A; Lebedev, V I; Rukhadze, N I; Stekl, I; Umatov, V; Vylov, T D

    2002-01-01

    A sup 4 sup 8 CaCO sub 3 powder sample containing 20.18 g of sup 4 sup 8 Ca was measured for 797 h with a 400 cm sup 3 low-background HPGe detector. New limits on decays of sup 4 sup 8 Ca were obtained. For single beta transitions to sup 4 sup 8 Sc the limits are equal to 0.71x10 sup 2 sup 0 y, 1.1x10 sup 2 sup 0 y, and 0.82x10 sup 2 sup 0 y for transitions to the ground state, excited 5 sup + and 4 sup + states, respectively. The new limits on double beta decay to excited states of sup 4 sup 8 Ti are equal to 0.47x10 sup 2 sup 0 y, 1.1x10 sup 2 sup 0 y, and 0.90x10 sup 2 sup 0 y for transitions to the first 2 sup + , second 2 sup + and first 0 sup + excited states, respectively. All limits are given at the 90% CL.

  6. Signaling from beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors is defined by differential interactions with PDE4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Wito; Day, Peter; Agrawal, Rani; Bruss, Matthew D; Granier, Sébastien; Wang, Yvonne L; Rasmussen, Søren Gøgsig Faarup; Horner, Kathleen; Wang, Ping; Lei, Tao; Patterson, Andrew J; Kobilka, Brian; Conti, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors (betaARs) are highly homologous, yet they play clearly distinct roles in cardiac physiology and pathology. Myocyte contraction, for instance, is readily stimulated by beta1AR but not beta2AR signaling, and chronic stimulation of the two receptors has opposing...

  7. Beta cell proliferation and growth factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis; Svensson, C; Møldrup, Annette;

    1999-01-01

    Formation of new beta cells can take place by two pathways: replication of already differentiated beta cells or neogenesis from putative islet stem cells. Under physiological conditions both processes are most pronounced during the fetal and neonatal development of the pancreas. In adulthood litt...

  8. Beta-agonists and animal welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of beta-agonists in animal feed is a high profile topic within the U.S. as consumers and activist groups continue to question its safety. The only beta-agonist currently available for use in swine is ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC). This is available as Paylean™ (Elanco Animal Health – FDA a...

  9. Dosimetry of Low-Energy Beta Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Jette

    Useful techniques and procedures for derermination of absorbed doses from exposure in a low-energy beta radiation were studied and evaluated. The four techniques included were beta spectrometry, extrapolation chamber dosimetry, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, and exoelectron dosimetry. As a typical...

  10. Beta spectra. II-Positron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 30 positron emitters have been computed, introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. The spectra are ploted vs. energy, once normalised, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (author)

  11. A proportional-scintillation counter beta spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a proportional counter for coincidence gating of events in a plastic scintillator provides selective registration of beta interactions in the scintillator. This technique has been used to construct a field instrument that can selectively collect beta spectra (coincidence gating) or gamma spectra (anticoincidence gating). Associated dose rates are calculated from the spectra

  12. Broad resonances and beta-decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, K.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Hyldegaard, S.;

    2015-01-01

    Beta-decay into broad resonances gives a distorted lineshape in the observed energy spectrum. Part of the distortion arises from the phase space factor, but we show that the beta-decay matrix element may also contribute. Based on a schematic model for p-wave continuum neutron states it is argued...

  13. Adaptive changes in pancreatic beta cell fractional area and beta cell turnover in human pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, A. E.; Cao-Minh, L.; Galasso, R; Rizza, R. A.; Corradin, A.; Cobelli, C; Butler, P C

    2010-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis We sought to establish the extent and basis for adaptive changes in beta cell numbers in human pregnancy. Methods Pancreas was obtained at autopsy from women who had died while pregnant (n = 18), post-partum (n = 6) or were not pregnant at or shortly before death (controls; n = 20). Pancreases were evaluated for fractional pancreatic beta cell area, islet size and islet fraction of beta cells, beta cell replication (Ki67) and apoptosis (TUNEL), and indirect markers of beta cel...

  14. Antibodies against chromosomal beta-lactamase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giwercman, B; Rasmussen, J W; Ciofu, Oana; Clemmentsen, I; Schumacher, H; Høiby, N

    1994-01-01

    A murine monoclonal anti-chromosomal beta-lactamase antibody was developed and an immunoblotting technique was used to study the presence of serum and sputum antibodies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa chromosomal group 1 beta-lactamase in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The serum antibody...... response was studied with serum samples collected in 1992 from 56 CF patients in a cross-sectional study and with serum samples from 18 CF patients in a longitudinal study. Anti-beta-lactamase immunoglobulin G antibodies were present in all of the serum samples from the patients with chronic...... bronchopulmonary P. aeruginosa infection (CF + P) but in none of the CF patients with no or intermittent P. aeruginosa infection. Anti-beta-lactamase antibodies were present in serum from CF + P patients after six antipseudomonal courses (median) and correlated with infection with a beta-lactam-resistant strain of...

  15. The search for neutrinoless double beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez-Cadenas, J J; Mezzetto, M; Monrabal, F; Sorel, M

    2011-01-01

    In the last few years the search for neutrinoless double beta decay has evolved from being almost a marginal activity in neutrino physics to one of the highest priorities for understanding neutrinos and the origin of mass. There are two main reasons for this paradigm shift: the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which clearly established the existence of massive neutrinos; and the existence of an unconfirmed, but not refuted, claim of evidence for neutrinoless double decay in 76Ge. As a consequence, a new generation of experiments, employing different detection techniques and {\\beta}{\\beta} isotopes, is being actively promoted by experimental groups across the world. In addition, nuclear theorists are making remarkable progress in the calculation of the neutrinoless double beta decay nuclear matrix elements, thus eliminating a substantial part of the theoretical uncertainties affecting the particle physics interpretation of this process. In this report, we review the main aspects of the double beta decay pro...

  16. Simultaneous beta/gamma digital spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.

    A state-of-the-art radiation detection system for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta-particles and gamma-rays has been developed. The system utilizes a triple-layer phoswich detector and a customized Digital Pulse Processor (DPP) built in our laboratory. The DPP board was designed to digitally capture the analog signal pulses and, following several digital preprocessing steps, transfer valid pulses to the host computer for further digital processing. A MATLAB algorithm was developed to digitally discriminate beta and gamma events and reconstruct separate beta and gamma-ray energy spectra with minimum crosstalk. The spectrometer proved to be an effective tool for recording separate beta and gamma-ray spectra from mixed radiation fields. The system as a beta-gamma spectrometer will have broad-ranging applications in nuclear non-proliferation, radioactive waste management, worker safety, systems reliability, dose assessment, and risk analysis.

  17. Effect of tissue inhomogeneity on beta dose calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appropriate monoclonal antibodies labeled with beta-emitting nuclides of high specific activity have been suggested for treatment of specific tumors. In a homogeneous medium the radiation dose rate distribution R due to a distributed activity distribution C can be calculated by convolution of the beta dose point kernel of the radionuclide in soft tissue with C. Prototype computer programs using Fast Fourier Transform techniques have been developed to evaluate the three dimensional spatial convolution efficiently. To study the effect of tissue inhomogeneity on R, the authors simulated a soft tissue-bone interface by a polystyrene (PST)-aluminum (A1) interface and considered the backscattering of beta rays from a point source and a plane source of 32P. LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters were used. With the point source at the PST-A1 interface, R at 0-31, 125-156, and 283-314 mg/cm2 separations from the interface were increased by (12 +/- 3)%, (8 +/-2)%, and (3 +/- 2)%, respectively, compared with a PST-PST interface. With the plane source, the increases were (8 +/- 3)%, (6 +/- 3)%, and (5 +/- 5)% for separations of 23-58, 150-184, and 277-311 mg/cm2, respectively. With the point source at a PST-air interface to simulate soft tissue-air interface, R at 0-31, 139-170, and 283-314 mg/cm2 from the interface were decreased by (25 +/- 4)%, (11 +/- 7)%, and (5 +/-2)%, respectively. The changes in R have also been measured with degraded spectra of 32P. Comparison of the experimental data with Monte Carlo calculation and the Two-Group method of calculation will be discussed. 20 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  18. Genetics Home Reference: dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency Enable Javascript to view the ... boxes. Print All Open All Close All Description Dopamine beta (β)-hydroxylase deficiency is a condition that ...

  19. Clusters of conserved beta cell marker genes for assessment of beta cell phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Geert A; Jiang, Lei; Hellemans, Karine H;

    2011-01-01

    of a large panel of other tissue and cell types, and transcripts with beta cell-abundant and -selective expression were identified. Iteration of this analysis in mouse, rat and human tissues generated a panel of conserved beta cell biomarkers. This panel was then used to compare isolated versus laser......The aim of this study was to establish a gene expression blueprint of pancreatic beta cells conserved from rodents to humans and to evaluate its applicability to assess shifts in the beta cell differentiated state. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of isolated beta cells were compared to those...... capture microdissected beta cells, monitor adaptations of the beta cell phenotype to fasting, and retrieve possible conserved transcriptional regulators....

  20. SYVAC3 parameter distribution package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SYVAC3 (Systems Variability Analysis Code, generation 3) is a computer program that implements a method called systems variability analysis to analyze the behaviour of a system in the presence of uncertainty. This method is based on simulating the system many times to determine the variation in behaviour it can exhibit. SYVAC3 specializes in systems representing the transport of contaminants, and has several features to simplify the modelling of such systems. It provides a general tool for estimating environmental impacts from the dispersal of contaminants. This report describes a software object type (a generalization of a data type) called Parameter Distribution. This object type is used in SYVAC3, and can also be used independently. Parameter Distribution has the following subtypes: beta distribution; binomial distribution; constant distribution; lognormal distribution; loguniform distribution; normal distribution; piecewise uniform distribution; Triangular distribution; and uniform distribution. Some of these distributions can be altered by correlating two parameter distribution objects. This report provides complete specifications for parameter distributions, and also explains how to use them. It should meet the needs of casual users, reviewers, and programmers who wish to add their own subtypes. (author). 30 refs., 75 tabs., 56 figs

  1. Values of the phase space factors for double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report an up-date list of the experimentally most interesting phase space factors for double beta decay (DBD). The electron/positron wave functions are obtained by solving the Dirac equations with a Coulomb potential derived from a realistic proton density distribution in nucleus and with inclusion of the finite nuclear size (FNS) and electron screening (ES) effects. We build up new numerical routines which allow us a good control of the accuracy of calculations. We found several notable differences as compared with previous results reported in literature and possible sources of these discrepancies are discussed

  2. Untangling supernova-neutrino oscillations with beta-beam data

    OpenAIRE

    Jachowicz, Natalie; McLaughlin, Gail; Volpe, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    Recently, we suggested that low-energy beta-beam neutrinos can be very useful for the study of supernova neutrino interactions. In this paper, we examine the use of a such experiment for the analysis of a supernova neutrino signal. Since supernova neutrinos are oscillating, it is very likely that the terrestrial spectrum of supernova neutrinos of a given flavor will not be the same as the energy distribution with which these neutrinos were first emitted. We demonstrate the efficacy of the pro...

  3. Methods of Fabricating Scintillators with Radioisotopes for Beta Battery Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensing, Noa M.; Squillante, Michael R.; Tieman, Timothy C.; Higgins, William; Shiriwadkar, Urmila

    2013-01-01

    Technology has been developed for a class of self-contained, long-duration power sources called beta batteries, which harvest the energy contained in the radioactive emissions from beta decay isotopes. The new battery is a significant improvement over the conventional phosphor/solar cell concept for converting this energy in three ways. First, the thin phosphor is replaced with a thick scintillator that is transparent to its own emissions. By using a scintillator sufficiently thick to completely stop all the beta particles, efficiency is greatly improved. Second, since the energy of the beta particles is absorbed in the scintillator, the semiconductor photodetector is shielded from radiation damage that presently limits the performance and lifetime of traditional phosphor converters. Finally, instead of a thin film of beta-emitting material, the isotopes are incorporated into the entire volume of the thick scintillator crystal allowing more activity to be included in the converter without self-absorption. There is no chemical difference between radioactive and stable strontium beta emitters such as Sr-90, so the beta emitter can be uniformly distributed throughout a strontium based scintillator crystal. When beta emitter material is applied as a foil or thin film to the surface of a solar cell or even to the surface of a scintillator, much of the radiation escapes due to the geometry, and some is absorbed within the layer itself, leading to inefficient harvesting of the energy. In contrast, if the emitting atoms are incorporated within the scintillator, the geometry allows for the capture and efficient conversion of the energy of particles emitted in any direction. Any gamma rays associated with secondary decays or Bremsstrahlung photons may also be absorbed within the scintillator, and converted to lower energy photons, which will in turn be captured by the photocell or photodiode. Some energy will be lost in this two-stage conversion process (high-energy particle

  4. Risks aggregation in multivariate dependent Pareto distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Sarabia, José María; Gómez-Déniz, Emilio; Prieto, Faustino; Jordá, Vanesa

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we obtain closed expressions for the probability distribution function, when we consider aggregated risks with multivariate dependent Pareto distributions. We work with the dependent multivariate Pareto type II proposed by Arnold (1983, 2015), which is widely used in insurance and risk analysis. We begin with the individual risk model, where we obtain the probability density function (PDF), which corresponds to a second kind beta distribution. We obtain several risk measures inc...

  5. Metabolic consequences of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade for the acutely ischemic dog myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an experimental study in 50 dogs the myocardial uptake of free fatty acids (FFAs) after beta-blockade was determined using radioiodinated heptadecanoic acid as a metabolic tracer. All 4 beta-blockers used (metoprolol, timolol, propranolol and pindolol) lowered the uptake of FFAs in the normal canine heart. Uptake of FFAs was also diminished after coronary artery occlusion per se, but administration of beta-blockers exerted little additional influence on the uptake of FFAs. This observation was qualitatively parallelled by the uptake of 201Tl in concomitant experiments. Plasma FFA levels were increased by pindolol (non-selective with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity), not changed by metoprolol (a cardioselective betablocking agent) and lowered by timolol and propranolol (both non-selective compounds). The extent of ischemic tissue, as reflected by uptake of iodoheptadecanoic acid and 201Tl, was diminished by metoprolol but not by other beta-blockers. Regional distribution of both tracers, as shown in the endo-epicardial uptake ratios, was hardly influenced by beta-blockade, except for a small increase of 201Tl uptake in non-occluded endocardium. Uptake of 201Tl as well as of iodoheptadecanoic acid in the ischemic area was increased by metoprolol, timolol and propranolol and decreased by pindolol. We conclude that beta-blocking agents confer different effects on myocardial uptake and metabolism of FFAs which might possibly be related to their different inherent properties. (orig.)

  6. Metabolic consequences of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade for the acutely ischemic dog myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westera, G.; Hollander, W. den; Wall, E.E. van der; Eenige, M.J. van; Scholtalbers, S.; Visser, F.C.; Roos, J.P.

    1984-02-01

    In an experimental study in 50 dogs the myocardial uptake of free fatty acids (FFAs) after beta-blockade was determined using radioiodinated heptadecanoic acid as a metabolic tracer. All 4 beta-blockers used (metoprolol, timolol, propranolol and pindolol) lowered the uptake of FFAs in the normal canine heart. Uptake of FFAs was also diminished after coronary artery occlusion per se, but administration of beta-blockers exerted little additional influence on the uptake of FFAs. This observation was qualitatively parallelled by the uptake of /sup 201/Tl in concomitant experiments. Plasma FFA levels were increased by pindolol (non-selective with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity), not changed by metoprolol (a cardioselective betablocking agent) and lowered by timolol and propranolol (both non-selective compounds). The extent of ischemic tissue, as reflected by uptake of iodoheptadecanoic acid and /sup 201/Tl, was diminished by metoprolol but not by other beta-blockers. Regional distribution of both tracers, as shown in the endo-epicardial uptake ratios, was hardly influenced by beta-blockade, except for a small increase of /sup 201/Tl uptake in non-occluded endocardium. Uptake of /sup 201/Tl as well as of iodoheptadecanoic acid in the ischemic area was increased by metoprolol, timolol and propranolol and decreased by pindolol. We conclude that beta-blocking agents confer different effects on myocardial uptake and metabolism of FFAs which might possibly be related to their different inherent properties.

  7. Conformation, molecular packing and field effect mobility of regioregular beta,beta'-dihexylsexithiophiophene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiriy, N.; Kiriy, A.; Bocharova, V.;

    2004-01-01

    (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray techniques. Absorption spectra of a beta,beta'-DH6T spin-cast film indicate the planar conformation of the aromatic backbone. SEM and AFM reveal the formation of an ordered lamellar phase. As a single-crystal X-ray study shows, beta,beta'-DH6T exhibits......Improved synthesis, charge carrier mobility, conformation, crystalline structure, and molecular packing of the regiochemically pure 4',3""-dihexyl-2,2';5',2";5",2 "';5"',2"";5"",2""'-sexithiophene (beta,beta'-DH6T) are reported. The sum of charge carrier mobilities of beta,beta'-DH6T measured...... by the pulse-radiolysis time-resolved microwave conductivity (PR-TRMC) technique was found to be Sigmamu(min) = 3.9 x 10(-3) cm(2) V-1 s(-1), which is comparable with the PR-TRMC mobility found for alpha,omega-DH6T. The field-effect mobility (FEM) of beta,beta'-DH6T was found to be on the order of 10(-5) cm(2...

  8. Ellagic acid promotes A{beta}42 fibrillization and inhibits A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Ying [Department of Histology and Embryology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Yang, Shi-gao; Du, Xue-ting; Zhang, Xi; Sun, Xiao-xia; Zhao, Min [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Sun, Gui-yuan, E-mail: sungy2004@sohu.com [Department of Histology and Embryology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Liu, Rui-tian, E-mail: rtliu@tsinghua.edu.cn [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-12-25

    Smaller, soluble oligomers of {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Selective inhibition of A{beta} oligomer formation provides an optimum target for AD therapy. Some polyphenols have potent anti-amyloidogenic activities and protect against A{beta} neurotoxicity. Here, we tested the effects of ellagic acid (EA), a polyphenolic compound, on A{beta}42 aggregation and neurotoxicity in vitro. EA promoted A{beta} fibril formation and significant oligomer loss, contrary to previous results that polyphenols inhibited A{beta} aggregation. The results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western blot displayed more fibrils in A{beta}42 samples co-incubated with EA in earlier phases of aggregation. Consistent with the hypothesis that plaque formation may represent a protective mechanism in which the body sequesters toxic A{beta} aggregates to render them harmless, our MTT results showed that EA could significantly reduce A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity toward SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, our results suggest that EA, an active ingredient in many fruits and nuts, may have therapeutic potential in AD.

  9. Importance of the radiometric ash content determination by means of beta backscattering for coal transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiometric method for ash content determination based on beta backscattering has been evaluated from the point of view of quality control and quality assurance in lignite mining and use of lignite. Applying the method, optimum control and distribution to generation of power, briquetting or coal transformation depending on ash content is possible

  10. Considerations of beta and electron transport in internal dose calculations. Final progress report, 1994--1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolch, W.E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering

    1998-12-31

    This research focused on the following major tasks: improved dosimetric models of the head and brain; development of improved skeletal dosimetry models; development of dosimetric techniques for nonuniform activity distributions; pediatric dosimetry phantoms and radionuclide S values; microdosimetry of beta emitters in radioimmunotherapy; and mechanisms of molecular radiation damage.

  11. Understanding Supernova Neutrino Physics using Low-Energy Beta-Beams

    OpenAIRE

    Jachowicz, N.; McLaughlin, G.C.

    2005-01-01

    We show that fitting linear combinations of low-energy beta-beam spectra to supernova-neutrino energy-distributions reconstructs the response of a nuclear target to a supernova flux in a very accurate way. This allows one to make direct predictions about the supernova-neutrino signal in a terrestrial neutrino detector.

  12. Urinary excretion of N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, J.

    1980-01-01

    The normal range for the urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase/creatinine ratio was determined in 82 children. The range was found to vary with age, and the distribution was found to be logarithmic. This test should help to detect renal tubular disease in children; it gave abnormal results in some of these children.

  13. Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Isolates in Imported and Locally Produced Chicken Meat from Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette Marie; Opintan, Japheth A; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    by A and D, with similar distribution among the isolates from meat of locally reared chickens and imported chickens. Beta-lactamase producing genotype blaCTX-M-15 (50%; 10/20) was the most frequently drug resistant gene detected. More BLP E. coli isolates were found in imported chicken meat compared...

  14. Considerations of beta and electron transport in internal dose calculations. Final progress report, 1994 -1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research focused on the following major tasks: improved dosimetric models of the head and brain; development of improved skeletal dosimetry models; development of dosimetric techniques for nonuniform activity distributions; pediatric dosimetry phantoms and radionuclide S values; microdosimetry of beta emitters in radioimmunotherapy; and mechanisms of molecular radiation damage

  15. In vivo evaluation of expression of TGF{beta}1 in the irradiated heart; Expressao da proteina TGF{beta}1 em coracao irradiado in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affonso Junior, Renato Jose [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. Diagnostico por Imagem; Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; Silva, Maria Regina Regis [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Setor de Anatomia Patologica; Kimura, Edna Teruko [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas. Dept. de Histologia; Egami, Mizue Imoto [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Morfologia; Segreto, Roberto Araujo; Segreto, Helena Regina Comodo [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Setor de Radioterapia]. E-mail: hrcs.dmed@unifesp.epm.br

    2004-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the latent and active TGF{beta}1 localization in the heart, to evaluate whether or not radiation induces latent TGF{beta}1 activation, and to study the distribution of collagen fibers in the irradiated heart. Thirty-two C 57 BL mice were randomly assigned in two groups: GI (non irradiated animals) and GII (irradiated animals). The mice from G II received a single whole-body radiation dose of 7 Gy, using a {sup 60}Co source at a dose rate of 0.97 Gy/min. The animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at 1, 14, 30 and 90 days after irradiation. The irradiated hearts showed: nuclear changes and muscle cells with decreased striations; significant increase in the collagen deposition 90 days after irradiation; latent TGF{beta}1 activation in the cardio myocytes and connective tissue cells after irradiation. Our results show the importance of TGF{beta}1 protein in the process of radiation-induced heart fibrosis and suggest that cardio myocytes and connective cells may play a role in this mechanism acting as cellular sources of active TGF{beta}1. (author)

  16. Total synthesis of human beta-lipotropin.

    OpenAIRE

    Blake, J; Li, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    The total synthesis of human beta-lipotropin has been accomplished by the new segment-coupling method in aqueous solution. The peptides Ac-Arg-beta-lipotropin-(61-89) (I) and [GlyS60]-beta-lipotropin-(1-60) (II) were synthesized by the solid-phase method. Reaction of peptide I with citraconic anhydride followed by brief digestion with trypsin to remove the acetylarginyl group, gave Ia. Reaction of peptide II with citraconic anhydride gave the citraconyl peptide IIa. Ia and IIa were coupled to...

  17. Rotational beta expansion: Ergodicity and Soficness

    OpenAIRE

    Akiyama, Shigeki; Caalim, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    We study a family of piecewise expanding maps on the plane, generated by composition of a rotation and an expansive similitude of expansion constant $\\beta$. We give two constants $B_1$ and $B_2$ depending only on the fundamental domain that if $\\beta>B_1$ then the expanding map has a unique absolutely continuous invariant probability measure, and if $\\beta>B_2$ then it is equivalent to $2$-dimensional Lebesgue measure. Restricting to a rotation generated by $q$-th root of unity $\\zeta$ with ...

  18. Falsifying Baryogenesis with Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the relation between lepton number violation at high and low energies, particularly, the constraints on baryogenesis models, which would be implied by an observation of neutrinoless double beta decay. The primordial baryon asymmetry can be washed out by effective lepton number violating operators triggering neutrinoless double beta decay in combination with sphaleron processes. A generic conclusion is that popular models of baryogenesis are excluded if a non-standard mechanism of neutrinoless double beta decay, i.e., other than the standard light neutrino exchange, is observed. Apart from the effective field approach, we also outline the possible extension of our arguments to a general UV-completed model.

  19. Beta-alanine synthesis in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Cronan, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    The enzyme, aspartate 1-decarboxylase (L-aspartate 1-carboxy-lyase; EC 4.1.1.15), that catalyzes the reaction aspartate leads to beta-alanine + CO2 was found in extracts of Escherichia coli. panD mutants of E. coli are defective in beta-alanine biosynthesis and lack aspartate 1-decarboxylase. Therefore, the enzyme functions in the biosynthesis of the beta-alanine moiety of pantothenate. The genetic lesion in these mutants is closely linked to the other pantothenate (pan) loci of E. coli K-12.

  20. Review of modern double beta decay experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabash, A. S.

    2015-10-01

    The review of modern experiments on search and studying of double beta decay processes is done. Results of the most sensitive current experiments are discussed. The main attention is paid to EXO-200, KamLAND-Zen, GERDA-I and CUORE-0 experiments. Modern values of T1/2(2ν) and best present limits on neutrinoless double beta decay and double beta decay with Majoron emission are presented. Conservative limits on effective mass of a Majorana neutrino ( at the level of ˜ 0.01-0.1 eV are discussed.

  1. Decomposition of beta-ray induced ESR spectra of fossil tooth enamel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joannes-Boyau, Renaud, E-mail: renaud.joannes-boyau@anu.edu.a [Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Gruen, Rainer [Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2011-03-15

    Two fossil tooth enamel fragments were irradiated with beta rays, one through the outer surface, the other through the dentine-enamel junction. The angular ESR spectra of the two fragments were decomposed using an automated simulated annealing (SA) procedure, which is particularly well suited to separate overlapping signals. Beta irradiation generated different qualitative and quantitative responses to previous gamma irradiation experiments. Similar to gamma rays, the beta irradiation created both non-oriented and oriented CO{sub 2}{sup -} radicals. In contrast to gamma irradiation, which only created orthorhombic oriented CO{sub 2}{sup -} radicals, both axial and orthorhombic CO{sub 2}{sup -} radicals were extracted after beta irradiation. Furthermore, gamma irradiation created significantly more non-oriented radicals than beta irradiation. Altogether, the radical distribution created by beta irradiation resembled that of the natural sample, which had been exposed to environmental irradiation over several hundreds of thousands of years. The natural sample contained 9% non-orientated CO{sub 2}{sup -} radicals and a mix of orthorhombic to axial CO{sub 2}{sup -} radicals in the ratio of 35:65. The beta induced spectra of the fragment irradiated through the outer surface contained 9% non-orientated CO{sub 2}{sup -} radicals and a mix of orthorhombic to axial CO{sub 2}{sup -} radicals in the ratio of 45:55, while for the other sample these values were 19% and 59:41, respectively. The angle between the axial and orthorhombic CO{sub 2}{sup -} radicals is around 23{sup o} in both natural and beta irradiation components. This indicates that the radicals produced by the different irradiation modes are located in the same positions in the hydroxyapatite crystals. The higher percentage of non-oriented CO{sub 2}{sup -} radicals closer to the dentine-enamel junction points to interprismatic zones for their possible location.

  2. Development of a portable triple silicon detector telescope for beta spectroscopy and skin dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helt-Hansen, J

    2000-11-01

    It is now recognized that beta radiation can be a significant radiation problem for exposure of the skin. There is thus a need for a portable and rugged active beta dosemeter-spectrometer to carry out immediate measurements of doses and energies of beta particles even in the presence of photon radiation. The main objective of this report is to describe the development of such an instrument. A beta-spectrometer has been developed consisting of three silicon surface barrier detectors with the thickness: 50{mu}m/150{mu}m/7000{mu}m covered by a 2 {mu}m thick titanium window. The spectrometer is capable of measuring electron energies from 50 keV to 3.5 MeV. The spectrometer is characterized by a compact low weight design, achieved by digital signal processing beginning at an early stage in the signal chain. 255 channels are available for each of the three detectors. The spectrometer is controlled by a laptop computer, which also handles all subsequent data analysis. By use of coincidence/anti-coincidence considerations of the absorbed energy in the three detector elements, counts caused by electrons are separated from those originating from photons. The electron energy distribution is multiplied by a set of conversion coefficients to obtain the dose at 0.07 mm tissue. Monte Carlo calculations has been used to derive the conversion coefficients and to investigate the influence of noise and the design of detector assembly on the performance of the spectrometer. This report describes the development of the spectrometer and its mode of operation, followed by a description of the Monte Carlo calculations carried out to obtain the conversion coefficients. Finally is the capability of the telescope spectrometer to measure beta and photon spectra as well as beta dose rates in pure beta and mixed beta/photon radiation fields described. (au)

  3. Development of a portable triple silicon detector telescope for beta spectroscopy and skin dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is now recognized that beta radiation can be a significant radiation problem for exposure of the skin. There is thus a need for a portable and rugged active beta dosemeter-spectrometer to carry out immediate measurements of doses and energies of beta particles even in the presence of photon radiation. The main objective of this report is to describe the development of such an instrument. A beta-spectrometer has been developed consisting of three silicon surface barrier detectors with the thickness: 50μm/150μm/7000μm covered by a 2 μm thick titanium window. The spectrometer is capable of measuring electron energies from 50 keV to 3.5 MeV. The spectrometer is characterized by a compact low weight design, achieved by digital signal processing beginning at an early stage in the signal chain. 255 channels are available for each of the three detectors. The spectrometer is controlled by a laptop computer, which also handles all subsequent data analysis. By use of coincidence/anti-coincidence considerations of the absorbed energy in the three detector elements, counts caused by electrons are separated from those originating from photons. The electron energy distribution is multiplied by a set of conversion coefficients to obtain the dose at 0.07 mm tissue. Monte Carlo calculations has been used to derive the conversion coefficients and to investigate the influence of noise and the design of detector assembly on the performance of the spectrometer. This report describes the development of the spectrometer and its mode of operation, followed by a description of the Monte Carlo calculations carried out to obtain the conversion coefficients. Finally is the capability of the telescope spectrometer to measure beta and photon spectra as well as beta dose rates in pure beta and mixed beta/photon radiation fields described. (au)

  4. Measurement of the beta-neutrino correlation in laser trapped {sup 21}Na

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scielzo, Nicholas David

    2003-06-01

    Trapped radioactive atoms are an appealing source for precise measurements of the beta-neutrino correlation coefficient, a, since the momentum of the neutrino can be inferred from the detection of the unperturbed low-energy recoil daughter nucleus. Sodium-21 is produced on-line at the 88'' cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and 8e5 atoms have been maintained in a magneto-optical trap. A static electric field draws daughter Neon-21 ions to a microchannel plate detector and betas are detected in coincidence with a plastic scintillator beta detector. The Neon-21 time-of-flight distribution determines the beta neutrino correlation coefficient, a. The resulting charge-state distribution is compared to a simple model based on the sudden approximation which suggests a small but important contribution from nuclear recoil-induced ionization. A larger than expected fraction of the daughters are detected in positive charge-states, but no dependence on either the beta or recoil nucleus energy was observed. We find a = 0.5243 plus or minus 0.0092, which is in 3.6 sigma disagreement with the Standard Model prediction of a = 0.559 plus or minus 0.003. Aside from a deviation from the Standard Model, a possible explanation for the discrepancy is that the branching ratio to the first excited state is in error.

  5. Kinetics of Beta-14[14C] Carotene in a Human Subject Using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dueker, S.R.; Lin, Y.; Follett, J.R.; Clifford, A.J.; Buchholz, B.A.

    2000-01-31

    {beta}-Carotene is a tetraterpenoid distributed widely throughout the plant kingdom. It is a member of a group of pigments referred to as carotenoids that have the distinction of serving as metabolic precursors to vitamin A in humans and many animals [1,2]. We used Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) [3] to determine the metabolic behavior of a physiologic oral dose of {beta}-[{sup 14}C]carotene (200 nanoCuries; 0.57 {micro}mol) in a healthy human subject. Serial blood specimens were collected for 210-d and complete urine and feces were collected for 17 and 10-d, respectively. Balance data indicated that the dose was 42% bioavailable. The absorbed {beta}-carotene was lost slowly via urine in accord with the slow body turnover of {beta}-carotene and vitamin A [4]. HPLC fractionation of plasma taken at early time points (0-24-h) showed the label was distributed between {beta}-carotene and retinyl esters (vitamin A) derived from intestinal metabolism.

  6. An exact collisionless equilibrium for the Force-Free Harris Sheet with low plasma beta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a first discussion and analysis of the physical properties of a new exact collisionless equilibrium for a one-dimensional nonlinear force-free magnetic field, namely, the force-free Harris sheet. The solution allows any value of the plasma beta, and crucially below unity, which previous nonlinear force-free collisionless equilibria could not. The distribution function involves infinite series of Hermite polynomials in the canonical momenta, of which the important mathematical properties of convergence and non-negativity have recently been proven. Plots of the distribution function are presented for the plasma beta modestly below unity, and we compare the shape of the distribution function in two of the velocity directions to a Maxwellian distribution

  7. CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model) and regulation in Brazilian electric distribution sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the use of Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Beta in the Brazilian electric distribution sector tariffs review. The betas applied by the Regulatory Agency are defined using data from the American, English and Brazilian markets. These betas will then be compared to the betas obtained in the domestic market. The betas were directly obtained from an economic-financial databank largely employed by the market. The sample is composed of companies' shares, priced at Sao Paulo Stock Market. Their main activity is the distribution of electric energy between July 2002 and July 2007. The results of mean betas obtained for the distribution segment, with values close to the ones applied by the regulatory agency for the cycle of tariff reviews between 2007-2010. (author)

  8. Developmental and environmental regulation of a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase-beta-glucuronidase gene fusion in transgenic tobacco plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, X W; Dron, M; J. Schmid; Dixon, R. A.; Lamb, C J

    1989-01-01

    A 1.1-kilobase promoter fragment of the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.5) gene PAL2 was translationally fused to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene and transferred to tobacco by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated leaf disk transformation. The distribution of beta-glucuronidase activity in these transgenic plants is very similar to that of endogenous PAL2 transcripts in bean, with very high levels in petals; marked accumulation in anthers, stigmas, roots, ...

  9. Energetic, Structural, and Antimicrobial Analyses of [beta]-Lactam Side Chain Recognition by [beta]-Lactamases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caselli, E.; Powers, R.A.; Blaszczak, L.C.; Wu, C.Y.E.; Prati, F.; Shoichet, B.K. (NWU)

    2010-03-05

    Penicillins and cephalosporins are among the most widely used and successful antibiotics. The emergence of resistance to these {beta}-lactams, most often through bacterial expression of {beta}-lactamases, threatens public health. To understand how {beta}-lactamases recognize their substrates, it would be helpful to know their binding energies. Unfortunately, these have been difficult to measure because {beta}-lactams form covalent adducts with {beta}-lactamases. This has complicated functional analyses and inhibitor design. To investigate the contribution to interaction energy of the key amide (R1) side chain of {beta}-lactam antibiotics, eight acylglycineboronic acids that bear the side chains of characteristic penicillins and cephalosporins, as well as four other analogs, were synthesized. These transition-state analogs form reversible adducts with serine {beta}-lactamases. Therefore, binding energies can be calculated directly from K{sub i} values. The K{sub i} values measured span four orders of magnitude against the Group I {beta}-lactamase AmpC and three orders of magnitude against the Group II {beta}-lactamase TEM-1. The acylglycineboronic acids have K{sub i} values as low as 20 nM against AmpC and as low as 390 nM against TEM-1. The inhibitors showed little activity against serine proteases, such as chymotrypsin. R1 side chains characteristic of {beta}-lactam inhibitors did not have better affinity for AmpC than did side chains characteristic of {beta}-lactam substrates. Two of the inhibitors reversed the resistance of pathogenic bacteria to {beta}-lactams in cell culture. Structures of two inhibitors in their complexes with AmpC were determined by X-ray crystallography to 1.90 {angstrom} and 1.75 {angstrom} resolution; these structures suggest interactions that are important to the affinity of the inhibitors. Acylglycineboronic acids allow us to begin to dissect interaction energies between {beta}-lactam side chains and {beta}-lactamases. Surprisingly

  10. Bound beta-decay: BOB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many years exotic decay modes of the neutron have been investigated as possible doorways to the exploration of new physics. The bound beta-decay (BOB) of the neutron into a hydrogen atom and an anti-neutrino offers a very elegant method to study neutrino helicities. However, this rare decay has not yet been observed for the free neutron, owing to the challenge of measuring a decay involving only electrically neutral particles and with an estimated branching ratio of only a few 106 of the three-body decay mode. During the past few years scientists from the TUM E18 Group have developed a novel experimental scheme which addresses all necessary problems associated with the observation of this two-body neutron decay in a very coherent way. The BOB experiment shall be installed at a tangential beam tube of a powerful research reactor such as the SR6 at the FRMII in Garching or H6-H7 beam tube at ILL. This talk will provide insights and ideas on how such an experiment is to be performed.

  11. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senard Jean-Michel

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DβH deficiency is a very rare form of primary autonomic failure characterized by a complete absence of noradrenaline and adrenaline in plasma together with increased dopamine plasma levels. The prevalence of DβH deficiency is unknown. Only a limited number of cases with this disease have been reported. DβH deficiency is mainly characterized by cardiovascular disorders and severe orthostatic hypotension. First symptoms often start during a complicated perinatal period with hypotension, muscle hypotonia, hypothermia and hypoglycemia. Children with DβH deficiency exhibit reduced ability to exercise because of blood pressure inadaptation with exertion and syncope. Symptoms usually worsen progressively during late adolescence and early adulthood with severe orthostatic hypotension, eyelid ptosis, nasal stuffiness and sexual disorders. Limitation in standing tolerance, limited ability to exercise and traumatic morbidity related to falls and syncope may represent later evolution. The syndrome is caused by heterogeneous molecular alterations of the DBH gene and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Restoration of plasma noradrenaline to the normal range can be achieved by therapy with the synthetic precursor of noradrenaline, L-threo-dihydroxyphenylserine (DOPS. Oral administration of 100 to 500 mg DOPS, twice or three times daily, increases blood pressure and reverses the orthostatic intolerance.

  12. Neutron bound {beta}- decay- BOB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, M.; Berger, M.; Emmerich, R.; Faestermann, T.; Gutsmiedl, E.; Hartmann, F.J.; Paul, S.; Ruschel, S.; Schoen, J.; Schott, W.; Schubert, U.; Trautner, A. [Physik-Department, TUM, 85748 Garching (Germany); Engels, R. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Fierlinger, P. [Excellence Cluster Universe, TUM, 85748 Garching (Germany); Hertenberger, R. [Sektion Physik, LMU, 85748 Garching (Germany); Roehrmoser, R. [FRM2, TUM, 85748 Garching (Germany); Udem, T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The bound neutron {beta}-decay(BOB) into a hydrogen atom and an electron antineutrino is investigated.The hyper-fine-state population of the monoenergetic hydrogen atoms (326.3 eV) yields the neutrino left-handed-ness or a possible right-handed admixture and possible small scalar and tensor contributions to the weak force. Preexperiments to measure the BOB H(2s) atoms have been done or are being set up using ionizer and RF discharge proton sources, a Wien filter, Cs and Ar cells, a spin filter, electric counter and accelerating fields, a double focusing magnet and a solar blind PM for the Lyman-{alpha} photons. In a first experiment, the charge exchange of the H(2s) atoms into H{sup -}, offering a selective method to discriminate these states against background, is investigated. In a second step the number of background H(2s) resulting from protons interacting with the walls of the experimental setup are determined. For this a quenching E field and a solar blind PM are used.

  13. Glucose activates prenyltransferases in pancreatic islet {beta}-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goalstone, Marc [Department of Medicine, University of Colorado, VA Medical Center, Denver, CO 80220 (United States); Kamath, Vasudeva [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wayne State University, VA Medical Center, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Kowluru, Anjaneyulu, E-mail: akowluru@med.wayne.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wayne State University, VA Medical Center, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of evidence implicates small G-proteins [e.g., Cdc42 and Rac1] in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion [GSIS] in the islet {beta}-cell. These signaling proteins undergo post-translational modifications [e.g., prenylation] at their C-terminal cysteine residue and appear to be essential for the transport and fusion of insulin-containing secretory granules with the plasma membrane and the exocytotic secretion of insulin. However, potential regulation of the prenylating enzymes by physiological insulin secretogues [e.g., glucose] has not been investigated thus far. Herein, we report immunological localization, sub-cellular distribution and regulation of farnesyltransferases [FTases] and geranylgeranyltransferase [GGTase] by glucose in insulin-secreting INS 832/13 {beta}-cells and normal rat islets. Our findings suggest that an insulinotropic concentration of glucose [20 mM] markedly stimulated the expression of the {alpha}-subunits of FTase/GGTase-1, but not the {beta}-subunits of FTase or GGTase-1 without significantly affecting the predominantly cytosolic distribution of these holoenzymes in INS 832/13 cells and rodent islets. Under these conditions, glucose significantly stimulated [2.5- to 4.0-fold over basal] the activities of both FTase and GGTase-1 in both cell types. Together, these findings provide the first evidence to suggest that GSIS involves activation of the endogenous islet prenyltransferases by glucose, culminating in the activation of their respective G-protein substrates, which is necessary for cytoskeletal rearrangement, vesicular transport, fusion and secretion of insulin.

  14. Improved aqueous solubility of crystalline astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-beta, beta-carotene-4,4'-dione) by Captisol (sulfobutyl ether beta-cyclodextrin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Samuel F; O'Malley, Sean; Mosher, Gerold L

    2003-04-01

    Carotenoids are the most widely distributed natural pigments, with over 600 individual compounds identified and characterized from natural sources. A few are commercially important molecules, having found utility as additions to animal feed in the aquaculture, poultry, and swine feed industries. The majority are lipophilic molecules with near zero inherent aqueous solubility. Many different methods have been developed to make the carotenoids "water dispersible," as true water solubility has not been described. Astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-beta, beta-carotene-4,4'-dione) is a commercially important oxygenated carotenoid that has gained wide acceptance as a feed additive in the $50 billion salmon and trout aquaculture industry. Recently, interest in the human health applications of astaxanthin has increased, with astaxanthin receiving approval as a dietary supplement in several countries, including the United States. Moving astaxanthin into a pharmaceutical application will require a chemical delivery system that overcomes the problems with parenteral administration of a highly lipophilic, low molecular weight compound. In the current study, the ability of sulfobutyl ether beta-cyclodextrin (sodium), as the Captisol(R) brand, to increase the aqueous water solubility of crystalline astaxanthin was evaluated. Complexation of crystalline astaxanthin with Captisol increased the apparent water solubility of crystalline astaxanthin approximately 71-fold, to a concentration in the 2 microg/mL range. It is unlikely that this increase in solubility will result in a pharmaceutically acceptable chemical delivery system for humans. However, the increased aqueous solubility of crystalline astaxanthin to the range achieved in the current study will likely find utility in the introduction of crystalline astaxanthin into mammalian cell culture systems that have previously been dependent upon liposomes, or toxic organic solvents, for the introduction of carotenoids into aqueous

  15. Pressure phase lines and enthalpies for the. cap alpha. -. beta. and. beta. -liquid transitions in beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abey, A.

    1984-10-31

    The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the ..cap alpha..-..beta.. and ..beta..-liquid transition temperatures in Be was measured in a gas pressure system. Differential thermal analysis was used in the pressure range from 0.1 MPa to 0.7 GPa. For the ..cap alpha..-..beta.. transition, dT/dP = 43 +- 7 K/GPa; for the ..beta..-liquid transition, dT/dP = 35 +- 7 K/GPa. Although it is possible that large systematic errors may arise from experimental procedures, our results are seriously at odds with those of other investigators. Transition enthalpies for the ..cap alpha..-..beta.. and ..beta..-liquid transitions were 1.9 +- 0.2 and 2.2 +- 0.2 kcal/g.m., respectively, at a pressure of 0.1 MPa.

  16. A comparison of enzymatic phosphorylation and phosphatidylation of beta-L- and beta-D-nucleosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birichevskaya, Larisa L; Kvach, Sergei V; Sivets, Grigorii G; Kalinichenko, Elena N; Zinchenko, Anatoly I; Mikhailopulo, Igor A

    2007-04-01

    Enzymatic 5'-monophosphorylation and 5'-phosphatidylation of a number of beta-L- and beta-D-nucleosides was investigated. The first reaction, catalyzed by nucleoside phosphotransferase (NPT) from Erwinia herbicola, consisted of the transfer of the phosphate residue from p-nitrophenylphosphate (p-NPP) to the 5'-hydroxyl group of nucleoside; the second was the phospholipase D (PLD)-catalyzed transphosphatidylation of L-alpha-lecithin with a series of beta-L- and beta-D-nucleosides as the phosphatidyl acceptor resulted in the formation of the respective phospholipid-nucleoside conjugates. Some beta-L-nucleosides displayed similar or even higher substrate activity compared to the beta-D-enantiomers. PMID:17206374

  17. Systematic Risk on Istanbul Stock Exchange: Traditional Beta Coefficient Versus Downside Beta Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülfen TUNA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to test the validity of Downside Capital Asset Pricing Model (D-CAPM on the ISE. At the same time, the explanatory power of CAPM's traditional beta and D-CAPM's downside beta on the changes in the average return values are examined comparatively. In this context, the monthly data for seventy three stocks that are continuously traded on the ISE for the period 1991-2009 is used. Regression analysis is applied in this study. The research results have shown that D-CAPM is valid on the ISE. In addition, it is obtained that the power of downside beta coefficient is higher than traditional beta coefficient on explaining the return changes. Therefore, it can be said that the downside beta is superior to traditional beta in the ISE for chosen period.

  18. A Conserved Vector Current test using low energy beta-beams

    OpenAIRE

    Balantekin, A. B.; de Jesus, J. H.; Lazauskas, R.; Volpe, C.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of testing the weak currents and, in particular, the weak magnetism term through the measurement of the electron anti-neutrinos capture by protons at a low energy beta-beam facility. We analyze the sensitivity using both the total number of events and the angular distribution of the positrons emitted in a water Cerenkov detector. We show that the weak magnetism form factor might be determined with better than several percent accuracy using the angular distribution. ...

  19. Review of modern double beta decay experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review of modern experiments on search and studying of double beta decay processes is done. Results of the most sensitive current experiments are discussed. The main attention is paid to EXO-200, KamLAND-Zen, GERDA-I and CUORE-0 experiments. Modern values of T1/2(2ν) and best present limits on neutrinoless double beta decay and double beta decay with Majoron emission are presented. Conservative limits on effective mass of a Majorana neutrino (〈mν〉 < 0.46 eV) and a coupling constant of Majoron to neutrino (〈gee〉 < 1.3 · 10−5) are obtained. Prospects of search for neutrinoless double beta decay in new experiments with sensitivity to 〈mν〉 at the level of ∼ 0.01-0.1 eV are discussed

  20. Neutrino potential for neutrinoless double beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Iwata, Yoritaka

    2016-01-01

    Neutrino potential for neutrinoless double beta decay is studied with focusing on its statistical property. The statistics provide a gross view of understanding amplitude of constitutional components of the nuclear matrix element.

  1. Literature in Focus Beta Beams: Neutrino Beams

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    By Mats Lindroos (CERN) and Mauro Mezzetto (INFN Padova, Italy) Imperial Press, 2009 The beta-beam concept for the generation of electron neutrino beams was first proposed by Piero Zucchelli in 2002. The idea created quite a stir, challenging the idea that intense neutrino beams only could be produced from the decay of pions or muons in classical neutrino beams facilities or in future neutrino factories. The concept initially struggled to make an impact but the hard work by many machine physicists, phenomenologists and theoreticians over the last five years has won the beta-beam a well-earned position as one of the frontrunners for a possible future world laboratory for high intensity neutrino oscillation physics. This is the first complete monograph on the beta-beam concept. The book describes both technical aspects and experimental aspects of the beta-beam, providing students and scientists with an insight into the possibilities o...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: beta-mannosidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... depression, or have behavioral problems such as hyperactivity, impulsivity or aggression. People with beta-mannosidosis may experience ... and management of various health conditions: Diagnostic Tests Drug Therapy Surgery and Rehabilitation Genetic Counseling Palliative Care ...

  3. Review of modern double beta decay experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabash, A. S., E-mail: barabash@itep.ru [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (NRC ”Kurchatov Institute”), B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-28

    The review of modern experiments on search and studying of double beta decay processes is done. Results of the most sensitive current experiments are discussed. The main attention is paid to EXO-200, KamLAND-Zen, GERDA-I and CUORE-0 experiments. Modern values of T{sub 1/2}(2ν) and best present limits on neutrinoless double beta decay and double beta decay with Majoron emission are presented. Conservative limits on effective mass of a Majorana neutrino (〈m{sub ν}〉 < 0.46 eV) and a coupling constant of Majoron to neutrino (〈g{sub ee}〉 < 1.3 · 10{sup −5}) are obtained. Prospects of search for neutrinoless double beta decay in new experiments with sensitivity to 〈m{sub ν}〉 at the level of ∼ 0.01-0.1 eV are discussed.

  4. Beta decay of highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion storage rings and ion traps provide the very first opportunity to address nuclear beta decay under conditions prevailing in hot stellar plasmas during nucleosynthesis, i.e. at high atomic charge states. Experiments are summarized that were performed in this field during the last decade at the ion storage-cooler ring ESR in Darmstadt. Special emphasis is given to the first observation of bound-state beta decay, where the created electron remains bound in an inner orbital of the daughter atom. The impact of this specific 'stellar' decay mode for s-process nucleosynthesis as well as for nuclear 'eon clocks' is outlined. Finally, a new technique, single-ion decay spectroscopy, is presented, where one observes two-body beta decay characteristics (i.e. orbital electron capture or bound-state beta decay) of highly charged, single ions for well-defined nuclear and atomic quantum states of both the mother - and the daughter - ion.

  5. High-Beta and very high-beta optics studies for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Faus-Golfe, A

    2004-01-01

    New high-beta and very high-beta optics have been sought in order to find the best possible configuration for measuring elastic scattering at the LHC. They are based on the nominal powering scheme of the low-beta triplet. A list of the various possible solutions is given in this report. A particularly interesting solution has been found for a case where the phase advance in both planes at the detector are clore to pi/2.

  6. On the Proton Spectrum in Free Neutron beta-decay

    CERN Document Server

    Bunatian, G G

    2000-01-01

    We consider the calculations which are appropriate to acquire with a high precision, of ~1% or better, the general characteristics of weak interactions from the experiments on the free neutron beta-decay; the principle emphasis is placed on the phenomena associated with the recoil of protons. The part played by electromagnetic interactions in beta-decay is visualized, with special attention drawn to the influence of the gamma-radiation on the momentum distribution of the particles in the final state. The effect of electromagnetic interactions on the proton recoil spectrum is studied, in the light of the experiments which are carried out and planned for now. The results of the calculations, which are to be confronted with the experimental data, are presented upright in terms of the effective Lagrangian underlying the inquiry. Owing to electromagnetic interactions, the corrections to the energy distribution of protons prove to amount to the value of a few per cent. Nowadays, this is substantial to obtain with a...

  7. The {\\beta} Pictoris disk imaged by Herschel PACS and SPIRE

    CERN Document Server

    Vandenbussche, B; Acke, B; Pantin, E; Olofsson, G; Waelkens, C; Dominik, C; Barlow, M J; Blommaert, J A D L; Bouwman, J; Brandeker, A; Cohen, M; DeMeester, W; Dent, W R F; Exter, K; Di Francesco, J; Fridlund, M; Gear, W K; Glauser, A M; Gomez, H L; Greaves, J S; Hargrave, P C; Harvey, P M; Henning, Th; Heras, A M; Hogerheijde, M R; Holland, W S; Huygen, R; Ivison, R J; Jean, C; Leeks, S J; Lim, T L; Liseau, R; Matthews, B C; Naylor, D A; Pilbratt, G L; Polehampton, E T; Regibo, S; Royer, P; Sicilia-Aguilar, A; Swinyard, B M; Walker, H J; Wesson, R

    2010-01-01

    We obtained Herschel PACS and SPIRE images of the thermal emission of the debris disk around the A5V star {\\beta} Pic. The disk is well resolved in the PACS filters at 70, 100, and 160 {\\mu}m. The surface brightness profiles between 70 and 160 {\\mu}m show no significant asymmetries along the disk, and are compatible with 90% of the emission between 70 and 160 {\\mu}m originating in a region closer than 200 AU to the star. Although only marginally resolving the debris disk, the maps obtained in the SPIRE 250 - 500 {\\mu}m filters provide full-disk photometry, completing the SED over a few octaves in wavelength that had been previously inaccessible. The small far-infrared spectral index ({\\beta} = 0.34) indicates that the grain size distribution in the inner disk (<200AU) is inconsistent with a local collisional equilibrium. The size distribution is either modified by non-equilibrium effects, or exhibits a wavy pattern, caused by an under-abundance of impactors which have been removed by radiation pressure.

  8. A simultaneous beta and coincidence-gamma imaging system for plant leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Homayoon; Wen, Jie; Mathews, Aswin J.; Komarov, Sergey; Wang, Qiang; Li, Ke; O’Sullivan, Joseph A.; Tai, Yuan-Chuan

    2016-05-01

    Positron emitting isotopes, such as 11C, 13N, and 18F, can be used to label molecules. The tracers, such as 11CO2, are delivered to plants to study their biological processes, particularly metabolism and photosynthesis, which may contribute to the development of plants that have a higher yield of crops and biomass. Measurements and resulting images from PET scanners are not quantitative in young plant structures or in plant leaves due to poor positron annihilation in thin objects. To address this problem we have designed, assembled, modeled, and tested a nuclear imaging system (simultaneous beta–gamma imager). The imager can simultaneously detect positrons ({β+} ) and coincidence-gamma rays (γ). The imaging system employs two planar detectors; one is a regular gamma detector which has a LYSO crystal array, and the other is a phoswich detector which has an additional BC-404 plastic scintillator for beta detection. A forward model for positrons is proposed along with a joint image reconstruction formulation to utilize the beta and coincidence-gamma measurements for estimating radioactivity distribution in plant leaves. The joint reconstruction algorithm first reconstructs beta and gamma images independently to estimate the thickness component of the beta forward model and afterward jointly estimates the radioactivity distribution in the object. We have validated the physics model and reconstruction framework through a phantom imaging study and imaging a tomato leaf that has absorbed 11CO2. The results demonstrate that the simultaneously acquired beta and coincidence-gamma data, combined with our proposed joint reconstruction algorithm, improved the quantitative accuracy of estimating radioactivity distribution in thin objects such as leaves. We used the structural similarity (SSIM) index for comparing the leaf images from the simultaneous beta–gamma imager with the ground truth image. The jointly reconstructed images yield SSIM indices of 0.69 and 0.63, whereas

  9. Genetic counselling in the beta-thalassaemias

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannides, Adonis S.

    2013-01-01

    The beta-thalassaemias are very important genetic disorders of haemoglobin synthesis and are amongst the commonest monogenic disorders. In view of the severity of beta-thalassaemia major, a number of screening programmes have been developed aimed at reducing the number of individuals born with the condition. Genetic counsellingplays a vital role in this process supporting the successful implementation of screening and delineating available options to at risk individuals. This review assesses ...

  10. Searches for neutrinoless double beta decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingenheuer, Bernhard

    2012-07-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is a lepton number violating process whose observation would also establish that neutrinos are their own anti-particles. There are many experimental efforts with a variety of techniques. Some (EXO, Kamland-Zen, GERDA phase I and CANDLES) started take data in 2011 and EXO has reported the first measurement of the half life for the double beta decay with two neutrinos of 136Xe. The sensitivities of the different proposals are reviewed.

  11. Searches for neutrinoless double beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Schwingenheuer, B

    2012-01-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is a lepton number violating process whose observation would also establish that neutrinos are their own anti-particles. There are many experimental efforts with a variety of techniques. Some (EXO, Kamland-Zen, GERDA phase I and CANDLES) started take data in 2011 and EXO has reported the first measurement of the half life for the double beta decay with two neutrinos of $^{136}$Xe. The sensitivities of the different proposals are reviewed.

  12. Micro-battery Development using beta radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear battery which use the beta radiation sources emitting the low penetration radiation energy from radioisotope can be applied as the long term (more than 10 years) micro power source in MEMS and nano components. This report describes the basic concept and principles of nuclear micro-battery and its fabrication in space and military field. In particular direct conversion method is described by investigating the electron-hole generation and recombination in p-n junction of silicon betavoltaics with beta radiation

  13. Conditionally parametric fits for CAPM betas

    OpenAIRE

    Abberger, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    The CAPM model assumes stock returns to be a linear function of the market return. However, there is considerable evidence that the beta stability assumption commonly used when estimating the model is invalid. Nonparametric regression methods are used to examine the stability of beta coefficients in German stock returns. Since local polynomial regression is used for estimation, known methods for testing the stability and for bandwidth choice can be used. For some returns the test indicates ti...

  14. Unexpected pattern of beta-globin mutations in beta-thalassaemia patients from northern Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Cabeda, J.; Correia, C.; Estevinho, A.; Simões, C.; Amorim, M; L. Pinho; Justiça, B

    1999-01-01

    We characterized the genetic nature of beta-thalassaemia in northern Portugal. Of the 164 patients studied three were beta-thalassaemia major cases (one IVS-1-6/beta degrees 39 and two homozygous IVS-1-110). The analysis of the frequency of each mutation in the families revealed that the codon 6(-A) mutation was unexpectedly frequent (40%) and associated with the beta-globin haplotype E, and not with the usual European and North African CD6(-A) haplotypes. In contrast, the frequency of IVS-1-...

  15. The effect of physical therapy on beta-endorphin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Tamás; Nagy, György; Barna, István; Tefner, Ildikó; Kádas, Eva; Géher, Pál

    2007-07-01

    Beta-endorphin (betaE) is an important reliever of pain. Various stressors and certain modalities of physiotherapy are potent inducers of the release of endogenous betaE to the blood stream. Most forms of exercise also increase blood betaE level, especially when exercise intensity involves reaching the anaerobic threshold and is associated with the elevation of serum lactate level. Age, gender, and mental activity during exercise also may influence betaE levels. Publications on the potential stimulating effect of manual therapy and massage on betaE release are controversial. Sauna, mud bath, and thermal water increase betaE levels through conveying heat to the tissues. The majority of the techniques for electrical stimulation have a similar effect, which is exerted both centrally and--to a lesser extent--peripherally. However, the parameters of electrotherapy have not yet been standardised. The efficacy of analgesia and the improvement of general well-being do not necessarily correlate with betaE level. Although in addition to blood, increased brain and cerebrospinal fluid betaE levels are also associated with pain, the majority of studies have concerned blood betaE levels. In general, various modalities of physical therapy might influence endorphin levels in the serum or in the cerebrospinal fluid--this is usually manifested by elevation with potential mitigation of pain. However, a causal relationship between the elevation of blood, cerebrospinal fluid or brain betaE levels and the onset of the analgesic action cannot be demonstrated with certainty. PMID:17483960

  16. Beta adrenergic receptors in human cavernous tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta adrenergic receptor binding was performed with 125I iodocyanopindolol on human cavernous tissue membrane fractions from normal tissue and transsexual procedures obtained postoperatively, as well as from postmortem sources. Isotherm binding studies on normal fresh tissues indicated that the receptor density was 9.1 fmoles/mg. with a KD of 23 pM. Tissue stored at room temperature for 4 to 6 hours, then at 4C in saline solution for 19 to 20 hours before freezing showed no significant changes in receptor density or affinity, and provided evidence for the stability of postmortem tissue obtained within the same time period. Beta receptor density of 2 cavernous preparations from transsexual procedures was not significantly different from normal control tissues, and showed that high concentrations of estrogen received by these patients had no effect on beta adrenergic receptor density. Displacement of 125iodocyanopindolol by 5 beta adrenergic agents demonstrated that 1-propranolol had the greatest affinity followed by ICI 118,551, zinterol, metoprolol and practolol. When the results of these displacement studies were subjected to Scatfit, non- linear regression line analysis, a single binding site was described. Based on the relative potency of the selective beta adrenergic agents it appears that these receptors were of the beta 2 subtype

  17. Beta adrenergic receptors in human cavernous tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhabuwala, C.B.; Ramakrishna, C.V.; Anderson, G.F.

    1985-04-01

    Beta adrenergic receptor binding was performed with /sup 125/I iodocyanopindolol on human cavernous tissue membrane fractions from normal tissue and transsexual procedures obtained postoperatively, as well as from postmortem sources. Isotherm binding studies on normal fresh tissues indicated that the receptor density was 9.1 fmoles/mg. with a KD of 23 pM. Tissue stored at room temperature for 4 to 6 hours, then at 4C in saline solution for 19 to 20 hours before freezing showed no significant changes in receptor density or affinity, and provided evidence for the stability of postmortem tissue obtained within the same time period. Beta receptor density of 2 cavernous preparations from transsexual procedures was not significantly different from normal control tissues, and showed that high concentrations of estrogen received by these patients had no effect on beta adrenergic receptor density. Displacement of /sup 125/iodocyanopindolol by 5 beta adrenergic agents demonstrated that 1-propranolol had the greatest affinity followed by ICI 118,551, zinterol, metoprolol and practolol. When the results of these displacement studies were subjected to Scatfit, non- linear regression line analysis, a single binding site was described. Based on the relative potency of the selective beta adrenergic agents it appears that these receptors were of the beta 2 subtype.

  18. Genetic analysis of beta1 integrin "activation motifs" in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czuchra, Aleksandra; Meyer, Hannelore; Legate, Kyle R;

    2006-01-01

    /beta tails, leading to tail separation and integrin activation. We analyzed mice in which we mutated the tyrosines of the beta1 tail and the membrane-proximal aspartic acid required for the salt bridge. Tyrosine-to-alanine substitutions abolished beta1 integrin functions and led to a beta1 integrin...

  19. Polymer additives in fluid turbulence and distributed chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Bershadskii, A

    2016-01-01

    The fluids and polymers have different fundamental symmetries. Namely, the Lagrangian relabeling symmetry of fluids is absent for polymers (while the translational and rotational symmetries are still present). This fact results in spontaneous breaking of the relabeling symmetry in fluid turbulence even at a tiny polymer addition. Since helicity conservation in inviscid fluid motions is a consequence of the relabeling symmetry (due to the Noether's theorem) violation of this conservation by the polymer additives results in the strong effects in the distributed chaos. The distributed chaos in turbulence with the spontaneously broken relabeling symmetry is characterized by stretched exponential spectra $\\propto \\exp(-k/k_{\\beta})^{\\beta}$ with $\\beta =2/5$. The spectral range of this distributed chaos is extended in direction of the small wavenumbers and $k_{\\beta}$ becomes much larger in comparison with the pure fluid (Newtonian) case. This results in substantial suppression of small-scale turbulence and large-...

  20. Investigating the Influence of Mesoporosity in Zeolite Beta on its Catalytic Performance for the Conversion of Methanol to Hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Zhaohui

    2015-08-26

    Hierarchically porous zeolite Beta (Beta-MS) synthesized by a soft-templating method contains remarkable intra-crystalline mesoporosity, which reduces the diffusion length in zeolite channels down to several nanometers and alters the distribution of Al among distinct crystallographic sites. When used as a catalyst for the conversion of methanol to hydrocarbons (MTH) at 330 oC, Beta-MS exhibited a 2.7-fold larger conversion capacity, a 2.0-fold faster reaction rate, and a remarkably longer lifetime than conventional zeolite Beta (Beta-C). The superior catalytic performance of Beta-MS is attributed to its hierarchical structure, which offers full accessibility to all catalytic active sites. In contrast, Beta-C was easily deactivated because a layer of coke quickly deposited on the outer surfaces of the catalyst crystals, impeding access to interior active sites. This difference is clearly demonstrated by using electron microscopy combined with electron energy loss spectroscopy to probe the distribution of coke in the deactivated catalysts. At both low and high conversions, ranging from 20% to 100%, Beta-MS gave higher selectivity towards higher aliphatics (C4-C7) but lower ethene selectivity compared to Beta-C. Therefore, we conclude that a hierarchical structure decreases the residence time of methylbenzenes in zeolite micropores, disfavoring the propagation of the aromatic-based catalytic cycle. This conclusion is consistent with a recent report on ZSM-5 and is also strongly supported by our analysis of soluble coke species residing in the catalysts. Moreover, we identified an oxygen-containing compound, 4-methyl-benzaldehyde, in the coke, which has not been observed in the MTH reaction before.  

  1. Solved problems in analysis as applied to gamma, beta, Legendre and Bessel functions

    CERN Document Server

    Farrell, Orin J

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 200 problems, each with a detailed, worked-out solution, deal with the properties and applications of the gamma and beta functions, Legendre polynomials, and Bessel functions. The first two chapters examine gamma and beta functions, including applications to certain geometrical and physical problems such as heat-flow in a straight wire. The following two chapters treat Legendre polynomials, addressing applications to specific series expansions, steady-state heat-flow temperature distribution, gravitational potential of a circular lamina, and application of Gauss's mechanical quadrature

  2. How Ionic Strength Affects the Conformational Behavior of Human and Rat Beta Amyloids - A Computational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kriz Z.; Klusak J.; Kristofikova Z.; Koca J.

    2016-01-01

    Progressive cerebral deposition of amyloid beta occurs in Alzheimeŕs disease and during the aging of certain mammals (human, monkey, dog, bear, cow, cat) but not others (rat, mouse). It is possibly due to different amino acid sequences at positions 5, 10 and 13. To address this issue, we performed series of 100 ns long trajectories (each trajectory was run twice with different initial velocity distribution) on amyloid beta (1–42) with the human and rat amino acid sequence in three different e...

  3. A note on starch hydrolysis and beta-glucuronidase activity among flavobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzel, J P; Hartman, P A

    1986-11-01

    Most flavobacteria tested with the fluorogenic substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide possessed beta-glucuronidase (GUD), but when some of the same strains were tested with the API ZYM gallery, all were negative for GUD. Conflicting reports also appear in the literature about starch hydrolysis among flavobacteria. We observed that the results obtained can depend on the medium used and the length of incubation. Our results indicate that GUD activity and starch hydrolysis are more widely distributed in the genus Flavobacterium than previously reported. PMID:3804862

  4. Numerical modeling of large-area beta sources constructed from anodized-aluminum foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The numerical modeling of large-area beta sources constructed from anodized-aluminum foils is described in this paper. Based on a realistic model for the activity depth distribution, theoretical lower and upper bounds for the efficiency and the transmission coefficient were calculated and used to analyze the comparison method recommended by ISO 8769 for measuring the surface emission rate. The analysis shows that this method can provide measurement results with relative standard uncertainties smaller than 3% for high energy beta emitters such as 90Sr–90Y, 36Cl and 204Tl.

  5. The beta-adrenoceptors mediating relaxation of rat oesophageal muscularis mucosae are predominantly of the beta 3-, but also of the beta 2-subtype.

    OpenAIRE

    de Boer, R. E.; Brouwer, F.; Zaagsma, J

    1993-01-01

    1. beta-Adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation of rat oesophageal smooth muscle was investigated by studying the effects of beta 1- and beta 2-selective antagonists on the relaxation induced by (-)-isoprenaline, the beta 2-selective agonists fenoterol and clenbuterol and the beta 3-agonist, BRL 37344. 2. The highly beta 1-selective antagonist CGP 20721A did not antagonize (-)-isoprenaline- or BRL 37344-induced relaxations in concentrations up to 10 microM. Only at 100 microM of CGP 20712A were clea...

  6. Tissue-specific increases in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in normal weight postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therése Andersson

    Full Text Available With age and menopause there is a shift in adipose distribution from gluteo-femoral to abdominal depots in women. Associated with this redistribution of fat are increased risks of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Glucocorticoids influence body composition, and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1 which converts inert cortisone to active cortisol is a putative key mediator of metabolic complications in obesity. Increased 11betaHSD1 in adipose tissue may contribute to postmenopausal central obesity. We hypothesized that tissue-specific 11betaHSD1 gene expression and activity are up-regulated in the older, postmenopausal women compared to young, premenopausal women. Twenty-three pre- and 23 postmenopausal, healthy, normal weight women were recruited. The participants underwent a urine collection, a subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy and the hepatic 11betaHSD1 activity was estimated by the serum cortisol response after an oral dose of cortisone. Urinary (5alpha-tetrahydrocortisol+5beta-tetrahydrocortisol/tetrahydrocortisone ratios were higher in postmenopausal women versus premenopausal women in luteal phase (P<0.05, indicating an increased whole-body 11betaHSD1 activity. Postmenopausal women had higher 11betaHSD1 gene expression in subcutaneous fat (P<0.05. Hepatic first pass conversion of oral cortisone to cortisol was also increased in postmenopausal women versus premenopausal women in follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (P<0.01, at 30 min post cortisone ingestion, suggesting higher hepatic 11betaHSD1 activity. In conclusion, our results indicate that postmenopausal normal weight women have increased 11betaHSD1 activity in adipose tissue and liver. This may contribute to metabolic dysfunctions with menopause and ageing in women.

  7. New model for nucleon generalized parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radyushkin, Anatoly V. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new type of models for nucleon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) H and E. They are heavily based on the fact nucleon GPDs require to use two forms of double distribution (DD) representations. The outcome of the new treatment is that the usual DD+D-term construction should be amended by an extra term, {xi} E{sub +}{sup 1} (x,{xi}) which has the DD structure {alpha}/{beta} e({beta},{alpha}, with e({beta},{alpha}) being the DD that generates GPD E(x,{xi}). We found that this function, unlike the D-term, has support in the whole -1 <= x <= 1 region. Furthermore, it does not vanish at the border points |x|={xi}.

  8. TP53 and Beta-catenin mutations in liver tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Hainaut

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    HBV and HCV play key roles in the etiopathogenesis of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC . Studies mostly based on cases from Western countries suggest distinct genetic pathways of carcinogenesis involving either TP53 or CTTNB1 mutations. Inappropriate reactivation of Wnt pathway due to mutations in CTNNB1 (Beta-Catenin gene itself is also frequently reported. Mutant Beta-catenin escapes to ubiquitination and down regulation by GSK3-B, it accumulates and trans-activates variety of oncogenes involved in neoplasmic transformation mimicking Wnt pathway activation. Taking into consideration viral infection, chromosome instability and TP53 /Beta-catenin alterations, Laurent-Puig et al. described two distinct HCC profiles in a serie of 137 HCC cases , the first one associates HBV infection with frequent chromosomal alteration and distributes with TP53 mutations, the second would be observed in HBV negative large sized tumors and distributes with Beta-catenin mutations. We have investigated the status of HBV and HCV infections and of genetic alterations in TP53 and CTTNB1 in 26 patients with HCC from Thailand. In tumours, HBV DNA was found in 19 cases (73% and HCV RNA in 4 cases (15.4% cases, 3 of whom were co-infected. Among the 19 HBV positive cases, sequencing of S gene showed genotype C in 82% and genotype B in 18%. Furthermore, 5/19 cases were negative for HBsAg and were categorized as occult HBV infections. TP53 mutations were detected in 9 cases (34,6% including 7 mutations at codon 249 (AGG to AGT, arginine to serine, considered as ";fingerprint"; of mutagenesis by aflatoxin metabolites. All cases with 249ser mutation had overt HBV infection.

    CTNNB1 mutations were found in 6/26 cases (23%, 4 of whom also had TP53 mutation. There was no significant association between CTTNB1

  9. Beta-Negative Binomial Process and Poisson Factor Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Mingyuan; Hannah, Lauren; Dunson, David; Carin, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    A beta-negative binomial (BNB) process is proposed, leading to a beta-gamma-Poisson process, which may be viewed as a "multi-scoop" generalization of the beta-Bernoulli process. The BNB process is augmented into a beta-gamma-gamma-Poisson hierarchical structure, and applied as a nonparametric Bayesian prior for an infinite Poisson factor analysis model. A finite approximation for the beta process Levy random measure is constructed for convenient implementation. Efficient MCMC computations are...

  10. Oligomerization and toxicity of A{beta} fusion proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caine, Joanne M., E-mail: Jo.Caine@csiro.au [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering and the Preventive Health Flagship, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Bharadwaj, Prashant R. [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering and the Preventive Health Flagship, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Centre for Excellence for Alzheimer' s Disease Research and Care, School of Exercise, Biomedical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Western Australia (Australia); Sankovich, Sonia E. [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering and the Preventive Health Flagship, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Ciccotosto, Giuseppe D. [The Department of Pathology and Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Streltsov, Victor A.; Varghese, Jose [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering and the Preventive Health Flagship, Parkville, Victoria (Australia)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} We expressed amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}) peptide as a soluble maltose binding protein fusion (MBP-A{beta}42 and MBP-A{beta}16). {yields} The full length A{beta} peptide fusion, MBP-A{beta}42, forms oligomeric species as determined by SDS-PAGE gels, gel filtration and DLS. {yields} The MBP-A{beta}42, but not MBP-A{beta}16 or MBP alone, is toxic to both yeast and mammalian cells as determined by toxicity assays. -- Abstract: This study has found that the Maltose binding protein A{beta}42 fusion protein (MBP-A{beta}42) forms soluble oligomers while the shorter MBP-A{beta}16 fusion and control MBP did not. MBP-A{beta}42, but neither MBP-A{beta}16 nor control MBP, was toxic in a dose-dependent manner in both yeast and primary cortical neuronal cells. This study demonstrates the potential utility of MBP-A{beta}42 as a reagent for drug screening assays in yeast and neuronal cell cultures and as a candidate for further A{beta}42 characterization.

  11. Beta Gyres in Global Analysis Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun-Hee KIM; H.Joe KWON; R.L.ELSBERRY

    2009-01-01

    A three-component decomposition is applied to global analysis data to show the existence of a beta gyre,which causes Tropical Cyclone (TC) to drift from a large-scale environmental steering current.Analyses from the Global Data Assimilation and Prediction System (GDAPS) of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA),the Global Forecast System (GFS) of NCEP,and the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS) are used in this study.The structure of the beta gyre obtained in our analyses is in good agreement with the theoretical structure,with a cyclonic circulation to the southwest of the TC center,an anticyclonic circulation to the northeast,and a ventilation flow directed northwestward near the center.The circulation of the beta gyre is strongest at the 850-hPa level where the cyclonically swirling primary circulation is strongest,and decreases with height,in a pyramid shape similar to the primary circulation.The individual structure of the beta gyre is case- and model-dependent.At a certain analysis time,one model may clearly reveal a well-defined beta gyre,but the other models may not.Within one model,the beta gyre may be well defined at some analysis times,but not at other times.The structure of the beta gyre in the analysis field is determined by the nature of the vortex initialization scheme and the model behavior during the 6-h forecast in the operational data assimilation cycle.

  12. Simulation of the dose rate per activity of beta-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dose rate per activity was simulated for 10 beta-emitting radionuclides and for different activity distributions (point source, areal sources and a semi-infinite volume source). The results are given for 7 different distances from the source (from 0.01 to 2 m) for both contributions: the beta- and electron-emission, and the X- and gamma-emission. Data are provided for both operational quantities and organ doses: Hp(0.07), Hp(3), Hp(10), Hskin and Hlens. Finally, a software application to interpolate the dose rate per activity due to the beta-emission of arbitrary radionuclides is presented and a simple superposition of these data and of gamma-ray dose constants to calculate the total dose rate is described. (authors)

  13. Detrimental effects of beta-blockers in COPD - A concern for nonselective beta-blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, HJ; Zaagsma, J; Postma, DS; Winter, TH; van Hulst, M; Aalbers, R

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: beta-Blockers are known to worsen FEV1 and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in patients with asthma. Both characteristics determine the outcome of COPD, a disease with frequent cardiac comorbidity requiring beta-blocker treatment. Design: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized,

  14. Mrp2 is essential for estradiol-17 beta(beta-D-glucuronide)-induced cholestasis in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, LY; Smit, JW; Meijer, DKF; Vore, M

    2000-01-01

    The present study evaluates the roles of the multidrug resistance-1 P-glycoprotein, Mdr1a/1b, the bile salt export pump (Bsep), and the multidrug resistance-associated protein-2 (Mrp2) in mediating cholestasis induced by estradiol-17 beta(beta-D-glucuronide) (E(2)17G). Administration of [H-3]E(2)17G

  15. Production of beta-xylanase and beta-xylosidase by the extremely halophilic archaeon Halorhabdus utahensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wainø, M.; Ingvorsen, K.

    2003-01-01

    The extremely halophilic archaeon, Halorhabdus utahensis, isolated from the Great Salt Lake, Utah, produced beta-xylanase and beta-xylosidase activities. Both enzymes were active over a broad NaCl range from near zero to 30% NaCl when tested with culture broth. A broad NaCl optimum was observed f...

  16. Primary and scattering contributions to beta scaled dose point kernels by means of Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta-emitters have proved to be appropriate for radioimmunotherapy. The dosimetric characterization of each radionuclide has to be carefully investigated. One usual and practical dosimetric approach is the calculation of dose distribution from a unit point source emitting particles according to any radionuclide of interest, which is known as dose point kernel. Absorbed dose distributions are due to primary and radiation scattering contributions. This work presented a method capable of performing dose distributions for nuclear medicine dosimetry by means of Monte Carlo methods. Dedicated subroutines have been developed in order to separately compute primary and scattering contributions to the total absorbed dose, performing particle transport up to 1 keV or least. Preliminarily, the suitability of the calculation method has been satisfactory, being tested for monoenergetic sources, and it was further applied to the characterization of different beta-minus radionuclides of nuclear medicine interests for radioimmunotherapy. (author)

  17. Changes in tissue blood flow and beta-receptor density of skeletal muscle in rats treated with the beta2-adrenoceptor agonist clenbuterol.

    OpenAIRE

    Rothwell, N. J.; Stock, M J; Sudera, D. K.

    1987-01-01

    Rats injected with the beta2-adrenoceptor agonist clenbuterol (2 mg kg-1 per day) for 18 days gained significantly more weight than controls. Tissue blood flow assessed 24 h after the last injection from the distribution of radiolabelled microspheres was increased in white (5 fold) and brown (3 fold) adipose tissue of clenbuterol-treated rats but was unaffected in kidney, brain and diaphragm, and was reduced by about 80% in skeletal muscle. Acute injection of clenbuterol one hour before measu...

  18. SU-E-J-03: A Comprehensive Comparison Between Alpha and Beta Emitters for Cancer Radioimmunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, C.Y. [University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); Guatelli, S [University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Oborn, B [Illawarra Cancer Care Centre, Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Allen, B [University of Western Sydney, Liverpool, NSW (Australia)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to perform a comprehensive comparison of the therapeutic efficacy and cytotoxicity of alpha and beta emitters for Radioimmunotherapy (RIT). For each stage of cancer development, specific models were built for the separate objectives of RIT to be addressed:a) kill isolated cancer cells in transit in the lymphatic and vascular circulation,b) regress avascular cell clusters,c) regress tumor vasculature and tumors. Methods: Because of the nature of short range, high LET alpha and long energy beta radiation and heterogeneous antigen expression among cancer cells, the microdosimetric approach is essential for the RIT assessment. Geant4 based microdosimetric models are developed for the three different stages of cancer progression: cancer cells, cell clusters and tumors. The energy deposition, specific energy resulted from different source distribution in the three models was calculated separately for 4 alpha emitting radioisotopes ({sup 211}At, {sup 213}Bi, {sup 223}Ra and {sup 225}Ac) and 6 beta emitters ({sup 32}P, {sup 33}P, {sup 67}Cu, {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I and {sup 177}Lu). The cell survival, therapeutic efficacy and cytotoxicity are determined and compared between alpha and beta emitters. Results: We show that internal targeted alpha radiation has advantages over beta radiation for killing isolated cancer cells, regressing small cell clusters and also solid tumors. Alpha particles have much higher dose specificity and potency than beta particles. They can deposit 3 logs more dose than beta emitters to single cells and solid tumor. Tumor control probability relies on deep penetration of radioisotopes to cancer cell clusters and solid tumors. Conclusion: The results of this study provide a quantitative understanding of the efficacy and cytotoxicity of RIT for each stage of cancer development.

  19. SU-E-J-03: A Comprehensive Comparison Between Alpha and Beta Emitters for Cancer Radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to perform a comprehensive comparison of the therapeutic efficacy and cytotoxicity of alpha and beta emitters for Radioimmunotherapy (RIT). For each stage of cancer development, specific models were built for the separate objectives of RIT to be addressed:a) kill isolated cancer cells in transit in the lymphatic and vascular circulation,b) regress avascular cell clusters,c) regress tumor vasculature and tumors. Methods: Because of the nature of short range, high LET alpha and long energy beta radiation and heterogeneous antigen expression among cancer cells, the microdosimetric approach is essential for the RIT assessment. Geant4 based microdosimetric models are developed for the three different stages of cancer progression: cancer cells, cell clusters and tumors. The energy deposition, specific energy resulted from different source distribution in the three models was calculated separately for 4 alpha emitting radioisotopes (211At, 213Bi, 223Ra and 225Ac) and 6 beta emitters (32P, 33P, 67Cu, 90Y, 131I and 177Lu). The cell survival, therapeutic efficacy and cytotoxicity are determined and compared between alpha and beta emitters. Results: We show that internal targeted alpha radiation has advantages over beta radiation for killing isolated cancer cells, regressing small cell clusters and also solid tumors. Alpha particles have much higher dose specificity and potency than beta particles. They can deposit 3 logs more dose than beta emitters to single cells and solid tumor. Tumor control probability relies on deep penetration of radioisotopes to cancer cell clusters and solid tumors. Conclusion: The results of this study provide a quantitative understanding of the efficacy and cytotoxicity of RIT for each stage of cancer development

  20. Distribution of technetium in PUREX process streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of 99Tc in various streams of the process is a difficult task as it is pure beta emitter. With this in view, a γ-emitting relatively long-lived radioisotope of technetium (95Tc) has been used in the present work as a tracer and its distribution in various streams of the Purex process is studied

  1. Competition of $\\beta$-delayed protons and $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$ rays in $^{56}$Zn and the exotic $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$-proton decay

    CERN Document Server

    Orrigo, S E A; Fujita, Y; Blank, B; Gelletly, W; Agramunt, J; Algora, A; Ascher, P; Bilgier, B; Cáceres, L; Cakirli, R B; Fujita, H; Ganioglu, E; Gerbaux, M; Giovinazzo, J; Grévy, S; Kamalou, O; Kozer, H C; Kucuk, L; Kurtukian-Nieto, T; Molina, F; Popescu, L; Rogers, A M; Susoy, G; Stodel, C; Suzuki, T; Tamii, A; Thomas, J C

    2016-01-01

    Remarkable results have been published recently on the $\\beta$ decay of $^{56}$Zn. In particular, the rare and exotic $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$-proton emission has been detected for the first time in the $fp$ shell. Here we focus the discussion on this exotic decay mode and on the observed competition between $\\beta$-delayed protons and $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$ rays from the Isobaric Analogue State.

  2. Regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) after ionizing radiation; Regulation der Glykogen Synthase Kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) nach ionisierender Strahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehme, K.A.

    2006-12-15

    Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) phosphorylates the Mdm2 protein in the central domain. This phosphorylation is absolutely required for p53 degradation. Ionizing radiation inactivates GSK-3{beta} by phosphorylation at serine 9 and in consequence prevents Mdm2 mediated p53 degradation. During the work for my PhD I identified Akt/PKB as the kinase that phosphorylates GSK-3{beta} at serine 9 after ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation leads to phosphorylation of Akt/PKB at threonine 308 and serine 473. The PI3 Kinase inhibitor LY294002 completely abolished Akt/PKB serine 473 phosphorylation and prevented the induction of GSK-3{beta} serine 9 phosphorylation after ionizing radiation. Interestingly, the most significant activation of Akt/PKB after ionizing radiation occurred in the nucleus while cytoplasmic Akt/PKB was only weakly activated after radiation. By using siRNA, I showed that Akt1/PKBa, but not Akt2/PKB{beta}, is required for phosphorylation of GSK- 3{beta} at serine 9 after ionizing radiation. Phosphorylation and activation of Akt/PKB after ionizing radiation depends on the DNA dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), a member of the PI3 Kinase family, that is activated by free DNA ends. Both, in cells from SCID mice and after knockdown of the catalytic subunit of DNA-PK by siRNA in osteosarcoma cells, phosphorylation of Akt/PKB at serine 473 and of GSK-3{beta} at serine 9 was completely abolished. Consistent with the principle that phosphorylation of GSK-3 at serine 9 contributes to p53 stabilization after radiation, the accumulation of p53 in response to ionizing radiation was largely prevented by downregulation of DNA-PK. From these results I conclude, that ionizing radiation induces a signaling cascade that leads to Akt1/PKBa activation mediated by DNA-PK dependent phosphorylation of serine 473. After activation Akt1/PKBa phosphorylates and inhibits GSK-3{beta} in the nucleus. The resulting hypophosphorylated form of Mdm2 protein is no longer

  3. Verification of MCNP5-1.60 and MCNP6-Beta-2 for Criticality Safety Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To verify that both MCNP5-1.60 and MCNP6-Beta-2 are performing correctly for criticality safety applications, several suites of verification/validation benchmark problems were run in early 2012. Results from these benchmark suites were compared with results from previously verified versions of MCNP5. The goals of this verification testing were: (1) Verify that MCNP5-1.60 works correctly for nuclear criticality safety applications, producing the same results as for the previous verification performed in 2010; (2) Determine the sensitivity to computer roundoff using different Fortran-90 compilers for building MCNP5 and MCNP6, to support moving to current versions of the compilers; and (3) Verify that MCNP6-Beta-2 works correctly for nuclear criticality safety applications, producing the same results as for MCNP5-1.60. This provides support for eventual migration of users and applications to MCNP6. The current production version of MCNP5 included in the RSICC release package is MCNP5-1.60. This version was first distributed by RSICC in October 2010. While there were subsequent RSICC distributions of the MCNP package in July 2011 and February 2012, no changes were made to MCNP5-1.60. The RSICC release package in February 2012 included both MCNP5-1.60 and the current beta version of MCNP6, MCNP6-Beta-2. MCNP6 is the merger of MCNP5 and MCNPX capabilities. The current release of MCNP6 available from RSICC as of February 2012 is MCNP6-Beta-2. This version includes all of the features for criticality safety calculations that are available in MCNP5-1.60, and many new features largely unrelated to nuclear criticality safety calculations. This release is a 'beta' release to allow intermediate and advanced users to begin testing the merged code in their field of expertise. It should not be used for production calculations.

  4. Prenatal expression of interleukin 1beta and interleukin 6 in the rat pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, J A; Carretero, J; Alonso, M I; Martín, C; Gato, A; Mano, A de la

    2008-12-01

    It is known that interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are expressed post-natally in normal and tumoral cells in the anterior pituitary, and that they play a role in both the liberation of different hormones and in the growth, proliferation and tumor formation of the pituitary gland. However, their expression and role during embryonic and fetal development remain unknown. We have performed an immunocytochemistry study of prenatal expression and distribution of IL-1beta and IL-6 in isolated embryonic rat Rathke's pouch prior to birth, more specifically between 13.5 and 19.5 days p.c. Western-blot analysis carried out on 19.5-day p.c. embryos showed positive immunolabelling for IL-1beta and IL-6. These interleukins were initially expressed simultaneously in the rostral and ventral portions of Rathke's pouch in 15.5-day p.c. embryos, and this expression progressed caudodorsally in later developmental stages, extending to most of the hypophysis before birth. The number of cells expressing these interleukins increased throughout this period: 48.22% of anterior pituitary cells expressed IL-6 in 19.5-day embryos, whilst IL-1beta was positive in 39.8% of the cells. Moreover, we have demonstrated that some adenohypophyseal cells co-express both interleukins. Such findings represent the first step towards an understanding of the physiological role of these interleukins in anterior pituitary development. PMID:19041259

  5. [2,4-13 C2 ]-beta-Hydroxybutyrate metabolism in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jullie W; de Graaf, Robin A; Petersen, Kitt F; Shulman, Gerald I; Hetherington, Hoby P; Rothman, Douglas L

    2002-07-01

    Infusions of [2,4-13C2]-beta-hydroxybutyrate and 1H-13C polarization transfer spectroscopy were used in normal human subjects to detect the entry and metabolism of beta-hydroxybutyrate in the brain. During the 2-hour infusion study, 13C label was detectable in the beta-hydroxybutyrate resonance positions and in the amino acid pools of glutamate, glutamine, and aspartate. With a plasma concentration of 2.25 +/- 0.24 mmol/L (four volunteers), the apparent tissue beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration reached 0.18 +/- 0.06 mmol/L during the last 20 minutes of the study. The relative fractional enrichment of 13C-4-glutamate labeling was 6.78 +/- 1.71%, whereas 13C-4-glutamine was 5.68 +/- 1.84%. Steady-state modeling of the 13C label distribution in glutamate and glutamine suggests that, under these conditions, the consumption of the beta-hydroxybutyrate is predominantly neuronal, used at a rate of 0.032 +/- 0.009 mmol. kg-1. min-1, and accounts for 6.4 +/- 1.6% of total acetyl coenzyme A oxidation. These results are consistent with minimal accumulation of cerebral ketones with rapid utilization, implying blood-brain barrier control of ketone oxidation in the nonfasted adult human brain. PMID:12142574

  6. A Comparison of the Exact Kruskal-Wallis Distribution to Asymptotic Approximations for All Sample Sizes up to 105

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J. Patrick; Seaman, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors generated exact probability distributions for sample sizes up to 35 in each of three groups ("n" less than or equal to 105) and up to 10 in each of four groups ("n" less than or equal to 40). They compared the exact distributions to the chi-square, gamma, and beta approximations. The beta approximation was best in…

  7. A separation method of 0ν- and 2ν-events in double beta decay experiments with DCBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detector called Drift Chamber Beta-ray Analyzer (DCBA) will provide momentum information of each β-ray in double beta decay. The DCBA is expected to have good capabilities for particle identification, detection efficiency, background elimination and decay-source integration. Under the assumption of mass mechanism dominance in neutrinoless double beta decay, a simulation study shows that a combination method using both sum and single-energy distributions of double beta decay events can separate 0ν- and 2ν-events down to 0.05 eV of the effective neutrino mass with the help of a calculated nuclear matrix element, even though the DCBA has relatively poor energy resolution

  8. Neutrinoless double beta decay from lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholson, Amy; Chang, Chia Cheng; Clark, M A; Joo, Balint; Kurth, Thorsten; Rinaldi, Enrico; Tiburzi, Brian; Vranas, Pavlos; Walker-Loud, Andre

    2016-01-01

    While the discovery of non-zero neutrino masses is one of the most important accomplishments by physicists in the past century, it is still unknown how and in what form these masses arise. Lepton number-violating neutrinoless double beta decay is a natural consequence of Majorana neutrinos and many BSM theories, and many experimental efforts are involved in the search for these processes. Understanding how neutrinoless double beta decay would manifest in nuclear environments is key for understanding any observed signals. In these proceedings we present an overview of a set of one- and two-body matrix elements relevant for experimental searches for neutrinoless double beta decay, describe the role of lattice QCD calculations, and present preliminary lattice QCD results.

  9. Calibration of beta dosimeter and personal dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces ISO standard ISO 6980 which prepared especially for the calibration of beta dosimeter and personal dosimeter. The standard has three aspects including method of production of reference beta particle radiations, calibration fundamentals related to basic quantities characterizing the radiation field, and calibration of area and personal dosemters and the determination of their response as a function of beta radiation energy and angle of incidence. Here particular emphasis is placed on the determination of basic quantity of tissue absorbed dose at a depth of 0.07 mm in the tissue slab phantom and calibration procedure by mean of the calibration quantity of directional dose equivalent H'(0.07, Ω) and personal dose equivalent Hp (0.07, Ω). Finally, combined standard uncertainty for the determination of absorbed dose rate and component uncertainties of calibration is given as examples. (authors)

  10. Tevatron B0 low beta tuning report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed study of the low beta insertion for the B0 experimental area has been carried out and is described below. This insertion is similar to the Type C low beta previously report, anti p Note 169, although some changes have been made to the quadrupole lengths and positions. This insertion is designated Type E. The purpose of the study was to see if it is possible to turn the insertion on in a smooth and continuous manner and tune the insertion to a value of β* of less than one meter while maintaining the overall tune of the j Tevatron to a constant value. This was found to be possible. An examination of chromaticity corrections for the Tevatron with the low beta insertion on in various configurations was also undertaken

  11. BETASCAN: probable beta-amyloids identified by pairwise probabilistic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen W Bryan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Amyloids and prion proteins are clinically and biologically important beta-structures, whose supersecondary structures are difficult to determine by standard experimental or computational means. In addition, significant conformational heterogeneity is known or suspected to exist in many amyloid fibrils. Recent work has indicated the utility of pairwise probabilistic statistics in beta-structure prediction. We develop here a new strategy for beta-structure prediction, emphasizing the determination of beta-strands and pairs of beta-strands as fundamental units of beta-structure. Our program, BETASCAN, calculates likelihood scores for potential beta-strands and strand-pairs based on correlations observed in parallel beta-sheets. The program then determines the strands and pairs with the greatest local likelihood for all of the sequence's potential beta-structures. BETASCAN suggests multiple alternate folding patterns and assigns relative a priori probabilities based solely on amino acid sequence, probability tables, and pre-chosen parameters. The algorithm compares favorably with the results of previous algorithms (BETAPRO, PASTA, SALSA, TANGO, and Zyggregator in beta-structure prediction and amyloid propensity prediction. Accurate prediction is demonstrated for experimentally determined amyloid beta-structures, for a set of known beta-aggregates, and for the parallel beta-strands of beta-helices, amyloid-like globular proteins. BETASCAN is able both to detect beta-strands with higher sensitivity and to detect the edges of beta-strands in a richly beta-like sequence. For two proteins (Abeta and Het-s, there exist multiple sets of experimental data implying contradictory structures; BETASCAN is able to detect each competing structure as a potential structure variant. The ability to correlate multiple alternate beta-structures to experiment opens the possibility of computational investigation of prion strains and structural heterogeneity of amyloid

  12. On the small sample distribution of the R/S statistic

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Michael; Treacy, Glenn

    1997-01-01

    This paper gives an account of the RlS statistic and its known properties. It assesses the adequacy of the asymptotic distribution of the statistic in the case of samples of small and moderate size, and suggests an improved approximation based on the beta distribution. The results indicate that the proposed beta approximation is superior to the asymptotic distribution for practical purposes. Hence a new table of critical values is presented as an alternative to that of Lo (1991).

  13. beta2-Agonists at the Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Kenneth D

    2006-01-01

    The different approaches that the International Olympic Committee (IOC) had adopted to beta2-agonists and the implications for athletes are reviewed by a former Olympic team physician who later became a member of the Medical Commission of the IOC (IOC-MC). Steadily increasing knowledge of the effects of inhaled beta2-agonists on health, is concerned with the fact that oral beta2-agonists may be anabolic, and rapid increased use of inhaled beta2-agonists by elite athletes has contributed to the changes to the IOC rules. Since 2001, the necessity for athletes to meet IOC criteria (i.e., that they have asthma and/or exercise-induced asthma [EIA]) has resulted in improved management of athletes. The prevalence of beta2-agonist use by athletes mirrors the known prevalence of asthma symptoms in each country, although athletes in endurance events have the highest prevalence. The age-of-onset of asthma/EIA in elite winter athletes may be atypical. Of the 193 athletes at the 2006 Winter Olympics who met th IOC's criteria, only 32.1% had childhood asthma and 48.7% of athletes reported onset at age 20 yr or older. These findings lead to speculation that years of intense endurance training may be a causative factor in bronchial hyperreactivity. The distinction between oral (prohibited in sports) and inhaled salbutamol is possible, but athletes must be warned that excessive use of inhaled salbutamol can lead to urinary concentrations similar to those observed after oral administration. This article provides justification that athletes should provide evidence of asthma or EIA before being permitted to use inhaled beta2-agonists. PMID:17085798

  14. 2MTF V. Cosmography, Beta, and the residual bulk flow

    CERN Document Server

    Springob, Christopher M; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Masters, Karen L; Macri, Lucas M; Koribalski, Baerbel S; Jones, D Heath; Jarrett, Tom H; Magoulas, Christina; Erdogdu, Pirin

    2015-01-01

    Using the Tully-Fisher relation, we derive peculiar velocities for the 2MASS Tully-Fisher Survey and describe the velocity field of the nearby Universe. We use adaptive kernel smoothing to map the velocity field, and compare it to reconstructions based on the redshift space galaxy distributions of the 2MASS Redshift Survey (2MRS) and the IRAS Point Source Catalog Redshift Survey (PSCz). With a standard $\\chi^2$ minimization fit to the models, we find that the PSCz model provides a better fit to the 2MTF velocity field data than does the 2MRS model, and provides a value of $\\beta$ in greater agreement with literature values. However, when we subtract away the monopole deviation in the velocity zeropoint between data and model, the 2MRS model also produces a value of $\\beta$ in agreement with literature values. We also calculate the `residual bulk flow': the component of the bulk flow not accounted for by the models. This is $\\sim 250$ km/s when performing the standard fit, but drops to $\\sim 150$ km/s for both...

  15. VLT imaging of the {\\beta} Pictoris gas disk

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, R; Olofsson, G; Fathi, K; Thébault, Ph; Liseau, R

    2012-01-01

    Circumstellar debris disks older than a few Myr should be largely devoid of primordial gas remaining from the protoplanetary disk phase. Tracing the origin of observed atomic gas in Keplerian rotation in the edge-on debris disk surrounding the ~12 Myr old star {\\beta} Pictoris requires more detailed information about its spatial distribution than has previously been acquired by limited slit spectroscopy. Especially indications of asymmetries and presence of Ca II gas at high disk latitudes call for additional investigation. We set out to recover a complete image of the Fe I and Ca II gas emission around {\\beta} Pic by spatially resolved, high-resolution spectroscopic observations to better understand the morphology and origin of the gaseous disk component. The multiple fiber facility FLAMES/GIRAFFE at the VLT, with the large IFU ARGUS, was used to obtain spatially resolved optical spectra in four regions covering the northeast and southwest side of the disk. Emission lines from Fe I and Ca II were mapped and ...

  16. Beta/gamma test problems for ITS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Integrated Tiger Series of Coupled Electron/Photon Monte Carlo Transport Codes (ITS 3.0, PC Version) was used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to compare with and extend the experimental findings of the beta/gamma response of selected health physics instruments. In order to assure that ITS gives correct results, several beta/gamma problems have been tested. ITS was used to simulate these problems numerically, and results for each were compared to the problem's experimental or analytical results. ITS successfully predicted the experimental or analytical results of all tested problems within the statistical uncertainty inherent in the Monte Carlo method

  17. Double-Beta Decay at TUNL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Mary

    2007-10-01

    Studying double-beta decay at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) is perhaps one of the most promising ways to pinpoint the neutrino mass. What they do not mention is that to study double-beta decay, you probably have to become a certified miner, and if you have a fear of goats, you should stay away. In this talk, I will tell you some of my experiences as a TUNL graduate student, and how I am now nearly qualified for a job in the mining industry.

  18. Microscopic calculations for rare beta decays

    OpenAIRE

    Mustonen, Mika

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis consisting of six publications and an overview part, three cases of rare beta decays are studied using microscopic nuclear models. Firstly, the half-lives and electron spectra of 113Cd and 115In fourth-forbidden nonunique ground-state-to-ground-state beta decays are studied using two closely related nuclear models: The microscopic quasiparticle-phonon model (MQPM) and the proton-neutron MQPM (pnMQPM), which has been developed as a part of this thesis work. Our...

  19. Nuclear beta decay after Les Houches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson's 1977 Les Houches lectures summarized in detail how nuclear beta decay can be used to investigate fundamental nuclear phenomena and the achievements of this utilization up to that time. In this short talk the subsequent activity is briefly summarized and one area of high activity, namely first-forbidden beta decay, is singled out for more lengthy discussion. Specifically, the subject of interest is the very large meson exchange contribution to the time-like component of the axial current and the efforts to isolate this enhancement by means of careful shell-model calculations. 19 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Survey instrument response to beta radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available survey instruments do not have the beta measurement characteristics needed for accurate dose rate assessments. Such instruments have severe angular and energy dependence. In addition, beta measurements often require corrections for the source geometry response of the detector to permit accurate assessments. Studies were performed to characterize present instruments and to determine optimum characteristics for a field instrument. Results of the studies were used to specify and procure an instrument with improved characteristics. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of the studies and the design of the instrument

  1. Survey instrument response to beta radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available survey instruments do not have the beta measurement characteristics needed for accurate dose rate assessments. Such instruments have severe angular and energy dependence. In addition, beta measurements often require corrections for the source geometry response of the detector to permit accurate assessments. Studies were performed to characterize present instruments and to determine optimum characteristics for a field instrument. Results of the studies were used to specify and procure an instrument with improved characteristics. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of the studies and the design of the instrument. 6 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Why search for double beta decay?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searching for neutrinoless double beta decay is the only known practical method for trying to determine whether neutrinos are their own antiparticles. The theoretical motivation for supposing that they may indeed be their own antiparticles is described. The reason that it is so difficult to ascertain experimentally whether they are or are not is explained, as is the special sensitivity of neutrinoless double beta decay. The potential implications of the observation of this reaction for neutrino mass and for the physics of neutrinos is discussed

  3. Helicity and nuclear $\\beta$ decay correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Ran; García, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    We present simple derivations of nuclear $\\beta$-decay correlations with an emphasis on the special role of helicity. This provides a good opportunity to teach students about helicity and chirality in particle physics through exercises using simple aspects of quantum mechanics. In addition, this paper serves as an introduction to nuclear $\\beta$-decay correlations from both a theoretical and experimental vantage. This article can be used to introduce students to ongoing experiments searching for hints of new physics in the low-energy precision frontier.

  4. Card controlled beta backscatter thickness measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved beta backscatter instrument for the nondestructive measurement of the thickness of thin coatings on a substrate is described. Included therein is the utilization of a bank of memory stored data representative of isotope, substrate, coating material and thickness range characteristics in association with a control card having predetermined indicia thereon selectively representative of a particular isotope, substrate material, coating material and thickness range for conditioning electronic circuit means by memory stored data selected in accord with the predetermined indicia on a control card for converting backscattered beta particle counts into indicia of coating thickness

  5. Supermultiplet of $\\beta-$deformations from twistors

    CERN Document Server

    Milián, Segundo P

    2016-01-01

    We consider the supermultiplet of linearized beta-deformation of $\\mathcal{N}=4$ Super Yang-Mills(SYM). It was previously studied on the gravitational side. We study the supermultiplet of beta-deformations on the field theory side and we compare two finite-dimensional representations of $psl(4|4,\\bf{R})$ algebra. We show that they are related by an intertwining operator. We develop a twistor-based approach which could be useful for studying other finite-dimensional and nonunitary representations in AdS/CFT correspondence.

  6. Symmetry violations in nuclear and neutron $\\beta$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Vos, K K; Timmermans, R G E

    2015-01-01

    The role of $\\beta$ decay as a low-energy probe of physics beyond the Standard Model is reviewed. Traditional searches for deviations from the Standard Model structure of the weak interaction in $\\beta$ decay are discussed in the light of constraints from the LHC and the neutrino mass. Limits on the violation of time-reversal symmetry in $\\beta$ decay are compared to the strong constraints from electric dipole moments. Novel searches for Lorentz symmetry breaking in the weak interaction in $\\beta$ decay are also included, where we discuss the unique sensitivity of $\\beta$ decay to test Lorentz invariance. We end with a roadmap for future $\\beta$-decay experiments.

  7. COBRA - Double beta decay searches using CdTe detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Zuber, K.

    2001-01-01

    A new approach (called COBRA) for investigating double beta decay using CdTe (CdZnTe) semiconductor detectors is proposed. It follows the idea that source and detector are identical. This will allow simultaneous measurements of 5 $\\beta^-\\beta^-$ - and 4 $\\beta^+\\beta^+$ - emitters at once. Half-life limits for neutrinoless double beta decay of Cd-116 and Te-130 can be improved by more than one order of magnitude with respect to current limits and sensitivities on the effective Majorana neutr...

  8. Molecular and chemical comparison of beta/sub 2/ and beta/sub 2/ adrenergic receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shorr, R.G.L.; Gotlib, L.; Varrichio, A.; Strohsacker, M.; Minnich, M.; Crooke, S.T.

    1986-05-01

    Beta-adrenergic receptor proteins of 55,000M/sub r/ and 45,000M/sub r/ have been purified from rabbit lung, guinea pig lung, bovine lung and turkey red blood cell plasma membranes by affinity chromatography, size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography and preparative SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Each purified receptor was characterized with agonists and selective antagonists in ligand binding competition experiments with (/sup 125/I) cyanopindolol as being of the ..beta../sub 1/ or ..beta../sub 2/ adrenergic receptor subclass. Purified rabbit lung, guinea pig lung and bovine lung were all found to be of the ..beta../sub 2/ receptor subclass. Purified turkey RBC receptor was of the ..beta../sub 1/ subclass. When compared by molecular weight, each of the receptor proteins was found to comigrate on SDS polyacylamide gels with its counterpart from the additional tissues. When the proteins were compared by amino acid composition similar results were obtained for each of the receptors. These results suggest significant levels of sequence homology between the avian ..beta../sub 1/ adrenergic receptor and the mammalian ..beta../sub 2/ adrenergic receptor preparations.

  9. Human liver alcohol dehydrogenase. 1. The primary structure of the beta 1 beta 1 isoenzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, J; Bühler, R; Kaiser, R; Holmquist, B; de Zalenski, C; von Wartburg, J P; Vallee, B; Jörnvall, H

    1984-12-17

    Determination of the amino acid sequence of the beta 1 subunit from the class I (pyrazole-sensitive) human liver alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzyme beta 1 beta 1 revealed a 373-residue structure differing at 48 positions (including a gap) from that of the subunit of the well studied horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase EE isoenzyme. The structure deduced is compatible with known differences in composition, ultraviolet absorbance, electrophoretic mobility and catalytic properties between the horse and human enzymes. All zinc-liganding residues of the horse E subunit are strictly conserved in the human beta 1 subunit, despite an earlier report of a mutation involving Cys-46. This residue therefore remains conserved in all known alcohol dehydrogenase structures. However, the total cysteine content of the beta 1 structure is raised from 14 in the subunit of the horse enzyme to 15 by a Tyr----Cys exchange. Most exchanges are on the surface of the molecule and of a well conserved nature. Substitutions close to the catalytic centre are of interest to explain the altered substrate specificity and different catalytic activity of the beta 1 homodimer. Functionally, a Ser----Thr exchange at position 48 appears to be of special importance, since Thr-48 in beta 1 instead of Ser-48 in the horse enzyme can restrict available space. Four other substitutions also line the active-site pocket, and appear to constitute partly compensated exchanges. PMID:6391920

  10. Use of multi-element TL dosimeters for beta and mixed beta/gamma personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applied experience as well as theoretical considerations make it clear that traditional two-element TL dosimeters are not adequate for use in personnel dosimetry involving beta radiation fields. The principal shortcoming of such dosimeters is that the TL element measuring the beta dose normally under responds, and the readings of such elements must be multiplied by a correction factor, called the beta factor, to obtain the dose. The beta factor, however, is not a constant but varies with variations in the beta spectrum incident on the dosimeter. Experimental tests carried out using a number of multi-element TL dosimeter designs have shown that the element readouts can be used in conjunction with a suitable algorithm to determine a suitable beta factor for use under a variety of irradiation conditions. The precision attainable in calculating the beta factor in this manner depends on a number of dosimeter design parameters and is often quite poor unless special care is exercised both in the design of the dosimeter and also in the operation of the readout system

  11. Nuclear Matrix Elements for the $\\beta\\beta$ Decay of the $^{76}$Ge

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, B A; Horoi, M

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear matrix elements for two-neutrino double-beta (2 n$\\beta\\beta$ ) and zero-neutrino double-beta (0 n$\\beta\\beta$) decay of 76 Ge are evaluated in terms of the configuration interaction (CI), quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA) and interacting boson model (IBM) methods. We show that the decomposition of the matrix elements in terms of interemediate states in 74 Ge is dominated by ground state of this nucleus. We consider corrections to the CI results that arise from configurations admixtures involving orbitals out-side of the CI configuration space by using results from QRPA, many-body-perturbation theory, and the connections to related observables. The CI two-neutrino matrix element is reduced due to the inclusion of spin-orbit partners, and to many-body correlations connected with Gamow-Teller beta decay. The CI zero-neutrino matrix element for the heavy neutrino is enhanced due to particle-particle correlations that are connected with the odd-even oscillations in the nuclear masse...

  12. Exploring the beta-pdf in variable-density turbulent mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Bakosi, J

    2010-01-01

    In assumed probability density function (pdf) methods of turbulent combustion, the shape of the scalar pdf is assumed a priori and the pdf is parametrized by its moments for which model equations are solved. In non-premixed flows the beta distribution has been a convenient choice to represent the mixture fraction in binary mixtures or a progress variable in combustion. Here the beta-pdf approach is extended to variable-density mixing: mixing between materials that have very large density differences and thus the scalar fields are active. As a consequence, new mixing phenomena arise due to 1) cubic non-linearities in the Navier-Stokes equation, 2) additional non-linearities in the molecular diffusion terms and 3) the appearance of the specific volume as a dynamical variable. The assumed beta-pdf approach is extended to transported pdf methods by giving the associated stochastic differential equation (SDE). The beta distribution is shown to be a realizable, consistent and sufficiently general representation of ...

  13. Distributed flow optimization and cascading effects in weighted complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Asztalos, Andrea; Szymanski, Boleslaw K; Korniss, G

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effect of a specific edge weighting scheme $\\sim (k_i k_j)^{\\beta}$ on distributed flow efficiency and robustness to cascading failures in scale-free networks. In particular, we analyze a simple, yet fundamental distributed flow model: current flow in random resistor networks. By the tuning of control parameter $\\beta$ and by considering two general cases of relative node processing capabilities as well as the effect of bandwidth, we show the dependence of transport efficiency upon the correlations between the topology and weights. By studying the severity of cascades for different control parameter $\\beta$, we find that network resilience to cascading overloads and network throughput is optimal for the same value of $\\beta$ over the range of node capacities and available bandwidth.

  14. Analyzing Capture Zone Distributions (CZD) in Growth: Theory and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Einstein, T. L.; Pimpinelli, Alberto; González, Diego Luis

    2013-01-01

    We have argued that the capture-zone distribution (CZD) in submonolayer growth can be well described by the generalized Wigner distribution (GWD) $P(s)=a s^\\beta \\exp(-b s^2)$, where $s$ is the CZ area divided by its average value. This approach offers arguably the best method to find the critical nucleus size $i$, since $\\beta \\approx i + 2$. Various analytical and numerical investigations, which we discuss, show that the simple GWD expression is inadequate in the tails of the distribution, ...

  15. Neutron-gamma competition for $\\beta$-delayed neutron emission

    CERN Document Server

    Mumpower, Matthew; Moller, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We present a coupled Quasi-particle Random Phase Approximation and Hauser-Feshbach (QRPA+HF) model for calculating delayed particle emission. This approach uses microscopic nuclear structure information which starts with Gamow-Teller strength distributions in the daughter nucleus, and then follows the statistical decay until the initial available excitation energy is exhausted. Explicitly included at each particle emission stage is $\\gamma$-ray competition. We explore this model in the context of neutron emission of neutron-rich nuclei and find that neutron-gamma competition can lead to both increases and decreases in neutron emission probabilities, depending on the system considered. A second consequence of this formalism is a prediction of more neutrons on average being emitted after $\\beta$-decay for nuclei near the neutron dripline compared to models that do not consider the statistical decay.

  16. Symmetric Achromatic Low-Beta Collider Interaction Region Design Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a new symmetry-based concept for an achromatic low-beta collider interaction region design. A specially-designed symmetric Chromaticity Compensation Block (CCB) induces an angle spread in the passing beam such that it cancels the chromatic kick of the final focusing quadrupoles. Two such CCB?s placed symmetrically around an interaction point allow simultaneous compensation of the 1st-order chromaticities and chromatic beam smear at the IP without inducing significant 2nd-order aberrations. We first develop an analytic description of this approach and explicitly formulate 2nd-order aberration compensation conditions at the interaction point. The concept is next applied to develop an interaction region design for the ion collider ring of an electron-ion collider. We numerically evaluate performance of the design in terms of momentum acceptance and dynamic aperture. The advantages of the new concept are illustrated by comparing it to the conventional distributed-sextupole chromaticity compensation scheme

  17. Symmetric achromatic low-beta collider interaction region design concept

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, V S; Lin, F; Johnson, R P

    2012-01-01

    We present a new symmetry-based concept for an achromatic low-beta collider interaction region design. A specially-designed symmetric Chromaticity Compensation Block (CCB) induces an angle spread in the passing beam such that it cancels the chromatic kick of the final focusing quadrupoles. Two such CCBs placed symmetrically around an interaction point allow simultaneous compensation of the 1st-order chromaticities and chromatic beam smear at the IP without inducing significant 2nd-order aberrations to the particle trajectory. We first develop an analytic description of this approach and explicitly formulate 2nd-order aberration compensation conditions at the interaction point. The concept is next applied to develop an interaction region design for the ion collider ring of an electron-ion collider. We numerically evaluate performance of the design in terms of momentum acceptance and dynamic aperture. The advantages of the new concept are illustrated by comparing it to the conventional distributed-sextupole chr...

  18. Diffraction from the beta-sheet crystallites in spider silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, S; Glišović, A; Salditt, T; Zippelius, A

    2008-11-01

    We analyze the wide-angle X-ray scattering from oriented spider silk fibers in terms of a quantitative scattering model, including both structural and statistical parameters of the beta-sheet crystallites of spider silk in the amorphous matrix. The model is based on kinematic scattering theory and allows for rather general correlations of the positional and orientational degrees of freedom, including the crystallite's size, composition and dimension of the unit cell. The model is evaluated numerically and compared to experimental scattering intensities allowing us to extract the geometric and statistical parameters. We show explicitly that for the experimentally found mosaicity (width of the orientational distribution) intercrystallite effects are negligible and the data can be analyzed in terms of single-crystallite scattering, as is usually assumed in the literature. PMID:18843512

  19. Massaspectrometrische analyse van enkele beta-agonisten

    OpenAIRE

    Traag, W.A.; Kienhuis, P.G.M.; Tuinstra, L.G.M.T.; Bennekom, van, C.A.M.; Huf, F.A.

    1990-01-01

    Zes beta-agonisten (isoproterenol, clenbuterol, cimaterol, terbutaline, salbutamol en fenoterol) zijn als TMS-derivaten onderzocht op hun GeMS-eigenschappen in zowel de Electron Impact (EI) als positieve Chemische Ionisatie mode (Cl). Tevens is clenbuterol-hexyl onderzocht. Deze component is geschikt om als interne standaard te fungeren.

  20. Association behavior of native beta-lactoglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verheul, M.; Pedersen, J.S.; Roefs, S.P.F.M.; Kruif, K.G. de

    1999-01-01

    samples were obtained. These functions provided information on the maximum size, the weight-averaged molecular mass, and the z-averaged radius of gyration oo the the beta-lactoglobulin particles. Al room temperature and pH values below 4 and above IZ the protein consists predominantly of monomers and...

  1. Herwig++ 2.0beta Release Note

    OpenAIRE

    Gieseke, Stefan; Grellscheid, D.; Ribon, Alberto; Richardson, P.; Seymour, Michael H.; Stephens, Phil; Webber, Bryan R

    2006-01-01

    A new release of the Monte Carlo program Herwig++ (version 2.0beta) is now available. The main new feature is the extension of the program to include simple hadron-hadron processes including the initial-state parton shower.

  2. Characterization of a Commercial Silicon Beta Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxe, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mayer, Michael F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McIntyre, Justin I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sivels, Ciara B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suarez, Rey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Silicon detectors are of interest for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) due to their enhanced energy resolution compared to plastic scintillators beta cells. Previous work developing a figure-of-merit (FOM) for comparison of beta cells suggests that the minimum detectable activity (MDA) could be reduced by a factor of two to three with the use of silicon detectors. Silicon beta cells have been developed by CEA (France) and Lares Ltd. (Russia), with the PIPSBox developed by CEA being commercially available from Canberra for approximately $35k, but there is still uncertainty about the reproducibility of the capabilities in the field. PNNL is developing a high-resolution beta-gamma detector system in the shallow underground laboratory, which will utilize and characterize the operation of the PIPSBox detector. Throughout this report, we examine the capabilities of the PIPSBox as developed by CEA. The lessons learned through the testing and use of the PIPSBox will allow PNNL to strategically develop a silicon detector optimized to better suit the communities needs in the future.

  3. Nuclear physics issues in double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of issues in double beta decay are discussed: shell model estimates of 2nu matrix elements, a sum rule for the double Gamow-Teller operator, a comparison of shell model and quasiparticle RPA results, Pontecorvo's Te ratio argument, neutrinoless ββ decay mediated by heavy neutrinos, and the structure of O+ states in Ge isotopes. 24 refs., 3 figs

  4. Average beta measurement in EXTRAP T1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beginning with the ideal MHD pressure balance equation, an expression for the average poloidal beta, ΒΘ, is derived. A method for unobtrusively measuring the quantities used to evaluate ΒΘ in Extrap T1 is described. The results if a series of measurements yielding ΒΘ as a function of externally applied toroidal field are presented. (author)

  5. Topical beta-Blockers and Mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muskens, Rogier P. H. M.; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; Wittenian, Jacqueline C. M.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Stricker, Bruno H. C.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To study the associations between long-term and short-term use of topical beta-blockers and mortality. Design: Prospective population-based cohort study. Participants: To examine long-term effects, 3842 participants aged 55 years and older were recruited. To examine short-term effects, 484

  6. Redox Homeostasis in Pancreatic beta Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Petr; Dlasková, Andrea; Plecitá-Hlavatá, Lydie

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2012, č. 2012 (2012), s. 932838. ISSN 1942-0900 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/10/0346; GA ČR(CZ) GPP304/10/P204 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : beta cells * reactive oxygen species homeostasis * mitochondria Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.393, year: 2012

  7. Semiconductor detectors and double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The underlying theory of double beta decay is discussed as well as some experimental observations. A class of second generation 76Ge detector experiments is then discussed. The design and physics considerations involved in the system used by LBL are explained, particularly the means of rejecting background activity. 24 references, 18 figures, 3 tables

  8. Multiple nerve palsies in beta thalassaemia major.

    OpenAIRE

    Lamabadusuriya, S. P.

    1989-01-01

    A patient with beta thalassaemia major is described who developed a lower motor neurone facial nerve palsy on the left side, together with a phrenic nerve palsy on the same side, during the course of the illness. This complication has not been reported before in haemoglobinopathies.

  9. LHC dijet constraints on double beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Helo, J C

    2015-01-01

    We use LHC dijet data to derive constraints on neutrinoless double beta decay. Upper limits on cross sections for the production of "exotic" resonances, such as a right-handed W boson or a diquark, can be converted into lower limits on the double beta decay half-life for fixed choices of other parameters. Constraints derived from run-I data are already surprisingly strong and complementary to results from searches using same-sign dileptons plus jets. For the case of the left-right symmetric model, in case no new resonance is found in future runs of the LHC and assuming $g_L=g_R$, we estimate a lower limit on the double beta decay half-live larger than $10^{27}$ ys can be derived from future dijet data, except in the window of relatively light right-handed neutrino masses in the range $0.5$ MeV to $50$ GeV. Part of this mass window will be tested in the upcoming SHiP experiment. We also discuss current and future limits on possible scalar diquark contributions to double beta decay that can be derived from dije...

  10. Double beta decay: A theoretical overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, S.P.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the theoretical possibility of double beta decay. The titles of the main sections of this paper are: Nuclear physics setting; Particle physics requirements; Kinematical features of the decay modes; Nuclear matrix elements; the Shell model and two-neutrino decay; Quasi-particle random phase approximation; and Future considerations. 18 refs., 7 tabs. (LSP)

  11. Frameshift mutation events in beta-glucosidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Antonio; Garcia-Vallvé, Santiago; Montero, Miguel A; Arola, Lluís; Romeu, Antoni

    2003-09-18

    Compensated frameshift mutation is a modification of the reading frame of a gene that takes place by way of various molecular events. It appears to be a widespread event that is only observed when homologous amino acid and nucleodotide sequences are compared. To identify these mutation events, the sequence analysis rationale was based on the search for short regions that would have much lower degrees of conservation in protein, but not in DNA, in well-conserved beta-glucosidase families. We have restricted our study to a seed set of sequences of O-glycoside hydrolase families 1 and 3. We found compensated frameshift mutation in the family of 1 beta-glucosidases for the Erwinia herbicola, Cellulomonas fimi, and (non-cyanogenic) Trifolium repens gene sequences, and in the family of 3 beta-glucosidases for the Clostridium thermocellum and Clostridium stercorarium gene sequences. By computational treatment, the observed mutation events in the gene frameshifting sub-sequence have been neutralised. Each nucleotide insertion must be eliminated and each nucleotide deletion must be substituted by the symbol N (any nucleotide). When the frameshifting fragments of the amino acid sequences were substituted by the computationally neutralised subsequences, the beta-glucosidase alignments were improved. We also discuss the structural implications of the compensated frameshift mutations events. PMID:14527732

  12. Sources of beta cells inside the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groef, Sofie; Staels, Willem; Van Gassen, Naomi; Lemper, Marie; Yuchi, Yixing; Sojoodi, Mozhdeh; Bussche, Leen; Heremans, Yves; Leuckx, Gunter; De Leu, Nico; Van de Casteele, Mark; Baeyens, Luc; Heimberg, Harry

    2016-09-01

    The generation of beta(-like) cells to compensate for their absolute or relative shortage in type 1 and type 2 diabetes is an obvious therapeutic strategy. Patients first received grafts of donor islet cells over 25 years ago, but this procedure has not become routine in clinical practice because of a donor cell shortage and (auto)immune problems. Transplantation of differentiated embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells may overcome some but not all the current limitations. Reprogramming exocrine cells towards functional beta(-like) cells would offer an alternative abundant and autologous source of beta(-like) cells. This review focuses on work by our research group towards achieving such a source of cells. It summarises a presentation given at the 'Can we make a better beta cell?' symposium at the 2015 annual meeting of the EASD. It is accompanied by two other reviews on topics from this symposium (by Amin Ardestani and Kathrin Maedler, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3892-9 , and by Heiko Lickert and colleagues, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3949-9 ) and a commentary by the Session Chair, Shanta Persaud (DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3870-2 ). PMID:27053238

  13. Three loop QCD MOM beta-functions

    CERN Document Server

    Gracey, J A

    2011-01-01

    We present the full expressions for the QCD beta-function in the MOMggg, MOMq and MOMh renormalization schemes at three loops for an arbitrary colour group in the Landau gauge. The results for all three schemes are in very good agreement with the SU(3) numerical estimates provided by Chetyrkin and Seidensticker.

  14. Lepton nonconservation and double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the status of double beta decay as a test of lepton number conservation. Present limits on the mass of a Majorana neutrino are in the range of 10 to 50 eV. Experiments now in progress should substantially improve these limits

  15. Long term prospects for double beta decay

    OpenAIRE

    Zuber, K.

    2010-01-01

    In rather general terms the long term perspective of double beta decay is discussed. All important experimental parameters are investigated as well as the status of nuclear matrix element issues. The link with other neutrino physics results and options to disentangle the underlying physics process are presented.

  16. Plastic bronchitis in beta thalassemia minor

    OpenAIRE

    Makaresh Yadav; Sneha Tirpude; Joshi, Jyotsna M.

    2013-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis is a rare pulmonary disorder associated with various conditions like cystic fibrosis, asthma, pulmonary infection and characterized by formation and expectoration of cast which assumes the shape of the bronchial tree. We report a case of a 33-year-old woman with beta thalassemia minor who developed plastic bronchitis.

  17. Distributed Knight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Damm, Christian Heide

    2005-01-01

    An extension of Knight (2005) that support distributed synchronous collaboration implemented using type-based publish/subscribe......An extension of Knight (2005) that support distributed synchronous collaboration implemented using type-based publish/subscribe...

  18. Estimation error algorithm at analysis of beta-spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes the estimation error algorithm at the operations with beta-spectrums, as well as compares the theoretical and experimental errors by the processing of beta-channel's data. (authors)

  19. Binding capacity of a barley beta-D-glucan to the beta-glucan recognition molecule dectin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Rui; Adachi, Yoshiyuki; Ishibashi, Ken-ichi; Tsubaki, Kazufumi; Ohno, Naohito

    2008-02-27

    To clarify whether barley beta-glucans exhibit their biological effects via binding to dectin-1, a pivotal receptor for beta-1,3-glucan, the structure of barley beta-glucan E70-S (BBG-70) was unambiguously investigated by NMR spectroscopy and studied for its binding capacity and specificity to dectin-1 by ELISA. NMR spectroscopy confirmed that BBG-70 contains two different linkage glucans, namely, alpha-glucan and beta-glucan, which are not covalently attached to one another. Beta-glucan within BBG-70 is a linear mixed-linkage beta-glucan composed of 1,3- and 1,4-beta-D-glucopyranose residues but does not contain the continuous 1,3-linkage. Competitive ELISA revealed that highly purified barley beta-glucan E70-S (pBBG-70) inhibits the binding of soluble dectin-1 to sonifilan (SPG), a beta-1,3-glucan, although at a concentration higher than that of SPG and laminarin. It was found that barley beta-glucan can be recognized by dectin-1, implying that barley beta-glucan might, at least in part, exhibit its biological effects via the recognition by dectin-1 of the ligand sugar structure, which may be formed by 1,3-beta- and 1,4-beta-glucosyl linkage. PMID:18205312

  20. RESEARCH OF BETA AS ADEQUATE RISK MEASURE-IS BETA STILL ALIVE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Perković

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The capital asset pricing model (CAPM is one of the most important models in financial economics and it has a long history of theoretical and empirical investigations. The main underlying concept of the CAPM model is that assets with a high risk (high beta should earn a higher return than assets with a low risk (low beta and vice versa. The implication which can be drawn out of this is that all assets with a beta above zero bear some risk and therefore their expected return is above the return of the risk-free rate. In this research observation on monthly stock prices on Croatian stock market from January 1st 2005 until December 31st 2009 is used to form our sample. CROBEX index is used as proxy of the market portfolio. The results demonstrate that beta can not be trusted in making investment decisions and rejects the validity of the whole CAPM model on Croatian stock market.

  1. Ordinary muon capture as a probe of virtual transitions of $\\beta\\beta$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Kortelainen, M

    2002-01-01

    A reliable theoretical description of double-beta-decay processes needs a possibility to test the involved virtual transitions against experimental data. Unfortunately, only the lowest virtual transition can be probed by the traditional electron-capture or $\\beta^-$-decay experiments. In this article we propose that calculated amplitudes for many virtual transitions can be probed by experiments measuring rates of ordinary muon capture (OMC) to the relevant intermediate states. The first results from such experiments are expected to appear soon. As an example we discuss the $\\beta\\beta$ decays of $^{76}$Ge and $^{106}$Cd and the corresponding OMC for the $^{76}$Se and $^{106}$Cd nuclei in the framework of the proton-neutron QRPA with realistic interactions. It is found that the OMC observables, just like the $2\

  2. Computational methods for analyzing the transmission characteristics of a beta particle magnetic analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J. J.

    1979-01-01

    Computational methods were developed to study the trajectories of beta particles (positrons) through a magnetic analysis system as a function of the spatial distribution of the radionuclides in the beta source, size and shape of the source collimator, and the strength of the analyzer magnetic field. On the basis of these methods, the particle flux, their energy spectrum, and source-to-target transit times have been calculated for Na-22 positrons as a function of the analyzer magnetic field and the size and location of the target. These data are in studies requiring parallel beams of positrons of uniform energy such as measurement of the moisture distribution in composite materials. Computer programs for obtaining various trajectories are included.

  3. Physical aspects of the angle-beta concept in electron arc therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pla, M.; Podgorsak, E.B.; Pla, C.; Freeman, C.R.; Souhami, L.; Guerra, J. (Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

    1991-06-01

    A technique for the determination of treatment parameters that are required to achieve a desired depth dose distribution in electron arc therapy is discussed and a method for calculating isodose distributions is presented. Both the treatment technique and the dose calculation method rely on the angle beta concept, which uniquely describes the dependence of the radial percentage depth doses in electron arc therapy on the nominal field width, isocenter depth, and virtual source-axis distance. The angle beta concept is discussed in detail and the electron pseudo-arc therapy technique used at McGill is described. Also presented is the method used to achieve dose homogeneity in target volumes treated with the pseudo-arc technique.

  4. Isolation and characterization of chicken and turkey beta 2-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, K; Welinder, K G; Crone, M;

    1986-01-01

    Chicken and turkey beta 2-m were isolated from citrated plasma in sequential use of three chromatographic steps: affinity chromatography, gel filtration chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified protein was identified as beta 2-m by reaction with a beta 2-m specific monoclonal...... incompatible with a previously published sequence also thought to be from turkey beta 2-m. Reasons for our opinion that the molecules isolated and sequenced in this paper are the correct ones are given. Udgivelsesdato: 1986-Dec...

  5. Extended Beta Regression in R: Shaken, Stirred, Mixed, and Partitioned

    OpenAIRE

    Bettina Grün; Ioannis Kosmidis; Achim Zeileis

    2012-01-01

    Beta regression - an increasingly popular approach for modeling rates and proportions - is extended in various directions: (a) bias correction/reduction of the maximum likelihood estimator, (b) beta regression tree models by means of recursive partitioning, (c) latent class beta regression by means of finite mixture models. All three extensions may be of importance for enhancing the beta regression toolbox in practice to provide more reliable inference and capture both observed and unobserved...

  6. Functional beta3-adrenoceptor in the human heart.

    OpenAIRE

    Gauthier, C.; Tavernier, G.; Charpentier, F.; Langin, D.; Le Marec, H

    1996-01-01

    Beta3-adrenoceptors are involved in metabolism, gut relaxation, and vascular vasodilation. However, their existence and role in the human heart have not been documented. We investigated the effects of several beta-adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists on the mechanical properties of ventricular endomyocardial biopsies. In the presence of nadolol, a beta1- and beta2-adrenoceptor antagonist, isoprenaline produced consistent negative inotropic effects. Similar negative inotropic effects also res...

  7. Milk composition and lactation of beta-casein-deficient mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, S.; Clarke, A R; Hooper, M L; Horne, D S; Law, A J; Leaver, J; Springbett, A; Stevenson, E.; Simons, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    beta-Casein is a major protein component of milk and, in conjunction with the other caseins, it is assembled into micelles. The casein micelles determine many of the physical characteristics of milk, which are important for stability during storage and for milk-processing properties. There is evidence that suggests that beta-casein may also possess other, nonnutritional functions. To address the function of beta-casein, the mouse beta-casein gene was disrupted by gene targeting in embryonic s...

  8. A guide to 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, J; Jakob, F J

    2001-01-22

    17beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17beta-HSD) are pivotal in controlling the biological potency of steroid hormones by catalyzing oxidation or reduction at position 17. Several 17beta-HSDs may as well metabolize further substrates including alcohols, bile acids, fatty acids and retinols. This review summarizes recent progress in the field of 17beta-HSD research provides an update of nomenclature. PMID:11165003

  9. International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Jacob M; Fitschen Peter J; Campbell Bill; Wilson Gabriel J; Zanchi Nelo; Taylor Lem; Wilborn Colin; Kalman Douglas S; Stout Jeffrey R; Hoffman Jay R; Ziegenfuss Tim N; Lopez Hector L; Kreider Richard B; Smith-Ryan Abbie E; Antonio Jose

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature on the use of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) as a nutritional supplement. The ISSN has concluded the following. 1. HMB can be used to enhance recovery by attenuating exercise induced skeletal muscle damage in trained and untrained populations. 2. If consuming HMB, an athlete will benefit from consuming the supplement in close pro...

  10. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) induces thrombocytosis in mice: Possible implication of IL-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, H.; Ishibashi, T.; Shikama, Y.; Okano, A.; Akiyama, Y.; Uchida, T.; Maruyama, Y. (Fukushima Medical College (Japan))

    1990-12-15

    We administered recombinant human interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), the common mediator of inflammation process, to C57B1/6 male mice (0.5 microgram, every 12 hours over five times) intraperitoneally and consequently induced a remarkable thrombocytosis. Day 1 was designated as the following day of the last injection in the morning. A significant thrombocytosis was observed on days 1 through 5 with a peak on day 2 (162 +/- 9 x 10(4)/mm3) compared with the control mice injected with heated IL-1 beta (101 +/- 11 x 10(4)/mm3). A striking increase in mean size of marrow megakaryocytes was noted on days 1 and 2. The incorporation of 75Se-selenomethionine into circulating platelets as a measure of platelet production was about 2.3 times higher in IL-1 beta-treated mice than in control mice. To determine which factor(s) is responsible for elicited thrombocytosis, the in vitro studies and bioassays for several hematopoietic factors were performed. IL-1 beta by itself did not stimulate megakaryocytopoiesis in vitro, suggesting that the thrombocytosis is attributed to other factor(s) via IL-1 beta stimulation. Serum colony-stimulating factor (CSF) activity after a single IL-1 beta (0.5 microgram) injection, monitored by colony assay with 10% tested serum, peaked at 3 hours. Formed colonies were mostly granulocyte (G) and granulocyte-macrophage (GM)-types, and studies using rabbit anti-mouse GM-CSF serum or using human marrow as target cells showed that the CSF activity of the tested serum consisted of, at least, GM-CSF and G-CSF. Addition of IL-3 concomitantly with the tested serum gave rise to a greater number of megakaryocytic colonies. Serum IL-3, monitored by IL-3-dependent cell line 32D clone 5, and erythropoietin activities were not detected at serum level in IL-1 beta-treated mice.

  11. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) induces thrombocytosis in mice: Possible implication of IL-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We administered recombinant human interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), the common mediator of inflammation process, to C57B1/6 male mice (0.5 microgram, every 12 hours over five times) intraperitoneally and consequently induced a remarkable thrombocytosis. Day 1 was designated as the following day of the last injection in the morning. A significant thrombocytosis was observed on days 1 through 5 with a peak on day 2 (162 +/- 9 x 10(4)/mm3) compared with the control mice injected with heated IL-1 beta (101 +/- 11 x 10(4)/mm3). A striking increase in mean size of marrow megakaryocytes was noted on days 1 and 2. The incorporation of 75Se-selenomethionine into circulating platelets as a measure of platelet production was about 2.3 times higher in IL-1 beta-treated mice than in control mice. To determine which factor(s) is responsible for elicited thrombocytosis, the in vitro studies and bioassays for several hematopoietic factors were performed. IL-1 beta by itself did not stimulate megakaryocytopoiesis in vitro, suggesting that the thrombocytosis is attributed to other factor(s) via IL-1 beta stimulation. Serum colony-stimulating factor (CSF) activity after a single IL-1 beta (0.5 microgram) injection, monitored by colony assay with 10% tested serum, peaked at 3 hours. Formed colonies were mostly granulocyte (G) and granulocyte-macrophage (GM)-types, and studies using rabbit anti-mouse GM-CSF serum or using human marrow as target cells showed that the CSF activity of the tested serum consisted of, at least, GM-CSF and G-CSF. Addition of IL-3 concomitantly with the tested serum gave rise to a greater number of megakaryocytic colonies. Serum IL-3, monitored by IL-3-dependent cell line 32D clone 5, and erythropoietin activities were not detected at serum level in IL-1 beta-treated mice

  12. Identification of a Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3[beta] Inhibitor that Attenuates Hyperactivity in CLOCK Mutant Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozikowski, Alan P.; Gunosewoyo, Hendra; Guo, Songpo; Gaisina, Irina N.; Walter, Richard L.; Ketcherside, Ariel; McClung, Colleen A.; Mesecar, Andrew D.; Caldarone, Barbara (Psychogenics); (Purdue); (UIC); (UTSMC)

    2012-05-02

    Bipolar disorder is characterized by a cycle of mania and depression, which affects approximately 5 million people in the United States. Current treatment regimes include the so-called 'mood-stabilizing drugs', such as lithium and valproate that are relatively dated drugs with various known side effects. Glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) plays a central role in regulating circadian rhythms, and lithium is known to be a direct inhibitor of GSK-3{beta}. We designed a series of second generation benzofuran-3-yl-(indol-3-yl)maleimides containing a piperidine ring that possess IC{sub 50} values in the range of 4 to 680 nM against human GSK-3{beta}. One of these compounds exhibits reasonable kinase selectivity and promising preliminary absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) data. The administration of this compound at doses of 10 to 25 mg kg{sup -1} resulted in the attenuation of hyperactivity in amphetamine/chlordiazepoxide-induced manic-like mice together with enhancement of prepulse inhibition, similar to the effects found for valproate (400 mg kg{sup -1}) and the antipsychotic haloperidol (1 mg kg{sup -1}). We also tested this compound in mice carrying a mutation in the central transcriptional activator of molecular rhythms, the CLOCK gene, and found that the same compound attenuates locomotor hyperactivity in response to novelty. This study further demonstrates the use of inhibitors of GSK-3{beta} in the treatment of manic episodes of bipolar/mood disorders, thus further validating GSK-3{beta} as a relevant therapeutic target in the identification of new therapies for bipolar patients.

  13. Problems at the Development of personal Beta-particle dosemeters-Beta Particle dosemeters-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workplaces at which beta radiation might significantly contribute to the doses to the extremities are increasingly found in radiation therapy, radiation source production and nuclear plants. for the measurement of the individual beta-particle dose, personal dosemeters for fingers, arms and legs are needed. Intercomparison measurements organised from 1996 by the PTB have shown that some dosemeter types based on TLD are suitable for this purpose and can be used as legal dosemeters for both photon and beta radiation. Also, some electronic personal photon dosemeters are investigated in beta radiation fields. it turned out that a few types are also sensitive to beta radiation and measure the personal dose equivalent rate to the skin with a low energy dependence. Only their wearing position is by far not optimal foe extremity dosimetry because they are worn on the chest. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The characterisation of workplaces is carried out by measuring dose profiles using area dosemeters. Investigations performed with several commercial types of these dosemeters furnish information about the selection of the suitable measuring device and its correct practical use. the development of improved dosemeters has to towards smaller detectors and higher sensitivity. Personal dosemeters have to be robust and acceptable to the user, which generally is not achieved for beta extremity dosemeters. It is an additional problem that even such dosemeters cannot always be worn in the appropriate place. (Author)

  14. [beta]-Lactamases in the Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Paula; Prudencio, Cristina; Vieira, Monica; Ferraz, Ricardo; Fonte, Rosalia; Silva, Nuno; Coelho, Pedro; Fernandes, Ruben

    2009-01-01

    [beta]-lactamases are hydrolytic enzymes that inactivate the [beta]-lactam ring of antibiotics such as penicillins and cephalosporins. The major diversity of studies carried out until now have mainly focused on the characterization of [beta]-lactamases recovered among clinical isolates of Gram-positive staphylococci and Gram-negative…

  15. Natalizumab plus interferon beta-1a for relapsing multiple sclerosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudick, R.A.; Stuart, W.H.; Calabresi, P.A.; Confavreux, C.; Galetta, S.L.; Radue, E.W.; Lublin, F.D.; Weinstock-Guttman, B.; Wynn, D.R.; Lynn, F.; Panzara, M.A.; Sandrock, A.W.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interferon beta is used to modify the course of relapsing multiple sclerosis. Despite interferon beta therapy, many patients have relapses. Natalizumab, an alpha4 integrin antagonist, appeared to be safe and effective alone and when added to interferon beta-1a in preliminary studies. MET

  16. Why Downside Beta Is Better: An Educational Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, James T.; Jennings, William P.; Phillips, G. Michael

    2013-01-01

    An educational example is presented that is an effective teaching illustration to help students understand the difference between traditional CAPM beta and downside (or down-market) beta and why downside beta is a superior measure for use in personal financial planning investment policy statements.

  17. Induction of beta-lactamase production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giwercman, B; Jensen, E T; Høiby, N;

    1991-01-01

    Imipenem induced high levels of beta-lactamase production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Piperacillin also induced beta-lactamase production in these biofilms but to a lesser degree. The combination of beta-lactamase production with other protective properties of the biofilm mode of growth...

  18. Mechanisms of beta-amyloid neurotoxicity : Perspectives of pharmacotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkany, T; Abraham, [No Value; Konya, C; Nyakas, C; Zarandi, M; Penke, B; Luiten, PGM

    2000-01-01

    One of the characteristic neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the extracellular accumulation of beta -amyloid peptides (A beta) in neuritic plaques, Experimental data indicate that different molecular forms of A beta affect a wide array of neuronal and glial functions and ther

  19. 21 CFR 886.5100 - Ophthalmic beta radiation source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic beta radiation source. 886.5100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5100 Ophthalmic beta radiation source. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic beta radiation source is a device intended to apply...

  20. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) induced neutrophil recruitment to synovial tissues: implications for TGF-beta-driven synovial inflammation and hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the consequences of introducing human recombinant transforming growth factor beta 1 (hrTGF-beta 1) into synovial tissue of the rat, to begin to better understand the significance of the fact that biologically active TGF-beta is found in human arthritic synovial effusions. Within 4-6 h after the intra-articular injection of 1 microgram of hrTGF-beta 1 into rat knee joints, extensive recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was observed. Cytochemistry and high resolution histological techniques were used to quantitate the influx of PMNs, which peaked 6 h post-injection. In a Boyden chamber assay, hrTGF-beta 1 at 1-10 fg/ml elicited a chemotactic response from PMNs greater in magnitude than that evoked by FMLP, establishing that TGF-beta 1 is an effective chemotactic agent for PMNs in vitro as well as in vivo. That PMNs may represent an important source of TGF-beta in inflammatory infiltrates was strongly suggested by a demonstration that stored TGF-beta 1 was secreted during phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated degranulation in vitro. Acid/ethanol extracts of human PMNs assayed by ELISA contained an average of 355 ng of TGF/beta 1 per 10(9) cells potentially available for secretion during degranulation of PMNs. [3H]Thymidine incorporation in vivo and autoradiography of tissue sections revealed that widespread cell proliferation was triggered by TGF-beta 1 injection. Synovial lining cells and cells located deep within the subsynovial connective tissue were identified as sources of at least some of the new cells that contribute to TGF-beta 1-induced hyperplasia. Our results demonstrate that TGF-beta is capable of exerting pathogenic effects on synovial tissue and that PMNs may represent a significant source of the TGF-beta present in synovial effusions

  1. An exactly solvable model for a beta-hairpin with random interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Zamparo, Marco

    2010-01-01

    I investigate a disordered version of a simplified model of protein folding, with binary degrees of freedom, applied to an ideal beta-hairpin structure. Disorder is introduced by assuming that the contact energies are independent and identically distributed random variables. The equilibrium free-energy of the model is studied, performing the exact calculation of its quenched value and proving the self-averaging feature.

  2. [C-11]{beta}CNT: A new monoamine uptake ligand for studying serotonin and dopamine transporter sites in the living brain with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulholland, G.K.; Zheng, Q.H.; Zhou, F.C. [Indiana Univ. Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    There is considerable interest in measuring serotonin (5HT) and dopamine (DA) function in the human brain. Altered levels of 5HT and DA are recognized in drug abuse, neurotoxicities, psychiatric disorders, and neurodegenerative conditions including Alzheimer`s and Parkinson`s disease. Several phenyltropane analogs of cocaine bind tightly to both DA and 5HT uptake proteins. We have made a new agent from this class called {beta}CNT, 2{beta}-carboxymethyl-3{beta}-(2-naphthyl)-tropane, the isosteric O-for-CH{sub 2} analog of a compound reported to have among the highest measured affinities for DA and 5HT transporters and studied its in vivo brain distributions in animals for the first time. Optically pure {beta}CNT was made from cocaine, and labeled at the O-methyl position by esterification of {beta}CNT-acid with [C-11]CH{sub 3}OTfl under conditions similar to Wilson`s. HPLC-purified (99+%) final products (15-50% eob yield from CO{sub 2}, 40 min synth) had specific activities 0.1-1.2 Ci/{mu}mol at the time of injection. Preliminary [C-11]{beta}{beta}CNT rodent distribution showed very high brain uptake (3% ID at 60 min) and localization (striat: fr cort: hypo: cer: blood, 11: 5: 4: 1: 06). {beta}CNT-PET studies in juvenile pigs (5-20 mCi, 20-35 kg) found rapid brain uptake, and prominent retention (85 min) in midbrain, anterior brainstem and striatum, followed by cortex and olfactory bulb. Paroxetine pretreatment (5HT uptake blocker, 2mg/kg), diminished retention in most brain areas; nomifensine (DA/NE uptake blocker, 6 mg/kg) reduced striatum selectively. Direct comparisons of [C-11]{beta}CNT with other PET transporter radioligands {beta}CFT, {beta}CIT, and {beta}CTT (RTI-32) in the same pig found {beta}CNT had highest overall brain uptake among the agents. These initial results suggest {beta}CNT has favorable properties for imaging both 5HT and DA transporters in vivo, and further evaluation of its potential as a human PET agent is warranted.

  3. [{sup 123}I]IPCIT and [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT as SPECT tracers for the dopamine transporter A comparative analysis in nonhuman primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanley, B.E. E-mail: ellen.scanley@yale.edu; Gandelman, M.S.; Laruelle, M.; Al-Tikriti, M.S.; Baldwin, R.M.; Zoghbi, S.S.; Hoffer, P.B.; Wang, S.; Neumeyer, J.L.; Innis, R.B

    2000-01-01

    [{sup 123}I]2{beta}-Carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)tropane ([{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT) and its isopropylester analog [{sup 123}I]IPCIT, both of which are phenyltropane derivatives of cocaine with high affinity for the dopamine (DA) transporter, were compared using single photon emission computed tomography in nonhuman primates. Although IPCIT is significantly more selective for the DA transporter than {beta}-CIT, striatal distribution volumes of specifically bound tracer were similar for both tracers. Compartmental modeling results were compared with a simple peak equilibrium method used previously by this group. The peak equilibrium method is shown to overestimate striatal distribution volumes, primarily due to a difference in the calculated time of peak specific uptake.

  4. PCR-based plasmid typing in Enterococcus faecium strains reveals widely distributed pRE25-, pRUM-, pIP501-and pHT beta-related replicons associated with glycopeptide resistance and stabilizing toxin-antitoxin systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosvoll, T.C.S.; Pedersen, T.; Sletvold, H.;

    2010-01-01

    AM373, pMBB1 or pEF418 were not detected. Furthermore, 61% of the strains contained the axe-txe (n=42) or/and the omega-epsilon-zeta (n=18) plasmid stabilization loci. Sequence analyses divided the omega-epsilon-zeta operon into two distinct phylogenetic groups. The present typing scheme accounted for......A PCR-based typing scheme was applied to identify plasmids in an epidemiologically and geographically diverse strain collection of Enterococcus faecium (n=93). Replicon types of pRE25 (n=56), pRUM (n=41), pIP501 (n=17) and pHT beta (n=14) were observed in 83% of the strains, while pS86, pCF10, p...... about 60% of the total number of plasmids detected by S1 nuclease analyses, which revealed zero to seven plasmids (10 kb to > 200 kb) per isolate. Interestingly, strains belonging to the clinically important clonal complex 17 (CC17) yielded a significantly higher number of plasmids (3.1) and p...

  5. Double beta decay with large scale Yb-loaded scintillators

    OpenAIRE

    Zuber, K.

    2000-01-01

    The potential of large scale Yb-loaded liquid scintillators as proposed for solar neutrino spectroscopy are investigated with respect to double beta decay. The potential for beta-beta- - decay of 176Yb as well as the beta+/EC - decay for 168Yb is discussed. Not only getting for the first time an experimental half-life limit on 176Yb - decay, this will even be at least comparable or better than existing ones from other isotopes. Also for the first time a realistic chance to detect beta+/EC - d...

  6. Myocardial imaging with radioiodinated beta-methyl-branched fatty acid in cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of our experimental and clinical studies was to examine whether myocardial distribution of beta-methyl iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) is different from that of thallium in cardiomyopathic hamsters and how single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) delineate the different between thallium and BMIPP distributions in patients with cardiomyopathy. Quantitative dual tracer autoradiography demonstrated an uncoupling of myocardial thallium and [I-125]BMIPP distributions as well as a regional heterogeneity of [I-125]BMIPP distribution in cardiomyopathic hamsters. In patients with septal or apical hypertrophy and normal contractility, SPECT showed reduced [I-123]BMIPP uptake in the thickened myocardium with normal or high thallium uptake. In patients with hypertrophy and systolic dysfunction as well as those with dilated cardiomyopathy, SPECT with thallium and [I-123]BMIPP showed similar heterogeneous distributions. In conclusion, SPECT with [I-123]BMIPP may provide unique features different from thallium imaging and may delineate regional abnormalities of myocardial fatty acid metabolism in cardiomyopathy. (author)

  7. Role of the beta1-integrin cytoplasmic tail in mediating invasin-promoted internalization of Yersinia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Anna; Armulik, Annika; Brakebusch, Cord;

    2002-01-01

    1B or different mutants of the beta1A subunit was used. Both beta1A and beta1B bound to invasin-expressing bacteria, but only beta1A was able to mediate internalization of the bacteria. The cytoplasmic region of beta1A, differing from beta1B, contains two NPXY motifs surrounding a double threonine...

  8. 6 beta-Iodopenicillanic acid (UI-38,006), a beta-lactamase inhibitor that extends the antibacterial spectrum of beta-lactam compounds: initial bacteriological characterization.

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, B A; Brammer, K W

    1981-01-01

    UK-38,006, 6 beta-iodopenicillanic acid, was shown to be a potent inhibitor of beta-lactamase enzymes. It potentiated the antibacterial action of ampicillin in vitro against beta-lactamase-producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Bacteroides fragilis. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and many Enterobacteriaceae. This ability to synergize with ampicillin was also demonstrated in vivo after oral administration of UK-38,006 to experimentally infected mice. UK-38,006 was also sho...

  9. Bactericidal interactions of a beta-lactam and beta-lactamase inhibitors in experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa endocarditis caused by a constitutive overproducer of type Id beta-lactamase.

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, A S; Selecky, M; Babel, K; Hirano, L; Yih, J; Parr, T R

    1987-01-01

    We investigated the in vitro and in vivo effects of a combination of a beta-lactam (ceftazidime) and a beta-lactamase inhibitor (dicloxacillin) to synergistically kill a ceftazidime-resistant variant, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA-48, which overproduces type Id cephalosporinase constitutively. In vitro, dicloxacillin plus ceftazidime exerted bactericidal synergy at approximately 10(5) CFU/ml of inoculum (but not at approximately 10(7)-CFU inoculum), whereas other beta-lactamase inhibitors (sulbac...

  10. Search for $\\beta^+$EC and ECEC processes in $^{112}$Sn and $\\beta^-\\beta^-$ decay of $^{124}$Sn to the excited states of $^{124}$Te

    CERN Document Server

    Barabash, A S; Nachab, A; Konovalov, S I; Vanyushin, I A; Umatov, V I

    2008-01-01

    Limits on $\\beta^+$EC and ECEC processes in $^{112}$Sn and on $\\beta^-\\beta^-$ decay of $^{124}$Sn to the excited states of $^{124}$Te have been obtained using a 380 cm$^3$ HPGe detector and an external source consisting of natural tin. A limit with 90% C.L. on the $^{112}$Sn half-life of $0.92\\times 10^{20}$ y for the ECEC(0$\

  11. Comparative evaluation of a new beta-lactamase inhibitor, YTR 830, combined with different beta-lactam antibiotics against bacteria harboring known beta-lactamases.

    OpenAIRE

    Gutmann, L; Kitzis, M D; Yamabe, S; Acar, J F

    1986-01-01

    YTR 830, a new beta-lactamase inhibitor, combined with amoxicillin or carbenicillin, showed a synergistic effect similar to that observed with clavulanic acid, and generally better than that with sulbactam, against strains harboring chromosome-encoded penicillinases and broad-spectrum beta-lactamases or plasmid-determined beta-lactamases. With ampicillin, YTR 830 showed the best synergistic activity of the inhibitors against Proteus morganii, Citrobacter freundii, and Enterobacter cloacae and...

  12. Occurrence and characteristics of extended spectrum beta-lactamases-producing Enterobacteriaceae from foods of animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekiner, İsmail Hakkı; Özpınar, Haydar

    2016-01-01

    Presence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) in bacteria is a growing health concern of global significance. The local, regional, national, and international epidemiological studies for extended spectrum beta-lactamases-producing Enterobacteriaceae and their encoding genes in foods are still incomplete. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases-producing Enterobacteriaceae and the characteristics of their encoding genes from a total of 250 samples of various foods of animal-origin (100 raw chicken meat, 100 raw cow milk, and 50 raw cow milk cheese) sold in Turkey. Overall, 55 isolates were positive as extended spectrum beta-lactamases-producing Enterobacteriaceae. The most prevalent extended spectrum beta-lactamases-producing strain were identified as Escherichia coli (80%), followed by Enterobacter cloacae (9.1%), Citrobacter braakii (5.5%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (3.6%), and Citrobacter werkmanii (1.8%) by Vitek(®) MS. The simultaneous production of extended spectrum beta-lactamases and AmpC was detected in five isolates (9.1%) in E. coli (80%) and E. cloacae (20%). The frequency rates of blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV were 96.4%, 53.7%, and 34.5%, respectively. The co-existence of bla-genes was observed in 82% of extended spectrum beta-lactamases producers with a distribution of blaTEM &blaCTX-M (52.7%), blaTEM &blaSHV (20%), blaTEM &blaCTX-M &blaSHV (12.7%), and blaSHV &blaCTX-M (1.8%). The most prevalent variant of blaCTX-M clusters was defined as blaCTX-M-1 (97.2%), followed by blaCTX-M-8 (2.8%). In summary, the analysed foods were found to be posing a health risk for Turkish consumers due to contamination by Enterobacteriaceae with a diversity of extended spectrum beta-lactamases encoding genes. PMID:26991276

  13. Genetic counselling in the beta-thalassaemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adonis S. Ioannides

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The beta-thalassaemias are very important genetic disorders of haemoglobin synthesis and are amongst the commonest monogenic disorders. In view of the severity of beta-thalassaemia major, a number of screening programmes have been developed aimed at reducing the number of individuals born with the condition. Genetic counsellingplays a vital role in this process supporting the successful implementation of screening and delineating available options to at risk individuals. This review assesses the contribution of genetic counsellingat each stage of this process in the context of new diagnostic techniques and therapeutic options and discusses some of the more challenging aspects such as genotype/ phenotype correlation and coinheritance of other genetic conditions or genetic modifiers.

  14. JUNO and neutrinoless double beta decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shao-Feng; Rodejohann, Werner

    2015-11-01

    We study the impact of the precision determination of oscillation parameters in the JUNO experiment on half-life predictions for neutrinoless double beta decay. We show that the solar neutrino mixing angle can be measured by JUNO with below 1% uncertainty. This implies in particular that the minimal value of the effective mass in the inverted mass ordering will be known essentially without uncertainty. We demonstrate that this reduces the range of half-life predictions in order to test this value by a factor of 2. The remaining uncertainty is caused by nuclear matrix elements. This has important consequences for future double beta decay experiments that aim at ruling out the inverted mass ordering or the Majorana nature of neutrinos.

  15. JUNO and Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Ge, Shao-Feng

    2015-01-01

    We study the impact of the precision determination of oscillation parameters in the JUNO experiment on half-life predictions for neutrinoless double beta decay. We show that the solar neutrino mixing angle can be measured by JUNO with below 1% uncertainty. This implies in particular that the minimal value of the effective mass in the inverted mass ordering will be known essentially without uncertainty. We demonstrate that this reduces the range of half-life predictions in order to test this value by a factor of two. The remaining uncertainty is caused by nuclear matrix elements. This has important consequences for future double beta decay experiments that aim at ruling out the inverted mass ordering or the Majorana nature of neutrinos.

  16. Importance of neutrinoless double beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Utpal

    2007-01-01

    A natural explanation for the smallness of the neutrino mass requires them to be Majorana particles violating lepton number by two units. Since lepton number violation can have several interesting consequences in particle physics and cosmology, it is of utmost importance to find out if there is lepton number violation in nature and what is its magnitude. The neutrinoless double beta decay experiment can answer these questions: if there is lepton number violation and if neutrinos are Majorana particles. In addition, the magnitude of neutrinoless double beta decay will constrain any other lepton number violating processes. This lepton number violation may also be relatd to the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe, dark matter and cosmological constant.

  17. Beta-plane turbulence: experiments with altimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Y

    2013-01-01

    Results from a new series of experiments on flows generated by an electromagnetic method in a rotating tank with topographic beta-effect are presented. The velocity fields are measured by the Altimetric Imaging Velocimetry. The turbulent flows observed in the experiments develop zonal jets which are latent in a stationary forced-dissipative regime of the flow but become prominent in the decaying flow. The two-dimensional energy spectra of the flows exhibit the development of anisotropy towards zonal motions. The experiments demonstrate dual turbulent cascade with energy and enstrophy ranges. The frequency-wavenumber spectra reveal the presence of Rossby waves at low wavenumbers which are excited by the turbulent motions. The experimental results are compared with available theory of beta-plane turbulence.

  18. Search for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Tornow, Werner

    2014-01-01

    After the pioneering work of the Heidelberg-Moscow (HDM) and International Germanium Experiment (IGEX) groups, the second round of neutrinoless double-$\\beta$ decay searches currently underway has or will improve the life-time limits of double-$\\beta$ decay candidates by a factor of two to three, reaching in the near future the $T_{1/2} = 3 \\times 10^{25}$ yr level. This talk will focus on the large-scale experiments GERDA, EXO-200, and KamLAND-Zen, which have reported already lower half-life time limits in excess of $10^{25}$ yr. Special emphasis is given to KamLAND-Zen, which is expected to approach the inverted hierarchy regime before future 1-ton experiments probe completely this life-time or effective neutrino-mass regime, which starts at $\\approx 2 \\times 10^{26}$ yr or $\\approx 50$ meV.

  19. Numerical models for high beta magnetohydrodynamic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamentals of numerical magnetohydrodynamics for highly conducting, high-beta plasmas are outlined. The discussions emphasize the physical properties of the flow, and how elementary concepts in numerical analysis can be applied to the construction of finite difference approximations that capture these features. The linear and nonlinear stability of explicit and implicit differencing in time is examined, the origin and effect of numerical diffusion in the calculation of convective transport is described, and a technique for maintaining solenoidality in the magnetic field is developed. Many of the points are illustrated by numerical examples. The techniques described are applicable to the time-dependent, high-beta flows normally encountered in magnetically confined plasmas, plasma switches, and space and astrophysical plasmas. 40 refs

  20. Beta Beams for Precision Measurements of Neutrino Oscillation Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Wildner, E; Hansen, C; De Melo Mendonca, T; Stora, T; Damjanovic, S; Payet, J; Chancé, A; Zorin, V; Izotov, I; Rasin, S; Sidorov, A; Skalyga, V; De Angelis, G; Prete, G; Cinausero, M; Kravchuk, V; Gramegna, F; Marchi, T; Collazuol, G; Mezzetto, M; Delbar, T; Loiselet, M; Keutgen, T; Mitrofanov, S; Burt, G; Dexter, A; Lamy, T; Latrasse, L; Marie-Jeanne, M; Sortais, P; Thuillier, T; Debray, F; Trophime, C; Hass, M; Hirsh, T; Berkovits, D; Stahl, A; Vardaci, E; Di Nitto, A; Brondi, A; La Rana, G; Moro, R; De Rosa, G; Palladino, V

    2012-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations have implications for the Standard Model of particle physics. The CERN Beta Beam has outstanding capabilities to contribute to precision measurements of the parameters governing neutrino oscillations. The FP7 collaboration EUROnu (2008-2012) is a design study that will review three facilities (Super-Beams, Beta Beams and Neutrino Factories) and perform a cost assessment that, coupled with the physics performance, will give means to the European research authorities to make decisions on future European neutrino oscillation facilities. ”Beta Beams” produce collimated pure electron (anti)neutrinos by accelerating beta active ions to high energies and having them decay in a storage ring. Using existing machines and infrastructure is an advantage for the cost evaluation; however, this choice is also constraining the Beta Beams. Recent work to make the Beta Beam facility a solid option will be described: production of Beta Beam isotopes, the 60 GHz pulsed ECR source development, integratio...