WorldWideScience

Sample records for beta detection

  1. Using natural beta emission for detecting concealed tobacco in parcels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Jeremy [Laboratory for Threat Material Detection, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada); Hussein, Esam M.A. [Laboratory for Threat Material Detection, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada)], E-mail: hussein@unb.ca

    2007-10-15

    It is suspected that postal systems are used for the illegal shipment of tobacco products to circumvent taxation and excise payments. This paper demonstrates that beta-particle emission from the potassium-40 contained in tobacco can be used to passively detect its presence in paperboard postal parcels. The same concept can be utilized for the detection of marijuana, whose leaves are also rich in {sup 40}K. The combination of high beta activity and a low weight is a good indicator of the presence of these two contraband materials.

  2. Using natural beta emission for detecting concealed tobacco in parcels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is suspected that postal systems are used for the illegal shipment of tobacco products to circumvent taxation and excise payments. This paper demonstrates that beta-particle emission from the potassium-40 contained in tobacco can be used to passively detect its presence in paperboard postal parcels. The same concept can be utilized for the detection of marijuana, whose leaves are also rich in 40K. The combination of high beta activity and a low weight is a good indicator of the presence of these two contraband materials

  3. Phenotypic detection of beta-lactamases production in enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Beta-lactam antibiotics are the most commonly used antibacterial drugs. However, many bacteria have developed resistance to these antibiotics, and the most common form of resistance is the production of beta-lactamase enzymes. Many members of the Enterobacteriaceae family produce different types of these enzymes. Objective. The aim of this study was to perform phenotypic detection of production and identification of beta-lactamase type in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from different clinical specimens from patients hospitalized in the Clinical Center of Serbia. Methods. The strains of Enterobacteriaceae were collected between November 2011 and January 2012 in the laboratory of the Clinical Center of Serbia. The isolates were identified according to the standard microbiology procedures and confirmed by the Vitek2 automated system. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method, and the phenotypic detection of production and identification of betalactamases was performed according to previously described methodologies. Results. In this study, a total of 172 Enterobacteriaceae strains were isolated. Further testing was performed on 54/145 (37.2% strains showing decreased susceptibility to beta-lactam antibiotics: 13/85 (15.3% Escherichia coli, 31/46 (67.4% Klebsiella pneumoniae and 10/14 (71.4% Proteus mirabilis. Among them, 40/145 (27.6% strains produced extended spectrum betalactamases (ESBLs, 9/145 (6.2% - AmpC, 1/145 (0.7% - K1 beta-lactamase and 4/145 (2.8% - carbapenemases. Carbapenemases were predominantly detected in K. pneumoniae (75%. Conclusion. Enterobacteriaceae produce different types of betalactamases, and the most common type in our study was ESBLs. Production of carbapenemases detected in Enterobacteriaceae is also an associated problem. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON 175039

  4. State-of-the-Art Beta Detection and Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David M. Hamby

    2008-08-15

    The research funded by this NEER grant establishes the framework for a detailed understanding of the challenges in beta dosimetry, especially in the presence of a mixed radiation field. The work also stimulated the thinking of the research group which will lead to new concepts in digital signal processing to allow collection of detection signals and real-time analysis such that simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy can take place. The work described herein (with detail in the many publications that came out of this research) was conducted in a manner that provided dissertation and thesis topics for three students, one of whom was completely funded by this grant. The overall benefit of the work came in the form of a dramatic shift in signal processing that is normally conducted in analog pulse shape analysis. Analog signal processing was shown not to be feasible for this type of work; digital signal processing was a must. This, in turn, led the research team to a new understanding of pulse analysis, one in which expands the state-of-the-art in simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy with a single detector.

  5. Detection of Rare Beta Globin Gene Mutations in Northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Haghi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent molecular studies on Iranian β-thalassemia genes revealed the presence of eight common mutations associated with thalassemia. Although these mutations are frequent, there are other rare and unknown mutations that can create large problems in designing preventive programs. We detected and explained the common mutations in north-western Iran previously and detection of the rare and unknown mutations could be useful in diagnosis and design of future preventive programs. Methods: In this study, 5ml peripheral blood from 20 Azari- β-thalassemia patients whose mutation was not revealed in the previous study was collected and DNA extraction was done by isopropanol and proteinase k method. Initially, samples were examined for the rare mutations: Codon6, Codon16, Codon41/42, Codon36/37, -88 and Codon22 by ARMS – PCR techniques and then the unknown cases were directly sequenced. Results: According to our results, Codon15(TGG-TGA, Codon16(-C, Codon36/37(-T, IVSII-848(C-A, IVSII-745(C-G, -28(A-C( and Codon25/26(+T were recognized and added to the spectrom of beta globin gene mutations in Azerbaijan and Iran. Also, we detected four SNP sites: 5’UTR+20(C-T, Codon2 (CAC-CAT , IVSII-16(C-G and IVSII-666(T-C in β-thalassemia genes. Conclusion: Our results could be useful for developing molecular screening plans and help prenatal diagnosis of beta thalassemia in Azerbaijan , Iran and other neighboring countries.

  6. Herschel detects oxygen in the beta Pictoris debris disk

    CERN Document Server

    Brandeker, A; Olofsson, G; Vandenbussche, B; Acke, B; Barlow, M J; Blommaert, J A D L; Cohen, M; Dent, W R F; Dominik, C; Di Francesco, J; Fridlund, M; Gear, W K; Glauser, A M; Greaves, J S; Harvey, P M; Heras, A M; Hogerheijde, M R; Holland, W S; Huygen, R; Ivison, R J; Leeks, S J; Lim, T L; Liseau, R; Matthews, B C; Pantin, E; Pilbratt, G L; Royer, P; Sibthorpe, B; Waelkens, C; Walker, H J

    2016-01-01

    The young star beta Pictoris is well known for its dusty debris disk, produced through the grinding down by collisions of planetesimals, kilometre-sized bodies in orbit around the star. In addition to dust, small amounts of gas are also known to orbit the star, likely the result from vaporisation of violently colliding dust grains. The disk is seen edge on and from previous absorption spectroscopy we know that the gas is very rich in carbon relative to other elements. The oxygen content has been more difficult to assess, however, with early estimates finding very little oxygen in the gas at a C/O ratio 20x higher than the cosmic value. A C/O ratio that high is difficult to explain and would have far-reaching consequences for planet formation. Here we report on observations by the far-infrared space telescope Herschel, using PACS, of emission lines from ionised carbon and neutral oxygen. The detected emission from C+ is consistent with that previously reported being observed by the HIFI instrument on Herschel,...

  7. Detection and characterization of metallo beta lactamases producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoharan A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate phenotypic and genotypic methods for detection of Metallo-Beta-Lactamases (MBLs among nosocomial Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Sixty one among 176 P. aeruginosa isolates, collected as part of a multicentric study (2005-2007, were evaluated for carbapenem resistance (CARB-R; resistant to either imipenem/meropenem and screened for MBL by Combination Disk Diffusion Test (CDDT using imipenem (IMP, meropenem (MER and ceftazidime (CAZ with EDTA. MBL positives were further confirmed by IMP + EDTA Etest. Twenty strains (42.6% were found to be MBL producers among the 61 P. aeruginosa. PCR for IMP and VIM MBL was performed on 48 of the 61, 15 were positive for VIM MBL type. CDDT using IMP + EDTA had the highest sensitivity and specificity of 87.8% and 84.4% when compared to Etest, which was higher than the values obtained for CAZ + EDTA and MER + EDTA. CDDT using IMP + EDTA also compared very well with the PCR (specificity = 90.9%, sensitivity = 93.3%. CARB-R among P. aeruginosa is mediated predominantly via MBL production. Clinical P. aeruginosa isolates can be screened routinely using the less expensive IMP + EDTA CDDT in clinical microbiology laboratories.

  8. Detection System for Neutron $\\beta$ Decay Correlations in the UCNB and Nab experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Broussard, L J; Adamek, E R; Baeßler, S; Birge, N; Blatnik, M; Bowman, J D; Brandt, A E; Brown, M; Burkhart, J; Callahan, N B; Clayton, S M; Crawford, C; Cude-Woods, C; Currie, S; Dees, E B; Ding, X; Fomin, N; Frlez, E; Fry, J; Gray, F E; Hasan, S; Hickerson, K P; Hoagland, J; Holley, A T; Ito, T M; Klein, A; Li, H; Liu, C -Y; Makela, M F; McGaughey, P L; Mirabal-Martinez, J; Morris, C L; Ortiz, J D; Pattie, R W; Penttilä, S I; Plaster, B; Počanić, D; Ramsey, J C; Salas-Bacci, A; Salvat, D J; Saunders, A; Seestrom, S J; Sjue, S K L; Sprow, A P; Tang, Z; Vogelaar, R B; Vorndick, B; Wang, Z; Wei, W; Wexler, J; Wilburn, W S; Womack, T L; Young, A R

    2016-01-01

    We describe a detection system designed for precise measurements of angular correlations in neutron $\\beta$ decay. The system is based on thick, large area, highly segmented silicon detectors developed in collaboration with Micron Semiconductor, Ltd. The prototype system meets specifications for $\\beta$ electron detection with energy thresholds below 10 keV, energy resolution of $\\sim$3 keV FWHM, and rise time of $\\sim$50 ns with 19 of the 127 detector pixels instrumented. Using ultracold neutrons at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, we have demonstrated the coincident detection of $\\beta$ particles and recoil protons from neutron $\\beta$ decay. The fully instrumented detection system will be implemented in the UCNB and Nab experiments, to determine the neutron $\\beta$ decay parameters $B$, $a$, and $b$.

  9. Validation study of the BetaStar plus lateral flow assay for detection of beta-lactam antibiotics in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouzied, Mohamed; Driksna, Dana; Walsh, Coilin; Sarzynski, Michael; Walsh, Aaron; Ankrapp, David; Klein, Frank; Rice, Jennifer; Mozola, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A validation study designed to meet the requirements of the AOAC Research Institute and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Veterinary Medicine (FDA/CVM) was conducted for a receptor and antibody-based, immunochromatographic method (BetaStar Plus) for detection of beta-lactam antibiotic residues in raw, commingled bovine milk. The assay was found to detect amoxicillin, ampicillin, ceftiofur, cephapirin, cloxacillin, and penicillin G at levels below the FDA tolerance/safe levels, but above the maximum sensitivity thresholds established by the National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments (NCIMS). Results of the part I (internal) and part II (independent laboratory) dose-response studies employing spiked samples were in close agreement. The test was able to detect all six drugs at the approximate 90/95% sensitivity levels when presented as incurred residues in milk collected from cows that had been treated with the specific drug. Selectivity of the assay was 100%, as no false-positive results were obtained in testing of 1031 control milk samples. Results of ruggedness experiments established the operating parameter tolerances for the BetaStar Plus assay. Results of cross-reactivity testing established that the assay detects certain other beta-lactam drugs (dicloxacillin and ticarcillin), but it does not cross-react with any of 30 drugs belonging to other classes. Abnormally high bacterial or somatic cell counts in raw milk produced no interference with the ability of the test to detect beta-lactams at tolerance/safe levels. PMID:22970593

  10. MALDI, AP/MALDI and ESI techniques for the MS detection of amyloid [beta]-peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Giuseppe; Mineo, Placido; Rizzarelli, Enrico; Spoto, Giuseppe

    2009-04-01

    Amyloid [beta]-peptides (A[beta]s) are involved in several neuropathological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and considerable experimental evidences have emerged indicating that different proteases play a major role in regulating the accumulation of A[beta]s in the brain. Particularly, insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) has been shown to degrade A[beta]s at different cleavage sites, but the experimental results reported in the literature and obtained by mass spectrometry methods are somehow fragmentary. The detection of A[beta]s is often complicated by solubility issues, oxidation artifacts and spontaneous aggregation/cleavage and, in order to rationalize the different reported results, we analyzed A[beta]s solutions by three different MS approaches: matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF), atmospheric pressure (AP) MALDI ion trap and electrospray ionization (ESI) ion trap. Differences in the obtained results are discussed and ESI is chosen as the most suitable MS method for A[beta]s detection. Finally, cleavage sites produced by interaction of A[beta]s with IDE are identified, two of which had never been reported in the literature.

  11. Characteristics of beta detection and dose measurement at Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report considers the current state of the art of beta dosimetry practices and beta detection methods used by health physicists at US Department of Energy facilities. This information is based on a survey of DOE facilities. Beta measurements are technically difficult and innovative efforts must be expended to improve their accuracy. Perhaps the most pronounced problem is that beta dosimetry and instrumentation in use are highly energy and angular dependent. Many believe that beta exposures are adequately controlled because beta to photon ratios are assumed to be low. This assumption is not always valid as demonstrated by the accident at Three Mile Island (TMI). Significant beta doses exist where personnel are exposed to mixed fission products; for example, chemical reprocessing plants, reactor accidents, or where uranium metals are processed. This report is part of an effort to increase the DOE response to this technically difficult area of health protection. Problem areas are addressed and methods recommended to improve beta dosimetry through a cooperative effort among the various DOE contractors. 34 refs., 2 figs., 16 tabs

  12. Beta-lactamase detection in Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno F. Robles

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study were to evaluate the presence/production of beta-lactamases by both phenotypic and genotypic methods, verify whether results are dependent of bacteria type (Staphylococcus aureus versus coagulase-negative Staphylococcus - CNS and verify the agreement between tests. A total of 200 bacteria samples from 21 different herds were enrolled, being 100 CNS and 100 S. aureus. Beta-lactamase presence/detection was performed by different tests (PCR, clover leaf test - CLT, Nitrocefin disk, and in vitro resistance to penicillin. Results of all tests were not dependent of bacteria type (CNS or S. aureus. Several S. aureus beta-lactamase producing isolates were from the same herd. Phenotypic tests excluding in vitro resistance to penicillin showed a strong association measured by the kappa coefficient for both bacteria species. Nitrocefin and CLT are more reliable tests for detecting beta-lactamase production in staphylococci.

  13. Optimization of Plastic Scintillator Thicknesses for Online Beta Detection in Mixed Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For efficient beta detection in a mixed beta-gamma field, Monte Carlo simulation models have been developed to optimize the thickness of a plastic scintillator used in whole body monitor. The simulation has been performed using MCNP/X code and different thicknesses of plastic scintillators ranging from 150 to 600 μm have been used. The relationship between the thickness of the scintillator and the efficiency of the detector has been analysed. For 150 μm thickness, an experimental investigation has been conducted with different beta sources at different positions on the scintillator and the counting efficiency of the unit has been measured. Evaluated data along with experimental ones have been discussed. A thickness of 300 μm to 500 μm has been found to be an optimum thickness for better beta detection efficiency in the presence of low energy gamma ray. (author)

  14. Detection of Aspergillus Galactomannan Antigenemia To Determine Biological and Clinical Implications of Beta-Lactam Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Bart-Delabesse, Emmanuelle; Basile, Maria; Al Jijakli, Ahmad; Souville, Didier; Gay, Frédérick; Philippe, Bruno; Bossi, Philippe; Danis, Martin; Vernant, Jean-Paul; Datry, Annick

    2005-01-01

    Detection of Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) in serum with the Platelia Aspergillus enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is useful for diagnosing invasive aspergillosis. From May 2003 to November 2004, 65 patients who did not develop aspergillosis had at least two positive sera while receiving a beta-lactam treatment (GM index [GMI], ≥0.5). Of the 69 treatment episodes scored, 41 consisted of a beta-lactam other than piperacillin-tazobactam (n = 29), namely, amoxicillin-clavulanate (n = 25), amoxicillin (...

  15. Doubly stochastic Poisson processes in EMARG with detection of. beta. particles and internal-conversion electrons emitted from a surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusov, V.D.; Zelentsova, T.N.; Grechan, V.I.; Semenov, M.Y.; Kravchenko, S.N.

    1985-12-01

    The form of the counting statistics is determined for detection of ..beta.. particles and internal-conversion electrons by a nuclear emulsion. It is shown experimentally for the first time that photographic detection of ..beta.. particles and internal-conversion electrons obeys a Neyman type-A distribution, and not a Poisson distribution as was previously assumed.

  16. Sensitive detection of rutin based on {beta}-cyclodextrin-chemically reduced graphene/Nafion composite film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Kunping; Wei Jinping [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang Chunming, E-mail: wangcm@lzu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2011-05-30

    Highlights: > {beta}-CD-graphene composite obtained via a simple sonication-induced assembly. > Accelerating electron transfer on electrode to amplify the electrochemical signal. > A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for rutin detection. > Good selectivity and reproducibility for the detection of rutin in real samples. - Abstract: An electrochemical sensor based on chemically reduced graphene (CRG) was developed for the sensitive detection of rutin. To construct the base of the sensor, a novel composite was initially fabricated and used as the substrate material by combining CRG and {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) via a simple sonication-induced assembly. Due to the high rutin-loading capacity on the electrode surface and the upstanding electric conductivity of graphene, the electrochemical response of the fabricated sensor was greatly enhanced and displayed excellent analytical performance for rutin detection from 6.0 x 10{sup -9} to 1.0 x 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1} with a low detection limit of 2.0 x 10{sup -9} mol L{sup -1} at 3{sigma}. Moreover, the proposed electrochemical sensor also exhibited good selectivity and acceptable reproducibility and could be used for the detection of rutin in real samples. Therefore, the present work offers a new way to broaden the analytical applications of graphene in pharmaceutical analysis.

  17. Polycrystalline para-terphenyl scintillator adopted in a $\\beta^-$ detecting probe for radio-guided surgery

    CERN Document Server

    Camillocci, Elena Solfaroli; Bocci, Valerio; Collamati, Francesco; De Lucia, Erika; Faccini, Riccardo; Marafini, Michela; Mattei, Ilaria; Morganti, Silvio; Paramatti, Riccardo; Patera, Vincenzo; Pinci, Davide; Recchia, Luigi; Russomando, Andrea; Sarti, Alessio; Sciubba, Adalberto; Senzacqua, Martina; Voena, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    A radio-guided surgery technique exploiting $\\beta^-$ emitters is under development. It aims at a higher target-to-background activity ratio implying both a smaller radiopharmaceutical activity and the possibility of extending the technique to cases with a large uptake of surrounding healthy organs. Such technique requires a dedicated intraoperative probe detecting $\\beta^-$ radiation. A first prototype has been developed relying on the low density and high light yield of the diphenylbutadiene doped para-therphenyl organic scintillator. The scintillation light produced in a cylindrical crystal, 5 mm in diameter and 3 mm in height, is guided to a photo-multiplier tube by optical fibres. The custom readout electronics is designed to optimize its usage in terms of feedback to the surgeon, portability and remote monitoring of the signal. Tests show that with a radiotracer activity comparable to those administered for diagnostic purposes the developed probe can detect a 0.1 ml cancerous residual of meningioma in a...

  18. Detection of Amp C genes encoding for beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shanthi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Amp C beta-lactamase are Ambler class C enzymes that confer resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins and are not inhibited by beta-lactamase inhibitors. Their detection is crucial, since the phenotypic tests are not standardised leading to ambiguity in interpretation of results. This study was done to detect the types of Amp C prevalent in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Materials and Methods : Seventy-seven consecutive cefoxitin resistant clinical isolates of E. coli (n = 25 and K. pneumoniae (n = 52 were included in the study. Antibiotic susceptibility testing to various classes of antibiotics was performed by disc diffusion using Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC to cefoxitin, imipenem and meropenem were determined by broth microdilution method. Isolates were screened for production of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL. Multiplex PCR was performed for the detection of Amp C genes after phenotypic testing (Hodge test and inhibitor based test. Results : Cefoxitin Hodge test was positive in 40 isolates which included 20 E. coli and 20 K. pneumoniae. There was zone enhancement with boronic acid in 55 isolates, of which 36 were K. pneumoniae and 19 were E. coli. Multiplex PCR detected Amp C in 11/25 E. coli and 12/52 K. pneumoniae isolates. The Amp C genes detected were CIT (Amp C origin - Citrobacter freundii, DHA (Dhahran Hospital, Saudi Arabia, ACC (Ambler class C, EBC (Amp C origin - Enterobacter cloacae groups. ESBL was co-produced in 54 isolates. Conclusions : Amp C was detected in 29.87% of the study isolates. Majority of them co-produced ESBL. The most common Amp C was the CIT family. Screen tests for cefoxitin resistance may be falsely positive due to production of carbapenamases.

  19. An Intraoperative $\\beta^-$ Detecting Probe For Radio-Guided Surgery in Tumour Resection

    CERN Document Server

    Russomando, Andrea; Bocci, Valerio; Chiodi, Giacomo; Collamati, Francesco; De Lucia, Erika; Donnarumma, Raffaella; Faccini, Riccardo; Terracciano, Carlo Mancini; Marafini, Michela; Paramatti, Riccardo; Patera, Vincenzo; Pinci, %Davide; Recchia, Luigi; Sarti, Alessio; Sciubba, Adalberto; Camillocci, Elena Solfaroli; Voena, Cecilia; Morganti, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    The development of the $\\beta^-$ based radio-guided surgery aims to extend the technique to those tumours where surgery is the only possible treatment and the assessment of the resection would most profit from the low background around the lesion, as for brain tumours. Feasibility studies on meningioma, glioma, and neuroendocrine tumors already estimated the potentiality of this new treatment. To validate the technique, prototypes of the intraoperative probe required by the technique to detect $\\beta^-$ radiation have been developed. This paper discusses the design details of the device and the tests performed in laboratory. In such tests particular care has to be taken to reproduce the surgical field conditions. The innovative technique to produce specific phantoms and the dedicated testing protocols is described in detail.

  20. Hyperfine fields in thin Pd films by beta-detected NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using low energy beta-detected nuclear magnetic resonance (βNMR), the Knight shift and spin-lattice relaxation rate of dilute 8Li+ implanted into a 28 nm Pd film on a MgO substrate were studied as a function of temperature. The shift of the resonance is negative, but much smaller in magnitude than observed in two other much thicker samples. The corresponding spin-lattice relaxation rates are found to be linear with temperature T, but are roughly 50% slower than the rates measured in a Pd foil. Potential explanations are discussed.

  1. Nano-biosensors to detect beta-amyloid for Alzheimer's disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Ajeet; Jayant, Rahul Dev; Tiwari, Sneham; Vashist, Arti; Nair, Madhavan

    2016-06-15

    Beta-amyloid (β-A) peptides are potential biomarkers to monitor Alzheimer's diseases (AD) for diagnostic purposes. Increased β-A level is neurotoxic and induces oxidative stress in brain resulting in neurodegeneration and causes dementia. As of now, no sensitive and inexpensive method is available for β-A detection under physiological and pathological conditions. Although, available methods such as neuroimaging, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detect β-A, but they are not yet extended at point-of-care (POC) due to sophisticated equipments, need of high expertize, complicated operations, and challenge of low detection limit. Recently, β-A antibody based electrochemical immuno-sensing approach has been explored to detect β-A at pM levels within 30-40 min compared to 6-8h of ELISA test. The introduction of nano-enabling electrochemical sensing technology could enable rapid detection of β-A at POC and may facilitate fast personalized health care delivery. This review explores recent advancements in nano-enabling electrochemical β-A sensing technologies towards POC application to AD management. These analytical tools can serve as an analytical tool for AD management program to obtain bio-informatics needed to optimize therapeutics for neurodegenerative diseases diagnosis management.

  2. Sensitivity of future liquid xenon experiments to the detection of double-beta decays of xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dark searches are one of the most active fields of physics in the recent years. A new generation of experiments using liquid xenon as active medium are currently under investigation to further increase the sensitivity. These will exceed the present limit of 1 t active mass. This development will allow to reach unprecedented sensitivities not only for dark matter searches, but also for half-life measurements of long living isotopes of xenon. Xenon itself has three candidates for double-beta decay, but only the 2nbb decay of 136Xe has been measured with a half-life of T1/2 = (2.38±0.11±0.05) x 1021 yr. In this talk studies of sensitivities for the detection of the yet unobserved remaining double beta decay modes of xenon by this new generation of experiments will be presented. A particular emphasis on the sensitivity for a measurement of the half-life of 134Xe will be performed, assuming different background models.

  3. Dot Detection of Braille Images Using A Mixture of Beta Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany Al-Saleh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Braille is a tactile format of written communication for people with low vision and blindness worldwide. Optical Braille Recognition (OBR offers many benefits to Braille users and people who work with them. Approach: This study presents an algorithm for detecting dots composing braille characters in an image of embossed braille material obtained by an optical scanner. We assumed that a mixture of Beta distributions could model the histogram of a scanned braille document. The core of the proposed method was the use of stability of thresholding with Beta distribution to initiate the process of thresholds estimation. Segmented Braille image was used to form a grid that contains recto dots and another one that contains verso dots. Results: Braille dots composing characters on both singlesided and double-sided documents were automatically identified from those grids with excellent accuracy. Conclusion: The experiment showed that the proposed method obtained very good results but it requires more testing on different scanned Braille document images.

  4. Detection of ultra-weak magnetic fields in Am stars: beta UMa and theta Leo

    CERN Document Server

    Blazère, A; Lignières, F; Aurière, M; ballot, J; Böhm, T; Folsom, C P; Gaurat, M; Jouve, L; Ariste, A Lopez; Neiner, C; Wade, G A

    2016-01-01

    An extremely weak circularly polarized signature was recently discovered in spectral lines of the chemically peculiar Am star Sirius A. A weak surface magnetic field was proposed to account for the observed polarized signal, but the shape of the phase-averaged signature, dominated by a prominent positive lobe, is not expected in the standard theory of the Zeeman effect. We aim at verifying the presence of weak circularly polarized signatures in two other bright Am stars, beta UMa and theta Leo, and investigating the physical origin of Sirius-like polarized signals further. We present here a set of deep spectropolarimetric observations of beta UMa and theta Leo, observed with the NARVAL spectropolarimeter. We analyzed all spectra with the Least Squares Deconvolution multiline procedure. To improve the signal-to-noise ratio and detect extremely weak signatures in Stokes V profiles, we co-added all available spectra of each star (around 150 observations each time). Finally, we ran several tests to evaluate wheth...

  5. Analysis of 12 beta-lactam antibiotics in human plasma by HPLC with ultraviolet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhinney, Brett C; Wallis, Steven C; Hillister, Tara; Roberts, Jason A; Lipman, Jeffrey; Ungerer, Jacobus P J

    2010-07-15

    A simple and economical high performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for routine analysis of 12 Penicillin, Cephalosporin and Carbapenem antibiotics in 200 microL of human plasma. Antibiotics determined were Ceftazidime, Meropenem, Ceftriaxone, Ampicillin, Cefazolin, Ertapenem, Cephalothin, Benzylpenicillin, Flucloxacillin, Dicloxacillin, Piperacillin and Ticarcillin. There was a common sample preparation approach involving precipitation of proteins with acetonitrile and removal of lipid-soluble components by a chloroform wash. Separations were performed on a Waters X-bridge C18 column with, depending on analytes, one of three acetonitrile-phosphate buffer mobile phases. Detection was by UV at 210, 260 and 304 nm. Validation has demonstrated the method to be linear, accurate and precise. The method has been used in a pathology laboratory for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of beta-lactams in critically ill patients. PMID:20561826

  6. Beta-detected NMR study of the local magnetic field in epitaxial GaAs:Mn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low energy beam of spin polarized 8Li+ has been employed to study the magnetic field distribution in an epitaxial thin film of 5.4% Mn doped GaAs(180 nm) on a (1 0 0) GaAs substrate via beta-detected NMR. The spectrum is a strong function of the implantation energy in the range 28-3 keV. In the magnetic layer, there is no indication of a missing fraction, and even more remarkable, there is a broad negatively shifted resonance. The spin lattice relaxation rate is, however, much faster in the Mn doped layer than in the substrate. A sharp peak characteristic of nonmagnetic GaAs is observed down to the lowest implantation energy, for which none of the Li should reach the substrate. This unexpected depth dependence is discussed.

  7. Immunohistochemical detection of active transforming growth factor-beta in situ using engineered tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.; Ehrhart, E. J.; Kalia, M.; Jirtle, R.; Flanders, K.; Tsang, M. L.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    The biological activity of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta) is governed by dissociation from its latent complex. Immunohistochemical discrimination of active and latent TGF-beta could provide insight into TGF-beta activation in physiological and pathological processes. However, evaluation of immunoreactivity specificity in situ has been hindered by the lack of tissue in which TGF-beta status is known. To provide in situ analysis of antibodies to differentiate between these functional forms, we used xenografts of human tumor cells modified by transfection to overexpress latent TGF-beta or constitutively active TGF-beta. This comparison revealed that, whereas most antibodies did not differentiate between TGF-beta activation status, the immunoreactivity of some antibodies was activation dependent. Two widely used peptide antibodies to the amino-terminus of TGF-beta, LC(1-30) and CC(1-30) showed marked preferential immunoreactivity with active TGF-beta versus latent TGF-beta in cryosections. However, in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue, discrimination of active TGF-beta by CC(1-30) was lost and immunoreactivity was distinctly extracellular, as previously reported for this antibody. Similar processing-dependent extracellular localization was found with a neutralizing antibody raised to recombinant TGF-beta. Antigen retrieval recovered cell-associated immunoreactivity of both antibodies. Two antibodies to peptides 78-109 showed mild to moderate preferential immunoreactivity with active TGF-beta only in paraffin sections. LC(1-30) was the only antibody tested that discriminated active from latent TGF-beta in both frozen and paraffin-embedded tissue. Thus, in situ discrimination of active versus latent TGF-beta depends on both the antibody and tissue preparation. We propose that tissues engineered to express a specific form of a given protein provide a physiological setting in which to evaluate antibody reactivity with specific functional forms of a

  8. Monte Carlo feasibility study for image guided surgery: from direct beta minus detection to Cerenkov luminescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, C. R.; Altabella, L.; Boschi, F.; Spinelli, A. E.

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this work is to compare the performances of different beta minus detection strategies for image guided surgery or ex vivo tissue analysis. In particular we investigated Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) with and without the use of a radiator, direct and indirect beta detection and bremsstrahlung imaging using beta emitters commonly employed in Nuclear Medicine. Monte Carlo simulations were implemented using the GAMOS plug-in for GEANT4 considering a slab of muscle and a radioactive source (32P or 90Y) placed at 0.5 mm depth. We estimated the gain that can be obtained in terms of produced photons using different materials placed on the slab used as Cerenkov radiators, we then focused on the number of exiting photons and their spatial distribution for the different strategies. The use of radiator to enhance Cerenkov signal reduces the spatial resolution because of the increased optical spread. We found that direct beta detection and CLI are best approaches in term of resolution while the use of a thin scintillator increases the signal but the spatial resolution is degraded. Bremsstrahlung presents lower signal and it does not represent the best choice for image guided surgery. CLI represents a more flexible approach for image guided surgery using or ex vivo tissue analysis using beta-emitter imaging.

  9. Rapid and simultaneous detection of alpha/beta radioactivity in food by solid phase extraction liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to develop a practical radioanalytical method suitable for screening for beta- and alpha-emitting radioactive contamination in a large number and wide variety of foods in the event of a nuclear or radiological emergency. Simple and rapid solid-phase extraction was used to overcome matrix and radiometric interferences that occurred during food analysis. Benefiting from discriminative liquid scintillation counting, simultaneous detection of alpha and beta radioactivity was achieved with negligible quench effects and ∼95 % counting efficiencies. Method limits of detection were ∼0.06 Bq/kg for alpha and ∼0.4 Bq/kg for beta radioactivity and the results were within ±20 % of the known values. (author)

  10. Detection of Beta-Lactamase and Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase of Pathogens Isolated from Pig and Chicken and Their Antibiotic Susceptibility Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of beta-lactam antibiotics or their combinations with inhibitor sulbactum against non-lactamaseproducing strains, lactamase-producing and ESBLs-producing isolates was evaluated with twofold dilution method after pathogens isolated from pigs and chickens were detected, respectively, for beta-lactamase and extended-spectrum betalactamases (ESBLs). The results revealed that most of 43 clinically isolated strains could produce beta-lactamase and 3strains of shigella isolated from chicken samples produced ESBLs. All of 30 lactamase-producing strains isolated and only one of 16 non-lactamase-producing strains were resistant to amoxicillin and ampicillin. MICs of ampicillin against lactamaseproducing isolates decreased 10-40 and 10-20 times respectively, when it was conbined with sulbactam at ration of 1:2 and 1:4. All clinical isolates were susceptible to third-generation cephalosporins. The MICs of third-generation cephalosporins against lactamase-producing isolates did not change when they were conbined with sulbactam. MICs of ceftiofur and ceftriaxone against ESBLs-producing isolates decreased 2-4 times when they were conbined with sulbactam.

  11. Modeling the Production of Beta-Delayed Gamma Rays for the Detection of Special Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, J M; Pruet, J A; Brown, D A; Descalle, M; Hedstrom, G W; Prussin, S G

    2005-02-14

    The objective of this LDRD project was to develop one or more models for the production of {beta}-delayed {gamma} rays following neutron-induced fission of a special nuclear material (SNM) and to define a standardized formatting scheme which will allow them to be incorporated into some of the modern, general-purpose Monte Carlo transport codes currently being used to simulate inspection techniques proposed for detecting fissionable material hidden in sea-going cargo containers. In this report, we will describe a Monte Carlo model for {beta}-delayed {gamma}-ray emission following the fission of SNM that can accommodate arbitrary time-dependent fission rates and photon collection histories. The model involves direct sampling of the independent fission yield distributions of the system, the branching ratios for decay of individual fission products and spectral distributions representing photon emission from each fission product and for each decay mode. While computationally intensive, it will be shown that this model can provide reasonably detailed estimates of the spectra that would be recorded by an arbitrary spectrometer and may prove quite useful in assessing the quality of evaluated data libraries and identifying gaps in the libraries. The accuracy of the model will be illustrated by comparing calculated and experimental spectra from the decay of short-lived fission products following the reactions {sup 235}U(n{sub th}, f) and {sup 239}Pu(n{sub th}, f). For general-purpose transport calculations, where a detailed consideration of the large number of individual {gamma}-ray transitions in a spectrum may not be necessary, it will be shown that a simple parameterization of the {gamma}-ray source function can be defined which provides high-quality average spectral distributions that should suffice for calculations describing photons being transported through thick attenuating media. Finally, a proposal for ENDF-compatible formats that describe each of the models and

  12. Validation study of a receptor-based lateral flow assay for detection of beta-lactam antibiotics in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouzied, Mohamed; Sarzynski, Michael; Walsh, Aaron; Wood, Heather; Mozola, Mark

    2009-01-01

    A validation study designed to meet the requirements of the AOAC Research Institute and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Center for Veterinary Medicine, was conducted for a receptor-based, immunochromatographic method (BetaStar US) for detection of beta-lactam antibiotic residues in raw, commingled bovine milk. The assay was found to detect amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephapirin, cloxacillin, and penicillin G at levels below the FDA tolerance/safe levels but above the maximum sensitivity thresholds established by the National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments. Results of the Part I (internal) and Part II (independent laboratory) dose-response studies using spiked samples were in very close agreement for all five drugs tested, with differences between the Part I and Part II 90/95% sensitivity values ranging from 0 to 1 ppb. The test was able to detect all five drugs at the approximate 90/95% sensitivity levels when present as incurred residues in milk collected from cows that had been treated with the specific drug. A sixth drug, ceftiofur, was found to be undetectable at levels of 1000 control milk samples. The assay was found to be applicable to the testing of frozen raw milk samples. Results of ruggedness experiments established the operating parameter tolerances for the BetaStar US assay. Results of cross-reactivity testing established that the assay detects certain other beta-lactam drugs (dicloxacillin and ticarcillin), but it does not cross-react with any of 30 drugs belonging to other classes. Abnormally high bacterial or somatic cell counts in raw milk produced no interference with the ability of the test to detect beta-lactams at tolerance/safe levels. PMID:19610391

  13. Isolation and characterization of a monoclonal anti-protein kinase CK2 beta-subunit antibody of the IgG class for the direct detection of CK2 beta-subunit in tissue cultures of various mammalian species and human tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nastainczyk, W; Schmidt-Spaniol, I; Boldyreff, B;

    1995-01-01

    A murine monoclonal anti-protein kinase CK2 beta antibody was isolated and characterized. The antibody detects 1 pmol of purified recombinant CK2 beta-subunit after analysis on SDS-PAGE. Alternatively undenatured CK2 beta-subunit was detected by an ELISA assay either as recombinant CK2 beta-subun...

  14. In situ detection of TGF betas, TGF beta receptor Ⅱ mRNA and telomerase activity in rat cholangiocarcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Ping Lu; Jian-Qun Mao; Ming-Sheng Li; Shi-Lun Lu; Xi-Qi Hu; Shi-Neng Zhu; Shintaro Nomura

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Initial report on the in situ examination of the mRNA expression of transforming growth factor betas (TGFβs),TGFβ type Ⅱ receptor (TβRII) and telomerase activity in the experimental rat liver tissue during cholangiocarcinogenesis.METHODS: Rat liver cholangiocarcinogenesis was induced by 3'-methyl 4-dimethylazobenzene (3'Me-DAB). In situhybridization was used to examine the TGFβs) and TGFβ type Ⅱ receptor (TβRⅡ) mRNA, in situ TRAP was used to check the telomerase activity in the tissue samples.RESULTS: There was no TGFβs, TβRⅡ mRNA expression or telomerase activity in the control rat cholangiocytes. The expression of TGFβ1, TβRⅡ was increased in regenerative,hyperplastic, dysplastic cholangiocytes and cholangiocarcinoma (CC) cells. The expression of TGFβ2 mRNA was observed in only a part of hyperplastic, dysplastic cholangiocytes. TGFβ3expression was very weak, only in hyperplastic lesion. There was positive telomerase activity in the regenerative,hyperplastic, dysplastic cholangiocytes, and CC cells. Stroma fibroblasts of these lesions also showed positive TGFβs, TβRⅡ mRNA expression and telomerase activity.CONCLUSION: There were TGFβs, TβRⅡ expression and telomerase activity in hyperplastic, dysplastic cholangiocytes,cholangiocarcinoma cells as well as in stroma fibroblasts during cholangiocarcinogenesis. Their expression or activity is important in cholangiocarcinogenesis andstroma formation.

  15. [Rapid detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases by flow cytometry method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyan, Serhat; Kılıç, Abdullah; Yılmaz, Soner; Ardıç, Nurittin

    2015-10-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), produced by Enterobacteriaceae members are enzymes that especially cause a resistance to cephalosporin group antibiotics commonly used in clinics. Early and rapid detection of ESBL production is crucial for antimicrobial treatment and infection control; however the methods used for this purpose are time consuming (24 to 48 hours). The aim of this study was to determine a flow cytometry based-test which provides to detect ESBL producing bacteria in a short time. A total of 38 ESBL-producing (29 Escherichia coli, 9 Klebsiella pneumoniae) and 10 non-producing (5 E.coli, 5 K.pneumoniae) Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated between 2012 and 2013 were included in this study. The identification and antibiotic susceptibility tests of the isolates were performed by using Phoenix(TM) 100 automated system (Becton Dickinson, USA). The presence of bla(TEM), bla(SHV), bla(CTX-M1), bla(CTX-M2) and bla(CTX-M9) genes were investigated in ESBL positive isolates via polymerase chain reaction method. At least one of the ESBL genes were detected in 36 out of 38 isolates and no genes were detected in two E.coli isolates. In flow cytometric method, the percentages of death cells exposed to cephalosporin [(ceftazidime (CAZ) or cefotaxime (CTX)] and clavulanic acid (CLA) combination, were compared with death cells exposed only to cephalosporin (CAZ or CTX). CLA index values (CAZ-CLA and CTX-CLA indices) were obtained for CTX and CAZ. Index values which was higher than 1.5 just for one cephalosporin were accepted as GSBL positive. The mean index values for CTX-CLA in ESBL positive strains according to their genotypic characteristics were between 1.14 and 7.22, while those values for CAZ-CLA were between 0.85 and 5.6. When the two groups of 38 ESBL positive and 10 ESBL negative strains were evaluated, statistically significant difference was detected for both CAZ-CLA and CTX-CLA indices (p< 0.005). CTX-CLA indices (p= 0.001) shown a better

  16. Surveillance and Detection of Inhibitor-Resistant Beta-Lactamases in Clinical Isolates of Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Urban; Patricia Bradford; Joseph Villarin

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, such as the widely-used cephalosporins and penicillins, has become a major challenge for disease therapy, particularly in common hospital-acquired infections. In the search for the mechanisms behind this increasingly prevalent form of resistance, microbiologists have identified a new type of beta-lactamase enzyme, called inhibitor-resistant TEMs (IRTs), which can withstand the effects of beta-lactamase inhibitor compounds, further reduci...

  17. Determination of heroin metabolites in human urine using capillary zone electrophoresis with beta-cyclodextrin and UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnajjar, Ahmed; McCord, Bruce

    2003-10-15

    A method has been developed for the detection of a mixture of morphine, codeine, 6-acetyl morphine (6-AM) and normorphine using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). The method utilized urinary 6-AM as a diagnostic indicator of heroin abuse because it is not a product of either morphine or codeine metabolism. The electrophoretic separation was achieved using an uncoated (50 microm I.D.) fused-silica capillary, 77 cm long, containing the detector window 10.0 cm from the outlet end. The running buffer (pH 6.0) contained 50 mM sodium phosphate and 0.015 M beta-cyclodextrins (beta-CD). The samples were first extracted using a mixed-mode solid-phase extraction procedure and then analyzed by CZE. The UV absorbance detection was monitored at 214 nm. It has been found that beta-CDs can improve separation efficiency due to their hydrophobic cavity. The effect of the concentration of beta-CD and pH was also evaluated. The application of electrokinetic injection with field amplified sample stacking results in low detection limits (40 ng/ml for each analyte) and the method has good reproducibility, precision, accuracy, and high recovery. PMID:14550865

  18. Estrogen receptors alpha and beta in rat placenta: detection by RT-PCR, real time PCR and Western blotting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Bader Maie D

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High levels of estrogens during pregnancy not only retard placental and fetal growth but can lead to reproductive tract abnormalities in male progeny. Estrogens act through estrogen receptors (ER to modulate the transcription of target genes. These ER exist in two isoforms, ER alpha and ER beta and recently several variants of these isoforms have been identified. Methods The expressions of ER isoforms and variants have been studied in rat placenta at 16, 19 and 21 days gestation (dg. Gene expression was assessed using RT-PCR and real time PCR while protein expression was studied using Western blotting followed by immunodetection. Placental homogenates were probed with: a monoclonal antibody raised against the steroid binding domain of the ER alpha (ER alpha -S, a monoclonal antibody raised against the hinge region of ER alpha (ER alpha -H and a polyclonal antibody raised against the amino terminus of ER beta. Results ER alpha and ER beta mRNA and protein were detected from as early as 16 dg. Two PCR products were detected for ER alpha, one for the wild type ER alpha, and a smaller variant. Real time PCR results suggested the presence of a single product for ER beta. The antibodies used for detection of ER alpha protein both identified a single 67 kDa isoform; however a second 54 kDa band, which may be an ER alpha variant, was identified when using the ER alpha -H antibody. The abundance of both ER alpha bands decreased significantly between 16 and 19 dg. As for ER beta, four bands (76, 59, 54 and 41 kDa were detected. The abundance of the 59 and 54 kDa bands decreased significantly between 16 and 19 dg. Conclusion This study shows that both ER protein isoforms and their variants are present in rat placenta. The decrease in their expression near parturition suggests that the placenta may be relatively unresponsive to estrogens at this stage.

  19. Detection of beta-tubulin in the cytoplasm of the interphasic Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Conde, Eduardo; Vargas-Mejía, Miguel Ángel; Díaz-Orea, María Alicia; Hernández-Rivas, Rosaura; Cárdenas-Perea, María Elena; Guerrero-González, Tayde; González-Barrios, Juan Antonio; Montiel-Jarquín, Álvaro José

    2016-08-01

    It is known that the microtubules (MT) of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites form an intranuclear mitotic spindle. However, electron microscopy studies and the employment of anti-beta-tubulin (β-tubulin) antibodies have not exhibited these cytoskeletal structures in the cytoplasm of these parasites. The purpose of this work was to detect β-tubulin in the cytoplasm of interphasic E. histolytica trophozoites. Activated or non-activated HMI-IMSS-strain E. histolytica trophozoites were used and cultured for 72 h at 37 °C in TYI-S-33 medium, and then these were incubated with the anti-β-tubulin antibody of E. histolytica. The anti-β-tubulin antibody reacted with the intranuclear mitotic spindle of E. histolytica-activated trophozoites as control. In contrast, in non-activated interphasic parasites, anti-β-tubulin antibody reacted with diverse puntiform structures in the cytoplasm and with ring-shaped structures localized in the cytoplasm, cellular membrane and endocytic stomas. In this work, for the first time, the presence of β-tubulin is shown in the cytoplasm of E. histolytica trophozoites. PMID:27156446

  20. Detection limits of four antimicrobial residue screening tests for beta-lactams in goat's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, D; Sánchez, A; Contreras, A; Luengo, C; Corrales, J C; Morales, C T; de la Fe, C; Guirao, I; Gonzalo, C

    2009-08-01

    This study was conducted to compare the detection limits (DL) of several antibiotic residue screening tests with the maximum residue limits (MRL) authorized by the EU according to the guidance for the standardized evaluation of microbial inhibitor tests of the International Dairy Federation. Composite antibiotic-free milk samples from 30 primiparous Murciano-Granadina goats in good health condition were used to prepare test samples spiked with different concentrations of each antimicrobial. In total, 5,760 analytical determinations of 10 beta-lactam antibiotics (penicillin-G, ampicillin, amoxicillin, cloxacillin, oxacillin, dicloxacillin, cefadroxyl, cefalexin, cefoperazone, and cefuroxime) were performed using 4 antibiotic residue screening tests: the brilliant black reduction test BRT AiM (AiM-Analytik in Milch Produktions-und Vertriebs GmbH, München, Germany), Delvotest MCS (DSM Food Specialties, Delft, the Netherlands), Eclipse 100 (ZEU-Inmunotec SL, Zaragoza, Spain), and the Copan Milk Test (CMT; Copan Italia SpA, Brescia, Italy). For each method, we estimated the detection limits of the antimicrobial agents using a logistic regression model. Using the CMT and Delvotest on samples spiked with the 8 antibiotics for which MRL were available, DL were at or below the MRL. The BRT test provided DL at or below the MRL for all of the agents except cefalexin, whereas the Eclipse 100 method failed to detect 4 antibiotics (ampicillin, amoxicillin, cloxacillin, and cefoperazone) at MRL or below. Logistic regression-determined levels of agreement were highest for the CMT method (98.6 to 100%) and lowest for Eclipse 100 (66.3 to 100%). In general, agreement levels indicated good correlation between observed results and those predicted by logistic regression. The lowest b values (closely related to test sensitivity) were recorded for the cephalosporins (0.074 to 0.430) and highest for penicillin G, ampicillin, and amoxicillin (11.270 to 11.504). Delvotest and CMT best

  1. Intraoperative beta probe: A device for detecting tissue labeled with positron or electron emitting isotopes during surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An intraoperative beta probe was designed, built, and tested for detection of radio-labeled malignant tissues that has the advantage of being selectively sensitive to beta while insensitive to gamma radiation. Since beta radiation (electrons or positrons) has a short range in tissue, this probe is ideal for detecting tracers in tumors at the surface of the surgical field. This probe contains a plastic scintillation detector sensitive to beta rays and to a lesser degree some background gamma rays. A second detector counts spurious gamma rays and allows for their subtraction from the activity measured by the first detector. Sensitivity of the dual probe for I-131 and F-18 was measured to be 108 counts/s/kBq (4000 counts/s/μCi). The dual-detector probe faithfully measured the 10:1 ''tumor'' to background ratio of radioactivity concentrations in a simulated environment of a tumor in the presence of intense background 511 keV photons. In another phantom experiment, simulating abdominal tumor deposits with various realistic I-131 radioactive concentrations, the probe was able to accurately identify tumors of approximately 50 mg with a tumor/normal radioactivity concentration of 3/1 in 10 s

  2. Detection and reporting beta-lactam resistance phenotypes in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae: a multicenter proficiency study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejo, M Carmen; Mata, C; Navarro, F; Pascual, A

    2008-11-01

    The ability of 57 Spanish microbiology laboratories in detecting and reporting beta-lactam resistance phenotypes in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae was evaluated. Laboratories received 6 well-characterized isolates expressing the most widespread extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in Spain (4 CTX-M type, 1 TEM type, and 1 SHV type), 3 isolates producing AmpC-type enzymes (2 plasmid mediated and 1 E. coli hyperproducing its chromosomal AmpC), and 3 quality control strains. Ninety-one percent of laboratories recognized all ESBL producers correctly, and therefore, low error rates were observed when testing cephalosporins and aztreonam. The highest error rates were observed with combinations of penicillin plus beta-lactamase inhibitor, although more than 60% of cases were due to the interpretation made by the microbiologists. Correct recognition of all AmpC beta-lactamase-producing strains occurred in only 47.4% of laboratories. These isolates were wrongly reported as ESBL producers and penicillinase hyperproducers in 7.6 % and 5.8% of cases, respectively. Detection of the AmpC-type phenotype by Spanish laboratories needs to be improved. PMID:18692340

  3. Applications of Beta Particle Detection for Synthesis and Usage of Radiotracers Developed for Positron Emission Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooraghi, Alex Abreu

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a noninvasive molecular imaging tool that requires the use of a radioactive compound or radiotracer which targets a molecular pathway of interest. We have developed and employed three beta particle radiation detection systems to advance PET. Specifically, the goals of these systems are to: 1. Automate dispensing of solutions containing a positron emitting isotope. 2. Monitor radioactivity on-chip during synthesis of a positron emitting radiotracer. 3. Assay cellular uptake on-chip of a positron emitting radiotracer. Automated protocols for measuring and dispensing solutions containing radioisotopes are essential not only for providing an optimum environment for radiation workers, but also to ensure a quantitatively accurate workflow. For the first project, we describe the development and performance of a system for automated radioactivity distribution of beta particle emitting radioisotopes such as fluorine-18 (F-18). Key to the system is a radiation detector in-line with a peristaltic pump. The system demonstrates volume accuracy within 5 % for volumes of 20 muL or greater. When considering volumes of 20 muL or greater, delivered radioactivity is in agreement with the requested radioactivity as measured with the dose calibrator. The integration of the detector and pump leads to a flexible system that can accurately dispense solutions containing F-18 in radioactivity concentrations directly produced from a cyclotron (~ 0.1-1 mCi/muL), to low activity concentrations intended for preclinical mouse scans (~ 1-10 muCi/muL), and anywhere in between. Electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD) is an attractive microfluidic platform for batch synthesis of PET radiotracers. Visualization of radioisotopes on-chip is critical for synthesis optimization and technological development. For the second project, we describe the development and performance of a Cerenkov/real-time imaging system for PET radiotracer synthesis on EWOD. We also investigate

  4. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase detection in gram-negative bacilli of nosocomial origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dechen C Tsering

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resistance to third generation cephalosporins by acquisition and expression of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL enzymes among gram-negative bacilli is on a rise. The presence of ESBL producing organisms significantly affects the course and outcome of an infection and poses a challenge to infection management worldwide. Materials and Methods: In the period from June 2007 to 2008, we collected 1489 samples from patients suspected of nosocomial infection. The isolates were identified based on colony morphology and biochemical reaction. Gram negative bacilli resistant to third generation cephalosporins were tested for ESBL by double disc synergy test (DDST- a screening test and then phenotypic confirmatory test. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: From the sample of 238 gram-negative bacilli, we isolated Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii and Enterobacter cloacae. Following both methods, 34% isolates were ESBL-positive. The ESBL producing isolates were significantly resistant (p < 0.01 to ampicillin, piperacillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin as compared to non-ESBL producers. Multidrug resistance was significantly (p < 0.01 higher (69.14% in ESBL positive isolates than non-ESBL isolates (21.66%. Conclusion: High prevalence of ESBL in our hospital cannot be ignored. ESBL producers can be detected by DDST and phenotypic confirmatory test with equal efficacy. The sensitivity of screening test improved with the use of more than one antibiotic and addition of one or two antibiotics would not increase cost and labor. We recommend DDST using multiple antibiotics in all microbiology units as a routine screening test.

  5. An international multicentre-laboratory evaluation of a new assay to detect specifically lupus anticoagulants dependent on the presence of anti-beta2-glycoprotein autoantibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de laat, B.; Derksen, R. H. W. M.; Reber, G.; Musial, J.; Swadzba, J.; Bozic, B.; Cucnik, S.; Regnault, V.; Forastiero, R.; Woodhams, B. J.; de Groot, Ph. G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is diagnosed by the simultaneous presence of vascular thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity and detection of antiphospholipid antibodies in plasma. Objectives: We have shown that prolongation of clotting time by anti-beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2GPI) antibod

  6. Detection of bixin, lycopene, canthaxanthin, and beta-apo-8'-carotenal in products derived from red pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez-Mosquera, M I; Hornero-Méndez, D; Garrido-Fernández, J

    1995-01-01

    An analytical method using either thin layer or liquid chromatography is proposed for the detection of 4 pigments (bixin, lycopene, canthaxanthin and beta-apo-8'-carotenal) that can be used fraudulently to intensify the natural color of products derived from red pepper (oleoresins, paprika, paprika paste, etc.). Similarly, the addition of other colorant natural products containing some of these pigments as major pigments (such as tomato for lycopene and Bixa orellana seeds for bixin) can be detected. The method proposed can also be used to control the aforementioned pigments in their natural sources as well as in food products. PMID:7756865

  7. Surveillance and Detection of Inhibitor-Resistant Beta-Lactamases in Clinical Isolates of Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Urban

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, such as the widely-used cephalosporins and penicillins, has become a major challenge for disease therapy, particularly in common hospital-acquired infections. In the search for the mechanisms behind this increasingly prevalent form of resistance, microbiologists have identified a new type of beta-lactamase enzyme, called inhibitor-resistant TEMs (IRTs, which can withstand the effects of beta-lactamase inhibitor compounds, further reducing the arsenal of drugs available to physicians facing resistant bacteria. In this study, we examined the enzymatic and genetic basis of Escherichia coli isolates demonstrating such resistance to beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations. Susceptibility trials played a major role in composing the experimental cohort for this project (n=50; each isolate was thoroughly tested to ensure that it was resistant to ampicillin-sulbactam, an inhibitor combination, but susceptible to the third-generation cephalosporin ceftazidime. Subsequently, a number of samples were subjected to assay by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (n=18 and polymerase chain reaction (n=3 so that their genetic composition and relatedness might be known. In particular, the presence of genes coding for TEM-type beta-lactamases was investigated for each of the 3 isolates sequenced. Even though it was anticipated that the isolates would possess resistance to inhibitor combinations due to an IRT gene, this was not found to be the case. Instead, the mechanism of resistance turned out to be over-expression of a gene coding for a normal TEM enzyme. The results of these experiments have implications for ensuring successful therapy of bacterial infections and for preventing the spread of antimicrobial resistance.

  8. Fast ion beta limit measurements by collimated neutron detection in MST plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capecchi, William; Anderson, Jay; Bonofiglo, Phillip; Kim, Jungha; Sears, Stephanie

    2015-11-01

    Fast ion orbits in the reversed field pinch (RFP) are well ordered and classically confined despite magnetic field stochasticity generated by multiple tearing modes. Classical TRANSP modeling of a 1MW tangentially injected hydrogen neutral beam in MST deuterium plasmas predicts a core-localized fast ion density that can be up to 25% of the electron density and a fast ion beta of many times the local thermal beta. However, neutral particle analysis of an NBI-driven mode (presumably driven by a fast ion pressure gradient) shows mode-induced transport of core-localized fast ions and a saturated fast ion density. The TRANSP modeling is presumed valid until the onset of the beam-driven mode and gives an initial estimate of the volume-averaged fast ion beta of 1-2% (local core value up to 10%). A collimated neutron detector for fusion product profile measurements will be used to determine the spatial distribution of fast ions, allowing for a first measurement of the critical fast-ion pressure gradient required for mode destabilization. Testing/calibration data and initial fast-ion profiles will be presented. Characterization of both the local and global fast ion beta will be done for deuterium beam injection into deuterium plasmas for comparison to TRANSP predictions. Work supported by US DOE.

  9. Prevalence of metallo-beta-lactamase among Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii in a Korean university hospital and comparison of screening methods for detecting metallo-beta-lactamase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Eun-Jee; Lee, Seungok; Park, Yeon-Joon; Park, Jung Jun; Park, Kanggyun; Kim, Sang-Il; Kang, Moon Won; Kim, Byung Kee

    2003-09-01

    To identify the metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) prevalent in Korea, a total of 130 clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii (99 P. aeruginosa and 31 A. baumannii) with a reduced susceptibility to imipenem (IPM) and/or ceftazidime (CAZ) was subjected to PCR analyses with primers specific to bla(IMP-1), bla(VIM-1), and bla(VIM-2). In addition, inhibitor-potentiated disk diffusion methods (IPD) using two kinds of substrate-inhibitor combinations (ceftazidime-2-mercaptopropionic acid (2MPA) and imipenem-EDTA) were investigated. Thirty-three isolates (29 P. aeruginosa and 4 A. baumannii) carried bla(VIM-2) and two P. aeruginosa isolates harbored bla(IMP-1). The enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR) pattern revealed that many of the VIM-2-producing P. aeruginosa isolates were clonally related, whereas the A. baumannii isolates were diverse. The inhibitor-potentiated disk diffusion test using imipenem-EDTA was highly sensitive and specific for detecting the VIM-2 producer. These results suggest that VIM-2 is an important MBL in P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii in the Korean hospital of this study and that the IMP-1-producing P. aeruginosa has also emerged. Screening for MBLs and strict infection control for these isolates will contribute to prevent further spread of resistance. PMID:12842488

  10. Detection of Ly$\\beta$ auto-correlations and Ly$\\alpha$-Ly$\\beta$ cross-correlations in BOSS Data Release 9

    CERN Document Server

    Iršič, Vid; Bailey, Stephen; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Goff, Jean-Marc Le; Lundgren, Britt; McDonald, Patrick; O'Connell, Ross; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Petitjean, Patrick; Rich, Jim; Rossi, Graziano; Schneider, Donald P; Sheldon, Erin S; Yèche, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    The Lyman-$\\beta$ forest refers to a region in the spectra of distant quasars that lies between the rest-frame Lyman-$\\beta$ and Lyman-$\\gamma$ emissions. The forest in this region is dominated by a combination of absorption due to resonant Ly$\\alpha$ and Ly$\\beta$ scattering. When considering the 1D Ly$\\beta$ forest in addition to the 1D Ly$\\alpha$ forest, the full statistical description of the data requires four 1D power spectra: Ly$\\alpha$ and Ly$\\beta$ auto-power spectra and the Ly$\\alpha$-Ly$\\beta$ real and imaginary cross-power spectra. We describe how these can be measured using an optimal quadratic estimator that naturally disentangles Ly$\\alpha$ and Ly$\\beta$ contributions. Using a sample of approximately 60,000 quasar sight-lines from the BOSS Data Release 9, we make the measurement of the one-dimensional power spectrum of fluctuations due to the Ly$\\beta$ resonant scattering. While we have not corrected our measurements for resolution damping of the power and other systematic effects carefully eno...

  11. Scintillation characteristics of phosphich-detector for detection of beta- and gamma-radiations

    CERN Document Server

    Ananenko, A A; Gavrilyuk, V

    2002-01-01

    The results of the study on the influence of individual peculiarities of the compound scintillation detector structure on the value and stability of the light yield by the gamma- and beta-radiation combined registration are presented. The phosphich detector is manufactured from the sodium iodide monocrystal, activated by thallium, and the scintillation plastic on the polystyrol basis. The comparison of the experimental results with the mathematical modeling data revealed certain regularities of the process of forming the phosphich detector light signal. The recommendations are worked out by means whereof the following characteristics of the scintillation unit: the light yield and its stability, amplitude resolution and the peak-to-valley ratio by the gamma- and beta-radiation registration were improved

  12. Detection of ultra-weak magnetic fields in Am stars: beta UMa and theta Leo

    OpenAIRE

    Blazère, A.; Petit, P.; Lignières, F.; Aurière, M.; Ballot, J.; Böhm, T.; Folsom, C. P.; Gaurat, M.; Jouve, L.; Ariste, A. Lopez; Neiner, C.; Wade, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    An extremely weak circularly polarized signature was recently discovered in spectral lines of the chemically peculiar Am star Sirius A. A weak surface magnetic field was proposed to account for the observed polarized signal, but the shape of the phase-averaged signature, dominated by a prominent positive lobe, is not expected in the standard theory of the Zeeman effect. We aim at verifying the presence of weak circularly polarized signatures in two other bright Am stars, beta UMa and theta Le...

  13. An Intraoperative $\\beta^-$ Detecting Probe For Radio-Guided Surgery in Tumour Resection

    OpenAIRE

    Russomando, Andrea; Bellini, Fabio; Bocci, Valerio; Chiodi, Giacomo; Collamati, Francesco; De Lucia, Erika; Donnarumma, Raffaella; Faccini, Riccardo; Terracciano, Carlo Mancini; Marafini, Michela; Paramatti, Riccardo; Patera, Vincenzo; Pinci, Davide; Recchia, Luigi; Sarti, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    The development of the $\\beta^-$ based radio-guided surgery aims to extend the technique to those tumours where surgery is the only possible treatment and the assessment of the resection would most profit from the low background around the lesion, as for brain tumours. Feasibility studies on meningioma, glioma, and neuroendocrine tumors already estimated the potentiality of this new treatment. To validate the technique, prototypes of the intraoperative probe required by the technique to detec...

  14. Utility of the ceftazidime-imipenem antagonism test (CIAT to detect and confirm the presence of inducible AmpC beta-lactamases among enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlademir Vicente Cantarelli

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Detection of AmpC beta-lactamase production by enterobacteria has been problematic. Contrary to ESBLs, no specific guidelines are available for detection and confirmation of AmpC production by clinical relevant microorganisms. Moreover, some bacterial species may produce inducible AmpC beta-lactamases that can be easily overlooked by routine susceptibility tests. We reported here a new test based on the strong inducible effect of imipenem on AmpC genes and the consequent antagonism with ceftazidime. This test is very simple and proved to be helpful in detecting AmpC-inducible enzymes among several species of clinical isolates.

  15. Detection of CMY-2, CTX-M-14, and SHV-12 beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli fecal-sample isolates from healthy chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briñas, Laura; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Zarazaga, Myriam; Porrero, Concepción; Sáenz, Yolanda; García, María; Dominguez, Lucas; Torres, Carmen

    2003-06-01

    Genes encoding the CMY-2, CTX-M-14, and SHV-12 beta-lactamases were detected in three of five Escherichia coli isolates from fecal samples from healthy chickens which showed resistance or diminished susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. A -42 mutation at the promoter region of the ampC gene was detected in the other two isolates.

  16. Next-generation sequencing is highly sensitive for the detection of beta-catenin mutations in desmoid-type fibromatoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Sarah J; Presneau, Nadège; Kalimuthu, Sangeetha; Dileo, Palma; Berisha, Fitim; Tirabosco, Roberto; Amary, M Fernanda; Flanagan, Adrienne M

    2015-08-01

    Desmoid-type fibromatoses are locally aggressive and frequently recurrent tumours, and an accurate diagnosis is essential for patient management. The majority of sporadic lesions harbour beta-catenin (CTNNB1) mutations. We used next-generation sequencing to detect CTNNB1 mutations and to compare the sensitivity and specificity of next-generation sequencing with currently employed mutation detection techniques: mutation-specific restriction enzyme digestion and polymerase chain reaction amplification. DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded needle biopsy or resection tissue sections from 144 patients with sporadic desmoid-type fibromatoses, four patients with syndrome-related desmoid-type fibromatoses and 11 morphological mimics. Two primer pairs were designed for CTNNB1 mutation hotspots. Using ≥10 ng of DNA, libraries were generated by Fluidigm and sequenced on the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. Next-generation sequencing had a sensitivity of 92.36 % (133/144, 95 % CIs: 86.74 to 96.12 %) and a specificity of 100 % for the detection of CTNNB1 mutations in desmoid-type fibromatoses-like spindle cell lesions. All mutations detected by mutation-specific restriction enzyme digestion were identified by next-generation sequencing. Next-generation sequencing identified additional mutations in 11 tumours that were not detected by mutation-specific restriction enzyme digestion, two of which have not been previously described. Next-generation sequencing is highly sensitive for the detection of CTNNB1 mutations. This multiplex assay has the advantage of detecting additional mutations compared to those detected by mutation-specific restriction enzyme digestion (sensitivity 82.41 %). The technology requires minimal DNA and is time- and cost-efficient.

  17. Next-generation sequencing is highly sensitive for the detection of beta-catenin mutations in desmoid-type fibromatoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Sarah J; Presneau, Nadège; Kalimuthu, Sangeetha; Dileo, Palma; Berisha, Fitim; Tirabosco, Roberto; Amary, M Fernanda; Flanagan, Adrienne M

    2015-08-01

    Desmoid-type fibromatoses are locally aggressive and frequently recurrent tumours, and an accurate diagnosis is essential for patient management. The majority of sporadic lesions harbour beta-catenin (CTNNB1) mutations. We used next-generation sequencing to detect CTNNB1 mutations and to compare the sensitivity and specificity of next-generation sequencing with currently employed mutation detection techniques: mutation-specific restriction enzyme digestion and polymerase chain reaction amplification. DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded needle biopsy or resection tissue sections from 144 patients with sporadic desmoid-type fibromatoses, four patients with syndrome-related desmoid-type fibromatoses and 11 morphological mimics. Two primer pairs were designed for CTNNB1 mutation hotspots. Using ≥10 ng of DNA, libraries were generated by Fluidigm and sequenced on the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. Next-generation sequencing had a sensitivity of 92.36 % (133/144, 95 % CIs: 86.74 to 96.12 %) and a specificity of 100 % for the detection of CTNNB1 mutations in desmoid-type fibromatoses-like spindle cell lesions. All mutations detected by mutation-specific restriction enzyme digestion were identified by next-generation sequencing. Next-generation sequencing identified additional mutations in 11 tumours that were not detected by mutation-specific restriction enzyme digestion, two of which have not been previously described. Next-generation sequencing is highly sensitive for the detection of CTNNB1 mutations. This multiplex assay has the advantage of detecting additional mutations compared to those detected by mutation-specific restriction enzyme digestion (sensitivity 82.41 %). The technology requires minimal DNA and is time- and cost-efficient. PMID:25838078

  18. Comparison between phenotypic and PCR for detection of OXA-23 type and metallo-beta-lactamases producer Acinetobacter spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azimi, Leila

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: Resistance to carbapenems is developing around the world and can cause many problems for treatment of patients. Production of metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL is one of the main mechanism for this type of resistance. So, detection of MBL-producer microorganisms can prevent the spread of this type of resistance.Materials and methods: In this study 94 spp. were investigated. Resistance to imipenem was conducted after purification and identification. Combination disc (CD and Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST were performed for phenotypic detection of MBL and the molecular PCR method was done for vim-1, vim-2, imp-1 and OXA-23 genes.Results: According to TSI, SIM and oxidation-fermentation (OF test and PCR assay 93 and one strain were identified. 85% of them were resistant to imipenem. 34% of them have a positive combination disc test (CD while Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST was negative for all of them. The vim-1, vim-2 and imp-1 genes were not detected in PCR molecular method, however in 74% of strains with positive results in combination disc, were positive for the OXA-23 gene after PCR test. This study shows that the blaOXA-23 resistance determinant may become an emerging therapeutic problem.Discussion: According to the results, it seems that combination disc does not have enough specificity for detection of MBL-producer and using Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST can be more convenient.

  19. Monomeric Amyloid Beta Peptide in Hexafluoroisopropanol Detected by Small Angle Neutron Scattering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang-Haagen

    Full Text Available Small proteins like amyloid beta (Aβ monomers are related to neurodegenerative disorders by aggregation to insoluble fibrils. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS is a nondestructive method to observe the aggregation process in solution. We show that SANS is able to resolve monomers of small molecular weight like Aβ for aggregation studies. We examine Aβ monomers after prolonged storing in d-hexafluoroisopropanol (dHFIP by using SANS and dynamic light scattering (DLS. We determined the radius of gyration from SANS as 1.0±0.1 nm for Aβ1-40 and 1.6±0.1 nm for Aβ1-42 in agreement with 3D NMR structures in similar solvents suggesting a solvent surface layer with 5% increased density. After initial dissolution in dHFIP Aβ aggregates sediment with a major component of pure monomers showing a hydrodynamic radius of 1.8±0.3 nm for Aβ1-40 and 3.2±0.4 nm for Aβ1-42 including a surface layer of dHFIP solvent molecules.

  20. Monomeric Amyloid Beta Peptide in Hexafluoroisopropanol Detected by Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang-Haagen, Bo; Biehl, Ralf; Nagel-Steger, Luitgard; Radulescu, Aurel; Richter, Dieter; Willbold, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Small proteins like amyloid beta (Aβ) monomers are related to neurodegenerative disorders by aggregation to insoluble fibrils. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) is a nondestructive method to observe the aggregation process in solution. We show that SANS is able to resolve monomers of small molecular weight like Aβ for aggregation studies. We examine Aβ monomers after prolonged storing in d-hexafluoroisopropanol (dHFIP) by using SANS and dynamic light scattering (DLS). We determined the radius of gyration from SANS as 1.0±0.1 nm for Aβ1–40 and 1.6±0.1 nm for Aβ1–42 in agreement with 3D NMR structures in similar solvents suggesting a solvent surface layer with 5% increased density. After initial dissolution in dHFIP Aβ aggregates sediment with a major component of pure monomers showing a hydrodynamic radius of 1.8±0.3 nm for Aβ1–40 and 3.2±0.4 nm for Aβ1–42 including a surface layer of dHFIP solvent molecules. PMID:26919121

  1. Strip biosensor for amplified detection of nerve growth factor-beta based on a molecular translator and catalytic DNA circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Lai, Ting; Mu, Kejie; Zhou, Zheng

    2014-10-01

    We have demonstrated a new visual detection approach based on a molecular translator and a catalytic DNA circuit for the detection of nerve growth factor-beta (NGF-β). In this assay, a molecular translator based on the binding-induced DNA strand-displacement reaction was employed to convert the input protein to an output DNA signal. The molecular translator is composed of a target recognition element and a signal output element. Target recognition is achieved by the binding of the anti-NGF-β antibody to the target protein. Polyclonal anti-NGF-β antibody is conjugated to DNA1 and DNA2. The antibody conjugated DNA1 is initially hybridized to DNA3 to form a stable DNA1/DNA3 duplex. In the presence of NGF-β, the binding of the same target protein brings DNA1 and DNA2 into close proximity, resulting in an increase in their local effective concentration. This process triggers the strand-displacement reaction between DNA2 and DNA3 and releases the output DNA3. The released DNA3 is further amplified by a catalytic DNA circuit. The product of the catalytic DNA circuit is detected by a strip biosensor. This proposed assay has high sensitivity and selectivity with a dynamic response ranging from 10 fM to 10 pM, and its detection limit is 10 fM of NGF-β. This work provides a sensitive, enzyme-free, and universal strategy for the detection of other proteins. PMID:25068151

  2. Application of an immunosensor for the detection of the beta-lactam antibiotic, cephalexin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillon, P.P.; Daly, S.J.; Browne, S.J.; Manning, B.M.; Loomans, E.E.M.G.; Amerongen, van A.; O'Kennedy, R.

    2003-01-01

    Public concern surrounding antibiotic contamination in food and food products has made it imperative to develop analytical methods for their detection. Polyclonal antibodies were used in the development of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based inhibition immunoassay for cephalexin. A conjugate con

  3. Instant Typing Is Essential to Detect Transmission of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne F Voor in 't Holt

    Full Text Available Infections with multidrug-resistant (MDR microorganisms are an increasing threat to hospitalized patients. Although rapid typing of MDR microorganisms is required to apply targeted prevention measures, technical barriers often prevent this. We aimed to assess whether extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Klebsiella species are transmitted between patients and whether routine, rapid typing is needed.For 43 months, the clonality of all ESBL-producing Klebsiella isolates from patients admitted to Erasmus MC University Medical Center in Rotterdam, the Netherlands was assessed with Raman spectroscopy. A cluster was defined as n ≥ 2 patients who had identical isolates. Primary patients were the first patients in each cluster. Secondary patients were those identified with an isolate clonally related to the isolate of the primary patient.Isolates from 132 patients were analyzed. We identified 17 clusters, with 17 primary and 56 secondary patients. Fifty-nine patients had a unique isolate. Patients (n = 15 in four out of the 17 clusters were epidemiologically related. Ten of these 15 patients developed an infection.Clonal outbreaks of ESBL-producing Klebsiella species were detected in our hospital. Theoretically, after Raman spectroscopy had detected a cluster of n ≥ 2, six infections in secondary patients could have been prevented. These findings demonstrate that spread of ESBL-producing Klebsiella species occurs, even in a non-outbreak setting, and underscore the need for routine rapid typing of these MDR bacteria.

  4. Detection of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Market-Ready Chickens in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Chishimba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequent administering of antibiotics in the treatment of poultry diseases may contribute to emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- (ESBL- producing Escherichia coli in poultry in Zambia. A total of 384 poultry samples were collected and analyzed for ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. The cultured E. coli isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests and the polymerase chain reaction for detection of blaCTX-M, blaSHV, and blaTEM genes. Overall 20.1%, 77/384, (95% CI; 43.2–65.5% of total samples analyzed contained ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. The antimicrobial sensitivity test revealed that 85.7% (66/77; CI: 75.7–92 of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates conferred resistance to beta-lactam and other antimicrobial agents. These results indicate that poultry is a potential reservoir for ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. The presence of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in poultry destined for human consumption requires strengthening of the antibiotic administering policy. This is important as antibiotic administration in food animals is gaining momentum for improved animal productivity in developing countries such as Zambia.

  5. IMPY, a potential {beta}-amyloid imaging probe for detection of prion deposits in scrapie-infected mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, P.-J. [INSERM, U619, F-37000 Tours (France); Universite Francois-Rabelais, F-37000 Tours (France); IFR135, F-37000 Tours (France); Bernard, Serge [IFR135, F-37000 Tours (France); INRA, UR1282, IASP, 37380 Nouzilly (France)], E-mail: bernard@tours.inra.fr; Sarradin, Pierre [INRA, UR1282, IASP, 37380 Nouzilly (France); Vergote, Jackie [INSERM, U619, F-37000 Tours (France); Universite Francois-Rabelais, F-37000 Tours (France); IFR135, F-37000 Tours (France); Barc, Celine [INRA, UR1282, IASP, 37380 Nouzilly (France); Chalon, Sylvie [INSERM, U619, F-37000 Tours (France); Universite Francois-Rabelais, F-37000 Tours (France); IFR135, F-37000 Tours (France); Kung, M.-P.; Kung, Hank F. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Guilloteau, Denis [INSERM, U619, F-37000 Tours (France); Universite Francois-Rabelais, F-37000 Tours (France); IFR135, F-37000 Tours (France)

    2008-02-15

    Introduction: A potential single-photon emission computed tomography imaging agent for labeling of A{beta} plaques of Alzheimer's disease, IMPY (2-(4'-dimethylaminophenyl)-6-iodo-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine), would be effective in detection of prion amyloid deposits in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Methods: In vitro autoradiographic studies were carried out with [{sup 125}I]IMPY on brain sections from scrapie-infected mice and age-matched controls. Competition study was performed to evaluate the prion deposit binding specificity with nonradioactive IMPY. Results: Binding of [{sup 125}I]IMPY was observed in infected brain sections, while on age-matched control brain sections, there was no or very low labeling. Prion deposit binding was confirmed by histoblots with prion protein-specific monoclonal antibody 2D6. In the presence of nonradioactive IMPY, the binding of [{sup 125}I]IMPY was significantly inhibited in all regions studied. Conclusions: These findings indicate that IMPY can detect the prion deposits in vitro in scrapie-infected mice. Labeled with {sup 123}I, this ligand may be useful to quantitate prion deposit burdens in TSEs by in vivo imaging.

  6. Detection of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Market-Ready Chickens in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chishimba, K; Hang'ombe, B M; Muzandu, K; Mshana, S E; Matee, M I; Nakajima, C; Suzuki, Y

    2016-01-01

    The frequent administering of antibiotics in the treatment of poultry diseases may contribute to emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- (ESBL-) producing Escherichia coli in poultry in Zambia. A total of 384 poultry samples were collected and analyzed for ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. The cultured E. coli isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests and the polymerase chain reaction for detection of bla CTX-M, bla SHV, and bla TEM genes. Overall 20.1%, 77/384, (95% CI; 43.2-65.5%) of total samples analyzed contained ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. The antimicrobial sensitivity test revealed that 85.7% (66/77; CI: 75.7-92) of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates conferred resistance to beta-lactam and other antimicrobial agents. These results indicate that poultry is a potential reservoir for ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. The presence of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in poultry destined for human consumption requires strengthening of the antibiotic administering policy. This is important as antibiotic administration in food animals is gaining momentum for improved animal productivity in developing countries such as Zambia. PMID:27190518

  7. Large scale Gd-beta-diketonate based organic liquid scintillator production for antineutrino detection

    CERN Document Server

    Aberle, C; Gramlich, B; Hartmann, F X; Lindner, M; Schönert, S; Schwan, U; Wagner, S; Watanabe, H

    2011-01-01

    Over the course of several decades organic liquid scintillators form the basis for successful neutrino detectors. For electron antineutrino detection at nuclear reactor plants, gadolinium loaded liquid scintillators provide efficient background suppression. In the Double Chooz reactor antineutrino experiment a newly developed gadolinium-loaded scintillator is utilized for the first time. Its large scale production and characterization as well as the creation of an additional metalfree scintillator are presented. Both organic liquids are used in the inner part of the Double Chooz detectors.

  8. Identification of clonally rearranged T-cell receptor beta chain genes in HTLV-I carriers as a potential instrument for early detection of neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Sales

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the genetic recombination pattern of the T-cell receptor beta-chain gene (TCR-beta in order to identify clonal expansion of T-lymphocytes in 17 human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I-positive healthy carriers, 7 of them with abnormal features in the peripheral blood lymphocytes. Monoclonal or oligoclonal expansion of T-cells was detected in 5 of 7 HTLV-I-positive patients with abnormal lymphocytes and unconfirmed diagnosis by using PCR amplification of segments of TCR-beta gene, in a set of reactions that target 102 different variable (V segments, covering all members of the 24 V families available in the gene bank, including the more recently identified segments of the Vbeta-5 and Vbeta-8 family and the two diversity beta segments. Southern blots, the gold standard method to detect T-lymphocyte clonality, were negative for all of these 7 patients, what highlights the low sensitivity of this method that requires a large amount of very high quality DNA. To evaluate the performance of PCR in the detection of clonality we also analyzed 18 leukemia patients, all of whom tested positive. Clonal expansion was not detected in any of the negative controls or healthy carriers without abnormal lymphocytes. In conclusion, PCR amplification of segments of rearranged TCR-beta is reliable and highly suitable for the detection of small populations of clonal T-cells in asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers who present abnormal peripheral blood lymphocytes providing an additional instrument for following up these patients with potentially higher risk of leukemia.

  9. Identification of clonally rearranged T-cell receptor beta chain genes in HTLV-I carriers as a potential instrument for early detection of neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, M M; Bezerra, C N A; Hiraki, Y; Melo, N B; Rebouças, N A

    2005-05-01

    We analyzed the genetic recombination pattern of the T-cell receptor beta-chain gene (TCR-beta) in order to identify clonal expansion of T-lymphocytes in 17 human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-positive healthy carriers, 7 of them with abnormal features in the peripheral blood lymphocytes. Monoclonal or oligoclonal expansion of T-cells was detected in 5 of 7 HTLV-I-positive patients with abnormal lymphocytes and unconfirmed diagnosis by using PCR amplification of segments of TCR-beta gene, in a set of reactions that target 102 different variable (V) segments, covering all members of the 24 V families available in the gene bank, including the more recently identified segments of the Vbeta-5 and Vbeta-8 family and the two diversity beta segments. Southern blots, the gold standard method to detect T-lymphocyte clonality, were negative for all of these 7 patients, what highlights the low sensitivity of this method that requires a large amount of very high quality DNA. To evaluate the performance of PCR in the detection of clonality we also analyzed 18 leukemia patients, all of whom tested positive. Clonal expansion was not detected in any of the negative controls or healthy carriers without abnormal lymphocytes. In conclusion, PCR amplification of segments of rearranged TCR-beta is reliable and highly suitable for the detection of small populations of clonal T-cells in asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers who present abnormal peripheral blood lymphocytes providing an additional instrument for following up these patients with potentially higher risk of leukemia. PMID:15917950

  10. Detection of genes mediating beta-lactamase production in isolates of enterobacteria recovered from wild pets in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Sabry A. Hassan; Mohamed Y. Shobrak

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the genetic basis and types of beta-lactamase encountered among enterobacterial isolates of wild pets from the animal exhibit. Materials and Methods: A total of 17 beta-lactamase-producing enterobacteria recovered from fecal samples of wild pet animals were analyzed for a selected beta-lactamase gene by polymerase chain reaction. Results: Molecular analysis identified one or more β-lactamase-encoding genes in 14 enterobacterial isolates as a single or gene combination....

  11. Rectification of EMG in low force contractions improves detection of motor unit coherence in the beta-frequency band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Nicholas J; Farmer, Simon F; Berthouze, Luc; Halliday, David M

    2013-10-01

    Rectification of surface EMG before spectral analysis is a well-established preprocessing method used in the detection of motor unit firing patterns. A number of recent studies have called into question the need for rectification before spectral analysis, pointing out that there is no supporting experimental evidence to justify rectification. We present an analysis of 190 records from 13 subjects consisting of simultaneous recordings of paired single motor units and surface EMG from the extensor digitorum longus muscle during middle finger extension against gravity (unloaded condition) and against gravity plus inertial loading (loaded condition). We directly examine the hypothesis that rectified surface EMG is a better predictor of the frequency components of motor unit synchronization than the unrectified (or raw) EMG in the beta-frequency band (15-32 Hz). We use multivariate analysis and estimate the partial coherence between the paired single units using both rectified and unrectified surface EMG as a predictor. We use a residual partial correlation measure to quantify the difference between raw and rectified EMG as predictor and analyze unloaded and loaded conditions separately. The residual correlation for the unloaded condition is 22% with raw EMG and 3.5% with rectified EMG and for the loaded condition it is 5.2% with raw EMG and 1.4% with rectified EMG. We interpret these results as strong supporting experimental evidence in favor of using the preprocessing step of surface EMG rectification before spectral analysis.

  12. Gaseous time projection chambers for rare event detection: Results from the T-REX project. I. Double beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Irastorza, I G; Castel, J; Cebrián, S; Dafni, T; Galán, J; García, J A; Garza, J G; Gómez, H; Herrera, D C; Iguaz, F J; Luzón, G; Mirallas, H; Ruiz, E; Seguí, L; Tomás, A

    2015-01-01

    As part of the T-REX project, a number of R&D and prototyping activities have been carried out during the last years to explore the applicability of gaseous Micromegas-read TPCs in rare event searches like double beta decay (DBD), axion research and low-mass WIMP searches. In both this and its companion paper, we compile the main results of the project and give an outlook of application prospects for this detection technique. While in the companion paper we focus on axions and WIMPs, in this paper we focus on the results regarding the measurement of the DBD of $^{136}$Xe in a high pressure Xe (HPXe) TPC. Particularly relevant are the results obtained in Xe + TMA mixtures with microbulk Micromegas, showing very promising results in terms of gain, stability of operation, and energy resolution at pressures up to 10 bar. TMA at levels of $\\sim$1\\% reduces electron diffusion by a factor of 10 with respect to pure Xe, improving the quality of the topological pattern, with a positive impact on the discrimination...

  13. Detection of sequence variants in the gene encoding the beta 3 chain of laminin 5 (LAMB3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, L; McGrath, J A; Christiano, A M; Uitto, J

    1995-01-01

    Laminin 5, a candidate gene/protein system for mutations in the junctional forms of epidermolysis bullosa (JEB), consists of three polypeptides encoded by the LAMA3, LAMB3, and LAMC2 genes. In this study, primer pairs for the amplification of the complete cDNA as well as 22 exons of the LAMB3 gene encoding the entire beta 3 chain of laminin 5, were established. The primers for amplification of individual exons from genomic DNA were placed at least 50 bp away from the exon-intron borders in the flanking intronic sequences. For amplification of cDNA generated by RT-PCR, eight primer pairs covering overlapping segments of mRNA were used. The amplified sequences were used to study sequence variations of the LAMB3 gene in patients with JEB and unrelated individuals using heteroduplex analysis. Nine out of 13 JEB patients examined showed heteroduplexes in at least one of the PCR products, indicating the existence of two variable alleles in their DNA. Sequence analyses revealed putative pathogenetic mutations in seven of the JEB patients, while four of the heteroduplexes resulted from polymorphisms, reflecting a single basepair substitution. The results demonstrate that this method is useful in the detection of JEB mutations, as well as polymorphisms in the LAMB3 gene. PMID:7550237

  14. An Investigation of beta-lactam antibiotics resistance in Escherichia coli isolates and molecular detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cage birds from Shahrekord, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Tahmasby; Sara Barati; Hassan Momtaz; Mohammad Rafiee Dolatabadi; Mohammad Ghasemi; Seied Vahid Ahmadi Salianeh; Samaneh Mehrabiyan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cage birds can harbor human pathogens and contribute to the transmission and spread of drug resistant infectious agents to human. Since many people are interested in keeping cage birds, present study was conducted in cage birds from Shahrekord to investigate the beta-lactam antibiotics resistant E. coli and molecular detection of E. coli O157:H7 that is responsible for outbreaks of human intestinal diseases and fatal haemolytic-uraemic syndrome worldwide. Materials and metho...

  15. Detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamases and resistance in members of the Enterobacteriaceae family isolated from healthy sheep and dogs in Umuarama, Paraná, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Alves de Oliveira; Rodrigo Assunção Moura; Graziela Vendrame Rodrigues; Karoline Franciani Cardoso Lopes; Melissa Marchi Zaniolo; Kariny Aparecida Jardim Rubio; Eduardo Herrera Dias; Leila Alves de Oliveira; Roberta Torres Chideroli; Daniela Dib Gonçalves

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial resistance is a primary public health concern worldwide. Within this context, pets and breeding animals act as reservoirs for multidrug-resistant bacteria (MR), such as those producing extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and those presenting plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR). The aim of this study was to detect the presence of ESBL and PMQR in members of the Enterobacteriaceae family, isolated from healthy sheep and dogs from non-intense farming rural properties in t...

  16. Divergent evolution of a beta/alpha-barrel subclass: detection of numerous phosphate-binding sites by motif search.

    OpenAIRE

    Bork, P.; Gellerich, J.; Groth, H.; Hooft, R.; Martin, F.

    1995-01-01

    Study of the most conserved region in many beta/alpha-barrels, the phosphate-binding site, revealed a sequence motif in a few beta/alpha-barrels with known tertiary structure, namely glycolate oxidase (GOX), cytochrome b2 (Cyb2), tryptophan synthase alpha subunit (TrpA), and the indoleglycerolphosphate synthase (TrpC). Database searches identified this motif in numerous other enzyme families: (1) IMP dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and GMP reductase (GuaC); (2) phosphoribosylformimino-5-aminoimidazol c...

  17. Use of a non-radioactive hybridisation assay for direct detection of gram-negative bacteria carrying TEM beta-lactamase genes in infected urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, G I; Towner, K J; Pearson, N J; Slack, R C

    1989-02-01

    DNA in infected urines from 81 patients with urinary tract infection was hybridised directly with a non-radioactive DNA probe specific for bacterial genes coding for TEM-type beta-lactamase. The results were assessed by means of a computerised image analysis system and compared with those obtained following isolation of the infecting organism, conventional sensitivity testing and isoelectric focusing (IEF) procedures for the detection of TEM-type beta-lactamase. Of the 27 ampicillin-resistant gram-negative organisms isolated in pure culture from the urines, 14 were shown by both hybridisation and IEF to carry a gene for TEM beta-lactamase production. Only four discordant results were obtained: three "false positive" direct hybridisation results, one due to urine pigmentation, and one, possibly, to a TEM beta-lactamase gene which was not being expressed, and one "false negative" result due to insufficient cell numbers in the urine. The system is capable of screening large numbers of samples and is applicable to any gene for which a suitable DNA probe is available.

  18. Statistical analysis on detecting recombination sites in DNA-beta satellites associated with the old world geminiviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Xu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Although exchange of genetic information by recombination plays an important role in the evolution of viruses, it is not clear how it generates diversity. Understanding recombination events helps with the study of the evolution of new virus strains or new viruses. Geminiviruses are plant viruses which have ambisense single-stranded circular DNA genomes and are one of the most economically important plant viruses in agricultural production.Small circular single-stranded DNA satellites, termed DNA-beta, have recently been found to be associated with some geminivirus infections. In this paper we analyze several DNA-beta sequences of geminiviruses for recombination events using phylogenetic and statistical analysis and we find that one strain from ToLCMaB has a recombination pattern and is a recombinant molecule between twostrains from two species, PaLCuB-[IN:Chi:05] (major parent and ToLCB-[IN:CP:04] (minor parent. We propose that this recombination event contributed to the evolution of the strain of ToLCMaB in South India. The Hidden Markov Chain (HMM method developed by Wedd et al estimating phylogenetic tree through out the whole alignment provide us a recombination history of these DNA-beta strains. It is the first time that this statistic method has been used on DNA-beta recombination study and give a clear recombination history of DNA-beta recombination.

  19. Development of real-time PCR method for the detection and the quantification of a new endogenous reference gene in sugar beet "Beta vulgaris L.": GMO application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Maher; Alaya, Akram; Ali, Imen Ben Haj; Hafsa, Ahmed Ben; Nabi, Nesrine; Bérard, Aurélie; Romaniuk, Marcel; Skhiri, Fethia; Saïd, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    KEY MESSAGE : Here, we describe a new developed quantitative real-time PCR method for the detection and quantification of a new specific endogenous reference gene used in GMO analysis. The key requirement of this study was the identification of a new reference gene used for the differentiation of the four genomic sections of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) (Beta, Corrollinae, Nanae and Procumbentes) suitable for quantification of genetically modified sugar beet. A specific qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was designed to detect the sugar beet amplifying a region of the adenylate transporter (ant) gene only from the species of the genomic section I of the genus Beta (cultivated and wild relatives) and showing negative PCR results for 7 species of the 3 other sections, 8 related species and 20 non-sugar beet plants. The sensitivity of the assay was 15 haploid genome copies (HGC). A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) assay was also performed, having high linearity (R (2) > 0.994) over sugar beet standard concentrations ranging from 20,000 to 10 HGC of the sugar beet DNA per PCR. The QRT-PCR assay described in this study was specific and more sensitive for sugar beet quantification compared to the validated test previously reported in the European Reference Laboratory. This assay is suitable for GMO quantification in routine analysis from a wide variety of matrices.

  20. Development of real-time PCR method for the detection and the quantification of a new endogenous reference gene in sugar beet "Beta vulgaris L.": GMO application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Maher; Alaya, Akram; Ali, Imen Ben Haj; Hafsa, Ahmed Ben; Nabi, Nesrine; Bérard, Aurélie; Romaniuk, Marcel; Skhiri, Fethia; Saïd, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    KEY MESSAGE : Here, we describe a new developed quantitative real-time PCR method for the detection and quantification of a new specific endogenous reference gene used in GMO analysis. The key requirement of this study was the identification of a new reference gene used for the differentiation of the four genomic sections of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) (Beta, Corrollinae, Nanae and Procumbentes) suitable for quantification of genetically modified sugar beet. A specific qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was designed to detect the sugar beet amplifying a region of the adenylate transporter (ant) gene only from the species of the genomic section I of the genus Beta (cultivated and wild relatives) and showing negative PCR results for 7 species of the 3 other sections, 8 related species and 20 non-sugar beet plants. The sensitivity of the assay was 15 haploid genome copies (HGC). A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) assay was also performed, having high linearity (R (2) > 0.994) over sugar beet standard concentrations ranging from 20,000 to 10 HGC of the sugar beet DNA per PCR. The QRT-PCR assay described in this study was specific and more sensitive for sugar beet quantification compared to the validated test previously reported in the European Reference Laboratory. This assay is suitable for GMO quantification in routine analysis from a wide variety of matrices. PMID:23052591

  1. Detection of genes mediating beta-lactamase production in isolates of enterobacteria recovered from wild pets in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry A. Hassan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the genetic basis and types of beta-lactamase encountered among enterobacterial isolates of wild pets from the animal exhibit. Materials and Methods: A total of 17 beta-lactamase-producing enterobacteria recovered from fecal samples of wild pet animals were analyzed for a selected beta-lactamase gene by polymerase chain reaction. Results: Molecular analysis identified one or more β-lactamase-encoding genes in 14 enterobacterial isolates as a single or gene combination. The most frequent extended-spectrum β-lactamases types were transmission electron microscopy and CTX-M, and the most common AmpC enzymes were CMY-2 and DHA types. Conclusions: The study is the first in Saudi Arabia, have established the presence of β-lactamase-encoding genes in the fecal isolates of wild pets.

  2. Detection of Lawsonia intracellularis, Serpulina hyodysenteriae, weakly beta-haemolytic intestinal spirochaetes, Salmonella enterica, and haemolytic Escherichia coli from swine herds with and without diarrhoea among growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kristian; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Jorsal, Sven Erik Lind;

    1998-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was optimized to detect Lawsonia intracellularis in faeces from naturally infected pigs. By combining a boiling procedure to extract DNA and a nested PCR procedure, a detection limit at 2x10(2) bacterial cells per gram of faeces was achieved. The optimized PCR...... was used together with conventional culture techniques to detect Serpulina hyodysenteriae, weakly beta-haemolytic intestinal spirochaetes (WBHIS), Salmonella enterica, and haemolytic Escherichia coli, in a case control study to examine selected risk factors for the development of diarrhoea in growing pigs...... which indicate that these species may influence the development of diarrhoea. In addition, herd-type had a significant impact, that is specific pathogen-free herds showed an odds ratio at 0.2 relative to conventional herds for the development of diarrhoea....

  3. Technical note: use of PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis for detection of bovine beta-casein variants A1, A2, A3, and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, A; Dunner, S; Cañón, J

    1999-10-01

    We have optimized the polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) technique to screen the most frequent variants (A1, A2, A3, and B) of the bovine beta-casein gene. Five partly overlapping PCR products (233, 234, 265, 466, and 498 bp) of Exon VII of the beta-casein gene that encompass the target point mutations were heat-denatured, separated on nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels, and silver-stained. Simultaneous detection of all variants in reference samples of known genotypes (A1A2, A2A2, A1A3, A1B, and A2B) was best achieved on 17% polyacrylamide (100:1 acrylamide:bis-acrylamide ratio) gels with the PCR product of 234 bp. These results were confirmed by sequencing the allele-specific SSCP bands directly excised from polyacrylamide gels. A population of 65 anonymous samples belonging to various breeds was then analyzed twice, without discrepancies in a blind trial. Routine beta-casein genotyping using PCR-SSCP is proposed as a cost-effective, fast, and sensitive technique.

  4. Comparison of the Directigen 1-2-3 Group A Strep Test with culture for detection of group A beta-hemolytic streptococci.

    OpenAIRE

    Huck, W; Reed, B D; French, T; Mitchell, R S

    1989-01-01

    The Directigen 1-2-3 Group A Strep Test (DGAST; BBL Microbiology Systems, Cockeysville, Md.) was compared with conventional culture procedures on Trypticase soy agar with 5% sheep blood (BBL) and Selective Streptococcal Agar (ssA; BBL) for detection of group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (GABHS) for 1,006 patients complaining of sore throat. The DGAST was performed at five acute-care clinics according to the instructions of the manufacturer; interpretation of the cultures was done at the cent...

  5. [blaVIM-2 gene detection in metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated in an intensive care unit in Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Armando; de Waard, Jacobus; Araque, María

    2009-08-01

    Ten Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporin and carbapenems were studied to determine the presence of genes that mediate the production of metallo-beta-lactamases. These strains were isolated from patients with nosocomial infection at the Intensive Care Unit of the Complejo Hospitalario "Ruiz y Paéz" of Ciudad Bolívar, Bolívar State, Venezuela, from 2003 to 2006. In all isolates a metallo-enzyme activity was detected by using the double disk synergism test. PCR amplification of genes encoding the families IMP, VIM and SPM metallo-beta-lactamases showed the presence of a blaVIM gene in all strains studied. DNA sequencing revealed that all isolates showed the presence of blaVIM-2. These results suggest that it is necessary to keep these strains under epidemiologic surveillance, establish laboratory strategies for opportune detection and the implementation of new policies to ensure the appropriate use of antibiotics in this institution.

  6. Detection of beta-glucuronidase in lactose-fermenting members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and its presence in bacterial urine cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, W.; Yourassowsky, E.

    1984-01-01

    Four hundred strains of lactose-fermenting Enterobacteriaceae were tested for hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid, the chromogenic enzyme substrate of beta-glucuronidase. Escherichia coli was found to be homogeneous with respect to beta-glucuronidase: more than 94% of the examined E. coli strains were positive, whereas none of the other lactose-fermenting strains possessed beta-glucuronidase activity. The qualitative beta-glucuronidase test, as rapid and simple as the...

  7. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.

    2010-03-23

    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  8. Gross alpha and beta activity analyses in urine-a routine laboratory method for internal human radioactivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Zhao, Luqian; Qin, Hongran; Zhao, Meijia; Zhou, Yirui; Yang, Shuqiang; Su, Xu; Xu, Xiaohua

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a method to provide rapid results for humans with internal radioactive contamination. The authors hypothesized that valuable information could be obtained from gas proportional counter techniques by screening urine samples from potentially exposed individuals rapidly. Recommended gross alpha and beta activity screening methods generally employ gas proportional counting techniques. Based on International Standards Organization (ISO) methods, improvements were made in the evaporation process to develop a method to provide rapid results, adequate sensitivity, and minimum sample preparation and operator intervention for humans with internal radioactive contamination. The method described by an American National Standards Institute publication was used to calibrate the gas proportional counter, and urine samples from patients with or without radionuclide treatment were measured to validate the method. By improving the evaporation process, the time required to perform the assay was reduced dramatically. Compared with the reference data, the results of the validation samples were very satisfactory with respect to gross-alpha and gross-beta activities. The gas flow proportional counting method described here has the potential for radioactivity monitoring in the body. This method was easy, efficient, and fast, and its application is of great utility in determining whether a sample should be analyzed by a more complicated method, for example radiochemical and/or γ-spectroscopy. In the future, it may be used commonly in medical examination and nuclear emergency treatment.Health Phys. 106(5):000-000; 2014.

  9. Application of stable carbon isotope analysis to the detection of 17beta-estradiol administration to cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buisson, C; Hebestreit, M; Weigert, A Preiss; Heinrich, K; Fry, H; Flenker, U; Banneke, S; Prevost, S; Andre, F; Schaenzer, W; Houghton, E; Le Bizec, B

    2005-11-01

    The use of anabolic agents in food producing animals is prohibited within the EU since 1988 (96/22/EC directive). The control of the illegal use of natural steroid hormones in cattle is still an exciting analytical challenge as far as no definitive method and non-ambiguous analytical criteria are available. The ability of gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) to demonstrate the administration of 17beta-estradiol to bovine has been investigated in this paper. By comparison of 13C/12C isotopic ratio of main urinary estradiol metabolite, i.e. 17alpha-estradiol, with two endogenous reference compounds (ERCs), i.e. dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and 5-androstene-3beta,17alpha-diol, the differentiation of estradiol metabolite origin, either endogenous or exogenous, has been proved to be achievable. After treatment, the delta(13)C(VPDB)-values of 17alpha-estradiol reached -27 per thousand to -29 per thousand, whereas delta13CVPDB-values of DHEA remained between -13 per thousand and -20 per thousand depending on the diet, maize and grass, respectively. A significant difference of delta13CVPDB between ERCs and 17alpha-estradiol was measurable over a period of 2 weeks after estradiol ester administration to the animal. PMID:16233872

  10. Detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamases in gram negative bacilli from clinical specimens in a teaching hospital in South eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C N Akujobi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial drug resistance seen among many gram-negative bacteria, especially those expressing the extended-spectrum β- lactamase (ESBL enzymes that hydrolyze the expanded- spectrum cephalosporins has been on the increase. This has compromised treatment options and thus a threat to the containment of bacterial infections. To determine the existence of the extended-spectrum β-lactamase enzymes in Nnewi, 250 clinical isolates of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas species from Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi were identified by conventional methods. These include Klebsiella species (96, E. coli (90, Pseudomonas species (37, Enterobacter species (13, Proteus species (6, Citrobacter species (5 and Salmonella species (3. Antimicrobial drug susceptibility testing was carried out on all the isolates by the disc diffusion method. Extended Spectrum Beta- lactamases were detected by the double disc synergy test. High level of antimicrobial resistance was noted in test organisms against some of the antimicrobial drugs: Ampicillin + Cloxacillin (93.2%, Tetracycline (90.8%, Streptomycin (82.4%, and Nalidixic acid (62%, and low level of resistance was observed against Ofloxacin (26.4%, Cefotaxime (28.8% and Nitrofurantoin (28.8%. One hundred and forty four isolates (57.6% were suspected ESBL-producers judged by their resistance to any of the third generation cephalosporins used but 40 (16% actually produced the extended spectrum beta- lactamase enzymes. This shows the existence of Extended Spectrum Beta- Lactamase producing gram negative organisms in Nnewi. Considering the treatment difficulties, as well as the high cost of treatment associated with these organisms, concerted efforts are needed to contain their spread.

  11. Effects of phenotype and genotype on methods for detection of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofteland, Ståle; Haldorsen, Bjørg; Dahl, Kristin H; Simonsen, Gunnar S; Steinbakk, Martin; Walsh, Timothy R; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn

    2007-01-01

    Consecutive clinical isolates of Escherichia coli (n = 87) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 25) with reduced susceptibilities to oxyimino-cephalosporins (MICs > 1 mg/liter) from 18 Norwegian laboratories during March through October 2003 were examined for bla(TEM/SHV/CTX-M) extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL) genes, oxyimino-cephalosporin MIC profiles, ESBL phenotypes (determined by the ESBL Etest and the combined disk and double-disk synergy [DDS] methods), and susceptibility to non-beta-lactam antibiotics. Multidrug-resistant CTX-M-15-like (n = 23) and CTX-M-9-like (n = 15) ESBLs dominated among the 50 ESBL-positive E. coli isolates. SHV-5-like (n = 9) and SHV-2-like (n = 4) ESBLs were the most prevalent in 19 ESBL-positive K. pneumoniae isolates. Discrepant ESBL phenotype test results were observed for one major (CTX-M-9) and several minor (TEM-128 and SHV-2/-28) ESBL groups and in SHV-1/-11-hyperproducing isolates. Negative or borderline ESBL results were observed when low-MIC oxyimino-cephalosporin substrates were used to detect clavulanic acid (CLA) synergy. CLA synergy was detected by the ESBL Etest and the DDS method but not by the combined disk method in SHV-1/-11-hyperproducing strains. The DDS method revealed unexplained CLA synergy in combination with aztreonam and cefpirome in three E. coli strains. The relatively high proportion of ESBL-producing E. coli organisms with a low ceftazidime MIC in Norway emphasizes that cefpodoxime alone or both cefotaxime and ceftazidime should be used as substrates for ESBL detection. PMID:17079502

  12. Combining BRITE and ground-based photometry for the Beta Cephei star Nu Eridani: impact on photometric pulsation mode identification and detection of several g modes

    CERN Document Server

    Handler, G; Popowicz, A; Pigulski, A; Kuschnig, R; Zoclonska, E; Moffat, A F J; Weiss, W W; Grant, C C; Pablo, H; Whittaker, G N; Rucinski, S M; Ramiaramanantsoa, T; Zwintz, K; Wade, G A

    2016-01-01

    We report a simultaneous ground and space-based photometric study of the Beta Cephei star Nu Eridani. Half a year of observations have been obtained by four of the five satellites constituting BRITE-Constellation, supplemented with ground-based photoelectric photometry. We show that carefully combining the two data sets virtually eliminates the aliasing problem that often hampers time-series analyses. We detect 40 periodic signals intrinsic to the star in the light curves. Despite a lower detection limit we do not recover all the pressure and mixed modes previously reported in the literature, but we newly detect six additional gravity modes. This behaviour is a consequence of temporal changes in the pulsation amplitudes that we also detected for some of the p modes. We point out that the dependence of theoretically predicted pulsation amplitude on wavelength is steeper in visual passbands than those observationally measured, to the extent that the three dominant pulsation modes of Nu Eridani would be incorrec...

  13. Detection of alien chromatin conferring resistance to the beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii Schm.) in cultivated beet (Beta vulgaris L.) using in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T; Jung, C; Heslop-Harrison, J S; Kleine, M

    1997-05-01

    Chromatin originating from wild beets of the genus Beta, section Procumbentes, has been investigated in nematode-resistant hybrid-derived lines of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) by in situ hybridization using satellite, telomeric and ribosomal DNA repeats, a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) and total genomic DNA as probes. The allen chromosome was detected in three monosomic addition lines (2n = 18 + 1) by genomic in situ hybridization. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with a genome-specific satellite repeat and YAC DNA enabled the visualization of Procumbentes chromosomes, and in double-target hybridization it was shown that they do not carry 18S-5.8S-25S rRNA and 5S rRNA genes. The wild beet-specific satellite repeat and the telomere sequence from Arabidopsis thaliana were used to perform a structural analysis of the wild beet chromosome fragments of two resistant fragment addition lines. It was shown that one physical end of the chromosome fragments consists of telomeric repeats. Comparison of fragment sizes indicated that the small chromosome fragments harbouring the resistance gene most likely resulted from the loss of one wild beet chromosome arm and an internal deletion of the remaining arm.

  14. A method for determining the free (unbound) concentration of ten beta-lactam antibiotics in human plasma using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Scott E; McWhinney, Brett C; Lipman, Jeffrey; Roberts, Jason A; Ungerer, Jacobus P J

    2012-10-15

    With the clinical imperative to further research in the area of optimising antibiotic dosing in the intensive care setting, a simple high performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for routinely determining the free (unbound) concentration of ten beta-lactam antibiotics in 200 μL of human plasma. Antibiotics determined include three cephalosporins (ceftriaxone, cephazolin and cephalotin); two carbapenems (meropenem and ertapenem); and five penicillins (ampicillin, piperacillin, benzylpenicillin, flucloxacillin and dicloxacillin). There was a single common sample preparation method involving ultracentrifugation and stabilisation. Chromatography was performed on a Waters XBridge C18 column with, depending on analytes, one of four acetonitrile-phosphate buffered mobile phases. Peaks of interest were detected via ultraviolet absorbance at 210, 260 and 304 nm. The method has been validated and used in a pathology laboratory for therapeutic drug monitoring in critically ill patients. The significant variability in the level of protein binding that is common with antibiotics traditionally considered to have high protein binding (e.g. ceftriaxone, cephazolin, ertapenem, flucloxacillin and dicloxacillin) suggests that this assay should be preferred for measuring the pharmacologically active concentration of beta-lactam antibiotics in a therapeutic drug monitoring programme. PMID:23026224

  15. Detection of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Resistance Genes among Bacteria Isolated from Selected Drinking Water Distribution Channels in Southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunjobi, Adeniyi A.

    2016-01-01

    Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) provide high level resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics among bacteria. In this study, previously described multidrug resistant bacteria from raw, treated, and municipal taps of DWDS from selected dams in southwestern Nigeria were assessed for the presence of ESBL resistance genes which include blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX by PCR amplification. A total of 164 bacteria spread across treated (33), raw (66), and municipal taps (68), belonging to α-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria, Flavobacteriia, Bacilli, and Actinobacteria group, were selected for this study. Among these bacteria, the most commonly observed resistance was for ampicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (61 isolates). Sixty-one isolates carried at least one of the targeted ESBL genes with blaTEM being the most abundant (50/61) and blaCTX being detected least (3/61). Klebsiella was the most frequently identified genus (18.03%) to harbour ESBL gene followed by Proteus (14.75%). Moreover, combinations of two ESBL genes, blaSHV + blaTEM or blaCTX + blaTEM, were observed in 11 and 1 isolate, respectively. In conclusion, classic blaTEM ESBL gene was present in multiple bacterial strains that were isolated from DWDS sources in Nigeria. These environments may serve as foci exchange of genetic traits in a diversity of Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:27563674

  16. Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis by detecting exogenous fluorescent signal of ligand bound to beta amyloid in the lens of human eye: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles eKerbage

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We report results of a clinical exploratory human trial involving 10 participants using a combination of a fluorescent ligand and a laser scanning device, SAPPHIRE System, as an aid in the diagnosis of Probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such a technique has been used in vivo of a human lens. The primary goal of the clinical trial, in addition to safety assessment, was to evaluate efficacy of the system. By detecting specific fluorescent signature of ligand bound beta amyloid in the supranucleus region of the human lens, a two-fold differentiation factor between AD patients and Control groups is achieved. Data from our studies indicates that deeper regions of the supranucleus provide the highest measures of ligand bound fluorescence signal from both controls and AD patients. Further studies are underway involving a larger population for statistical evaluation of the method.

  17. Locus-specific detection of HLA-DQ and -DR antigens by antibodies against synthetic N-terminal octapeptides of the beta chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deufel, T; Grove, A; Kofod, Hans;

    1985-01-01

    detected a 29 kDa component in immunoblots of Raji and AL-34 cell plasma membrane proteins separated by SDS gel electrophoresis. The binding of either N-terminal peptide antiserum was selectively inhibited only by the peptide used as antigen. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis by flow cytofluorometry......Antibodies against synthetic peptides representing the class-II antigen HLA-DR and -DQ beta chain N-terminal sequences were prepared in rabbits. The two octapeptides only share two amino acids and enzyme-linked immuno-assays showed the antisera only to bind to its own antigen. Both peptide antisera...... chains of HLA-DR and -DQ have been prepared by the preparation by the production of antibodies against the N-terminal sequences of each polypeptide....

  18. Simultaneous detection for three kinds of veterinary drugs: Chloramphenicol, clenbuterol and 17-beta-estradiol by high-throughput suspension array technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Nan; Su Pu [Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Tianjin 300050 (China); Gao Zhixian [Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Tianjin 300050 (China)], E-mail: gaozhx@163.com; Zhu Maoxiang; Yang Zhihua; Pan Xiujie [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Fang Yanjun; Chao Fuhuan [Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Tianjin 300050 (China)

    2009-01-19

    Suspension array technology for simultaneous detection of three kinds of veterinary drugs, chloramphenicol (CAP), clenbuterol and 17-beta-estradiol has been developed. Conjugates of chloramphenicol and clenbuterol coupled with bovine serum albumin were synthesized and purified. Probes of suspension array were constituted by coupling the three conjugates on the fluorescent microspheres/beads and the microstructures of the beads' surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy which was a direct confirmation for the successful conjugates' coupling. The optimal addition of conjugates and the amounts of antibodies were optimized and selected, respectively. Standard curves were plotted and the coefficient of determination-R{sup 2} was greater than 0.989 which suggested good logistic correlation. The detection ranges for the three veterinary drugs are 40-6.25 x 10{sup 5} ng L{sup -1}, 50-7.81 x 10{sup 5} ng L{sup -1} and 1 x 10{sup 3-}7.29 x 10{sup 5} ng L{sup -1}, respectively and the lowest detection limits (LDLs) of them are 40, 50 and 1000 ng L{sup -1}, respectively. The suspension array is specific and has no significant cross-reactivity with other chemicals. Meanwhile, unknown samples were detected by suspension array and ELISA in comparison with each other. The errors between found and real for the detection of the unknown samples were relatively small to both of the two methods, whereas, the detection ranges of suspension array are broader and sensitive than that of the traditional ELISA. The high-throughput suspension array is proved to be a novel method for multi-analysis of veterinary drugs with simple operation, high sensitivity and low cost.

  19. [Examination of metallo-beta-lactamase-producing different types of Serratia marcescens detected in the same patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamitsu, Ito; Fukui, Yasuo; Ono, Noriaki; Ikeda, Fumiaki; Kanayama, Akiko; Kobayashi, Intetsu

    2013-03-01

    Metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) producing Serratia marcescens isolate was recovered from a study patient in September, 2007 in whom MBL non-producing S. marcescens had been isolated 2 months previously. Two S. marcescens isolates recovered from the study patient showed the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern. Seven S. marcescens isolates were recovered from other patients in our hospital during August, 2007 and November, 2007. Five of the seven isolates produced MBL. All of the MBL-producing isolates showed the same PFGE pattern and harbored plasmids of the same size and bla(IMP) genes. The bla(IMP) genes were easily transferred to Escherichia coli DH5alpha by transformation of a plasmid purified from the MBL-producing isolate. Those transformation experiments suggested that bla(IMP) genes were encoded by the plasmid. From these observations, it was speculated that the MBL non-producing S. marcescens isolate recovered from the study patient had acquired the plasmid which encoded bla(IMP) genes and a monoclone of MBL-producing S. marcescens spread horizontally in our hospital.

  20. New splicing mutation in the choline kinase beta (CHKB) gene causing a muscular dystrophy detected by whole-exome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jorge; Negrão, Luís; Fineza, Isabel; Taipa, Ricardo; Melo-Pires, Manuel; Fortuna, Ana Maria; Gonçalves, Ana Rita; Froufe, Hugo; Egas, Conceição; Santos, Rosário; Sousa, Mário

    2015-06-01

    Muscular dystrophies (MDs) are a group of hereditary muscle disorders that include two particularly heterogeneous subgroups: limb-girdle MD and congenital MD, linked to 52 different genes (seven common to both subgroups). Massive parallel sequencing technology may avoid the usual stepwise gene-by-gene analysis. We report the whole-exome sequencing (WES) analysis of a patient with childhood-onset progressive MD, also presenting mental retardation and dilated cardiomyopathy. Conventional sequencing had excluded eight candidate genes. WES of the trio (patient and parents) was performed using the ion proton sequencing system. Data analysis resorted to filtering steps using the GEMINI software revealed a novel silent variant in the choline kinase beta (CHKB) gene. Inspection of sequence alignments ultimately identified the causal variant (CHKB:c.1031+3G>C). This splice site mutation was confirmed using Sanger sequencing and its effect was further evaluated with gene expression analysis. On reassessment of the muscle biopsy, typical abnormal mitochondrial oxidative changes were observed. Mutations in CHKB have been shown to cause phosphatidylcholine deficiency in myofibers, causing a rare form of CMD (only 21 patients reported). Notwithstanding interpretative difficulties that need to be overcome before the integration of WES in the diagnostic workflow, this work corroborates its utility in solving cases from highly heterogeneous groups of diseases, in which conventional diagnostic approaches fail to provide a definitive diagnosis. PMID:25740612

  1. Multiresidue analysis of beta(2)-agonists in human and calf urine using multimodal solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koole, A; Bosman, J; Franke, JP; de Zeeuw, RA

    1999-01-01

    Various beta(2)-agonists are used as illegal growth promoters in man and in animals. We developed a multiresidue procedure for the analysis of four beta-agonists in human and calf urine. The sample was pre-extracted with an Extrelut column at alkaline pH. The beta-agonists were eluted with a mixture

  2. Sensitive detection of fast, neutral hydrogen atoms for the Bound Beta-Decay (BoB) experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are currently exploring methods to detect hydrogen atoms with 325.7 eV kinetic energy. These atoms form the decay signature of the theoretically-predicted three-body decay of the neutron into a hydrogen atom and an anti-neutrino. The challenge in designing and building such a hydrogen detector lies in the small predicted branching ratio for this decay (10-6 of the three-body decay), the low energy of the atoms and the requirement to identify them over background hydrogen. This talk describes our preliminary work investigating three possible detection schemes: quenching of H(2s) atoms and subsequent detection of the resulting Lyman-α photon, charge-exchange of hydrogen atoms in argon gas and laser ionisation.

  3. Beta particle detection efficiency of the radiation sensor made from a mixture of polyaniline and titanium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, M.; Miyata, H.; Katsumata, M.; Matsuda, K.; Ueno, T.; Ito, D.; Suzuki, T.

    2016-08-01

    We developed a new real-time radiation sensor using an organic semiconductor and measured its β-particle detection sensitivity. This sensor is fabricated by simply combining a p-type semiconductor, polyaniline (Pani), with an n-type semiconductor, TiO2, and processing the compound. Since Pani and TiO2 are both inexpensive materials, the sensor can be fabricated at a lower cost than inorganic semiconductor sensors. The signal of each fabricated sensor was measured by a charge sensitive ADC for the irradiation of β-particles. The response signal data of the ADC for each irradiation was measured to calculate the detection efficiency of the detector. The maximum detection efficiency measured as β-particle sensitivity of the sensor was 1%. This β-particle sensitivity is higher than that reported of Pani sensors in the past.

  4. The pharmacokinetics of beta-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijlink, H W; Visser, J; Hefting, N R; Oosting, R; Meijer, D K; Lerk, C F

    1990-01-01

    Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin was analyzed by HPLC using postcolumn complexation with phenolphthalein and negative colorimetric detection, with a detection limit of 20 micrograms/ml. The pharmacokinetics of beta-cyclodextrin and of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin were studied after intravenous adm

  5. Diagnosis and carrier detection of Tay-Sachs disease: direct determination of hexosaminidase A using 4-methylumbelliferyl derivatives of beta-N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfate and beta-N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate.

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Yoseph, Y; J. E. Reid; Shapiro, B.; Nadler, H L

    1985-01-01

    4-Methylumbelliferyl-6-sulfo-2-acetamido-2-deoxy derivatives of beta-D glucopyranoside and beta-D-galactopyranoside were prepared by direct sulfation of the commonly used unsulfated derivatives. Both sulfated substrates were highly specific for hexosaminidase A, and in fractionated serum, cells, and tissue preparations, less than 2.5% of these activities were associated with hexosaminidase B and the intermediate isozyme fractions. Serum and leukocytes from patients with infantile Tay-Sachs di...

  6. Droplet-based magnetic bead immunoassay using microchannel-connected multiwell plates (μCHAMPs) for the detection of amyloid beta oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min Cheol; Kim, Moojong; Lim, Gun Taek; Kang, Sung Min; An, Seong Soo A; Kim, Tae Song; Kang, Ji Yoon

    2016-06-21

    Multiwell plates are regularly used in analytical research and clinical diagnosis but often require laborious washing steps and large sample or reagent volumes (typically, 100 μL per well). To overcome such drawbacks in the conventional multiwell plate, we present a novel microchannel-connected multiwell plate (μCHAMP) that can be used for automated disease biomarker detection in a small sample volume by performing droplet-based magnetic bead immunoassay inside the plate. In this μCHAMP-based immunoassay platform, small volumes (30-50 μL) of aqueous-phase working droplets are stably confined within each well by the simple microchannel structure (200-300 μm in height and 0.5-1 mm in width), and magnetic beads are exclusively transported into an adjacent droplet through the oil-filled microchannels assisted by a magnet array aligned beneath and controlled by a XY-motorized stage. Using this μCHAMP-based platform, we were able to perform parallel detection of synthetic amyloid beta (Aβ) oligomers as a model analyte for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This platform easily simplified the laborious and consumptive immunoassay procedure by achieving automated parallel immunoassay (32 assays per operation in 3-well connected 96-well plate) within 1 hour and at low sample consumption (less than 10 μL per assay) with no cumbersome manual washing step. Moreover, it could detect synthetic Aβ oligomers even below 10 pg mL(-1) concentration with a calculated detection limit of ∼3 pg mL(-1). Therefore, the μCHAMP and droplet-based magnetic bead immunoassay, with the combination of XY-motorized magnet array, would be a useful platform in the diagnosis of human disease, including AD, which requires low consumption of the patient's body fluid sample and automation of the entire immunoassay procedure for high processing capacity. PMID:27185215

  7. An Investigation of beta-lactam antibiotics resistance in Escherichia coli isolates and molecular detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cage birds from Shahrekord, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Tahmasby

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cage birds can harbor human pathogens and contribute to the transmission and spread of drug resistant infectious agents to human. Since many people are interested in keeping cage birds, present study was conducted in cage birds from Shahrekord to investigate the beta-lactam antibiotics resistant E. coli and molecular detection of E. coli O157:H7 that is responsible for outbreaks of human intestinal diseases and fatal haemolytic-uraemic syndrome worldwide. Materials and methods: Altogether 256 samples of cage birds (lovebirds, quails, nightingales, parrots, mynahs, goldfinchs, finches, kingbirds, peacocks, and pheasants faeces were collected with sterile cotton swabs from different areas of Shahrekord, Iran. Swabs were placed directly into Tryptone Soya Broth (TSB. In the laboratory, samples were streaked onto MacConkey agar and also Sorbitol MacConkey agar as selective plating media. Then, antibiogram tests were performed using disc diffusion method. Suspected colonies to E. coli O157:H7 were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: E. coli was isolated from 31 (12.1% out of 256 the samples. Resistance of isolates to Imipenem, Cefotaxime, Cefixime, Cefalexin, Amoxicillin, Penicillin G and Oxacillin was 0, 3.2, 16.1, 90.3, 100, 100 and 100% respectively. E. coli O157:H7 was not found in any samples. Discussion and conclusion: Although cage birds were not sourcee or carriers of E. coli O157:H7 in the studied region, they harbored beta-lactam antibiotics resistant E. coli and could be an important component of drug-resistant infections transmission from cage-birds to human, especially to kids and can pose a potential risk to human health. For this reason, it is recommended to make pet birds owners and general public aware of potential dangers of cage bird keeping.

  8. Detection of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Market-Ready Chickens in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Chishimba, K.; B.M. Hang’ombe; Muzandu, K.; Mshana, S. E.; Matee, M. I.; Nakajima, C.; Suzuki, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The frequent administering of antibiotics in the treatment of poultry diseases may contribute to emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- (ESBL-) producing Escherichia coli in poultry in Zambia. A total of 384 poultry samples were collected and analyzed for ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. The cultured E. coli isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests and the polymerase chain reac...

  9. A precise and efficient detection of Beta-Cyfluthrin via fluorescent molecularly imprinted polymers with ally fluorescein as functional monomer in agricultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hao; Gao, Lin; Wang, Jixiang; Pan, Jianming; Yan, Yongsheng; Zhang, Xifeng

    2017-02-15

    In this study, an effective and precise fluorescent molecularly imprinted polymers (FMIPs) for the determination of Beta-Cyfluthrin (BC) was synthesized via precipitation polymerization with SiO2 as the carrier, BC as the target molecule, ally fluorescein as the functional monomer, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TRIM) as the crosslinker. Moreover, the characteristic of material has been measured by FTIR, TEM, SEM, TGA, LSCM and fluorescence spectrophotometer. Average diameter and shell thickness of as-synthesized microspheres were 300nm and 50nm, respectively. An excellent linear relationship of SiO2-MPTMS@FMIPs with a correlation coefficient of 0.9919 could be gained covering a wide concentration range of 10.11-80nM described by the Stern-Volmer equation. The limit of detection (LOD) was evaluated with the equation LOD=3σ/S and was found to be 10.11nM. The study demonstrated that SiO2-MPTMS@FMIPs could improve the determination for BC and illustrated the good prospects of SiO2-MPTMS@FMIPs for BC detection in agricultural products. PMID:27664679

  10. Proposed experiments to detect keV range sterile neutrinos using energy-momentum reconstruction of beta decay or K-capture events

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Peter F

    2016-01-01

    Sterile neutrinos in the keV mass range may constitute the galactic dark matter. Various proposed direct detection and laboratory searches are reviewed. The most promising method in the near future is complete energy-momentum reconstruction of individual beta-decay or K-capture events, using atoms suspended in a magneto-optical trap. A survey of suitable isotopes is presented, together with the measurement precision required in a typical experimental configuration. It is concluded that among the most promising are the K-capture isotopes 131Cs, which requires measurement of an X-ray and several Auger electrons in addition to the atomic recoil, and 7Be which has only a single decay product but needs development work to achieve a trapped source. A number of background effects are discussed. It is concluded that sterile neutrinos with masses down to the 5-10 keV region would be detectable, together with relative couplings down to the level 10-10-10-11 in a 1-2 year running time.

  11. Double beta decay experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The great sensitivity of double beta decay to neutrino mass and right handed currents has motivated many new and exciting attempts to observe this elusive nuclear phenomenon directly. Experiments in operation and other coming on line in the next one or two years are expected to result in order-of-magnitude improvements in detectable half lives for both the two-neutrino and no-neutrino modes. A brief history of double beta decay experiments is presented together with a discussion of current experimental efforts, including a gas filled time projection chamber being used to study selenium-82. (author)

  12. EXERCISE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY WITH TISSUE DOPPLER IMAGING (TDI DETECTS EARLY SYSTOLIC DYSFUNCTION IN BETA-THALASSEMIA MAJOR PATIENTS WITHOUT CARDIAC IRON OVERLOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Barbero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron Overload Cardiomyopathy (IOC is still the main cause of death in thalassemia major (TM patients. Unfortunately, Conventional Echocardiography fails to predict early cardiac dysfunction. As Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI may demonstrate regional myocardial dysfunction, we wondered if exercise may reveal abnormalities at TDI which are not evident at rest. To try to evaluate left and right myocardial performances at rest and after maximal exercise by both conventional and TDI parameters, 46 beta-TM adult patients and 39 control subjects were enrolled. All patients had a liver iron quantification by Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID and also a cardiac iron assessment by MRI (T2*: 38 TM patients had no evidence of cardiac iron overload. Whereas TM patients did not shown diastolic dysfunction and all of them presented a good global response to exercise, TDI detected a reduced increase of the S’ waves of left ventricle basal segment during exercise. This finding seems to have some weak but interesting relations with iron overload markers. In conclusion, in our study, exercise stress TDI-echocardiography was able to demonstrate subtle systolic abnormalities that were missed by Conventional Echocardiography. Further studies are required to determine the meaning and the clinical impact of these results.

  13. MicroRNA-224 is Readily Detectable in Urine of Individuals with Diabetes Mellitus and is a Potential Indicator of Beta-Cell Demise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhán Bacon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA (miRNA are a class of non-coding, 19–25 nucleotide RNA critical for network-level regulation of gene expression. miRNA serve as paracrine signaling molecules. Using an unbiased array approach, we previously identified elevated levels of miR-224 and miR-103 to be associated with a monogenic form of diabetes; HNF1A-MODY. miR-224 is a novel miRNA in the field of diabetes. We sought to explore the role of miR-224 as a potential biomarker in diabetes, and whether such diabetes-associated-miRNA can also be detected in the urine of patients. Absolute levels of miR-224 and miR-103 were determined in the urine of n = 144 individuals including carriers of a HNF1A mutation, participants with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and normal controls. Expression levels were correlated with clinical and biochemical parameters. miR-224 was significantly elevated in the urine of carriers of a HNF1A mutation and participants with T1DM. miR-103 was highly expressed in urine across all diabetes cohorts when compared to controls. For both miR-224 and-103, we found a significant correlation between serum and urine levels (p < 0.01. We demonstrate that miRNA can be readily detected in the urine independent of clinical indices of renal dysfunction. We surmise that the differential expression levels of miR-224 in both HNF1A-MODY mutation carriers and T1DM may be an attempt to compensate for beta-cell demise.

  14. A novel method for detecting apoptosis shows that hepatocytes undergo a time dependent increase in DNA cleavage and chromatin condensation which is augmented after TGF-beta 1 treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, K; Inayat-Hussain, S H; Couet, C; Qin, H M; Oberhammer, F A

    1996-04-01

    This study describes a new method for quantitating apoptosis in hepatocyte monolayers in which nuclei were isolated from the cells and DNA strand breaks detected by in situ end-labeling and flow cytometry. Most (97%) nuclei from untreated hepatocytes had low end-labelling and were derived from non-apoptotic cells. Approximately 2-3% of the nuclei had high end-labelling and originated from apoptotic hepatocytes. The numbers of these nuclei increased linearly from 3 to 85% between 0 and 48 h after treatment with transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1). However, a morphological assessment of apoptosis with Hoechst H33258 showed that the proportion of apoptotic nuclei plateaued at 18-19% between 24 and 48 h after TGF-beta 1 treatment. Thus, the in situ end-labeling technique also detected DNA cleavage in nuclei which did not have an obvious apoptotic morphology. Confocal microscopy of low and high end-labelled nuclei which had been separated by fluorescent cell sorting showed that nuclei with high levels of end-labeling exhibited a wide diversity of morphologies. These included nuclei with little or no chromatin condensation and nuclei with characteristic apoptotic morphology. In addition, nuclei from untreated hepatocytes contained low levels of DNA cleavage, which were localized in areas of condensed chromatin and increased according to the time in culture. Thus, hepatocytes undergo a progressive and cumulative process of DNA cleavage/chromatin condensation which is markedly enhanced by TGF-beta 1. PMID:8900474

  15. Possible errors in assay for beta-glycosidase activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, R W; Allison, J C; Talley, D L; George, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    Cecal homogenates were assayed for the enzymes beta-glucosidase, beta-glucuronidase, and beta-galactosidase. Anaerobic incubation with the addition of excess 3,4-dichloronitrobenzene, a substrate for nitroreductase, significantly increased the detection of the beta-glycosidase enzymes' activities.

  16. Development of low background CdZnTe detectors for detection of double beta decays of sup 6 sup 4 Zn

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, T; Takahisa, K; Tanikawa, M; Ito, Y

    1999-01-01

    Development of low background CdZnTe detectors is in progress to study neutrino-less double beta decay. The mu tau product (mobility times lifetime) for holes was measured in a set of CdZnTe detectors at various temperatures between +22 deg. C and -40 deg. C in order to investigate charge collection efficiencies for holes. The sensitivity of CdZnTe detectors to neutrino-less beta sup + EC decays of sup 6 sup 4 Zn ( sup 6 sup 4 Zn+EC-> sup 6 sup 4 Ni+beta sup +) is estimated from these data.

  17. Detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamases and resistance in members of the Enterobacteriaceae family isolated from healthy sheep and dogs in Umuarama, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Alves de Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial resistance is a primary public health concern worldwide. Within this context, pets and breeding animals act as reservoirs for multidrug-resistant bacteria (MR, such as those producing extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL and those presenting plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of ESBL and PMQR in members of the Enterobacteriaceae family, isolated from healthy sheep and dogs from non-intense farming rural properties in the Umuarama region of Paraná, Brazil. A total of 81 oral and rectal swabs from dogs and sheep from 11 small rural properties were analyzed. These swabs were inoculated in tubes containing brain heart infusion broth (BHI, and the resulting cultures were inoculated on MacConkey agar (MAC supplemented with 10 ?g/mL cefotaxime for the selection of ESBL producers. The cells were also plated on MAC supplemented with 50 ?g/mL nalidixic acid for selecting quinolone-resistant enterobacteria. The bacterial isolates were subjected to biochemical identification tests, antibiograms, double-disk synergic tests, and polymerase chain reaction analysis for resistance-inducing genes (blaESBL, qnr, and genes encoding efflux pump and acetylases. Four (5.00% bacterial isolates (3 Escherichia coli and 1 Morganella morganii resistant to cephalosporins and/or quinolones were identified; of these, three (75% isolates were from sheep and one (25% from a dog. These findings indicate the presence of MR bacteria in the normal microbiota of the animals studied. Animals colonized with such bacteria can contribute to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance to other animals, environment, and/or human beings and can harbor endogenous infections in unfavorable conditions, which have poor prognosis due to the limited therapeutic options.

  18. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria are not detected in supragingival plaque samples from human fecal carriers of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Søraas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of infections caused by Cefotaximase-Munich (CTX-M-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E has rapidly increased during the past 15 years. Enterobacteriaceae are commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract and long-term intestinal carriage is considered important for the spread of ESBL and as a source of clinical infections. Oral biofilm such as supragingival plaque is known to contain numerous antibiotic resistance determinants and may also represent a poorly investigated site for ESBL carriage and further spread. Objective: To investigate possible carriage of ESBL-producing bacteria in supragingival plaque of known fecal carriers of these bacteria. Design: We screened for the presence of aerobic and anaerobic ESBL-producing bacteria and blaCTX-M in supragingival plaque samples from healthy human adults with culture-verified fecal carriage of CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli. The presence or absence of Enterobacteriaceae and ESBL-producing bacteria in plaque samples was evaluated using culture-based methods and consensus CTX-M PCR. Results: Oral samples were obtained from 17 participants with known previous carriage of ESBL-producing E. coli. No ESBL-producing bacteria or ESBL genes were detected using culture-based and molecular methods. One colony of Rahnella aquatilis harboring the class A ESBL gene bla RAHN-1/2 was identified in an oral sample from one of the participants. Conclusion: This pilot study supports the notion that the presence of CTX-M-producing bacteria is uncommon in oral plaque of healthy human adult fecal carriers. Due to the limited number of persons tested, a low prevalence of oral ESBL-carriage in healthy adults or carriage in selected groups of patients cannot be excluded. To our knowledge, this is the first description of an R. aquatilis with the RAHN-1/2 gene in the oral cavity.

  19. Clinical significance of serum AFP, beta-HCG and Ue3 detection for Down`s syndrome screening%血清AFP、beta-HCG及Ue3检测对唐氏综合征筛查的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍华颖; 彭淑莹; 刘健

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨分析孕中血清中甲胎蛋白(AFP)、人绒毛膜促性腺激素(beta-HCG)及游离雌三醇(uE3)的检测对唐氏综合征筛查的临床意义。方法:从2009年10月到2013年1月期间来我院检查的980例孕中期妇女进行AFP、beta-HCG及uE3三项指标检测,结合孕妇的年龄、体重、孕周等因素,对于高风险的孕妇再进一步行B超或羊水细胞染色体进行确诊,观察不同年龄孕妇所产婴儿唐氏综合征的发生情况。结果:980例孕中期孕妇通过血清AFP、beta-HCG及uE3的检测,筛查唐氏综合征高风险52例(5.3%),经B超或羊水细胞染色体进行确诊唐氏综合征12例;35岁以上的孕妇唐氏综合征阳性风险率显著高于35岁以下的孕妇,差异具有统计学(P<0.05)。结论:孕中期检测血清中AFP、beta-HCG和uE3能够有效筛查出唐氏综合征阳性高风险孕妇,降低了唐氏综合征患儿的出生率,对于优生工作起到极大的辅助作用。%Objective:To explore the clinical significance of detecting serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) , human chorionic gonadotropin (beta HCG) and free estriol (uE3) in second trimester to screening Down’s syndrome. Methods:We detected the three indicators, serum AFP, beta - HCG and uE3, for the 980 pregnant women who had their check-ups in our hospital from October 2009 to January 2013. Combined with factors such as age, weight and gestational age, high-risk cases were further confirmed by ultrasonography or amniotic fluid cells chromosome. The purpose was to observe the occurrence of Down's syndrome in babies delivered by pregnant women at different ages.Results:Among the 980 pregnant women who went through the serum AFP, beta - HCG and uE3 detection in second trimester, 52 cases (5.3%) were at high risk of Down's syndrome and 12 cases were confirmed by ultrasonography or amniotic fluid cells chromosome. It is apparent that pregnant women over 35 years old suffer higher

  20. Specific detection of Serpulina hyodysenteriae and potentially pathogenic weakly beta-haemolytic porcine intestinal spirochetes by polymerase chain reaction targeting 23S rDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leser, Thomas; Møller, Kristian; Jensen, Tim Kåre;

    1997-01-01

    A 2470-bp section of the 23S ribosomal DNA from Serpulina hyodysenteriae and five biochemical ly different groups of weakly beta-haemolytic porcine intestinal Serpulina strains was sequenced. The similarity between the sequenced strains was high (96.85% to 99.84%). A phylogenetic tree was estimat...

  1. Detection of Left Ventricular Regional Function in Asymptomatic Children with beta-Thalassemia Major by Longitudinal Strain and Strain Rate Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bay

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cardiac failure due to iron overload remains the most common cause of death in patients with beta-thalassemia major. This study aimed to evaluate myocardial function in children with beta-thalassemia major using standard echocardiography technique and strain rate imaging. Materials and Methods: Conventional echocardiographic analysis, tissue velocity imaging, and strain/strain rate imaging of the left ventricle were evaluated in 48 children with beta thalassemia major (19 girls, 29 boys; 8.39±4.05 years and 22 healthy children (11 girls, 11 boys; 8±3.72 years. Results: Conventional echocardiographic examinations revealed that beta-thalassemia patients had larger left ventricular end-systolic diameter, end-diastolic and end-systolic volume, left ventricular mass index, and mitral early/late diastolic flow velocity ratio (p<0.05. Strain and strain rate imaging study of the basal lateral wall of the left ventricle was higher in patients than in controls, at p=0.035 and p=0.008, respectively. Conclusion: We found that superior systolic strain and strain rate imaging of the left ventricle indicated the presence of regional systolic function in the left ventricular wall. We suggest that left ventricle volume and mass index parameters might be more sensitive than the other conventional and strain/strain rate imaging parameters during childhood. However, the adulthood strain and strain rate imaging values may be lower than controls, exceeding the critical level of iron overload.

  2. Genetic predisposition to essential hypertension in a Mongolian population Detecting the C825T polymorphism of the G-protein beta 3 subunit gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunyu Zhang; Shigang Zhao; Guangming Niu; Rile Hu; Zhiguang Wang; Mingfang Jiang; Rile Hu

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalences of hypertension, cerebrovascular diseases, etc. are higher in Mongolian population because of the influence of various factors including genetics, geography, diet, etc. Therefore, it is helpful for prevention to develop researches on the genetics of various diseases including hypertension in Mongolian population.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between C825T polymorphisms of G-protein beta 3 subunit gene (GNB3), the important candidate gene of various disease of cardiovascular system, and Mongolian patients with essential hypertension.DESIGN: A comparative observation.SETTINGS: Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical College;Wulate Houqi Red Cross Society.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 267 Mongolian residents, whose blood relations of 3 generations were all Mongolians, were selected from Wulate Houqi, Inner Mongolia. The patients were screened based on the diagnostic standard of hypertension set by WHO in 1999, and the enrolled subjects were divided into two groups according to the level of blood pressure: ① Normal blood pressure group (n =124): 64 males and 60 females, systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 140 mm Hg (1 mm Hg=0.133 kPa), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) <90 mm Hg; ② Essential hypertension group (n =143): 71 males and 72 females, including 60 patients with simple high SBP (SBP ranged 145 to 195 mm Hg, whereas DBP < 90 mm Hg).METHODS: Peripheral venous blood (5 mL) was drawn from all the subjects, the genome DNA was extracted, and the polymorphisms of the GNB3 C825T genotype were detected with the Sequenom system.Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiment and SNP detection were performed in Beijing Huada gene laboratory. Then the univariate analysis of variance was applied in the sample comparison among groups, and the chi-square test was used to compare the genotypes and allele frequencies. The odd ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI)were calculated.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The

  3. BETA-S, Multi-Group Beta-Ray Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: BETA-S calculates beta-decay source terms and energy spectra in multigroup format for time-dependent radionuclide inventories of actinides, fission products, and activation products. Multigroup spectra may be calculated in any arbitrary energy-group structure. The code also calculates the total beta energy release rate from the sum of the average beta-ray energies as determined from the spectral distributions. BETA-S also provides users with an option to determine principal beta-decaying radionuclides contributing to each energy group. The CCC-545/SCALE 4.3 (or SCALE4.2) code system must be installed on the computer before installing BETA-S, which requires the SCALE subroutine library and nuclide-inventory generation from the ORIGEN-S code. 2 - Methods:Well-established models for beta-energy distributions are used to explicitly represent allowed, and 1., 2. - and 3. -forbidden transition types. Forbidden non-unique transitions are assumed to have a spectral shape of allowed transitions. The multigroup energy spectra are calculated by numerically integrating the energy distribution functions using an adaptive Simpson's Rule algorithm. Nuclide inventories are obtained from a binary interface produced by the ORIGEN-S code. BETA-S calculates the spectra for all isotopes on the binary interface that have associated beta-decay transition data in the ENSDF-95 library, developed for the BETA-S code. This library was generated from ENSDF data and contains 715 materials, representing approximately 8500 individual beta transition branches. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The algorithms do not treat positron decay transitions or internal conversion electrons. The neglect of positron transitions in inconsequential for most applications involving aggregate fission products, since most of the decay modes are via electrons. The neglect of internal conversion electrons may impact on the accuracy of the spectrum in the low

  4. The impact of beta-elemene on beta-tubulin of human hepatoma hepg2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuqiu Mao; Liying Ban; Jielin Zhang; Li Hou; Xiaonan Cui

    2014-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of beta-elemene injection on the growth and beta-tubulin of human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Methods:cellproliferation was assessed by MTT assay. cellcycle distribution was detected by flow cytometry (FCM). The mRNA expression of beta-tubulin was measured by RT-PCR. West-ern blot analysis was used to determine protein expression of beta-tubulin and the polymerization of beta-tubulin. Results:Beta-elemene injection inhibited HepG2 cells proliferation in a dose-and time-dependent manner;FCM analysis indicated beta-elemene injection induced cellcycle arrested at S phase. RT-PCR and western-blot analysis showed that beta-elemene injection down-regulated beta-tubulin expression at both mRNA and protein levels, presenting a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, beta-elemene injection reduced the polymerization of microtubules in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion:Beta-elemene injection can inhibit the proliferation of hepatoma HepG2 cells, the mechanism might be partly related to the down-regulation of beta-tubulin and inhibition of microtubular polymerization.

  5. SMURFLite: combining simplified Markov random fields with simulated evolution improves remote homology detection for beta-structural proteins into the twilight zone

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, Noah M.; Hosur, Raghavendra; Berger, Bonnie; Lenore J Cowen

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: One of the most successful methods to date for recognizing protein sequences that are evolutionarily related has been profile hidden Markov models (HMMs). However, these models do not capture pairwise statistical preferences of residues that are hydrogen bonded in beta sheets. These dependencies have been partially captured in the HMM setting by simulated evolution in the training phase and can be fully captured by Markov random fields (MRFs). However, the MRFs can be computationa...

  6. Hypersomnolence with beta-adrenergic blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thachil, J; Zeller, J R; Kochar, M S

    1987-11-01

    An elderly, mildly demented, hypertensive male patient developed hypersomnolence on administration of propranolol for treatment of hypertension; no other cause for hypersomnolence was detected. Upon replacement of propranolol with atenolol, he felt better but continued to be quite somnolent. When atenolol was discontinued, he reported to have lack of sleep. On readministration of subtherapeutic doses of the same beta-adrenergic blocking agents, he once again experienced excessive sleepiness. By discontinuing beta-blocking agents and introducing captopril, he felt much better, became pleasant and talkative, and blood pressure was well controlled. Beta antagonists are important drugs in the management of many cardiovascular problems. Propranolol, a lipophilic beta-blocking agent, and atenolol, a hydrophilic beta-blocking agent, are two of the major agents currently used clinically in the United States. Numerous neuropsychiatric side-effects of the beta-adrenergic blocking drugs have been reported, but hypersomnolence is not readily recognized as one of them. PMID:3665616

  7. BETASCAN: probable beta-amyloids identified by pairwise probabilistic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen W Bryan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Amyloids and prion proteins are clinically and biologically important beta-structures, whose supersecondary structures are difficult to determine by standard experimental or computational means. In addition, significant conformational heterogeneity is known or suspected to exist in many amyloid fibrils. Recent work has indicated the utility of pairwise probabilistic statistics in beta-structure prediction. We develop here a new strategy for beta-structure prediction, emphasizing the determination of beta-strands and pairs of beta-strands as fundamental units of beta-structure. Our program, BETASCAN, calculates likelihood scores for potential beta-strands and strand-pairs based on correlations observed in parallel beta-sheets. The program then determines the strands and pairs with the greatest local likelihood for all of the sequence's potential beta-structures. BETASCAN suggests multiple alternate folding patterns and assigns relative a priori probabilities based solely on amino acid sequence, probability tables, and pre-chosen parameters. The algorithm compares favorably with the results of previous algorithms (BETAPRO, PASTA, SALSA, TANGO, and Zyggregator in beta-structure prediction and amyloid propensity prediction. Accurate prediction is demonstrated for experimentally determined amyloid beta-structures, for a set of known beta-aggregates, and for the parallel beta-strands of beta-helices, amyloid-like globular proteins. BETASCAN is able both to detect beta-strands with higher sensitivity and to detect the edges of beta-strands in a richly beta-like sequence. For two proteins (Abeta and Het-s, there exist multiple sets of experimental data implying contradictory structures; BETASCAN is able to detect each competing structure as a potential structure variant. The ability to correlate multiple alternate beta-structures to experiment opens the possibility of computational investigation of prion strains and structural heterogeneity of amyloid

  8. Complement activation by the amyloid proteins A beta peptide and beta 2-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Nielsen, E H; Svehag, S E

    1999-01-01

    Complement activation (CA) has been reported to play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate whether CA may contribute to amyloidogenesis in general, the CA potential of different amyloid fibril proteins was tested. CA induced by A beta preparations containing soluble...... protein, protofilaments and some fibrils or only fibrils in a solid phase system (ELISA) was modest with a slow kinetics compared to the positive delta IgG control. Soluble A beta induced no detectable CA in a liquid phase system (complement consumption assay) while fibrillar A beta caused CA at 200 mg....../ml and higher concentrations. Soluble beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2M) purified from peritoneal dialysates was found to be as potent a complement activator as A beta in both solid and liquid phase systems while beta 2M purified from urine exhibited lower activity, a difference which may be explained...

  9. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer biosensors that detect Ran conformational changes and a Ran x GDP-importin-beta -RanBP1 complex in vitro and in intact cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plafker, Kendra; Macara, Ian G

    2002-08-16

    The Ran GTPase plays a central role in nucleocytoplasmic transport. Association of Ran x GTP with transport carriers (karyopherins) triggers the loading/unloading of export or import cargo, respectively. The C-terminal tail of Ran x GTP is deployed in an extended conformation when associated with a Ran binding domain or importins. To monitor tail orientation, a Ran-GFP fusion was labeled with the fluorophore Alexa546. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) occurs efficiently between the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Alexa546 for Ran x GDP and Ran x GTP, suggesting that the tail is tethered in both states. However, Ran x GTP complexes with importin-beta, RanBP1, and Crm1 all show reduced FRET consistent with tail extension. Displacement of the C-terminal tail of Ran by karyopherins may be a general mechanism to facilitate RanBP1 binding. A Ran x GDP-RanBP1-importin-beta complex also displayed a low FRET signal. To detect this complex in vivo, a bipartite biosensor consisting of Ran-Alexa546 plus GST-GFP-RanBP1, was co-injected into the cytoplasm of cells. The Ran redistributed predominantly to the nucleus, and RanBP1 remained cytoplasmic. Nonetheless, a robust cytoplasmic FRET signal was detectable, which suggests that a significant fraction of cytoplasmic Ran.GDP may exist in a ternary complex with RanBP1 and importins.

  10. Three-dimensional drift chambers of the DCBA experiment for neutrinoless double beta decay search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, T., E-mail: ishikawat@hakone.phys.metro-u.ac.j [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0398 (Japan); Igarashi, H.; Sumiyoshi, T. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0398 (Japan); Ishihara, N.; Iwai, G.; Iwase, H.; Kato, Y.; Kawai, M.; Kondou, Y.; Haruyama, T.; Inagaki, T.; Makida, Y.; Ohama, T.; Takahashi, K.; Yamada, Y. [High Energy Accel, Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Tashiro, E.; Ishizuka, T. [Shizuoka University, Naka, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 432-8011 (Japan); Kitamura, S. [Nihon Institute of Medical Science, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0435 (Japan); Teramoto, Y. [Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Nakano, I. [Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the DCBA (Drift Chamber Beta-ray Analyzer) experiment is to search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}). The half-life of 0{nu}{beta}{beta} is expected to give us the information of Majorana nature and the absolute mass scale of neutrinos. A prototype test apparatus DCBA-T2 has the energy resolution of about 150 keV (FWHM) around 1 MeV. In order to check the detector performance, engineering runs detecting double beta decay of {sup 100}Mo started in May 2009 using natural Mo, which contains 9.6% of {sup 100}Mo. Ten candidates of the double beta decay ({beta}{beta}) have been detected so far. It has been found that the background events due to {sup 214}Bi decay are distinguishable from the double beta decays by detecting {alpha}-particles from {sup 214}Po.

  11. Improved detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in input and output samples of German biogas plants by a selective pre-enrichment procedure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Schauss

    Full Text Available The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Escherichia coli was investigated in input (manure from livestock husbandry and output samples of six German biogas plants in 2012 (one sampling per biogas plant and two German biogas plants investigated in an annual cycle four times in 2013/2014. ESBL-producing Escherichia coli were cultured by direct plating on CHROMagar ESBL from input samples in the range of 100 to 104 colony forming units (CFU per g dry weight but not from output sample. This initially indicated a complete elimination of ESBL-producing E. coli by the biogas plant process. Detected non target bacteria were assigned to the genera Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Bordetella, Achromobacter, Castellaniella, and Ochrobactrum. A selective pre-enrichment procedure increased the detection efficiency of ESBL-producing E. coli in input samples and enabled the detection in five of eight analyzed output samples. In total 119 ESBL-producing E. coli were isolated from input and 46 from output samples. Most of the E. coli isolates carried CTX-M-type and/or TEM-type beta lactamases (94%, few SHV-type beta lactamase (6%. Sixty-four blaCTX-M genes were characterized more detailed and assigned mainly to CTX-M-groups 1 (85% and 9 (13%, and one to group 2. Phylogenetic grouping of 80 E. coli isolates showed that most were assigned to group A (71% and B1 (27%, only one to group D (2%. Genomic fingerprinting and multilocus sequence typing (MLST showed a high clonal diversity with 41 BOX-types and 19 ST-types. The two most common ST-types were ST410 and ST1210. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 46 selected ESBL-producing E. coli revealed that several isolates were additionally resistant to other veterinary relevant antibiotics and some grew on CHROMagar STEC but shiga-like toxine (SLT genes were not detected. Resistance to carbapenems was not detected. In summary the study showed for the first time the presence of ESBL-producing E

  12. Improved detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in input and output samples of German biogas plants by a selective pre-enrichment procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauss, Thorsten; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Gütschow, Alexandra; Dott, Wolfgang; Kämpfer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli was investigated in input (manure from livestock husbandry) and output samples of six German biogas plants in 2012 (one sampling per biogas plant) and two German biogas plants investigated in an annual cycle four times in 2013/2014. ESBL-producing Escherichia coli were cultured by direct plating on CHROMagar ESBL from input samples in the range of 100 to 104 colony forming units (CFU) per g dry weight but not from output sample. This initially indicated a complete elimination of ESBL-producing E. coli by the biogas plant process. Detected non target bacteria were assigned to the genera Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Bordetella, Achromobacter, Castellaniella, and Ochrobactrum. A selective pre-enrichment procedure increased the detection efficiency of ESBL-producing E. coli in input samples and enabled the detection in five of eight analyzed output samples. In total 119 ESBL-producing E. coli were isolated from input and 46 from output samples. Most of the E. coli isolates carried CTX-M-type and/or TEM-type beta lactamases (94%), few SHV-type beta lactamase (6%). Sixty-four blaCTX-M genes were characterized more detailed and assigned mainly to CTX-M-groups 1 (85%) and 9 (13%), and one to group 2. Phylogenetic grouping of 80 E. coli isolates showed that most were assigned to group A (71%) and B1 (27%), only one to group D (2%). Genomic fingerprinting and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed a high clonal diversity with 41 BOX-types and 19 ST-types. The two most common ST-types were ST410 and ST1210. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 46 selected ESBL-producing E. coli revealed that several isolates were additionally resistant to other veterinary relevant antibiotics and some grew on CHROMagar STEC but shiga-like toxine (SLT) genes were not detected. Resistance to carbapenems was not detected. In summary the study showed for the first time the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli in

  13. In-trap decay spectroscopy for {beta}{beta} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Thomas

    2011-01-18

    The presented work describes the implementation of a new technique to measure electron-capture (EC) branching ratios (BRs) of intermediate nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. This technique has been developed at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. It facilitates one of TRIUMF's Ion Traps for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN), the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) that is used as a spectroscopy Penning trap. Radioactive ions, produced at the radioactive isotope facility ISAC, are injected and stored in the spectroscopy Penning trap while their decays are observed. A key feature of this technique is the use of a strong magnetic field, required for trapping. It radially confines electrons from {beta} decays along the trap axis while X-rays, following an EC, are emitted isotropically. This provides spatial separation of X-ray and {beta} detection with almost no {beta}-induced background at the X-ray detector, allowing weak EC branches to be measured. Furthermore, the combination of several traps allows one to isobarically clean the sample prior to the in-trap decay spectroscopy measurement. This technique has been developed to measure ECBRs of transition nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. Detailed knowledge of these electron capture branches is crucial for a better understanding of the underlying nuclear physics in {beta}{beta} decays. These branches are typically of the order of 10{sup -5} and therefore difficult to measure. Conventional measurements suffer from isobaric contamination and a dominating {beta} background at theX-ray detector. Additionally, X-rays are attenuated by the material where the radioactive sample is implanted. To overcome these limitations, the technique of in-trap decay spectroscopy has been developed. In this work, the EBIT was connected to the TITAN beam line and has been commissioned. Using the developed beam diagnostics, ions were injected into the Penning trap and systematic studies on injection and storage optimization were performed. Furthermore, Ge

  14. BetaScintTM fiber-optic sensor for detecting strontium-90 and uranium-238 in soil. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate measurements of radioactivity in soils contaminated with Strontium-90 (Sr-90) or Uranium-238 (U-238) are essential for many DOE site remediation programs. These crucial measurements determine if excavation and soil removal is necessary, where remediation efforts should be focused, and/or if a site has reached closure. Measuring soil contamination by standard EPA laboratory methods typically takes a week (accelerated analytical test turnaround) or a month (standard analytical test turnaround). The time delay extends to operations involving heavy excavation equipment and associated personnel which are the main costs of remediation. This report describes an application of the BetaScint trademark fiber-optic sensor that measures Sr-90 or U-238 contamination in soil samples on site in about 20 minutes, at a much lower cost than time-consuming laboratory methods, to greatly facilitate remediation. This report describes the technology, its performance, its uses, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned

  15. Acquired TGF beta 1 sensitivity and TGF beta 1 expression in cell lines established from a single small cell lung cancer patient during clinical progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, P; Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K;

    1996-01-01

    Three small cell lung cancer cell lines established from a single patient during longitudinal follow-up were examined for in vitro expression of TGF beta and TGF beta receptors, i.e. the components of an autocrine loop. GLC 14 was established prior to treatment, GLC 16 on relapse after chemotherapy...... and GLC 19 on recurrence after radiotherapy. TGF beta was detected by ELISA and TGF beta receptors by chemical crosslinking to radiolabelled TGF beta 1. Furthermore, TGF beta and TGF beta receptor mRNAs were detected by northern blot analysis. Expression of type II TGF beta receptor mRNA and protein...... was found in GLC 16 and GLC 19. These cell lines were also growth inhibited by exogenously administrated TGF beta 1. TGF beta 1 mRNA and protein in its latent form was only expressed in the radiotherapy-resistant cell line, GLC 19. The results indicate that disease progression in this patient was paralleled...

  16. Development of a multiplex real-time PCR for the rapid detection of the predominant beta-lactamase genes CTX-M, SHV, TEM and CIT-type AmpCs in Enterobacteriaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Roschanski

    Full Text Available Beta-lactamase resistant bacteria and especially ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae are an increasing problem worldwide. For this reason a major interest in efficient and reliable methods for rapid screening of high sample numbers is recognizable. Therefore, a multiplex real-time PCR was developed to detect the predominant class A beta-lactamase genes blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM and CIT-type AmpCs in a one-step reaction. A set of 114 Enterobacteriaceae containing previously identified resistance gene subtypes and in addition 20 undefined animal and environmental isolates were used for the validation of this assay. To confirm the accessibility in variable settings, the real-time runs were performed analogous in two different laboratories using different real-time cyclers. The obtained results showed complete accordance between the real-time data and the predetermined genotypes. Even if sequence analyses are further necessary for a comprehensive characterization, this method was proofed to be reliable for rapid screening of high sample numbers and therefore could be an important tool for e. g. epidemiological purposes or support infection control measures.

  17. Simultaneous beta/gamma digital spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.

    A state-of-the-art radiation detection system for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta-particles and gamma-rays has been developed. The system utilizes a triple-layer phoswich detector and a customized Digital Pulse Processor (DPP) built in our laboratory. The DPP board was designed to digitally capture the analog signal pulses and, following several digital preprocessing steps, transfer valid pulses to the host computer for further digital processing. A MATLAB algorithm was developed to digitally discriminate beta and gamma events and reconstruct separate beta and gamma-ray energy spectra with minimum crosstalk. The spectrometer proved to be an effective tool for recording separate beta and gamma-ray spectra from mixed radiation fields. The system as a beta-gamma spectrometer will have broad-ranging applications in nuclear non-proliferation, radioactive waste management, worker safety, systems reliability, dose assessment, and risk analysis.

  18. Levered and unlevered Beta

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2003-01-01

    We prove that in a world without leverage cost the relationship between the levered beta ( L) and the unlevered beta ( u) is the No-costs-of-leverage formula: L = u + ( u - d) D (1 - T) / E. We also analyze 6 alternative valuation theories proposed in the literature to estimate the relationship between the levered beta and the unlevered beta (Harris and Pringle (1985), Modigliani and Miller (1963), Damodaran (1994), Myers (1974), Miles and Ezzell (1980), and practitioners) and prove that all ...

  19. Libraries of RGD analogs, labeled through ReO{sup 3+} or TcO{sup 3+} coordination, targeting {alpha}V{beta}3 integrin: development of tracers for the early detection of tumor neo-angiogenesis; Chimiotheques de complexes du technetium et du rhenium ciblant l'integrine {alpha}V{beta}3: developpement de traceurs pour la detection precoce de la neoangiogenese tumorale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aufort, M.

    2008-11-15

    Integrins form a family of hetero-dimeric integral glycoproteins which play a central role in cell-cell adhesion and cell-matrix interactions. In particular, they are over expressed during tumor neo-angiogenesis. About 10 of them recognize a structured RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) sequence. Analogs of this sequence can be used for the early detection of tumors and metastases. We developed new tracers, labeled with {sup 99m}Tc, for the molecular imaging of {alpha}{sub V{beta}3} integrin. Until recently, there was no reliable ab initio structure prediction of complex molecules containing Re and Tc chelates. Therefore, we preferred a combinatorial approach to develop potential ligands of {alpha}{sub V{beta}3} integrin and we attempted to identify efficient tracers by in vivo screening. This method would account for biodistribution and pharmacokinetics properties in the early steps of the study. Tracers were obtained according two strategies: i) cyclization of linear RGD analogs; ii) combinatorial assembling of independent modules through metal core coordination by the well-known NS{sub 2}+S motif. After synthesis and labeling, the stability of the tracers was investigated in presence of glutathione and in murine plasma. In vitro screening on purified integrin showed that a cyclic rhenium coordinate binds specifically {alpha}{sub V{beta}3}. A tumor model (U87-MG tumor on nude mice) was validated in the laboratory and a method was developed to analyze in vivo experiments. Biodistribution data and percentage of activity found in tumors are encouraging for cyclic compounds though identification of efficient tracers is difficult due to their instability in the conditions of analyses. (author)

  20. Realized Beta GARCH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger; Voev, Valeri Radkov

    2014-01-01

    as the beta. We apply the model to a large set of assets and find the conditional betas to be far more variable than usually found with rolling-window regressions based exclusively on daily returns. In the empirical part of the paper, we examine the cross-sectional as well as the time variation...... of the conditional beta series during the financial crises....

  1. Sparse aperture masking at the VLT II. Detection limits for the eight debris disks stars $\\beta$ Pic, AU Mic, 49 Cet, $\\eta$ Tel, Fomalhaut, g Lup, HD181327 and HR8799

    CERN Document Server

    Gauchet, L; Lagrange, A -M; Ehrenreich, D; Bonnefoy, M; Girard, J H; Boccaletti, A

    2016-01-01

    Context. The formation of planetary systems is a common, yet complex mechanism. Numerous stars have been identified to possess a debris disk, a proto-planetary disk or a planetary system. The understanding of such formation process requires the study of debris disks. These targets are substantial and particularly suitable for optical and infrared observations. Sparse Aperture masking (SAM) is a high angular resolution technique strongly contributing to probe the region from 30 to 200 mas around the stars. This area is usually unreachable with classical imaging, and the technique also remains highly competitive compared to vortex coronagraphy. Aims. We aim to study debris disks with aperture masking to probe the close environment of the stars. Our goal is either to find low mass companions, or to set detection limits. Methods. We observed eight stars presenting debris disks ( $\\beta$ Pictoris, AU Microscopii, 49 Ceti, $\\eta$ Telescopii, Fomalhaut, g Lupi, HD181327 and HR8799) with SAM technique on the NaCo ins...

  2. Laboratory tests in the detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase production: National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS screening test, the E-test, the double disk confirmatory test, and cefoxitin susceptibility testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. d'Azevedo

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL production by Klebsiella sp. and E. coli is an emerging problem. In this study, 107 clinical isolates (53 E. coli, 47 K. pneumoniae and 7 K. oxytoca screened as ESBL producers by the NCCLS disk diffusion procedure were submitted to a double disk confirmatory test (DDT and to the E-test double strip for confirmation of ESBL production by demonstration of clavulanic acid inhibition effect (CAIE. Only 72/107 (67% of the isolates were confirmed as ESBL producers by DDT, with diverse results among species. By the E-test, 58/107 (54% isolates were confirmed as ESBL producers, and 18/107 (17% were not determinable. Susceptibility to cefoxitin was found in 57/68 (83% of strains that did not show CAIE. ESBL detection remains a controversial issue and clinical laboratories are in need of a simple and effective way to recognize strains with this kind of resistance.

  3. Detection and Estimation of alpha-Amyrin, beta-Sitosterol, Lupeol, and n-Triacontane in Two Medicinal Plants by High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat S. Mallick

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A normal phase high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC method has been developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of four components, namely, alpha-amyrin, beta-sitosterol, lupeol, and n-triacontane from two medicinally important plants, Leptadenia reticulata Wight & Arn. and Pluchea lanceolata (DC. CB. Clarke. In Ayurveda, both plants have been reported to possess immunomodulatory activity. Chromatographic separation of the four components from the methanolic extracts of whole plant powders of Leptadenia reticulata Wight & Arn. and Pluchea lanceolata (DC. CB. Clarke. was performed on TLC aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60F254 using a suitable mobile phase. The densitometric scanning was done after derivatization at λ = 580 nm for α-amyrin, β-sitosterol, and lupeol, and at 366 nm for n-triacontane. The developed HPTLC method has been validated and used for simultaneous quantitation of the four components from the methanolic extracts of whole plant powders of Leptadenia reticulata Wight & Arn. and Pluchea lanceolata (DC. CB. Clarke. The developed HPTLC method is simple, rapid, and precise and can be used for routine quality control.

  4. Lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells : Intracellular localization of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta detected with a three-color immunofluorescence technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deBont, ESJM; Niemarkt, AE; Tamminga, RYJ; Kimpen, JLL; Kamps, WA; deLeij, LHMF

    1996-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can induce monocytes to produce various cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta). In the present study, the kinetics of both intracellular and extra cellular accumulation of TNF alpha and IL-1 beta in LPS stimulated mononuc

  5. Beta-keto amphetamines: studies on the metabolism of the designer drug mephedrone and toxicological detection of mephedrone, butylone, and methylone in urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Markus R; Wilhelm, Jens; Peters, Frank T; Maurer, Hans H

    2010-06-01

    In recent years, a new class of designer drugs has appeared on the drugs of abuse market in many countries, namely, the so-called beta-keto (bk) designer drugs such as mephedrone (bk-4-methylmethamphetamine), butylone (bk-MBDB), and methylone (bk-MDMA). The aim of the present study was to identify the metabolites of mephedrone in rat and human urine using GC-MS techniques and to include mephedrone, butylone, and methylone within the authors' systematic toxicological analysis (STA) procedure. Six phase I metabolites of mephedrone were detected in rat urine and seven in human urine suggesting the following metabolic steps: N-demethylation to the primary amine, reduction of the keto moiety to the respective alcohol, and oxidation of the tolyl moiety to the corresponding alcohols and carboxylic acid. The STA procedure allowed the detection of mephedrone, butylone, methylone, and their metabolites in urine of rats treated with doses corresponding to those reported for abuse of amphetamines. Besides macro-based data evaluation, an automated evaluation using the automated mass spectral deconvolution and identification system was performed. Mephedrone and butylone could be detected also in human urine samples submitted for drug testing. Assuming similar kinetics in humans, the described STA procedure should be suitable for proof of an intake of the bk-designer drugs in human urine.

  6. Detection of a phylogenetically distinct IMP-type metallo-beta-lactamase, IMP-35, in a CC235 Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the Dutch-German border region (Euregio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pournaras, Spyros; Koeck, Robin; Mossialos, Dimitris; Mellmann, Alexander; Sakellaris, Viktoras; Stathopoulos, Constantinos; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2013-01-01

    To characterize a highly divergent IMP-type metallo--lactamase (MBL) variant detected in a multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate. P. aeruginosa isolate 1876 was recovered from an anal swab of an inpatient at a German hospital in the DutchGerman border region (Euregio), where cr

  7. DETECTION AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA ISOLATES IN VARIOUS CLINICAL SAMPLES WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO METALLO BETA LACTAMASE FROM A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN JAIPUR, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions- Colistin and Polymyxin-B are more effective to treat multidrug resistant P.aeruginosa. The early detection of MBL producing P. aeruginosa may help in appropriate anti-Pseudomonal therapy to stop the development and dissemination of multidrug resistance strains. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(2.000: 128-131

  8. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Escherichia coli Strains Producers of Extended-Spectrum and CMY-2 Type Beta-Lactamases, Isolated from Turtles in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Cortés, Gerardo; Lozano-Zarain, Patricia; Torres, Carmen; Castañeda, Miguel; Sánchez, Gabriela Moreno; Alonso, Carla A; López-Pliego, Liliana; Mayen, María G Gutiérrez; Martínez-Laguna, Ygnacio; Rocha-Gracia, Rosa Del Carmen

    2016-09-01

    Multidrug-resistant bacteria are a growing problem in different environments and hosts, but scarce information exists about their prevalence in reptiles. The aim of this study was to analyze the resistance mechanisms, molecular typing, and plasmid content of cefotaxime-resistant (CTX(R)) Escherichia coli isolates recovered from cloacal samples of 71 turtles sheltered in a herpetarium in Mexico. CTX(R)-E. coli were recovered in 11 of 71 samples (15.5%), and one isolate/sample was characterized. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli isolates were detected in four samples (5.6%): two strains carried the blaCTX-M-2 gene (phylogroup D and ST2732) and two contained the blaCTX-M-15 gene (phylogroup B1 and lineages ST58 and ST156). The blaCMY-2 gene was detected by PCR in E. coli isolates of eight samples (9.8%) (one of them also carried blaCTX-M-2); these isolates were distributed into phylogroups A (n = 1), B1 (n = 6), and D (n = 1) and typed as ST155, ST156, ST2329, and ST2732. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes were detected in five isolates [aac(6')Ib-cr, qnrA, qnrB19, and oqxB]. From three to five replicon plasmids were detected among the strains, being IncFIB, IncI1, IncFrep, and IncK the most prevalent. ESBL or pAmpC genes were transferred by conjugation in four strains, and the blaCTX-M-15 and blaCMY-2 genes were localized in IncFIB or IncI1 plasmids by Southern blot hybridization assays. Class 1 and/or class 2 integrons were detected in eight strains with six different structures of gene cassette arrays. Nine pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns were found among the 11 studied strains. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of ESBL, CMY-2, PMQR, and mobile determinants of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli of turtle origin, highlighting the potential dissemination of multidrug-resistant bacteria from these animals to other environments and hosts, including humans. PMID:27482752

  9. Imaging characteristic of dual-phase {sup 18}F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) PET for the concomitant detection of perfusion deficits and beta-amyloid deposition in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Kun-Ju; Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Hsieh, Chia-Ju; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Yen, Tzu-Chen [Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and University, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung University, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences and Healthy Aging Research Center, Taoyuan (China); Hsu, Jung-Lung [Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Section of Dementia and Cognitive Impairment, Department of Neurology, Taoyuan (China); Taipei Medical University, Graduate Institute of Humanities in Medicine, Taipei (China); Huang, Chin-Chang; Huang, Kuo-Lun [Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and University, Department of Neurology, Taoyuan (China)

    2016-07-15

    We investigated dual-phase {sup 18}F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) PET imaging for the concomitant detection of brain perfusion deficits and beta-amyloid deposition in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and in cognitively healthy controls (HCs). A total of 82 subjects (24 AD patients, 44 MCI patients and 14 HCs) underwent both dual-phase {sup 18}F-AV-45 PET and MRI imaging. Dual-phase dynamic PET imaging consisted of (1) five 1-min scans obtained 1 - 6 min after tracer injection (perfusion {sup 18}F-AV-45 imaging, pAV-45), and (2) ten 1-min scans obtained 50 - 60 min after tracer injection (amyloid {sup 18}F-AV-45 imaging). Amyloid-negative MCI/AD patients were excluded. Volume of interest analysis and statistical parametric mapping of pAV-45 and {sup 18}F-AV-45 images were performed to investigate the perfusion deficits and the beta-amyloid burden in the three study groups. The associations between Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores and global perfusion deficits and amyloid deposition were investigated with linear and segmental linear correlation analyses. HCs generally had normal pAV-45 findings, whereas perfusion deficits were evident in the hippocampus, and temporal, parietal and middle frontal cortices in both MCI and AD patients. The motor-sensory cortex was relatively preserved. MMSE scores in the entire study cohort were significantly associated with the degree of perfusion impairment as assessed by pAV-45 imaging (r = 0.5156, P < 0.0001). {sup 18}F-AV-45 uptake was significantly higher in AD patients than in the two other study groups. However, the correlation between MMSE scores and {sup 18}F-AV-45 uptake in MCI patients was more of a binary phenomenon and began in MCI patients with MMSE score 23.14 when {sup 18}F-AV-45 uptake was higher and MMSE score lower than in patients with early MCI. Amyloid deposition started in the precuneus and the frontal and temporal regions in early MCI, ultimately

  10. Visual and fluorescent assays for selective detection of beta-amyloid oligomers based on the inner filter effect of gold nanoparticles on the fluorescence of CdTe quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ning; Zhou, Binbin; Huang, Nanbing; Jiang, Mengsha; Zhang, Jiebing; Liu, Lin

    2016-11-15

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptides are the major constituents of senile plaques in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Aβ monomers (AβMs) can coalesce to form small, soluble oligomers (AβOs), followed by reorganization and assembly into long, thread-like fibrils (AβFs). Recently, soluble AβOs have been regarded as reliable molecular biomarkers for the diagnosis of AD because of their high toxicity for neuronal synapse and high concentration levels in the brains of AD patients. In this work, we reported a label-free, sensitive and selective method for visual and fluorescent detection of AβOs based on the inner filter effect (IFE) of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the fluorescence of CdTe quantum dots (QDs). Specifically, the fluorescence of CdTe QDs was quenched significantly by AuNPs through the IFE. PrP(95-110), an AβOs-specific binding peptide from cellular prion protein, triggered the aggregation and color change of AuNPs suspension; thus, the IFE of AuNPs on the fluorescence of CdTe QDs was weakened and the fluorescence intensity was recovered. However, in the presence of AβOs, the specific interaction of AβOs and PrP(95-110) prevented the absorption of PrP(95-110) onto the surface of AuNPs. As a result, the aggregation of AuNPs was inhibited and the fluorescence intensity of CdTe QDs was quenched again. This label-free method is specific for detection of AβOs but not for AβMs and AβFs. The detection limits were found to be 0.5nM for the visual assay and 0.2nM for the fluorescent detection. We believe that this work would be valuable for many investigations related to AD diagnosis and drug discovery. PMID:27240009

  11. Betting Against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model’s five central predictions: (1) Since constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for U.......S. equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures; (2) A betting-against-beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns; (3) When funding constraints tighten, the return...... of the BAB factor is low; (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one; (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets....

  12. Betting against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model's five central predictions: (1) Because constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically...... for US equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures. (2) A betting against beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low-beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns. (3) When funding constraints tighten......, the return of the BAB factor is low. (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one. (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets....

  13. Roughing up Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Li, Sophia Zhengzi; Todorov, Viktor

    Motivated by the implications from a stylized equilibrium pricing framework, we investigate empirically how individual equity prices respond to continuous, or \\smooth," and jumpy, or \\rough," market price moves, and how these different market price risks, or betas, are priced in the cross......-section of expected returns. Based on a novel highfrequency dataset of almost one-thousand individual stocks over two decades, we find that the two rough betas associated with intraday discontinuous and overnight returns entail significant risk premiums, while the intraday continuous beta is not priced in the cross......-section. An investment strategy that goes long stocks with high jump betas and short stocks with low jump betas produces significant average excess returns. These higher risk premiums for the discontinuous and overnight market betas remain significant after controlling for a long list of other firm characteristics...

  14. Clinical, haematological, and genetic studies of type 2 normal Hb A2 beta thalassaemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Metaxotou-Mavromati, A; Kattamis, C; Matathia, L; Tzetis, M; Kanavakis, E

    1988-01-01

    The clinical and haematological phenotype as well as chain synthesis data were studied in 35 doubly heterozygous patients with either normal Hb A2 and Hb F, type 2 beta thalassaemia and beta (high A2) thalassaemia (26 patients), or type 2 and other rare beta or delta beta variants (nine patients). Patients doubly heterozygous for type 2 and beta zero or delta beta zero thalassaemia variants had no detectable Hb A, indicating that the type 2 normal A2 beta thalassaemia is primarily the result ...

  15. Evaluation of the Charm maximum residue limit beta-lactam and tetracycline test for the detection of antibiotics in ewe and goat milk

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán Martínez, Mª Carmen; Romero Rueda, Tamara; Althaus, Rafael Lisandro; Molina Pons, Mª Pilar

    2013-01-01

    The Charm maximum residue limit P-lactam and tetracycline test (Charm MRL BLTET; Charm Sciences Inc., Lawrence, MA) is an immunoreceptor assay utilizing Rapid. One-Step Assay lateral flow technology that detects P-lactam or tetracycline drugs in raw commingled cow milk at or below European Union maximum residue levels (EU-MRL). The Charm MRL BLTET test procedure was recently modified (dilution in buffer and longer incubation) by the manufacturers to be used with raw ewe and goat milk. To asse...

  16. Evaluation of phenotypic tests for detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase and metallo-beta-lactamase in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Chauhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Carbapenemase production is an important mechanism responsible for carbapenem resistance. Aims: Phenotypic detection and differentiation of types of carbapenemase in carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae is important for proper infection control and appropriate patient management. Settings and Design: We planned a study to determine the occurrence of Class A Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC type and Class B Metallo-β-lactamase (MBL type carbapenemase in hospital and community. Materials and Methods: Clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species and simultaneously evaluate different phenotypic methods for detection of carbapenemases. Results: It was observed that 20.72% clinical isolates of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. were resistant to carbapenem on screening of which, 14.64% were E. coli and 29.69% were Klebsiella spp. Using phenotypic confirmatory tests the occurrence of carbapenemase production was found to be 87.01% in E. coli and 91.51% in Klebsiella spp. using both modified Hodge test (MHT and combined disk test (CDT using imipenem-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Conclusions: Both MBL and KPC type carbapenemases were seen among clinical isolates of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. CDT is simple, rapid and technically less demanding procedure, which can be used in all clinical laboratories. Supplementing MHT with CDT is reliable phenotypic tests to identify the class A and class B carbapenemase producers.

  17. Synthesis of fluorescent-maghemite nanoparticles as multimodal imaging agents for amyloid-beta fibrils detection and removal by a magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaat, Hadas; Margel, Shlomo

    2009-09-01

    Early diagnosis in Alzheimer's disease (AD), before the onset of marked clinical symptoms, is critical in preventing the irreversible neuronal damage that eventually leads to dementia and ultimately death. Therefore, there is an urgent need for in vivo imaging agents, which are valuable as specific biomarkers to demonstrate the location and density of amyloid plaques in the living human brain. The present manuscript describes a novel method for selective marking of Abeta(40) fibrils by non-fluorescent gamma-Fe(2)O(3) and fluorescent-magnetic gamma-Fe(2)O(3)-rhodamine or gamma-Fe(2)O(3)-Congo red nanoparticles, and the complete removal of the magnetized fibrils from the aqueous continuous phase by a magnetic field. These fluorescent-maghemite nanoparticles as multimodal imaging agents have a great advantage due to the combination of the magnetic and fluorescence imaging into one nanostructured system. This hybrid system, which selectively marks Abeta(40) fibrils, might enable the early detection of plaques using both MRI and fluorescence microscopy, and therefore may be applied in in vivo AD diagnosis studies. These fluorescent-magnetic nanoparticles may also be useful as selective biomarkers to detect the location and the removal of other amyloid plaques derived from different amyloidogenic proteins that lead to neurodegenerative diseases, e.g., Parkinson's, Huntington's, mad cow, and prion diseases. PMID:19559008

  18. Forward-Looking Betas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Vainberg, Gregory

    -looking. This paper introduces a radically different approach to estimating market betas. Using the tools in Bakshi and Madan (2000) and Bakshi, Kapadia and Madan (2003) we employ the information embedded in the prices of individual stock options and index options to compute our forward-looking market beta...

  19. Dynamic expression of alpha 1 beta 1 and alpha 2 beta 1 integrin receptors by human vascular smooth muscle cells. Alpha 2 beta 1 integrin is required for chemotaxis across type I collagen-coated membranes.

    OpenAIRE

    Skinner, M P; Raines, E W; Ross, R.

    1994-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the media of normal arteries express alpha 1 beta 1 integrin with no detectable alpha 2 beta 1 as determined by immunocytochemistry. In contrast, immunoprecipitation of integrins expressed by human SMCs cultured from medial explants shows strong expression of alpha 2 beta 1 and no expression of alpha 1 beta 1. The apparent reciprocal expression of these two collagen and laminin receptors was confirmed by flow cytometric analysis of fluorescent labeled ce...

  20. Beta attenuation transmission system (BATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, R.C.; Fullbright, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm/sup 2/, of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A /sup 90/Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (..mu..P) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined.

  1. Evolution of T cell receptor genes. Extensive diversity of V beta families in the Mexican axolotl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellah, J S; Kerfourn, F; Charlemagne, J

    1994-11-15

    We have cloned 36 different rearranged variable regions (V beta) genes encoding the beta-chain of the T cell receptor in an amphibian species, Ambystoma mexicanum (the Mexican axolotl). Eleven different V beta segments were identified, which can be classified into 9 families on the basis of a minimum of 75% nucleotide identity. All the cloned V beta segments have the canonical features of known mammalian and avian V beta, including conserved residues Cys23, Trp34, Arg69, Tyr90, and Cys92. There seems to be a greater genetic distance between the axolotl V beta families than between the different V beta families of any mammalian species examined to date: most of the axolotl V beta s have fewer than 35% identical nucleotides and the less related families (V beta 4 and V beta 8) have no more than 23.2% identity (13.5% at the amino acid level). Despite their great mutual divergence, several axolotl V beta are sequence-related to some mammalian V beta genes, like the human V beta 13 and V beta 20 segments and their murine V beta 8 and V beta 14 homologues. However, the axolotl V beta 8 and V beta 9 families are not significantly related to any other V beta sequence at the nucleotide level and show limited amino acid similarity to mammalian V alpha, V kappa III, or VH sequences. The detection of nine V beta families among 35 randomly cloned V beta segments suggests that the V beta gene repertoire in the axolotl is probably larger than presently estimated. PMID:7963525

  2. Selective detection of uric acid in the presence of ascorbic acid at physiological pH by using a beta-cyclodextrin modified copolymer of sulfanilic acid and N-acetylaniline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shouguo; Wang, Taoling; Gao, Zongyong; Xu, Haihong; Zhou, Baineng; Wang, Chuanqin

    2008-07-15

    A beta-cyclodextrin (CD) modified copolymer membrane of sulfanilic acid (p-ASA) and N-acetylaniline (SPNAANI) on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was prepared and used to determine uric acid (UA) in the presence of a large excess of ascorbic acid (AA) by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The properties of the copolymer were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. The oxidation peaks of AA and UA were well separated at the composite membrane modified electrode in phosphate buffer solution (PBS, pH 7.4). A linear relationship between the peak current and the concentration of UA was obtained in the range from 1.0 x 10(-5) to 3.5 x 10(-4)mol L(-1), and the detection limit was 2.7 x 10(-6)mol L(-1) at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. Two hundred and fifty-fold excess of AA did not interfere with the determination of UA. The application of the prepared electrode was demonstrated by measuring UA in human serum samples without any pretreatment, and the results were comparatively in agreement with the spectrometric clinical assay method.

  3. Immunocytochemical localization of latent transforming growth factor-beta1 activation by stimulated macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, H.; Vodovotz, Y.; Cox, G. W.; Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta) is secreted in a latent form consisting of mature TGF-beta noncovalently associated with its amino-terminal propeptide, which is called latency associated peptide (LAP). Biological activity depends upon the release of TGF-beta from the latent complex following extracellular activation, which appears to be the key regulatory mechanism controlling TGF-beta action. We have identified two events associated with latent TGF-beta (LTGF-beta) activation in vivo: increased immunoreactivity of certain antibodies that specifically detect TGF-beta concomitant with decreased immunoreactivity of antibodies to LAP. Macrophages stimulated in vitro with interferon-gamma and lipopolysaccharide reportedly activate LTGF-beta via cell membrane-bound protease activity. We show through dual immunostaining of paraformaldehyde-fixed macrophages that such physiological TGF-beta activation is accompanied by a loss of LAP immunoreactivity with concomitant revelation of TGF-beta epitopes. The induction of TGF-beta immunoreactivity colocalized with immunoreactive betaglycan/RIII in activated macrophages, suggesting that LTGF-beta activation occurs on the cell surface. Confocal microscopy of metabolically active macrophages incubated with antibodies to TGF-beta and betaglycan/RIII prior to fixation supported the localization of activation to the cell surface. The ability to specifically detect and localize LTGF-beta activation provides an important tool for studies of its regulation.

  4. Métodos alternativos para detecção de betalactamase de espectro estendido em Escherichia coli e Klebsiella pneumoniae Alternative methods for the detection of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsander Costa Martins

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A resistência a antimicrobianos tem aumentado rapidamente nos últimos anos no Brasil e no mundo e, embora exista uma variedade de mecanismos de resistência, destaca-se a produção de betalactamase de espectro estendido (ESBL como um dos principais. Essas enzimas são mediadas por plasmídios, conferem resistência a vários antimicrobianos betalactâmicos e são inibidas por compostos, como ácido clavulânico, sulbactam e tazobactam. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar metodologias alternativas à técnica padrão preconizada pelo Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI para detecção de ESBL. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram realizados testes com 36 isolados (26 de E. coli e 10 de K. pneumoniae mediante disco combinado (CLSI e técnicas alternativas designadas meio disco (MD e substituição de discos (SD. CONCLUSÃO: As duas metodologias propostas apresentaram resultados satisfatórios com sensibilidade superior a 90% e custo inferior à técnica de referência (disco combinado, podendo ser utilizadas na pesquisa de ESBL.INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance has increased apace in Brazil and worldwide in the last years, even though there is a great variety of resistance mechanisms and extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL is among the main ones. These enzymes are plasmid mediated, which causes resistance to some beta-lactam antimicrobials and are inhibited by compounds such as clavulanic acid, sulbactam and tazobactam. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare alternative methods to the standard ESBL detection technique recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Tests with 36 isolates (26 E. coli and 10 K. pneumoniae were performed by means of CLSI disk diffusion method and alternative techniques designated as half disk (HD and disk substitution (SD. CONCLUSION: Both methods yielded satisfactory results with higher sensitivity (90% and lower costs

  5. Properties of a commercial extrapolation chamber in beta radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A commercial extrapolation chamber (PTW, Germany) was tested in different beta radiation fields and its properties investigated. Its usefulness for beta radiation calibration and dosimetry was demonstrated. The Beta Secondary Standard setup of the IPEN calibration laboratory was utilized. This system, developed by the Physikalisch-Tecknische Bundesanstalt, Brunswick (Germany) and manufactured by Buchler and Co., consists of a source stand, a control unit with timer and four interchangeable beta sources: 90Sr-90Y (1850 and 74 MBq), 204Tl (18,5 MBq) ionization current detection. The variable volume ionization chamber of cylindrical form is provided with different collecting electrodes of tissue equivalent material and Mylar entrance windows of different thickesses

  6. Imaging the Beta-cell mass: why and how

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saudek, Frantisek; Brogren, Carl-Henrik; Manohar, Srirang

    2008-01-01

    Diabetes is a disorder characterized by beta-cell loss or exhaustion and insulin deficiency. At present, knowledge is lacking on the underlying causes and for the therapeutic recovery of the beta-cell mass. A better understanding of diabetes pathogenesis could be obtained through exact monitoring...... that the tracer specifically bound to the beta-cell surface and could be detected by nuclear imaging. In the near future, these promising findings may offer a new way to monitor the beta-cell mass in vivo under disease and therapy conditions so that we can learn more about diabetes pathogenesis and options...

  7. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kai Zuber

    2012-10-01

    The physics potential of neutrinoless double beta decay is discussed. Furthermore, experimental considerations as well as the current status of experiments are presented. Finally, an outlook towards the future, work on nuclear matrix elements and alternative processes is given.

  8. Beta-carotene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemotherapy for a blood cancer called lymphoblastic leukemia. Mental performance. Some evidence suggests that taking beta-carotene ... One is water-based, and the other is oil-based. Studies show that the water-based version ...

  9. Purification and properties of beta-galactosidase from Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, M; Pedregosa, A M; de Lucas, J R; Torralba, S; Monistrol, I F; Laborda, F

    1996-12-01

    Beta-Galactosidase from mycelial extract of Aspergillus nidulans has been purified by substrate affinity chromatography and used to obtain anti-beta-galactosidase polyclonal antibodies. A. nidulans growing in lactose as carbon source synthesizes one active form of beta-galactosidase which seems to be a multimeric enzyme of 450 kDa composed of monomers with 120 and 97 kDa. Although the enzyme was not released to the culture medium, some enzymatic activity was detected in a cell-wall extract, thus suggesting that it can be an extracellular enzyme. Beta-Galactosidase of A. nidulans is a very unstable enzyme with an optimum pH value of 7.5 and an optimum temperature of 30 degrees C. It was only active against beta-galactoside substrates like lactose and p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside (PNPG).

  10. [High beta tokamak research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our activities on High Beta Tokamak Research during the past 20 months of the present grant period can be divided into six areas: reconstruction and modeling of high beta equilibria in HBT; measurement and analysis of MHD instabilities observed in HBT; measurements of impurity transport; diagnostic development on HBT; numerical parameterization of the second stability regime; and conceptual design and assembly of HBT-EP. Each of these is described in some detail in the sections of this progress report

  11. Liquid chromatographic determination of beta-cyclodextrin derivatives based on fluorescence enhancement after inclusion complexation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeuwijk, H J; Irth, H; Tjaden, U R; Merkus, F W; van der Greef, J

    1993-04-21

    A liquid chromatographic method using fluorescence detection for the determination of beta-cyclodextrin (beta CD) and its derivatives is presented. The chromatographic system is based on size-exclusion chromatography with the addition of the fluorophoric compound 1-naphthol to the mobile phase. Detection is based on fluorescence enhancement caused by the formation of inclusion complexes. By incorporating 10(-4) M 1-naphthol in the mobile phase, detection limits of 90, 27, 370 and 37 pmol were obtained for beta CD, hydroxypropyl-beta CD, trimethyl-beta CD and dimethyl-beta CD, respectively. The method was applied to the determination of dimethyl-beta CD in urine: the minimum detectable concentration was 0.2 microgram/ml after preconcentration of 10 ml of urine.

  12. {beta} - amyloid imaging probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Imaging distribution of {beta} - amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease is very important for early and accurate diagnosis. Early trial of the {beta} -amyloid plaques includes using radiolabeled peptides which can be only applied for peripheral {beta} - amyloid plaques due to limited penetration through the blood brain barrier (BBB). Congo red or Chrysamine G derivatives were labeled with Tc-99m for imaging {beta} - amyloid plaques of Alzheimer patient's brain without success due to problem with BBB penetration. Thioflavin T derivatives gave breakthrough for {beta} - amyloid imaging in vivo, and a benzothiazole derivative [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 brought a great success. Many other benzothiazole, benzoxazole, benzofuran, imidazopyridine, and styrylbenzene derivatives have been labeled with F-18 and I-123 to improve the imaging quality. However, [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 still remains as the best. However, short half-life of C-11 is a limitation of wide distribution of this agent. So, it is still required to develop an Tc-99m, F-18 or I-123 labeled agent for {beta} - amyloid imaging agent.

  13. Evidence for the presence of beta 3-adrenergic receptor mRNA in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, M; Carillon, C; Coquerel, A; Le Fur, G; Ferrara, P; Caput, D; Shire, D

    1995-04-01

    The beta 3-adrenergic receptor (AR) is widely distributed in peripheral tissues, but up to now it has not been detected in the central nervous system. By using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, we found the beta 3-AR mRNA to be present in all the regions of the human brain we investigated. The quantities found were very low compared to those of the beta 1-AR and beta 2-AR mRNAs, being hardly detectable in adult brain. In contrast, the brain of very young infants contained about 100 times more beta 3-AR mRNA than the adult brain, whereas the amounts of beta 1-AR and beta 2-AR transcripts were essentially the same. In addition, using PCR we have cloned a central beta 3-AR coding region from a human frontal cortex cDNA library and have found it to be identical to the corresponding peripheral sequence. PMID:7609625

  14. Interactions of protein kinase CK2beta subunit within the holoenzyme and with other proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, M; Ahmed, R; Thomsen, B;

    1999-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 is a ubiquitous, highly conserved protein kinase with a tetrameric alpha2beta2 structure. For the formation of this tetrameric complex a beta-alpha dimer seems to be a prerequisite. Using the two-hybrid system and a series of CK2beta deletion mutants, we mapped domains involved...... in alpha-beta and beta-beta interactions. We also detected an intramolecular beta interaction within the amino acid stretch 132-165. Using CK2beta as a bait in a two-hybrid library screening several new putative cellular partners have been identified, among them the S6 kinase p90rsk, the putative tumor...... suppressor protein Doc-1, the Fas-associated protein FAF1, the mitochondrial translational initiation factor 2 and propionyl CoA carboxylase beta subunit....

  15. T cell precursor migration towards beta 2-microglobulin is involved in thymus colonization of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunon, D; Kaufman, J; Salomonsen, J;

    1990-01-01

    beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) attracts hemopoietic precursors from chicken bone marrow cells in vitro. The cell population responding to beta 2m increases during the second period of thymus colonization, which takes place at days 12-14 of incubation. The precursors from 13.5 day old embryos were...... isolated after migration towards beta 2m in vitro and shown to be able to colonize a 13 day old thymus in ovo, where they subsequently acquire thymocyte markers. In contrast these beta 2m responsive precursors did not colonize embryonic bursa, i.e. differentiate into B lymphocytes. During chicken...... embryogenesis, peaks of beta 2m transcripts and of free beta 2m synthesis can only be detected in the thymus. The peak of free beta 2m synthesis in the thymus and the increase of beta 2m responding bone marrow cells both occur concomitantly with the second wave of thymus colonization in chicken embryo, facts...

  16. Double beta decay of 128Te and RIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper considers the use of Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS) in the determination of the electron neutrino mass via the double beta decay of 128Te. An outline is given of the theoretical background to the electron neutrino restmass, and the importance of the neutrino properties in Grand Unification Theories. The detection method for double beta decay is described; the discussion is restricted to tellurium ores and the decays 128Te → 128Xe, and 130Te → 130Xe. A consideration of existing data on double beta decay of 128Te indicates that most aspects of the detection could benefit from RIS. (U.K.)

  17. A fluorescent assay amenable to measuring production of beta-D-glucuronides produced from recombinant UDP-glycosyl transferase enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubetskoy, O V; Shaw, P M

    1999-05-01

    Beta-glucuronidase cleavage of 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-glucuronide generates the highly fluorescent compound, 4-methylumbelliferone. We show that other beta-D-glucuronide compounds act as competitors in this assay. The 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-glucuronide cleavage assay can easily be adapted to high throughput formats to detect the presence of beta-D glucuronides generated using recombinant glycosyl transferase preparations.

  18. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in Klebsiella spp and Escherichia coli obtained in a Brazilian teaching hospital: detection, prevalence and molecular typing beta-lactamases de espectro ampliado em Klebsiella spp e em Escherichia coli obtidas em um hospital escola brasileiro: detecção, prevalência e tipagem molecular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Peixoto de Freitas

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available His study was performed to compare the methods of detection and to estimate the prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL among Klebsiella spp and E.coli in a university hospital in southern Brazil. We also used a molecular typing method to evaluate the genetic correlation between isolates of ESBL K.pneumoniae. Production of ESBL was investigated in 95 clinical isolates of Klebsiella spp and Escherichia coli from Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, using Kirby-Bauer zone diameter (KB, double-disk diffusion (DD, breakpoint for ceftazidime (MIC CAZ, increased zone diameter with clavulanate (CAZ/CAC and ratio of ceftazidime MIC/ceftazidime-clavulanate MIC (MIC CAZ/CAC. Molecular typing was performed by DNA macrorestriction analysis followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The KB method displayed the highest rates of ESBL (up to 70% of Klebsiella and 59% of E.coli, contrasting with all the other methods (p Este estudo foi desenvolvido para comparar métodos de detecção e para estimar a prevalência de Klebsiella spp e E.coli produtoras de beta-lactamases de espetro ampliado (ESBL em um Hospital Universitário no sul do Brasil. A correlação genética, determinada através de método molecular de tipagem, entre as amostras de K. pneumoniae também foi determinada. A produção de ESBL foi investigada em 95 amostras de Klebsiella spp e E.coli obtidas de pacientes no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre usando-se: medida do diâmetro a zona de inibição (KB, dupla-difusão de disco (DD, valores de concentração inibitória mínima da ceftazidima (MIC CAZ, aumento do diâmetro da zona de inibição com adição de clavulanato (CAZ/CAC e a relação entre o MIC da ceftazidima/MIC ceftazidima com clavulanato (MIC CAZ/CAC. A tipagem molecular foi realizada utilizando-se o método de macrorestrição de DNA e eletroforese em campo pulsado (PFGE. O método KB apresentou as maiores taxas de produção de ESBL (> 70% para Klebsiella e

  19. Beta and Gamma Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Gaffney, C. F.; Clark, P. A.;

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and/or theoretical estimates are presented concerning, (i) attenuation within the sample of beta and gamma radiation from the soil, (ii) the gamma dose within the sample due to its own radioactivity, and (iii) the soil gamma dose in the proximity of boundaries between regions...... of differing radioactivity. It is confirmed that removal of the outer 2 mm of sample is adequate to remove influence from soil beta dose and estimates are made of the error introduced by non-removal. Other evaluations include variation of the soil gamma dose near the ground surface and it appears...

  20. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) induces thrombocytosis in mice: Possible implication of IL-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, H.; Ishibashi, T.; Shikama, Y.; Okano, A.; Akiyama, Y.; Uchida, T.; Maruyama, Y. (Fukushima Medical College (Japan))

    1990-12-15

    We administered recombinant human interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), the common mediator of inflammation process, to C57B1/6 male mice (0.5 microgram, every 12 hours over five times) intraperitoneally and consequently induced a remarkable thrombocytosis. Day 1 was designated as the following day of the last injection in the morning. A significant thrombocytosis was observed on days 1 through 5 with a peak on day 2 (162 +/- 9 x 10(4)/mm3) compared with the control mice injected with heated IL-1 beta (101 +/- 11 x 10(4)/mm3). A striking increase in mean size of marrow megakaryocytes was noted on days 1 and 2. The incorporation of 75Se-selenomethionine into circulating platelets as a measure of platelet production was about 2.3 times higher in IL-1 beta-treated mice than in control mice. To determine which factor(s) is responsible for elicited thrombocytosis, the in vitro studies and bioassays for several hematopoietic factors were performed. IL-1 beta by itself did not stimulate megakaryocytopoiesis in vitro, suggesting that the thrombocytosis is attributed to other factor(s) via IL-1 beta stimulation. Serum colony-stimulating factor (CSF) activity after a single IL-1 beta (0.5 microgram) injection, monitored by colony assay with 10% tested serum, peaked at 3 hours. Formed colonies were mostly granulocyte (G) and granulocyte-macrophage (GM)-types, and studies using rabbit anti-mouse GM-CSF serum or using human marrow as target cells showed that the CSF activity of the tested serum consisted of, at least, GM-CSF and G-CSF. Addition of IL-3 concomitantly with the tested serum gave rise to a greater number of megakaryocytic colonies. Serum IL-3, monitored by IL-3-dependent cell line 32D clone 5, and erythropoietin activities were not detected at serum level in IL-1 beta-treated mice.

  1. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) induces thrombocytosis in mice: Possible implication of IL-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We administered recombinant human interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), the common mediator of inflammation process, to C57B1/6 male mice (0.5 microgram, every 12 hours over five times) intraperitoneally and consequently induced a remarkable thrombocytosis. Day 1 was designated as the following day of the last injection in the morning. A significant thrombocytosis was observed on days 1 through 5 with a peak on day 2 (162 +/- 9 x 10(4)/mm3) compared with the control mice injected with heated IL-1 beta (101 +/- 11 x 10(4)/mm3). A striking increase in mean size of marrow megakaryocytes was noted on days 1 and 2. The incorporation of 75Se-selenomethionine into circulating platelets as a measure of platelet production was about 2.3 times higher in IL-1 beta-treated mice than in control mice. To determine which factor(s) is responsible for elicited thrombocytosis, the in vitro studies and bioassays for several hematopoietic factors were performed. IL-1 beta by itself did not stimulate megakaryocytopoiesis in vitro, suggesting that the thrombocytosis is attributed to other factor(s) via IL-1 beta stimulation. Serum colony-stimulating factor (CSF) activity after a single IL-1 beta (0.5 microgram) injection, monitored by colony assay with 10% tested serum, peaked at 3 hours. Formed colonies were mostly granulocyte (G) and granulocyte-macrophage (GM)-types, and studies using rabbit anti-mouse GM-CSF serum or using human marrow as target cells showed that the CSF activity of the tested serum consisted of, at least, GM-CSF and G-CSF. Addition of IL-3 concomitantly with the tested serum gave rise to a greater number of megakaryocytic colonies. Serum IL-3, monitored by IL-3-dependent cell line 32D clone 5, and erythropoietin activities were not detected at serum level in IL-1 beta-treated mice

  2. Sizeable beta-strength in 31Ar (beta 3p) decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Koldste, G.; Blank, B.; J. G. Borge, M.;

    2014-01-01

    We present for the first time precise spectroscopic information on the recently discovered decay mode beta-delayed 3p-emission. The detection of the 3p events gives an increased sensitivity to the high energy part of the Gamow-Teller strength distribution from the decay of 31Ar revealing that as ...

  3. Evaluation of neutrino masses from $m_{\\beta\\beta}$ values

    CERN Document Server

    Khrushchov, V V

    2008-01-01

    A neutrino mass matrix is considered under conditions of the CP invariance and the negligible reactor mixing $\\theta_{13}$ angle. Absolute mass values for three neutrinos are evaluated in normal and inverted hierarchy spectra on the ground of data for oscillation mixing neutrino parameters and effective neutrino mass entering into a probability of neutrinoless two beta decay $m_{\\beta\\beta}$ values.

  4. Trichoderma .beta.-glucosidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2006-01-03

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl3, and the corresponding BGL3 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL3, recombinant BGL3 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  5. Applied Beta Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of beta and/or nonpenetrating exposure results is complicated and past techniques and capabilities have resulted in significant inaccuracies in recorded results. Current developments have resulted in increased capabilities which make the results more accurate and should result in less total exposure to the work force. Continued development of works in progress should provide equivalent future improvements.

  6. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Päs, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    We review the potential to probe new physics with neutrinoless double beta decay $(A,Z) \\to (A,Z+2) + 2 e^-$. Both the standard long-range light neutrino mechanism as well as short-range mechanisms mediated by heavy particles are discussed. We also stress aspects of the connection to lepton number violation at colliders and the implications for baryogenesis.

  7. Solvent effects in TLS determination of beta-lactoglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accidental presence of small quantities of different allergens such as beta-lactoglobulin in food products is a problem for unaware allergic consumers. Therefore, sensitive methods are needed for detection of trace quantities of allergens. By implementing TLS detection into a FIA system, the sensitivity of beta-lactoglobulin detection was improved. The use of different solvents in the FIA system, however, causes perturbations in the TLS signals. The aim of this research was to reduce the influence of spurious signals and to improve the detection limits of the analytical assay. The optimal performance of the FIA-TLS system for beta-lactoglobulin determination was achieved by using PBS buffer solutions (pH 7.5), which resulted in lowest limits of detection of 2 pM BLG and the total assay time of 10 min.

  8. Interferon Beta-1b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon beta-1b injection is used to reduce episodes of symptoms in patients with relapsing-remitting (course ... and problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1b is in a class of medications ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: beta thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Disease Control and Prevention Centre for Genetics Education (Australia) Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory: Your Genes Your Health Disease InfoSearch: Beta Thalassemia Genomics Education Programme (UK) MalaCards: dominant beta-thalassemia Merck Manual ...

  10. A system for simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoni, A. T.; Hamby, D. M.

    2007-08-01

    A state-of-the-art radiation detection system for real-time and simultaneous spectroscopy of beta-particles and gamma-rays has been developed. The system utilizes a triple-layer phoswich detector and a customized Digital Pulse Processor (DPP) designed and built in our laboratory. The DPP board digitally captures the analog signal pulses and, following several digital preprocessing steps, transfers valid pulses to the host computer for further digital processing. A resolving algorithm also was developed to digitally discriminate beta and gamma events, and reconstruct separate beta and gamma-ray energy spectra with minimal crosstalk. The spectrometer has proven to be an effective tool for recording separate beta and gamma-ray spectra from mixed radiation fields. The system as a beta-gamma spectrometer will have broad-ranging applications in nuclear non-proliferation, radioactive waste management, worker safety, systems reliability, dose assessment, and risk analysis.

  11. Quantitative analysis of beta-actin, beta-2-microglobulin and porphobilinogen deaminase mRNA and their comparison as control transcripts for RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupberger, J; Kreuzer, K A; Baskaynak, G; Peters, U R; le Coutre, P; Schmidt, C A

    2002-02-01

    Quantitation of target mRNAs using the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction found a widespread field of application in diverse biomedical diagnostic assays. However, the problem of varying sample quality has to be solved by correcting target molecule amounts through detection of an endogenous control template. The choice of an appropriate reference gene is still object of debate as pseudogene co-amplification and expression level variations may limit the usefulness of some currently used reference reactions. We compared quantitative expression levels of the commonly used endogenous reference genes beta-actin (beta-actin), beta-2-microglobulin (beta2-MG) and porphobilinogen deaminase (PBDG) using the TaqMan chemistry. With these assays we investigated the respective expression patterns in K562 cells and leucocytes of normal individuals as well as of malignoma patients. In K562 cells 1544+246 beta-actin, 65+30 beta2-MG and 22+/-8 PBDG copies/cell were detected. In normal leucocytes 491+/-97 beta-actin, 40+/-17 beta2-MG and <1 PBDG copies/cell were quantified. Leucocytes of various malignancies exhibited 84+/-51 beta-actin, 106+/-8 beta2-MG and <1 PBDG copies/cell. We conclude that beta2-MG is the most suitable reference gene tested as its variation between different sample origins and within distinct cell types was acceptable low.

  12. Beta emitters and radiation protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Beta emitters, such as 90Y, are increasingly being used for cancer treatment. However, beta emitters demand other precautions than gamma emitters during preparation and administration, especially concerning shielding. AIM. To discuss practical precautions for handling beta emitters...... on the outside of the primary shielding material. If suitable shielding is used and larger numbers of handlings are divided among several persons, then handling of beta emitters can be a safe procedure....

  13. Misleading Betas: An Educational Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, James; Halcoussis, Dennis; Phillips, G. Michael

    2012-01-01

    The dual-beta model is a generalization of the CAPM model. In the dual-beta model, separate beta estimates are provided for up-market and down-market days. This paper uses the historical "Anscombe quartet" results which illustrated how very different datasets can produce the same regression coefficients to motivate a discussion of the…

  14. TGF-beta and osteoarthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaney Davidson, E.N.; Kraan, P.M. van der; Berg, W.B. van den

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cartilage damage is a major problem in osteoarthritis (OA). Growth factors like transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) have great potential in cartilage repair. In this review, we will focus on the potential therapeutic intervention in OA with TGF-beta, application of the growth facto

  15. Thymosin beta 4 and thymosin beta 10 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Theunissen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4 and thymosin beta 10 (Tβ10 are two members of the beta-thymosin family involved in many cellular processes such as cellular motility, angiogenesis, inflammation, cell survival and wound healing. Recently, a role for beta-thymosins has been proposed in the process of carcinogenesis as both peptides were detected in several types of cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression pattern of Tβ4 and Tβ10 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. To this end, the expression pattern of both peptides was analyzed in liver samples obtained from 23 subjects diagnosed with HCC. Routinely formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded liver samples were immunostained by indirect immunohistochemistry with polyclonal antibodies to Tβ4 and Tβ10. Immunoreactivity for Tβ4 and Tβ10 was detected in the liver parenchyma of the surrounding tumor area. Both peptides showed an increase in granular reactivity from the periportal to the periterminal hepatocytes. Regarding HCC, Tβ4 reactivity was detected in 7/23 cases (30% and Tβ10 reactivity in 22/23 (97% cases analyzed, adding HCC to human cancers that express these beta-thymosins. Intriguing finding was seen looking at the reactivity of both peptides in tumor cells infiltrating the surrounding liver. Where Tβ10 showed a strong homogeneous expression, was Tβ4 completely absent in cells undergoing stromal invasion. The current study shows expression of both beta-thymosins in HCC with marked differences in their degree of expression and frequency of immunoreactivity. The higher incidence of Tβ10 expression and its higher reactivity in tumor cells involved in stromal invasion indicate a possible major role for Tβ10 in HCC progression.

  16. Cdk4 regulates recruitment of quiescent beta-cells and ductal epithelial progenitors to reconstitute beta-cell mass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hyeon Lee

    Full Text Available Insulin-producing pancreatic islet beta cells (beta-cells are destroyed, severely depleted or functionally impaired in diabetes. Therefore, replacing functional beta-cell mass would advance clinical diabetes management. We have previously demonstrated the importance of Cdk4 in regulating beta-cell mass. Cdk4-deficient mice display beta-cell hypoplasia and develop diabetes, whereas beta-cell hyperplasia is observed in mice expressing an active Cdk4R24C kinase. While beta-cell replication appears to be the primary mechanism responsible for beta-cell mass increase, considerable evidence also supports a contribution from the pancreatic ductal epithelium in generation of new beta-cells. Further, while it is believed that majority of beta-cells are in a state of 'dormancy', it is unclear if and to what extent the quiescent cells can be coaxed to participate in the beta-cell regenerative response. Here, we address these queries using a model of partial pancreatectomy (PX in Cdk4 mutant mice. To investigate the kinetics of the regeneration process precisely, we performed DNA analog-based lineage-tracing studies followed by mathematical modeling. Within a week after PX, we observed considerable proliferation of islet beta-cells and ductal epithelial cells. Interestingly, the mathematical model showed that recruitment of quiescent cells into the active cell cycle promotes beta-cell mass reconstitution in the Cdk4R24C pancreas. Moreover, within 24-48 hours post-PX, ductal epithelial cells expressing the transcription factor Pdx-1 dramatically increased. We also detected insulin-positive cells in the ductal epithelium along with a significant increase of islet-like cell clusters in the Cdk4R24C pancreas. We conclude that Cdk4 not only promotes beta-cell replication, but also facilitates the activation of beta-cell progenitors in the ductal epithelium. In addition, we show that Cdk4 controls beta-cell mass by recruiting quiescent cells to enter the cell

  17. Combine-ARMS: a rapid and cost-effective protocol for molecular characterization of beta-thalassemia in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, K L; Tan, J A; Wong, Y C; Wee, Y C; Thong, M K; Yap, S F

    2001-01-01

    Beta-thalassemia major patients have chronic anemia and are dependent on blood transfusions to sustain life. Molecular characterization and prenatal diagnosis of beta3-thalassemia is essential in Malaysia because about 4.5% of the population are heterozygous carriers for beta-thalassemia. The high percentage of compound heterozygosity (47.62%) found in beta-thalassemia major patients in the Thalassaemia Registry, University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Malaysia, also supports a need for rapid, economical, and sensitive protocols for the detection of beta-thalassemia mutations. Molecular characterization of beta-thalassemia mutations in Malaysia is currently carried out using ARMS, which detects a single beta-thalassemia mutation per PCR reaction. We developed and evaluated Combine amplification refractory mutation system (C-ARMS) techniques for efficient molecular detection of two to three beta-thalassemia mutations in a single PCR reaction. Three C-ARMS protocols were evaluated and established for molecular characterization of common beta-thalassemia mutations in the Malay and Chinese ethnic groups in Malaysia. Two C-ARMS protocols (cd 41-42/IVSII #654 and -29/cd 71-72) detected the beta-thalassemia mutations in 74.98% of the Chinese patients studied. The CARMS for cd 41-42/IVSII #654 detected beta-thalassemia mutations in 72% of the Chinese families. C-ARMS for cd 41-42/IVSI #5/cd 17 allowed detection of beta-thalassemia mutations in 36.53% of beta-thalassemia in the Malay patients. C-ARMS for cd 41-42/IVSI #5/cd 17 detected beta-thalassemia in 45.54% of the Chinese patients. We conclude that C-ARMS with the ability to detect two to three mutations in a single reaction provides more rapid and cost-effective protocols for beta-thalassemia prenatal diagnosis and molecular analysis programs in Malaysia. PMID:11336396

  18. Complementarity of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay and Cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, Scott; Lykken, Joseph

    2014-03-20

    Neutrinoless double beta decay experiments constrain one combination of neutrino parameters, while cosmic surveys constrain another. This complementarity opens up an exciting range of possibilities. If neutrinos are Majorana particles, and the neutrino masses follow an inverted hierarchy, then the upcoming sets of both experiments will detect signals. The combined constraints will pin down not only the neutrino masses but also constrain one of the Majorana phases. If the hierarchy is normal, then a beta decay detection with the upcoming generation of experiments is unlikely, but cosmic surveys could constrain the sum of the masses to be relatively heavy, thereby producing a lower bound for the neutrinoless double beta decay rate, and therefore an argument for a next generation beta decay experiment. In this case as well, a combination of the phases will be constrained.

  19. NEXT, a HPGXe TPC for neutrinoless double beta decay searches

    CERN Document Server

    Granena, F; Nova, F; Rico, J; Sánchez, F; Nygren, D R; Barata, J A S; Borges, F I G M; Conde, C A N; Dias, T H V T; Fernandes, L M P; Freitas, E D C; Lopes, J A M; Monteiro, C M B; Santos, J M F dos; Santos, F P; Tavora, L M N; Veloso, J F C A; Calvo, E; Gil-Botella, I; Novella, P; Palomares, C; Verdugo, A; Giomataris, Yu; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Hernando-Morata, J A; Martínez, D; Cid, X; Ball, M; Carcel, S; Cervera-Villanueva, Anselmo; Díaz, J; Gil, A; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Martín-Albo, J; Monrabal, F; Munoz-Vidal, J; Serra, L; Sorel, M; Yahlali, N; Bosch, R Esteve; Lerche, C W; Martinez, J D; Mora, F J; Sebastiá, A; Tarazona, A; Toledo, J F; Lazaro, M; Perez, J L; Ripoll, L; Carmona, J M; Cebrián, S; Dafni, T; Galan, J; Gomez, H; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Luzón, G; Morales, J; Rodríguez, A; Ruz, J; Tomas, A; Villar, J A

    2009-01-01

    We propose a novel detection concept for neutrinoless double-beta decay searches. This concept is based on a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) filled with high-pressure gaseous xenon, and with separated-function capabilities for calorimetry and tracking. Thanks to its excellent energy resolution, together with its powerful background rejection provided by the distinct double-beta decay topological signature, the design discussed in this Letter Of Intent promises to be competitive and possibly out-perform existing proposals for next-generation neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. We discuss the detection principles, design specifications, physics potential and R&D plans to construct a detector with 100 kg fiducial mass in the double-beta decay emitting isotope Xe(136), to be installed in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory.

  20. High-resolution studies of beta-delayed proton emitters at IGISOL facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokinen, A; Aysto, J; Dendooven, P; Hankonen, S; Honkanen, A; Huikari, J; Lhersonneau, G; Lipas, PO; Penttila, H; Perajarvi, K; Oinonen, M; Nieminen, A; Siiskonen, T; Wang, JC

    1998-01-01

    Beta-decays of Al-23 and Ti-41 have been studied by applying ion guide techniques, gamma detection and a gas-Si telescope for charged-particle detection. The experimental beta-decay strength of Ti-41 was found to be quenched by a factor of q(2) = 0.64 compared to our shell model calculations below 8

  1. Beta-delayed proton emission from $^{21}$Mg

    CERN Document Server

    Lund, M V; Briz, J A; Cederkäll, J; Fynbo, H O U; Jensen, J H; Jonson, B; Laursen, K L; Nilsson, T; Perea, A; Pesudo, V; Riisager, K; Tengblad, O

    2015-01-01

    Beta-delayed proton emission from $^{21}$Mg has been measured at ISOLDE, CERN, with a detection setup including particle identification capabilities. $\\beta$-delayed protons with center of mass energies between 0.39$\\,$MeV and 7.2$\\,$MeV were measured and used to determine the half life of $^{21}$Mg as $118.6\\pm 0.5\\,$ms. From a line shape fit of the $\\beta p$ branches we extract spectroscopic information about the resonances of $^{21}$Na. Finally an improved interpretation of the decay scheme in accordance with the results obtained in reaction studies is presented.

  2. Beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanello, Renzo; Origa, Raffaella

    2010-05-21

    Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands), dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis). Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes), gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely, deletions in the beta

  3. Beta-thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Origa Raffaella

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands, dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes, gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely

  4. Coroutine Sequencing in BETA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger;

    In object-oriented programming, a program execution is viewed as a physical model of some real or imaginary part of the world. A language supporting object-oriented programming must therefore contain comprehensive facilities for modeling phenomena and concepts form the application domain. Many ap...... applications in the real world consist of objects carrying out sequential processes. Coroutines may be used for modeling objects that alternate between a number of sequential processes. The authors describe coroutines in BETA...

  5. Beta decay for pedestrians

    CERN Document Server

    Lipkin, Harry Jeannot

    1962-01-01

    The ""pedestrian approach"" was developed to describe some essentially simple experimental results and their theoretical implications in plain language. In this graduate-level text, Harry J. Lipkin presents simply, but without oversimplification, the aspects of beta decay that can be understood without reference to the formal theory; that is, the reactions that follow directly from conservation laws and elementary quantum mechanics.The pedestrian treatment is neither a substitute for a complete treatment nor a watered-down version.

  6. Integration of BETA with Eclipse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Enevoldsen, Mads Brøgger

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents language interoperability issues appearing in order to implement support for the BETA language in the Java-based Eclipse integrated development environment. One of the challenges is to implement plug-ins in BETA and be able to load them in Eclipse. In order to do this, some form...... of language interoperability between Java and BETA is required. The first approach is to use the Java Native Interface and use C to bridge between Java and BETA. This results in a workable, but complicated solution. The second approach is to let the BETA compiler generate Java class files. With this approach...... it is possible to implement plug-ins in BETA and even inherit from Java classes. In the paper the two approaches are described together with part of the mapping from BETA to Java class files. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/15710661...

  7. Regulation of beta cell replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Ying C; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2008-01-01

    Beta cell mass, at any given time, is governed by cell differentiation, neogenesis, increased or decreased cell size (cell hypertrophy or atrophy), cell death (apoptosis), and beta cell proliferation. Nutrients, hormones and growth factors coupled with their signalling intermediates have been...... suggested to play a role in beta cell mass regulation. In addition, genetic mouse model studies have indicated that cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases that determine cell cycle progression are involved in beta cell replication, and more recently, menin in association with cyclin-dependent kinase...... inhibitors has been demonstrated to be important in beta cell growth. In this review, we consider and highlight some aspects of cell cycle regulation in relation to beta cell replication. The role of cell cycle regulation in beta cell replication is mostly from studies in rodent models, but whether...

  8. Beta cell adaptation in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with a compensatory increase in beta cell mass. It is well established that somatolactogenic hormones contribute to the expansion both indirectly by their insulin antagonistic effects and directly by their mitogenic effects on the beta cells via receptors for prolactin...... and growth hormone expressed in rodent beta cells. However, the beta cell expansion in human pregnancy seems to occur by neogenesis of beta cells from putative progenitor cells rather than by proliferation of existing beta cells. Claes Hellerström has pioneered the research on beta cell growth for decades......, but the mechanisms involved are still not clarified. In this review the information obtained in previous studies is recapitulated together with some of the current attempts to resolve the controversy in the field: identification of the putative progenitor cells, identification of the factors involved...

  9. Characterization of recombinant RI beta and evaluation of the presence of RI beta protein in rat brain and testicular extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeManno, D A; Jackiw, V; Brooks, E; Hunzicker-Dunn, M

    1994-07-21

    Based upon recent reports that the mRNA from the regulatory (R) RI beta subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) was expressed in testicular extracts, we determined whether testicular extracts exhibited RI beta protein. To accomplish this goal, we initially determined the fundamental labeling and ionic characteristics of recombinant RI beta. Recombinant RI beta eluted from DEAE-cellulose with a salt concentration (of 0.075 M) equivalent to its elution position from soluble mouse brain extracts with catalytic subunit-free RI alpha. As predicted by its amino acid sequence homology to RI alpha, recombinant RI beta was not phosphorylated by PKA but was labeled specifically with 8-azido-adenosine 3':5'-[32P]monophosphate (8-N3[32P]cAMP). Additionally, RI antisera reacted equally with RI alpha (47 kDa) and recombinant RI beta (53 kDa). However, recombinant RI beta exhibited an unexpectedly basic pI of 6.65-6.85. By using a pH gradient for isoelectric focussing that allowed for clear focussing of 8-N3[32P]cAMP-labeled recombinant RI beta, 8-N3[32P]cAMP-labeled RI beta was readily detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in rat brain particulate extracts and exhibited a pI equivalent to that of recombinant RI beta. The 53-kDa RI beta was undetectable either by its immunoreactivity or upon photoaffinity labeling with 8-N3[32P]cAMP by one or two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in soluble or particulate extracts of testes of 14-day-old, 45-day-old, or adult rats or in epididymal sperm. However, 8-N3[32P]cAMP-labeled RI beta was detected, albeit in very small levels, by two-dimensional electrophoresis upon separation of PKAs in testes of 14-day-old rats by DEAE-cellulose chromatography but was absent in equivalent extracts from adult rat testes. These results demonstrate that the unexpectedly basic pI of RI beta allows for its clear separation by two-dimensional electrophoresis from the RII proteins and therefore allows for its unambiguous identification. Further

  10. Momentum analyzers DCBA for neutrinoless double beta decay experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momentum analyzers called Drift Chamber Beta-ray Analyzer (DCBA) are being developed at KEK in order to search for neutrinoless double beta decays of nuclei. A test prototype, DCBA-T2, has been constructed to confirm the principle detecting electron tracks in a uniform magnetic field. Another prototype, DCBA-T3, is now under construction to improve the energy resolution. The test results and the present statuses of these prototypes are presented.

  11. Momentum analyzers DCBA for neutrinoless double beta decay experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Nobuhiro, E-mail: nobuhiro.ishihara@kek.j [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    Momentum analyzers called Drift Chamber Beta-ray Analyzer (DCBA) are being developed at KEK in order to search for neutrinoless double beta decays of nuclei. A test prototype, DCBA-T2, has been constructed to confirm the principle detecting electron tracks in a uniform magnetic field. Another prototype, DCBA-T3, is now under construction to improve the energy resolution. The test results and the present statuses of these prototypes are presented.

  12. Characterization of a Commercial Silicon Beta Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxe, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mayer, Michael F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McIntyre, Justin I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sivels, Ciara B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suarez, Rey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Silicon detectors are of interest for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) due to their enhanced energy resolution compared to plastic scintillators beta cells. Previous work developing a figure-of-merit (FOM) for comparison of beta cells suggests that the minimum detectable activity (MDA) could be reduced by a factor of two to three with the use of silicon detectors. Silicon beta cells have been developed by CEA (France) and Lares Ltd. (Russia), with the PIPSBox developed by CEA being commercially available from Canberra for approximately $35k, but there is still uncertainty about the reproducibility of the capabilities in the field. PNNL is developing a high-resolution beta-gamma detector system in the shallow underground laboratory, which will utilize and characterize the operation of the PIPSBox detector. Throughout this report, we examine the capabilities of the PIPSBox as developed by CEA. The lessons learned through the testing and use of the PIPSBox will allow PNNL to strategically develop a silicon detector optimized to better suit the communities needs in the future.

  13. LHCb: $2\\beta_s$ measurement at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Conti, G

    2009-01-01

    A measurement of $2\\beta_s$, the phase of the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ oscillation amplitude with respect to that of the ${\\rm b} \\rightarrow {\\rm c^{+}}{\\rm W^{-}}$ tree decay amplitude, is one of the key goals of the LHCb experiment with first data. In the Standard Model (SM), $2\\beta_s$ is predicted to be $0.0360^{+0.0020}_{-0.0016} \\rm rad$. The current constraints from the Tevatron are: $2\\beta_{s}\\in[0.32 ; 2.82]$ at 68$\\%$CL from the CDF experiment and $2\\beta_{s}=0.57^{+0.24}_{-0.30}$ from the D$\\oslash$ experiment. Although the statistical uncertainties are large, these results hint at the possible contribution of New Physics in the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ box diagram. After one year of data taking at LHCb at an average luminosity of $\\mathcal{L}\\sim2\\cdot10^{32}\\rm cm^{-2} \\rm s^{-1}$ (integrated luminosity $\\mathcal{L}_{\\rm int}\\sim 2 \\rm fb^{-1}$), the expected statistical uncertainty on the measurement is $\\sigma(2\\beta_s)\\simeq 0.03$. This uncertainty is similar to the $2\\beta_s$ value predicted by the SM.

  14. Isolation and characterization of testis-specific cDNAs for luteinizing hormone beta-subunit in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F P; Rannikko, A; Huhtaniemi, I

    1995-05-25

    To study further the unexpected expression of the luteinizing hormone (LH) beta-subunit in the rat testis, we identified in a rat testicular cDNA library three LH beta clones with lengths of 3.2, 2.4 and 0.86 kb (TLH beta 1, TLH beta 2 and TLH beta 3). The clones were identified using a 32P-labeled cDNA probe complimentary to the known rat pituitary LH beta mRNA. Clone TLH beta 2 corresponds in size to the main LH beta mRNA species (2.7 kb) detected by Northern hybridization in the rat testis. Sequence analysis indicated that the different sizes of the three clones are due to alternative RNA splicing and differences at the 5' ends of transcripts. The sequence of one open reading frame deduced from TLH beta 1 is almost identical with the pituitary LH beta peptide, differing only in three amino acids in the putative signal peptide. It might encode a functional testis-specific LH beta peptide. Shorter transcripts from clones TLH beta 2 and TLH beta 3 may correspond to short testicular LH beta peptides. The present findings provide further evidence in the rat for expression of testis-specific mRNA variants of the LH beta gene. Their translation products may form a novel class of testicular para/autocrine factors. PMID:7763258

  15. Xeroradiography in. beta. -thalassaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scutellari, P.N.; Orzincolo, C.; Tamarozzi, R.

    1985-01-01

    Xeroradiographic investigations of the skull, hand, and elbow were performed on 27 patients with homozygous ..beta..-thalassaemia. The results were compared with plain radiographic examinations. Xeroradiography, because of its technical properties (i.e. edge contrast enhancement and wide latitude), was shown to demonstrate cortical thinning of long bones, swelling of the diploic space in the skull, and reticulated patterns in the elbow better than standard radiography. Moreover, the use of 'positive' mode imaging was shown to have advantages in the study of the skull and extremities.

  16. Detection relic gravitational waves in thermal case

    CERN Document Server

    Ghayour, Basem

    2016-01-01

    The thermal spectrum of relic gravitational waves causes the new amplitude that called `modified amplitude'. Our analysis shows that, there exist some chances for detection of the thermal spectrum in addition to the usual spectrum by Adv.LIGO and Dml detectors. The behaviour of the inflation and reheating stages are often known as power law expansion like $S(\\eta)\\propto \\eta^{1+\\beta}$, $S(\\eta)\\propto \\eta^{1+\\beta_s}$ respectively. The $\\beta$ and $\\beta_s$ have an unique effect on the shape of the spectrum. We find some upper bounds on the $\\beta$ and $\\beta_s$ by comparison the usual and thermal spectrum with the Adv.LIGO and Dml. As this result gives us more information about the nature of the evolution of inflation and reheating stages.

  17. The organization of the gamma-delta-beta gene complex in normal and thalassemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, A; Mears, J G; Ramirez, F; Burns, A L; Spence, S; Feldenzer, J; Baird, M

    1980-01-01

    Restriction enzyme digestion analysis and direct human globin gene cloning have permitted analysis of the physical arrangement of nucleotide sequences within and surrounding the human globin genes. With these methods it has been shown that the linear arrangement 5' to 3' of the globin genes is G gamma-A gamma-delta-beta. The G gamma and A gamma genes are separated by about 3.5 kilobases (kb), while the A gamma and delta genes are 15 kb apart, and the delta and beta 6.5 kb apart. Each of these genes contains a large intervening sequence (IVS) of approximately 1 kb in precisely the same position between condons 104 and 105. In addition, each of these genes has a small IVS between codons 30 and 31. In homozygous delta beta thalassemia DNA, there is deletion of all of the normal delta and beta gene fragments. However, a new fragment 4.2 kb in size containing the 5' end of the delta globin gene is retained. Retention of this fragment in delta beta thalassemia, but not in HPFH is consistent with a role for sequences in this region for limiting gamma globin gene expression. Studies to date suggest that the beta + and beta 0 thalassemias will be due to a heterogeneous group of DNA defects affecting either beta globin gene transcription or beta mRNA processing. In most cases of beta + and beta 0 thalassemia DNA analyzed, there is no detectable deletion of beta or delta genes. In three India beta 0 patients, deletion of the 3' end of the beta gene has been found. Analysis of cloned beta globin genes from a patient with beta + thalasseia shows differences from normal in the fragments generated by restriction enzymes which cut frequently. Whether these differences are responsible for the defect in thalassemia or are polymorphisms unrelated to thalassemia remains to be determined.

  18. Source preparations for alpha and beta measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    Regarding alpha particle emitters subject for environmental studies, electrodeposition or co-precipitation as fluorides are the most common methods. For electro deposition stainless steel is generally used as cathode material but also other metals such as Ni, Ag, and Cu showed promising results. The use of other anode material than platinum, such as graphite should be investigated. For other purposes such as optimal resolution other more sophisticated methods are used but often resulting in poorer recovery. For beta particle emitters the type of detection system will decide the source preparation. Similar methods as for alpha particle emitters, electrodeposition or precipitation techniques can be used. Due to the continuous energy distribution of the beta pulse height distribution a high resolution is not required. Thicker sources from the precipitates or a stable isotopic carrier can be accepted but correction for absorption in the source must be done. (au)

  19. Double beta decay: present status

    OpenAIRE

    Barabash, A. S.

    2008-01-01

    The present status of double beta decay experiments (including the search for $2\\beta^{+}$, EC$\\beta^{+}$ and ECEC processes) are reviewed. The results of the most sensitive experiments are discussed. Average and recommended half-life values for two-neutrino double beta decay are presented. Conservative upper limits on effective Majorana neutrino mass and the coupling constant of the Majoron to the neutrino are established as $ < 0.75$ eV and $ < 1.9 \\cdot 10^{-4}$, respectively. Proposals fo...

  20. Transforming growth factor-beta messenger RNA and protein in murine colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whiting, C V; Williams, A M; Claesson, Mogens Helweg;

    2001-01-01

    Using a CD4+ T-cell-transplanted SCID mouse model of colitis, we have analyzed TGF-beta transcription and translation in advanced disease. By in situ hybridization, the epithelium of both control and inflamed tissues transcribed TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3 mRNAs, but both were expressed significantly...... TGF-beta. By ELISA, very low levels (0-69 pg/mg) of soluble total or active TGF-beta were detected in hypotonic tissue lysates. TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3 are produced by SCID mouse colon and transcription is increased in the colitis caused by transplantation of CD4+ T-cells, but this does not result...

  1. Unfolding, aggregation, and seeded amyloid formation of lysine-58-cleaved beta(2)-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, N.H.H.; Jørgensen, T.J.D.; Rozlosnik, N.;

    2005-01-01

    . Using amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange monitored by mass spectrometry, we show that Delta K58-beta(2)m has increased unfolding rates compared to wt-beta(2)m and that unfolding is highly temperature dependent. The unfolding rate is I order of magnitude faster in Delta K58-beta(2)M than in wt-beta(2)m....... After a few days at 37 degrees C, in contrast to wt-beta(2)M, Delta K-58-beta(2)M forms well-defined high molecular weight aggregates that are detected by size-exclusion chromatography. Atomic force microscopy after seeding with amyloid-beta(2)m fibrils under conditions that induce minimal fibrillation...

  2. Scintillator based beta batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensing, Noa M.; Tiernan, Timothy C.; Shirwadkar, Urmila; O'Dougherty, Patrick; Freed, Sara; Hawrami, Rastgo; Squillante, Michael R.

    2013-05-01

    Some long-term, remote applications do not have access to conventional harvestable energy in the form of solar radiation (or other ambient light), wind, environmental vibration, or wave motion. Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc. (RMD) is carrying out research to address the most challenging applications that need power for many months or years and which have undependable or no access to environmental energy. Radioisotopes are an attractive candidate for this energy source, as they can offer a very high energy density combined with a long lifetime. Both large scale nuclear power plants and radiothermal generators are based on converting nuclear energy to heat, but do not scale well to small sizes. Furthermore, thermo-mechanical power plants depend on moving parts, and RTG's suffer from low efficiency. To address the need for compact nuclear power devices, RMD is developing a novel beta battery, in which the beta emissions from a radioisotope are converted to visible light in a scintillator and then the visible light is converted to electrical power in a photodiode. By incorporating 90Sr into the scintillator SrI2 and coupling the material to a wavelength-matched solar cell, we will create a scalable, compact power source capable of supplying milliwatts to several watts of power over a period of up to 30 years. We will present the latest results of radiation damage studies and materials processing development efforts, and discuss how these factors interact to set the operating life and energy density of the device.

  3. Release of salusin-beta from human monocytes/macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kengo; Fujimoto, Kazumi; Koyama, Takatoshi; Shichiri, Masayoshi

    2010-06-01

    Salusin-alpha and salusin-beta are related bioactive peptides biosynthesized from the same precursor, prosalusin. Despite the potent hemodynamic and proatherosclerotic activities of salusin-beta, its exact distribution and biological functions remain largely undetermined because of technical difficulties associated with its unique physicochemical characteristics, such as marked adhesiveness to polypropylene and polystyrene. By circumventing these problems, we recently established a specific radioimmunoassay for detecting immunoreactive human salusin-beta. In the current study, we demonstrated the release of salusin-beta from the human monoblastic leukemia cell lines, THP-1 and U937. Dilution curves of extracted conditioned media from both cells were parallel with those of standard human salusin-beta by radioimmunoassay. Reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled with radioimmunoassay detection of the culture supernatants revealed a major immunoreactive component that co-eluted with authentic salusin-beta. Both cell lines secreted salusin-beta-like immunoreactivity (LI) into serum-free media as a function of time (1234.3 + or - 122.7 and 186.7 + or - 9.1 fmol/10(5) cells per 24h). When THP-1 and U937 cells differentiated into macrophages after incubation with 2-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), they secreted far greater amounts of salusin-beta-LI into the culture supernatant (3351.9 + or - 899.3 and 1545.8 + or - 183.3 fmol/10(5) cells per 24h). TPA treatment accelerated the processing of prosalusin into its cleaved fragments, suggesting that the increased secretion of salusin-beta-LI in THP-1-derived macrophages was caused by the enhanced intracellular processing of prosalusin. Stimulation with the inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), resulted in increased secretion of salusin-beta without inducing expression of the gene for preprosalusin, suggesting that TNF-alpha and LPS stimulated

  4. Beta section Beta: biogeographical patterns of variation and taxonomy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letschert, J.P.W.

    1993-01-01

    In Chapter 1 an account is given of the historical subdivision of the genus Beta and its sections, and the relations of the sections are discussed. Emphasis is given to the taxonomic treatment of wild section Beta by various authors. The Linnaean names B. vulgaris L. and B. maritima L. are lectotypi

  5. Clinical Values of Combined Detection of Ultrasound and Serum Beta-hCG in Evaluating Early Pregnancy of Unknown ;Location Outcome%超声及血清β-人绒毛膜促性腺激素检查对早期未知部位妊娠结局的评估价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米婉琴; 周慧丽; 向红

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical values of combined detection of ultrasound and serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin(beta-hCG)examination in predicting early pregnancy of unknown location(PUL)outcome. Methods 109 cases of PUL admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University from May 2011 to May 2013 were se-lected. All the cases had a history of menopause for 4 to 6 weeks,and had positive outcome of urine or serum beta-hCG examina-tion. The first ultrasound examination after admission showed no typical fertilized egg both inside and outside the uterus,and then the beta-hCG examination was performed on the day of admission and 48 h later. All the cases were divided into IUP group(31 cases),IUPM group(21 cases)and EP group(57 cases). The 48 h growth of endometrial thickness,pregnancy luteal blood flow distribution and serum beta-hCG were compared between the three groups. Results The ultrasound examination showed that the IUP group had thicker endometrial thickness〔(1. 25 ± 0. 22)cm〕compared with the IUPM group〔(0. 78 ± 0. 30)cm〕and EP group〔(0. 75 ±0. 31)cm〕(P0. 05 ) . IUPM group and EP group blood signal loss rate were higher than that of IUP group,EP group was higher than in IUPM group(P60% in IUP group〔93. 5%(29/31)〕was higher than the IUPM group〔14. 3%(3/21)〕and EP group〔33. 3%(19/57)〕,and the EP group was also higher than the IUPM group(P0.05)。IUPM组和EP组妊娠黄体血流信号缺失率高于IUP组,EP组高于IUPM组( P60%者比例〔93.5%(29/31)〕高于IUPM组〔14.3%(3/21)〕和EP组〔33.3%(19/57)〕,EP组高于IUPM组(P<0.017)。结论超声检测子宫内膜厚度、妊娠黄体血流信号缺失情况及血清β-hCG 48 h增长率对PUL的结局评估有一定临床指导价值。

  6. Characterization of a neutron–beta counting system with beta-delayed neutron emitters

    OpenAIRE

    Agramunt, J.; Tain, J.L.; Gómez-Hornillos, M. B.; GARCIA A. R.; Albiol, F; Algora, A.; Caballero-Folch, R.; CALVIÑO F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Cortés, G.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Eronen, Tommi; Gelletly, W.; Gorelov, Dmitry; Gorlychev, V.

    2016-01-01

    A new detection system for the measurement of beta-delayed neutron emission probabilities has been characterized using fission products with well known β-delayed neutron emission properties. The setup consists of BELEN-20, a 4π neutron counter with twenty 3He proportional tubes arranged inside a large polyethylene neutron moderator, a thin Si detector for β counting and a selftriggering digital data acquisition system. The use of delayed-neutron precursors with different neutron emis...

  7. Characterization of a neutron-beta counting system with beta-delayed neutron emitters

    OpenAIRE

    Agramunt Ros, Jorge; Taín, J. L.; Gómez Hornillos, María Belén; Calviño Tavares, Francisco; Cortés Rossell, Guillem Pere; Pretel Sánchez, Carme; Riego Pérez, Albert; Tarifeño Saldivia, Ariel Esteban

    2016-01-01

    A new detection system for the measurement of beta-delayed neutron emission probabilities has been characterized using fission products with well known ß-delayed neutron emission properties. The setup consists of BELEN-20, a 4p neutron counter with twenty 3He proportional tubes arranged inside a large polyethylene neutron moderator, a thin Si detector for ß counting and a self-triggering digital data acquisition system. The use of delayed-neutron precursors with different neutron emission win...

  8. Beta Function and Anomalous Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that it is possible to determine the coefficients of an all-order beta function linear in the anomalous dimensions using as data the two-loop coefficients together with the first one of the anomalous dimensions which are universal. The beta function allows to determine the anomalous...

  9. The best-beta CAPM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Zou

    2006-01-01

    The issue of 'best-beta' arises as soon as potential errors in the Sharpe-Lintner-Black capital asset pricing model (CAPM) are acknowledged. By incorporating a target variable into the investor preferences, this study derives a best-beta CAPM (BCAPM) that maintains the CAPM's theoretical appeal and

  10. RAVEN Beta Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert Arthur [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Congjian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maljovec, Daniel Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Talbot, Paul William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  11. Beta systems error analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The atmospheric backscatter coefficient, beta, measured with an airborne CO Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) system operating in a continuous wave, focussed model is discussed. The Single Particle Mode (SPM) algorithm, was developed from concept through analysis of an extensive amount of data obtained with the system on board a NASA aircraft. The SPM algorithm is intended to be employed in situations where one particle at a time appears in the sensitive volume of the LDV. In addition to giving the backscatter coefficient, the SPM algorithm also produces as intermediate results the aerosol density and the aerosol backscatter cross section distribution. A second method, which measures only the atmospheric backscatter coefficient, is called the Volume Mode (VM) and was simultaneously employed. The results of these two methods differed by slightly less than an order of magnitude. The measurement uncertainties or other errors in the results of the two methods are examined.

  12. RAVEN Beta Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  13. Beta Beams Implementation at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Beta Beam,the concept of generating a pure and intense (anti) neutrino beam by letting accelerated radioactive ions beta decay in a storage ring, called Decay Ring (DR), is the base of one of the proposed next generation neutrino oscillation facilities, necessary for a complete study of the neutrino oscillation parameter space. Sensitivities of the unknown neutrino oscillation parameters depend on the Decay Ring's ion intensity and of it's duty factor (the filled ratio of the ring). Therefore efficient ion production, stripping, bunching, acceleration and storing are crucial sub-projects under study and development within the Beta Beam collaboration. Specifically the feasibility of these tasks as parts of a Beta Beam implementation at CERN will be discussed in this report. The positive impact of the large {\\theta}13 indications from T2K on the Beta Beam performance will also be discussed.

  14. Too many betas do not spoil the broth: The role of beta brain oscillations in language processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eWeiss

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 20 years, brain oscillations have proven to be a gateway to the understanding of cognitive processes. It has been shown that different neurocognitive aspects of language processing are associated with brain oscillations at various frequencies. Frequencies in the beta range (13-30 Hz turned out to be particularly important with respect to cognitive and linguistic manipulations during language processing. Beta activity has been involved in higher-order linguistic functions such as the discrimination of word categories and the retrieval of action semantics as well as semantic memory, and syntactic binding processes, which support meaning construction during sentence processing. From a neurophysiological point of view, the important role of the beta frequencies for such a complex cognitive task as language processing seems reasonable. Experimental evidence suggests that frequencies in the beta range are ideal for maintaining and preserving the activity of neuronal assemblies over time. In particular, recent computational and experimental evidence suggest that beta frequencies are important for linking past and present input and the detection of novelty of stimuli, which are essential processes for language perception as well as production. In addition, the beta frequency’s role in the formation of cell assemblies underlying short-term memory seems indispensable for language analysis. Probably the most important point is the well-known relation of beta oscillations with motor processes. It can be speculated that beta activities reflect the close relationship between language comprehension and motor functions, which is one of the core claims of current theories on embodied cognition.In this article, the importance of beta oscillations for language processing is reviewed based both on findings in psychophysiological and neurophysiological literature.

  15. [Serum beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2M) following renal transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Silva, A; Nishida, S K; Silva, M S; Ramos, O L; Azjen, H; Pereira, A B

    1994-01-01

    Although there was an important improvement in graft and patient survival the last 10 years, graft rejection continues to be a major barrier to the success of renal transplantation. Identification of a laboratory test that could help to diagnose graft rejection would facilitate the management of renal transplanted patients. PURPOSE--To evaluate the utility of monitoring serum beta 2M in recently transplanted patients. METHODS--We daily determined serum beta 2M levels in 20 receptors of renal grafts (10 from living related and 10 from cadaveric donors) and compared them to their clinical and laboratory evolution. RESULTS--Eight patients who presented immediate good renal function following grafting and did not have rejection had a mean serum beta 2M of 3.7 mg/L on the 4th day post transplant. The sensitivity of the test for the diagnosis of acute rejection was 87.5%, but the specificity was only 46%. Patients who presented acute tubular necrosis (ATN) without rejection had a progressive decrease in their serum levels of beta 2M, while their serum creatinine changed as they were dialyzed. In contrast, patients with ATN and concomitance of acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity presented elevated beta 2M and creatinine serum levels. CONCLUSION--Daily monitoring of serum beta 2M does not improve the ability to diagnose acute rejection in patients with good renal function. However, serum beta 2M levels seemed to be useful in diagnosing acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity in patients with ATN.

  16. Intuitionistic Fuzzy Generalized Beta Closed Mappings

    OpenAIRE

    D. Jayanthi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we introduce intuitionistic fuzzy generalized beta closed mappings and intuitionistic fuzzy generalized beta open mappings. We investigate some of their properties. We also introduce intuitionistic fuzzy M-generalized beta closed mappings as well as intuitionistic fuzzy M-generalized beta open mappings. We provide the relation between intuitionistic fuzzy M-generalized beta closed mappings and intuitionistic fuzzy generalized beta closed mappings.

  17. A Figure-of-Merit for Beta Cell Detector Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxe, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miller, Brian W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suarez, Rey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-02

    In order to decrease the minimum detectable activities (MDAs) of beta-gamma radioxenon detectors, it is important to increase the ability to resolve the individual isotopes. One proposed method for doing this is to increase the energy resolution of the beta cell through the use of silicon detectors. While silicon detectors can improve the energy resolution, it is accompanied with a decrease in detection efficiency compared to plastic scintillator beta cells. Due to the uncertainty on the impact of the competing variables, we have developed a figure-of-merit (FOM) capable of determining the impact of detector parameters on the MDAs. By utilizing the FOM to analyze different detectors, we are able to directly compare current and future detectors and estimate their impact on the radioxenon MDAs.

  18. Retinal and choroidal TGF-beta in the tree shrew model of myopia: isoform expression, activation and effects on function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobling, Andrew Ian; Wan, Ran; Gentle, Alex; Bui, Bang Viet; McBrien, Neville Anthony

    2009-03-01

    A visually evoked signalling cascade, which begins in the retina, transverses the choroid, and mediates scleral remodelling, is considered to control eye growth. The ubiquitous cytokine TGF-beta has been associated with alterations in ocular growth, where alterations in scleral TGF-beta isoforms mediate the scleral remodelling that results in myopia. However, while the TGF-beta isoforms have been implicated in the scleral change during myopia development, it is unclear whether alterations in retinal and choroidal isoforms constitute part of the retinoscleral cascade. This study characterised the retinal and choroidal TGF-beta isoform profiles and TGF-beta2 activation during different stages of myopia development, as induced by form deprivation, in a mammalian model of eye growth. Using quantitative real-time PCR, the mRNA for all three mammalian isoforms of TGF-beta was detected in tree shrew retina and choroid. Distinct tissue-specific isoform profiles were observed for the retina (TGF-beta1:TGF-beta2:TGF-beta3=20:2085:1) and choroid (TGF-beta1:TGF-beta2:TGF-beta3=16:23:1), which remained constant over the development period under investigation. The active and latent pools of retinal TGF-beta2 were quantified using ELISA with the majority (>94%) of total TGF-beta2 found in the latent form. Unlike previous scleral data showing early and continuous decreases in TGF-beta isoform expression during myopia development, the levels of the three isoforms remained within normal ranges for retinal (TGF-beta1, -14 to +14%; TGF-beta2, -2 to +20%; TGF-beta3, -10 to +26%) and choroidal (TGF-beta1, -19 to +21%; TGF-beta2, -26 to +8%; TGF-beta3, -11 to +28%) tissues during myopia development (induction times of 3h, 7h, 11h, 24h, and 5 days). A 40% decrease in retinal TGF-beta2 activation was observed after 5 days of myopia development, however, there was no functional correlate of altered TGF-beta2 activity, as assessed by the retinal ERG response. Overall, these data highlight

  19. Effect of beta blockade and beta stimulation on stage fright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantigan, C O; Brantigan, T A; Joseph, N

    1982-01-01

    Stage fright, physiologically the "fight or flight" reaction, is a disabling condition to the professional musician. Because it is mediated by the sympathetic nervous system, we have investigated the effects of beta blockade on musical performance with propranolol in a double blind fashion and the effects of beta stimulation using terbutaline. Stage fright symptoms were evaluated in two trials, which included a total of 29 subjects, by questionnaire and by the State Trai Anxiety Inventory. Quality of musical performance was evaluated by experienced music critics. Beta blockade eliminates the physical impediments to performance caused by stage fright and even eliminates the dry mouth so frequently encountered. The quality of musical performance as judged by experienced music critics is significantly improved. This effect is achieved without tranquilization. Beta stimulating drugs increase stage fright problems, and should be used in performing musicians only after consideration of the detrimental effects which they may have on musical performance. PMID:6120650

  20. Experiments on double beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busto, J. [Neuchatel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique

    1996-11-01

    The Double Beta Decay, and especially ({beta}{beta}){sub 0{nu}} mode, is an excellent test of Standard Model as well as of neutrino physics. From experimental point of view, a very large number of different techniques are or have been used increasing the sensitivity of this experiments quite a lot (the factor of 10{sup 4} in the last 20 years). In future, in spite of several difficulties, the sensitivity would be increased further, keeping the interest of this very important process. (author) 4 figs., 5 tabs., 21 refs.

  1. Effect of Beta-Carotene on Oxidative Stress and Expression of Cardiac Connexin 43

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novo, Rosangela; Azevedo, Paula S.; Minicucci, Marcos F.; Zornoff, Leonardo A. M., E-mail: lzornoff@fmb.unesp.br; Paiva, Sergio A. R. [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu - Universidade Estadual Paulista ' Júlio de Mesquita Filho' , Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Intervention studies have shown an increased mortality in patients who received beta-carotene. However, the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are still unknown. Evaluate the influence of beta-carotene on oxidative stress and the expression of connexin 43 in rat hearts. Wistar rats, weighing approximately 100 g, were allocated in two groups: Control Group (n = 30), that received the diet routinely used in our laboratory, and Beta-Carotene Group (n = 28), which received beta-carotene (in crystal form, added and mixed to the diet) at a dose of 500 mg of beta carotene/kg of diet. The animals received the treatment until they reached 200-250g, when they were sacrificed. Samples of blood, liver and heart were collected to perform Western blotting and immunohistochemistry for connexin 43; morphometric studies, dosages of beta carotene by high performance liquid chromatography as well as reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione and lipids hydroperoxides were performed by biochemical analysis. Beta-carotene was detected only in the liver of Beta-Carotene Group animals (288 ± 94.7 μg/kg). Levels of reduced/ oxidized glutathione were higher in the liver and heart of Beta-Carotene Group animals (liver - Control Group: 42.60 ± 1.62; liver - Beta-Carotene Group: 57.40 ± 5.90; p = 0.04; heart: - Control Group: 117.40 ± 1.01; heart - Beta-Carotene Group: 121.81 ± 1.32 nmol/mg protein; p = 0.03). The content of total connexin 43 was larger in Beta-Carotene Group. Beta-carotene demonstrated a positive effect, characterized by the increase of intercellular communication and improvement of anti-oxidizing defense system. In this model, mechanism does not explain the increased mortality rate observed with the beta-carotene supplementation in clinical studies.

  2. Dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources; Dosimetria de fuentes {beta} extensas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Lallena R, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    In this work, we have been studied, making use of the Penelope Monte Carlo simulation code, the dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources in situations of spherical geometry including interfaces. These configurations are of interest in the treatment of the called cranealfaringyomes of some synovia leisure of knee and other problems of interest in medical physics. Therefore, its application can be extended toward problems of another areas with similar geometric situation and beta sources. (Author)

  3. Development of chemical sensors by using beta emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, H. J; Yu, S. K.; Yoon, M. O.; Park, K. S.; Rhim, G. J. [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    The objective of this project is development of core techniques for fabrication of biosensor. This includes a method for immobilization of biologically active molecules, a method for labelling target molecules with beta emitter, and a detection method based on beta counting. A radioimmuno-sensor for detection of DNA antibody, self-assembled monolayers of {omega}-carboxylated thiol molecules such as thioctic acid and 12-mercaptododecanoic acid were used in combination with chemical coupling methods. EDC (1 - ethyl - 3 [3 - (dimethylamino)propyl] carbodiimide) and NHS (N - hydroxy - succinimide) were used as coupling reagents to induce amide bond formation between the COOH group on the sensor surface and the -NH{sub 2} group on the antibody. Various experimental conditions such as COOH concentration, immobilization pH, reaction times etc, have been examined to establish optimum conditions for efficient immobilization of the antibody. Efficient labeling of the target antigen, DNA, with a beta emitter, {sup 35}S, was achieved by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Detection of sensing signal from antigens that are selectively bound to the surface of the DNA radioimmuno-sensor has been accomplished by use of the beta counting method. According to the present results, efficient immobilization of the antibody is possible at very low antibody concentration below or equal to 0.1 mg/mL with detection limit reaching as low as 10{sup -11} M bp DNA concentration. 25 refs., 14 figs. (Author)

  4. Murrayafoline A attenuates the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway by promoting the degradation of intracellular {beta}-catenin proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyuk; Gwak, Jungsug; Cho, Munju; Ryu, Min-Jung [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jee-Hyun; Kim, Sang Kyum; Kim, Young Ho [College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gye Won [Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Konyang University, Nonsan 320-711 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Mi-Young [Department of Beauty Health Care, Daejeon University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Cuong, Nguyen Manh [Institute of Natural Products Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Shin, Jae-Gook [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Gyu-Yong, E-mail: gysong@cnu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sangtaek, E-mail: ohsa@inje.ac.kr [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-01

    Molecular lesions in Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling and subsequent up-regulation of {beta}-catenin response transcription (CRT) occur frequently during the development of colon cancer. To identify small molecules that suppress CRT, we screened natural compounds in a cell-based assay for detection of TOPFalsh reporter activity. Murrayafoline A, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from Glycosmis stenocarpa, antagonized CRT that was stimulated by Wnt3a-conditioned medium (Wnt3a-CM) or LiCl, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}), and promoted the degradation of intracellular {beta}-catenin without altering its N-terminal phosphorylation at the Ser33/37 residues, marking it for proteasomal degradation, or the expression of Siah-1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Murrayafoline A repressed the expression of cyclin D1 and c-myc, which is known {beta}-catenin/T cell factor (TCF)-dependent genes and thus inhibited the proliferation of various colon cancer cells. These findings indicate that murrayafoline A may be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for use in the treatment of colon cancer.

  5. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of beta emitters in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamzah, Zaini bin

    1983-01-01

    A beta spectrometer, consisting of a liquid scintillation counter, coupled to a programmable multichannel analyser was used to achieve the objective of detecting and measuring beta activity in low level aqueous environmental solution as well as identifying the radioisotopes present. Aqueous solutions of standard beta emitters, covering a range of energies between 18.6 KeV and 3550 KeV, were used to develop computer methods for analysis. The effects of pH, acids, bases, buffers, and salts on the stability of the mixture and on the detection efficiency of the radioisotopes, were investigated. It was found that temperature changes, beyond the operating temperature range, could result in severe errors. Application of the Cherenkov counting technique for beta emitters, gives extra data to support the main results. For the analysis of environmental solutions, which may contain a variety of radioisotopes, the system was used to obtain spectra of alpha emitters, beta emitters with internal conversion and Cherenkov radiation. Synthetic mixtures of tritium and carbon-14 of activity ratios between 8:1 and 1:8 were used to investigate the problems of multielement spectral analysis.

  6. Beta-gamma discriminator circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major difficulty encountered in the determination of beta-ray dose in field conditions is generally the presence of a relatively high gamma-ray component. Conventional dosimetry instruments use a shield on the detector to estimate the gamma-ray component in comparison with the beta-ray component. More accurate dosimetry information can be obtained from the measured beta spectrum itself. At Los Alamos, a detector and discriminator circuit suitable for use in a portable spectrometer have been developed. This instrument will discriminate between gammas and betas in a mixed field. The portable package includes a 256-channel MCA which can be programmed to give a variety of outputs, including a spectral display, and may be programmed to read dose directly

  7. Peginterferon Beta-1a Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms such as headaches, bone or muscle aches, fever, chills, and tiredness during your treatment with peginterferon beta- ... not go away: headache muscle or joint pain fever chills weakness Some side effects can be serious. If ...

  8. Gross alpha and gross beta activity in the products and by-product of amang tin tailings process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross alpha and gross beta activities were determined for mineral samples collected from five amang tailing factories. The measured activity of alpha ranged from 31 to 220,000 Bq kg-1 with an average 9,154 Bq kg-1, whereas for beta activity ranged from 9 to 552,000 Bq kg-1 with an average 19,811 Bq kg-1. The higher gross alpha and gross beta observed of monazite while the lowest recorded of waste (sand) and pyrite for gross alpha and gross beta activity respectively. The minimum detectable activities were 180 and 40 Bq kg-1 for gross alpha and gross beta respectively. (author)

  9. Activity of beta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations against extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing enterobacteriaceae in urinary isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the susceptibility pattern of beta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae in urinary isolates. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Ziauddin University Hospital, Karachi, from February to October 2008. Methodology: A total of 190 consecutive non-duplicate isolates of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae from urine samples of in-patients were included in the study. Urinary samples from out-patients, repeat samples and non-ESBL producing isolates were excluded. Detection of ESBL was carried out by double disk diffusion technique. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using modified Kirby Bauer's disk diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS version 10. Results: Of the 190 ESBL isolates tested, 88 cases (46.31%) were sensitive and 6 cases (3.15%) were resistant to all three combinations, the rest 96 cases (50.52%) were resistant to at least one of the combinations. Susceptibility pattern of cefoperazone/sulbactam, piperacillin/tazobactam, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was 95.26, 92.10, and 44.31 percent respectively. Conclusion: Cefoperazone/sulbactam exhibited the best activity against ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae followed by piperacillin/tazobactam. Hospital antibiotic policies should be reviewed periodically to reduce the usage of extended spectrum cephalosporins and replace them with beta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations agent for treating urinary tract infections. (author)

  10. Coexistence of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases, AmpC Beta-Lactamases and Metallo-Beta-Lactamases in Acinetobacter baumannii from burns patients: a report from a tertiary care centre of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, V; Garg, R; Garg, S; Chander, J; Attri, A K

    2013-12-31

    Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumanii is a major pathogen encountered in pyogenic infections, especially from burns patients in hospital settings. Often there is also coexistence of multiple beta-lactamase enzymes responsible for beta-lactam resistance in a single isolate, which further complicates treatment options. We conducted a study on burn wound pus samples obtained from the burns unit of our hospital. Phenotypic tests were used to determine the Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase, AmpC Beta-Lactamase and Metallo-Beta-Lactamase producing status of the isolates. Almost half of the samples from the burn wounds yielded Acinetobacter baumanii as the predominant pathogen (54.05%). Coexistence of the three resistance mechanisms was seen in 25 of the 100 (25%) isolates of Acinetobacter baumanii. This study emphasizes the need for the detection of isolates that produce these enzymes to avoid therapeutic failures and nosocomial outbreaks. PMID:24799848

  11. Beta-thalassaemia trait: haematological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thalassaemia syndromes are a group of hereditary disorders characterised by a genetic deficiency in the synthesis of --globin genes. The objective of this study was to determine the haematological features -thalassaemia trait (BTT), and to determine the sensitivity of Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH) and -thalassaemia trait. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted in Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar from May 2009 to May 2010 with 203 subjects having BTT. Blood samples were collected in EDTA anti-coagulated tubes. RBC indices were taken as part of complete blood count (CBC) by haematology analyser, and Haemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis was done to determine the HbA2 percentage. The data was collected and analyzed on statistical software for demographic details, RBC indices and HBA2 levels. Results: Out of 203 patients, 92 (45%) were males and 111 (55%) were females. Most patients tested were in the 15-45 year age group. One-hundred-sixty (79%) patients had anaemia. MCV was lower than 76 fl in all the cases. Mean MCV was 59.1 fl. MCH was low, the mean MCH being 19.3 g/dl. MCH <26 gave sensitivity of 99% in detecting BTT. We calculated MI for these cases and found out that it was <12 in 75% of cases and <15 in 197 (97%). Conclusion: Beta-thalassaemia traits present with a microcytic hypochromic blood picture, detected on simple haematology analysers as low MCV and MCH and MI which provide a beta- thalassaemia trait. (author)

  12. A background free double beta decay experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Giomataris, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    We present a new detection scheme for rejecting backgrounds in neutrino less double beta decay experiments. It relies on the detection of Cherenkov light emitted by electrons in the MeV region. The momentum threshold is tuned to reach a good discrimination between background and good events. We consider many detector concepts and a range of target materials. The most promising is a high-pressure 136Xe emitter for which the required energy threshold is easily adjusted. Combination of this concept and a high pressure Time Projection Chamber could provide an optimal solution. A simple and low cost effective solution is to use the Spherical Proportional Counter that provides two delayed signals from ionization and Cherenkov light. In solid-state double beta decay emitters, because of their higher density, the considered process is out of energy range. An alternative solution could be the development of double decay emitters with lower density by using for instance the aerogel technique. It is surprising that a te...

  13. Synthesis of Beta Pyridyl Carbinol Tartrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Shukla

    1968-04-01

    Full Text Available A process for the synthesis of Beta pyridine carboxylic acid ethy1 ester starting from quinoline has been developed. Beta-pyridine carboxylic acid ethy1 ester on reduction with lithium aluminium hydride gave Beta-pyridy1 carbinol which on treatment tartaric acid yielded Beta-pyridy1 carbinol tartrate, a vaso dilator known in trade as "Ronicoltartrate".

  14. Apollo applications of beta fiber glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimer, J.

    1971-01-01

    The physical characteristics of Beta fiber glass are discussed. The application of Beta fiber glass for fireproofing the interior of spacecraft compartments is described. Tests to determine the flammability of Beta fiber glass are presented. The application of Beta fiber glass for commercial purposes is examined.

  15. Beta-Catenin and Epithelial Tumors: A Study Based on 374 Oropharyngeal Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Santoro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although altered regulation of the Wnt pathway via beta-catenin is a frequent event in several human cancers, its potential implications in oral/oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC/OPSCC are largely unexplored. Work purpose was to define association between beta-catenin expression and clinical-pathological parameters in 374 OSCCs/OP-SCCs by immunohistochemistry (IHC. Materials and Methods. Association between IHC detected patterns of protein expression and clinical-pathological parameters was assessed by statistical analysis and survival rates by Kaplan-Meier curves. Beta-catenin expression was also investigated in OSCC cell lines by Real-Time PCR. An additional analysis of the DNA content was performed on 22 representative OSCCs/OPSCCs by DNA-image-cytometric analysis. Results and Discussion. All carcinomas exhibited significant alterations of beta-catenin expression (P<0.05. Beta-catenin protein was mainly detected in the cytoplasm of cancerous cells and only focal nuclear positivity was observed. Higher cytoplasmic expression correlated significantly with poor histological differentiation, advanced stage, and worst patient outcome (P<0.05. By Real-Time PCR significant increase of beta-catenin mRNA was detected in OSCC cell lines and in 45% of surgical specimens. DNA ploidy study demonstrated high levels of aneuploidy in beta-catenin overexpressing carcinomas. Conclusions. This is the largest study reporting significant association between beta-catenin expression and clinical-pathological factors in patients with OSCCs/OPSCCs.

  16. A method for the determination of residual beta activity in drinking water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idoeta, R. [Dpto. Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, E. T. S. Ingenieria de Bilbao - Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alda. Urquijo s/n. 48013 Bilbao (Spain)], E-mail: raquel.idoeta@ehu.es; Herranz, M.; Abelairas, A.; Legarda, F. [Dpto. Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, E. T. S. Ingenieria de Bilbao - Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alda. Urquijo s/n. 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2007-09-15

    The determination of residual beta activity in drinking water is usually needed in most monitoring programs. In this work a procedure for its determination is described and expressions for the calculations of detection limits and uncertainties are proposed.

  17. Status and prospects of searches for neutrinoless double beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Schwingenheuer, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    The simultaneous beta decay of two neutrons in a nucleus without the emission of neutrinos (called neutrinoless double beta decay) is a lepton number violating process which is not allowed in the Standard Model of particle physics. More than a dozen experiments using different candidate isotopes and a variety of detection techniques are searching for this decay. Some (EXO-200, Kamland-Zen, GERDA) started to take data recently. EXO and Kamland-Zen have reported first limits of the half life $T_{1/2}^{0\

  18. Vasodilatory mechanisms of beta receptor blockade.

    OpenAIRE

    Rath, Géraldine; Balligand, Jean-Luc; Dessy, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    Beta-blockers are widely prescribed for the treatment of a variety of cardiovascular pathologies. Compared to traditional beta-adrenergic antagonists, beta-blockers of the new generation exhibit ancillary properties such as vasodilation through different mechanisms. This translates into a more favorable hemodynamic profile. The relative affinities of beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists towards the three beta-adrenoreceptor isotypes matter for predicting their functional impact on vasomotor contro...

  19. Tables of double beta decay data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tretyak, V.I. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine)]|[Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Zdesenko, Y.G. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1995-12-31

    A compilation of experimental data on double beta decay is presented. The tables contain the most stringent known experimental limits or positive results of 2{beta} transitions of 69 natural nuclides to ground and excited states of daughter nuclei for different channels (2{beta}{sup -}; 2{beta}{sup +}; {epsilon}{beta}{sup +}; 2{epsilon}) and modes (0{nu}; 2{nu}; 0{nu}M) of decay. (authors). 189 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. The GERDA experiment on 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, Kai [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    The Gerda (Germanium Detector Array) collaboration searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) of {sup 76}Ge. The existence of this decay would give rise to the assumption that the neutrino is a Majorana particle, i.e. its own antiparticle. A measured half-life could be used to determine the effective neutrino mass and hence resolve the neutrino mass hierarchy problem. Germanium diodes, isotopically enriched in {sup 76}Ge, are used as both source and detector. Due to the low rate of this decay (T{sub 1/2}>10{sup 25} y), the experimental background must be reduced to a level of 10{sup -2}counts/(kg y keV) or better in the region around Q{sub {beta}{beta}}. To minimize background from cosmogenically produced secondary particles, a low Z shielding is employed. Thus, the naked diodes are operated in a liquid argon cryostat, which is surrounded by a water tank acting as both passive shield and active muon Cherenkov veto. Gerda started the commissioning runs in 2010 and in November 2011, the first phase of data taking with enriched detectors has begun. In this talk, the first year of the experiment is summarized.

  1. P53 and Beta-Catenin Activity during Estrogen treatment of Osteoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolman Kevin

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was undertaken to examine the relationship between the tumor suppressor gene p53 and the nuclear signaling protein beta-catenin during bone differentiation. Cross talk between p53 and beta-catenin pathways has been demonstrated and is important during tumorigenesis and DNA damage, where deregulation of beta catenin activates p53. In this study, we used estrogen treatment of osteoblasts as a paradigm to study the relationship between the two proteins during osteoblast differentiation. Results We exposed osteoblast-like ROS17/2.8 cells to 17-beta estradiol (E2, in a short term assay, and studied the cellular distribution and expression of beta-catenin. We found beta-catenin to be up regulated several fold following E2 treatment. Levels of p53 and its functional activity mirrored the quantitative changes seen in beta-catenin. Alkaline phosphatase, an early marker of osteoblast differentiation, was increased in a manner similar to beta-catenin and p53. In order to determine if there was a direct relationship between alkaline phosphatase expression and beta-catenin, we used two different approaches. In the first approach, treatment with LiCl, which is known to activate beta-catenin, caused a several fold increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. In the second approach, transient transfection of wild type beta-catenin into osteoblasts increased alkaline phosphatase activity two fold over basal levels, showing that beta catenin expression can directly affect alkaline phosphatase expression. However increase in beta catenin activity was not associated with an increase in its signaling activity through TCF/LEF mediated transcription. Immunofluorescence analyses of p53 and beta-catenin localization showed that E2 first caused an increase in cytosolic beta-catenin followed by the accumulation of beta-catenin in the nucleus. Nuclear p53 localization was detected in several cells. Expression of p53 was accompanied by

  2. Conversion of testosterone to 5 beta-reduced metabolites in the neuroendocrine tissues of the maturing cockerel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, R; Sharp, P J

    1981-02-01

    The metabolism in vitro of [4-14C]testosterone to reduced derivatives was studied in the pituitary gland, hypothalamus and hyperstriatum dorsale of cockerels from hatch to sexual maturity. The most important metabolites were 5 beta-dihydrotestosterone (5 beta-DHT), 5 beta-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol (5 beta-3 alpha-diol) and 5 beta-androstane-3 beta, 17 beta-diol. Trace amounts of androstenedione and, in the hypothalamus only, of 5 alpha-DHT were also detected. The amounts of 5 beta-reduced metabolites produced by all neuroendocrine tissues declined progressively during maturation with the steepest fall occurring during the first 2 weeks after hatch. At all ages studied, 5 beta-DHT was formed to the greatest extent by the hyperstriatum dorsale, to a lesser extent by the hypothalamus and in the smallest quantities by the pituitary gland. In the three tissues studied, 5 beta-3 alpha-diol tended to be formed to the greatest extent by the pituitary gland. No significant change was observed in the metabolism of testosterone to reduced derivatives in any of the neuroendocrine tissues after castration. It was concluded that in the cockerel, unlike the rat, a change in 5 alpha-reductase activity of the neuroendocrine tissues is unlikely to be involved in the initiation of puberty. The physiological significance of 5 beta-reductase activity in the neuroendocrine tissues remains to be established.

  3. Elaboration of supports for beta emitting sources (with vyns); Elaboracion de soportes para fuentes emisoras beta (con vyns)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes P, A.; Torre O, J. De la; Tejera R, A.; Becerril V, A.; Bribiesca S, L

    1990-04-15

    The Laboratory of Radioactive patterns account with a 4 {pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence system of recent acquisition with which absolute measures of radioactive activity with uncertainties of the order of 0.1% can be made. Since the coincidence method for the activity measure consists on detecting to the particle and the photon corresponding to oneself nuclear disintegration, it is necessary to elaborate special radioactive sources on thin supports, in order to allowing the maximum possible fluence of {beta} particles ({approx} 100%). This work a technique for the elaboration of these sources and for the measure of the thickness of the walls of the support is presented. (Author)

  4. High efficiency beta-decay spectroscopy using a planar germanium double-sided strip detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta-decay spectroscopy experiments are limited by the detection efficiency of ions and electrons in the experimental setup. While there is a variety of different experimental setups in use for beta-decay spectroscopy, one popular choice is silicon double-sided strip detectors (DSSD). The higher Z of Ge and greater availability of thicker detectors as compared to Si potentially offer dramatic increases in the detection efficiency for beta-decay electrons. In this work, a planar GeDSSD has been commissioned for use in beta-decay spectroscopy experiments at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL). The implantation response of the detector and its beta-decay detection efficiency is discussed. -- Highlights: • A planar Ge double-sided strip detector is implemented for decay spectroscopy. • Dual range preamplifiers provide sensitivity to both heavy ions and beta-decay electrons. • Beta-decay electron detection efficiencies greater than 50% are demonstrated. • Based on comparisons with simulation, an efficiency of roughly 90% is expected

  5. Marcadores eletrocardiográficos para detecção precoce de doença cardíaca em pacientes com talassemia beta maior Electrocardiographic markers for the early detection of cardiac disease in patients with beta-thalassemia major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Nisli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar comparativamente a dispersão da onda P (DOP em pacientes com talassemia beta maior (β-TM e indivíduos saudáveis (controles para a detecção precoce do risco de arritmias. MÉTODOS: Oitenta e uma crianças com β-TM, com idades entre 4 e 19 anos, e 74 crianças saudáveis (grupo controle foram submetidas a exame eletrocardiográfico e ecocardiograma transtorácico de rotina para avaliação cardíaca. A DOP foi calculada como a diferença entre as durações máxima e mínima da onda P. RESULTADOS: Houve uma diferença estatisticamente significativa entre o grupo de estudo e o grupo controle no pico de velocidade do fluxo transmitral no início da diástole (E e na razão E/fluxo transmitral tardio (A. A duração máxima da onda P e a DOP foram significativamente maiores nos pacientes com β-TM do que nos indivíduos controles. CONCLUSÕES: O aumento da DOP em nossos pacientes com β-TM pode estar relacionado à depressão na condução intra-atrial, devido à dilatação atrial, e ao aumento da atividade simpática. Estes pacientes devem ser acompanhados atentamente devido à possibilidade de ocorrência de arritmias com risco de vida.OBJECTIVE: To comparatively evaluate P-wave dispersion (PWD in patients with β-thalassemia major (TM and healthy control subjects for the early prediction of arrhythmia risk. METHODS: Eighty-one children with β-TM, aged 4-19 years, and 74 healthy children (control group underwent routine electrocardiography and transthoracic echocardiography for cardiac evaluation. PWD was calculated as the difference between the maximum and the minimum P-wave duration. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference between study and control groups in peak early (E mitral inflow velocity and E/late (A velocity ratio. Maximum P-wave duration and PWD were found to be significantly higher in β-TM patients than in control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Increased PWD in our β-TM patients might be related

  6. No evidence of mutations in the genes for type I and type II 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3{beta}HSD) in nonclassical 3{beta}HSD deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerah, M.; Mani, P.; Schram, P. [New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-01

    Nonclassical 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/{Delta}{sup 5}-{Delta}{sup 4}-isomerase deficiency (NC3{beta}HSDD) has been diagnosed in hyperandrogenic women with an increasing frequency during the last 14 yr. Fifteen menarcheal women with androgen excess syndrome, previously diagnosed with NC3{beta}HSDD were studied, in 12 after discontinuation of glucocorticoid treatment, in 2 patients never treated with glucocorticoids, and in 1 both before and after glucocorticoid therapy. Molecular DNA analysis was also performed in 6 of the patients, using the strategy successfully used to detect point mutations in the type II 3{beta}-hydroxysteriod dehydrogenase (3{beta}HSD) gene, which are responsible for classical 3{beta}HSD deficiency. This strategy consists of the direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified DNA fragments corresponding to the complete coding sequence and all intron-exon junctions and to the 5{prime}- and 3{prime}-noncoding region of this gene. We were unable to demonstrate any mutation of the type II 3{beta}HSD gene in these 6 patients. To gain additional information about potential mutations, direct sequencing of the type I 3{beta}HSD gene was also performed using this same strategy, and no mutations were found. The present study strongly suggests that unlike the salt-losing and nonsalt-losing forms of classical 3{beta}HSD deficiency, NC3{beta}HSDD is not due to a mutant type II 3{beta}HSD enzyme. However, the possibility remains of a mutation(s) in the unsequenced regions of the type II 3{beta}HSD gene or elsewhere, such as in a gene for modulatory protein, playing a specific role in the expression of the type II 3{beta}HSD gene. On the other hand, knowing the multiple hormonal controls to which 3{beta}HSD activity is subject, it cannot be excluded that at least in some cases, NC3{beta}HSDD may be an acquired defect, the result of endogenous or environmental factors. 41 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. The Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) for double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) is an experimental program designed to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) of Xe-136. of 0nbb would determine an absolute mass scale for neutrinos and answer the question about their Majorana nature. The current phase of the experiment, EXO-200, uses 200 kg of liquid xenon with 80% enrichment in Xe-136. The double beta decay of xenon is detected in an ultra-low background time projection chamber by collecting both, the scintillation light and the ionization charge. The detector has provided the first measurement of two neutrino double beta decay and continues to take data for a neutrinoless analysis.

  8. Thin Layer Chromatographic Analysis of Beta-Lactam Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Hancu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper describes some thin layer chromatographic procedures that allow simple and rapid separation and identification of penicillins and cephalosporins from complex mixtures. Methods: Using silicagel GF254 as stationary phase and selecting different mobile phases we succeeded in the separation of the studied beta-lactamins. Our aim was not only to develop a simple, rapid and efficient method for their separation but also the optimization of the analytical conditions. Results: No system will separate all the beta-lactams, but they could be identified when supplementary information is used from color reactions and/or by using additional chromatographic systems. Conclusions: The right combination of solvent system and detection method allows the identification of the studied penicillins and cephalosporins and can be successfully used in the preliminary analysis beta-lactam antibiotics.

  9. Planetary companions in K giants beta Cancri, mu Leonis, and beta Ursae Minoris

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, B -C; Park, M -G; Mkrtichian, D E; Hatzes, A P; Kim, K -M

    2014-01-01

    Auns. The aim of our paper is to investigate the low-amplitude and long-period variations in evolved stars with a precise radial velocity (RV) survey. Methods. The high-resolution, the fiber-fed Bohyunsan Observatory Echelle Spectrograph (BOES) was used from 2003 to 2013 for a radial velocity survey of giant stars as part of the exoplanet search program at Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (BOAO). Results. We report the detection of three new planetary companions orbiting the K giants beta Cnc, mu Leo, and beta UMi. The planetary nature of the radial velocity variations is supported by analyzes of ancillary data. The HIPPARCOS photometry shows no variations with periods close to those in RV variations and there is no strong correlation between the bisector velocity span (BVS) and the radial velocities for each star. Furthermore, the stars show weak or no core reversal in Ca II H lines indicating that they are inactive stars. The companion to beta Cnc has a minimum mass of 7.8 M_Jup in a 605-day orbit wi...

  10. Prevalence of hepatosplenomegaly in beta thalassemia minor subjects in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi, Mehran [Hemostasis and Thrombosis Unit, Hematology Research Center, school of Medicine, Shiraz University of medical sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: Karimim@sums.ac.ir; Bagheri, Mohammad Hadi [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tahmtan, Mehdi [Hemostasis and Thrombosis Unit, Hematology Research Center, school of Medicine, Shiraz University of medical sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shakibafard, Alireza [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashid, Murtaza [Hemostasis and Thrombosis Unit, Hematology Research Center, school of Medicine, Shiraz University of medical sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-01-15

    Introduction: Thalassemia is the most common hereditary blood disorder in the world. Iran is located on the thalassemic belt and there is a high prevalence of the hepatosplenomegaly in beta thalassemia minor patients which is reported to be very variable. The goal of this research was to study the frequency of these signs in the cases with beta thalassemia minor patients in Iran. Materials and methods: Two hundred and fifty-nine cases that referred to center for pre-marriage tests were divided into two groups according to their MCV, MCH, and HbA2 (beta thalassemia minor cases and control groups). Liver and spleen sizes were determined by ultrasonographic method and the two groups were compared with each other. Results: Average spleen volumes in case and control groups were 163.48 {+-} 133.97 and 126.29 {+-} 53.98 mm{sup 3}, respectively. Average spleen lengths in case and control groups were 10.71 {+-} 1.52 and 10.60 {+-} 5.4 cm, respectively. Conclusion: In the regions with high frequency of beta thalassemia, in case of finding large spleen size in the ultrasonography, a probable harmless differential diagnosis will be beta thalassemia minor that is not indicative of any serious disease. Volumetric measurement of spleen is more reliable for detection of splenomegaly in these patients.

  11. Prevalence of hepatosplenomegaly in beta thalassemia minor subjects in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Thalassemia is the most common hereditary blood disorder in the world. Iran is located on the thalassemic belt and there is a high prevalence of the hepatosplenomegaly in beta thalassemia minor patients which is reported to be very variable. The goal of this research was to study the frequency of these signs in the cases with beta thalassemia minor patients in Iran. Materials and methods: Two hundred and fifty-nine cases that referred to center for pre-marriage tests were divided into two groups according to their MCV, MCH, and HbA2 (beta thalassemia minor cases and control groups). Liver and spleen sizes were determined by ultrasonographic method and the two groups were compared with each other. Results: Average spleen volumes in case and control groups were 163.48 ± 133.97 and 126.29 ± 53.98 mm3, respectively. Average spleen lengths in case and control groups were 10.71 ± 1.52 and 10.60 ± 5.4 cm, respectively. Conclusion: In the regions with high frequency of beta thalassemia, in case of finding large spleen size in the ultrasonography, a probable harmless differential diagnosis will be beta thalassemia minor that is not indicative of any serious disease. Volumetric measurement of spleen is more reliable for detection of splenomegaly in these patients

  12. Beta amyloid and hyperphosphorylated tau deposits in the pancreas in type 2 diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miklossy, J.; Miller, L.; Qing, H.; Radenovic, A.; Kis, A.; Vileno, B.; Laszlo, F.; Martins, R.N.; Waeber, G.; Mooser, V.; Bosman, F.; Khalili, K.; Darbinian, N.; McGeer, P.L.

    2008-08-25

    Strong epidemiologic evidence suggests an association between Alzheimer disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes. To determine if amyloid beta (A{beta}) and hyperphosphorylated tau occurs in type 2 diabetes, pancreas tissues from 21 autopsy cases (10 type 2 diabetes and 11 controls) were analyzed. APP and tau mRNAs were identified in human pancreas and in cultured insulinoma beta cells (INS-1) by RT-PCR. Prominent APP and tau bands were detected by Western blotting in pancreatic extracts. Aggregated A{beta}, hyperphosphorylated tau, ubiquitin, apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein(a), IB1/JIP-1 and JNK1 were detected in Langerhans islets in type 2 diabetic patients. A{beta} was co-localized with amylin in islet amyloid deposits. In situ beta sheet formation of islet amyloid deposits was shown by infrared microspectroscopy (SIRMS). LPS increased APP in non-neuronal cells as well. We conclude that A{beta} deposits and hyperphosphorylated tau are also associated with type 2 diabetes, highlighting common pathogenetic features in neurodegenerative disorders, including AD and type 2 diabetes and suggesting that A{beta} deposits and hyperphosphorylated tau may also occur in other organs than the brain.

  13. Mouse egg integrin alpha 6 beta 1 functions as a sperm receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, E A; Huovila, A P; Sutherland, A E; Stephens, L E; Calarco, P G; Shaw, L M; Mercurio, A M; Sonnenberg, A; Primakoff, P; Myles, D G; White, J M

    1995-06-30

    Binding between sperm and egg plasma membranes is an essential step in fertilization. Whereas fertilin, a mammalian sperm surface protein, is involved in this crucial interaction, sperm receptors on the egg plasma membrane have not been identified. Because fertilin contains a predicted integrin ligand domain, we investigated the expression and function of integrin subunits in unfertilized mouse eggs. Polymerase chain reactions detected mRNAs for alpha 5, alpha 6, alpha v, beta 1, beta 3, and beta 5. Immunofluorescence revealed alpha 6 beta 1 and alpha v beta 3 on the plasma membrane. GoH3, a function-blocking anti-alpha 6 monoclonal antibody, abolished sperm binding, but a nonfunction-blocking anti-alpha 6 monoclonal antibody, a function-blocking anti-alpha v beta 3 polyclonal antibody, and an RGD peptide had no effect. Somatic cells bound sperm avidly, but only if they expressed alpha 6 beta 1. A peptide analog of the fertilin integrin ligand domain inhibited sperm binding to eggs and alpha 6 beta 1+ cells and diminished GoH3 staining of eggs. Our results indicate a novel role for the integrin alpha 6 beta 1 as a cell-cell adhesion receptor that mediates sperm-egg binding. PMID:7600577

  14. The microbial oxidation of (-)-beta-pinene by Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Afgan; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Tahara, Satoshi; Rahman, Atta-ur; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Demirci, Fatih

    2002-01-01

    (-)-beta-pinene, a flavor and fragrance monoterpene is an important constituent of essential oils of many aromatic plants. It was oxidized by a plant-pathogenic fungus, Botrytis cinerea to afford four metabolites characterized as (-)-6a-hydroxy-beta-pinene, (-)-4beta,5beta-dihydroxy-beta-pinene, (-)-2beta,3beta-dihydroxypinane, and (-)-4beta-hydroxy-beta-pinene-6-one by detailed spectroscopic studies along with other known metabolites.

  15. Mechanism of inactivation of alanine racemase by beta, beta, beta-trifluoroalanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alanine racemases are a group of PLP-dependent bacterial enzymes that catalyze the racemization of alanine, providing D-alanine for cell wall synthesis. Inactivation of the alanine racemases from the Gram-negative organism Salmonella typhimurium and Gram-positive organism Bacillus stearothermophilus with beta, beta, beta-trifluoroalanine has been studied. The inactivation occurs with the same rate constant as that for formation of a broad 460-490-nm chromophore. Loss of two fluoride ions per mole of inactivated enzyme and retention of [1-14C]trifluoroalanine label accompany inhibition, suggesting a monofluoro enzyme adduct. Partial denaturation (1 M guanidine) leads to rapid return of the initial 420-nm chromophore, followed by a slower (t1/2 approximately 30 min-1 h) loss of the fluoride ion and 14CO2 release. At this point, reduction by NaB3H4 and tryptic digestion yield a single radiolabeled peptide. Purification and sequencing of the peptide reveals that lysine-38 is covalently attached to the PLP cofactor. A mechanism for enzyme inactivation by trifluoroalanine is proposed and contrasted with earlier results on monohaloalanines, in which nucleophilic attack of released aminoacrylate on the PLP aldimine leads to enzyme inactivation. For trifluoroalanine inactivation, nucleophilic attack of lysine-38 on the electrophilic beta-difluoro-alpha, beta-unsaturated imine provides an alternative mode of inhibition for these enzymes

  16. Smart Beta or Smart Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kenneth Lillelund; Steenstrup, Søren Resen

    2016-01-01

    Smart beta has become the flavor of the decade in the investment world with its low fees, easy access to rewarded risk premiums, and appearance of providing good investment results relative to both traditional passive benchmarks and actively managed funds. Although we consider it well documented......-documented smart beta risk premiums and still motivate active managers to avoid value traps, too highly priced small caps, defensives, etc. By constructing the equity portfolios of active managers that resemble the most widely used risk premiums, we show that the returns and risk-adjusted returns measures...

  17. Essential role of TGF-beta/Smad pathway on statin dependent vascular smooth muscle cell regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rodríguez-Vita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase inhibitors (also called statins exert proven beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases. Recent data suggest a protective role for Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-beta in atherosclerosis by regulating the balance between inflammation and extracellular matrix accumulation. However, there are no studies about the effect of statins on TGF-beta/Smad pathway in atherosclerosis and vascular cells. METHODOLOGY: In cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs statins enhanced Smad pathway activation caused by TGF-beta. In addition, statins upregulated TGF-beta receptor type II (TRII, and increased TGF-beta synthesis and TGF-beta/Smad-dependent actions. In this sense, statins, through Smad activation, render VSMCs more susceptible to TGF-beta induced apoptosis and increased TGF-beta-mediated ECM production. It is well documented that high doses of statins induce apoptosis in cultured VSMC in the presence of serum; however the precise mechanism of this effect remains to be elucidated. We have found that statins-induced apoptosis was mediated by TGF-beta/Smad pathway. Finally, we have described that RhoA inhibition is a common intracellular mechanisms involved in statins effects. The in vivo relevance of these findings was assessed in an experimental model of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E deficient mice: Treatment with Atorvastatin increased Smad3 phosphorylation and TRII overexpression, associated to elevated ECM deposition in the VSMCs within atheroma plaques, while apoptosis was not detected. CONCLUSIONS: Statins enhance TGF-beta/Smad pathway, regulating ligand levels, receptor, main signaling pathway and cellular responses of VSMC, including apoptosis and ECM accumulation. Our findings show that TGF-beta/Smad pathway is essential for statins-dependent actions in VSMCs.

  18. Identification of beta-exotoxin production, plasmids encoding beta-exotoxin, and a new exotoxin in Bacillus thuringiensis by using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    OpenAIRE

    Levinson, B L; Kasyan, K J; Chiu, S S; Currier, T C; González, J M

    1990-01-01

    An improved high-performance liquid chromatography separation was developed to detect and quantify beta-exotoxin production in Bacillus thuringiensis culture supernatants. Exotoxin production was assigned to a plasmid in five strains, from three subspecies (B. thuringiensis subsp. thuringiensis serotype 1, B. thuringiensis subsp. tolworthi serotype 9, and B. thuringiensis subsp. darmstadiensis serotype 10). A new exotoxin, called type II beta-exotoxin in this report, was discovered in B. thur...

  19. STIS Coronagraphic Observations of Beta Pictoris

    CERN Document Server

    Heap, S R; Lanz, T M; Cornett, R H; Hubeny, I; Maran, S P; Woodgate, B E; Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don J.; Lanz, Thierry M.; Cornett, Robert H.; Hubeny, Ivan; Maran, Stephen P.; Woodgate, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    We present new coronagraphic images of Beta Pictoris obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) in September 1997. The high-resolution images (0.1") clearly detect the circumstellar disk as close as 0.75" to the star, corresponding to a projected radius of 15 AU. The images define the warp in the disk with greater precision and at closer radii to Beta Pic than do previous observations. They show that the warp can be modelled by the projection of two components: the main disk, and a fainter component, which is inclined to the main component by 4-5 degrees, and which extends only as far as ~4" from the star. We interpret the main component as arising primarily in the outer disk and the tilted component as defining the inner region of the disk. The observed properties of the warped inner disk are inconsistent with a driving force from stellar radiation. However, warping induced by the gravitational potential of one or more planets is consistent with the data. Using models of planet-warped disk...

  20. Beta-Thioxoketones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, F. S.; Brown, R. S.; Carlsen, Lars;

    1982-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has been used to record the 01, and Szp ionization spectra of thioacetylacetone, 2-acetylcyclohexanethione,2 -thioacetylcyclohexanone,th e S-methyl derivative of thioacetylacetone, and propyl 3-mercaptocrotonate in the gas phase. It is shown that both the enol...... and the enethiol tautomers of the /3-thioxoketones can be detected, and the enol/enethiol ratios for thioacetylacetone, 2-acetylcyclohexanethione, and 2-thioacetylcyclohexanone were determined to be 61:39, 30:70, and 80:20, respectively, based on the intensities of the oxygen ionizations. The conclusions derived...... from the sulfur region support the above, although they are less clear due to sulfur spin-orbit splitting. The enol/enethiol ratios obtained in the gas phase by XPS are compared with data from other methods, showing good agreement between results obtained in the gas phase and in solution. The binding...

  1. Identification of the 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 mRNA and protein in human mononuclear leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, C; Nardi, A; Dalla Valle, L; Pellati, D; Krozowski, Z; Colombo, L; Armanini, D

    2009-10-01

    The enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) catalyzes the interconversion between inactive 11-ketoglucocorticoids and their active 11beta-hydroxy derivatives, such as cortisol and corticosterone. We have investigated the expression of 11beta-HSD1 in freshly isolated human peripheral mononuclear leukocytes (MNL). The presence of 11beta-HSD1 mRNA was demonstrated in total RNA by RT-PCR using specific primers designed on the 4th and 5th exons of the human 11beta-HSD1 gene. Fragments of the expected size were consistently detected on agarose gels, and sequencing showed complete identity with the corresponding sequence deposited in GenBank. The occurrence of 11beta-HSD1 protein was established by Western immunoblot analysis with a specific polyclonal antibody. Enzyme oxo-reductase activity was investigated by incubating 12 samples of MNL isolated from from 8 subjects with [3H]cortisone and formation of cortisol was established only in 4 subjects (yield range: 0.15-1.3%) after acetylation and TLC, blank subtraction and correction for losses. 18beta-Glycyrrhetinic acid, an inhibitor of 11 beta-HSD1, reduced cortisol production below detection limit. Dehydrogenase activity could not be demonstrated. It is suggested that, although enzyme activity of 11beta-HSD1 in circulating MNL is low, it is apparently ready for enhancement after MNL migration to sites of inflammation. PMID:19235128

  2. Validation of a rapid method for detecting nitrate in chard (Beta vulgaris cycla. Analysis of Spanish commercial samples marketed in the Region of Huesca, Spain, and estimation of the daily intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Menal-Puey

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper presents the validation of a rapid method for the determination of nitrate content in chard samples, in order to determine, during two periods (winter and summer of 2012, the current levels of nitrate in this typical vegetable, and the toxicological risk associated with this intake.Material and Methods: A rapid colorimetric determination of nitrate in chard samples by nitration of salicylic acid was validated. The validated method was applied to analyze the content of nitrate in 56 chard samples marketed in Huesca (Spain and collected in winter and summer seasons, and the toxicological risk associated with the intake for adult and children population was evaluated.Results: The method was specific and robust enough for the required purposes. The main performance characteristics of the method were: limits of detection and quantitation of 0.29 mg L-1 and 0.59 mg L-1, respectively; recoveries from 80.0% to 107.4%; and coefficients of variation lower than 11.4%. The detected mean nitrate content was 2293 mg kg-1 and there was evidence of risk only for extreme consumers (adults and children, especially in winter period.Conclusions: A high percentage of chard samples with a considerable concentration of nitrate were found. Taking into account the estimated dairy intake of nitrate associated with them, it could be recommended to establish a regulatory limit of nitrate to chard, a vegetable of important consumption in Spain.

  3. Novel anthracycline-spacer-beta-glucuronide, -beta-glucoside, and -beta-galactoside prodrugs for application in selective chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, RGG; Damen, EWP; Bijsterveld, EJA; Scheeren, HW; Houba, PHJ; van der Meulen-Muileman, IH; Boven, E; Haisma, HJ

    1999-01-01

    A series of anthracycline prodrugs containing an immolative spacer was synthesized for application in selective chemotherapy. The prodrugs having the general structure anthracycline-spacer-beta-glycoside were designed to be activated by beta-glucuronidase or beta-galactosidase. Prodrugs with -chloro

  4. Constraining neutrinoless double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A class of discrete flavor-symmetry-based models predicts constrained neutrino mass matrix schemes that lead to specific neutrino mass sum-rules (MSR). We show how these theories may constrain the absolute scale of neutrino mass, leading in most of the cases to a lower bound on the neutrinoless double beta decay effective amplitude.

  5. Beta Cell Workshop 2013 Kyoto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, R Scott; Madsen, Ole D; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2013-01-01

    The very modern Kyoto International Conference Center provided the site for the 8th workshop on Beta cells on April 23-26, 2013. The preceding workshops were held in Boston, USA (1991); Kyoto, Japan (1994); Helsingør, Denmark (1997); Helsinki, Finland (2003); El Perello, Spain (2006); Peebles...

  6. Abstraction Mechanisms in the BETA Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger;

    1983-01-01

    The BETA programming language is developed as part of the BETA project. The purpose of this project is to develop concepts, constructs and tools in the field of programming and programming languages. BETA has been developed from 1975 on and the various stages of the language are documented in [BETA...... a]. The application area of BETA is programming of embedded as well as distributed computing systems. For this reason a major goal has been to develop constructs that may be efficiently implemented. Furthermore the BETA language is intended to have a few number of basic but general constructs....... It is then necessary that the abstraction mechanisms are powerful in order to define more specialized constructs. BETA is an object oriented language like SIMULA 67 ([SIMULA]) and SMALLTALK ([SMALLTALK]). By this is meant that a construct like the SIMULA class/subclass mechanism is fundamental in BETA. In contrast...

  7. Neutron Beta Decay Studies with Nab

    CERN Document Server

    Baeßler, S; Alonzi, L P; Balascuta, S; Barrón-Palos, L; Bowman, J D; Bychkov, M A; Byrne, J; Calarco, J R; Chupp, T; Vianciolo, T V; Crawford, C; Frlež, E; Gericke, M T; Glück, F; Greene, G L; Grzywacz, R K; Gudkov, V; Harrison, D; Hersman, F W; Ito, T; Makela, M; Martin, J; McGaughey, P L; McGovern, S; Page, S; Penttilä, S I; Počanić, D; Rykaczewski, K P; Salas-Bacci, A; Tompkins, Z; Wagner, D; Wilburn, W S; Young, A R

    2012-01-01

    Precision measurements in neutron beta decay serve to determine the coupling constants of beta decay and allow for several stringent tests of the standard model. This paper discusses the design and the expected performance of the Nab spectrometer.

  8. How Do Beta Blocker Drugs Affect Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke More How do beta blocker drugs affect exercise? Updated:Aug 5,2015 Beta blockers are a ... about them: Do they affect your ability to exercise? The answer can vary a great deal, depending ...

  9. Characterization of a Full-Length Endogenous Beta-Retrovirus, EqERV-Beta1, in the Genome of the Horse (Equus caballus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette C. van der Kuyl

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Information on endogenous retroviruses fixed in the horse (Equus caballus genome is scarce. The recent availability of a draft sequence of the horse genome enables the detection of such integrated viruses by similarity search. Using translated nucleotide fragments from gamma-, beta-, and delta-retroviral genera for initial searches, a full-length beta-retrovirus genome was retrieved from a horse chromosome 5 contig. The provirus, tentatively named EqERV-beta1 (for the first equine endogenous beta-retrovirus, was 10434 nucleotide (nt in length with the usual retroviral genome structure of 5’LTR-gag-pro-pol-env-3’LTR. The LTRs were 1361 nt long, and differed approximately 1% from each other, suggestive of a relatively recent integration. Coding sequences for gag, pro and pol were present in three different reading-frames, as common for beta-retroviruses, and the reading frames were completely open, except that the env gene was interrupted by a single stopcodon. No reading frame was apparent downstream of the env gene, suggesting that EqERV-beta1 does not encode a superantigen like mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV. A second proviral genome of EqERV-beta1, with no stopcodon in env, is additionally integrated on chromosome 5 downstream of the first virus. Single EqERV-beta1 LTRs were abundantly present on all chromosomes except chromosome 24. Phylogenetically, EqERV-beta1 most closely resembles an unclassified retroviral sequence from cattle (Bos taurus, and the murine beta-retrovirus MMTV.

  10. Alpha-beta monitoring system based on pair of simultaneous Multi-Wire Proportional Counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengrowicz, U.; Amidan, D.; Orion, I.

    2016-08-01

    A new approach for a simultaneous alpha-beta Multi-wire Proportional Counter (MWPC) is presented. The popular approach for alpha-beta monitoring systems consists of a large area MWPC using noble gas flow such as Argon Methane. This method of measurement is effective but requires large-scale and expensive maintenance due to the needs of gas flow control and periodic replacements. In this work, a pair of simultaneous MWPCs for alpha-beta measuring is presented. The developed detector consists of a sealed gas MWPC sensor for beta particles, behind a free air alpha sensor. This approach allows effective simultaneous detection and discrimination of both alpha and beta radiation without the maintenance cost noble gas flow required for unsealed detectors.

  11. Evidence for beta -delayed neutron emission from /sup 31/Mg and /sup 32/Mg

    CERN Document Server

    Zaidins, C S; De Saint-Simon, M; Détraz, C; Epherre-Rey-Campagnolle, Marcelle; Guillemaud, D; Klapisch, Robert; Langevin, M; Naulin, F; Thibault, C; Touchard, F

    1981-01-01

    Investigates the time spectrum of beta -delayed neutron emission from /sup 30-34/Na and their descendants using beta -neutron coincidence detection. The authors have been able to assign an upper limit of 0,4% to the probability of beta -delayed neutron emission, p/sub n/, from the /sup 30/Na daugher isotope /sup 30/Mg. In fitting the time spectra of beta -delayed neutrons from /sup 31/Na and /sup 32/Na, we find a definitive component from subsequent daughter decay as well. This provides evidence for beta -delayed neutron emission from /sup 31/Mg and /sup 32/Mg with P/sub n/ values of the order of 2% for each. (7 refs).

  12. The beta subunit of casein kinase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Piontek, K; Schmidt-Spaniol, I;

    1991-01-01

    cDNAs encoding the beta subunit of pig and mouse CKII were isolated. The porcine cDNA was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used for the production of anti-CKII-beta subunit specific antibodies.......cDNAs encoding the beta subunit of pig and mouse CKII were isolated. The porcine cDNA was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used for the production of anti-CKII-beta subunit specific antibodies....

  13. Neoclassical transport in high [beta] tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, S.C.

    1992-12-01

    Neoclassical, transport in high [beta] large aspect ratio tokamaks is calculated. The variational method introduced by Rosenbluth, et al., is used to calculate the full Onsager matrix in the banana regime. These results are part of a continuing study of the high [beta] large aspect ratio equilibria introduced in Cowley, et al. All the neoclassical coefficients are reduced from their nominal low [beta] values by a factor ([var epsilon]/q[sup 2][beta])[sup [1/2

  14. Beta measurements at Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory performed a two-step process to characterize the current beta measurement practices at DOE facilities. PNL issued a survey questionnaire on beta measurement practices to DOE facilities and reported the results. PNL measured beta doses and spectra at seven selected DOE facilities and compared selected measurement techniques in the facility environment. This report documents the results of the radiation field measurements and the comparison of measurement techniques at the seven facilities. Data collected included beta dose and spectral measurements at seven DOE facilities that had high beta-to-gamma ratios (using a silicon surface barrier spectrometer, a plastic scintillator spectrometer, and a multielement beta dosimeter). Other dosimeters and survey meters representative of those used at DOE facilities or under development were also used for comparison. Field spectra were obtained under two distinct conditions. Silicon- and scintillation-based spectrometer systems were used under laboratory conditions where high beta-to-gamma dose ratios made the beta spectra easier to observe and analyze. In the second case, beta spectrometers were taken into actual production and maintenance areas of DOE facilities. Analyses of beta and gamma spectra showed that 234Th- /sup 234m/Pa, 231Th, 137Cs, and 90Sr/90Y were the major nuclides contributing to beta doses at the facilities visited. Beta doses from other fission products and 60Co were also measured, but the potential for exposure was less significant. 21 refs., 64 figs., 18 tabs

  15. Factors contributing to the breakdown of sodium beta-alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechele, A.C.

    1982-05-01

    Clarification of the breakdown process occurring during charge transfer in sodium beta alumina solid electrolytes was derived from: (1) studying the effects of molten sodium contact at 350/sup 0/C on single crystal sodium beta alumina and polycrystalline sodium beta alumina; (2) determination of critical current density by monitoring acoustic emissions accompanying crack growth in sodium/sodium beta alumina/sodium cells subjected to linear current ramping at 1 mA cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/; (3) failure analysis conducted on cycled electrolytes, some from commercial sodium/sulfur cells, which had been subjected to up to 703 Ahr cm/sup -2/ of charge transfer. Gray coloration developing in beta aluminas in contact with molten sodium was found to be a consequence of formation, through reduction by sodium, of oxygen vacancies charge compensated by electrons. Electronic conductivity of the electrolyte increases as a result. No second phase formation was detected. Colored electrolytes from sodium/sulfur cells show evidence of a newly recognized degradation mechanism in which fracture occurs when sodium is reduced and deposited internally under pressure as metal in regions where an electronic conductivity gradient exists. Heating colored beta aluminas in air produces reoxidation and bleaching. Kinetics and other properties of the coloration and bleaching processes were determined. Critical current density was found to bear an inverse relation to average electrolyte grain size. Evidence was found in the cycled electrolytes for a slow crack growth mechanism and a progressive mode of degradation advancing from the sulfur electrode interface. Implications of the findings for the construction and operation of sodium/sulfur battery systems are discussed.

  16. beta-Catenin/TCF pathway plays a vital role in selenium induced-growth inhibition and apoptosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Yan, Shuang; Liu, Mei; Zhang, Guo; Yang, Shangbin; He, Shun; Bai, Jinfeng; Quan, Lanping; Zhu, Hongxia; Dong, Yan; Xu, Ningzhi

    2010-10-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have indicated selenium could reduce the risk of some cancers. In our present study, growth inhibition and apoptosis were detected upon methylseleninic acid (MSA) treatment in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines EC9706 and KYSE150. MSA reduced beta-catenin protein levels, while there was no significant change observed on transcriptional levels. Moreover, we found MSA accelerated the degradation of beta-catenin and activated glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta). Some targets of beta-catenin/TCF pathway and apoptosis-related genes altered after MSA treatment. Notably, utilizing the inducible 293-TR/beta-catenin cell line, we found the apoptotic phenotypes induced by MSA were partially reversed by the overexpression of beta-catenin. Overall, our data indicate the effects induced by MSA in ESCC cells may act on the inhibition of beta-catenin/TCF pathway.

  17. 48株流感嗜血杆菌耐药性分析及β-内酰胺酶基因检测%Analysis on antimicrobial resistance and beta-lactamases gene detection of 48 haemophilus influenzae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂和翠; 王中新; 沈继录

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解本地区流感嗜血杆菌的分布及耐药性,为指导临床合理用药提供依据.方法 k-B法进行药敏试验,玻片法测定β-内酰胺酶.PCR扩增TEM及ROB型β-内酰胺酶基因.结果 48株流感嗜血杆菌主要分布于呼吸内科和门诊.对复方新诺明、四环素和氨苄西林耐药率分别为62.50%、35.42% 和22 92%;阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾、氨曲南耐药率为12.50%;氨苄西林/舒巴坦、头孢噻肟、头孢拉定、头孢曲松、阿奇霉素、氯霉素耐药率为8.33%;头孢吡肟、头孢呋辛、环丙沙星、左氧氟沙星耐药率为6.25%.哌拉西林/三唑巴坦、亚胺培南敏感率高为100%.10株氨苄西林耐药菌株均产β-内酰胺酶,产酶率为20.83%,且均检测到TEM基因.结论 复方新诺明和四环素已不再适于临床治疗流感嗜血杆菌引起的感染.氨苄西林仍可作为临床经验用药.哌拉西林/三唑巴坦和亚胺培南抗菌活性高,可望作为治疗耐氨苄西林流感嗜血杆菌感染的理想用药.喹诺酮类药物耐药率高,应引起重视.流感嗜血杆菌对氨苄西林耐药的主要机制为产TEM型β-内酰胺酶.%To investigate antimicrobial resistance and genotypes of β-lactamase of in this erea , and guide clinical rational drug use effectively. Methods Kirby-Bauer method was applied for the drug susceptibility test and nitrocefin slide test was used to detect β-lactamase. The genotypes of β-lactamase were detected by PCR. Results A total of 48 strains of haemophilus influenzae were mainly distributed in department of respiratory and outpatient service. The resistant straint to compound sulf-amethoxazole, ampicillin and tetrocycline were 62. 50% , 35. 42% ,22. 92% respectively, the resistant rate to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftriaxome, aztreonam, ciprofloxa-cin and levofloxacin was 12.50% ,the resistant rate to ampicillin-sulbactam, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefuroxime, azithromycin, chlorampheniol was 8. 33% ;the

  18. Measurement of the beta asymmetry in neutron beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron beta decay is the simplest semi-leptonic weak decay and described accurately by the standard model using the first CKM-matrix element and the ratio of vector and axial vector couplings, λ. With more than a dozen observables it is a sensitive probe for investigating the nature of weak interaction and to search for physics beyond the standard model. In the past, measuring the beta asymmetry A in polarized neutron decay has been the most precise way of determining λ and nowadays it allows - together with other observables - to derive limits on non-standard model interactions, such as scalar and tensor couplings. The neutron decay spectrometer Perkeo III was installed at the PF1B cold neutron beam site at the Institut Laue-Langevin to measure the beta asymmetry. By using a pulsed beam combined with an improved detector design a significant reduction of several systematic uncertainties has been achieved compared to the predecessor, Perkeo II. In this talk recent results of the measurements with Perkeo III will be presented. In particular, we show the energy distribution of the electrons together with the calibration tools for the detectors.

  19. Beta-delayed neutron spectroscopy using trapped radioactive ions

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, Ryan Matthew

    2013-01-01

    A novel technique for beta-delayed neutron spectroscopy has been developed using trapped radioactive ions. The neutron energy spectrum was reconstructed by measuring the time of flight (TOF) of the nuclear recoil following neutron emission, thereby avoiding all the challenges associated with neutron detection such as backgrounds from scattered neutrons and gamma rays and complicated detector-response functions. A proof-of-principle measurement was conducted on 137I+ by delivering ions from a ...

  20. Beta aerosols beacon, a truly portable continuous air monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Beta Aerosols Beacon (BAB) is a portable (57 lbs) continuous air monitor designed to detect airborne radiation. Utilizing solid state detectors has eliminated the use of lead shielding usually necessary for achieving accurate readings in high background areas, making the monitor lightweight as well as portable. The size of a small suitcase, it can be carried into confined work areas, eliminating the requirement for workers to wear respirators for many maintenance tasks. This paper describes the operation and applications of the BAB

  1. The change of transforming growth factor {beta} 1 (TGF- {beta} 1) expression by melatonin in irradiated lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Seong Soon; Choi, Ihl Bohng [College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-09-15

    The changed expressions of TGF- {beta} 1, as a key cytokine in the fibrotic process, due to melatonin with potent antioxidative effects, were investigated in the irradiated lung using fibrosis-sensitive C57BL/6 mice. Female C57BL/6 mice were divided into control irradiation-only, and melatonin (300 mg/kg i.p. 1 hr before irradiation) pretreatment groups. The thoraces of the mice were irradiated with a single dose of 12 Gy. The mRNA expressions of TGF-{beta} 1 in the lung tissue 2 and 4 weeks after irradiation were quantified using semiquantitive RT-PCR, and the cellular origin and expression levels of TGF- {beta} 1 protein were identified using immunohistochemical staining. The relative mRNA expression levels in the irradiation-only and melatonin pretreatment group 2 and 4 weeks after irradiation were 1.92- and 1.80-fold ({rho} = 0.064) and 2.38- and 1.94-fold ({rho} = 0.004) increased, respectively compared to those in the control group. Increased expressions of TGF- {beta} 1 protein were prominently detected in regions of histopathological radiation injury, with alveolar macrophages and septal epithelial cells serving as important sources of TGF- {beta} 1 expression. At 2 and 4 weeks after irradiation, the expression levels of protein were 15.8% vs. 16.9% ({rho} = 0.565) and 36.1% vs. 25.7% ({rho} = 0.009), respectively. The mRNA and protein expressions of TGF- {beta} 1 in the lung tissue following thoracic irradiation with 12 Gy were significantly decreased by melatonin pretreatment at 4 weeks. These results indicate that melatonin may have a possible application as an antifibrotic agent in radiation-induced lung injury.

  2. alpha/beta radiation detector using wavelength and delayed fluorescence discrimination

    CERN Document Server

    Maekawa, T

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a novel two-layer radiation detector for alpha/beta simultaneous counting for dust radiation monitoring in nuclear power plants. For alpha/beta discrimination, wavelength and delayed fluorescence discrimination techniques were newly developed. To establish the wavelength discrimination, we adopted a two-layer scintillator consisting of the plastic scintillator (NE-111A) and Y sub 2 O sub 2 S(Eu) whose emission spectra are quite different. To reject the mixed beta signal in the alpha detection layer, we used the delayed fluorescence characteristics of Y sub 2 O sub 2 S(Eu) in the signal processing. We manufactured the detector and tested its feasibility and the detection performance for dust radiation monitoring. Finally, we concluded that the performance of this new alpha/beta detector using the new discrimination methods is suitable for dust radiation monitoring.

  3. Beta thalassaemia mutations in Turkish Cypriots.

    OpenAIRE

    Sozuoz, A; Berkalp, A; A. Figus; Loi, A; Pirastu, M.; Cao, A

    1988-01-01

    Using oligonucleotide hybridisation or restriction endonuclease analysis, we have characterised the molecular defect in 94 patients with thalassaemia major and four with thalassaemia intermedia of Turkish Cypriot descent. We found that four mutations, namely beta+ IVS-1 nt 110, beta zero IVS-1 nt, beta+ IVS-1 nt 6, and beta+ IVS-2 nt 745 were prevalent, accounting for 69.9%, 11.7%, 8.7%, and 5.6% respectively of the beta thalassaemia chromosomes. This information may help in the organisation ...

  4. Development of a radioreceptor assay for {beta}{sub 2} adrenergic agonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helbo, V. [Lab. d`analyse des denrees alimentaires d`origine animale, Faculte de Medecine Veterinaire de l`Universite, Liege (Belgium); Vandenbroeck, M. [Lab. d`analyse des denrees alimentaires d`origine animale, Faculte de Medecine Veterinaire de l`Universite, Liege (Belgium); Maghuin-Rogister, G. [Lab. d`analyse des denrees alimentaires d`origine animale, Faculte de Medecine Veterinaire de l`Universite, Liege (Belgium)

    1994-05-01

    Several {beta}{sub 2} adrenergic agonists are illegally used as growth promoters in meat production. We have developed and evaluated a radioreceptor assay for the multianalyte detection of these compounds. The method is based on a competition for binding with receptors (plasma membranes prepared from bovine teat muscles) between a radioactive tracer ({sup 3}H-dihydroalprenolol) and {beta}{sub 2} agonist residues present in the samples. The method has been validated for three {beta}{sub 2} agonists (clenbuterol, mabuterol and cimaterol) in bovine urine samples. The detection limit (mean of ``blank`` values + 3 SEM) in urine was 2.4 ppb clenbuterol. Using this procedure, samples containing at least 5 ppb of clenbuterol, mabuterol or cimaterol could be identified as positive for the presence of {beta}{sub 2} agonists. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mehrere {beta}{sub 2} adrenerge Agonisten werden illegal als Wachstumsfoerderer in der Fleischproduktion eingesetzt. Wir entwickelten und testeten einen RRA (``Radioreceptor Assay``) zur Mehrfachrueckstandsanalyse dieser Zusammensetzungen. Die Methode basiert auf einer Kompetition eines radioaktiven Markers ({sup 3}H-dihydroalpenolol) mit den Rueckstaenden der {beta}{sub 2} Agonisten der Proben um Bindungsstellen der Rezeptoren (Plasmamembranen, welche aus Muskelzellen von Rinderzitzen gewonnen wurden). Die Methode wurde fuer 3 {beta}{sub 2} Agonisten (Clenbuterol, Mabuterol und Cimaterol) in Harnproben anerkannt. Die Nachweisgrenze (Durchschnitt der Leerwerte + 3 Standardabweichungen) bei Harnproben liegt bei 2,4 ppb fuer Clenbuterol. Diese Methode ermoeglicht, Konzentrationen von mindestens 5 ppb an Clenbuterol, Mabuterol und Cimaterol im Probenmaterial nachzuweisen. (orig.)

  5. Effect of Disturbance Regime on Alpha and Beta Diversity of Rock Pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Séguin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Measures of alpha diversity are more frequently used to detect environmental changes and subsequent impacts on biodiversity, while measures based on variability (beta diversity are said to be more appropriate for detecting those impacts. Theory predicts that beta diversity should increase with disturbance frequency in patchy communities. Our objective in this study was to experimentally determine the effect of high and low disturbance regimes, frequency and intensity combined, on marine benthic alpha and beta diversity. The experiment was conducted in a rock pool system of the St. Lawrence estuary, Canada. Rock pools were disturbed by (1 nutrient enrichment and (2 draining according to three disturbance regimes (none, low, high. Disturbance regimes had little or no effect on alpha diversity of benthic algae and sessile animals. However, the low regime of nutrient enrichment induced greater within-group beta diversity than the reference rock pools, while the high disturbance regime induced equal or even smaller within-group beta diversity compared to the reference. Draining had an opposite effect on benthic beta diversity, with a greater variability of the community structure under the high regime of disturbance. Taking into account the effect of disturbance regimes on beta diversity could provide a useful diagnostic for disturbed benthic communities.

  6. Anti-beta2 glycoprotein 1 and the anti-phospholipid syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keane, Pearse A

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: To describe a patient who presented with bilateral retinal vascular occlusion and the use of anti-beta2 glycoprotein 1 (GPI) antibody testing in the diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome. DESIGN: Observational case report. METHODS: Hematological investigations were performed on a 49-year-old man who presented with rapid onset of bilateral severe central retinal vein occlusion. RESULTS: Lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibody testing was negative. Markedly raised titers of anti-beta2 GPI antibodies were detected on two separate occasions. CONCLUSIONS: The raised titers of anti-beta2 GPI antibodies were considered to strongly suggest an underlying diagnosis of the antiphospholipid syndrome.

  7. Plan beta: Core or Cusp?

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Thomas; Lehnert, Matt

    2013-01-01

    The inner profile of Dark Matter (DM) halos remains one of the central problems in small-scale cosmology. At present, the problem can not be resolved in dwarf spheroidal galaxies due to a degeneracy between the DM profile and the velocity anisotropy beta of the stellar population. We discuss a method which can break the degeneracy by exploiting 3D positions and 1D line-of-sight (LOS) velocities. With the full 3D spatial information, we can determine precisely what fraction of each stars LOS motion is in the radial and tangential direction. This enables us to infer the anisotropy parameter beta directly from the data. The method is particularly effective if the galaxy is highly anisotropic. Finally, we argue that such a test could be applied to Sagittarius and potentially other dwarfs with RR Lyrae providing the necessary depth information.

  8. Beta spectrum of 185W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of the shape of the first forbidden beta transition of 185W is interesting from the point of view of the fact that this nucleus belongs to the deformed region 150185W is carried out employing an optimized Siegbahn-Slatis beta ray spectrometer and the result is compared with the theoretical shape factor incorporating Nilsson's wavefunctions using Simms formalism. The experimental shape factor is fitted to the correction factor C(W)=k(1+aW) with α=0.0026+-0.0432. The theoretical shape factor computed following the matrix elements due to Nilsson model is in good agreement with the present experimental shape factor. The value Λ(2.358) computed in the present measurement in the light of Nilsson model matrix elements of 185W is in agreement with the predicted value (2.4) of J.J. Fujita. (author)

  9. Review of double beta experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Sarazin, X.

    2012-01-01

    C13-10-22.1 International audience This paper gives a review of the double beta experimental techniques and projects, in the search for the Majorana neutrino. The purpose of this review is to detail, for each technique, the different origins of background, how they can be identified, and how they can be reduced. Advantages and limitations of the different techniques are discussed. 1. Introduction The neutrino is one of the most puzzling elementary particle with very unique properties. I...

  10. Myokardinfarkt und Beta-Blocker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stühlinger H-G

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Im Rahmen eines akuten koronaren Syndroms (akuter Herzinfarkt, Angina pectoris kommt es, aufgrund eines Ungleichgewichtes zwischen Angebot und Bedarf, zu einem akuten Mangel an Sauerstoff im Herzmuskel. Ursache ist eine reduzierte Sauerstoffzufuhr durch verengte bzw. verschlossene Gefäße. Bis zur Behebung der Ursache vergehen oft mehrere Stunden. In dieser Phase muß - durch Verminderung des Sauerstoffbedarfs im Herzmuskel - eine Verlangsamung der Nekroseentwicklung erreicht werden. Das Ausmaß der Nekrose wird reduziert, somit die für die Langzeitprognose wichtige Linksventrikelfunktion verbessert. Eine Verminderung des Sauerstoffbedarfs erreicht man durch kontrollierte Frequenzsenkung mittels intravenöser Beta-Blockade. In optimaler Weise wird diese Methode durch die Anwendung eines kardioselektiven Beta-Blockers mit kurzer Halbwertszeit durchgeführt. Beta-Blocker haben nicht nur auf die Nekroseentwicklung, sondern auch auf die Inzidenz von Rhythmusstörungen - besonders in der Akutphase - Auswirkungen. Vor allem die mit dieser therapeutischen Maßnahme verbundene Reduktion von Kammerflimmern ist von großer Bedeutung.

  11. Method and apparatus for selective capture of gas phase analytes using metal .beta.-diketonate polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Scott D [Kennewick, WA

    2011-06-21

    A process and sensor device are disclosed that employ metal .beta.-diketonate polymers to selectively capture gas-phase explosives and weaponized chemical agents in a sampling area or volume. The metal .beta.-diketonate polymers can be applied to surfaces in various analytical formats for detection of: improvised explosive devices, unexploded ordinance, munitions hidden in cargo holds, explosives, and chemical weapons in public areas.

  12. The assay of encapsulated beta-gamma emitting waste: feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a discussion of the techniques and instrumentation available for the determination of Beta-Gamma emitting radionuclides in encapsulated radioactive waste. Where applicable, consideration has been given to the practical difficulties associated with the assay of certain waste forms. The levels of detection have been estimated but further work is required in this and other areas. A suggestion is made for incorporating the beta-gamma assay in the same facility as an alpha assay. (author)

  13. What do we know about neutrinoless double-beta decay nuclear matrix elements?

    CERN Document Server

    Menéndez, J

    2016-01-01

    The detection of neutrinoless double-beta decay will establish the Majorana nature of neutrinos. In addition, if the nuclear matrix elements of this process are reliably known, the experimental lifetime will provide precious information about the absolute neutrino masses and hierarchy. I review the status of nuclear structure calculations for neutrinoless double-beta decay matrix elements, and discuss some key issues to be addressed in order to meet the demand for accurate nuclear matrix elements.

  14. Measuring and Modeling Xenon Uptake in Plastic Beta-Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, R.; Hayes, J. C.; Harper, W. W.; Humble, P.; Ripplinger, M. D.; Stephenson, D. E.; Williams, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    The precision of the stable xenon volume measurement in atmospheric monitoring radio-xenon systems is a critical parameter used to determine the activity concentration of a radio-xenon sample. Typically these types of systems use a plastic scintillating beta-cell as part of a beta-gamma detection scheme to measure the radioactivity present in the gas sample. Challenges arise when performing the stable xenon calculation during or after radioactive counting of the sample due to xenon uptake into the plastic beta-cells. Plastic beta cells can adsorb as much as 5% of the sample during counting. If quantification is performed after counting, the uptake of xenon into the plastic results in an underestimation of the xenon volume measurement. This behavior also causes what is typically known as 'memory effect' in the cell. Experiments were conducted using a small volume low pressure range thermal conductivity sensor to quantify the amount of xenon uptake into the cell over a given period of time. Understanding the xenon uptake in the cell provides a better estimate of the stable volume which improves the overall measurement capability of the system. The results from these experiments along with modeling will be presented.

  15. An ISPA-camera for $\\beta$-radiography

    CERN Document Server

    Puertolas, D; Leutz, H; Gys, Thierry; D'Ambrosio, C

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a new type of beta-camera based on an Imaging Silicon Pixel Array (ISPA)-tube combined with planar plastic scintillators or with SiY2O5(Ce)-scintillating powder. The ISPA-tube consists of a photocathode viewed at 3 cm distance by a silicon anode divided into 1024 rectangular (75 microm x 500 microm) detector pixels, each bump-bonded to its equally-sized electronic pixel. Depending on the beta-detector thickness we achieved spatial resolutions (FWHM) between 105 microm (63Ni source and 30 microm thick plastic scintillator) and 240 microm (90Sr-90Y source and 120 microm thick plastic scintillator) by covering the detectors with brass templates. With their four 60 microm wide slits oriented parallel to the long pixel edges we simulated small sized beta-strips. The impact of detector thickness is explained by multiple scattering, angular aperture of the template slits and scintillating light distribution at the ISPA-photocathode. Beta detection sensitivities were measured with calibrated...

  16. DMPD: Immunoreceptor-like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17913496 Immunoreceptor-like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. Jakus Z, Fod...) Show Immunoreceptor-like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. PubmedID 17913496 Title Immunoreceptor-like signaling by beta... 2 and beta 3 integrins. Authors Jakus Z, Fodor S, Abram CL

  17. Dynamin-association with agonist-mediated sequestration of beta-adrenergic receptor in single-cell eukaryote Paramecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiejak, Jolanta; Surmacz, Liliana; Wyroba, Elzbieta

    2004-04-01

    Evidence that dynamin is associated with the sequestration of the Paramecium beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) immunoanalogue is presented. We previously reported a dramatic change in the distribution of betaAR analogue in the subcellular fractions upon isoproterenol treatment: it is redistributed from the membraneous to the cytosolic fraction, as revealed by quantitative image analysis of western blots. Here we confirm and extend this observation by laser scanning confocal and immunogold electron microscopy. In the presence of isoproterenol (10 micro mol l(-1)) betaAR translocated from the cell surface into dynamin-positive vesicles in the cytoplasmic compartment, as observed by dual fluorochrome immunolabeling in a series of the confocal optical sections. Colocalization of betaAR and dynamin in the tiny endocytic vesicles was detected by further electron microscopic studies. Generally receptor sequestration follows its desensitization, which is initiated by receptor phosphorylation by G-protein-coupled receptor kinase. We cloned and sequenced the gene fragment of 407 nucleotides homologous to the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (betaARK): its deduced amino acid sequence shows 51.6% homology in 126 amino acids that overlap with the human betaARK2 (GRK3), and may participate in Paramecium betaAR desensitization. These results suggest that the molecular machinery for the desensitization/sequestration of the receptor immunorelated to vertebrate betaAR exists in unicellular PARAMECIUM:

  18. IL-1beta-induced pro-apoptotic signalling is facilitated by NCAM/FGF receptor signalling and inhibited by the C3d ligand in the INS-1E rat beta cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L G; Størling, J; Heding, P;

    2006-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: IL-1beta released from immune cells induces beta cell pro-apoptotic signalling via mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). In neurons, the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) signals to several elements involved in IL-1beta-induced pro......-apoptotic signalling in beta cells. Pancreatic beta cells express NCAM, but its biological effects in these cells are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is cross-talk between NCAM signalling and cytokine-induced pro-apoptotic signalling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Western blotting was used...... to investigate levels of NCAM and inducible nitric oxide synthase, phosphorylation of Src and MAPKs, and cleavage of caspase-3. MAPK activity was investigated with an in vitro kinase assay. Apoptosis was detected by cleaved caspase-3 and a Cell Death Detection ELISA(plus) assay. NCAM-induced fibroblast growth...

  19. THE IMPACT OF IRON DEFICIENCY ON HBA2 LEVEL IN BETA THALASSEMIA MINOR IN SULAIMANI NORTHEASTERN IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awaz Ahmed Kamal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: HbA2 plays a key role in screening programs for beta thalassemia because a small increase in this fraction is the most important marker of beta thalassemia heterozygous carriers. The potential impact of coincident iron deficiency on HbA2 based identification of beta thalassemia minor is worrisome issue for screening laboratories, this is especially true for resource-constrained settings where iron deficiency is wide spread and molecular confirmatory tests for borderline HbA2 values may be unavailable. Objective: the aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of iron deficiency on HbA2 level in order to improve the detection of beta thalassemia trait with or without iron deficiency in our population. Materials and Method: In this study 145 individuals were enrolled including normal controls (50, beta thalassemia minor (50 and coincident beta thalassemia with iron deficiency cases (45. Complete blood count, serum iron, total iron binding capacity and HbA2 with HbF estimation were done for every individual. Result: The mean HbA2 level was (2.4± 0.4 in control, (5.2 ± 0.9 in beta thalassemia minor and 5.1± 0.9 in coincident iron deficiency with beta thalassemia minors. All hematological parameters were significantly lower in beta thalassemia minor and coincident iron deficiency with beta thalassemia minor in comparison to the control group .Mean HbA2 level did not show a significant difference in thalassemia minor (5.2±0.9 when compared with the mean HbA2 levels in coincidentiron deficiency with beta thalassemia minor. Conclusion: The presence of iron deficiency did not preclude the detection of beta thalassemia minor in our population

  20. Avaliação da acurácia de testes laboratoriais para detecção de amostras de Klebsiella pneumoniae produtora de betalactamase de espectro estendido Comparison of different methods for detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates producers of extended spectrum beta-lactamase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea dos Santos Pereira

    2003-01-01

    spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL represent a common resistance problem among Brazilian hospitals. Due to the difficulty of ESBL detection in the clinical laboratory, these bacterial isolates require a reproducible, efficient, and low cost detection method. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of detection of K. pneumoniae ESBL isolates by two methods: the Etest ESBL strip and the inhibitor potentiated disk diffusion test with clavulanic acid (clavulanate-potentiation test. The sensitivity and the specificity of beta-lactam agents against these isolates were also evaluated. The experiments were performed on a total of 134 K. pneumoniae isolates recovered from blood specimens in our institution from July 1996 to July 2001. The samples were tested for ESBL production by the NCCLS screen test, clavulanate-potentiation test and Etest ESBL strip. Isolates presenting positive results for the screen test and for at least one of the evaluated tests were considered ESBL producers (gold standard. The results of this study yielded a 100% specificity and sensitivity for the clavulanate-potentiation test, and the best indicators of ESBL production were cefotaxime and cefpodoxime. The Etest ESBL strip also turned out to be a very sensitive (96% and specific (100% method, being cefotaxime the most efficient substrate. According to the results of this investigation, the clavulanate potentiation disk diffusion test displayed an excellent performance and can be easily implemented in routine clinical laboratories as a practical, reliable, and accurate method.

  1. Differentiation-dependent expression of retinoid-binding proteins in BFC-1 beta adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zovich, D C; Orologa, A; Okuno, M; Kong, L W; Talmage, D A; Piantedosi, R; Goodman, D S; Blaner, W S

    1992-07-15

    Recently, we demonstrated that adipose tissue plays an important role in retinol storage and retinol-binding protein (RBP) synthesis. Our data suggested that RBP expression in adipose tissue is dependent on the state of adipocyte differentiation. To examine this possibility, we explored the differentiation-dependent expression of RBP using BFC-1 beta preadipocytes, which can be stimulated to undergo adipose differentiation. Total RNA was isolated from undifferentiated (preadipocytes) and differentiated (adipocytes) BFC-1 beta cells and analyzed by Northern blotting. RBP mRNA was not detected in the preadipocytes, but considerable RBP mRNA was present in differentiated BFC-1 beta cells. In BFC-1 beta cells, induced to differentiate with insulin and thyroid hormone, RBP mRNA was first detected after 4 days, reached a maximum level by day 10, and remained at this maximum level for at least 2 more days. Cellular retinol-binding protein was expressed at low levels in the BFC-1 beta preadipocytes and the level of expression increased for 6 days after induction to differentiate and slowly declined on later days. Neither the maximum level of RBP expression nor the day on which this level was reached was influenced by the level of retinol provided in the BFC-1 beta culture medium. BFC-1 beta cells secreted newly synthesized RBP into the culture medium at a rate of 43 +/- 14 ng RBP/24 h/10(6) adipocytes. When the BFC-1 beta adipocytes were provided 1.0 microM retinol in the medium, they accumulated the retinol and synthesized retinyl esters. These studies with BFC-1 beta cells confirm that RBP synthesis and secretion and retinol accumulation are intrinsic properties of differentiated adipocytes. Furthermore, they suggest that RBP and cellular retinol-binding protein gene expression are regulated as part of a package of genes which are modulated during adipocyte differentiation.

  2. Beta-dosimetry studies at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes three beta-dosimetry studies made recently at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first study was to determine the beta-gamma exposure rates at the Los Alamos Godiva IV Critical Assembly. The beta spectra from the assembly were evaluated using absorption curves and the beta-gamma dose-rate ratios were determined at various distances from the assembly. A comparison was made of the doses determined using two types of TLD personnel dosimeters and a film badge. The readings of an Eberline RO-7 instrument and the dose rates determined by TLDs were compared. Shielding provided by various metals, gloves, and clothing were measured. The second study was to determine the beta energy response of the Eberline RO-7 instrument based on measurements made with the PTB beta sources. This study required additional calibration points for the PTB sources which were made using extrapolation chamber measurements. The third study resulted in two techniques to determine the beta energy (E/sub max/) from the readings of this-window portable survey instruments. Both techniques are based on the readings obtained using aluminium filters. One technique is for field application, requires one filter, and provides a quick estimate of the beta energy in three energy groups: 1.5 MeV. The second technique is more complex requiring measurements with two or three filters, but gives the beta energy and the approximate shape of the beta spectrum. 9 references, 6 figures

  3. Expression of {beta}{sub 1} integrins in human endometrial stromal and decidual cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiokawa, Shigetatsu; Yoshimura, Yasunori; Nakamura, Yukio [Kyorin Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the expression of {beta}{sub 1} integrins in human endometrium and decidua using flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and immunoprecipitation. Fluorescence-activated flow cytometry demonstrated the greater expression of the {beta}{sub 1}, {alpha}{sub 1}, {alpha}{sub 2}, and {alpha}{sub 5} subunits of the {beta}{sub 1} integrin family in cultured stromal cells from the midsecretory phase, than in those of the early proliferative phase. The addition of estradiol (E{sub 2}) and progesterone (P) to cultured stromal cells in the early proliferative phase increased the expression of {beta}{sub 1} integrins in vitro. Flow cytometry also demonstrated the expression of the {beta}{sub 1}, {alpha}{sub 1}, {alpha}{sub 2}, {alpha}{sub 3}, {alpha}{sub 5}, and {alpha}{sub 6} subunits of {beta}{sub 1} integrin family in cultured decidual cells, and the enriched-fraction of prolactin (PRL)-producing decidual cells isolated by Percoll gradients showed high levels of {beta}{sub 1} integrins expression. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the {beta}{sub 1} integrin cell surface phenotypes in cultured decidual cells observed by flow cytometry. In summary, the present study demonstrated that endometrial stromal and decidual cells expressed {beta}{sub 1} integrin subunits at their surfaces. The expression exhibited a variability throughout the menstrual cycles, being predominantly detected in the secretory phase, and was maintained highly in the decidua. Thus, {beta}{sub 1} integrins in human endometrium and decidua may be important in mediating the organization of extracellular matrix proteins derived from embryos during the early stage of implantation. 43 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Beta

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter covers the use of wild beets in sugar beet improvement, including the basic botany of the species, its distribution; geographical locations of genetic diversity; morphology; cytology and karyotype; genome size; taxonomic position; agricultural status (model plant/weeds/invasive species/...

  5. Binding of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) to pregnancy zone protein (PZP). Comparison to the TGF-beta-alpha 2-macroglobulin interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, A; Bostedt, L; Stigbrand, T; O'Connor-McCourt, M D

    1994-04-15

    Pregnancy zone protein (PZP) is quantitatively the most important pregnancy-associated plasma protein and it has strong similarity to alpha 2-macroglobulin. Since alpha 2-macroglobulin is a binding protein for transforming growth factors-beta (TGF-beta), it was of interest to test whether the related protein, PZP, also binds to these growth-regulatory proteins. Using affinity-labelling methods, we demonstrate that PZP binds both TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 and that the binding characteristics are similar to those of the TGF-beta-alpha 2-macroglobulin interaction. TGF-beta 2 and TGF-beta 1 bind to PZP in a predominantly noncovalent manner in vitro. TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 bind to both the dimeric and tetrameric forms of PZP. Our studies also indicate that PZP binds TGF-beta 2 with higher affinity than TGF-beta 1. Finally, we demonstrate that PZP inhibits the binding of TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 to their cell surface receptors. The increased level of PZP during pregnancy may affect the action of TGF-beta by regulating the distribution, clearance and/or general availability of TGF-beta. The preferential binding of TGF-beta 2 over TGF-beta 1 by PZP implies that PZP may differentially regulate the action of TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2.

  6. On gaps in Rényi $\\beta$-expansions of unity for $\\beta > 1$ an algebraic number.

    OpenAIRE

    Verger-Gaugry, Jean-Louis

    2006-01-01

    Let $\\beta> 1$ be an algebraic number. We study the strings of zeros (“gaps”) in the Rényi $\\beta$ -expansion $d_{\\beta}(1)$ of unity which controls the set $\\mathbb{Z}_{\\beta}$ of $\\beta$-integers. Using a version of Liouville's inequality which extends Mahler's and Güting's approximation theorems, the strings of zeros in $d_{\\beta}(1)$ are shown to exhibit a “gappiness” asymptotically bounded above by $log(M(\\beta ))/ log(\\beta)$, where $M(\\beta)$ is the Mahler measure of $\\beta$ . The proo...

  7. Resistance training & beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation on hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOIntroduction:In recent years, there was an increased interest on the effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB supplementation on skeletal muscle due to its anti-catabolic effects.Objectives:To investigate the effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, muscular strength and anabolic-catabolic hormones after resistance training.Methods:Twenty amateur male athletes were randomly assigned to supplement and control groups in a double-blind crossover design and participated in four weeks resistance training. Before and after the test period fasting blood samples were obtained to determine anabolic (the growth hormone and testosterone and catabolic (cortisol hormones, and fat mass, lean body mass (LBM and muscular strength were measured. Dependent and independent t-tests were used to analyze data.Results:After the training period, there were no significant differen-ces between the groups with respect to fat mass, LBM and anabolic-catabolic hormones. HMB supplementation resulted in a significantly greater strength gain (p≤0.05.Conclusion:Greater increase in strength for HMB group was not accompanied by body composition and basal circulating anabolic-catabolic hormonal changes. It seems that HMB supplementation may have beneficial effects on neurological adaptations of strength gain.

  8. A probable giant planet imaged in the Beta Pictoris disk

    CERN Document Server

    Lagrange, A -M; Chauvin, G; Fusco, T; Ehrenreich, D; Mouillet, D; Rousset, G; Rouan, D; Allard, F; Gendron, E; Charton, J; Mugnier, L; Rabou, P; Montri, J; Lacombe, F

    2008-01-01

    Since the discovery of its dusty disk in 1984, Beta Pictoris has become the prototype of young early-type planetary systems, and there are now various indications that a massive Jovian planet is orbiting the star at ~ 10 AU. However, no planets have been detected around this star so far. Our goal was to investigate the close environment of Beta Pic, searching for planetary companion(s). Deep adaptive-optics L'-band images of Beta Pic were recorded using the NaCo instrument at the Very Large Telescope. A faint point-like signal is detected at a projected distance of ~ 8 AU from the star, within the North-East side of the dust disk. Various tests were made to rule out with a good confidence level possible instrumental or atmospheric artifacts. The probability of a foreground or background contaminant is extremely low, based in addition on the analysis of previous deep Hubble Space Telescope images. The object L'=11.2 apparent magnitude would indicate a typical temperature of ~1500 K and a mass of ~ 8 Jovian mas...

  9. GSK3beta is involved in JNK2-mediated beta-catenin inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have recently reported that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK JNK1 downregulates beta-catenin signaling and plays a critical role in regulating intestinal homeostasis and in suppressing tumor formation. This study was designed to determine whether JNK2, another MAPK, has similar and/or different functions in the regulation of beta-catenin signaling. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used an in vitro system with manipulation of JNK2 and beta-catenin expression and found that activated JNK2 increased GSK3beta activity and inhibited beta-catenin expression and transcriptional activity. However, JNK2-mediated downregulation of beta-catenin was blocked by the proteasome inhibitor MG132 and GSK3beta inhibitor lithium chloride. Moreover, targeted mutations at GSK3beta phosphorylation sites (Ser33 and Ser37 of beta-catenin abrogated JNK2-mediated suppression of beta-catenin. In vivo studies further revealed that JNK2 deficiency led to upregulation of beta-catenin and increase of GSK3-beta phosphorylation in JNK2-/- mouse intestinal epithelial cells. Additionally, physical interaction and co-localization among JNK2, beta-catenin and GSK3beta were observed by immunoprecipitation, mammalian two-hybridization assay and confocal microscopy, respectively. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: In general, our data suggested that JNK2, like JNK1, interacts with and suppresses beta-catenin signaling in vitro and in vivo, in which GSK3beta plays a key role, although previous studies have shown distinct functions of JNK1 and JNK2. Our study also provides a novel insight into the crosstalk between Wnt/beta-catenin and MAPK JNKs signaling.

  10. Hyper-beta-alaninemia associated with beta-aminoaciduria and gamma-aminobutyricaciduaia, somnolence and seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriver, C R; Pueschel, S; Davies, E

    1966-03-24

    Hyper-beta-alaninemia was found in a somnolent, convulsing infant. Hyper-beta-aminoaciduria (beta-ala, betaAIB and taurine) was also observed, varying directly with plasma beta-alanine concentration. The beta-aminoaciduria is explained by the interaction between beta-alanine and a specific cellular-transport system with preference for beta-amino compounds. Gamma-aminobutyricaciduria was also observed, its excretion being independent of beta-alanine levels. Dietary modifications, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid and antibiotic therapy were not beneficial. Post-mortem tissues had elevated levels of beta-alanine and carnosine; GABA levels in brain were probably elevated for the age of the patient. A proposed block in beta-alanine-alpha-ketoglutarate transaminase would expand the free beta-alanine pool, thus increasing tissue carnosine. beta-Alanine is a central-nervous-system depressant. Associated inhibition of GABA transaminase and displacement of GABA from central-nervous-system binding sites would produce GABAuria and convulsions. PMID:17926374

  11. Beta-2-mikroglobulin ved medicinske sygdomme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1989-01-01

    Beta-2-microglobulin (beta 2M) is a low-molecular protein which is filtered freely over the glomeruli. Under normal circumstances, more than 99.9% is resorbed in the proximal tubuli of the kidneys and is metabolized there. In renal disease with damage to this segment of the nephron, eg acute tubulo......-interstitial nephropathy, increased quantities of beta 2M are excreted in the urine. If the rate of glomerular filtration is reduced, serum-beta 2M is increased and this is also the case in persons with increased cell division despite normal renal function. Serum-beta 2M is, therefore, raised in numerous malignant...... diseases and reflects the size of the tumour mass. During cytostatic treatment of myelomatosis and chronic lymphatic leukaemia, the serum-beta 2M levels decrease on remission and increase on relapse. In acute leukaemia and malignant lymphoma with infiltration of the CNS, similar conditions prevail for CSF...

  12. Photochemical fate of beta-blockers in NOM enriched waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ling; Xu, Haomin; Cooper, William J. [Urban Water Research Center, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2175 (United States); Song, Weihua, E-mail: wsong@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2012-06-01

    Beta-blockers, prescribed for the treatment of high blood pressure and for long-term use after a heart attack, have been detected in surface and ground waters. This study examines the photochemical fate of three beta-blockers, atenolol, metoprolol, and nadolol. Hydrolysis accounted for minor losses of these beta-blockers in the pH range 4-10. The rate of direct photolysis at pH 7 in a solar simulator varied from 6.1 to 8.9 h{sup -1} at pH 7. However, the addition of a natural organic matter (NOM) isolate enhanced the photochemical loss of all three compounds. Indirect photochemical fate, generally described by reactions with hydroxyl radical ({center_dot}OH) and singlet oxygen ({sup 1}{Delta}O{sub 2}), and, the direct reaction with the triplet excited state, {sup 3}NOM{sup Low-Asterisk }, also varied but collectively appeared to be the major loss factor. Bimolecular reaction rate constants of the three beta-blockers with {sup 1}{Delta}O{sub 2} and {center_dot}OH were measured and accounted for 0.02-0.04% and 7.2-38.9% of their loss, respectively. These data suggest that the {sup 3}NOM{sup Low-Asterisk} contributed 50.6-85.4%. Experiments with various {sup 3}NOM{sup Low-Asterisk} quenchers supported the hypothesis that it was singly the most important reaction. Atenolol was chosen for more detailed investigation, with the photoproducts identified by LC-MS analysis. The results suggested that electron-transfer could be an important mechanism in photochemical fate of beta-blockers in the presence of NOM. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photochemical degradation of beta-blockers in the simulated natural waters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reactive Oxygen Species play a minor role in the indirect photodegradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The loss of beta-blockers results from direct reaction with {sup 3}DOM{sup Low-Asterisk }.

  13. Beta blockers: A new role in chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Nagaraja, Archana S; Sadaoui, Nouara C.; Lutgendorf, Susan K.; Ramondetta, Lois M.; Sood, Anil K

    2013-01-01

    Beta-blockers are a class of drugs widely used to treat cardiac, respiratory and other ailments. They act by blocking beta-adrenergic receptor–mediated signalling. Studies in various cancers have shown that patients taking a beta-blocker have higher survival and lower recurrence and metastasis rates. This is supported by several preclinical and in vitro studies showing that adrenergic activation modulates apoptosis, promotes angiogenesis and other cancer hallmarks, and these effects can be ab...

  14. The pancreatic beta cell surface proteome

    OpenAIRE

    Stützer, I.; Esterházy, D.; Stoffel, M.

    2012-01-01

    The pancreatic beta cell is responsible for maintaining normoglycaemia by secreting an appropriate amount of insulin according to blood glucose levels. The accurate sensing of the beta cell extracellular environment is therefore crucial to this endocrine function and is transmitted via its cell surface proteome. Various surface proteins that mediate or affect beta cell endocrine function have been identified, including growth factor and cytokine receptors, transporters, ion channels and prote...

  15. Constructions for a bivariate beta distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Olkin, Ingram; Trikalinos, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    The beta distribution is a basic distribution serving several purposes. It is used to model data, and also, as a more flexible version of the uniform distribution, it serves as a prior distribution for a binomial probability. The bivariate beta distribution plays a similar role for two probabilities that have a bivariate binomial distribution. We provide a new multivariate distribution with beta marginal distributions, positive probability over the unit square, and correlations over the full ...

  16. Beta-delayed proton emission from {sup 21}Mg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, M.V.; Fynbo, H.O.U.; Jensen, J.H.; Laursen, K.L.; Riisager, K. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus C (Denmark); Borge, M.J.G. [CSIC, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Madrid (Spain); CERN, ISOLDE, PH Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Briz, J.A.; Perea, A.; Pesudo, V.; Tengblad, O. [CSIC, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Madrid (Spain); Cederkaell, J. [Lund University, Department of Nuclear Physics, Lund (Sweden); Jonson, B.; Nilsson, T. [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Fundamental Physics, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2015-09-15

    Beta-delayed proton emission from {sup 21}Mg has been measured at ISOLDE, CERN, with a detection setup consisting of two charged-particle telescopes surrounding the decay point. Altogether 27 βp branches were measured with center-of-mass energies between 0.4-7.2 MeV. Seven new βp branches were observed. Beta-delayed protons were used to determine the half-life of {sup 21}Mg as 118.6 ± 0.5 ms. From a line shape fit of the βp branches we extract the widths, spins, and parities of the resonances of {sup 21}Na. An improved interpretation of the decay scheme in accordance with the results obtained in reaction studies is presented. (orig.)

  17. Braking the Gas in the beta Pictoris Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Fern'andez, R; Wu, Y; Brandeker, Alexis; Fern\\'andez, Rodrigo

    2006-01-01

    (Abridged) The main sequence star beta Pictoris hosts the best studied circumstellar disk to date. Nonetheless, a long-standing puzzle has been around since the detection of metallic gas in the disk: radiation pressure from the star should blow the gas away, yet the observed motion is consistent with Keplerian rotation. In this work we search for braking mechanisms that can resolve this discrepancy. We find that all species affected by radiation force are heavily ionized and dynamically coupled into a single fluid by Coulomb collisions, reducing the radiation force on species feeling the strongest acceleration. For a gas of solar composition, the resulting total radiation force still exceeds gravity, while a gas of enhanced carbon abundance could be self-braking. We also explore two other braking agents: collisions with dust grains and neutral gas. Grains surrounding beta Pic are photoelectrically charged to a positive electrostatic potential. If a significant fraction of the grains are carbonaceous (10% in t...

  18. A GUI tool for beta function measurement using MATLAB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guang-Ling; TIAN Shun-Qiang; JIANG Bo-Cheng; LIU Gui-Min

    2009-01-01

    The beta function measurement is used to detect the shift in the betatron tune as the strength of an individual quadrupole magnet is varied. A GUI (graphic user interface) tool for the beta function measurement is developed using the MATLAB program language in the Linux environment, which facilitates the commissioning of the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) storage ring. In this paper, we describe the design of the application and give some measuring results and discussions about the definition of the measurement. The program has been optimized to solve some restrictions of the AT tracking code. After the correction with LOCO (linear optics from closed orbits), the horizontal and the vertical root mean square values (rms values) can be reduced to 0.12 and 0.10.

  19. "Neutrinoless Double $\\Beta$ Decay" at a Neutrino Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Rodejohann, W

    2001-01-01

    We examine the prospects of detecting an analogous process of neutrinoless double beta decay at a neutrino factory from a high energy muon storage ring. Limits from LEP experiments, neutrinoless double beta decay as well as from global fits have to be incorporated and severely restrict the results. We investigate what limits on light and heavy effective Majorana neutrino masses can be obtained and compare them with existing ones. Discussed are also contributions from right-handed neutrinos and purely right-handed interactions. We also comment on conspiracy in the mixing matrix, which might reduce the results within orders of magnitude. However, other ``new physics'' contributions to the same final state might produce large event numbers.

  20. Single fiber beta detector for stereotactic biopsy and intraoperative lumpectomy of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed an intraoperative probe for use in early detection of breast cancer and aiding lumpectomy. The probe consists of a small plastic scintillator, 0.8mm dia and 3mm long, coupled to a single clear optical-fiber strand, and solid state photomultiplier. Due to the small size of the probe, it can be placed inside of a small gauge biopsy needle. The scintillator is very efficient in detecting betas and positrons while being very in efficient to energetic gammas due to small size and low density. High quantum efficiency, 80%, and high gain obtainable, solid state photomultiplier makes the probe very low noise device in detecting beta particles. Intrinsic resolution of the probe is expected to be around 1 mm. Preliminary results using beta sources and a rat bearing R320 adenocarcinoma tumor were very successful

  1. Development of an antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Clostridium perfringens beta2-toxin in porcine feces and the neonatal piglet intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircanski, Jasmina; Hodgins, Douglas; Soltes, Glenn; Pei, Yanlong; Parreira, Valeria R; Songer, J Glenn; Prescott, John F

    2012-09-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for detection and quantitation of beta2-toxin in neonatal piglet intestinal contents. Polystyrene plates were coated with polyclonal capture antibodies prepared against consensus recombinant beta2-toxin. The ELISA was developed using consensus recombinant beta2-toxin, atypical recombinant beta2-toxin, purified consensus native beta2-toxin, and field samples of neonatal porcine intestinal contents. Captured antigen was detected using a horseradish peroxidase-labeled monoclonal antibody against consensus recombinant beta2-toxin. The limit of detection of the ELISA for consensus beta2-toxin was between 2.0 and 3.5 ng/ml. The ELISA detected atypical recombinant beta2-toxin only weakly. Optical density was protein concentration dependent. The test confirmed differences between consensus and atypical recombinant beta2-toxin, but similar results obtained when testing pure consensus recombinant beta2-toxin and native beta2-toxin. Results obtained from intestinal content samples, particularly from the small intestine, were highly inconsistent and suggested variable protease activity. Addition of protease inhibitors partially prevented degradation of the toxin; however, sample processing at low temperature, at a lower pH (citrate buffer with 5% of bovine serum albumin, pH 6.1), and "cold incubation" of applied antigens abolished protease activity. The recombinant toxin was preserved in spiked intestinal samples by freezing at -70°C, suggesting that necropsy samples can be stored frozen for periodic testing. With appropriate sample preparation, antigen-capture ELISA can detect beta2-toxin in the intestinal content and feces of neonatal piglets.

  2. Effects of ORP150 on appearance and function of pancreatic beta cells following acute necrotizing pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wen-Hong; Chen, Chen; Wang, Wei-Xing; Yu, Jia; Li, Jin-You; Liu, Lei

    2011-06-15

    Pancreatic beta cells produce and release insulin, which decreases the blood glucose level. Endoplasmic reticulum stress caused pancreatic beta cell dysfunction and death in acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP). The 150kD oxygen-regulated protein (ORP150) took part in the process of endoplasmic reticulum stress. This study investigated the effect of ORP150 on appearance and function of pancreatic beta cells in ANP. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis relied on retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurocholate into the bile-pancreatic duct. The severity of ANP was estimated by serum amylase, secretory phospholipase A(2,) and pancreatic histopathology. The changes in appearance and function of pancreatic beta cells were detected by light and electron microscopy and the levels of serum glucose, insulin, and C-peptide. ORP150 expression was studied using western blot and immunohistochemisty assay. The expression of ORP150 mainly appeared on pancreatic beta cells and decreased gradually during the pathogenesis of ANP. The results of light and electron microscopy indicated pancreatic beta cell dysfunction and death, concomitant with elevation of serum glucose, insulin, and C-peptide in ANP. These results imply a probable role of ORP150 in the changes in appearance and function of pancreatic beta cells following acute necrotizing pancreatitis, through the pathway of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

  3. 17 beta-estradiol modulates GABAergic synaptic transmission and tonic currents during development in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytel, Maria; Wójtowicz, Tomasz; Mercik, Katarzyna; Sarto-Jackson, Isabella; Sieghart, Werner; Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy; Mozrzymas, Jerzy W

    2007-05-01

    Estrogens exert a variety of modulatory effects on the structure and function of the nervous system. In particular, 17 beta-estradiol was found to affect GABAergic inhibition in adult animals but its action on GABAergic currents during development has not been elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the effect of 17 beta-estradiol on hippocampal neurons developing in vitro. In this model, mIPSC kinetics showed acceleration with age along with increased alpha1 subunit expression, similarly as in vivo. Long-term treatment with 17 beta-estradiol increased mIPSC amplitudes in neurons cultured for 6-8 and 9-11DIV and prolonged the mIPSC decaying phase only in the 9-11DIV group. The time needed for the onset of 17 beta-estradiol effect on mIPSC amplitude was approximately 48 h. In the period of 9-11DIV, treatment with 17 beta-estradiol strongly reduced the tonic conductance activated by low GABA concentrations. The effects of 17 beta-estradiol on mIPSCs and tonic conductance were not correlated with any change in expression of considered GABAAR subunits (alpha1-3, alpha5-6, gamma2) while alpha4 and delta subunits were at the detection limit. In conclusion, we provide evidence that 17 beta-estradiol differentially affects the phasic and tonic components of GABAergic currents in neurons developing in vitro.

  4. Beta-delayed gamma decay of 26P: Possible evidence of a proton halo

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Loureiro, D; Bennett, M B; Liddick, S N; Bowe, A; Brown, B A; Chen, A A; Chipps, K A; Cooper, N; Irvine, D; McNeice, E; Montes, F; Naqvi, F; Ortez, R; Pain, S D; Pereira, J; Prokop, C J; Quaglia, J; Quinn, S J; Sakstrup, J; Santia, M; Schwartz, S B; Shanab, S; Simon, A; Spyrou, A; Thiagalingam, E

    2016-01-01

    Background: Measurements of $\\beta$ decay provide important nuclear structure information that can be used to probe isospin asymmetries and inform nuclear astrophysics studies. Purpose: To measure the $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$ decay of $^{26}$P and compare the results with previous experimental results and shell-model calculations. Method: A $^{26}$P fast beam produced using nuclear fragmentation was implanted into a planar germanium detector. Its $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$-ray emission was measured with an array of 16 high-purity germanium detectors. Positrons emitted in the decay were detected in coincidence to reduce the background. Results: The absolute intensities of $^{26}$P $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$-rays were determined. A total of six new $\\beta$-decay branches and 15 new $\\gamma$-ray lines have been observed for the first time in $^{26}$P $\\beta$-decay. A complete $\\beta$-decay scheme was built for the allowed transitions to bound excited states of $^{26}$Si. $ft$ values and Gamow-Teller strengths were a...

  5. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose

    OpenAIRE

    Sebely Pal; Keith Woodford; Sonja Kukuljan; Suleen Ho

    2015-01-01

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows’ milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows’ milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-...

  6. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebely Pal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows’ milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows’ milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows’ milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  7. NMR Spectroscopic Analysis on the Chiral Recognition of Noradrenaline by {beta}-Cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) and Carboxymethyl- {beta}-cyclodextrin (CM- {beta}-CD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hoo; Yi, Dong Heui; Jung, Seun Ho [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    {beta}-CD and CM-{beta}-CD as chiral NMR shift agents were used to resolve the enantiomers of noradrenaline (NA). The stoichiometry of each complex formed between the CDs and the enantiomers of NA was found to be 1 : 1 through the continuous variation plots. The binding constants (K) of the complexes were determined from 1H NMR titration curves. This result indicated that both {beta}-CD and CM-{beta}-CD formed the complexes with the S (+)-NA more preferentially than its R(.)-enantiomer. The K values for the complexes with {beta}-CD (KS(+) = 537 M{sup -1} and K{sub R}({sub -}) = 516 M{sup -1}) was larger than those with CM-{beta}-CD (K{sub S}({sub +}) = 435 M{sup -1} and K{sub R}({sub -}) = 313 M{sup -1}), however, enantioselectivity ({alpha}) of S({sub +})- and R(-)-NA to CM-{beta}-CD ({alpha} = 1.38) was larger than that to {beta}-CD ({alpha} = 1.04), indicating that CM-{beta}-CD was the better chiral NMR solvating agents for the recognition of the enantiomers of NA. Two dimensional rotating frame nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (ROESY) experiments were also performed to explain the binding properties in terms of spatial fitting of the NA molecule into the macrocyclic cavities

  8. Changes in the processing of beta-endorphin in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland of female rats during sexual maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martensz, N D

    1985-11-01

    Puberty in the female rat is accompanied by a marked attenuation of the opioid inhibition of luteinizing hormone secretion. One factor which may contribute to this altered role is a change in the metabolism of opioid peptides during sexual maturation. beta-Endorphin undergoes a considerable degree of metabolism through both C-terminal proteolysis and N-acetylation, and these metabolites do not possess opioid activity. The processing of beta-endorphin in the hypothalamus and in the anterior and neurointermediate lobes of the pituitary gland in prepubertal and adult female rats was studied using gel filtration and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with radioimmunoassay. In the anterior lobe, high molecular weight precursors of beta-endorphin (pro-opiomelanocortin and beta-lipotropin) were present in prepubertal (28 days old) rats, but little authentic beta-endorphin was detected. In contrast, only beta-lipotropin and beta-endorphin were present in mature (70 days old) animals. Only beta-endorphin-sized peptides were present in the neurointermediate lobes of both prepubertal and adult rats. However, the proportion of N-acetylated metabolites was higher in sexually mature animals. In the hypothalamus, only beta-endorphin-sized peptides were present in both juvenile and adult animals. However, C-terminal proteolysis increased with age (no acetylated metabolites were detectable in this tissue). The proportion of the total beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity attributable to beta-endorphin was lower in young adult (first dioestrus after vaginal opening) (55%) and mature (dioestrus, 61-64 days old) rats (56%) compared to prepubertal (30 days old) animals (75%) and the proportions of non-acetylated metabolites [beta-endorphin-(1-27) in young adults and beta-endorphin-(1-26) in adults] were increased concomitantly. These changes were correlated with a reduced luteinizing hormone response to the opiate antagonist naloxone in adult compared to prepubertal rats

  9. Purification and substrate specificity of beta-xylosidase from sycamore cell (Acer pseudoplatanus L.): application for structural analysis of xylose-containing N-linked oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezuka, K; Hayashi, M; Ishihara, H; Nishimura, M; Onozaki, K; Takahashi, N

    1993-06-01

    A beta-xylosidase was purified 51-fold from culture medium of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells using p-nitrophenyl beta-D-xylopyranoside as a substrate. This enzyme can remove a xylose residue from asparagine-linked oligosaccharides, derivatized with 2-aminopyridine. A pentasaccharide, Xy1 beta 2Man beta 4GlcNAc beta 4(Fuc-alpha 3)GlcNAc was the favorite substrate in N-linked oligosaccharides, but a xylose residue in Xy1 beta 2(Man-alpha 3)Man beta sequence could not be removed by the enzyme. We also propose an efficient method for detection of xylose residue in N-linked oligosaccharides by a combination of the two-dimensional sugar mapping technique and the xylosidase digestion.

  10. Review of double beta experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Sarazin, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the first part of the manuscript written in April 2012 for my academic Accreditation to supervise research. It offers a review of the double beta experimental techniques. My purpose is to detail, for each technique, the different origins of background, how they can be identified, and how they can be reduced. Advantages and limitations are discussed. This review is organized as follows. First, the question of the possible Majorana nature for the neutrino is presented and the physic of neutrinoless double beta decay is summarized. Then I begin by presenting the tracko-calo NEMO-3 and SuperNEMO experiments. I've worked on these two experiments since 15 years. So it was natural to start with them with a relatively more exhaustive description. I will then present the germanium technique. I will then review the bolometer technique. I will describe in detail the recent progress in scintillating bolometers because I think that it is one of the most promising techniques. Finally I will review the large l...

  11. Challenges in Double Beta Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliviero Cremonesi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past ten years, neutrino oscillation experiments have provided the incontrovertible evidence that neutrinos mix and have finite masses. These results represent the strongest demonstration that the electroweak Standard Model is incomplete and that new Physics beyond it must exist. In this scenario, a unique role is played by the Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay searches which can probe lepton number conservation and investigate the Dirac/Majorana nature of the neutrinos and their absolute mass scale (hierarchy problem with unprecedented sensitivity. Today Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay faces a new era where large-scale experiments with a sensitivity approaching the so-called degenerate-hierarchy region are nearly ready to start and where the challenge for the next future is the construction of detectors characterized by a tonne-scale size and an incredibly low background. A number of new proposed projects took up this challenge. These are based either on large expansions of the present experiments or on new ideas to improve the technical performance and/or reduce the background contributions. In this paper, a review of the most relevant ongoing experiments is given. The most relevant parameters contributing to the experimental sensitivity are discussed and a critical comparison of the future projects is proposed.

  12. Association of heterocellular HPFH, beta(+)-thalassaemia, and delta beta(0)-thalassaemia: haematological and molecular aspects.

    OpenAIRE

    Cianetti, L; Care, A; Sposi, N M; Giampaolo, A; Calandrini, M; Petrini, M.; Massa, A.; Marinucci, M.; Mavilio, F; Ceccanti, M.

    1984-01-01

    An Italian family in which heterocellular hereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin (HPFH) interacts with both beta(+)- and delta beta-thalassaemia is described. The index case was an 8 year old girl who was presumed to inherit both heterocellular HPFH and beta (+)-thalassaemia from her mother and delta beta-thalassaemia from her father. She was healthy and never needed blood transfusions. The possible contribution of heterocellular HPFH to the less severe expression of the compound delta b...

  13. Evidence for the existence of organosulfates from beta-pinene ozonolysis in ambient secondary organic aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Müller, Conny; Berndt, Torsten; Böge, Olaf; Claeys, Magda; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2007-10-01

    The formation of organosulfates from the gas-phase ozonolysis of beta-pinene in the presence of neutral or acidic sulfate particles was investigated in a series of indoor aerosol chamber experiments. The organosulfates were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) in parallel to ion trap MS. Organosulfates were only found in secondary organic aerosol from beta-pinene ozonolysis in the presence of acidic sulfate seed particles. One of the detected organosulfates also occurred in ambient aerosol samples that were collected at a forest site in northeastern Bavaria, Germany. beta-Pinene oxide, an oxidation product in beta-pinene/O3 and beta-pinene/NO3 reactions, is identified as a possible precursor for the beta-pinene-derived organosulfate. Furthermore, several nitroxy-organosulfates originating from monoterpenes were found in the ambient samples. These nitroxy-organosulfates were only detected in the nighttime samples, suggesting a role for nighttime chemistry in their formation. Their LC/MS chromatographic peak intensities suggest that they represent an important fraction of the organic mass in ambient aerosols, especially at night.

  14. The profile of free amino acids in latent fingerprint of healthy and beta-thalassemic volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedr, Alaa

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present work is to apply a non-invasive test, using thumb fingerprint residue analysis, for detection of beta-thalassemia (beta-Thal). The relative percentages of free amino acids (AA) in the latent fingerprint of beta-Thal patients and healthy subjects were compared. The sample included 24 beta-Thal patient and 24 healthy subjects, aged 5-10 years old. Twenty-three AA plus ammonia were analyzed by a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method with fluorescence detection. The profile of AA was calculated based on the percentage of relative amount of each AA to serine (Ser) as it found to be the predominant peak. The statistical and chromatographic profiles of beta-Thal patients were characterized by significant decrease of ornithine, lysine, and zero tyrosine, with significant increase of ammonia, and proline. Other amino acids that exist in low ratios were estimated statistically for significance changes. The relative percentages of each AA of healthy subjects were approximately constant. For this reason, these mentioned AA were assigned as major fingerprint markers of beta-Thal.

  15. A study of fluorescence properties of citrinin in {beta}-cyclodextrin aqueous solution and different solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Youxiang [Institute of Quality Standard and Testing Technology for Agro-products, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430064 (China); Chen Jianbiao; Dong Lina; Lu Liang [College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430070 (China); Chen Fusheng [College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430070 (China); Key Laboratory of Food Safety Evaluation of the Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430070 (China); National Key Laboratory of Agro-microbiology, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430070 (China); Hu Dingjin [Institute of Quality Standard and Testing Technology for Agro-products, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430064 (China); Wang Xiaohong, E-mail: wxh@mail.hzau.edu.cn [College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430070 (China); Key Laboratory of Food Safety Evaluation of the Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430070 (China)

    2012-06-15

    Citrinin (CIT) is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin initially isolated from filamentous fungus Penicilliu citrinum. It was later isolated from several other species, such as Aspergillus and Monascus. It has a conjugated, planar structure that gives it a natural fluorescence ability, which can be used to develop sensitive methods for detecting CIT in food. In this paper, we used the spectrofluorescence technique to study the effects of pH value, {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) and organic solvents on the CIT fluorescence intensity. The results show that lower pH value, aceitc acid, {beta}-CD and acetonitrile can induce a higher fluorescence intensity of CIT, but methanol or H{sub 2}O has a decreasing effect on the fluorescence intensity of CIT. Findings in this study provide a theoretical basis for development of a high sensitivity fluorescence-based trace analysis for CIT detection. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of pH, solvents and {beta}-CD on the fluorescence of citrinin are analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer [H]{sup +}, acetic acid, {beta}-CD and acetonitrile can induce CIT fluorescence enhancement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Methanol and H{sub 2}O can induce CIT fluorescence reduction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 1:1 inclusion complex of CIT/{beta}-CD can form in acidic phosphate solution.

  16. 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 promotes differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun LIU; Yan SUN; Ting ZHU; Yu XIE; Jing YU; Wen-lan SUN; Guo-xian DING; Gang HU

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationship between 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydroge-nase type 1 (1 lbeta-HSD1), a potential link between obesity and type 2 diabetes,and preadipocyte differentiation. Methods: Mouse 11beta-HSD1 siRNA plasmids were transfected into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes (a cell line derived from mouse Swiss3T3 cells that were isolated from mouse embryo), for examination of the effect of targeted 11 beta-HSD1 inhibition on differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Dif-ferentiation was stimulated with 3-isobutyl-1-methyxanthine, insulin, and dexamethasone. The transcription level of the genes was detected by real-time PCR. Results: Lipid accumulation was significantly inhibited in cells transfected with mouse 11beta-HSD1 siRNA compared with non-transfected 3T3-L1 cells.Fewer lipid droplets were detected in the transfected cells both prior to stimulation and after stimulation with differentiation-inducing reagents. The expression of adipocyte differentiation-associated markers such as lipoprotein lipase and fatty acid synthetase were downregulated in the transfected cells. Similarly, the expres-sion of preadipocyte factor-1, an inhibitor of adipocyte differentiation, was downregulated upon stimulation of differentiation and had no changes in the transfected cells. Conclusion: 11 beta-HSD1 can promote preadipocyte differentiation. Based on this, we propose that 11 beta-HSD1 may be an important candidate mediator of obesity and obesity-induced insulin resistance.

  17. Expressions of GSK-3beta, Beta-Catenin and PPAR-Gamma in Medulloblastoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Zhang; Lu Si; Yu Li; Can Mi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expressions of GSK-3beta, Beta-catenin and PPAR-gamma, and their relationship in medulloblastoma, and to explore their value in clinic application.Methods: Immunohistochemical staining with SP method was conducted to determine the expressions of GSK-3beta, Beta-catenin and PPAR-gamma in 48 cases of medulloblastoma and 10 normal cerebellar tissues.Results: The rate of abnormal expressions of beta-catenin and PPAR-gamma in MB was higher than that in normal. Conversely, GSK-3beta in MB was lower than that in the normal (P<0.05). Furthermore, in medulloblastoma, beta-catenin and GSK-3beta showed a negative correlation, PPAR-gamma and beta-catenin had a positive correlation.Conclusion: Abnormal expression of beta-catenin plays a crucial role in the development of medulloblastoma. Meanwhile, PPAR-gamma and GSK-3beta which are tightly related with beta-catenin are both involved in the genesis and development of medulloblastoma.

  18. Radiation-induced polymerization of {beta}(+)-pinene and synthesis of optically active {beta}(+)/{beta}(-)pinene polymers and copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, Franco, E-mail: franco.cataldo@fastwebnet.i [Lupi Chemical Research, Via Casilina 1626/A, 00133 Rome (Italy); Lilla, Edo; Ursini, Ornella [Institute of Chemical Methodologies, CNR, Via Salaria Km. 29300, Monterotondo Stazione 00016, Rome (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    Poly-{beta}(+)-pinene (pB(+)p) was synthesized with {gamma} irradiation of the monomer {beta}(+)-pinene in bulk under vacuum at 1181 kGy. Also scalemic mixtures of {beta}(+)-pinene and {beta}(-)-pinene were irradiated at 1181 kGy to obtain synthetic copolymers of pB(+)/B(-)p. For comparison also {beta}(-)-pinene was converted into poly-{beta}(-)-pinene (pB(-)p) under the identical conditions adopted for its enantiomer. Furthermore pB(+)p and pB(-)p were also synthesized by thermal processing under the action of a chemical free radical initiator. The optical rotatory dispersion (ORD) of all pBp resins synthesized were accurately studied in the spectral range comprised between 375 and 625 nm and a curious asymmetry in the ORD of pB(+)p versus the ORD of pB(-)p is reported. Furthermore, it is shown that (+)-p-menth-1-ene and (-)-p-menth-1-ene are useful as a model compounds for the pBp resins and for the explanation of the amplification of the optical activity of the {beta}(+)-pinene and {beta}(-)-pinene after their ring-opening polymerization to pB(+)p and pB(-)p. The pBp resins were studied also by FT-IR spectroscopy and by thermal analysis (TGA and DTG).

  19. Cleaved beta 2-microglobulin partially attains a conformation that has amyloidogenic features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Niels H H; Roepstorff, Peter; Melberg, Steen G;

    2002-01-01

    beta(2)-Microglobulin, a small protein localized in serum and on cell surfaces, can adopt specific aggregating conformations that generate amyloid in tissues and joints as a complication to long-term hemodialysis. We characterize a proteolytic variant of beta(2)-microglobulin (cleaved after Lys(58...... while appearing homogeneous, except for a fraction of oxidized species detected by other techniques. The two components had different binding affinities for heparin and for the amyloid-specific dye Congo red, and the equilibrium between the two forms was dependent on solvent conditions. Together...... with analysis of the differences in circular dichroism, the results suggest that beta(2)-microglobulin cleaved after Lys(58) readily adopts two equilibrium conformations under native conditions. In the cleaved and trimmed beta(2)-microglobulin that appears in vivo, the less populated conformation...

  20. 联合检测甲胎蛋白、α-岩藻糖苷酶、β2-微球蛋白及透明质酸对诊断原发性肝癌的意义%Significance of combined detection of alpha fetoprotein, alpha fucosidase, beta 2-microglobulin and hyaluronic acid in the diagnosis of primary liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶宏

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨联合检测甲胎蛋白(AFP)、α-岩藻糖苷酶(AFU)、β2-微球蛋白(β2-m)及透明质酸(HA)对诊断原发性肝癌的意义.方法 选取2012年3月~ 2014年3月在我院治疗的原发性肝癌患者60例、其他消化系癌症患者50例、肝硬化患者50例及正常健康人60例,检测所有患者血清AFP、AFU、β2-m及HA水平.结果 原发性肝癌组患者血清AFU、AFP、β2-m、HA水平及阳性检出率明显高于其他消化系癌症组、肝硬化组及正常对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).原发性肝癌组患者血清AFU、AFP、β2-m、HA四项联合检测的敏感性、诊断符合率均优于单项检测,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 联合检测AFU、AFP、β2-m、HA四种肿瘤标志物能提高早期原发性肝癌的敏感性和诊断率,为临床早期诊治提供可靠参考.%Objective To investigate the significance of combined detection of alpha fetoprotein (AFP), alpha fucosidase (AFU), beta 2-microglobulin (β2-m) and hyaluronic acid (HA) in the diagnosis of primary liver cancer. Methods 60 patients with primary liver cancer, 50 cases of other digestive system cancer, 50 patients with hepatic cirrhosis and 60 normal people from 2012 March to 2014 March in our hospital were selected,and serum AFP, AFU, β2-m and HA levels of all patients were detected.Results The levels and positive rates of serum AFP, AFU, β2-m and HA of patients with primary liver cancer were significantly higher than those of patients with other digestive system cancer, liver cirrhosis and normal people, the difference was statiscally significant (P<0.05). The sensitivity and diagnostic accordance rate of combined detection of serum AFU, AFU, β2-m and HA in patients with primary liver cancer were better than those of the single detection, the difference was statiscally significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Combined detection of AFP, AFU, β2-m and HA four tumor markers can improve the sensitivity and diagnosis rate of

  1. Imperfect World of beta beta-decay Nuclear Data Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritychenko, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). NNDC

    2015-01-03

    The precision of double-beta ββ-decay experimental half lives and their uncertainties is reanalyzed. The method of Benford's distributions has been applied to nuclear reaction, structure and decay data sets. First-digit distribution trend for ββ-decay T2v1/2 is consistent with large nuclear reaction and structure data sets and provides validation of experimental half-lives. A complementary analysis of the decay uncertainties indicates deficiencies due to small size of statistical samples, and incomplete collection of experimental information. Further experimental and theoretical efforts would lead toward more precise values of-decay half-lives and nuclear matrix elements.

  2. Signatures of transition region explosive events in hydrogen Ly-beta profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, L.; Zhang, M.; Tian, H.; Chen, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Transition-region (TR) explosive events (EEs) are small-scale dynamic phenomena often observed in the far and extreme ultraviolet (FUV/EUV) spectral lines formed in the solar transition region. In this contribution, we investigate the relationship between the peak emission of hydrogen Ly-beta profiles and the emission of C II (103.7nm) and O VI (103.2nm) lines to search for signatures of explosive events in Ly-beta profiles. Two rasters made by the SUMER (Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation) instrument on board SOHO in a quiet-Sun region and an equatorial coronal hole were selected for our study. Explosive events were identified from profiles of C II and O VI, respectively. We compared Ly-beta profiles during EEs with those averaged in the entire quiet-Sun and coronal-hole regions. We find that the central part of Ly-beta profiles reverses more and the distance of the two peaks becomes larger during EEs, both in the coronal hole and in the quiet Sun. The average Ly-beta profile of the EEs detected by C II has an obviously stronger blue peak. During EEs, there is a clear correlation between the increased peak emission of Ly-beta profiles and the enhanced wing emission of the C II and O VI lines. The correlation is more pronounced for the Ly-beta peaks and C II wings, and less significant for the Ly-beta blue peak and O VI blue wing. We also find that the Ly-beta profiles are more reversed in the coronal hole than in the quiet Sun. We suggest that the jets produced by EEs emit Doppler-shifted Ly-beta photons, causing enhanced emission at positions of the peaks of Ly-beta profiles. The more-reversed Ly-beta profiles confirm the presence of a higher opacity in the coronal hole than in the quiet Sun. The finding that EEs modify the Ly-beta line profile in QS and CHs implies that one should be careful in the modeling and interpretation of relevant observational data.

  3. Beta-glucosidase I variants with improved properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bott, Richard R.; Kaper, Thijs; Kelemen, Bradley; Goedegebuur, Frits; Hommes, Ronaldus Wilhelmus; Kralj, Slavko; Kruithof, Paulien; Nikolaev, Igor; Van Der Kley, Wilhelmus Antonious Hendricus; Van Lieshout, Johannes Franciscus Thomas; Van Stigt Thans, Sander

    2016-09-20

    The present disclosure is generally directed to enzymes and in particular beta-glucosidase variants. Also described are nucleic acids encoding beta-glucosidase variants, compositions comprising beta-glucosidase variants, methods of using beta-glucosidase variants, and methods of identifying additional useful beta-glucosidase variants.

  4. IN-SITU TRITIUM BETA DETECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this three-phase project were to design, develop, and demonstrate a monitoring system capable of detecting and quantifying tritium in situ in ground and surface waters, and in water from effluent lines prior to discharge into public waterways. The tritium detection system design is based on measurement of the low energy beta radiation from the radioactive decay of tritium using a special form of scintillating optical fiber directly in contact with the water to be measured. The system consists of the immersible sensor module containing the optical fiber, and an electronics package, connected by an umbilical cable. The system can be permanently installed for routine water monitoring in wells or process or effluent lines, or can be moved from one location to another for survey use. The electronics will read out tritium activity directly in units of pico Curies per liter, with straightforward calibration. In Phase 1 of the project, we characterized the sensitivity of fluor-doped plastic optical fiber to tritium beta radiation. In addition, we characterized the performance of photomultiplier tubes needed for the system. In parallel with this work, we defined the functional requirements, target specifications, and system configuration for an in situ tritium beta detector that would use the fluor-doped fibers as primary sensors of tritium concentration in water. The major conclusions from the characterization work are: A polystyrene optical fiber with fluor dopant concentration of 2% gave best performance. This fiber had the highest dopant concentration of any fibers tested. Stability may be a problem. The fibers exposed to a 22-day soak in 120 F water experienced a 10x reduction in sensitivity. It is not known whether this was due to the build up of a deposit (a potentially reversible effect) or an irreversible process such as leaching of the scintillating dye. Based on the results achieved, it is premature to initiate Phase 2 and commit to a prototype

  5. IN-SITU TRITIUM BETA DETECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.W. Berthold; L.A. Jeffers

    1998-04-15

    The objectives of this three-phase project were to design, develop, and demonstrate a monitoring system capable of detecting and quantifying tritium in situ in ground and surface waters, and in water from effluent lines prior to discharge into public waterways. The tritium detection system design is based on measurement of the low energy beta radiation from the radioactive decay of tritium using a special form of scintillating optical fiber directly in contact with the water to be measured. The system consists of the immersible sensor module containing the optical fiber, and an electronics package, connected by an umbilical cable. The system can be permanently installed for routine water monitoring in wells or process or effluent lines, or can be moved from one location to another for survey use. The electronics will read out tritium activity directly in units of pico Curies per liter, with straightforward calibration. In Phase 1 of the project, we characterized the sensitivity of fluor-doped plastic optical fiber to tritium beta radiation. In addition, we characterized the performance of photomultiplier tubes needed for the system. In parallel with this work, we defined the functional requirements, target specifications, and system configuration for an in situ tritium beta detector that would use the fluor-doped fibers as primary sensors of tritium concentration in water. The major conclusions from the characterization work are: A polystyrene optical fiber with fluor dopant concentration of 2% gave best performance. This fiber had the highest dopant concentration of any fibers tested. Stability may be a problem. The fibers exposed to a 22-day soak in 120 F water experienced a 10x reduction in sensitivity. It is not known whether this was due to the build up of a deposit (a potentially reversible effect) or an irreversible process such as leaching of the scintillating dye. Based on the results achieved, it is premature to initiate Phase 2 and commit to a prototype

  6. Dosimetry of low-energy beta radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, J.

    1996-08-01

    Useful techniques and procedures for determination of absorbed doses from exposure in a low-energy {beta} radiation field were studied and evaluated in this project. The four different techniques included were {beta} spectrometry, extrapolation chamber dosimetry, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, and exoelectron dosimetry. As a typical low-energy {beta} radiation field a moderated spectrum from a {sup 14}C source (E{sub {beta}},{sub max} =156 keV) was chosen for the study. The measured response of a Si(Li) detector to photons (bremsstrahlung) showed fine agreement with the MC calculated photon response, whereas the difference between measured and MC calculated responses to electrons indicates an additional dead layer thickness of about 12 {mu}m in the Si(Li) detector. The depth-dose profiles measured with extrapolation chambers at two laboratories agreed very well, and it was confirmed that the fitting procedure previously reported for {sup 147}Pm depth-dose profiles is also suitable for {beta} radiation from {sup 14}C. An increasing difference between measured and MC calculated dose rates for increasing absorber thickness was found, which is explained by limitations of the EGS4 code for transport of very low-energy electrons (below 10-20 keV). Finally a study of the thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) response of BeO thin film dosemeters to {beta} radiation for radiation fields with maximum {beta} energies ranging from 67 keV to 2.27 MeV is reported. For maximum {beta} energies below approximately 500 keV, a decrease in the response amounting to about 20% was observed. It is thus concluded that a {beta} dose higher than about 10 {mu}Gy can be measured with these dosemeters to within 0 to -20% independently of the {beta}energy for E{sub {beta}},{sub max} values down to 67 keV. (au) 12 tabs., 38 ills., 71 refs.

  7. ALDH expression characterizes G1-phase proliferating beta cells during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Zhang

    Full Text Available High levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH activity have been detected in various progenitor and stem cells. Thus, Aldefluor fluorescence, which represents precisely the ALDH activity, has been widely used for the identification, evaluation, and isolation of stem and progenitor cells. Recently, ALDH activity was detected in embryonic and adult mouse pancreas, specifically in adult centroacinar and terminal duct cells supposed to harbor endocrine and exocrine progenitor cells in the adult pancreas. Nevertheless, ALDH activity and aldeflour fluorescence have not been examined in beta cells. Here, we report a dynamic increase in the number of aldeflour+ beta cells during pregnancy. Interestingly, nearly all these aldeflour+ beta cells are positive for Ki-67, suggesting that they are in an active cell cycle (G1, S and M phases. To determine precisely at which phase beta cells activate ALDH activity and thus become aldeflour+, we co-stained insulin with additional proliferation markers, phosphohistone3 (PHH3, a marker for M-phase proliferating cells and Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, a marker for S-phase proliferating cells. Our data show little aldeflour+ beta cells that were positive for either PHH3, or BrdU, suggesting that beta cells activate ALDH and become Aldefluor+ when they enter G1-phase of active cell cycle, but may downregulate ALDH when they leave G1-phase and enter S phase. Our data thus reveal a potential change in ALDH activity of proliferating beta cells during pregnancy, which provides a novel method for isolation and analysis of proliferating beta cells. Moreover, our data also suggest that caution needs to be taken on interpretation of Aldefluor lineage-tracing data in pancreas.

  8. ALDH Expression Characterizes G1-Phase Proliferating Beta Cells during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijuan; Wang, Lin; Liu, Xiaoliang; Zheng, Dongming; Liu, Sishi; Liu, Caixia

    2014-01-01

    High levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity have been detected in various progenitor and stem cells. Thus, Aldefluor fluorescence, which represents precisely the ALDH activity, has been widely used for the identification, evaluation, and isolation of stem and progenitor cells. Recently, ALDH activity was detected in embryonic and adult mouse pancreas, specifically in adult centroacinar and terminal duct cells supposed to harbor endocrine and exocrine progenitor cells in the adult pancreas. Nevertheless, ALDH activity and aldeflour fluorescence have not been examined in beta cells. Here, we report a dynamic increase in the number of aldeflour+ beta cells during pregnancy. Interestingly, nearly all these aldeflour+ beta cells are positive for Ki-67, suggesting that they are in an active cell cycle (G1, S and M phases). To determine precisely at which phase beta cells activate ALDH activity and thus become aldeflour+, we co-stained insulin with additional proliferation markers, phosphohistone3 (PHH3, a marker for M-phase proliferating cells) and Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, a marker for S-phase proliferating cells). Our data show little aldeflour+ beta cells that were positive for either PHH3, or BrdU, suggesting that beta cells activate ALDH and become Aldefluor+ when they enter G1-phase of active cell cycle, but may downregulate ALDH when they leave G1-phase and enter S phase. Our data thus reveal a potential change in ALDH activity of proliferating beta cells during pregnancy, which provides a novel method for isolation and analysis of proliferating beta cells. Moreover, our data also suggest that caution needs to be taken on interpretation of Aldefluor lineage-tracing data in pancreas. PMID:24787690

  9. Evaluation of Eight Different Cephalosporins for Detection of Cephalosporin Resistance in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarestrup, F.M.; Hasman, H.; Veldman, K.T.; Mevius, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of eight different cephalosporins for detection of cephalosporin resistance mediated by extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and plasmidic AmpC beta-lactamases in Salmonella and Escherichia coli. A total of 138 E. coli and 86 Salmonella isolates with known beta-

  10. Search for beta sup - and beta sup -beta sup - decays of sup 4 sup 8 Ca

    CERN Document Server

    Bakalyarov, A; Barabash, A; Briançon, C; Brudanin, V; Egorov, V; Hubert, F; Hubert, P; Kovalik, A; Lebedev, V I; Rukhadze, N I; Stekl, I; Umatov, V; Vylov, T D

    2002-01-01

    A sup 4 sup 8 CaCO sub 3 powder sample containing 20.18 g of sup 4 sup 8 Ca was measured for 797 h with a 400 cm sup 3 low-background HPGe detector. New limits on decays of sup 4 sup 8 Ca were obtained. For single beta transitions to sup 4 sup 8 Sc the limits are equal to 0.71x10 sup 2 sup 0 y, 1.1x10 sup 2 sup 0 y, and 0.82x10 sup 2 sup 0 y for transitions to the ground state, excited 5 sup + and 4 sup + states, respectively. The new limits on double beta decay to excited states of sup 4 sup 8 Ti are equal to 0.47x10 sup 2 sup 0 y, 1.1x10 sup 2 sup 0 y, and 0.90x10 sup 2 sup 0 y for transitions to the first 2 sup + , second 2 sup + and first 0 sup + excited states, respectively. All limits are given at the 90% CL.

  11. [Hemoglobin C -- beta-thalassemia disease and homozygous beta-thalassemia in a black African family (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset, P; Fall, M; Oudart, J L

    1975-01-01

    The study of a Malian family has allowed to prove existence of two types of beta-thalassemia genes: the beta0 gene which suppresses the synthesis of the beta chain into cis position and the beta+ gene which slows down only partially this synthesis. The difference between this two genes has been possible owing to the hemoglobin C found in this family and induced by the betaC mutated gene. The segregation of the four genes betaA, betaC, beta0 thal, and beta+ thal. has allowed to compare all the possible phenotypes deriving from the combinations by two of these allelic genes. PMID:128735

  12. Meta-analysis of studies with bivariate binary outcomes: a marginal beta-binomial model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Hong, Chuan; Ning, Yang; Su, Xiao

    2016-01-15

    When conducting a meta-analysis of studies with bivariate binary outcomes, challenges arise when the within-study correlation and between-study heterogeneity should be taken into account. In this paper, we propose a marginal beta-binomial model for the meta-analysis of studies with binary outcomes. This model is based on the composite likelihood approach and has several attractive features compared with the existing models such as bivariate generalized linear mixed model (Chu and Cole, 2006) and Sarmanov beta-binomial model (Chen et al., 2012). The advantages of the proposed marginal model include modeling the probabilities in the original scale, not requiring any transformation of probabilities or any link function, having closed-form expression of likelihood function, and no constraints on the correlation parameter. More importantly, because the marginal beta-binomial model is only based on the marginal distributions, it does not suffer from potential misspecification of the joint distribution of bivariate study-specific probabilities. Such misspecification is difficult to detect and can lead to biased inference using currents methods. We compare the performance of the marginal beta-binomial model with the bivariate generalized linear mixed model and the Sarmanov beta-binomial model by simulation studies. Interestingly, the results show that the marginal beta-binomial model performs better than the Sarmanov beta-binomial model, whether or not the true model is Sarmanov beta-binomial, and the marginal beta-binomial model is more robust than the bivariate generalized linear mixed model under model misspecifications. Two meta-analyses of diagnostic accuracy studies and a meta-analysis of case-control studies are conducted for illustration.

  13. 用于氯霉素、克伦特罗和雌二醇三种兽药残留检测的高通量悬浮芯片技术研究%Development of a high-throughput suspension microarray technology for detection of three kinds of veterinary drug residues: chloramphenicol, clenbuterol and 17-beta-estradiol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘楠; 苏璞; 高志贤; 朱茂祥; 杨陟华; 潘秀颉; 晁福寰

    2009-01-01

    Objective To establish a novel suspension microarray technology for the detection of three kinds of veterinary drug residues: ehloramphenicol, clenbuterol and 17-beta-estradiol (CAP, CL and E2). Methods The three conjugates that veterinary drug coupled with bovine serum albumin(BSA) were synthesized and identified by ultraviolet (UV)spectrophotometry and mass spectrum. The veterinary drug conjugates were immobilized on the polystyrene fluorescent micrespheres/beads. There were competitive reactions between the veterinary drugs in the aqueous phase and that on the beads for combination with their specific biotinylated monoclonal antibodies. The optimum amount of the veterinary drug conjugates and the antibodies were optimized and selected. The detective standard curves were plotted. The specificity and the unknown samples were also determined by grouping according to different concentrations of the interferers and the samples. Meantime, the different microstructures of the surfaces of the beads were also observed by scanning electron microscope. Results Couplings were completed between small molecular veterinary drugs and BSA. The amounts of the three conjugates and the antibodies were optimized. The detective standard curves of the suspension array and their corresponding coefficients of determination (R2) were good (R2> 0.99) .The detection ranges of the three veterinary drugs were (40.00 -6.25) x 105 ng/L, (50.00 -7.81 )×105 ng/L and 1.00×103-7. 29×105 ng/L respectively. Simultaneously, the specific detection of the suspension microarray was excellent and did not indicate significant cross-reactions. Errors between the found and the real are in the range of 8.09%-17.03%. It can be considerd that the relative standard deviations were relatively small. Successful couplings were also directly confirmed by the observation for microstructures of the surfaces of the beads by scanning of electron microscope and laid good foundation for the following responses

  14. Broad resonances and beta-decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, K.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Hyldegaard, S.;

    2015-01-01

    Beta-decay into broad resonances gives a distorted lineshape in the observed energy spectrum. Part of the distortion arises from the phase space factor, but we show that the beta-decay matrix element may also contribute. Based on a schematic model for p-wave continuum neutron states it is argued...

  15. A proportional-scintillation counter beta spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a proportional counter for coincidence gating of events in a plastic scintillator provides selective registration of beta interactions in the scintillator. This technique has been used to construct a field instrument that can selectively collect beta spectra (coincidence gating) or gamma spectra (anticoincidence gating). Associated dose rates are calculated from the spectra

  16. Localization of thymosin beta-4 in tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, L. -I.; Holck, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Overexpression of thymosin beta-4 has been linked to malignant progression but the localization of this polypeptide within tumors is incompletely known. We therefore examined breast cancers for thymosin beta-4 using immunofluorescence. Reactive cells were identified with monoclonal cell marker...... in the tumor microenvironment may modulate tumor behavior....

  17. Higher-Order Beta Matching with Solutions in Long Beta-Eta Normal Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støvring, Kristian

    2006-01-01

    Higher-order matching is a special case of unification of simply-typed lambda-terms: in a matching equation, one of the two sides contains no unification variables. Loader has recently shown that higher-order matching up to beta equivalence is undecidable, but decidability of higher-order matching...... up to beta-eta equivalence is a long-standing open problem.We show that higher-order matching up to beta-eta equivalence is decidable if and only if a restricted form of higher-order matching up to beta equivalence is decidable: the restriction is that solutions must be in long beta-eta normal form....

  18. Adaptive changes in pancreatic beta cell fractional area and beta cell turnover in human pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, A. E.; Cao-Minh, L.; Galasso, R; Rizza, R. A.; Corradin, A.; Cobelli, C; Butler, P C

    2010-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis We sought to establish the extent and basis for adaptive changes in beta cell numbers in human pregnancy. Methods Pancreas was obtained at autopsy from women who had died while pregnant (n = 18), post-partum (n = 6) or were not pregnant at or shortly before death (controls; n = 20). Pancreases were evaluated for fractional pancreatic beta cell area, islet size and islet fraction of beta cells, beta cell replication (Ki67) and apoptosis (TUNEL), and indirect markers of beta cel...

  19. Measurement of the beta-neutrino correlation in laser trapped {sup 21}Na

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scielzo, Nicholas David

    2003-06-01

    Trapped radioactive atoms are an appealing source for precise measurements of the beta-neutrino correlation coefficient, a, since the momentum of the neutrino can be inferred from the detection of the unperturbed low-energy recoil daughter nucleus. Sodium-21 is produced on-line at the 88'' cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and 8e5 atoms have been maintained in a magneto-optical trap. A static electric field draws daughter Neon-21 ions to a microchannel plate detector and betas are detected in coincidence with a plastic scintillator beta detector. The Neon-21 time-of-flight distribution determines the beta neutrino correlation coefficient, a. The resulting charge-state distribution is compared to a simple model based on the sudden approximation which suggests a small but important contribution from nuclear recoil-induced ionization. A larger than expected fraction of the daughters are detected in positive charge-states, but no dependence on either the beta or recoil nucleus energy was observed. We find a = 0.5243 plus or minus 0.0092, which is in 3.6 sigma disagreement with the Standard Model prediction of a = 0.559 plus or minus 0.003. Aside from a deviation from the Standard Model, a possible explanation for the discrepancy is that the branching ratio to the first excited state is in error.

  20. Beta-conjugates of real algebraic numbers as Puiseux expansions

    CERN Document Server

    Verger-Gaugry, Jean-Louis

    2011-01-01

    The beta-conjugates of a base of numeration $\\beta > 1$, $\\beta$ being a Parry number, were introduced by Boyd, in the context of the R\\'enyi-Parry dynamics of numeration system and the beta-transformation. These beta-conjugates are canonically associated with $\\beta$. Let $\\beta > 1$ be a real algebraic number. A more general definition of the beta-conjugates of $\\beta$ is introduced in terms of the Parry Upper function $f_{\\beta}(z)$ of the beta-transformation. We introduce the concept of a germ of curve at $(0,1/\\beta) \\in \\mathbb{C}^{2}$ associated with $f_{\\beta}(z)$ and the reciprocal of the minimal polynomial of $\\beta$. This germ is decomposed into irreducible elements according to the theory of Puiseux, gathered into conjugacy classes. The beta-conjugates of $\\beta$, in terms of the Puiseux expansions, are given a new equivalent definition in this new context. If $\\beta$ is a Parry number the (Artin-Mazur) dynamical zeta function $\\zeta_{\\beta}(z)$ of the beta-transformation, simply related to $f_{\\b...

  1. Ranking Beta Sheet Topologies of Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Rasmus; Helles, Glennie; Winter, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    One of the challenges of protein structure prediction is to identify long-range interactions between amino acids.  To reliably predict such interactions, we enumerate, score and rank all beta-topologies (partitions of beta-strands into sheets, orderings of strands within sheets and orientations...... of paired strands) of a given protein.  We show that the beta-topology corresponding to the native structure is, with high probability, among the top-ranked. Since full enumeration is very time-consuming, we also suggest a method to deal with proteins with many beta-strands. The results reported...... in this paper are highly relevant for ab initio protein structure prediction methods based on decoy generation. The top-ranked beta-topologies can be used to find initial conformations from which conformational searches can be started. They can also be used to filter decoys by removing those with poorly...

  2. Beta cell proliferation and growth factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis; Svensson, C; Møldrup, Annette;

    1999-01-01

    Formation of new beta cells can take place by two pathways: replication of already differentiated beta cells or neogenesis from putative islet stem cells. Under physiological conditions both processes are most pronounced during the fetal and neonatal development of the pancreas. In adulthood little...... cloned a novel GH/PRL stimulated rat islet gene product, Pref-1 (preadipocyte factor-1). This protein contains six EGF-like motifs and may play a role both in embryonic pancreas differentiation and in beta cell growth and function. In summary, the increasing knowledge about the mechanisms involved...... increase in the beta cell number seems to occur. In pregnancy, however, a marked hyperplasia of the beta cells is observed both in rodents and man. Increased mitotic activity has been seen both in vivo and in vitro in islets exposed to placental lactogen (PL), prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH...

  3. Peripheral beta-endorphin and pain modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, A C

    1991-01-01

    Beta-endorphin is a peptide with morphine-like effects produced primarily in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. After its cleavage from the parent molecule, proopiomelanocortin, beta-endorphin is circulated via the blood stream to interact with specific opioid receptors located throughout the body. The peptide produces analgesia by inhibiting the firing of peripheral somatosensory fibers. It also affects other senses, such as vision, hearing, and smell. Whereas the ability to increase beta-endorphin secretion during times of surgical stress is positively correlated with amelioration of pain, the administration of exogenous opioids, such as fentanyl, reduces plasma beta-endorphin. Decreased beta-endorphin concentrations may play a role in trigeminal neuralgia, migraine headache, and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:1814247

  4. A high-throughput chemical screen reveals that harmine-mediated inhibition of DYRK1A increases human pancreatic beta cell replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Alvarez-Perez, Juan-Carlos; Felsenfeld, Dan P; Liu, Hongtao; Sivendran, Sharmila; Bender, Aaron; Kumar, Anil; Sanchez, Roberto; Scott, Donald K; Garcia-Ocaña, Adolfo; Stewart, Andrew F

    2015-04-01

    Types 1 and 2 diabetes affect some 380 million people worldwide. Both ultimately result from a deficiency of functional pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells. Beta cells proliferate in humans during a brief temporal window beginning around the time of birth, with a peak percentage (∼2%) engaged in the cell cycle in the first year of life. In embryonic life and after early childhood, beta cell replication is barely detectable. Whereas beta cell expansion seems an obvious therapeutic approach to beta cell deficiency, adult human beta cells have proven recalcitrant to such efforts. Hence, there remains an urgent need for antidiabetic therapeutic agents that can induce regeneration and expansion of adult human beta cells in vivo or ex vivo. Here, using a high-throughput small-molecule screen (HTS), we find that analogs of the small molecule harmine function as a new class of human beta cell mitogenic compounds. We also define dual-specificity tyrosine-regulated kinase-1a (DYRK1A) as the likely target of harmine and the nuclear factors of activated T cells (NFAT) family of transcription factors as likely mediators of human beta cell proliferation and differentiation. Using three different mouse and human islet in vivo-based models, we show that harmine is able to induce beta cell proliferation, increase islet mass and improve glycemic control. These observations suggest that harmine analogs may have unique therapeutic promise for human diabetes therapy. Enhancing the potency and beta cell specificity of these compounds are important future challenges. PMID:25751815

  5. Clusters of conserved beta cell marker genes for assessment of beta cell phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Geert A; Jiang, Lei; Hellemans, Karine H;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a gene expression blueprint of pancreatic beta cells conserved from rodents to humans and to evaluate its applicability to assess shifts in the beta cell differentiated state. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of isolated beta cells were compared to those...... of a large panel of other tissue and cell types, and transcripts with beta cell-abundant and -selective expression were identified. Iteration of this analysis in mouse, rat and human tissues generated a panel of conserved beta cell biomarkers. This panel was then used to compare isolated versus laser capture...... microdissected beta cells, monitor adaptations of the beta cell phenotype to fasting, and retrieve possible conserved transcriptional regulators....

  6. Clusters of conserved beta cell marker genes for assessment of beta cell phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Geert A; Jiang, Lei; Hellemans, Karine H;

    2011-01-01

    of a large panel of other tissue and cell types, and transcripts with beta cell-abundant and -selective expression were identified. Iteration of this analysis in mouse, rat and human tissues generated a panel of conserved beta cell biomarkers. This panel was then used to compare isolated versus laser......The aim of this study was to establish a gene expression blueprint of pancreatic beta cells conserved from rodents to humans and to evaluate its applicability to assess shifts in the beta cell differentiated state. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of isolated beta cells were compared to those...... capture microdissected beta cells, monitor adaptations of the beta cell phenotype to fasting, and retrieve possible conserved transcriptional regulators....

  7. The antifibrotic effects of TGF-{beta}1 siRNA on hepatic fibrosis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Qing; Liu, Qi [Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Infectious Diseases, Ministry of Education, Instituted for Virus Hepatitis and Department of Infectious Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Xu, Ning [The Second Hospital of YuLin, Shanxi Province (China); Qian, Ke-Li; Qi, Jing-Hu; Sun, Yin-Chun; Xiao, Lang [Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Infectious Diseases, Ministry of Education, Instituted for Virus Hepatitis and Department of Infectious Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Shi, Xiao-Feng, E-mail: sxff2003@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Infectious Diseases, Ministry of Education, Instituted for Virus Hepatitis and Department of Infectious Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} We constructed CCL4 induced liver fibrosis model successfully. {yields} We proofed that the TGF-{beta}1 siRNA had a definite therapy effect to CCL4 induced liver fibrosis. {yields} The therapy effect of TGF-{beta}1 siRNA had dose-dependent. -- Abstract: Background/aims: Hepatic fibrosis results from the excessive secretion of matrix proteins by hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which proliferate during fibrotic liver injury. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta}1 is the dominant stimulus for extracellular matrix (ECM) production by stellate cells. Our study was designed to investigate the antifibrotic effects of using short interference RNA (siRNA) to target TGF-{beta}1 in hepatic fibrosis and its mechanism in rats exposed to a high-fat diet and carbon tetrachloride (CCL4). Methods: A total of 40 healthy, male SD (Sprague-Dawley) rats were randomly divided into five even groups containing of eight rats each: normal group, model group, TGF-{beta}1 siRNA 0.125 mg/kg treatment group, TGF-{beta}1 siRNA 0.25 mg/kg treatment group and TGF-{beta}1 siRNA negative control group (0.25 mg/kg). CCL4 and a high-fat diet were used for 8 weeks to induce hepatic fibrosis. All the rats were then sacrificed to collect liver tissue samples. A portion of the liver samples were soaked in formalin for Hematoxylin-Eosin staining, classifying the degree of liver fibrosis, and detecting the expression of type I and III collagen and TGF-{beta}1; the remaining liver samples were stored in liquid nitrogen to be used for detecting TGF-{beta}1 by Western blotting and for measuring the mRNA expression of type I and III collagen and TGF-{beta}1 by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: Comparing the TGF-{beta}1 siRNA 0.25 mg/kg treatment group to the model group, the TGF-{beta}1 siRNA negative control group and the TGF-{beta}1 siRNA 0.125 mg/kg treatment group showed significantly reduced levels of pathological changes, protein expression and the m

  8. Rapid screening methods for beta-emitters in food samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In case of a nuclear emergency, many samples need to be measured in a short time period. Therefore, it is of vital importance to have a quick and reliable (screening)method. Most methods to determine total beta activity are time-consuming because of extensive sample preparation, such as ashing. In this article three different rapid screening methods for beta emitting nuclides in agriculture, livestock and fishery products were tested and compared to each other, and to an accurate but more time consuming reference method. The goal was to find the method with the optimal trade-off between accuracy, speed and minimal detectable activity (MDA). All of the methods rely on liquid scintillation counting (LSC) or Cerenkov counting, and differ mainly in sample preparation. For matrices with little or no colour, the direct LSC-method is the most accurate and fastest option, while for darker coloured samples this method is not suitable because of high colour quenching. For such samples, two additional methods using a microwave digestion during sample preparation, produced good results. - Highlights: • Comparison of rapid screening methods for beta-emitters. • Sample preparation and measurement done within 1.5–7.5 h instead of 56 h. • MDA less than 100 Bq/kg fresh product. • Recoveries for all rapid screening methods higher than 73%

  9. First observation of $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$-proton decay in the $T_z$ = -2, $^{56}$Zn nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Orrigo, S E A; Fujita, Y; Blank, B; Gelletly, W; Agramunt, J; Algora, A; Ascher, P; Bilgier, B; Cáceres, L; Cakirli, R B; Fujita, H; Ganioğlu, E; Gerbaux, M; Giovinazzo, J; Grévy, S; Kamalou, O; Kozer, H C; Kucuk, L; Kurtukian-Nieto, T; Molina, F; Popescu, L; Rogers, A M; Susoy, G; Stodel, C; Suzuki, T; Tamii, A; Thomas, J C

    2014-01-01

    We report on the first experimental observation of a very exotic decay mode at the proton drip-line, the $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$-proton decay, clearly seen in the $\\beta$ decay of the $T_z$ = -2, $^{56}$Zn nucleus. The $^{56}$Zn half-life and decay scheme have been determined. The decay proceeds by $\\beta$-delayed proton emission and $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$ de-excitation. The exotic $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$-proton emission was also detected in three cases. It affects the usual determination of the Gamow-Teller (GT) strength. Absolute Fermi and GT strengths have been deduced. Evidence for fragmentation of the Fermi strength due to isospin mixing is found.

  10. Molecular investigations of BK(Ca) channels and the modulatory beta-subunits in porcine basilar and middle cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Helle Wulf; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Poulsen, Asser Nyander;

    2009-01-01

    arteries using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR. Western blotting was used to detect immunoreactivity for the porcine BK(Ca) channel alpha-subunit and beta-subunit proteins. The BK(Ca) channel alpha-subunit RNA and protein distribution patterns were...... visualized using in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence studies, respectively. The study verified that the BK(Ca) channel alpha-subunit is located to smooth muscle cells of porcine basilar and middle cerebral arteries. The mRNA transcript for beta1-, beta2- and beta4-subunit were shown by RT-PCR...... in porcine basilar and middle cerebral arteries. However, at the protein level, only, the beta1-subunit protein was found by western blotting....

  11. RX871024 reduces NO production but does not protect against pancreatic beta-cell death induced by proinflammatory cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaitseva, Irina I; Sharoyko, Vladimir; Størling, Joachim;

    2006-01-01

    cytokines and correlated with the decrease in p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Conversely, efaroxan did not affect cytokine-induced NO production. Our data indicate that a combination of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, IFNgamma, and TNFalpha, conditions modelling those that take place in type 1 diabetes...... of the cytokines IL-1beta, IFNgamma, and TNFalpha. To address this issue, experiments involving different methods for detection of cell death, different concentrations of the cytokines, and a variety of conditions of preparation and culturing of ob/ob mouse islets and beta-cells have been carried out. Thoroughly...... performed experiments have not been able to demonstrate a protective effect of RX871024 and efaroxan on beta-cell death induced by the combination of cytokines. However, the inhibitory effect of RX871024 on NO production in ob/ob mouse islets and beta-cells was still observed in the presence of all three...

  12. Theoretical investigation on the inclusion of TCDD with {beta}-cyclodextrin by performing QM calculations and MD simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wenxiao [Key Lab of Colloid and Interface Chemistry, Ministry of Education, Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhang, Dongju, E-mail: zhangdj@sdu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Colloid and Interface Chemistry, Ministry of Education, Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhan, Jinhua [Key Lab of Colloid and Interface Chemistry, Ministry of Education, Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} We study the inclusion mechanism of TCDD with {beta}-CD by theoretical methods. {yields} Clearly, the formation of inclusion complex is an energetically driven process. {yields} The inclusion complex can be detected by IR and Raman techniques. {yields} The results imply that {beta}-CD may be used as a host molecule to enrich TCDD molecules. - Abstract: The rapid enrichment and detection of trace polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are currently challenging issues in the field of environmental science. In this paper, by performing quantum chemistry (QM) calculations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we studied the inclusion complexation of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a representative PCDD molecule, with {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD), one of the widely used compounds in supramolecular chemistry. The calculated results reveal that the stable inclusion complex can be formed in both the gas phase and solvent, which proposes that {beta}-CD may serve as a potential substrate enriching TCDD. The calculated vibrational spectra indicate that the infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopy may be suitable for the detection of {beta}-CD-modified TCDD. The present theoretical results may be informative to environmental scientists who are devoting themselves to developing effective methods for detection and treatment of POPs.

  13. Toxin A from Clostridium difficile binds to rabbit erythrocyte glycolipids with terminal Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The binding of Toxin A isolated from Clostridium difficile to rabbit erythrocyte glycolipids has been studied. Total lipid extracts from rabbit erythrocytes were subjected to thin-layer chromatography and toxin-binding glycolipids detected by using 125I-labeled Toxin A in a direct binding overlay technique. Two major and several minor toxin-binding glycolipids were detected in rabbit erythrocytes by this method. The results of structural analyses of the major toxin-binding glycolipids were consistent with a pentasaccharide-ceramide (Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-3Gal beta 1-4Glc-Cer) and a branched decasaccharide-ceramide (Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-3[Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-6]Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-3Gal beta 1-4Glc-Cer) previously identified as the two most abundant glycolipids in rabbit erythrocytes. 125I-Toxin A binding to these glycolipids could be inhibited by bovine thyroglobulin, monospecific antiserum to the toxin, or by treatment of the glycolipids with alpha-galactosidase. The absence of toxin interaction with isoglobotriaosylceramide (Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4Glc-Cer) isolated from canine intestine suggested that the GlcNAc residue present in the terminal Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GLcNAc sequence common to all known toxin binding glycoconjugates is required for carbohydrate-specific recognition by Toxin A. These observations are consistent with the proposed carbohydrate binding specificity of Toxin A for the nonreducing terminal sequence, Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc

  14. Toxin A from Clostridium difficile binds to rabbit erythrocyte glycolipids with terminal Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G.F.; Krivan, H.C.; Wilkins, T.D.; Smith, D.F.

    1987-08-15

    The binding of Toxin A isolated from Clostridium difficile to rabbit erythrocyte glycolipids has been studied. Total lipid extracts from rabbit erythrocytes were subjected to thin-layer chromatography and toxin-binding glycolipids detected by using /sup 125/I-labeled Toxin A in a direct binding overlay technique. Two major and several minor toxin-binding glycolipids were detected in rabbit erythrocytes by this method. The results of structural analyses of the major toxin-binding glycolipids were consistent with a pentasaccharide-ceramide (Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-3Gal beta 1-4Glc-Cer) and a branched decasaccharide-ceramide (Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-3(Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-6)Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-3Gal beta 1-4Glc-Cer) previously identified as the two most abundant glycolipids in rabbit erythrocytes. /sup 125/I-Toxin A binding to these glycolipids could be inhibited by bovine thyroglobulin, monospecific antiserum to the toxin, or by treatment of the glycolipids with alpha-galactosidase. The absence of toxin interaction with isoglobotriaosylceramide (Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4Glc-Cer) isolated from canine intestine suggested that the GlcNAc residue present in the terminal Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GLcNAc sequence common to all known toxin binding glycoconjugates is required for carbohydrate-specific recognition by Toxin A. These observations are consistent with the proposed carbohydrate binding specificity of Toxin A for the nonreducing terminal sequence, Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc.

  15. Ellagic acid promotes A{beta}42 fibrillization and inhibits A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Ying [Department of Histology and Embryology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Yang, Shi-gao; Du, Xue-ting; Zhang, Xi; Sun, Xiao-xia; Zhao, Min [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Sun, Gui-yuan, E-mail: sungy2004@sohu.com [Department of Histology and Embryology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Liu, Rui-tian, E-mail: rtliu@tsinghua.edu.cn [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-12-25

    Smaller, soluble oligomers of {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Selective inhibition of A{beta} oligomer formation provides an optimum target for AD therapy. Some polyphenols have potent anti-amyloidogenic activities and protect against A{beta} neurotoxicity. Here, we tested the effects of ellagic acid (EA), a polyphenolic compound, on A{beta}42 aggregation and neurotoxicity in vitro. EA promoted A{beta} fibril formation and significant oligomer loss, contrary to previous results that polyphenols inhibited A{beta} aggregation. The results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western blot displayed more fibrils in A{beta}42 samples co-incubated with EA in earlier phases of aggregation. Consistent with the hypothesis that plaque formation may represent a protective mechanism in which the body sequesters toxic A{beta} aggregates to render them harmless, our MTT results showed that EA could significantly reduce A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity toward SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, our results suggest that EA, an active ingredient in many fruits and nuts, may have therapeutic potential in AD.

  16. Evidence for Novel [beta]-Sheet Structures in Iowa Mutant [beta]-Amyloid Fibrils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tycko, Robert; Sciarretta, Kimberly L.; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O.; Meredith, Stephen C.; (IIT); (NIH); (UC)

    2009-07-24

    Asp23-to-Asn mutation within the coding sequence of {beta}-amyloid, called the Iowa mutation, is associated with early onset, familial Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, in which patients develop neuritic plaques and massive vascular deposition predominantly of the mutant peptide. We examined the mutant peptide, D23N-A{beta}40, by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. D23N-A{beta}40 forms fibrils considerably faster than the wild-type peptide (k = 3.77 x 10{sup -3} min{sup -1} and 1.07 x 10{sup -4} min{sup -1} for D23N-A{beta}40 and the wild-type peptide WT-A{beta}40, respectively) and without a lag phase. Electron microscopy shows that D23N-A{beta}40 forms fibrils with multiple morphologies. X-ray fiber diffraction shows a cross-{beta} pattern, with a sharp reflection at 4.7 {angstrom} and a broad reflection at 9.4 {angstrom}, which is notably smaller than the value for WT-A{beta}40 fibrils (10.4 {angstrom}). Solid-state NMR measurements indicate molecular level polymorphism of the fibrils, with only a minority of D23N-A{beta}40 fibrils containing the in-register, parallel {beta}-sheet structure commonly found in WT-A{beta}40 fibrils and most other amyloid fibrils. Antiparallel {beta}-sheet structures in the majority of fibrils are indicated by measurements of intermolecular distances through 13C-13C and 15N-13C dipole-dipole couplings. An intriguing possibility exists that there is a relationship between the aberrant structure of D23N-A{beta}40 fibrils and the unusual vasculotropic clinical picture in these patients.

  17. Possible Role of DNA Polymerase beta in Protecting Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Against Cytotoxicity of Hydroquinone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DA-LIN HU; JIAN-PING YANG; DAO-KUI FANG; YAN SHA; XIAO-ZHI TU; ZHI-XIONG ZHUANG; HUAN-WEN TANG; HAI-RONG LIANG; DONG-SHENG TANG; YI-MING LIU; WEI-DONG JI; JIAN-HUI YUAN; YUN HE; ZHENG-YU ZHU

    2007-01-01

    Objective To explore the toxicological mechanism of hydroquinone in human bronchial epithelial cells and to investigate whether DNA polymerase beta is involved in protecting cells from damage caused by hydroquinone. Methods DNA polymerase beta knock-down cell line was established via RNA interference as an experimental group. Normal human bronchial epithelial cells and cells transfected with the empty vector of pEGFP-Cl were used as controls. Cells were treated with different concentrations of hydroquinone (ranged from 10 μmol/L to 120 μmol/L) for 4 hours. MTT assay and Comet assay [single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE)] were performed respectively to detect the toxicity of hydroquinone. Results MTT assay showed that DNA polymerase beta knock-down cells treated with different concentrations of hydroquinone had a lower absorbance value at 490 nm than the control cells in a dose-dependant manner. Comet assay revealed that different concentrations of hydroquinone caused more severe DNA damage in DNA polymerase beta knock-down cell line than in control cells and there was no significant difference in the two control groups. Conclusions Hydroquinone has significant toxicity to human bronchial epithelial cells and causes DNA damage. DNA polymerase beta knock-down cell line appears more sensitive to hydroquinone than the control cells. The results suggest that DNA polymerase beta is involved in protecting cells from damage caused by hydroquinone.

  18. Study on beta-cyclodextrin inclusion of Zn(II) aromatic complex and its analytical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lixiu; He, Jiang; Fu, Junkai; Zhang, Jinlong

    2010-02-01

    A new beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) inclusion compound Zn(2H1NA)(2)x 2beta-CD (2H1NA=2-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acid) was prepared. The structure was characterized by (1)H NMR, IR, the fluorescence spectra, thermogravimetric analysis (TG-DTA) and elementary analysis. Meanwhile, the mechanism of the formation of the supramolecular system (2H1NA:Zn(II):beta-CD) was studied and discussed by spectrofluorimetry. The results showed that the naphthalene rings of the Zn(II) aromatic complex Zn(2H1NA)(2) were encapsulated within the beta-CD's cavity to form a 2:1 stoichiometry host-guest compound. The inclusion constant calculated was 1.27 x 10(4)(L/mol)(2). A spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of 2H1NA in bulk aqueous solution in the presence of beta-CD was developed based on the great enhancement of the fluorescence intensity of 2H1NA. The linear relationship was obtained in the range of 9.00 x 10(-7) to 2.50 x 10(-5)mol/L and the detection limit was 8.00 x 10(-7)mol/L. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine 2H1NA in waste water with recoveries of 97-104%.

  19. Signatures of transition region explosive events in hydrogen Ly-beta profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, M; Tian, H; Chen, Y

    2010-01-01

    We search for signatures of transition region explosive events (EEs) in hydrogen Ly-beta profiles. Two rasters made by the SUMER (Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation) instrument on board SOHO in a quiet-Sun region and an equatorial coronal hole are selected for our study. Transition region explosive events are identified from profiles of C II 1037 Angstrom and O VI 1032 Angstrom, respectively. We compare Ly-beta profiles during EEs with those averaged in the entire quiet-Sun and coronal-hole regions. The relationship between the peak emission of Ly-beta profiles and the wing emission of C II and O VI during EEs is investigated. We find that the central part of Ly-beta profiles becomes more reversed and the distance of the two peaks becomes larger during EEs, both in the coronal hole and in the quiet Sun. The average Ly-beta profile of the EEs detected by C II has an obvious stronger blue peak. During EEs, there is a clear correlation between the increased peak emission of Ly-beta profiles and ...

  20. Observation of Doppler broadening in $\\beta$-delayed proton-$\\gamma$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, S B; Bennett, M B; Liddick, S N; Perez-Loureiro, D; Bowe, A; Chen, A A; Chipps, K A; Cooper, N; Irvine, D; McNeice, E; Montes, F; Naqvi, F; Ortez, R; Pain, S D; Pereira, J; Prokop, C; Quaglia, J; Quinn, S J; Sakstrup, J; Santia, M; Shanab, S; Simon, A; Spyrou, A; Thiagalingam, E

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Doppler broadening of $\\gamma$-ray peaks due to nuclear recoil from $\\beta$-delayed nucleon emission can be used to measure the energies of the nucleons. This method has never been tested using $\\beta$-delayed proton emission or applied to a recoil heavier than $A=10$. Purpose: To test and apply this Doppler broadening method using $\\gamma$-ray peaks from the $^{26}$P($\\beta p\\gamma$)$^{25}$Al decay sequence. Methods: A fast beam of $^{26}$P was implanted into a planar Ge detector, which was used as a $^{26}$P $\\beta$-decay trigger. The SeGA array of high-purity Ge detectors was used to detect $\\gamma$ rays from the $^{26}$P($\\beta p\\gamma$)$^{25}$Al decay sequence. Results: Radiative Doppler broadening in $\\beta$-delayed proton-$\\gamma$ decay was observed for the first time. The Doppler broadening analysis method was verified using the 1613 keV $\\gamma$-ray line for which the proton energies were previously known. The 1776 keV $\\gamma$ ray de-exciting the 2720 keV $^{25}$Al level was observed...

  1. Degeneration of beta-amyloid-associated cholinergic structures in transgenic APP SW mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüth, Hans-Joachim; Apelt, Jenny; Ihunwo, Amadi O; Arendt, Thomas; Schliebs, Reinhard

    2003-07-01

    Cholinergic dysfunction is a consistent feature of Alzheimer's disease, and the interrelationship between beta-amyloid deposits, inflammation and early cholinergic cell loss is still not fully understood. To characterize the mechanisms by which beta-amyloid and pro-inflammatory cytokines may exert specific degenerating actions on cholinergic cells ultrastructural investigations by electron microscopy were performed in brain sections from transgenic Tg2576 mice that express the Swedish double mutation of the human amyloid precursor protein and progressively develop beta-amyloid plaques during aging. Both light and electron microscopical investigations of the cerebral cortex of 19-month-old transgenic mice revealed a number of pathological tissue responses in close proximity of beta-amyloid plaques, such as activated microglia, astroglial proliferation, increased number of fibrous astrocytes, brain edema, degeneration of nerve cells, dendrites and axon terminals. Ultrastructural detection of choline acetyl transferase (ChAT)-immunostaining in cerebral cortical sections of transgenic mice clearly demonstrated degeneration of ChAT-immunoreactive fibres in the environment of beta-amyloid plaques and activated glial cells suggesting a role of beta-amyloid and/or inflammation in specific degeneration of cholinergic synaptic structures. PMID:12788508

  2. Dosimetry of Low-Energy Beta Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Jette

    Useful techniques and procedures for derermination of absorbed doses from exposure in a low-energy beta radiation were studied and evaluated. The four techniques included were beta spectrometry, extrapolation chamber dosimetry, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, and exoelectron dosimetry. As a typical...... low-energy beta radiation field a moderated spectrum from a carbon-14 source was used. The measured responce of a Si(Li) detector to photons (bremsstrahlung) showed fine agreemant with the MC calculated photon response, whereas the difference between measured and MC calculated response to electrons...

  3. Rotational beta expansion: Ergodicity and Soficness

    OpenAIRE

    Akiyama, Shigeki; Caalim, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    We study a family of piecewise expanding maps on the plane, generated by composition of a rotation and an expansive similitude of expansion constant $\\beta$. We give two constants $B_1$ and $B_2$ depending only on the fundamental domain that if $\\beta>B_1$ then the expanding map has a unique absolutely continuous invariant probability measure, and if $\\beta>B_2$ then it is equivalent to $2$-dimensional Lebesgue measure. Restricting to a rotation generated by $q$-th root of unity $\\zeta$ with ...

  4. Falsifying Baryogenesis with Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the relation between lepton number violation at high and low energies, particularly, the constraints on baryogenesis models, which would be implied by an observation of neutrinoless double beta decay. The primordial baryon asymmetry can be washed out by effective lepton number violating operators triggering neutrinoless double beta decay in combination with sphaleron processes. A generic conclusion is that popular models of baryogenesis are excluded if a non-standard mechanism of neutrinoless double beta decay, i.e., other than the standard light neutrino exchange, is observed. Apart from the effective field approach, we also outline the possible extension of our arguments to a general UV-completed model.

  5. Beta-alanine synthesis in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Cronan, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    The enzyme, aspartate 1-decarboxylase (L-aspartate 1-carboxy-lyase; EC 4.1.1.15), that catalyzes the reaction aspartate leads to beta-alanine + CO2 was found in extracts of Escherichia coli. panD mutants of E. coli are defective in beta-alanine biosynthesis and lack aspartate 1-decarboxylase. Therefore, the enzyme functions in the biosynthesis of the beta-alanine moiety of pantothenate. The genetic lesion in these mutants is closely linked to the other pantothenate (pan) loci of E. coli K-12.

  6. Review of modern double beta decay experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabash, A. S.

    2015-10-01

    The review of modern experiments on search and studying of double beta decay processes is done. Results of the most sensitive current experiments are discussed. The main attention is paid to EXO-200, KamLAND-Zen, GERDA-I and CUORE-0 experiments. Modern values of T1/2(2ν) and best present limits on neutrinoless double beta decay and double beta decay with Majoron emission are presented. Conservative limits on effective mass of a Majorana neutrino ( at the level of ˜ 0.01-0.1 eV are discussed.

  7. A family of differentially amplified repetitive DNA sequences in the genus Beta reveals genetic variation in Beta vulgaris subspecies and cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, S; Heslop-Harrison, J S; Schmidt, T

    1997-03-01

    Members of a highly abundant restriction satellite family have been isolated from the wild beet species Beta nana. The satellite DNA sequence is characterized by a conserved RsaI restriction site and is present in three of four sections of the genus Beta, namely Nanae, Corollinae, and Beta. It was not detected in species of the evolutionary old section Procumbentes, suggesting its amplification after separation of this section. Sequences of eight monomers were aligned revealing a size variation from 209 to 233 bp and an AT content ranging from 56.5% to 60.5%. The similarity between monomers in B. nana varied from 77.7% to 92.2%. Diverged subfamilies were identified by sequence analysis and Southern hybridization. A comparative study of this repetitive DNA element by fluorescent in situ hybridization and Southern analyses in three representative species was performed showing a variable genomic organization and heterogeneous localizations along metaphase chromosomes both within and between species. In B. nana the copy number of this satellite, with some 30,000 per haploid genome, is more than tenfold higher than in Beta lomatogona and up to 200 times higher than in Beta vulgaris, indicating different levels of sequence amplification during evolution in the genus Beta. In sugar beet (B. vulgaris), the large-scale organization of this tandem repeat was examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Southern hybridization to genomic DNA digested with DraI demonstrated that satellite arrays are located in AT-rich regions and the tandem repeat is a useful probe for the detection of genetic variation in closely related B. vulgaris cultivars, accessions, and subspecies.

  8. Evaluation of induced radioactivity in 10 MeV-Electron irradiated spices, (2); [beta]-ray counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Tadashi; Furuta, Masakazu; Shibata, Setsuko; Matsunami, Tadao; Ito, Norio; Mizohata, Akira; Toratani, Hirokazu (Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan). Research Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology); Takeda, Atsuhiko

    1994-02-01

    In order to check radioactivity of beta-emmitters produced by ([gamma], n) reactions which could occur at energies up to 10 MeV, black pepper, white pepper, red pepper, ginger and turmeric were irradiated with 10 MeV electron from a linear accelerator to a dose of 100 kGy. Beta-rays were counted using a 2[pi] gas flow counter and a liquid scintillation counter. Any induced radioactivity could not be detected in irradiated samples. When inorganic compounds containing the nuclides in the list were artificially added in the samples and were irradiated, the [beta]-activities were detected. From the amount of observed radioactivities of [beta]-emmitters produced in the compounds as photonuclear products, it is concluded that the induced radioactivity in natural samples by 10 MeV-electron irradiation were far smaller than natural radioactivity from [sup 40]K contained in the samples and, hence, its biological effects should be negligible. (author).

  9. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production among ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli strains from chicken in Enugu State, Nigeria Produção de beta-lactamase de espectro expandido por cepas de Escherichia coli resistentes a ampicilina isoladas de frango em Enugu State, Nigéria

    OpenAIRE

    Chah, K.F.; Oboegbulem, S. I.

    2007-01-01

    One hundred and seventy-two ampicillin-resistant E. coli strains isolated from commercial chickens in Enugu State, Nigeria, were screened for beta-lactamase production using the broth method with nitrocefin® as the chromogenic cephalosporin to detect enzyme production. Beta-lactamase producing strains were further examined for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production using the Oxoid combination discs method. One hundred and seventy (98.8%) of the 172 ampicillin-resistant E. coli str...

  10. Approaches to characterize extended spectrum beta-lactamase/beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli in healthy organized vis-a-vis backyard farmed pigs in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Indranil; Joardar, Siddhartha N; Mahanti, Achintya; Bandyopadhyay, Samiran; Sar, Tapas K; Dutta, Tapan K

    2015-12-01

    The study was undertaken to investigate the occurrence and to characterize the ESBL/beta-lactamase producing-Escherichia coli in healthy pigs of organized and backyard farms in West Bengal, India. Total 200 rectal swabs were collected randomly from healthy pigs maintained in four organized farms and 10 backyard farms (n=100 each) and 76 isolates were identified as E. coli from organized (48/100, 48%) and backyard pigs (28/100, 28%). Twelve E. coli isolates (6%) in the present study were detected to possess any of the ESBL/beta-lactamase genes studied. ESBL/beta-lactamase producers were isolated with significantly more frequency from backyard pigs than the organized farm pigs (p=0.026). Six of ESBL/beta-lactamase producing isolates were phenotypically confirmed as CTX-M producers and ten of them were confirmed as TEM/SHV producers. PCR and sequencing of the amplified product from representative isolates revealed the presence of blaCTX-M-9, blaSHV-12 and blaTEM-1. No unique combination of the studied beta lactamase genes for organized and backyard farm pig isolates was noted. The ESBL isolates belonged to O13, O55, O133, O153, O157, O158, O166, rough and OUT serogroups. The association of heat labile toxin (elt) (pIndia.

  11. Bound beta-decay: BOB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many years exotic decay modes of the neutron have been investigated as possible doorways to the exploration of new physics. The bound beta-decay (BOB) of the neutron into a hydrogen atom and an anti-neutrino offers a very elegant method to study neutrino helicities. However, this rare decay has not yet been observed for the free neutron, owing to the challenge of measuring a decay involving only electrically neutral particles and with an estimated branching ratio of only a few 106 of the three-body decay mode. During the past few years scientists from the TUM E18 Group have developed a novel experimental scheme which addresses all necessary problems associated with the observation of this two-body neutron decay in a very coherent way. The BOB experiment shall be installed at a tangential beam tube of a powerful research reactor such as the SR6 at the FRMII in Garching or H6-H7 beam tube at ILL. This talk will provide insights and ideas on how such an experiment is to be performed.

  12. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senard Jean-Michel

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DβH deficiency is a very rare form of primary autonomic failure characterized by a complete absence of noradrenaline and adrenaline in plasma together with increased dopamine plasma levels. The prevalence of DβH deficiency is unknown. Only a limited number of cases with this disease have been reported. DβH deficiency is mainly characterized by cardiovascular disorders and severe orthostatic hypotension. First symptoms often start during a complicated perinatal period with hypotension, muscle hypotonia, hypothermia and hypoglycemia. Children with DβH deficiency exhibit reduced ability to exercise because of blood pressure inadaptation with exertion and syncope. Symptoms usually worsen progressively during late adolescence and early adulthood with severe orthostatic hypotension, eyelid ptosis, nasal stuffiness and sexual disorders. Limitation in standing tolerance, limited ability to exercise and traumatic morbidity related to falls and syncope may represent later evolution. The syndrome is caused by heterogeneous molecular alterations of the DBH gene and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Restoration of plasma noradrenaline to the normal range can be achieved by therapy with the synthetic precursor of noradrenaline, L-threo-dihydroxyphenylserine (DOPS. Oral administration of 100 to 500 mg DOPS, twice or three times daily, increases blood pressure and reverses the orthostatic intolerance.

  13. Neutron bound {beta}- decay- BOB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, M.; Berger, M.; Emmerich, R.; Faestermann, T.; Gutsmiedl, E.; Hartmann, F.J.; Paul, S.; Ruschel, S.; Schoen, J.; Schott, W.; Schubert, U.; Trautner, A. [Physik-Department, TUM, 85748 Garching (Germany); Engels, R. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Fierlinger, P. [Excellence Cluster Universe, TUM, 85748 Garching (Germany); Hertenberger, R. [Sektion Physik, LMU, 85748 Garching (Germany); Roehrmoser, R. [FRM2, TUM, 85748 Garching (Germany); Udem, T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The bound neutron {beta}-decay(BOB) into a hydrogen atom and an electron antineutrino is investigated.The hyper-fine-state population of the monoenergetic hydrogen atoms (326.3 eV) yields the neutrino left-handed-ness or a possible right-handed admixture and possible small scalar and tensor contributions to the weak force. Preexperiments to measure the BOB H(2s) atoms have been done or are being set up using ionizer and RF discharge proton sources, a Wien filter, Cs and Ar cells, a spin filter, electric counter and accelerating fields, a double focusing magnet and a solar blind PM for the Lyman-{alpha} photons. In a first experiment, the charge exchange of the H(2s) atoms into H{sup -}, offering a selective method to discriminate these states against background, is investigated. In a second step the number of background H(2s) resulting from protons interacting with the walls of the experimental setup are determined. For this a quenching E field and a solar blind PM are used.

  14. Evaluation of the Association of Menopausal Status with Delta and Beta EEG Activity during Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ian G.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Hall, Martica H.; Hardin, Kimberly A.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Matthews, Karen A.; Rasor, Marianne O'Neill; Utts, Jessica; Gold, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Women report increasing sleep difficulties during menopause, but polysomnographic measures do not detect sleep disturbances. We examined whether two spectral analysis sleep measures, delta and beta power, were related to menopausal status. Design: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Sleep Study compared cross-sectionally spectral sleep measures in women in different stages of menopause. Setting: Sleep EEG was recorded in the participants' homes with ambulatory recorders. Participants: A multi-ethnic cohort of premenopausal and early perimenopausal (n = 189), late perimenopausal (n = 73), and postmenopausal (n = 59) women. Measurements: EEG power in the delta and beta frequency bands was calculated for all night NREM and all night REM sleep. Physical, medical, psychological, and socioeconomic data were collected from questionnaires and diaries. Results: Beta EEG power in NREM and REM sleep in late perimenopausal and postmenopausal women exceeded that in pre- and early perimenopausal women. Neither all night delta power nor the trend in delta power across the night differed by menopausal status. In a multivariate model that controlled for the physical, demographic, behavioral, psychological, and health-related changes that accompany menopause, beta power in both NREM and REM sleep EEG was significantly related to menopausal status. The frequency of hot flashes explained part but not all of the relation of beta power to menopausal status. Conclusions: Elevated beta EEG power in late perimenopausal and postmenopausal women provides an objective measure of disturbed sleep quality in these women. Elevated beta EEG activity suggests that arousal level during sleep is higher in these women. Citation: Campbell IG; Bromberger JT; Buysse DJ; Hall MH; Hardin KA; Kravitz HM; Matthews KA; Rasor MO; Utts J; Gold E. Evaluation of the association of menopausal status with delta and beta EEG activity during sleep. SLEEP 2011;34(11):1561-1568. PMID

  15. Beta cell count instead of beta cell mass to assess and localize growth in beta cell population following pancreatic duct ligation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Chintinne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pancreatic-tail duct ligation (PDL in adult rodents has been reported to induce beta cell generation and increase beta cell mass but increases in beta cell number have not been demonstrated. This study examines whether PDL increases beta cell number and whether this is caused by neogenesis of small clusters and/or their growth to larger aggregates. METHODOLOGY: Total beta cell number and its distribution over small (100 µm clusters was determined in pancreatic tails of 10-week-old mice, 2 weeks after PDL or sham. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PDL increased total beta cell mass but not total beta cell number. It induced neogenesis of small beta cell clusters (2.2-fold higher number which contained a higher percent proliferating beta cells (1.9% Ki67+cells than sham tails (<0.2%; their higher beta cell number represented <5% of total beta cell number and was associated with a similar increase in alpha cell number. It is unknown whether the regenerative process is causally related to the inflammatory infiltration in PDL-tails. Human pancreases with inflammatory infiltration also exhibited activation of proliferation in small beta cell clusters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The PDL model illustrates the advantage of direct beta cell counts over beta cell mass measurements when assessing and localizing beta cell regeneration in the pancreas. It demonstrates the ability of the adult mouse pancreas for neogenesis of small beta cell clusters with activated beta cell proliferation. Further studies should investigate conditions under which neoformed small beta cell clusters grow to larger aggregates and hence to higher total beta cell numbers.

  16. Energetic, Structural, and Antimicrobial Analyses of [beta]-Lactam Side Chain Recognition by [beta]-Lactamases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caselli, E.; Powers, R.A.; Blaszczak, L.C.; Wu, C.Y.E.; Prati, F.; Shoichet, B.K. (NWU)

    2010-03-05

    Penicillins and cephalosporins are among the most widely used and successful antibiotics. The emergence of resistance to these {beta}-lactams, most often through bacterial expression of {beta}-lactamases, threatens public health. To understand how {beta}-lactamases recognize their substrates, it would be helpful to know their binding energies. Unfortunately, these have been difficult to measure because {beta}-lactams form covalent adducts with {beta}-lactamases. This has complicated functional analyses and inhibitor design. To investigate the contribution to interaction energy of the key amide (R1) side chain of {beta}-lactam antibiotics, eight acylglycineboronic acids that bear the side chains of characteristic penicillins and cephalosporins, as well as four other analogs, were synthesized. These transition-state analogs form reversible adducts with serine {beta}-lactamases. Therefore, binding energies can be calculated directly from K{sub i} values. The K{sub i} values measured span four orders of magnitude against the Group I {beta}-lactamase AmpC and three orders of magnitude against the Group II {beta}-lactamase TEM-1. The acylglycineboronic acids have K{sub i} values as low as 20 nM against AmpC and as low as 390 nM against TEM-1. The inhibitors showed little activity against serine proteases, such as chymotrypsin. R1 side chains characteristic of {beta}-lactam inhibitors did not have better affinity for AmpC than did side chains characteristic of {beta}-lactam substrates. Two of the inhibitors reversed the resistance of pathogenic bacteria to {beta}-lactams in cell culture. Structures of two inhibitors in their complexes with AmpC were determined by X-ray crystallography to 1.90 {angstrom} and 1.75 {angstrom} resolution; these structures suggest interactions that are important to the affinity of the inhibitors. Acylglycineboronic acids allow us to begin to dissect interaction energies between {beta}-lactam side chains and {beta}-lactamases. Surprisingly

  17. Inverse neutrinoless double $\\beta$ decay and other $\\Delta$ L=2 processes

    CERN Document Server

    London, D

    1999-01-01

    I review the prospects for the detection of Delta L=2 processes at future colliders. Except in contrived models, the process e- e- -> W- W- is unobservable at future linear colliders unless $\\sqrt{s} \\gsim 2$ TeV, due to constraints from neutrinoless double beta decay. As there are no analogous constraints on the Majorana mass of the $\

  18. Cap +1 mutation; an unsuspected cause of beta thalassaemia transmission in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Usman Babar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Thalassemia is one of the most common genetic disorders worldwide. Cap +1 mutation which causes ‘silent beta thalassemia’ is present around all ethnic groups of Pakistan. This study was designed to detect the frequency of Cap+1 mutation in Pakistani Population.Materials and Methods: Molecular genetic for Cap+1 beta thalassemic mutation was done by extracting DNA from whole blood by using Genomic DNA Purification Kit (Gentra system USA. Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS primers were designed for detection of normal and mutant DNA.Basic hematological parameters were performed by using automated analyzer (Sysmex KX-21. Cellulose acetate hemoglobin electrophoresis was done by using semi-automated technique (INTERLAB Roma Microtech Series Electrophoresis system 4.23. Results: The frequency of Cap+1 mutation was observed 5% (10/200 in targeted thalassemic families (having patients with beta-thalassemia intermedia while its frequency was observed 2% (12/600 in total thalassemic genes in Pakistani population. Conclusion: Cap+1 (A-C is a silent mutation and it has very minimum effect on beta globin synthesis because of which it produces very less clinical severity and certain important laboratory diagnostic tests like basic hematological parameters and Hb A2 levels are also remain in normal range. Therefore individuals with Cap+1 mutation may produce children with beta-thalassemia intermedia if they marry an individual with beta-thalassemia minor. Cap+1 (A-C mutation is an unsuspected cause of beta thalassemia transmission in Pakistani population. This mutation can identify at molecular level. As this molecular defect is difficult to diagnose in Laboratory with routine laboratory tests because of that it has become a serious hindrance for thalassemia prevention program in Pakistan.

  19. Novel Computational Protocols for Functionally Classifying and Characterising Serine Beta-Lactamases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David; Das, Sayoni; Dawson, Natalie L; Dobrijevic, Dragana; Ward, John; Orengo, Christine

    2016-06-01

    Beta-lactamases represent the main bacterial mechanism of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics and are a significant challenge to modern medicine. We have developed an automated classification and analysis protocol that exploits structure- and sequence-based approaches and which allows us to propose a grouping of serine beta-lactamases that more consistently captures and rationalizes the existing three classification schemes: Classes, (A, C and D, which vary in their implementation of the mechanism of action); Types (that largely reflect evolutionary distance measured by sequence similarity); and Variant groups (which largely correspond with the Bush-Jacoby clinical groups). Our analysis platform exploits a suite of in-house and public tools to identify Functional Determinants (FDs), i.e. residue sites, responsible for conferring different phenotypes between different classes, different types and different variants. We focused on Class A beta-lactamases, the most highly populated and clinically relevant class, to identify FDs implicated in the distinct phenotypes associated with different Class A Types and Variants. We show that our FunFHMMer method can separate the known beta-lactamase classes and identify those positions likely to be responsible for the different implementations of the mechanism of action in these enzymes. Two novel algorithms, ASSP and SSPA, allow detection of FD sites likely to contribute to the broadening of the substrate profiles. Using our approaches, we recognise 151 Class A types in UniProt. Finally, we used our beta-lactamase FunFams and ASSP profiles to detect 4 novel Class A types in microbiome samples. Our platforms have been validated by literature studies, in silico analysis and some targeted experimental verification. Although developed for the serine beta-lactamases they could be used to classify and analyse any diverse protein superfamily where sub-families have diverged over both long and short evolutionary timescales. PMID

  20. Immunoanalogue of vertebrate beta-adrenergic receptor in the unicellular eukaryote Paramecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiejak, Jolanta; Surmacz, Liliana; Wyroba, Elzbieta

    2002-01-01

    Cell fractionation, SDS-PAGE, quantitative Western blot, confocal immunolocalization and immunogold labelling were performed to find an interpretation of the physiological response of the unicellular eukaryote Paramecium to beta-adrenergic ligands. The 69 kDa polypeptide separated by SDS-PAGE in S2 and P2 Paramecium subcellular fractions cross-reacted with antibody directed against human beta2-adrenergic receptor. This was detected by Western blotting followed by chemiluminescent detection. Quantitative image analysis showed that beta-selective adrenergic agonist (-)-isoproterenol--previously shown to enhance phagocytic activity--evoked redistribution of the adrenergic receptor analogue from membraneous (P2) to cytosolic (S2) fraction. The relative increase in immunoreactive band intensity in S2 reached 80% and was paralleled by a 59% decrease in P2 fraction. Confocal immunofluorescence revealed beta2-adrenergic receptor sites on the cell surface and at the ridge of the cytopharynx--where nascent phagosomes are formed. This localization was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy. These results indicate that the 69 kDa Paramecium polypeptide immunorelated to vertebrate beta2-adrenergic receptor appeared in this evolutionary ancient cell as a nutrient receptor.

  1. [2,4-13 C2 ]-beta-Hydroxybutyrate metabolism in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jullie W; de Graaf, Robin A; Petersen, Kitt F; Shulman, Gerald I; Hetherington, Hoby P; Rothman, Douglas L

    2002-07-01

    Infusions of [2,4-13C2]-beta-hydroxybutyrate and 1H-13C polarization transfer spectroscopy were used in normal human subjects to detect the entry and metabolism of beta-hydroxybutyrate in the brain. During the 2-hour infusion study, 13C label was detectable in the beta-hydroxybutyrate resonance positions and in the amino acid pools of glutamate, glutamine, and aspartate. With a plasma concentration of 2.25 +/- 0.24 mmol/L (four volunteers), the apparent tissue beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration reached 0.18 +/- 0.06 mmol/L during the last 20 minutes of the study. The relative fractional enrichment of 13C-4-glutamate labeling was 6.78 +/- 1.71%, whereas 13C-4-glutamine was 5.68 +/- 1.84%. Steady-state modeling of the 13C label distribution in glutamate and glutamine suggests that, under these conditions, the consumption of the beta-hydroxybutyrate is predominantly neuronal, used at a rate of 0.032 +/- 0.009 mmol. kg-1. min-1, and accounts for 6.4 +/- 1.6% of total acetyl coenzyme A oxidation. These results are consistent with minimal accumulation of cerebral ketones with rapid utilization, implying blood-brain barrier control of ketone oxidation in the nonfasted adult human brain. PMID:12142574

  2. Synthesis of mesoporous Beta and Sn-Beta zeolites and their catalytic performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Junjiang; Ye, Xinxin; Li, Yongsheng; Wang, Yanqin; Li, Liang; Gu, Jinlou; Zhao, Wenru; Shi, Jianlin

    2014-06-14

    Mesoporous Beta zeolite has been successfully prepared through hydrothermal synthesis in the presence of cationic ammonium-modified chitosan as the meso-template. Through a subsequent solid-gas reaction between highly dealuminated mesoporous Beta zeolite and SnCl4 steam at an elevated temperature, mesoporous Sn-Beta has been facilely obtained. It was revealed that the addition of cationic chitosan induced the nanocrystal aggregation to particle sizes of ∼300 nm, giving rise to the intercrystalline/interparticle mesoporosity. In the Sn-implanting procedure, Sn species were demonstrated to be doped into the framework of the resulting mesoporous Beta zeolite in a tetrahedral environment without structural collapse. Due to the micro/mesoporous structures, both mesoporous Beta and Sn-Beta exhibited superior performances in α-pinene isomerization, Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of 2-adamantanone by hydrogen peroxide and the isomerization of glucose in water, respectively.

  3. Pressure phase lines and enthalpies for the. cap alpha. -. beta. and. beta. -liquid transitions in beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abey, A.

    1984-10-31

    The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the ..cap alpha..-..beta.. and ..beta..-liquid transition temperatures in Be was measured in a gas pressure system. Differential thermal analysis was used in the pressure range from 0.1 MPa to 0.7 GPa. For the ..cap alpha..-..beta.. transition, dT/dP = 43 +- 7 K/GPa; for the ..beta..-liquid transition, dT/dP = 35 +- 7 K/GPa. Although it is possible that large systematic errors may arise from experimental procedures, our results are seriously at odds with those of other investigators. Transition enthalpies for the ..cap alpha..-..beta.. and ..beta..-liquid transitions were 1.9 +- 0.2 and 2.2 +- 0.2 kcal/g.m., respectively, at a pressure of 0.1 MPa.

  4. Systematic Risk on Istanbul Stock Exchange: Traditional Beta Coefficient Versus Downside Beta Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülfen TUNA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to test the validity of Downside Capital Asset Pricing Model (D-CAPM on the ISE. At the same time, the explanatory power of CAPM's traditional beta and D-CAPM's downside beta on the changes in the average return values are examined comparatively. In this context, the monthly data for seventy three stocks that are continuously traded on the ISE for the period 1991-2009 is used. Regression analysis is applied in this study. The research results have shown that D-CAPM is valid on the ISE. In addition, it is obtained that the power of downside beta coefficient is higher than traditional beta coefficient on explaining the return changes. Therefore, it can be said that the downside beta is superior to traditional beta in the ISE for chosen period.

  5. A comparison of enzymatic phosphorylation and phosphatidylation of beta-L- and beta-D-nucleosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birichevskaya, Larisa L; Kvach, Sergei V; Sivets, Grigorii G; Kalinichenko, Elena N; Zinchenko, Anatoly I; Mikhailopulo, Igor A

    2007-04-01

    Enzymatic 5'-monophosphorylation and 5'-phosphatidylation of a number of beta-L- and beta-D-nucleosides was investigated. The first reaction, catalyzed by nucleoside phosphotransferase (NPT) from Erwinia herbicola, consisted of the transfer of the phosphate residue from p-nitrophenylphosphate (p-NPP) to the 5'-hydroxyl group of nucleoside; the second was the phospholipase D (PLD)-catalyzed transphosphatidylation of L-alpha-lecithin with a series of beta-L- and beta-D-nucleosides as the phosphatidyl acceptor resulted in the formation of the respective phospholipid-nucleoside conjugates. Some beta-L-nucleosides displayed similar or even higher substrate activity compared to the beta-D-enantiomers. PMID:17206374

  6. Expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) receptors and expression of TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K; Spang-Thomsen, M;

    1993-01-01

    A panel of 21 small cell lung cancer cell (SCLC) lines were examined for the presence of Transforming growth factor beta receptors (TGF beta-r) and the expression of TGF beta mRNAs. By the radioreceptor assay we found high affinity receptors to be expressed in six cell lines. scatchard analysis...... of the binding data demonstrated that the cells bound between 4.5 and 27.5 fmol mg-1 protein with a KD ranging from 16 to 40 pM. TGF beta 1 binding to the receptors was confirmed by cross-linking TGF beta 1 to the TGF beta-r. Three classes of TGF beta-r were demonstrated, type I and type II receptors with M......(r) = 65,000 and 90,000 and the betaglycan (type III) with M(r) = 280,000. Northern blotting showed expression of TGF beta 1 mRNA in ten, TGF beta 2 mRNA in two and TGF beta 3 mRNA in seven cell lines. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence that a large proportion of a broad panel of SCLC cell...

  7. Assignment of the Raman lines in single crystal barium metaborate (beta-BaB sub 2 O sub 4)

    CERN Document Server

    Ney, P; Maillard, A; Polgar, K

    1998-01-01

    A Raman-scattering study performed on beta-BaB sub 2 O sub 4 (beta-BBO) at room temperature allows us to assign all the vibrational modes detected in the Raman spectra. The internal and external vibration modes are properly obtained by taking account of the light polarization, mode contamination and isotope effects. A correspondence between the lattice and the free-ring modes is also presented. (author)

  8. Double beta decay searches of Xe-134, Xe-126 and Xe-124 with large scale Xe detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Barros, N; Zuber, K

    2014-01-01

    The sensitivity for double beta decay studies of Xe-134 and Xe-124 is investigated assuming a potential large scale Xe experiment developed for dark matter searches depleted in Xe-136. The opportunity for an observation of the 2nu double beta decay of Xe-134 is explored for various scenarios. A positive observation should be possible for all calculated nuclear matrix elements. The detection of 2$\

  9. Field transportable beta spectrometer. Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The objective of the Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) Chicago Pile-5 Test Reactor (CP-5). The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that by using innovative and improved deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources, significant benefits can be achieved when compared to baseline D and D technologies. One such capability being addressed by the D and D Focus Area is rapid characterization for facility contaminants. The technology was field demonstrated during the period January 7 through January 9, 1997, and offers several potential benefits, including faster turn-around time, cost reduction, and reduction in secondary waste. This report describes a PC controlled, field-transportable beta counter-spectrometer which uses solid scintillation coincident counting and low-noise photomultiplier tubes to count element-selective filters and other solid media. The dry scintillation counter used in combination with an element-selective technology eliminates the mess and disposal costs of liquid scintillation cocktails. Software in the instrument provides real-time spectral analysis. The instrument can detect and measure Tc-99, Sr-90, and other beta emitters reaching detection limits in the 20 pCi range (with shielding). Full analysis can be achieved in 30 minutes. The potential advantages of a field-portable beta counter-spectrometer include the savings gained from field generated results. The basis for decision-making is provided with a rapid turnaround analysis in the field. This technology would be competitive with the radiometric analysis done in fixed laboratories and the associated chain of custody operations.

  10. Neutrino potential for neutrinoless double beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Iwata, Yoritaka

    2016-01-01

    Neutrino potential for neutrinoless double beta decay is studied with focusing on its statistical property. The statistics provide a gross view of understanding amplitude of constitutional components of the nuclear matrix element.

  11. Literature in Focus Beta Beams: Neutrino Beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    By Mats Lindroos (CERN) and Mauro Mezzetto (INFN Padova, Italy) Imperial Press, 2009 The beta-beam concept for the generation of electron neutrino beams was first proposed by Piero Zucchelli in 2002. The idea created quite a stir, challenging the idea that intense neutrino beams only could be produced from the decay of pions or muons in classical neutrino beams facilities or in future neutrino factories. The concept initially struggled to make an impact but the hard work by many machine physicists, phenomenologists and theoreticians over the last five years has won the beta-beam a well-earned position as one of the frontrunners for a possible future world laboratory for high intensity neutrino oscillation physics. This is the first complete monograph on the beta-beam concept. The book describes both technical aspects and experimental aspects of the beta-beam, providing students and scientists with an insight into the possibilities o...

  12. Probing neutrinoless double beta decay with SNO+

    CERN Document Server

    Arushanova, Evelina

    2015-01-01

    Probing neutrinoless double beta decay is one of the primary goals for SNO+, SNOLAB's multi-purpose neutrino detector. In order to achieve this goal the SNO detector has been adapted so that it can be filled with Te-loaded liquid scintillator. During the initial double beta phase the target loading is 0.3% natural Te, which equates to $\\sim790$ kg of double beta isotope. Estimating the sensitivity to neutrinoless double beta decay requires a well understood background model. For SNO+ this is provided by a comprehensive study considering all possible background contributions, whether they originate from within the liquid scintillator cocktail, the surrounding parts of the detector or other irreducible backgrounds. Given these considerations, for five years running in the initial phase, the expected sensitivity is $T_{1/2}^{0\

  13. Review of modern double beta decay experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabash, A. S., E-mail: barabash@itep.ru [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (NRC ”Kurchatov Institute”), B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-28

    The review of modern experiments on search and studying of double beta decay processes is done. Results of the most sensitive current experiments are discussed. The main attention is paid to EXO-200, KamLAND-Zen, GERDA-I and CUORE-0 experiments. Modern values of T{sub 1/2}(2ν) and best present limits on neutrinoless double beta decay and double beta decay with Majoron emission are presented. Conservative limits on effective mass of a Majorana neutrino (〈m{sub ν}〉 < 0.46 eV) and a coupling constant of Majoron to neutrino (〈g{sub ee}〉 < 1.3 · 10{sup −5}) are obtained. Prospects of search for neutrinoless double beta decay in new experiments with sensitivity to 〈m{sub ν}〉 at the level of ∼ 0.01-0.1 eV are discussed.

  14. Beta decay of highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion storage rings and ion traps provide the very first opportunity to address nuclear beta decay under conditions prevailing in hot stellar plasmas during nucleosynthesis, i.e. at high atomic charge states. Experiments are summarized that were performed in this field during the last decade at the ion storage-cooler ring ESR in Darmstadt. Special emphasis is given to the first observation of bound-state beta decay, where the created electron remains bound in an inner orbital of the daughter atom. The impact of this specific 'stellar' decay mode for s-process nucleosynthesis as well as for nuclear 'eon clocks' is outlined. Finally, a new technique, single-ion decay spectroscopy, is presented, where one observes two-body beta decay characteristics (i.e. orbital electron capture or bound-state beta decay) of highly charged, single ions for well-defined nuclear and atomic quantum states of both the mother - and the daughter - ion.

  15. Protein kinase CK2: evidence for a protein kinase CK2beta subunit fraction, devoid of the catalytic CK2alpha subunit, in mouse brain and testicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, B; Siemer, S; Boldyreff, B;

    1999-01-01

    The highest CK2 activity was found in mouse testicles and brain, followed by spleen, liver, lung, kidney and heart. The activity values were directly correlated with the protein expression level of the CK2 subunits alpha (catalytic) and beta (regulatory). The alpha' subunit was only detected...... found for testicles and brain. The amount of CK2beta protein in brain in comparison to the other organs (except testicles) was estimated to be ca. 2-3-fold higher whereas the ratio of CK2beta between testicles and brain was estimated to be 3-4-fold. Results from the immunoprecipitation experiments...... support the notion for the existence of free CK2beta population and/or CK2beta in complex with other protein(s) present in brain and testicles. In all other mouse organs investigated, i.e. heart, lung, liver, kidney and spleen, no comparable amount of free CK2beta was observed. This is the first...

  16. Solid-state NMR analysis of the {beta}-strand orientation of the protofibrils of amyloid {beta}-protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, Takashi [Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Masuda, Yuichi, E-mail: masuda@mail.pharm.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Irie, Kazuhiro [Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Akagi, Ken-ichi; Monobe, Youko; Imazawa, Takayoshi [Section of Laboratory Equipment, Division of Biomedical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Takegoshi, K. [Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The supramolecular structure of A{beta}42 protofibrils was analyzed by solid-state NMR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ala-21 residue in the A{beta}42 protofibrils is included in a slightly disordered {beta}-strand. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The A{beta}42 protofibrils do not form intermolecular in-register parallel {beta}-sheets. -- Abstract: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is caused by abnormal deposition (fibrillation) of a 42-residue amyloid {beta}-protein (A{beta}42) in the brain. During the process of fibrillation, the A{beta}42 takes the form of protofibrils with strong neurotoxicity, and is thus believed to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of AD. To elucidate the supramolecular structure of the A{beta}42 protofibrils, the intermolecular proximity of the Ala-21 residues in the A{beta}42 protofibrils was analyzed by {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C rotational resonance experiments in the solid state. Unlike the A{beta}42 fibrils, an intermolecular {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C correlation was not found in the A{beta}42 protofibrils. This result suggests that the {beta}-strands of the A{beta}42 protofibrils are not in an in-register parallel orientation. A{beta}42 monomers would assemble to form protofibrils with the {beta}-strand conformation, then transform into fibrils by forming intermolecular parallel {beta}-sheets.

  17. Genetic counselling in the beta-thalassaemias

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannides, Adonis S.

    2013-01-01

    The beta-thalassaemias are very important genetic disorders of haemoglobin synthesis and are amongst the commonest monogenic disorders. In view of the severity of beta-thalassaemia major, a number of screening programmes have been developed aimed at reducing the number of individuals born with the condition. Genetic counsellingplays a vital role in this process supporting the successful implementation of screening and delineating available options to at risk individuals. This review assesses ...

  18. Searches for neutrinoless double beta decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingenheuer, Bernhard

    2012-07-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is a lepton number violating process whose observation would also establish that neutrinos are their own anti-particles. There are many experimental efforts with a variety of techniques. Some (EXO, Kamland-Zen, GERDA phase I and CANDLES) started take data in 2011 and EXO has reported the first measurement of the half life for the double beta decay with two neutrinos of 136Xe. The sensitivities of the different proposals are reviewed.

  19. Searches for neutrinoless double beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Schwingenheuer, B

    2012-01-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is a lepton number violating process whose observation would also establish that neutrinos are their own anti-particles. There are many experimental efforts with a variety of techniques. Some (EXO, Kamland-Zen, GERDA phase I and CANDLES) started take data in 2011 and EXO has reported the first measurement of the half life for the double beta decay with two neutrinos of $^{136}$Xe. The sensitivities of the different proposals are reviewed.

  20. Peripheral beta-endorphin and pain modulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Hartwig, A. C.

    1991-01-01

    Beta-endorphin is a peptide with morphine-like effects produced primarily in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. After its cleavage from the parent molecule, proopiomelanocortin, beta-endorphin is circulated via the blood stream to interact with specific opioid receptors located throughout the body. The peptide produces analgesia by inhibiting the firing of peripheral somatosensory fibers. It also affects other senses, such as vision, hearing, and smell. Whereas the ability to increase ...

  1. Unexpected pattern of beta-globin mutations in beta-thalassaemia patients from northern Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Cabeda, J.; Correia, C.; Estevinho, A.; Simões, C.; Amorim, M; L. Pinho; Justiça, B

    1999-01-01

    We characterized the genetic nature of beta-thalassaemia in northern Portugal. Of the 164 patients studied three were beta-thalassaemia major cases (one IVS-1-6/beta degrees 39 and two homozygous IVS-1-110). The analysis of the frequency of each mutation in the families revealed that the codon 6(-A) mutation was unexpectedly frequent (40%) and associated with the beta-globin haplotype E, and not with the usual European and North African CD6(-A) haplotypes. In contrast, the frequency of IVS-1-...

  2. Isotope Effects in the Bonds of beta-CrOOH and beta-CrOOD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørlund Christensen, A.; Hansen, P.; Lehmann, M. S.

    1976-01-01

    Samples of orthorhombic chromium oxide hydroxide, beta -CrOOH, and the deuterated compound, beta -CrOOD, were prepared hydrothermally. The crystal structures were determined by powder profile refinement technique using neutron diffraction data. Unit cells are: beta -CrOOH: a equals 4. 862(2) A, b...... equals 4. 298(a) A, c equals 2. 995(1) A; beta -CrOOD: a equals 4. 873(5) A, b equals 4. 332(7) A, c equals 2. 963(2) A, with Z equals 2. The space group is P2//1nm or Pnnm....

  3. Toward beta cell replacement for diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Bjarki; Sui, Lina; Freytes, Donald O; Creusot, Remi J; Egli, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    The discovery of insulin more than 90 years ago introduced a life-saving treatment for patients with type 1 diabetes, and since then, significant progress has been made in clinical care for all forms of diabetes. However, no method of insulin delivery matches the ability of the human pancreas to reliably and automatically maintain glucose levels within a tight range. Transplantation of human islets or of an intact pancreas can in principle cure diabetes, but this approach is generally reserved for cases with simultaneous transplantation of a kidney, where immunosuppression is already a requirement. Recent advances in cell reprogramming and beta cell differentiation now allow the generation of personalized stem cells, providing an unlimited source of beta cells for research and for developing autologous cell therapies. In this review, we will discuss the utility of stem cell-derived beta cells to investigate the mechanisms of beta cell failure in diabetes, and the challenges to develop beta cell replacement therapies. These challenges include appropriate quality controls of the cells being used, the ability to generate beta cell grafts of stable cellular composition, and in the case of type 1 diabetes, protecting implanted cells from autoimmune destruction without compromising other aspects of the immune system or the functionality of the graft. Such novel treatments will need to match or exceed the relative safety and efficacy of available care for diabetes.

  4. Neoclassical transport in high {beta} tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, S.C.

    1992-12-01

    Neoclassical, transport in high {beta} large aspect ratio tokamaks is calculated. The variational method introduced by Rosenbluth, et al., is used to calculate the full Onsager matrix in the banana regime. These results are part of a continuing study of the high {beta} large aspect ratio equilibria introduced in Cowley, et al. All the neoclassical coefficients are reduced from their nominal low {beta} values by a factor ({var_epsilon}/q{sup 2}{beta}){sup {1/2}} II. This factor is the ratio of plasma volume in the boundary layer to the volume in the core. The fraction of trapped particles on a given flux surface (f{sub t}) is also reduced by this factor so that {approximately} {sub ({var_epsilon}}/q{sup 2}{beta}){sup {1/2}}. Special attention is given to the current equation, since this is thought to be relevant at low 3 and therefore may also be relevant at high {beta}. The bootstrap current term is found to exceed the actual current by a factor of the square root of the aspect ratio.

  5. Altered cutaneous expression of beta-defensins in dogs with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Damme, Catharina M M; Willemse, Ton; van Dijk, Albert; Haagsman, Henk P; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A

    2009-08-01

    Canine atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic allergic skin disorder with an immunopathogenesis comparable to that in humans with AD. The high frequency of recurrent infections with Staphylococcus pseudo intermedius and Malassezia pachydermatis may indicate a defective innate immune response in the skin of atopic dogs. Production of beta-defensins constitutes an important role in skin defense but information on canine beta-defensin localization and regulation is scarce. We conducted a gene-expression study of 16 canine beta-defensins (cBDs) in 11 tissues of healthy dogs, which revealed a variable expression of cBDs in different organ systems of the dog. In skin, three beta-defensins, cBD1, cBD103 and cBD107, were extensively expressed, while inconsistent expression of five other beta-defensins was detected. Using immunohistochemistry abundant expression of cBD103 peptide was detected in the epidermis, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, comparable to hBD3 expression in human skin. To examine the gene-expression of beta-defensins in atopic dogs, full thickness skin biopsy specimens (non-lesional and lesional) of 10 atopic dogs and 7 healthy dogs were examined with real-time PCR. A significant 12-fold increased expression of cBD1 was detected in lesional atopic skin compared to healthy skin, while non-lesional skin showed a 5-fold increase. Contrary to cBD1, expression of cBD103 was slightly (2-fold) downregulated in skin of atopic dogs. Gene-expression levels of S100A8, a marker for atopic dermatitis, were also highly upregulated in skin of atopic dogs, confirming the diagnostics of the skin biopsies. Taken together these results provide new evidence for a possible defect in the innate immune response of dogs with atopic dermatitis, and indicate the potential of the dog as a model for human AD. PMID:19576634

  6. Continuous and Jump Betas: Implications for Portfolio Diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitali Alexeev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using high-frequency data, we decompose the time-varying beta for stocks into beta for continuous systematic risk and beta for discontinuous systematic risk. Estimated discontinuous betas for S&P500 constituents between 2003 and 2011 generally exceed the corresponding continuous betas. We demonstrate how continuous and discontinuous betas decrease with portfolio diversification. Using an equiweighted broad market index, we assess the speed of convergence of continuous and discontinuous betas in portfolios of stocks as the number of holdings increase. We show that discontinuous risk dissipates faster with fewer stocks in a portfolio compared to its continuous counterpart.

  7. Expression of interleukin-2R alpha and interleukin-2R beta in Hodgkin's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Tesch, H.; A. Günther; Abts, H.; Jücker, M; Klein, S; Krueger, G. R.; Diehl, V.

    1993-01-01

    Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells, the putative malignant cells of Hodgkin's disease (HD), carry regularly the CD25 antigen that forms one chain of the interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor (IL-2R alpha). To analyze the putative role of IL-2R expression in Hodgkin's disease, we have investigated the expression of both IL-2R alpha and IL-2R beta chains in HD-derived cell lines and in primary specimens from patients with HD. Expression of IL-2R alpha and IL-2R beta was detected in all HD-derived cell li...

  8. Evolution of the nuclear structure approaching $^{78}$Ni: $\\beta$ decay of $^{74-78}$Cu

    CERN Document Server

    Van Roosbroeck, J; De Maesschalck, A; De Witte, H; Fedorov, D; Fedosseev, V; Franchoo, S; Fynbo, H O U; Georg, U; Górska, M; Heyde, Kris L G; Huyse, M; Jonsson, O; Köster, U; Kruglov, K; Mishin, V I; Müller, W F; Pauwels, D; Smirnova, N A; Thomas, J C; Van Duppen, P; Van de Vel, K; Weissman, L

    2005-01-01

    A beta -decay study of the even mass /sup 74,76,78/Cu isotopes toward levels in /sup 74,76,78/Zn was performed at the ISOLDE mass separator. The copper isotopes were produced in proton- or neutron- induced fission reactions on /sup 238/U, laser ionized, mass separated, and sent to a beta - gamma detection system. Half-lives, decay schemes, and possible spin configurations were obtained for the copper isotopes. The results are compared with calculations using schematic forces as well as large-scale shell-model calculations with realistic forces.

  9. [First outbreak report of VIM-1 metallo-beta-lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Kanji; Takegawa, Hiroshi; Etoh, Masaaki; Hayashi, Michio; Haruta, Tsunekazu; Yamane, Kunikazu; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2010-11-01

    VIM-1 metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from 35 Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital patients from September 2007 to July 2008. All but one were highly resistant to all beta-lactams, aminoglycoside, and fluoroquinolone, and one susceptible to amikacin. Strains negative to a disk diffusion screening test using sodium mercaptoacetate for detecting MBL numbered 35. PCR for MBL indicated all strains were positive for bla(VIWM-1). These strains were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, indicating an outbreak of infections caused by VIM-1 MBL producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa. After intervention to control contact, the outbreak was controlled. PMID:21226324

  10. A pilot inference study for a beta-Bernoulli spatial scan statistic

    OpenAIRE

    Read, S.; Bath, P.A.; Willett, P.; Maheswaran, R.

    2012-01-01

    The Bernoulli spatial scan statistic is used to detect localised clusters in binary labelled point data, such as that used in spatial or spatio-temporal case/control studies. We test the inferential capability of a recently developed beta-Bernoulli spatial scan statistic, which adds a beta prior to the original statistic. This pilot study, which includes two test scenarios with 6,000 data sets each, suggests a marked increase in power for a given false alert rate. We suggest a more extensi...

  11. Artemia hemoglobins. Increase in net synthesis of the beta-polypeptide (relative to the alpha-polypeptide) in hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, J A; Nichols, R C; Condon, S J; Stubbs, J D; Bowen, S T

    1983-04-15

    Previous studies have shown that in the brine shrimp there are three dimeric hemoglobins with polypeptide composition alpha 2, alpha beta, beta 2. Concentrations of the alpha- and beta-polypeptides increase in hypoxia. We now report a two-dimensional electrophoretic method for assay of radiolabelled polypeptides in each hemoglobin. Net synthesis (synthesis minus degradation) of the beta-chain, relative to that of the alpha-chain, increases more than 3-fold (in male and female adults) within 3 days following a downshift in oxygen concentration from 0.2 to 0.1 mM in the culture medium. 3 days after downshift (2 days after in vivo incorporation of radiolabelled leucine), the beta-homodimer contained 10-20% of the radiolabel in the three hemoglobins although beta 2 was usually not detectable in the protein stain of an overloaded gel. The amount of radioactive leucine incorporated per unit amount of protein was more than 300-times greater in the beta 2 homodimer than in the beta-subunit of the heterodimer, suggesting that beta 2 does not dissociate rapidly during electrophoresis on the first dimension non-denaturing gel. This evidence for stable association of the two beta-monomers and the 5-8 heme-binding domains within each monomer (in vivo and during electrophoresis on non-denaturing gels) allows us to exclude one of two alternative interpretations of genetic data published previously. We present an independent line of evidence for the dimer model of the native hemoglobins (which states that each polypeptide has many heme-binding domains). PMID:6830806

  12. Rheumatoid factors from patients with rheumatoid arthritis react with Des-Lys58-beta 2m, modified beta 2-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, R C; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Malone, C C

    1993-01-01

    -cleaved beta 2m and Des-Lys58-beta 2m) appeared to parallel the previously determined beta 2m single amino acid specificities, in that RF showing strong reactivity with Lysine 58 also showed a significant diminished reactivity with the Des-Lys58-beta 2m lacking the critical lysine residue. The present...

  13. beta-adrenoceptor density in chronic infarcted myocardium : a subtype specific decrease of beta(1)-adrenoceptor density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anthonio, RL; Brodde, OE; van Veldhuisen, DJ; Crijns, HJGM; van Gilst, WH

    2000-01-01

    beta-adrenoceptor density is altered in different cardiac diseases. In heart failure beta-adrenoceptor density is down regulated but in acute myocardial ischemia beta-adrenoceptor density is up regulated. In hearts with myocardial infarction total beta-adrenoceptor density is decreased shortly after

  14. Characterization of beta-R1, a gene that is selectively induced by interferon beta (IFN-beta) compared with IFN-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, M R; Foster, G R; Leung, S; Leaman, D; Stark, G R; Ransohoff, R M

    1996-09-13

    We report preliminary characterization of a gene designated beta-R1, which is selectively expressed in response to interferon beta (IFN-beta) compared with IFN-alpha. In human astrocytoma cells, beta-R1 was induced to an equivalent extent by 10 IU/mL IFN-beta or 2500 IU/mL IFN-alpha2. To address the mechanism of this differential response, we analyzed induction of the beta-R1 gene in fibrosarcoma cells and derivative mutant cells lacking components required for signaling by type I IFNs. beta-R1 was readily induced by IFN-beta in the parental 2fTGH cell line, but not by recombinant IFN-alpha2, IFN-alpha Con1, or a mixture of IFN-alpha subtypes. IFN-alpha8 induced beta-R1 weakly. beta-R1 was not induced by IFN-beta in mutant cell lines U2A, U3A, U4A, and U6A, which lack, respectively, p48, STAT1, JAK1, and STAT2. U5A cells, which lack the Ifnar 2.2 component of the IFN-alpha and -beta receptor, also failed to express beta-R1. U1A cells are partially responsive to IFN-beta and IFN-alpha8 but lacked beta-R1 expression, indicating that TYK2 protein is essential for induction of this gene. Taken together, these results suggest that the expression of beta-R1 in response to type I IFN requires IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 plus an additional component, which is more efficiently formed on induction by IFN-beta compared with IFN-alpha.

  15. Genetic analysis of beta1 integrin "activation motifs" in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czuchra, Aleksandra; Meyer, Hannelore; Legate, Kyle R;

    2006-01-01

    /beta tails, leading to tail separation and integrin activation. We analyzed mice in which we mutated the tyrosines of the beta1 tail and the membrane-proximal aspartic acid required for the salt bridge. Tyrosine-to-alanine substitutions abolished beta1 integrin functions and led to a beta1 integrin...... and the membrane-proximal salt bridge between alpha and beta1 tails have no apparent function under physiological conditions in vivo....

  16. Beta-Negative Binomial Process and Poisson Factor Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Mingyuan; Hannah, Lauren; Dunson, David; Carin, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    A beta-negative binomial (BNB) process is proposed, leading to a beta-gamma-Poisson process, which may be viewed as a "multi-scoop" generalization of the beta-Bernoulli process. The BNB process is augmented into a beta-gamma-gamma-Poisson hierarchical structure, and applied as a nonparametric Bayesian prior for an infinite Poisson factor analysis model. A finite approximation for the beta process Levy random measure is constructed for convenient implementation. Efficient MCMC computations are...

  17. Beta Gyres in Global Analysis Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun-Hee KIM; H.Joe KWON; R.L.ELSBERRY

    2009-01-01

    A three-component decomposition is applied to global analysis data to show the existence of a beta gyre,which causes Tropical Cyclone (TC) to drift from a large-scale environmental steering current.Analyses from the Global Data Assimilation and Prediction System (GDAPS) of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA),the Global Forecast System (GFS) of NCEP,and the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS) are used in this study.The structure of the beta gyre obtained in our analyses is in good agreement with the theoretical structure,with a cyclonic circulation to the southwest of the TC center,an anticyclonic circulation to the northeast,and a ventilation flow directed northwestward near the center.The circulation of the beta gyre is strongest at the 850-hPa level where the cyclonically swirling primary circulation is strongest,and decreases with height,in a pyramid shape similar to the primary circulation.The individual structure of the beta gyre is case- and model-dependent.At a certain analysis time,one model may clearly reveal a well-defined beta gyre,but the other models may not.Within one model,the beta gyre may be well defined at some analysis times,but not at other times.The structure of the beta gyre in the analysis field is determined by the nature of the vortex initialization scheme and the model behavior during the 6-h forecast in the operational data assimilation cycle.

  18. Beta-adrenoceptors in obstetrics and gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modzelewska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    One hundred and twenty years after the description of extracts from the adrenal medulla, the use of beta-blockers and beta-agonists evolved from antianginal drugs and tocolytics to ligand-directed signaling. Beta-blockers in the fields of obstetrics and gynecology have so far been limited to the consideration of continuing treatment of disorders of the cardiovascular system and other dysfunctions that started before pregnancy. Studies in recent years have shown that beta-adrenoceptor signaling might be crucial in carcinogenesis and metastasis, apoptosis and anoikis. On the other hand, the use of beta-adrenoceptor agonists in tocolysis is, as yet, the primary method for inhibiting premature uterine contractions. Unfortunately, the efficacy of current pharmacological treatment for the management of preterm labor is regularly questioned. Moreover, studies related to non-pregnant myometrium performed to date indicate that the rhythmic contractions of the uterus are required for menstruation and have an important role in human reproduction. In turn, abnormal uterine contractility has been linked to dysmenorrhea, a condition associated with painful uterine cramping. The benefits of the use of beta2-adrenoceptor agonists in dysmenorrhea are still unclear and should be balanced against a wide range of adverse effects recognized with this class of medication. The ideal tocolytic agent is one which is effective for the pregnant or non-pregnant woman but has no side effects on either the woman or the baby. Looking to the future with both caution and hope, the potential metamorphosis of beta3-adrenoceptor agonists from experimental tools into therapeutic drugs for tocolysis warrants attention.

  19. Oligomerization and toxicity of A{beta} fusion proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caine, Joanne M., E-mail: Jo.Caine@csiro.au [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering and the Preventive Health Flagship, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Bharadwaj, Prashant R. [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering and the Preventive Health Flagship, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Centre for Excellence for Alzheimer' s Disease Research and Care, School of Exercise, Biomedical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Western Australia (Australia); Sankovich, Sonia E. [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering and the Preventive Health Flagship, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Ciccotosto, Giuseppe D. [The Department of Pathology and Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Streltsov, Victor A.; Varghese, Jose [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering and the Preventive Health Flagship, Parkville, Victoria (Australia)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} We expressed amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}) peptide as a soluble maltose binding protein fusion (MBP-A{beta}42 and MBP-A{beta}16). {yields} The full length A{beta} peptide fusion, MBP-A{beta}42, forms oligomeric species as determined by SDS-PAGE gels, gel filtration and DLS. {yields} The MBP-A{beta}42, but not MBP-A{beta}16 or MBP alone, is toxic to both yeast and mammalian cells as determined by toxicity assays. -- Abstract: This study has found that the Maltose binding protein A{beta}42 fusion protein (MBP-A{beta}42) forms soluble oligomers while the shorter MBP-A{beta}16 fusion and control MBP did not. MBP-A{beta}42, but neither MBP-A{beta}16 nor control MBP, was toxic in a dose-dependent manner in both yeast and primary cortical neuronal cells. This study demonstrates the potential utility of MBP-A{beta}42 as a reagent for drug screening assays in yeast and neuronal cell cultures and as a candidate for further A{beta}42 characterization.

  20. Conformation, molecular packing and field effect mobility of regioregular beta,beta'-dihexylsexithiophiophene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiriy, N.; Kiriy, A.; Bocharova, V.;

    2004-01-01

    ) V-1 s(-1), which is considerably less than the FEM of alpha,omega-DH6T. To understand the reason for such poor macroscopic electrical properties, the conformation and the molecular packing of beta,beta'-DH6T were systematically studied by means of UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy...

  1. Detrimental effects of beta-blockers in COPD - A concern for nonselective beta-blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, HJ; Zaagsma, J; Postma, DS; Winter, TH; van Hulst, M; Aalbers, R

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: beta-Blockers are known to worsen FEV1 and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in patients with asthma. Both characteristics determine the outcome of COPD, a disease with frequent cardiac comorbidity requiring beta-blocker treatment. Design: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized,

  2. BETA SPECTRA. I. Negatrons spectra; ESPECTROS BETA. I. Espectros simples de negatrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Malonda, A.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    1978-07-01

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 62 negatrons emitters have been computed introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. These spectra are plotted vs. energy, once normal i sed, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (Author)

  3. Mrp2 is essential for estradiol-17 beta(beta-D-glucuronide)-induced cholestasis in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, LY; Smit, JW; Meijer, DKF; Vore, M

    2000-01-01

    The present study evaluates the roles of the multidrug resistance-1 P-glycoprotein, Mdr1a/1b, the bile salt export pump (Bsep), and the multidrug resistance-associated protein-2 (Mrp2) in mediating cholestasis induced by estradiol-17 beta(beta-D-glucuronide) (E(2)17G). Administration of [H-3]E(2)17G

  4. Bioinformatics e Biostatistics applied to research in pediatric genetic disease. Clinical evidence in IFNλ4 polymorphisms associated with HCV infection in patients with beta thalassemia and WGCNA analysis weighted for IFNλ4 genotype rs12979860 to detect RPL9P18 as hub in HCV infected cell.

    OpenAIRE

    Marceddu, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified host genetic variation to be critical for spontaneous clearance and treatment response in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). We demonstrated the same in patients with thalassemia major infected by genotype 1b of HCV. In the present first part study we retrospectively analyzed 368 anti-HCV positive patients with beta-thalassemia in two Italian major thalassemic centers (Cagliari and Turin). The strongest IFNλ4 SN...

  5. Beta-decay study of $T_z=-2$ proton-rich nucleus $^{20}$Mg

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, L J; Lin, C J; Wang, J S; Fang, D Q; Li, Z H; Wang, Y T; Li, J; Yang, L; Ma, N R; Wang, K; Zang, H L; Wang, H W; Li, C; Shi, C Z; Nie, M W; Li, X F; Li, H; Ma, J B; Ma, P; Jin, S L; Huang, M R; Bai, Z; Wang, J G; Yang, F; Jia, H M; Zhang, H Q; Liu, Z H; Bao, P F; Wang, D X; Ma, Y G; Yang, Y Y; Zhou, Y J; Ma, W H; Chen, J

    2016-01-01

    The $\\beta$ decay of the drip-line nucleus $^{20}$Mg gives important information on resonances in $^{20}$Na, which are relevant for the astrophysical $rp$-process. A detailed $\\beta$ decay spectroscopic study of $^{20}$Mg was performed by a continuous-implantation method. A detection system was specially developed for charged-particle decay studies, giving improved spectroscopic information including the half-life of $^{20}$Mg, the excitation energies, the branching ratios, and the log $ft$ values for the states in $^{20}$Na populated in the $\\beta$ decay of $^{20}$Mg. A new proton branch was observed and the corresponding excited state in $^{20}$Na was proposed. The large isospin asymmetry for the mirror decays of $^{20}$Mg and $^{20}$O was reproduced, as well. However, no conclusive conclusion can be draw about the astrophysically interesting 2645~keV resonance in $^{20}$Na due to the limited statistics.

  6. Beta-Amyloid Deposition and Alzheimer's Type Changes Induced by Borrelia Spirochetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miklossy,J.; Kis, A.; Radenovic, A.; Miller, L.; Forro, L.; Martins, R.; Reiss, K.; Darbinian, N.; Darekar, P.; et al.

    2006-01-01

    The pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) consist of {beta}-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in affected brain areas. The processes, which drive this host reaction are unknown. To determine whether an analogous host reaction to that occurring in AD could be induced by infectious agents, we exposed mammalian glial and neuronal cells in vitro to Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes and to the inflammatory bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Morphological changes analogous to the amyloid deposits of AD brain were observed following 2-8 weeks of exposure to the spirochetes. Increased levels of {beta}-amyloid presursor protein (A{beta}PP) and hyperphosphorylated tau were also detected by Western blots of extracts of cultured cells that had been treated with spirochetes or LPS. These observations indicate that, by exposure to bacteria or to their toxic products, host responses similar in nature to those observed in AD may be induced.

  7. 2$\\pi$ proportional counting chamber for large-area-coated $\\beta$ sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DESAI SHRADDHA S

    2016-06-01

    Detection system for measuring absolute emission rate from large-area-coated $\\beta$ sources has been indigenously developed. The system consists of a multiwire-based proportional counter with gas flow and a source mounted within the sensitive volume of the detector. Design of the counter enables efficient counting of emissions in $2\\pi$ solid angle.A provision is made for change ofthe source and immediate measurement of source activity. These sources are used to calibrate the efficiency of contamination monitors at radiological facilities. Sensitive area of the detector covers 165◦ solid angle nearing $2\\pi$ of emission from the source of size $100 \\times 150$ mm. Performance of the chamber is tested using collimated $^{55}$Fe X-ray source and $^{90}$Sr / $^{90}$Y coated $\\beta$ sources of various activities. The activity measurement system is established as a national primary standard for calibration of coated $\\beta$ sources at Radiological Laboratory at BARC. Design and performanceof the chamber are presented.

  8. Screening procedures for alpha, beta and gamma emitting radionuclides in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gross actinide and beta screening methods currently used by the Bioassay Laboratory at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories have been documented and tested. The gross gamma method has also been documented. The gross actinide method was tested with Th-nat, Pu-239, Np-237, Am-241 and Cm-244 and the average percent recoveries were 90, 99, 45, 72 and 78, respectively. The gross beta method was tested with Sr-90/Y-90, Ce-144/Pr-144, Pm-147 and Ba-133 and the average percent recoveries were 78, 100, 46 and 46, respectively. Detection limits for the gross actinide (alpha) method are found to be about 0.4 mBq and about 39 mBq for the gross beta method

  9. Endemic carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa with acquired metallo-beta-lactamase determinants in European hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagatolla, Cristina; Tonin, Enrico A; Monti-Bragadin, Carlo; Dolzani, Lucilla; Gombac, Francesca; Bearzi, Claudia; Edalucci, Elisabetta; Gionechetti, Fabrizia; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2004-03-01

    Acquired metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) can confer broad-spectrum beta-lactam resistance (including carbapenems) not reversible by conventional beta-lactamase inhibitors and are emerging resistance determinants of remarkable clinical importance. In 2001, multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa carrying bla(VIM) MBL genes were found to be widespread (approximately 20% of all P. aeruginosa isolates and 70% of the carbapenem-resistant isolates) at Trieste University Hospital. Clonal diversity and heterogeneity of resistance determinants (either bla(VIM-1)-like or bla(VIM-2)-like) were detected among MBL producers. This evidence is the first that acquired MBLs can rapidly emerge and establish a condition of endemicity in certain epidemiologic settings. PMID:15109432

  10. Regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) after ionizing radiation; Regulation der Glykogen Synthase Kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) nach ionisierender Strahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehme, K.A.

    2006-12-15

    Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) phosphorylates the Mdm2 protein in the central domain. This phosphorylation is absolutely required for p53 degradation. Ionizing radiation inactivates GSK-3{beta} by phosphorylation at serine 9 and in consequence prevents Mdm2 mediated p53 degradation. During the work for my PhD I identified Akt/PKB as the kinase that phosphorylates GSK-3{beta} at serine 9 after ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation leads to phosphorylation of Akt/PKB at threonine 308 and serine 473. The PI3 Kinase inhibitor LY294002 completely abolished Akt/PKB serine 473 phosphorylation and prevented the induction of GSK-3{beta} serine 9 phosphorylation after ionizing radiation. Interestingly, the most significant activation of Akt/PKB after ionizing radiation occurred in the nucleus while cytoplasmic Akt/PKB was only weakly activated after radiation. By using siRNA, I showed that Akt1/PKBa, but not Akt2/PKB{beta}, is required for phosphorylation of GSK- 3{beta} at serine 9 after ionizing radiation. Phosphorylation and activation of Akt/PKB after ionizing radiation depends on the DNA dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), a member of the PI3 Kinase family, that is activated by free DNA ends. Both, in cells from SCID mice and after knockdown of the catalytic subunit of DNA-PK by siRNA in osteosarcoma cells, phosphorylation of Akt/PKB at serine 473 and of GSK-3{beta} at serine 9 was completely abolished. Consistent with the principle that phosphorylation of GSK-3 at serine 9 contributes to p53 stabilization after radiation, the accumulation of p53 in response to ionizing radiation was largely prevented by downregulation of DNA-PK. From these results I conclude, that ionizing radiation induces a signaling cascade that leads to Akt1/PKBa activation mediated by DNA-PK dependent phosphorylation of serine 473. After activation Akt1/PKBa phosphorylates and inhibits GSK-3{beta} in the nucleus. The resulting hypophosphorylated form of Mdm2 protein is no longer

  11. Molecular mass distribution and epitopes of the beta lactoglobulin submitted to hydrolysis pre-transglutaminase treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villas-Boas, M.B.; Zollner, R.L.; Netto, F.M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Paes Leme, A.F. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Benede, S.; Molina, E. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)

    2012-07-01

    modified {beta}-Lg were not detected by LC-MS/MS, suggesting that structural change occurred in the protein after hydrolysis and polymerization and also resulted in low amount of fragments that could promote antigenic response. (author)

  12. Group B streptococcal beta-hemolysin/cytolysin directly impairs cardiomyocyte viability and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E Hensler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS is a leading cause of neonatal sepsis where myocardial dysfunction is an important contributor to poor outcome. Here we study the effects of the GBS pore-forming beta-hemolysin/cytolysin (Bh/c exotoxin on cardiomyocyte viability, contractility, and calcium transients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HL-1 cardiomyocytes exposed to intact wild-type (WT or isogenic Deltabeta h/c mutant GBS, or to cell-free extracts from either strain, were assessed for viability by trypan blue exclusion and for apoptosis by TUNEL staining. Functionality of exposed cardiomyocytes was analyzed by visual quantitation of the rate and extent of contractility. Mitochondrial membrane polarization was measured in TMRE-loaded cells exposed to GBS beta h/c. Effects of GBS beta h/c on calcium transients were studied in fura-2AM-loaded primary rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. Exposure of HL-1 cardiomyocytes to either WT GBS or beta h/c extracts significantly reduced both rate and extent of contractility and later induced necrotic and apoptotic cell death. No effects on cardiomyocyte viability or function were observed after treatment with Deltabeta h/c mutant bacteria or extracts. The beta h/c toxin was associated with complete and rapid loss of detectable calcium transients in primary neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes and induced a loss of mitochondrial membrane polarization. These effects on viability and function were abrogated by the beta h/c inhibitor, dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data show a rapid loss of cardiomyocyte viability and function induced by GBS beta h/c, and these deleterious effects are inhibited by DPPC, a normal constituent of human pulmonary surfactant.. These findings have clinical implications for the cardiac dysfunction observed in neonatal GBS infections.

  13. Effect of transforming growth factor beta on synthesis of glycosaminoglycans by human lung fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubaybo, B.A.; Thet, L.A. (Veterans Administration Medical Center, Allen Park, MI (USA))

    1990-09-01

    The processes of lung growth, injury, and repair are characterized by alterations in fibroblast synthesis and interstitial distribution of extracellular matrix components. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), which is postulated to play a role in modulating lung repair, alters the distribution of several matrix components such as collagen and fibronectin. We studied the effect of TGF-beta on the synthesis and distribution of the various glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and whether these effects may explain its role in lung repair. Human diploid lung fibroblasts (IMR-90) were exposed to various concentrations of TGF-beta (0-5 nM) for variable periods of time (0-18 h). Newly synthesized GAGs were labeled with either (3H)glucosamine or (35S)sulfate. Individual GAGs were separated by size exclusion chromatography after serial enzymatic and chemical digestions and quantitated using scintillation counting. There was a dose-dependent increase in total GAG synthesis with maximal levels detected after 6 h of exposure. This increase was noted in all individual GAG types measured and was observed in both the cell associated GAGs (cell-matrix fraction) as well as the GAGs released into the medium (medium fraction). In the cell-matrix fraction, TGF-beta increased the proportion of heparan sulfate that was membrane bound as well as the proportion of dermatan sulfate in the intracellular compartment. In the medium fraction, TGF-beta increased the proportion of hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate released. We conclude that the role of TGF-beta in lung growth and repair may be related to increased synthesis of GAGs by human lung fibroblasts as well as alterations in the distribution of individual GAGs.

  14. X11beta rescues memory and long-term potentiation deficits in Alzheimer's disease APPswe Tg2576 mice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mitchell, Jacqueline C

    2009-12-01

    Increased production and deposition of amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) are believed to be key pathogenic events in Alzheimer\\'s disease. As such, routes for lowering cerebral Abeta levels represent potential therapeutic targets for Alzheimer\\'s disease. X11beta is a neuronal adaptor protein that binds to the intracellular domain of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Overexpression of X11beta inhibits Abeta production in a number of experimental systems. However, whether these changes to APP processing and Abeta production induced by X11beta overexpression also induce beneficial effects to memory and synaptic plasticity are not known. We report here that X11beta-mediated reduction in cerebral Abeta is associated with normalization of both cognition and in vivo long-term potentiation in aged APPswe Tg2576 transgenic mice that model the amyloid pathology of Alzheimer\\'s disease. Overexpression of X11beta itself has no detectable adverse effects upon mouse behaviour. These findings support the notion that modulation of X11beta function represents a therapeutic target for Abeta-mediated neuronal dysfunction in Alzheimer\\'s disease.

  15. A simultaneous beta and coincidence-gamma imaging system for plant leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Homayoon; Wen, Jie; Mathews, Aswin J.; Komarov, Sergey; Wang, Qiang; Li, Ke; O’Sullivan, Joseph A.; Tai, Yuan-Chuan

    2016-05-01

    Positron emitting isotopes, such as 11C, 13N, and 18F, can be used to label molecules. The tracers, such as 11CO2, are delivered to plants to study their biological processes, particularly metabolism and photosynthesis, which may contribute to the development of plants that have a higher yield of crops and biomass. Measurements and resulting images from PET scanners are not quantitative in young plant structures or in plant leaves due to poor positron annihilation in thin objects. To address this problem we have designed, assembled, modeled, and tested a nuclear imaging system (simultaneous beta–gamma imager). The imager can simultaneously detect positrons ({β+} ) and coincidence-gamma rays (γ). The imaging system employs two planar detectors; one is a regular gamma detector which has a LYSO crystal array, and the other is a phoswich detector which has an additional BC-404 plastic scintillator for beta detection. A forward model for positrons is proposed along with a joint image reconstruction formulation to utilize the beta and coincidence-gamma measurements for estimating radioactivity distribution in plant leaves. The joint reconstruction algorithm first reconstructs beta and gamma images independently to estimate the thickness component of the beta forward model and afterward jointly estimates the radioactivity distribution in the object. We have validated the physics model and reconstruction framework through a phantom imaging study and imaging a tomato leaf that has absorbed 11CO2. The results demonstrate that the simultaneously acquired beta and coincidence-gamma data, combined with our proposed joint reconstruction algorithm, improved the quantitative accuracy of estimating radioactivity distribution in thin objects such as leaves. We used the structural similarity (SSIM) index for comparing the leaf images from the simultaneous beta–gamma imager with the ground truth image. The jointly reconstructed images yield SSIM indices of 0.69 and 0.63, whereas

  16. Autoantibodies to IA-2beta improve diabetes risk assessment in high-risk relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achenbach, P; Bonifacio, E; Williams, A J K;

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of autoantibodies to IA-2beta (IA2betaA) in a large, well-characterised population of islet cell antibody (ICA)-positive relatives followed for 5 years in the European Nicotinamide Diabetes Intervention Trial....... METHODS: Autoantibodies to insulin (IAA), glutamate decarboxylase (GADA) and IA-2 (IA2A) were measured in 549 participants at study entry, and IA2A-positive samples tested for IA2betaA. First-phase insulin response (FPIR) and oral glucose tolerance were determined at baseline. RESULTS: Of 212 ICA/IA2A......-positive participants (median age 12.1 years; 57% male), 113 developed diabetes (5 year cumulative risk 56%), and 148 were also GADA-positive and IAA-positive (4Ab-positive). IA2betaA were detected in 137 (65%) ICA/IA2A-positive participants and were associated with an increased 5 year diabetes risk (IA2beta...

  17. The cell-binding domain of intimin from enteropathogenic Escherichia coli binds to beta1 integrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, G; Lider, O; Hershkoviz, R; Mould, A P; Kachalsky, S G; Candy, D C; Cahalon, L; Humphries, M J; Dougan, G

    1996-08-23

    Bacteria interact with mammalian cells surface molecules, such as integrins, to colonize tissues and evade immunological detection. Herein, the ability of intimin, an outer membrane protein from enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, to bind beta1 integrins was investigated. Solid-phase binding assays revealed binding of the carboxyl-terminal 280 amino acids of intimin (Int280) to alpha4beta1 and alpha5beta1 integrins. The binding required divalent ions (in particular, it was enhanced by Mn2+) and was inhibited by an RGD-containing peptide. Nonderivatized Int280, but not Int280CS (like Int280 but with Cys-937 replaced by Ser) blocked the binding of biotinylated Int280 to integrins. Int280 did not efficiently inhibit beta1 integrin binding of invasin from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Both intimin and invasin, immobilized on plastic surfaces, mediated adherence of resting or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-activated human CD4(+) T cells, whereas fibronectin mediated the adherence of only activated T cells. T cell binding to intimin and invasin was integrin mediated because it was specifically blocked by an RGD-containing peptide and by antibodies directed against the integrin subunits beta1, alpha4, and alpha5. These results demonstrate a specific integrin binding activity for intimin that is related to, but distinct from, that of invasin. PMID:8702771

  18. Expression of BK Ca channels and the modulatory beta-subunits in the rat and porcine trigeminal ganglion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Helle Wulf; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Poulsen, Asser Nyander;

    2009-01-01

    Large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK(Ca)) channels contribute to electrical impulses, proper signal transmission of information and regulation of neurotransmitter release. Migraine has been proposed to be a trigeminovascular disease involving the sensory trigeminal pathways and the c......Large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK(Ca)) channels contribute to electrical impulses, proper signal transmission of information and regulation of neurotransmitter release. Migraine has been proposed to be a trigeminovascular disease involving the sensory trigeminal pathways...... and the cerebral arteries. We hypothesize that BK(Ca) channel alpha- and beta-subunits are present in the rat and porcine trigeminal ganglion (TG) thus enabling a role in migraine. BK(Ca) channel mRNA was detected using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and in situ hybridization. BK(Ca...... revealed beta2- and beta 4-subunit proteins in rat and porcine TG. The present study showed BK(Ca) channel expression in rat and porcine TG. The main modulatory beta-subunits detected in TG of both species were beta2- and beta 4-subunits....

  19. Neutrinoless double beta decay from lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholson, Amy; Chang, Chia Cheng; Clark, M A; Joo, Balint; Kurth, Thorsten; Rinaldi, Enrico; Tiburzi, Brian; Vranas, Pavlos; Walker-Loud, Andre

    2016-01-01

    While the discovery of non-zero neutrino masses is one of the most important accomplishments by physicists in the past century, it is still unknown how and in what form these masses arise. Lepton number-violating neutrinoless double beta decay is a natural consequence of Majorana neutrinos and many BSM theories, and many experimental efforts are involved in the search for these processes. Understanding how neutrinoless double beta decay would manifest in nuclear environments is key for understanding any observed signals. In these proceedings we present an overview of a set of one- and two-body matrix elements relevant for experimental searches for neutrinoless double beta decay, describe the role of lattice QCD calculations, and present preliminary lattice QCD results.

  20. Estimating beta-mixing coefficients via histograms

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, Daniel J; Schervish, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The literature on statistical learning for time series often assumes asymptotic independence or "mixing" of data sources. Beta-mixing has long been important in establishing the central limit theorem and invariance principle for stochastic processes; recent work has identified it as crucial to extending results from empirical processes and statistical learning theory to dependent data, with quantitative risk bounds involving the actual beta coefficients. There is, however, presently no way to actually estimate those coefficients from data; while general functional forms are known for some common classes of processes (Markov processes, ARMA models, etc.), specific coefficients are generally beyond calculation. We present an l1-risk consistent estimator for the beta-mixing coefficients, based on a single stationary sample path. Since mixing coefficients involve infinite-order dependence, we use an order-d Markov approximation. We prove high-probability concentration results for the Markov approximation and show...

  1. Tevatron B0 low beta tuning report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed study of the low beta insertion for the B0 experimental area has been carried out and is described below. This insertion is similar to the Type C low beta previously report, anti p Note 169, although some changes have been made to the quadrupole lengths and positions. This insertion is designated Type E. The purpose of the study was to see if it is possible to turn the insertion on in a smooth and continuous manner and tune the insertion to a value of β* of less than one meter while maintaining the overall tune of the j Tevatron to a constant value. This was found to be possible. An examination of chromaticity corrections for the Tevatron with the low beta insertion on in various configurations was also undertaken

  2. Effect of casein genes - beta-LGB, DGAT1, GH, and LHR - on milk production and milk composition traits in crossbred Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molee, A; Poompramun, C; Mernkrathoke, P

    2015-03-30

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of a single gene and composite genotype of the casein gene family, including the beta-lactoglobulin gene (beta-LGB), acyl-CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 gene (DGAT1), growth hormone gene (GH), and luteinizing hormone receptor gene (LHR) on milk yield, milk composition, the percentage of fat, protein, solids-not-fat, and total solid in crossbred Holsteins. A total of 231 crossbred Holstein cows were examined for the study. The genotype of the beta-casein gene was analyzed by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction, while the alpha-S1, alpha-S2, kappa-casein, DGAT1, beta-LGB, and GH genes were analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. The association between genes and milk yield and milk composition was analyzed. Three pairs of genes, for which significant associations were detected, were beta + kappa-casein, DGAT1 + beta-casein, and GH + beta-LGB. In the single-gene model, most loci are significantly associated with traits. A significant association between the composite genotype and the traits was detected in all composite genotypes. GH + beta-LGB appears to be the most suitable variants for improving milk production and percentage of milk protein. Overall, the effects of the composite genotype and single gene were different. A physical or functional relationship between genes is necessary for investigating gene markers.

  3. A separation method of 0ν- and 2ν-events in double beta decay experiments with DCBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detector called Drift Chamber Beta-ray Analyzer (DCBA) will provide momentum information of each β-ray in double beta decay. The DCBA is expected to have good capabilities for particle identification, detection efficiency, background elimination and decay-source integration. Under the assumption of mass mechanism dominance in neutrinoless double beta decay, a simulation study shows that a combination method using both sum and single-energy distributions of double beta decay events can separate 0ν- and 2ν-events down to 0.05 eV of the effective neutrino mass with the help of a calculated nuclear matrix element, even though the DCBA has relatively poor energy resolution

  4. Isoreserpine promotes {beta}-catenin degradation via Siah-1 up-regulation in HCT116 colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwak, Jungsug; Song, Taeyun [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jie-Young; Yun, Yeon-Sook [Laboratory of Radiation Cancer Science, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Il-Whan [Department of Microbiology, Center for Viral Disease Research, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yongsu [Department of Genetic Engineering, and Graduate School of Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jae-Gook [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sangtaek, E-mail: ohsa@inje.ac.kr [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-25

    Aberrant accumulation of intracellular {beta}-catenin in intestinal epithelial cells is a frequent early event during the development of colon cancer. To identify small molecules that decrease the level of intracellular {beta}-catenin, we performed cell-based chemical screening using genetically engineered HEK293 reporter cells to detect compounds that inhibit TOPFlash reporter activity, which was stimulated by Wnt3a-conditioned medium. We found that isoreserpine promoted the degradation of intracellular {beta}-catenin by up-regulation of Siah-1 in HEK293 and HCT116 colon cancer cells. Moreover, isoreserpine repressed the expression of {beta}-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF)-dependent genes, such as cyclin D1 and c-myc, resulting in the suppression of HCT116 cell proliferation. Our findings suggest that isoreserpine can potentially be used as a chemotherapeutic agent against colon cancer.

  5. beta2-Agonists at the Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Kenneth D

    2006-01-01

    The different approaches that the International Olympic Committee (IOC) had adopted to beta2-agonists and the implications for athletes are reviewed by a former Olympic team physician who later became a member of the Medical Commission of the IOC (IOC-MC). Steadily increasing knowledge of the effects of inhaled beta2-agonists on health, is concerned with the fact that oral beta2-agonists may be anabolic, and rapid increased use of inhaled beta2-agonists by elite athletes has contributed to the changes to the IOC rules. Since 2001, the necessity for athletes to meet IOC criteria (i.e., that they have asthma and/or exercise-induced asthma [EIA]) has resulted in improved management of athletes. The prevalence of beta2-agonist use by athletes mirrors the known prevalence of asthma symptoms in each country, although athletes in endurance events have the highest prevalence. The age-of-onset of asthma/EIA in elite winter athletes may be atypical. Of the 193 athletes at the 2006 Winter Olympics who met th IOC's criteria, only 32.1% had childhood asthma and 48.7% of athletes reported onset at age 20 yr or older. These findings lead to speculation that years of intense endurance training may be a causative factor in bronchial hyperreactivity. The distinction between oral (prohibited in sports) and inhaled salbutamol is possible, but athletes must be warned that excessive use of inhaled salbutamol can lead to urinary concentrations similar to those observed after oral administration. This article provides justification that athletes should provide evidence of asthma or EIA before being permitted to use inhaled beta2-agonists. PMID:17085798

  6. Latent transforming growth factor beta1 activation in situ: quantitative and functional evidence after low-dose gamma-irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, E. J.; Segarini, P.; Tsang, M. L.; Carroll, A. G.; Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    The biological activity of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta) is controlled by its secretion as a latent complex in which it is noncovalently associated with latency-associated peptide (LAP). Activation is the extracellular process in which TGF-beta is released from LAP, and is considered to be a primary regulatory control. We recently reported rapid and persistent changes in TGF-beta immunoreactivity in conjunction with extracellular matrix remodeling in gamma-irradiated mouse mammary gland. Our hypothesis is that these specific changes in immunoreactivity are indicative of latent TGF-beta activation. In the present study, we determined the radiation dose response and tested whether a functional relationship exists between radiation-induced TGF-beta and collagen type III remodeling. After radiation exposures as low as 0.1 Gy, we detected increased TGF-beta immunoreactivity in the mammary epithelium concomitant with decreased LAP immunostaining, which are events consistent with activation. Quantitative image analysis demonstrated a significant (P=0.0005) response at 0.1 Gy without an apparent threshold and a linear dose response to 5 Gy. However, in the adipose stroma, loss of LAP demonstrated a qualitative threshold at 0.5 Gy. Loss of LAP paralleled induction of collagen III immunoreactivity in this tissue compartment. We tested whether TGF-beta mediates collagen III expression by treating animals with TGF-beta panspecific monoclonal antibody, 1D11.16, administered i.p. shortly before irradiation. Radiation-induced collagen III staining in the adipose stroma was blocked in an antibody dose-dependent manner, which persisted through 7 days postirradiation. RNase protection assay revealed that radiation-induced elevation of total gland collagen III mRNA was also blocked by neutralizing antibody treatment. These data provide functional confirmation of the hypothesis that radiation exposure leads to latent TGF-beta activation, support our interpretation of the

  7. Thymosin beta(4 and beta(10 levels in pre-term newborn oral cavity and foetal salivary glands evidence a switch of secretion during foetal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Nemolato

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thymosin beta(4, its sulfoxide, and thymosin beta(10 were detected in whole saliva of human pre-term newborns by reversed-phase high performance chromatography coupled to electrospray ion-trap mass spectrometry. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Despite high inter-individual variability, concentration of beta-thymosins increases with an inversely proportional trend to postmenstrual age (PMA: gestational age plus chronological age after birth reaching a value more than twenty times higher than in adult whole saliva at 190 days (27 weeks of PMA (thymosin beta(4 concentration: more than 2.0 micromol/L versus 0.1 micromol/L. On the other hand, the ratio between thymosin beta(4 and thymosin beta(10 exhibits a constant value of about 4 along all the range of PMA (190-550 days of PMA examined. In order to investigate thymosin beta(4 origin and to better establish the trend of its production as a function of gestational age (GA, immunohistochemical analysis of major and minor salivary glands of different pre-term fetuses were carried out, starting from 84 days (12 weeks of gestational age. Reactive granules were seen in all glands with a maximum of expression around 140-150 days of GA, even though with high inter- and intra-individual variability. In infants and adults reactive granules in acinar cells were not observed, but just a diffuse cytoplasmatic staining in ductal cells. SIGNIFICANCE: This study outlines for the first time that salivary glands during foetal life express and secrete peptides such as beta-thymosins probably involved in the development of the oral cavity and its annexes. The secretion increases from about 12 weeks till to about 21 weeks of GA, subsequently it decreases, almost disappearing in the period of expected date of delivery, when the gland switches towards the secretion of adult specific salivary peptides. The switch observed may be an example of further secretion switches involving other exocrine and endocrine

  8. Liquid argon as active shielding and coolant for bare germanium detectors. A novel background suppression method for the GERDA 0{nu}{beta}{beta} experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peiffer, J.P.

    2007-07-25

    Two of the most important open questions in particle physics are whether neutrinos are their own anti-particles (Majorana particles) as required by most extensions of the StandardModel and the absolute values of the neutrino masses. The neutrinoless double beta (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) decay, which can be investigated using {sup 76}Ge (a double beta isotope), is the most sensitive probe for these properties. There is a claim for an evidence for the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay in the Heidelberg-Moscow (HdM) {sup 76}Ge experiment by a part of the HdM collaboration. The new {sup 76}Ge experiment Gerda aims to check this claim within one year with 15 kg.y of statistics in Phase I at a background level of {<=}10{sup -2} events/(kg.keV.y) and to go to higher sensitivity with 100 kg.y of statistics in Phase II at a background level of {<=}10{sup -3} events/(kg.keV.y). In Gerda bare germanium semiconductor detectors (enriched in {sup 76}Ge) will be operated in liquid argon (LAr). LAr serves as cryogenic coolant and as high purity shielding against external background. To reach the background level for Phase II, new methods are required to suppress the cosmogenic background of the diodes. The background from cosmogenically produced {sup 60}Co is expected to be {proportional_to}2.5.10{sup -3} events/(kg.keV.y). LAr scintillates in UV ({lambda}=128 nm) and a novel concept is to use this scintillation light as anti-coincidence signal for background suppression. In this work the efficiency of such a LAr scintillation veto was investigated for the first time. In a setup with 19 kg active LAr mass a suppression of a factor 3 has been achieved for {sup 60}Co and a factor 17 for {sup 232}Th around Q{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}} = 2039 keV. This suppression will further increase for a one ton active volume (factor O(100) for {sup 232}Th and {sup 60}Co). LAr scintillation can also be used as a powerful tool for background diagnostics. For this purpose a new, very stable and robust wavelength

  9. Beta/gamma test problems for ITS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Integrated Tiger Series of Coupled Electron/Photon Monte Carlo Transport Codes (ITS 3.0, PC Version) was used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to compare with and extend the experimental findings of the beta/gamma response of selected health physics instruments. In order to assure that ITS gives correct results, several beta/gamma problems have been tested. ITS was used to simulate these problems numerically, and results for each were compared to the problem's experimental or analytical results. ITS successfully predicted the experimental or analytical results of all tested problems within the statistical uncertainty inherent in the Monte Carlo method

  10. Helicity and nuclear $\\beta$ decay correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Ran; García, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    We present simple derivations of nuclear $\\beta$-decay correlations with an emphasis on the special role of helicity. This provides a good opportunity to teach students about helicity and chirality in particle physics through exercises using simple aspects of quantum mechanics. In addition, this paper serves as an introduction to nuclear $\\beta$-decay correlations from both a theoretical and experimental vantage. This article can be used to introduce students to ongoing experiments searching for hints of new physics in the low-energy precision frontier.

  11. Volume Effects in Discrete beta functions

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yuzhi; Zou, Haiyuan

    2011-01-01

    We calculate discrete beta functions corresponding to the two-lattice matching for the 2D O(N) models and Dyson's hierarchical model. We describe and explain finite-size effects such as the appearance of a nontrivial infrared fixed point that goes to infinity at infinite volume or the merging of an infrared and an ultraviolet fixed point. We present extensions of the RG flows to the complex coupling plane. We discuss the possibility of constructing a continuous beta function from the discrete one by using functional conjugation methods. We briefly discuss the relevance of these findings for the search of nontrivial fixed points in multiflavor lattice gauge theory models.

  12. Population screening for beta-thalassaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatz, S D; Flatz, G

    1980-09-01

    The graphic recording of time to 50% haemolysis in a glycerine-saline solution is a simple, reproducible method of determining erythrocyte osmotic fragility. Studies on a normal population yielded an upper limit of normal of 90 s. In 250 healthy males from Northern Thailand all 19 with beta-thalassaemia minor had abnormal osmotic indices, and the value of the test was confirmed in beta-thalassaemia heterozygotes in Europe. Of 23 patients with iron deficiency 18 had abnormal osmotic indices. However, this is not thought likely to be a significant source of false positives in the screening of populations at risk of haemoglobinopathies but in whom iron deficiency is rare.

  13. Survey instrument response to beta radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available survey instruments do not have the beta measurement characteristics needed for accurate dose rate assessments. Such instruments have severe angular and energy dependence. In addition, beta measurements often require corrections for the source geometry response of the detector to permit accurate assessments. Studies were performed to characterize present instruments and to determine optimum characteristics for a field instrument. Results of the studies were used to specify and procure an instrument with improved characteristics. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of the studies and the design of the instrument

  14. Survey instrument response to beta radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available survey instruments do not have the beta measurement characteristics needed for accurate dose rate assessments. Such instruments have severe angular and energy dependence. In addition, beta measurements often require corrections for the source geometry response of the detector to permit accurate assessments. Studies were performed to characterize present instruments and to determine optimum characteristics for a field instrument. Results of the studies were used to specify and procure an instrument with improved characteristics. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of the studies and the design of the instrument. 6 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Why search for double beta decay?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searching for neutrinoless double beta decay is the only known practical method for trying to determine whether neutrinos are their own antiparticles. The theoretical motivation for supposing that they may indeed be their own antiparticles is described. The reason that it is so difficult to ascertain experimentally whether they are or are not is explained, as is the special sensitivity of neutrinoless double beta decay. The potential implications of the observation of this reaction for neutrino mass and for the physics of neutrinos is discussed

  16. Supermultiplet of $\\beta-$deformations from twistors

    CERN Document Server

    Milián, Segundo P

    2016-01-01

    We consider the supermultiplet of linearized beta-deformation of $\\mathcal{N}=4$ Super Yang-Mills(SYM). It was previously studied on the gravitational side. We study the supermultiplet of beta-deformations on the field theory side and we compare two finite-dimensional representations of $psl(4|4,\\bf{R})$ algebra. We show that they are related by an intertwining operator. We develop a twistor-based approach which could be useful for studying other finite-dimensional and nonunitary representations in AdS/CFT correspondence.

  17. Symmetry violations in nuclear and neutron $\\beta$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Vos, K K; Timmermans, R G E

    2015-01-01

    The role of $\\beta$ decay as a low-energy probe of physics beyond the Standard Model is reviewed. Traditional searches for deviations from the Standard Model structure of the weak interaction in $\\beta$ decay are discussed in the light of constraints from the LHC and the neutrino mass. Limits on the violation of time-reversal symmetry in $\\beta$ decay are compared to the strong constraints from electric dipole moments. Novel searches for Lorentz symmetry breaking in the weak interaction in $\\beta$ decay are also included, where we discuss the unique sensitivity of $\\beta$ decay to test Lorentz invariance. We end with a roadmap for future $\\beta$-decay experiments.

  18. Search for beta-delayed protons from 11Be

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The one-neutron halo nucleus 11Be can emit a proton in a beta decay of the halo neutron. However, due to the Q-value of this decay channel (280.7±0.3 keV) the expected branching ratio will be very low - most estimates are a few times 10-8 - and the detection of the outgoing proton with a kinetic energy of a few hundred keV is challenging. Therefore our attempt was to detect the remaining nucleus 10Be with the help of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). AMS is a highly sensitive tool to detect radioisotopes at the ultra-trace level. A beam of 11Be ions was produced at the ISOLDE facility at CERN and implanted in a collection sample. The sample was transferred to the VERA AMS facility at the University of Vienna where the 10Be content was determined. In my talk I present details of the experiment and results of the successful detection of this rare decay channel.

  19. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and programmed cell death in the vertebrate retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duenker, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a precisely regulated phenomenon essential for the homeostasis of multicellular organisms. Developmental systems, particularly the nervous system, have provided key observations supporting the physiological role of PCD. We have recently shown that transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) plays an important role in mediating ontogenetic PCD in the nervous system. As part of the central nervous system the developing retina serves as an ideal model system for investigating apoptotic processes during neurogenesis in vivo as it is easily accessible experimentally and less complex due to its limited number of different neurons. This review summarizes data indicating a pivotal role of TGF-beta in mediating PCD in the vertebrate retina. The following topics are discussed: expression of TGF-beta isoforms and receptors in the vertebrate retina, the TGF-beta signaling pathway, functions and molecular mechanisms of PCD in the nervous system, TGF-beta-mediated retinal apoptosis in vitro and in vivo, and interactions of TGF-beta with other pro- and anti-apoptotic factors.

  20. Nuclear Matrix Elements for the $\\beta\\beta$ Decay of the $^{76}$Ge

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, B A; Horoi, M

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear matrix elements for two-neutrino double-beta (2 n$\\beta\\beta$ ) and zero-neutrino double-beta (0 n$\\beta\\beta$) decay of 76 Ge are evaluated in terms of the configuration interaction (CI), quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA) and interacting boson model (IBM) methods. We show that the decomposition of the matrix elements in terms of interemediate states in 74 Ge is dominated by ground state of this nucleus. We consider corrections to the CI results that arise from configurations admixtures involving orbitals out-side of the CI configuration space by using results from QRPA, many-body-perturbation theory, and the connections to related observables. The CI two-neutrino matrix element is reduced due to the inclusion of spin-orbit partners, and to many-body correlations connected with Gamow-Teller beta decay. The CI zero-neutrino matrix element for the heavy neutrino is enhanced due to particle-particle correlations that are connected with the odd-even oscillations in the nuclear masse...