Sample records for beta detection

  1. Detecting Double Beta Decays Using Nuclear Emulsions

    CERN Document Server

    Dracos, Marcos


    Neutrino nature and absolute mass scale are major questions in particle physics which cannot be addressed by the present neutrino oscillation program. To answer these two questions, several neutrinoless double beta decay experiments are underway or planed for the near future. These experiments, mainly use bolometric techniques or gaseous counters coupled with scintillator detectors. The energy resolution is better in bolometric experiments but experiments coupling tracking with calorimetry have the advantage of observing the two electron tracks and remove many background sources. Here, we present a proposal of using nuclear emulsions to observe double beta decays. This technique has the advantage of precise tracking and vertexing even for low energy electrons.

  2. Using natural beta emission for detecting concealed tobacco in parcels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Jeremy [Laboratory for Threat Material Detection, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada); Hussein, Esam M.A. [Laboratory for Threat Material Detection, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada)], E-mail:


    It is suspected that postal systems are used for the illegal shipment of tobacco products to circumvent taxation and excise payments. This paper demonstrates that beta-particle emission from the potassium-40 contained in tobacco can be used to passively detect its presence in paperboard postal parcels. The same concept can be utilized for the detection of marijuana, whose leaves are also rich in {sup 40}K. The combination of high beta activity and a low weight is a good indicator of the presence of these two contraband materials.

  3. Detection and epidemiology of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platteel, T.N.


    The rising prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-)producing Enterobacteriaceae threatens public health, as treatment options in case of infections are reduced. Rapid detection of carriage or infection of ESBL-producing bacteria is crucial for appropriate infection control measures and

  4. Phenotypic detection of beta-lactamases production in enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković Ivana


    Full Text Available Introduction. Beta-lactam antibiotics are the most commonly used antibacterial drugs. However, many bacteria have developed resistance to these antibiotics, and the most common form of resistance is the production of beta-lactamase enzymes. Many members of the Enterobacteriaceae family produce different types of these enzymes. Objective. The aim of this study was to perform phenotypic detection of production and identification of beta-lactamase type in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from different clinical specimens from patients hospitalized in the Clinical Center of Serbia. Methods. The strains of Enterobacteriaceae were collected between November 2011 and January 2012 in the laboratory of the Clinical Center of Serbia. The isolates were identified according to the standard microbiology procedures and confirmed by the Vitek2 automated system. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method, and the phenotypic detection of production and identification of betalactamases was performed according to previously described methodologies. Results. In this study, a total of 172 Enterobacteriaceae strains were isolated. Further testing was performed on 54/145 (37.2% strains showing decreased susceptibility to beta-lactam antibiotics: 13/85 (15.3% Escherichia coli, 31/46 (67.4% Klebsiella pneumoniae and 10/14 (71.4% Proteus mirabilis. Among them, 40/145 (27.6% strains produced extended spectrum betalactamases (ESBLs, 9/145 (6.2% - AmpC, 1/145 (0.7% - K1 beta-lactamase and 4/145 (2.8% - carbapenemases. Carbapenemases were predominantly detected in K. pneumoniae (75%. Conclusion. Enterobacteriaceae produce different types of betalactamases, and the most common type in our study was ESBLs. Production of carbapenemases detected in Enterobacteriaceae is also an associated problem. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON 175039

  5. State-of-the-Art Beta Detection and Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David M. Hamby


    The research funded by this NEER grant establishes the framework for a detailed understanding of the challenges in beta dosimetry, especially in the presence of a mixed radiation field. The work also stimulated the thinking of the research group which will lead to new concepts in digital signal processing to allow collection of detection signals and real-time analysis such that simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy can take place. The work described herein (with detail in the many publications that came out of this research) was conducted in a manner that provided dissertation and thesis topics for three students, one of whom was completely funded by this grant. The overall benefit of the work came in the form of a dramatic shift in signal processing that is normally conducted in analog pulse shape analysis. Analog signal processing was shown not to be feasible for this type of work; digital signal processing was a must. This, in turn, led the research team to a new understanding of pulse analysis, one in which expands the state-of-the-art in simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy with a single detector.

  6. Detection of Rare Beta Globin Gene Mutations in Northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Haghi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent molecular studies on Iranian β-thalassemia genes revealed the presence of eight common mutations associated with thalassemia. Although these mutations are frequent, there are other rare and unknown mutations that can create large problems in designing preventive programs. We detected and explained the common mutations in north-western Iran previously and detection of the rare and unknown mutations could be useful in diagnosis and design of future preventive programs. Methods: In this study, 5ml peripheral blood from 20 Azari- β-thalassemia patients whose mutation was not revealed in the previous study was collected and DNA extraction was done by isopropanol and proteinase k method. Initially, samples were examined for the rare mutations: Codon6, Codon16, Codon41/42, Codon36/37, -88 and Codon22 by ARMS – PCR techniques and then the unknown cases were directly sequenced. Results: According to our results, Codon15(TGG-TGA, Codon16(-C, Codon36/37(-T, IVSII-848(C-A, IVSII-745(C-G, -28(A-C( and Codon25/26(+T were recognized and added to the spectrom of beta globin gene mutations in Azerbaijan and Iran. Also, we detected four SNP sites: 5’UTR+20(C-T, Codon2 (CAC-CAT , IVSII-16(C-G and IVSII-666(T-C in β-thalassemia genes. Conclusion: Our results could be useful for developing molecular screening plans and help prenatal diagnosis of beta thalassemia in Azerbaijan , Iran and other neighboring countries.

  7. Herschel detects oxygen in the beta Pictoris debris disk

    CERN Document Server

    Brandeker, A; Olofsson, G; Vandenbussche, B; Acke, B; Barlow, M J; Blommaert, J A D L; Cohen, M; Dent, W R F; Dominik, C; Di Francesco, J; Fridlund, M; Gear, W K; Glauser, A M; Greaves, J S; Harvey, P M; Heras, A M; Hogerheijde, M R; Holland, W S; Huygen, R; Ivison, R J; Leeks, S J; Lim, T L; Liseau, R; Matthews, B C; Pantin, E; Pilbratt, G L; Royer, P; Sibthorpe, B; Waelkens, C; Walker, H J


    The young star beta Pictoris is well known for its dusty debris disk, produced through the grinding down by collisions of planetesimals, kilometre-sized bodies in orbit around the star. In addition to dust, small amounts of gas are also known to orbit the star, likely the result from vaporisation of violently colliding dust grains. The disk is seen edge on and from previous absorption spectroscopy we know that the gas is very rich in carbon relative to other elements. The oxygen content has been more difficult to assess, however, with early estimates finding very little oxygen in the gas at a C/O ratio 20x higher than the cosmic value. A C/O ratio that high is difficult to explain and would have far-reaching consequences for planet formation. Here we report on observations by the far-infrared space telescope Herschel, using PACS, of emission lines from ionised carbon and neutral oxygen. The detected emission from C+ is consistent with that previously reported being observed by the HIFI instrument on Herschel,...

  8. Detection System for Neutron $\\beta$ Decay Correlations in the UCNB and Nab experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Broussard, L J; Adamek, E R; Baeßler, S; Birge, N; Blatnik, M; Bowman, J D; Brandt, A E; Brown, M; Burkhart, J; Callahan, N B; Clayton, S M; Crawford, C; Cude-Woods, C; Currie, S; Dees, E B; Ding, X; Fomin, N; Frlez, E; Fry, J; Gray, F E; Hasan, S; Hickerson, K P; Hoagland, J; Holley, A T; Ito, T M; Klein, A; Li, H; Liu, C -Y; Makela, M F; McGaughey, P L; Mirabal-Martinez, J; Morris, C L; Ortiz, J D; Pattie, R W; Penttilä, S I; Plaster, B; Počanić, D; Ramsey, J C; Salas-Bacci, A; Salvat, D J; Saunders, A; Seestrom, S J; Sjue, S K L; Sprow, A P; Tang, Z; Vogelaar, R B; Vorndick, B; Wang, Z; Wei, W; Wexler, J; Wilburn, W S; Womack, T L; Young, A R


    We describe a detection system designed for precise measurements of angular correlations in neutron $\\beta$ decay. The system is based on thick, large area, highly segmented silicon detectors developed in collaboration with Micron Semiconductor, Ltd. The prototype system meets specifications for $\\beta$ electron detection with energy thresholds below 10 keV, energy resolution of $\\sim$3 keV FWHM, and rise time of $\\sim$50 ns with 19 of the 127 detector pixels instrumented. Using ultracold neutrons at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, we have demonstrated the coincident detection of $\\beta$ particles and recoil protons from neutron $\\beta$ decay. The fully instrumented detection system will be implemented in the UCNB and Nab experiments, to determine the neutron $\\beta$ decay parameters $B$, $a$, and $b$.

  9. MALDI, AP/MALDI and ESI techniques for the MS detection of amyloid [beta]-peptides (United States)

    Grasso, Giuseppe; Mineo, Placido; Rizzarelli, Enrico; Spoto, Giuseppe


    Amyloid [beta]-peptides (A[beta]s) are involved in several neuropathological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and considerable experimental evidences have emerged indicating that different proteases play a major role in regulating the accumulation of A[beta]s in the brain. Particularly, insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) has been shown to degrade A[beta]s at different cleavage sites, but the experimental results reported in the literature and obtained by mass spectrometry methods are somehow fragmentary. The detection of A[beta]s is often complicated by solubility issues, oxidation artifacts and spontaneous aggregation/cleavage and, in order to rationalize the different reported results, we analyzed A[beta]s solutions by three different MS approaches: matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF), atmospheric pressure (AP) MALDI ion trap and electrospray ionization (ESI) ion trap. Differences in the obtained results are discussed and ESI is chosen as the most suitable MS method for A[beta]s detection. Finally, cleavage sites produced by interaction of A[beta]s with IDE are identified, two of which had never been reported in the literature.

  10. Optimization of plastic scintillator thicknesses for online beta/gamma detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourtangestani K.


    Full Text Available For efficient beta detection in a mixed beta gamma field, Monte Carlo simulation models have been built to optimize the thickness of a plastic scintillator, used in a whole body monitor. The simulation has been performed using the MCNP/X code for different thicknesses of plastic scintillator from 150 μm to 600 μm. The relationship between the thickness of the scintillator and the efficiency of the detector has been analyzed. For 150 μm thickness, an experimental investigation has been conducted with different beta sources at different positions on the scintillator and the counting efficiency of the unit has been measured. Evaluated data along with experimental ones have been discussed. A thickness of 300 μm to 500 μm has been found to be the optimum thickness for high efficiency beta detection in the presence of low energy gamma-rays.

  11. Highly sensitive phage-based biosensor for the detection of beta-galactosidase. (United States)

    Nanduri, Viswaprakash; Balasubramanian, Shankar; Sista, Srinivas; Vodyanoy, Vitaly J; Simonian, Aleksandr L


    Development of real-time sensor based on the target-specific probe that make possible sensitive, rapid and selective detection and monitoring of the particular antigen molecules could be of substantial importance to the many applications. Because of its high specificity to the target molecules, excellent temperature stability, and easy production, bacterial phage might serve as a powerful biorecognition probe in biosensor applications. Here, we report extremely sensitive and specific label-free direct detection of model antigen, beta-galactosidase (beta-gal), based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. The beta-gal specific landscape phage 1G40 has been immobilized on the gold surface of SPR SPREETA sensor chip through physical adsorption [V. Nanduri, A.M. Samoylova, V.Petrenko, V. Vodyanoy and A.L.Simonian, Comparison of optical and acoustic wave phage biosensors, 206th Meeting of The Electrochemical Society, Honolulu, Hawaii, October 3-8, (2004)]. Another non-specific to the beta-gal phage, a wild-type phage F8-5, was used in the reference channel. The concentration-dependent binding of beta-gal in both channels were assessed by monitoring the sensor optical response as a function of time under different experimental conditions, and the concentration of beta-gal was computed in differential mode. Concentrations of beta-gal between 10(-12) M and 10(-7) M could be readily detected, with linear part of calibration curve between 10(-9) M and 10(-6) M. When beta-gal was pre-incubated with different concentrations of free 1G40 phage prior to exposure to the biosensor, concentration-dependent inhibition was observed, indicating on biosensor high specificity toward beta-gal. Apart from a flow through mode used to deliver the samples to the surface for the SPR sensor, batch mode sensing was also employed to study the binding of beta-gal to immobilized phage on the SPR sensor surface. Experiments using a flow through mode provided more consistent results in the

  12. Detection and identification of beta-lactam residues in milk using a hybrid biosensor. (United States)

    Ferrini, Anna Maria; Mannoni, Veruscka; Carpico, Graziella; Pellegrini, Guido Enrico


    A novel application of a hybrid biosensor is here employed as an analytical method for the detection and presumptive identification of beta-lactam residues in milk. The method is based on measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2), the production of which is related to the microbial growth of the test microorganism Bacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis. The presence of beta-lactams in milk inhibits microbial growth and, consequently, the CO2 production rate. The analysis is based on the variation of CO2 between a milk sample spiked with beta-lactams and a twin milk sample containing beta-lactams plus a broad spectrum beta-lactamase, using an electrochemical device of biosensor. A blank milk sample is included as control. The result is obtained starting from the first 120 min. Moreover, the ability to recognize all of the beta-lactams speeds the total time of analysis when chemical identification and quantification are required. The analytical method appears to be adequate for milk control for qualitative screening purposes, complying with the requirements stated in Decision 2002/657/EC.


    Korobova, A G; Frolova, L N; Kliasova, G A


    The detection of enterobacteria with production of beta-lactamases of extended spectrum in selective chromogenic agar was analyzed The results ofdetection of beta-lactamases of extended spectrum was compared with "double disc" technique. The smears from mucous membrane of guttur and rectum from patients were analyzed in parallel on solid growth agar (Endo or Mac Conkey) and on selective agar CHROMagartm ESBL (CHROMagar France). The production of beta-lactamases of extended spectrum was confirmed using "double discs" technique. To exclude hyper-production of ampC beta-lactamases E-test was applied containing cefotetan and cefotetan with cloxacillin. The sampling consisted of 1552 samples from patients. The study permitted to isolate 1243 strains of enterobacteria on agar Endo or Mac Conkey and 409 strains of enterobacteria on selective agar CHROMagartm ESBL (Escherichia coli n = 226, Klebsiella pneumoniae n = 105, enterobacter spp. n = 35, Citrobacter spp. n = 21, others n = 22). The application of "double discs" technique confirmed production of beta-lactamases of extended spectrum in 386 (94%) out of 409 strains isolated on agar CHROMagartm ESBL. In 23 (6%) of strains no confirmation was established and hyper-production of ampC of beta-lactamases was established 15 out of total. Additionally, 8 were sensitive to cephalosporin of third generation. All enterobacteria isolated on agar Endo or Mac Conkey also were tested by "double discs" technique. Overall, 394 strains of enterobacteria with production of beta-lactamases of extended spectrum were obtained. On all agars (agar Endo or Mac Conkey and CHROMagartm ESBL)--263 (67%) strains; only on CHROMagartm ESBL--123 (31%) and only on agar Endo or Mac Conkey--8 (2%) (p agar CHROMagartm ESBL made up to 98% and specificity--97%. The resolution about detection of enterobacteria producing beta-lactamases of extended spectrum were submitted to clinic in 18-24 hours after arrival ofsamplesfrom patients in laboratory. The CHR

  14. Doubly stochastic Poisson processes in EMARG with detection of. beta. particles and internal-conversion electrons emitted from a surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusov, V.D.; Zelentsova, T.N.; Grechan, V.I.; Semenov, M.Y.; Kravchenko, S.N.


    The form of the counting statistics is determined for detection of ..beta.. particles and internal-conversion electrons by a nuclear emulsion. It is shown experimentally for the first time that photographic detection of ..beta.. particles and internal-conversion electrons obeys a Neyman type-A distribution, and not a Poisson distribution as was previously assumed.

  15. The Beta Pictoris Phenomenon in A-Shell Stars: Detection of Accreting Gas (United States)

    Grady, C. A.; Perez, Mario R.; Talavera, A.; McCollum, B.; Rawley, L. A.; England, M. N.; Schlegel, M.


    We present the results of an expanded survey of A-shell stars using IUE high-dispersion spectra and find accreting, circumstellar gas in the line of sight to nine stars, in addition to the previously identified beta Pic, HR 10, and 131 Tau, which can be followed to between +70 and 100 km/s relative to the star. Two of the program stars, HD 88195 and HD 148283, show variable high-velocity gas. Given the small number of IUE spectra for our program stars, detection of high-velocity, accreting gas in 2/3 of the A-shell stars sampled indicates that accretion is an intrinsic part of the A-shell phenomenon and that beta Pic is not unique among main-sequence A stars in exhibiting such activity. Our program stars, as a group, have smaller column densities of high-velocity gas and smaller near-IR excesses compared with beta Pic. These features are consistent with greater central clearing of a remnant debris disk, compared with beta Pic, and suggest that the majority of field A-shell stars are older than beta Pic.

  16. Phenotypic and Genotypic Detection of Metallo-beta-lactamases among Imipenem-Resistant Gram Negative Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadzadeh


    Full Text Available Background:   Imipenem-resistant gram negative bacteria, resulting from metallo-beta-lactamase (MBLs-producing strains have been reported to be among the important causes of nosocomial infections and of serious therapeutic problem worldwide. Because of their broad range, potent carbapenemase activity and resistance to inhibitors, these enzymes can confer resistance to almost all beta-lactams. The prevalence of metallo-beta-lactamase among imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Enerobacteriaceae isolates is determined.Methods:   In this descriptive study 864 clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae, were initially tested for imipenem susceptibility. The metallo-beta-lactamase production was detected using combined disk diffusion, double disk synergy test, and Hodge test. Then all imipenem resistant isolates were tested by PCR for imp, vim and ndm genes. Results:   Among 864 isolates, 62 (7.17 % were imipenem-resistant. Positive phonetypic test for metallo-beta-lactamase was 40 (64.5%, of which 24 (17.1% and 16 (9.2% isolates were Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp., respectively. By PCR method 30 (48.4% of imipenem resistant Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas isolates were positive for MBL-producing genes. None of the Enterobacteriaceae isolates were positive for metallo-beta-lactamase activity. Conclusion:   The results of this study are indicative of the growing number of nosocomial infections associated with multidrug-resistant gram negative bacteria in this region leading to difficulties in antibiotic therapy. Thereby, using of phenotypic methods can be helpful for management of this problem.

  17. Polycrystalline para-terphenyl scintillator adopted in a $\\beta^-$ detecting probe for radio-guided surgery

    CERN Document Server

    Camillocci, Elena Solfaroli; Bocci, Valerio; Collamati, Francesco; De Lucia, Erika; Faccini, Riccardo; Marafini, Michela; Mattei, Ilaria; Morganti, Silvio; Paramatti, Riccardo; Patera, Vincenzo; Pinci, Davide; Recchia, Luigi; Russomando, Andrea; Sarti, Alessio; Sciubba, Adalberto; Senzacqua, Martina; Voena, Cecilia


    A radio-guided surgery technique exploiting $\\beta^-$ emitters is under development. It aims at a higher target-to-background activity ratio implying both a smaller radiopharmaceutical activity and the possibility of extending the technique to cases with a large uptake of surrounding healthy organs. Such technique requires a dedicated intraoperative probe detecting $\\beta^-$ radiation. A first prototype has been developed relying on the low density and high light yield of the diphenylbutadiene doped para-therphenyl organic scintillator. The scintillation light produced in a cylindrical crystal, 5 mm in diameter and 3 mm in height, is guided to a photo-multiplier tube by optical fibres. The custom readout electronics is designed to optimize its usage in terms of feedback to the surgeon, portability and remote monitoring of the signal. Tests show that with a radiotracer activity comparable to those administered for diagnostic purposes the developed probe can detect a 0.1 ml cancerous residual of meningioma in a...

  18. Detection of Amp C genes encoding for beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shanthi


    Full Text Available Purpose : Amp C beta-lactamase are Ambler class C enzymes that confer resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins and are not inhibited by beta-lactamase inhibitors. Their detection is crucial, since the phenotypic tests are not standardised leading to ambiguity in interpretation of results. This study was done to detect the types of Amp C prevalent in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Materials and Methods : Seventy-seven consecutive cefoxitin resistant clinical isolates of E. coli (n = 25 and K. pneumoniae (n = 52 were included in the study. Antibiotic susceptibility testing to various classes of antibiotics was performed by disc diffusion using Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC to cefoxitin, imipenem and meropenem were determined by broth microdilution method. Isolates were screened for production of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL. Multiplex PCR was performed for the detection of Amp C genes after phenotypic testing (Hodge test and inhibitor based test. Results : Cefoxitin Hodge test was positive in 40 isolates which included 20 E. coli and 20 K. pneumoniae. There was zone enhancement with boronic acid in 55 isolates, of which 36 were K. pneumoniae and 19 were E. coli. Multiplex PCR detected Amp C in 11/25 E. coli and 12/52 K. pneumoniae isolates. The Amp C genes detected were CIT (Amp C origin - Citrobacter freundii, DHA (Dhahran Hospital, Saudi Arabia, ACC (Ambler class C, EBC (Amp C origin - Enterobacter cloacae groups. ESBL was co-produced in 54 isolates. Conclusions : Amp C was detected in 29.87% of the study isolates. Majority of them co-produced ESBL. The most common Amp C was the CIT family. Screen tests for cefoxitin resistance may be falsely positive due to production of carbapenamases.

  19. Fundamental research on a cerenkov radiation sensor based on optical glass for detecting beta-rays (United States)

    Kim, Jae Seok; Jang, Kyoung Won; Shin, Sang Hun; Jeon, Dayeong; Hong, Seunghan; Sim, Hyeok In; Kim, Seon Geun; Yoo, Wook Jae; Lee, Bongsoo; Moon, Joo Hyun; Park, Byung Gi


    In this study, a Cerenkov radiation sensor for detecting low-energy beta-particles was fabricated using various Cerenkov radiators such as an aerogel and CaF2-, SiO2-, and Al2O3-based optical glasses. Because the Cerenkov threshold energy (CTE) is determined by the refractive index of the Cerenkov radiator, the intensity of Cerenkov radiation varies according to the refractive indices of the Cerenkov radiators. Therefore, we measured the intensities of Cerenkov radiation induced by beta-particles generated from a radioactive isotope as a function of the refractive indices of the Cerenkov radiators. Also, the electron fluxes were calculated for various Cerenkov radiators by using a Monte Carlo N-Particle extended transport code (MCNPX) to determine the relationship between the intensities of the Cerenkov radiation and the electron fluxes.

  20. An Intraoperative $\\beta^-$ Detecting Probe For Radio-Guided Surgery in Tumour Resection

    CERN Document Server

    Russomando, Andrea; Bocci, Valerio; Chiodi, Giacomo; Collamati, Francesco; De Lucia, Erika; Donnarumma, Raffaella; Faccini, Riccardo; Terracciano, Carlo Mancini; Marafini, Michela; Paramatti, Riccardo; Patera, Vincenzo; Pinci, %Davide; Recchia, Luigi; Sarti, Alessio; Sciubba, Adalberto; Camillocci, Elena Solfaroli; Voena, Cecilia; Morganti, Silvio


    The development of the $\\beta^-$ based radio-guided surgery aims to extend the technique to those tumours where surgery is the only possible treatment and the assessment of the resection would most profit from the low background around the lesion, as for brain tumours. Feasibility studies on meningioma, glioma, and neuroendocrine tumors already estimated the potentiality of this new treatment. To validate the technique, prototypes of the intraoperative probe required by the technique to detect $\\beta^-$ radiation have been developed. This paper discusses the design details of the device and the tests performed in laboratory. In such tests particular care has to be taken to reproduce the surgical field conditions. The innovative technique to produce specific phantoms and the dedicated testing protocols is described in detail.

  1. An Intraoperative beta (-) Detecting Probe for Radio-Guided Surgery in Tumour Resection (United States)

    Russomando, Andrea; Bellini, Fabio; Bocci, Valerio; Collamati, Francesco; De Lucia, Erika; Faccini, Riccardo; Marafini, Michela; Mattei, Ilaria; Chiodi, Giacomo; Patera, Vincenzo; Recchia, Luigi; Sarti, Alessio; Sciubba, Adalberto; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Paramatti, Riccardo; Voena, Cecilia; Donnarumma, Raffaella; Mancini-Terracciano, Carlo; Morganti, Silvio


    The development of the $\\beta^-$ based radio-guided surgery aims to extend the technique to those tumours where surgery is the only possible treatment and the assessment of the resection would most profit from the low background around the lesion, as for brain tumours. Feasibility studies on meningioma, glioma, and neuroendocrine tumors already estimated the potentiality of this new treatment. To validate the technique, prototypes of the intraoperative probe required by the technique to detect $\\beta^-$ radiation have been developed. This paper discusses the design details of the device and the tests performed in laboratory. In such tests particular care has to be taken to reproduce the surgical field conditions. The innovative technique to produce specific phantoms and the dedicated testing protocols is described in detail.

  2. Electrochemical detection of 17beta-estradiol using DNA aptamer immobilized gold electrode chip. (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Seok; Jung, Ho Sup; Matsuura, Toshihiko; Lee, Hea Yeon; Kawai, Tomoji; Gu, Man Bock


    An electrochemical detection method for chemical sensing has been developed using a DNA aptamer immobilized gold electrode chip. DNA aptamers specifically binding to 17beta-estradiol were selected by the SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment) process from a random ssDNA library, composed of approximately 7.2 x 10(14) DNA molecules. Gold electrode chips were employed to evaluate the electrochemical signals generated from interactions between the aptamers and the target molecules. The DNA aptamer immobilization on the gold electrode was based on the avidin-biotin interaction. The cyclic voltametry (CV) and square wave voltametry (SWV) values were measured to evaluate the chemical binding to aptamer. When 17beta-estradiol interacted with the DNA aptamer, the current decreased due to the interference of bound 17beta-estradiol with the electron flow produced by a redox reaction between ferrocyanide and ferricyanide. In the negative control experiments, the current decreased only mildly due to the presence of other chemicals.

  3. Nano-biosensors to detect beta-amyloid for Alzheimer's disease management. (United States)

    Kaushik, Ajeet; Jayant, Rahul Dev; Tiwari, Sneham; Vashist, Arti; Nair, Madhavan


    Beta-amyloid (β-A) peptides are potential biomarkers to monitor Alzheimer's diseases (AD) for diagnostic purposes. Increased β-A level is neurotoxic and induces oxidative stress in brain resulting in neurodegeneration and causes dementia. As of now, no sensitive and inexpensive method is available for β-A detection under physiological and pathological conditions. Although, available methods such as neuroimaging, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detect β-A, but they are not yet extended at point-of-care (POC) due to sophisticated equipments, need of high expertize, complicated operations, and challenge of low detection limit. Recently, β-A antibody based electrochemical immuno-sensing approach has been explored to detect β-A at pM levels within 30-40 min compared to 6-8h of ELISA test. The introduction of nano-enabling electrochemical sensing technology could enable rapid detection of β-A at POC and may facilitate fast personalized health care delivery. This review explores recent advancements in nano-enabling electrochemical β-A sensing technologies towards POC application to AD management. These analytical tools can serve as an analytical tool for AD management program to obtain bio-informatics needed to optimize therapeutics for neurodegenerative diseases diagnosis management.

  4. Detection of ultra-weak magnetic fields in Am stars: beta UMa and theta Leo

    CERN Document Server

    Blazère, A; Lignières, F; Aurière, M; ballot, J; Böhm, T; Folsom, C P; Gaurat, M; Jouve, L; Ariste, A Lopez; Neiner, C; Wade, G A


    An extremely weak circularly polarized signature was recently discovered in spectral lines of the chemically peculiar Am star Sirius A. A weak surface magnetic field was proposed to account for the observed polarized signal, but the shape of the phase-averaged signature, dominated by a prominent positive lobe, is not expected in the standard theory of the Zeeman effect. We aim at verifying the presence of weak circularly polarized signatures in two other bright Am stars, beta UMa and theta Leo, and investigating the physical origin of Sirius-like polarized signals further. We present here a set of deep spectropolarimetric observations of beta UMa and theta Leo, observed with the NARVAL spectropolarimeter. We analyzed all spectra with the Least Squares Deconvolution multiline procedure. To improve the signal-to-noise ratio and detect extremely weak signatures in Stokes V profiles, we co-added all available spectra of each star (around 150 observations each time). Finally, we ran several tests to evaluate wheth...

  5. Dot Detection of Braille Images Using A Mixture of Beta Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany Al-Saleh


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Braille is a tactile format of written communication for people with low vision and blindness worldwide. Optical Braille Recognition (OBR offers many benefits to Braille users and people who work with them. Approach: This study presents an algorithm for detecting dots composing braille characters in an image of embossed braille material obtained by an optical scanner. We assumed that a mixture of Beta distributions could model the histogram of a scanned braille document. The core of the proposed method was the use of stability of thresholding with Beta distribution to initiate the process of thresholds estimation. Segmented Braille image was used to form a grid that contains recto dots and another one that contains verso dots. Results: Braille dots composing characters on both singlesided and double-sided documents were automatically identified from those grids with excellent accuracy. Conclusion: The experiment showed that the proposed method obtained very good results but it requires more testing on different scanned Braille document images.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Extended spectrum beta lactamases continue to be ma jor problem in clinical setups world over, conferring resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins and are associated with significant morbidity and morta lity. Urinary tract infections (UTIs are one of the most common infectious diseases encountered in the clinical practice. Extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs production in gram negative bacteria, have emerged as a major problem in hospitalized as well as community based pat ients. ESBLs producing bacteria may not be detected by routine disc diffusion susceptibility test, leading to inappropriate use of antibiotics and treatment failure. The objective of this study was to determine the resistance patterns of the micro-organisms isolated from cases of UTI and to detect ESBLs production in gram negative bacteria. METHODS: Urinary isolates from symptomatic UTI cases (both i n patients and out patients attending the, Kesarsal Me dical College and Hospital Ahmadabad were identified by conventional methods. Antimicrob ial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion method gram negative i solates resistant to third generation cephalosporins were tested for ESBL production by two methods. RESULTS: Number of urinary isolates from patients with symptomatic UTI was 350 o ver a study period of one year. E.coli was the predominant isolate (57.7% both in IPD and OPD patients. A total of 171 gram negative isolates resistant to third generation cephalosporins were tested for ESBL production by two methods- Modified Double Disc Synergy Test (CLSI P henotypic Confirmatory Test (PCT. ESBL production was seen in 36 (21.05% isolates. Maximum ESBL production was seen in K. pneumoniae (22.41% isolates followed by E.coli (13.26%. CONCLUSION: This study showed E.coli to be the predominant urinary pathogen isolate d from UTI cases. Overall incidence of ESBL producing microorganisms was 21.05%.

  7. Immunohistochemical detection of active transforming growth factor-beta in situ using engineered tissue (United States)

    Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.; Ehrhart, E. J.; Kalia, M.; Jirtle, R.; Flanders, K.; Tsang, M. L.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)


    The biological activity of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta) is governed by dissociation from its latent complex. Immunohistochemical discrimination of active and latent TGF-beta could provide insight into TGF-beta activation in physiological and pathological processes. However, evaluation of immunoreactivity specificity in situ has been hindered by the lack of tissue in which TGF-beta status is known. To provide in situ analysis of antibodies to differentiate between these functional forms, we used xenografts of human tumor cells modified by transfection to overexpress latent TGF-beta or constitutively active TGF-beta. This comparison revealed that, whereas most antibodies did not differentiate between TGF-beta activation status, the immunoreactivity of some antibodies was activation dependent. Two widely used peptide antibodies to the amino-terminus of TGF-beta, LC(1-30) and CC(1-30) showed marked preferential immunoreactivity with active TGF-beta versus latent TGF-beta in cryosections. However, in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue, discrimination of active TGF-beta by CC(1-30) was lost and immunoreactivity was distinctly extracellular, as previously reported for this antibody. Similar processing-dependent extracellular localization was found with a neutralizing antibody raised to recombinant TGF-beta. Antigen retrieval recovered cell-associated immunoreactivity of both antibodies. Two antibodies to peptides 78-109 showed mild to moderate preferential immunoreactivity with active TGF-beta only in paraffin sections. LC(1-30) was the only antibody tested that discriminated active from latent TGF-beta in both frozen and paraffin-embedded tissue. Thus, in situ discrimination of active versus latent TGF-beta depends on both the antibody and tissue preparation. We propose that tissues engineered to express a specific form of a given protein provide a physiological setting in which to evaluate antibody reactivity with specific functional forms of a

  8. Evaluation of different methods for detection of metallo-beta-lactamases in Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates. (United States)

    Bogiel, Tomasz; Deptuła, Aleksander; Gospodarek, Eugenia


    Metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) produced by Pseudomnonas aeruginosa are a serious threat due to their ability to be transmitted between the same as well as different bacterial species. Different methods are applied in the clinical laboratory to detect MBLs. The aim of this study was to compare 4 phenotypic methods and a PCR assay for their ability to detect MBLs in clinical isolates of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains. The study embraced a total of 70 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains isolated in The Department of Microbiology of Dr. A. Jurasz University Hospital in Bydgoszcz. The highest percentage (42.9%) of the strains were isolated from Intensive Care Unit patients, mainly from urine samples (31.4%). Methods used in this study were: double-disc synergy tests in two combinations: using ceftazidime with 2-mercaptopropionic acid and imipenem with EDTA, differences in inhibition zone diameters between discs with imipenem/EDTA and imipenem, Etest MBL (AB Biodisk) and molecular amplification of bla(IMP) and bla(VIM) genes responsible for producing MBLs, using PCR assay. The lowest percentage (1.4%) of positive results in detection of MBLs was obtained using PCR assay, the highest (72.9%) by double-disc synergy tests with imipenem and EDTA, but the specificity of this method may be low.

  9. Detection of Beta-Lactamase and Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase of Pathogens Isolated from Pig and Chicken and Their Antibiotic Susceptibility Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The antibacterial activity of beta-lactam antibiotics or their combinations with inhibitor sulbactum against non-lactamaseproducing strains, lactamase-producing and ESBLs-producing isolates was evaluated with twofold dilution method after pathogens isolated from pigs and chickens were detected, respectively, for beta-lactamase and extended-spectrum betalactamases (ESBLs). The results revealed that most of 43 clinically isolated strains could produce beta-lactamase and 3strains of shigella isolated from chicken samples produced ESBLs. All of 30 lactamase-producing strains isolated and only one of 16 non-lactamase-producing strains were resistant to amoxicillin and ampicillin. MICs of ampicillin against lactamaseproducing isolates decreased 10-40 and 10-20 times respectively, when it was conbined with sulbactam at ration of 1:2 and 1:4. All clinical isolates were susceptible to third-generation cephalosporins. The MICs of third-generation cephalosporins against lactamase-producing isolates did not change when they were conbined with sulbactam. MICs of ceftiofur and ceftriaxone against ESBLs-producing isolates decreased 2-4 times when they were conbined with sulbactam.

  10. Modeling the Production of Beta-Delayed Gamma Rays for the Detection of Special Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, J M; Pruet, J A; Brown, D A; Descalle, M; Hedstrom, G W; Prussin, S G


    The objective of this LDRD project was to develop one or more models for the production of {beta}-delayed {gamma} rays following neutron-induced fission of a special nuclear material (SNM) and to define a standardized formatting scheme which will allow them to be incorporated into some of the modern, general-purpose Monte Carlo transport codes currently being used to simulate inspection techniques proposed for detecting fissionable material hidden in sea-going cargo containers. In this report, we will describe a Monte Carlo model for {beta}-delayed {gamma}-ray emission following the fission of SNM that can accommodate arbitrary time-dependent fission rates and photon collection histories. The model involves direct sampling of the independent fission yield distributions of the system, the branching ratios for decay of individual fission products and spectral distributions representing photon emission from each fission product and for each decay mode. While computationally intensive, it will be shown that this model can provide reasonably detailed estimates of the spectra that would be recorded by an arbitrary spectrometer and may prove quite useful in assessing the quality of evaluated data libraries and identifying gaps in the libraries. The accuracy of the model will be illustrated by comparing calculated and experimental spectra from the decay of short-lived fission products following the reactions {sup 235}U(n{sub th}, f) and {sup 239}Pu(n{sub th}, f). For general-purpose transport calculations, where a detailed consideration of the large number of individual {gamma}-ray transitions in a spectrum may not be necessary, it will be shown that a simple parameterization of the {gamma}-ray source function can be defined which provides high-quality average spectral distributions that should suffice for calculations describing photons being transported through thick attenuating media. Finally, a proposal for ENDF-compatible formats that describe each of the models and

  11. Evaluation of phenotypic tests for the detection of AmpC beta-lactamase in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Handa


    Full Text Available Background: AmpC beta lactamases are cephalosporinases that confer resistance to a wide range of beta lactam drugs thereby causing serious therapeautic problem. As there are no CLSI guidelines for detection of AmpC mediated resistance in Gram negative clinical isolates and it may pose a problem due to misleading results, especially so in phenotypic tests. Although cefoxitin resistance is used as a screening test, it does not reliably indicate AmpC production. Materials and Methods: We planned a study to determine the occurrence of AmpC beta lactamase in hospital and community, clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and simultaneously evaluate different phenotypic methods for detection of AmpC beta lactamases. Results: It was observed that 82.76% isolates were ESBL positive and 59% were cefoxitin screen positive. Using phenotypic confirmatory tests the occurrence of Amp C beta lactamases was found to be 40% and 39% by inhibitor based method using boronic acid (IBM and modified three dimensional test (M3D respectively. Conclusion: Both the test showed concordant result. Co-production was observed in 84.62% isolates Screening of ESBL and Amp C can be done in routine clinical microbiology laboratory using aztreonam and IBM respectively as it is a simple, rapid and technically less demanding procedure which can be used in all clinical laboratories.

  12. Estrogen receptors alpha and beta in rat placenta: detection by RT-PCR, real time PCR and Western blotting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Bader Maie D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background High levels of estrogens during pregnancy not only retard placental and fetal growth but can lead to reproductive tract abnormalities in male progeny. Estrogens act through estrogen receptors (ER to modulate the transcription of target genes. These ER exist in two isoforms, ER alpha and ER beta and recently several variants of these isoforms have been identified. Methods The expressions of ER isoforms and variants have been studied in rat placenta at 16, 19 and 21 days gestation (dg. Gene expression was assessed using RT-PCR and real time PCR while protein expression was studied using Western blotting followed by immunodetection. Placental homogenates were probed with: a monoclonal antibody raised against the steroid binding domain of the ER alpha (ER alpha -S, a monoclonal antibody raised against the hinge region of ER alpha (ER alpha -H and a polyclonal antibody raised against the amino terminus of ER beta. Results ER alpha and ER beta mRNA and protein were detected from as early as 16 dg. Two PCR products were detected for ER alpha, one for the wild type ER alpha, and a smaller variant. Real time PCR results suggested the presence of a single product for ER beta. The antibodies used for detection of ER alpha protein both identified a single 67 kDa isoform; however a second 54 kDa band, which may be an ER alpha variant, was identified when using the ER alpha -H antibody. The abundance of both ER alpha bands decreased significantly between 16 and 19 dg. As for ER beta, four bands (76, 59, 54 and 41 kDa were detected. The abundance of the 59 and 54 kDa bands decreased significantly between 16 and 19 dg. Conclusion This study shows that both ER protein isoforms and their variants are present in rat placenta. The decrease in their expression near parturition suggests that the placenta may be relatively unresponsive to estrogens at this stage.

  13. Concomitant detection of biofilm and metallo-beta-lactamases production in gram-negative bacilli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monil Singhai


    Full Text Available Carbapenems are mainstay of treating serious multidrug resistant gram-negative biofilm-based infections. However, recent emergence of metallo-beta-lactamases (MbL producing gram-negative bacilli in different parts of world may be related to gain of virulence factors associated with biofilm production. Objectives: To explore the association of MbL and biofilm production in various gram-negative bacilli. Materials and Methods: In this study, 110 non-repetitive ceftazidime resistant gram-negative bacilli were evaluated for biofilm and MβL production. Biofilm forming ability of isolates obtained from various specimens was tested by the tube method. Disks of ceftazidime (30 μg and ceftazidime with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (30 μg + 750 μg, prepared in house for MβL detection were used. Chi-square test was used to study the association between biofilm and MβL production. P value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: 88 (80% bacilli had shown biofilm producing ability. The association of biofilm and MβL was significant in cases of non-fermenters as compared to enterobacteriaceae members. Conclusion: The particular combination of virulence factors (biofilm and MβL in bacteria may be a species specific effect which needs to be investigated at molecular level in detail. This may help in designing newer therapies based on interference with biofilm formation and thus countering clinical episodes of antibiotic resistance.

  14. Detection of beta-tubulin in the cytoplasm of the interphasic Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites. (United States)

    Gómez-Conde, Eduardo; Vargas-Mejía, Miguel Ángel; Díaz-Orea, María Alicia; Hernández-Rivas, Rosaura; Cárdenas-Perea, María Elena; Guerrero-González, Tayde; González-Barrios, Juan Antonio; Montiel-Jarquín, Álvaro José


    It is known that the microtubules (MT) of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites form an intranuclear mitotic spindle. However, electron microscopy studies and the employment of anti-beta-tubulin (β-tubulin) antibodies have not exhibited these cytoskeletal structures in the cytoplasm of these parasites. The purpose of this work was to detect β-tubulin in the cytoplasm of interphasic E. histolytica trophozoites. Activated or non-activated HMI-IMSS-strain E. histolytica trophozoites were used and cultured for 72 h at 37 °C in TYI-S-33 medium, and then these were incubated with the anti-β-tubulin antibody of E. histolytica. The anti-β-tubulin antibody reacted with the intranuclear mitotic spindle of E. histolytica-activated trophozoites as control. In contrast, in non-activated interphasic parasites, anti-β-tubulin antibody reacted with diverse puntiform structures in the cytoplasm and with ring-shaped structures localized in the cytoplasm, cellular membrane and endocytic stomas. In this work, for the first time, the presence of β-tubulin is shown in the cytoplasm of E. histolytica trophozoites.

  15. Applications of Beta Particle Detection for Synthesis and Usage of Radiotracers Developed for Positron Emission Tomography (United States)

    Dooraghi, Alex Abreu

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a noninvasive molecular imaging tool that requires the use of a radioactive compound or radiotracer which targets a molecular pathway of interest. We have developed and employed three beta particle radiation detection systems to advance PET. Specifically, the goals of these systems are to: 1. Automate dispensing of solutions containing a positron emitting isotope. 2. Monitor radioactivity on-chip during synthesis of a positron emitting radiotracer. 3. Assay cellular uptake on-chip of a positron emitting radiotracer. Automated protocols for measuring and dispensing solutions containing radioisotopes are essential not only for providing an optimum environment for radiation workers, but also to ensure a quantitatively accurate workflow. For the first project, we describe the development and performance of a system for automated radioactivity distribution of beta particle emitting radioisotopes such as fluorine-18 (F-18). Key to the system is a radiation detector in-line with a peristaltic pump. The system demonstrates volume accuracy within 5 % for volumes of 20 muL or greater. When considering volumes of 20 muL or greater, delivered radioactivity is in agreement with the requested radioactivity as measured with the dose calibrator. The integration of the detector and pump leads to a flexible system that can accurately dispense solutions containing F-18 in radioactivity concentrations directly produced from a cyclotron (~ 0.1-1 mCi/muL), to low activity concentrations intended for preclinical mouse scans (~ 1-10 muCi/muL), and anywhere in between. Electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD) is an attractive microfluidic platform for batch synthesis of PET radiotracers. Visualization of radioisotopes on-chip is critical for synthesis optimization and technological development. For the second project, we describe the development and performance of a Cerenkov/real-time imaging system for PET radiotracer synthesis on EWOD. We also investigate

  16. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase detection in gram-negative bacilli of nosocomial origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dechen C Tsering


    Full Text Available Background: Resistance to third generation cephalosporins by acquisition and expression of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL enzymes among gram-negative bacilli is on a rise. The presence of ESBL producing organisms significantly affects the course and outcome of an infection and poses a challenge to infection management worldwide. Materials and Methods: In the period from June 2007 to 2008, we collected 1489 samples from patients suspected of nosocomial infection. The isolates were identified based on colony morphology and biochemical reaction. Gram negative bacilli resistant to third generation cephalosporins were tested for ESBL by double disc synergy test (DDST- a screening test and then phenotypic confirmatory test. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: From the sample of 238 gram-negative bacilli, we isolated Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii and Enterobacter cloacae. Following both methods, 34% isolates were ESBL-positive. The ESBL producing isolates were significantly resistant (p < 0.01 to ampicillin, piperacillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin as compared to non-ESBL producers. Multidrug resistance was significantly (p < 0.01 higher (69.14% in ESBL positive isolates than non-ESBL isolates (21.66%. Conclusion: High prevalence of ESBL in our hospital cannot be ignored. ESBL producers can be detected by DDST and phenotypic confirmatory test with equal efficacy. The sensitivity of screening test improved with the use of more than one antibiotic and addition of one or two antibiotics would not increase cost and labor. We recommend DDST using multiple antibiotics in all microbiology units as a routine screening test.

  17. Detection of four beta-thalassemia point mutations in Iranians using a PCR-ELISA genotyping system. (United States)

    Gill, Pooria; Forouzandeh, Mehdi; Eshraghi, Naser; Ghalami, Mostafa; Safa, Majid; Noori-Daloii, Mohammad-Reza


    Development of molecular techniques with analytical capability of mutation detection can realize the medical diagnosis of diseases and improve people's health. beta-Thalassemia is one of the most prevalent genetic disorders in Iran and using a simple and rapid test in laboratories for the mass screening and prenatal diagnosis is essential. Here, we described a simple method for rapid detection of four common beta-thalassemia point mutations in Iranians (IVS-II-1 (G-->A), IVS-I-5 (G-->C), FSC 8/9 (+G), IVS-I-110 (G-->A)) using a PCR-ELISA genotyping system. After DNA isolation from whole blood, a segment of beta-globin gene was amplified by DIG-labeling PCR. The DIG-labeled PCR amplicons were denatured and added to biotinylated normal probe (for normal gene allele) and mutant probe (for mutant gene allele). The hybrids were detected by colorimetric ELISA method. The optical densities obtained using normal and mutant probes with heterozygous PCR products were very similar. The optical densities obtained using mutant probes were higher than normal probes with homozygous PCR products. In vice versa, the optical densities obtained using normal probes were higher than mutant probes with normal PCR products. All the results demonstrated that the PCR-ELISA has similar specificity in comparison to the amplification refractory mutation system.

  18. An international multicentre-laboratory evaluation of a new assay to detect specifically lupus anticoagulants dependent on the presence of anti-beta2-glycoprotein autoantibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de laat, B.; Derksen, R. H. W. M.; Reber, G.; Musial, J.; Swadzba, J.; Bozic, B.; Cucnik, S.; Regnault, V.; Forastiero, R.; Woodhams, B. J.; de Groot, Ph. G.


    Background: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is diagnosed by the simultaneous presence of vascular thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity and detection of antiphospholipid antibodies in plasma. Objectives: We have shown that prolongation of clotting time by anti-beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2GPI) antibod

  19. Detection of bixin, lycopene, canthaxanthin, and beta-apo-8'-carotenal in products derived from red pepper. (United States)

    Mínguez-Mosquera, M I; Hornero-Méndez, D; Garrido-Fernández, J


    An analytical method using either thin layer or liquid chromatography is proposed for the detection of 4 pigments (bixin, lycopene, canthaxanthin and beta-apo-8'-carotenal) that can be used fraudulently to intensify the natural color of products derived from red pepper (oleoresins, paprika, paprika paste, etc.). Similarly, the addition of other colorant natural products containing some of these pigments as major pigments (such as tomato for lycopene and Bixa orellana seeds for bixin) can be detected. The method proposed can also be used to control the aforementioned pigments in their natural sources as well as in food products.

  20. Detection and characterization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (TEM-52)-producing Salmonella serotype Infantis from broilers in Japan. (United States)

    Shahada, Francis; Chuma, Takehisa; Dahshan, Hesham; Akiba, Masato; Sueyoshi, Masuo; Okamoto, Karoku


    During 2004 and 2006, multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Infantis (Salmonella Infantis) isolates (n = 120) were recovered from broiler cecal samples collected from a meat-processing plant, and the isolates were examined. The study was conducted to detect and characterize extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Salmonella Infantis isolates recovered from broiler chickens and determine the mechanisms of transfer of the resistance traits. Extended-spectrum cephalosporins-resistant Salmonella Infantis isolates producing ESBL TEM-52 were detected. The mutant bla(TEM-52) gene and the wild-type bla(TEM-1) gene that mediated resistance to ampicillin (an extended-spectrum penicillin) and cephalothin (a narrow-spectrum cephalosporin) were located on approximately 50-kb conjugative plasmids among beta-lactam-resistant (n = 29) isolates. The bla(TEM) genes did not cotransfer with aadA1, sul1 (both associated with class 1 integrons), tetA, and dfrA5, signifying a chromosomal location of these non-beta-lactam resistance-encoding genes. This is the first report describing TEM-52-producing S. enterica from food-producing animals in Japan. An emergence of TEM-type ESBL is an important concern to public health because this readily transferable resistance mechanism threatens the value of the third-generation cephalosporins and may reduce the clinical utility of this class of antibiotics against pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria.

  1. Surveillance and Detection of Inhibitor-Resistant Beta-Lactamases in Clinical Isolates of Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Urban


    Full Text Available In recent years, resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, such as the widely-used cephalosporins and penicillins, has become a major challenge for disease therapy, particularly in common hospital-acquired infections. In the search for the mechanisms behind this increasingly prevalent form of resistance, microbiologists have identified a new type of beta-lactamase enzyme, called inhibitor-resistant TEMs (IRTs, which can withstand the effects of beta-lactamase inhibitor compounds, further reducing the arsenal of drugs available to physicians facing resistant bacteria. In this study, we examined the enzymatic and genetic basis of Escherichia coli isolates demonstrating such resistance to beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations. Susceptibility trials played a major role in composing the experimental cohort for this project (n=50; each isolate was thoroughly tested to ensure that it was resistant to ampicillin-sulbactam, an inhibitor combination, but susceptible to the third-generation cephalosporin ceftazidime. Subsequently, a number of samples were subjected to assay by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (n=18 and polymerase chain reaction (n=3 so that their genetic composition and relatedness might be known. In particular, the presence of genes coding for TEM-type beta-lactamases was investigated for each of the 3 isolates sequenced. Even though it was anticipated that the isolates would possess resistance to inhibitor combinations due to an IRT gene, this was not found to be the case. Instead, the mechanism of resistance turned out to be over-expression of a gene coding for a normal TEM enzyme. The results of these experiments have implications for ensuring successful therapy of bacterial infections and for preventing the spread of antimicrobial resistance.

  2. Early detection of neutralizing antibodies to interferon-beta in multiple sclerosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegen, H; Millonig, A; Bertolotto, A


    BACKGROUND: Neutralizing antibodies (NAb) affect efficacy of interferon-beta (IFN-b) treatment in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. NAbs evolve in up to 44% of treated patients, usually between 6-18 months on therapy. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether early binding antibody (BAb) titers or diffe......BACKGROUND: Neutralizing antibodies (NAb) affect efficacy of interferon-beta (IFN-b) treatment in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. NAbs evolve in up to 44% of treated patients, usually between 6-18 months on therapy. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether early binding antibody (BAb) titers...

  3. Detection and identification of "new" beta-agonists in black-market preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ginkel LA; Stephany RW; van Rossum HJ; Visser T; den Engelsman T; de Jong APJM; Jacquemijns M; Zomer G


    In several "black-market" used for growth promotion preparations new compounds were found belonging to the group of N-phenylethanolamines with structures very similar to compounds known to be used for veal calf and cattle production, the so called beta-agonists. The two most important com

  4. Immunocytochemical detection of beta-defensins and cathelicidins in the secretory granules of the tongue in the lizard Anolis carolinensis. (United States)

    Alibardi, Lorenzo


    Previous molecular studies indicated that antimicrobial peptides in lizard are expressed in the skin and tongue among other epithelial organs. The present ultrastructural immunogold study aimed to detect the specific location of three broadly expressed antimicrobial peptides in the tongue of the lizard Anolis carolinensis. The immunocytochemical study indicated that beta-defensin-15, the likely main defensin of granulocytes and skin, is poorly expressed in some dense and medium-dense granules of glandular cells of the papillated tongue. Conversely beta-defensin-27 appears highly expressed in numerous pale and cribriform dense granules of glandular cells and is also secreted on the tongue surface. The immunostaining for cathelicidin-1 indicated a variable but however positive immunolabeling in numerous granules in the tongue glands, suggesting that this antimicrobial peptide previously found on the epidermal surface is also present in the tongue secretions and participates to the formation of the anti-microbial oral barrier. The study suggests that among the numerous beta-defensins and cathelicidins identified in the genome of this lizard is present a specific distribution of different peptide subtypes in various body regions, including the tongue, and that these peptides contribute to the formation of local antimicrobial barriers.

  5. Detecting shake-off electron-ion coincidences to measure {beta}-decay correlations in laser trapped {sup 21}Na

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scielzo, N.D. [University of California and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Freedman, S.J. [University of California and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Fujikawa, B.K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kominis, I. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Maruyama, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Vetter, P.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Vieregg, J.R. [University of California and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)


    The properties of a neutral atom trap are nearly ideal for precise measurements of nuclear {beta}-decay correlation coefficients. Following a radioactive decay, all particles emerge from the trap volume unperturbed and are available for study. However, for measurements online at existing accelerators, sufficient statistics will be difficult to acquire if precision significantly better than 0.01 in the correlation coefficients is desired. We have investigated the feasibility of detecting shake-off electrons in coincidence with the recoiling ions to decrease the statistical uncertainty of some measurements by nearly an order of magnitude.

  6. Scintillation characteristics of phosphich-detector for detection of beta- and gamma-radiations

    CERN Document Server

    Ananenko, A A; Gavrilyuk, V


    The results of the study on the influence of individual peculiarities of the compound scintillation detector structure on the value and stability of the light yield by the gamma- and beta-radiation combined registration are presented. The phosphich detector is manufactured from the sodium iodide monocrystal, activated by thallium, and the scintillation plastic on the polystyrol basis. The comparison of the experimental results with the mathematical modeling data revealed certain regularities of the process of forming the phosphich detector light signal. The recommendations are worked out by means whereof the following characteristics of the scintillation unit: the light yield and its stability, amplitude resolution and the peak-to-valley ratio by the gamma- and beta-radiation registration were improved

  7. Detection of alpha- and beta-hemolytic-like activity from Campylobacter jejuni.


    Misawa, N; Hirayama, K.; Itoh, K.; Takahashi, E.


    Alpha-hemolytic-like activity from Campylobacter jejuni was clearly apparent when the medium pH ranged from 6.0 to 6.5, but the hemolytic zones disappeared when the pH of the medium increased. Beta-hemolytic-like activity just beneath the bacterial growth appeared after prolonged incubation. The hemolytic activity was not influenced by the species of blood.

  8. Utility of the ceftazidime-imipenem antagonism test (CIAT to detect and confirm the presence of inducible AmpC beta-lactamases among enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlademir Vicente Cantarelli


    Full Text Available Detection of AmpC beta-lactamase production by enterobacteria has been problematic. Contrary to ESBLs, no specific guidelines are available for detection and confirmation of AmpC production by clinical relevant microorganisms. Moreover, some bacterial species may produce inducible AmpC beta-lactamases that can be easily overlooked by routine susceptibility tests. We reported here a new test based on the strong inducible effect of imipenem on AmpC genes and the consequent antagonism with ceftazidime. This test is very simple and proved to be helpful in detecting AmpC-inducible enzymes among several species of clinical isolates.

  9. Detection of CMY-2, CTX-M-14, and SHV-12 beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli fecal-sample isolates from healthy chickens. (United States)

    Briñas, Laura; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Zarazaga, Myriam; Porrero, Concepción; Sáenz, Yolanda; García, María; Dominguez, Lucas; Torres, Carmen


    Genes encoding the CMY-2, CTX-M-14, and SHV-12 beta-lactamases were detected in three of five Escherichia coli isolates from fecal samples from healthy chickens which showed resistance or diminished susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. A -42 mutation at the promoter region of the ampC gene was detected in the other two isolates.

  10. Chemiluminescence Imaging of Superoxide Anion Detects Beta-Cell Function and Mass. (United States)

    Bronsart, Laura L; Stokes, Christian; Contag, Christopher H


    Superoxide anion is produced during normal cellular respiration and plays key roles in cellular physiology with its dysregulation being associated with a variety of diseases. Superoxide anion is a short-lived molecule and, therefore, its homeostatic regulation and role in biology and disease requires dynamic quantification with fine temporal resolution. Here we validated coelenterazine as a reporter of intracellular superoxide anion concentration and used it as a dynamic measure both in vitro and in vivo. Chemiluminescence was dependent upon superoxide anion levels, including those produced during cellular respiration, and concentrations varied both kinetically and temporally in response to physiologically relevant fluctuations in glucose levels. In vivo imaging with coelenterazine revealed that beta cells of the pancreas have increased levels of superoxide anion, which acted as a measure of beta-cell function and mass and could predict the susceptibility of mice to diabetes mellitus. Glucose response and regulation are key elements of cellular physiology and organismal biology, and superoxide anion appears to play a fundamental and dynamic role in both of these processes.

  11. Next-generation sequencing is highly sensitive for the detection of beta-catenin mutations in desmoid-type fibromatoses. (United States)

    Aitken, Sarah J; Presneau, Nadège; Kalimuthu, Sangeetha; Dileo, Palma; Berisha, Fitim; Tirabosco, Roberto; Amary, M Fernanda; Flanagan, Adrienne M


    Desmoid-type fibromatoses are locally aggressive and frequently recurrent tumours, and an accurate diagnosis is essential for patient management. The majority of sporadic lesions harbour beta-catenin (CTNNB1) mutations. We used next-generation sequencing to detect CTNNB1 mutations and to compare the sensitivity and specificity of next-generation sequencing with currently employed mutation detection techniques: mutation-specific restriction enzyme digestion and polymerase chain reaction amplification. DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded needle biopsy or resection tissue sections from 144 patients with sporadic desmoid-type fibromatoses, four patients with syndrome-related desmoid-type fibromatoses and 11 morphological mimics. Two primer pairs were designed for CTNNB1 mutation hotspots. Using ≥10 ng of DNA, libraries were generated by Fluidigm and sequenced on the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. Next-generation sequencing had a sensitivity of 92.36 % (133/144, 95 % CIs: 86.74 to 96.12 %) and a specificity of 100 % for the detection of CTNNB1 mutations in desmoid-type fibromatoses-like spindle cell lesions. All mutations detected by mutation-specific restriction enzyme digestion were identified by next-generation sequencing. Next-generation sequencing identified additional mutations in 11 tumours that were not detected by mutation-specific restriction enzyme digestion, two of which have not been previously described. Next-generation sequencing is highly sensitive for the detection of CTNNB1 mutations. This multiplex assay has the advantage of detecting additional mutations compared to those detected by mutation-specific restriction enzyme digestion (sensitivity 82.41 %). The technology requires minimal DNA and is time- and cost-efficient.

  12. Correlation of phenotypic tests with the presence of the blaZ gene for detection of beta-lactamase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Martison Ferreira

    Full Text Available Abstract Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus are the most common and most important staphylococcal species associated with urinary tract infections. The objective of the present study was to compare and to evaluate the accuracy of four phenotypic methods for the detection of beta-lactamase production in Staphylococcus spp. Seventy-three strains produced a halo with a diameter ≤28 mm (penicillin resistant and all of them were positive for the blaZ gene. Among the 28 susceptible strain (halo ≥29 mm, 23 carried the blaZ gene and five did not. The zone edge test was the most sensitive (90.3%, followed by MIC determination (85.5%, but the specificity of the former was low (40.0%. The nitrocefin test was the least sensitive (28.9%. However, the nitrocefin test together with the disk diffusion method showed the highest specificity (100%. The present results demonstrated that the zone edge test was the most sensitive phenotypic test for detection of beta-lactamase, although it is still not an ideal test to detect this type of resistance since its specificity was low. However, the inhibition halo diameter of the penicillin disk can be used together with the zone edge test since the same disk is employed in the two tests. Combined analysis of the two tests shows a sensitivity of 90.3% and specificity of 100%, proving better sensitivity, especially for S. saprophyticus. This is a low-cost test of easy application and interpretation that can be used in small and medium-sized laboratories where susceptibility testing is usually performed by the disk diffusion method.

  13. Correlation of phenotypic tests with the presence of the blaZ gene for detection of beta-lactamase. (United States)

    Ferreira, Adriano Martison; Martins, Katheryne Benini; Silva, Vanessa Rocha da; Mondelli, Alessandro Lia; Cunha, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da

    Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus are the most common and most important staphylococcal species associated with urinary tract infections. The objective of the present study was to compare and to evaluate the accuracy of four phenotypic methods for the detection of beta-lactamase production in Staphylococcus spp. Seventy-three strains produced a halo with a diameter ≤28mm (penicillin resistant) and all of them were positive for the blaZ gene. Among the 28 susceptible strain (halo ≥29mm), 23 carried the blaZ gene and five did not. The zone edge test was the most sensitive (90.3%), followed by MIC determination (85.5%), but the specificity of the former was low (40.0%). The nitrocefin test was the least sensitive (28.9%). However, the nitrocefin test together with the disk diffusion method showed the highest specificity (100%). The present results demonstrated that the zone edge test was the most sensitive phenotypic test for detection of beta-lactamase, although it is still not an ideal test to detect this type of resistance since its specificity was low. However, the inhibition halo diameter of the penicillin disk can be used together with the zone edge test since the same disk is employed in the two tests. Combined analysis of the two tests shows a sensitivity of 90.3% and specificity of 100%, proving better sensitivity, especially for S. saprophyticus. This is a low-cost test of easy application and interpretation that can be used in small and medium-sized laboratories where susceptibility testing is usually performed by the disk diffusion method.

  14. Comparison between phenotypic and PCR for detection of OXA-23 type and metallo-beta-lactamases producer Acinetobacter spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azimi, Leila


    Full Text Available [english] Background: Resistance to carbapenems is developing around the world and can cause many problems for treatment of patients. Production of metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL is one of the main mechanism for this type of resistance. So, detection of MBL-producer microorganisms can prevent the spread of this type of resistance.Materials and methods: In this study 94 spp. were investigated. Resistance to imipenem was conducted after purification and identification. Combination disc (CD and Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST were performed for phenotypic detection of MBL and the molecular PCR method was done for vim-1, vim-2, imp-1 and OXA-23 genes.Results: According to TSI, SIM and oxidation-fermentation (OF test and PCR assay 93 and one strain were identified. 85% of them were resistant to imipenem. 34% of them have a positive combination disc test (CD while Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST was negative for all of them. The vim-1, vim-2 and imp-1 genes were not detected in PCR molecular method, however in 74% of strains with positive results in combination disc, were positive for the OXA-23 gene after PCR test. This study shows that the blaOXA-23 resistance determinant may become an emerging therapeutic problem.Discussion: According to the results, it seems that combination disc does not have enough specificity for detection of MBL-producer and using Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST can be more convenient.

  15. Monomeric Amyloid Beta Peptide in Hexafluoroisopropanol Detected by Small Angle Neutron Scattering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang-Haagen

    Full Text Available Small proteins like amyloid beta (Aβ monomers are related to neurodegenerative disorders by aggregation to insoluble fibrils. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS is a nondestructive method to observe the aggregation process in solution. We show that SANS is able to resolve monomers of small molecular weight like Aβ for aggregation studies. We examine Aβ monomers after prolonged storing in d-hexafluoroisopropanol (dHFIP by using SANS and dynamic light scattering (DLS. We determined the radius of gyration from SANS as 1.0±0.1 nm for Aβ1-40 and 1.6±0.1 nm for Aβ1-42 in agreement with 3D NMR structures in similar solvents suggesting a solvent surface layer with 5% increased density. After initial dissolution in dHFIP Aβ aggregates sediment with a major component of pure monomers showing a hydrodynamic radius of 1.8±0.3 nm for Aβ1-40 and 3.2±0.4 nm for Aβ1-42 including a surface layer of dHFIP solvent molecules.

  16. Online Data Quality and Bad Interval Detection for the CUORE Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Search (United States)

    Welliver, Bradford; Cuore Collaboration


    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is a large neutrinoless double beta decay (0 νββ) search being installed underground at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS). 0 νββ searches can address fundamental questions about the nature of the neutrino, such as whether it is a Dirac or MAJORANA fermion, its mass scale, and may provide insight into the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe. CUORE is the largest array of bolometer instrumented crystals in the world, nineteen times larger than the previous implementation used in CUORE-0, and contains a total of 988 TeO2 crystals with a mass of 741kg and is expected to achieve a sensitivity on the 130Te 0 νββ half-life of T1 / 2 = 9 . 5 x 1025 years (90 % C.L.) after 5 years of operation. The large number of individual crystals in CUORE presents challenges for monitoring data quality and the determination of bad intervals of time in detector operation. We will discuss the work being performed to provide expanded online detector quality monitoring tools as well as the development of automated algorithms to test and identify periods of abnormal behavior across all of the individual detectors.

  17. Spin-polarized x-ray emission of 3d transition-metal ions : A comparison via K alpha and K beta detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xin; deGroot, F.M.F.; Cramer, SP


    This paper demonstrates that spin-polarized x-ray-excitation spectra can be obtained using K alpha emission as well as K beta lines. A spin-polarized analysis of K alpha x-ray emission and the excitation spectra by K alpha detection on a Ni compound is reported. A systematic analysis of the first-ro

  18. Detection of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Market-Ready Chickens in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Chishimba


    Full Text Available The frequent administering of antibiotics in the treatment of poultry diseases may contribute to emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- (ESBL- producing Escherichia coli in poultry in Zambia. A total of 384 poultry samples were collected and analyzed for ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. The cultured E. coli isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests and the polymerase chain reaction for detection of blaCTX-M, blaSHV, and blaTEM genes. Overall 20.1%, 77/384, (95% CI; 43.2–65.5% of total samples analyzed contained ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. The antimicrobial sensitivity test revealed that 85.7% (66/77; CI: 75.7–92 of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates conferred resistance to beta-lactam and other antimicrobial agents. These results indicate that poultry is a potential reservoir for ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. The presence of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in poultry destined for human consumption requires strengthening of the antibiotic administering policy. This is important as antibiotic administration in food animals is gaining momentum for improved animal productivity in developing countries such as Zambia.

  19. IMPY, a potential {beta}-amyloid imaging probe for detection of prion deposits in scrapie-infected mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, P.-J. [INSERM, U619, F-37000 Tours (France); Universite Francois-Rabelais, F-37000 Tours (France); IFR135, F-37000 Tours (France); Bernard, Serge [IFR135, F-37000 Tours (France); INRA, UR1282, IASP, 37380 Nouzilly (France)], E-mail:; Sarradin, Pierre [INRA, UR1282, IASP, 37380 Nouzilly (France); Vergote, Jackie [INSERM, U619, F-37000 Tours (France); Universite Francois-Rabelais, F-37000 Tours (France); IFR135, F-37000 Tours (France); Barc, Celine [INRA, UR1282, IASP, 37380 Nouzilly (France); Chalon, Sylvie [INSERM, U619, F-37000 Tours (France); Universite Francois-Rabelais, F-37000 Tours (France); IFR135, F-37000 Tours (France); Kung, M.-P.; Kung, Hank F. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Guilloteau, Denis [INSERM, U619, F-37000 Tours (France); Universite Francois-Rabelais, F-37000 Tours (France); IFR135, F-37000 Tours (France)


    Introduction: A potential single-photon emission computed tomography imaging agent for labeling of A{beta} plaques of Alzheimer's disease, IMPY (2-(4'-dimethylaminophenyl)-6-iodo-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine), would be effective in detection of prion amyloid deposits in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Methods: In vitro autoradiographic studies were carried out with [{sup 125}I]IMPY on brain sections from scrapie-infected mice and age-matched controls. Competition study was performed to evaluate the prion deposit binding specificity with nonradioactive IMPY. Results: Binding of [{sup 125}I]IMPY was observed in infected brain sections, while on age-matched control brain sections, there was no or very low labeling. Prion deposit binding was confirmed by histoblots with prion protein-specific monoclonal antibody 2D6. In the presence of nonradioactive IMPY, the binding of [{sup 125}I]IMPY was significantly inhibited in all regions studied. Conclusions: These findings indicate that IMPY can detect the prion deposits in vitro in scrapie-infected mice. Labeled with {sup 123}I, this ligand may be useful to quantitate prion deposit burdens in TSEs by in vivo imaging.

  20. Large scale Gd-beta-diketonate based organic liquid scintillator production for antineutrino detection

    CERN Document Server

    Aberle, C; Gramlich, B; Hartmann, F X; Lindner, M; Schönert, S; Schwan, U; Wagner, S; Watanabe, H


    Over the course of several decades organic liquid scintillators form the basis for successful neutrino detectors. For electron antineutrino detection at nuclear reactor plants, gadolinium loaded liquid scintillators provide efficient background suppression. In the Double Chooz reactor antineutrino experiment a newly developed gadolinium-loaded scintillator is utilized for the first time. Its large scale production and characterization as well as the creation of an additional metalfree scintillator are presented. Both organic liquids are used in the inner part of the Double Chooz detectors.

  1. Mitigation of Memory Effects in Beta Scintillation Cells for Radioactive Gas Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, Carolyn E; McIntyre, Justin I; Antolick, Kathryn C; Carman, April J; Cooper, Matthew W; Hayes, James C; Heimbigner, Tom R; Hubbard, C W; Litke, Kevin E; Ripplinger, Mike D; Suarez, Reynold


    The Automated Radioxenon Sampler/Analyzer (ARSA) developed at PNNL measures the relative concentrations of xenon isotopes using a coincidence system. Previous tests of the ARSA system have shown that latent radioactivity remains in the plastic cells after evacuation of the gases, leading to a “memory effect” in which the background count rate is dependent on the sample history. The increased background results in lower detection sensitivity. Two possible solutions to the memory effect are explored in this work: depositing a thin layer of metal on the plastic cell (“metallization”), and using an inorganic scintillating cell composed of yttrium aluminum perovskite (YAP). In both cases, the presence of inorganic material at the surface is intended to inhibit the diffusion of gases into the cell walls.

  2. Rapid and sensitive detection of 17beta-estradiol in environmental water using automated immunoassay system with bacterial magnetic particles. (United States)

    Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Takeda, Hajime; Ueki, Fumiko; Obata, Kimimichi; Tajima, Hideji; Takeyama, Haruko; Goda, Yasuhiro; Fujimoto, Shigeru; Matsunaga, Tadashi


    A fully automated immunoassay of 17beta-estradiol (E2) was performed using anti-E2 monoclonal antibody immobilized on bacterial magnetic particles (AntiE2-BMPs) and alkaline phosphatase-conjugated E2 (ALP-E2). E2 concentration in environmental water samples was evaluated by decrease in luminescence based on competitive reaction. A linear correlation between the luminescence intensity and E2 concentration was obtained between 0.5 and 5 ppb. The minimum detectable concentration of E2 was 20 ppt. All measurement steps were done within 0.5 h. The analysis of environmental water samples by a commercially available ELISA kit and the BMP-based immunoassay gave good correlation plots with a correlation efficient of 0.992. These results suggest that the fully automated system using the BMP-based immunoassay has some advantages in the high rapidity and sensitivity of the measurement. This system will enable us to determine low E2 concentrations without sample condensation.

  3. Gaseous time projection chambers for rare event detection: Results from the T-REX project. I. Double beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Irastorza, I G; Castel, J; Cebrián, S; Dafni, T; Galán, J; García, J A; Garza, J G; Gómez, H; Herrera, D C; Iguaz, F J; Luzón, G; Mirallas, H; Ruiz, E; Seguí, L; Tomás, A


    As part of the T-REX project, a number of R&D and prototyping activities have been carried out during the last years to explore the applicability of gaseous Micromegas-read TPCs in rare event searches like double beta decay (DBD), axion research and low-mass WIMP searches. In both this and its companion paper, we compile the main results of the project and give an outlook of application prospects for this detection technique. While in the companion paper we focus on axions and WIMPs, in this paper we focus on the results regarding the measurement of the DBD of $^{136}$Xe in a high pressure Xe (HPXe) TPC. Particularly relevant are the results obtained in Xe + TMA mixtures with microbulk Micromegas, showing very promising results in terms of gain, stability of operation, and energy resolution at pressures up to 10 bar. TMA at levels of $\\sim$1\\% reduces electron diffusion by a factor of 10 with respect to pure Xe, improving the quality of the topological pattern, with a positive impact on the discrimination...

  4. Rectification of EMG in low force contractions improves detection of motor unit coherence in the beta-frequency band. (United States)

    Ward, Nicholas J; Farmer, Simon F; Berthouze, Luc; Halliday, David M


    Rectification of surface EMG before spectral analysis is a well-established preprocessing method used in the detection of motor unit firing patterns. A number of recent studies have called into question the need for rectification before spectral analysis, pointing out that there is no supporting experimental evidence to justify rectification. We present an analysis of 190 records from 13 subjects consisting of simultaneous recordings of paired single motor units and surface EMG from the extensor digitorum longus muscle during middle finger extension against gravity (unloaded condition) and against gravity plus inertial loading (loaded condition). We directly examine the hypothesis that rectified surface EMG is a better predictor of the frequency components of motor unit synchronization than the unrectified (or raw) EMG in the beta-frequency band (15-32 Hz). We use multivariate analysis and estimate the partial coherence between the paired single units using both rectified and unrectified surface EMG as a predictor. We use a residual partial correlation measure to quantify the difference between raw and rectified EMG as predictor and analyze unloaded and loaded conditions separately. The residual correlation for the unloaded condition is 22% with raw EMG and 3.5% with rectified EMG and for the loaded condition it is 5.2% with raw EMG and 1.4% with rectified EMG. We interpret these results as strong supporting experimental evidence in favor of using the preprocessing step of surface EMG rectification before spectral analysis.

  5. Detection of Lawsonia intracellularis, Serpulina hyodysenteriae, weakly beta-haemolytic intestinal spirochaetes, Salmonella enterica, and haemolytic Escherichia coli from swine herds with and without diarrhoea among growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kristian; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Jorsal, Sven Erik Lind;


    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was optimized to detect Lawsonia intracellularis in faeces from naturally infected pigs. By combining a boiling procedure to extract DNA and a nested PCR procedure, a detection limit at 2x10(2) bacterial cells per gram of faeces was achieved. The optimized PCR...... was used together with conventional culture techniques to detect Serpulina hyodysenteriae, weakly beta-haemolytic intestinal spirochaetes (WBHIS), Salmonella enterica, and haemolytic Escherichia coli, in a case control study to examine selected risk factors for the development of diarrhoea in growing pigs...

  6. Isolation and characterization of a monoclonal anti-protein kinase CK2 beta-subunit antibody of the IgG class for the direct detection of CK2 beta-subunit in tissue cultures of various mammalian species and human tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nastainczyk, W; Schmidt-Spaniol, I; Boldyreff, B;


    -subunit or in the CK2 holoenzyme (alpha 2 beta 2). Here, concentrations of the first antibody of 1 ng/ml still allowed the detection of the subunit. Immunoblotting of crude cellular extracts from various tissue cultures (man, mouse, and hamster), from human tumors, and the nonneoplastic tissue allowed the detection...... of the CK2 beta-subunit. The detected epitope of this antibody was, as determined by the epitope analysis technique, 123GLSDI127....

  7. Beta Thalassemia (United States)

    Beta thalassemia is found in people of Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, African, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, etc.), Southeast Asian and Chinese descent. 1 Beta Thalassemia ßß Normal beta globin genes found on chromosomes ...

  8. Detection of Inducible Clindamycin Resistance in Beta-Hemolytic Streptococci by Using the CLSI Broth Microdilution Test and Erythromycin-Clindamycin Combinations ▿ (United States)

    Bowling, Jason E.; Owens, Aaron E.; McElmeel, M. Leticia; Fulcher, Letitia C.; Herrera, Monica L.; Wickes, Brian L.; Jorgensen, James H.


    This study assessed an erythromycin-clindamycin (ERY-CC) broth test for inducible CC resistance in beta-hemolytic streptococci. One hundred one isolates of groups A, B, C, F, and G were tested by the CLSI broth microdilution method. Combinations of 1 and 0.25 μg/ml or 0.5 and 0.25 μg/ml of ERY and CC, respectively, detected all inducible isolates. PMID:20392918

  9. Utilization of wavelength-shifting fibers coupled to ZnS(Ag) and plastic scintillator for simultaneous detection of alpha/beta particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ifergan, Y., E-mail: [Electronics & Control Laboratories, Nuclear Research Center Negev, PO Box 9001, Beer Sheva (Israel); Dadon, S. [Electronics & Control Laboratories, Nuclear Research Center Negev, PO Box 9001, Beer Sheva (Israel); Israelashvili, I. [Physics Department, Nuclear Research Center of the Negev, PO Box 9001, Beer Sheva (Israel); Osovizky, A. [Radiation Detection Department, Rotem Industries Ltd, Beer Sheva (Israel); Gonen, E.; Yehuda-Zada, Y.; Smadja, D. [Electronics & Control Laboratories, Nuclear Research Center Negev, PO Box 9001, Beer Sheva (Israel); Knafo, Y.; Ginzburg, D. [Radiation Detection Department, Rotem Industries Ltd, Beer Sheva (Israel); Kadmon, Y.; Cohen, Y.; Mazor, T. [Electronics & Control Laboratories, Nuclear Research Center Negev, PO Box 9001, Beer Sheva (Israel)


    Low level radioactive surface contamination measurements require lightweight, large area and high efficiency detector. In most existing scintillation detectors there is a tradeoff between effective area and scintillation light collection. By using wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers the scintillation light may be collected efficiently also in a large area detector. In this study, WLS fibers were coupled to a beta sensitive plastic scintillator layer and to a alpha sensitive silver-activated zinc sulfide ZnS(Ag) layer for detecting both alpha and beta particles. The WLS fibers collect the scintillation light from the whole detector and transfer it to a single PMT. This first prototype unique configuration enables monitoring radioactive contaminated surfaces by both sides of the detector and provides high gamma rejection. In this paper, the detector structure, as well as the detector’s measured linear response, will be described. The measured detection efficiency of {sup 238}Pu alpha particles (5.5 MeV) is ~63%. The measured detection efficiency for beta particles is ~89% for {sup 90}Sr–{sup 90}Y (average energy of 195.8 keV, 934.8 keV), ~50% for {sup 36}Cl (average energy of 251.3 keV), and 35% for {sup 137}Cs (average energy of 156.8 keV)

  10. Use of a non-radioactive hybridisation assay for direct detection of gram-negative bacteria carrying TEM beta-lactamase genes in infected urine. (United States)

    Carter, G I; Towner, K J; Pearson, N J; Slack, R C


    DNA in infected urines from 81 patients with urinary tract infection was hybridised directly with a non-radioactive DNA probe specific for bacterial genes coding for TEM-type beta-lactamase. The results were assessed by means of a computerised image analysis system and compared with those obtained following isolation of the infecting organism, conventional sensitivity testing and isoelectric focusing (IEF) procedures for the detection of TEM-type beta-lactamase. Of the 27 ampicillin-resistant gram-negative organisms isolated in pure culture from the urines, 14 were shown by both hybridisation and IEF to carry a gene for TEM beta-lactamase production. Only four discordant results were obtained: three "false positive" direct hybridisation results, one due to urine pigmentation, and one, possibly, to a TEM beta-lactamase gene which was not being expressed, and one "false negative" result due to insufficient cell numbers in the urine. The system is capable of screening large numbers of samples and is applicable to any gene for which a suitable DNA probe is available.

  11. Sensitivity of a Tier I screening battery compared to an in utero exposure for detecting the estrogen receptor agonist 17 beta-estradiol. (United States)

    O'Connor, J C; Frame, S R; Biegel, L B; Cook, J C; Davis, L G


    A Tier I screening battery for detecting endocrine active compounds (EACs) has been evaluated for its ability to identify 17 beta-estradiol, a pure estrogen receptor agonist. In addition, the responses obtained with the Tier I battery were compared to the responses obtained from F1 generation rats from a 90-day/one-generation reproduction study with 17 beta-estradiol in order to characterize the sensitivity of the Tier I battery against the sensitivity of an in utero exposure for detecting EACs. The Tier I battery incorporates two short-term in vivo tests (5-day ovariectomized female battery; 15-day intact male battery) and an in vitro yeast transactivation system (YTS) for identifying compounds that alter endocrine homeostasis. The Tier I female battery consists of traditional uterotrophic endpoints coupled with biochemical and hormonal endpoints. It is designed to identify compounds that are estrogenic/antiestrogenic or modulate dopamine levels. The Tier I male battery consists of organ weights coupled with microscopic evaluations and a comprehensive hormonal assessment. It is designed to identify compounds that have the potential to act as agonists or antagonists to the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, or dopamine receptor; steroid biosynthesis inhibitors (aromatase, 5 alpha-reductase, and testosterone biosynthesis); or compounds that alter thyroid function. The YTS is designed to identify compounds that bind to steroid hormone receptors (estrogen, androgen, and progesterone) and activate gene transcription. The profile generated for 17 beta-estradiol was characteristic of the responses expected with a pure estrogen receptor agonist. In the female battery, responses to 17 beta-estradiol included increases in uterine fluid imbibition, uterine weight, estrus conversion, uterine stromal cell proliferation, uterine epithelial cell height, uterine progesterone receptor content, serum prolactin and estradiol levels, and decreases in uterine estrogen receptor content

  12. Development of real-time PCR method for the detection and the quantification of a new endogenous reference gene in sugar beet "Beta vulgaris L.": GMO application. (United States)

    Chaouachi, Maher; Alaya, Akram; Ali, Imen Ben Haj; Hafsa, Ahmed Ben; Nabi, Nesrine; Bérard, Aurélie; Romaniuk, Marcel; Skhiri, Fethia; Saïd, Khaled


    KEY MESSAGE : Here, we describe a new developed quantitative real-time PCR method for the detection and quantification of a new specific endogenous reference gene used in GMO analysis. The key requirement of this study was the identification of a new reference gene used for the differentiation of the four genomic sections of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) (Beta, Corrollinae, Nanae and Procumbentes) suitable for quantification of genetically modified sugar beet. A specific qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was designed to detect the sugar beet amplifying a region of the adenylate transporter (ant) gene only from the species of the genomic section I of the genus Beta (cultivated and wild relatives) and showing negative PCR results for 7 species of the 3 other sections, 8 related species and 20 non-sugar beet plants. The sensitivity of the assay was 15 haploid genome copies (HGC). A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) assay was also performed, having high linearity (R (2) > 0.994) over sugar beet standard concentrations ranging from 20,000 to 10 HGC of the sugar beet DNA per PCR. The QRT-PCR assay described in this study was specific and more sensitive for sugar beet quantification compared to the validated test previously reported in the European Reference Laboratory. This assay is suitable for GMO quantification in routine analysis from a wide variety of matrices.

  13. Detection of genes mediating beta-lactamase production in isolates of enterobacteria recovered from wild pets in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry A. Hassan


    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the genetic basis and types of beta-lactamase encountered among enterobacterial isolates of wild pets from the animal exhibit. Materials and Methods: A total of 17 beta-lactamase-producing enterobacteria recovered from fecal samples of wild pet animals were analyzed for a selected beta-lactamase gene by polymerase chain reaction. Results: Molecular analysis identified one or more β-lactamase-encoding genes in 14 enterobacterial isolates as a single or gene combination. The most frequent extended-spectrum β-lactamases types were transmission electron microscopy and CTX-M, and the most common AmpC enzymes were CMY-2 and DHA types. Conclusions: The study is the first in Saudi Arabia, have established the presence of β-lactamase-encoding genes in the fecal isolates of wild pets.

  14. Multiplex Reverse Transcription-PCR for Simultaneous Detection of Beet Necrotic Yellow Vein Virus, Beet Soilborne Virus, and Beet Virus Q and Their Vector Polymyxa betae KESKIN on Sugar Beet


    Meunier, Alexandre; Schmit, Jean-François; Stas, Arnaud; Kutluk, Nazli; Bragard, Claude


    Three soilborne viruses transmitted by Polymyxa betae KESKIN in sugar beet have been described: Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), the agent of rhizomania, Beet soilborne virus (BSBV), and Beet virus Q (BVQ). A multiplex reverse transcription-PCR technique was developed to simultaneously detect BNYVV, BSBV, and BVQ, together with their vector, P. betae. The detection threshold of the test was up to 128 times greater than that of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Systematic associati...

  15. Method for phenotypic detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in enterobacter species in the routine clinical setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuart, J.C.; Diederen, B.; Al Naiemi, N.; Fluit, A.; Arents, N.; Thijsen, S.; Vlaminckx, B.; Mouton, J.W.; Leverstein-van Hall, M.


    In 271 Enterobacter blood culture isolates from 12 hospitals, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) prevalence varied between 0% and 30% per hospital. High prevalence was associated with dissemination, indicating the potential relevance of infection control measures. Screening with cefepime or Vit

  16. Increased detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli isolates from poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierikx, C.M.; Essen-Zandbergen, van A.; Veldman, K.T.; Smith, H.E.; Mevius, D.J.


    To gain more information on the genetic basis of the rapid increase in the number of isolates exhibiting non-wild type Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) for cefotaxime observed since 2003, beta-lactamase genes of 22 Salmonella enterica and 22 Escherichia coli isolates from broilers in 2006 sh

  17. Technical note: use of PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis for detection of bovine beta-casein variants A1, A2, A3, and B. (United States)

    Barroso, A; Dunner, S; Cañón, J


    We have optimized the polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) technique to screen the most frequent variants (A1, A2, A3, and B) of the bovine beta-casein gene. Five partly overlapping PCR products (233, 234, 265, 466, and 498 bp) of Exon VII of the beta-casein gene that encompass the target point mutations were heat-denatured, separated on nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels, and silver-stained. Simultaneous detection of all variants in reference samples of known genotypes (A1A2, A2A2, A1A3, A1B, and A2B) was best achieved on 17% polyacrylamide (100:1 acrylamide:bis-acrylamide ratio) gels with the PCR product of 234 bp. These results were confirmed by sequencing the allele-specific SSCP bands directly excised from polyacrylamide gels. A population of 65 anonymous samples belonging to various breeds was then analyzed twice, without discrepancies in a blind trial. Routine beta-casein genotyping using PCR-SSCP is proposed as a cost-effective, fast, and sensitive technique.

  18. A real-time PCR assay for detection and quantification of 2-branched (1,3)-beta-D-glucan producing lactic acid bacteria in cider. (United States)

    Ibarburu, Idoia; Aznar, Rosa; Elizaquível, Patricia; García-Quintáns, Nieves; López, Paloma; Munduate, Arantza; Irastorza, Ana; Dueñas, María Teresa


    Ropiness in natural cider is a relatively frequent alteration, mainly found after bottling, leading to consumer rejection. It is derived from the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS) by some lactic acid bacteria most of which synthesize a 2-branched (1,3)-beta-D-glucan and belong to the genera Pediococcus, Lactobacillus and Oenococcus. This polysaccharide synthesis is controlled by a single transmembrane glycosyltransferase (GTF). In this work, a method based on quantitative PCR (qPCR) and targeting the gtf gene was developed for detection and quantification of these bacteria in cider. The newly designed primers GTF3/GTF4 delimit a 151bp fragment within the 417bp amplicon previously designed for conventional PCR. The inclusivity and exclusivity of the qPCR assay were assessed with 33 cider isolates belonging to genus Lactobacillus, Oenoccocus and Pedioccocus, together with reference strains of 16 species and five genera including beta-glucan, alpha-glucan and heteropolysaccharide (HePS) producing strains and non-EPS producers. The qPCR assay, followed by the melting curve analysis, confirmed the generation of a single PCR product from the beta-glucan producers with a T(m) of 74.28+/-0.08 and C(T) values (10ng DNA) ranging between 8.46 and 16.88 (average 12.67+/-3.5). Some EPS(-) LAB strains rendered C(T) values ranging from 28.04 to 37.75 but they were significantly higher (P(C(T)quantification range of 5 log units using calibrated cell suspensions of Pediococcus parvulus 2.6 and Oenococcus oeni I4. The linearity was extended over 7 log orders when calibration curves were obtained from DNA. The detection limit for beta-glucan producing LAB in artificially contaminated cider was about 3x10(2)CFU per ml. The newly developed qPCR assay was successfully applied to monitor the cidermaking process, in 13 tanks from two cider factories, revealing a decrease in C(T) values derived from an increase in beta-glucan producing LAB populations. In addition, 8 naturally spoiled

  19. Usefulness of phenotypic and genotypic methods for metallo-beta-lactamases detection in carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains



    Background Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic microorganism with an increasing role in nosocomial outbreaks. For the last 2 decades, a growing number of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains have been identified, including the metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) producers. The study aimed to investigate the genetic relatedness of, and MBLs production among, a collection of A. baumannii isolates from Poland. Material/Methods This study involved 78 clinical isolates of carbapenem-resist...

  20. [blaVIM-2 gene detection in metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated in an intensive care unit in Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela]. (United States)

    Guevara, Armando; de Waard, Jacobus; Araque, María


    Ten Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporin and carbapenems were studied to determine the presence of genes that mediate the production of metallo-beta-lactamases. These strains were isolated from patients with nosocomial infection at the Intensive Care Unit of the Complejo Hospitalario "Ruiz y Paéz" of Ciudad Bolívar, Bolívar State, Venezuela, from 2003 to 2006. In all isolates a metallo-enzyme activity was detected by using the double disk synergism test. PCR amplification of genes encoding the families IMP, VIM and SPM metallo-beta-lactamases showed the presence of a blaVIM gene in all strains studied. DNA sequencing revealed that all isolates showed the presence of blaVIM-2. These results suggest that it is necessary to keep these strains under epidemiologic surveillance, establish laboratory strategies for opportune detection and the implementation of new policies to ensure the appropriate use of antibiotics in this institution.

  1. Gross alpha and beta activity analyses in urine-a routine laboratory method for internal human radioactivity detection. (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Zhao, Luqian; Qin, Hongran; Zhao, Meijia; Zhou, Yirui; Yang, Shuqiang; Su, Xu; Xu, Xiaohua


    The aim of this work was to develop a method to provide rapid results for humans with internal radioactive contamination. The authors hypothesized that valuable information could be obtained from gas proportional counter techniques by screening urine samples from potentially exposed individuals rapidly. Recommended gross alpha and beta activity screening methods generally employ gas proportional counting techniques. Based on International Standards Organization (ISO) methods, improvements were made in the evaporation process to develop a method to provide rapid results, adequate sensitivity, and minimum sample preparation and operator intervention for humans with internal radioactive contamination. The method described by an American National Standards Institute publication was used to calibrate the gas proportional counter, and urine samples from patients with or without radionuclide treatment were measured to validate the method. By improving the evaporation process, the time required to perform the assay was reduced dramatically. Compared with the reference data, the results of the validation samples were very satisfactory with respect to gross-alpha and gross-beta activities. The gas flow proportional counting method described here has the potential for radioactivity monitoring in the body. This method was easy, efficient, and fast, and its application is of great utility in determining whether a sample should be analyzed by a more complicated method, for example radiochemical and/or γ-spectroscopy. In the future, it may be used commonly in medical examination and nuclear emergency treatment.Health Phys. 106(5):000-000; 2014.

  2. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy (United States)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.


    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  3. Detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamases in gram negative bacilli from clinical specimens in a teaching hospital in South eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C N Akujobi


    Full Text Available Antimicrobial drug resistance seen among many gram-negative bacteria, especially those expressing the extended-spectrum β- lactamase (ESBL enzymes that hydrolyze the expanded- spectrum cephalosporins has been on the increase. This has compromised treatment options and thus a threat to the containment of bacterial infections. To determine the existence of the extended-spectrum β-lactamase enzymes in Nnewi, 250 clinical isolates of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas species from Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi were identified by conventional methods. These include Klebsiella species (96, E. coli (90, Pseudomonas species (37, Enterobacter species (13, Proteus species (6, Citrobacter species (5 and Salmonella species (3. Antimicrobial drug susceptibility testing was carried out on all the isolates by the disc diffusion method. Extended Spectrum Beta- lactamases were detected by the double disc synergy test. High level of antimicrobial resistance was noted in test organisms against some of the antimicrobial drugs: Ampicillin + Cloxacillin (93.2%, Tetracycline (90.8%, Streptomycin (82.4%, and Nalidixic acid (62%, and low level of resistance was observed against Ofloxacin (26.4%, Cefotaxime (28.8% and Nitrofurantoin (28.8%. One hundred and forty four isolates (57.6% were suspected ESBL-producers judged by their resistance to any of the third generation cephalosporins used but 40 (16% actually produced the extended spectrum beta- lactamase enzymes. This shows the existence of Extended Spectrum Beta- Lactamase producing gram negative organisms in Nnewi. Considering the treatment difficulties, as well as the high cost of treatment associated with these organisms, concerted efforts are needed to contain their spread.

  4. Red cell indices and discriminant functions in the detection of beta-thalassaemia trait in a population with high prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia. (United States)

    Madan, N; Sikka, M; Sharma, S; Rusia, U; Kela, K


    Red cell indices and discriminant functions were studied in 463 heterozygous beta-thalassaemics (337 without iron deficiency, 126 with iron deficiency) and 195 patients of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) to ascertain their utility in the detection of betathalassaemia trait (BTT). Majority of traits in both groups had an elevated RBC count (> or = 5.0 x 10(12)/L). The counts were significantly higher than of patients with IDA, only 4.6% of whom had this degree of erythrocytosis. Mean Hb concentration was significantly higher in traits as compared to iron deficient subjects (p < 0.0001). Mean MCV and MCH were significantly (p < 0.0001) lower in traits more so in those with ID as compared to patients of IDA. MCV < 80 fl and MCH < 27 pg were found to be sensitive markers in the detection of traits even in the presence of ID. Of the four discriminant functions studied MCSQ was found to be most sensitive in detection of BTT and it identified 97.9% traits. DF of England and Fraser was most specific for BTT being < 8.4 in only 6.2% patients with IDA. Detection of erythrocytosis especially in the presence of mild anaemia and calculation of discriminant functions derived from red cell indices were found to play an important role in screening for BTT even in the presence of ID and helped identify those patients who required further laboratory evaluation.

  5. Combining BRITE and ground-based photometry for the Beta Cephei star Nu Eridani: impact on photometric pulsation mode identification and detection of several g modes

    CERN Document Server

    Handler, G; Popowicz, A; Pigulski, A; Kuschnig, R; Zoclonska, E; Moffat, A F J; Weiss, W W; Grant, C C; Pablo, H; Whittaker, G N; Rucinski, S M; Ramiaramanantsoa, T; Zwintz, K; Wade, G A


    We report a simultaneous ground and space-based photometric study of the Beta Cephei star Nu Eridani. Half a year of observations have been obtained by four of the five satellites constituting BRITE-Constellation, supplemented with ground-based photoelectric photometry. We show that carefully combining the two data sets virtually eliminates the aliasing problem that often hampers time-series analyses. We detect 40 periodic signals intrinsic to the star in the light curves. Despite a lower detection limit we do not recover all the pressure and mixed modes previously reported in the literature, but we newly detect six additional gravity modes. This behaviour is a consequence of temporal changes in the pulsation amplitudes that we also detected for some of the p modes. We point out that the dependence of theoretically predicted pulsation amplitude on wavelength is steeper in visual passbands than those observationally measured, to the extent that the three dominant pulsation modes of Nu Eridani would be incorrec...

  6. B fields in OB stars (BOB): on the detection of weak magnetic fields in the two early B-type stars beta CMa and epsilon CMa

    CERN Document Server

    Fossati, L; Morel, T; Langer, N; Briquet, M; Carroll, T A; Hubrig, S; Nieva, M F; Oskinova, L M; Przybilla, N; Schneider, F R N; Scholler, M; Simon-Diaz, S; Ilyin, I; de Koter, A; Reisenegger, A; Sana, H


    Within the context of the "B fields in OB stars (BOB)" collaboration, we used the HARPSpol spectropolarimeter to observe the early B-type stars beta CMa (HD44743; B1 II/III) and epsilon CMa (HD52089; B1.5 II). For both stars, we consistently detected the signature of a weak (<30 G in absolute value) longitudinal magnetic field. We determined the physical parameters of both stars and characterise their X-ray spectrum. For beta CMa, our mode identification analysis led to determining a rotation period of 13.6+/-1.2 days and of an inclination angle of the rotation axis of 57.6+/-1.7 degrees, with respect to the line of sight. On the basis of these measurements and assuming a dipolar field geometry, we derived a best fitting obliquity of ~22 degrees and a dipolar magnetic field strength (Bd) of ~100 G (60

  7. Detection of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Resistance Genes among Bacteria Isolated from Selected Drinking Water Distribution Channels in Southwestern Nigeria (United States)

    Ogunjobi, Adeniyi A.


    Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) provide high level resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics among bacteria. In this study, previously described multidrug resistant bacteria from raw, treated, and municipal taps of DWDS from selected dams in southwestern Nigeria were assessed for the presence of ESBL resistance genes which include blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX by PCR amplification. A total of 164 bacteria spread across treated (33), raw (66), and municipal taps (68), belonging to α-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria, Flavobacteriia, Bacilli, and Actinobacteria group, were selected for this study. Among these bacteria, the most commonly observed resistance was for ampicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (61 isolates). Sixty-one isolates carried at least one of the targeted ESBL genes with blaTEM being the most abundant (50/61) and blaCTX being detected least (3/61). Klebsiella was the most frequently identified genus (18.03%) to harbour ESBL gene followed by Proteus (14.75%). Moreover, combinations of two ESBL genes, blaSHV + blaTEM or blaCTX + blaTEM, were observed in 11 and 1 isolate, respectively. In conclusion, classic blaTEM ESBL gene was present in multiple bacterial strains that were isolated from DWDS sources in Nigeria. These environments may serve as foci exchange of genetic traits in a diversity of Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:27563674

  8. Detection of Healthcare-Related Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli Transmission Events Using Combined Genetic and Phenotypic Epidemiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne F Voor In 't Holt

    Full Text Available Since the year 2000 there has been a sharp increase in the prevalence of healthcare-related infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. However, the high community prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates means that many E. coli typing techniques may not be suitable for detecting E. coli transmission events. Therefore, we investigated if High-throughput MultiLocus Sequence Typing (HiMLST and/or Raman spectroscopy were suitable techniques for detecting recent E. coli transmission events.This study was conducted from January until December 2010 at Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Isolates were typed using HiMLST and Raman spectroscopy. A genetic cluster was defined as two or more patients carrying identical isolates. We used predefined definitions for epidemiological relatedness to assess healthcare-related transmission.We included 194 patients; strains of 112 patients were typed using HiMLST and strains of 194 patients were typed using Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy identified 16 clusters while HiMLST identified 10 clusters. However, no healthcare-related transmission events were detected. When combining data from both typing techniques, we identified eight clusters (n = 34 patients, as well as 78 patients with a non-cluster isolate. However, we could not detect any healthcare-related transmission in these 8 clusters.Although clusters were genetically detected using HiMLST and Raman spectroscopy, no definite epidemiological relationships could be demonstrated which makes the possibility of healthcare-related transmission events highly unlikely. Our results suggest that typing of ESBL-producing E. coli using HiMLST and/or Raman spectroscopy is not helpful in detecting E. coli healthcare-related transmission events.

  9. Novel approaches to detect serum biomarkers for clinical response to interferon-beta treatment in multiple sclerosis. (United States)

    Gandhi, Kaushal S; McKay, Fiona C; Diefenbach, Eve; Crossett, Ben; Schibeci, Stephen D; Heard, Robert N; Stewart, Graeme J; Booth, David R; Arthur, Jonathan W


    Interferon beta (IFNbeta) is the most common immunomodulatory treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). However, some patients fail to respond to treatment. In this study, we identified putative clinical response markers in the serum and plasma of people with multiple sclerosis (MS) treated with IFNbeta. In a discovery-driven approach, we use 2D-difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) to identify putative clinical response markers and apply power calculations to identify the sample size required to further validate those markers. In the process we have optimized a DIGE protocol for plasma to obtain cost effective and high resolution gels for effective spot comparison. APOA1, A2M, and FIBB were identified as putative clinical response markers. Power calculations showed that the current DIGE experiment requires a minimum of 10 samples from each group to be confident of 1.5 fold difference at the p<0.05 significance level. In a complementary targeted approach, Cytometric Beadarray (CBA) analysis showed no significant difference in the serum concentration of IL-6, IL-8, MIG, Eotaxin, IP-10, MCP-1, and MIP-1alpha, between clinical responders and non-responders, despite the association of these proteins with IFNbeta treatment in MS.

  10. Novel approaches to detect serum biomarkers for clinical response to interferon-beta treatment in multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal S Gandhi

    Full Text Available Interferon beta (IFNbeta is the most common immunomodulatory treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS. However, some patients fail to respond to treatment. In this study, we identified putative clinical response markers in the serum and plasma of people with multiple sclerosis (MS treated with IFNbeta. In a discovery-driven approach, we use 2D-difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE to identify putative clinical response markers and apply power calculations to identify the sample size required to further validate those markers. In the process we have optimized a DIGE protocol for plasma to obtain cost effective and high resolution gels for effective spot comparison. APOA1, A2M, and FIBB were identified as putative clinical response markers. Power calculations showed that the current DIGE experiment requires a minimum of 10 samples from each group to be confident of 1.5 fold difference at the p<0.05 significance level. In a complementary targeted approach, Cytometric Beadarray (CBA analysis showed no significant difference in the serum concentration of IL-6, IL-8, MIG, Eotaxin, IP-10, MCP-1, and MIP-1alpha, between clinical responders and non-responders, despite the association of these proteins with IFNbeta treatment in MS.

  11. [Examination of metallo-beta-lactamase-producing different types of Serratia marcescens detected in the same patient]. (United States)

    Takamitsu, Ito; Fukui, Yasuo; Ono, Noriaki; Ikeda, Fumiaki; Kanayama, Akiko; Kobayashi, Intetsu


    Metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) producing Serratia marcescens isolate was recovered from a study patient in September, 2007 in whom MBL non-producing S. marcescens had been isolated 2 months previously. Two S. marcescens isolates recovered from the study patient showed the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern. Seven S. marcescens isolates were recovered from other patients in our hospital during August, 2007 and November, 2007. Five of the seven isolates produced MBL. All of the MBL-producing isolates showed the same PFGE pattern and harbored plasmids of the same size and bla(IMP) genes. The bla(IMP) genes were easily transferred to Escherichia coli DH5alpha by transformation of a plasmid purified from the MBL-producing isolate. Those transformation experiments suggested that bla(IMP) genes were encoded by the plasmid. From these observations, it was speculated that the MBL non-producing S. marcescens isolate recovered from the study patient had acquired the plasmid which encoded bla(IMP) genes and a monoclone of MBL-producing S. marcescens spread horizontally in our hospital.

  12. Beta decay of Cu-56

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borcea, R; Aysto, J; Caurier, E; Dendooven, P; Doring, J; Gierlik, M; Gorska, M; Grawe, H; Hellstrom, M; Janas, Z; Jokinen, A; Karny, M; Kirchner, R; La Commara, M; Langanke, K; Martinez-Pinedo, G; Mayet, P; Nieminen, A; Nowacki, F; Penttila, H; Plochocki, A; Rejmund, M; Roeckl, E; Schlegel, C; Schmidt, K; Schwengner, R; Sawicka, M


    The proton-rich isotope Cu-56 was produced at the GSI On-Line Mass Separator by means of the Si-28(S-32, p3n) fusion-evaporation reaction. Its beta -decay properties were studied by detecting beta -delayed gamma rays and protons. A half-Life of 93 +/- 3 ms was determined for Cu-56. Compared to the p

  13. Spatial repolarization heterogeneity detected by magnetocardiography correlates with cardiac iron overload and adverse cardiac events in beta-thalassemia major.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-An Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia major (TM are at risk for myocardial iron overload and cardiac complications. Spatial repolarization heterogeneity is known to be elevated in patients with certain cardiac diseases, but little is known in TM patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate spatial repolarization heterogeneity in patients with TM, and to investigate the relationships between spatial repolarization heterogeneity, cardiac iron load, and adverse cardiac events. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifty patients with TM and 55 control subjects received 64-channel magnetocardiography (MCG to determine spatial repolarization heterogeneity, which was evaluated by a smoothness index of QTc (SI-QTc, a standard deviation of QTc (SD-QTc, and a QTc dispersion. Left ventricular function and myocardial T2* values were assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance. Patients with TM had significantly greater SI-QTc, SD-QTc, and QTc dispersion compared to the control subjects (all p values<0.001. Spatial repolarization heterogeneity was even more pronounced in patients with significant iron overload (T2*<20 ms, n = 20 compared to those with normal T2* (all p values<0.001. Loge cardiac T2* correlated with SI-QTc (r = -0.609, p<0.001, SD-QTc (r = -0.572, p<0.001, and QTc dispersion (r = -0.622, p<0.001, while all these indices had no relationship with measurements of the left ventricular geometry or function. At the time of study, 10 patients had either heart failure or arrhythmia. All 3 indices of repolarization heterogeneity were related to the presence of adverse cardiac events, with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ranged between 0.79 and 0.86, similar to that of cardiac T2*. CONCLUSIONS: Multichannel MCG demonstrated that patients with TM had increased spatial repolarization heterogeneity, which is related to myocardial iron load and adverse cardiac events.

  14. Cica-Beta Test试剂盒检测耐亚胺培南铜绿假单胞菌金属β-内酰胺酶的评估%Evaluation of Cica-Beta Test Kit for Detection of Metallo-β-Lactamase-Producing Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢国艳; 高志生; 许俊; 秦云; 钱敏健


    Objective To evaluate Cica-Beta Test kit for detection of metallo-β-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAE)in the clinical microbiology laboratory.Methods A total of 82 imipenem-resistant PAE clinical isolates from litera-ture[5]was dectected to metallo-β-lactamase (MBLs)by PAE-MHT and Cica-Beta Test kit.Results The sensitivity,speci-ficity and accuracy rate of PAE-MHT was 84.6%,97.2% and 97.6%,and the sensitivity,specificity and accuracy rate of Cica-Beta Test kit was 76.9%,100% and 96.3%,respectively.Two methods had a good consistency.Conclusion Two methods are simple,quick for detecting to metallo-β-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas in clinical laboratories.%目的:评估Cica-Beta Test试剂盒对铜绿假单胞菌(PAE)金属β-内酰胺酶(MBLs)检测的临床适用性。方法选取文献[5]中的82株耐亚胺培南 PAE,PAE-MHT法和 Cica-Beta Test试剂盒分别进行 MBLs 检测。结果 PAE-MHT法的敏感度、特异度和准确率分别为84.6%,97.2%和97.6%。Cica-Beta Test试剂盒敏感度、特异度和准确率分别为76.9%,100%和96.3%。PAE-MHT法和Cica-Beta Test试剂盒有非常好的一致性。结论两种方法均适合应用于临床快速筛查非发酵菌产 MBLs。

  15. The pharmacokinetics of beta-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijlink, H W; Visser, J; Hefting, N R; Oosting, R; Meijer, D K; Lerk, C F


    Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin was analyzed by HPLC using postcolumn complexation with phenolphthalein and negative colorimetric detection, with a detection limit of 20 micrograms/ml. The pharmacokinetics of beta-cyclodextrin and of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin were studied after intravenous adm

  16. Native and asialo-Tamm-Horsfall glycoproteins as important ligands for the detection of GalNAc beta 1-->and Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc active lectins. (United States)

    Wu, A M; Watkins, W M; Song, S C; Herp, A; Wu, J H


    The binding properties of human Tamm-Horsfall Sd(a+) urinary glycoprotein(THGP) and asialo-THGP with various applied lectins was investigated by quantitative precipitin and precipitin inhibition assays. Both glycoproteins completely precipitated Abrus precatorius agglutinin(APA). They also reacted well with Wistaria floribunda (WFA), Glycine max (soybean, SBA), and Ricinus communis agglutinins and precipitated over 78% of the lectin nitrogen added, but reacted poorly or weakly with all alpha-anomeric GalNAc specific lectins, such as Helix pomatia (HPA), Phaseolus lunatus (lima bean, LBL), and Maclura pomifera (MPL) lectins. The glycoprotein-lectin interaction was inhibited by GalNAc beta 1-->, Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc, or by both. The findings suggest that Sd (a+) THGP and asialo-THGP are among the best water-soluble glycoprotein ligands for GalNAc beta 1-->and Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc active lectins.

  17. Droplet-based magnetic bead immunoassay using microchannel-connected multiwell plates (μCHAMPs) for the detection of amyloid beta oligomers. (United States)

    Park, Min Cheol; Kim, Moojong; Lim, Gun Taek; Kang, Sung Min; An, Seong Soo A; Kim, Tae Song; Kang, Ji Yoon


    Multiwell plates are regularly used in analytical research and clinical diagnosis but often require laborious washing steps and large sample or reagent volumes (typically, 100 μL per well). To overcome such drawbacks in the conventional multiwell plate, we present a novel microchannel-connected multiwell plate (μCHAMP) that can be used for automated disease biomarker detection in a small sample volume by performing droplet-based magnetic bead immunoassay inside the plate. In this μCHAMP-based immunoassay platform, small volumes (30-50 μL) of aqueous-phase working droplets are stably confined within each well by the simple microchannel structure (200-300 μm in height and 0.5-1 mm in width), and magnetic beads are exclusively transported into an adjacent droplet through the oil-filled microchannels assisted by a magnet array aligned beneath and controlled by a XY-motorized stage. Using this μCHAMP-based platform, we were able to perform parallel detection of synthetic amyloid beta (Aβ) oligomers as a model analyte for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This platform easily simplified the laborious and consumptive immunoassay procedure by achieving automated parallel immunoassay (32 assays per operation in 3-well connected 96-well plate) within 1 hour and at low sample consumption (less than 10 μL per assay) with no cumbersome manual washing step. Moreover, it could detect synthetic Aβ oligomers even below 10 pg mL(-1) concentration with a calculated detection limit of ∼3 pg mL(-1). Therefore, the μCHAMP and droplet-based magnetic bead immunoassay, with the combination of XY-motorized magnet array, would be a useful platform in the diagnosis of human disease, including AD, which requires low consumption of the patient's body fluid sample and automation of the entire immunoassay procedure for high processing capacity.

  18. An Investigation of beta-lactam antibiotics resistance in Escherichia coli isolates and molecular detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cage birds from Shahrekord, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Tahmasby


    Full Text Available Introduction: Cage birds can harbor human pathogens and contribute to the transmission and spread of drug resistant infectious agents to human. Since many people are interested in keeping cage birds, present study was conducted in cage birds from Shahrekord to investigate the beta-lactam antibiotics resistant E. coli and molecular detection of E. coli O157:H7 that is responsible for outbreaks of human intestinal diseases and fatal haemolytic-uraemic syndrome worldwide. Materials and methods: Altogether 256 samples of cage birds (lovebirds, quails, nightingales, parrots, mynahs, goldfinchs, finches, kingbirds, peacocks, and pheasants faeces were collected with sterile cotton swabs from different areas of Shahrekord, Iran. Swabs were placed directly into Tryptone Soya Broth (TSB. In the laboratory, samples were streaked onto MacConkey agar and also Sorbitol MacConkey agar as selective plating media. Then, antibiogram tests were performed using disc diffusion method. Suspected colonies to E. coli O157:H7 were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: E. coli was isolated from 31 (12.1% out of 256 the samples. Resistance of isolates to Imipenem, Cefotaxime, Cefixime, Cefalexin, Amoxicillin, Penicillin G and Oxacillin was 0, 3.2, 16.1, 90.3, 100, 100 and 100% respectively. E. coli O157:H7 was not found in any samples. Discussion and conclusion: Although cage birds were not sourcee or carriers of E. coli O157:H7 in the studied region, they harbored beta-lactam antibiotics resistant E. coli and could be an important component of drug-resistant infections transmission from cage-birds to human, especially to kids and can pose a potential risk to human health. For this reason, it is recommended to make pet birds owners and general public aware of potential dangers of cage bird keeping.

  19. Proposed experiments to detect keV range sterile neutrinos using energy-momentum reconstruction of beta decay or K-capture events

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Peter F


    Sterile neutrinos in the keV mass range may constitute the galactic dark matter. Various proposed direct detection and laboratory searches are reviewed. The most promising method in the near future is complete energy-momentum reconstruction of individual beta-decay or K-capture events, using atoms suspended in a magneto-optical trap. A survey of suitable isotopes is presented, together with the measurement precision required in a typical experimental configuration. It is concluded that among the most promising are the K-capture isotopes 131Cs, which requires measurement of an X-ray and several Auger electrons in addition to the atomic recoil, and 7Be which has only a single decay product but needs development work to achieve a trapped source. A number of background effects are discussed. It is concluded that sterile neutrinos with masses down to the 5-10 keV region would be detectable, together with relative couplings down to the level 10-10-10-11 in a 1-2 year running time.

  20. Development of an analytical method for the determination of beta2-agonist residues in animal tissues by high-performance liquid chromatography with on-line electrogenerated [Cu(HIO6)2]5- -luminol chemiluminescence detection. (United States)

    Zhang, Yantu; Zhang, Zhujun; Sun, Yonghua; Wei, Yue


    A novel method was developed for the simultaneous determination of beta2-agonist residues such as terbutaline, salbutamol, and clenbuterol by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with chemiluminescence (CL) detection. The procedure was based on the enhancement effect of beta2-agonists on the CL reaction between luminol and the complex of trivalent copper and periodate ([Cu(HIO6)2]5-), which was on-line electrogenerated by constant current electrolysis. The HPLC separation used a Nucleosil RP-C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 microm; pore size, 100 A) with a mobile phase consisting of 90% acetonitrile and 10% aqueous ammonium acetate (20 mmol L-1, pH 4.0) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1. The effects of several parameters on the HPLC resolution and CL emission were studied systematically. Liver samples were hydrolyzed with beta-glucuronidase followed by a solid-phase extraction procedure using Waters OasisMCX cartridges. Under optimum conditions, the limits of detection at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 ranged from 0.007 to 0.01 ng g-1 and the limits of quantification at a signal-to-noise ratio of 10 ranged from 0.023 to 0.033 ng g-1 for three beta2-agonists. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra- and interday precision were below 4.5%. The average recoveries for beta2-agonists (spiked at the levels of 0.05-5.0 ng g-1) in pig liver ranged from 84 to 110%, and the RSDs of the quantitative results were from 1.6 to 7.2%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of beta2-agonist residues in pig liver samples.

  1. The utility of the in situ detection of T-cell receptor Beta rearrangements in cutaneous T-cell-dominant infiltrates. (United States)

    Magro, Cynthia M; Nuovo, Gerard J; Crowson, A Neil


    The diagnostic assessment of cutaneous T-cell infiltrates is problematic for dermatopathologists. A variety of conditions, including lymphomatoid hypersensitivity reactions and lymphomatoid lupus erythematosus, can demonstrate lymphoid atypia and phenotypic changes that can mimic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). A similar issue revolves around lymphoid dyscrasias, which includes parapsoriasis, atypical pigmentary purpura, pityriasis lichenoides chronica, indeterminate lymphocytic lobular panniculitis, and lymphomatoid papulosis, which can progress to CTCL. A reverse transcription (RT) in situ PCR assay for T-cell receptor beta rearrangements (TCRbeta) was used to assess T-cell clonality in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. In 7 of 8 cases of classic CTCL, the RT in situ PCR assay for TCRbeta rearrangement showed monoclonality; the other was biclonal. Further, in cases with multiple lesions over time, the same T-cell clone could be detected including in those patients whose biopsies showed large-cell transformation. Monoclonality was also demonstrated in each of 2 cases of cutaneous lymphomatoid papulosis. Demonstration of oligoclonality (and one case of biclonality) by RT in situ PCR was confined to those cases that either represented prelymphomatous conditions such as large plaque parapsoriasis or pityriasis lichenoides or lesions of drug-induced lymphomatoid hypersensitivity that all demonstrated clinical regression. In conclusion, RT in situ PCR for TCRbeta, which can be done on formalin-fixed biopsies and allows direct correlation of the molecular data with the histology, is a useful adjunctive test in the differentiation of CTCL from its mimics.

  2. MicroRNA-224 is Readily Detectable in Urine of Individuals with Diabetes Mellitus and is a Potential Indicator of Beta-Cell Demise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhán Bacon


    Full Text Available MicroRNA (miRNA are a class of non-coding, 19–25 nucleotide RNA critical for network-level regulation of gene expression. miRNA serve as paracrine signaling molecules. Using an unbiased array approach, we previously identified elevated levels of miR-224 and miR-103 to be associated with a monogenic form of diabetes; HNF1A-MODY. miR-224 is a novel miRNA in the field of diabetes. We sought to explore the role of miR-224 as a potential biomarker in diabetes, and whether such diabetes-associated-miRNA can also be detected in the urine of patients. Absolute levels of miR-224 and miR-103 were determined in the urine of n = 144 individuals including carriers of a HNF1A mutation, participants with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and normal controls. Expression levels were correlated with clinical and biochemical parameters. miR-224 was significantly elevated in the urine of carriers of a HNF1A mutation and participants with T1DM. miR-103 was highly expressed in urine across all diabetes cohorts when compared to controls. For both miR-224 and-103, we found a significant correlation between serum and urine levels (p < 0.01. We demonstrate that miRNA can be readily detected in the urine independent of clinical indices of renal dysfunction. We surmise that the differential expression levels of miR-224 in both HNF1A-MODY mutation carriers and T1DM may be an attempt to compensate for beta-cell demise.

  3. Novel Confocal Microscopic and Flow Cytometric Based Assays to Visualize and Detect the (Beta)2-Adrenergic Receptor in Human Lymphocyte and Mononuclear Cell Populations (United States)

    Salicru, A. N.; Crucian, B. E.; Nelman, M. A.; Sams, C. F.; Actor, J. K.; Marshall, G. D.


    The data show that immunophenotyping of leukocyte populations with (beta)2AR is possible with the commercially available Ab, although the FC assay is limited to the IST as a result of the Ab binding site to the intracellular C-terminus of the 2AR. The FC assay has applications for measuring alterations in total (beta)2AR in human leukocyte populations as changes in fluorescence. In addition, CM confirms that both surface and intracellular compartments stain positively for the (beta)2AR and can be used for qualitative assays that screen for changes in receptor compartmentalization and localization.

  4. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria are not detected in supragingival plaque samples from human fecal carriers of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Søraas


    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of infections caused by Cefotaximase-Munich (CTX-M-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E has rapidly increased during the past 15 years. Enterobacteriaceae are commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract and long-term intestinal carriage is considered important for the spread of ESBL and as a source of clinical infections. Oral biofilm such as supragingival plaque is known to contain numerous antibiotic resistance determinants and may also represent a poorly investigated site for ESBL carriage and further spread. Objective: To investigate possible carriage of ESBL-producing bacteria in supragingival plaque of known fecal carriers of these bacteria. Design: We screened for the presence of aerobic and anaerobic ESBL-producing bacteria and blaCTX-M in supragingival plaque samples from healthy human adults with culture-verified fecal carriage of CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli. The presence or absence of Enterobacteriaceae and ESBL-producing bacteria in plaque samples was evaluated using culture-based methods and consensus CTX-M PCR. Results: Oral samples were obtained from 17 participants with known previous carriage of ESBL-producing E. coli. No ESBL-producing bacteria or ESBL genes were detected using culture-based and molecular methods. One colony of Rahnella aquatilis harboring the class A ESBL gene bla RAHN-1/2 was identified in an oral sample from one of the participants. Conclusion: This pilot study supports the notion that the presence of CTX-M-producing bacteria is uncommon in oral plaque of healthy human adult fecal carriers. Due to the limited number of persons tested, a low prevalence of oral ESBL-carriage in healthy adults or carriage in selected groups of patients cannot be excluded. To our knowledge, this is the first description of an R. aquatilis with the RAHN-1/2 gene in the oral cavity.

  5. Detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamases and resistance in members of the Enterobacteriaceae family isolated from healthy sheep and dogs in Umuarama, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Alves de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Bacterial resistance is a primary public health concern worldwide. Within this context, pets and breeding animals act as reservoirs for multidrug-resistant bacteria (MR, such as those producing extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL and those presenting plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of ESBL and PMQR in members of the Enterobacteriaceae family, isolated from healthy sheep and dogs from non-intense farming rural properties in the Umuarama region of Paraná, Brazil. A total of 81 oral and rectal swabs from dogs and sheep from 11 small rural properties were analyzed. These swabs were inoculated in tubes containing brain heart infusion broth (BHI, and the resulting cultures were inoculated on MacConkey agar (MAC supplemented with 10 ?g/mL cefotaxime for the selection of ESBL producers. The cells were also plated on MAC supplemented with 50 ?g/mL nalidixic acid for selecting quinolone-resistant enterobacteria. The bacterial isolates were subjected to biochemical identification tests, antibiograms, double-disk synergic tests, and polymerase chain reaction analysis for resistance-inducing genes (blaESBL, qnr, and genes encoding efflux pump and acetylases. Four (5.00% bacterial isolates (3 Escherichia coli and 1 Morganella morganii resistant to cephalosporins and/or quinolones were identified; of these, three (75% isolates were from sheep and one (25% from a dog. These findings indicate the presence of MR bacteria in the normal microbiota of the animals studied. Animals colonized with such bacteria can contribute to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance to other animals, environment, and/or human beings and can harbor endogenous infections in unfavorable conditions, which have poor prognosis due to the limited therapeutic options.

  6. Clinical significance of serum AFP, beta-HCG and Ue3 detection for Down`s syndrome screening%血清AFP、beta-HCG及Ue3检测对唐氏综合征筛查的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍华颖; 彭淑莹; 刘健


    目的:探讨分析孕中血清中甲胎蛋白(AFP)、人绒毛膜促性腺激素(beta-HCG)及游离雌三醇(uE3)的检测对唐氏综合征筛查的临床意义。方法:从2009年10月到2013年1月期间来我院检查的980例孕中期妇女进行AFP、beta-HCG及uE3三项指标检测,结合孕妇的年龄、体重、孕周等因素,对于高风险的孕妇再进一步行B超或羊水细胞染色体进行确诊,观察不同年龄孕妇所产婴儿唐氏综合征的发生情况。结果:980例孕中期孕妇通过血清AFP、beta-HCG及uE3的检测,筛查唐氏综合征高风险52例(5.3%),经B超或羊水细胞染色体进行确诊唐氏综合征12例;35岁以上的孕妇唐氏综合征阳性风险率显著高于35岁以下的孕妇,差异具有统计学(P<0.05)。结论:孕中期检测血清中AFP、beta-HCG和uE3能够有效筛查出唐氏综合征阳性高风险孕妇,降低了唐氏综合征患儿的出生率,对于优生工作起到极大的辅助作用。%Objective:To explore the clinical significance of detecting serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) , human chorionic gonadotropin (beta HCG) and free estriol (uE3) in second trimester to screening Down’s syndrome. Methods:We detected the three indicators, serum AFP, beta - HCG and uE3, for the 980 pregnant women who had their check-ups in our hospital from October 2009 to January 2013. Combined with factors such as age, weight and gestational age, high-risk cases were further confirmed by ultrasonography or amniotic fluid cells chromosome. The purpose was to observe the occurrence of Down's syndrome in babies delivered by pregnant women at different ages.Results:Among the 980 pregnant women who went through the serum AFP, beta - HCG and uE3 detection in second trimester, 52 cases (5.3%) were at high risk of Down's syndrome and 12 cases were confirmed by ultrasonography or amniotic fluid cells chromosome. It is apparent that pregnant women over 35 years old suffer higher

  7. Interactions of protein kinase CK2beta subunit within the holoenzyme and with other proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, M; Ahmed, R; Thomsen, B;


    in alpha-beta and beta-beta interactions. We also detected an intramolecular beta interaction within the amino acid stretch 132-165. Using CK2beta as a bait in a two-hybrid library screening several new putative cellular partners have been identified, among them the S6 kinase p90rsk, the putative tumor...

  8. Specific detection of Serpulina hyodysenteriae and potentially pathogenic weakly beta-haemolytic porcine intestinal spirochetes by polymerase chain reaction targeting 23S rDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leser, Thomas; Møller, Kristian; Jensen, Tim Kåre;


    A 2470-bp section of the 23S ribosomal DNA from Serpulina hyodysenteriae and five biochemical ly different groups of weakly beta-haemolytic porcine intestinal Serpulina strains was sequenced. The similarity between the sequenced strains was high (96.85% to 99.84%). A phylogenetic tree was estimat...

  9. Detection of Left Ventricular Regional Function in Asymptomatic Children with beta-Thalassemia Major by Longitudinal Strain and Strain Rate Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bay


    Full Text Available Objective: Cardiac failure due to iron overload remains the most common cause of death in patients with beta-thalassemia major. This study aimed to evaluate myocardial function in children with beta-thalassemia major using standard echocardiography technique and strain rate imaging. Materials and Methods: Conventional echocardiographic analysis, tissue velocity imaging, and strain/strain rate imaging of the left ventricle were evaluated in 48 children with beta thalassemia major (19 girls, 29 boys; 8.39±4.05 years and 22 healthy children (11 girls, 11 boys; 8±3.72 years. Results: Conventional echocardiographic examinations revealed that beta-thalassemia patients had larger left ventricular end-systolic diameter, end-diastolic and end-systolic volume, left ventricular mass index, and mitral early/late diastolic flow velocity ratio (p<0.05. Strain and strain rate imaging study of the basal lateral wall of the left ventricle was higher in patients than in controls, at p=0.035 and p=0.008, respectively. Conclusion: We found that superior systolic strain and strain rate imaging of the left ventricle indicated the presence of regional systolic function in the left ventricular wall. We suggest that left ventricle volume and mass index parameters might be more sensitive than the other conventional and strain/strain rate imaging parameters during childhood. However, the adulthood strain and strain rate imaging values may be lower than controls, exceeding the critical level of iron overload.

  10. Genetic predisposition to essential hypertension in a Mongolian population Detecting the C825T polymorphism of the G-protein beta 3 subunit gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunyu Zhang; Shigang Zhao; Guangming Niu; Rile Hu; Zhiguang Wang; Mingfang Jiang; Rile Hu


    BACKGROUND: The prevalences of hypertension, cerebrovascular diseases, etc. are higher in Mongolian population because of the influence of various factors including genetics, geography, diet, etc. Therefore, it is helpful for prevention to develop researches on the genetics of various diseases including hypertension in Mongolian population.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between C825T polymorphisms of G-protein beta 3 subunit gene (GNB3), the important candidate gene of various disease of cardiovascular system, and Mongolian patients with essential hypertension.DESIGN: A comparative observation.SETTINGS: Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical College;Wulate Houqi Red Cross Society.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 267 Mongolian residents, whose blood relations of 3 generations were all Mongolians, were selected from Wulate Houqi, Inner Mongolia. The patients were screened based on the diagnostic standard of hypertension set by WHO in 1999, and the enrolled subjects were divided into two groups according to the level of blood pressure: ① Normal blood pressure group (n =124): 64 males and 60 females, systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 140 mm Hg (1 mm Hg=0.133 kPa), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) <90 mm Hg; ② Essential hypertension group (n =143): 71 males and 72 females, including 60 patients with simple high SBP (SBP ranged 145 to 195 mm Hg, whereas DBP < 90 mm Hg).METHODS: Peripheral venous blood (5 mL) was drawn from all the subjects, the genome DNA was extracted, and the polymorphisms of the GNB3 C825T genotype were detected with the Sequenom system.Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiment and SNP detection were performed in Beijing Huada gene laboratory. Then the univariate analysis of variance was applied in the sample comparison among groups, and the chi-square test was used to compare the genotypes and allele frequencies. The odd ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI)were calculated.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The

  11. Detecção de metalo-beta-lactamase em Pseudomonas aeruginosa isoladas de pacientes hospitalizados em Goiânia, Estado de Goiás Detection of metallo-beta-lactamase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from hospitalized patients in Goiânia, State of Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Christina Pereira Santos Gonçalves


    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa é uma bactéria frequentemente isolada no ambiente hospitalar. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o perfil de suscetibilidade de Pseudomonas aeruginosa previamente isoladas de pacientes internados em um hospital de Goiânia (Goiás-Brasil; realizar a triagem fenotípica para a produção de metalo-beta-lactamase e detectar os genes das mesmas pela técnica de "Polimerase Chain Reaction". Foram avaliadas 75 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isoladas no período de janeiro de 2005 a janeiro de 2007. A identificação bioquímica foi realizada pelo sistema API 20E® e o antibiograma pelo método de Kirby-Bauer. Entre os 62 isolados que foram resistentes ao imipenem e à ceftazidima, 35 (56,4% apresentaram produção de metalo-beta-lactamase e em 26 (74,3% destes, foi detectado o gene blaSPM-1. A frequência de Pseudomonas aeruginosa produtoras de metalo-beta-lactamase sugere um maior controle da disseminação de resistência no ambiente hospitalar.Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a bacterium frequently isolated from hospital environments. This study had the aims of evaluating the susceptibility profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa previously isolated from patients in a hospital in Goiânia (Goiás, Brazil, performing phenotypic screening for metallo-beta-lactamase production and detecting its genes using the polymerase chain reaction technique. Seventy-five 75 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were evaluated between January 2005 and January 2007. Biochemical identification was performed using the API 20E® system and an antibiogram was produced using the Kirby-Bauer method. Among the 62 isolates that were resistant to imipenem and ceftazidime, 35 (56.4% produced metallo-beta-lactamase, while 26 (74.3% showed the blaSPM-1 gene. The frequency of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that produces metallo-beta-lactamase suggests that greater control over the dissemination of resistance in hospital environments is needed.

  12. Study of influence of plastic scintillators thicknesses to detect Beta particles and Gamma radiation by means of spectral analysis of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 90}Y and {sup 137}Cs sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, Jose Patricio Nahuel; Filho, Tufic Madi; Pereira, Maria da Conceicao Costa; Santos, Brianna B. dos; Correa, Eduardo de L.; Santos, Lucas Rodrigues dos; Lopes, Anderson Figueredo; Silva, Alexandre F.P. da; Santos, Diogo F. dos; Camilo, Douglas de S.; Purgato, Rafael T.; Aredes, Vitor O.G. [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242 Cid Universitaria CEP: 05508-000- Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil)


    The Nuclear and Energy Research Institute - IPEN, offers post-graduate programs, namely: Nuclear Technology - Applications (TNA), Nuclear Technology - Materials (TNM), Nuclear Technology - Reactors (TNR). The Institute programs mission is to form expert technicians, physicists and engineers with a strong knowledge in their discipline to work in the nuclear area. The course: 'Theoretical Fundamentals and Practices of the Instrumentation used in Nuclear Data Acquisition' covers the use of laboratory nuclear instrumentation and the accomplishment of experiments to obtain nuclear parameters. One of these experimental exercises is object of this work: 'Study of influence of plastic scintillators to detect Beta particles and Gamma radiation by means of spectral analysis of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 90}Y and {sup 137}Cs sources'. The use of scintillators plastic for the detection has the advantage of low cost, high mechanical strength, is not hygroscopic and can be manufactured in large volumes. This work aims to present the analysis of relative efficiency of detection of plastic scintillators of various thicknesses for beta particles and gamma radiation by the spectrum of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr. Due to lack of resolution of the detectors plastic scintillators we worked with relative efficiency. The evaluation was done by reading deposited energy, using the software MAESTRO, for each detector thickness. For beta particles was observed an ideal thickness around 3 mm and the better photon efficiency was observed with increasing the thickness of the detector. The present experiment does not intend to establish a new technique for this subject: it solely aims student's practical exercises in nuclear properties of elements and detectors being part of the nuclear experimental course. (authors)

  13. The impact of beta-elemene on beta-tubulin of human hepatoma hepg2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuqiu Mao; Liying Ban; Jielin Zhang; Li Hou; Xiaonan Cui


    Objective:The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of beta-elemene injection on the growth and beta-tubulin of human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Methods:cellproliferation was assessed by MTT assay. cellcycle distribution was detected by flow cytometry (FCM). The mRNA expression of beta-tubulin was measured by RT-PCR. West-ern blot analysis was used to determine protein expression of beta-tubulin and the polymerization of beta-tubulin. Results:Beta-elemene injection inhibited HepG2 cells proliferation in a dose-and time-dependent manner;FCM analysis indicated beta-elemene injection induced cellcycle arrested at S phase. RT-PCR and western-blot analysis showed that beta-elemene injection down-regulated beta-tubulin expression at both mRNA and protein levels, presenting a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, beta-elemene injection reduced the polymerization of microtubules in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion:Beta-elemene injection can inhibit the proliferation of hepatoma HepG2 cells, the mechanism might be partly related to the down-regulation of beta-tubulin and inhibition of microtubular polymerization.

  14. [Nourseothricin (streptothricin) inactivated by plasmid pIE 636-encoded acetyltransferase: detection of N-acetyl-beta-lysine in the inactivated product]. (United States)

    Seltmann, G


    Nourseothricin (streptothricin) can be inactivated by an acetyl transferase synthesized by E. coli strains containing plasmid pIE 636. Nourseothricin inactivated in the presence of 14C-acetyl-coenzyme A was purified and submitted to partial acidic hydrolysis. By electrophoresis of the hydrolysate a 14C-containing substance moving only slowly towards the cathode could be isolated. This substance after complete hydrolysis yields only unlabelled beta-lysine.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ladonni


    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of beta-cyfluthrin (Responsar 12.5% SC, against a standard susceptible strain of German cockroach, Blattella germanica, using three different dosages, at three different exposure times, on two types of surface, parlous (mosaic and non parous (glassed ceramic of tiles. Comparison of the resifts indicated that beta-cyfluthrin at 12.5, has negligent residual activity on both mosaic and glazed ceramic tiles from one to two weeks. However at 25 (highest dosage, had the longest residual activity on mosaic, it was active for six, seven and nine weeks, while on glazed ceramic tiles the residual activity increased slightly to seven and nine and nine weeks, when the nymphac were exposed for 10, 15 and 20 min, respectively. These results of the bio-assay test indicate that 12.5 is too low for any residual spraying. Application of beta-cyfluthrin at a target dosage rate of 25 and 37.5 showed longer residual deposit effect than the earlier dosage. Hence these dosages could be recommended for light and heavy infested area, respectively. This study is also recommends a simple device for measuring the residual activity of insecticides against German cockroach either in laboratory or in the field conditions.

  16. BETASCAN: probable beta-amyloids identified by pairwise probabilistic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen W Bryan


    Full Text Available Amyloids and prion proteins are clinically and biologically important beta-structures, whose supersecondary structures are difficult to determine by standard experimental or computational means. In addition, significant conformational heterogeneity is known or suspected to exist in many amyloid fibrils. Recent work has indicated the utility of pairwise probabilistic statistics in beta-structure prediction. We develop here a new strategy for beta-structure prediction, emphasizing the determination of beta-strands and pairs of beta-strands as fundamental units of beta-structure. Our program, BETASCAN, calculates likelihood scores for potential beta-strands and strand-pairs based on correlations observed in parallel beta-sheets. The program then determines the strands and pairs with the greatest local likelihood for all of the sequence's potential beta-structures. BETASCAN suggests multiple alternate folding patterns and assigns relative a priori probabilities based solely on amino acid sequence, probability tables, and pre-chosen parameters. The algorithm compares favorably with the results of previous algorithms (BETAPRO, PASTA, SALSA, TANGO, and Zyggregator in beta-structure prediction and amyloid propensity prediction. Accurate prediction is demonstrated for experimentally determined amyloid beta-structures, for a set of known beta-aggregates, and for the parallel beta-strands of beta-helices, amyloid-like globular proteins. BETASCAN is able both to detect beta-strands with higher sensitivity and to detect the edges of beta-strands in a richly beta-like sequence. For two proteins (Abeta and Het-s, there exist multiple sets of experimental data implying contradictory structures; BETASCAN is able to detect each competing structure as a potential structure variant. The ability to correlate multiple alternate beta-structures to experiment opens the possibility of computational investigation of prion strains and structural heterogeneity of amyloid

  17. Complement activation by the amyloid proteins A beta peptide and beta 2-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Nielsen, E H; Svehag, S E


    Complement activation (CA) has been reported to play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate whether CA may contribute to amyloidogenesis in general, the CA potential of different amyloid fibril proteins was tested. CA induced by A beta preparations containing soluble...... protein, protofilaments and some fibrils or only fibrils in a solid phase system (ELISA) was modest with a slow kinetics compared to the positive delta IgG control. Soluble A beta induced no detectable CA in a liquid phase system (complement consumption assay) while fibrillar A beta caused CA at 200 mg....../ml and higher concentrations. Soluble beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2M) purified from peritoneal dialysates was found to be as potent a complement activator as A beta in both solid and liquid phase systems while beta 2M purified from urine exhibited lower activity, a difference which may be explained...

  18. Precision measurements in 20F beta decay (United States)

    Hughes, Maximilian; Naviliat-Cuncic, Oscar; Voytas, Paul; George, Elizabeth; Paulauskas, Stan; Huyan, Xueying


    Precision measurements of the shape of the beta particle energy spectrum provide a sensitive window to search for new interactions beyond the standard model. The decay of 20F offers an attractive system due to the simple decay scheme for a coincidence measurement. A beam of 20F ions, produced at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, was implanted into a beta-detector. A gamma-ray detection system surrounded the beta detector to detect the beta-delayed gammas in coincidence to reduce the background. Preliminary analysis of these data focus on the half-life of 20F due to the statistical inconsistency of previous work. Monte Carlo simulations are ongoing to analyze the shape of the beta energy spectrum. Results of the analysis of the half-life will be presented. Supported by National Science Foundation Grant PHY-1102511.

  19. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer biosensors that detect Ran conformational changes and a Ran x GDP-importin-beta -RanBP1 complex in vitro and in intact cells. (United States)

    Plafker, Kendra; Macara, Ian G


    The Ran GTPase plays a central role in nucleocytoplasmic transport. Association of Ran x GTP with transport carriers (karyopherins) triggers the loading/unloading of export or import cargo, respectively. The C-terminal tail of Ran x GTP is deployed in an extended conformation when associated with a Ran binding domain or importins. To monitor tail orientation, a Ran-GFP fusion was labeled with the fluorophore Alexa546. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) occurs efficiently between the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Alexa546 for Ran x GDP and Ran x GTP, suggesting that the tail is tethered in both states. However, Ran x GTP complexes with importin-beta, RanBP1, and Crm1 all show reduced FRET consistent with tail extension. Displacement of the C-terminal tail of Ran by karyopherins may be a general mechanism to facilitate RanBP1 binding. A Ran x GDP-RanBP1-importin-beta complex also displayed a low FRET signal. To detect this complex in vivo, a bipartite biosensor consisting of Ran-Alexa546 plus GST-GFP-RanBP1, was co-injected into the cytoplasm of cells. The Ran redistributed predominantly to the nucleus, and RanBP1 remained cytoplasmic. Nonetheless, a robust cytoplasmic FRET signal was detectable, which suggests that a significant fraction of cytoplasmic Ran.GDP may exist in a ternary complex with RanBP1 and importins.

  20. Improved detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in input and output samples of German biogas plants by a selective pre-enrichment procedure. (United States)

    Schauss, Thorsten; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Gütschow, Alexandra; Dott, Wolfgang; Kämpfer, Peter


    The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli was investigated in input (manure from livestock husbandry) and output samples of six German biogas plants in 2012 (one sampling per biogas plant) and two German biogas plants investigated in an annual cycle four times in 2013/2014. ESBL-producing Escherichia coli were cultured by direct plating on CHROMagar ESBL from input samples in the range of 100 to 104 colony forming units (CFU) per g dry weight but not from output sample. This initially indicated a complete elimination of ESBL-producing E. coli by the biogas plant process. Detected non target bacteria were assigned to the genera Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Bordetella, Achromobacter, Castellaniella, and Ochrobactrum. A selective pre-enrichment procedure increased the detection efficiency of ESBL-producing E. coli in input samples and enabled the detection in five of eight analyzed output samples. In total 119 ESBL-producing E. coli were isolated from input and 46 from output samples. Most of the E. coli isolates carried CTX-M-type and/or TEM-type beta lactamases (94%), few SHV-type beta lactamase (6%). Sixty-four blaCTX-M genes were characterized more detailed and assigned mainly to CTX-M-groups 1 (85%) and 9 (13%), and one to group 2. Phylogenetic grouping of 80 E. coli isolates showed that most were assigned to group A (71%) and B1 (27%), only one to group D (2%). Genomic fingerprinting and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed a high clonal diversity with 41 BOX-types and 19 ST-types. The two most common ST-types were ST410 and ST1210. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 46 selected ESBL-producing E. coli revealed that several isolates were additionally resistant to other veterinary relevant antibiotics and some grew on CHROMagar STEC but shiga-like toxine (SLT) genes were not detected. Resistance to carbapenems was not detected. In summary the study showed for the first time the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli in

  1. Improved detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in input and output samples of German biogas plants by a selective pre-enrichment procedure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Schauss

    Full Text Available The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Escherichia coli was investigated in input (manure from livestock husbandry and output samples of six German biogas plants in 2012 (one sampling per biogas plant and two German biogas plants investigated in an annual cycle four times in 2013/2014. ESBL-producing Escherichia coli were cultured by direct plating on CHROMagar ESBL from input samples in the range of 100 to 104 colony forming units (CFU per g dry weight but not from output sample. This initially indicated a complete elimination of ESBL-producing E. coli by the biogas plant process. Detected non target bacteria were assigned to the genera Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Bordetella, Achromobacter, Castellaniella, and Ochrobactrum. A selective pre-enrichment procedure increased the detection efficiency of ESBL-producing E. coli in input samples and enabled the detection in five of eight analyzed output samples. In total 119 ESBL-producing E. coli were isolated from input and 46 from output samples. Most of the E. coli isolates carried CTX-M-type and/or TEM-type beta lactamases (94%, few SHV-type beta lactamase (6%. Sixty-four blaCTX-M genes were characterized more detailed and assigned mainly to CTX-M-groups 1 (85% and 9 (13%, and one to group 2. Phylogenetic grouping of 80 E. coli isolates showed that most were assigned to group A (71% and B1 (27%, only one to group D (2%. Genomic fingerprinting and multilocus sequence typing (MLST showed a high clonal diversity with 41 BOX-types and 19 ST-types. The two most common ST-types were ST410 and ST1210. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 46 selected ESBL-producing E. coli revealed that several isolates were additionally resistant to other veterinary relevant antibiotics and some grew on CHROMagar STEC but shiga-like toxine (SLT genes were not detected. Resistance to carbapenems was not detected. In summary the study showed for the first time the presence of ESBL-producing E

  2. Antibodies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa chromosomal beta-lactamase inpatients with cystic fibrosis are markers of the development of resistance of P. aeruginosa to beta-lactams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, O; Giwercman, B; Walter-Rasmussen, J


    Chromosomal beta-lactamase production is considered to be the most important resistance mechanism of Pseudomonas aeruginosa against beta-lactams. Recently we have detected serum and sputum antibodies against P. aeruginosa chromosomal beta-lactamase (a beta ab), using immunoblotting techniques...... infection and was significantly higher (P beta-lactam courses. A 14 fold increase in a beta ab...... levels occurred during the 14 year period covered by the longitudinal study. The results of this study show that a beta ab to P. aeruginosa is a specific marker for resistance development of P. aeruginosa to beta-lactams....

  3. In-trap decay spectroscopy for {beta}{beta} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Thomas


    The presented work describes the implementation of a new technique to measure electron-capture (EC) branching ratios (BRs) of intermediate nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. This technique has been developed at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. It facilitates one of TRIUMF's Ion Traps for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN), the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) that is used as a spectroscopy Penning trap. Radioactive ions, produced at the radioactive isotope facility ISAC, are injected and stored in the spectroscopy Penning trap while their decays are observed. A key feature of this technique is the use of a strong magnetic field, required for trapping. It radially confines electrons from {beta} decays along the trap axis while X-rays, following an EC, are emitted isotropically. This provides spatial separation of X-ray and {beta} detection with almost no {beta}-induced background at the X-ray detector, allowing weak EC branches to be measured. Furthermore, the combination of several traps allows one to isobarically clean the sample prior to the in-trap decay spectroscopy measurement. This technique has been developed to measure ECBRs of transition nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. Detailed knowledge of these electron capture branches is crucial for a better understanding of the underlying nuclear physics in {beta}{beta} decays. These branches are typically of the order of 10{sup -5} and therefore difficult to measure. Conventional measurements suffer from isobaric contamination and a dominating {beta} background at theX-ray detector. Additionally, X-rays are attenuated by the material where the radioactive sample is implanted. To overcome these limitations, the technique of in-trap decay spectroscopy has been developed. In this work, the EBIT was connected to the TITAN beam line and has been commissioned. Using the developed beam diagnostics, ions were injected into the Penning trap and systematic studies on injection and storage optimization were performed. Furthermore, Ge

  4. Detection of virulence factors in culturable Escherichia coli isolates from water samples by DNA probes and recovery of toxin-bearing strains in minimal o-nitrophenol-beta-D-galactopyranoside-4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-g luc uronide media.


    Martins, M T; Rivera, I G; Clark, D. L.; Olson, B H


    A total of 449 Escherichia coli isolates in treated and raw water sources were submitted to DNA-DNA hybridization using seven different DNA probes to detect homology to sequences that code for Shiga-like toxins I and II; heat-stabile and heat-labile toxins, adherence factors EAF and eae, and the fimbrial antigen of entero-hemorrhagic E. coli. Fifty-nine (13%) of the isolates demonstrated homology with one or more specific DNA probes. More than 50% of the isolates in treated water were not rec...

  5. Distribution and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Gram Negative Bacteria Causing Urinary Tract Infection (UTI and Detection New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1 Producing Isolates in Ahwaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Afrugh


    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI is the commonest bacterial infectious disease in worldwide (especially in developing countries with a high rate of morbidity and financial cost. The management of UTI infections has been jeopardized by increase in immergence of antimicrobial drug resistance. Knowledge of the local bacterial etiology and susceptibility patterns is required to trace any change that might have occurred in time so that updated recommendation for optimal empirical therapy of UTI can be made. The aim of this investigation was distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of gram negative bacteria causing urinary tract infection (UTI and detection NDM-1 (new-delhi-metallo-beta-lactamase-1 producing isolates in Ahwaz. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done during a period of one year from April 2013 to March 2014. Clean catch midstream urine samples were collected from suspected patients to UTI. The isolates were identified based on morphological and biochemical testes. Culture was performed on routine microbiological media. Susceptibility testing was performed according CLSI (2013 guidelines. Detection of carbapenemase producing isolates was performed by modified hodge test (MHT. Metallo-beta-lactamase isolates were detected by imipenem-EDTA combined disc test (CDT. Results: In this study 708 gram negative organisms were isolated from urine samples. E.coli was the most common isolated bacteria (67% followed by Klebsiella spp. (26.5% and Enterobacter spp. (2.5%. In antibiotic susceptibility testing more than 90% of isolates were sensitive to tetracycline, ceftazidime, meropenem, amikacin, cefotaxime, imipenem, and cefepime. Isolates were more resistant to cephalothin (32%, co-trimoxazol (30.5%, and nalidixic acid (25%. Conclusion: In our results isolated organisms from outpatients showed very high sensitivity to common antibiotics. Continuous and regular monitoring of susceptibility pattern of

  6. Validation of a new yeast-based reporter assay consisting of human estrogen receptors alpha/beta and coactivator SRC-1: application for detection of estrogenic activity in environmental samples. (United States)

    Chu, Wai-Ling; Shiizaki, Kazuhiro; Kawanishi, Masanobu; Kondo, Mami; Yagi, Takashi


    Endocrine disruptors are exogenous substances that act like hormones in the endocrine system and disrupt the physiologic function of endogenous hormones. In the present study, we established reporter yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) expressing human estrogen receptors, ERalpha or ERbeta. These strains contain a reporter plasmid carrying an estrogen responsive element (ERE) upstream of the beta-galactosidase gene, and a plasmid expressing a steroid receptor coactivator, SRC-1e. Using these reporter strains, we demonstrated dose-dependent estrogenic activities of different categories of ligands, a natural hormone, 17beta-estradiol (E2); a synthetic drug, diethylstilbestrol (DES); phytoestrogens, genistein, daizein and emodin; and an environmental endocrine disrupter, bisphenol A. EC(50) values of E2 for ERalpha and ERbeta are 5.31 x 10(-10) and 5.85 x 10(-10) M, respectively. We also demonstrated that these yeasts were applicable for measuring estrogenic activities of environmental water samples. Most downstream sites of a river showed similar activity in both ERalpha and ERbeta assays. These yeast strains are useful and convenient for detecting and comparing the estrogenic ligand activities of environmental samples in response to ERalpha and ERbeta.

  7. Development of a multiplex real-time PCR for the rapid detection of the predominant beta-lactamase genes CTX-M, SHV, TEM and CIT-type AmpCs in Enterobacteriaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Roschanski

    Full Text Available Beta-lactamase resistant bacteria and especially ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae are an increasing problem worldwide. For this reason a major interest in efficient and reliable methods for rapid screening of high sample numbers is recognizable. Therefore, a multiplex real-time PCR was developed to detect the predominant class A beta-lactamase genes blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM and CIT-type AmpCs in a one-step reaction. A set of 114 Enterobacteriaceae containing previously identified resistance gene subtypes and in addition 20 undefined animal and environmental isolates were used for the validation of this assay. To confirm the accessibility in variable settings, the real-time runs were performed analogous in two different laboratories using different real-time cyclers. The obtained results showed complete accordance between the real-time data and the predetermined genotypes. Even if sequence analyses are further necessary for a comprehensive characterization, this method was proofed to be reliable for rapid screening of high sample numbers and therefore could be an important tool for e. g. epidemiological purposes or support infection control measures.

  8. Beta-carotene (United States)

    ... patches on the tongue and mouth called oral leukoplakia. Taking beta-carotene by mouth for up to 12 months seems to decrease symptoms of oral leukoplakia. Osteoarthritis. Beta-carotene taken by mouth may prevent ...

  9. Libraries of RGD analogs, labeled through ReO{sup 3+} or TcO{sup 3+} coordination, targeting {alpha}V{beta}3 integrin: development of tracers for the early detection of tumor neo-angiogenesis; Chimiotheques de complexes du technetium et du rhenium ciblant l'integrine {alpha}V{beta}3: developpement de traceurs pour la detection precoce de la neoangiogenese tumorale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aufort, M.


    Integrins form a family of hetero-dimeric integral glycoproteins which play a central role in cell-cell adhesion and cell-matrix interactions. In particular, they are over expressed during tumor neo-angiogenesis. About 10 of them recognize a structured RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) sequence. Analogs of this sequence can be used for the early detection of tumors and metastases. We developed new tracers, labeled with {sup 99m}Tc, for the molecular imaging of {alpha}{sub V{beta}3} integrin. Until recently, there was no reliable ab initio structure prediction of complex molecules containing Re and Tc chelates. Therefore, we preferred a combinatorial approach to develop potential ligands of {alpha}{sub V{beta}3} integrin and we attempted to identify efficient tracers by in vivo screening. This method would account for biodistribution and pharmacokinetics properties in the early steps of the study. Tracers were obtained according two strategies: i) cyclization of linear RGD analogs; ii) combinatorial assembling of independent modules through metal core coordination by the well-known NS{sub 2}+S motif. After synthesis and labeling, the stability of the tracers was investigated in presence of glutathione and in murine plasma. In vitro screening on purified integrin showed that a cyclic rhenium coordinate binds specifically {alpha}{sub V{beta}3}. A tumor model (U87-MG tumor on nude mice) was validated in the laboratory and a method was developed to analyze in vivo experiments. Biodistribution data and percentage of activity found in tumors are encouraging for cyclic compounds though identification of efficient tracers is difficult due to their instability in the conditions of analyses. (author)

  10. The search for neutrinoless double beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez-Cadenas, J J; Mezzetto, M; Monrabal, F; Sorel, M


    In the last few years the search for neutrinoless double beta decay has evolved from being almost a marginal activity in neutrino physics to one of the highest priorities for understanding neutrinos and the origin of mass. There are two main reasons for this paradigm shift: the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which clearly established the existence of massive neutrinos; and the existence of an unconfirmed, but not refuted, claim of evidence for neutrinoless double decay in 76Ge. As a consequence, a new generation of experiments, employing different detection techniques and {\\beta}{\\beta} isotopes, is being actively promoted by experimental groups across the world. In addition, nuclear theorists are making remarkable progress in the calculation of the neutrinoless double beta decay nuclear matrix elements, thus eliminating a substantial part of the theoretical uncertainties affecting the particle physics interpretation of this process. In this report, we review the main aspects of the double beta decay pro...

  11. Coexistence of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in the rabbit heart: quantitative analysis of the regional distribution by (-)-/sup 3/H-dihydroalprenolol binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodde, O.E.; Leifert, F.J.; Krehl, H.J.


    We determined the amount of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in right and left atria and ventricles of rabbits. For this purpose inhibition of specific (-)-/sup 3/H-dihydroalprenolol ((-)-/sup 3/H-DHA) binding (5 nM) by beta 1-selective (practolol, metoprolol) and beta 2-selective (zinterol, IPS 339) adrenergic drugs was determined and analyzed by pseudo-Scatchard (Hofstee) plots. For both atria, inhibition of binding by the four selective beta-adrenergic drugs resulted in non-linear Hofstee plots, suggesting the coexistence of both beta-adrenoceptor subtypes. From these plots we calculated a beta 1:beta 2-adrenoceptor ratio of 72:28 for the right atrium and of 82:18 for the left. In contrast, only a very small amount of beta 2-adrenoceptors (approximately 5-7% of the total beta-adrenoceptor population) could be detected in the ventricles. For comparison we analyzed the inhibition of specific (-)-/sup 3/H-DHA binding in tissues with homogeneous population of beta-adrenoceptors (beta 1:guinea pig left ventricle; beta 2: cerebellum of mature rats). For both tissues the four selective beta-adrenergic drugs showed linear Hofstee plots, demonstrating that in tissues with homogeneous beta-receptor population interaction of each drug with the receptor followed simple mass-action kinetics. We conclude that beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors coexist in rabbit atria while the ventricles are predominantly endowed the beta 1-adrenoceptors.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Three class-D beta-lactamases (OXA2, OXA1 and PSE2) were produced and purified to protein homogeneity. 6beta-lodopenicillanate inactivated the OXA2 enzyme without detectable turnover. Labelling of the same beta-lactamase with 6beta-iodo[H-3]penicillanate allowed the identification of Ser-70 as the a

  13. Laboratory tests in the detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase production: National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS screening test, the E-test, the double disk confirmatory test, and cefoxitin susceptibility testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. d'Azevedo


    Full Text Available Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL production by Klebsiella sp. and E. coli is an emerging problem. In this study, 107 clinical isolates (53 E. coli, 47 K. pneumoniae and 7 K. oxytoca screened as ESBL producers by the NCCLS disk diffusion procedure were submitted to a double disk confirmatory test (DDT and to the E-test double strip for confirmation of ESBL production by demonstration of clavulanic acid inhibition effect (CAIE. Only 72/107 (67% of the isolates were confirmed as ESBL producers by DDT, with diverse results among species. By the E-test, 58/107 (54% isolates were confirmed as ESBL producers, and 18/107 (17% were not determinable. Susceptibility to cefoxitin was found in 57/68 (83% of strains that did not show CAIE. ESBL detection remains a controversial issue and clinical laboratories are in need of a simple and effective way to recognize strains with this kind of resistance.

  14. Sparse aperture masking at the VLT II. Detection limits for the eight debris disks stars $\\beta$ Pic, AU Mic, 49 Cet, $\\eta$ Tel, Fomalhaut, g Lup, HD181327 and HR8799

    CERN Document Server

    Gauchet, L; Lagrange, A -M; Ehrenreich, D; Bonnefoy, M; Girard, J H; Boccaletti, A


    Context. The formation of planetary systems is a common, yet complex mechanism. Numerous stars have been identified to possess a debris disk, a proto-planetary disk or a planetary system. The understanding of such formation process requires the study of debris disks. These targets are substantial and particularly suitable for optical and infrared observations. Sparse Aperture masking (SAM) is a high angular resolution technique strongly contributing to probe the region from 30 to 200 mas around the stars. This area is usually unreachable with classical imaging, and the technique also remains highly competitive compared to vortex coronagraphy. Aims. We aim to study debris disks with aperture masking to probe the close environment of the stars. Our goal is either to find low mass companions, or to set detection limits. Methods. We observed eight stars presenting debris disks ( $\\beta$ Pictoris, AU Microscopii, 49 Ceti, $\\eta$ Telescopii, Fomalhaut, g Lupi, HD181327 and HR8799) with SAM technique on the NaCo ins...

  15. Failure to Detect the Neurotoxin Beta-n-methylamino-l-alanine in Samples Collected during an Avian Vacuolar Myelinopathy (AVM) Epornitic in J. Strom Thurmond Lake (United States)


    equipped with an Agilent 6410 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Detection was done in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode on the double...using an Agilent 6410 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Detection occurred in the MRM mode on the derivatized molecule at m/z 459 with transitions...of BMAA using a recently updated analytical technique , high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry LC-MS/MS. Identifying the

  16. Forward-Looking Betas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Vainberg, Gregory

    Few issues are more important for finance practice than the computation of market betas. Existing approaches compute market betas using historical data. While these approaches differ in terms of statistical sophistication and the modeling of the time-variation in the betas, they are all backward......-looking. This paper introduces a radically different approach to estimating market betas. Using the tools in Bakshi and Madan (2000) and Bakshi, Kapadia and Madan (2003) we employ the information embedded in the prices of individual stock options and index options to compute our forward-looking market beta...

  17. Detection and Estimation of alpha-Amyrin, beta-Sitosterol, Lupeol, and n-Triacontane in Two Medicinal Plants by High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat S. Mallick


    Full Text Available A normal phase high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC method has been developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of four components, namely, alpha-amyrin, beta-sitosterol, lupeol, and n-triacontane from two medicinally important plants, Leptadenia reticulata Wight & Arn. and Pluchea lanceolata (DC. CB. Clarke. In Ayurveda, both plants have been reported to possess immunomodulatory activity. Chromatographic separation of the four components from the methanolic extracts of whole plant powders of Leptadenia reticulata Wight & Arn. and Pluchea lanceolata (DC. CB. Clarke. was performed on TLC aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60F254 using a suitable mobile phase. The densitometric scanning was done after derivatization at λ = 580 nm for α-amyrin, β-sitosterol, and lupeol, and at 366 nm for n-triacontane. The developed HPTLC method has been validated and used for simultaneous quantitation of the four components from the methanolic extracts of whole plant powders of Leptadenia reticulata Wight & Arn. and Pluchea lanceolata (DC. CB. Clarke. The developed HPTLC method is simple, rapid, and precise and can be used for routine quality control.

  18. Geographic distribution of 119 alleles of the alpha and beta globin genes detected in 432 French Caucasian carriers of haemoglobin variant. (United States)

    Chami, B; Braconnier, F; Riou, J; Bardakdjian-Michau, J; Préhu, C; Blouquit, Y; Rosa, J; Wajcman, H; Galactéros, F


    The French population is the result of mixing of different peoples including the Celts, Saxons, Germans, Italians and Hispanics. Between 1981 and 1993 patients were selected during investigations in France for haematological disorders associated or otherwise with the presence of a haemoglobin (Hb) variant. Further carriers of abnormal Hb were identified by HPLC measurement of glycated Hb in diabetics and by neonatal screening. Four-hundred and thirty-two subjects were found to be heterozygous for one of the 119 different alpha and the beta gene alleles encountered. These variants were characterised by a combination of 6 electrophoretic methods and in some cases by protein structure determinations. Some mutants reflected the population movements in and into France. A few mutants are frequently described in the French Caucasian population: Hb Lepore Boston, Hb D Punjab, whereas others appear to be anthropological markers. Hb Winnipeg has only been found in the West of France (Normandy); Hb J Baltimore is mainly found in French subjects of Spanish origin. Several cases of sporadic and previously undescribed mutations of Hb were identified. The last immigration waves from Africa and Asia appear to have contributed to the evolution of the pattern of haemoglobinopathies in the French population (Hb S, Hb O Arab or Hb C).

  19. Beta-keto amphetamines: studies on the metabolism of the designer drug mephedrone and toxicological detection of mephedrone, butylone, and methylone in urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Meyer, Markus R; Wilhelm, Jens; Peters, Frank T; Maurer, Hans H


    In recent years, a new class of designer drugs has appeared on the drugs of abuse market in many countries, namely, the so-called beta-keto (bk) designer drugs such as mephedrone (bk-4-methylmethamphetamine), butylone (bk-MBDB), and methylone (bk-MDMA). The aim of the present study was to identify the metabolites of mephedrone in rat and human urine using GC-MS techniques and to include mephedrone, butylone, and methylone within the authors' systematic toxicological analysis (STA) procedure. Six phase I metabolites of mephedrone were detected in rat urine and seven in human urine suggesting the following metabolic steps: N-demethylation to the primary amine, reduction of the keto moiety to the respective alcohol, and oxidation of the tolyl moiety to the corresponding alcohols and carboxylic acid. The STA procedure allowed the detection of mephedrone, butylone, methylone, and their metabolites in urine of rats treated with doses corresponding to those reported for abuse of amphetamines. Besides macro-based data evaluation, an automated evaluation using the automated mass spectral deconvolution and identification system was performed. Mephedrone and butylone could be detected also in human urine samples submitted for drug testing. Assuming similar kinetics in humans, the described STA procedure should be suitable for proof of an intake of the bk-designer drugs in human urine.

  20. Locus-specific detection of HLA-DQ and -DR antigens by antibodies against synthetic N-terminal octapeptides of the beta chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deufel, T; Grove, A; Kofod, Hans


    detected a 29 kDa component in immunoblots of Raji and AL-34 cell plasma membrane proteins separated by SDS gel electrophoresis. The binding of either N-terminal peptide antiserum was selectively inhibited only by the peptide used as antigen. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis by flow cytofluorometry...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar


    Conclusions- Colistin and Polymyxin-B are more effective to treat multidrug resistant P.aeruginosa. The early detection of MBL producing P. aeruginosa may help in appropriate anti-Pseudomonal therapy to stop the development and dissemination of multidrug resistance strains. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(2.000: 128-131

  2. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in toxicological analysis. Studies on the detection of clobenzorex and its metabolites within a systematic toxicological analysis procedure by GC-MS and by immunoassay and studies on the detection of alpha- and beta-amanitin in urine by atmospheric pressure ionization electrospray LC-MS. (United States)

    Maurer, H H; Kraemer, T; Ledvinka, O; Schmitt, C J; Weber, A A


    GC-MS is the method of choice for toxicological analysis of toxicants volatile in GC while non-volatile and/or thermally labile toxicants need LC-MS for their determination. Studies are presented on the toxicological detection of the amphetamine-like anorectic clobenzorex in urine by GC-MS after acid hydrolysis, extraction and acetylation and by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA, TDx (meth)amphetamine II). After ingestion of 60 mg of clobenzorex, the parent compound and/or its metabolites could be detected by GC-MS for up to 84 h or by FPIA for up to 60 h. Since clobenzorex shows no cross-reactivity with the used immunoassay, the N-dealkylated metabolite amphetamine is responsible for the positive TDx results. The intake of clobenzorex instead of amphetamine can be differentiated by GC-MS detection of hydroxyclobenzorex which is detectable for at least as long as amphetamine. In addition, the described GC-MS procedure allows the simultaneous detection of most of the toxicologically relevant drugs. Furthermore, studies are described on the atmospheric pressure ionization electrospray LC-MS detection of alpha- and beta-amanitin, toxic peptides of amanita mushrooms, in urine after solid-phase extraction on RP-18 columns. Using the single ion monitoring mode with the ions m/z 919 and 920 the amanitins could be detected down to 10 ng/ml of urine which allows us to diagnose intoxications with amanita mushrooms.

  3. Imaging characteristic of dual-phase {sup 18}F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) PET for the concomitant detection of perfusion deficits and beta-amyloid deposition in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Kun-Ju; Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Hsieh, Chia-Ju; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Yen, Tzu-Chen [Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and University, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung University, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences and Healthy Aging Research Center, Taoyuan (China); Hsu, Jung-Lung [Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Section of Dementia and Cognitive Impairment, Department of Neurology, Taoyuan (China); Taipei Medical University, Graduate Institute of Humanities in Medicine, Taipei (China); Huang, Chin-Chang; Huang, Kuo-Lun [Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and University, Department of Neurology, Taoyuan (China)


    We investigated dual-phase {sup 18}F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) PET imaging for the concomitant detection of brain perfusion deficits and beta-amyloid deposition in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and in cognitively healthy controls (HCs). A total of 82 subjects (24 AD patients, 44 MCI patients and 14 HCs) underwent both dual-phase {sup 18}F-AV-45 PET and MRI imaging. Dual-phase dynamic PET imaging consisted of (1) five 1-min scans obtained 1 - 6 min after tracer injection (perfusion {sup 18}F-AV-45 imaging, pAV-45), and (2) ten 1-min scans obtained 50 - 60 min after tracer injection (amyloid {sup 18}F-AV-45 imaging). Amyloid-negative MCI/AD patients were excluded. Volume of interest analysis and statistical parametric mapping of pAV-45 and {sup 18}F-AV-45 images were performed to investigate the perfusion deficits and the beta-amyloid burden in the three study groups. The associations between Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores and global perfusion deficits and amyloid deposition were investigated with linear and segmental linear correlation analyses. HCs generally had normal pAV-45 findings, whereas perfusion deficits were evident in the hippocampus, and temporal, parietal and middle frontal cortices in both MCI and AD patients. The motor-sensory cortex was relatively preserved. MMSE scores in the entire study cohort were significantly associated with the degree of perfusion impairment as assessed by pAV-45 imaging (r = 0.5156, P < 0.0001). {sup 18}F-AV-45 uptake was significantly higher in AD patients than in the two other study groups. However, the correlation between MMSE scores and {sup 18}F-AV-45 uptake in MCI patients was more of a binary phenomenon and began in MCI patients with MMSE score 23.14 when {sup 18}F-AV-45 uptake was higher and MMSE score lower than in patients with early MCI. Amyloid deposition started in the precuneus and the frontal and temporal regions in early MCI, ultimately

  4. Evaluation of a DNA microarray, the check-points ESBL/KPC array, for rapid detection of TEM, SHV, and CTX-M extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and KPC carbapenemases. (United States)

    Naas, T; Cuzon, G; Truong, H; Bernabeu, S; Nordmann, P


    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC carbepenemases) have rapidly emerged worldwide and require rapid identification. The Check-Points ESBL/KPC array, a new commercial system based on genetic profiling for the direct identification of ESBL producers (SHV, TEM, and CTX-M) and of KPC producers, was evaluated. Well-characterized Gram-negative rods (Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii) expressing various ss-lactamases (KPC-2, SHV, TEM, and CTX-M types) were used as well as wild-type reference strains and isolates harboring ss-lactamase genes not detected by the assay. In addition, phenotypically confirmed ESBL producers isolated in clinical samples over a 3-month period at the Bicetre hospital were analyzed using the Check-Points ESBL/KPC array and by standard PCR. The Check-Points ESBL/KPC array allowed fast detection of all TEM, SHV, and CTX-M ESBL genes and of the KPC-2 gene. The assay allowed easy differentiation between non-ESBL TEM and SHV and their ESBL derivatives. None of the other tested ss-lactamase genes were detected, underlining its high specificity. The technique is suited for Enterobacteriaceae but also for P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii. However, for nonfermenters, especially P. aeruginosa, a 1:10 dilution of the total DNA was necessary to detect KPC-2 and SHV-2a genes reliably. The Check-Points ESBL/KPC array is a powerful high-throughput tool for rapid identification of ESBLs and KPC producers in cultures. It provided definitive results within the same working day, allowing rapid implementation of isolation measures and appropriate antibiotic treatment. It showed an interesting potential for routine laboratory testing.

  5. Visual and fluorescent assays for selective detection of beta-amyloid oligomers based on the inner filter effect of gold nanoparticles on the fluorescence of CdTe quantum dots. (United States)

    Xia, Ning; Zhou, Binbin; Huang, Nanbing; Jiang, Mengsha; Zhang, Jiebing; Liu, Lin


    Beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptides are the major constituents of senile plaques in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Aβ monomers (AβMs) can coalesce to form small, soluble oligomers (AβOs), followed by reorganization and assembly into long, thread-like fibrils (AβFs). Recently, soluble AβOs have been regarded as reliable molecular biomarkers for the diagnosis of AD because of their high toxicity for neuronal synapse and high concentration levels in the brains of AD patients. In this work, we reported a label-free, sensitive and selective method for visual and fluorescent detection of AβOs based on the inner filter effect (IFE) of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the fluorescence of CdTe quantum dots (QDs). Specifically, the fluorescence of CdTe QDs was quenched significantly by AuNPs through the IFE. PrP(95-110), an AβOs-specific binding peptide from cellular prion protein, triggered the aggregation and color change of AuNPs suspension; thus, the IFE of AuNPs on the fluorescence of CdTe QDs was weakened and the fluorescence intensity was recovered. However, in the presence of AβOs, the specific interaction of AβOs and PrP(95-110) prevented the absorption of PrP(95-110) onto the surface of AuNPs. As a result, the aggregation of AuNPs was inhibited and the fluorescence intensity of CdTe QDs was quenched again. This label-free method is specific for detection of AβOs but not for AβMs and AβFs. The detection limits were found to be 0.5nM for the visual assay and 0.2nM for the fluorescent detection. We believe that this work would be valuable for many investigations related to AD diagnosis and drug discovery.

  6. Rapid detection of enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum beta-lactamases directly from positive blood cultures by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Oviaño, M; Fernández, B; Fernández, A; Barba, M J; Mouriño, C; Bou, G


    Bacteria that produce extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are an increasing healthcare problem and their rapid detection is a challenge that must be overcome in order to optimize antimicrobial treatment and patient care. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has been used to determine resistance to β-lactams, including carbapenems in Enterobacteriaceae, but the methodology has not been fully validated as it remains time-consuming. We aimed to assess whether MALDI-TOF can be used to detect ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae from positive blood culture bottles in clinical practice. In the assay, 141 blood cultures were tested, 13 of them were real bacteraemias and 128 corresponded to blood culture bottles seeded with bacterial clinical isolates. Bacteraemias were analysed by MALDI-TOF after a positive growth result and the 128 remaining blood cultures 24 h after the bacterial seeding. β-lactamase activity was determined through the profile of peaks associated with the antibiotics cefotaxime and ceftazidime and its hydrolyzed forms. Clavulanic acid was added to rule out the presence of non-ESBL mechanisms. Overall data show a 99% (103 out of 104) sensitivity in detecting ESBL in positive blood cultures. Data were obtained in 90 min (maximum 150 min). The proposed methodology has a great impact on the early detection of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae from positive blood cultures, being a rapid and efficient method and allowing early administration of an appropriate antibiotic therapy.

  7. Collaborative Evaluation of an Erythromycin-Clindamycin Combination Well for Detection of Inducible Clindamycin Resistance in Beta-Hemolytic Streptococci by Use of the CLSI Broth Microdilution Method ▿ (United States)

    Jorgensen, James H.; McElmeel, M. Leticia; Fulcher, Letitia C.; McGee, Lesley; Richter, Sandra S.; Heilmann, K. P.; Ferraro, Mary Jane; Spargo, Jean; Glennen, Anita


    Constitutive or inducible clindamycin resistance can occur in beta-hemolytic streptococci due to the presence of an erm gene. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) has recommended a disk approximation test (D-zone test) with erythromycin and clindamycin disks and a single-well broth test combining erythromycin and clindamycin for detection of inducible clindamycin resistance in staphylococci, but only a disk approximation test for the beta-hemolytic streptococci. This collaborative study assessed two different erythromycin and clindamycin concentration combinations in single wells (1 μg/ml + 0.25 μg/ml [erythromycin plus clindamycin] and 1 μg/ml + 0.5 μg/ml) with three different brands of Mueller-Hinton broth supplemented with 3% lysed horse blood for testing of frozen panels prepared for this study. All labs performed the D-zone test as described by the CLSI. A total of 155 nonduplicate streptococcal isolates (50 group A, 48 group B, 28 group C, and 29 group G isolates) were tested; 99 isolates showed inducible resistance by the D-zone test. There were some differences noted based upon the test medium. The sensitivity of the erythromycin plus clindamycin combination of 1 μg/ml + 0.25 μg/ml was 91 to 100%, while the sensitivity of the combination of 1 μg/ml + 0.5 μg/ml was 95 to 100%. Specificity overall was 98%. The slightly higher sensitivity of the combination of 1 μg/ml + 0.5 μg/ml is recommended. This study has demonstrated that a single-well microdilution test incorporating erythromycin and clindamycin in combination is a sensitive and specific indicator of inducible clindamycin resistance and could be included in routine test panels. PMID:21697321

  8. Betting against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse


    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model's five central predictions: (1) Because constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for......, the return of the BAB factor is low. (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one. (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets....... for US equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures. (2) A betting against beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low-beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns. (3) When funding constraints tighten...

  9. Betting Against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model’s five central predictions: (1) Since constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for U...... of the BAB factor is low; (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one; (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets........S. equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures; (2) A betting-against-beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns; (3) When funding constraints tighten, the return...

  10. Imperfect World of $\\beta\\beta$-decay Nuclear Data Sets

    CERN Document Server

    Pritychenko, B


    The precision of double-beta ($\\beta\\beta$) decay experimental half lives and their uncertainties is reanalyzed. The method of Benford's distributions has been applied to nuclear reaction, structure and decay data sets. First-digit distribution trend for $\\beta\\beta$-decay T$_{1/2}^{2\

  11. Detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in vegetables, soil and water of the farm environment in Tunisia. (United States)

    Ben Said, Leila; Jouini, Ahlem; Klibi, Naouel; Dziri, Raoudha; Alonso, Carla Andrea; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Ben Slama, Karim; Torres, Carmen


    One-hundred-nine samples of 18 different farms (49 of food-vegetables, 41 of soil and 19 of irrigation water) and 45 vegetable food samples of 13 markets were collected in Tunisia. These samples were inoculated in MacConkey agar plates supplemented with cefotaxime (2 μg/ml). ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-Eb) were detected in 10 of the 109 farm samples (vegetables, 8.2%; soil, 7.3%; water, 15.8%), and in 4 of 45 vegetables of markets (8.9%), recovering 15 ESBL-Eb. Isolates and ESBL genes detected were: Escherichia coli (n=8: 5 blaCTX-M-1, 2 blaCTX-M-15 and one blaCTX-M-14), Citrobacter freundii (n=4: 3 blaCTX-M-15 and one blaSHV-12), Enterobacter hormaechei (n=2: 2 blaCTX-M-15) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=1, blaCTX-M-15). The ISEcp1 sequence was found upstream of blaCTX-M genes in 13 of 14 strains (in three cases truncated by IS5), and orf477 or IS903 downstream. Class 1 integrons were detected in five strains and contained two gene cassette arrangements (dfrA17-aadA5 and aadA1). Most isolates tested showed a multiresistant phenotype. All blaCTX-M-15-positive strains carried the aac(6')-1b-cr gene, that affects to amikacin-tobramycin-kanamycin-ciprofloxacin. Five ESBL-Eb strains carried genes of the qnr family. The 8 ESBL-positive E. coli isolates were typed as: ST58/B1 (n=3) and ST117/D, ST131/B2, ST10/A, ST23/A, and the new ST3496/D (one strain, each). From 1-2 plasmids were detected in all ESBL-positive E. coli isolates (63-179 kb). The ESBL genes were transferred by conjugation in 4 blaCTX-M-1-positive E. coli strains, and transconjugants acquired a 97 kb IncI1 plasmid. ESBL-Eb isolates are frequently disseminated in vegetable farms and potentially could be transmitted to humans through the food chain.

  12. Evaluation of phenotypic tests for detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase and metallo-beta-lactamase in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Chauhan


    Full Text Available Context: Carbapenemase production is an important mechanism responsible for carbapenem resistance. Aims: Phenotypic detection and differentiation of types of carbapenemase in carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae is important for proper infection control and appropriate patient management. Settings and Design: We planned a study to determine the occurrence of Class A Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC type and Class B Metallo-β-lactamase (MBL type carbapenemase in hospital and community. Materials and Methods: Clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species and simultaneously evaluate different phenotypic methods for detection of carbapenemases. Results: It was observed that 20.72% clinical isolates of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. were resistant to carbapenem on screening of which, 14.64% were E. coli and 29.69% were Klebsiella spp. Using phenotypic confirmatory tests the occurrence of carbapenemase production was found to be 87.01% in E. coli and 91.51% in Klebsiella spp. using both modified Hodge test (MHT and combined disk test (CDT using imipenem-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Conclusions: Both MBL and KPC type carbapenemases were seen among clinical isolates of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. CDT is simple, rapid and technically less demanding procedure, which can be used in all clinical laboratories. Supplementing MHT with CDT is reliable phenotypic tests to identify the class A and class B carbapenemase producers.

  13. Antimicrobial resistance in faecal Escherichia coli isolates from farmed red deer and wild small mammals. Detection of a multiresistant E. coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase. (United States)

    Alonso, C A; González-Barrio, D; Tenorio, Carmen; Ruiz-Fons, F; Torres, C


    Eighty-nine Escherichia coli isolates recovered from faeces of red deer and small mammals, cohabiting the same area, were analyzed to determine the prevalence and mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance and molecular typing. Antimicrobial resistance was detected in 6.7% of isolates, with resistances to tetracycline and quinolones being the most common. An E. coli strain carrying blaCTX-M-1 as well as other antibiotic resistant genes included in an unusual class 1 integron (Intl1-dfrA16-blaPSE-1-aadA2-cmlA1-aadA1-qacH-IS440-sul3-orf1-mef(B)Δ-IS26) was isolated from a deer. The blaCTX-M-1 gene was transferred by conjugation and transconjugants also acquired an IncN plasmid. This strain was typed as ST224, which seems to be well adapted to both clinical and environmental settings. The phylogenetic distribution of the 89 strains varied depending on the animal host. This work reveals low antimicrobial resistance levels among faecal E. coli from wild mammals, which reflects a lower selective pressure affecting these bacteria, compared to livestock. However, it is remarkable the detection of a multi-resistant ESBL-E. coli with an integron carrying clinically relevant antibiotic-resistance genes, which can contribute to the dissemination of resistance determinants among different ecosystems.

  14. Evaluation of the HB&L carbapenemase and extended spectrum beta lactamase-AmpC automated screening kits for the rapid detection of resistant Enterobacteriaceae in rectal swabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Marani


    Full Text Available Background. In the past two decades, a rapid increase of infections due to multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae was reported worldwide, including in Italy. These bacteria express genes encoding for extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL or bear a plasmid-mediated AmpC that induce phenotypically a resistance to the last-generation cephalosporins; even more worrying is the rapid increase of Enterobacteriaceae carrying genes conferring resistance to carbapenems (CPE. Materials and methods. The gut may serve as reservoir for these antibiotic drug-resistant bacteria: as a consequence, the rapid detection of drug resistant Enterobacteriaceae from rectal swabs is an important tool to identify rectal carriage of resistant bacteria. This procedure is the basic tool to successfully implement the infection control measures in the hospital wards. The study evaluated the capability of the HB&L ESBL/AmpC and CARBAPENEMASE screening kit (Alifax, Padua, Italy to rapidly identify the drug resistant enterobacteriaceae from rectal swabs: the performance was compared with the conventional method. Results and conclusions. The overall agreement was very good (91% for the detection of ESBL-AmpC, and 96.2% for the identification of CPE; this method is thus an efficient tool to quickly report positive multidrug resistant bacteria in rectal swabs.

  15. Pharmacokinetically Stabilized Cystine Knot Peptides that Bind Alpha-v-Beta-6 Integrin with Single-Digit Nanomolar Affinities for Detection of Pancreatic Cancer (United States)

    Kimura, Richard H.; Teed, Robert; Hackel, Benjamin J.; Pysz, Marybeth A.; Chuang, Courtney Z.; Sathirachinda, Ataya; Willmann, Jürgen K.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.


    Purpose Detection of pancreatic cancer remains high priority and effective diagnostic tools are needed for clinical applications. Many cancer cells overexpress integrin αvβ6, a cell surface receptor being evaluated as a novel clinical biomarker. Experimental Design To validate this molecular target, several highly stable cystine knot peptides were engineered by directed evolution to bind specifically and with high-affinity (3-6 nM) to integrin αvβ6. The binders don’t cross-react with related integrin αvβ5, integrin α5β1 or tumor-angiogenesis associated integrin, αvβ3. Results Positron emission tomography showed that these disulfide-stabilized peptides rapidly accumulate at tumors expressing integrin αvβ6. Clinically relevant tumor-to-muscle ratios of 7.7 ± 2.4 to 11.3 ± 3.0 were achieved within one hour after radiotracer injection. Minimization of off-target dosing was achieved by reformatting αvβ6-binding activities across various natural and pharmacokinetically-stabilized cystine knot scaffolds with different amino acid content. We demonstrate that a peptide scaffold’s primary sequence directs its pharmacokinetics. Scaffolds with high arginine or glutamic acid content suffered high renal retention of > 75 percent injected dose per gram (%ID/g). Substitution of these amino acids with renally-cleared amino acids, notably serine, led to significant decreases in renal accumulation of < 20 %ID/g 1h post injection (p < 0.05, n=3). Conclusions We have engineered highly stable cystine knot peptides with potent and specific integrin αvβ6 binding activities for cancer detection. Pharmacokinetic engineering of scaffold primary sequence led to significant decreases in off-target radiotracer accumulation. Optimization of binding affinity, specificity, stability and pharmacokinetics will facilitate translation of cystine knots for cancer molecular imaging. PMID:22173551

  16. Negative Beta Encoder

    CERN Document Server

    Kohda, Tohru; Aihara, Kazuyuki


    A new class of analog-digital (A/D), digital-analog (D/A) converters as an alternative to conventional ones, called $\\beta$-encoder, has been shown to have exponential accuracy in the bit rates while possessing self-correction property for fluctuations of amplifier factor $\\beta$ and quantizer threshold $\

  17. Double beta decay experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Barabash, A S


    The present status of double beta decay experiments is reviewed. The results of the most sensitive experiments are discussed. Proposals for future double beta decay experiments with a sensitivity to the $$ at the level of (0.01--0.1) eV are considered.

  18. Spectroscopy with {beta}2p and {beta}-{nu} recoil shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fynbo, H.O.U. E-mail:; Axelsson, L.; Aeystoe, J.; Bergmann, U.C.; Borge, M.J.G.; Fraile, L.M.; Honkanen, A.; Hornshoej, P.; Jading, Y.; Jokinen, A.; Jonson, B.; Martel, I.; Mukha, I.; Nilsson, T.; Nyman, G.; Oinonen, M.; Riisager, K.; Siiskonen, T.; Smedberg, M.H.; Thaysen, J.; Tengblad, O.; Wenander, F


    The beta-delayed proton emission from the lightest Ar-isotopes has been measured with a high-granularity, large solid-angle Si-detector setup. Although designed for the detection of beta-delayed two-proton and three-proton events, the setup also permitted measurement of proton energy shifts due to the beta-neutrino recoil. We discuss how spectroscopic information can be extracted from such measurements, even at the drip line. For the case of {sup 31}Ar, the ground-state spin could be determined as 5/2.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: beta thalassemia (United States)

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions beta thalassemia beta thalassemia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Beta thalassemia is a blood disorder that reduces the production ...

  20. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng


    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  1. Selective detection of uric acid in the presence of ascorbic acid at physiological pH by using a beta-cyclodextrin modified copolymer of sulfanilic acid and N-acetylaniline. (United States)

    Wu, Shouguo; Wang, Taoling; Gao, Zongyong; Xu, Haihong; Zhou, Baineng; Wang, Chuanqin


    A beta-cyclodextrin (CD) modified copolymer membrane of sulfanilic acid (p-ASA) and N-acetylaniline (SPNAANI) on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was prepared and used to determine uric acid (UA) in the presence of a large excess of ascorbic acid (AA) by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The properties of the copolymer were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. The oxidation peaks of AA and UA were well separated at the composite membrane modified electrode in phosphate buffer solution (PBS, pH 7.4). A linear relationship between the peak current and the concentration of UA was obtained in the range from 1.0 x 10(-5) to 3.5 x 10(-4)mol L(-1), and the detection limit was 2.7 x 10(-6)mol L(-1) at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. Two hundred and fifty-fold excess of AA did not interfere with the determination of UA. The application of the prepared electrode was demonstrated by measuring UA in human serum samples without any pretreatment, and the results were comparatively in agreement with the spectrometric clinical assay method.

  2. Detection of serum antibodies cross-reacting with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and beta-cell antigen zinc transporter 8 homologous peptides in patients with high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pinna

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: MAP3865c, a Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP cell membrane protein, has a relevant sequence homology with zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8, a beta-cell membrane protein involved in Zn++ transportation. Recently, antibodies recognizing MAP3865c epitopes have been shown to cross-react with ZnT8 in type 1 diabetes patients. The purpose of this study was to detect antibodies against MAP3865c peptides in patients with high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy and speculate on whether they may somehow be involved in the pathogenesis of this severe retinal disorder. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from 62 type 1 and 80 type 2 diabetes patients with high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy and 81 healthy controls. Antibodies against 6 highly immunogenic MAP3865c peptides were detected by indirect ELISA. RESULTS: Type 1 diabetes patients had significantly higher rates of positive antibodies than controls. Conversely, no statistically significant differences were found between type 2 diabetes patients and controls. After categorization of type 1 diabetes patients into two groups, one with positive, the other with negative antibodies, we found that they had similar mean visual acuity (∼ 0.6 and identical rates of vitreous hemorrhage (28.6%. Conversely, Hashimoto's thyroiditis prevalence was 4/13 (30.7% in the positive antibody group and 1/49 (2% in the negative antibody group, a statistically significant difference (P = 0.016. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed that type 1 diabetes patients have significantly higher rates of positive antibodies against MAP/ZnT8 peptides, but failed to find a correlation between the presence of these antibodies and the severity degree of high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The significantly higher prevalence of Hashimoto's disease among type 1 diabetes patients with positive antibodies might suggest a possible common environmental trigger for these conditions.

  3. Métodos alternativos para detecção de betalactamase de espectro estendido em Escherichia coli e Klebsiella pneumoniae Alternative methods for the detection of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsander Costa Martins


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A resistência a antimicrobianos tem aumentado rapidamente nos últimos anos no Brasil e no mundo e, embora exista uma variedade de mecanismos de resistência, destaca-se a produção de betalactamase de espectro estendido (ESBL como um dos principais. Essas enzimas são mediadas por plasmídios, conferem resistência a vários antimicrobianos betalactâmicos e são inibidas por compostos, como ácido clavulânico, sulbactam e tazobactam. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar metodologias alternativas à técnica padrão preconizada pelo Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI para detecção de ESBL. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram realizados testes com 36 isolados (26 de E. coli e 10 de K. pneumoniae mediante disco combinado (CLSI e técnicas alternativas designadas meio disco (MD e substituição de discos (SD. CONCLUSÃO: As duas metodologias propostas apresentaram resultados satisfatórios com sensibilidade superior a 90% e custo inferior à técnica de referência (disco combinado, podendo ser utilizadas na pesquisa de ESBL.INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance has increased apace in Brazil and worldwide in the last years, even though there is a great variety of resistance mechanisms and extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL is among the main ones. These enzymes are plasmid mediated, which causes resistance to some beta-lactam antimicrobials and are inhibited by compounds such as clavulanic acid, sulbactam and tazobactam. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare alternative methods to the standard ESBL detection technique recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Tests with 36 isolates (26 E. coli and 10 K. pneumoniae were performed by means of CLSI disk diffusion method and alternative techniques designated as half disk (HD and disk substitution (SD. CONCLUSION: Both methods yielded satisfactory results with higher sensitivity (90% and lower costs

  4. A new ultrasensitive bioluminogenic enzyme substrate for beta-galactosidase. (United States)

    Geiger, R; Schneider, E; Wallenfels, K; Miska, W


    A derivative of D-luciferin, D-luciferin-O-beta-galactoside, was synthesized and used as highly sensitive substrate for beta-galactosidase. The substrate was physicochemically characterized. Enzymatic cleavage of the new compound by beta-galactosidase was demonstrated and kinetic constants Km, Vmax, kcat and kcat/Km have been determined. The compound has been proved to be a highly sensitive substrate for beta-galactosidase, permitting a limit of detection of 3.7 x 10(-19) mol of enzyme per assay.

  5. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kai Zuber


    The physics potential of neutrinoless double beta decay is discussed. Furthermore, experimental considerations as well as the current status of experiments are presented. Finally, an outlook towards the future, work on nuclear matrix elements and alternative processes is given.

  6. Molecular analysis of beta-globin gene mutations among Thai beta-thalassemia children: results from a single center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonyawat B


    Full Text Available Boonchai Boonyawat,1 Chalinee Monsereenusorn,2 Chanchai Traivaree2 1Division of Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Phramongkutklao Hospital and College of Medicine, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Phramongkutklao Hospital and College of Medicine, Bangkok, Thailand Background: Beta-thalassemia is one of the most common genetic disorders in Thailand. Clinical phenotype ranges from silent carrier to clinically manifested conditions including severe beta-thalassemia major and mild beta-thalassemia intermedia. Objective: This study aimed to characterize the spectrum of beta-globin gene mutations in pediatric patients who were followed-up in Phramongkutklao Hospital. Patients and methods: Eighty unrelated beta-thalassemia patients were enrolled in this study including 57 with beta-thalassemia/hemoglobin E, eight with homozygous beta-thalassemia, and 15 with heterozygous beta-thalassemia. Mutation analysis was performed by multiplex amplification refractory mutation system (M-ARMS, direct DNA sequencing of beta-globin gene, and gap polymerase chain reaction for 3.4 kb deletion detection, respectively. Results: A total of 13 different beta-thalassemia mutations were identified among 88 alleles. The most common mutation was codon 41/42 (-TCTT (37.5%, followed by codon 17 (A>T (26.1%, IVS-I-5 (G>C (8%, IVS-II-654 (C>T (6.8%, IVS-I-1 (G>T (4.5%, and codon 71/72 (+A (2.3%, and all these six common mutations (85.2% were detected by M-ARMS. Six uncommon mutations (10.2% were identified by DNA sequencing including 4.5% for codon 35 (C>A and 1.1% initiation codon mutation (ATG>AGG, codon 15 (G>A, codon 19 (A>G, codon 27/28 (+C, and codon 123/124/125 (-ACCCCACC, respectively. The 3.4 kb deletion was detected at 4.5%. The most common genotype of beta-thalassemia major patients was codon 41/42 (-TCTT/codon 26 (G>A or betaE accounting for 40%. Conclusion: All of the beta-thalassemia alleles have been characterized by

  7. Purification and properties of beta-galactosidase from Aspergillus nidulans. (United States)

    Díaz, M; Pedregosa, A M; de Lucas, J R; Torralba, S; Monistrol, I F; Laborda, F


    Beta-Galactosidase from mycelial extract of Aspergillus nidulans has been purified by substrate affinity chromatography and used to obtain anti-beta-galactosidase polyclonal antibodies. A. nidulans growing in lactose as carbon source synthesizes one active form of beta-galactosidase which seems to be a multimeric enzyme of 450 kDa composed of monomers with 120 and 97 kDa. Although the enzyme was not released to the culture medium, some enzymatic activity was detected in a cell-wall extract, thus suggesting that it can be an extracellular enzyme. Beta-Galactosidase of A. nidulans is a very unstable enzyme with an optimum pH value of 7.5 and an optimum temperature of 30 degrees C. It was only active against beta-galactoside substrates like lactose and p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside (PNPG).

  8. Alpha and Beta Determinations

    CERN Document Server

    Dunietz, Isard


    Because the Bd -> J/psi Ks asymmetry determines only sin(2 beta), a discrete ambiguity in the true value of beta remains. This note reviews how the ambiguity can be removed. Extractions of the CKM angle alpha are discussed next. Some of the methods require very large data samples and will not be feasible in the near future. In the near future, semi-inclusive CP-violating searches could be undertaken, which are reviewed last.

  9. Liquid chromatographic determination of beta-cyclodextrin derivatives based on fluorescence enhancement after inclusion complexation. (United States)

    Reeuwijk, H J; Irth, H; Tjaden, U R; Merkus, F W; van der Greef, J


    A liquid chromatographic method using fluorescence detection for the determination of beta-cyclodextrin (beta CD) and its derivatives is presented. The chromatographic system is based on size-exclusion chromatography with the addition of the fluorophoric compound 1-naphthol to the mobile phase. Detection is based on fluorescence enhancement caused by the formation of inclusion complexes. By incorporating 10(-4) M 1-naphthol in the mobile phase, detection limits of 90, 27, 370 and 37 pmol were obtained for beta CD, hydroxypropyl-beta CD, trimethyl-beta CD and dimethyl-beta CD, respectively. The method was applied to the determination of dimethyl-beta CD in urine: the minimum detectable concentration was 0.2 microgram/ml after preconcentration of 10 ml of urine.

  10. A background free double beta decay experiment


    Giomataris, Ioannis


    We present a new detection scheme for rejecting backgrounds in neutrino less double beta decay experiments. It relies on the detection of Cherenkov light emitted by electrons in the MeV region. The momentum threshold is tuned to reach a good discrimination between background and good events. We consider many detector concepts and a range of target materials. The most promising is a high-pressure 136Xe emitter for which the required energy threshold is easily adjusted. Combination of this conc...

  11. {beta} - amyloid imaging probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Imaging distribution of {beta} - amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease is very important for early and accurate diagnosis. Early trial of the {beta} -amyloid plaques includes using radiolabeled peptides which can be only applied for peripheral {beta} - amyloid plaques due to limited penetration through the blood brain barrier (BBB). Congo red or Chrysamine G derivatives were labeled with Tc-99m for imaging {beta} - amyloid plaques of Alzheimer patient's brain without success due to problem with BBB penetration. Thioflavin T derivatives gave breakthrough for {beta} - amyloid imaging in vivo, and a benzothiazole derivative [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 brought a great success. Many other benzothiazole, benzoxazole, benzofuran, imidazopyridine, and styrylbenzene derivatives have been labeled with F-18 and I-123 to improve the imaging quality. However, [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 still remains as the best. However, short half-life of C-11 is a limitation of wide distribution of this agent. So, it is still required to develop an Tc-99m, F-18 or I-123 labeled agent for {beta} - amyloid imaging agent.

  12. Beta cell dynamics: beta cell replenishment, beta cell compensation and diabetes. (United States)

    Cerf, Marlon E


    Type 2 diabetes, characterized by persistent hyperglycemia, arises mostly from beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance and remains a highly complex metabolic disease due to various stages in its pathogenesis. Glucose homeostasis is primarily regulated by insulin secretion from the beta cells in response to prevailing glycemia. Beta cell populations are dynamic as they respond to fluctuating insulin demand. Beta cell replenishment and death primarily regulate beta cell populations. Beta cells, pancreatic cells, and extra-pancreatic cells represent the three tiers for replenishing beta cells. In rodents, beta cell self-replenishment appears to be the dominant source for new beta cells supported by pancreatic cells (non-beta islet cells, acinar cells, and duct cells) and extra-pancreatic cells (liver, neural, and stem/progenitor cells). In humans, beta cell neogenesis from non-beta cells appears to be the dominant source of beta cell replenishment as limited beta cell self-replenishment occurs particularly in adulthood. Metabolic states of increased insulin demand trigger increased insulin synthesis and secretion from beta cells. Beta cells, therefore, adapt to support their physiology. Maintaining physiological beta cell populations is a strategy for targeting metabolic states of persistently increased insulin demand as in diabetes.

  13. Dysregulated transforming growth factor-beta in neonatal and adult autoimmune MRL-lpr mice. (United States)

    Kreft, B; Yokoyama, H; Naito, T; Kelley, V R


    Transforming growth factor- beta (TGF- beta) is a cytokine that promotes inflammatory processes and prevents tissue injury. Autoimmune destruction of the kidney in MRL-lpr mice is spontaneous, rapid, fatal and consists of glomerular damage and an influx of lymphocytes surrounding vessels and in the interstitium. In MRL-lpr mice, cytokine dysregulation is apparent in neonates and continues throughout the life span. Circulating levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF- alpha) and colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) are detected in neonatal mice and progressively increase in proportion to the loss of renal function. We now report elevated intracellular expression of distinct isoforms of TGF- beta (TGF- beta 3, TGF- beta 2, and TGF- beta 1) detected immunohistochemically in MRL-lpr kidneys and other tissues including the liver and thymus. Enhanced TGF- beta 3 and TGF- beta 2 isoforms are detectable in neonatal mice within the renal tubular epithelial cells (TEC) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). In MRL-lpr mice 4-6 months of age, TGF- beta 2 and TGF- beta 1 are detected in TEC, VSMC, glomerular epithelial cells (GEC) and in perivascular infiltrating cells. By comparison, TGF- beta is minimally detectable in the normal kidneys of age and sex matched MRL(-)+2 or C3H/Fej mice. Paradoxically, in vitro cultured TEC and VSMC from MRL-lpr mice secrete less TGF- beta than TEC and VSMC isolated from MRL(-)+2 or C3H/FeJ mice. TNF- alpha, but not IL-6, CSF-1, or IFN- gamma stimulated the secretion of TGF- beta in TEC and VSMC. Our data demonstrate the dysregulation of TGF- beta isoforms in neonatal and adult MRL-lpr mice prior to and after the onset of autoimmune renal disease. We suggest that TNF- alpha and/or other molecules increase TGF- beta expression in MRL-lpr mice. We speculate that enhanced expression of TGF- beta promotes autoinmune renal injury in MRL-lpr mice.

  14. T cell precursor migration towards beta 2-microglobulin is involved in thymus colonization of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunon, D; Kaufman, J; Salomonsen, J;


    beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) attracts hemopoietic precursors from chicken bone marrow cells in vitro. The cell population responding to beta 2m increases during the second period of thymus colonization, which takes place at days 12-14 of incubation. The precursors from 13.5 day old embryos were...... isolated after migration towards beta 2m in vitro and shown to be able to colonize a 13 day old thymus in ovo, where they subsequently acquire thymocyte markers. In contrast these beta 2m responsive precursors did not colonize embryonic bursa, i.e. differentiate into B lymphocytes. During chicken...... embryogenesis, peaks of beta 2m transcripts and of free beta 2m synthesis can only be detected in the thymus. The peak of free beta 2m synthesis in the thymus and the increase of beta 2m responding bone marrow cells both occur concomitantly with the second wave of thymus colonization in chicken embryo, facts...

  15. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in Klebsiella spp and Escherichia coli obtained in a Brazilian teaching hospital: detection, prevalence and molecular typing beta-lactamases de espectro ampliado em Klebsiella spp e em Escherichia coli obtidas em um hospital escola brasileiro: detecção, prevalência e tipagem molecular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Peixoto de Freitas


    Full Text Available His study was performed to compare the methods of detection and to estimate the prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL among Klebsiella spp and E.coli in a university hospital in southern Brazil. We also used a molecular typing method to evaluate the genetic correlation between isolates of ESBL K.pneumoniae. Production of ESBL was investigated in 95 clinical isolates of Klebsiella spp and Escherichia coli from Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, using Kirby-Bauer zone diameter (KB, double-disk diffusion (DD, breakpoint for ceftazidime (MIC CAZ, increased zone diameter with clavulanate (CAZ/CAC and ratio of ceftazidime MIC/ceftazidime-clavulanate MIC (MIC CAZ/CAC. Molecular typing was performed by DNA macrorestriction analysis followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The KB method displayed the highest rates of ESBL (up to 70% of Klebsiella and 59% of E.coli, contrasting with all the other methods (p Este estudo foi desenvolvido para comparar métodos de detecção e para estimar a prevalência de Klebsiella spp e E.coli produtoras de beta-lactamases de espetro ampliado (ESBL em um Hospital Universitário no sul do Brasil. A correlação genética, determinada através de método molecular de tipagem, entre as amostras de K. pneumoniae também foi determinada. A produção de ESBL foi investigada em 95 amostras de Klebsiella spp e E.coli obtidas de pacientes no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre usando-se: medida do diâmetro a zona de inibição (KB, dupla-difusão de disco (DD, valores de concentração inibitória mínima da ceftazidima (MIC CAZ, aumento do diâmetro da zona de inibição com adição de clavulanato (CAZ/CAC e a relação entre o MIC da ceftazidima/MIC ceftazidima com clavulanato (MIC CAZ/CAC. A tipagem molecular foi realizada utilizando-se o método de macrorestrição de DNA e eletroforese em campo pulsado (PFGE. O método KB apresentou as maiores taxas de produção de ESBL (> 70% para Klebsiella e

  16. A fluorescent assay amenable to measuring production of beta-D-glucuronides produced from recombinant UDP-glycosyl transferase enzymes. (United States)

    Trubetskoy, O V; Shaw, P M


    Beta-glucuronidase cleavage of 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-glucuronide generates the highly fluorescent compound, 4-methylumbelliferone. We show that other beta-D-glucuronide compounds act as competitors in this assay. The 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-glucuronide cleavage assay can easily be adapted to high throughput formats to detect the presence of beta-D glucuronides generated using recombinant glycosyl transferase preparations.

  17. Boosted beta regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schmid

    Full Text Available Regression analysis with a bounded outcome is a common problem in applied statistics. Typical examples include regression models for percentage outcomes and the analysis of ratings that are measured on a bounded scale. In this paper, we consider beta regression, which is a generalization of logit models to situations where the response is continuous on the interval (0,1. Consequently, beta regression is a convenient tool for analyzing percentage responses. The classical approach to fit a beta regression model is to use maximum likelihood estimation with subsequent AIC-based variable selection. As an alternative to this established - yet unstable - approach, we propose a new estimation technique called boosted beta regression. With boosted beta regression estimation and variable selection can be carried out simultaneously in a highly efficient way. Additionally, both the mean and the variance of a percentage response can be modeled using flexible nonlinear covariate effects. As a consequence, the new method accounts for common problems such as overdispersion and non-binomial variance structures.

  18. Beta and Gamma Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Gaffney, C. F.; Clark, P. A.;


    Experimental and/or theoretical estimates are presented concerning, (i) attenuation within the sample of beta and gamma radiation from the soil, (ii) the gamma dose within the sample due to its own radioactivity, and (iii) the soil gamma dose in the proximity of boundaries between regions...... of differing radioactivity. It is confirmed that removal of the outer 2 mm of sample is adequate to remove influence from soil beta dose and estimates are made of the error introduced by non-removal. Other evaluations include variation of the soil gamma dose near the ground surface and it appears...

  19. Total beta-globin gene deletion has high frequency in Filipinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick, N.; Miyakawa, F.; Hunt, J.A. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)] [and others


    The distribution of {beta}-thalassemia [{beta}{sup Th}] mutations is unique to each ethnic group. Most mutations affect one or a few bases; large deletions have been rare. Among families screened in Hawaii, [{beta}{sup Th}] heterozygotes were diagnosed by microcytosis, absence of abnormal hemoglobins on isoelectric focusing, and raised Hb A{sub 2} by chromatography. Gene frequency for {beta}{sup Th} was 0.02 in Filipinos. In Filipinos, polymerase chain reaction [PCR] with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for {beta}{sup Th} mutations detected a mutation in only 6 of 42 {beta}{sup Th} heterozygotes; an IVS2-666 C/T polymorphism showed non-heterozygosity in 37 and heterozygosity in only 5 of these {beta}{sup Th} heterozygotes. One {beta}{sup Th}/{beta}{sup Th} major patient and his mother had no mutation detected by allele-specific oligomer hybridization; PCR failed to amplify any DNA from his {beta}-globin gene. After a total {beta}-globin gene deletion [{beta}{sup Del}] was found in a Filipino family in Ontario, specific PCR amplification for {beta}{sup Del} detected this in 43 of 53 {beta}{sup Th} Filipino samples tested; the above {beta}{sup Th}/{beta}{sup Th} patient was a ({beta}{sup Del}/{beta}{sup Del}) homozygote. The {beta}{sup Del} may account for over 60% of all {beta}{sup Th} alleles in Filipinos; this is the highest proportion of a deletion {beta}{sup Th} mutation reported from any population. Most but not all {beta}{sup Del} heterozygotes had high Hb F [5.13 {plus_minus} 3.94 mean {plus_minus} 1 s.d.] compared to the codon 41/42 four base deletion common in Chinese [2.30 {plus_minus} 0.86], or to {beta}{sup Th} heterozygotes with normal {alpha}-globin genes [2.23 {plus_minus} 0.80].

  20. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) induces thrombocytosis in mice: Possible implication of IL-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, H.; Ishibashi, T.; Shikama, Y.; Okano, A.; Akiyama, Y.; Uchida, T.; Maruyama, Y. (Fukushima Medical College (Japan))


    We administered recombinant human interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), the common mediator of inflammation process, to C57B1/6 male mice (0.5 microgram, every 12 hours over five times) intraperitoneally and consequently induced a remarkable thrombocytosis. Day 1 was designated as the following day of the last injection in the morning. A significant thrombocytosis was observed on days 1 through 5 with a peak on day 2 (162 +/- 9 x 10(4)/mm3) compared with the control mice injected with heated IL-1 beta (101 +/- 11 x 10(4)/mm3). A striking increase in mean size of marrow megakaryocytes was noted on days 1 and 2. The incorporation of 75Se-selenomethionine into circulating platelets as a measure of platelet production was about 2.3 times higher in IL-1 beta-treated mice than in control mice. To determine which factor(s) is responsible for elicited thrombocytosis, the in vitro studies and bioassays for several hematopoietic factors were performed. IL-1 beta by itself did not stimulate megakaryocytopoiesis in vitro, suggesting that the thrombocytosis is attributed to other factor(s) via IL-1 beta stimulation. Serum colony-stimulating factor (CSF) activity after a single IL-1 beta (0.5 microgram) injection, monitored by colony assay with 10% tested serum, peaked at 3 hours. Formed colonies were mostly granulocyte (G) and granulocyte-macrophage (GM)-types, and studies using rabbit anti-mouse GM-CSF serum or using human marrow as target cells showed that the CSF activity of the tested serum consisted of, at least, GM-CSF and G-CSF. Addition of IL-3 concomitantly with the tested serum gave rise to a greater number of megakaryocytic colonies. Serum IL-3, monitored by IL-3-dependent cell line 32D clone 5, and erythropoietin activities were not detected at serum level in IL-1 beta-treated mice.

  1. Sizeable beta-strength in 31Ar (beta 3p) decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Koldste, G.; Blank, B.; J. G. Borge, M.


    We present for the first time precise spectroscopic information on the recently discovered decay mode beta-delayed 3p-emission. The detection of the 3p events gives an increased sensitivity to the high energy part of the Gamow-Teller strength distribution from the decay of 31Ar revealing that as ...

  2. Applied Beta Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, B.L.


    Measurements of beta and/or nonpenetrating exposure results is complicated and past techniques and capabilities have resulted in significant inaccuracies in recorded results. Current developments have resulted in increased capabilities which make the results more accurate and should result in less total exposure to the work force. Continued development of works in progress should provide equivalent future improvements.

  3. Beta Thalassemia (For Parents) (United States)

    ... had their spleens removed. Slower growth rates. The anemia resulting from beta thalassemia can cause children to grow more slowly and also can lead ... boost production of new red blood cells. Some children with moderate anemia may require an occasional blood transfusion , particularly after ...

  4. Trichoderma .beta.-glucosidase (United States)

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian


    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl3, and the corresponding BGL3 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL3, recombinant BGL3 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  5. Roughing up Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Li, Sophia Zhengzi; Todorov, Viktor

    Motivated by the implications from a stylized equilibrium pricing framework, we investigate empirically how individual equity prices respond to continuous, or \\smooth," and jumpy, or \\rough," market price moves, and how these different market price risks, or betas, are priced in the cross-section...

  6. TGF-beta and osteoarthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaney Davidson, E.N.; Kraan, P.M. van der; Berg, W.B. van den


    OBJECTIVE: Cartilage damage is a major problem in osteoarthritis (OA). Growth factors like transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) have great potential in cartilage repair. In this review, we will focus on the potential therapeutic intervention in OA with TGF-beta, application of the growth facto

  7. Thymosin Beta 4 and Thymosin Beta 10 Expression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (United States)

    Theunissen, W.; Fanni, D.; Nemolato, S.; Di Felice, E.; Cabras, T.; Gerosa, C.; Van Eyken, P.; Messana, I.; Castagnola, M.; Faa, G.


    Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) and thymosin beta 10 (Tβ10) are two members of the beta-thymosin family involved in many cellular processes such as cellular motility, angiogenesis, inflammation, cell survival and wound healing. Recently, a role for beta-thymosins has been proposed in the process of carcinogenesis as both peptides were detected in several types of cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression pattern of Tβ4 and Tβ10 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To this end, the expression pattern of both peptides was analyzed in liver samples obtained from 23 subjects diagnosed with HCC. Routinely formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded liver samples were immunostained by indirect immunohistochemistry with polyclonal antibodies to Tβ4 and Tβ10. Immunoreactivity for Tβ4 and Tβ10 was detected in the liver parenchyma of the surrounding tumor area. Both peptides showed an increase in granular reactivity from the periportal to the periterminal hepatocytes. Regarding HCC, Tβ4 reactivity was detected in 7/23 cases (30%) and Tβ10 reactivity in 22/23 (96%) cases analyzed, adding HCC to human cancers that express these beta-thymosins. Intriguing finding was seen looking at the reactivity of both peptides in tumor cells infiltrating the surrounding liver. Where Tβ10 showed a strong homogeneous expression, was Tβ4 completely absent in cells undergoing stromal invasion. The current study shows expression of both beta-thymosins in HCC with marked differences in their degree of expression and frequency of immunoreactivity. The higher incidence of Tβ10 expression and its higher reactivity in tumor cells involved in stromal invasion indicate a possible major role for Tβ10 in HCC progression. PMID:24704991

  8. Thymosin beta 4 and thymosin beta 10 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Theunissen


    Full Text Available Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4 and thymosin beta 10 (Tβ10 are two members of the beta-thymosin family involved in many cellular processes such as cellular motility, angiogenesis, inflammation, cell survival and wound healing. Recently, a role for beta-thymosins has been proposed in the process of carcinogenesis as both peptides were detected in several types of cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression pattern of Tβ4 and Tβ10 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. To this end, the expression pattern of both peptides was analyzed in liver samples obtained from 23 subjects diagnosed with HCC. Routinely formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded liver samples were immunostained by indirect immunohistochemistry with polyclonal antibodies to Tβ4 and Tβ10. Immunoreactivity for Tβ4 and Tβ10 was detected in the liver parenchyma of the surrounding tumor area. Both peptides showed an increase in granular reactivity from the periportal to the periterminal hepatocytes. Regarding HCC, Tβ4 reactivity was detected in 7/23 cases (30% and Tβ10 reactivity in 22/23 (97% cases analyzed, adding HCC to human cancers that express these beta-thymosins. Intriguing finding was seen looking at the reactivity of both peptides in tumor cells infiltrating the surrounding liver. Where Tβ10 showed a strong homogeneous expression, was Tβ4 completely absent in cells undergoing stromal invasion. The current study shows expression of both beta-thymosins in HCC with marked differences in their degree of expression and frequency of immunoreactivity. The higher incidence of Tβ10 expression and its higher reactivity in tumor cells involved in stromal invasion indicate a possible major role for Tβ10 in HCC progression.

  9. Extrasynaptic location of laminin beta 2 chain in developing and adult human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Thornell, L E; Loechel, F;


    We have investigated the distribution of the laminin beta 2 chain (previously s-laminin) in human fetal and adult skeletal muscle and compared it to the distribution of laminin beta 1. Immunoblotting and transfection assays were used to characterize a panel of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies...... to the laminin beta 2 chain. We found that laminin beta 1 chain was detected at all times during development from 10 weeks of gestation. Laminin beta 2 chain was first detected in 15 to 22-week-old fetal skeletal muscle as distinct focal immunoreactivity in the sarcolemmal basement membrane area of some...... myofibers. In the adult skeletal muscle, laminin beta 2 chain immunoreactivity was found along the entire perimeter of each of the individual myofibers in a large series of different muscles studied. Laminin beta 2 chain was similarly found in the skeletal muscle basement membranes in patients with Duchenne...

  10. Differential regulation of chemoattractant-stimulated beta 2, beta 3, and beta 7 integrin activity. (United States)

    Sadhu, C; Masinovsky, B; Staunton, D E


    Leukocyte adhesion to endothelium and extravasation are dynamic processes that require activation of integrins. Chemoattractants such as IL-8 and FMLP are potent activators of leukocyte integrins. To compare the chemoattractant-stimulated activation of three integrins, alpha 4 beta 7, alpha L beta 2, and alpha V beta 3, in the same cellular context, we expressed an IL-8 receptor (IL-8RA) and FMLP receptor (FPR) in the lymphoid cell line JY. Chemoattractants induced a rapid increase in alpha L beta 2- and alpha V beta 3-dependent JY adhesion within 5 min, and it was sustained for 30 min. In contrast, stimulation of alpha 4 beta 7-dependent adhesion was transient, returning to basal levels by 30 min. The activation profiles of the integrins were similar regardless of whether IL-8 or FMLP was used for induction. We also demonstrate that alpha 4 beta 7-dependent adhesion was uniquely responsive to the F actin-disrupting agent cytochalasin D and the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor chelerythrin. While alpha V beta 3- and alpha L beta 2-mediated cell adhesion was significantly reduced by cytochalasin D, alpha 4 beta 7-mediated adhesion was enhanced. Chelerythrin inhibited both the IL-8 and PMA activation of alpha L beta 2 and alpha V beta 3. In contrast, inducible alpha 4 beta 7 activity was unaffected, and basal activity was increased. These findings demonstrate that the mechanism of alpha 4 beta 7 regulation by chemoattractants is different from that of alpha L beta 2 and alpha V beta 3 and that it appears to involve distinct cytoskeletal and PKC dependencies. In addition, PKC activity may be a positive or negative regulator of integrin-dependent adhesion.

  11. Elaboration and evaluation of a new screening medium for detection and presumptive identification of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing organisms (ESBL Elaboração e avaliação de um novo meio de triagem para a detecção e identificação presuntiva de enterobactérias produtoras de beta-lactamase de espectro estendido (ESBL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Pessôa de Menezes e Silva


    Full Text Available The new ß-lactamases have arisen largely as a consequence of heavy use of new expanded spectrum ß-lactam antibiotics. Health professionals need to be aware of the resistance problems caused by the new enzymes, and know the correct procedures to detect, prevent and control such problems. In this study, a new screening medium called Ceftazidime-Inositol-Vancomycin-Amphotericin B Agar (CIVA was elaborated and the microbiological performance was evaluated for the detection and presumptive identification of ESBL-producing members of Enterobacteriaceae. It was performed in 126 stool samples from hospitalized patients at Santa Monica Hospital (Vila Velha, ES, Brazil, who had been heavily exposed to broad-spectrum antibiotic combinations. The bacteria were detected by the medium based on their colony colours (due to inositol fermentation. Additional tests were required for correct identification of these strains. No false positive rates were detected.As novas beta-lactamases têm aparecido, na maioria das vezes, como consequência do amplo uso de antibióticos beta-lactâmicos de largo espectro. Os profissionais de saúde precisam estar atentos acerca do problema da resistência bacteriana causado por estas novas enzimas e conhecer os corretos procedimentos para detectar, prevenir e controlar tais situações. Neste estudo, um novo meio de triagem foi desenvolvido no setor de Microbiologia do Marcos Daniel Laboratório - Vitória, ES (denominado CIVA - Ceftazidima-Inositol-Vancomicina-Anfotericina B e a sua performance microbiológica foi avaliada quanto à detecção e identificação presuntiva de enterobactérias produtoras de ESBL. Foram realizadas 126 culturas de amostras fecais de pacientes hospitalizados no Hospital Santa Monica (Vila Velha, ES, Brasil, previamente expostos a combinações de antibióticos de largo espectro. As bactérias foram detectadas pelo meio baseado nas cores das colônias desenvolvidas (devido à fermentação do

  12. Gastrointestinal hyperplasia with altered expression of DNA polymerase beta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiko Yoshizawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Altered expression of DNA polymerase beta (Pol beta has been documented in a large percentage of human tumors. However, tumor prevalence or predisposition resulting from Pol beta over-expression has not yet been evaluated in a mouse model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have recently developed a novel transgenic mouse model that over-expresses Pol beta. These mice present with an elevated incidence of spontaneous histologic lesions, including cataracts, hyperplasia of Brunner's gland and mucosal hyperplasia in the duodenum. In addition, osteogenic tumors in mice tails, such as osteoma and osteosarcoma were detected. This is the first report of elevated tumor incidence in a mouse model of Pol beta over-expression. These findings prompted an evaluation of human gastrointestinal tumors with regard to Pol beta expression. We observed elevated expression of Pol beta in stomach adenomas and thyroid follicular carcinomas, but reduced Pol beta expression in esophageal adenocarcinomas and squamous carcinomas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data support the hypothesis that balanced and proficient base excision repair protein expression and base excision repair capacity is required for genome stability and protection from hyperplasia and tumor formation.

  13. NEXT, a HPGXe TPC for neutrinoless double beta decay searches

    CERN Document Server

    Granena, F; Nova, F; Rico, J; Sánchez, F; Nygren, D R; Barata, J A S; Borges, F I G M; Conde, C A N; Dias, T H V T; Fernandes, L M P; Freitas, E D C; Lopes, J A M; Monteiro, C M B; Santos, J M F dos; Santos, F P; Tavora, L M N; Veloso, J F C A; Calvo, E; Gil-Botella, I; Novella, P; Palomares, C; Verdugo, A; Giomataris, Yu; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Hernando-Morata, J A; Martínez, D; Cid, X; Ball, M; Carcel, S; Cervera-Villanueva, Anselmo; Díaz, J; Gil, A; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Martín-Albo, J; Monrabal, F; Munoz-Vidal, J; Serra, L; Sorel, M; Yahlali, N; Bosch, R Esteve; Lerche, C W; Martinez, J D; Mora, F J; Sebastiá, A; Tarazona, A; Toledo, J F; Lazaro, M; Perez, J L; Ripoll, L; Carmona, J M; Cebrián, S; Dafni, T; Galan, J; Gomez, H; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Luzón, G; Morales, J; Rodríguez, A; Ruz, J; Tomas, A; Villar, J A


    We propose a novel detection concept for neutrinoless double-beta decay searches. This concept is based on a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) filled with high-pressure gaseous xenon, and with separated-function capabilities for calorimetry and tracking. Thanks to its excellent energy resolution, together with its powerful background rejection provided by the distinct double-beta decay topological signature, the design discussed in this Letter Of Intent promises to be competitive and possibly out-perform existing proposals for next-generation neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. We discuss the detection principles, design specifications, physics potential and R&D plans to construct a detector with 100 kg fiducial mass in the double-beta decay emitting isotope Xe(136), to be installed in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory.

  14. Complementarity of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay and Cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, Scott; Lykken, Joseph


    Neutrinoless double beta decay experiments constrain one combination of neutrino parameters, while cosmic surveys constrain another. This complementarity opens up an exciting range of possibilities. If neutrinos are Majorana particles, and the neutrino masses follow an inverted hierarchy, then the upcoming sets of both experiments will detect signals. The combined constraints will pin down not only the neutrino masses but also constrain one of the Majorana phases. If the hierarchy is normal, then a beta decay detection with the upcoming generation of experiments is unlikely, but cosmic surveys could constrain the sum of the masses to be relatively heavy, thereby producing a lower bound for the neutrinoless double beta decay rate, and therefore an argument for a next generation beta decay experiment. In this case as well, a combination of the phases will be constrained.

  15. High-resolution studies of beta-delayed proton emitters at IGISOL facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokinen, A; Aysto, J; Dendooven, P; Hankonen, S; Honkanen, A; Huikari, J; Lhersonneau, G; Lipas, PO; Penttila, H; Perajarvi, K; Oinonen, M; Nieminen, A; Siiskonen, T; Wang, JC


    Beta-decays of Al-23 and Ti-41 have been studied by applying ion guide techniques, gamma detection and a gas-Si telescope for charged-particle detection. The experimental beta-decay strength of Ti-41 was found to be quenched by a factor of q(2) = 0.64 compared to our shell model calculations below 8

  16. Beta-thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Origa Raffaella


    Full Text Available Abstract Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands, dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes, gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely

  17. Beta-thalassemia. (United States)

    Galanello, Renzo; Origa, Raffaella


    Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands), dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis). Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes), gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely, deletions in the beta

  18. Beta and muon decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, A.; Pascual, P.


    These notes represent a series of lectures delivered by the authors in the Junta de Energia Nuclear, during the Spring term of 1965. They were devoted to graduate students interested in the Theory of Elementary Particles. Special emphasis was focussed into the computational problems. Chapter I is a review of basic principles (Dirac equation, transition probabilities, final state interactions.) which will be needed later. In Chapter II the four-fermion punctual Interaction is discussed, Chapter III is devoted to the study of beta-decay; the main emphasis is given to the deduction of the formulae corresponding to electron-antineutrino correlation, electron energy spectrum, lifetimes, asymmetry of electrons emitted from polarized nuclei, electron and neutrino polarization and time reversal invariance in beta decay. In Chapter IV we deal with the decay of polarized muons with radiative corrections. Chapter V is devoted to an introduction to C.V.C. theory. (Author)

  19. Realized Beta GARCH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger; Voev, Valeri Radkov


    We introduce a multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model that incorporates realized measures of variances and covariances. Realized measures extract information about the current levels of volatilities and correlations from high-frequency data, which...... is particularly useful for modeling financial returns during periods of rapid changes in the underlying covariance structure. When applied to market returns in conjunction with returns on an individual asset, the model yields a dynamic model specification of the conditional regression coefficient that is known...... as the beta. We apply the model to a large set of assets and find the conditional betas to be far more variable than usually found with rolling-window regressions based exclusively on daily returns. In the empirical part of the paper, we examine the cross-sectional as well as the time variation...

  20. Beta-delayed proton emission from $^{21}$Mg

    CERN Document Server

    Lund, M V; Briz, J A; Cederkäll, J; Fynbo, H O U; Jensen, J H; Jonson, B; Laursen, K L; Nilsson, T; Perea, A; Pesudo, V; Riisager, K; Tengblad, O


    Beta-delayed proton emission from $^{21}$Mg has been measured at ISOLDE, CERN, with a detection setup including particle identification capabilities. $\\beta$-delayed protons with center of mass energies between 0.39$\\,$MeV and 7.2$\\,$MeV were measured and used to determine the half life of $^{21}$Mg as $118.6\\pm 0.5\\,$ms. From a line shape fit of the $\\beta p$ branches we extract spectroscopic information about the resonances of $^{21}$Na. Finally an improved interpretation of the decay scheme in accordance with the results obtained in reaction studies is presented.

  1. Coroutine Sequencing in BETA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger;

    In object-oriented programming, a program execution is viewed as a physical model of some real or imaginary part of the world. A language supporting object-oriented programming must therefore contain comprehensive facilities for modeling phenomena and concepts form the application domain. Many ap...... applications in the real world consist of objects carrying out sequential processes. Coroutines may be used for modeling objects that alternate between a number of sequential processes. The authors describe coroutines in BETA...

  2. Magic Baseline Beta Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar; Raychaudhuri, Amitava


    We study the physics reach of an experiment where neutrinos produced in a beta-beam facility at CERN are observed in a large magnetized iron calorimeter (ICAL) at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). The CERN-INO distance is close to the so-called "magic" baseline which helps evade some of the parameter degeneracies and allows for a better measurement of the neutrino mass hierarchy and $\\theta_{13}$.

  3. Beta cell adaptation in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis


    Pregnancy is associated with a compensatory increase in beta cell mass. It is well established that somatolactogenic hormones contribute to the expansion both indirectly by their insulin antagonistic effects and directly by their mitogenic effects on the beta cells via receptors for prolactin...... and growth hormone expressed in rodent beta cells. However, the beta cell expansion in human pregnancy seems to occur by neogenesis of beta cells from putative progenitor cells rather than by proliferation of existing beta cells. Claes Hellerström has pioneered the research on beta cell growth for decades......, but the mechanisms involved are still not clarified. In this review the information obtained in previous studies is recapitulated together with some of the current attempts to resolve the controversy in the field: identification of the putative progenitor cells, identification of the factors involved...

  4. Regulation of beta cell replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Ying C; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis


    Beta cell mass, at any given time, is governed by cell differentiation, neogenesis, increased or decreased cell size (cell hypertrophy or atrophy), cell death (apoptosis), and beta cell proliferation. Nutrients, hormones and growth factors coupled with their signalling intermediates have been...... suggested to play a role in beta cell mass regulation. In addition, genetic mouse model studies have indicated that cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases that determine cell cycle progression are involved in beta cell replication, and more recently, menin in association with cyclin-dependent kinase...... inhibitors has been demonstrated to be important in beta cell growth. In this review, we consider and highlight some aspects of cell cycle regulation in relation to beta cell replication. The role of cell cycle regulation in beta cell replication is mostly from studies in rodent models, but whether...

  5. A new dedicated {beta}-NMR/{beta}-NQR setup for LISE-GANIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Rydt, M., E-mail: marieke.derydt@fys.kuleuven.b [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Lozeva, R.; Vermeulen, N. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Oliveira Santos, F. de; Grevy, S. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Himpe, P. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Stoedel, C.; Thomas, J.C. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Vingerhoets, P.; Neyens, G. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)


    A new {beta}-NMR/{beta}-NQR setup is developed to study nuclear magnetic dipole moments and electric quadrupole moments at the LISE fragment separator at GANIL. Two key elements make the new design very powerful: the homogeneous magnet and the strong radio-frequency amplifier. The combination of both makes it possible to examine a broad spectrum of magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Several factors have an influence on the detection efficiency and on the sensitivity of the setup to observe a resonant change in the {beta}-asymmetry: the thickness and the tilting angle of the implantation crystal, the material in the vacuum chamber, the applied magnetic field and the Q{sub b}eta-value of the decaying nuclei. A detailed study of these effects is made using a dedicated GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation code.

  6. Characterization of a Commercial Silicon Beta Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxe, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mayer, Michael F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McIntyre, Justin I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sivels, Ciara B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suarez, Rey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Silicon detectors are of interest for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) due to their enhanced energy resolution compared to plastic scintillators beta cells. Previous work developing a figure-of-merit (FOM) for comparison of beta cells suggests that the minimum detectable activity (MDA) could be reduced by a factor of two to three with the use of silicon detectors. Silicon beta cells have been developed by CEA (France) and Lares Ltd. (Russia), with the PIPSBox developed by CEA being commercially available from Canberra for approximately $35k, but there is still uncertainty about the reproducibility of the capabilities in the field. PNNL is developing a high-resolution beta-gamma detector system in the shallow underground laboratory, which will utilize and characterize the operation of the PIPSBox detector. Throughout this report, we examine the capabilities of the PIPSBox as developed by CEA. The lessons learned through the testing and use of the PIPSBox will allow PNNL to strategically develop a silicon detector optimized to better suit the communities needs in the future.

  7. LHCb: $2\\beta_s$ measurement at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Conti, G


    A measurement of $2\\beta_s$, the phase of the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ oscillation amplitude with respect to that of the ${\\rm b} \\rightarrow {\\rm c^{+}}{\\rm W^{-}}$ tree decay amplitude, is one of the key goals of the LHCb experiment with first data. In the Standard Model (SM), $2\\beta_s$ is predicted to be $0.0360^{+0.0020}_{-0.0016} \\rm rad$. The current constraints from the Tevatron are: $2\\beta_{s}\\in[0.32 ; 2.82]$ at 68$\\%$CL from the CDF experiment and $2\\beta_{s}=0.57^{+0.24}_{-0.30}$ from the D$\\oslash$ experiment. Although the statistical uncertainties are large, these results hint at the possible contribution of New Physics in the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ box diagram. After one year of data taking at LHCb at an average luminosity of $\\mathcal{L}\\sim2\\cdot10^{32}\\rm cm^{-2} \\rm s^{-1}$ (integrated luminosity $\\mathcal{L}_{\\rm int}\\sim 2 \\rm fb^{-1}$), the expected statistical uncertainty on the measurement is $\\sigma(2\\beta_s)\\simeq 0.03$. This uncertainty is similar to the $2\\beta_s$ value predicted by the SM.

  8. To discuss significance of homocysteine and beta2-microglobulin detection in the early diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy%探讨同型半胱氨酸和β2-微球蛋白检测在糖尿病肾病早期诊断的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:通过对糖尿病肾病(DN)不同病期患者的血清同型半胱氨酸(Hcy)和β2-微球蛋白(β2-MG)的检测,探讨血清Hcy和β2-MG水平改变在DN诊断中的临床价值。方法:在美国贝克曼AU2700全自动生化分析仪上采用循环酶法和胶乳增强免疫比浊法检测实验组和对照组血液样本中Hcy和β2-MG的水平,同时检测与肾功能密切相关的血清学指标尿素(UREA)和肌酐(CREA)的含量。结果:实验组血清Hcy、β2-MG、UREA和CREA含量明显高于对照组,两组比较差异有统计学意义或高度统计学意义(p<0.05或p<0.01);Ⅰ期、Ⅱ期、Ⅲ期、Ⅳ期检测Hcy和β2-MG浓度水平呈递增性升高,Ⅱ期、Ⅲ期和Ⅳ期患者血清中Hcy和β2-MG的含量明显高于Ⅰ期患者,与Ⅰ期患者检测结果比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:联合检测血清Hcy和β2-MG水平有助于DN的早期诊断,检测结果能够及早为临床治疗以及临床采取正确的治疗方案提供具有参考价值的诊断依据。%Objective:Based on diabetic nephropathy (DN) of different stage disease patients serum homocysteine (Hcy) and beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-MG) test, to observe the change of serum Hcy and beta 2-MG level clinical value in the diagnosis of DN. Methods:Beckman AU2700 automatic biochemical analyzer in the United States on circulating enzymatic and latex enhanced immune turbidimetric method is used to test the experimental group and control group in blood samples of Hcy and beta 2-MG level, at the same time test and serological indexes of renal function is closely related to the UREA (UREA) and creatinine (CREA) content.Results:Experimental serum Hcy, beta 2, MG, UREA and CREA content is significantly higher than the control group, two groups of comparisons difference was statistically significant or highly significant (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01); Ⅰ stage, stageⅡ,Ⅲperiod,Ⅳdetection of Hcy and beta 2-increasing MG

  9. Identification of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase beta-subunit in alveolar epithelial cells. (United States)

    Zhang, X L; Danto, S I; Borok, Z; Eber, J T; Martín-Vasallo, P; Lubman, R L


    The Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase is a heterodimeric plasma membrane protein that consists of a catalytic alpha-subunit and a smaller glycosylated beta-subunit that has not been fully characterized in alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) to date. In this study, we identified the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase beta-subunit protein in rat AEC and lung membranes using immunochemical techniques. Rat AEC grown in primary culture and rat lung, brain, and kidney membranes were solubilized in either 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sample buffer for SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or in 1% Nonidet P-40 lysis buffer for immunoprecipitation studies. Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase beta-subunit was not detected in either AEC or lung membranes on Western blots when probed with a panel of antibodies (Ab) against beta-subunit isoforms, whereas brain and kidney beta-subunit were recognized as broad approximately 50-kDa bands. AEC, lung, and kidney membranes were immunoprecipitated with anti-beta Ab IEC 1/48, a monoclonal Ab that recognizes beta-subunit protein only in its undenatured state. The beta-subunit was detected in the immunoprecipitate (IP) from kidney membranes by several different anti-beta-subunit Ab. The beta-subunit was faintly detectable from AEC and lung IP as a broad approximately 50-kDa band when blotted with the polyclonal anti-beta 1-subunit Ab SpET but could not be detected by blotting with other anti-beta Ab. Treatment of the IP from kidney, lung, and AEC with N-glycosidase F for 2 h at 37 degrees C resulted in immunodetection of identical approximately 35 kDa bands when probed with all anti-beta 1 Ab on Western blots. From these results, we conclude that rat lung and AEC possess immunoreactive beta-subunit protein that is only readily detectable after deglycosylation. Because anti-beta Ab fail to detect the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase beta-subunit in rat lung or AEC by standard Western blotting techniques under the conditions of these experiments, our results suggest that lung beta-subunit may be

  10. Nerve growth factor treatment of sensory neuron primary cultures causes elevated levels of the mRNA encoding the ATP synthase beta-subunit as detected by a novel PCR-based differential cloning method. (United States)

    Kendall, G; Ensor, E; Crankson, H D; Latchman, D S


    The mRNA encoding the rat ATP synthase beta-subunit was rapidly induced by nerve growth factor, within 60 min, in cultured adult rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. ATP synthase beta-subunit cDNA clones were isolated from a lambda library. The library was constructed using rat dorsal root ganglion mRNA that was differentially screened with cDNA-derived probes from untreated and nerve-growth-factor-treated primary cultures of adult rat dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons. Radiolabelled probes were made from submicrogram quantities of RNA, by a novel PCR-based technique, which allows small amounts of primary tissue to be used for library screening. The use of this technique in isolating novel differentially expressed mRNAs is discussed.

  11. [{sup 18}F]{beta}-CIT-FP is superior to [{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT-FP for quantitation of the dopamine transporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundkvist, Camilla; Halldin, Christer; Ginovart, Nathalie; Swahn, Carl-Gunnar; Farde, Lars


    {beta}-CIT-FP [N-(3-fluoropropyl)-2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane] is a cocaine analogue with high affinity for the dopamine transporter. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies with [O-methyl-{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT-FP ([{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT-FP) has shown that equilibrium conditions were approached but, however, not reached at the end of measurement. Moreover, metabolite studies of [{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT-FP in monkey plasma demonstrated a lipophilic-labelled metabolite that may enter the brain. We therefore labelled {beta}-CIT-FP with fluorine-18 in a position that may avoid the formation of labelled lipophilic metabolites. The more long-lived radionuclide ({sup 18}F) was used to allow for measurements over longer time. [N-fluoropropyl-{sup 18}F]{beta}-CIT-FP ([{sup 18}F]{beta}-CIT-FP) was prepared by N-alkylation of nor-{beta}-CIT with [{sup 18}F]fluoropropyl bromide. PET studies were performed in cynomolgus monkeys. [{sup 18}F]{beta}-CIT-FP entered the brain rapidly. There was a high concentration of radioactivity in the striatum and much lower in the thalamus, neocortex, and cerebellum. The striatum-to-cerebellum ratio was about 5 at time of transient equilibrium, which occurred after 60 to 100 min. After pretreatment with GBR 12909, radioactivity in the striatum was markedly reduced, thus indicating specific [{sup 18}F]{beta}-CIT-FP binding to the dopamine transporter. The fraction of unchanged [{sup 18}F]{beta}-CIT-FP determined by HPLC was 10-15% after 140 min. No lipophilic labelled metabolites were detected. The absence of measurable lipophilic labelled metabolites and the occurrence of transient equilibrium within the time of the PET measurement indicate that [{sup 18}F]{beta}-CIT-FP is superior to [{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT-FP as a PET radioligand for quantification of the dopamine transporter in the human brain.

  12. The Dust and Gas Around beta Pictoris

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, C H; Bohac, C; Kim, K H; Watson, D M; van Cleve, J; Houck, J; Stapelfeldt, K; Werner, M W; Rieke, G; Su, K; Marengo, M; Backman, D; Beichman, C; Fazio, G


    We have obtained Spitzer IRS 5.5 - 35 micron spectroscopy of the debris disk around beta Pictoris. In addition to the 10 micron silicate emission feature originally observed from the ground, we also detect the crystalline silicate emission bands at 28 micron and 33.5 micron. This is the first time that the silicate bands at wavelengths longer than 10 micron have ever been seen in the beta Pictoris disk. The observed dust emission is well reproduced by a dust model consisting of fluffy cometary and crystalline olivine aggregates. We searched for line emission from molecular hydrogen and atomic [S I], Fe II, and Si II gas but detected none. We place a 3 sigma upper limit of <17 Earth masses on the H2 S(1) gas mass, assuming an excitation temperature of Tex = 100 K. This suggests that there is less gas in this system than is required to form the envelope of Jupiter. We hypothesize that some of the atomic Na I gas observed in Keplerian rotation around beta Pictoris may be produced by photon-stimulated desorpti...

  13. Detection relic gravitational waves in thermal case

    CERN Document Server

    Ghayour, Basem


    The thermal spectrum of relic gravitational waves causes the new amplitude that called `modified amplitude'. Our analysis shows that, there exist some chances for detection of the thermal spectrum in addition to the usual spectrum by Adv.LIGO and Dml detectors. The behaviour of the inflation and reheating stages are often known as power law expansion like $S(\\eta)\\propto \\eta^{1+\\beta}$, $S(\\eta)\\propto \\eta^{1+\\beta_s}$ respectively. The $\\beta$ and $\\beta_s$ have an unique effect on the shape of the spectrum. We find some upper bounds on the $\\beta$ and $\\beta_s$ by comparison the usual and thermal spectrum with the Adv.LIGO and Dml. As this result gives us more information about the nature of the evolution of inflation and reheating stages.

  14. The organization of the gamma-delta-beta gene complex in normal and thalassemia cells. (United States)

    Bank, A; Mears, J G; Ramirez, F; Burns, A L; Spence, S; Feldenzer, J; Baird, M


    Restriction enzyme digestion analysis and direct human globin gene cloning have permitted analysis of the physical arrangement of nucleotide sequences within and surrounding the human globin genes. With these methods it has been shown that the linear arrangement 5' to 3' of the globin genes is G gamma-A gamma-delta-beta. The G gamma and A gamma genes are separated by about 3.5 kilobases (kb), while the A gamma and delta genes are 15 kb apart, and the delta and beta 6.5 kb apart. Each of these genes contains a large intervening sequence (IVS) of approximately 1 kb in precisely the same position between condons 104 and 105. In addition, each of these genes has a small IVS between codons 30 and 31. In homozygous delta beta thalassemia DNA, there is deletion of all of the normal delta and beta gene fragments. However, a new fragment 4.2 kb in size containing the 5' end of the delta globin gene is retained. Retention of this fragment in delta beta thalassemia, but not in HPFH is consistent with a role for sequences in this region for limiting gamma globin gene expression. Studies to date suggest that the beta + and beta 0 thalassemias will be due to a heterogeneous group of DNA defects affecting either beta globin gene transcription or beta mRNA processing. In most cases of beta + and beta 0 thalassemia DNA analyzed, there is no detectable deletion of beta or delta genes. In three India beta 0 patients, deletion of the 3' end of the beta gene has been found. Analysis of cloned beta globin genes from a patient with beta + thalasseia shows differences from normal in the fragments generated by restriction enzymes which cut frequently. Whether these differences are responsible for the defect in thalassemia or are polymorphisms unrelated to thalassemia remains to be determined.

  15. Source preparations for alpha and beta measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)


    Regarding alpha particle emitters subject for environmental studies, electrodeposition or co-precipitation as fluorides are the most common methods. For electro deposition stainless steel is generally used as cathode material but also other metals such as Ni, Ag, and Cu showed promising results. The use of other anode material than platinum, such as graphite should be investigated. For other purposes such as optimal resolution other more sophisticated methods are used but often resulting in poorer recovery. For beta particle emitters the type of detection system will decide the source preparation. Similar methods as for alpha particle emitters, electrodeposition or precipitation techniques can be used. Due to the continuous energy distribution of the beta pulse height distribution a high resolution is not required. Thicker sources from the precipitates or a stable isotopic carrier can be accepted but correction for absorption in the source must be done. (au)

  16. Transforming growth factor-beta messenger RNA and protein in murine colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whiting, C V; Williams, A M; Claesson, Mogens Helweg


    Using a CD4+ T-cell-transplanted SCID mouse model of colitis, we have analyzed TGF-beta transcription and translation in advanced disease. By in situ hybridization, the epithelium of both control and inflamed tissues transcribed TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3 mRNAs, but both were expressed significantly...... TGF-beta. By ELISA, very low levels (0-69 pg/mg) of soluble total or active TGF-beta were detected in hypotonic tissue lysates. TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3 are produced by SCID mouse colon and transcription is increased in the colitis caused by transplantation of CD4+ T-cells, but this does not result...

  17. Release of salusin-beta from human monocytes/macrophages. (United States)

    Sato, Kengo; Fujimoto, Kazumi; Koyama, Takatoshi; Shichiri, Masayoshi


    Salusin-alpha and salusin-beta are related bioactive peptides biosynthesized from the same precursor, prosalusin. Despite the potent hemodynamic and proatherosclerotic activities of salusin-beta, its exact distribution and biological functions remain largely undetermined because of technical difficulties associated with its unique physicochemical characteristics, such as marked adhesiveness to polypropylene and polystyrene. By circumventing these problems, we recently established a specific radioimmunoassay for detecting immunoreactive human salusin-beta. In the current study, we demonstrated the release of salusin-beta from the human monoblastic leukemia cell lines, THP-1 and U937. Dilution curves of extracted conditioned media from both cells were parallel with those of standard human salusin-beta by radioimmunoassay. Reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled with radioimmunoassay detection of the culture supernatants revealed a major immunoreactive component that co-eluted with authentic salusin-beta. Both cell lines secreted salusin-beta-like immunoreactivity (LI) into serum-free media as a function of time (1234.3 + or - 122.7 and 186.7 + or - 9.1 fmol/10(5) cells per 24h). When THP-1 and U937 cells differentiated into macrophages after incubation with 2-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), they secreted far greater amounts of salusin-beta-LI into the culture supernatant (3351.9 + or - 899.3 and 1545.8 + or - 183.3 fmol/10(5) cells per 24h). TPA treatment accelerated the processing of prosalusin into its cleaved fragments, suggesting that the increased secretion of salusin-beta-LI in THP-1-derived macrophages was caused by the enhanced intracellular processing of prosalusin. Stimulation with the inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), resulted in increased secretion of salusin-beta without inducing expression of the gene for preprosalusin, suggesting that TNF-alpha and LPS stimulated

  18. Beta section Beta: biogeographical patterns of variation and taxonomy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letschert, J.P.W.


    In Chapter 1 an account is given of the historical subdivision of the genus Beta and its sections, and the relations of the sections are discussed. Emphasis is given to the taxonomic treatment of wild section Beta by various authors. The Linnaean names B. vulgaris L. and B. maritima L. are lectotypi

  19. Current and future searches for neutrinoless double beta decay (United States)

    Dolinski, Michelle J.


    With the discovery of neutrino oscillations and neutrino mass, it has become a pressing question whether neutrinos have distinct antiparticle states. The most practical experimental approach to answering this question is the search for neutrinoless double beta decay, a version of a rare nuclear process that would violate lepton number conservation. The observation of neutrinoless double beta decay would prove that neutrinos are their own antiparticles. Neutrinoless double beta decay experiments deploy large source masses consisting of a select few (usually enriched) isotopes of interest. Detectors must achieve extremely low levels of radioactive background to detect this rare decay. I will report on recent searches for neutrinoless double beta decay and discuss the technical challenges that the next generation of experiments will overcome.

  20. Beta-delayed proton emission from {sup 20}Mg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, M.V.; Fynbo, H.O.U.; Howard, A.M.; Kirsebom, O.S.; Munch, M.; Riisager, K. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus C (Denmark); Andreyev, A.; Wadsworth, R. [University of York, Department of Physics, York (United Kingdom); Borge, M.J.G. [CSIC, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Madrid (Spain); CERN, ISOLDE, PH Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Cederkaell, J. [Lund University, Department of Nuclear Physics, Lund (Sweden); Witte, H. de; Huyse, M.; Duppen, P. van [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU-Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Fraile, L.M.; Vedia, V. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, CEI Moncloa, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Madrid (Spain); Greenlees, P.T.; Konki, J.; Rahkila, P. [University of Helsinki, Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Harkness-Brennan, L.J.; Judson, D.S.; Page, R.D. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Jonson, B.; Lindberg, S.; Nilsson, T. [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Physics, Goeteborg (Sweden); Kurcewicz, J.; Madurga, M.; Rapisarda, E. [CERN, ISOLDE, PH Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Lazarus, I.; Pucknell, V. [STFC Daresbury, Daresbury, Warrington (United Kingdom); Lica, R. [CERN, ISOLDE, PH Department, Geneva (Switzerland); ' ' Horia Hulubei' ' National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Magurele (Romania); Marginean, N.; Marginean, R.; Mihai, C.; Negret, A.; Pascu, S.; Rotaru, F.; Stanoiu, M.; Turturica, A. [' ' Horia Hulubei' ' National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Magurele (Romania); Marroquin, I.; Nacher, E.; Perea, A.; Tengblad, O. [CSIC, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Madrid (Spain); Sotty, C. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU-Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); ' ' Horia Hulubei' ' National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Magurele (Romania); Warr, N. [Universitaet Koeln, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Koeln (Germany); Collaboration: IDS Collaboration


    Beta-delayed proton emission from {sup 20} Mg has been measured at ISOLDE, CERN, with the ISOLDE Decay Station (IDS) setup including both charged-particle and gamma-ray detection capabilities. A total of 27 delayed proton branches were measured including seven so far unobserved. An updated decay scheme, including three new resonances above the proton separation energy in {sup 20}Na and more precise resonance energies, is presented. Beta-decay feeding to two resonances above the Isobaric Analogue State (IAS) in {sup 20}Na is observed. This may allow studies of the 4032.9(2.4) keV resonance in {sup 19}Ne through the beta decay of {sup 20}Mg, which is important for the astrophysically relevant reaction {sup 15}O(α, γ){sup 19}Ne. Beta-delayed protons were used to obtain a more precise value for the half-life of {sup 20}Mg, 91.4(1.0) ms. (orig.)

  1. Cyclic modular beta-sheets. (United States)

    Woods, R Jeremy; Brower, Justin O; Castellanos, Elena; Hashemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Khakshoor, Omid; Russu, Wade A; Nowick, James S


    The development of peptide beta-hairpins is problematic, because folding depends on the amino acid sequence and changes to the sequence can significantly decrease folding. Robust beta-hairpins that can tolerate such changes are attractive tools for studying interactions involving protein beta-sheets and developing inhibitors of these interactions. This paper introduces a new class of peptide models of protein beta-sheets that addresses the problem of separating folding from the sequence. These model beta-sheets are macrocyclic peptides that fold in water to present a pentapeptide beta-strand along one edge; the other edge contains the tripeptide beta-strand mimic Hao [JACS 2000, 122, 7654] and two additional amino acids. The pentapeptide and Hao-containing peptide strands are connected by two delta-linked ornithine (deltaOrn) turns [JACS 2003, 125, 876]. Each deltaOrn turn contains a free alpha-amino group that permits the linking of individual modules to form divalent beta-sheets. These "cyclic modular beta-sheets" are synthesized by standard solid-phase peptide synthesis of a linear precursor followed by solution-phase cyclization. Eight cyclic modular beta-sheets 1a-1h containing sequences based on beta-amyloid and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 were synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR. Linked cyclic modular beta-sheet 2, which contains two modules of 1b, was also synthesized and characterized. 1H NMR studies show downfield alpha-proton chemical shifts, deltaOrn delta-proton magnetic anisotropy, and NOE cross-peaks that establish all compounds but 1c and 1g to be moderately or well folded into a conformation that resembles a beta-sheet. Pulsed-field gradient NMR diffusion experiments show little or no self-association at low (

  2. Expression, purification, and biochemical characterization of recombinant DNA polymerase beta of the Trypanosoma cruzi TcI lineage: requirement of additional factors and detection of phosphorylation of the native form. (United States)

    Maldonado, Edio; Rojas, Diego A; Moreira-Ramos, Sandra; Urbina, Fabiola; Miralles, Vicente J; Solari, Aldo; Venegas, Juan


    Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is a major parasitic disease that affects millions of people in America. However, despite the high impact of this disease on human health, no effective and safe treatment has been found that eliminates the infecting parasite from human patients. Among the possible chemotherapeutic targets that could be considered for study in T. cruzi are the DNA polymerases, in particular DNA polymerase beta (polß), which previous studies have shown to be involved in kinetoplast DNA replication and repair. In this paper, we describe the expression, purification, and biochemical characterization of the Miranda clone polß, corresponding to lineage T. cruzi I (TcI). The recombinant enzyme purified to homogeneity displayed specific activity in the range described for a highly purified mammalian polß. However, the trypanosome enzyme exhibited important differences in biochemical properties compared to the mammalian enzymes, specifically an almost absolute dependency on KCl, high sensitivity to N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), and low sensitivity to ddTTP. Immuno-affinity purification of T. cruzi polymerase beta (Tcpolß) from epimastigote extracts showed that the native enzyme was phosphorylated. In addition, it was demonstrated that Tcpolß interacts with some proteins in a group of about 15 proteins which are required to repair 1-6 bases of gaps of a double strand damaged DNA. It is possible that these proteins form part of a DNA repair complex, analogous to that described in mammals and some trypanosomatids.

  3. First observation of beta decay of Nb-108 to Mo-108

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penttila, H; Dendooven, P; Honkanen, A; Huhta, M; Lhersonneau, G; Oinonen, M; Parmonen, JM; Perajarvi, K; Aysto, J; Kurpeta, J; Persson, B.L.


    The beta-delayed gamma decay of Nb-108 has been studied using the on-line mass-separator technique. The measured beta-decay half-life 0.20+/-0.03 s agrees with the previous measurement based on beta-delayed neutron detection. The lifetime of the first 2(+) stale in Mo-108 was measured to be 0.5+/-0.

  4. Deletion of the mitochondrial flavoprotein apoptosis inducing factor (AIF induces beta-cell apoptosis and impairs beta-cell mass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne T Schulthess

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Apoptosis is a hallmark of beta-cell death in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Understanding how apoptosis contributes to beta-cell turnover may lead to strategies to prevent progression of diabetes. A key mediator of apoptosis, mitochondrial function, and cell survival is apoptosis inducing factor (AIF. In the present study, we investigated the role of AIF on beta-cell mass and survival using the Harlequin (Hq mutant mice, which are hypomorphic for AIF. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Immunohistochemical evaluation of pancreata from Hq mutant mice displayed much smaller islets compared to wild-type mice (WT. Analysis of beta-cell mass in these mice revealed a greater than 4-fold reduction in beta-cell mass together with an 8-fold increase in beta-cell apoptosis. Analysis of cell cycle dynamics, using BrdU pulse as a marker for cells in S-phase, did not detect significant differences in the frequency of beta-cells in S-phase. In contrast, double staining for phosphorylated Histone H3 and insulin showed a 3-fold increase in beta-cells in the G2 phase in Hq mutant mice, but no differences in M-phase compared to WT mice. This suggests that the beta-cells from Hq mutant mice are arrested in the G2 phase and are unlikely to complete the cell cycle. beta-cells from Hq mutant mice display increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis, which was confirmed in human islets in which AIF was depleted by siRNA. AIF deficiency had no effect on glucose stimulated insulin secretion, but the impaired effect of hydrogen peroxide on beta-cell function was potentiated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that AIF is essential for maintaining beta-cell mass and for oxidative stress response. A decrease in the oxidative phosphorylation capacity may counteract the development of diabetes, despite its deleterious effects on beta-cell survival.

  5. Integration of BETA with Eclipse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Enevoldsen, Mads Brøgger


    This paper presents language interoperability issues appearing in order to implement support for the BETA language in the Java-based Eclipse integrated development environment. One of the challenges is to implement plug-ins in BETA and be able to load them in Eclipse. In order to do this, some form...

  6. Measurements of sin 2 $\\beta$

    CERN Document Server

    Tricomi, A


    A review of the most recent measurements of the CP violating parameter sin 2 beta from LEP and CDF is reported. These yield an average value of sin 2 beta =0.91+or-0.35, giving a confidence level that CP violation in the B system has been observed of almost 99%. (10 refs).

  7. Beta Function and Anomalous Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco


    We demonstrate that it is possible to determine the coefficients of an all-order beta function linear in the anomalous dimensions using as data the two-loop coefficients together with the first one of the anomalous dimensions which are universal. The beta function allows to determine the anomalou...

  8. RAVEN Beta Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert Arthur [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Congjian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maljovec, Daniel Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Talbot, Paul William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  9. [Serum beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2M) following renal transplantation]. (United States)

    Pacheco-Silva, A; Nishida, S K; Silva, M S; Ramos, O L; Azjen, H; Pereira, A B


    Although there was an important improvement in graft and patient survival the last 10 years, graft rejection continues to be a major barrier to the success of renal transplantation. Identification of a laboratory test that could help to diagnose graft rejection would facilitate the management of renal transplanted patients. PURPOSE--To evaluate the utility of monitoring serum beta 2M in recently transplanted patients. METHODS--We daily determined serum beta 2M levels in 20 receptors of renal grafts (10 from living related and 10 from cadaveric donors) and compared them to their clinical and laboratory evolution. RESULTS--Eight patients who presented immediate good renal function following grafting and did not have rejection had a mean serum beta 2M of 3.7 mg/L on the 4th day post transplant. The sensitivity of the test for the diagnosis of acute rejection was 87.5%, but the specificity was only 46%. Patients who presented acute tubular necrosis (ATN) without rejection had a progressive decrease in their serum levels of beta 2M, while their serum creatinine changed as they were dialyzed. In contrast, patients with ATN and concomitance of acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity presented elevated beta 2M and creatinine serum levels. CONCLUSION--Daily monitoring of serum beta 2M does not improve the ability to diagnose acute rejection in patients with good renal function. However, serum beta 2M levels seemed to be useful in diagnosing acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity in patients with ATN.

  10. Scintillation spectroscopy for beta ray dose measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vapirev, E.I.; Jordanov, T.; Amin, S.; Stoilov, N.; Georgieva, K. [Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria). Fizicheski Fakultet


    Two methods have been developed and tested for the measurement of beta ray dose with a scintillation probe. According to the first method the energy absorbed in plastic filters is calculated from the difference between the energy E of the incident and filtered beta spectrum with an expression of the type E {approx} c{Sigma}iN(i)/{Delta}m, where c is a calibration constant (keV per channel), i is the channel number, N(i) is the detected beta spectrum, and {Delta}m is the filter thickness. According to the second `dE/dx` method the energy deposited in the surface layer of the scintillator is calculated by E {approx} c{Sigma}dE/dx(i)N(i), where dE/dx is the specific energy loss for tissue-equivalent media. The methods were tested for the cases of normally incident electrons and surface contamination. The scintillation probe used is stillbene and the test sources are thin {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and {sup 137}Cs. The results are close to the expected doses as calculated by Monte Carlo simulations. (Author).

  11. A Figure-of-Merit for Beta Cell Detector Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxe, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miller, Brian W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suarez, Rey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    In order to decrease the minimum detectable activities (MDAs) of beta-gamma radioxenon detectors, it is important to increase the ability to resolve the individual isotopes. One proposed method for doing this is to increase the energy resolution of the beta cell through the use of silicon detectors. While silicon detectors can improve the energy resolution, it is accompanied with a decrease in detection efficiency compared to plastic scintillator beta cells. Due to the uncertainty on the impact of the competing variables, we have developed a figure-of-merit (FOM) capable of determining the impact of detector parameters on the MDAs. By utilizing the FOM to analyze different detectors, we are able to directly compare current and future detectors and estimate their impact on the radioxenon MDAs.

  12. Gross-beta activity in ground water: natural sources and artifacts of sampling and laboratory analysis (United States)

    Welch, Alan H.


    Gross-beta activity has been used as an indicator of beta-emitting isotopes in water since at least the early 1950s. Originally designed for detection of radioactive releases from nuclear facilities and weapons tests, analysis of gross-beta activity is widely used in studies of naturally occurring radioactivity in ground water. Analyses of about 800 samples from 5 ground-water regions of the United States provide a basis for evaluating the utility of this measurement. The data suggest that measured gross-beta activities are due to (1) long-lived radionuclides in ground water, and (2) ingrowth of beta-emitting radionuclides during holding times between collection of samples and laboratory measurements.Although40K and228Ra appear to be the primary sources of beta activity in ground water, the sum of40K plus228Ra appears to be less than the measured gross-beta activity in most ground-water samples. The difference between the contribution from these radionuclides and gross-beta activity is most pronounced in ground water with gross-beta activities > 10 pCi/L, where these 2 radionuclides account for less than one-half the measured ross-beta activity. One exception is groundwater from the Coastal Plain of New Jersey, where40K plus228Ra generally contribute most of the gross-beta activity. In contrast,40K and228Ra generally contribute most of beta activity in ground water with gross-beta activities measure all beta activity in ground water. Although3H contributes beta activity to some ground water, it is driven from the sample before counting and therefore is not detected by gross-beta measurements. Beta-emitting radionuclides with half-lives shorter than a few days can decay to low values between sampling and counting. Although little is known about concentrations of most short-lived beta-emitting radionuclides in environmental ground water (water unaffected by direct releases from nuclear facilities and weapons tests), their activities are expected to be low.Ingrowth of

  13. Induction of complement proteins in a mouse model for cerebral microvascular A beta deposition. (United States)

    Fan, Rong; DeFilippis, Kelly; Van Nostrand, William E


    The deposition of amyloid beta-protein (A beta) in cerebral vasculature, known as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), is a common pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. In familial forms of CAA single mutations in the A beta peptide have been linked to the increase of vascular A beta deposits accompanied by a strong localized activation of glial cells and elevated expression of neuroinflammatory mediators including complement proteins. We have developed human amyloid-beta precursor protein transgenic mice harboring two CAA A beta mutations (Dutch E693Q and Iowa D694N) that mimic the prevalent cerebral microvascular A beta deposition observed in those patients, and the Swedish mutations (K670N/M671L) to increase A beta production. In these Tg-SwDI mice, we have reported predominant fibrillar A beta along microvessels in the thalamic region and diffuse plaques in cortical region. Concurrently, activated microglia and reactive astrocytes have been detected primarily in association with fibrillar cerebral microvascular A beta in this model. Here we show that three native complement components in classical and alternative complement pathways, C1q, C3, and C4, are elevated in Tg-SwDI mice in regions rich in fibrillar microvascular A beta. Immunohistochemical staining of all three proteins was increased in thalamus, hippocampus, and subiculum, but not frontal cortex. Western blot analysis showed significant increases of all three proteins in the thalamic region (with hippocampus) as well as the cortical region, except C3 that was below detection level in cortex. Also, in the thalamic region (with hippocampus), C1q and C3 mRNAs were significantly up-regulated. These complement proteins appeared to be expressed largely by activated microglial cells associated with the fibrillar microvascular A beta deposits. Our findings demonstrate that Tg-SwDI mice exhibit elevated complement protein expression in response to fibrillar vascular A beta deposition

  14. Is there a relationship between serum S-100 beta protein and neuropsychologic dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westaby, S; Saatvedt, K; White, S; Katsumata, T; van Oeveren, W; Bhatnagar, NK; Brown, S; Halligan, PW


    Objectives: Over the past decade, the glial protein S-100 beta has been used to detect cerebral injury in a number of clinical settings including cardiac surgery. Previous investigations suggest that S-100 beta is capable of identifying patients with cerebral dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass

  15. Experiments on double beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busto, J. [Neuchatel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique


    The Double Beta Decay, and especially ({beta}{beta}){sub 0{nu}} mode, is an excellent test of Standard Model as well as of neutrino physics. From experimental point of view, a very large number of different techniques are or have been used increasing the sensitivity of this experiments quite a lot (the factor of 10{sup 4} in the last 20 years). In future, in spite of several difficulties, the sensitivity would be increased further, keeping the interest of this very important process. (author) 4 figs., 5 tabs., 21 refs.

  16. Effect of Beta-Carotene on Oxidative Stress and Expression of Cardiac Connexin 43

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novo, Rosangela; Azevedo, Paula S.; Minicucci, Marcos F.; Zornoff, Leonardo A. M., E-mail:; Paiva, Sergio A. R. [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu - Universidade Estadual Paulista ' Júlio de Mesquita Filho' , Botucatu, SP (Brazil)


    Intervention studies have shown an increased mortality in patients who received beta-carotene. However, the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are still unknown. Evaluate the influence of beta-carotene on oxidative stress and the expression of connexin 43 in rat hearts. Wistar rats, weighing approximately 100 g, were allocated in two groups: Control Group (n = 30), that received the diet routinely used in our laboratory, and Beta-Carotene Group (n = 28), which received beta-carotene (in crystal form, added and mixed to the diet) at a dose of 500 mg of beta carotene/kg of diet. The animals received the treatment until they reached 200-250g, when they were sacrificed. Samples of blood, liver and heart were collected to perform Western blotting and immunohistochemistry for connexin 43; morphometric studies, dosages of beta carotene by high performance liquid chromatography as well as reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione and lipids hydroperoxides were performed by biochemical analysis. Beta-carotene was detected only in the liver of Beta-Carotene Group animals (288 ± 94.7 μg/kg). Levels of reduced/ oxidized glutathione were higher in the liver and heart of Beta-Carotene Group animals (liver - Control Group: 42.60 ± 1.62; liver - Beta-Carotene Group: 57.40 ± 5.90; p = 0.04; heart: - Control Group: 117.40 ± 1.01; heart - Beta-Carotene Group: 121.81 ± 1.32 nmol/mg protein; p = 0.03). The content of total connexin 43 was larger in Beta-Carotene Group. Beta-carotene demonstrated a positive effect, characterized by the increase of intercellular communication and improvement of anti-oxidizing defense system. In this model, mechanism does not explain the increased mortality rate observed with the beta-carotene supplementation in clinical studies.

  17. 糖化血红蛋白β2-微球蛋白在2型糖尿病检测中的临床意义%Glycated hemoglobin beta 2-microglobulin in type 2 diabetes detection of clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      目的分析糖化血红蛋白、β2-微球蛋白对2型糖尿病检测的临床意义.方法对120例糖尿病(DM)患者(糖尿病组)全血标本及80例健康体检者(健康对照组)的空腹糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c)β2-微球蛋白指标进行统计分析,探讨HbA1c、β2-微球蛋白检测在DM并发症防治中的意义.结果2型糖尿病患者HbA1c、β2-微球蛋白均高于健康对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 HbA1c、β2-微球蛋白用于早期诊断DM并发肾功能损害具有较高的敏感度,对防治糖尿病并发肾功能损害有重要意义.%Objective To analyze glycated hemoglobin beta 2 - microglobulin in type 2 diabetes detection of clinical significance. Methods Select 120 cases patients with DM whole blood specimens and 80 cases of healthy check-up is hollow glycated hemoglobin, beta 2-microglobulin each index statistical analysis. Results in patients with type 2 diabetes HbA1c beta 2-microglobulin are higher than those of the healthy control group,the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion HbA1c beta 2 - microglobulin use in the early diagnosis of DM complicated renal impairment has higher sensitivity for the prevention of diabetes and kidney damage has important significance.

  18. Enhanced expression of the type II transforming growth factor beta receptor in human pancreatic cancer cells without alteration of type III receptor expression. (United States)

    Friess, H; Yamanaka, Y; Büchler, M; Berger, H G; Kobrin, M S; Baldwin, R L; Korc, M


    We have recently found that human pancreatic adenocarcinomas exhibit strong immunostaining for the three mammalian transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) isoforms. These important growth-regulating polypeptides bind to a number of proteins, including the type I TGF-beta receptor (T beta R-I), type II TGF-beta receptor (T beta R-II), and the type III TGF-beta receptor (T beta R-III). In the present study we sought to determine whether T beta R-II and T beta R-III expression is altered in pancreatic cancer. Northern blot analysis indicated that, by comparison with the normal pancreas, pancreatic adenocarcinomas exhibited a 4.6-fold increase (P beta R-II. In contrast, mRNA levels encoding T beta R-III were not increased. In situ hybridization showed that T beta R-II mRNA was expressed in the majority of cancer cells, whereas mRNA grains encoding T beta R-III were detectable in only a few cancer cells and were present mainly in the surrounding stroma. These findings suggest that enhanced levels of T beta R-II may have a role in regulating human pancreatic cancer cell growth, while T beta R-III may function in the extracellular matrix.

  19. Dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources; Dosimetria de fuentes {beta} extensas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Lallena R, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)


    In this work, we have been studied, making use of the Penelope Monte Carlo simulation code, the dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources in situations of spherical geometry including interfaces. These configurations are of interest in the treatment of the called cranealfaringyomes of some synovia leisure of knee and other problems of interest in medical physics. Therefore, its application can be extended toward problems of another areas with similar geometric situation and beta sources. (Author)

  20. Detailed transcriptome atlas of the pancreatic beta cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eizirik Decio L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression patterns provide a detailed view of cellular functions. Comparison of profiles in disease vs normal conditions provides insights into the processes underlying disease progression. However, availability and integration of public gene expression datasets remains a major challenge. The aim of the present study was to explore the transcriptome of pancreatic islets and, based on this information, to prepare a comprehensive and open access inventory of insulin-producing beta cell gene expression, the Beta Cell Gene Atlas (BCGA. Methods We performed Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS analysis of human pancreatic islet samples and microarray analyses of purified rat beta cells, alpha cells and INS-1 cells, and compared the information with available array data in the literature. Results MPSS analysis detected around 7600 mRNA transcripts, of which around a third were of low abundance. We identified 2000 and 1400 transcripts that are enriched/depleted in beta cells compared to alpha cells and INS-1 cells, respectively. Microarray analysis identified around 200 transcription factors that are differentially expressed in either beta or alpha cells. We reanalyzed publicly available gene expression data and integrated these results with the new data from this study to build the BCGA. The BCGA contains basal (untreated conditions gene expression level estimates in beta cells as well as in different cell types in human, rat and mouse pancreas. Hierarchical clustering of expression profile estimates classify cell types based on species while beta cells were clustered together. Conclusion Our gene atlas is a valuable source for detailed information on the gene expression distribution in beta cells and pancreatic islets along with insulin producing cell lines. The BCGA tool, as well as the data and code used to generate the Atlas are available at the T1Dbase website (

  1. Development of chemical sensors by using beta emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, H. J; Yu, S. K.; Yoon, M. O.; Park, K. S.; Rhim, G. J. [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea)


    The objective of this project is development of core techniques for fabrication of biosensor. This includes a method for immobilization of biologically active molecules, a method for labelling target molecules with beta emitter, and a detection method based on beta counting. A radioimmuno-sensor for detection of DNA antibody, self-assembled monolayers of {omega}-carboxylated thiol molecules such as thioctic acid and 12-mercaptododecanoic acid were used in combination with chemical coupling methods. EDC (1 - ethyl - 3 [3 - (dimethylamino)propyl] carbodiimide) and NHS (N - hydroxy - succinimide) were used as coupling reagents to induce amide bond formation between the COOH group on the sensor surface and the -NH{sub 2} group on the antibody. Various experimental conditions such as COOH concentration, immobilization pH, reaction times etc, have been examined to establish optimum conditions for efficient immobilization of the antibody. Efficient labeling of the target antigen, DNA, with a beta emitter, {sup 35}S, was achieved by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Detection of sensing signal from antigens that are selectively bound to the surface of the DNA radioimmuno-sensor has been accomplished by use of the beta counting method. According to the present results, efficient immobilization of the antibody is possible at very low antibody concentration below or equal to 0.1 mg/mL with detection limit reaching as low as 10{sup -11} M bp DNA concentration. 25 refs., 14 figs. (Author)

  2. Murrayafoline A attenuates the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway by promoting the degradation of intracellular {beta}-catenin proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyuk; Gwak, Jungsug; Cho, Munju; Ryu, Min-Jung [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jee-Hyun; Kim, Sang Kyum; Kim, Young Ho [College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gye Won [Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Konyang University, Nonsan 320-711 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Mi-Young [Department of Beauty Health Care, Daejeon University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Cuong, Nguyen Manh [Institute of Natural Products Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Shin, Jae-Gook [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Gyu-Yong, E-mail: [College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sangtaek, E-mail: [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of)


    Molecular lesions in Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling and subsequent up-regulation of {beta}-catenin response transcription (CRT) occur frequently during the development of colon cancer. To identify small molecules that suppress CRT, we screened natural compounds in a cell-based assay for detection of TOPFalsh reporter activity. Murrayafoline A, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from Glycosmis stenocarpa, antagonized CRT that was stimulated by Wnt3a-conditioned medium (Wnt3a-CM) or LiCl, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}), and promoted the degradation of intracellular {beta}-catenin without altering its N-terminal phosphorylation at the Ser33/37 residues, marking it for proteasomal degradation, or the expression of Siah-1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Murrayafoline A repressed the expression of cyclin D1 and c-myc, which is known {beta}-catenin/T cell factor (TCF)-dependent genes and thus inhibited the proliferation of various colon cancer cells. These findings indicate that murrayafoline A may be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for use in the treatment of colon cancer.

  3. Evolution of outer membrane beta-barrels from an ancestral beta beta hairpin. (United States)

    Remmert, M; Biegert, A; Linke, D; Lupas, A N; Söding, J


    Outer membrane beta-barrels (OMBBs) are the major class of outer membrane proteins from Gram-negative bacteria, mitochondria, and plastids. Their transmembrane domains consist of 8-24 beta-strands forming a closed, barrel-shaped beta-sheet around a central pore. Despite their obvious structural regularity, evidence for an origin by duplication or for a common ancestry has not been found. We use three complementary approaches to show that all OMBBs from Gram-negative bacteria evolved from a single, ancestral beta beta hairpin. First, we link almost all families of known single-chain bacterial OMBBs with each other through transitive profile searches. Second, we identify a clear repeat signature in the sequences of many OMBBs in which the repeating sequence unit coincides with the structural beta beta hairpin repeat. Third, we show that the observed sequence similarity between OMBB hairpins cannot be explained by structural or membrane constraints on their sequences. The third approach addresses a longstanding problem in protein evolution: how to distinguish between a very remotely homologous relationship and the opposing scenario of "sequence convergence." The origin of a diverse group of proteins from a single hairpin module supports the hypothesis that, around the time of transition from the RNA to the protein world, proteins arose by amplification and recombination of short peptide modules that had previously evolved as cofactors of RNAs.

  4. Detection and analysis of the penicillin-binding protein 4 in the AmpC beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli isolates%产AmpC酶的大肠埃希菌中PBP4的检测及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣慧; 蒋燕群


    Objective To detect the mRNA expression level of the nonessential penicillin-binding protein 4 (PBP4)dacB gene in AmpC beta-lactaraase producing Escherichia coli isolates, and investigate the effect of PBP4 in the resistant mechanism of AmpC beta-lactamase producing gram-negative isolates. Methods- A total of 34 AmpC beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli isolates were collected in Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital from 2003 to 2010. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR)was used for the amplification of dacB gene and ampC gene, and the real-time quantitation PCR was used for the detection of the mRNA expression level of dacB. The isolates were classified into 2 groups: the high expression level group and the low expression level group. Real-time quantitation PCR was used for the detection of the mRNA expression level of ampC. The broth microdilution method was used for the detection of sensitivity. Results Among the 34 Escherichia coli,26 (76.47%)of 34 isolates had mRNA overexpression level of dacB,and the mRNA of ampC in the high expression level group was higher than that in the low expression level group (P < 0.05). Conclusions The overexpression of PBP4 may be helpful to introduce high-level resistance by triggering the overexpression of AmpC beta-lactamase among clinical isolates of Escherichia coli.%目的 检测产AmpC β-内酰胺酶(简称AmpC酶)的大肠埃希菌中编码非必需青霉素结合蛋白4( PBP4)的基因dacB mRNA表达水平,探讨PBP4在产AmpC酶的革兰阴性菌耐药机制中的作用.方法 收集上海市第六人民医院2003至2010年间部分产AmpC酶的大肠埃希菌34株,聚合酶链反应(PCR)扩增dacB基因和ampC基因,实时定量PCR检测dacB mRNA表达水平,并分为dacB mRNA表达上调组与dacB mRNA表达下调组,实时定量PCR方法检测ampC mRNA表达水平.微量肉汤稀释法药敏试验检测抗菌药物的敏感性.结果 34株大肠埃希菌中,26株(76.47%) dacB mRNA表达水平上调,dacB m

  5. Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay. (United States)

    Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth


    Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)

  6. Beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic /sup 125/I-pindolol binding sites in the interpeduncular nucleus of the rat: Normal distribution and the effects of deafferentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battisti, W.P.; Artymyshyn, R.P.; Murray, M.


    The plasticity of the beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptor subtypes was examined in the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) of the adult rat. The beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist 125I-pindolol (125I-PIN) was used in conjunction with the selective subtype antagonists ICI 118,551 and ICI 89,406 to determine the subnuclear distribution of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptors in this nucleus and to correlate the receptor distribution with the distribution of both noradrenergic afferents from the locus coeruleus (LC) and non-noradrenergic afferents from the fasiculus retroflexus (FR). The density of these binding sites was examined following lesions that decreased (LC lesions) or increased (FR lesions) the density of the noradrenergic projection in the IPN. Quantitative radioautography indicated that beta 1-labeled binding sites account for the larger percentage of binding sites in the IPN. The beta 1-binding sites are densest in those subnuclei that receive a noradrenergic projection from the LC: the central, rostral, and intermediate subnuclei. beta 1-binding sites are algo homogeneously distributed throughout the lateral subnuclei, where there is no detectable noradrenergic innervation. beta 2-binding sites have a more restricted distribution. They are concentrated in the ventral half of the lateral subnuclei, where they account for 70% of total 125I-PIN binding sites. beta 2-binding sites are also present along the ventral border of the IPN. Some of this labeling extends into the central and intermediate subnuclei. Bilateral lesions of the LC, which selectively remove noradrenergic innervation to the IPN, result in an increase in the beta 1-binding sites. Bilateral lesions of the FR, which remove the major cholinergic and peptidergic input from the IPN, elicit an increase in noradrenergic projections and a decrease in beta 1-binding sites.

  7. [BiOBr promoted the photocatalytic degradation of beta-cypermethrin under visible light]. (United States)

    Peng, Yi-Zhu; Zhao, Xiao-Rong; Jia, Man-Ke; Zhou, Wei; Huang, Ying-Ping


    As a visible light photocatalyst, bismuth oxide bromide (BiOBr) was used to catalyze the degradation of beta-cypermethrin (beta-CP). The photocatalytic degradation of beta-CP was studied with gas chromatography. The effects of pH and catalyst dose on the photocatalytic degradation efficiency were discussed. The oxidization and mineralization of beta-CP were detected by chemical oxygen demand (COD) analyzer. The results showed that beta-CP could be effectively degraded under visible light irradiation using BiOBr as the catalyst. At given experimental conditions, the degradation rate of beta-CP reached 94. 68% after 10 h and the COD removal rate reached 67. 99% after 36 h. With the increase of catalyst dose and pH value, the degradation rate was improved. The photocatalytic oxidation species was determined by peroxidase method and terephthalic acid fluorescence method. These results suggested that the photocatalytic degradation process mainly referred to hydroxyl radical ( OH) mechanism.

  8. Beta Function and Anomalous Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Pica, Claudio


    We demonstrate that it is possible to determine the coefficients of an all-order beta function linear in the anomalous dimensions using as data the two-loop coefficients together with the first one of the anomalous dimensions which are universal. The beta function allows to determine the anomalous dimension of the fermion masses at the infrared fixed point, and the resulting values compare well with the lattice determinations.

  9. A background free double beta decay experiment (United States)

    Giomataris, I.


    We present a new detection scheme for rejecting backgrounds in neutrino-less double beta decay experiments. It relies on the detection of Cherenkov light emitted by electrons in the MeV region. The momentum threshold is tuned to reach a good discrimination between background and good events. We consider many detector concepts and a range of target materials. The most promising is the high-pressure 136Xe emitter where the required energy threshold is easily adjusted. Combination of this concept and a high pressure Time Projection Chamber could provide an optimal solution. A simple and low cost effective solution is the use of the Spherical Proportional Counter that provides, using a single read-out channel, two delayed signals from ionization and Cherenkov light. In solid-state double beta decay emitters, because of its higher density, the considered process is out of energy range. An escape will be the fabrication of double decay emitters having lower density by using for instance the aerogel technique. It is surprising that a technology used for particle identification in high-energy physics becomes a powerful tool for rejecting backgrounds in such low-energy experiments.

  10. A background free double beta decay experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Giomataris, Ioannis


    We present a new detection scheme for rejecting backgrounds in neutrino less double beta decay experiments. It relies on the detection of Cherenkov light emitted by electrons in the MeV region. The momentum threshold is tuned to reach a good discrimination between background and good events. We consider many detector concepts and a range of target materials. The most promising is a high-pressure 136Xe emitter for which the required energy threshold is easily adjusted. Combination of this concept and a high pressure Time Projection Chamber could provide an optimal solution. A simple and low cost effective solution is to use the Spherical Proportional Counter that provides two delayed signals from ionization and Cherenkov light. In solid-state double beta decay emitters, because of their higher density, the considered process is out of energy range. An alternative solution could be the development of double decay emitters with lower density by using for instance the aerogel technique. It is surprising that a te...

  11. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morant, Marc


    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  12. Beta-Catenin and Epithelial Tumors: A Study Based on 374 Oropharyngeal Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Santoro


    Full Text Available Introduction. Although altered regulation of the Wnt pathway via beta-catenin is a frequent event in several human cancers, its potential implications in oral/oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC/OPSCC are largely unexplored. Work purpose was to define association between beta-catenin expression and clinical-pathological parameters in 374 OSCCs/OP-SCCs by immunohistochemistry (IHC. Materials and Methods. Association between IHC detected patterns of protein expression and clinical-pathological parameters was assessed by statistical analysis and survival rates by Kaplan-Meier curves. Beta-catenin expression was also investigated in OSCC cell lines by Real-Time PCR. An additional analysis of the DNA content was performed on 22 representative OSCCs/OPSCCs by DNA-image-cytometric analysis. Results and Discussion. All carcinomas exhibited significant alterations of beta-catenin expression (P<0.05. Beta-catenin protein was mainly detected in the cytoplasm of cancerous cells and only focal nuclear positivity was observed. Higher cytoplasmic expression correlated significantly with poor histological differentiation, advanced stage, and worst patient outcome (P<0.05. By Real-Time PCR significant increase of beta-catenin mRNA was detected in OSCC cell lines and in 45% of surgical specimens. DNA ploidy study demonstrated high levels of aneuploidy in beta-catenin overexpressing carcinomas. Conclusions. This is the largest study reporting significant association between beta-catenin expression and clinical-pathological factors in patients with OSCCs/OPSCCs.

  13. First on-line $\\beta$-NMR on oriented nuclei magnetic dipole moments of the $\

    CERN Document Server

    Giles, T; Stone, N J; Van Esbroeck, K; White, G; Wöhr, A; Veskovic, M; Towner, I S; Mantica, P F; Prisciandaro, J I; Morrissey, D J; Fedosseev, V; Mishin, V I; Köster, U; Walters, W B


    The first fully on-line use of the angular distribution of $\\beta$ - emission in detection of NMR of nuclei oriented at low temperatures is reported. The magnetic moments of the single valence particle, intermediate mass, isotopes $^{67}$Ni($\

  14. A method for the determination of residual beta activity in drinking water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idoeta, R. [Dpto. Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, E. T. S. Ingenieria de Bilbao - Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alda. Urquijo s/n. 48013 Bilbao (Spain)], E-mail:; Herranz, M.; Abelairas, A.; Legarda, F. [Dpto. Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, E. T. S. Ingenieria de Bilbao - Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alda. Urquijo s/n. 48013 Bilbao (Spain)


    The determination of residual beta activity in drinking water is usually needed in most monitoring programs. In this work a procedure for its determination is described and expressions for the calculations of detection limits and uncertainties are proposed.

  15. 改良亚胺培南-EDTA纸片增效试验检测铜绿假单胞菌产金属酶表型%The phenotypic detection of metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa by modified imipenem-EDTA disk potentiation test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严育忠; 范惠清; 郑文龙; 杨焕章; 陆燕春; 石毅


    目的:评估改良亚胺培南-乙二胺四乙酸(EDTA)纸片增效试验在检测铜绿假单胞菌(PA)产金属酶表型中的应用价值。方法收集95株耐碳青霉烯类药物PA,采用琼脂稀释法测定所有菌株对亚胺培南和美罗培南的最低抑菌浓度(MIC)值,聚合酶链反应(PCR)和DNA测序鉴定金属酶基因型,亚胺培南-EDTA纸片增效试验常规法和改良法检测金属酶表型。结果95株耐碳青霉烯类药物PA对亚胺培南和美罗培南的耐药率分别为100.0%和71.6%;常规法敏感性、特异性、阳性预测值和阴性预测值分别是100.0%、96.6%、72.7%和100.0%,而改良法均为100.0%。结论改良亚胺培南-EDTA纸片增效试验可能是一种检测PA产金属酶表型的有效方法。%Objective To evaluate the modified imipenem-ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA ) disk potentiation test for the phenotypic detection of metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA ). Methods A total of 95 carbapenem-resistant PA were collected.The minimum inhibition concentrations(MIC)of imipenem and meropenem were determined by agar dilution method.Polymerase chain reaction (PCR ) and DNA sequencing were used for the identification of metallo-beta-lactamase genotypes.The phenotypic detection of metallo-beta-lactamase was done by conventional and modified imipenem-EDTA disk potentiation test.Results The resistance rates of imipenem and meropenem were 1 00.0%and 71 .6%among these 95 carbapenem-resistant PA.The sensitivity, specificity,positive predictive value and negative predictive value of conventional test were 1 00.0%,96.6%,72.7%and 1 00.0%,respectively.Those of modified test were all 1 00.0%.Conclusions The modified imipenem-EDTA disk potentiation test could be an effective method for the phenotypic detection of metallo-beta-lactamase-producing PA.

  16. Depressed adrenomedullin in the embryonic transforming growth factor-beta1 null mouse becomes elevated postnatally. (United States)

    Bodegas, Elena; Martínez, Alfredo; Ozbun, Laurent L; Garayoa, Mercedes; Letterio, John J; Montuenga, Luis M; Jakowlew, Sonia B


    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and adrenomedullin are multifunctional regulatory proteins which are expressed in developing embryonic and adult tissues. Because of their colocalization, TGF-beta1 and adrenomedullin may be able to coordinately act to influence development and differentiation. In order to learn more about the biology of adrenomedullin in the absence of the effects of TGF-beta1 in vivo, we examined adrenomedullin in the TGF-beta1 null mouse. A generally lower amount of adrenomedullin was detected by immunohistochemical staining analysis in multiple tissues from embryonic TGF-beta1 null mice compared to wildtype animals, including the heart, lung, brain, liver, and kidney, among others. In contrast, immunohistochemical staining for adrenomedullin was more intense in tissues of the postnatal TGF-beta1 null mouse compared to the wildtype mouse. These observations were confirmed by quantitative real time RT-PCR for adrenomedullin in both embryos and postnatal animals, as well as in cultured mouse embryo fibroblasts from TGF-beta1 null and wildtype mice. In addition, when cultured mouse embryo fibroblasts were treated with a neutralizing monoclonal antibody against TGF-beta1, the levels of adrenomedullin expression were statistically reduced compared to untreated cells. Our data show that expression of adrenomedullin is reduced in tissues of the developing embryonic TGF-beta1 null mouse compared to the wildtype mouse, but increases during postnatal development in TGF-beta1 null mice. The elevated expression of adrenomedullin which occurs postnatally in the TGF-beta1 null mouse may be a cause or a consequence of the multifocal wasting syndrome which is characteristic of postnatal TGF-beta1 null mice.

  17. The GERDA experiment on 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, Kai [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration


    The Gerda (Germanium Detector Array) collaboration searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) of {sup 76}Ge. The existence of this decay would give rise to the assumption that the neutrino is a Majorana particle, i.e. its own antiparticle. A measured half-life could be used to determine the effective neutrino mass and hence resolve the neutrino mass hierarchy problem. Germanium diodes, isotopically enriched in {sup 76}Ge, are used as both source and detector. Due to the low rate of this decay (T{sub 1/2}>10{sup 25} y), the experimental background must be reduced to a level of 10{sup -2}counts/(kg y keV) or better in the region around Q{sub {beta}{beta}}. To minimize background from cosmogenically produced secondary particles, a low Z shielding is employed. Thus, the naked diodes are operated in a liquid argon cryostat, which is surrounded by a water tank acting as both passive shield and active muon Cherenkov veto. Gerda started the commissioning runs in 2010 and in November 2011, the first phase of data taking with enriched detectors has begun. In this talk, the first year of the experiment is summarized.

  18. Marcadores eletrocardiográficos para detecção precoce de doença cardíaca em pacientes com talassemia beta maior Electrocardiographic markers for the early detection of cardiac disease in patients with beta-thalassemia major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Nisli


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar comparativamente a dispersão da onda P (DOP em pacientes com talassemia beta maior (β-TM e indivíduos saudáveis (controles para a detecção precoce do risco de arritmias. MÉTODOS: Oitenta e uma crianças com β-TM, com idades entre 4 e 19 anos, e 74 crianças saudáveis (grupo controle foram submetidas a exame eletrocardiográfico e ecocardiograma transtorácico de rotina para avaliação cardíaca. A DOP foi calculada como a diferença entre as durações máxima e mínima da onda P. RESULTADOS: Houve uma diferença estatisticamente significativa entre o grupo de estudo e o grupo controle no pico de velocidade do fluxo transmitral no início da diástole (E e na razão E/fluxo transmitral tardio (A. A duração máxima da onda P e a DOP foram significativamente maiores nos pacientes com β-TM do que nos indivíduos controles. CONCLUSÕES: O aumento da DOP em nossos pacientes com β-TM pode estar relacionado à depressão na condução intra-atrial, devido à dilatação atrial, e ao aumento da atividade simpática. Estes pacientes devem ser acompanhados atentamente devido à possibilidade de ocorrência de arritmias com risco de vida.OBJECTIVE: To comparatively evaluate P-wave dispersion (PWD in patients with β-thalassemia major (TM and healthy control subjects for the early prediction of arrhythmia risk. METHODS: Eighty-one children with β-TM, aged 4-19 years, and 74 healthy children (control group underwent routine electrocardiography and transthoracic echocardiography for cardiac evaluation. PWD was calculated as the difference between the maximum and the minimum P-wave duration. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference between study and control groups in peak early (E mitral inflow velocity and E/late (A velocity ratio. Maximum P-wave duration and PWD were found to be significantly higher in β-TM patients than in control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Increased PWD in our β-TM patients might be related

  19. Elaboration of supports for beta emitting sources (with vyns); Elaboracion de soportes para fuentes emisoras beta (con vyns)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes P, A.; Torre O, J. De la; Tejera R, A.; Becerril V, A.; Bribiesca S, L


    The Laboratory of Radioactive patterns account with a 4 {pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence system of recent acquisition with which absolute measures of radioactive activity with uncertainties of the order of 0.1% can be made. Since the coincidence method for the activity measure consists on detecting to the particle and the photon corresponding to oneself nuclear disintegration, it is necessary to elaborate special radioactive sources on thin supports, in order to allowing the maximum possible fluence of {beta} particles ({approx} 100%). This work a technique for the elaboration of these sources and for the measure of the thickness of the walls of the support is presented. (Author)

  20. Preliminary evidence for a postsynaptic action of beta-bungarotoxin in mammalian skeletal muscle (United States)

    Storella, R. J.; Schouchoff, A. L.; Fujii, M.; Hill, J.; Fletcher, J. E.; Jiang, M. S.; Smith, L. A.


    Two hours after treatment with beta-bungarotoxin (0.34-0.4 microM), when there was complete neuromuscular block, the peak contracture response to 50 microM succinylcholine was significantly reduced by about 35% in the mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation. Additionally, significant phospholipase A2 activity was detected on primary cell cultures from skeletal muscle which were incubated for 2 hr with concentrations of beta-bungarotoxin greater than or equal to 0.1 microM. Thus, beta-bungarotoxin appears to have pharmacologically and biochemically detectable postsynaptic actions in mammalian muscle systems.

  1. Molecular analysis in two beta-mannosidosis patients: description of a new adult case. (United States)

    Gort, Laura; Duque, Joana; Fabeiro, José M; Zulaica, Ander; Coll, Maria Josep; Chabás, Amparo


    beta-Mannosidosis is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of beta-mannosidase. Thirteen families with cases of beta-mannosidosis have been described including one case previously reported by our group. We present clinical and biochemical data in a new adult case, and the molecular analyses in both this new case and the one previously reported. We detected four novel mutations: p.R182W, p.G392E, p.W466X and c.1848delA. Discrepancies between genomic DNA and cDNA results when detecting this last deletion suggested a nonsense-mediated decay cell process (NMD).

  2. Analysis of betaS and betaA genes in a Mexican population with African roots. (United States)

    Magaña, María Teresa; Ongay, Zoyla; Tagle, Juan; Bentura, Gilberto; Cobián, José G; Perea, F Javier; Casas-Castañeda, Maricela; Sánchez-López, Yoaly J; Ibarra, Bertha


    To investigate the origin of the beta(A) and beta(S) genes in a Mexican population with African roots and a high frequency of hemoglobin S, we analyzed 467 individuals (288 unrelated) from different towns in the states of Guerrero and Oaxaca in the Costa Chica region. The frequency of the sickle-cell trait was 12.8%, which may represent a public health problem. The frequencies of the beta-haplotypes were determined from 350 nonrelated chromosomes (313 beta(A) and 37 beta(S)). We observed 15 different beta(A) haplotypes, the most common of which were haplotypes 1 (48.9%), 2 (13.4%), and 3 (13.4%). The calculation of pairwise distributions and Nei's genetic distance analysis using 32 worldwide populations showed that the beta(A) genes are more closely related to those of Mexican Mestizos and North Africans. Bantu and Benin haplotypes and haplotype 9 were related to the beta(S) genes, with frequencies of 78.8, 18.2, and 3.0%, respectively. Comparison of these haplotypes with 17 other populations revealed a high similitude with the population of the Central African Republic. These data suggest distinct origins for the beta(A) and beta(S) genes in Mexican individuals from the Costa Chica region.

  3. Pediatric multicenter evaluation of the Verigene gram-negative blood culture test for rapid detection of inpatient bacteremia involving gram-negative organisms, extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, and carbapenemases. (United States)

    Sullivan, K V; Deburger, B; Roundtree, S S; Ventrola, C A; Blecker-Shelly, D L; Mortensen, J E


    We evaluated the investigational use only (IUO) version of the rapid Verigene Gram-negative blood culture test (BC-GN), a microarray that detects 9 genus/species targets (Acinetobacter spp., Citrobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., Escherichia coli/Shigella spp., Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia marcescens) and 6 antimicrobial resistance determinants (blaCTX-M, blaKPC, blaNDM, blaVIM, blaIMP, and blaOXA) directly from positive blood cultures. BC-GN was performed on positive BacT/Alert Pediatric FAN and Bactec Peds Plus blood cultures with Gram-negative organisms at two tertiary pediatric centers. Vitek MS (bioMérieux, Durham, NC) was used to assign gold standard organism identification. The Check MDR CT-102 microarray (Check Points B.V., Wageningen, Netherlands) was used as an alternative method for detecting resistance determinants. In total, 104 organisms were isolated from 97 clinical blood cultures. BC-GN correctly detected 26/26 cultures with Acinetobacter spp., P. aeruginosa, and S. marcescens, 5/6 with Citrobacter spp., 13/14 with Enterobacter spp., 23/24 with E. coli, 2/3 with K. oxytoca, 16/17 with K. pneumoniae, and 0/1 with Proteus spp. BC-GN appropriately reported negative BC-GN results in 8/13 blood cultures that grew organisms that were not represented on the microarray but failed to detect targets in 3/5 cultures that grew multiple Gram-negative organisms. BC-GN detected 5/5 and 1/1 clinical blood cultures with blaCTX-M and blaVIM. All 6 results were corroborated by Check MDR CT-102 microarray testing. The Verigene BC-GN test has the potential to expedite therapeutic decision making in pediatric patients with Gram-negative bacteremia. Sensitivity was satisfactory but may be suboptimal in mixed Gram-negative blood cultures.

  4. The action of beta-galactosidase (Escherichia coli) on allolactose. (United States)

    Huber, R E; Wallenfels, K; Kurz, G


    The parameters involved in the action of beta-galactosidase (EC (Escherichia coli) on allolactose, the natural inducer of lac operon in E. coli, were studied. At low allolactose concentrations only galactose and glucose were formed, while at high allolactose concentrations transgalactolytic oligosaccharides were also produced. Detectable amounts of lactose were not formed. The V and Km values (49.6 U/mg and 0.00120 M, respectively) indicated that allolactose is as good if not a better substrate of beta-galactosidase as lactose. The pH optimum with allolactose (7.8-7.9) as well as its activation by K+ (as compared to activation by Na+) were similar to the case with lactose as substrate. The alpha-anomer of allolactose was hydrolyzed about two times as rapidly as was the beta-anomer.

  5. beta (+)-Thalassaemia in the Po river delta region (northern Italy): genotype and beta globin synthesis. (United States)

    Del Senno, L; Pirastu, M; Barbieri, R; Bernardi, F; Buzzoni, D; Marchetti, G; Perrotta, C; Vullo, C; Kan, Y W; Conconi, F


    Six beta(+)-thalassaemic patients from the Po river delta region have been studied. Using synthetic oligonucleotides as specific hybridisation probes, the beta(+) IVS I mutation (G----A at position 108) was demonstrated. This lesion and the enzyme polymorphism pattern in the subjects examined are the same as have been described for other Mediterranean beta(+)-thalassaemias. Antenatal diagnosis through DNA analysis of beta(+)-thalassaemia is therefore possible. The production of beta globin in a beta(+), homozygote and in a beta (+), beta(0) 39 (nonsense mutation at codon 39) double heterozygote is approximately 20% and 10% respectively of total non-alpha globin synthesis. Despite some overlapping of the results, similar beta globin synthesis levels have been obtained in 43 beta(+)-thalassaemia patients. This suggests that in the Po river delta region the most common thalassaemic genes are beta(0) 39 and beta(+) IVS I. Images PMID:2580095

  6. Planetary companions in K giants beta Cancri, mu Leonis, and beta Ursae Minoris

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, B -C; Park, M -G; Mkrtichian, D E; Hatzes, A P; Kim, K -M


    Auns. The aim of our paper is to investigate the low-amplitude and long-period variations in evolved stars with a precise radial velocity (RV) survey. Methods. The high-resolution, the fiber-fed Bohyunsan Observatory Echelle Spectrograph (BOES) was used from 2003 to 2013 for a radial velocity survey of giant stars as part of the exoplanet search program at Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (BOAO). Results. We report the detection of three new planetary companions orbiting the K giants beta Cnc, mu Leo, and beta UMi. The planetary nature of the radial velocity variations is supported by analyzes of ancillary data. The HIPPARCOS photometry shows no variations with periods close to those in RV variations and there is no strong correlation between the bisector velocity span (BVS) and the radial velocities for each star. Furthermore, the stars show weak or no core reversal in Ca II H lines indicating that they are inactive stars. The companion to beta Cnc has a minimum mass of 7.8 M_Jup in a 605-day orbit wi...

  7. $\\beta$ Pictoris' inner disk in polarized light and new orbital parameters for $\\beta$ Pictoris b

    CERN Document Server

    Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A; Pueyo, Laurent; Kalas, Paul; Dawson, Rebekah I; Wang, Jason; Perrin, Marshall; Moon, Dae-Sik; Macintosh, Bruce; Ammons, S Mark; Barman, Travis; Cardwell, Andrew; Chen, Christine H; Chiang, Eugene; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Cotten, Tara; De Rosa, Robert J; Draper, Zachary H; Dunn, Jennifer; Duchêne, Gaspard; Esposito, Thomas M; Fitzgerald, Michael P; Follette, Katherine B; Goodsell, Stephen J; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Hinkley, Sasha; Ingraham, Patrick; Jensen-Clem, Rebecca; Konopacky, Quinn; Larkin, James E; Long, Douglas; Maire, Jérôme; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark S; Marois, Christian; Morzinski, Katie M; Nielsen, Eric L; Palmer, David W; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Poyneer, Lisa; Rajan, Abhijith; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T; Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Schneider, Adam C; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Remi; Thomas, Sandrine; Vasisht, Gautam; Vega, David; Wallace, J Kent; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J; Wolff, Schuyler G


    We present $H$-band observations of $\\beta$ Pic with the Gemini Planet Imager's (GPI's) polarimetry mode that reveal the debris disk between ~0.3" (~6 AU) and ~1.7" (~33 AU), while simultaneously detecting $\\beta$ Pic $b$. The polarized disk image was fit with a dust density model combined with a Henyey-Greenstein scattering phase function. The best fit model indicates a disk inclined to the line of sight ($\\phi=85.27{\\deg}^{+0.26}_{-0.19}$) with a position angle $\\theta_{PA}=30.35{\\deg}^{+0.29}_{-0.28}$ (slightly offset from the main outer disk, $\\theta_{PA}\\approx29{\\deg}$), that extends from an inner disk radius of $23.6^{+0.9}_{-0.6}$ AU to well outside GPI's field of view. In addition, we present an updated orbit for $\\beta$ Pic $b$ based on new astrometric measurements taken in GPI's spectroscopic mode spanning 14 months. The planet has a semi-major axis of $a=9.2^{+1.5}_{-0.4}$AU, with an eccentricity $e\\leq 0.26$. The position angle of the ascending node is $\\Omega=31.75{\\deg}\\pm0.15$, offset from bot...

  8. Prevalence of hepatosplenomegaly in beta thalassemia minor subjects in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi, Mehran [Hemostasis and Thrombosis Unit, Hematology Research Center, school of Medicine, Shiraz University of medical sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail:; Bagheri, Mohammad Hadi [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tahmtan, Mehdi [Hemostasis and Thrombosis Unit, Hematology Research Center, school of Medicine, Shiraz University of medical sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shakibafard, Alireza [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashid, Murtaza [Hemostasis and Thrombosis Unit, Hematology Research Center, school of Medicine, Shiraz University of medical sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Introduction: Thalassemia is the most common hereditary blood disorder in the world. Iran is located on the thalassemic belt and there is a high prevalence of the hepatosplenomegaly in beta thalassemia minor patients which is reported to be very variable. The goal of this research was to study the frequency of these signs in the cases with beta thalassemia minor patients in Iran. Materials and methods: Two hundred and fifty-nine cases that referred to center for pre-marriage tests were divided into two groups according to their MCV, MCH, and HbA2 (beta thalassemia minor cases and control groups). Liver and spleen sizes were determined by ultrasonographic method and the two groups were compared with each other. Results: Average spleen volumes in case and control groups were 163.48 {+-} 133.97 and 126.29 {+-} 53.98 mm{sup 3}, respectively. Average spleen lengths in case and control groups were 10.71 {+-} 1.52 and 10.60 {+-} 5.4 cm, respectively. Conclusion: In the regions with high frequency of beta thalassemia, in case of finding large spleen size in the ultrasonography, a probable harmless differential diagnosis will be beta thalassemia minor that is not indicative of any serious disease. Volumetric measurement of spleen is more reliable for detection of splenomegaly in these patients.

  9. Smart Beta or Smart Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kenneth Lillelund; Steenstrup, Søren Resen


    Smart beta has become the flavor of the decade in the investment world with its low fees, easy access to rewarded risk premiums, and appearance of providing good investment results relative to both traditional passive benchmarks and actively managed funds. Although we consider it well documented...... that smart beta investing probably will do better than passive market capitalization investing over time, we believe many are coming to a conclusion too quickly regarding active managers. Institutional investors are able to guide managers through benchmarks and risk frameworks toward the same well......-documented smart beta risk premiums and still motivate active managers to avoid value traps, too highly priced small caps, defensives, etc. By constructing the equity portfolios of active managers that resemble the most widely used risk premiums, we show that the returns and risk-adjusted returns measures...

  10. Beta amyloid and hyperphosphorylated tau deposits in the pancreas in type 2 diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miklossy, J.; Miller, L.; Qing, H.; Radenovic, A.; Kis, A.; Vileno, B.; Laszlo, F.; Martins, R.N.; Waeber, G.; Mooser, V.; Bosman, F.; Khalili, K.; Darbinian, N.; McGeer, P.L.


    Strong epidemiologic evidence suggests an association between Alzheimer disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes. To determine if amyloid beta (A{beta}) and hyperphosphorylated tau occurs in type 2 diabetes, pancreas tissues from 21 autopsy cases (10 type 2 diabetes and 11 controls) were analyzed. APP and tau mRNAs were identified in human pancreas and in cultured insulinoma beta cells (INS-1) by RT-PCR. Prominent APP and tau bands were detected by Western blotting in pancreatic extracts. Aggregated A{beta}, hyperphosphorylated tau, ubiquitin, apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein(a), IB1/JIP-1 and JNK1 were detected in Langerhans islets in type 2 diabetic patients. A{beta} was co-localized with amylin in islet amyloid deposits. In situ beta sheet formation of islet amyloid deposits was shown by infrared microspectroscopy (SIRMS). LPS increased APP in non-neuronal cells as well. We conclude that A{beta} deposits and hyperphosphorylated tau are also associated with type 2 diabetes, highlighting common pathogenetic features in neurodegenerative disorders, including AD and type 2 diabetes and suggesting that A{beta} deposits and hyperphosphorylated tau may also occur in other organs than the brain.

  11. Identification of tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid in foodstuffs, human urine and human milk. (United States)

    Adachi, J; Mizoi, Y; Naito, T; Ogawa, Y; Uetani, Y; Ninomiya, I


    1-Methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (MTCA) and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (TCCA), both precursors of mutagenic N-nitroso compounds (N-nitrosamines, 1-methyl-2-nitroso-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid and 2-nitroso-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid), were detected in various food-stuffs, urine from healthy human subjects and human milk. A purification procedure, involving a chemically-bonded material followed by HPLC combined with fluorometric detection, was used for the quantitative determination of these compounds, allowing the separation of two diastereoisomers of MTCA. An HPLC and mass spectrometry method was also developed for their identification. Comparing the concentration of MTCA and TCCA in fermented products and raw materials suggested that tetrahydro-beta-carbolines may have been produced through fermentation or by condensation of tryptophan and acetaldehyde formed from ethanol added as a food preservative. This is the first report of excretion of tetrahydro-beta-carbolines in human urine and human milk. A comparison of the concentrations of tetrahydro-beta-carbolines in urine from human infants and human milk indicates that tetrahydro-beta-carbolines may be synthesized endogenously in humans. A possible pathway of tryptophan metabolism in plants and animals is presented.

  12. The microbial oxidation of (-)-beta-pinene by Botrytis cinerea. (United States)

    Farooq, Afgan; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Tahara, Satoshi; Rahman, Atta-ur; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Demirci, Fatih


    (-)-beta-pinene, a flavor and fragrance monoterpene is an important constituent of essential oils of many aromatic plants. It was oxidized by a plant-pathogenic fungus, Botrytis cinerea to afford four metabolites characterized as (-)-6a-hydroxy-beta-pinene, (-)-4beta,5beta-dihydroxy-beta-pinene, (-)-2beta,3beta-dihydroxypinane, and (-)-4beta-hydroxy-beta-pinene-6-one by detailed spectroscopic studies along with other known metabolites.

  13. Neutrinoless double beta decay experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Zuber, K


    The study of neutrinoless double beta decay is of outmost importance for neutrino physics. It is considered to be the gold plated channel to probe the fundamental character of neutrinos and to determine the neutrino mass. From the experimental point about nine different isotopes are explored for the search. After a general introduction follows a short discussion on nuclear matrix element calculations and supportive measurements. The current experimental status of double beta searches is presented followed by a short discussion of the ideas and proposals for large scale experiments.

  14. A {beta} - {gamma} coincidence; Metodo de coincidencias {beta} - {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agullo, F.


    A {beta} - {gamma} coincidence method for absolute counting is given. The fundamental principles are revised and the experimental part is detailed. The results from {sup 1}98 Au irradiated in the JEN 1 Swimming pool reactor are given. The maximal accuracy is 1 per cent. (Author) 11 refs.

  15. Beta thalassaemia mutations in Turkish Cypriots. (United States)

    Sozuoz, A; Berkalp, A; Figus, A; Loi, A; Pirastu, M; Cao, A


    Using oligonucleotide hybridisation or restriction endonuclease analysis, we have characterised the molecular defect in 94 patients with thalassaemia major and four with thalassaemia intermedia of Turkish Cypriot descent. We found that four mutations, namely beta+ IVS-1 nt 110, beta zero IVS-1 nt, beta+ IVS-1 nt 6, and beta+ IVS-2 nt 745 were prevalent, accounting for 69.9%, 11.7%, 8.7%, and 5.6% respectively of the beta thalassaemia chromosomes. This information may help in the organisation of a large scale prevention programme based on fetal diagnosis of beta thalassaemia by DNA analysis in the Turkish population. PMID:3236356

  16. Essential role of TGF-beta/Smad pathway on statin dependent vascular smooth muscle cell regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rodríguez-Vita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase inhibitors (also called statins exert proven beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases. Recent data suggest a protective role for Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-beta in atherosclerosis by regulating the balance between inflammation and extracellular matrix accumulation. However, there are no studies about the effect of statins on TGF-beta/Smad pathway in atherosclerosis and vascular cells. METHODOLOGY: In cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs statins enhanced Smad pathway activation caused by TGF-beta. In addition, statins upregulated TGF-beta receptor type II (TRII, and increased TGF-beta synthesis and TGF-beta/Smad-dependent actions. In this sense, statins, through Smad activation, render VSMCs more susceptible to TGF-beta induced apoptosis and increased TGF-beta-mediated ECM production. It is well documented that high doses of statins induce apoptosis in cultured VSMC in the presence of serum; however the precise mechanism of this effect remains to be elucidated. We have found that statins-induced apoptosis was mediated by TGF-beta/Smad pathway. Finally, we have described that RhoA inhibition is a common intracellular mechanisms involved in statins effects. The in vivo relevance of these findings was assessed in an experimental model of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E deficient mice: Treatment with Atorvastatin increased Smad3 phosphorylation and TRII overexpression, associated to elevated ECM deposition in the VSMCs within atheroma plaques, while apoptosis was not detected. CONCLUSIONS: Statins enhance TGF-beta/Smad pathway, regulating ligand levels, receptor, main signaling pathway and cellular responses of VSMC, including apoptosis and ECM accumulation. Our findings show that TGF-beta/Smad pathway is essential for statins-dependent actions in VSMCs.

  17. Beta-Thioxoketones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, F. S.; Brown, R. S.; Carlsen, Lars;


    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has been used to record the 01, and Szp ionization spectra of thioacetylacetone, 2-acetylcyclohexanethione,2 -thioacetylcyclohexanone,th e S-methyl derivative of thioacetylacetone, and propyl 3-mercaptocrotonate in the gas phase. It is shown that both the enol...... and the enethiol tautomers of the /3-thioxoketones can be detected, and the enol/enethiol ratios for thioacetylacetone, 2-acetylcyclohexanethione, and 2-thioacetylcyclohexanone were determined to be 61:39, 30:70, and 80:20, respectively, based on the intensities of the oxygen ionizations. The conclusions derived...... from the sulfur region support the above, although they are less clear due to sulfur spin-orbit splitting. The enol/enethiol ratios obtained in the gas phase by XPS are compared with data from other methods, showing good agreement between results obtained in the gas phase and in solution. The binding...

  18. Arrested rearrangement of TCR V[beta] genes in thymocytes from children with x-linked severe combined immunodeficiency disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sleasman, J.W.; Harville, T.O.; White, G.B.; Barrett, D.J. (Univ. of Florida College of Medicine, Gainsville, FL (United States)); George, J.F. (Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States)); Goodenow, M.M. (Univ. of Florida College of Medicine, Gainsville, FL (United States) Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States))


    Human X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) is an immunodeficiency disorder in which T cell development is arrested in the thymic cortex. B lymphocytes in children with X-linked SCID seem to differentiate normally. X-linked SCID is associated with a mutation in the gene that encodes the IL-2R [gamma]-chain. Because TCR-[beta] gene recombination is a pivotal initial event in T lymphocyte onteogeny within the thymus, the authors hypothesized that a failure to express normal IL-2R[gamma] could lead to impaired TCR-[beta] gene recombination in early thymic development. PCR was used to determine the status of TCR-[beta] gene-segment rearrangements in thymic DNA that had been obtained from children with X-linked SCID. The initial step in TCR-[beta] gene rearrangement, that of D[beta] to J[beta] recombination, was readily detected in all thymus samples from children with X-linked SCID; in contrast, V[beta] to DJ[beta] gene rearrangements were undetectable in the same samples. Both D[beta] to J[beta] and V[beta] to DJ[beta] TCR genes were rearranged in the thymic tissues obtained from immunologically normal children. The authors conclude that TCR[beta]-chain gene rearrangement is arrested in children with X-linked SCID. The results suggest a causative relationship between the failure of TCR [beta]-chain gene arrangements to proceed beyond DJ[beta] rearrangements and the production of a nonfunctional IL-2R [gamma]-chain. 45 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Beta Cell Workshop 2013 Kyoto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, R Scott; Madsen, Ole D; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis


    The very modern Kyoto International Conference Center provided the site for the 8th workshop on Beta cells on April 23-26, 2013. The preceding workshops were held in Boston, USA (1991); Kyoto, Japan (1994); Helsingør, Denmark (1997); Helsinki, Finland (2003); El Perello, Spain (2006); Peebles...

  20. Estimating $\\beta$-mixing coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, Daniel J; Schervish, Mark


    The literature on statistical learning for time series assumes the asymptotic independence or ``mixing' of the data-generating process. These mixing assumptions are never tested, nor are there methods for estimating mixing rates from data. We give an estimator for the $\\beta$-mixing rate based on a single stationary sample path and show it is $L_1$-risk consistent.

  1. Beta-carotene as antioxidant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bast, A.; Plas, R.M. van der; Berg, H. van den; Haenen, G.R.M.M.


    Objective: Beta-carotene has been shown to exhibit a good radical-trapping antioxidant activity in vitro. We were interested to see if dietary β-carotene in combination with various intake levels for vitamin A would also inhibit lipid peroxidation. Design: Sixty male Wistar rats received vitamin A (

  2. Neutron Beta Decay Studies with Nab

    CERN Document Server

    Baeßler, S; Alonzi, L P; Balascuta, S; Barrón-Palos, L; Bowman, J D; Bychkov, M A; Byrne, J; Calarco, J R; Chupp, T; Vianciolo, T V; Crawford, C; Frlež, E; Gericke, M T; Glück, F; Greene, G L; Grzywacz, R K; Gudkov, V; Harrison, D; Hersman, F W; Ito, T; Makela, M; Martin, J; McGaughey, P L; McGovern, S; Page, S; Penttilä, S I; Počanić, D; Rykaczewski, K P; Salas-Bacci, A; Tompkins, Z; Wagner, D; Wilburn, W S; Young, A R


    Precision measurements in neutron beta decay serve to determine the coupling constants of beta decay and allow for several stringent tests of the standard model. This paper discusses the design and the expected performance of the Nab spectrometer.

  3. Characterization of a Full-Length Endogenous Beta-Retrovirus, EqERV-Beta1, in the Genome of the Horse (Equus caballus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette C. van der Kuyl


    Full Text Available Information on endogenous retroviruses fixed in the horse (Equus caballus genome is scarce. The recent availability of a draft sequence of the horse genome enables the detection of such integrated viruses by similarity search. Using translated nucleotide fragments from gamma-, beta-, and delta-retroviral genera for initial searches, a full-length beta-retrovirus genome was retrieved from a horse chromosome 5 contig. The provirus, tentatively named EqERV-beta1 (for the first equine endogenous beta-retrovirus, was 10434 nucleotide (nt in length with the usual retroviral genome structure of 5’LTR-gag-pro-pol-env-3’LTR. The LTRs were 1361 nt long, and differed approximately 1% from each other, suggestive of a relatively recent integration. Coding sequences for gag, pro and pol were present in three different reading-frames, as common for beta-retroviruses, and the reading frames were completely open, except that the env gene was interrupted by a single stopcodon. No reading frame was apparent downstream of the env gene, suggesting that EqERV-beta1 does not encode a superantigen like mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV. A second proviral genome of EqERV-beta1, with no stopcodon in env, is additionally integrated on chromosome 5 downstream of the first virus. Single EqERV-beta1 LTRs were abundantly present on all chromosomes except chromosome 24. Phylogenetically, EqERV-beta1 most closely resembles an unclassified retroviral sequence from cattle (Bos taurus, and the murine beta-retrovirus MMTV.

  4. Evidence for beta -delayed neutron emission from /sup 31/Mg and /sup 32/Mg

    CERN Document Server

    Zaidins, C S; De Saint-Simon, M; Détraz, C; Epherre-Rey-Campagnolle, Marcelle; Guillemaud, D; Klapisch, Robert; Langevin, M; Naulin, F; Thibault, C; Touchard, F


    Investigates the time spectrum of beta -delayed neutron emission from /sup 30-34/Na and their descendants using beta -neutron coincidence detection. The authors have been able to assign an upper limit of 0,4% to the probability of beta -delayed neutron emission, p/sub n/, from the /sup 30/Na daugher isotope /sup 30/Mg. In fitting the time spectra of beta -delayed neutrons from /sup 31/Na and /sup 32/Na, we find a definitive component from subsequent daughter decay as well. This provides evidence for beta -delayed neutron emission from /sup 31/Mg and /sup 32/Mg with P/sub n/ values of the order of 2% for each. (7 refs).

  5. Alpha–beta monitoring system based on pair of simultaneous Multi-Wire Proportional Counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wengrowicz, U.; Amidan, D. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); NRC-Negev, P.O. Box 9001, Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel); Orion, I. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)


    A new approach for a simultaneous alpha–beta Multi-wire Proportional Counter (MWPC) is presented. The popular approach for alpha–beta monitoring systems consists of a large area MWPC using noble gas flow such as Argon Methane. This method of measurement is effective but requires large-scale and expensive maintenance due to the needs of gas flow control and periodic replacements. In this work, a pair of simultaneous MWPCs for alpha–beta measuring is presented. The developed detector consists of a sealed gas MWPC sensor for beta particles, behind a free air alpha sensor. This approach allows effective simultaneous detection and discrimination of both alpha and beta radiation without the maintenance cost noble gas flow required for unsealed detectors.

  6. Alpha-beta monitoring system based on pair of simultaneous Multi-Wire Proportional Counters (United States)

    Wengrowicz, U.; Amidan, D.; Orion, I.


    A new approach for a simultaneous alpha-beta Multi-wire Proportional Counter (MWPC) is presented. The popular approach for alpha-beta monitoring systems consists of a large area MWPC using noble gas flow such as Argon Methane. This method of measurement is effective but requires large-scale and expensive maintenance due to the needs of gas flow control and periodic replacements. In this work, a pair of simultaneous MWPCs for alpha-beta measuring is presented. The developed detector consists of a sealed gas MWPC sensor for beta particles, behind a free air alpha sensor. This approach allows effective simultaneous detection and discrimination of both alpha and beta radiation without the maintenance cost noble gas flow required for unsealed detectors.

  7. The beta-decay of Al-22

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achouri, NL; Santos, FDO; Lewitowicz, M; Blank, B; Aysto, J; Canchel, G; Czajkowski, S; Dendooven, P; Emsallem, A; Giovinazzo, J; Guillet, N; Jokinen, A; Larid, AM; Longour, C; Perajarvi, K; Smirnova, N; Stanoiu, M


    In an experiment performed at the LISE3 facility of GANIL, we studied the decay of Al-22 produced by the fragmentation of a Ar-36 primary beam. A beta-decay half-life of T-1/2 = 91.1 +/- 0.5ms was measured. The beta-delayed one- and two-proton emission as well as beta-alpha and beta-delayed gamma-de

  8. Traumatic Brain Injury, Microglia, and Beta Amyloid


    Mannix, Rebekah C.; Whalen, Michael J


    Recently, there has been growing interest in the association between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and Alzheimer's Disease (AD). TBI and AD share many pathologic features including chronic inflammation and the accumulation of beta amyloid (A\\(\\beta\\)). Data from both AD and TBI studies suggest that microglia play a central role in A\\(\\beta\\) accumulation after TBI. This paper focuses on the current research on the role of microglia response to A\\(\\beta\\) after TBI.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    We have identified a new protein fold-the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold-that is common to several hydrolytic enzymes of widely differing phylogenetic origin and catalytic function. The core of each enzyme is similar: an alpha/beta-sheet, not barrel, of eight beta-sheets connected by alpha-helices. These

  10. Beta-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierikx, C.M.


    Resistance to cephalosprins due to the production of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) or plasmid mediated AmpC beta-lactamases is increasingly found in infections in humans outside the hospital. The genes encoding for these beta-lactamases are located on mobile DNA (plasmids), which can be

  11. Higher-Order Beta Matching with Solutions in Long Beta-Eta Normal Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støvring, Kristian


    up to beta-eta equivalence is a long-standing open problem.We show that higher-order matching up to beta-eta equivalence is decidable if and only if a restricted form of higher-order matching up to beta equivalence is decidable: the restriction is that solutions must be in long beta-eta normal form....

  12. Factors contributing to the breakdown of sodium beta-alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechele, A.C.


    Clarification of the breakdown process occurring during charge transfer in sodium beta alumina solid electrolytes was derived from: (1) studying the effects of molten sodium contact at 350/sup 0/C on single crystal sodium beta alumina and polycrystalline sodium beta alumina; (2) determination of critical current density by monitoring acoustic emissions accompanying crack growth in sodium/sodium beta alumina/sodium cells subjected to linear current ramping at 1 mA cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/; (3) failure analysis conducted on cycled electrolytes, some from commercial sodium/sulfur cells, which had been subjected to up to 703 Ahr cm/sup -2/ of charge transfer. Gray coloration developing in beta aluminas in contact with molten sodium was found to be a consequence of formation, through reduction by sodium, of oxygen vacancies charge compensated by electrons. Electronic conductivity of the electrolyte increases as a result. No second phase formation was detected. Colored electrolytes from sodium/sulfur cells show evidence of a newly recognized degradation mechanism in which fracture occurs when sodium is reduced and deposited internally under pressure as metal in regions where an electronic conductivity gradient exists. Heating colored beta aluminas in air produces reoxidation and bleaching. Kinetics and other properties of the coloration and bleaching processes were determined. Critical current density was found to bear an inverse relation to average electrolyte grain size. Evidence was found in the cycled electrolytes for a slow crack growth mechanism and a progressive mode of degradation advancing from the sulfur electrode interface. Implications of the findings for the construction and operation of sodium/sulfur battery systems are discussed.

  13. 48株流感嗜血杆菌耐药性分析及β-内酰胺酶基因检测%Analysis on antimicrobial resistance and beta-lactamases gene detection of 48 haemophilus influenzae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂和翠; 王中新; 沈继录


    目的 了解本地区流感嗜血杆菌的分布及耐药性,为指导临床合理用药提供依据.方法 k-B法进行药敏试验,玻片法测定β-内酰胺酶.PCR扩增TEM及ROB型β-内酰胺酶基因.结果 48株流感嗜血杆菌主要分布于呼吸内科和门诊.对复方新诺明、四环素和氨苄西林耐药率分别为62.50%、35.42% 和22 92%;阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾、氨曲南耐药率为12.50%;氨苄西林/舒巴坦、头孢噻肟、头孢拉定、头孢曲松、阿奇霉素、氯霉素耐药率为8.33%;头孢吡肟、头孢呋辛、环丙沙星、左氧氟沙星耐药率为6.25%.哌拉西林/三唑巴坦、亚胺培南敏感率高为100%.10株氨苄西林耐药菌株均产β-内酰胺酶,产酶率为20.83%,且均检测到TEM基因.结论 复方新诺明和四环素已不再适于临床治疗流感嗜血杆菌引起的感染.氨苄西林仍可作为临床经验用药.哌拉西林/三唑巴坦和亚胺培南抗菌活性高,可望作为治疗耐氨苄西林流感嗜血杆菌感染的理想用药.喹诺酮类药物耐药率高,应引起重视.流感嗜血杆菌对氨苄西林耐药的主要机制为产TEM型β-内酰胺酶.%To investigate antimicrobial resistance and genotypes of β-lactamase of in this erea , and guide clinical rational drug use effectively. Methods Kirby-Bauer method was applied for the drug susceptibility test and nitrocefin slide test was used to detect β-lactamase. The genotypes of β-lactamase were detected by PCR. Results A total of 48 strains of haemophilus influenzae were mainly distributed in department of respiratory and outpatient service. The resistant straint to compound sulf-amethoxazole, ampicillin and tetrocycline were 62. 50% , 35. 42% ,22. 92% respectively, the resistant rate to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftriaxome, aztreonam, ciprofloxa-cin and levofloxacin was 12.50% ,the resistant rate to ampicillin-sulbactam, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefuroxime, azithromycin, chlorampheniol was 8. 33% ;the

  14. beta-Catenin/TCF pathway plays a vital role in selenium induced-growth inhibition and apoptosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells. (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Yan, Shuang; Liu, Mei; Zhang, Guo; Yang, Shangbin; He, Shun; Bai, Jinfeng; Quan, Lanping; Zhu, Hongxia; Dong, Yan; Xu, Ningzhi


    Epidemiological and experimental studies have indicated selenium could reduce the risk of some cancers. In our present study, growth inhibition and apoptosis were detected upon methylseleninic acid (MSA) treatment in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines EC9706 and KYSE150. MSA reduced beta-catenin protein levels, while there was no significant change observed on transcriptional levels. Moreover, we found MSA accelerated the degradation of beta-catenin and activated glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta). Some targets of beta-catenin/TCF pathway and apoptosis-related genes altered after MSA treatment. Notably, utilizing the inducible 293-TR/beta-catenin cell line, we found the apoptotic phenotypes induced by MSA were partially reversed by the overexpression of beta-catenin. Overall, our data indicate the effects induced by MSA in ESCC cells may act on the inhibition of beta-catenin/TCF pathway.

  15. The change of transforming growth factor {beta} 1 (TGF- {beta} 1) expression by melatonin in irradiated lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Seong Soon; Choi, Ihl Bohng [College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The changed expressions of TGF- {beta} 1, as a key cytokine in the fibrotic process, due to melatonin with potent antioxidative effects, were investigated in the irradiated lung using fibrosis-sensitive C57BL/6 mice. Female C57BL/6 mice were divided into control irradiation-only, and melatonin (300 mg/kg i.p. 1 hr before irradiation) pretreatment groups. The thoraces of the mice were irradiated with a single dose of 12 Gy. The mRNA expressions of TGF-{beta} 1 in the lung tissue 2 and 4 weeks after irradiation were quantified using semiquantitive RT-PCR, and the cellular origin and expression levels of TGF- {beta} 1 protein were identified using immunohistochemical staining. The relative mRNA expression levels in the irradiation-only and melatonin pretreatment group 2 and 4 weeks after irradiation were 1.92- and 1.80-fold ({rho} = 0.064) and 2.38- and 1.94-fold ({rho} = 0.004) increased, respectively compared to those in the control group. Increased expressions of TGF- {beta} 1 protein were prominently detected in regions of histopathological radiation injury, with alveolar macrophages and septal epithelial cells serving as important sources of TGF- {beta} 1 expression. At 2 and 4 weeks after irradiation, the expression levels of protein were 15.8% vs. 16.9% ({rho} = 0.565) and 36.1% vs. 25.7% ({rho} = 0.009), respectively. The mRNA and protein expressions of TGF- {beta} 1 in the lung tissue following thoracic irradiation with 12 Gy were significantly decreased by melatonin pretreatment at 4 weeks. These results indicate that melatonin may have a possible application as an antifibrotic agent in radiation-induced lung injury.

  16. beta (+)-Thalassaemia in the Po river delta region (northern Italy): genotype and beta globin synthesis.


    del Senno, L; Pirastu, M; Barbieri, R.; De Bernardi, F.; Buzzoni, D; Marchetti, G.; Perrotta, C; Vullo, C; Kan, Y W; Conconi, F


    Six beta(+)-thalassaemic patients from the Po river delta region have been studied. Using synthetic oligonucleotides as specific hybridisation probes, the beta(+) IVS I mutation (G----A at position 108) was demonstrated. This lesion and the enzyme polymorphism pattern in the subjects examined are the same as have been described for other Mediterranean beta(+)-thalassaemias. Antenatal diagnosis through DNA analysis of beta(+)-thalassaemia is therefore possible. The production of beta globin in...

  17. alpha/beta radiation detector using wavelength and delayed fluorescence discrimination

    CERN Document Server

    Maekawa, T


    This paper describes a novel two-layer radiation detector for alpha/beta simultaneous counting for dust radiation monitoring in nuclear power plants. For alpha/beta discrimination, wavelength and delayed fluorescence discrimination techniques were newly developed. To establish the wavelength discrimination, we adopted a two-layer scintillator consisting of the plastic scintillator (NE-111A) and Y sub 2 O sub 2 S(Eu) whose emission spectra are quite different. To reject the mixed beta signal in the alpha detection layer, we used the delayed fluorescence characteristics of Y sub 2 O sub 2 S(Eu) in the signal processing. We manufactured the detector and tested its feasibility and the detection performance for dust radiation monitoring. Finally, we concluded that the performance of this new alpha/beta detector using the new discrimination methods is suitable for dust radiation monitoring.

  18. Specific Triazine Herbicides Induce Amyloid-beta(42) Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portelius, Erik; Durieu, Emilie; Bodin, Marion; Cam, Morgane; Pannee, Josef; Leuxe, Charlotte; Mabondzo, Aloise; Oumata, Nassima; Galons, Herve; Lee, Jung Yeol; Chang, Young-Tae; Stuber, Kathrin; Koch, Philipp; Fontaine, Gaelle; Potier, Marie-Claude; Manousopoulou, Antigoni; Garbis, Spiros D.; Covaci, Adrian; Van Dam, Debby; De Deyn, Peter; Karg, Frank; Flajolet, Marc; Omori, Chiori; Hata, Saori; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Meijer, Laurent


    Proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid-beta protein precursor (A beta PP) ecretases leads to extracellular release of amyloid-beta (A beta) peptides. Increased production of A beta(42) over A beta(40) and aggregation into oligomers and plaques constitute an Alzheimer's disease (AD) hallmark. Identifyin

  19. Anti-beta2 glycoprotein 1 and the anti-phospholipid syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keane, Pearse A


    PURPOSE: To describe a patient who presented with bilateral retinal vascular occlusion and the use of anti-beta2 glycoprotein 1 (GPI) antibody testing in the diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome. DESIGN: Observational case report. METHODS: Hematological investigations were performed on a 49-year-old man who presented with rapid onset of bilateral severe central retinal vein occlusion. RESULTS: Lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibody testing was negative. Markedly raised titers of anti-beta2 GPI antibodies were detected on two separate occasions. CONCLUSIONS: The raised titers of anti-beta2 GPI antibodies were considered to strongly suggest an underlying diagnosis of the antiphospholipid syndrome.

  20. Detection of glycemic abnormalities in adolescents with beta thalassemia using continuous glucose monitoring and oral glucose tolerance in adolescents and young adults with β-thalassemia major: Pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf T Soliman


    Full Text Available Background: Both insulin deficiency and resistance are reported in patients with β-thalassemia major (BTM. The use of continuous blood glucose monitoring (CGM, among the different methods for early detection of glycemic abnormalities, has not been studied thoroughly in these adolescents. Materials and Methods: To assess the oralglucose tolerance (OGT and 72-h continuous glucose concentration by the continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS and calculate homeostatic model assessment (HOMA, and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI was conducted in 16 adolescents with BTM who were receiving regular blood transfusions every 2-4 weeks and iron-chelation therapy since early childhood. Results: Sixteen adolescents with BTM (age: 19.75 ± 3 years were investigated. Using OGTT, (25% had impaired fasting blood (plasma glucose concentration (BG (>5.6 mmol/L. 2-h after the glucose load, one of them had BG = 16.2 mmol/L (diabetic and two had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT (BG > 7.8 and 11.1 mmol/L and 9 with IGT (56%. HOMA and QUICKI revealed levels 0.33 (0.36 ± 0.03, respectively, ruling out significant insulin resistance in these adolescents. There was a significant negative correlation between the β-cell function (B% on one hand and the fasting and the 2-h BG (r=−0.6, and − 0.48, P < 0.01, respectively on the other hand. Neither fasting serum insulin nor c-peptide concentrations were correlated with fasting BG or ferritin levels. The average and maximum blood glucose levels during CGM were significantly correlated with the fasting BG (r = 0.68 and 0.39, respectively, with P < 0.01 and with the BG at 2-hour after oral glucose intake (r = 0.87 and 0.86 respectively, with P < 0.001. Ferritin concentrations were correlated with the fasting BG and the 2-h blood glucose levels in the OGTT (r = 0.52, and r = 0.43, respectively, P < 0.01 as well as with the average BG recorded by CGM (r = 0.75, P < 0.01. Conclusion: CGM has proven to

  1. 112例慢性腹泻飞行员肠道菌群中产超广谱β-内酰胺酶菌的检测与分析%Detection and Analysis of Extenden Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Bacterium in Intestinal Flora of 112 Chinese Air Force Pilots with Chronic Diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海谱; 李仕英; 王缚鲲; 季雯; 朱庆尧


    Objective To investigate the detection rate and drug resistance of extenden spectrum beta-lactamase ( ESBLs)bacterium in intestinal flora of pilots with chronic diarrhea,and to explore the influence of antibacterials on the generation of ESBLs positive escherichia coli. Methods A total of 112 pilots with chronic diarrhea in one flight college during December 2012 and October 2013 were selected. The ESBLs of faeces samples were detected. The contrastive a-nalysis of drug resistance and antibacterials use was performed between ESBLs positive escherichia coli group( group A) and ESBLs negative escherichia coli group( group B). Results The colonization rate of ESBLs bacterium in chronic di-arrhea pilots was 34. 82%. The drug resistance rate in group A was significantly higher than that in group B(P80%。抗菌药物、头孢菌素类或氟喹诺酮类药物应用、应用抗菌药物种类多(≥2种)与 ESBLs大肠埃希菌产生密切相关(P<0.05,P<0.01)。结论慢性腹泻飞行员产 ESBLs菌定植率较高,需要积极明确病因、排除致病菌感染、减少抗菌药物应用、对产 ESBLs细菌携带者适当采取隔离措施,以控制产ESBLs菌的定植传播。

  2. Future double beta decay experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piquemal, F. [Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, Modane (France); Centre d' Etudes Nucleaire, Bordeaux-Gradignan (France)


    The search of neutrinoless double beta decay is very challenging because of the expected half-life of the process and the backgrounds from the natural radioactivity. Many projects exist to try to reach a sensitivity of ∼50 meV on the effective neutrino mass corresponding to a mass of isotopes of ∼100 kg. In this article some of the futur projects are presented.

  3. Myokardinfarkt und Beta-Blocker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stühlinger H-G


    Full Text Available Im Rahmen eines akuten koronaren Syndroms (akuter Herzinfarkt, Angina pectoris kommt es, aufgrund eines Ungleichgewichtes zwischen Angebot und Bedarf, zu einem akuten Mangel an Sauerstoff im Herzmuskel. Ursache ist eine reduzierte Sauerstoffzufuhr durch verengte bzw. verschlossene Gefäße. Bis zur Behebung der Ursache vergehen oft mehrere Stunden. In dieser Phase muß - durch Verminderung des Sauerstoffbedarfs im Herzmuskel - eine Verlangsamung der Nekroseentwicklung erreicht werden. Das Ausmaß der Nekrose wird reduziert, somit die für die Langzeitprognose wichtige Linksventrikelfunktion verbessert. Eine Verminderung des Sauerstoffbedarfs erreicht man durch kontrollierte Frequenzsenkung mittels intravenöser Beta-Blockade. In optimaler Weise wird diese Methode durch die Anwendung eines kardioselektiven Beta-Blockers mit kurzer Halbwertszeit durchgeführt. Beta-Blocker haben nicht nur auf die Nekroseentwicklung, sondern auch auf die Inzidenz von Rhythmusstörungen - besonders in der Akutphase - Auswirkungen. Vor allem die mit dieser therapeutischen Maßnahme verbundene Reduktion von Kammerflimmern ist von großer Bedeutung.

  4. Method and apparatus for selective capture of gas phase analytes using metal .beta.-diketonate polymers (United States)

    Harvey, Scott D [Kennewick, WA


    A process and sensor device are disclosed that employ metal .beta.-diketonate polymers to selectively capture gas-phase explosives and weaponized chemical agents in a sampling area or volume. The metal .beta.-diketonate polymers can be applied to surfaces in various analytical formats for detection of: improvised explosive devices, unexploded ordinance, munitions hidden in cargo holds, explosives, and chemical weapons in public areas.

  5. What do we know about neutrinoless double-beta decay nuclear matrix elements?

    CERN Document Server

    Menéndez, J


    The detection of neutrinoless double-beta decay will establish the Majorana nature of neutrinos. In addition, if the nuclear matrix elements of this process are reliably known, the experimental lifetime will provide precious information about the absolute neutrino masses and hierarchy. I review the status of nuclear structure calculations for neutrinoless double-beta decay matrix elements, and discuss some key issues to be addressed in order to meet the demand for accurate nuclear matrix elements.

  6. Studies of Beta-Delayed Neutron Emission using Trapped Ions (United States)

    Siegl, Kevin; Aprahamian, A.; Scielzo, N. D.; Savard, G.; Clark, J. A.; Levand, A. F.; Burkey, M.; Caldwell, S.; Czeszumska, A.; Hirsh, T. Y.; Kolos, K.; Marley, S. T.; Morgan, G. E.; Norman, E. B.; Nystrom, A.; Orford, R.; Padgett, S.; Pérez Galván, A.; Sh, K. S.; Strauss, S. Y.; Wang, B. S.


    Using a radio-frequency quadrupole ion trap to confine radioactive ions allows indirect measurements of beta-delayed neutron (BDN) emission. By determining the recoil energy of the beta-decay daughter ions it is possible to study BDN emission, as the neutron emission can impart a significantly larger nuclear recoil than from beta-decay alone. This method avoids most of the systematic uncertainties associated with direct neutron detection but introduces dependencies on the specifics of the decay and interactions of the ion with the RF fields. The decays of seven BDN precursors were studied using the Beta-decay Paul Trap (BPT) to confine fission fragments from the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The analysis of these measurements and results for the branching ratios and neutron energy spectra will be presented. Supported by the NSF under grant PHY-1419765, and the U.S. DOE under the NEUP project 13-5485, contracts DE-AC02-06CH11357 (ANL) and DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL), and award DE-NA0000979 (NNSA).

  7. Dynamin-association with agonist-mediated sequestration of beta-adrenergic receptor in single-cell eukaryote Paramecium. (United States)

    Wiejak, Jolanta; Surmacz, Liliana; Wyroba, Elzbieta


    Evidence that dynamin is associated with the sequestration of the Paramecium beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) immunoanalogue is presented. We previously reported a dramatic change in the distribution of betaAR analogue in the subcellular fractions upon isoproterenol treatment: it is redistributed from the membraneous to the cytosolic fraction, as revealed by quantitative image analysis of western blots. Here we confirm and extend this observation by laser scanning confocal and immunogold electron microscopy. In the presence of isoproterenol (10 micro mol l(-1)) betaAR translocated from the cell surface into dynamin-positive vesicles in the cytoplasmic compartment, as observed by dual fluorochrome immunolabeling in a series of the confocal optical sections. Colocalization of betaAR and dynamin in the tiny endocytic vesicles was detected by further electron microscopic studies. Generally receptor sequestration follows its desensitization, which is initiated by receptor phosphorylation by G-protein-coupled receptor kinase. We cloned and sequenced the gene fragment of 407 nucleotides homologous to the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (betaARK): its deduced amino acid sequence shows 51.6% homology in 126 amino acids that overlap with the human betaARK2 (GRK3), and may participate in Paramecium betaAR desensitization. These results suggest that the molecular machinery for the desensitization/sequestration of the receptor immunorelated to vertebrate betaAR exists in unicellular PARAMECIUM:

  8. Immunolocalization of alpha-keratins and associated beta-proteins in lizard epidermis shows that acidic keratins mix with basic keratin-associated beta-proteins. (United States)

    Alibardi, Lorenzo


    The differentiation of the corneous layers of lizard epidermis has been analyzed by ultrastructural immunocytochemistry using specific antibodies against alpha-keratins and keratin associated beta-proteins (KAbetaPs, formerly indicated as beta-keratins). Both beta-cells and alpha-cells of the corneous layer derive from the same germinal layer. An acidic type I alpha-keratin is present in basal and suprabasal layers, early differentiating clear, oberhautchen, and beta-cells. Type I keratin apparently disappears in differentiated beta- and alpha-layers of the mature corneous layers. Conversely, a basic type II alpha-keratin rich in glycine is absent or very scarce in basal and suprabasal layers and this keratin likely does not pair with type I keratin to form intermediate filaments but is weakly detected in the pre-corneous and corneous alpha-layer. Single and double labeling experiments show that in differentiating beta-cells, basic KAbetaPs are added and replace type-I keratin to form the hard beta-layer. Epidermal alpha-keratins contain scarce cysteine (0.2-1.4 %) that instead represents 4-19 % of amino acids present in KAbetaPs. Possible chemical bonds formed between alpha-keratins and KAbetaPs may derive from electrostatic interactions in addition to cross-linking through disulphide bonds. Both the high content in glycine of keratins and KAbetaPs may also contribute to increase the hydrophobicy of the beta- and alpha-layers and the resistance of the corneous layer. The increase of gly-rich KAbetaPs amount and the bonds to the framework of alpha-keratins give rise to the inflexible beta-layer while the cys-rich KAbetaPs produce a pliable alpha-layer.

  9. $\\beta$-particle energy-summing correction for $\\beta$-delayed proton emission measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Meisel, Z; Crawford, H L; Cyburt, R H; Grinyer, G F; Langer, C; Montes, F; Schatz, H; Smith, K


    A common approach to studying $\\beta$-delayed proton emission is to measure the energy of the emitted proton and corresponding nuclear recoil in a double-sided silicon-strip detector (DSSD) after implanting the $\\beta$-delayed proton emitting ($\\beta$p) nucleus. However, in order to extract the proton-decay energy, the measured energy must be corrected for the additional energy implanted in the DSSD by the $\\beta$-particle emitted from the $\\beta$p nucleus, an effect referred to here as $\\beta$-summing. We present an approach to determine an accurate correction for $\\beta$-summing. Our method relies on the determination of the mean implantation depth of the $\\beta$p nucleus within the DSSD by analyzing the shape of the total (proton + recoil + $\\beta$) decay energy distribution shape. We validate this approach with other mean implantation depth measurement techniques that take advantage of energy deposition within DSSDs upstream and downstream of the implantation DSSD.

  10. Avaliação da acurácia de testes laboratoriais para detecção de amostras de Klebsiella pneumoniae produtora de betalactamase de espectro estendido Comparison of different methods for detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates producers of extended spectrum beta-lactamase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea dos Santos Pereira


    spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL represent a common resistance problem among Brazilian hospitals. Due to the difficulty of ESBL detection in the clinical laboratory, these bacterial isolates require a reproducible, efficient, and low cost detection method. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of detection of K. pneumoniae ESBL isolates by two methods: the Etest ESBL strip and the inhibitor potentiated disk diffusion test with clavulanic acid (clavulanate-potentiation test. The sensitivity and the specificity of beta-lactam agents against these isolates were also evaluated. The experiments were performed on a total of 134 K. pneumoniae isolates recovered from blood specimens in our institution from July 1996 to July 2001. The samples were tested for ESBL production by the NCCLS screen test, clavulanate-potentiation test and Etest ESBL strip. Isolates presenting positive results for the screen test and for at least one of the evaluated tests were considered ESBL producers (gold standard. The results of this study yielded a 100% specificity and sensitivity for the clavulanate-potentiation test, and the best indicators of ESBL production were cefotaxime and cefpodoxime. The Etest ESBL strip also turned out to be a very sensitive (96% and specific (100% method, being cefotaxime the most efficient substrate. According to the results of this investigation, the clavulanate potentiation disk diffusion test displayed an excellent performance and can be easily implemented in routine clinical laboratories as a practical, reliable, and accurate method.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awaz Ahmed Kamal


    Full Text Available Background: HbA2 plays a key role in screening programs for beta thalassemia because a small increase in this fraction is the most important marker of beta thalassemia heterozygous carriers. The potential impact of coincident iron deficiency on HbA2 based identification of beta thalassemia minor is worrisome issue for screening laboratories, this is especially true for resource-constrained settings where iron deficiency is wide spread and molecular confirmatory tests for borderline HbA2 values may be unavailable. Objective: the aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of iron deficiency on HbA2 level in order to improve the detection of beta thalassemia trait with or without iron deficiency in our population. Materials and Method: In this study 145 individuals were enrolled including normal controls (50, beta thalassemia minor (50 and coincident beta thalassemia with iron deficiency cases (45. Complete blood count, serum iron, total iron binding capacity and HbA2 with HbF estimation were done for every individual. Result: The mean HbA2 level was (2.4± 0.4 in control, (5.2 ± 0.9 in beta thalassemia minor and 5.1± 0.9 in coincident iron deficiency with beta thalassemia minors. All hematological parameters were significantly lower in beta thalassemia minor and coincident iron deficiency with beta thalassemia minor in comparison to the control group .Mean HbA2 level did not show a significant difference in thalassemia minor (5.2±0.9 when compared with the mean HbA2 levels in coincidentiron deficiency with beta thalassemia minor. Conclusion: The presence of iron deficiency did not preclude the detection of beta thalassemia minor in our population

  12. TGF-beta expression during rat pregnancy and activity on decidual cell survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déry Marie-Claude


    Full Text Available Abstract Background During early rat pregnancy, trophoblast of the tiny embryo joins with the endometrium and epithelial cells undergo apoptosis. Near the end of pregnancy, regression of the decidua basalis (DB is also observed (from day 14 to 20. However, little is known about the intra-cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in apoptosis regulation in the uterus during pregnancy. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence and the developmental expression of transforming growth factor-beta isoforms (TGF-beta well known differentiation factor in the rat endometrium throughout pregnancy and its action in vitro using cultured endometrial stromal cells. Methods In vivo: Rats were killed at different days of pregnancy (days 2–20 and uteri removed to collect endometrial protein extracts or the uteri were fixed, embedded and sectioned for immunohistochemistry (IHC and in situ cell death analyses using TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL. In vitro: Rats were ovariectomized and decidualization was induced using sex steroids. Endometrial stromal decidual cells were then collected and cultured. Results An increase of apoptosis in the DB on days 14, 16 and 18 was observed. Cleaved caspase-3 was clearly detected during regression of the DB by Western analysis and immunofluorescence. Western analyses using endometrial protein extracts demonstrated that TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3 were highly expressed at the time of DB regression (day 14. During early pregnancy, TGF-beta1 and -beta2 expressions raised at days 5.5 to 6.5. TGF-beta3 protein was not detected during early pregnancy. IHC analyses revealed that TGF-beta1 and -2 were found surrounding both epithelium (luminal and glandular in the stroma compartment at the implantation site, and TGF-beta3 was mainly located surrounding endometrial epithelium in the stroma compartment. Smad2 phosphorylation was increased at the time of DB regression. In vitro studies using

  13. Differentiation-dependent expression of retinoid-binding proteins in BFC-1 beta adipocytes. (United States)

    Zovich, D C; Orologa, A; Okuno, M; Kong, L W; Talmage, D A; Piantedosi, R; Goodman, D S; Blaner, W S


    Recently, we demonstrated that adipose tissue plays an important role in retinol storage and retinol-binding protein (RBP) synthesis. Our data suggested that RBP expression in adipose tissue is dependent on the state of adipocyte differentiation. To examine this possibility, we explored the differentiation-dependent expression of RBP using BFC-1 beta preadipocytes, which can be stimulated to undergo adipose differentiation. Total RNA was isolated from undifferentiated (preadipocytes) and differentiated (adipocytes) BFC-1 beta cells and analyzed by Northern blotting. RBP mRNA was not detected in the preadipocytes, but considerable RBP mRNA was present in differentiated BFC-1 beta cells. In BFC-1 beta cells, induced to differentiate with insulin and thyroid hormone, RBP mRNA was first detected after 4 days, reached a maximum level by day 10, and remained at this maximum level for at least 2 more days. Cellular retinol-binding protein was expressed at low levels in the BFC-1 beta preadipocytes and the level of expression increased for 6 days after induction to differentiate and slowly declined on later days. Neither the maximum level of RBP expression nor the day on which this level was reached was influenced by the level of retinol provided in the BFC-1 beta culture medium. BFC-1 beta cells secreted newly synthesized RBP into the culture medium at a rate of 43 +/- 14 ng RBP/24 h/10(6) adipocytes. When the BFC-1 beta adipocytes were provided 1.0 microM retinol in the medium, they accumulated the retinol and synthesized retinyl esters. These studies with BFC-1 beta cells confirm that RBP synthesis and secretion and retinol accumulation are intrinsic properties of differentiated adipocytes. Furthermore, they suggest that RBP and cellular retinol-binding protein gene expression are regulated as part of a package of genes which are modulated during adipocyte differentiation.

  14. Sustained Rotational Stabilization of DIII-D Plasmas Above the No-Wall Beta Limit (United States)

    Garofalo, A. M.


    Sustained stabilization of the n=1 kink mode by plasma rotation at beta approaching twice the stability limit calculated without a wall has been achieved in DIII-D by a combination of error field reduction and sufficient rotation drive. Previous experiments have transiently exceeded the no-wall beta limit, but demonstration of sustained rotational stabilization has remained elusive. Recent theory(A. Boozer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86), 5059 (2001). predicts a resonant response to error fields in a plasma approaching marginal stability to a low-n kink mode. Enhancement of magnetic non-axisymmetry in the plasma leads to strong damping of the toroidal rotation, precisely in the high-beta regime where it is needed for stabilization. This ``error field amplification," EFA, is demonstrated in DIII-D experiments: applied n=1 error fields cause enhanced plasma response and strong rotation damping at beta above the no-wall limit, but have little effect at lower beta. The discovery of EFA has led to sustained operation above the no-wall limit through improved error field correction using an external coil set. The required correction is determined both by optimizing the external currents with respect to the plasma rotation, and by use of feedback to detect and minimize the plasma response to error fields as beta increases. Stability analysis and rotation braking experiments at different beta values show that beta is maintained 50% higher than the no-wall stability limit for duration greater than 1 second, and approaches beta twice the no-wall limit in several cases, with steady-state rotation levels. The results suggest that improved error field correction could allow plasmas to be maintained well above no-wall beta limit for as long as sufficient torque is provided.

  15. Expression of {beta}{sub 1} integrins in human endometrial stromal and decidual cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiokawa, Shigetatsu; Yoshimura, Yasunori; Nakamura, Yukio [Kyorin Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)] [and others


    The present study was undertaken to investigate the expression of {beta}{sub 1} integrins in human endometrium and decidua using flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and immunoprecipitation. Fluorescence-activated flow cytometry demonstrated the greater expression of the {beta}{sub 1}, {alpha}{sub 1}, {alpha}{sub 2}, and {alpha}{sub 5} subunits of the {beta}{sub 1} integrin family in cultured stromal cells from the midsecretory phase, than in those of the early proliferative phase. The addition of estradiol (E{sub 2}) and progesterone (P) to cultured stromal cells in the early proliferative phase increased the expression of {beta}{sub 1} integrins in vitro. Flow cytometry also demonstrated the expression of the {beta}{sub 1}, {alpha}{sub 1}, {alpha}{sub 2}, {alpha}{sub 3}, {alpha}{sub 5}, and {alpha}{sub 6} subunits of {beta}{sub 1} integrin family in cultured decidual cells, and the enriched-fraction of prolactin (PRL)-producing decidual cells isolated by Percoll gradients showed high levels of {beta}{sub 1} integrins expression. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the {beta}{sub 1} integrin cell surface phenotypes in cultured decidual cells observed by flow cytometry. In summary, the present study demonstrated that endometrial stromal and decidual cells expressed {beta}{sub 1} integrin subunits at their surfaces. The expression exhibited a variability throughout the menstrual cycles, being predominantly detected in the secretory phase, and was maintained highly in the decidua. Thus, {beta}{sub 1} integrins in human endometrium and decidua may be important in mediating the organization of extracellular matrix proteins derived from embryos during the early stage of implantation. 43 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Mx1 and IP-10: biomarkers to measure IFN-beta activity in mice following gene-based delivery. (United States)

    Petry, Harald; Cashion, Linda; Szymanski, Paul; Ast, Oliver; Orme, Ann; Gross, Cynthia; Bauzon, Maxine; Brooks, Alan; Schaefer, Caralee; Gibson, Heather; Qian, Husheng; Rubanyi, Gabor M; Harkins, Richard N


    Recombinant interferon-beta (IFN-beta) protein is used successfully for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Gene therapy might be an alternative approach to overcome drawbacks occurring with IFN-beta protein therapy. A critical issue in developing a new approach is detection of biologically active IFN-beta in preclinical models. The goal of the present study was to determine if Mx1 and IP-10, which are known to be activated after IFN-beta treatment in humans, can be used as biomarkers in mice. In three in vivo experiments, the correlation between different methods of murine IFN-beta (MuIFN-beta) delivery and biomarker induction was studied: (1) bolus protein delivery by intravenous (i.v.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injection, (2) gene-based delivery of IFN- beta by i.m. injection of plasmid DNA, followed by electroporation, and (3) gene-based delivery of IFN-beta by i.m. injection of adenovirus-associated type 1 (AAV1). Short-term induction of Mx1 mRNA and IP-10 was observed after treatment with bolus MuIFN-beta protein. Long-term induction of both biomarkers was observed after IFN-beta plasmid DNA delivery or when AAV1 was used as the vector. The experiments demonstrate that gene-based delivery provides sustained levels of IFN-beta compared with bolus protein injection and that Mx1 RNA and IP-10 can be used to monitor biologically active circulating plasma MuIFN-beta protein in mice.

  17. 耐碳青霉烯类药物肺炎克雷伯菌β-内酰胺酶与膜孔蛋白编码基因以及KPC-ISKpn6连锁检测%Detection of beta-lactamase, porin-coding genes and linkage of KPC-ISKpn6 of the carbapenems-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔进; 冯旰珠; 王良梅; 赵水娣; 张扬; 高天明


    目的 探讨耐碳青霉烯类药物肺炎克雷伯菌的耐药机制.方法 对南京地区两家三甲综合性医院的耐碳青霉烯抗菌药物肺炎克雷伯菌临床分离株,采用PCR方法对其40种β-内酰胺酶基因、膜孔蛋白编码基因及KPC-ISKpn6连锁进行检测,PCR阳性产物进行测序,测序结果BLAST对比分析.结果 24株耐碳青霉烯类药物肺炎克雷伯菌的A类β-内酰胺酶编码基因TEM-1及SHV的阳性检出率为100% (24/24)、KPC-2的阳性检出率为95.8% (23/24)、LAP-2的阳性检出率为45.8% (11/24),C类β-内酰胺酶编码基因DHA的阳性检出率为4.2% (1/24),KPC-ISKpn6连锁检测阳性率为95.8% (23/24),膜孔蛋白编码基因ompK35与ompK36的突变率分别为95.8% (23/24)及100%(24/24).结论 本组肺炎克雷伯菌β-内酰胺酶TEM-1、SHV、KPC-2、LAP-2的携带率较高,其中KPC-2的高携带率及膜孔蛋白编码基因ompK35、ompK36的高突变率是本组肺炎克雷伯菌对碳青霉烯类抗菌药物耐药的主要机制;插入序列ISKpn6可能参与了KPC-2基因的介导.%Objective To investigate the resistance-mechanism of the carbapenems-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from clinical.Methods The clinical isolates of carbapenems-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae from top three comprehensive hospitals of Nanjing area were examined by 40 beta-lactamase,porin-coding genes and linkage of KPC-ISKpn6 using PCR method,the PCR positive results were picked out for sequencing and sequencing BLAST search for comparison analysis.Results Twenty-four strains of carbapenems-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae were detected,the positive rate of A beta-lactamase TEM-1 and SHV was 100% (24/24),KPC-2 and LAP-2 was 95.8% (23/24),45.8% (11/24) respectively,and C beta-lactamase DHA was 4.2% (1/24).Meanwhile,the positive detection rates of KPC-ISKpn6 linkage was 95.8% (23/24),and the mutation rate of porin-coding genes ompK35 and ompK36 were up to 95.8% (23/24) and 100

  18. A probable giant planet imaged in the Beta Pictoris disk

    CERN Document Server

    Lagrange, A -M; Chauvin, G; Fusco, T; Ehrenreich, D; Mouillet, D; Rousset, G; Rouan, D; Allard, F; Gendron, E; Charton, J; Mugnier, L; Rabou, P; Montri, J; Lacombe, F


    Since the discovery of its dusty disk in 1984, Beta Pictoris has become the prototype of young early-type planetary systems, and there are now various indications that a massive Jovian planet is orbiting the star at ~ 10 AU. However, no planets have been detected around this star so far. Our goal was to investigate the close environment of Beta Pic, searching for planetary companion(s). Deep adaptive-optics L'-band images of Beta Pic were recorded using the NaCo instrument at the Very Large Telescope. A faint point-like signal is detected at a projected distance of ~ 8 AU from the star, within the North-East side of the dust disk. Various tests were made to rule out with a good confidence level possible instrumental or atmospheric artifacts. The probability of a foreground or background contaminant is extremely low, based in addition on the analysis of previous deep Hubble Space Telescope images. The object L'=11.2 apparent magnitude would indicate a typical temperature of ~1500 K and a mass of ~ 8 Jovian mas...

  19. Resistance training & beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation on hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi


    Full Text Available RESUMOIntroduction:In recent years, there was an increased interest on the effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB supplementation on skeletal muscle due to its anti-catabolic effects.Objectives:To investigate the effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, muscular strength and anabolic-catabolic hormones after resistance training.Methods:Twenty amateur male athletes were randomly assigned to supplement and control groups in a double-blind crossover design and participated in four weeks resistance training. Before and after the test period fasting blood samples were obtained to determine anabolic (the growth hormone and testosterone and catabolic (cortisol hormones, and fat mass, lean body mass (LBM and muscular strength were measured. Dependent and independent t-tests were used to analyze data.Results:After the training period, there were no significant differen-ces between the groups with respect to fat mass, LBM and anabolic-catabolic hormones. HMB supplementation resulted in a significantly greater strength gain (p≤0.05.Conclusion:Greater increase in strength for HMB group was not accompanied by body composition and basal circulating anabolic-catabolic hormonal changes. It seems that HMB supplementation may have beneficial effects on neurological adaptations of strength gain.

  20. The ToI-beta transgenic mouse: a model to study the specific role of NF-kappaB in beta-cells. (United States)

    Eldor, Roy; Baum, Ketty; Abel, Roy; Sever, Dror; Melloul, Danielle


    Type 1 diabetes is characterized by the infiltration of inflammatory cells into pancreatic islets of Langerhans, followed by the selective and progressive destruction of insulin-secreting beta-cells. Islet infiltrating leukocytes secrete cytokines including IL-1beta and IFN-gamma, which contribute to beta-cell death. In vitro evidence suggests that cytokine-induced activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB is an important component of the signal triggering beta-cell apoptosis. To study the role of NF-kappaB in vivo we generated a transgenic mouse line expressing a degradation-resistant NF-kappaB protein inhibitor (DeltaNIkappaBalpha) and the luciferase gene, acting specifically in beta-cells, in an inducible and reversible manner, by using the tet-on regulation system. Using this new mouse model, termed the ToI-beta mouse (for Tet-Ondelta I kappaB in beta-cells) we have previously shown in vitro, that islets expressing the DeltaNIkappaBalpha protein were resistant to the deleterious effects of IL-1beta and IFN-gamma, as assessed by reduced NO production and beta-cell apoptosis. In vivo, a nearly complete protection against multiple low dose streptozocin-induced diabetes was observed, with reduced intra-islet lymphocytic infiltration. In the present study we demonstrate the tight regulated and reversible expression of the DeltaNIkappaBalpha transgene in the ToI-beta mouse model as well as the effect of its overexpression on glucose metabolism and insulin secretion. The results show a lack of effect of transgene induction on both in vivo glucose tolerance tests and in vitro islet insulin secretion and content. Furthermore, to prove the tight control of induction in the model, luciferase mediated light emission was only detected at constant levels in Dox-treated double transgenic mice or islets as well as in a model of islet transplantation. Upon removal of the inducing stimulus, complete reversal of both NF-kappaB inhibition and luciferase activity were

  1. Abstraction Mechanisms in the BETA Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger


    ]) --- covering both data, procedural and control abstractions, substituting constructs like class, procedure, function and type. Correspondingly objects, procedure activation records and variables are all regarded as special cases of the basic building block of program executions: the entity. A pattern thus......The BETA programming language is developed as part of the BETA project. The purpose of this project is to develop concepts, constructs and tools in the field of programming and programming languages. BETA has been developed from 1975 on and the various stages of the language are documented in [BETA...... a]. The application area of BETA is programming of embedded as well as distributed computing systems. For this reason a major goal has been to develop constructs that may be efficiently implemented. Furthermore the BETA language is intended to have a few number of basic but general constructs...

  2. Photochemical fate of beta-blockers in NOM enriched waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ling; Xu, Haomin; Cooper, William J. [Urban Water Research Center, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2175 (United States); Song, Weihua, E-mail: [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)


    Beta-blockers, prescribed for the treatment of high blood pressure and for long-term use after a heart attack, have been detected in surface and ground waters. This study examines the photochemical fate of three beta-blockers, atenolol, metoprolol, and nadolol. Hydrolysis accounted for minor losses of these beta-blockers in the pH range 4-10. The rate of direct photolysis at pH 7 in a solar simulator varied from 6.1 to 8.9 h{sup -1} at pH 7. However, the addition of a natural organic matter (NOM) isolate enhanced the photochemical loss of all three compounds. Indirect photochemical fate, generally described by reactions with hydroxyl radical ({center_dot}OH) and singlet oxygen ({sup 1}{Delta}O{sub 2}), and, the direct reaction with the triplet excited state, {sup 3}NOM{sup Low-Asterisk }, also varied but collectively appeared to be the major loss factor. Bimolecular reaction rate constants of the three beta-blockers with {sup 1}{Delta}O{sub 2} and {center_dot}OH were measured and accounted for 0.02-0.04% and 7.2-38.9% of their loss, respectively. These data suggest that the {sup 3}NOM{sup Low-Asterisk} contributed 50.6-85.4%. Experiments with various {sup 3}NOM{sup Low-Asterisk} quenchers supported the hypothesis that it was singly the most important reaction. Atenolol was chosen for more detailed investigation, with the photoproducts identified by LC-MS analysis. The results suggested that electron-transfer could be an important mechanism in photochemical fate of beta-blockers in the presence of NOM. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photochemical degradation of beta-blockers in the simulated natural waters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reactive Oxygen Species play a minor role in the indirect photodegradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The loss of beta-blockers results from direct reaction with {sup 3}DOM{sup Low-Asterisk }.

  3. Braking the Gas in the beta Pictoris Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Fern'andez, R; Wu, Y; Brandeker, Alexis; Fern\\'andez, Rodrigo


    (Abridged) The main sequence star beta Pictoris hosts the best studied circumstellar disk to date. Nonetheless, a long-standing puzzle has been around since the detection of metallic gas in the disk: radiation pressure from the star should blow the gas away, yet the observed motion is consistent with Keplerian rotation. In this work we search for braking mechanisms that can resolve this discrepancy. We find that all species affected by radiation force are heavily ionized and dynamically coupled into a single fluid by Coulomb collisions, reducing the radiation force on species feeling the strongest acceleration. For a gas of solar composition, the resulting total radiation force still exceeds gravity, while a gas of enhanced carbon abundance could be self-braking. We also explore two other braking agents: collisions with dust grains and neutral gas. Grains surrounding beta Pic are photoelectrically charged to a positive electrostatic potential. If a significant fraction of the grains are carbonaceous (10% in t...

  4. Beta-delayed proton emission from {sup 21}Mg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, M.V.; Fynbo, H.O.U.; Jensen, J.H.; Laursen, K.L.; Riisager, K. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus C (Denmark); Borge, M.J.G. [CSIC, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Madrid (Spain); CERN, ISOLDE, PH Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Briz, J.A.; Perea, A.; Pesudo, V.; Tengblad, O. [CSIC, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Madrid (Spain); Cederkaell, J. [Lund University, Department of Nuclear Physics, Lund (Sweden); Jonson, B.; Nilsson, T. [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Fundamental Physics, Goeteborg (Sweden)


    Beta-delayed proton emission from {sup 21}Mg has been measured at ISOLDE, CERN, with a detection setup consisting of two charged-particle telescopes surrounding the decay point. Altogether 27 βp branches were measured with center-of-mass energies between 0.4-7.2 MeV. Seven new βp branches were observed. Beta-delayed protons were used to determine the half-life of {sup 21}Mg as 118.6 ± 0.5 ms. From a line shape fit of the βp branches we extract the widths, spins, and parities of the resonances of {sup 21}Na. An improved interpretation of the decay scheme in accordance with the results obtained in reaction studies is presented. (orig.)

  5. Beta-delayed neutron spectroscopy using ion traps (United States)

    Wang, Barbara; Czeszumska, A.; Siegl, K.; Caldwell, S.; Aprahamian, A.; Burkey, M.; Clark, J.; Levand, A.; Marley, S.; Morgan, G.; Norman, E.; Nystrom, A.; Orford, R.; Padgett, S.; Perez Galvan, A.; Savard, G.; Scielzo, N.; Sharma, K.; Strauss, S.


    Trapped radioactive ions suspended in vacuum allow for a new way to perform beta-delayed neutron spectroscopy. Decay branching ratios and energy spectra of the emitted neutrons are inferred from a measurement of the nuclear recoil, thereby circumventing the many limitations associated with direct neutron detection. Beta-delayed neutron measurements were carried out for 137-138,140I, 134-136Sb, and 144-145Cs at the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The data collected are needed in many fields of basic and applied science such as nuclear energy, nuclear astrophysics, and stockpile stewardship. Results for the isotopes 135-136Sb and 140I will be presented. Supported by NSF under PHY-1419765, and U.S. DOE under NEUP 13-5485, DE-AC02-06CH11357 (ANL), DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL), and DE-NA0000979 (NNSA).

  6. A GUI tool for beta function measurement using MATLAB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guang-Ling; TIAN Shun-Qiang; JIANG Bo-Cheng; LIU Gui-Min


    The beta function measurement is used to detect the shift in the betatron tune as the strength of an individual quadrupole magnet is varied. A GUI (graphic user interface) tool for the beta function measurement is developed using the MATLAB program language in the Linux environment, which facilitates the commissioning of the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) storage ring. In this paper, we describe the design of the application and give some measuring results and discussions about the definition of the measurement. The program has been optimized to solve some restrictions of the AT tracking code. After the correction with LOCO (linear optics from closed orbits), the horizontal and the vertical root mean square values (rms values) can be reduced to 0.12 and 0.10.

  7. Beta decay of sup 5 sup 6 Cu

    CERN Document Server

    Borcea, R; Caurier, E; Dendooven, P; Döring, J; Gierlik, M; Górska, M; Grawe, H; Hellström, M; Janas, Z; Jokinen, A; Karny, M; Kirchner, R; La Commara, M; Langanke, K; Martínez-Pinedo, G; Mayet, P; Nieminen, A; Nowacki, F; Pentillä, H; Plochocki, A; Rejmund, M; Roeckl, E; Schlegel, C; Schmidt, K; Schwengner, R; Sawicka, M


    The proton-rich isotope sup 5 sup 6 Cu was produced at the GSI On-Line Mass Separator by means of the sup 2 sup 8 Si( sup 3 sup 2 S, p3n) fusion-evaporation reaction. Its beta-decay properties were studied by detecting beta-delayed gamma rays and protons. A half-life of 93+-3 ms was determined for sup 5 sup 6 Cu. Compared to the previous work, six new gamma rays and three new levels were assigned to the daughter nucleus sup 5 sup 6 Ni. The measured Gamow-Teller strength values for five sup 5 sup 6 Ni levels are compared to shell-model predictions.

  8. Development of an antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Clostridium perfringens beta2-toxin in porcine feces and the neonatal piglet intestine. (United States)

    Kircanski, Jasmina; Hodgins, Douglas; Soltes, Glenn; Pei, Yanlong; Parreira, Valeria R; Songer, J Glenn; Prescott, John F


    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for detection and quantitation of beta2-toxin in neonatal piglet intestinal contents. Polystyrene plates were coated with polyclonal capture antibodies prepared against consensus recombinant beta2-toxin. The ELISA was developed using consensus recombinant beta2-toxin, atypical recombinant beta2-toxin, purified consensus native beta2-toxin, and field samples of neonatal porcine intestinal contents. Captured antigen was detected using a horseradish peroxidase-labeled monoclonal antibody against consensus recombinant beta2-toxin. The limit of detection of the ELISA for consensus beta2-toxin was between 2.0 and 3.5 ng/ml. The ELISA detected atypical recombinant beta2-toxin only weakly. Optical density was protein concentration dependent. The test confirmed differences between consensus and atypical recombinant beta2-toxin, but similar results obtained when testing pure consensus recombinant beta2-toxin and native beta2-toxin. Results obtained from intestinal content samples, particularly from the small intestine, were highly inconsistent and suggested variable protease activity. Addition of protease inhibitors partially prevented degradation of the toxin; however, sample processing at low temperature, at a lower pH (citrate buffer with 5% of bovine serum albumin, pH 6.1), and "cold incubation" of applied antigens abolished protease activity. The recombinant toxin was preserved in spiked intestinal samples by freezing at -70°C, suggesting that necropsy samples can be stored frozen for periodic testing. With appropriate sample preparation, antigen-capture ELISA can detect beta2-toxin in the intestinal content and feces of neonatal piglets.

  9. Beta-delayed gamma decay of 26P: Possible evidence of a proton halo

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Loureiro, D; Bennett, M B; Liddick, S N; Bowe, A; Brown, B A; Chen, A A; Chipps, K A; Cooper, N; Irvine, D; McNeice, E; Montes, F; Naqvi, F; Ortez, R; Pain, S D; Pereira, J; Prokop, C J; Quaglia, J; Quinn, S J; Sakstrup, J; Santia, M; Schwartz, S B; Shanab, S; Simon, A; Spyrou, A; Thiagalingam, E


    Background: Measurements of $\\beta$ decay provide important nuclear structure information that can be used to probe isospin asymmetries and inform nuclear astrophysics studies. Purpose: To measure the $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$ decay of $^{26}$P and compare the results with previous experimental results and shell-model calculations. Method: A $^{26}$P fast beam produced using nuclear fragmentation was implanted into a planar germanium detector. Its $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$-ray emission was measured with an array of 16 high-purity germanium detectors. Positrons emitted in the decay were detected in coincidence to reduce the background. Results: The absolute intensities of $^{26}$P $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$-rays were determined. A total of six new $\\beta$-decay branches and 15 new $\\gamma$-ray lines have been observed for the first time in $^{26}$P $\\beta$-decay. A complete $\\beta$-decay scheme was built for the allowed transitions to bound excited states of $^{26}$Si. $ft$ values and Gamow-Teller strengths were a...

  10. 17 beta-estradiol modulates GABAergic synaptic transmission and tonic currents during development in vitro. (United States)

    Pytel, Maria; Wójtowicz, Tomasz; Mercik, Katarzyna; Sarto-Jackson, Isabella; Sieghart, Werner; Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy; Mozrzymas, Jerzy W


    Estrogens exert a variety of modulatory effects on the structure and function of the nervous system. In particular, 17 beta-estradiol was found to affect GABAergic inhibition in adult animals but its action on GABAergic currents during development has not been elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the effect of 17 beta-estradiol on hippocampal neurons developing in vitro. In this model, mIPSC kinetics showed acceleration with age along with increased alpha1 subunit expression, similarly as in vivo. Long-term treatment with 17 beta-estradiol increased mIPSC amplitudes in neurons cultured for 6-8 and 9-11DIV and prolonged the mIPSC decaying phase only in the 9-11DIV group. The time needed for the onset of 17 beta-estradiol effect on mIPSC amplitude was approximately 48 h. In the period of 9-11DIV, treatment with 17 beta-estradiol strongly reduced the tonic conductance activated by low GABA concentrations. The effects of 17 beta-estradiol on mIPSCs and tonic conductance were not correlated with any change in expression of considered GABAAR subunits (alpha1-3, alpha5-6, gamma2) while alpha4 and delta subunits were at the detection limit. In conclusion, we provide evidence that 17 beta-estradiol differentially affects the phasic and tonic components of GABAergic currents in neurons developing in vitro.

  11. Effects of ORP150 on appearance and function of pancreatic beta cells following acute necrotizing pancreatitis. (United States)

    Deng, Wen-Hong; Chen, Chen; Wang, Wei-Xing; Yu, Jia; Li, Jin-You; Liu, Lei


    Pancreatic beta cells produce and release insulin, which decreases the blood glucose level. Endoplasmic reticulum stress caused pancreatic beta cell dysfunction and death in acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP). The 150kD oxygen-regulated protein (ORP150) took part in the process of endoplasmic reticulum stress. This study investigated the effect of ORP150 on appearance and function of pancreatic beta cells in ANP. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis relied on retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurocholate into the bile-pancreatic duct. The severity of ANP was estimated by serum amylase, secretory phospholipase A(2,) and pancreatic histopathology. The changes in appearance and function of pancreatic beta cells were detected by light and electron microscopy and the levels of serum glucose, insulin, and C-peptide. ORP150 expression was studied using western blot and immunohistochemisty assay. The expression of ORP150 mainly appeared on pancreatic beta cells and decreased gradually during the pathogenesis of ANP. The results of light and electron microscopy indicated pancreatic beta cell dysfunction and death, concomitant with elevation of serum glucose, insulin, and C-peptide in ANP. These results imply a probable role of ORP150 in the changes in appearance and function of pancreatic beta cells following acute necrotizing pancreatitis, through the pathway of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

  12. Transforming growth factor-beta is elevated in unpasteurized cow's milk. (United States)

    Peroni, Diego G; Piacentini, Giorgio L; Bodini, Alessandro; Pigozzi, Roberta; Boner, Attilio L


    Unpasteurized milk consumption was associated with less atopy prevalence. Not only microbial load but also fatty acids and cytokines such as transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)) may play a role on the effect of unpasteurized milk. Levels of TGF-beta(1) in different cow's milk samples were evaluated: we consider raw unpasteurized milk before and after boiling, commercial pasteurized and micro-filtrated cow's milk and different commercially available cow's milk formulas. TGF-beta(1) concentration in raw unpasteurized cow's milk was 642.0 +/- 52.9 pg/ml before boiling and decreased significantly after boiling (302.7 +/- 50.59 pg/ml) (p < 0.05). TGF-beta(1) concentrations were also significantly lower in commercial pasteurized milk (246.2 +/- 43.15 pg/ml) and in commercial micro-filtrated milk (213.0 +/- 31.6 pg/ml) in comparison to unpasteurized unboiled milk (p = 0.002). The levels of TGF-beta(1) in all formula samples were below the threshold of detectability for the assays. As TGF-beta(1) in the milk may contribute to the development of the immature gastrointestinal tract by influencing IgA production and oral tolerance induction, we suggest to consider not only the microbial compounds but also the cytokine patterns to explain the protective effect of unpasteurized cow's milk on allergic disorders.

  13. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose. (United States)

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen


    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows' milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows' milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows' milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  14. Sawtooth crashes at high beta on JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alper, B.; Huysmans, G.T.A.; Sips, A.C.C. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Nave, M.F.F. [Universidade Tecnica, Lisbon (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico


    The sawtooth crashes on JET display features which depend on beta. The main observation is a transient bulging of flux surfaces (duration inferior to 30 microsec.), which is predominantly on the low field side and extends to larger radii as beta increases. This phenomenon reaches the plasma boundary when beta{sub N} exceeds 0.5 and in these cases is followed by an ELM within 50 microsec. These sawtooth/ELM events limit plasma performance. Modelling of mode coupling shows qualitative agreement between observations of the structure of the sawtooth precursor and the calculated internal kink mode at high beta. (authors). 6 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebely Pal


    Full Text Available True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows’ milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows’ milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows’ milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  16. The Alterations of IL-1Beta, IL-6, and TGF-Beta Levels in Hippocampal CA3 Region of Chronic Restraint Stress Rats after Electroacupuncture (EA Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianwei Guo


    Full Text Available Immunological reactions induced by proinflammatory cytokines have been involved in the pathogenesis of depressive disorders. Recent studies showed that Electroacupuncture (EA was able to reduce depressive symptoms; however, the underlying mechanism and its potential targets remain unknown. In the present study, we used a 21-day chronic restraint stress rats as a model to investigate how EA could alleviate depression. Open field test was carried out to evaluate the depressive symptoms at selected time points. At the end of study, immunohistochemistry (IHC was performed to detect the expressions of IL-1beta, IL-6, and TGF-beta in hippocampal CA3 region. We found that chronic restraint stress significantly decreased behavioral activities, whereas EA stimulation at points Baihui (GV 20 and Yintang (GV 29 showed protective effect during the test period. In addition, the IL-1beta, IL-6, and TGF-beta increased in rats exposed to chronic restraint stress, while EA downregulated the levels of IL-1beta and IL-6. These findings implied that EA pretreatment could alleviate depression through modulating IL-1beta and IL-6 expression levels in hippocampal CA3 region.

  17. The Alterations of IL-1Beta, IL-6, and TGF-Beta Levels in Hippocampal CA3 Region of Chronic Restraint Stress Rats after Electroacupuncture (EA) Pretreatment. (United States)

    Guo, Tianwei; Guo, Zhuo; Yang, Xinjing; Sun, Lan; Wang, Sihan; Yingge, A; He, Xiaotian; Ya, Tu


    Immunological reactions induced by proinflammatory cytokines have been involved in the pathogenesis of depressive disorders. Recent studies showed that Electroacupuncture (EA) was able to reduce depressive symptoms; however, the underlying mechanism and its potential targets remain unknown. In the present study, we used a 21-day chronic restraint stress rats as a model to investigate how EA could alleviate depression. Open field test was carried out to evaluate the depressive symptoms at selected time points. At the end of study, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to detect the expressions of IL-1beta, IL-6, and TGF-beta in hippocampal CA3 region. We found that chronic restraint stress significantly decreased behavioral activities, whereas EA stimulation at points Baihui (GV 20) and Yintang (GV 29) showed protective effect during the test period. In addition, the IL-1beta, IL-6, and TGF-beta increased in rats exposed to chronic restraint stress, while EA downregulated the levels of IL-1beta and IL-6. These findings implied that EA pretreatment could alleviate depression through modulating IL-1beta and IL-6 expression levels in hippocampal CA3 region.

  18. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta receptors types II and III within various cells in the rat periodontium. (United States)

    Gao, J; Symons, A L; Bartold, P M


    This study reports the immunohistochemical localization of TGF-beta receptor type II (T beta R-II) and type III (T beta R-III) in cells of the forming periodontal ligament (PDL) in rat first molar roots. Mandibular periodontium was obtained from 3, 6 and 12-wk-old rats. This represented tissue from the initial, pre-mature and post-mature stages of root and periodontal development, respectively. Mandibular bone chips and molar roots were used to isolate osteoblasts, fibroblasts and cementoblasts. Cells were obtained using a 2-step trypsinization and explant technique, and cultured in Dulbecco's modification of Eagle's medium (DMEM) under routine cell culture conditions. Cells were cultured on coverslips for the purpose of detecting TGF-beta receptors, and compared with whole tissue sections using the same detection method. Cells which stained positively for T beta R-II and T beta R-III on both paraffin sections and cultured cell slides were counted. Both receptors were expressed in the various periodontal tissue compartments. PDL fibroblasts, cementoblasts and osteoblasts were stained positively for T beta R-II and T beta R-III. Endothelial cells were noted to be positive for T beta R-II only. T beta R-II was more widely distributed in cells than T beta R-III, but T beta R-III was extensively localized in the extracellular matrix. Both receptors were expressed on the cell membrane and also localized in the cytoplasm. The findings for paraffin sections were consistent with the immunohistochemical staining of cultured cells. The percentage of cells which stained positively for T beta R-II was greater (approximately 85%) than that for T beta R-III (approximately 60%) in all major types of the PDL cells on both paraffin sections and cultured cell slides. Extensive location of TGF-beta receptors in both cells and extracellular matrix suggests that several binding sites are available for TGF-beta s to interact with target cells during development and following maturation

  19. Challenges in Double Beta Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliviero Cremonesi


    Full Text Available In the past ten years, neutrino oscillation experiments have provided the incontrovertible evidence that neutrinos mix and have finite masses. These results represent the strongest demonstration that the electroweak Standard Model is incomplete and that new Physics beyond it must exist. In this scenario, a unique role is played by the Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay searches which can probe lepton number conservation and investigate the Dirac/Majorana nature of the neutrinos and their absolute mass scale (hierarchy problem with unprecedented sensitivity. Today Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay faces a new era where large-scale experiments with a sensitivity approaching the so-called degenerate-hierarchy region are nearly ready to start and where the challenge for the next future is the construction of detectors characterized by a tonne-scale size and an incredibly low background. A number of new proposed projects took up this challenge. These are based either on large expansions of the present experiments or on new ideas to improve the technical performance and/or reduce the background contributions. In this paper, a review of the most relevant ongoing experiments is given. The most relevant parameters contributing to the experimental sensitivity are discussed and a critical comparison of the future projects is proposed.

  20. Purification and substrate specificity of beta-xylosidase from sycamore cell (Acer pseudoplatanus L.): application for structural analysis of xylose-containing N-linked oligosaccharides. (United States)

    Tezuka, K; Hayashi, M; Ishihara, H; Nishimura, M; Onozaki, K; Takahashi, N


    A beta-xylosidase was purified 51-fold from culture medium of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells using p-nitrophenyl beta-D-xylopyranoside as a substrate. This enzyme can remove a xylose residue from asparagine-linked oligosaccharides, derivatized with 2-aminopyridine. A pentasaccharide, Xy1 beta 2Man beta 4GlcNAc beta 4(Fuc-alpha 3)GlcNAc was the favorite substrate in N-linked oligosaccharides, but a xylose residue in Xy1 beta 2(Man-alpha 3)Man beta sequence could not be removed by the enzyme. We also propose an efficient method for detection of xylose residue in N-linked oligosaccharides by a combination of the two-dimensional sugar mapping technique and the xylosidase digestion.

  1. The profile of free amino acids in latent fingerprint of healthy and beta-thalassemic volunteers. (United States)

    Khedr, Alaa


    The aim of the present work is to apply a non-invasive test, using thumb fingerprint residue analysis, for detection of beta-thalassemia (beta-Thal). The relative percentages of free amino acids (AA) in the latent fingerprint of beta-Thal patients and healthy subjects were compared. The sample included 24 beta-Thal patient and 24 healthy subjects, aged 5-10 years old. Twenty-three AA plus ammonia were analyzed by a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method with fluorescence detection. The profile of AA was calculated based on the percentage of relative amount of each AA to serine (Ser) as it found to be the predominant peak. The statistical and chromatographic profiles of beta-Thal patients were characterized by significant decrease of ornithine, lysine, and zero tyrosine, with significant increase of ammonia, and proline. Other amino acids that exist in low ratios were estimated statistically for significance changes. The relative percentages of each AA of healthy subjects were approximately constant. For this reason, these mentioned AA were assigned as major fingerprint markers of beta-Thal.

  2. 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 promotes differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun LIU; Yan SUN; Ting ZHU; Yu XIE; Jing YU; Wen-lan SUN; Guo-xian DING; Gang HU


    Aim: To investigate the relationship between 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydroge-nase type 1 (1 lbeta-HSD1), a potential link between obesity and type 2 diabetes,and preadipocyte differentiation. Methods: Mouse 11beta-HSD1 siRNA plasmids were transfected into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes (a cell line derived from mouse Swiss3T3 cells that were isolated from mouse embryo), for examination of the effect of targeted 11 beta-HSD1 inhibition on differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Dif-ferentiation was stimulated with 3-isobutyl-1-methyxanthine, insulin, and dexamethasone. The transcription level of the genes was detected by real-time PCR. Results: Lipid accumulation was significantly inhibited in cells transfected with mouse 11beta-HSD1 siRNA compared with non-transfected 3T3-L1 cells.Fewer lipid droplets were detected in the transfected cells both prior to stimulation and after stimulation with differentiation-inducing reagents. The expression of adipocyte differentiation-associated markers such as lipoprotein lipase and fatty acid synthetase were downregulated in the transfected cells. Similarly, the expres-sion of preadipocyte factor-1, an inhibitor of adipocyte differentiation, was downregulated upon stimulation of differentiation and had no changes in the transfected cells. Conclusion: 11 beta-HSD1 can promote preadipocyte differentiation. Based on this, we propose that 11 beta-HSD1 may be an important candidate mediator of obesity and obesity-induced insulin resistance.

  3. Evidence for the existence of organosulfates from beta-pinene ozonolysis in ambient secondary organic aerosol. (United States)

    Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Müller, Conny; Berndt, Torsten; Böge, Olaf; Claeys, Magda; Herrmann, Hartmut


    The formation of organosulfates from the gas-phase ozonolysis of beta-pinene in the presence of neutral or acidic sulfate particles was investigated in a series of indoor aerosol chamber experiments. The organosulfates were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) in parallel to ion trap MS. Organosulfates were only found in secondary organic aerosol from beta-pinene ozonolysis in the presence of acidic sulfate seed particles. One of the detected organosulfates also occurred in ambient aerosol samples that were collected at a forest site in northeastern Bavaria, Germany. beta-Pinene oxide, an oxidation product in beta-pinene/O3 and beta-pinene/NO3 reactions, is identified as a possible precursor for the beta-pinene-derived organosulfate. Furthermore, several nitroxy-organosulfates originating from monoterpenes were found in the ambient samples. These nitroxy-organosulfates were only detected in the nighttime samples, suggesting a role for nighttime chemistry in their formation. Their LC/MS chromatographic peak intensities suggest that they represent an important fraction of the organic mass in ambient aerosols, especially at night.

  4. A study of fluorescence properties of citrinin in {beta}-cyclodextrin aqueous solution and different solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Youxiang [Institute of Quality Standard and Testing Technology for Agro-products, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430064 (China); Chen Jianbiao; Dong Lina; Lu Liang [College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430070 (China); Chen Fusheng [College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430070 (China); Key Laboratory of Food Safety Evaluation of the Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430070 (China); National Key Laboratory of Agro-microbiology, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430070 (China); Hu Dingjin [Institute of Quality Standard and Testing Technology for Agro-products, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430064 (China); Wang Xiaohong, E-mail: [College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430070 (China); Key Laboratory of Food Safety Evaluation of the Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430070 (China)


    Citrinin (CIT) is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin initially isolated from filamentous fungus Penicilliu citrinum. It was later isolated from several other species, such as Aspergillus and Monascus. It has a conjugated, planar structure that gives it a natural fluorescence ability, which can be used to develop sensitive methods for detecting CIT in food. In this paper, we used the spectrofluorescence technique to study the effects of pH value, {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) and organic solvents on the CIT fluorescence intensity. The results show that lower pH value, aceitc acid, {beta}-CD and acetonitrile can induce a higher fluorescence intensity of CIT, but methanol or H{sub 2}O has a decreasing effect on the fluorescence intensity of CIT. Findings in this study provide a theoretical basis for development of a high sensitivity fluorescence-based trace analysis for CIT detection. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of pH, solvents and {beta}-CD on the fluorescence of citrinin are analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer [H]{sup +}, acetic acid, {beta}-CD and acetonitrile can induce CIT fluorescence enhancement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Methanol and H{sub 2}O can induce CIT fluorescence reduction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 1:1 inclusion complex of CIT/{beta}-CD can form in acidic phosphate solution.

  5. 联合检测甲胎蛋白、α-岩藻糖苷酶、β2-微球蛋白及透明质酸对诊断原发性肝癌的意义%Significance of combined detection of alpha fetoprotein, alpha fucosidase, beta 2-microglobulin and hyaluronic acid in the diagnosis of primary liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的 探讨联合检测甲胎蛋白(AFP)、α-岩藻糖苷酶(AFU)、β2-微球蛋白(β2-m)及透明质酸(HA)对诊断原发性肝癌的意义.方法 选取2012年3月~ 2014年3月在我院治疗的原发性肝癌患者60例、其他消化系癌症患者50例、肝硬化患者50例及正常健康人60例,检测所有患者血清AFP、AFU、β2-m及HA水平.结果 原发性肝癌组患者血清AFU、AFP、β2-m、HA水平及阳性检出率明显高于其他消化系癌症组、肝硬化组及正常对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).原发性肝癌组患者血清AFU、AFP、β2-m、HA四项联合检测的敏感性、诊断符合率均优于单项检测,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 联合检测AFU、AFP、β2-m、HA四种肿瘤标志物能提高早期原发性肝癌的敏感性和诊断率,为临床早期诊治提供可靠参考.%Objective To investigate the significance of combined detection of alpha fetoprotein (AFP), alpha fucosidase (AFU), beta 2-microglobulin (β2-m) and hyaluronic acid (HA) in the diagnosis of primary liver cancer. Methods 60 patients with primary liver cancer, 50 cases of other digestive system cancer, 50 patients with hepatic cirrhosis and 60 normal people from 2012 March to 2014 March in our hospital were selected,and serum AFP, AFU, β2-m and HA levels of all patients were detected.Results The levels and positive rates of serum AFP, AFU, β2-m and HA of patients with primary liver cancer were significantly higher than those of patients with other digestive system cancer, liver cirrhosis and normal people, the difference was statiscally significant (P<0.05). The sensitivity and diagnostic accordance rate of combined detection of serum AFU, AFU, β2-m and HA in patients with primary liver cancer were better than those of the single detection, the difference was statiscally significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Combined detection of AFP, AFU, β2-m and HA four tumor markers can improve the sensitivity and diagnosis rate of

  6. Expressions of GSK-3beta, Beta-Catenin and PPAR-Gamma in Medulloblastoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Zhang; Lu Si; Yu Li; Can Mi


    Objective: To investigate the expressions of GSK-3beta, Beta-catenin and PPAR-gamma, and their relationship in medulloblastoma, and to explore their value in clinic application.Methods: Immunohistochemical staining with SP method was conducted to determine the expressions of GSK-3beta, Beta-catenin and PPAR-gamma in 48 cases of medulloblastoma and 10 normal cerebellar tissues.Results: The rate of abnormal expressions of beta-catenin and PPAR-gamma in MB was higher than that in normal. Conversely, GSK-3beta in MB was lower than that in the normal (P<0.05). Furthermore, in medulloblastoma, beta-catenin and GSK-3beta showed a negative correlation, PPAR-gamma and beta-catenin had a positive correlation.Conclusion: Abnormal expression of beta-catenin plays a crucial role in the development of medulloblastoma. Meanwhile, PPAR-gamma and GSK-3beta which are tightly related with beta-catenin are both involved in the genesis and development of medulloblastoma.

  7. Radiation-induced polymerization of {beta}(+)-pinene and synthesis of optically active {beta}(+)/{beta}(-)pinene polymers and copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, Franco, E-mail: franco.cataldo@fastwebnet.i [Lupi Chemical Research, Via Casilina 1626/A, 00133 Rome (Italy); Lilla, Edo; Ursini, Ornella [Institute of Chemical Methodologies, CNR, Via Salaria Km. 29300, Monterotondo Stazione 00016, Rome (Italy)


    Poly-{beta}(+)-pinene (pB(+)p) was synthesized with {gamma} irradiation of the monomer {beta}(+)-pinene in bulk under vacuum at 1181 kGy. Also scalemic mixtures of {beta}(+)-pinene and {beta}(-)-pinene were irradiated at 1181 kGy to obtain synthetic copolymers of pB(+)/B(-)p. For comparison also {beta}(-)-pinene was converted into poly-{beta}(-)-pinene (pB(-)p) under the identical conditions adopted for its enantiomer. Furthermore pB(+)p and pB(-)p were also synthesized by thermal processing under the action of a chemical free radical initiator. The optical rotatory dispersion (ORD) of all pBp resins synthesized were accurately studied in the spectral range comprised between 375 and 625 nm and a curious asymmetry in the ORD of pB(+)p versus the ORD of pB(-)p is reported. Furthermore, it is shown that (+)-p-menth-1-ene and (-)-p-menth-1-ene are useful as a model compounds for the pBp resins and for the explanation of the amplification of the optical activity of the {beta}(+)-pinene and {beta}(-)-pinene after their ring-opening polymerization to pB(+)p and pB(-)p. The pBp resins were studied also by FT-IR spectroscopy and by thermal analysis (TGA and DTG).

  8. Imperfect World of beta beta-decay Nuclear Data Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritychenko, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). NNDC


    The precision of double-beta ββ-decay experimental half lives and their uncertainties is reanalyzed. The method of Benford's distributions has been applied to nuclear reaction, structure and decay data sets. First-digit distribution trend for ββ-decay T2v1/2 is consistent with large nuclear reaction and structure data sets and provides validation of experimental half-lives. A complementary analysis of the decay uncertainties indicates deficiencies due to small size of statistical samples, and incomplete collection of experimental information. Further experimental and theoretical efforts would lead toward more precise values of-decay half-lives and nuclear matrix elements.

  9. First observation of {beta} decay of {sup 108}Nb to {sup 108}Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penttilae, H.; Dendooven, P.; Honkanen, A.; Huhta, M.; Lhersonneau, G.; Oinonen, M.; Parmonen, J.; Peraejaervi, K.; Aeystoe, J. [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40351 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Kurpeta, J. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University, u.l. Hoza 69, PL 00-681, Warsaw (Poland); Persson, J.R. [School of Physics and Space Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)


    The {beta}-delayed {gamma} decay of {sup 108}Nb has been studied using the on-line mass-separator technique. The measured {beta}-decay half-life 0.20{plus_minus}0.03 s agrees with the previous measurement based on {beta}-delayed neutron detection. The lifetime of the first 2{sup +} state in {sup 108}Mo was measured to be 0.5{plus_minus}0.3 ns, which is consistent with a deformation {beta}{approx_equal}0.4. Spin and parity of 2{sup +} are suggested for the ground state of {sup 108}Nb. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  10. Beta-glucosidase I variants with improved properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bott, Richard R.; Kaper, Thijs; Kelemen, Bradley; Goedegebuur, Frits; Hommes, Ronaldus Wilhelmus; Kralj, Slavko; Kruithof, Paulien; Nikolaev, Igor; Van Der Kley, Wilhelmus Antonious Hendricus; Van Lieshout, Johannes Franciscus Thomas; Van Stigt Thans, Sander


    The present disclosure is generally directed to enzymes and in particular beta-glucosidase variants. Also described are nucleic acids encoding beta-glucosidase variants, compositions comprising beta-glucosidase variants, methods of using beta-glucosidase variants, and methods of identifying additional useful beta-glucosidase variants.

  11. Dosimetry of low-energy beta radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, J.


    Useful techniques and procedures for determination of absorbed doses from exposure in a low-energy {beta} radiation field were studied and evaluated in this project. The four different techniques included were {beta} spectrometry, extrapolation chamber dosimetry, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, and exoelectron dosimetry. As a typical low-energy {beta} radiation field a moderated spectrum from a {sup 14}C source (E{sub {beta}},{sub max} =156 keV) was chosen for the study. The measured response of a Si(Li) detector to photons (bremsstrahlung) showed fine agreement with the MC calculated photon response, whereas the difference between measured and MC calculated responses to electrons indicates an additional dead layer thickness of about 12 {mu}m in the Si(Li) detector. The depth-dose profiles measured with extrapolation chambers at two laboratories agreed very well, and it was confirmed that the fitting procedure previously reported for {sup 147}Pm depth-dose profiles is also suitable for {beta} radiation from {sup 14}C. An increasing difference between measured and MC calculated dose rates for increasing absorber thickness was found, which is explained by limitations of the EGS4 code for transport of very low-energy electrons (below 10-20 keV). Finally a study of the thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) response of BeO thin film dosemeters to {beta} radiation for radiation fields with maximum {beta} energies ranging from 67 keV to 2.27 MeV is reported. For maximum {beta} energies below approximately 500 keV, a decrease in the response amounting to about 20% was observed. It is thus concluded that a {beta} dose higher than about 10 {mu}Gy can be measured with these dosemeters to within 0 to -20% independently of the {beta}energy for E{sub {beta}},{sub max} values down to 67 keV. (au) 12 tabs., 38 ills., 71 refs.

  12. Characterization and Optimization of silicon photomultipliers for the development of intraoperative beta probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudin, N.; Pinot, L. [Laboratoire Imagerie et Modelisation en Neurobiologie et Cancerologie (UMR 8165), Campus d' Orsay, IN2P3-CNRS, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Dinu, N. [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, IN2P3-CNRS, 91898 Orsay (France); Charon, Y. [Laboratoire Imagerie et Modelisation en Neurobiologie et Cancerologie (UMR 8165), Campus d' Orsay, IN2P3-CNRS, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Puill, V. [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, IN2P3-CNRS, 91898 Orsay (France); Janvier, B. [Laboratoire Imagerie et Modelisation en Neurobiologie et Cancerologie (UMR 8165), Campus d' Orsay, IN2P3-CNRS, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Chaumat, V. [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, IN2P3-CNRS, 91898 Orsay (France); Duval, M.-A.; Abi Haidar, D.; Siebert, R. [Laboratoire Imagerie et Modelisation en Neurobiologie et Cancerologie (UMR 8165), Campus d' Orsay, IN2P3-CNRS, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Menard, L., E-mail: [Laboratoire Imagerie et Modelisation en Neurobiologie et Cancerologie (UMR 8165), Campus d' Orsay, IN2P3-CNRS, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France)


    This work reports the results of a comprehensive study aiming to characterize and optimize the performances of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) as photodetectors for intraoperative beta detection of radiolabeled tumor tissues. In that purpose, we focused our measurements on the influence of temperature and operating voltage on dark noise (count rate and amplitude distribution), absolute photon detection efficiency and total gain of different SiPM devices from Hamamatsu. The impact of these parameters on the overall beta sensitivity of SiPM-based scintillation detectors was quantified as a function of the intensity of the incident light following a simple physical model that is shown to correspond well with measurements.

  13. Directed mutagenesis of the dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-reactive carboxyl residues in beta-subunit of F1-ATPase of Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Parsonage, D; Wilke-Mounts, S; Senior, A E


    Previous studies in which dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) was used to inactivate F1-ATPase enzymes have suggested that two glutamate residues in the beta-subunit are essential for catalysis. In the Escherichia coli F1-ATPase, these are residues beta-Glu-181 and beta-Glu-192. Oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis was used to change these residues to beta-Gln-181 and beta-Gln-192. The beta-Gln-181 mutation produced strong impairment of oxidative phosphorylation in vivo and also of ATPase and ATP-driven proton-pumping activities in membranes assayed in vitro. A low level of each activity was detected and an F1-ATPase appeared to be assembled normally on the membranes. Therefore, it is suggested that the carboxyl side chain at residue beta-181 is important, although not absolutely required, for catalysis in both directions on E. coli F1-ATPase. The beta-Gln-192 mutation produced partial inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation in vivo and membrane ATPase activity was reduced by 78%. These results contrast with the complete or near-complete inactivation seen when E. coli F1-ATPase is reacted with DCCD and imply that DCCD-inactivation is attributable more to the attachment of the bulky DCCD molecule than to the derivatization of the carboxyl side chain of residue beta-Glu-192. M. Ohtsubo and colleagues (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1987) 146, 705-710) described mutagenesis of the F1-beta-subunit of thermophilic bacterium PS3. Mutations (Glu----Gln) of the residues homologous to Glu-181 and Glu-192 of E. coli F1-beta-subunit both caused total inhibition of ATPase activity. Therefore, there was a marked difference in results obtained when the same residues were modified in the PS3 and E. coli F1-beta-subunits.

  14. Evaluation of Eight Different Cephalosporins for Detection of Cephalosporin Resistance in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarestrup, F.M.; Hasman, H.; Veldman, K.T.; Mevius, D.J.


    This study evaluates the efficacy of eight different cephalosporins for detection of cephalosporin resistance mediated by extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and plasmidic AmpC beta-lactamases in Salmonella and Escherichia coli. A total of 138 E. coli and 86 Salmonella isolates with known beta-

  15. Meta-analysis of studies with bivariate binary outcomes: a marginal beta-binomial model approach. (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Hong, Chuan; Ning, Yang; Su, Xiao


    When conducting a meta-analysis of studies with bivariate binary outcomes, challenges arise when the within-study correlation and between-study heterogeneity should be taken into account. In this paper, we propose a marginal beta-binomial model for the meta-analysis of studies with binary outcomes. This model is based on the composite likelihood approach and has several attractive features compared with the existing models such as bivariate generalized linear mixed model (Chu and Cole, 2006) and Sarmanov beta-binomial model (Chen et al., 2012). The advantages of the proposed marginal model include modeling the probabilities in the original scale, not requiring any transformation of probabilities or any link function, having closed-form expression of likelihood function, and no constraints on the correlation parameter. More importantly, because the marginal beta-binomial model is only based on the marginal distributions, it does not suffer from potential misspecification of the joint distribution of bivariate study-specific probabilities. Such misspecification is difficult to detect and can lead to biased inference using currents methods. We compare the performance of the marginal beta-binomial model with the bivariate generalized linear mixed model and the Sarmanov beta-binomial model by simulation studies. Interestingly, the results show that the marginal beta-binomial model performs better than the Sarmanov beta-binomial model, whether or not the true model is Sarmanov beta-binomial, and the marginal beta-binomial model is more robust than the bivariate generalized linear mixed model under model misspecifications. Two meta-analyses of diagnostic accuracy studies and a meta-analysis of case-control studies are conducted for illustration.

  16. Spectrochemical studies with {beta}-emitting radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesta, Miguel A.; Plivelic, Tomas S.; Mainardi, Raul T. [Cordoba Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Facultad de Matematica, Atronomia y Fisica


    Electrons emitted by {sup 90} Sr radioactive source and positrons from a {sup 22} Na source were used to produce ionizations in the constituents of a sample. The sources have similar energy spectra and this allowed us to compare the characteristic radiation emission efficiencies. The new proposed experimental set up for radioisotope excited x-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) is of a transparent source type and provides at least a ten times increase in the intensity of characteristic x-rays emitted by the sample as compared with a standard set up in XRFA. It is shown that this fact, together with the relatively high energy of the beta particles, make it possible to carry out a mirror elemental analysis in a few minutes using low intensity radioactive sources (no special handling license). Preliminary experimental results are shown using both electrons and positrons impinging on pure and composed samples and simple analytical expressions are provided for the characteristic radiation intensity as detected by an HPGe detector. (author). 7 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Signaling from beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors is defined by differential interactions with PDE4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Wito; Day, Peter; Agrawal, Rani


    Beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors (betaARs) are highly homologous, yet they play clearly distinct roles in cardiac physiology and pathology. Myocyte contraction, for instance, is readily stimulated by beta1AR but not beta2AR signaling, and chronic stimulation of the two receptors has opposing...

  18. Early detection of tubular dysfunction. (United States)

    Piscator, M


    The determination of low-molecular-weight proteins in urine as a tool for early detection of damage to the proximal tubules is briefly discussed. Beta 2-microglobulin, retinol-binding protein and alpha 1-microglobulin are at present the most widely used markers for tubular dysfunction. The determination of beta 2-microglobulin has earlier been the method of choice, but due to its instability at low pH there are certain disadvantages. Available data indicate that alpha 1-microglobulin may replace beta 2-microglobulin for screening purposes. The low-molecular-weight proteins are at present the best markers for early detection of tubular dysfunction; other constituents are not as well suited for this, even if the determination of urine enzymes has its supporters.

  19. Localization of thymosin beta-4 in tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, L. -I.; Holck, Susanne


    Overexpression of thymosin beta-4 has been linked to malignant progression but the localization of this polypeptide within tumors is incompletely known. We therefore examined breast cancers for thymosin beta-4 using immunofluorescence. Reactive cells were identified with monoclonal cell marker...... in the tumor microenvironment may modulate tumor behavior....

  20. Nebivolol : third-generation beta-blockade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Rudolf A.; Voors, Adriaan A.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.


    Nebivolol is a third generation beta-blocker. It is highly selective for the beta 1-adrenoceptor, and has additional nitric oxide-mediated vasodilating and antioxidant properties, along with a favourable metabolic profile. Nebivolol is well tolerated by patients with hypertension and heart failure.

  1. The beta subunit of casein kinase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Piontek, K; Schmidt-Spaniol, I;


    cDNAs encoding the beta subunit of pig and mouse CKII were isolated. The porcine cDNA was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used for the production of anti-CKII-beta subunit specific antibodies....

  2. Venus: Geology of Beta Regio rift system (United States)

    Nikishin, A. M.; Borozdin, V. K.; Bobina, N. N.


    Beta Regio is characterized by the existence of rift structures. We compiled new geologic maps of Beta Regio according to Magellan data. There are many large uplifted tesserae on beta upland. These tesserae are partly buried by younger volcanic cover. We can conclude, using these observations, that Beta upland formed mainly due to lithospheric tectonic uplifting and was only partly constructed by volcanism. Theia Mons is the center of the Beta rift system. Many rift belts are distributed radially to Theia Mons. Typical widths of rifts are 40-160 km. Rift valleys are structurally represented by crustal grabens or half-grabens. There are symmetrical and asymmetrical rifts. Many rifts have shoulder uplifts up to 0.5-1 km high and 40-60 km wide. Preliminary analysis for rift valley structural cross sections lead to the conclusion that rifts originated due to 5-10 percent crustal extension. Many rifts traverse Beta upland and spread to the surrounding lowlands. We can assume because of these data that Beta rift system has an active-passive origin. It formed due to regional tectonic lithospheric extension. Rifting was accelerated by upper-mantle hot spot origination under the center of passive extension (under the Beta Regio).

  3. Beta-agonists and animal welfare (United States)

    The use of beta-agonists in animal feed is a high profile topic within the U.S. as consumers and activist groups continue to question its safety. The only beta-agonist currently available for use in swine is ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC). This is available as Paylean™ (Elanco Animal Health – FDA a...

  4. Shielding for beta-gamma radiation. (United States)

    Fletcher, J J


    The build-up factor, B, for lead was expressed as a polynominal cubic function of the relaxation length, mu x, and incorporated in a "general beta-gamma shielding equation." A computer program was written to determine shielding thickness for polyenergetic beta-gamma sources without resorting to the conventional "add-one-HVL" method.

  5. The Survey of Genes Encoding Beta-Lactamases, in Escherichia Coli Resistant to Beta-Lactam and Non-Beta-Lactam Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Shahcheraghi


    Full Text Available Resistance to the new generation of cephalosporins which is mediated by Extended-Spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs has been found amongEscherichia coli isolates throughout the world. These resistance genes and their producers, the micro-organisms carrying beta-lactamases, are responsible for serious clinical and therapeutic problems among inpatients and it is necessary to pay more attention to detection of ESBLs producing organisms.Materiasl and MethodsCollectively 260 isolates of E. coli were obtained from 6 hospitals in Tehran (Iran during April-2006 to April-2007. The antibiotic susceptibility patterns of isolates were determined by disk diffusion method. phenotypic confirmatory test (PCT was carried out for screening of ESBLs. Microbroth dilution assay was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of ceftazidime. Isolates showing MIC≥2 μg/ml were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX and blaPER genes. ResultsThe PCT showed that 48.08% of isolates are ESBL producers (125 of 260. The majority of cefotaxime resistant (90.8% and ceftazidime resistant (92.5% isolates were ESBL producers. The obtained results by PCR revealed that 5.77% (n=15 of 260 and 24.23 (n=63 of isolates can produce SHV and TEM type enzymes respectively. blaCTX was detected in 20.38% of isolates (n=53 and none of them could produce blaPER type beta-lactamases. ConclusionThe results of our study showed that the ESBL genes have high prevalence among clinical isolates of E. coli. Such high dissemination of ESBLs is a serious problem for public health and therefore, it's necessary to seek a program for monitoring ESBLs in hospitals.

  6. Measurement of the beta-neutrino correlation in laser trapped {sup 21}Na

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scielzo, Nicholas David


    Trapped radioactive atoms are an appealing source for precise measurements of the beta-neutrino correlation coefficient, a, since the momentum of the neutrino can be inferred from the detection of the unperturbed low-energy recoil daughter nucleus. Sodium-21 is produced on-line at the 88'' cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and 8e5 atoms have been maintained in a magneto-optical trap. A static electric field draws daughter Neon-21 ions to a microchannel plate detector and betas are detected in coincidence with a plastic scintillator beta detector. The Neon-21 time-of-flight distribution determines the beta neutrino correlation coefficient, a. The resulting charge-state distribution is compared to a simple model based on the sudden approximation which suggests a small but important contribution from nuclear recoil-induced ionization. A larger than expected fraction of the daughters are detected in positive charge-states, but no dependence on either the beta or recoil nucleus energy was observed. We find a = 0.5243 plus or minus 0.0092, which is in 3.6 sigma disagreement with the Standard Model prediction of a = 0.559 plus or minus 0.003. Aside from a deviation from the Standard Model, a possible explanation for the discrepancy is that the branching ratio to the first excited state is in error.

  7. Measurement of the beta-neutrino correlation in laser trapped 21Na

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scielzo, Nicholas David [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Trapped radioactive atoms are an appealing source for precise measurements of the beta-neutrino correlation coefficient, a, since the momentum of the neutrino can be inferred from the detection of the unperturbed low-energy recoil daughter nucleus. Sodium-21 is produced on-line at the 88'' cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and 8e5 atoms have been maintained in a magneto-optical trap. A static electric field draws daughter Neon-21 ions to a microchannel plate detector and betas are detected in coincidence with a plastic scintillator beta detector. The Neon-21 time-of-flight distribution determines the beta neutrino correlation coefficient, a. The resulting charge-state distribution is compared to a simple model based on the sudden approximation which suggests a small but important contribution from nuclear recoil-induced ionization. A larger than expected fraction of the daughters are detected in positive charge-states, but no dependence on either the beta or recoil nucleus energy was observed. We find a = 0.5243 plus or minus 0.0092, which is in 3.6 sigma disagreement with the Standard Model prediction of a = 0.559 plus or minus 0.003. Aside from a deviation from the Standard Model, a possible explanation for the discrepancy is that the branching ratio to the first excited state is in error.

  8. Beta-glucuronidase in physiology and disease. (United States)

    Basińska, Agnieszka; Floriańczyk, Bolesław


    beta-glucoronidase (EC is a lysosomal enzyme catylysing the decomposition of beta-D-glucoronides--compounds arising as a result of the combination of beta-D-glucoronic acid and a number of compounds both exo- and endogenous, containing hydroxylic, carboxylic, amine, imine or thiol groups. The most common test evaluating the activity of the enzyme is that using phenolphtalein glucoronide as a biosynthetic substrate. The freed aglycons are colorimetrically assayed. The activity of beta-glucoronidase increases in many pathological conditions: liver infammations, cirrhosis of the liver, inflammations of other organs, cholestatic jaundice, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis and also in neoplasms. Many authors point to beta-glucoronidase as a sensitive indicator signalling cell damage.

  9. Ranking Beta Sheet Topologies of Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Rasmus; Helles, Glennie; Winter, Pawel


    One of the challenges of protein structure prediction is to identify long-range interactions between amino acids.  To reliably predict such interactions, we enumerate, score and rank all beta-topologies (partitions of beta-strands into sheets, orderings of strands within sheets and orientations...... of paired strands) of a given protein.  We show that the beta-topology corresponding to the native structure is, with high probability, among the top-ranked. Since full enumeration is very time-consuming, we also suggest a method to deal with proteins with many beta-strands. The results reported...... in this paper are highly relevant for ab initio protein structure prediction methods based on decoy generation. The top-ranked beta-topologies can be used to find initial conformations from which conformational searches can be started. They can also be used to filter decoys by removing those with poorly...

  10. Experimental beta-alaninuria induced by (aminooxyacetate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurozumi Y


    Full Text Available Experimental beta-alaninuria was induced in rats by injection of (aminooxyacetate (AOA, a potent inhibitor of aminotransferases, in order to elucidate the pathogenesis of hyper-beta-alaninemia. A 27-fold increase of beta-alanine (BALA excretion was induced by subcutaneous injection of 1 5 mg of AOA per kg of body weight. A 13-fold and a 9-fold increase of beta-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, respectively, were also induced simultaneously by the AOA injection. Identification of BALA and BAIBA isolated from the rat urine was performed by chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses. The effects of AOA injection on the tissue levels of these amino acids were also studied. Contents of BALA in the liver and kidney and GABA in the brain increased significantly in response to AOA injection. The present study indicates that BALA transaminase is involved in hyper-beta-alaninemia.

  11. A high-throughput chemical screen reveals that harmine-mediated inhibition of DYRK1A increases human pancreatic beta cell replication. (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Alvarez-Perez, Juan-Carlos; Felsenfeld, Dan P; Liu, Hongtao; Sivendran, Sharmila; Bender, Aaron; Kumar, Anil; Sanchez, Roberto; Scott, Donald K; Garcia-Ocaña, Adolfo; Stewart, Andrew F


    Types 1 and 2 diabetes affect some 380 million people worldwide. Both ultimately result from a deficiency of functional pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells. Beta cells proliferate in humans during a brief temporal window beginning around the time of birth, with a peak percentage (∼2%) engaged in the cell cycle in the first year of life. In embryonic life and after early childhood, beta cell replication is barely detectable. Whereas beta cell expansion seems an obvious therapeutic approach to beta cell deficiency, adult human beta cells have proven recalcitrant to such efforts. Hence, there remains an urgent need for antidiabetic therapeutic agents that can induce regeneration and expansion of adult human beta cells in vivo or ex vivo. Here, using a high-throughput small-molecule screen (HTS), we find that analogs of the small molecule harmine function as a new class of human beta cell mitogenic compounds. We also define dual-specificity tyrosine-regulated kinase-1a (DYRK1A) as the likely target of harmine and the nuclear factors of activated T cells (NFAT) family of transcription factors as likely mediators of human beta cell proliferation and differentiation. Using three different mouse and human islet in vivo-based models, we show that harmine is able to induce beta cell proliferation, increase islet mass and improve glycemic control. These observations suggest that harmine analogs may have unique therapeutic promise for human diabetes therapy. Enhancing the potency and beta cell specificity of these compounds are important future challenges.

  12. Clusters of conserved beta cell marker genes for assessment of beta cell phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Geert A; Jiang, Lei; Hellemans, Karine H;


    The aim of this study was to establish a gene expression blueprint of pancreatic beta cells conserved from rodents to humans and to evaluate its applicability to assess shifts in the beta cell differentiated state. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of isolated beta cells were compared to those...... of a large panel of other tissue and cell types, and transcripts with beta cell-abundant and -selective expression were identified. Iteration of this analysis in mouse, rat and human tissues generated a panel of conserved beta cell biomarkers. This panel was then used to compare isolated versus laser capture...... microdissected beta cells, monitor adaptations of the beta cell phenotype to fasting, and retrieve possible conserved transcriptional regulators....

  13. Painlev\\'e representation of Tracy-Widom$_\\beta$ distribution for $\\beta = 6$

    CERN Document Server

    Rumanov, Igor


    In \\cite{betaFP1}, we found explicit Lax pairs for the soft edge of beta ensembles with even integer values of $\\beta$. Using this general result, the case $\\beta=6$ is further considered here. This is the smallest even $\\beta$, when the corresponding Lax pair and its relation to Painlev\\'e II (PII) have not been known before, unlike cases $\\beta=2$ and $4$. It turns out that again everything can be expressed in terms of the Hastings-McLeod solution of PII. In particular, a second order nonlinear ODE for the logarithmic derivative of Tracy-Widom distribution for $\\beta=6$ involving the PII function in the coefficients, is found, which allows one to compute asymptotics for the distribution function. The ODE is a consequence of a linear system of three ODEs for which the local Painlev\\'e analysis yields series solutions with exponents in the set $4/3$, $1/3$ and $-2/3$.

  14. Expression of TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3 and the receptors TGF-betaRI and TGF-betaRII in placentomes of artificially inseminated and nuclear transfer derived bovine pregnancies. (United States)

    Ravelich, S R; Shelling, A N; Wells, D N; Peterson, A J; Lee, R S F; Ramachandran, A; Keelan, J A


    Bovine nuclear transfer pregnancies are characterized by a high incidence of placental abnormalities, notably, increased placentome size and deficiencies in trophoblast cell function and establishment of placental vasculature. Alterations in gene expression during placental growth and development may contribute to the appearance of large placentomes in pregnancies derived from nuclear transfer. The placenta synthesizes a number of cytokines and growth factors, including the transforming growth factor-betas (TGF-betas) that are involved in the establishment, maintenance and/or regulation of pregnancy. All forms of TGF-beta and their receptors are present at the fetal-maternal interface of the bovine placentome, where they are thought to play an important role in regulating growth, differentiation, and function of the placenta. Using real-time RT-PCR, we have examined the expression of TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3 and the receptors TGF-betaRI and TGF-betaRII in placentomes of artificially inseminated (AI) and nuclear transfer (NT)-derived bovine pregnancies at days 50, 100 and 150 of gestation. TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3 mRNA expression increased by 2.0-2.8-fold, while TGF-betaRI and TGF-betaRII mRNA expression decreased by 1.7-2.0-fold in NT placentomes compared to AI controls at all gestational ages examined. These findings indicate that NT placentomes may be resistant to the growth suppressive effects of TGF-betas and could contribute to the placental proliferative abnormalities observed in NT-derived placentas. Alternatively, deficiencies in placentation may provide a mechanism whereby TGF-betas are dysregulated in NT pregnancies.

  15. Smad4 and ERK2 stimulated by transforming growth factor beta1 in rhabdomyosarcoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hua; ZHANG Hong-ying; WANG Shou-li; YE Lü; YANG Guang-hua; BU Hong


    Background Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) plays an essential role in the regulation of normal physiologic processes of cells. TGF-beta has been shown to regulate several mitogen-a ctivated protein kinases (MAPK) pathways in several epithelial cells. However, the effects of TGF-beta on soft tissue sarcoma are seldom reported. Our previous studies suggested that there should be some other signal transduction pathways besides Smads, which are important to regulate the growth of human embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cells. In the present study, we examined the expression and functional relations of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) and Smad4 in human RMS tissue and a RMS cell line, RD.Methods RD cells and normal human primary skeletal myoblasts (Mb) were treated with TGF-beta1 to establish the expression profile of ERK2 at the mRNA and protein levels detected by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence.Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of ERK2 and Smad4 in 50 tissue specimens of human RMS and 23 specimens of normal skeletal muscles. Follow-up of specimens was performed 6 months to 70 months later.Results RD cells and human RMS tissues showed the higher expression of ERK2 and Smad4 than the normal control,either the protein level or the mRNA level. And, exogenous TGF-beta1 stimulation can lead to higher expression of ERK2and its nuclear translocation, so TGF-beta1 can also activated MAPK (ERK2) pathway, resulting in a sustained activation of ERK2 for at least 2 hours. Immunohistochemistry analysis, however, showed that there was no correlation between ERK2 and Smad4 protein. The overexpression of ERK2 and Smad4 had no indicative effects on histological subtypes,histological grading, gender, age, and prognosis.Conclusions In RMS, signaling of TGF-beta1 from cell surface to nucleus can also be directed through the MAPK (ERK2) pathway besides the TGF-beta1/Smads pathway. The activation of ERK2 by TGF-beta1 may be Smad4independent

  16. Simple synthesis of mite pheromone beta-acaridial and its analogs in the secretion of Caloglyphus polyphyllae (Acari: Acaridae). (United States)

    Shimizu, Nobuhiro; Mori, Naoki; Kuwahara, Yasumasa


    A simple synthesis of beta-acaridial [(E)-1], the active principle of the sex, alarm and aggregation pheromone among astigmatid mites, was achieved in 5 steps from 1,2,4-butanetriol 2 in a 19% overall yield. Its analog, beta-acariolal 8, was also prepared in a 63% yield by oxidation of the intermediate, beta-acaridiol [(E)-7], with pyridinium dichromate (PDC). This synthetic route also gave beta-(Z)-acaridiol [(Z)-7] by using a Z-selective base in the Wittig reaction. (Z)-7 was oxidized to give a new monoterpene, beta-(Z)-acaridial [(Z)-1], which was detected as a trace component in the secretion of Caloglyphus polyphyllae, together with 8.

  17. GPI-80, a beta2 integrin associated glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein, concentrates on pseudopodia without association with beta2 integrin during neutrophil migration. (United States)

    Yoshitake, Hiroshi; Takeda, Yuji; Nitto, Takeaki; Sendo, Fujiro; Araki, Yoshihiko


    Previously, we identified a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein, designated GPI-80, present on human neutrophils and monocytes. GPI-80 is physically associated with beta2 integrin on the surface of human neutrophils and may be a regulator of neutrophil adherence and migration. However, it is not yet known how GPI-80 regulates cell adhesion and migration. To investigate the physiological role(s) of GPI-80, we examined the topological relationship of GPI-80 and the beta2 integrin subunit (CD18) on resting and migrating human neutrophils by confocal laser microscopy. On resting neutrophils, GPI-80 was evenly distributed on the cell surface and was associated with CD18. On the other hand, during the early phase of migration (5 - 30 minutes), GPI-80 was detected on cell bodies and also on pseudopodia, but CD18 was detected only on cell bodies, where it was associated with GPI-80. In the late phase of migration (60 minutes), GPI-80 was detected only on pseudopodia and its association with CD18 was hardly observed. Furthermore, some of the GPI-80 on pseudopodia of migrating neutrophils during the late phase was associated with urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), a regulator of beta2 integrin-dependent adherence and migration. The distribution of GPI-80 on cell surfaces is similar to that of uPAR. These observations suggest that GPI-80 belongs to the beta2 integrin-associated GPI-anchored protein family, which has regulatory activity in cell adherence.

  18. Beta-thalassaemia mutations in northern India (Delhi). (United States)

    Madan, N; Sharma, S; Rusia, U; Sen, S; Sood, S K


    The present study was undertaken to define beta-thalassaemia mutations prevalent in northern India (Delhi). Forty six children of beta-thalassaemia major and their families were investigated. DNA was extracted from leucocytes and screened for mutations prevalent in the Indian population. These mutations included 619bp deletion, IVS 1-1 (G-T), IVS 1-5 (G-C), frameshift mutations FS 8/9 (+G), FS 41/42 (-CTTT), Codon 16(-C), Codon 15 (G-A), codon 30 (G-C), IVS 1-110 (G-A) and -88 (C-T). 619 bp deletion mutation was detected directly by amplification of DNA by PCR followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Other mutations were studied by DNA amplification and dot blot hybridization using synthetic normal and mutant oligonucleotide probes labelled at 5' end with gamma-32 P-ATP. Five mutations accounted for all the chromosomes in 46 patients. 619 bp deletion mutation was found to be the commonest mutation (34.8%) followed by IVS 1-5 (G-C) in 22.8 per cent, IVS 1-1 (G-T) in 19.6 per cent, FS 8/9 (+G) in 13 per cent and FS 41/42 (-CTTT) in 9.8 per cent. Nineteen (41.3%) patients were homozygous and 27 (58.7%) double heterozygous for different beta-thalassaemia mutations. This observation of limited number of mutations is significant and will be useful in planning strategies for prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassaemia in northern India.

  19. Toxin A from Clostridium difficile binds to rabbit erythrocyte glycolipids with terminal Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G.F.; Krivan, H.C.; Wilkins, T.D.; Smith, D.F.


    The binding of Toxin A isolated from Clostridium difficile to rabbit erythrocyte glycolipids has been studied. Total lipid extracts from rabbit erythrocytes were subjected to thin-layer chromatography and toxin-binding glycolipids detected by using /sup 125/I-labeled Toxin A in a direct binding overlay technique. Two major and several minor toxin-binding glycolipids were detected in rabbit erythrocytes by this method. The results of structural analyses of the major toxin-binding glycolipids were consistent with a pentasaccharide-ceramide (Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-3Gal beta 1-4Glc-Cer) and a branched decasaccharide-ceramide (Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-3(Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-6)Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-3Gal beta 1-4Glc-Cer) previously identified as the two most abundant glycolipids in rabbit erythrocytes. /sup 125/I-Toxin A binding to these glycolipids could be inhibited by bovine thyroglobulin, monospecific antiserum to the toxin, or by treatment of the glycolipids with alpha-galactosidase. The absence of toxin interaction with isoglobotriaosylceramide (Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4Glc-Cer) isolated from canine intestine suggested that the GlcNAc residue present in the terminal Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GLcNAc sequence common to all known toxin binding glycoconjugates is required for carbohydrate-specific recognition by Toxin A. These observations are consistent with the proposed carbohydrate binding specificity of Toxin A for the nonreducing terminal sequence, Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc.

  20. Cloning and expression of quail avian beta-defensin 10 and the mRNA detection in quail tissues%鹌鹑β-防御素10基因的克隆与表达及其体内分布的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔺利娟; 王瑞琴; 韩宗玺; 邵昱昊; 刘胜旺; 程宝晶; 孙黎; 李子瑞; 马得莹


    为测定鹌鹑β-防御素10 (AvBD10)体外抗菌活性及检测其在鹌鹑脏器组织的分布,本研究应用RT-PCR方法从鹌鹑肺脏组织中扩增到鹌鹑AvBD10,经序列同源性分析,鹌鹑AvBD10与鸡AvBD10的氨基酸序列同源性最高(83.8%).将该基因亚克隆到表达载体pGEX-6p-1中进行原核表达,SDS-PAGE电泳表明,鹌鹑AvBD10重组蛋白分子量约为31ku.该重组蛋白经纯化后测定其体外抗菌活性,结果显示,鹌鹑AvBD10重组蛋白具有广谱的抗菌活性.采用定量RT-PCR法检测到AvBD10在鹌鹑脏器组织中广泛表达.%To clone and express avian beta-defensin (AvBDIO) gene in quail, the quail AvBDIO gene was amplified from lung of Chinese painted quail (Coturnix chinensis) by RT-PCR. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA of quail AvBDIO consisted of 207 bp nucleotide, encoding a polypeptide of 68 amino acids. Homology analysis showed that quail AvBDIO shared 83.8% with chicken AvBDIO. The cDNA of quail AvBDIO was sub-cloned into pGEX-6p-l vector and expressed in E. Coii BL21. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that 31 ku of quail AvBDIO recombinant protein was highly expressed. The purified recombinant quail AvBDIO exhibit extensive antimicrobial activity against 10 different bacteria. Additionally, results of real-time RT-PCR detections showed that AvBDIO was widely expressed in various quail tissues.

  1. TGF-beta1 system in Leydig cells. Part II: TGF-beta1 and progesterone, through Smad1/5, are involved in the hyperplasia/hypertrophy of Leydig cells. (United States)

    Gonzalez, Candela R; Gonzalez, Betina; Rulli, Susana B; Dos Santos, Mara L; Mattos Jardim Costa, Guilherme; França, Luiz R; Calandra, Ricardo S; Gonzalez-Calvar, Silvia I


    Several reports indicate that transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) participates in the regulation of cell cycle progression. In this work, we analyzed the in vitro effect of TGF-beta1 on Leydig cell proliferation markers and the in vivo effect of this cytokine in Leydig cell hyperplasia/hypertrophy. The in vitro effect of TGF-beta1 (1 ng/ml) plus progesterone (10(-6) M) on purified Leydig cells from 3 week-old mice increased the immunocytochemically detected PCNA and stimulated the phosphorylation of Smad 1/5. Progesterone (10(-6) M) in the presence or absence of TGF-beta1 diminished the ratio Bax/Bcl-2. Morphometric testicular studies of mice treated with progesterone (s.c.) plus TGF-beta1 (intratesticular), showed an increase in interstitial volume and a decrease in tubular volume. Furthermore, the cytoplasmic volume of Leydig cells showed an increment in this experimental group with a diminution in nuclear volume. Thus, it turned out that the administration of progesterone and TGF-beta1 augmented the volume of Leydig cells. These results indicate a clear effect of TGF-beta1 in the hypertrophy/hyperplasia of Leydig cells.

  2. Hemoglobina C em homozigose e interação com talassemia beta Homozygous hemoglobin C and its interaction with beta thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan L. Angulo


    Full Text Available A hemoglobina C (Hb C é originária do oeste da África e é detectada por migração lenta na eletroforese alcalina em acetato de celulose. Consiste na mutação do gene da globina beta no códon 6 (GAG-AAG, resultando na substituição do sexto aminoácido da cadeia beta da hemoglobina humana, o ácido glutâmico, pelo aminoácido lisina. A cromatografia de alto desempenho (HPLC separa completamente as frações C e A2, permitindo caracterizar a presença da interação com talassemia beta. Esta entidade (Hb CC, em homozigoze é considerada benigna em relação à doença falciforme, já que a falcização não faz parte de sua fisiopatologia. A raridade do diagnóstico C homozigoto e C talassemia beta nos pacientes portadores de hemoglobinopatias nos alertou para a necessidade de se conhecer melhor e estudar aspectos clínicos e hematológicos dos casos dessa mutação em homozigose e na interação com a talassemia beta no ambulatório de anemias do Centro Regional de Hematologia e Hemoterapia de Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil.Hemoglobin C (Hb C originated in the west of Africa and is detected by alkaline electrophoresis by slow migration in cellulose acetate. It consists of a mutation of the beta globin gene in codon 6 (GAG-AAG, resulting in a substitution of glutamic acid, the sixth amino acid of the beta string of the human hemoglobin, for lysine. High performance chromatography (HPLC separates the C and A2 fractions completely, allowing the characterization of the presence of interactions with thalassemia beta. This entity (Hb CC is considered benign in respect to sickle cell disease, as sickle cells are not part of its physiopathology. The rarity of the diagnosis of homozygous C and beta thalassemia in patients with hemoglobinopathies showed the necessity of studying clinical and hematologic aspects of the cases of this mutation in homozygosis carriers and the interaction with beta thalassemia in the anemias clinic of the Regional Blood

  3. Clusters of conserved beta cell marker genes for assessment of beta cell phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Geert A; Jiang, Lei; Hellemans, Karine H;


    The aim of this study was to establish a gene expression blueprint of pancreatic beta cells conserved from rodents to humans and to evaluate its applicability to assess shifts in the beta cell differentiated state. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of isolated beta cells were compared to those...... microdissected beta cells, monitor adaptations of the beta cell phenotype to fasting, and retrieve possible conserved transcriptional regulators.......The aim of this study was to establish a gene expression blueprint of pancreatic beta cells conserved from rodents to humans and to evaluate its applicability to assess shifts in the beta cell differentiated state. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of isolated beta cells were compared to those...... of a large panel of other tissue and cell types, and transcripts with beta cell-abundant and -selective expression were identified. Iteration of this analysis in mouse, rat and human tissues generated a panel of conserved beta cell biomarkers. This panel was then used to compare isolated versus laser capture...

  4. Ellagic acid promotes A{beta}42 fibrillization and inhibits A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Ying [Department of Histology and Embryology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Yang, Shi-gao; Du, Xue-ting; Zhang, Xi; Sun, Xiao-xia; Zhao, Min [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Sun, Gui-yuan, E-mail: [Department of Histology and Embryology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Liu, Rui-tian, E-mail: [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China)


    Smaller, soluble oligomers of {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Selective inhibition of A{beta} oligomer formation provides an optimum target for AD therapy. Some polyphenols have potent anti-amyloidogenic activities and protect against A{beta} neurotoxicity. Here, we tested the effects of ellagic acid (EA), a polyphenolic compound, on A{beta}42 aggregation and neurotoxicity in vitro. EA promoted A{beta} fibril formation and significant oligomer loss, contrary to previous results that polyphenols inhibited A{beta} aggregation. The results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western blot displayed more fibrils in A{beta}42 samples co-incubated with EA in earlier phases of aggregation. Consistent with the hypothesis that plaque formation may represent a protective mechanism in which the body sequesters toxic A{beta} aggregates to render them harmless, our MTT results showed that EA could significantly reduce A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity toward SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, our results suggest that EA, an active ingredient in many fruits and nuts, may have therapeutic potential in AD.

  5. Evidence for Novel [beta]-Sheet Structures in Iowa Mutant [beta]-Amyloid Fibrils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tycko, Robert; Sciarretta, Kimberly L.; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O.; Meredith, Stephen C.; (IIT); (NIH); (UC)


    Asp23-to-Asn mutation within the coding sequence of {beta}-amyloid, called the Iowa mutation, is associated with early onset, familial Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, in which patients develop neuritic plaques and massive vascular deposition predominantly of the mutant peptide. We examined the mutant peptide, D23N-A{beta}40, by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. D23N-A{beta}40 forms fibrils considerably faster than the wild-type peptide (k = 3.77 x 10{sup -3} min{sup -1} and 1.07 x 10{sup -4} min{sup -1} for D23N-A{beta}40 and the wild-type peptide WT-A{beta}40, respectively) and without a lag phase. Electron microscopy shows that D23N-A{beta}40 forms fibrils with multiple morphologies. X-ray fiber diffraction shows a cross-{beta} pattern, with a sharp reflection at 4.7 {angstrom} and a broad reflection at 9.4 {angstrom}, which is notably smaller than the value for WT-A{beta}40 fibrils (10.4 {angstrom}). Solid-state NMR measurements indicate molecular level polymorphism of the fibrils, with only a minority of D23N-A{beta}40 fibrils containing the in-register, parallel {beta}-sheet structure commonly found in WT-A{beta}40 fibrils and most other amyloid fibrils. Antiparallel {beta}-sheet structures in the majority of fibrils are indicated by measurements of intermolecular distances through 13C-13C and 15N-13C dipole-dipole couplings. An intriguing possibility exists that there is a relationship between the aberrant structure of D23N-A{beta}40 fibrils and the unusual vasculotropic clinical picture in these patients.

  6. Radioprotection of {beta}-carotene evaluated on mouse somatic and germ cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvadori, Daisy M.F.; Ribeiro, Lucia R. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Estadual Paulista-UNESP, Botucatu-SP (Brazil); Xiao, Yun; Boei, Jan J.; Natarajan, A.T. [MGC Department of Radiation Genetics and Chemical Mutagenesis, Sylvius Laboratory, State University of Leiden, Leiden (Netherlands)


    In the present paper, the protective effect of {beta}-carotene was evaluated after whole body exposure of mice to 2 Gy of X-rays. Splenocytes, reticulocytes, bone marrow cells and spermatids were evaluated for the frequency of micronuclei (MN) induced by X-rays. Mice were treated (gavage) with {beta}-carotene (10, 25 and 50 mg/kg b.w.) for 5 consecutive days and, 4 h after the last treatment, the animals were irradiated. The results obtained showed different frequencies of X-ray-induced-MN between different cell populations analysed and also different response of these cells to the {beta}-carotene treatment. The radioprotective effect of {beta}-carotene was observed in splenocytes, reticulocytes, and spermatids but not in bone marrow cells. No dose-response relationship for {beta}-carotene was detected. The time of sampling, the sensitivity of the cells as well as the antioxidant activity of {beta}-carotene are discussed as important factors for the radioprotective action of this provitamin.

  7. Beta decay of medium and high spin isomers in sup 9 sup 4 Ag

    CERN Document Server

    La Commara, M; Döring, J; Galanopoulos, S; Grawe, H; Harissopoulos, S V; Hellström, M; Janas, Z; Kirchner, R; Mazzocchi, C; Ostrowski, A N; Plettner, C; Rainovski, G; Roeckl, E; Schmidt, K


    The very neutron-deficient isotope sup 9 sup 4 Ag was produced at the GSI on-line mass separator by using the reaction sup 5 sup 8 Ni( sup 4 sup 0 Ca, p3n). The beta-decay properties of sup 9 sup 4 Ag were studied by detecting for the first time beta-delayed gamma rays and beta-gamma-gamma coincidences. Both the population of excited levels in the daughter nucleus sup 9 sup 4 Pd and the beta-decay half-life of sup 9 sup 4 Ag were investigated. The major part of the feeding was assigned to the decay of an I suppi=(7 sup +) isomer with a half-life of (0.36+-0.03) s. A weak beta-decay branch was found to populate high-spin levels in the sup 9 sup 4 Pd daughter with I>=18. It is tentatively assigned to the decay of a high-spin parent state in sup 9 sup 4 Ag with I>=17 and a half-life (0.3+-0.2) s. The measured beta-decay properties as well as the level structure of sup 9 sup 4 Ag and sup 9 sup 4 Pd are discussed in comparison with shell-model predictions.

  8. Blockade of PKC-beta protects HUVEC from advanced glycation end products induced inflammation. (United States)

    Xu, Youhua; Wang, Shanshan; Feng, Liang; Zhu, Quan; Xiang, Ping; He, Bao


    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been recognized as a pivotal inducer in diabetes and kinds of aging-related vasculopathy. Endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory cells adhesion to endothelium have been regarded as important and early factors in the pathogenesis of vascular complications in diabetic patients. Owing to the key role of PKC-beta in AGEs-induced vascular dysfunction, we investigated effects of blocking PKC-beta by LY333531 on macrophage adhesion to HUVEC and the related mechanism. Transwell HUVEC-macrophage co-culture system was established to evaluate macrophage migration and adhesion ability. Immunocytochemistry was applied to examine TGF-beta1, ICAM-1 and RAGE protein expressions by SABC or SABC-AP method; mRNA expression of TGF-beta1, ICAM-1 and RAGE was determined by real-time RT-PCR. SOD and MDA levels in culture supernatant were detected. We found that LY333531 significantly reduced AGEs-induced macrophage adhesion to HUVEC. Blockade of PKC-beta strikingly decreased HUVEC TGF-beta1 and ICAM-1 expression in both protein and mRNA levels, RAGE protein level was also down-regulated. Furthermore, the anti-oxidative stress index, SOD/MDA was dramatically elevated on LY333531 application. Therefore we conclude that LY333531 can reduce AGEs-induced macrophage adhesion to endothelial cells and relieve the local inflammation, this was realized by its effect on decreasing inflammatory cytokines' expression and increasing cell anti-oxidative ability.

  9. Observation of Doppler broadening in $\\beta$-delayed proton-$\\gamma$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, S B; Bennett, M B; Liddick, S N; Perez-Loureiro, D; Bowe, A; Chen, A A; Chipps, K A; Cooper, N; Irvine, D; McNeice, E; Montes, F; Naqvi, F; Ortez, R; Pain, S D; Pereira, J; Prokop, C; Quaglia, J; Quinn, S J; Sakstrup, J; Santia, M; Shanab, S; Simon, A; Spyrou, A; Thiagalingam, E


    Background: The Doppler broadening of $\\gamma$-ray peaks due to nuclear recoil from $\\beta$-delayed nucleon emission can be used to measure the energies of the nucleons. This method has never been tested using $\\beta$-delayed proton emission or applied to a recoil heavier than $A=10$. Purpose: To test and apply this Doppler broadening method using $\\gamma$-ray peaks from the $^{26}$P($\\beta p\\gamma$)$^{25}$Al decay sequence. Methods: A fast beam of $^{26}$P was implanted into a planar Ge detector, which was used as a $^{26}$P $\\beta$-decay trigger. The SeGA array of high-purity Ge detectors was used to detect $\\gamma$ rays from the $^{26}$P($\\beta p\\gamma$)$^{25}$Al decay sequence. Results: Radiative Doppler broadening in $\\beta$-delayed proton-$\\gamma$ decay was observed for the first time. The Doppler broadening analysis method was verified using the 1613 keV $\\gamma$-ray line for which the proton energies were previously known. The 1776 keV $\\gamma$ ray de-exciting the 2720 keV $^{25}$Al level was observed...

  10. Study on beta-cyclodextrin inclusion of Zn(II) aromatic complex and its analytical application. (United States)

    Ding, Lixiu; He, Jiang; Fu, Junkai; Zhang, Jinlong


    A new beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) inclusion compound Zn(2H1NA)(2)x 2beta-CD (2H1NA=2-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acid) was prepared. The structure was characterized by (1)H NMR, IR, the fluorescence spectra, thermogravimetric analysis (TG-DTA) and elementary analysis. Meanwhile, the mechanism of the formation of the supramolecular system (2H1NA:Zn(II):beta-CD) was studied and discussed by spectrofluorimetry. The results showed that the naphthalene rings of the Zn(II) aromatic complex Zn(2H1NA)(2) were encapsulated within the beta-CD's cavity to form a 2:1 stoichiometry host-guest compound. The inclusion constant calculated was 1.27 x 10(4)(L/mol)(2). A spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of 2H1NA in bulk aqueous solution in the presence of beta-CD was developed based on the great enhancement of the fluorescence intensity of 2H1NA. The linear relationship was obtained in the range of 9.00 x 10(-7) to 2.50 x 10(-5)mol/L and the detection limit was 8.00 x 10(-7)mol/L. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine 2H1NA in waste water with recoveries of 97-104%.

  11. A novel presenilin-1 mutation: increased beta-amyloid and neurofibrillary changes. (United States)

    Gómez-Isla, T; Wasco, W; Pettingell, W P; Gurubhagavatula, S; Schmidt, S D; Jondro, P D; McNamara, M; Rodes, L A; DiBlasi, T; Growdon, W B; Seubert, P; Schenk, D; Growdon, J H; Hyman, B T; Tanzi, R E


    The prevalence of known mutations in presenilin genes (PS1 and PS2) causing early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) was assessed in a population of 98 singleton early-onset AD cases, 29 early-onset FAD cases, and 15 late-onset FAD cases. None of the cases tested positive for the eight mutations initially reported, and none of these mutations were observed in 60 age-matched controls. A novel mutation (R269H) in PS1 was found in a single case of early-onset AD but not in any other AD or control case. Thus, the PS mutations tested are quite rare in early-onset AD. Amyloid beta protein (A beta) deposition was investigated in the temporal cortex of the R269H mutation case using end-specific monoclonal antibodies to detect the presence of A beta x-40 and A beta x-42 subspecies. Stereologically unbiased tangle and neuropil thread counts were obtained from the same region. R269H PS1 mutation was associated with early age of dementia onset, higher amounts of total A beta and A beta x-42, and increased neuronal cytoskeletal changes. Thus, if the changes observed on this case prove to be typical of PS1 mutations, PS1 mutations may impact both amyloid deposition and neurofibrillary pathology.

  12. Possible Role of DNA Polymerase beta in Protecting Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Against Cytotoxicity of Hydroquinone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To explore the toxicological mechanism of hydroquinone in human bronchial epithelial cells and to investigate whether DNA polymerase beta is involved in protecting cells from damage caused by hydroquinone. Methods DNA polymerase beta knock-down cell line was established via RNA interference as an experimental group. Normal human bronchial epithelial cells and cells transfected with the empty vector of pEGFP-Cl were used as controls. Cells were treated with different concentrations of hydroquinone (ranged from 10 μmol/L to 120 μmol/L) for 4 hours. MTT assay and Comet assay [single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE)] were performed respectively to detect the toxicity of hydroquinone. Results MTT assay showed that DNA polymerase beta knock-down cells treated with different concentrations of hydroquinone had a lower absorbance value at 490 nm than the control cells in a dose-dependant manner. Comet assay revealed that different concentrations of hydroquinone caused more severe DNA damage in DNA polymerase beta knock-down cell line than in control cells and there was no significant difference in the two control groups. Conclusions Hydroquinone has significant toxicity to human bronchial epithelial cells and causes DNA damage. DNA polymerase beta knock-down cell line appears more sensitive to hydroquinone than the control cells. The results suggest that DNA polymerase beta is involved in protecting cells from damage caused by hydroquinone.

  13. The Protective Role of Carnosic Acid against Beta-Amyloid Toxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rasoolijazi


    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is one of the pathological mechanisms responsible for the beta- amyloid cascade associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Previous studies have demonstrated the role of carnosic acid (CA, an effective antioxidant, in combating oxidative stress. A progressive cognitive decline is one of the hallmarks of AD. Thus, we attempted to determine whether the administration of CA protects against memory deficit caused by beta-amyloid toxicity in rats. Beta-amyloid (1–40 was injected by stereotaxic surgery into the Ca1 region of the hippocampus of rats in the Amyloid beta (Aβ groups. CA was delivered intraperitoneally, before and after surgery in animals in the CA groups. Passive avoidance learning and spontaneous alternation behavior were evaluated using the shuttle box and the Y-maze, respectively. The degenerating hippocampal neurons were detected by fluoro-jade b staining. We observed that beta-amyloid (1–40 can induce neurodegeneration in the Ca1 region of the hippocampus by using fluoro-jade b staining. Also, the behavioral tests revealed that CA may recover the passive avoidance learning and spontaneous alternation behavior scores in the Aβ + CA group, in comparison with the Aβ group. We found that CA may ameliorate the spatial and learning memory deficits induced by the toxicity of beta-amyloid in the rat hippocampus.

  14. Dosimetry of Low-Energy Beta Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Jette

    Useful techniques and procedures for derermination of absorbed doses from exposure in a low-energy beta radiation were studied and evaluated. The four techniques included were beta spectrometry, extrapolation chamber dosimetry, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, and exoelectron dosimetry. As a typical...... low-energy beta radiation field a moderated spectrum from a carbon-14 source was used. The measured responce of a Si(Li) detector to photons (bremsstrahlung) showed fine agreemant with the MC calculated photon response, whereas the difference between measured and MC calculated response to electrons...

  15. Scintillating bolometers for Double Beta Decay search

    CERN Document Server

    Gironi, Luca


    In the field of Double Beta Decay (DBD) searches, the use of high resolution detectors in which background can be actively discriminated is very appealing. Scintillating bolometers containing a Double Beta Decay emitter can largely fulfill this very interesting possibility. In this paper we present the latest results obtained with CdWO4 and CaMoO4 crystals. Moreover we report, for the first time, a very interesting feature of CaMoO4 bolometers: the possibility to discriminate beta-gamma events from those induced by alpha particles thanks to different thermal pulse shape.

  16. Beta-2-mikroglobulin ved medicinske sygdomme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal


    -interstitial nephropathy, increased quantities of beta 2M are excreted in the urine. If the rate of glomerular filtration is reduced, serum-beta 2M is increased and this is also the case in persons with increased cell division despite normal renal function. Serum-beta 2M is, therefore, raised in numerous malignant...... must be presumed to be of value not only in the diagnosis of cerebral AIDS and other (latent) CNS infections but also to demonstrate complicating cerebral malignant lymphomata at an early stage....

  17. Silent ischemia and beta-blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egstrup, K


    and should also be directed at the other coronary artery risk factors of the patients. The effects of beta-blockers, which reduce the duration and frequency of silent ischemic episodes, is well described. The effect is most pronounced in the morning, when the frequency of ischemia is highest......, and the mechanism of action seems mainly mediated through a reduction in myocardial oxygen demand. beta-Blockers have shown effectiveness in both effort-induced angina and mixed angina, and increased anti-ischemic potency may be achieved by combination therapy with a calcium antagonist. Abrupt withdrawal of beta-blockers...

  18. NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase in Penicillium chrysogenum is involved in regulation of beta-lactam production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thykær, Jette; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Noorman, H.


    The interactions between the ammonium assimilatory pathways and beta-lactam production were investigated by disruption of the NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase gene (gdhA) in two industrial beta-lactam-producing strains of Penicillium chrysogenum. The strains used were an adipoyl-7-ADCA......- and a penicillin-producing strain. The gdhA gene disruption caused a decrease in maximum specific growth rate of 26 % and 35 % for the adipoyl-7-ADCA-producing strain and the penicillin-producing strain, respectively, compared to the corresponding reference strains. Interestingly, no beta-lactam production...... was detected in either of the Delta gdhA strains. Supplementation with glutamate restored growth but no beta-lactam production was detected for the constructed strains. Cultures with high ammonium concentrations (repressing conditions) and with proline as nitrogen source (de-repressed conditions) showed...

  19. Evaluation of induced radioactivity in 10 MeV-Electron irradiated spices, (2); [beta]-ray counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Tadashi; Furuta, Masakazu; Shibata, Setsuko; Matsunami, Tadao; Ito, Norio; Mizohata, Akira; Toratani, Hirokazu (Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan). Research Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology); Takeda, Atsuhiko


    In order to check radioactivity of beta-emmitters produced by ([gamma], n) reactions which could occur at energies up to 10 MeV, black pepper, white pepper, red pepper, ginger and turmeric were irradiated with 10 MeV electron from a linear accelerator to a dose of 100 kGy. Beta-rays were counted using a 2[pi] gas flow counter and a liquid scintillation counter. Any induced radioactivity could not be detected in irradiated samples. When inorganic compounds containing the nuclides in the list were artificially added in the samples and were irradiated, the [beta]-activities were detected. From the amount of observed radioactivities of [beta]-emmitters produced in the compounds as photonuclear products, it is concluded that the induced radioactivity in natural samples by 10 MeV-electron irradiation were far smaller than natural radioactivity from [sup 40]K contained in the samples and, hence, its biological effects should be negligible. (author).

  20. Correction of a splice-site mutation in the beta-globin gene stimulated by triplex-forming peptide nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chin, Joanna Y; Kuan, Jean Y; Lonkar, Pallavi S


    Splice-site mutations in the beta-globin gene can lead to aberrant transcripts and decreased functional beta-globin, causing beta-thalassemia. Triplex-forming DNA oligonucleotides (TFOs) and peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) have been shown to stimulate recombination in reporter gene loci in mammalian...... DNA fragments, can promote single base-pair modification at the start of the second intron of the beta-globin gene, the site of a common thalassemia-associated mutation. This single base pair change was detected by the restoration of proper splicing of transcripts produced from a green fluorescent...

  1. Approaches to characterize extended spectrum beta-lactamase/beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli in healthy organized vis-a-vis backyard farmed pigs in India. (United States)

    Samanta, Indranil; Joardar, Siddhartha N; Mahanti, Achintya; Bandyopadhyay, Samiran; Sar, Tapas K; Dutta, Tapan K


    The study was undertaken to investigate the occurrence and to characterize the ESBL/beta-lactamase producing-Escherichia coli in healthy pigs of organized and backyard farms in West Bengal, India. Total 200 rectal swabs were collected randomly from healthy pigs maintained in four organized farms and 10 backyard farms (n=100 each) and 76 isolates were identified as E. coli from organized (48/100, 48%) and backyard pigs (28/100, 28%). Twelve E. coli isolates (6%) in the present study were detected to possess any of the ESBL/beta-lactamase genes studied. ESBL/beta-lactamase producers were isolated with significantly more frequency from backyard pigs than the organized farm pigs (p=0.026). Six of ESBL/beta-lactamase producing isolates were phenotypically confirmed as CTX-M producers and ten of them were confirmed as TEM/SHV producers. PCR and sequencing of the amplified product from representative isolates revealed the presence of blaCTX-M-9, blaSHV-12 and blaTEM-1. No unique combination of the studied beta lactamase genes for organized and backyard farm pig isolates was noted. The ESBL isolates belonged to O13, O55, O133, O153, O157, O158, O166, rough and OUT serogroups. The association of heat labile toxin (elt) (pIndia.

  2. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senard Jean-Michel


    Full Text Available Abstract Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DβH deficiency is a very rare form of primary autonomic failure characterized by a complete absence of noradrenaline and adrenaline in plasma together with increased dopamine plasma levels. The prevalence of DβH deficiency is unknown. Only a limited number of cases with this disease have been reported. DβH deficiency is mainly characterized by cardiovascular disorders and severe orthostatic hypotension. First symptoms often start during a complicated perinatal period with hypotension, muscle hypotonia, hypothermia and hypoglycemia. Children with DβH deficiency exhibit reduced ability to exercise because of blood pressure inadaptation with exertion and syncope. Symptoms usually worsen progressively during late adolescence and early adulthood with severe orthostatic hypotension, eyelid ptosis, nasal stuffiness and sexual disorders. Limitation in standing tolerance, limited ability to exercise and traumatic morbidity related to falls and syncope may represent later evolution. The syndrome is caused by heterogeneous molecular alterations of the DBH gene and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Restoration of plasma noradrenaline to the normal range can be achieved by therapy with the synthetic precursor of noradrenaline, L-threo-dihydroxyphenylserine (DOPS. Oral administration of 100 to 500 mg DOPS, twice or three times daily, increases blood pressure and reverses the orthostatic intolerance.

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of mutant and wild-type human. beta. -actin genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leavitt, J.; Gunning, P.; Porreca, P.; Ng, S.Y.; Lin, C.H.; Kedes, L.


    There are more than 20 ..beta..-actin-specific sequences in the human genome, many of which are pseudogenes. To facilitate the isolation of potentially functional ..beta..-actin genes, they used the new method of B. Seed for selecting genomic clones by homologous recombination. A derivative of the ..pi..VX miniplasmid, ..pi..AN7..beta..1, was constructed by insertion of the 600-base-pair 3' untranslated region of the ..beta..-actin mRNA expressed in human fibroblasts. Five clones containing ..beta..-actin sequences were selected from an amplified human fetal gene library by homologous recombination between library phage and the miniplasmid. One of these clones contained a complete ..beta..-actin gene with a coding sequence identical to that determined for the mRNA of human fibroblasts. A DNA fragment consisting of mostly intervening sequences from this gene was then use to identify 13 independent recombinant copies of the analogous gene from two specially constructed gene libraries, each containing one of the two types of mutant ..beta..-actin genes found in a line of neoplastic human fibroblasts. The amino acid and nucleotide sequences encoded by the unmutated gene predict that a guanine-to-adenine transition is responsible for the glycine-to-aspartic acid mutation at codon 244 and would also result in the loss of a HaeIII site. Detection of this HaeIII polymorphism among the fibroblast-derived closed verified the identity of the ..beta..-actin gene expressed in human fibroblasts.

  4. Energetic, Structural, and Antimicrobial Analyses of [beta]-Lactam Side Chain Recognition by [beta]-Lactamases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caselli, E.; Powers, R.A.; Blaszczak, L.C.; Wu, C.Y.E.; Prati, F.; Shoichet, B.K. (NWU)


    Penicillins and cephalosporins are among the most widely used and successful antibiotics. The emergence of resistance to these {beta}-lactams, most often through bacterial expression of {beta}-lactamases, threatens public health. To understand how {beta}-lactamases recognize their substrates, it would be helpful to know their binding energies. Unfortunately, these have been difficult to measure because {beta}-lactams form covalent adducts with {beta}-lactamases. This has complicated functional analyses and inhibitor design. To investigate the contribution to interaction energy of the key amide (R1) side chain of {beta}-lactam antibiotics, eight acylglycineboronic acids that bear the side chains of characteristic penicillins and cephalosporins, as well as four other analogs, were synthesized. These transition-state analogs form reversible adducts with serine {beta}-lactamases. Therefore, binding energies can be calculated directly from K{sub i} values. The K{sub i} values measured span four orders of magnitude against the Group I {beta}-lactamase AmpC and three orders of magnitude against the Group II {beta}-lactamase TEM-1. The acylglycineboronic acids have K{sub i} values as low as 20 nM against AmpC and as low as 390 nM against TEM-1. The inhibitors showed little activity against serine proteases, such as chymotrypsin. R1 side chains characteristic of {beta}-lactam inhibitors did not have better affinity for AmpC than did side chains characteristic of {beta}-lactam substrates. Two of the inhibitors reversed the resistance of pathogenic bacteria to {beta}-lactams in cell culture. Structures of two inhibitors in their complexes with AmpC were determined by X-ray crystallography to 1.90 {angstrom} and 1.75 {angstrom} resolution; these structures suggest interactions that are important to the affinity of the inhibitors. Acylglycineboronic acids allow us to begin to dissect interaction energies between {beta}-lactam side chains and {beta}-lactamases. Surprisingly

  5. Non-Beta-Lactamase-Producing Penicillin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium in a Clinical Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Eymard


    Full Text Available Six clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium highly resistant to penicillin are reported. These strains did not produce beta-lactamase and no plasmid DNA could be detected. It is postulated that the mechanism of resistance is one or more chromosomally mediated alterations of penicillin-binding proteins.

  6. Rat beta(3)-adrenoceptor protein expression : antibody validation and distribution in rat gastrointestinal and urogenital tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cernecka, Hana; Pradidarcheep, Wisuit; Lamers, Wouter H.; Schmidt, Martina; Michel, Martin C.


    beta(3)-Adrenoceptors play important roles in the regulation of urogenital and probably gastrointestinal function. However, despite recent progress, their detection at the protein level has remained difficult due to a lack of sufficiently validated selective antibodies. Therefore, we have explored t

  7. Immunoanalogue of vertebrate beta-adrenergic receptor in the unicellular eukaryote Paramecium. (United States)

    Wiejak, Jolanta; Surmacz, Liliana; Wyroba, Elzbieta


    Cell fractionation, SDS-PAGE, quantitative Western blot, confocal immunolocalization and immunogold labelling were performed to find an interpretation of the physiological response of the unicellular eukaryote Paramecium to beta-adrenergic ligands. The 69 kDa polypeptide separated by SDS-PAGE in S2 and P2 Paramecium subcellular fractions cross-reacted with antibody directed against human beta2-adrenergic receptor. This was detected by Western blotting followed by chemiluminescent detection. Quantitative image analysis showed that beta-selective adrenergic agonist (-)-isoproterenol--previously shown to enhance phagocytic activity--evoked redistribution of the adrenergic receptor analogue from membraneous (P2) to cytosolic (S2) fraction. The relative increase in immunoreactive band intensity in S2 reached 80% and was paralleled by a 59% decrease in P2 fraction. Confocal immunofluorescence revealed beta2-adrenergic receptor sites on the cell surface and at the ridge of the cytopharynx--where nascent phagosomes are formed. This localization was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy. These results indicate that the 69 kDa Paramecium polypeptide immunorelated to vertebrate beta2-adrenergic receptor appeared in this evolutionary ancient cell as a nutrient receptor.

  8. Systematic Risk on Istanbul Stock Exchange: Traditional Beta Coefficient Versus Downside Beta Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülfen TUNA


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to test the validity of Downside Capital Asset Pricing Model (D-CAPM on the ISE. At the same time, the explanatory power of CAPM's traditional beta and D-CAPM's downside beta on the changes in the average return values are examined comparatively. In this context, the monthly data for seventy three stocks that are continuously traded on the ISE for the period 1991-2009 is used. Regression analysis is applied in this study. The research results have shown that D-CAPM is valid on the ISE. In addition, it is obtained that the power of downside beta coefficient is higher than traditional beta coefficient on explaining the return changes. Therefore, it can be said that the downside beta is superior to traditional beta in the ISE for chosen period.

  9. Synthesis of mesoporous Beta and Sn-Beta zeolites and their catalytic performances. (United States)

    Jin, Junjiang; Ye, Xinxin; Li, Yongsheng; Wang, Yanqin; Li, Liang; Gu, Jinlou; Zhao, Wenru; Shi, Jianlin


    Mesoporous Beta zeolite has been successfully prepared through hydrothermal synthesis in the presence of cationic ammonium-modified chitosan as the meso-template. Through a subsequent solid-gas reaction between highly dealuminated mesoporous Beta zeolite and SnCl4 steam at an elevated temperature, mesoporous Sn-Beta has been facilely obtained. It was revealed that the addition of cationic chitosan induced the nanocrystal aggregation to particle sizes of ∼300 nm, giving rise to the intercrystalline/interparticle mesoporosity. In the Sn-implanting procedure, Sn species were demonstrated to be doped into the framework of the resulting mesoporous Beta zeolite in a tetrahedral environment without structural collapse. Due to the micro/mesoporous structures, both mesoporous Beta and Sn-Beta exhibited superior performances in α-pinene isomerization, Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of 2-adamantanone by hydrogen peroxide and the isomerization of glucose in water, respectively.

  10. Expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) receptors and expression of TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K; Spang-Thomsen, M;


    A panel of 21 small cell lung cancer cell (SCLC) lines were examined for the presence of Transforming growth factor beta receptors (TGF beta-r) and the expression of TGF beta mRNAs. By the radioreceptor assay we found high affinity receptors to be expressed in six cell lines. scatchard analysis...... of the binding data demonstrated that the cells bound between 4.5 and 27.5 fmol mg-1 protein with a KD ranging from 16 to 40 pM. TGF beta 1 binding to the receptors was confirmed by cross-linking TGF beta 1 to the TGF beta-r. Three classes of TGF beta-r were demonstrated, type I and type II receptors with M......(r) = 65,000 and 90,000 and the betaglycan (type III) with M(r) = 280,000. Northern blotting showed expression of TGF beta 1 mRNA in ten, TGF beta 2 mRNA in two and TGF beta 3 mRNA in seven cell lines. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence that a large proportion of a broad panel of SCLC cell...

  11. Assignment of the Raman lines in single crystal barium metaborate (beta-BaB sub 2 O sub 4)

    CERN Document Server

    Ney, P; Maillard, A; Polgar, K


    A Raman-scattering study performed on beta-BaB sub 2 O sub 4 (beta-BBO) at room temperature allows us to assign all the vibrational modes detected in the Raman spectra. The internal and external vibration modes are properly obtained by taking account of the light polarization, mode contamination and isotope effects. A correspondence between the lattice and the free-ring modes is also presented. (author)

  12. Field transportable beta spectrometer. Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The objective of the Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) Chicago Pile-5 Test Reactor (CP-5). The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that by using innovative and improved deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources, significant benefits can be achieved when compared to baseline D and D technologies. One such capability being addressed by the D and D Focus Area is rapid characterization for facility contaminants. The technology was field demonstrated during the period January 7 through January 9, 1997, and offers several potential benefits, including faster turn-around time, cost reduction, and reduction in secondary waste. This report describes a PC controlled, field-transportable beta counter-spectrometer which uses solid scintillation coincident counting and low-noise photomultiplier tubes to count element-selective filters and other solid media. The dry scintillation counter used in combination with an element-selective technology eliminates the mess and disposal costs of liquid scintillation cocktails. Software in the instrument provides real-time spectral analysis. The instrument can detect and measure Tc-99, Sr-90, and other beta emitters reaching detection limits in the 20 pCi range (with shielding). Full analysis can be achieved in 30 minutes. The potential advantages of a field-portable beta counter-spectrometer include the savings gained from field generated results. The basis for decision-making is provided with a rapid turnaround analysis in the field. This technology would be competitive with the radiometric analysis done in fixed laboratories and the associated chain of custody operations.

  13. Beta-2 Microglobulin Kidney Disease Test (United States)

    ... Beta 2 Microglobulin, Serum or Urine Related tests: Albumin , Creatinine , BUN , Heavy Metals Were you looking for ... monitor persons with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) Excess B2M can accumulate in joint spaces ( synovitis ) in ...

  14. Probing neutrinoless double beta decay with SNO+

    CERN Document Server

    Arushanova, Evelina


    Probing neutrinoless double beta decay is one of the primary goals for SNO+, SNOLAB's multi-purpose neutrino detector. In order to achieve this goal the SNO detector has been adapted so that it can be filled with Te-loaded liquid scintillator. During the initial double beta phase the target loading is 0.3% natural Te, which equates to $\\sim790$ kg of double beta isotope. Estimating the sensitivity to neutrinoless double beta decay requires a well understood background model. For SNO+ this is provided by a comprehensive study considering all possible background contributions, whether they originate from within the liquid scintillator cocktail, the surrounding parts of the detector or other irreducible backgrounds. Given these considerations, for five years running in the initial phase, the expected sensitivity is $T_{1/2}^{0\

  15. Neutrino potential for neutrinoless double beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Iwata, Yoritaka


    Neutrino potential for neutrinoless double beta decay is studied with focusing on its statistical property. The statistics provide a gross view of understanding amplitude of constitutional components of the nuclear matrix element.

  16. Beta cell proliferation and growth factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis; Svensson, C; Møldrup, Annette


    Formation of new beta cells can take place by two pathways: replication of already differentiated beta cells or neogenesis from putative islet stem cells. Under physiological conditions both processes are most pronounced during the fetal and neonatal development of the pancreas. In adulthood little...... increase in the beta cell number seems to occur. In pregnancy, however, a marked hyperplasia of the beta cells is observed both in rodents and man. Increased mitotic activity has been seen both in vivo and in vitro in islets exposed to placental lactogen (PL), prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH......). Receptors for both GH and PRL are expressed in islet cells and are upregulated during pregnancy. By mutational analysis we have identified different functional domains of the cytoplasmic part of the GH receptor. Thus the mitotic signaling only requires the membrane proximal part of the receptor...

  17. Phenomenology of neutrinoless double beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Cadenas, J J


    This paper reviews the current status and future outlook of neutrinoless double beta decay searches, which try to provide an answer to the fundamental question of whether neutrinos are Dirac or Majorana particles.

  18. Literature in Focus Beta Beams: Neutrino Beams

    CERN Multimedia


    By Mats Lindroos (CERN) and Mauro Mezzetto (INFN Padova, Italy) Imperial Press, 2009 The beta-beam concept for the generation of electron neutrino beams was first proposed by Piero Zucchelli in 2002. The idea created quite a stir, challenging the idea that intense neutrino beams only could be produced from the decay of pions or muons in classical neutrino beams facilities or in future neutrino factories. The concept initially struggled to make an impact but the hard work by many machine physicists, phenomenologists and theoreticians over the last five years has won the beta-beam a well-earned position as one of the frontrunners for a possible future world laboratory for high intensity neutrino oscillation physics. This is the first complete monograph on the beta-beam concept. The book describes both technical aspects and experimental aspects of the beta-beam, providing students and scientists with an insight into the possibilities o...

  19. [Beta 3 adrenergic receptor polymorphism and obesity]. (United States)

    Yoshida, T; Umekawa, T


    The beta 3-adrenoceptor plays a significant role in the control of lipolysis and thermogenesis in the brown adipose tissue of rodents and humans. In human beta 3-adrenoceptor, a Trp to Arg replacement has recently been discovered. This change which occurs at position 64, in the first coding exon, has been correlated with increased weight gain, difficulty in losing weight, insulin resistance syndrome, and worsened diabetic situation. Higher percentages of this mutation are observed in Pima Indians (over 30%) and Japanese (20%). The possible functional mechanism of Trp54Arg is reported using human HEK293 cell line stably expressing the wild type and the [Arg64] beta 3-adrenoceptor type. Beta 3-adrenoceptor agonists available for humans are been also developing. In this paper we describe these points up-to-date.

  20. [Allergy to beta-lactam antibiotics]. (United States)

    Comte, D; Petitpierre, S; Spertini, F; Bart, P-A


    Beta-lactam antibiotics allergies are common. Up to 10% of the population describe a former allergy to penicillins. However only 10 to 15% of these individuals are actually allergic. In most cases, beta-lactam antibiotics will be avoided and replaced by other antibiotics such as quinolones. This fear of a serious allergic reaction has an economic impact and may lead to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. A thorough allergic work-up can accurately determine true allergic patients. Most of the patients with a proven allergy will be able to tolerate other antibiotics belonging to the beta-lactam family. This article focuses on the management of beta-lactam allergic patients.

  1. Metabolic response to various beta-adrenoceptor agonists in beta3-adrenoceptor knockout mice: evidence for a new beta-adrenergic receptor in brown adipose tissue. (United States)

    Preitner, F; Muzzin, P; Revelli, J P; Seydoux, J; Galitzky, J; Berlan, M; Lafontan, M; Giacobino, J P


    The beta3-adrenoceptor plays an important role in the adrenergic response of brown and white adipose tissues (BAT and WAT). In this study, in vitro metabolic responses to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation were compared in adipose tissues of beta3-adrenoceptor knockout and wild type mice. The measured parameters were BAT fragment oxygen uptake (MO2) and isolated white adipocyte lipolysis. In BAT of wild type mice (-)-norepinephrine maximally stimulated MO2 4.1+/-0.8 fold. Similar maximal stimulations were obtained with beta1-, beta2- or beta3-adrenoceptor selective agonists (dobutamine 5.1+/-0.3, terbutaline 5.3+/-0.3 and CL 316,243 4.8+/-0.9 fold, respectively); in BAT of beta3-adrenoceptor knockout mice, the beta1- and beta2-responses were fully conserved. In BAT of wild type mice, the beta1/beta2-antagonist and beta3-partial agonist CGP 12177 elicited a maximal MO2 response (4.7+/-0.4 fold). In beta3-adrenoceptor knockout BAT, this response was fully conserved despite an absence of response to CL 316,243. This unexpected result suggests that an atypical beta-adrenoceptor, distinct from the beta1-, beta2- and beta3-subtypes and referred to as a putative beta4-adrenoceptor is present in BAT and that it can mediate in vitro a maximal MO2 stimulation. In isolated white adipocytes of wild type mice, (-)-epinephrine maximally stimulated lipolysis 12.1+/-2.6 fold. Similar maximal stimulations were obtained with beta1-, beta2- or beta3-adrenoceptor selective agonists (TO509 12+/-2, procaterol 11+/-3, CL 316,243 11+/-3 fold, respectively) or with CGP 12177 (7.1+/-1.5 fold). In isolated white adipocytes of beta3-adrenoceptor knockout mice, the lipolytic responses to (-)epinephrine, to the beta1-, beta2-, beta3-adrenoceptor selective agonists and to CGP 12177 were almost or totally depressed, whereas those to ACTH, forskolin and dibutyryl cyclic AMP were conserved.

  2. Protein kinase CK2: evidence for a protein kinase CK2beta subunit fraction, devoid of the catalytic CK2alpha subunit, in mouse brain and testicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, B; Siemer, S; Boldyreff, B;


    The highest CK2 activity was found in mouse testicles and brain, followed by spleen, liver, lung, kidney and heart. The activity values were directly correlated with the protein expression level of the CK2 subunits alpha (catalytic) and beta (regulatory). The alpha' subunit was only detected...... found for testicles and brain. The amount of CK2beta protein in brain in comparison to the other organs (except testicles) was estimated to be ca. 2-3-fold higher whereas the ratio of CK2beta between testicles and brain was estimated to be 3-4-fold. Results from the immunoprecipitation experiments...... support the notion for the existence of free CK2beta population and/or CK2beta in complex with other protein(s) present in brain and testicles. In all other mouse organs investigated, i.e. heart, lung, liver, kidney and spleen, no comparable amount of free CK2beta was observed. This is the first...

  3. Isotope Effects in the Bonds of beta-CrOOH and beta-CrOOD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørlund Christensen, A.; Hansen, P.; Lehmann, M. S.


    Samples of orthorhombic chromium oxide hydroxide, beta -CrOOH, and the deuterated compound, beta -CrOOD, were prepared hydrothermally. The crystal structures were determined by powder profile refinement technique using neutron diffraction data. Unit cells are: beta -CrOOH: a equals 4. 862(2) A, b...... equals 4. 298(a) A, c equals 2. 995(1) A; beta -CrOOD: a equals 4. 873(5) A, b equals 4. 332(7) A, c equals 2. 963(2) A, with Z equals 2. The space group is P2//1nm or Pnnm....

  4. AE activity during transient beta drops in high poloidal beta discharges (United States)

    Huang, J.; Gong, X. Z.; Ren, Q. L.; Ding, S. Y.; Qian, J. P.; Pan, C. K.; Li, G. Q.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Garofalo, A. M.; McClenaghan, J.


    Enhanced AE activity has been observed during transient beta drops in high poloidal beta DIII-D discharges with internal transport barriers (ITBs). These drops in beta are believed to be caused by n=1 external kink modes. In some discharges, beta recovers within 200 ms but, in others, beta stays suppressed. A typical discharge has βP 3, qmin 3, and q95 12. The drop in beta affects both fast ions and thermal particles, and a drop is also observed in the density and rotation. The enhanced AE activity follows the instability that causes the beta drop, is largest at the lowest beta, and subsides as beta recovers. MHD stability analysis is planned. A database study of the plasma conditions associated with the collapse will be also presented. Supported in part by the US Department of Energy under DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-AC05-06OR23100, and by the National Natural Science Foundation of China 11575249, and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Program of China No. 2015GB110005.

  5. Beta adrenergic receptors in human cavernous tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhabuwala, C.B.; Ramakrishna, C.V.; Anderson, G.F.


    Beta adrenergic receptor binding was performed with /sup 125/I iodocyanopindolol on human cavernous tissue membrane fractions from normal tissue and transsexual procedures obtained postoperatively, as well as from postmortem sources. Isotherm binding studies on normal fresh tissues indicated that the receptor density was 9.1 fmoles/mg. with a KD of 23 pM. Tissue stored at room temperature for 4 to 6 hours, then at 4C in saline solution for 19 to 20 hours before freezing showed no significant changes in receptor density or affinity, and provided evidence for the stability of postmortem tissue obtained within the same time period. Beta receptor density of 2 cavernous preparations from transsexual procedures was not significantly different from normal control tissues, and showed that high concentrations of estrogen received by these patients had no effect on beta adrenergic receptor density. Displacement of /sup 125/iodocyanopindolol by 5 beta adrenergic agents demonstrated that 1-propranolol had the greatest affinity followed by ICI 118,551, zinterol, metoprolol and practolol. When the results of these displacement studies were subjected to Scatfit, non- linear regression line analysis, a single binding site was described. Based on the relative potency of the selective beta adrenergic agents it appears that these receptors were of the beta 2 subtype.

  6. Estimating Security Betas Using Prior Information Based on Firm Fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cosemans, Mathijs; Frehen, Rik; Schotman, Peter; Bauer, Rob


    We propose a hybrid approach for estimating beta that shrinks rolling window estimates toward firm-specific priors motivated by economic theory. Our method yields superior forecasts of beta that have important practical implications. First, unlike standard rolling window betas, hybrid betas carry a

  7. beta(2)-Glycoprotein I : evolution, structure and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, P. G.; Meijers, J. C. M.


    beta(2)-Glycoprotein I (beta(2)-GPI) is a protein that circulates in blood at high concentrations. The function of beta(2)-GPI has long been an enigma. More than 20 years ago, it was discovered that beta(2)-GPI is the major antigen for the circulating antibodies in the antiphospholipid syndrome. How

  8. News on $\\beta$-delayed particle emission from $^{14}$Be

    CERN Document Server

    Jeppesen, H; Borge, M J G; Cederkäll, J; Fynbo, H O U; Fedoseyev, V N; Hansper, V Y; Jonson, B; Markenroth, K; Mishin, V I; Nilsson, T; Nyman, G; Riisager, K; Tengblad, O; Wilhelmsen Rolander, K


    $\\beta$-delayed charged particles from $^{14}$Be have been measured and give an upper limit on $\\beta$-delayed $\\alpha$-particles of B($\\beta\\alpha$) < $\\,6.7\\times\\!10^{-5}$ and a tentative branching ratio on $\\beta$-delayed tritons of $7.5\\times\\!10^{-5}$ < B($\\beta$t) < $\\,3.9\\times\\!10^{-4}$. We combine the knowledge on $\\beta$-delayed particles from $^{14}$Be to deduce information on the $\\beta$-strength distribution.

  9. Continuous and Jump Betas: Implications for Portfolio Diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitali Alexeev


    Full Text Available Using high-frequency data, we decompose the time-varying beta for stocks into beta for continuous systematic risk and beta for discontinuous systematic risk. Estimated discontinuous betas for S&P500 constituents between 2003 and 2011 generally exceed the corresponding continuous betas. We demonstrate how continuous and discontinuous betas decrease with portfolio diversification. Using an equiweighted broad market index, we assess the speed of convergence of continuous and discontinuous betas in portfolios of stocks as the number of holdings increase. We show that discontinuous risk dissipates faster with fewer stocks in a portfolio compared to its continuous counterpart.

  10. Defect reactions of implanted Li in ZnSe observed by $\\beta$-NMR

    CERN Document Server

    Kroll, F; Füllgrabe, M; Mai, F; Marbach, K; Peters, D; Geithner, W; Kappertz, S; Keim, M; Kloos, S; Wilbert, S; Neugart, R; Lievens, P; Georg, U


    Using $\\beta$-radiation-detected nuclear magnetic resonance ($\\beta$-NMR), we investigated the microscopic behavior of implanted $^{8}$Li in nominally undoped ZnSe crystals. From the temperature-dependent amplitudes of high-resolution NMR spectra we conclude a gradual interstitial-to-substitutional site change between 200 and 350 K. This is in accordance with earlier emission channeling results. We argue that this conversion proceeds via Li$_{i}^+$ + V$_{\\textrm{Zn}}^{2-}$ to ${\\textrm{Li}}_{\\textrm{Zn}}^{-}$ and involves implantation-related Zn vacancies. (13 refs).

  11. Utilization of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for diagnosis of {beta}-thalassemia and ascertainment of new mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo, K.Y.; Liu, D.; Lee, J. [Univ. of California, San Diego (United States)] [and others


    During the past two years we have tested 2,300 Southeast Asians for alpha- and beta-thaleassemia mutations. We found the incidence of hemoglobin E ({beta}{sup 26}) to be 47% among Laotians and 38% among Cambodians. The incidence of beta thalassemia trait is 9% for Laotians and 6% for Cambodians. Thus, the risk for hemoglobin E/{beta}{sup 26} thalassemia, a transfusion-dependent disorder, is increased in these two population groups. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) has proven to be useful in testing for beta-thalassemia carriers and identifying new mutations in the beta globin gene. DNA was extracted from venous blood obtained from patients with elevated Hgb A2 (>4%). Five DNA fragments, encompassing the beta globin gene cluster, were amplified by PCR and analyzed, along with known beta gene mutations as controls, by DGGE using different denaturing gradient concentrations. Different mutations at the same nucleotide position can be distinguished by migration pattern on the DGGE (e.g., in IVS-I-1, G{r_arrow}A and T). Compound heterozygotes for {beta}-thalassemia can be detected on the same gel (e.g., HbE/mutation codon 17). New mutations are identified by their migration pattern compared with controls and determined by subsequent sequencing. We have identified three new mutations: codon 82 CAA{r_arrow}AAA in one Cambodian patient; IVS-II-667, T{r_arrow}C and IVS-II-672, A{r_arrow}C in two Laotian patients. When the parent`s genotypes are known, prenatal diagnosis can be obtained within 24 hours. Thus, PCR/DGGE combination is a rapid and reliable diagnostic approach to clinically significant {beta}-thalassemia. The most important steps are carefully designed primers and predetermined gradient concentrations for DGGE.

  12. DMPD: Immunoreceptor-like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17913496 Immunoreceptor-like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. Jakus Z, Fod...or S, Abram CL, Lowell CA, Mocsai A. Trends Cell Biol. 2007 Oct;17(10):493-501. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Immunore...ceptor-like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. PubmedID 17913496 Title Immunoreceptor-

  13. Des-Lys58-beta 2m and native beta 2m in rheumatoid arthritis serum and synovial fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, R C; Malone, C C; Nissen, Mogens Holst;


    OBJECTIVE. Levels of beta 2-microglobulin and modified beta 2-microglobulin (Des-Lys58-beta 2m) were measured in serum and synovial fluids from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other inflammatory joint disorders using rabbit antisera prepared against the beta 2m peptide VEHSDLSFS...

  14. Characterization of beta-R1, a gene that is selectively induced by interferon beta (IFN-beta) compared with IFN-alpha. (United States)

    Rani, M R; Foster, G R; Leung, S; Leaman, D; Stark, G R; Ransohoff, R M


    We report preliminary characterization of a gene designated beta-R1, which is selectively expressed in response to interferon beta (IFN-beta) compared with IFN-alpha. In human astrocytoma cells, beta-R1 was induced to an equivalent extent by 10 IU/mL IFN-beta or 2500 IU/mL IFN-alpha2. To address the mechanism of this differential response, we analyzed induction of the beta-R1 gene in fibrosarcoma cells and derivative mutant cells lacking components required for signaling by type I IFNs. beta-R1 was readily induced by IFN-beta in the parental 2fTGH cell line, but not by recombinant IFN-alpha2, IFN-alpha Con1, or a mixture of IFN-alpha subtypes. IFN-alpha8 induced beta-R1 weakly. beta-R1 was not induced by IFN-beta in mutant cell lines U2A, U3A, U4A, and U6A, which lack, respectively, p48, STAT1, JAK1, and STAT2. U5A cells, which lack the Ifnar 2.2 component of the IFN-alpha and -beta receptor, also failed to express beta-R1. U1A cells are partially responsive to IFN-beta and IFN-alpha8 but lacked beta-R1 expression, indicating that TYK2 protein is essential for induction of this gene. Taken together, these results suggest that the expression of beta-R1 in response to type I IFN requires IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 plus an additional component, which is more efficiently formed on induction by IFN-beta compared with IFN-alpha.

  15. Amyloid Beta as a Modulator of Synaptic Plasticity


    Parihar, Mordhwaj S.; Gregory J. Brewer


    Alzheimer’s disease is associated with synapse loss, memory dysfunction and pathological accumulation of amyloid beta in plaques. However, an exclusively pathological role for amyloid beta is being challenged by new evidence for an essential function of amyloid beta at the synapse. Amyloid beta protein exists in different assembly states in the central nervous system and plays distinct roles ranging from synapse and memory formation to memory loss and neuronal cell death. Amyloid beta is pres...

  16. A proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-32beta promotes the production of an anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10. (United States)

    Kang, Jeong-Woo; Choi, Seung-Chul; Cho, Min-Chul; Kim, Hee-Jong; Kim, Jae-Hwa; Lim, Jong-Seok; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Han, Jae-Yong; Yoon, Do-Young


    A new proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-32 (IL-32) has six isoforms. Although IL-32 can be detected in sera from patients suffering from Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis, it is unclear which isoforms are involved. To this end, we investigated the functions of the most abundant IL-32beta by generating K562-IL-32beta stable cell lines. This report confirms, using IL-32 small interfering RNA, that IL-32beta induces an anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in K562-IL-32beta cells and U937 promonocytic cells, which express endogenous IL-32beta upon phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) treatment, and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. Interleukin-32beta was induced in monocyte-derived macrophages by LPS and in monocyte-derived DC by LPS, poly(I:C), or anti-CD40 antibody, but was not induced by PMA. We showed that IL-32beta expression was increased in a time-dependent manner in monocyte-derived DC upon LPS treatment and peaked at 24 hr. Production of IL-10 was exactly coincident with IL-32beta expression, but IL-1beta and tumour necrosis factor-alpha production peaked at 6 hr after LPS treatment, then steeply declined. Interleukin-12 p40 was induced at 9 hr and gradually increased until 48 hr, at which time IL-32beta and IL-10 were no longer increased. Knock-down of IL-32beta by IL-32 small interfering RNA led to the decrease of IL-10, but the increase of IL-12 in monocyte-derived DC, which means that IL-32beta promotes IL-10 production, but limits IL-12 production. We also showed that IL-10 neutralization increases IL-12, IL-1beta and tumour necrosis factor-alpha production, which implies that IL-10 suppresses such proinflammatory cytokines. Taken together, our results suggest that IL-32beta upregulates the production of an anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, and then IL-10 suppresses proinflammatory cytokines.

  17. Beta-adrenoceptors in obstetrics and gynecology. (United States)

    Modzelewska, Beata


    One hundred and twenty years after the description of extracts from the adrenal medulla, the use of beta-blockers and beta-agonists evolved from antianginal drugs and tocolytics to ligand-directed signaling. Beta-blockers in the fields of obstetrics and gynecology have so far been limited to the consideration of continuing treatment of disorders of the cardiovascular system and other dysfunctions that started before pregnancy. Studies in recent years have shown that beta-adrenoceptor signaling might be crucial in carcinogenesis and metastasis, apoptosis and anoikis. On the other hand, the use of beta-adrenoceptor agonists in tocolysis is, as yet, the primary method for inhibiting premature uterine contractions. Unfortunately, the efficacy of current pharmacological treatment for the management of preterm labor is regularly questioned. Moreover, studies related to non-pregnant myometrium performed to date indicate that the rhythmic contractions of the uterus are required for menstruation and have an important role in human reproduction. In turn, abnormal uterine contractility has been linked to dysmenorrhea, a condition associated with painful uterine cramping. The benefits of the use of beta2-adrenoceptor agonists in dysmenorrhea are still unclear and should be balanced against a wide range of adverse effects recognized with this class of medication. The ideal tocolytic agent is one which is effective for the pregnant or non-pregnant woman but has no side effects on either the woman or the baby. Looking to the future with both caution and hope, the potential metamorphosis of beta3-adrenoceptor agonists from experimental tools into therapeutic drugs for tocolysis warrants attention.

  18. Beta Gyres in Global Analysis Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A three-component decomposition is applied to global analysis data to show the existence of a beta gyre,which causes Tropical Cyclone (TC) to drift from a large-scale environmental steering current.Analyses from the Global Data Assimilation and Prediction System (GDAPS) of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA),the Global Forecast System (GFS) of NCEP,and the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS) are used in this study.The structure of the beta gyre obtained in our analyses is in good agreement with the theoretical structure,with a cyclonic circulation to the southwest of the TC center,an anticyclonic circulation to the northeast,and a ventilation flow directed northwestward near the center.The circulation of the beta gyre is strongest at the 850-hPa level where the cyclonically swirling primary circulation is strongest,and decreases with height,in a pyramid shape similar to the primary circulation.The individual structure of the beta gyre is case- and model-dependent.At a certain analysis time,one model may clearly reveal a well-defined beta gyre,but the other models may not.Within one model,the beta gyre may be well defined at some analysis times,but not at other times.The structure of the beta gyre in the analysis field is determined by the nature of the vortex initialization scheme and the model behavior during the 6-h forecast in the operational data assimilation cycle.

  19. [Transforming growth factor-beta controls pathogenesis of Crohn disease]. (United States)

    Friess, H; di Mola, F F; Egger, B; Scheuren, A; Kleeff, J; Zimmermann, A; Büchler, M W


    The pathogenetic mechanisms which contribute to the progression of Crohn's disease are still not known. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and its subtypes are multifunctional polypeptides which regulate immunological processes as well as the synthesis of the extracellular matrix and fibrogenesis. In the present study, Crohn's disease tissue samples of 18 patients undergoing intestinal resection were analyzed by Northern blot analysis, in situ hybridization and immunostaining for TGF-beta 1-3 and the TGF-beta receptors type I-III (T beta R-I, T beta R-II, T beta R-III). There was a marked overexpression of TGF-beta 1, TGF-beta 3 and T beta R-II in 94% of the Crohn's disease tissue samples. TGF-beta 2 and T beta R-I ALK5 and T beta R-III were enhanced in 72%, 72% and 82% of the Crohn tissue samples, respectively. In situ hybridization and immunostaining revealed that there was frequent coexpression of TGF-beta with its signaling receptors. Our data indicate that TGF-beta and their receptors seem to be involved in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. Their enhanced expression might contribute to the increase in extracellular matrix resulting in fibrosis and subsequently in intestinal obstruction.

  20. Detrimental effects of beta-blockers in COPD - A concern for nonselective beta-blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, HJ; Zaagsma, J; Postma, DS; Winter, TH; van Hulst, M; Aalbers, R


    Introduction: beta-Blockers are known to worsen FEV1 and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in patients with asthma. Both characteristics determine the outcome of COPD, a disease with frequent cardiac comorbidity requiring beta-blocker treatment. Design: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized,

  1. A search for cosmogenic production of $\\beta$-neutron emitting radionuclides in water

    CERN Document Server

    Dazeley, S; Bergevin, M; Bernstein, A; Bowden, N S; Jaffke, P; Rountree, S D; Shokair, T M; Sweany, M


    Here we present the first results of WATCHBOY, a water Cherenkov detector designed to measure the yield of $\\beta$-neutron emitting radionuclides produced by cosmic ray muons in water. In addition to the $\\beta$-neutron measurement, we also provide a first look at isolating single-$\\beta$ producing radionuclides following showering muons as a check of the detection capabilities of WATCHBOY. The data taken over $207$ live days indicates a $^{9}$Li production yield upper limit of $1.9\\times10^{-7}\\mu^{-1}g^{-1}\\mathrm{cm}^2$ at $\\sim400$ meters water equivalent (m.w.e.) overburden at the $90\\%$ confidence level. In this work the $^{9}$Li signal in WATCHBOY was used as a proxy for the combined search for $^{9}$Li and $^{8}$He production. This result will provide a constraint on estimates of antineutrino-like backgrounds in future water-based antineutrino detectors.

  2. Chromobacterium spp. harbour Ambler class A beta-lactamases showing high identity with KPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudeta, Dereje Dadi; Bortolaia, Valeria; Jayol, Aurelie


    Objectives: The origin of KPC is unknown. The aim of this study was to detect progenitors of KPC in silico and to functionally verify their beta-lactam hydrolysis activity. Methods: The sequence of KPC-2 was used to mine the NCBI protein sequence database. The best non-KPC hits were analysed...... by amino acid (aa) alignment and phylogenetic tree construction. Genes encoding KPC-2 homologues were expressed in Escherichia coli. The carbapenemase activities of the recombinant strains were characterized by the CarbaNP test and UV spectrophotometry and MICs of selected beta-lactams were determined....... Results: Genes encoding the closest KPC-2 homologues were identified on the chromosome of Chromobacterium piscinae strain ND17 (CRP-1, 76% aa identity), Chromobacterium sp. C-61 (CRS-1, 70% aa identity) and Chromobacterium haemolyticum DSM19808 (CRH-1, 69% aa identity). All three Chromobacterium beta...

  3. Beta-Amyloid Deposition and Alzheimer's Type Changes Induced by Borrelia Spirochetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miklossy,J.; Kis, A.; Radenovic, A.; Miller, L.; Forro, L.; Martins, R.; Reiss, K.; Darbinian, N.; Darekar, P.; et al.


    The pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) consist of {beta}-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in affected brain areas. The processes, which drive this host reaction are unknown. To determine whether an analogous host reaction to that occurring in AD could be induced by infectious agents, we exposed mammalian glial and neuronal cells in vitro to Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes and to the inflammatory bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Morphological changes analogous to the amyloid deposits of AD brain were observed following 2-8 weeks of exposure to the spirochetes. Increased levels of {beta}-amyloid presursor protein (A{beta}PP) and hyperphosphorylated tau were also detected by Western blots of extracts of cultured cells that had been treated with spirochetes or LPS. These observations indicate that, by exposure to bacteria or to their toxic products, host responses similar in nature to those observed in AD may be induced.

  4. High-resolution study of the beta decay of {sup 41}Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honkanen, A. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Dendooven, P. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Huhta, M. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Lhersonneau, G. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Lipas, P.O. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Oinonen, M. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Parmonen, J.-M. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Penttilae, H. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Peraejaervi, K. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Siiskonen, T. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Aeystoe, J. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics


    An improved high-resolution study of the beta decay of {sup 41}Ti, produced in the {sup 40}Ca({sup 3}He,2n) reaction at 40 MeV, has been performed at the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL) facility. The beta-delayed radiation was detected by a low-energy charged-particle detector and a large Ge detector for gamma rays. The experimental beta-decay strength and its distribution, extracted from delayed-proton data, are compared with results of shell-model calculations in the sdfp space. The lowest J{sup {pi}}=3/2{sup +}, T=3/2 state in {sup 41}Sc, the isobaric analogue state of the {sup 41}Ti ground state, is estimated to contain 10% isospin impurity. (orig.).

  5. 2$\\pi$ proportional counting chamber for large-area-coated $\\beta$ sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Detection system for measuring absolute emission rate from large-area-coated $\\beta$ sources has been indigenously developed. The system consists of a multiwire-based proportional counter with gas flow and a source mounted within the sensitive volume of the detector. Design of the counter enables efficient counting of emissions in $2\\pi$ solid angle.A provision is made for change ofthe source and immediate measurement of source activity. These sources are used to calibrate the efficiency of contamination monitors at radiological facilities. Sensitive area of the detector covers 165◦ solid angle nearing $2\\pi$ of emission from the source of size $100 \\times 150$ mm. Performance of the chamber is tested using collimated $^{55}$Fe X-ray source and $^{90}$Sr / $^{90}$Y coated $\\beta$ sources of various activities. The activity measurement system is established as a national primary standard for calibration of coated $\\beta$ sources at Radiological Laboratory at BARC. Design and performanceof the chamber are presented.

  6. Beta-decay study of $T_z=-2$ proton-rich nucleus $^{20}$Mg

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, L J; Lin, C J; Wang, J S; Fang, D Q; Li, Z H; Wang, Y T; Li, J; Yang, L; Ma, N R; Wang, K; Zang, H L; Wang, H W; Li, C; Shi, C Z; Nie, M W; Li, X F; Li, H; Ma, J B; Ma, P; Jin, S L; Huang, M R; Bai, Z; Wang, J G; Yang, F; Jia, H M; Zhang, H Q; Liu, Z H; Bao, P F; Wang, D X; Ma, Y G; Yang, Y Y; Zhou, Y J; Ma, W H; Chen, J


    The $\\beta$ decay of the drip-line nucleus $^{20}$Mg gives important information on resonances in $^{20}$Na, which are relevant for the astrophysical $rp$-process. A detailed $\\beta$ decay spectroscopic study of $^{20}$Mg was performed by a continuous-implantation method. A detection system was specially developed for charged-particle decay studies, giving improved spectroscopic information including the half-life of $^{20}$Mg, the excitation energies, the branching ratios, and the log $ft$ values for the states in $^{20}$Na populated in the $\\beta$ decay of $^{20}$Mg. A new proton branch was observed and the corresponding excited state in $^{20}$Na was proposed. The large isospin asymmetry for the mirror decays of $^{20}$Mg and $^{20}$O was reproduced, as well. However, no conclusive conclusion can be draw about the astrophysically interesting 2645~keV resonance in $^{20}$Na due to the limited statistics.

  7. Molecular mass distribution and epitopes of the beta lactoglobulin submitted to hydrolysis pre-transglutaminase treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villas-Boas, M.B.; Zollner, R.L.; Netto, F.M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Paes Leme, A.F. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Benede, S.; Molina, E. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)


    modified {beta}-Lg were not detected by LC-MS/MS, suggesting that structural change occurred in the protein after hydrolysis and polymerization and also resulted in low amount of fragments that could promote antigenic response. (author)

  8. Group B streptococcal beta-hemolysin/cytolysin directly impairs cardiomyocyte viability and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E Hensler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS is a leading cause of neonatal sepsis where myocardial dysfunction is an important contributor to poor outcome. Here we study the effects of the GBS pore-forming beta-hemolysin/cytolysin (Bh/c exotoxin on cardiomyocyte viability, contractility, and calcium transients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HL-1 cardiomyocytes exposed to intact wild-type (WT or isogenic Deltabeta h/c mutant GBS, or to cell-free extracts from either strain, were assessed for viability by trypan blue exclusion and for apoptosis by TUNEL staining. Functionality of exposed cardiomyocytes was analyzed by visual quantitation of the rate and extent of contractility. Mitochondrial membrane polarization was measured in TMRE-loaded cells exposed to GBS beta h/c. Effects of GBS beta h/c on calcium transients were studied in fura-2AM-loaded primary rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. Exposure of HL-1 cardiomyocytes to either WT GBS or beta h/c extracts significantly reduced both rate and extent of contractility and later induced necrotic and apoptotic cell death. No effects on cardiomyocyte viability or function were observed after treatment with Deltabeta h/c mutant bacteria or extracts. The beta h/c toxin was associated with complete and rapid loss of detectable calcium transients in primary neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes and induced a loss of mitochondrial membrane polarization. These effects on viability and function were abrogated by the beta h/c inhibitor, dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data show a rapid loss of cardiomyocyte viability and function induced by GBS beta h/c, and these deleterious effects are inhibited by DPPC, a normal constituent of human pulmonary surfactant.. These findings have clinical implications for the cardiac dysfunction observed in neonatal GBS infections.

  9. Separation of plasma carotenoids and quantitation of beta-carotene using HPLC. (United States)

    Gatautis, V J; Pearson, K H


    A method was developed for the extraction and separation of human plasma carotenoids and quantitation of beta-carotene. Carotenoids were extracted from plasma with ethanol: hexane and separated by C18 reversed phase HPLC using spherical 3 micron packing. beta-Carotene was identified and quantitated using an external standard. The within-run precision of three different plasma pools ranged from 3.53-5.72% relative standard deviation (RSD). The between-run precision was 7.34% RSD. The method was linear to 500 micrograms/l with a statistical detection limit of 3.80 micrograms/l. Recovery of added beta-carotene was from 90.41-100.37%. This method was compared to a spectrophotometric 'total carotene' method. The mean plasma concentrations of 25 male and 25 female human volunteers for the 'total carotene' were 1,549 micrograms/l for all samples, 1,487 micrograms/l for males and 1,611 micrograms/l for females. The corresponding true beta-carotene concentrations obtained by HPLC analysis were 134.8, 115.9 and 153.7 micrograms/l, respectively. The true beta-carotene concentrations were on the average only 8.76% (8.07% for males and 9.46% for females) of the concentrations obtained by the spectrophotometric 'total carotene' method. Correlation between the methods had an r = 0.6107. The poor correlation is due to the difference in the measured components. Total carotene methods measure all solvent extractable moieties having absorbance in the 430-460 nm region, while the HPLC method quantitates true beta-carotene after chromatographic separation from other carotenoids. Reference intervals were established for plasma beta-carotene using REFVAL, an IFCC computer program for determining statistical reference intervals. The reference interval for all samples is 40 to 344 micrograms/l.

  10. Andrographolide inhibits NF-kappaBeta activation and attenuates neointimal hyperplasia in arterial restenosis. (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Jiu; Wang, Jin-Tao; Fan, Quan-Xin; Geng, Jian-Guo


    The NF-kappaBeta transcription factors modulate the expression of tissue factor (TF), E-selectin (CD62E) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), which are essential for thrombosis and inflammation. We have previously shown that andrographolide (Andro) covalently modifies the reduced cysteine(62) of p50 - a major subunit of NF-kappaBeta transcription factors, thus blocking the binding of NF-kappaBeta transcription factors to the promoters of their target genes, preventing NF-kappaBeta activation and inhibiting inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Here we report that Andro, but not its inactive structural analog 4H-Andro, significantly suppressed the proliferation of arterial neointima ( approximately 60% reduction) in a murine model of arterial restenosis. Consistently, p50(-/-) mice manifested attenuated neointimal hyperplasia upon arterial ligation. Notably, the same dosage of Andro did not further reduce neointimal formation in p50(-/-) mice, which implicates the specificity of Andro on p50 for treating experimental arterial restenosis. The upregulation of NF-kappaBeta target genes, including TF, E-selectin and VCAM-1, and the increased deposition of leukocytes (mainly CD68+ macrophages) were clearly detected within the injured arterial walls, all of which were significantly abolished by treatment with Andro or genetic deletion of p50. The expression of TF, E-selectin and VCAM-1 was also markedly upregulated in the patient sample of thrombotic vasculitis, indicating the clinical relevance of NF-kappaBeta activation in the pathogeneses of occlusive arterial diseases. Our data thus indicate that, by the downregulation of the NF-kappaBeta target genes that are critical in thrombosis and inflammation, specific inhibitors of p50, such as Andro, may be therapeutically valuable for preventing and treating thrombotic arterial diseases, including neointimal hyperplasia in arterial restenosis.

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of the human beta-like globin gene cluster. (United States)

    Fritsch, E F; Lawn, R M; Maniatis, T


    The genes encoding human embryonic (epsilon), fetal (G gamma, A gamma) and adult (delta, beta) beta-like globin polypeptides were isolated as a set of overlapping cloned DNA fragments from bacteriophage lambda libraries of high molecular weight (15-20 kb) chromosomal DNA. The 65 kb of DNA represented in these overlapping clones contains the genes for all five beta-like polypeptides, including the embryonic epsilon-globin gene, for which the chromosomal location was previously unknown. All five genes are transcribed from the same DNA strand and are arranged in the order 5'-epsilon-(13.3 kb)-G gamma-(3.5 kb)-A gamma-(13.9 kb)-delta-(5.4 kb)-beta-3'. Thus the genes are positioned on the chromosome in the order of their expression during development. In addition to the five known beta-like globin genes, we have detected two other beta-like globin sequences which do not correspond to known polypeptides. One of these sequences has been mapped to the A gamma-delta intergenic region while the other is located 6-9 kb 5' to the epsilon gene. Cross hybridization experiments between the intergenic sequences of the gene cluster have revealed a nonglobin repeat sequence (*) which is interspersed with the globin genes in the following manner: 5'-**epsilon-*G gamma-A gamma*-**delta-beta*-3'. Fine structure mapping of the region located 5' to the delta-globin gene revealed two repeats with a maximum size of 400 bp, which are separated by approximately 700 bp of DNA not repeated within the cluster. Preliminary experiments indicate that this repeat family is also repeated many times in the human genome.

  12. TGF-beta1 immobilized tri-co-polymer for articular cartilage tissue engineering. (United States)

    Chou, Cheng-Hung; Cheng, Winston T K; Lin, Chien-Cheng; Chang, Chih-Hung; Tsai, Chien-Chen; Lin, Feng-Huei


    Tri-co-polymer with composition of gelatin, hyaluronic acid and chondroitin-6-sulfate has been used to mimic the cartilage extracellular matrix as scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering. In this study, we try to immobilize TGF-beta1 onto the surface of the tri-co-polymer sponge to suppress the undesired differentiation during the cartilage growth in vitro. The scaffold was synthesized with a pore size in a range of 300-500 microm. TGF-beta1 was immobilized on the surface of the tri-co-polymer scaffold with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) as a crosslinking agent. Tri-co-polymer scaffolds with and without TGF-beta1 were seeded with porcine chondrocytes and cultured in a spinner flask for 2, 4, and 6 weeks. The chondrocytes were characterized by the methods of immunohistochemical staining with anti-type II collagen and anti-S-100 protein monoclonal antibody, and RT-PCR. After culturing for 4 weeks, chondrocytes showed positive in S-100 protein, Alcian blue, and type II collagen for the scaffold with TGF-beta1 immobilization. There is no observed type I and type X collagen expression in the scaffolds from the observation of RT-PCR. In addition, the scaffold without TGF-beta1 immobilization, type X collagen, can be detected after cultured for 2 weeks. Type I collagen was progressively expressed after 4 weeks. These results can conclude that TGF-beta1 immobilized scaffold can suppress chondrocytes toward prehypertrophic chondrocytes and osteolineage cells. The tri-co-polymer sponge with TGF-beta1 immobilization should have a great potential in cartilage tissue engineering in the future.

  13. Beta decay of {sup 103}Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavatsyuk, O.; Kavatsyuk, M. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); National Taras Shevcjenko Univ. of Kyiv (Australia); Batist, L. [St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst. (Russian Federation); Univ. di Napoli (Italy); INFN, Napoli (Italy); Banu, A.; Becker, F.; Bruechle, W.; Doering, J.; Gorska, M.; Grawe, H.; Kirchner, R.; Mandal, S.; Mazzocchi, C.; Plettner, C.; Roeckl, E.; Schaedel, M. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Blazhev, A. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Univ. Sofia (Bulgaria); Faestermann, T. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Janas, Z.; Karny, M.; Plochocki, A.; Zylicz, J. [University of Warsaw (Poland); Jungclaus, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica (Spain); La Commara, M.; Romoli, M. [INFN, Napoli (Italy); Mukha, I. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Kurchatov Inst. Moscow (Russian Federation); Muralithar, S. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (Germany); Schwengner, R. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (Germany)


    The {beta} decay of {sup 103}Sn, a three-neutron-particle nucleus with respect to the {sup 100}Sn core, was investigated at the GSI on-line mass separator using an array of 17 germanium crystals and a total absorption spectrometer. A total of 31 {beta}-delayed {gamma}-rays (29 new) of the {sup 103}Sn{yields}{sup 103}In decay were observed and, on the basis of {beta}-{gamma}-{gamma} coincidences, the {sup 103}Sn decay scheme was established for the first time. By means of total absorption spectroscopy, {beta} intensities, the Gamow-Teller strength distribution and the summed Gamow-Teller strength value of 3.5{+-}0.5 were determined for this decay. Its half-life and Q{sub EC} value were found to be 7.0{+-}0.2 s and 7.64{+-}0.7 MeV, respectively. The {beta}-delayed proton branching ratio was measured to be 1.2{+-}0.1%. The results are discussed in comparison with shell-model predictions based on realistic and empirical interactions. (orig.)

  14. Beta-thalassemia and beta[A] globin gene haplotypes in Mexican mestizos. (United States)

    Villalobos-Arámbula, A R; Bustos, R; Casas-Castañeda, M; Gutiérrez, E; Perea, F J; Thein, S L; Ibarra, B


    B-globin haplotypes of 20 beta-thalassemia (beta-thal) and 87 beta(A) Mexican mestizo chromosomes were analyzed to ascertain the origin of the beta-thal alleles and the frequencies and distribution of the beta(A) haplotypes among northwestern Mexican mestizos. Sixteen beta-thal chromosomes carried six Mediterranean alleles [five codon 39 C-->T; two IVS1:1 G-->A; two IVS1:5 G-->A; three IVS1:110 G(A; one codon 11 (-T) and three (deltabeta)zero-thal]; the remaining four were linked to three rare alleles (two -28 A-->C and one each: -87 C-->T and initiation codon ATG-->GTG). Among the 87 beta(A) chromosomes, 17 different 5' haplotypes with frequencies for 1, 3, 2 and 5 of 39.0%, 17. 2%, 9.2% and 6.9%, respectively, were observed. The beta-haplotype analysis showed that 13 out of 16 Mediterranean chromosomes could easily be explained by gene migration; however, one codon 39 associated with haplotype 4 (----+ +-), one IVS1:1 with haplotype 1(+----++) and one IVS1:5 G-->A, may represent separate mutational events. Analysis of the rare alleles showed that the -28 A-->C mutation was associated with the commonest beta(A) haplotype in Mexican mestizos, Mediterraneans and the total world population; therefore an independent origin cannot be ruled out. The -87 C-->T and initiation codon ATG-->GTG were found with beta-haplotypes different from the reported ones, suggesting an indigenous origin.

  15. X11beta rescues memory and long-term potentiation deficits in Alzheimer's disease APPswe Tg2576 mice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mitchell, Jacqueline C


    Increased production and deposition of amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) are believed to be key pathogenic events in Alzheimer\\'s disease. As such, routes for lowering cerebral Abeta levels represent potential therapeutic targets for Alzheimer\\'s disease. X11beta is a neuronal adaptor protein that binds to the intracellular domain of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Overexpression of X11beta inhibits Abeta production in a number of experimental systems. However, whether these changes to APP processing and Abeta production induced by X11beta overexpression also induce beneficial effects to memory and synaptic plasticity are not known. We report here that X11beta-mediated reduction in cerebral Abeta is associated with normalization of both cognition and in vivo long-term potentiation in aged APPswe Tg2576 transgenic mice that model the amyloid pathology of Alzheimer\\'s disease. Overexpression of X11beta itself has no detectable adverse effects upon mouse behaviour. These findings support the notion that modulation of X11beta function represents a therapeutic target for Abeta-mediated neuronal dysfunction in Alzheimer\\'s disease.

  16. Affibody-beta-galactosidase immunoconjugates produced as soluble fusion proteins in the Escherichia coli cytosol. (United States)

    Rönnmark, Jenny; Kampf, Caroline; Asplund, Anna; Höidén-Guthenberg, Ingmarie; Wester, Kenneth; Pontén, Fredrik; Uhlén, Mathias; Nygren, Per-Ake


    Recombinant immunoconjugates constitute a novel class of immunoassay reagents produced by genetic fusion between an antigen recognizing moiety and a reporter enzyme or fluorescent protein, obviating the need for chemical coupling. In this work, we describe the construction, Escherichia coli production and characterization of recombinant beta-galactosidase (beta-gal)-based immunoconjugates directed to human immunoglobulin A (IgA). As the antigen recognizing moieties, either monovalent or dimeric (head-to-tail) versions of an IgA-specific affibody (Z(IgA1)) were used, previously selected in vitro from a protein library based on combinatorial engineering of a single staphylococcal protein A domain. To increase the likelihood of proper presentation on the assembled homotetrameric enzyme surface, the affibody moieties were linked to the N-terminus of the enzyme subunits via a heptapeptide linker sequence. The two resulting immunoconjugates Z(IgA1)-beta-gal and (Z(IgA1))(2)-beta-gal, containing four and eight affibody moieties per enzyme, respectively, could be expressed as soluble and proteolytically stable proteins intracellularly in E. coli from where they were purified to high purity by a single anion exchange chromatography step. The yields of immunoconjugates were in the range 200-400 mg/l culture. Biosensor-binding studies showed that both the Z(IgA1)-beta-gal and (Z(IgA1))(2)-beta-gal immunoconjugates were capable of selective IgA-recognition, but with an apparent higher binding affinity for the variant containing divalent affibody moieties, presumably due to avidity effects. The applicability of this class of recombinant immunoconjugates was demonstrated by IgA detection in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and dot-blot analyses. In addition, using human kidney biopsy samples from a nephropathy patient, IgA depositions in glomeruli could be detected by immunohistochemistry with low background staining of tissue.

  17. Decreased beta-band activity is correlated with disambiguation of hidden figures. (United States)

    Minami, Tetsuto; Noritake, Yosuke; Nakauchi, Shigeki


    Insight is commonly described as sudden comprehension, sometimes called an "Aha! moment." In everyday life, we apply the process of insight to problems that are difficult to solve at first glance or that we perceive as ambiguous; however the brain dynamics underlying the disambiguation process remains elusive. Beta-band oscillatory brain activity has been hypothesized to reflect the transition of cognitive states. To elucidate the neural mechanism of insight, we recorded electroencephalograms while subjects were presented with hidden figures followed by unambiguous, gray images. We identified oscillatory activity to detect temporal changes, and compared brain activity that occurred during a perceptual transition with activity that occurred when no perceptual transition occurred. Statistical comparison confirmed stronger beta-power decrease during perceptual transition. Source analysis indicated that the beta-power decrease was around the parietal-posterior regions, mainly in the precuneus. We propose that beta-band desynchronization in the parietal-posterior regions reflects the disambiguation process, and our findings provide additional support for the theory that beta-band activity is related to the transition of cognitive state.

  18. Autoantibodies to IA-2beta improve diabetes risk assessment in high-risk relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achenbach, P; Bonifacio, E; Williams, A J K;


    . METHODS: Autoantibodies to insulin (IAA), glutamate decarboxylase (GADA) and IA-2 (IA2A) were measured in 549 participants at study entry, and IA2A-positive samples tested for IA2betaA. First-phase insulin response (FPIR) and oral glucose tolerance were determined at baseline. RESULTS: Of 212 ICA/IA2A......-positive participants (median age 12.1 years; 57% male), 113 developed diabetes (5 year cumulative risk 56%), and 148 were also GADA-positive and IAA-positive (4Ab-positive). IA2betaA were detected in 137 (65%) ICA/IA2A-positive participants and were associated with an increased 5 year diabetes risk (IA2beta......A-positive 65 vs 39% in IA2betaA-negative, p=0.0002). The effect was most marked in 4Ab-positive relatives (72% vs 52%, p=0.003). Metabolic testing further refined risk assessment. Among 101 4Ab-positive relatives with IA2betaA, the 5 year risk was 94% in those with a low FPIR (vs 50% in those with a normal...

  19. Continuous infusion vs. bolus dosing: implications for beta-lactam antibiotics. (United States)

    Mohd Hafiz, Abdul-Aziz; Staatz, C E; Kirkpatrick, C M J; Lipman, J; Roberts, J A


    Beta-lactam antibiotics display time-dependant pharmacodynamics whereby constant antibiotic concentrations rather than high peak concentrations are most likely to result in effective treatment of infections caused by susceptible bacteria. Continuous administration has been suggested as an alternative strategy, to conventional intermittent dosing, to optimise beta-lactam pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) properties. With the availability of emerging data, we elected to systematically investigate the published literature describing the comparative PK/PD and clinical outcomes of beta-lactam antibiotics administered by continuous or intermittent infusion. We found that the studies have been performed in various patient populations including critically ill, cancer and cystic fibrosis patients. Available in vitro PK/PD data conclusively support the administration of beta-lactams via continuous infusion for maximizing bacterial killing from consistent attainment of pharmacodynamic end-points. In addition, clinical outcome data supports equivalence, even with the use of a lower dose by continuous infusion. However, the present clinical data is limited with small sample sizes common with insufficient power to detect advantages in favour of either dosing strategy. With abundant positive pre-clinical data as well as document in vivo PK/PD advantages, large multi-centre trials are needed to describe whether continuous administration of beta-lactams is truly more effective than intermittent dosing.

  20. Identification and molecular characterization of four new large deletions in the beta-globin gene cluster. (United States)

    Joly, Philippe; Lacan, Philippe; Garcia, Caroline; Couprie, Nicole; Francina, Alain


    Despite the fact that mutations in the human beta-globin gene cluster are essentially point mutations, a significant number of large deletions have also been described. We present here four new large deletions in the beta-globin gene cluster that have been identified on patients displaying an atypical hemoglobin phenotype (high HbF) at routine analysis. The first deletion, which spreads over 2.0 kb, removes the entire beta-globin gene, including its promoter, and is associated with a typical beta-thal minor phenotype. The three other deletions are larger (19.7 to 23.9 kb) and remove both the delta and beta-globin genes. Phenotypically, they look like an HPFH-deletion as they are associated with normal hematological parameters. The precise localization of their 5' and 3' breakpoints gives new insights about the differences between HPFH and (deltabeta)(0)-thalassemia at the molecular level. The importance of detection of these deletions in prenatal diagnosis and newborn screening of hemoglobinopathies is also discussed.

  1. Analysis and expression of the alpha-expansin and beta-expansin gene families in maize (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Meeley, R. B.; Cosgrove, D. J.


    Expansins comprise a multigene family of proteins in maize (Zea mays). We isolated and characterized 13 different maize expansin cDNAs, five of which are alpha-expansins and eight of which are beta-expansins. This paper presents an analysis of these 13 expansins, as well as an expression analysis by northern blotting with materials from young and mature maize plants. Some expansins were expressed in restricted regions, such as the beta-expansins ExpB1 (specifically expressed in maize pollen) and ExpB4 (expressed principally in young husks). Other expansins such as alpha-expansin Exp1 and beta-expansin ExpB2 were expressed in several organs. The expression of yet a third group was not detected in the selected organs and tissues. An analysis of expansin sequences from the maize expressed sequence tag collection is also presented. Our results indicate that expansin genes may have general, overlapping expression in some instances, whereas in other cases the expression may be highly specific and limited to a single organ or cell type. In contrast to the situation in Arabidopsis, beta-expansins in maize seem to be more numerous and more highly expressed than are alpha-expansins. The results support the concept that beta-expansins multiplied and evolved special functions in the grasses.

  2. Expression of BK Ca channels and the modulatory beta-subunits in the rat and porcine trigeminal ganglion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Helle Wulf; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Poulsen, Asser Nyander;


    Large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK(Ca)) channels contribute to electrical impulses, proper signal transmission of information and regulation of neurotransmitter release. Migraine has been proposed to be a trigeminovascular disease involving the sensory trigeminal pathways and the c......Large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK(Ca)) channels contribute to electrical impulses, proper signal transmission of information and regulation of neurotransmitter release. Migraine has been proposed to be a trigeminovascular disease involving the sensory trigeminal pathways...... and the cerebral arteries. We hypothesize that BK(Ca) channel alpha- and beta-subunits are present in the rat and porcine trigeminal ganglion (TG) thus enabling a role in migraine. BK(Ca) channel mRNA was detected using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and in situ hybridization. BK(Ca...... revealed beta2- and beta 4-subunit proteins in rat and porcine TG. The present study showed BK(Ca) channel expression in rat and porcine TG. The main modulatory beta-subunits detected in TG of both species were beta2- and beta 4-subunits....

  3. Interleukin-1{beta} regulates cell proliferation and activity of extracellular matrix remodelling enzymes in cultured primary pig heart cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitta, Karina; Brandt, Berenice [Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel (Germany); Wuensch, Annegret [Institute of Molecular Animal Breeding and Biotechnology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich (Germany); Meybohm, Patrick; Bein, Berthold; Steinfath, Markus; Scholz, Jens [Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel (Germany); Albrecht, Martin, E-mail: [Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel (Germany)


    Research highlights: {yields} Levels of IL-1{beta} are increased in the pig myocardium after infarction. {yields} Cultured pig heart cells possess IL-1 receptors. {yields} IL-1{beta} increases cell proliferation of pig heart cells in-vitro. {yields} IL-1{beta} increases MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in pig heart cells in-vitro. {yields} IL-1{beta} may be important for tissue remodelling events after myocardial infarction. -- Abstract: After myocardial infarction, elevated levels of interleukins (ILs) are found within the myocardial tissue and IL-1{beta} is considered to play a major role in tissue remodelling events throughout the body. In the study presented, we have established a cell culture model of primary pig heart cells to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of IL-1{beta} on cell proliferation as well as expression and activity of enzymes typically involved in tissue remodelling. Primary pig heart cell cultures were derived from three different animals and stimulated with recombinant pig IL-1{beta}. RNA expression was detected by RT-PCR, protein levels were evaluated by Western blotting, activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was quantified by gelatine zymography and cell proliferation was measured using colorimetric MTS assays. Pig heart cells express receptors for IL-1 and application of IL-1{beta} resulted in a dose-dependent increase of cell proliferation (P < 0.05 vs. control; 100 ng/ml; 24 h). Gene expression of caspase-3 was increased by IL-1{beta} (P < 0.05 vs. control; 100 ng/ml; 3 h), and pro-caspase-3 but not active caspase was detected in lysates of pig heart cells by Western blotting. MMP-2 gene expression as well as enzymatic activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were increased by IL-1{beta} (P < 0.05 vs. control; 100 ng/ml; 3 h for gene expression, 48 and 72 h for enzymatic activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9, respectively). Our in vitro data suggest that IL-1{beta} plays a major role in the events of tissue remodelling in the heart. Combined

  4. Estimating beta-mixing coefficients via histograms

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, Daniel J; Schervish, Mark


    The literature on statistical learning for time series often assumes asymptotic independence or "mixing" of data sources. Beta-mixing has long been important in establishing the central limit theorem and invariance principle for stochastic processes; recent work has identified it as crucial to extending results from empirical processes and statistical learning theory to dependent data, with quantitative risk bounds involving the actual beta coefficients. There is, however, presently no way to actually estimate those coefficients from data; while general functional forms are known for some common classes of processes (Markov processes, ARMA models, etc.), specific coefficients are generally beyond calculation. We present an l1-risk consistent estimator for the beta-mixing coefficients, based on a single stationary sample path. Since mixing coefficients involve infinite-order dependence, we use an order-d Markov approximation. We prove high-probability concentration results for the Markov approximation and show...

  5. Beta decay of {sup 61}Ga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oinonen, M.; Dendooven, P.; Jokinen, A.; Penttilae, H.; Aeystoe, J. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Baumann, P.; Knipper, A.; Ramdhane, M.; Walter, G. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, F-67037 Strasbourg (France); Fujita, Y. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Gorska, M.; Grawe, H.; Hu, Z.; Kirchner, R.; Klepper, O.; Liu, W.; Roeckl, E. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Postfach 110552, D-64220 Darmstadt (Germany); Janas, Z.; Plochocki, A. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University, PL-00681 Warsaw (Poland)


    The {beta} decay of {sup 61}Ga to its mirror nucleus {sup 61}Zn has been measured for the first time by using on-line mass separation and {beta}-delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy. The observed decay strength to the ground state implies superallowed character in accordance with the systematics of the mirror decays in the sd and fp shell. The {beta} feedings observed to four excited states in {sup 61}Zn are consistent with earlier spin-parity assignments based on in-beam experiments. The ground-state spin and parity for {sup 61}Ga were determined to be 3/2{sup -}. (orig.) With 3 figs., 2 tabs., 37 refs.

  6. Neutrinoless double beta decay from lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholson, Amy; Chang, Chia Cheng; Clark, M A; Joo, Balint; Kurth, Thorsten; Rinaldi, Enrico; Tiburzi, Brian; Vranas, Pavlos; Walker-Loud, Andre


    While the discovery of non-zero neutrino masses is one of the most important accomplishments by physicists in the past century, it is still unknown how and in what form these masses arise. Lepton number-violating neutrinoless double beta decay is a natural consequence of Majorana neutrinos and many BSM theories, and many experimental efforts are involved in the search for these processes. Understanding how neutrinoless double beta decay would manifest in nuclear environments is key for understanding any observed signals. In these proceedings we present an overview of a set of one- and two-body matrix elements relevant for experimental searches for neutrinoless double beta decay, describe the role of lattice QCD calculations, and present preliminary lattice QCD results.

  7. Effect of casein genes - beta-LGB, DGAT1, GH, and LHR - on milk production and milk composition traits in crossbred Holsteins. (United States)

    Molee, A; Poompramun, C; Mernkrathoke, P


    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of a single gene and composite genotype of the casein gene family, including the beta-lactoglobulin gene (beta-LGB), acyl-CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 gene (DGAT1), growth hormone gene (GH), and luteinizing hormone receptor gene (LHR) on milk yield, milk composition, the percentage of fat, protein, solids-not-fat, and total solid in crossbred Holsteins. A total of 231 crossbred Holstein cows were examined for the study. The genotype of the beta-casein gene was analyzed by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction, while the alpha-S1, alpha-S2, kappa-casein, DGAT1, beta-LGB, and GH genes were analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. The association between genes and milk yield and milk composition was analyzed. Three pairs of genes, for which significant associations were detected, were beta + kappa-casein, DGAT1 + beta-casein, and GH + beta-LGB. In the single-gene model, most loci are significantly associated with traits. A significant association between the composite genotype and the traits was detected in all composite genotypes. GH + beta-LGB appears to be the most suitable variants for improving milk production and percentage of milk protein. Overall, the effects of the composite genotype and single gene were different. A physical or functional relationship between genes is necessary for investigating gene markers.

  8. Isoreserpine promotes {beta}-catenin degradation via Siah-1 up-regulation in HCT116 colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwak, Jungsug; Song, Taeyun [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jie-Young; Yun, Yeon-Sook [Laboratory of Radiation Cancer Science, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Il-Whan [Department of Microbiology, Center for Viral Disease Research, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yongsu [Department of Genetic Engineering, and Graduate School of Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jae-Gook [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sangtaek, E-mail: [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of)


    Aberrant accumulation of intracellular {beta}-catenin in intestinal epithelial cells is a frequent early event during the development of colon cancer. To identify small molecules that decrease the level of intracellular {beta}-catenin, we performed cell-based chemical screening using genetically engineered HEK293 reporter cells to detect compounds that inhibit TOPFlash reporter activity, which was stimulated by Wnt3a-conditioned medium. We found that isoreserpine promoted the degradation of intracellular {beta}-catenin by up-regulation of Siah-1 in HEK293 and HCT116 colon cancer cells. Moreover, isoreserpine repressed the expression of {beta}-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF)-dependent genes, such as cyclin D1 and c-myc, resulting in the suppression of HCT116 cell proliferation. Our findings suggest that isoreserpine can potentially be used as a chemotherapeutic agent against colon cancer.

  9. Thymosin beta(4 and beta(10 levels in pre-term newborn oral cavity and foetal salivary glands evidence a switch of secretion during foetal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Nemolato

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thymosin beta(4, its sulfoxide, and thymosin beta(10 were detected in whole saliva of human pre-term newborns by reversed-phase high performance chromatography coupled to electrospray ion-trap mass spectrometry. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Despite high inter-individual variability, concentration of beta-thymosins increases with an inversely proportional trend to postmenstrual age (PMA: gestational age plus chronological age after birth reaching a value more than twenty times higher than in adult whole saliva at 190 days (27 weeks of PMA (thymosin beta(4 concentration: more than 2.0 micromol/L versus 0.1 micromol/L. On the other hand, the ratio between thymosin beta(4 and thymosin beta(10 exhibits a constant value of about 4 along all the range of PMA (190-550 days of PMA examined. In order to investigate thymosin beta(4 origin and to better establish the trend of its production as a function of gestational age (GA, immunohistochemical analysis of major and minor salivary glands of different pre-term fetuses were carried out, starting from 84 days (12 weeks of gestational age. Reactive granules were seen in all glands with a maximum of expression around 140-150 days of GA, even though with high inter- and intra-individual variability. In infants and adults reactive granules in acinar cells were not observed, but just a diffuse cytoplasmatic staining in ductal cells. SIGNIFICANCE: This study outlines for the first time that salivary glands during foetal life express and secrete peptides such as beta-thymosins probably involved in the development of the oral cavity and its annexes. The secretion increases from about 12 weeks till to about 21 weeks of GA, subsequently it decreases, almost disappearing in the period of expected date of delivery, when the gland switches towards the secretion of adult specific salivary peptides. The switch observed may be an example of further secretion switches involving other exocrine and endocrine

  10. Liquid argon as active shielding and coolant for bare germanium detectors. A novel background suppression method for the GERDA 0{nu}{beta}{beta} experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peiffer, J.P.


    Two of the most important open questions in particle physics are whether neutrinos are their own anti-particles (Majorana particles) as required by most extensions of the StandardModel and the absolute values of the neutrino masses. The neutrinoless double beta (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) decay, which can be investigated using {sup 76}Ge (a double beta isotope), is the most sensitive probe for these properties. There is a claim for an evidence for the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay in the Heidelberg-Moscow (HdM) {sup 76}Ge experiment by a part of the HdM collaboration. The new {sup 76}Ge experiment Gerda aims to check this claim within one year with 15 kg.y of statistics in Phase I at a background level of {<=}10{sup -2} events/(kg.keV.y) and to go to higher sensitivity with 100 kg.y of statistics in Phase II at a background level of {<=}10{sup -3} events/(kg.keV.y). In Gerda bare germanium semiconductor detectors (enriched in {sup 76}Ge) will be operated in liquid argon (LAr). LAr serves as cryogenic coolant and as high purity shielding against external background. To reach the background level for Phase II, new methods are required to suppress the cosmogenic background of the diodes. The background from cosmogenically produced {sup 60}Co is expected to be {proportional_to}2.5.10{sup -3} events/(kg.keV.y). LAr scintillates in UV ({lambda}=128 nm) and a novel concept is to use this scintillation light as anti-coincidence signal for background suppression. In this work the efficiency of such a LAr scintillation veto was investigated for the first time. In a setup with 19 kg active LAr mass a suppression of a factor 3 has been achieved for {sup 60}Co and a factor 17 for {sup 232}Th around Q{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}} = 2039 keV. This suppression will further increase for a one ton active volume (factor O(100) for {sup 232}Th and {sup 60}Co). LAr scintillation can also be used as a powerful tool for background diagnostics. For this purpose a new, very stable and robust wavelength

  11. Synthesis of {beta}-haloacids by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albarran, G.; Negron-Mendoza, A. [Instituto de Ciencias y Artes, Chiapas (Mexico). Escuela de Biologia


    Hydrogen halides add to alkenes yielding the corresponding haloalkane. The addition of HX ordinally follows the course of Markownikoff`s rule. In this paper we analyze the HBr addition reaction to unsaturated carboxylic acids. The course of the addition is anti-Markownikoff. This implies that the reaction goes through free radical mechanism and the haloacid formed is in the {beta}-position. The acids under study are fumaric, itaconic, citraconic acids and the methyl ester of fumaric acid. The {beta}-haloacids formed are easily purified from the bulk solutions. (author).

  12. Volume Effects in Discrete beta functions

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yuzhi; Zou, Haiyuan


    We calculate discrete beta functions corresponding to the two-lattice matching for the 2D O(N) models and Dyson's hierarchical model. We describe and explain finite-size effects such as the appearance of a nontrivial infrared fixed point that goes to infinity at infinite volume or the merging of an infrared and an ultraviolet fixed point. We present extensions of the RG flows to the complex coupling plane. We discuss the possibility of constructing a continuous beta function from the discrete one by using functional conjugation methods. We briefly discuss the relevance of these findings for the search of nontrivial fixed points in multiflavor lattice gauge theory models.

  13. Population screening for beta-thalassaemia. (United States)

    Flatz, S D; Flatz, G


    The graphic recording of time to 50% haemolysis in a glycerine-saline solution is a simple, reproducible method of determining erythrocyte osmotic fragility. Studies on a normal population yielded an upper limit of normal of 90 s. In 250 healthy males from Northern Thailand all 19 with beta-thalassaemia minor had abnormal osmotic indices, and the value of the test was confirmed in beta-thalassaemia heterozygotes in Europe. Of 23 patients with iron deficiency 18 had abnormal osmotic indices. However, this is not thought likely to be a significant source of false positives in the screening of populations at risk of haemoglobinopathies but in whom iron deficiency is rare.

  14. American ginseng modulates pancreatic beta cell activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Luguang


    Full Text Available Abstract The mechanism of the beneficial effects of Panax quinquefolius (Xiyangshen, American ginseng on diabetes is yet to be elucidated. Recent studies show that Panax quinquefolius increases insulin production and reduces the death of pancreatic beta cells. Mechanism studies indicate that Panax quinquefolius improves cell's immuno-reactivity and mitochondrial function through various factors. Clinical studies show that Panax quinquefolius improves postprandial glycemia in type 2 diabetic patients. Further studies to identify the component(s of Panax quinquefolius linked with pancreatic islets/beta cells in vitro and in vivo are warranted for better understanding of the full effects of Panax quinquefolius.

  15. The NEXT double beta decay experiment (United States)

    Laing, A.; NEXT Collaboration


    NEXT (Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC) is a neutrinoless double-beta (ββ0v) decay experiment at Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfranc (LSC). It is an electroluminescent Time Projection Chamber filled with high pressure 136Xe gas with separated function capabilities for calorimetry and tracking. Energy resolution and background suppression are the two key features of any neutrinoless double beta decay experiment. NEXT has both good energy resolution (review NEXT R&D results, the status of detector commissioning at LSC and the NEXT physics case.

  16. Helicity and nuclear $\\beta$ decay correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Ran; García, Alejandro


    We present simple derivations of nuclear $\\beta$-decay correlations with an emphasis on the special role of helicity. This provides a good opportunity to teach students about helicity and chirality in particle physics through exercises using simple aspects of quantum mechanics. In addition, this paper serves as an introduction to nuclear $\\beta$-decay correlations from both a theoretical and experimental vantage. This article can be used to introduce students to ongoing experiments searching for hints of new physics in the low-energy precision frontier.

  17. Beta-decay of {sup 56}Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramdhane, M.; Baumann, P.; Knipper, A.; Walter, G. [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Janas, Z.; Plochocki, A. [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Experimental Physics; Aeystoe, J.; Dendooven, P.; Jokinen, A.; Oinonen, M.; Pentilae, H. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland); Liu, W.; Grawe, H.; Hu, Z.; Kirchner, R.; Klepper, O.; Roeckl, E. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Gorska, M. [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Experimental Physics]|[Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Fujita, Y. [Osaka Univ. (Japan); Brown, B.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)


    By measuring positrons and {beta}-delayed {gamma}-rays emitted from mass-separated sources, the decay of {sup 56}Cu(4{sup +},T{sub z}=-1,T=1) to states in the doubly-magic nucleus {sup 56}Ni was studied for the first time. The half-life of {sup 56}Cu was measured to be 78(15) ms, and four {beta}-delayed {gamma}-rays were assigned to its decay. The resulting experimental data on Fermi and Gamow-Teller strength are compared with shell-model predictions. (orig.)

  18. Simulated progress in double-beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miley, H.S. (Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Battelle Blvd., Richland, WA 99352 (United States)); Arthur, R.J. (Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Battelle Blvd., Richland, WA 99352 (United States)); Avignone, F.T. (University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)); Barabash, A.S. (Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117 259 Moscow (Russian Federation)); Brodzinski, R.L. (Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Battelle Blvd., Richland, WA 99352 (United States)); Collar, J.I. (University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)); Courant, H. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)); Garcia, E. (University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain)); Guerard, C.K. (University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)); Hensley, W.K. (Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Battelle Blvd., Richland, WA 99352 (United States)); Kirpichnikov, I.V. (Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117 259 Moscow (Russian Federation)); Kl


    A Monte Carlo code has been developed to accurately simulate double-beta decay measurements. Coincident gamma rays, beta spectra, and angular correlations have been added to adequately simulate a complete [sup 100]Mo nuclear decay and provide corrections to experimentally determined detector efficiencies. This code has been used to strip certain low-background spectra obtained in the Homestake gold mine in Lead, SD, for the purpose of extremely sensitive materials assay for the construction of new, large, enriched germanium detectors. Assays as low as 9[mu]Bq/g of [sup 210]Pb in lead shielding were obtained. ((orig.))

  19. Simulated progress in double-beta decay (United States)

    Miley, H. S.; Arthur, R. J.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Brodzinski, R. L.; Collar, J. J.; Courant, H.; Garcia, E.; Guerard, C. K.; Hensley, W. K.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Klimenko, A. A.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Nunez-Lagos, R.; Osetrov, S. B.; Pogosov, V. S.; Puimedon, J.; Reeves, J. H.; Ruddick, K.; Saenz, C.; Salinas, A.; Sarsa, M. L.; Smolnikov, A. A.; Starostin, A. S.; Tamanyan, A. G.; Umatov, V. I.; Vasiliev, S. I.; Villar, J. A.


    A Monte Carlo code has been developed to accurately simulate double-beta decay measurements. Coincident gamma rays, beta spectra, and angular correlations have been added to adequately simulate a complete 100Mo nuclear decay and provide corrections to experimentally determined detector efficiencies. This code has been used to strip certain low-background spectra obtained in the Homestake gold mine in Lead, SD, for the purpose of extremely sensitive materials assay for the construction of new, large, enriched germanium detectors. Assays as low as 9 μBq/g of 210Pb in lead shielding were obtained.

  20. Atypical beta(s) haplotypes are generated by diverse genetic mechanisms. (United States)

    Zago, M A; Silva, W A; Dalle, B; Gualandro, S; Hutz, M H; Lapoumeroulie, C; Tavella, M H; Araujo, A G; Krieger, J E; Elion, J; Krishnamoorthy, R


    The majority of the chromosomes with the beta(S) gene have one of the five common haplotypes, designated as Benin, Bantu, Senegal, Cameroon, and Arab-Indian haplotypes. However, in every large series of sickle cell patients, 5-10% of the chromosomes have less common haplotypes, usually referred to as "atypical" haplotypes. In order to explore the genetic mechanisms that could generate these atypical haplotypes, we extended our analysis to other rarely studied polymorphic markers of the beta(S)-gene cluster, in a total of 40 chromosomes with uncommon haplotypes from Brazil and Cameroon. The following polymorphisms were examined: seven restriction site polymorphisms of the epsilongammadeltabeta-cluster, the pre-(G)gamma framework sequence including the 6-bp deletion/insertion pattern, HS-2 LCR (AT)xR(AT)y and pre-beta (AT)xTy repeat motifs, the GC/TT polymorphism at -1105-1106 of (G)gamma-globin gene, the C/T polymorphism at -551 of the beta-globin gene, and the intragenic beta-globin gene framework. Among the Brazilian subjects, the most common atypical structure (7/16) was a Bantu 3'-subhaplotype associated with different 5'-sequences, while in two chromosomes a Benin 3'-subhaplotype was associated with two different 5'-subhaplotypes. A hybrid Benin/Bantu configuration was also observed. In three chromosomes, the atypical haplotype differed from the typical one by the change of a single restriction site. In 2/134 chromosomes identified as having a typical Bantu RFLP-haplotype, a discrepant LCR repeat sequence was observed, probably owing to a crossover 5' to the epsilon-gene. Among 80 beta(S) chromosomes from Cameroon, 22 were associated with an atypical haplotype. The most common structure was represented by a Benin haplotype (from the LCR to the beta-gene) with a non-Benin segment 3' to the beta-globin gene. In two cases a Bantu LCR was associated with a Benin haplotype and a non-Benin segment 3' to the beta-globin gene. In three other cases, a more complex

  1. Therapeutic haemoglobin synthesis in beta-thalassaemic mice expressing lentivirus-encoded human beta-globin. (United States)

    May, C; Rivella, S; Callegari, J; Heller, G; Gaensler, K M; Luzzatto, L; Sadelain, M


    The stable introduction of a functional beta-globin gene in haematopoietic stem cells could be a powerful approach to treat beta-thalassaemia and sickle-cell disease. Genetic approaches aiming to increase normal beta-globin expression in the progeny of autologous haematopoietic stem cells might circumvent the limitations and risks of allogeneic cell transplants. However, low-level expression, position effects and transcriptional silencing hampered the effectiveness of viral transduction of the human beta-globin gene when it was linked to minimal regulatory sequences. Here we show that the use of recombinant lentiviruses enables efficient transfer and faithful integration of the human beta-globin gene together with large segments of its locus control region. In long-term recipients of unselected transduced bone marrow cells, tetramers of two murine alpha-globin and two human betaA-globin molecules account for up to 13% of total haemoglobin in mature red cells of normal mice. In beta-thalassaemic heterozygous mice higher percentages are obtained (17% to 24%), which are sufficient to ameliorate anaemia and red cell morphology. Such levels should be of therapeutic benefit in patients with severe defects in haemoglobin production.

  2. Nuclear Matrix Elements for the $\\beta\\beta$ Decay of the $^{76}$Ge

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, B A; Horoi, M


    The nuclear matrix elements for two-neutrino double-beta (2 n$\\beta\\beta$ ) and zero-neutrino double-beta (0 n$\\beta\\beta$) decay of 76 Ge are evaluated in terms of the configuration interaction (CI), quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA) and interacting boson model (IBM) methods. We show that the decomposition of the matrix elements in terms of interemediate states in 74 Ge is dominated by ground state of this nucleus. We consider corrections to the CI results that arise from configurations admixtures involving orbitals out-side of the CI configuration space by using results from QRPA, many-body-perturbation theory, and the connections to related observables. The CI two-neutrino matrix element is reduced due to the inclusion of spin-orbit partners, and to many-body correlations connected with Gamow-Teller beta decay. The CI zero-neutrino matrix element for the heavy neutrino is enhanced due to particle-particle correlations that are connected with the odd-even oscillations in the nuclear masse...

  3. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and programmed cell death in the vertebrate retina. (United States)

    Duenker, Nicole


    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a precisely regulated phenomenon essential for the homeostasis of multicellular organisms. Developmental systems, particularly the nervous system, have provided key observations supporting the physiological role of PCD. We have recently shown that transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) plays an important role in mediating ontogenetic PCD in the nervous system. As part of the central nervous system the developing retina serves as an ideal model system for investigating apoptotic processes during neurogenesis in vivo as it is easily accessible experimentally and less complex due to its limited number of different neurons. This review summarizes data indicating a pivotal role of TGF-beta in mediating PCD in the vertebrate retina. The following topics are discussed: expression of TGF-beta isoforms and receptors in the vertebrate retina, the TGF-beta signaling pathway, functions and molecular mechanisms of PCD in the nervous system, TGF-beta-mediated retinal apoptosis in vitro and in vivo, and interactions of TGF-beta with other pro- and anti-apoptotic factors.

  4. X-ray scattering signatures of {beta}-thalassemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desouky, Omar S. [Radiation Physics Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT) (Egypt); Elshemey, Wael M. [Biophysics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University (Egypt)], E-mail:; Selim, Nabila S. [Radiation Physics Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT) (Egypt)


    X-ray scattering from lyophilized proteins or protein-rich samples is characterized by the presence of two characteristic broad peaks at scattering angles equivalent to momentum transfer values of 0.27 and 0.6 nm{sup -1}, respectively. These peaks arise from the interference of coherently scattered photons. Once the conformation of a protein is changed, these two peaks reflect such change with considerable sensitivity. The present work examines the possibility of characterizing the most common cause of hemolytic anaemia in Egypt and many Mediterranean countries; {beta}-thalassemia, from its X-ray scattering profile. This disease emerges from a genetic defect causing reduced rate in the synthesis of one of the globin chains that make up hemoglobin. As a result, structurally abnormal hemoglobin molecules are formed. In order to detect such molecular disorder, hemoglobin samples of {beta}-thalassemia patients are collected, lyophilized and measured using a conventional X-ray diffractometer. Results show significant differences in the X-ray scattering profiles of most of the diseased samples compared to control. The shape of the first scattering peak at 0.27 nm{sup -1}, in addition to the relative intensity of the first to the second scattering peaks, provides the most reliable signs of abnormality in diseased samples. The results are interpreted and confirmed with the aid of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of normal and thalassemia samples.

  5. Macrocyclic beta-sheet peptides that mimic protein quaternary structure through intermolecular beta-sheet interactions. (United States)

    Khakshoor, Omid; Demeler, Borries; Nowick, James S


    This paper reports the design, synthesis, and characterization of a family of cyclic peptides that mimic protein quaternary structure through beta-sheet interactions. These peptides are 54-membered-ring macrocycles comprising an extended heptapeptide beta-strand, two Hao beta-strand mimics [JACS 2000, 122, 7654] joined by one additional alpha-amino acid, and two delta-linked ornithine beta-turn mimics [JACS 2003, 125, 876]. Peptide 3a, as the representative of these cyclic peptides, contains a heptapeptide sequence (TSFTYTS) adapted from the dimerization interface of protein NuG2 [PDB ID: 1mio]. 1H NMR studies of aqueous solutions of peptide 3a show a partially folded monomer in slow exchange with a strongly folded oligomer. NOE studies clearly show that the peptide self-associates through edge-to-edge beta-sheet dimerization. Pulsed-field gradient (PFG) NMR diffusion coefficient measurements and analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) studies establish that the oligomer is a tetramer. Collectively, these experiments suggest a model in which cyclic peptide 3a oligomerizes to form a dimer of beta-sheet dimers. In this tetrameric beta-sheet sandwich, the macrocyclic peptide 3a is folded to form a beta-sheet, the beta-sheet is dimerized through edge-to-edge interactions, and this dimer is further dimerized through hydrophobic face-to-face interactions involving the Phe and Tyr groups. Further studies of peptides 3b-3n, which are homologues of peptide 3a with 1-6 variations in the heptapeptide sequence, elucidate the importance of the heptapeptide sequence in the folding and oligomerization of this family of cyclic peptides. Studies of peptides 3b-3g show that aromatic residues across from Hao improve folding of the peptide, while studies of peptides 3h-3n indicate that hydrophobic residues at positions R3 and R5 of the heptapeptide sequence are important in oligomerization.

  6. Trend of Gross Beta Radioactivity in Air Particles and Rainwater of around the Domestic Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, Jungmin; Shin, Daeyewn; Kim, Soongpyung; Ju, Sundong [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); OH, Youngsoo; Kim, Byunggyu; Kim, Sunsik [Hanbit Nuclear Power Site, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Investigating items can be distinguished into two parts, regional radiation and concentrations of environmental radioactivity, and in environmental radioactivity, to access the internal exposure dose, gross beta-radioactivity of particles in air and rainwater specimen are being tested. Gross beta-radioactivity quickly shows whether radiation is unusual or no since most of nuclide released in radioactive emergency while operating an atomic energy facility emits beta rays, and the method used to test it is simple. Looking at the years of analyzed results of particles in air and rainwater around the facility for gross beta-radioactivity, they have a constant trend. The cause of the trend was investigated with a doubt that something else rather than operation of a nuclear power plant might have caused this trend. Due to high gross beta radioactivity concentration in winter, sometimes, radioactivity concentration five times higher than reported last five years average gross beta radioactivity concentration is detected. Looking at the contents investigated above, we can see nuclear power plants have correlation with surrounding gross beta radioactivity concentration. Precipitation has negative correlation, and the weight of air particles and concentration of component element have positive correlation. Our country is influenced by northwest wind in winter. China which is located northwest, has heavy air pollution and smog due to industrialization and there was a report saying it is affecting Korea. Therefore, not because of management of power plants but because of change in season, it can be misunderstood that operating power plants is causing the increased gross beta radioactivity concentration. Based on this investigation, more research to find various causes of gross beta radioactivity concentration in winter is necessary.

  7. Xanthophylls are preferentially taken up compared with beta-carotene by retinal cells via a SRBI-dependent mechanism. (United States)

    During, Alexandrine; Doraiswamy, Sundari; Harrison, Earl H


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which carotenoids [xanthophylls vs. beta-carotene(beta-C)] are taken up by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. The human RPE cell line, ARPE-19, was used. When ARPE-19 cells were fully differentiated (7-9 weeks), the xanthophylls lutein (LUT) and zeaxanthin (ZEA) were taken up by cells to an extent 2-fold higher than beta-C (P < 0.05). At 9 weeks, cellular uptakes were 1.6, 2.5, and 3.2%, respectively, for beta-C, LUT, and ZEA. Similar extents were observed when carotenoids were delivered in either Tween 40 or "chylomicrons" produced by Caco-2 cells. Differentiated ARPE-19 cells did not exhibit any detectable beta-C 15,15'-oxygenase activity or convert exogenous beta-C into vitamin A. When using specific antibodies against the lipid transporters cluster determinant 36 (CD36) and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI), cellular uptake of beta-C and ZEA were significantly decreased (40-60%) with anti-SR-BI but not with anti-CD36. Small interfering RNA transfection for SR-BI led to marked knockdown of SR-BI protein expression (approximately 90%), which resulted in decreased beta-C and ZEA uptakes by 51% and 87%, respectively. Thus, the present data show that RPE cells preferentially take up xanthophylls versus the carotene by a process that appears to be entirely SR-BI-dependent for ZEA and partly so for beta-C. This mechanism may explain, in part, the preferential accumulation of xanthophylls in the macula of the retina.

  8. Comparison of toxicity neutralization-, ELISA- and PCR tests for typing of Clostridium perfringens and detection of the enterotoxin gene by PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kristian; Ahrens, Peter


    ability to detect the or toxin, the lecithinase test and PCR test (PCR(alpha)) concordantly detected the ct toxin and the alpha toxin gene, respectively. A monoclonal enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a PCR(beta) test were compared and were in accordance for the detection of the beta toxin......A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed for the specific amplification of a part of each of the five Clostridium perfringens toxin genes: alpha (alpha), beta (beta), epsilon (epsilon), iota (iota), and enterotoxin (CPE). While the toxicity neutralization test (TNT) only showed limited...... (gene) from pure and mixed cultures from piglets suffering from necrotizing enteritis. However, the PCR(beta) test was superior to the ELISA for detection of the beta toxin (gene) in necrotic intestinal mucosa without culturing. An internal standard to be co-amplified with the beta toxin gene...

  9. Thermoluminescence dosimetric properties of a new thin beta detector (LiF:Mg, Cu, P; GR-200F) in comparison with highly sensitive Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C beta dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Faramawy, N A [GSF-National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute for Radiation Protection, D-85758 Neuherberg (Germany); Goeksu, H Y [GSF-National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute for Radiation Protection, D-85758 Neuherberg (Germany); Panzer, W [GSF-National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute for Radiation Protection, D-85758 Neuherberg (Germany)


    There is an increasing need for efficient beta detectors to fulfil ICRU recommendations for new quantities especially in the field of medical physics and retrospective dosimetry. The thermoluminescence properties of thin LiF:Mg, Cu, P (GR-200F) tapes produced in 1998 by Sange Company, People's Republic of China, are investigated and compared with those of highly sensitive thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C beta detectors as regards their applicability in the detection of low energy photons and beta particles. The radiation dose response, minimum detectable dose, reproducibility of measurements and effect of residual signal at low dose are assessed for the possible low level beta dosimetry use. The radiation dose response and photon and beta detection efficiencies are tested under practical laboratory conditions. The effects of indoor fluorescent light and residual signal after the first read-out are investigated with a view to optimising handling conditions such as post-irradiation and pre-heating treatments for routine dosimetry. The photon energy responses of the detectors are investigated using 150 keV filtered x-rays and {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays.

  10. TP53 and Beta-catenin mutations in liver tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Hainaut


    Full Text Available

    HBV and HCV play key roles in the etiopathogenesis of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC . Studies mostly based on cases from Western countries suggest distinct genetic pathways of carcinogenesis involving either TP53 or CTTNB1 mutations. Inappropriate reactivation of Wnt pathway due to mutations in CTNNB1 (Beta-Catenin gene itself is also frequently reported. Mutant Beta-catenin escapes to ubiquitination and down regulation by GSK3-B, it accumulates and trans-activates variety of oncogenes involved in neoplasmic transformation mimicking Wnt pathway activation. Taking into consideration viral infection, chromosome instability and TP53 /Beta-catenin alterations, Laurent-Puig et al. described two distinct HCC profiles in a serie of 137 HCC cases , the first one associates HBV infection with frequent chromosomal alteration and distributes with TP53 mutations, the second would be observed in HBV negative large sized tumors and distributes with Beta-catenin mutations. We have investigated the status of HBV and HCV infections and of genetic alterations in TP53 and CTTNB1 in 26 patients with HCC from Thailand. In tumours, HBV DNA was found in 19 cases (73% and HCV RNA in 4 cases (15.4% cases, 3 of whom were co-infected. Among the 19 HBV positive cases, sequencing of S gene showed genotype C in 82% and genotype B in 18%. Furthermore, 5/19 cases were negative for HBsAg and were categorized as occult HBV infections. TP53 mutations were detected in 9 cases (34,6% including 7 mutations at codon 249 (AGG to AGT, arginine to serine, considered as ";fingerprint"; of mutagenesis by aflatoxin metabolites. All cases with 249ser mutation had overt HBV infection.

    CTNNB1 mutations were found in 6/26 cases (23%, 4 of whom also had TP53 mutation. There was no significant association between CTTNB1

  11. Study of sugar beet viruses transmitted by Polymyxa betae in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rysanek Pavel


    Full Text Available Sugar beet viruses transmitted by Polymyxa betae are very widespread in the Czech Republic. Beet soil-borne virus (BSBV is present in almost all fields used for sugar beet growing, beet virus Q (BVQ is present in about 50% of fields but beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV is present in some limited regions only. It means that mixed infections of sugar beet by at least two viruses are quite common in the field. P. betae also occurs in almost all fields where sugar beet is now grown. Only two populations of P. betae not transmitting any virus were found. Cystosori of P. betae can harbour viruses without loosing infectivity for a very long time. We were able to detect these viruses in plants grown in soil stored dry for 12 years. BNYVV can cause serious yield losses under mideuropean conditions reaching up to 50% of sugar yield, whereas harmfulness BSBV and BVQ is questionable, because they also occur in fields with no problems concerning sugar beet growing. The host range of these viruses was studied. Both infect all types of beet (sugar fodder, red beet, mangold and spinach and usually are detectable in root system only. Other chenopodiaceous plants are infected only by some virus strains. These strains are also able to spread into above-ground parts of plants.

  12. Alpha and beta particle induced scintillations in liquid and solid neon

    CERN Document Server

    Michniak, R A; McKinsey, D N; Doyle, J M


    Scintillations induced by alpha and beta particles in liquid and solid neon are studied and their light yield measured. Charged particle scintillation in neon is primarily in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV). We detect this EUV light by converting it to blue using a wavelength shifting fluor and detecting the blue light with a photomultiplier tube. It is observed that liquid neon is a somewhat less-efficient scintillator than liquid helium for both alpha and beta radiation while the light yield in solid neon is greater than in liquid helium. Based on our measurements of the relative light yields of liquid and solid neon to liquid helium whose absolute light yield has previously been determined, we find that an alpha source in liquid neon produces up to 5900 photons per MeV while a beta source produces up to 7400 photons per MeV. In solid neon, we find that an alpha particle produces up to 9300 photons per MeV while a beta particle produces up to 17,000 photons per MeV. We observe a significant dependence of the ...

  13. ADAMTS1 is regulated by interleukin-1beta, not by hypoxia, in chondrosarcoma. (United States)

    Kalinski, Thomas; Krueger, Sabine; Sel, Saadettin; Werner, Kerstin; Röpke, Martin; Roessner, Albert


    Angiogenesis is characteristic of cartilage tumors, not of normal cartilage tissue. In addition to our previous report on differential expression of proangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) in cartilage tumors, we analyzed the expression of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 1 (ADAMTS1), which has been identified as a potent inhibitor of VEGF-A. We further used a chondrosarcoma cell line to study the effect of interleukin (IL)-1beta and hypoxia on the regulation of ADAMTS1 and VEGF-A expression. ADAMTS1 was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry in all analyzed samples from enchondromas, conventional chondrosacromas, and dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas without exception. In contrast to previous reports on other cancers, we did not detect a consistent decrease in ADAMTS1 expression in chondrosarcomas. Interleukin-1beta stimulation, not hypoxia, transcriptionally downregulated ADAMTS1 in chondrosarcoma cells, whereas VEGF-A expression was upregulated either by hypoxia or IL-1beta. We conclude that ADAMTS1 and VEGF-A in chondrosarcoma cells are regulated independently from each other. We believe that IL-1beta has a stronger impact on vascularization in chondrosarcomas than hypoxia, as both factors, ADAMTS1 and VEGF-A, are regulated in a way that favors angiogenesis.

  14. beta-Scission of C-3 (beta-carbon) alkoxyl radicals on peptides and proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Headlam, H A; Mortimer, A; Easton, C J


    of new reactive groups, including hydroperoxides. These processes can result in the loss of structural or enzymatic activity. Backbone fragmentation is known to occur via a number of mechanisms, most of which involve hydrogen abstraction from the alpha-carbon site on the backbone. In this study, we...... demonstrate that initial attack at a side chain site, the beta-position (C-3), can give rise to formation of alpha-carbon radicals, and hence backbone cleavage, via the formation and subsequent beta-scission of C-3 alkoxyl radicals. This beta-scission reaction is rapid (k estimated to be >10(7) s(-)(1)) even...

  15. Disordered beta-catenin expression and E-cadherin/CDH1 promoter methylation in gastric carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wang; Fan Zhang; Ping-Ping Wu; Xu-Cheng Jiang; Lin Zheng; Ying-Yan Yu


    AIM: To investigate the distribution of beta-catenin in nuclei or membrane/cytoplasm of gastric carcinoma cells,the relationship between E-cadherin gene methylation and its expression, and the role of beta-catenin and E-cadherin as potential molecular markers in predicting tumor infiltration.METHODS: Twenty-nine cases of gastric carcinoma,classified as diffuse and intestinal variants, were selected for study. Nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins were purified and beta-catenin content was detected by ELISA. DNA methylation of E-cadherin/CDH1 gene promoter was studied by methylation-specific PCR and compaired with E-cadherin expression detected by immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: In 27 cases of gastric carcinoma, the ratio of beta-catenin content between nuclei and membrane/cytoplasm was correlated with the T-classification (r =0.392, P = 0.043). The significance was present between T2 and T3 groups. No correlation was detected between diffuse and intestinal variants in terms of their betacatenin distribution. In 21 cases of diffuse variants of gastric carcinoma, there was a difference in E-cadherin expression between CDH1 gene-methylated group and non-methylated group (29 % vs 71%, P = 0.027).No correlation between CDH1 gene methylation and T-classification was found, neither was the significance between E-cadherin expression and tumor infiltration grade.CONCLJSION: Comparative analysis of nuclear and membrane/cytoplasmic beta-catenin can predict local tumor infiltration. E-cadherin/CDH1 gene methylation is an important cause for its gene silence in diffuse variant gastric carcinoma. Methylation of CDH1 gene in the absence of E-cadherin is an early event in gastric carcinogenesis.

  16. Strain-dependent differences in sensitivity of rat beta-cells to interleukin 1 beta in vitro and in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, J I; Andersen, H U; Mauricio, D


    The aim of this study was to investigate whether strain-dependent differences in beta-cell sensitivity to interleukin (IL) 1 beta exist in vitro and in vivo and if so, whether these differences correlate to variations in IL-1 beta-induced islet inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression....../kg) or vehicle for 5 days. All the strains investigated were susceptible to IL-1 beta-induced changes in body weight, food intake, temperature, and plasma glucagon and corticosterone. However, IL-1 beta induced hyperglycemia and impairment of beta-cell glucose responsiveness in WK/Mol and LS/Mol rats...

  17. Immunoreactivity for thymosin beta 4 and thymosin beta 10 in the adult rat oro-gastro-intestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nemolato


    Full Text Available Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4 and thymosin beta 10 (Tβ10 are two members of the β-thymosin family, involved in multiple cellular activities in different organs in multiple animal species. Here we report the expression pattern of Tβ4 and Tβ10 in rat tissues, in the gut and in annexed glands. The two peptide were differently expressed: Tβ4 was absent in salivary glands whereas Tβ10 was expressed in parotid and in submandibular glands. Tβ4 was mildly expressed in the tongue and in the oesophagus, where Tβ10 was absent. A similar expression was found in the stomach, ileum and colon mucosa. In pancreas Tβ4 reactivity was restricted to the Langerhans islet cells; Tβ4 was also detected in the exocrine cells. Both peptide were not expressed in liver cells. When the rat expression pattern in rat organs was compared to reactivity for Tβ4 and Tβ10 in humans, marked differences were found. Our data clearly indicate a species-specific expression of Tβ4 and Tβ10, characterized by the actual unpredictability of the expression of these peptides in different cells and tissues. The common high expression of Tβ4 in mast cells, both in humans and in rats, represents one of the few similarities between these two species.

  18. Immunoreactivity for Thymosin Beta 4 and Thymosin Beta 10 in the Adult Rat Oro-Gastro-Intestinal tract (United States)

    Nemolato, S; Ekstrom, J.; Cabras, T.; Gerosa, C.; Fanni, D.; Di Felice, E.; Locci, A.; Messana, I.; Castagnola, M.; Faa, G.


    Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) and thymosin beta 10 (Tβ10) are two members of the β-thymosin family, involved in multiple cellular activities in different organs in multiple animal species. Here we report the expression pattern of Tβ4 and Tβ10 in rat tissues, in the gut and in annexed glands. The two peptide were differently expressed: Tβ4 was absent in salivary glands whereas Tβ10 was expressed in parotid and in submandib