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Sample records for beta detection

  1. Alpha and beta detection and spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saro, S.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of alpha and beta radioactive decay, the interaction of alpha and beta particles with matter, and their detection and spectrometry are dealt with in seven chapters: 1. Alpha transformation of atomic nuclei; 2. Basic properties of detectors and statistics of detection; 3. Alpha detectors and spectrometers; 4. Applications of alpha detection and spectrometry; 5. Beta transformation of atomic nuclei; 6. Beta particle detectors and spectrometers; 7. Detection of low energy beta particles. Chapter 8 is devoted to sampling and preparation of samples for radiometry. (E.F.)

  2. Electrets for beta radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, L.L.; Caldas, L.V.E.; Mascarenhas, S.

    1983-01-01

    Electret dosimetry has been reviewed by Gross. A cylindrical electret ionization-chamber type dosimeter has been studied for X and gamma rays and neutrons. The principle of the dosimeter is electret charge compensation due to ionization in the chamber volume. Electret ionization chambers can be designed with one or more electrets and in various shapes. This study is concerned with a simple system, similar to a cylindrical ionization chamber (sensitive volume: 3,5 cm 3 ) using teflon electrets. Aluminum and lucite were used as wall-materials. Other experiences were performed using chambers without wall, i.e., without defined sensitive volume. The teflon electrets were obtained by Corona discharge in the gas surrounding them. The measurement of the electret charge was made by induction using a co-axial insulated metal chamber connected to an electrometer Keithley 610C. By measuring the charge before and after irradiation it is possible to obtain a calibration curve: charge (Q) versus absorbed dose (D) for the dosimeter. The irradiation setup used was the Beta Secondary Standard System of IPEN calibration laboratory with four beta sources: 90 Sr 90 Y (74 and 1850 MBq), 204 Tl (18,5 MBq) and 147 Pm (518 MBq). In some cases a 85 Kr source was also used. The electrets were tested in different radiation field geometries: electret axis parallel and perpendicular to the field. In conclusion, depending on the wall material and radiation field geometry, the teflon electret detector can be used for different dose interval determinations, using beta radiation

  3. Using natural beta emission for detecting concealed tobacco in parcels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Jeremy; Hussein, Esam M.A.

    2007-01-01

    It is suspected that postal systems are used for the illegal shipment of tobacco products to circumvent taxation and excise payments. This paper demonstrates that beta-particle emission from the potassium-40 contained in tobacco can be used to passively detect its presence in paperboard postal parcels. The same concept can be utilized for the detection of marijuana, whose leaves are also rich in 40 K. The combination of high beta activity and a low weight is a good indicator of the presence of these two contraband materials

  4. Using natural beta emission for detecting concealed tobacco in parcels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Jeremy [Laboratory for Threat Material Detection, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada); Hussein, Esam M.A. [Laboratory for Threat Material Detection, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada)], E-mail: hussein@unb.ca

    2007-10-15

    It is suspected that postal systems are used for the illegal shipment of tobacco products to circumvent taxation and excise payments. This paper demonstrates that beta-particle emission from the potassium-40 contained in tobacco can be used to passively detect its presence in paperboard postal parcels. The same concept can be utilized for the detection of marijuana, whose leaves are also rich in {sup 40}K. The combination of high beta activity and a low weight is a good indicator of the presence of these two contraband materials.

  5. Phenotypic detection of beta-lactamases production in enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Beta-lactam antibiotics are the most commonly used antibacterial drugs. However, many bacteria have developed resistance to these antibiotics, and the most common form of resistance is the production of beta-lactamase enzymes. Many members of the Enterobacteriaceae family produce different types of these enzymes. Objective. The aim of this study was to perform phenotypic detection of production and identification of beta-lactamase type in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from different clinical specimens from patients hospitalized in the Clinical Center of Serbia. Methods. The strains of Enterobacteriaceae were collected between November 2011 and January 2012 in the laboratory of the Clinical Center of Serbia. The isolates were identified according to the standard microbiology procedures and confirmed by the Vitek2 automated system. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method, and the phenotypic detection of production and identification of betalactamases was performed according to previously described methodologies. Results. In this study, a total of 172 Enterobacteriaceae strains were isolated. Further testing was performed on 54/145 (37.2% strains showing decreased susceptibility to beta-lactam antibiotics: 13/85 (15.3% Escherichia coli, 31/46 (67.4% Klebsiella pneumoniae and 10/14 (71.4% Proteus mirabilis. Among them, 40/145 (27.6% strains produced extended spectrum betalactamases (ESBLs, 9/145 (6.2% - AmpC, 1/145 (0.7% - K1 beta-lactamase and 4/145 (2.8% - carbapenemases. Carbapenemases were predominantly detected in K. pneumoniae (75%. Conclusion. Enterobacteriaceae produce different types of betalactamases, and the most common type in our study was ESBLs. Production of carbapenemases detected in Enterobacteriaceae is also an associated problem. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON 175039

  6. Project for detecting the double beta decay of 136Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyajima, M.; Sasaki, S.; Tawara, H.

    1992-01-01

    For detecting the nuclear double beta decay of 136 Xe, a liquid-xenon positive-ion collector and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer are under development for detecting the decay product 136 Ba. Two sets of lasers are used with the mass spectrometer. An Nd-YAG laser is used for sampling 136 Ba from the surface of the positive-ion collector electrode, and a dye laser pumped by an Nd-YAG laser is used for the selective ionization of 136 Ba. The principle of measurements as well as the experimental apparatus and procedures are described in detail, together with our future plans. (orig.)

  7. State-of-the-Art Beta Detection and Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David M. Hamby

    2008-01-01

    The research funded by this NEER grant establishes the framework for a detailed understanding of the challenges in beta dosimetry, especially in the presence of a mixed radiation field. The work also stimulated the thinking of the research group which will lead to new concepts in digital signal processing to allow collection of detection signals and real-time analysis such that simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy can take place. The work described herein (with detail in the many publications that came out of this research) was conducted in a manner that provided dissertation and thesis topics for three students, one of whom was completely funded by this grant. The overall benefit of the work came in the form of a dramatic shift in signal processing that is normally conducted in analog pulse shape analysis. Analog signal processing was shown not to be feasible for this type of work; digital signal processing was a must. This, in turn, led the research team to a new understanding of pulse analysis, one in which expands the state-of-the-art in simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy with a single detector

  8. State-of-the-Art Beta Detection and Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David M. Hamby

    2008-08-15

    The research funded by this NEER grant establishes the framework for a detailed understanding of the challenges in beta dosimetry, especially in the presence of a mixed radiation field. The work also stimulated the thinking of the research group which will lead to new concepts in digital signal processing to allow collection of detection signals and real-time analysis such that simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy can take place. The work described herein (with detail in the many publications that came out of this research) was conducted in a manner that provided dissertation and thesis topics for three students, one of whom was completely funded by this grant. The overall benefit of the work came in the form of a dramatic shift in signal processing that is normally conducted in analog pulse shape analysis. Analog signal processing was shown not to be feasible for this type of work; digital signal processing was a must. This, in turn, led the research team to a new understanding of pulse analysis, one in which expands the state-of-the-art in simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy with a single detector.

  9. Deep UV emitting scintillators for alpha and beta particle detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30606 (United States); Jia, D.D.; Lewis, L.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Feofilov, S.P. [A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Meltzer, R.S., E-mail: rmeltzer@physast.uga.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30606 (United States)

    2011-03-21

    Several deep UV emitting scintillators, whose emission falls in the solar blind region of the spectrum (200-280 nm), are described and their scintillator properties are characterized. They include LaPO{sub 4}:Pr, YPO{sub 4}:Pr, YAlO{sub 3}:Pr, Pr(PO{sub 3}){sub 3}, YPO{sub 4}:Bi and ScPO{sub 4}. These materials would facilitate the detection of ionizing radiation in open areas, even during the daylight hours, and could be used to support large area surveys that monitor for the presence of ionization radiation due, for example, to system leaks or transfer contamination. These materials can be used in the form of powders, thin films or paints for radiation detection. They are characterized for both beta radiation using electron beams (2-35 keV) and {sup 137}Cs and alpha radiations using {sup 241}Am sources. Their absolute light yields are estimated and are compared to that of Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce. Their light yields decrease as a function of electron energy but at 10 keV they approach 8000 ph/MeV.

  10. Development of thin dosemeters of CaSO4: Dy for beta radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    Thin pellets of CaSO: Dy (0,20mm) were produced and tested in beta radiation fields. The Thermolumiscent (TL) characteristics studied were sensitivity, reproducibility, lower detection limit, linearity of TL response with absorved dose energy dependence. The results show the usefulness of this thin pellets in beta radiation detection. (Author) [pt

  11. Antibiotic resistance profile and phenotypic detection of beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Cockroaches are carriers of numerous microorganisms. However, there is paucity of information on their role as potential reservoir for beta-lactamase producers. Objectives: This research determined the antibiotics susceptibility profile of Beta-lactamase producing Gram-negative bacteria isolated from ...

  12. Studies of metal-biomolecule systems in liquids with beta-detected NMR

    CERN Document Server

    Walczak, Michal

    2017-01-01

    My internship took place within a small research team funded via the European Research Council (ERC Starting Grant: Beta-Drop NMR) at ISOLDE. It was devoted to laser spin-polarization and beta-detected NMR techniques and their future applications in chemistry and biology. I was involved in the design and tests of the beta-NMR spectrometer which will be used in the upcoming experiments. In this way I have been exposed to many topics in physics (atomic and nuclear physics), experimental techniques (vacuum technology, lasers, beta detectors, electronics, DAQ software), as well as chemistry and biology (NMR on metal ions, metal ion binding to biomolecules, quantum chemistry calculations).

  13. The calculation of the detection efficiency in the calibration of gross alpha-beta systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marian Romeo Calin; Ileana Radulescu; Alexandru Erminiu Druker

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a method for efficiency calibration of a measuring alpha-beta system PROTEAN ORTEC, MPC-2000-DP, using standard radioactive sources. The system is used to measure gross alpha-beta activity concentrations in environmental samples. The calculated efficiencies of detection were subsequently introduced in the system for two working geometries: measuring geometry-gross alpha-beta ε α g = 31,37 ± 0.25 (%)-the alpha efficiency and ε β g 44.94 ± 0.69 (%)-the beta efficiency, where the spillover factor is X talk g = 25.59 ± 0.50 (%) and measuring geometry up alpha-beta ε α u 36.23 ± 0.29 (%)-the alpha efficiency and ε β u = 48.53 ± 0.74 (%)-the beta efficiency, where the spillover factor is X talk u 31.08 ± 0.60 (%). (author)

  14. Beta-induced fluorescence detection in liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolme-Lawes, D.J.; Massey, S.; Warwick, P.

    1981-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of beta-induced fluorescence is used to determine the factors which influence the sensitivity of the technique as applied to liquid chromatography. Equations are presented for detector response and for signal-to-noise ratios and the theoretical response for a typical detector is compared with experimentally determined values. (author)

  15. Detection of Beta-rays by using Plastic Scintillating Fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Hee

    2005-02-01

    Optical fibers have been used as sensing materials in various nuclear applications. Optical fiber sensors have proven to present several advantages as compared with other conventional sensors. They can be prepared in very small sizes and they are light enough to be easily put into very narrow channels such as between nuclear to be easily put into very narrow channels such as between nuclear fuel rods. No electrical power is needed to the sensor part so they are less susceptible to troubles in harsh environments such as underground and underwater. Optical fiber sensors cost relatively cheap to make, so that they are more suitable for multi-point radiation monitoring such as in nuclear power plants, accelerators, fusion study facilities. If one develops radiation sensors using scintillating optical fibers, that can directly measure the concentration of 3 H or 14 C in radioactive liquid, they can be useful tools to substitute the current liquid scintillation counters. They can be also used to measure the radioactivity of liquid radioactive wastes by dipping into the liquid wastes. Recently, several new scintillating materials of high density and low hygroscopicity have been found, and they can be transformed into good radiation-detection tools when they are combined with optical fibers. In this study, we have used commercially available plastic scintillating fibers of Bicron model BCF-12 (0.5mm, 1mm in diameter) to detect beta rays emitted from 3 H, 14 C. Several types of radiation sensors were constructed : each was constructed with thirty strands of the fibers being packed an aluminum tube. The optical signals generated inside the fiber bundle were converted into electrical pluses by a photomultiplier tube(PMT). The pulses were counted either through a non-coincidence circuit or a coincidence circuit. Two types of sensors were constructed for the non-coincidence counting. The open type (sensor A) is a sensor for which one end of the fibers is open and the other end

  16. Characteristics of beta detection and dose measurement at Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulvehill, J.M.; Brackenbush, L.W.

    1987-02-01

    This report considers the current state of the art of beta dosimetry practices and beta detection methods used by health physicists at US Department of Energy facilities. This information is based on a survey of DOE facilities. Beta measurements are technically difficult and innovative efforts must be expended to improve their accuracy. Perhaps the most pronounced problem is that beta dosimetry and instrumentation in use are highly energy and angular dependent. Many believe that beta exposures are adequately controlled because beta to photon ratios are assumed to be low. This assumption is not always valid as demonstrated by the accident at Three Mile Island (TMI). Significant beta doses exist where personnel are exposed to mixed fission products; for example, chemical reprocessing plants, reactor accidents, or where uranium metals are processed. This report is part of an effort to increase the DOE response to this technically difficult area of health protection. Problem areas are addressed and methods recommended to improve beta dosimetry through a cooperative effort among the various DOE contractors. 34 refs., 2 figs., 16 tabs

  17. A detection system for very low-energy protons from {beta}-delayed proton decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiridon, A.; Pollacco, E.; Trache, L.; Simmons, E.; McCleskey, M.; Roeder, B. T.; Tribble, R. E.; Pascovici, G.; Riallot, M.; Mols, J. P.; Kebbiri, M. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3366 (United States); CEA/IRFU Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3366 (United States); Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); CEA/IRFU Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2012-11-20

    We have recently developed a gas based detection system called AstroBox, motivated by nuclear astrophysics studies. The goal was to detect very low-energy protons from {beta}-delayed p-decay with reduced beta background and improved energy resolution. The detector was tested using the {beta}-delayed proton-emitter 23Al previously studied with a set-up based on thin double-sided Si strip detectors. The proton spectrum obtained with AstroBox showed no beta background down to {approx}80 keV. The low energy (206 keV, 267 keV) proton peaks were positively identified, well separated, and the resolution was improved.

  18. Optimization of Plastic Scintillator Thicknesses for Online Beta Detection in Mixed Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourtangestani, K.; Machrafi, R. [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada)

    2013-07-15

    For efficient beta detection in a mixed beta-gamma field, Monte Carlo simulation models have been developed to optimize the thickness of a plastic scintillator used in whole body monitor. The simulation has been performed using MCNP/X code and different thicknesses of plastic scintillators ranging from 150 to 600 {mu}m have been used. The relationship between the thickness of the scintillator and the efficiency of the detector has been analysed. For 150 {mu}m thickness, an experimental investigation has been conducted with different beta sources at different positions on the scintillator and the counting efficiency of the unit has been measured. Evaluated data along with experimental ones have been discussed. A thickness of 300 {mu}m to 500 {mu}m has been found to be an optimum thickness for better beta detection efficiency in the presence of low energy gamma ray. (author)

  19. Beta-lactamase detection in Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno F. Robles

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study were to evaluate the presence/production of beta-lactamases by both phenotypic and genotypic methods, verify whether results are dependent of bacteria type (Staphylococcus aureus versus coagulase-negative Staphylococcus - CNS and verify the agreement between tests. A total of 200 bacteria samples from 21 different herds were enrolled, being 100 CNS and 100 S. aureus. Beta-lactamase presence/detection was performed by different tests (PCR, clover leaf test - CLT, Nitrocefin disk, and in vitro resistance to penicillin. Results of all tests were not dependent of bacteria type (CNS or S. aureus. Several S. aureus beta-lactamase producing isolates were from the same herd. Phenotypic tests excluding in vitro resistance to penicillin showed a strong association measured by the kappa coefficient for both bacteria species. Nitrocefin and CLT are more reliable tests for detecting beta-lactamase production in staphylococci.

  20. Optimization of plastic scintillator thicknesses for online beta/gamma detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourtangestani K.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available For efficient beta detection in a mixed beta gamma field, Monte Carlo simulation models have been built to optimize the thickness of a plastic scintillator, used in a whole body monitor. The simulation has been performed using the MCNP/X code for different thicknesses of plastic scintillator from 150 μm to 600 μm. The relationship between the thickness of the scintillator and the efficiency of the detector has been analyzed. For 150 μm thickness, an experimental investigation has been conducted with different beta sources at different positions on the scintillator and the counting efficiency of the unit has been measured. Evaluated data along with experimental ones have been discussed. A thickness of 300 μm to 500 μm has been found to be the optimum thickness for high efficiency beta detection in the presence of low energy gamma-rays.

  1. CaSO4: Dy + Teflon dosimetric pellets for X, beta and gamma radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, L.L.; Lima, M.F.

    1987-08-01

    CaSO 4 : Dy + TEFLON dosimetric pellets with high sensitivity and low cost for X, beta and gamma radiation monitoring were studied and developed by the Dosimetric Material Production Laboratory of the Radiological Protection Departament and are disposable for sale. The thickness of the pellets are suitable for X, beta and gamma radiation measurements. The dosimetric properties of these pellets were determined and presented in this work. The results show the usefulness of 0,20mm thick pellets for beta radiation monitoring and 0,80mm thick pellets for x and gamma radiation detection. (Author) [pt

  2. Detection of metallo-beta-lactamase producing Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2016-02-24

    Feb 24, 2016 ... Since the increasing prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa spp., accurate detection of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) such as blaVIM type enzyme producing isolates became very important. However, phenotypic MBL detection methods previously reported are not highly sensitive or.

  3. High Sensitivity Detection of Xe Isotopes Via Beta-Gamma Coincidence Counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowyer, Ted W.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Reeder, Paul L.

    1999-01-01

    Measurement of xenon fission product isotopes is a key element in the global network being established to monitor the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed an automated system for separating Xe from air which includes a beta-gamma counting system for 131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe, and 135Xe. Betas and conversion electrons are detected in a plastic scintillation cell containing the Xe sample. The counting geometry is nearly 100% for beta and conversion electrons. The resolution in the pulse height spectrum from the plastic scintillator is sufficient to observe distinct peaks for specific conversion electrons. Gamma and X-rays are detected in a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector which surrounds the plastic scintillator sample cell. Two-dimensional pulse height spectra of gamma energy versus beta energy are obtained. Each of the four xenon isotopes has a distinctive signature in the two-dimensional energy array. The details of the counting system, examples of two-dimensional beta-gamma data, and operational experience with this counting system will be described

  4. New detection modules for gamma, beta and X-ray cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azman, S.; Bolle, E.; Dang, K.Q.; Dang, W.; Dietzel, K.I.; Froberg, T.; Gaarder, P.E.; Gjaerum, J.A.; Haugen, S.H.; Hellum, G.; Henriksen, J.R.; Johanson, T.M.; Kobbevik, A.; Maehlum, G.; Meier, D.; Mikkelsen, S.; Ninive, I.; Oya, P.; Pavlov, N.; Pettersen, D.M.; Sundal, B.M.; Talebi, J.; Yoshioka, K.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Ideas ASA is developing new detection modules for gamma, beta and X-ray cameras. Recent developments focus on modules using various semi-conductor materials (CZT, HgI, Si). The development includes ASIC design, detector module development, and implementation in camera heads. In this presentation we describe the characteristics of important ASICs and its properties in terms of electronic noise, and the modes for measuring signals (switched current modes, sparsified modes, self triggered modes). The ASICs are specific for detectors and applications. We describe recent developments using various semi - conductor materials. We describe important design aspects for medical applications and in life science (SPECT, beta, X-ray cameras)

  5. D0 - Chimney Lead Quench Detection, Beta Solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, A.T.

    1993-01-01

    The voltage drop across the superconducting chimney lead is sensed to detect a quench. The return sense lead is mounted outside the chimney. The return sense lead and the superconducting chimney wire form a loop with area A ∼ 1.7 m 2 (information from R. Ru. cinski). Changing flux through area A will induce a voltage in the sense loop and could cause false quench detection. Assume that the field through A changes 1 kGauss (0.1 Wb/m 2 ) in 10 -3 sec. The induced voltage is then: e = d0/dt = dBA/dt and e = 0.1 x 1.7/10 -3 = 170 V. This is probably a very pessimistic estimate, but it shows that we have to watch out. Changes of 100 Gauss in 100 msec (CDF experience?) are probably more likely and cause: e = 0.01 x 1.7/10 -2 ∼ 1.7 V noise. This noise is still too high because trip levels are planned to sit at ∼50 mV? It is practically impossible to predict what the real noise values would be, but I expect them to be in the order of 1 to 10 V. This is more than we can handle and I would expect nuisance trips.

  6. Sensitive detection of rutin based on {beta}-cyclodextrin-chemically reduced graphene/Nafion composite film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Kunping; Wei Jinping [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang Chunming, E-mail: wangcm@lzu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2011-05-30

    Highlights: > {beta}-CD-graphene composite obtained via a simple sonication-induced assembly. > Accelerating electron transfer on electrode to amplify the electrochemical signal. > A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for rutin detection. > Good selectivity and reproducibility for the detection of rutin in real samples. - Abstract: An electrochemical sensor based on chemically reduced graphene (CRG) was developed for the sensitive detection of rutin. To construct the base of the sensor, a novel composite was initially fabricated and used as the substrate material by combining CRG and {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) via a simple sonication-induced assembly. Due to the high rutin-loading capacity on the electrode surface and the upstanding electric conductivity of graphene, the electrochemical response of the fabricated sensor was greatly enhanced and displayed excellent analytical performance for rutin detection from 6.0 x 10{sup -9} to 1.0 x 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1} with a low detection limit of 2.0 x 10{sup -9} mol L{sup -1} at 3{sigma}. Moreover, the proposed electrochemical sensor also exhibited good selectivity and acceptable reproducibility and could be used for the detection of rutin in real samples. Therefore, the present work offers a new way to broaden the analytical applications of graphene in pharmaceutical analysis.

  7. [Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase detection in Enterobacteriaceae and antibiotic susceptibility analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wei; Tong, Ming-hua; Wang, Ji-gui

    2002-02-28

    To detect the extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in family Enterobacteriaceae and analyze the antibiotic susceptibility of those ESBLs-producing strains. ESBLs were determined by the double-disk confirmatory test and 8 antibiotic susceptibilities were tested with the disk disffusion method in those strains producing ESBLs. Forty-seven ESBLs-producing strains comprised of 25 of E. coli, 14 of K. pneumoniae, 5 of E. cloacae, 1 of K. oxytoca, 1 of K. rhinoscleromatis, and 1 of S. liquefaciens. The susceptibility rates of those strains were: 100% for imipenem and meropenem, 89.4% for piperacillin/tazobactam, 72.4% for cefoxitin and 65.9% for cefotetan. E. coli and K. pneumoniae are the prime strains producing ESBLs in Enterobacteriaceae. Imipenem and meropenem are the best drugs to deal with those ESBLs-producing strains. Piperacillin/tazobactam is better than cephamycins and other beta-lactama/beta-lactamase inhibitor combination.

  8. Sensitivity and specificity of various beta-lactam antibiotics and phenotypical methods for detection of TEM, SHV and CTX-M extended-spectrum beta-lactamases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedenic, B; Vranes, J; Mihaljevic, Lj; Tonkic, M; Sviben, M; Plecko, V; Kalenic, S

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of six different beta-lactam antibiotics using five phenotypical tests for detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) based on synergism of beta-lactam antibiotics and clavulanate. Experiments were performed on a set of 80 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains and 105 Escherichia coli strains with previously characterized ESBLs (SHV, TEM and CTX-M). ESBLs were detected by five different phenotypical methods: MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) determination of beta-lactam antibiotics with and without clavulanate, double-disk synergy test (DDST), inhibitor-potentiated disk-diffusion test (IPDDT), CLSI-Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institution (former NCCLS) combined-disk-test, and modified MAST-disk-diffusion test (MAST-DD-test). Seven antibiotics were tested as indicators of ESBL production: ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, aztreonam, ceftibuten, cefpodoxime and cefepime. Ceftazidime and aztreonam were the best indicators for SHV-5, SHV-12 and TEM beta-lactamases whereas cefotaxime and ceftriaxone were the most sensitive in detection of SHV-2 and CTX-M beta-lactamases in DDST, IPDDT and CLSI test. MIC determination of beta-lactam antibiotics with and without clavulanate was the most sensitive method. DDST was the least sensitive test. Double-disk synergy test, which is the most frequently used test for detection of ESBLs in routine laboratories, was the least sensitive independently of the indicator antibiotic. Since MIC determination is a very laborious and time consuming method, we would recommend the NCCLS combined disk test or IPDD test for detection of ESBLs in routine laboratories with 5 mm zone augmentation breakpoint.

  9. Phenotypic and Genotypic Detection of Metallo-beta-lactamases among Imipenem-Resistant Gram Negative Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadzadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:   Imipenem-resistant gram negative bacteria, resulting from metallo-beta-lactamase (MBLs-producing strains have been reported to be among the important causes of nosocomial infections and of serious therapeutic problem worldwide. Because of their broad range, potent carbapenemase activity and resistance to inhibitors, these enzymes can confer resistance to almost all beta-lactams. The prevalence of metallo-beta-lactamase among imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Enerobacteriaceae isolates is determined.Methods:   In this descriptive study 864 clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae, were initially tested for imipenem susceptibility. The metallo-beta-lactamase production was detected using combined disk diffusion, double disk synergy test, and Hodge test. Then all imipenem resistant isolates were tested by PCR for imp, vim and ndm genes. Results:   Among 864 isolates, 62 (7.17 % were imipenem-resistant. Positive phonetypic test for metallo-beta-lactamase was 40 (64.5%, of which 24 (17.1% and 16 (9.2% isolates were Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp., respectively. By PCR method 30 (48.4% of imipenem resistant Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas isolates were positive for MBL-producing genes. None of the Enterobacteriaceae isolates were positive for metallo-beta-lactamase activity. Conclusion:   The results of this study are indicative of the growing number of nosocomial infections associated with multidrug-resistant gram negative bacteria in this region leading to difficulties in antibiotic therapy. Thereby, using of phenotypic methods can be helpful for management of this problem.

  10. Detection of Amp C genes encoding for beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shanthi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Amp C beta-lactamase are Ambler class C enzymes that confer resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins and are not inhibited by beta-lactamase inhibitors. Their detection is crucial, since the phenotypic tests are not standardised leading to ambiguity in interpretation of results. This study was done to detect the types of Amp C prevalent in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Materials and Methods : Seventy-seven consecutive cefoxitin resistant clinical isolates of E. coli (n = 25 and K. pneumoniae (n = 52 were included in the study. Antibiotic susceptibility testing to various classes of antibiotics was performed by disc diffusion using Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC to cefoxitin, imipenem and meropenem were determined by broth microdilution method. Isolates were screened for production of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL. Multiplex PCR was performed for the detection of Amp C genes after phenotypic testing (Hodge test and inhibitor based test. Results : Cefoxitin Hodge test was positive in 40 isolates which included 20 E. coli and 20 K. pneumoniae. There was zone enhancement with boronic acid in 55 isolates, of which 36 were K. pneumoniae and 19 were E. coli. Multiplex PCR detected Amp C in 11/25 E. coli and 12/52 K. pneumoniae isolates. The Amp C genes detected were CIT (Amp C origin - Citrobacter freundii, DHA (Dhahran Hospital, Saudi Arabia, ACC (Ambler class C, EBC (Amp C origin - Enterobacter cloacae groups. ESBL was co-produced in 54 isolates. Conclusions : Amp C was detected in 29.87% of the study isolates. Majority of them co-produced ESBL. The most common Amp C was the CIT family. Screen tests for cefoxitin resistance may be falsely positive due to production of carbapenamases.

  11. Novel cell-based assay for detection of thyroid receptor beta-interacting environmental contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavreva, Diana A; Varticovski, Lyuba; Levkova, Ludmila; George, Anuja A; Davis, Luke; Pegoraro, Gianluca; Blazer, Vicki; Iwanowicz, Luke; Hager, Gordon L

    2016-08-10

    Even though the presence of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with thyroid hormone (TH)-like activities in the environment is a major health concern, the methods for their efficient detection and monitoring are still limited. Here we describe a novel cell assay, based on the translocation of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged chimeric molecule of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the thyroid receptor beta (TRβ) from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in the presence of TR ligands. Unlike the constitutively nuclear TRβ, this GFP-GR-TRβ chimera is cytoplasmic in the absence of hormone while translocating to the nucleus in a time- and concentration-dependent manner upon stimulation with triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid hormone analogue, TRIAC, while the reverse triiodothyronine (3,3',5'-triiodothyronine, or rT3) was inactive. Moreover, GFP-GR-TRβ chimera does not show any cross-reactivity with the GR-activating hormones, thus providing a clean system for the screening of TR beta-interacting EDCs. Using this assay, we demonstrated that Bisphenol A (BPA) and 3,3',5,5'-Tetrabromobisphenol (TBBPA) induced GFP-GR-TRβ translocation at micro molar concentrations. We screened over 100 concentrated water samples from different geographic locations in the United States and detected a low, but reproducible contamination in 53% of the samples. This system provides a novel high-throughput approach for screening for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interacting with TR beta. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Novel cell-based assay for detection of thyroid receptor beta-interacting environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stavreva, Diana A.; Varticovski, Lyuba; Levkova, Ludmila; George, Anuja A.; Davis, Luke; Pegoraro, Gianluca; Blazer, Vicki; Iwanowicz, Luke; Hager, Gordon L.

    2016-01-01

    Even though the presence of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with thyroid hormone (TH)-like activities in the environment is a major health concern, the methods for their efficient detection and monitoring are still limited. Here we describe a novel cell assay, based on the translocation of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)—tagged chimeric molecule of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the thyroid receptor beta (TRβ) from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in the presence of TR ligands. Unlike the constitutively nuclear TRβ, this GFP-GR-TRβ chimera is cytoplasmic in the absence of hormone while translocating to the nucleus in a time- and concentration-dependent manner upon stimulation with triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid hormone analogue, TRIAC, while the reverse triiodothyronine (3,3′,5′-triiodothyronine, or rT3) was inactive. Moreover, GFP-GR-TRβ chimera does not show any cross-reactivity with the GR-activating hormones, thus providing a clean system for the screening of TR beta-interacting EDCs. Using this assay, we demonstrated that Bisphenol A (BPA) and 3,3′,5,5′-Tetrabromobisphenol (TBBPA) induced GFP-GR-TRβ translocation at micro molar concentrations. We screened over 100 concentrated water samples from different geographic locations in the United States and detected a low, but reproducible contamination in 53% of the samples. This system provides a novel high-throughput approach for screening for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interacting with TR beta.

  13. Detection of hard {beta} radiation in water using the Cerenkov effect; Detection des {beta} durs dans l'eau par effet Cerenkov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turck, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-01-01

    The light emitted from a liquid during the passage of a particle of sufficiently high energy can be used to determine the contamination of water by {beta}-emitters. The detector based on this principle requires no special treatment of the water. Particular attention has been paid to the optical yield of the detector. However the excellent sensitivity to which this principle leads can only be attained if the background noise is considerably reduced. The electronics associated with detector make it possible to detect a contamination of 8 x 10{sup -8} {mu}c/cm{sup 3} of strontium-90 in water in about ten minutes. The apparatus presents the double advantage of having a high sensitivity and of being easy to use. Its characteristics make it possible for it to be used for the continuous control of water. (author) [French] La lumiere emise au sein d'un liquide au passage d'une particule suffisamment energetique peut permettre de determiner la contamination d'une eau en emetteurs {beta}. Le detecteur realise sur ce principe ne necessite aucun traitement special de l'eau. Un soin tout particulier a ete apporte a l'etude du rendement optique du detecteur. Cependant l'excellente sensibilite attachee au principe ne peut etre utilisee que si l'on reduit considerablement le bruit de fond. L'electronique associee au detecteur permet de reperer l'existence d'une contamination de 8 x 10{sup -8} {mu}c/cm{sup 3} de strontium-90 dans l'eau en un temps d'une dizaine de minutes. L'appareil presente l'avantage d'allier une grande sensibilite a la facilite d'emploi. Ses performances autorisent son utilisation au controle continu des eaux. (auteur)

  14. A hydrogel biosensor for high selective and sensitive detection of amyloid-beta oligomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun LP

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Liping Sun,1 Yong Zhong,1 Jie Gui,1 Xianwu Wang,1 Xiaorong Zhuang,2 Jian Weng1 1Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering of Fujian Province, Research Center of Biomedical Engineering of Xiamen, Department of Biomaterials, College of Materials, Xiamen University, 2Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Zhongshan Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, People’s Republic of China Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cognitive and memory impairment. It is the most common neurological disease that causes dementia. Soluble amyloid-beta oligomers (AβO in blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF are the pathogenic biomarker correlated with AD. Methods: A simple electrochemical biosensor using graphene oxide/gold nanoparticles (GNPs hydrogel electrode was developed in this study. Thiolated cellular prion protein (PrPC peptide probe was immobilized on GNPs of the hydrogel electrode to construct an AβO biosensor. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was utilized for AβO analysis. Results: The specific binding between AβO and PrPC probes on the hydrogel electrode resulted in an increase in the electron-transfer resistance. The biosensor showed high specificity and sensitivity for AβO detection. It could selectively differentiate AβO from amyloid-beta (Aβ monomers or fibrils. Meanwhile, it was highly sensitive to detect as low as 0.1 pM AβO in artificial CSF or blood plasma. The linear range for AβO detection is from 0.1 pM to 10 nM. Conclusion: This biosensor could be used as a cost-effective tool for early diagnosis of AD due to its high electrochemical performance and bionic structure. Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, amyloid-beta oligomer, graphene, gold nanoparticles, biosensor

  15. A hydrogel biosensor for high selective and sensitive detection of amyloid-beta oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liping; Zhong, Yong; Gui, Jie; Wang, Xianwu; Zhuang, Xiaorong; Weng, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cognitive and memory impairment. It is the most common neurological disease that causes dementia. Soluble amyloid-beta oligomers (AβO) in blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are the pathogenic biomarker correlated with AD. A simple electrochemical biosensor using graphene oxide/gold nanoparticles (GNPs) hydrogel electrode was developed in this study. Thiolated cellular prion protein (PrP C ) peptide probe was immobilized on GNPs of the hydrogel electrode to construct an AβO biosensor. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was utilized for AβO analysis. The specific binding between AβO and PrP C probes on the hydrogel electrode resulted in an increase in the electron-transfer resistance. The biosensor showed high specificity and sensitivity for AβO detection. It could selectively differentiate AβO from amyloid-beta (Aβ) monomers or fibrils. Meanwhile, it was highly sensitive to detect as low as 0.1 pM AβO in artificial CSF or blood plasma. The linear range for AβO detection is from 0.1 pM to 10 nM. This biosensor could be used as a cost-effective tool for early diagnosis of AD due to its high electrochemical performance and bionic structure.

  16. Simulation of complex detection systems in neutrinoless double beta decay experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrea, A.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Nunez-Lagos, R.; Puimedon, J.; Villar, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    The estimated efficiency of several detection systems dedicated to the search of the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76 Ge is reported. In order to perform this work, we have developed the GEOM macro library system which can handle highly complex geometries in simulation problems, allowing to include an accurate description of the experimental setup in a very simple way. Also an internal mechanism for checking the correct location of every boundary defining the geometrical regions is included. The present version of GEOM is implemented in the EGS4 code of Monte Carlo simulation of photons and electron/positron showers, but it can be easily extended to other simulation codes. (orig.)

  17. Influence of surface active agents on the detection of beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, T.B.; Ruegg, E.F.

    1984-01-01

    It has been studied the efficiency of beta irradiation detection by liquid scintillation counting using the pesticide 14 C-lindane as radiation source and scientillation cocktails containing Triton-X, Arkopal, Tinoventin, Extravon-200, Oswalmida, Bigral, ethanol and methanol. Excepting the last 5 products, which led to a phase formation in the mixture, all other compounds, that are easily available in the local market, proved to be good substitute products for the well known Triton-X, an expensive and restrict emulsifier used for liquid scintillation measurement of aqueous solutions. (Author) [pt

  18. Rapid and sensitive determination of beta-phenylethylamine in animal brains by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taga, C; Tsuji, M; Nakajima, T

    1989-05-01

    A reversed phase HPLC method with fluorometric detection for the analysis of beta-phenylethylamine has been developed using p-methoxyphenylethylamine as an internal standard. Two columns, containing 200 microL of Dowex 50-X8 and Amberlite CG-50 respectively, were used to prepare a fraction containing beta-phenylethylamine. The recoveries of beta-phenylethylamine and p-methoxyphenylethylamine were 53.9 +/- 9.4% and 68.1 +/- 12.4%, respectively, and elution profile of p-methoxyphenylethylamine was sufficiently well correlated with that of beta-phenylethylamine. Regional distributions of beta-phenylethylamine in rat and mouse brains were determined. The highest concentrations were found in hypothalamus and hippocampus in both animals.

  19. Using an AMACR (P504S)/34betaE12/p63 cocktail for the detection of small focal prostate carcinoma in needle biopsy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhong; Li, Cuizhen; Fischer, Andrew; Dresser, Karen; Woda, Bruce A

    2005-02-01

    We assessed the usefulness of immunohistochemical analysis with a 3-antibody cocktail (alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase [AMACR, or P504S], 34betaE12, p63) and a double-chromogen reaction for detection of limited prostate cancer in 138 needle biopsy specimens, including 82 with small foci of prostatic adenocarcinoma and 56 benign prostates. When carcinoma was present, red cytoplasmic granular staining (AMACR) in the malignant glands and cells and dark brown nuclear (p63) and cytoplasmic (34betaE12) staining in basal cells of adjacent nonmalignant glands were found. Of 82 cases of small foci of prostatic adenocarcinoma, 78 (95%) expressed AMACR; all malignant glands were negative for basal cell staining. All benign glands adjacent to malignant glands were recognized easily by basal cell marker positivity and little or no AMACR expression. No benign glands were simultaneously positive for AMACR and negative for basal cell markers (specificity, 100%). There were no differences in intensity and numbers of positive glands with double-chromogen staining compared with using 1-color staining. Our results indicate that immunohistochemistry with a 3-antibody cocktail and double chromogen is a simple and easy assay that can be used as a routine test, which overcomes the problems of studying small lesions in prostate needle biopsies with multiple immunohistochemical stains.

  20. Lower limits of detection in using carbon nanotubes as thermoluminescent dosimeters of beta radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Abdulaziz; Jurewicz, Izabela; Alalawi, Amani I.; Alyahyawi, Amjad; Alsubaie, Abdullah; Hinder, Steven; Bañuls-Ciscar, Jorge; Alkhorayef, Mohammed; Bradley, D. A.

    2017-11-01

    World-wide, on-going intensive research is being seen in adaptation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for a wide variety of applications, particular interest herein being in the thermoluminescent (TL) properties of CNTs and their sensitivity towards energetic radiations. Using beta radiation delivering dose levels of a few Gy it has been observed in previous study that strain and impurity defects in CNTs give rise to significant TL yields, providing an initial measure of the extent to which electron trapping centres exist in various qualities of CNT, from super-pure to raw. This in turn points to the possibility that there may be considerable advantage in using such media for radiation dosimetry applications, including for in vivo dosimetry. CNTs also have an effective atomic number similar to that of adipose tissue, making them suitable for soft tissue dosimetry. In present investigations various single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) samples in the form of buckypaper have been irradiated to doses in the range 35-1.3 Gy, use being made of a 90Sr beta source, the response of the CNTs buckypaper with dose showing a trend towards linearity. It is shown for present production methodology for buckypaper samples that the raw SWCNT buckypaper offer the greatest sensitivity, detecting doses down to some few tens of mGy.

  1. Predicament in detection and reporting of extended spectrum beta lactamase production in routine antibiotic susceptibility testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, T.; Butt, E.; Raza, S.

    2017-01-01

    This descriptive and cross-sectional study was planned to determine the dilemma of inadvertent detection of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) production in Enterobacteriaceaewhen using inhibition zone size of antibiotic disks of Cefotaxime or Aztreonam in routine antibiotic susceptibility testing as recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Screening and double disk tests were adopted as per CLSI. Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 was used as control strain. Among total specimens of 5346, there were 348 isolates of Escherichia coli(n=235), Klebsiella pneumonia (n=92), Klebsiella oxytoca(n=3) or Proteus mirabilus(n=18). The screening method recommended by CLSI significantly falsely detected ESBL production in 79 (32.3%) isolates (p<0.0001). ESBL detection is important as its frequency is high and treatment of the infection varies with the presence and absence of ESBL. To avoid false reporting, proper phenotypic detection of ESBL confirmatory method-like double-disk synergy test, should be used routinely. (author)

  2. Validity of in vivo [123I]beta-CIT SPECT in detecting MDMA-induced neurotoxicity in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Win, Maartje M. L.; de Jeu, Rogier A. M.; de Bruin, Kora; Habraken, Jan B. A.; Reneman, Liesbeth; Booij, Jan; den Heeten, Gerard J.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of a high-resolution pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system, with [(123)I]beta-CIT as a radiotracer, to detect 3,4-methelenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'Ecstasy')-induced loss of serotonin transporters (SERTs) in the living rat brain. In

  3. Comparison of detection methods for extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Kałużna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs could be a major challenge for microbiologists – the difficulties arise mainly from the phenotypic differences among strains.Materials and Methods: Evaluation of ESBLs was performed on 42 strains of E. coli by: 1 DDST on MHA, 2 DDST on MHA with cloxacillin, 3 CT on MHA, according to CLSI, 4 CT on MHA with cloxacillin, 5 Etest ESBL (AB Biodisk, 6 CHROMagarTM ESBL (GRASO, 7 ChromID® ESBL (bioMérieux, and 8 automatic system VITEK2 ESBL test (bioMérieux.Result: Positive results were obtained for 20 strains using method 1, for 18 strains using method 2, 17 by method 3, 14 by method 4, 11 by method 5, 39 by method 6, 40 by method 7, and 15 by method 8. Using Etest ESBL 6.0 non-determinable results were obtained. The most consistent results were obtained when comparing the results of method 3 with results of method 2 (97.6%, and comparing the results obtained using methods 3 and 8 (95.2%.Conclusions: Based on our study we conclude that the chromogenic media can only be used as a screening method for the detection of ESBLs in E. coli rods. Etest is less useful compared to other phenotype methods, due to the impossibility of obtaining results for all the tested strains. Adding cloxacillin to MHA does not increase the frequency of detection of ESBLs in E. coli strains. DDST seems to be the most reliable among phenotypic methods for the detection of ESBLs in E. coli rods.

  4. Prevalence and correlates of beta human papillomavirus detection in fingernail samples from mid-adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Winer

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs have not been evaluated in fingernails from healthy individuals. To determine prevalence and correlates of β-HPVs in fingernails from healthy mid-adult women, we tested archived samples collected from 2011 to 2012 using a multiplex PCR combined with Luminex technology for 46 β-HPV genotypes. One hundred thirteen (61.1% of 185 fingernail samples were positive for β-HPV, and the median number of types detected in positive samples was 2 (interquartile range: 1–4. The most common genotypes detected were HPV-23 (β−2 (13.5%, HPV-38 (β−2 (13.0%, HPV-5 (β−1 (9.2%, HPV-107 (β−2 (8.7%, and HPV-120 (β−2 (8.7%. In multivariate analysis, β-HPV detection was associated with age (prevalence ratio [PR] for women 40–51 years versus 30–39 years = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.05–1.62 and race (PR for non-white versus white race = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.45–0.94. The prevalence of β-HPV in fingernail samples from healthy mid-adult women was similar to the prevalence of β-HPV reported at other cutaneous sites in prior studies. We did not identify any significant health or sexual behavior predictors of β-HPV detection in fingernails. Our results support the hypothesis that fingers may serve as a source of transmission or autoinoculation of cutaneous HPVs to other anatomic sites. Keywords: Fingernails, Women, Beta-HPV, Prevalence, Mid-adult, Risk factor

  5. Liquid Crystal Enabled Early Stage Detection of Beta Amyloid Formation on Lipid Monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadati, Monirosadat [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 USA; Apik, Aslin Izmitli [Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison WI 53706 USA; Armas-Perez, Julio C. [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 USA; Martinez-Gonzalez, Jose [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 USA; Hernandez-Ortiz, Juan P. [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 USA; Departamento de Materiales y Minerales, Facultad de Minas, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellín, Calle 75 # 79A-51, Bloque M17 Medellín Colombia; Abbott, Nicholas L. [Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison WI 53706 USA; de Pablo, Juan J. [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 USA; Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL 60439 USA

    2015-09-09

    Liquid crystals (LCs) can serve as sensitive reporters of interfacial events, and this property has been used for sensing of synthetic or biological toxins. Here it is demonstrated that LCs can distinguish distinct molecular motifs and exhibit a specific response to beta-sheet structures. That property is used to detect the formation of highly toxic protofibrils involved in neurodegenerative diseases, where it is crucial to develop methods that probe the early-stage aggregation of amyloidogenic peptides in the vicinity of biological membranes. In the proposed method, the amyloid fibrils formed at the lipid-decorated LC interface can change the orientation of LCs and form elongated and branched structures that are amplified by the mesogenic medium; however, nonamyloidogenic peptides form ellipsoidal domains of tilted LCs. Moreover, a theoretical and computational analysis is used to reveal the underlying structure of the LC, thereby providing a detailed molecular-level view of the interactions and mechanisms responsible for such motifs. The corresponding signatures can be detected at nanomolar concentrations of peptide by polarized light microscopy and much earlier than the ones that can be identified by fluorescence-based techniques. As such, it offers the potential for early diagnoses of neurodegenerative diseases and for facile testing of inhibitors of amyloid formation.

  6. Evaluation of different phenotypic methods for detection of amp c beta-lactamase producing bacteria in clinical isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.; Usman, J.; Kalim, F.; Gill, M.M.; Khalid, A.; Iqbal, M.; Ingram, P.

    2013-01-01

    To compare the sensitivity and specificity of different phenotypic methods for detection of Amp C betalactamase producing bacteria. Study Design: Analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Army Medical College / National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan, from June 2010 to December 2010. Methodology: A total of 150 clinical isolates were screened for presence of Amp C beta-lactamase by using the cefoxitin disc. The confirmatory methods evaluated were inhibitor based assay (boronic acid), Amp C disc test and Amp C Etest. Three dimensional enzyme extract assay was used as the reference method for determining the sensitivity and specificity. Results: Among the total isolates tested, 62.8% bacteria showed the presence of Amp C beta-lactamase by standard three dimensional enzyme extract assay. Among the three methods compared, boronic acid disk test found out to be highly sensitive (88%) and specific (92%) for the detection of Amp C beta-lactamase producing bacteria. Conclusion: Detection of Amp C production is crucial in order to establish the antibiotic therapy and to attain the favourable clinical outcomes. Implementation of simple tests like boronic acid disk tests in the laboratories will help to alleviate the spread of Amp C beta-lactamase harboring organisms. (author)

  7. Detection of Alzheimer's amyloid beta aggregation by capturing molecular trails of individual assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestergaard, Mun'delanji; Hamada, Tsutomu; Saito, Masato; Yajima, Yoshifumi; Kudou, Monotori; Tamiya, Eiichi; Takagi, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    Assembly of Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides, in particular Aβ-42 is central to the formation of the amyloid plaques associated with neuro-pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Molecular assembly of individual Aβ-42 species was observed using a simple fluorescence microscope. From the molecular movements (aka Brownian motion) of the individual peptide assemblies, we calculated a temporal evolution of the hydrodynamic radius (R H ) of the peptide at physiological temperature and pH. The results clearly show a direct relationship between R H of Aβ-42 and incubation period, corresponding to the previously reported peptide's aggregation kinetics. The data correlates highly with in solution-based label-free electrochemical detection of the peptide's aggregation, and Aβ-42 deposited on a solid surface and analysed using atomic force microscopy (AFM). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first analysis and characterisation of Aβ aggregation based on capturing molecular trails of individual assemblies. The technique enables both real-time observation and a semi-quantitative distribution profile of the various stages of Aβ assembly, at microM peptide concentration. Our method is a promising candidate for real-time observation and analysis of the effect of other pathologically-relevant molecules such as metal ions on pathways to Aβ oligomerisation and aggregation. The method is also a promising screening tool for AD therapeutics that target Aβ assembly.

  8. Detection of Alzheimer’s disease amyloid-beta plaque deposition by deep brain impedance profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béduer, Amélie; Joris, Pierre; Mosser, Sébastien; Fraering, Patrick C.; Renaud, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Objective. Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common form of neurodegenerative disease in elderly people. Toxic brain amyloid-beta (Aß) aggregates and ensuing cell death are believed to play a central role in the pathogenesis of the disease. In this study, we investigated if we could monitor the presence of these aggregates by performing in situ electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements in AD model mice brains. Approach. In this study, electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements were performed post-mortem in APPPS1 transgenic mice brains. This transgenic model is commonly used to study amyloidogenesis, a pathological hallmark of AD. We used flexible probes with embedded micrometric electrodes array to demonstrate the feasibility of detecting senile plaques composed of Aß peptides by localized impedance measurements. Main results. We particularly focused on deep brain structures, such as the hippocampus. Ex vivo experiments using brains from young and old APPPS1 mice lead us to show that impedance measurements clearly correlate with the percentage of Aβ plaque load in the brain tissues. We could monitor the effects of aging in the AD APPPS1 mice model. Significance. We demonstrated that a localized electrical impedance measurement constitutes a valuable technique to monitor the presence of Aβ-plaques, which is complementary with existing imaging techniques. This method does not require prior Aβ staining, precluding the risk of variations in tissue uptake of dyes or tracers, and consequently ensuring reproducible data collection.

  9. Detection of beta-tubulin in the cytoplasm of the interphasic Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Conde, Eduardo; Vargas-Mejía, Miguel Ángel; Díaz-Orea, María Alicia; Hernández-Rivas, Rosaura; Cárdenas-Perea, María Elena; Guerrero-González, Tayde; González-Barrios, Juan Antonio; Montiel-Jarquín, Álvaro José

    2016-08-01

    It is known that the microtubules (MT) of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites form an intranuclear mitotic spindle. However, electron microscopy studies and the employment of anti-beta-tubulin (β-tubulin) antibodies have not exhibited these cytoskeletal structures in the cytoplasm of these parasites. The purpose of this work was to detect β-tubulin in the cytoplasm of interphasic E. histolytica trophozoites. Activated or non-activated HMI-IMSS-strain E. histolytica trophozoites were used and cultured for 72 h at 37 °C in TYI-S-33 medium, and then these were incubated with the anti-β-tubulin antibody of E. histolytica. The anti-β-tubulin antibody reacted with the intranuclear mitotic spindle of E. histolytica-activated trophozoites as control. In contrast, in non-activated interphasic parasites, anti-β-tubulin antibody reacted with diverse puntiform structures in the cytoplasm and with ring-shaped structures localized in the cytoplasm, cellular membrane and endocytic stomas. In this work, for the first time, the presence of β-tubulin is shown in the cytoplasm of E. histolytica trophozoites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Beta-trace protein in ascites and pleural effusions: limits of CSF leakage detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzel, Joanna; Krebs, Alexander; Böttcher, Dominique; Sieb, Manuela; Glocker, Michael O; Lüdemann, Jan; Roser, Markus; Dressel, Alexander

    2012-06-10

    Rhino- and/or otoliquorrhea can be diagnosed by detecting beta-trace protein (β-TP) in nasal or ear secretions, as β-TP is found in high concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) but not in serum. CSF fistulae following trauma or surgery can also occur at other anatomical sites, resulting in CSF leakage into the thoracic and abdominal cavities. By analogy, determination of ß-TP has also been used to diagnose CSF admixture in pleural effusions and ascites. However, no systematic study has yet evaluated the concentrations of β-TP in such fluids in the absence of CSF. To determine the validity of β-TP determination as a marker for the presence of CSF, we investigated β-TP concentrations in pleural effusions and ascites without CSF admixture. Patients from whom samples of ascites or pleural effusion and a paired plasma sample were available were investigated. One hundred sixty-four patients were prospectively recruited. ß-TP concentrations were determined by nephelometry. Mass spectrometric proteome analysis confirmed the presence of ß-TP in the samples. Median β-TP concentrations detected in ascites and pleural effusions (range, 0.014-26.5 mg/L, median 2.29 mg/L) exceeded the corresponding plasma concentrations 2.6-fold. According to cutoffs published to diagnose rhino- and otoliquorrhea, between 6.1% and 95.7% of the specimens would have been erroneously rated CSF-positive. Protein analysis confirmed the presence of β-TP in pleural effusion and ascites. Ascites and pleural effusion contain high concentrations of β-TP that exceed the levels in corresponding plasma. Therefore, β-TP is not a specific marker for the presence of CSF in these fluids.

  11. Xe isotope detection and discrimination using beta spectroscopy with coincident gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, P. L.; Bowyer, T. W.

    1998-02-01

    Beta spectroscopic techniques show promise of significant improvements for a beta-gamma coincidence counter that is part of a system for analyzing Xe automatically separated from air. The previously developed counting system for 131mXe, 133mXe, 133gXe, and 135gXe can be enhanced to give additional discrimination between these Xe isotopes by using the plastic scintillation sample cell as a beta spectrometer to resolve the conversion electron peaks. The automated system will be a key factor in monitoring the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

  12. Applications of Beta Particle Detection for Synthesis and Usage of Radiotracers Developed for Positron Emission Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooraghi, Alex Abreu

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a noninvasive molecular imaging tool that requires the use of a radioactive compound or radiotracer which targets a molecular pathway of interest. We have developed and employed three beta particle radiation detection systems to advance PET. Specifically, the goals of these systems are to: 1. Automate dispensing of solutions containing a positron emitting isotope. 2. Monitor radioactivity on-chip during synthesis of a positron emitting radiotracer. 3. Assay cellular uptake on-chip of a positron emitting radiotracer. Automated protocols for measuring and dispensing solutions containing radioisotopes are essential not only for providing an optimum environment for radiation workers, but also to ensure a quantitatively accurate workflow. For the first project, we describe the development and performance of a system for automated radioactivity distribution of beta particle emitting radioisotopes such as fluorine-18 (F-18). Key to the system is a radiation detector in-line with a peristaltic pump. The system demonstrates volume accuracy within 5 % for volumes of 20 muL or greater. When considering volumes of 20 muL or greater, delivered radioactivity is in agreement with the requested radioactivity as measured with the dose calibrator. The integration of the detector and pump leads to a flexible system that can accurately dispense solutions containing F-18 in radioactivity concentrations directly produced from a cyclotron (~ 0.1-1 mCi/muL), to low activity concentrations intended for preclinical mouse scans (~ 1-10 muCi/muL), and anywhere in between. Electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD) is an attractive microfluidic platform for batch synthesis of PET radiotracers. Visualization of radioisotopes on-chip is critical for synthesis optimization and technological development. For the second project, we describe the development and performance of a Cerenkov/real-time imaging system for PET radiotracer synthesis on EWOD. We also investigate

  13. Method for Phenotypic Detection of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases in Enterobacter Species in the Routine Clinical Setting ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, James Cohen; Diederen, Bram; al Naiemi, Nashwan; Fluit, Ad; Arents, Niek; Thijsen, Steven; Vlaminckx, Bart; Mouton, Johan W.; Leverstein-van Hall, Maurine

    2011-01-01

    In 271 Enterobacter blood culture isolates from 12 hospitals, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) prevalence varied between 0% and 30% per hospital. High prevalence was associated with dissemination, indicating the potential relevance of infection control measures. Screening with cefepime or Vitek 2, followed by a cefepime/cefepime-clavulanate Etest, was an accurate strategy for ESBL detection in Enterobacter isolates (positive predictive value, 100%; negative predictive value, 99%). PMID:21562100

  14. Beta spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryak, P.; Zderadicka, J.; Plch, J.; Kokta, L.; Novotna, P.

    1977-01-01

    For the purpose of beta spectrometry, a semiconductor spectrometer with one Si(Li) detector cooled with liquid nitrogen was designed. Geometrical detection efficiency is about 10% 4 sr. The achieved resolution for 624 keV conversion electrons of sup(137m)Ba is 2.6 keV (FWHM). A program was written in the FORTRAN language for the correction of the deformation of the measured spectra by backscattering in the analysis of continuous beta spectra. The method permits the determination of the maximum energy of the beta spectrum with an accuracy of +-5 keV. (author)

  15. Plastic scintillators with {beta}-diketone Eu complexes for high ionizing radiation detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adadurov, A.F., E-mail: adadurov@isma.kharkov.ua [Institute for Scintillating Materials, NAN of Ukraine, Lenin Avenue 60, 61001 Kharkov (Ukraine); Zhmurin, P.N.; Lebedev, V.N.; Kovalenko, V.N. [Institute for Scintillating Materials, NAN of Ukraine, Lenin Avenue 60, 61001 Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2011-10-15

    Luminescent and scintillation properties of polystyrene-based plastic scintillators with {beta}-diketone Eu complexes are investigated. A scintillator with dibenzoylmethane Eu complex containing two phenyl groups demonstrates the maximum scintillating efficiency. It is shown that plastic scintillators efficiency is dramatically decreased if {beta}-diketone derivatives contain no phenyl groups as substituents. This fact can be explained by exciplex mechanism of energy transfer from a matrix to Eu complex. - Highlights: > Fluorescent properties of polystyrene scintillators with {beta}-diketone complexes of Eu were studied. > Scintillating efficiency is increased with the number of phenyl groups in Eu complex. > This is related to exciplex mechanism of energy transfer from a polymer matrix to Eu complex.

  16. Detection and identification of "new" beta-agonists in black-market preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ginkel LA; Stephany RW; van Rossum HJ; Visser T; den Engelsman T; de Jong APJM; Jacquemijns M; Zomer G

    1992-01-01

    In several "black-market" used for growth promotion preparations new compounds were found belonging to the group of N-phenylethanolamines with structures very similar to compounds known to be used for veal calf and cattle production, the so called beta-agonists. The two most important

  17. Beta-Binomial Model for the Detection of Rare Mutations in Pooled Next-Generation Sequencing Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakaitiene, Audrone; Avino, Mariano; Guarracino, Mario Rosario

    2017-04-01

    Against diminishing costs, next-generation sequencing (NGS) still remains expensive for studies with a large number of individuals. As cost saving, sequencing genome of pools containing multiple samples might be used. Currently, there are many software available for the detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Sensitivity and specificity depend on the model used and data analyzed, indicating that all software have space for improvement. We use beta-binomial model to detect rare mutations in untagged pooled NGS experiments. We propose a multireference framework for pooled data with ability being specific up to two patients affected by neuromuscular disorders (NMD). We assessed the results comparing with The Genome Analysis Toolkit (GATK), CRISP, SNVer, and FreeBayes. Our results show that the multireference approach applying beta-binomial model is accurate in predicting rare mutations at 0.01 fraction. Finally, we explored the concordance of mutations between the model and software, checking their involvement in any NMD-related gene. We detected seven novel SNPs, for which the functional analysis produced enriched terms related to locomotion and musculature.

  18. Scintillation characteristics of phosphich-detector for detection of beta- and gamma-radiations

    CERN Document Server

    Ananenko, A A; Gavrilyuk, V

    2002-01-01

    The results of the study on the influence of individual peculiarities of the compound scintillation detector structure on the value and stability of the light yield by the gamma- and beta-radiation combined registration are presented. The phosphich detector is manufactured from the sodium iodide monocrystal, activated by thallium, and the scintillation plastic on the polystyrol basis. The comparison of the experimental results with the mathematical modeling data revealed certain regularities of the process of forming the phosphich detector light signal. The recommendations are worked out by means whereof the following characteristics of the scintillation unit: the light yield and its stability, amplitude resolution and the peak-to-valley ratio by the gamma- and beta-radiation registration were improved

  19. Use of semiconductor topographic detection of beta-labelled materials in plant physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tykva, R.; Krekule, J.

    1980-01-01

    The distribution of compounds labelled with beta decay radionuclides (e.g., 32 P or 14 C) in botanical objects was investigated using a topographic method based on radiation measurement with a silicon semiconductor detector. The instrument allowed the estimation of radioactivity in individual organs and/or tissues. The method is nondestructive and allows quantitative evaluations of more than one source of radiation. A simple block diagram of the equipment is presented and its applicability is demonstrated on examples of studies of the role of growth substances in the photoperiodic flower induction and in the differentiation of flower organs. (author)

  20. Utility of the ceftazidime-imipenem antagonism test (CIAT to detect and confirm the presence of inducible AmpC beta-lactamases among enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlademir Vicente Cantarelli

    Full Text Available Detection of AmpC beta-lactamase production by enterobacteria has been problematic. Contrary to ESBLs, no specific guidelines are available for detection and confirmation of AmpC production by clinical relevant microorganisms. Moreover, some bacterial species may produce inducible AmpC beta-lactamases that can be easily overlooked by routine susceptibility tests. We reported here a new test based on the strong inducible effect of imipenem on AmpC genes and the consequent antagonism with ceftazidime. This test is very simple and proved to be helpful in detecting AmpC-inducible enzymes among several species of clinical isolates.

  1. Strip biosensor for amplified detection of nerve growth factor-beta based on a molecular translator and catalytic DNA circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Lai, Ting; Mu, Kejie; Zhou, Zheng

    2014-10-07

    We have demonstrated a new visual detection approach based on a molecular translator and a catalytic DNA circuit for the detection of nerve growth factor-beta (NGF-β). In this assay, a molecular translator based on the binding-induced DNA strand-displacement reaction was employed to convert the input protein to an output DNA signal. The molecular translator is composed of a target recognition element and a signal output element. Target recognition is achieved by the binding of the anti-NGF-β antibody to the target protein. Polyclonal anti-NGF-β antibody is conjugated to DNA1 and DNA2. The antibody conjugated DNA1 is initially hybridized to DNA3 to form a stable DNA1/DNA3 duplex. In the presence of NGF-β, the binding of the same target protein brings DNA1 and DNA2 into close proximity, resulting in an increase in their local effective concentration. This process triggers the strand-displacement reaction between DNA2 and DNA3 and releases the output DNA3. The released DNA3 is further amplified by a catalytic DNA circuit. The product of the catalytic DNA circuit is detected by a strip biosensor. This proposed assay has high sensitivity and selectivity with a dynamic response ranging from 10 fM to 10 pM, and its detection limit is 10 fM of NGF-β. This work provides a sensitive, enzyme-free, and universal strategy for the detection of other proteins.

  2. Correlation of phenotypic tests with the presence of the blaZ gene for detection of beta-lactamase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Adriano Martison; Martins, Katheryne Benini; Silva, Vanessa Rocha da; Mondelli, Alessandro Lia; Cunha, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da

    Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus are the most common and most important staphylococcal species associated with urinary tract infections. The objective of the present study was to compare and to evaluate the accuracy of four phenotypic methods for the detection of beta-lactamase production in Staphylococcus spp. Seventy-three strains produced a halo with a diameter ≤28mm (penicillin resistant) and all of them were positive for the blaZ gene. Among the 28 susceptible strain (halo ≥29mm), 23 carried the blaZ gene and five did not. The zone edge test was the most sensitive (90.3%), followed by MIC determination (85.5%), but the specificity of the former was low (40.0%). The nitrocefin test was the least sensitive (28.9%). However, the nitrocefin test together with the disk diffusion method showed the highest specificity (100%). The present results demonstrated that the zone edge test was the most sensitive phenotypic test for detection of beta-lactamase, although it is still not an ideal test to detect this type of resistance since its specificity was low. However, the inhibition halo diameter of the penicillin disk can be used together with the zone edge test since the same disk is employed in the two tests. Combined analysis of the two tests shows a sensitivity of 90.3% and specificity of 100%, proving better sensitivity, especially for S. saprophyticus. This is a low-cost test of easy application and interpretation that can be used in small and medium-sized laboratories where susceptibility testing is usually performed by the disk diffusion method. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Correlation of phenotypic tests with the presence of the blaZ gene for detection of beta-lactamase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Martison Ferreira

    Full Text Available Abstract Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus are the most common and most important staphylococcal species associated with urinary tract infections. The objective of the present study was to compare and to evaluate the accuracy of four phenotypic methods for the detection of beta-lactamase production in Staphylococcus spp. Seventy-three strains produced a halo with a diameter ≤28 mm (penicillin resistant and all of them were positive for the blaZ gene. Among the 28 susceptible strain (halo ≥29 mm, 23 carried the blaZ gene and five did not. The zone edge test was the most sensitive (90.3%, followed by MIC determination (85.5%, but the specificity of the former was low (40.0%. The nitrocefin test was the least sensitive (28.9%. However, the nitrocefin test together with the disk diffusion method showed the highest specificity (100%. The present results demonstrated that the zone edge test was the most sensitive phenotypic test for detection of beta-lactamase, although it is still not an ideal test to detect this type of resistance since its specificity was low. However, the inhibition halo diameter of the penicillin disk can be used together with the zone edge test since the same disk is employed in the two tests. Combined analysis of the two tests shows a sensitivity of 90.3% and specificity of 100%, proving better sensitivity, especially for S. saprophyticus. This is a low-cost test of easy application and interpretation that can be used in small and medium-sized laboratories where susceptibility testing is usually performed by the disk diffusion method.

  4. Isolation and characterization of a monoclonal anti-protein kinase CK2 beta-subunit antibody of the IgG class for the direct detection of CK2 beta-subunit in tissue cultures of various mammalian species and human tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nastainczyk, W; Schmidt-Spaniol, I; Boldyreff, B

    1995-01-01

    A murine monoclonal anti-protein kinase CK2 beta antibody was isolated and characterized. The antibody detects 1 pmol of purified recombinant CK2 beta-subunit after analysis on SDS-PAGE. Alternatively undenatured CK2 beta-subunit was detected by an ELISA assay either as recombinant CK2 beta......-subunit or in the CK2 holoenzyme (alpha 2 beta 2). Here, concentrations of the first antibody of 1 ng/ml still allowed the detection of the subunit. Immunoblotting of crude cellular extracts from various tissue cultures (man, mouse, and hamster), from human tumors, and the nonneoplastic tissue allowed the detection...... of the CK2 beta-subunit. The detected epitope of this antibody was, as determined by the epitope analysis technique, 123GLSDI127....

  5. Evaluation of sensitivity of modified star protocol microbiological method for beta-lactame antibiotics detection in raw cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borović Branka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic residues when present in animal tissues, through food chain, can enter human body, causing allergic reactions or facilitating the development of resistant bacterial strains. In order to determine the presence of antibiotics in animal tissues, it is appropriate to use convenient, reliable and sensitive methods. Microbiological methods applied for the detection of antibiotic residues in primary products of animal origin are based on the sensitivity of specific bacterial strains to a particular group of antibiotics. Regulatives on the amount of pesticides, metals and metalloids and other toxic substances, chemotherapeutics, anabolics and other substances which can be found in food ("Off. Gazette", No. 5/92, 11/92 - corr. and 32/02, state that milk and milk products can be used in commercial purposes only if not contain antibiotics in quantities that can be detected by reference methods. The applied method is modified STAR (Screening test for detection of antibiotics protocol, regulated by the CRL (Community Reference Laboratory Fougeres, France, in which the initial validation of the method had been carried out. In accordance with the demands of Regulative Commission EC No657/2002, the sensitivity of modified STAR protocol for beta lactam antibiotics group was examined , that is, there was carried out a contracted validation of the method, which initial validation had been performed at CRL. In a couple of series of experiments, 20 blank samples of raw cow milk originating from animals not treated by antibiotics, had been examined. By the beginning of the experiment samples were stored in a freezer at -20ºC. Samples of raw cow milk enriched by working solutions of seven beta-lactam antibiotics, in order to obtain concentrations at the level of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 MRL (Maximmum Residue Limit for each given antibiotic (Commission Regulation EC No. 37/2010. For detection of beta-lactam antibiotics, there was used Kundrat agar test with

  6. Comparison between phenotypic and PCR for detection of OXA-23 type and metallo-beta-lactamases producer Acinetobacter spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azimi, Leila

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: Resistance to carbapenems is developing around the world and can cause many problems for treatment of patients. Production of metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL is one of the main mechanism for this type of resistance. So, detection of MBL-producer microorganisms can prevent the spread of this type of resistance.Materials and methods: In this study 94 spp. were investigated. Resistance to imipenem was conducted after purification and identification. Combination disc (CD and Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST were performed for phenotypic detection of MBL and the molecular PCR method was done for vim-1, vim-2, imp-1 and OXA-23 genes.Results: According to TSI, SIM and oxidation-fermentation (OF test and PCR assay 93 and one strain were identified. 85% of them were resistant to imipenem. 34% of them have a positive combination disc test (CD while Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST was negative for all of them. The vim-1, vim-2 and imp-1 genes were not detected in PCR molecular method, however in 74% of strains with positive results in combination disc, were positive for the OXA-23 gene after PCR test. This study shows that the blaOXA-23 resistance determinant may become an emerging therapeutic problem.Discussion: According to the results, it seems that combination disc does not have enough specificity for detection of MBL-producer and using Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST can be more convenient.

  7. Monomeric Amyloid Beta Peptide in Hexafluoroisopropanol Detected by Small Angle Neutron Scattering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang-Haagen

    Full Text Available Small proteins like amyloid beta (Aβ monomers are related to neurodegenerative disorders by aggregation to insoluble fibrils. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS is a nondestructive method to observe the aggregation process in solution. We show that SANS is able to resolve monomers of small molecular weight like Aβ for aggregation studies. We examine Aβ monomers after prolonged storing in d-hexafluoroisopropanol (dHFIP by using SANS and dynamic light scattering (DLS. We determined the radius of gyration from SANS as 1.0±0.1 nm for Aβ1-40 and 1.6±0.1 nm for Aβ1-42 in agreement with 3D NMR structures in similar solvents suggesting a solvent surface layer with 5% increased density. After initial dissolution in dHFIP Aβ aggregates sediment with a major component of pure monomers showing a hydrodynamic radius of 1.8±0.3 nm for Aβ1-40 and 3.2±0.4 nm for Aβ1-42 including a surface layer of dHFIP solvent molecules.

  8. Spin-polarized x-ray emission of 3d transition-metal ions : A comparison via K alpha and K beta detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xin; deGroot, F.M.F.; Cramer, SP

    1997-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that spin-polarized x-ray-excitation spectra can be obtained using K alpha emission as well as K beta lines. A spin-polarized analysis of K alpha x-ray emission and the excitation spectra by K alpha detection on a Ni compound is reported. A systematic analysis of the

  9. Detection of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Market-Ready Chickens in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chishimba, K; Hang'ombe, B M; Muzandu, K; Mshana, S E; Matee, M I; Nakajima, C; Suzuki, Y

    2016-01-01

    The frequent administering of antibiotics in the treatment of poultry diseases may contribute to emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- (ESBL-) producing Escherichia coli in poultry in Zambia. A total of 384 poultry samples were collected and analyzed for ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. The cultured E. coli isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests and the polymerase chain reaction for detection of bla CTX-M, bla SHV, and bla TEM genes. Overall 20.1%, 77/384, (95% CI; 43.2-65.5%) of total samples analyzed contained ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. The antimicrobial sensitivity test revealed that 85.7% (66/77; CI: 75.7-92) of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates conferred resistance to beta-lactam and other antimicrobial agents. These results indicate that poultry is a potential reservoir for ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. The presence of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in poultry destined for human consumption requires strengthening of the antibiotic administering policy. This is important as antibiotic administration in food animals is gaining momentum for improved animal productivity in developing countries such as Zambia.

  10. Detection of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Market-Ready Chickens in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Chishimba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequent administering of antibiotics in the treatment of poultry diseases may contribute to emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- (ESBL- producing Escherichia coli in poultry in Zambia. A total of 384 poultry samples were collected and analyzed for ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. The cultured E. coli isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests and the polymerase chain reaction for detection of blaCTX-M, blaSHV, and blaTEM genes. Overall 20.1%, 77/384, (95% CI; 43.2–65.5% of total samples analyzed contained ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. The antimicrobial sensitivity test revealed that 85.7% (66/77; CI: 75.7–92 of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates conferred resistance to beta-lactam and other antimicrobial agents. These results indicate that poultry is a potential reservoir for ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. The presence of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in poultry destined for human consumption requires strengthening of the antibiotic administering policy. This is important as antibiotic administration in food animals is gaining momentum for improved animal productivity in developing countries such as Zambia.

  11. IMPY, a potential {beta}-amyloid imaging probe for detection of prion deposits in scrapie-infected mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, P.-J. [INSERM, U619, F-37000 Tours (France); Universite Francois-Rabelais, F-37000 Tours (France); IFR135, F-37000 Tours (France); Bernard, Serge [IFR135, F-37000 Tours (France); INRA, UR1282, IASP, 37380 Nouzilly (France)], E-mail: bernard@tours.inra.fr; Sarradin, Pierre [INRA, UR1282, IASP, 37380 Nouzilly (France); Vergote, Jackie [INSERM, U619, F-37000 Tours (France); Universite Francois-Rabelais, F-37000 Tours (France); IFR135, F-37000 Tours (France); Barc, Celine [INRA, UR1282, IASP, 37380 Nouzilly (France); Chalon, Sylvie [INSERM, U619, F-37000 Tours (France); Universite Francois-Rabelais, F-37000 Tours (France); IFR135, F-37000 Tours (France); Kung, M.-P.; Kung, Hank F. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Guilloteau, Denis [INSERM, U619, F-37000 Tours (France); Universite Francois-Rabelais, F-37000 Tours (France); IFR135, F-37000 Tours (France)

    2008-02-15

    Introduction: A potential single-photon emission computed tomography imaging agent for labeling of A{beta} plaques of Alzheimer's disease, IMPY (2-(4'-dimethylaminophenyl)-6-iodo-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine), would be effective in detection of prion amyloid deposits in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Methods: In vitro autoradiographic studies were carried out with [{sup 125}I]IMPY on brain sections from scrapie-infected mice and age-matched controls. Competition study was performed to evaluate the prion deposit binding specificity with nonradioactive IMPY. Results: Binding of [{sup 125}I]IMPY was observed in infected brain sections, while on age-matched control brain sections, there was no or very low labeling. Prion deposit binding was confirmed by histoblots with prion protein-specific monoclonal antibody 2D6. In the presence of nonradioactive IMPY, the binding of [{sup 125}I]IMPY was significantly inhibited in all regions studied. Conclusions: These findings indicate that IMPY can detect the prion deposits in vitro in scrapie-infected mice. Labeled with {sup 123}I, this ligand may be useful to quantitate prion deposit burdens in TSEs by in vivo imaging.

  12. Phenotypic Detection of Metallo-Beta-Lactamases in Carbapenem Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Isolated from Pediatric Patients in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneeza Anwar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistant A. baumannii has emerged as an important and problematic human pathogen as it is the causative agent of several types of infections especially in neonates and immunocompromised patients because they have least capacity to fight against infections. Carbapenems are used as last resort antibiotics for treating these infections but currently resistance against carbapenems due to MBL production is on the rise. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of antibiotic resistance in A. baumannii and also to compare the efficacy of combined disk test and double disk synergy test for detection of metallo-beta-lactamases. A total of 112 A. baumannii were identified from various clinical samples and antibiotic susceptibility profile was determined by Kirby-Bauer Disk Diffusion method. Out of 112, 66 (58.9% isolates were resistant to both imipenem and meropenem (OXOID. These resistant isolates were tested for carbapenemase production, and 55 (83.3% were carbapenemase producers by Modified Hodge Test. These isolates were further tested for MBL production by combined disk test and double disk synergy test. Out of 66, 49 isolates were positive by both methods, CDT and DDST, and only one isolate was detected as negative (with kappa value = 0.038. All MBL producing strains showed remarkable resistance to cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and piperacillin/tazobactam (OXOID. The antibiotic resistance was very high in A. baumannii which were isolated from children in Pakistan specially attending a nephrology unit.

  13. Identification of clonally rearranged T-cell receptor beta chain genes in HTLV-I carriers as a potential instrument for early detection of neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Sales

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the genetic recombination pattern of the T-cell receptor beta-chain gene (TCR-beta in order to identify clonal expansion of T-lymphocytes in 17 human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I-positive healthy carriers, 7 of them with abnormal features in the peripheral blood lymphocytes. Monoclonal or oligoclonal expansion of T-cells was detected in 5 of 7 HTLV-I-positive patients with abnormal lymphocytes and unconfirmed diagnosis by using PCR amplification of segments of TCR-beta gene, in a set of reactions that target 102 different variable (V segments, covering all members of the 24 V families available in the gene bank, including the more recently identified segments of the Vbeta-5 and Vbeta-8 family and the two diversity beta segments. Southern blots, the gold standard method to detect T-lymphocyte clonality, were negative for all of these 7 patients, what highlights the low sensitivity of this method that requires a large amount of very high quality DNA. To evaluate the performance of PCR in the detection of clonality we also analyzed 18 leukemia patients, all of whom tested positive. Clonal expansion was not detected in any of the negative controls or healthy carriers without abnormal lymphocytes. In conclusion, PCR amplification of segments of rearranged TCR-beta is reliable and highly suitable for the detection of small populations of clonal T-cells in asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers who present abnormal peripheral blood lymphocytes providing an additional instrument for following up these patients with potentially higher risk of leukemia.

  14. BETA digital beta radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovikov, N.V.; Kosinov, G.A.; Fedorov, Yu.N.

    1989-01-01

    Portable transportable digital beta radiometer providing for measuring beta-decay radionuclide specific activity in the range from 5x10 -9 up to 10 -6 Cu/kg (Cu/l) with error of ±25% is designed and introduced into commercial production for determination of volume and specific water and food radioactivity. The device specifications are given. Experience in the BETA radiometer application under conditions of the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone has shown that it is convenient for measuring specific activity of the order of 10 -8 Cu/kg, and application of a set of different beta detectors gives an opportunity to use it for surface contamination measurement in wide range of the measured value

  15. Novel measurement method of heat and light detection for neutrinoless double beta decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, G. B.; Choi, J. H.; Jo, H. S.; Kang, C. S.; Kim, H. L.; Kim, I.; Kim, S. R.; Kim, Y. H.; Lee, C.; Lee, H. J.; Lee, M. K.; Li, J.; Oh, S. Y.; So, J. H.

    2017-05-01

    We developed a cryogenic phonon-scintillation detector to search for 0νββ decay of 100Mo. The detector module, a proto-type setup of the AMoRE experiment, has a scintillating 40Ca100MoO4 absorber composed of 100Mo-enriched and 48Ca-depleted elements. This new detection method employs metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs) as the sensor technology for simultaneous detection of heat and light signals. It is designed to have high energy and timing resolutions to increase sensitivity to probe the rare event. The detector, which is composed of a 200 g 40Ca100MoO4 crystal and phonon/photon sensors, showed an energy resolution of 8.7 keV FWHM at 2.6 MeV, with a weak temperature dependence in the range of 10-40 mK. Using rise-time and mean-time parameters and light/heat ratios, the proposed method showed a strong capability of rejecting alpha-induced events from electron events with as good as 20σ separation. Moreover, we discussed how the signal rise-time improves the rejection efficiency for random coincidence signals.

  16. Gaseous time projection chambers for rare event detection: results from the T-REX project. I. Double beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irastorza, I.G.; Aznar, F.; Castel, J., E-mail: igor.irastorza@cern.ch, E-mail: faznar@unizar.es, E-mail: jfcastel@unizar.es [Grupo de Física Nuclear y Astropartículas, Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, C/ P. Cerbuna 12, Zaragoza, 50009 (Spain); and others

    2016-01-01

    As part of the T-REX project, a number of R and D and prototyping activities have been carried out during the last years to explore the applicability of gaseous Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) with Micromesh Gas Structures (Micromegas) in rare event searches like double beta decay, axion research and low-mass WIMP searches. In both this and its companion paper, we compile the main results of the project and give an outlook of application prospects for this detection technique. While in the companion paper we focus on axions and WIMPs, in this paper we focus on the results regarding the measurement of the double beta decay (DBD) of {sup 136}Xe in a high pressure Xe (HPXe) TPC. Micromegas of the microbulk type have been extensively studied in high pressure Xe and Xe mixtures. Particularly relevant are the results obtained in Xe + trimethylamine (TMA) mixtures, showing very promising results in terms of gain, stability of operation, and energy resolution at high pressures up to 10 bar. The addition of TMA at levels of ∼ 1% reduces electron diffusion by up to a factor of 10 with respect to pure Xe, improving the quality of the topological pattern, with a positive impact on the discrimination capability. Operation with a medium size prototype of 30 cm diameter and 38 cm of drift (holding about 1 kg of Xe at 10 bar in the fiducial volume, enough to contain high energy electron tracks in the detector volume) has allowed to test the detection concept in realistic experimental conditions. Microbulk Micromegas are able to image the DBD ionization signature with high quality while, at the same time, measuring its energy deposition with a resolution of at least a ∼ 3% FWHM @ Q{sub ββ}. This value was experimentally demonstrated for high-energy extended tracks at 10 bar, and is probably improvable down to the ∼ 1% FWHM levels as extrapolated from low energy events. In addition, first results on the topological signature information (one straggling track ending in two

  17. Ion-exclusion chromatography with conductimetric detection of aliphatic carboxylic acids on a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin by elution with benzoic acid-beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Mori, Masanobu; Xu, Qun; Helaleh, Murad I H; Ikedo, Mikaru; Taoda, Hiroshi; Hu, Wenzhi; Hasebe, Kiyoshi; Fritz, James S; Haddad, Paul R

    2003-05-16

    In this study, an aqueous solution consisting of benzoic acid with low background conductivity and beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) of hydrophilic nature and the inclusion effect to benzoic acid were used as eluent for the ion-exclusion chromatographic separation of aliphatic carboxylic acids with different pKa values and hydrophobicity on a polymethacrylate-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin in the H+ form. With increasing concentration of beta-cyclodextrin in the eluent, the retention times of the carboxylic acids decreased due to the increased hydrophilicity of the polymethacrylate-based cation-exchange resin surface from the adsorption of OH groups of beta-cyclodextrin. Moreover, the eluent background conductivity decreased with increasing concentration of beta-cyclodextrin in 1 mM benzoic acid, which could result in higher sensitivity for conductimetric detection. The ion-exclusion chromatographic separation of carboxylic acids with high resolution and sensitivity was accomplished successfully by elution with a 1 mM benzoic acid-10 mM cyclodextrin solution without chemical suppression.

  18. Development of methodology for detection of long lived alpha emitters in air based on simultaneous alpha and beta activity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, Vivek; Rath, D.P.; Vinayagami, Bhakti; Ashokkumar, P.; Umashankar, C.; Gopalakrishnan, R.K.; Kulkarni, M.S.

    2018-01-01

    Interference of the radon and thoron progeny co-deposited on the filtration media is the long-standing problem related to prompt analyses in continuous air sampling or monitoring of any potential suspect radionuclides. The solutions to this problem have been quite diverse, and included, for example, simple gross-alpha counting, the use of beta-to-alpha ratios, and the use of alpha spectrum analyses. The techniques based on beta to alpha disintegration ratios make use of the naturally occurring alpha to beta disintegration ratios and departures therefrom. This ratio is found empirically to be relatively constant. With the help of the solution of differential equation, which govern the deposition of radionuclide on filter paper, one can easily estimate theoretically the behavior of the radon progeny alpha to beta disintegration (or count) rate ratio

  19. Clinical and cost implications of amyloid beta detection with amyloid beta positron emission tomography imaging in early Alzheimer's disease - the case of florbetapir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, John; Bae, Jay; Watson, Ian; Johnston, Joe; Happich, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging helps estimate Aβ neuritic plaque density in patients with cognitive impairment who are under evaluation for Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the Aβ-PET scan as an adjunct to standard diagnostic assessment for diagnosis of AD in France, using florbetapir as an example. A state-transition probability analysis was developed adopting the French Health Technology Assessment (HTA) perspective per guidance. Parameters included test characteristics, rate of cognitive decline, treatment effect, costs, and quality of life. Additional scenarios assessed the validity of the analytical framework, including: (1) earlier evaluation/treatment; (2) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as a comparator; and (3) use of other diagnostic procedures. Outputs included differences in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). All benefits and costs were discounted for time preferences. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the robustness of findings and key influencers of outcomes. Aβ-PET used as an adjunct to standard diagnostic assessment increased QALYs by 0.021 years and 10 year costs by €470 per patient. The ICER was €21,888 per QALY gained compared to standard diagnostic assessment alone. When compared with CSF, Aβ-PET costs €24,084 per QALY gained. In other scenarios, Aβ-PET was consistently cost-effective relative to the commonly used affordability threshold (€40,000 per QALY). Over 95% of simulations in the sensitivity analysis were cost-effective. Aβ-PET is projected to affordably increase QALYs from the French HTA perspective per guidance over a range of clinical scenarios, comparators, and input parameters.

  20. Development of a sensitive chemiluminometric assay for the detection of beta-galactosidase in permeabilized coliform bacteria and comparison with fluorometry and colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Poucke, S O; Nelis, H J

    1995-01-01

    We developed a chemiluminometric assay of beta-galactosidase in coliform bacteria, using a phenylgalactose-substituted 1,2-dioxetane derivative as a substrate. Permeabilization of cells is required to ensure the efficient cellular uptake of this compound. By this method, one coliform seeded in 100 ml of sterile water can be detected after a 6- to 9-h propagation phase followed by a 45-min enzyme assay in the presence of polymyxin B. Compared with fluorometry and colorimetry, chemiluminometry afforded 4- and 1,000-fold increases in sensitivity and 1- and 6-h increases in the speed of detection, respectively. PMID:8534120

  1. Development of real-time PCR method for the detection and the quantification of a new endogenous reference gene in sugar beet "Beta vulgaris L.": GMO application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Maher; Alaya, Akram; Ali, Imen Ben Haj; Hafsa, Ahmed Ben; Nabi, Nesrine; Bérard, Aurélie; Romaniuk, Marcel; Skhiri, Fethia; Saïd, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    KEY MESSAGE : Here, we describe a new developed quantitative real-time PCR method for the detection and quantification of a new specific endogenous reference gene used in GMO analysis. The key requirement of this study was the identification of a new reference gene used for the differentiation of the four genomic sections of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) (Beta, Corrollinae, Nanae and Procumbentes) suitable for quantification of genetically modified sugar beet. A specific qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was designed to detect the sugar beet amplifying a region of the adenylate transporter (ant) gene only from the species of the genomic section I of the genus Beta (cultivated and wild relatives) and showing negative PCR results for 7 species of the 3 other sections, 8 related species and 20 non-sugar beet plants. The sensitivity of the assay was 15 haploid genome copies (HGC). A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) assay was also performed, having high linearity (R (2) > 0.994) over sugar beet standard concentrations ranging from 20,000 to 10 HGC of the sugar beet DNA per PCR. The QRT-PCR assay described in this study was specific and more sensitive for sugar beet quantification compared to the validated test previously reported in the European Reference Laboratory. This assay is suitable for GMO quantification in routine analysis from a wide variety of matrices.

  2. Simultaneous determination of F-beta-alanine and beta-alanine in plasma and urine with dual-column reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kuilenburg, A. B.; Stroomer, A. E.; Peters, G. J.; van Gennip, A. H.

    2001-01-01

    F-beta-Alanine and beta-alanine were detected in plasma and urine samples with fluorescence detection of orthophthaldialdehyde derivatives of F-beta-alanine and beta-alanine after separation with dual-column reversed-phase HPLC. The detection limits of F-beta-alanine and beta-alanine in the HPLC

  3. Method for phenotypic detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in enterobacter species in the routine clinical setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuart, J.C.; Diederen, B.; Al Naiemi, N.; Fluit, A.; Arents, N.; Thijsen, S.; Vlaminckx, B.; Mouton, J.W.; Leverstein-van Hall, M.

    2011-01-01

    In 271 Enterobacter blood culture isolates from 12 hospitals, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) prevalence varied between 0% and 30% per hospital. High prevalence was associated with dissemination, indicating the potential relevance of infection control measures. Screening with cefepime or

  4. Speculative Betas

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison Hong; David Sraer

    2012-01-01

    We provide a model for why high beta assets are more prone to speculative overpricing than low beta ones. When investors disagree about the common factor of cash-flows, high beta assets are more sensitive to this macro-disagreement and experience a greater divergence-of-opinion about their payoffs. Short-sales constraints for some investors such as retail mutual funds result in high beta assets being over-priced. When aggregate disagreement is low, expected return increases with beta due to r...

  5. Development of a PCR/LDR/capillary electrophoresis assay with potential for the detection of a beta-thalassemia fetal mutation in maternal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ping; Chen, Zhuqin; Yu, Lili; Zheng, Yingru; Liu, Guodong; Xie, Haichang; Zhou, Yuanguo; Zheng, Xiuhui; Han, Jian; Li, Li

    2010-08-01

    Analysis of fetal DNA in maternal plasma has recently been introduced for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis. We have now investigated the feasibility of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/ligase detection reaction (LDR)/capillary electrophoresis for the detection of fetal point mutations, such as the beta-thalassemia mutation, IVS2 654(C --> T), in maternal plasma DNA. The sensitivity of LDR/capillary electrophoresis was examined by quantifying the mutant PCR products in the presence of a vast excess of non-mutant competitor template, a situation that mimics the detection of rare fetal mutations in the presence of excess maternal DNA. PCR/LDR/capillary electrophoresis was applied to detect the mutation, IVS2 654(C --> T), in an experimental model at different sensitivity levels and from 10 maternal plasma samples. Our results demonstrated that this approach to detect a low abundance IVS2 654(C --> T) mutation achieved a sensitivity of approximately 1:10,000. The approach was applied to maternal plasma DNA to detect the paternally inherited fetal IVS2 654(C --> T) mutation, and the results were equivalent to those obtained by PCR/reverse dot blot of amniotic fluid cell DNA. PCR/LDR/capillary electrophoresis has a very high sensitivity that can distinguish low abundance single nucleotide differences and can detect paternally inherited fetal point mutations in maternal plasma.

  6. Evaluation of the BeTha gene 1 kit for the qualitative detection of the eight most common Mediterranean beta-thalassemia mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugozzoli, L A; Lowery, J D; Reyes, A A; Lin, C I; Re, A; Locati, F; Galanello, R; Macioni, L; Maggio, A; Giambona, A; Loutradi, A; Boussiou, M; Wallace, R B

    1998-11-01

    We describe the evaluation of the Bio-Rad BeTha Gene 1 kit (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA), a DNA-probe assay designed for the qualitative determination of the eight most common Mediterranean beta-thalassemia mutations. The kit utilizes the principle of allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) hybridization. Following sample preparation and in vitro DNA amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), an allele-specific detection of the amplified products by a nonradioactive enzymatic assay is performed. Genomic DNA is prepared from an individual's whole blood with a DNA purification matrix. In a second step, the beta-globin gene is amplified in a multiplex PCR reaction containing four 5' biotinylated oligonucleotide primers. In a final step, an aliquot of the PCR reaction is first chemically denatured and then captured in two eight-well strips of a 96-well enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) plate by hybridization to an immobilized ASO probe. Each DNA sequence at each of the eight mutation sites is represented by one normal and one mutant ASO. During this capture/hybridization step, which is performed at 37 degrees C, only perfectly matched PCR products will be captured by an ASO. Subsequently, the allele-specific captured biotin-labeled PCR products are detected by a colorimetric enzymatic reaction. The system permits the detection of 16 beta-thalassemia alleles using a high-throughput format that can be automated easily. A clinical feasibility study was performed to evaluate the functionality (method comparison study, assay validity using samples previously collected and stored at various temperatures for different periods of time, interference on kit performance, and assay validity for prenatal diagnosis) and the usability (ease of use, sample throughput) of the kit. The analysis of 110 samples previously studied with reference methods showed 100% clinical sensitivity and specificity. We demonstrate here that the procedure not only increases the

  7. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.

    2010-03-23

    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  8. Development and Validation of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for the Detection of Binding Anti-Drug Antibodies against Interferon Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingenhoven, Kathleen; Kramer, Daniel; Jensen, Poul Erik Hyldgaard

    2017-01-01

    to be 26 ng/mL using commercially available polyclonal rabbit antihuman IFN-β in human sera as the positive control. CONCLUSION: An ultrasensitive ELISA for IFN-β-binding ADA testing has been validated. This will form the basis to assess anti-biopharmaceutical immunization toward IFN-β with regards to its......OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a method for the detection of binding anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) against interferon beta (IFN-β) in human serum as part of a European initiative (ABIRISK) aimed at the prediction and analysis of clinical relevance of anti-biopharmaceutical immunization...... to minimize the risk. METHOD: A two-tiered bridging enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format was selected and validated according to current recommendations. Screening assay: ADA in serum samples form complexes with immobilized IFN-β and biotinylated IFN-β, which are then detected using HRP labeled...

  9. Gross alpha and beta activity analyses in urine-a routine laboratory method for internal human radioactivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Zhao, Luqian; Qin, Hongran; Zhao, Meijia; Zhou, Yirui; Yang, Shuqiang; Su, Xu; Xu, Xiaohua

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a method to provide rapid results for humans with internal radioactive contamination. The authors hypothesized that valuable information could be obtained from gas proportional counter techniques by screening urine samples from potentially exposed individuals rapidly. Recommended gross alpha and beta activity screening methods generally employ gas proportional counting techniques. Based on International Standards Organization (ISO) methods, improvements were made in the evaporation process to develop a method to provide rapid results, adequate sensitivity, and minimum sample preparation and operator intervention for humans with internal radioactive contamination. The method described by an American National Standards Institute publication was used to calibrate the gas proportional counter, and urine samples from patients with or without radionuclide treatment were measured to validate the method. By improving the evaporation process, the time required to perform the assay was reduced dramatically. Compared with the reference data, the results of the validation samples were very satisfactory with respect to gross-alpha and gross-beta activities. The gas flow proportional counting method described here has the potential for radioactivity monitoring in the body. This method was easy, efficient, and fast, and its application is of great utility in determining whether a sample should be analyzed by a more complicated method, for example radiochemical and/or γ-spectroscopy. In the future, it may be used commonly in medical examination and nuclear emergency treatment.Health Phys. 106(5):000-000; 2014.

  10. A rapid two-step algorithm detects and identifies clinical macrolide and beta-lactam antibiotic resistance in clinical bacterial isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuedong; Nie, Shuping; Xia, Chengjing; Huang, Lie; He, Ying; Wu, Runxiang; Zhang, Li

    2014-07-01

    Aiming to identify macrolide and beta-lactam resistance in clinical bacterial isolates rapidly and accurately, a two-step algorithm was developed based on detection of eight antibiotic resistance genes. Targeting at genes linked to bacterial macrolide (msrA, ermA, ermB, and ermC) and beta-lactam (blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-9) antibiotic resistances, this method includes a multiplex real-time PCR, a melting temperature profile analysis as well as a liquid bead microarray assay. Liquid bead microarray assay is applied only when indistinguishable Tm profile is observed. The clinical validity of this method was assessed on clinical bacterial isolates. Among the total 580 isolates that were determined by our diagnostic method, 75% of them were identified by the multiplex real-time PCR with melting temperature analysis alone, while the remaining 25% required both multiplex real-time PCR with melting temperature analysis and liquid bead microarray assay for identification. Compared with the traditional phenotypic antibiotic susceptibility test, an overall agreement of 81.2% (kappa=0.614, 95% CI=0.550-0.679) was observed, with a sensitivity and specificity of 87.7% and 73% respectively. Besides, the average test turnaround time is 3.9h, which is much shorter in comparison with more than 24h for the traditional phenotypic tests. Having the advantages of the shorter operating time and comparable high sensitivity and specificity with the traditional phenotypic test, our two-step algorithm provides an efficient tool for rapid determination of macrolide and beta-lactam antibiotic resistances in clinical bacterial isolates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Resistance Genes among Bacteria Isolated from Selected Drinking Water Distribution Channels in Southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesoji, Ayodele T; Ogunjobi, Adeniyi A

    2016-01-01

    Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) provide high level resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics among bacteria. In this study, previously described multidrug resistant bacteria from raw, treated, and municipal taps of DWDS from selected dams in southwestern Nigeria were assessed for the presence of ESBL resistance genes which include bla TEM, bla SHV, and bla CTX by PCR amplification. A total of 164 bacteria spread across treated (33), raw (66), and municipal taps (68), belonging to α-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria, Flavobacteriia, Bacilli, and Actinobacteria group, were selected for this study. Among these bacteria, the most commonly observed resistance was for ampicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (61 isolates). Sixty-one isolates carried at least one of the targeted ESBL genes with bla TEM being the most abundant (50/61) and bla CTX being detected least (3/61). Klebsiella was the most frequently identified genus (18.03%) to harbour ESBL gene followed by Proteus (14.75%). Moreover, combinations of two ESBL genes, bla SHV + bla TEM or bla CTX + bla TEM, were observed in 11 and 1 isolate, respectively. In conclusion, classic bla TEM ESBL gene was present in multiple bacterial strains that were isolated from DWDS sources in Nigeria. These environments may serve as foci exchange of genetic traits in a diversity of Gram-negative bacteria.

  12. Beta decay of Cu-56

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borcea, R; Aysto, J; Caurier, E; Dendooven, P; Doring, J; Gierlik, M; Gorska, M; Grawe, H; Hellstrom, M; Janas, Z; Jokinen, A; Karny, M; Kirchner, R; La Commara, M; Langanke, K; Martinez-Pinedo, G; Mayet, P; Nieminen, A; Nowacki, F; Penttila, H; Plochocki, A; Rejmund, M; Roeckl, E; Schlegel, C; Schmidt, K; Schwengner, R; Sawicka, M

    2001-01-01

    The proton-rich isotope Cu-56 was produced at the GSI On-Line Mass Separator by means of the Si-28(S-32, p3n) fusion-evaporation reaction. Its beta -decay properties were studied by detecting beta -delayed gamma rays and protons. A half-Life of 93 +/- 3 ms was determined for Cu-56. Compared to the

  13. Simultaneous detection for three kinds of veterinary drugs: Chloramphenicol, clenbuterol and 17-beta-estradiol by high-throughput suspension array technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Nan; Su Pu [Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Tianjin 300050 (China); Gao Zhixian [Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Tianjin 300050 (China)], E-mail: gaozhx@163.com; Zhu Maoxiang; Yang Zhihua; Pan Xiujie [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Fang Yanjun; Chao Fuhuan [Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Tianjin 300050 (China)

    2009-01-19

    Suspension array technology for simultaneous detection of three kinds of veterinary drugs, chloramphenicol (CAP), clenbuterol and 17-beta-estradiol has been developed. Conjugates of chloramphenicol and clenbuterol coupled with bovine serum albumin were synthesized and purified. Probes of suspension array were constituted by coupling the three conjugates on the fluorescent microspheres/beads and the microstructures of the beads' surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy which was a direct confirmation for the successful conjugates' coupling. The optimal addition of conjugates and the amounts of antibodies were optimized and selected, respectively. Standard curves were plotted and the coefficient of determination-R{sup 2} was greater than 0.989 which suggested good logistic correlation. The detection ranges for the three veterinary drugs are 40-6.25 x 10{sup 5} ng L{sup -1}, 50-7.81 x 10{sup 5} ng L{sup -1} and 1 x 10{sup 3-}7.29 x 10{sup 5} ng L{sup -1}, respectively and the lowest detection limits (LDLs) of them are 40, 50 and 1000 ng L{sup -1}, respectively. The suspension array is specific and has no significant cross-reactivity with other chemicals. Meanwhile, unknown samples were detected by suspension array and ELISA in comparison with each other. The errors between found and real for the detection of the unknown samples were relatively small to both of the two methods, whereas, the detection ranges of suspension array are broader and sensitive than that of the traditional ELISA. The high-throughput suspension array is proved to be a novel method for multi-analysis of veterinary drugs with simple operation, high sensitivity and low cost.

  14. Detection of Healthcare-Related Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli Transmission Events Using Combined Genetic and Phenotypic Epidemiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne F Voor In 't Holt

    Full Text Available Since the year 2000 there has been a sharp increase in the prevalence of healthcare-related infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. However, the high community prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates means that many E. coli typing techniques may not be suitable for detecting E. coli transmission events. Therefore, we investigated if High-throughput MultiLocus Sequence Typing (HiMLST and/or Raman spectroscopy were suitable techniques for detecting recent E. coli transmission events.This study was conducted from January until December 2010 at Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Isolates were typed using HiMLST and Raman spectroscopy. A genetic cluster was defined as two or more patients carrying identical isolates. We used predefined definitions for epidemiological relatedness to assess healthcare-related transmission.We included 194 patients; strains of 112 patients were typed using HiMLST and strains of 194 patients were typed using Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy identified 16 clusters while HiMLST identified 10 clusters. However, no healthcare-related transmission events were detected. When combining data from both typing techniques, we identified eight clusters (n = 34 patients, as well as 78 patients with a non-cluster isolate. However, we could not detect any healthcare-related transmission in these 8 clusters.Although clusters were genetically detected using HiMLST and Raman spectroscopy, no definite epidemiological relationships could be demonstrated which makes the possibility of healthcare-related transmission events highly unlikely. Our results suggest that typing of ESBL-producing E. coli using HiMLST and/or Raman spectroscopy is not helpful in detecting E. coli healthcare-related transmission events.

  15. Detection of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Among Gram Negative Bacilli Recovered from Cattle Feces In Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Oroboghae OGEFERE

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL among Gram negative bacteria isolated from cattle feces in Benin City, Nigeria. A total of 250 Gram negative bacteria isolates were recovered from cattle feces and were processed microbiologically using standard techniques. Emergent colonies were identified and antibacterial susceptibility tests were determined using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. All bacterial isolates were screened for the presence of ESBL using the double-disc synergy method. A total of 37 (14.8% isolates were positive for ESBL, with 33 (13.2% indicated by ceftazidime, while only 4 (1.6% were indicated by both ceftazidime and cefotaxime (P < 0.0001. Of the Gram negative bacterial isolates recovered, Salmonella species was the most prevalent ESBL-producer with 55.0% prevalence (P = 0.0092, while no isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa produced ESBL. ESBL-positive isolates showed poor susceptibility to the tested antibacterial agents in comparison with non-ESBL-producers and imipenem was the most active antibiotic. The prevalence of ESBL among Gram negative bacilli recovered from cattle feces was 14.8%. The study advises prudent use of antibiotics in the treatment of cattle and harps on improved hygiene in managing cattle, as they are potential reservoirs of ESBL-producing organisms.

  16. Beta Blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may not work as effectively for people of African heritage and older people, especially when taken without ... conditions/high-blood-pressure/in-depth/beta-blockers/ART-20044522 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  17. Beta particle detection efficiency of the radiation sensor made from a mixture of polyaniline and titanium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, M.; Miyata, H.; Katsumata, M.; Matsuda, K.; Ueno, T.; Ito, D.; Suzuki, T.

    2016-01-01

    We developed a new real-time radiation sensor using an organic semiconductor and measured its β-particle detection sensitivity. This sensor is fabricated by simply combining a p-type semiconductor, polyaniline (Pani), with an n-type semiconductor, TiO_2, and processing the compound. Since Pani and TiO_2 are both inexpensive materials, the sensor can be fabricated at a lower cost than inorganic semiconductor sensors. The signal of each fabricated sensor was measured by a charge sensitive ADC for the irradiation of β-particles. The response signal data of the ADC for each irradiation was measured to calculate the detection efficiency of the detector. The maximum detection efficiency measured as β-particle sensitivity of the sensor was 1%. This β-particle sensitivity is higher than that reported of Pani sensors in the past.

  18. Monitor for alpha beta contamination of hands; Moniteur de contamination alpha beta des mains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guitton, J

    1958-07-01

    The following specifications of hands alpha beta contamination monitor are presented: the position of the hands, the detection and separation of alpha and beta, the information processing, the programming, the results presentation and general characteristics. (A.L.B.)

  19. Detection and full genome characterization of two beta CoV viruses related to Middle East respiratory syndrome from bats in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Ana; Lelli, Davide; de Sabato, Luca; Zaccaria, Guendalina; Boni, Arianna; Sozzi, Enrica; Prosperi, Alice; Lavazza, Antonio; Cella, Eleonora; Castrucci, Maria Rita; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Vaccari, Gabriele

    2017-12-19

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which belongs to beta group of coronavirus, can infect multiple host species and causes severe diseases in humans. Multiple surveillance and phylogenetic studies suggest a bat origin. In this study, we describe the detection and full genome characterization of two CoVs closely related to MERS-CoV from two Italian bats, Pipistrellus kuhlii and Hypsugo savii. Pool of viscera were tested by a pan-coronavirus RT-PCR. Virus isolation was attempted by inoculation in different cell lines. Full genome sequencing was performed using the Ion Torrent platform and phylogenetic trees were performed using IQtree software. Similarity plots of CoV clade c genomes were generated by using SSE v1.2. The three dimensional macromolecular structure (3DMMS) of the receptor binding domain (RBD) in the S protein was predicted by sequence-homology method using the protein data bank (PDB). Both samples resulted positive to the pan-coronavirus RT-PCR (IT-batCoVs) and their genome organization showed identical pattern of MERS CoV. Phylogenetic analysis showed a monophyletic group placed in the Beta2c clade formed by MERS-CoV sequences originating from humans and camels and bat-related sequences from Africa, Italy and China. The comparison of the secondary and 3DMMS of the RBD of IT-batCoVs with MERS, HKU4 and HKU5 bat sequences showed two aa deletions located in a region corresponding to the external subdomain of MERS-RBD in IT-batCoV and HKU5 RBDs. This study reported two beta CoVs closely related to MERS that were obtained from two bats belonging to two commonly recorded species in Italy (P. kuhlii and H. savii). The analysis of the RBD showed similar structure in IT-batCoVs and HKU5 respect to HKU4 sequences. Since the RBD domain of HKU4 but not HKU5 can bind to the human DPP4 receptor for MERS-CoV, it is possible to suggest also for IT-batCoVs the absence of DPP4-binding potential. More surveillance studies are needed to better

  20. PCR based diagnostic assay targeting the beta tubulin gene for the detection of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in vaginal swab samples of symptomatic and asymptomatic women in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Prakash Dwivedi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop an in-house PCR based diagnostic assay for identification of strains isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects of India, targeting the 毬 -tubulin gene using specific primers. Methods: In the present study a primer set is designed to target a well-conserved region in the beta-tubulin gene of Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis. All strains of T. vaginalis were tested and successfully detected by PCR yielding a single predicted product of 198 bp in gel electrophoresis, while there was negative response with DNA from Giardia lamblia, Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania donovani and Entamoeba histolytica. The sensitivity and specificity for a single T. vaginalis cell per PCR was achieved. Axenic Culture, performed with long term axenized T. vaginalis culture system, was routinely examined to identify T. vaginalis. Results: The PCR based investigations with 498 vaginal swab samples from women attending OPD clinics of Halberg Hospital Moradabad and Queen Mary ’s Hospital, Lucknow, India and 17 long term axenic cultures maintained at PGIMER, Chandigarh, India using primer set BTUB 1 & BTUB 2 showed sensitivity and specificity response of 98% and 100%, respectively, while wet preparation in clinically isolated samples responded up to 62.5%. The PCR product sequencing result of symptomatic strains (SS1 of T. vaginalis (744 bp long was submitted to NCBI (Accession No: JF513200. It shows maximum identity 98 % with XM_001284521 Trichomonas vaginalis G-3 beta-tubulin (btub putative partial mRNA. Conclusions: The data gathered in the present study entail that the diagnosis of T. vaginalis infection by PCR may be established as a sensitive and specific protocol, to be incorporated into a joint strategy for the screening of multiple STDs by employing molecular amplification technique. The merits and precautions of the protocol have been discussed.

  1. Development and Validation of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for the Detection of Binding Anti-Drug Antibodies against Interferon Beta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Ingenhoven

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo develop and validate a method for the detection of binding anti-drug antibodies (ADAs against interferon beta (IFN-β in human serum as part of a European initiative (ABIRISK aimed at the prediction and analysis of clinical relevance of anti-biopharmaceutical immunization to minimize the risk.MethodA two-tiered bridging enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA format was selected and validated according to current recommendations. Screening assay: ADA in serum samples form complexes with immobilized IFN-β and biotinylated IFN-β, which are then detected using HRP labeled Streptavidin and TMB substrate. Confirmation assay: Screen “putative positive” samples are tested in the presence of excess drug (preincubation of sera with 0.3 µg/mL of soluble IFN-β and percentage of inhibition is calculated.ResultsThe assay is precise, and the sensitivity of the assay was confirmed to be 26 ng/mL using commercially available polyclonal rabbit antihuman IFN-β in human sera as the positive control.ConclusionAn ultrasensitive ELISA for IFN-β-binding ADA testing has been validated. This will form the basis to assess anti-biopharmaceutical immunization toward IFN-β with regards to its clinical relevance and may allow for the development of predictive tools, key aims within the ABIRISK consortium.

  2. Detection of Amyloid Beta (Aβ) Oligomeric Composition Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry (MALDI MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jasmine S.-H.; Whitehead, Shawn N.; Yeung, Ken K.-C.

    2018-02-01

    The use of MALDI MS as a fast and direct method to detect the Aβ oligomers of different masses is examined in this paper. Experimental results suggest that Aβ oligomers are ionized and detected as singly charged ions, and thus, the resulting mass spectrum directly reports the oligomer size distribution. Validation experiments were performed to verify the MS data against artifacts. Mass spectra collected from modified Aβ peptides with different propensities for aggregation were compared. Generally, the relative intensities of multimers were higher from samples where oligomerization was expected to be more favorable, and vice versa. MALDI MS was also able to detect the differences in oligomeric composition before and after the incubation/oligomerization step. Such differences in sample composition were also independently confirmed with an in vitro Aβ toxicity study on primary rat cortical neurons. An additional validation was accomplished through removal of oligomers from the sample using molecular weight cutoff filters; the resulting MS data correctly reflected the removal at the expected cutoff points. The results collectively validated the ability of MALDI MS to assess the monomeric/multimeric composition of Aβ samples. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. A sensitive method for the detection of tritium-marked {beta}-indolylacetic acid in plant cells and tissues at physiological and experimental concentrations (1962); Une methode sensible pour la detection de l'acide {beta}-indolylacetique marque au tritium, dans des cellules et tissus vegetaux a des concentrations physiologiques et experimentales (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figier, J; Khau Van Kien, L; Roux, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    The localisation of {beta}-indolylacetic acid (A.I.A.), a growth auxin is attempted using nuclear indicators ({sup 14}C and tritium). The radio - auto-histographic detection method depends on the insolubilization of A.I.A. 'in situ' by picric acid and basic lead acetate at a suitable pH, the A.I.A. being protected from histological solvents. The results of the detections corresponding to physiological responses during growth tests on Pisum, Avena, Phascolus and Vicia, at concentrations of 10{sup -5} and higher make possible the localisation of tissues in agreement with the auxinic activity and with the relations already known between A.L.A. and cellular formations. By increasing the time of exposures of the sections, it will be possible to attain concentrations which are much lower and more clearly physiological. (authors) [French] La localisation de l'acide {beta}-indolylacetique (A.L.A.), auxine de croissance est abordee avec les indicateurs nucleaires ({sup 14}C et tritium). La methode de detection radio-autohistographique repose sur l'insolubilisation de l'A.I.A. 'in situ' par l'acide picrique et l'acetate basique de plomb a pH convenable, le mettant a l'abri des solvants histologiques. Les resultats des detections correspondant a des reponses physiologiques au cours de test de croissance sur Pisum, Avena, Phascolus et Vicia, a la concentration de 10{sup -5} et plus elevee permettent des localisations tissulaires concordant avec l'activite auxinique et les rapports deja connus de l'A.I.A. avec les formations cellulaires. En prolongeant la duree d'exposition des coupes, il sera possible de descendre a des concentrations bien plus faibles et plus nettement physiologiques. (auteurs)

  4. Detection of proliferating cell nuclear antigens and interleukin-2 beta receptor molecules on mitogen- and antigen-stimulated lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, J; Dobbelaere, D; Griffin, J F; Buchan, G

    1993-01-01

    The expression of interleukin-2 receptors (IL-2R) and proliferating cell nuclear antigens (PCNA) were compared for their usefulness as markers of lymphocyte activation. Heterologous polyclonal (anti-bovine IL-2R) and monoclonal (anti-human PCNA) antibodies were used to detect the expression of these molecules on activated deer lymphocytes. Both molecules were co-expressed on blast cells which had been activated with mitogen [concanavalin A (Con A)]. There was detectable up-regulation of IL-2R expression in response to antigen [Mycobacterium bovis-derived purified protein derivative (PPD)] stimulation while PCNA expression mimicked lymphocyte transformation (LT) reactivity. PCNA expression was found to more accurately reflect both antigen- and mitogen-activated lymphocyte activation, as estimated by LT activity. The expression of PCNA was used to identify antigen reactive cells from animals exposed to M. bovis. A very low percentage (1.1 +/- 0.4%) of peripheral blood lymphocytes from non-infected animals could be stimulated to express PCNA by in vitro culture with antigen (PPD). Within the infected group both diseased and healthy, 'in-contact', animals expressed significantly higher levels of PCNA upon antigen stimulation. PMID:8104884

  5. Detection of New Delhi Metallo-Beta-Lactamase (Encoded by blaNDM-1 ) in Enterobacter aerogenes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yong; Xiao, Wei-Qiang; Gong, Jiao-Mei; Pan, Jun; Xu, Qing-Xia

    2017-03-01

    The increase in bla NDM -1 in Enterobacteriaceae has become a major concern worldwide. In previous study, we investigated clonal dissemination and mechanisms of resistance to carbapenem in China. We carried out retrospective surveillance for bla NDM -1 among carbapenem-resistant enterobacter strains, which were isolated from patients at our hospital by bacterial strains selection, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, species identification, and molecular detection of resistance gene. We found three bla NDM -1 -positive isolates which were identified as Enterobacter aerogenes in clinical patients in China. The bla NDM -1 -positive Enterobacter aerogenes isolates were first found. It is important to mandate prudent usage of antibiotics and implement infection control measures to control the spread of these resistant bla NDM -1 -positive strains. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Detection of clonal T-cell receptor beta and gamma chain gene rearrangement by polymerase chain reaction and capillary gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hongxin; Robetorye, Ryan S

    2013-01-01

    Although established diagnostic criteria exist for mature T-cell neoplasms, a definitive diagnosis of a T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder cannot always be obtained using more conventional techniques such as flow cytometric immunophenotyping, conventional cytogenetics, fluorescence in situ hybridization, or immunohistochemistry. However, because T-cell malignancies contain identically rearranged T-cell receptor gamma (TCRG) and/or beta (TCRB) genes, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be a fast, convenient, and dependable option to identify clonal T-cell processes. This chapter describes the use of PCR and capillary electrophoresis to identify clonal TCRB and TCRG gene rearrangements (TCRB and TCRG PCR) using a commercially available method employing multiple multiplex PCR tubes that was originally developed as the result of a large European BIOMED-2 collaborative study (Invivoscribe Technologies). The core protocol for the TCRB assay involves the use of three separate multiplex master mix tubes. Tubes A and B target the framework regions within the variable and joining regions of the TCRB gene, and Tube C targets the diversity and joining regions of the TCRB gene. The core protocol for the TCRG assay utilizes two multiplex master mix tubes (Tubes A and B) that target the variable and joining regions of the TCRG gene. Use of the five BIOMED-2 TCRB and TCRG PCR multiplex tubes in parallel can detect approximately 94% of clonal TCR gene rearrangements.

  7. Background radiation accumulation and lower limit of detection in thermoluminescent beta-gamma dosimeters used by the centralized external dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonder, E.; Ahmed, A.B.

    1991-12-01

    A value for ''average background radiation'' of 0.75 mR/week has been determined from a total of 1680 thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's) exposed in 70 houses for periods up to one year. The distribution of results indicates a rather large variation among houses, with a few locations exhibiting backgrounds double the general average. Some discrepancies in the short-term background accumulation of TLD's have been explained as being due to light leakage through the dosimeter cases. In addition the lower limit of detection (L D ) for deep and shallow dose equivalents has been determined for these dosimeters. The L D for occupational exposure depends strongly on the time a dosimeter is exposed to background radiation in the field. The L D can vary from a low of 2.4 mrem for high energy gamma rays when the background accumulation period is less than a few weeks to values as high as 66 mrem for uranium beta particles when background has been allowed to accumulate for more than 21 weeks

  8. MicroRNA-224 is Readily Detectable in Urine of Individuals with Diabetes Mellitus and is a Potential Indicator of Beta-Cell Demise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhán Bacon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA (miRNA are a class of non-coding, 19–25 nucleotide RNA critical for network-level regulation of gene expression. miRNA serve as paracrine signaling molecules. Using an unbiased array approach, we previously identified elevated levels of miR-224 and miR-103 to be associated with a monogenic form of diabetes; HNF1A-MODY. miR-224 is a novel miRNA in the field of diabetes. We sought to explore the role of miR-224 as a potential biomarker in diabetes, and whether such diabetes-associated-miRNA can also be detected in the urine of patients. Absolute levels of miR-224 and miR-103 were determined in the urine of n = 144 individuals including carriers of a HNF1A mutation, participants with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and normal controls. Expression levels were correlated with clinical and biochemical parameters. miR-224 was significantly elevated in the urine of carriers of a HNF1A mutation and participants with T1DM. miR-103 was highly expressed in urine across all diabetes cohorts when compared to controls. For both miR-224 and-103, we found a significant correlation between serum and urine levels (p < 0.01. We demonstrate that miRNA can be readily detected in the urine independent of clinical indices of renal dysfunction. We surmise that the differential expression levels of miR-224 in both HNF1A-MODY mutation carriers and T1DM may be an attempt to compensate for beta-cell demise.

  9. Beta rays and neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.F.

    1992-01-01

    It was over 30 years between the first observation of the enigmatic process of beta decay and the first postulation of the neutrino. It took a further 26 years until the first neutrino was detected and yet another 27 until the electroweak theory was confirmed by the discovery of W and Z particles. This article traces some of the puzzles and paradoxes associated with the history of the neutrino. (author)

  10. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria are not detected in supragingival plaque samples from human fecal carriers of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Søraas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of infections caused by Cefotaximase-Munich (CTX-M-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E has rapidly increased during the past 15 years. Enterobacteriaceae are commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract and long-term intestinal carriage is considered important for the spread of ESBL and as a source of clinical infections. Oral biofilm such as supragingival plaque is known to contain numerous antibiotic resistance determinants and may also represent a poorly investigated site for ESBL carriage and further spread. Objective: To investigate possible carriage of ESBL-producing bacteria in supragingival plaque of known fecal carriers of these bacteria. Design: We screened for the presence of aerobic and anaerobic ESBL-producing bacteria and blaCTX-M in supragingival plaque samples from healthy human adults with culture-verified fecal carriage of CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli. The presence or absence of Enterobacteriaceae and ESBL-producing bacteria in plaque samples was evaluated using culture-based methods and consensus CTX-M PCR. Results: Oral samples were obtained from 17 participants with known previous carriage of ESBL-producing E. coli. No ESBL-producing bacteria or ESBL genes were detected using culture-based and molecular methods. One colony of Rahnella aquatilis harboring the class A ESBL gene bla RAHN-1/2 was identified in an oral sample from one of the participants. Conclusion: This pilot study supports the notion that the presence of CTX-M-producing bacteria is uncommon in oral plaque of healthy human adult fecal carriers. Due to the limited number of persons tested, a low prevalence of oral ESBL-carriage in healthy adults or carriage in selected groups of patients cannot be excluded. To our knowledge, this is the first description of an R. aquatilis with the RAHN-1/2 gene in the oral cavity.

  11. Detection of circulating immune complexes of human IgA and beta 2 glycoprotein I in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Flores, José A; Serrano, Manuel; Pérez, Dolores; Lora, David; Paz-Artal, Estela; Morales, José M; Serrano, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    Patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) have a hypercoagulable condition associated with the presence of antiphospholipid autoantibodies (aPL). Consensus antibodies for diagnosis are lupus anticoagulant, anti-beta2 glycoprotein I (B2GPI) and anticardiolipin (IgG or IgM). Circulating immunocomplexes (CIC) of B2GPI associated with IgM or IgG were reported. Isolated IgA aB2GPI antibodies have achieved high diagnostic value although specific CIC of B2GPI bounded to IgA (B2A-CIC) has still not been described. CIC detection assays are mainly based on interaction with complement and are not appropriate to detect B2A-CIC because IgA does not fix complement using the classical pathway. Sera from healthy blood donors (N= 247) and from patients with thrombosis background and isolate positive for IgA aB2GPI (N = 68) were studied in a case-control study. Two methods were applied, these being a capture ELISA to quantify specific B2A-CIC and quantification of total IgA anti-B2GPI after dissociating CIC. B2A-CIC values in APS-patients were 19.27 ± 2.6 AU vs 6.1 ± 0.4 AU in blood donors (p < 0.001). There were 36.4% B2A-CIC positive patients (cutoff 21 AU) versus 5.5% in blood donors (p < 0.001). Dissociated IgA aB2GPI levels (total IgA aB2GPI) were 146.8 ± 10.8 IU/mL in patients vs. 22.4 IU/mL in controls (p < 0.001). B2A-CIC was independent of B2GPI and autoantibodies IgA aB2GPI serum levels. B2A-CIC can be identified and quantified in an easy and reproducible manner using two complement-independent methods. The use of these tests in prospective studies will allow better understanding of the prognosis and outcome of patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of the MicroScan ESBL plus confirmation panel for detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in clinical isolates of oxyimino-cephalosporin-resistant Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stürenburg, Enno; Lang, Melanie; Horstkotte, Matthias A; Laufs, Rainer; Mack, Dietrich

    2004-11-01

    We aimed to assess the performance of the MicroScan ESBL plus confirmation panel using a series of 87 oxyimino-cephalosporin-resistant Gram-negative bacilli of various species. Organisms tested included 57 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) strains comprising Enterobacter aerogenes (3), Enterobacter cloacae (10), Escherichia coli (11), Klebsiella pneumoniae (26), Klebsiella oxytoca (3) and Proteus mirabilis (4). Also included were 30 strains resistant to oxyimino cephalosporins but lacking ESBLs, which were characterized with other resistance mechanisms, such as inherent clavulanate susceptibility in Acinetobacter spp. (4), hyperproduction of AmpC enzyme in Citrobacter freundii (2), E. aerogenes (3), E. cloacae (3), E. coli (4), Hafnia alvei (1) and Morganella morganii (1), production of plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase in K. pneumoniae (3) and E. coli (3) or hyperproduction of K1 enzyme in K. oxytoca (6). The MicroScan MIC-based clavulanate synergy correctly classified 50 of 57 ESBL strains as ESBL-positive and 23 of 30 non-ESBL strains as ESBL-negative (yielding a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 76.7%, respectively). False negatives among ESBL producers were highest with Enterobacter spp. due to masking interactions between ESBL and AmpC beta-lactamases. False-positive classifications occurred in two Acinetobacter spp., one E. coli producing plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase and two K. oxytoca hyperproducing their chromosomal K1 beta-lactamase. The MicroScan clavulanate synergy test proved to be a valuable tool for ESBL confirmation. However, this test has limitations in detecting ESBLs in Enterobacter spp. and in discriminating ESBL-related resistance from the K1 enzyme and from inherent clavulanate susceptibility in Acinetobacter spp.

  13. Detection of Beta-lactamase gene in the culturable bacteria isolated from agricultural, pasture and mining soils around mines in Hamedan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayereh Younessi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Growing evidence exists that agriculture affects antibiotic resistance in human pathogens. Beta-lactam antibiotics are the most commonly used antimicrobial agents in many countries. The abundance of beta-lactamase encoding genes can be used as an indicator of antibiotic resistance in the environment. So, to determine the beta-lactamase resistance genes, the abundance of culturable bacteria having bla-TEM genesin the soils under different land uses wasexamined. Materials and methods: 44 Gram-positive and 34 Gram-negative bacteria plated on nutrient agar were isolated from agricultural, pasture and mining soils and selected to study the presence of TEM-class gene using PCR amplification. Antibiotic sensitivity test of bla-TEM+isolateswas done adopting the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and antibiotic discs used were: ampicillin, amoxicillin, vancomicin, streptomycin, tetracycline and gentamicin. Finally, five multi-drug resistant and bla-TEM+ isolates were identified using universal primers. Results: The highest level of beta-lactamase genes was observed in the Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates from the pasture soils. In the agricultural and mining soils, a high abundance of bla-TEM+ isolateswasfound which also showed resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. The identified multi-drug resistant and bla-TEM+ isolates were from these genera: Achromobacter, Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Aminobacter and Brevundimonas. Discussion and conclusion: The high number of bla-TEM+ bacteria in all the soils may be attributed to the other important feature of bla genes which is their capability to extrude toxic compounds like heavy metals in contaminated environments. Sensitivity of some bla-TEM+ bacteria to beta-lactam antibiotics was interesting. This result shows that bla-TEM genes confer resistance to beta-lactamase inhibitors in a different degree. Some of the identified isolates were pathogen. These pathogens in soils can transfer to plants

  14. Feasibility of [18F]-RGD for ex vivo imaging of atherosclerosis in detection of alpha v beta 3 integrin expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golestani, Reza; Mirfeizi, Leila; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Westra, Johanna; de Haas, Hans J.; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Koole, Michel; Luurtsema, Gert; Tio, Rene A.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Elsinga, Philip H.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Inflammation and angiogenesis play an important role in atherosclerotic plaque rupture. Therefore, molecular imaging of these processes could be used for determination of rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques. alpha v beta 3 integrin is involved in the process of angiogenesis. Targeted

  15. Fabrication of beta particles detector for RMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W. G.; Kim, Y. G.; Kim, J. B.; Jeong, J. E.; Hong, S. B.

    2003-01-01

    The beta particles detector for RMS (radiation monitoring system) was fabricated to detect charged beta particles. The plastic scintillator was cutted, shaped, polished to make plastic disk for beta particles. The diameter of completed plastic scintillator disk is 40 mm and thickness is 1.5 mm. The mylar film and aluminium foil were used the front of plastic scintillator to intercept light and moisture. The completed plastic detector for RMS consist of the discriminator and counter were made by ULS (Co.). The absolute efficiency of plastic detector was 45.51% for beta particles (Sr/Y - 90)

  16. Beta Emission and Bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-13

    Bremsstrahlung is continuous radiation produced by beta particles decelerating in matter; different beta emitters have different endpoint energies; high-energy betas interacting with high-Z materials will more likely produce bremsstrahlung; depending on the data, sometimes all you can say is that a beta emitter is present.

  17. BETASCAN: probable beta-amyloids identified by pairwise probabilistic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen W Bryan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Amyloids and prion proteins are clinically and biologically important beta-structures, whose supersecondary structures are difficult to determine by standard experimental or computational means. In addition, significant conformational heterogeneity is known or suspected to exist in many amyloid fibrils. Recent work has indicated the utility of pairwise probabilistic statistics in beta-structure prediction. We develop here a new strategy for beta-structure prediction, emphasizing the determination of beta-strands and pairs of beta-strands as fundamental units of beta-structure. Our program, BETASCAN, calculates likelihood scores for potential beta-strands and strand-pairs based on correlations observed in parallel beta-sheets. The program then determines the strands and pairs with the greatest local likelihood for all of the sequence's potential beta-structures. BETASCAN suggests multiple alternate folding patterns and assigns relative a priori probabilities based solely on amino acid sequence, probability tables, and pre-chosen parameters. The algorithm compares favorably with the results of previous algorithms (BETAPRO, PASTA, SALSA, TANGO, and Zyggregator in beta-structure prediction and amyloid propensity prediction. Accurate prediction is demonstrated for experimentally determined amyloid beta-structures, for a set of known beta-aggregates, and for the parallel beta-strands of beta-helices, amyloid-like globular proteins. BETASCAN is able both to detect beta-strands with higher sensitivity and to detect the edges of beta-strands in a richly beta-like sequence. For two proteins (Abeta and Het-s, there exist multiple sets of experimental data implying contradictory structures; BETASCAN is able to detect each competing structure as a potential structure variant. The ability to correlate multiple alternate beta-structures to experiment opens the possibility of computational investigation of prion strains and structural heterogeneity of amyloid

  18. Locus-specific detection of HLA-DQ and -DR antigens by antibodies against synthetic N-terminal octapeptides of the beta chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deufel, T; Grove, A; Kofod, Hans

    1985-01-01

    Antibodies against synthetic peptides representing the class-II antigen HLA-DR and -DQ beta chain N-terminal sequences were prepared in rabbits. The two octapeptides only share two amino acids and enzyme-linked immuno-assays showed the antisera only to bind to its own antigen. Both peptide antisera...... chains of HLA-DR and -DQ have been prepared by the preparation by the production of antibodies against the N-terminal sequences of each polypeptide....

  19. A comparison of heart function and arrhythmia in clinically asymptomatic patients with beta thalassemia intermedia and beta thalassemia major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoozgar, Hamid; Zeighami, Samaneh; Haghpanah, Sezaneh; Karimi, Mehran

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare heart function and arrhythmia in clinically asymptomatic patients with beta thalassemia intermedia and beta thalassemia major. In this cross-sectional study, 60 patients with beta thalassemia major and 60 patients with beta thalassemia intermedia who had clinically no symptoms of arrhythmia and clinically normal heart function were evaluated using 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring and echocardiography. For data analysis SPSS ver.20 software was used. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The mean age of the beta thalassemia intermedia patients was 24.18 ± 7.9 years and the mean age in beta thalassemia major was 24.38 ± 7.7 years (P>0.05). Premature atrial contractions (PACs) were observed in 14 (23.3%) patients with beta thalassemia intermedia and in 22 (36.6%) beta thalassemia major patients. Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) were detected in 8 (13.3%) patients in the beta thalassemia intermediate group and 16 (26.6) patients in the beta thalassemia major group, respectively. The left ventricular diastolic dimension, end-diastolic volume, and stroke volume were significantly higher in beta thalassemia intermedia group (Pintermedia group. Both atrial and ventricular arrhythmias were more common in the beta thalassemia major group. Higher end-diastolic volume and stroke volume were detected in the beta thalassemia intermedia group. Pulmonary acceleration time was lower in the beta thalassemia intermedia group, which can be an indicator of higher pulmonary pressure.

  20. In-trap decay spectroscopy for {beta}{beta} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Thomas

    2011-01-18

    The presented work describes the implementation of a new technique to measure electron-capture (EC) branching ratios (BRs) of intermediate nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. This technique has been developed at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. It facilitates one of TRIUMF's Ion Traps for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN), the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) that is used as a spectroscopy Penning trap. Radioactive ions, produced at the radioactive isotope facility ISAC, are injected and stored in the spectroscopy Penning trap while their decays are observed. A key feature of this technique is the use of a strong magnetic field, required for trapping. It radially confines electrons from {beta} decays along the trap axis while X-rays, following an EC, are emitted isotropically. This provides spatial separation of X-ray and {beta} detection with almost no {beta}-induced background at the X-ray detector, allowing weak EC branches to be measured. Furthermore, the combination of several traps allows one to isobarically clean the sample prior to the in-trap decay spectroscopy measurement. This technique has been developed to measure ECBRs of transition nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. Detailed knowledge of these electron capture branches is crucial for a better understanding of the underlying nuclear physics in {beta}{beta} decays. These branches are typically of the order of 10{sup -5} and therefore difficult to measure. Conventional measurements suffer from isobaric contamination and a dominating {beta} background at theX-ray detector. Additionally, X-rays are attenuated by the material where the radioactive sample is implanted. To overcome these limitations, the technique of in-trap decay spectroscopy has been developed. In this work, the EBIT was connected to the TITAN beam line and has been commissioned. Using the developed beam diagnostics, ions were injected into the Penning trap and systematic studies on injection and storage optimization were performed. Furthermore, Ge

  1. Improved Detection of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)-Producing Escherichia coli in Input and Output Samples of German Biogas Plants by a Selective Pre-Enrichment Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauss, Thorsten; Glaeser, Stefanie P.; Gütschow, Alexandra; Dott, Wolfgang; Kämpfer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli was investigated in input (manure from livestock husbandry) and output samples of six German biogas plants in 2012 (one sampling per biogas plant) and two German biogas plants investigated in an annual cycle four times in 2013/2014. ESBL-producing Escherichia coli were cultured by direct plating on CHROMagar ESBL from input samples in the range of 100 to 104 colony forming units (CFU) per g dry weight but not from output sample. This initially indicated a complete elimination of ESBL-producing E. coli by the biogas plant process. Detected non target bacteria were assigned to the genera Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Bordetella, Achromobacter, Castellaniella, and Ochrobactrum. A selective pre-enrichment procedure increased the detection efficiency of ESBL-producing E. coli in input samples and enabled the detection in five of eight analyzed output samples. In total 119 ESBL-producing E. coli were isolated from input and 46 from output samples. Most of the E. coli isolates carried CTX-M-type and/or TEM-type beta lactamases (94%), few SHV-type beta lactamase (6%). Sixty-four bla CTX-M genes were characterized more detailed and assigned mainly to CTX-M-groups 1 (85%) and 9 (13%), and one to group 2. Phylogenetic grouping of 80 E. coli isolates showed that most were assigned to group A (71%) and B1 (27%), only one to group D (2%). Genomic fingerprinting and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed a high clonal diversity with 41 BOX-types and 19 ST-types. The two most common ST-types were ST410 and ST1210. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 46 selected ESBL-producing E. coli revealed that several isolates were additionally resistant to other veterinary relevant antibiotics and some grew on CHROMagar STEC but shiga-like toxine (SLT) genes were not detected. Resistance to carbapenems was not detected. In summary the study showed for the first time the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli in

  2. Improved detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in input and output samples of German biogas plants by a selective pre-enrichment procedure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Schauss

    Full Text Available The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Escherichia coli was investigated in input (manure from livestock husbandry and output samples of six German biogas plants in 2012 (one sampling per biogas plant and two German biogas plants investigated in an annual cycle four times in 2013/2014. ESBL-producing Escherichia coli were cultured by direct plating on CHROMagar ESBL from input samples in the range of 100 to 104 colony forming units (CFU per g dry weight but not from output sample. This initially indicated a complete elimination of ESBL-producing E. coli by the biogas plant process. Detected non target bacteria were assigned to the genera Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Bordetella, Achromobacter, Castellaniella, and Ochrobactrum. A selective pre-enrichment procedure increased the detection efficiency of ESBL-producing E. coli in input samples and enabled the detection in five of eight analyzed output samples. In total 119 ESBL-producing E. coli were isolated from input and 46 from output samples. Most of the E. coli isolates carried CTX-M-type and/or TEM-type beta lactamases (94%, few SHV-type beta lactamase (6%. Sixty-four blaCTX-M genes were characterized more detailed and assigned mainly to CTX-M-groups 1 (85% and 9 (13%, and one to group 2. Phylogenetic grouping of 80 E. coli isolates showed that most were assigned to group A (71% and B1 (27%, only one to group D (2%. Genomic fingerprinting and multilocus sequence typing (MLST showed a high clonal diversity with 41 BOX-types and 19 ST-types. The two most common ST-types were ST410 and ST1210. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 46 selected ESBL-producing E. coli revealed that several isolates were additionally resistant to other veterinary relevant antibiotics and some grew on CHROMagar STEC but shiga-like toxine (SLT genes were not detected. Resistance to carbapenems was not detected. In summary the study showed for the first time the presence of ESBL-producing E

  3. Levered and unlevered Beta

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2003-01-01

    We prove that in a world without leverage cost the relationship between the levered beta ( L) and the unlevered beta ( u) is the No-costs-of-leverage formula: L = u + ( u - d) D (1 - T) / E. We also analyze 6 alternative valuation theories proposed in the literature to estimate the relationship between the levered beta and the unlevered beta (Harris and Pringle (1985), Modigliani and Miller (1963), Damodaran (1994), Myers (1974), Miles and Ezzell (1980), and practitioners) and prove that all ...

  4. Beta Thalassemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Beta Thalassemia KidsHealth / For Parents / Beta Thalassemia What's in this ... Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Print en español Beta talasemia Thalassemias Thalassemias are a group of blood disorders that ...

  5. Distribution and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Gram Negative Bacteria Causing Urinary Tract Infection (UTI and Detection New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1 Producing Isolates in Ahwaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Afrugh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI is the commonest bacterial infectious disease in worldwide (especially in developing countries with a high rate of morbidity and financial cost. The management of UTI infections has been jeopardized by increase in immergence of antimicrobial drug resistance. Knowledge of the local bacterial etiology and susceptibility patterns is required to trace any change that might have occurred in time so that updated recommendation for optimal empirical therapy of UTI can be made. The aim of this investigation was distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of gram negative bacteria causing urinary tract infection (UTI and detection NDM-1 (new-delhi-metallo-beta-lactamase-1 producing isolates in Ahwaz. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done during a period of one year from April 2013 to March 2014. Clean catch midstream urine samples were collected from suspected patients to UTI. The isolates were identified based on morphological and biochemical testes. Culture was performed on routine microbiological media. Susceptibility testing was performed according CLSI (2013 guidelines. Detection of carbapenemase producing isolates was performed by modified hodge test (MHT. Metallo-beta-lactamase isolates were detected by imipenem-EDTA combined disc test (CDT. Results: In this study 708 gram negative organisms were isolated from urine samples. E.coli was the most common isolated bacteria (67% followed by Klebsiella spp. (26.5% and Enterobacter spp. (2.5%. In antibiotic susceptibility testing more than 90% of isolates were sensitive to tetracycline, ceftazidime, meropenem, amikacin, cefotaxime, imipenem, and cefepime. Isolates were more resistant to cephalothin (32%, co-trimoxazol (30.5%, and nalidixic acid (25%. Conclusion: In our results isolated organisms from outpatients showed very high sensitivity to common antibiotics. Continuous and regular monitoring of susceptibility pattern of

  6. BetaScint{trademark} fiber-optic sensor for detecting strontium-90 and uranium-238 in soil. Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Accurate measurements of radioactivity in soils contaminated with Strontium-90 (Sr-90) or Uranium-238 (U-238) are essential for many DOE site remediation programs. These crucial measurements determine if excavation and soil removal is necessary, where remediation efforts should be focused, and/or if a site has reached closure. Measuring soil contamination by standard EPA laboratory methods typically takes a week (accelerated analytical test turnaround) or a month (standard analytical test turnaround). The time delay extends to operations involving heavy excavation equipment and associated personnel which are the main costs of remediation. This report describes an application of the BetaScint{trademark} fiber-optic sensor that measures Sr-90 or U-238 contamination in soil samples on site in about 20 minutes, at a much lower cost than time-consuming laboratory methods, to greatly facilitate remediation. This report describes the technology, its performance, its uses, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned.

  7. BetaScintTM fiber-optic sensor for detecting strontium-90 and uranium-238 in soil. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Accurate measurements of radioactivity in soils contaminated with Strontium-90 (Sr-90) or Uranium-238 (U-238) are essential for many DOE site remediation programs. These crucial measurements determine if excavation and soil removal is necessary, where remediation efforts should be focused, and/or if a site has reached closure. Measuring soil contamination by standard EPA laboratory methods typically takes a week (accelerated analytical test turnaround) or a month (standard analytical test turnaround). The time delay extends to operations involving heavy excavation equipment and associated personnel which are the main costs of remediation. This report describes an application of the BetaScint trademark fiber-optic sensor that measures Sr-90 or U-238 contamination in soil samples on site in about 20 minutes, at a much lower cost than time-consuming laboratory methods, to greatly facilitate remediation. This report describes the technology, its performance, its uses, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned

  8. Coexistence of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in the rabbit heart: quantitative analysis of the regional distribution by (-)-/sup 3/H-dihydroalprenolol binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodde, O.E.; Leifert, F.J.; Krehl, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    We determined the amount of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in right and left atria and ventricles of rabbits. For this purpose inhibition of specific (-)-/sup 3/H-dihydroalprenolol ((-)-/sup 3/H-DHA) binding (5 nM) by beta 1-selective (practolol, metoprolol) and beta 2-selective (zinterol, IPS 339) adrenergic drugs was determined and analyzed by pseudo-Scatchard (Hofstee) plots. For both atria, inhibition of binding by the four selective beta-adrenergic drugs resulted in non-linear Hofstee plots, suggesting the coexistence of both beta-adrenoceptor subtypes. From these plots we calculated a beta 1:beta 2-adrenoceptor ratio of 72:28 for the right atrium and of 82:18 for the left. In contrast, only a very small amount of beta 2-adrenoceptors (approximately 5-7% of the total beta-adrenoceptor population) could be detected in the ventricles. For comparison we analyzed the inhibition of specific (-)-/sup 3/H-DHA binding in tissues with homogeneous population of beta-adrenoceptors (beta 1:guinea pig left ventricle; beta 2: cerebellum of mature rats). For both tissues the four selective beta-adrenergic drugs showed linear Hofstee plots, demonstrating that in tissues with homogeneous beta-receptor population interaction of each drug with the receptor followed simple mass-action kinetics. We conclude that beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors coexist in rabbit atria while the ventricles are predominantly endowed the beta 1-adrenoceptors.

  9. Development of a multiplex real-time PCR for the rapid detection of the predominant beta-lactamase genes CTX-M, SHV, TEM and CIT-type AmpCs in Enterobacteriaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Roschanski

    Full Text Available Beta-lactamase resistant bacteria and especially ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae are an increasing problem worldwide. For this reason a major interest in efficient and reliable methods for rapid screening of high sample numbers is recognizable. Therefore, a multiplex real-time PCR was developed to detect the predominant class A beta-lactamase genes blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM and CIT-type AmpCs in a one-step reaction. A set of 114 Enterobacteriaceae containing previously identified resistance gene subtypes and in addition 20 undefined animal and environmental isolates were used for the validation of this assay. To confirm the accessibility in variable settings, the real-time runs were performed analogous in two different laboratories using different real-time cyclers. The obtained results showed complete accordance between the real-time data and the predetermined genotypes. Even if sequence analyses are further necessary for a comprehensive characterization, this method was proofed to be reliable for rapid screening of high sample numbers and therefore could be an important tool for e. g. epidemiological purposes or support infection control measures.

  10. Forward-Looking Betas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Vainberg, Gregory

    Few issues are more important for finance practice than the computation of market betas. Existing approaches compute market betas using historical data. While these approaches differ in terms of statistical sophistication and the modeling of the time-variation in the betas, they are all backward......-looking. This paper introduces a radically different approach to estimating market betas. Using the tools in Bakshi and Madan (2000) and Bakshi, Kapadia and Madan (2003) we employ the information embedded in the prices of individual stock options and index options to compute our forward-looking market beta...

  11. Detection of Lawsonia intracellularis, Serpulina hyodysenteriae, weakly beta-haemolytic intestinal spirochaetes, Salmonella enterica, and haemolytic Escherichia coli from swine herds with and without diarrhoea among growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kristian; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Jorsal, Sven Erik Lind

    1998-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was optimized to detect Lawsonia intracellularis in faeces from naturally infected pigs. By combining a boiling procedure to extract DNA and a nested PCR procedure, a detection limit at 2x10(2) bacterial cells per gram of faeces was achieved. The optimized PCR...

  12. Experimental autoabsorption curve 90Sr in SrCO3. Efficiency calculation to detection of 90Sr, 90Y and 90Sr + 90Y in a beta gas proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco, C.; Alvarez, A.

    1987-01-01

    Strontium-90 has been determined by radiochemical separation techniques in environmental samples. These techniques, of course, cannot separate the two strontium radionuclides from each other of from stable strontium. Consequently the end product of the chemical separation contains all strontium isotopes in SrCO 3 . The beta particules emitted by 90 Sr are absorbed by the SrCO 3 precipitate. This is the main source of error in the activity measurement. It has been prepared sources of 90 Sr in SrCO 3 in order to determinate the counting efficiency and autoabsorption curve. Also detection efficiencies have been calibrated using known activities of 90 Y and equilibrium mixture of 90 Sr+ 90 Y in the same geometry than our samples. The activity of 90 Sr by ingrowth of 90 Y has been calculated by our computer program. (author). 2 figs., 3 refs

  13. Rapid detection of pathological mutations and deletions of the haemoglobin beta gene (HBB) by High Resolution Melting (HRM) analysis and Gene Ratio Analysis Copy Enumeration PCR (GRACE-PCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Sasse, Jurgen; Varadi, Aniko

    2016-10-19

    Inherited disorders of haemoglobin are the world's most common genetic diseases, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. The large number of mutations associated with the haemoglobin beta gene (HBB) makes gene scanning by High Resolution Melting (HRM) PCR an attractive diagnostic approach. However, existing HRM-PCR assays are not able to detect all common point mutations and have only a very limited ability to detect larger gene rearrangements. The aim of the current study was to develop a HBB assay, which can be used as a screening test in highly heterogeneous populations, for detection of both point mutations and larger gene rearrangements. The assay is based on a combination of conventional HRM-PCR and a novel Gene Ratio Analysis Copy Enumeration (GRACE) PCR method. HRM-PCR was extensively optimised, which included the use of an unlabelled probe and incorporation of universal bases into primers to prevent interference from common non-pathological polymorphisms. GRACE-PCR was employed to determine HBB gene copy numbers relative to a reference gene using melt curve analysis to detect rearrangements in the HBB gene. The performance of the assay was evaluated by analysing 410 samples. A total of 44 distinct pathological genotypes were detected. In comparison with reference methods, the assay has a sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity of 98 %. We have developed an assay that detects both point mutations and larger rearrangements of the HBB gene. This assay is quick, sensitive, specific and cost effective making it suitable as an initial screening test that can be used for highly heterogeneous cohorts.

  14. SOX - Towards the detection of sterile neutrinos in Borexino. Beta spectrum modeling, Monte Carlo development and sensitivity studies for the sterile neutrino search in Borexino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Mikko

    2016-12-15

    Several experiments have reported anomalies in the neutrino sector which might be explained by the existence of a fourth (sterile) neutrino with a squared mass difference of about 1 eV{sup 2} to the other three active neutrinos. The SOX project is part of the experimental program of the Borexino experiment and seeks for a clarification of the observed anomalies. For that purpose an artificial antineutrino source ({sup 144}Ce-{sup 144}Pr) and possibly neutrino source ({sup 51}Cr) will be deployed underneath the large low background detector Borexino. The detector provides both energy and vertex resolution to observe a possible oscillation signature within the detector volume. The calculation of the antineutrino spectrum is based on existing theoretical models and was performed within this thesis. The modeling includes several sub-leading corrections particularly such as finite size of the nucleus, screening of the atomic electrons and radiative effects. Related to this work, dedicated Monte Carlo generators have been developed to simulate the inverse beta decay reaction and the (anti)neutrino elastic scattering off electrons. Based on a profile likelihood analysis, the sensitivity to the sterile neutrino search of the SOX project was evaluated. The results obtained from this analysis confirm that the currently allowed parameter regions for sterile neutrinos can be tested at 95% confidence level. Finally, an alternative concept for the sterile neutrino search is presented which is based on a cyclotron and a Beryllium target near Borexino (Borexino+IsoDAR).

  15. Detection and Estimation of alpha-Amyrin, beta-Sitosterol, Lupeol, and n-Triacontane in Two Medicinal Plants by High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat S. Mallick

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A normal phase high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC method has been developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of four components, namely, alpha-amyrin, beta-sitosterol, lupeol, and n-triacontane from two medicinally important plants, Leptadenia reticulata Wight & Arn. and Pluchea lanceolata (DC. CB. Clarke. In Ayurveda, both plants have been reported to possess immunomodulatory activity. Chromatographic separation of the four components from the methanolic extracts of whole plant powders of Leptadenia reticulata Wight & Arn. and Pluchea lanceolata (DC. CB. Clarke. was performed on TLC aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60F254 using a suitable mobile phase. The densitometric scanning was done after derivatization at λ = 580 nm for α-amyrin, β-sitosterol, and lupeol, and at 366 nm for n-triacontane. The developed HPTLC method has been validated and used for simultaneous quantitation of the four components from the methanolic extracts of whole plant powders of Leptadenia reticulata Wight & Arn. and Pluchea lanceolata (DC. CB. Clarke. The developed HPTLC method is simple, rapid, and precise and can be used for routine quality control.

  16. SOX - Towards the detection of sterile neutrinos in Borexino. Beta spectrum modeling, Monte Carlo development and sensitivity studies for the sterile neutrino search in Borexino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Mikko

    2016-12-01

    Several experiments have reported anomalies in the neutrino sector which might be explained by the existence of a fourth (sterile) neutrino with a squared mass difference of about 1 eV"2 to the other three active neutrinos. The SOX project is part of the experimental program of the Borexino experiment and seeks for a clarification of the observed anomalies. For that purpose an artificial antineutrino source ("1"4"4Ce-"1"4"4Pr) and possibly neutrino source ("5"1Cr) will be deployed underneath the large low background detector Borexino. The detector provides both energy and vertex resolution to observe a possible oscillation signature within the detector volume. The calculation of the antineutrino spectrum is based on existing theoretical models and was performed within this thesis. The modeling includes several sub-leading corrections particularly such as finite size of the nucleus, screening of the atomic electrons and radiative effects. Related to this work, dedicated Monte Carlo generators have been developed to simulate the inverse beta decay reaction and the (anti)neutrino elastic scattering off electrons. Based on a profile likelihood analysis, the sensitivity to the sterile neutrino search of the SOX project was evaluated. The results obtained from this analysis confirm that the currently allowed parameter regions for sterile neutrinos can be tested at 95% confidence level. Finally, an alternative concept for the sterile neutrino search is presented which is based on a cyclotron and a Beryllium target near Borexino (Borexino+IsoDAR).

  17. The continuous monitoring of the artificial beta aerosol activity by measuring the alpha and beta activity in aerosol simultaneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Hironobu; Oonishi, Masaki; Matsuura, Hiroyuki

    1990-01-01

    We have constructed the system to monitor the artificial beta aerosol activity around the nuclear power plants continuously in real time. The smaller releases of artificial radionuclides from the nuclear power plants can be lost in the fluctuations of the natural background of the beta aerosol activity, when only the beta activity of the aerosol is measured. This method to discriminate the artificial and the natural beta activity of the aerosol is based on the fact that the ratio of the natural alpha and beta activities of the aerosol is almost constant. The detection limit of this system is below 3 Bq/m 3 . (author)

  18. Beta-keto amphetamines: studies on the metabolism of the designer drug mephedrone and toxicological detection of mephedrone, butylone, and methylone in urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Markus R; Wilhelm, Jens; Peters, Frank T; Maurer, Hans H

    2010-06-01

    In recent years, a new class of designer drugs has appeared on the drugs of abuse market in many countries, namely, the so-called beta-keto (bk) designer drugs such as mephedrone (bk-4-methylmethamphetamine), butylone (bk-MBDB), and methylone (bk-MDMA). The aim of the present study was to identify the metabolites of mephedrone in rat and human urine using GC-MS techniques and to include mephedrone, butylone, and methylone within the authors' systematic toxicological analysis (STA) procedure. Six phase I metabolites of mephedrone were detected in rat urine and seven in human urine suggesting the following metabolic steps: N-demethylation to the primary amine, reduction of the keto moiety to the respective alcohol, and oxidation of the tolyl moiety to the corresponding alcohols and carboxylic acid. The STA procedure allowed the detection of mephedrone, butylone, methylone, and their metabolites in urine of rats treated with doses corresponding to those reported for abuse of amphetamines. Besides macro-based data evaluation, an automated evaluation using the automated mass spectral deconvolution and identification system was performed. Mephedrone and butylone could be detected also in human urine samples submitted for drug testing. Assuming similar kinetics in humans, the described STA procedure should be suitable for proof of an intake of the bk-designer drugs in human urine.

  19. Sigma beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, D.E.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment to measure beta decays of the sigma particle. Sigmas produced by stopping a K - beam in a liquid hydrogen target decayed in the following reactions: Kp → Σπ; Σ → Neν. The electron and pion were detected by wire spark chambers in a magnetic spectrometer and by plastic scintillators, and were differentiated by a threshold gas Cherenkov counter. The neutron was detected by liquid scintillation counters. The data (n = 3) shell electrons or the highly excited electrons decay first. Instead, it is suggested that when there are two to five electrons in highly excited states immediately after a heavy ion--atom collision the first transitions to occur will be among highly excited Rydberg states in a cascade down to the 4s, 4p, and 3d-subshells. If one of the long lived states becomes occupied by electrons promoted during the collision or by electrons falling from higher levels, it will not decay until after the valence shell decays. LMM rates calculated to test the methods used are compared to previous works. The mixing coefficients are given in terms of the states 4s4p, 45sp+-, and 5s5p. The applicability of Cooper, Fano, and Prats' discussion of the energies and transition rates of doubly excited states is considered

  20. Specific radioimmunoassay of human. beta. -endorphin in unextracted plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, E. (Univ. of California, Berkeley); Saito, T.; Linfoot, J.A.; Li, C.H.

    1979-09-01

    With an antiserum against human ..beta..-endorphin (..beta..-EP) crossreacting <2% with human ..beta..-lipotropin (..beta..-LPH) by weight we have developed a radioimmunoassay that can detect 1 pg ..beta..-EP in diluted raw plasma. In a.m. fasting plasma of 14 normal subjects ..beta..-EP ranged from <5 to 45 pg/ml. ..beta..-EP was elevated in untreated, but normal in successfully treated Cushing's disease; undetectable in a patient with adrenal adenoma; extremely high in Nelson's syndrome; and elevated in a patient with bronchogenic carcinoma before, but undetectable after tumor resection. In subjects with intact hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, ..beta..-EP was undectectable after dexamethasone and increased after metyrapone administration and insulin-induced hypoglycemia. ..beta..-EP concentration was considerably lower in serum than in simultaneously collected plasma, but increased in serum left unfrozen for several hours after clot removal. Thus, ..beta..-EP behaves like a hormone responding to the same stimuli as ACTH and ..beta..-LPH and blood appears to contain enzymes both generating and destroying immunoreactive ..beta..-EP.

  1. Betting Against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model’s five central predictions: (1) Since constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for U...... of the BAB factor is low; (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one; (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets........S. equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures; (2) A betting-against-beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns; (3) When funding constraints tighten, the return...

  2. Roughing up Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Li, Sophia Zhengzi; Todorov, Viktor

    -section. An investment strategy that goes long stocks with high jump betas and short stocks with low jump betas produces significant average excess returns. These higher risk premiums for the discontinuous and overnight market betas remain significant after controlling for a long list of other firm characteristics......Motivated by the implications from a stylized equilibrium pricing framework, we investigate empirically how individual equity prices respond to continuous, or \\smooth," and jumpy, or \\rough," market price moves, and how these different market price risks, or betas, are priced in the cross......-section of expected returns. Based on a novel highfrequency dataset of almost one-thousand individual stocks over two decades, we find that the two rough betas associated with intraday discontinuous and overnight returns entail significant risk premiums, while the intraday continuous beta is not priced in the cross...

  3. Phenotypic and molecular detection of BLACTX-M gene extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in escherichia coli and klebsiella pneumoniae of north sumatera isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasibuan, Mirzan; Suryanto, Dwi; Lia Kusumawati, R.

    2018-03-01

    The application of antibiotics expanded-spectrum third-generation cephalosporin for the treatment of infectious diseases in hospitals is known contribute to increasing resistance due to the presence of the blaCTX-M gene in the bacteria producing ESBLs. This study was aimed to detect ESBLs, isolate phenotype and blaCTX-M genes on Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae collected from H. Adam Malik Central Hospital. Phenotypes of the bacterial were detection using Vitek two compact, while the blaCTX-M genes were detection using polymerase chain reaction technique. The results showed that 85 (100%) isolates were ESBLs consisted of 41(48%) of Escherichia coli, and 44 (52%) of Klebsiella pneumoniae, respectively. blaCTX-M genes were detection in 62 (72.94%) of the isolates which 31 (36.47%) were Escherichia coli, and 31 (36.47%) of the isolates were Klebsiella pneumoniae, respectively. This study indicates the high prevalence of blaCTX-M genes in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniea causing bacterial antibiotic resistance.

  4. Beta limits for ETF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, F.J.; Miller, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    ETF (Engineering Test Facility) one-dimensional transport simulations indicate that a volume-average beta of 4% is required for ignition. It is therefore important that theoretical beta limits, determined by requiring equilibria to be stable to all ideal modes, exceed 4%. This paper documents an ideal MHD analysis wherein it is shown that, with appropriate plasma cross-sectional shape and current profile optimization, operation near 5% is possible. The critical beta value, however, depends on the functional form used for ff', which suggests that higher critical betas could be achieved by directly optimizing the safety factor profile. (author)

  5. Beta-energy averaging and beta spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamatelatos, M.G.; England, T.R.

    1976-07-01

    A simple yet highly accurate method for approximately calculating spectrum-averaged beta energies and beta spectra for radioactive nuclei is presented. This method should prove useful for users who wish to obtain accurate answers without complicated calculations of Fermi functions, complex gamma functions, and time-consuming numerical integrations as required by the more exact theoretical expressions. Therefore, this method should be a good time-saving alternative for investigators who need to make calculations involving large numbers of nuclei (e.g., fission products) as well as for occasional users interested in restricted number of nuclides. The average beta-energy values calculated by this method differ from those calculated by ''exact'' methods by no more than 1 percent for nuclides with atomic numbers in the 20 to 100 range and which emit betas of energies up to approximately 8 MeV. These include all fission products and the actinides. The beta-energy spectra calculated by the present method are also of the same quality

  6. Imaging characteristic of dual-phase 18F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) PET for the concomitant detection of perfusion deficits and beta-amyloid deposition in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Kun-Ju; Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Hsieh, Chia-Ju; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Hsu, Jung-Lung; Huang, Chin-Chang; Huang, Kuo-Lun

    2016-01-01

    We investigated dual-phase 18 F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) PET imaging for the concomitant detection of brain perfusion deficits and beta-amyloid deposition in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and in cognitively healthy controls (HCs). A total of 82 subjects (24 AD patients, 44 MCI patients and 14 HCs) underwent both dual-phase 18 F-AV-45 PET and MRI imaging. Dual-phase dynamic PET imaging consisted of (1) five 1-min scans obtained 1 - 6 min after tracer injection (perfusion 18 F-AV-45 imaging, pAV-45), and (2) ten 1-min scans obtained 50 - 60 min after tracer injection (amyloid 18 F-AV-45 imaging). Amyloid-negative MCI/AD patients were excluded. Volume of interest analysis and statistical parametric mapping of pAV-45 and 18 F-AV-45 images were performed to investigate the perfusion deficits and the beta-amyloid burden in the three study groups. The associations between Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores and global perfusion deficits and amyloid deposition were investigated with linear and segmental linear correlation analyses. HCs generally had normal pAV-45 findings, whereas perfusion deficits were evident in the hippocampus, and temporal, parietal and middle frontal cortices in both MCI and AD patients. The motor-sensory cortex was relatively preserved. MMSE scores in the entire study cohort were significantly associated with the degree of perfusion impairment as assessed by pAV-45 imaging (r = 0.5156, P < 0.0001). 18 F-AV-45 uptake was significantly higher in AD patients than in the two other study groups. However, the correlation between MMSE scores and 18 F-AV-45 uptake in MCI patients was more of a binary phenomenon and began in MCI patients with MMSE score 23.14 when 18 F-AV-45 uptake was higher and MMSE score lower than in patients with early MCI. Amyloid deposition started in the precuneus and the frontal and temporal regions in early MCI, ultimately reaching the maximum burden in advanced

  7. Imaging characteristic of dual-phase {sup 18}F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) PET for the concomitant detection of perfusion deficits and beta-amyloid deposition in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Kun-Ju; Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Hsieh, Chia-Ju; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Yen, Tzu-Chen [Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and University, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung University, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences and Healthy Aging Research Center, Taoyuan (China); Hsu, Jung-Lung [Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Section of Dementia and Cognitive Impairment, Department of Neurology, Taoyuan (China); Taipei Medical University, Graduate Institute of Humanities in Medicine, Taipei (China); Huang, Chin-Chang; Huang, Kuo-Lun [Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and University, Department of Neurology, Taoyuan (China)

    2016-07-15

    We investigated dual-phase {sup 18}F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) PET imaging for the concomitant detection of brain perfusion deficits and beta-amyloid deposition in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and in cognitively healthy controls (HCs). A total of 82 subjects (24 AD patients, 44 MCI patients and 14 HCs) underwent both dual-phase {sup 18}F-AV-45 PET and MRI imaging. Dual-phase dynamic PET imaging consisted of (1) five 1-min scans obtained 1 - 6 min after tracer injection (perfusion {sup 18}F-AV-45 imaging, pAV-45), and (2) ten 1-min scans obtained 50 - 60 min after tracer injection (amyloid {sup 18}F-AV-45 imaging). Amyloid-negative MCI/AD patients were excluded. Volume of interest analysis and statistical parametric mapping of pAV-45 and {sup 18}F-AV-45 images were performed to investigate the perfusion deficits and the beta-amyloid burden in the three study groups. The associations between Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores and global perfusion deficits and amyloid deposition were investigated with linear and segmental linear correlation analyses. HCs generally had normal pAV-45 findings, whereas perfusion deficits were evident in the hippocampus, and temporal, parietal and middle frontal cortices in both MCI and AD patients. The motor-sensory cortex was relatively preserved. MMSE scores in the entire study cohort were significantly associated with the degree of perfusion impairment as assessed by pAV-45 imaging (r = 0.5156, P < 0.0001). {sup 18}F-AV-45 uptake was significantly higher in AD patients than in the two other study groups. However, the correlation between MMSE scores and {sup 18}F-AV-45 uptake in MCI patients was more of a binary phenomenon and began in MCI patients with MMSE score 23.14 when {sup 18}F-AV-45 uptake was higher and MMSE score lower than in patients with early MCI. Amyloid deposition started in the precuneus and the frontal and temporal regions in early MCI, ultimately

  8. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Escherichia coli Strains Producers of Extended-Spectrum and CMY-2 Type Beta-Lactamases, Isolated from Turtles in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Cortés, Gerardo; Lozano-Zarain, Patricia; Torres, Carmen; Castañeda, Miguel; Sánchez, Gabriela Moreno; Alonso, Carla A; López-Pliego, Liliana; Mayen, María G Gutiérrez; Martínez-Laguna, Ygnacio; Rocha-Gracia, Rosa Del Carmen

    2016-09-01

    Multidrug-resistant bacteria are a growing problem in different environments and hosts, but scarce information exists about their prevalence in reptiles. The aim of this study was to analyze the resistance mechanisms, molecular typing, and plasmid content of cefotaxime-resistant (CTX(R)) Escherichia coli isolates recovered from cloacal samples of 71 turtles sheltered in a herpetarium in Mexico. CTX(R)-E. coli were recovered in 11 of 71 samples (15.5%), and one isolate/sample was characterized. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli isolates were detected in four samples (5.6%): two strains carried the blaCTX-M-2 gene (phylogroup D and ST2732) and two contained the blaCTX-M-15 gene (phylogroup B1 and lineages ST58 and ST156). The blaCMY-2 gene was detected by PCR in E. coli isolates of eight samples (9.8%) (one of them also carried blaCTX-M-2); these isolates were distributed into phylogroups A (n = 1), B1 (n = 6), and D (n = 1) and typed as ST155, ST156, ST2329, and ST2732. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes were detected in five isolates [aac(6')Ib-cr, qnrA, qnrB19, and oqxB]. From three to five replicon plasmids were detected among the strains, being IncFIB, IncI1, IncFrep, and IncK the most prevalent. ESBL or pAmpC genes were transferred by conjugation in four strains, and the blaCTX-M-15 and blaCMY-2 genes were localized in IncFIB or IncI1 plasmids by Southern blot hybridization assays. Class 1 and/or class 2 integrons were detected in eight strains with six different structures of gene cassette arrays. Nine pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns were found among the 11 studied strains. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of ESBL, CMY-2, PMQR, and mobile determinants of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli of turtle origin, highlighting the potential dissemination of multidrug-resistant bacteria from these animals to other environments and hosts, including humans.

  9. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in toxicological analysis. Studies on the detection of clobenzorex and its metabolites within a systematic toxicological analysis procedure by GC-MS and by immunoassay and studies on the detection of alpha- and beta-amanitin in urine by atmospheric pressure ionization electrospray LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, H H; Kraemer, T; Ledvinka, O; Schmitt, C J; Weber, A A

    1997-02-07

    GC-MS is the method of choice for toxicological analysis of toxicants volatile in GC while non-volatile and/or thermally labile toxicants need LC-MS for their determination. Studies are presented on the toxicological detection of the amphetamine-like anorectic clobenzorex in urine by GC-MS after acid hydrolysis, extraction and acetylation and by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA, TDx (meth)amphetamine II). After ingestion of 60 mg of clobenzorex, the parent compound and/or its metabolites could be detected by GC-MS for up to 84 h or by FPIA for up to 60 h. Since clobenzorex shows no cross-reactivity with the used immunoassay, the N-dealkylated metabolite amphetamine is responsible for the positive TDx results. The intake of clobenzorex instead of amphetamine can be differentiated by GC-MS detection of hydroxyclobenzorex which is detectable for at least as long as amphetamine. In addition, the described GC-MS procedure allows the simultaneous detection of most of the toxicologically relevant drugs. Furthermore, studies are described on the atmospheric pressure ionization electrospray LC-MS detection of alpha- and beta-amanitin, toxic peptides of amanita mushrooms, in urine after solid-phase extraction on RP-18 columns. Using the single ion monitoring mode with the ions m/z 919 and 920 the amanitins could be detected down to 10 ng/ml of urine which allows us to diagnose intoxications with amanita mushrooms.

  10. Novel sensitive monoclonal antibody based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of raw and processed bovine beta-casein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Daniela S; Cassola, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Cow milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the most common childhood food allergy, which can sometimes persist or can newly develop in adulthood with severe symptoms. CMPA's treatment is complete dietary avoidance of milk proteins. To achieve this task, patients have to be aware of milk proteins found as "hidden allergens" in food commodities. In regard to milk proteins, it has been reported that allergenicity of caseins remains unaffected upon heat treatment. For these reasons, we aimed to obtain monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against native and denatured β-casein, one of the most abundant and antigenic caseins, in order to develop an indirect competitive ELISA (icELISA) to detect and quantify traces of this milk allergen in raw and processed foodstuffs. We developed two specific hybridoma clones, 1H3 and 6A12, which recognized β-casein in its denatured and native conformations by indirect ELISA (iELISA). Cross-reaction analysis by Western blot and iELISA indicated that these mAbs specifically recognized β-casein from bovine and goat milk extracts, while they did not cross-react with proteins present in other food matrixes. These highly specific mAbs enabled the development of sensitive, reliable and reproducible icELISAs to detect and quantify this milk protein allergen in food commodities. The extraction of β-casein from foodstuff was efficiently carried out at 60°C for 15 minutes, using an extraction buffer containing 1% SDS. The present study establishes a valid 1H3 based-icELISA, which allows the detection and quantification -0.29 ppm and 0.80 ppm, respectively- of small amounts of β-casein in raw and processed foods. Furthermore, we were able to detect milk contamination in incurred food samples with the same sensitivity as a commercial sandwich ELISA thus showing that this icELISA constitutes a reliable analytical method for control strategies in food industry and allergy prevention.

  11. High beta tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dory, R.A.; Berger, D.P.; Charlton, L.A.; Hogan, J.T.; Munro, J.K.; Nelson, D.B.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Sigmar, D.J.; Strickler, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    MHD equilibrium, stability, and transport calculations are made to study the accessibility and behavior of ''high beta'' tokamak plasmas in the range β approximately 5 to 15 percent. For next generation devices, beta values of at least 8 percent appear to be accessible and stable if there is a conducting surface nearby

  12. Sorting out Downside Beta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.T. Post (Thierry); P. van Vliet (Pim); S.D. Lansdorp (Simon)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractDownside risk, when properly defined and estimated, helps to explain the cross-section of US stock returns. Sorting stocks by a proper estimate of downside market beta leads to a substantially larger cross-sectional spread in average returns than sorting on regular market beta. This

  13. Betting against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model's five central predictions: (1) Because constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically...

  14. Detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in vegetables, soil and water of the farm environment in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Said, Leila; Jouini, Ahlem; Klibi, Naouel; Dziri, Raoudha; Alonso, Carla Andrea; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Ben Slama, Karim; Torres, Carmen

    2015-06-16

    One-hundred-nine samples of 18 different farms (49 of food-vegetables, 41 of soil and 19 of irrigation water) and 45 vegetable food samples of 13 markets were collected in Tunisia. These samples were inoculated in MacConkey agar plates supplemented with cefotaxime (2 μg/ml). ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-Eb) were detected in 10 of the 109 farm samples (vegetables, 8.2%; soil, 7.3%; water, 15.8%), and in 4 of 45 vegetables of markets (8.9%), recovering 15 ESBL-Eb. Isolates and ESBL genes detected were: Escherichia coli (n=8: 5 blaCTX-M-1, 2 blaCTX-M-15 and one blaCTX-M-14), Citrobacter freundii (n=4: 3 blaCTX-M-15 and one blaSHV-12), Enterobacter hormaechei (n=2: 2 blaCTX-M-15) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=1, blaCTX-M-15). The ISEcp1 sequence was found upstream of blaCTX-M genes in 13 of 14 strains (in three cases truncated by IS5), and orf477 or IS903 downstream. Class 1 integrons were detected in five strains and contained two gene cassette arrangements (dfrA17-aadA5 and aadA1). Most isolates tested showed a multiresistant phenotype. All blaCTX-M-15-positive strains carried the aac(6')-1b-cr gene, that affects to amikacin-tobramycin-kanamycin-ciprofloxacin. Five ESBL-Eb strains carried genes of the qnr family. The 8 ESBL-positive E. coli isolates were typed as: ST58/B1 (n=3) and ST117/D, ST131/B2, ST10/A, ST23/A, and the new ST3496/D (one strain, each). From 1-2 plasmids were detected in all ESBL-positive E. coli isolates (63-179 kb). The ESBL genes were transferred by conjugation in 4 blaCTX-M-1-positive E. coli strains, and transconjugants acquired a 97 kb IncI1 plasmid. ESBL-Eb isolates are frequently disseminated in vegetable farms and potentially could be transmitted to humans through the food chain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: beta thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Beta thalassemia Beta thalassemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Beta thalassemia is a blood disorder that reduces the production ...

  16. Antimicrobial resistance in faecal Escherichia coli isolates from farmed red deer and wild small mammals. Detection of a multiresistant E. coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, C A; González-Barrio, D; Tenorio, Carmen; Ruiz-Fons, F; Torres, C

    2016-04-01

    Eighty-nine Escherichia coli isolates recovered from faeces of red deer and small mammals, cohabiting the same area, were analyzed to determine the prevalence and mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance and molecular typing. Antimicrobial resistance was detected in 6.7% of isolates, with resistances to tetracycline and quinolones being the most common. An E. coli strain carrying blaCTX-M-1 as well as other antibiotic resistant genes included in an unusual class 1 integron (Intl1-dfrA16-blaPSE-1-aadA2-cmlA1-aadA1-qacH-IS440-sul3-orf1-mef(B)Δ-IS26) was isolated from a deer. The blaCTX-M-1 gene was transferred by conjugation and transconjugants also acquired an IncN plasmid. This strain was typed as ST224, which seems to be well adapted to both clinical and environmental settings. The phylogenetic distribution of the 89 strains varied depending on the animal host. This work reveals low antimicrobial resistance levels among faecal E. coli from wild mammals, which reflects a lower selective pressure affecting these bacteria, compared to livestock. However, it is remarkable the detection of a multi-resistant ESBL-E. coli with an integron carrying clinically relevant antibiotic-resistance genes, which can contribute to the dissemination of resistance determinants among different ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cross-Sectional Study for the Detection of Mutations in the Beta-Globin Gene Among Patients with Hemoglobinopathies in the Bengali Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panja, Amrita; Chowdhury, Prosanto; Chakraborty, Sharmistha; Ghosh, Tapan Kumar; Basu, Anupam

    2017-01-01

    Thalassemia is a common autosomal recessive blood disorder, which is most prevalent in South East Asian and Mediterranean populations. It is considered as a major health burden in the Indian population. The aims of the present study were to investigate the common, as well as uncommon, mutations responsible for thalassemia in the Bengali population. The Bengali state was divided into four sampling zones. Mutation detection was done using Sanger sequencing of the HBB gene. A total of 14 different mutations were observed, including rare mutations IVS1-130(G>C), IVS1-129(A>C), -90(T>C), CD16(-C), -30(T>C), CD15(-T), and a novel mutation CD53(C>T). The frequencies of IVS1-5(G>C) and CD26(G>A) mutations were higher than other mutations. There were also some silent polymorphisms found in the studied group, CD3(T>C), CD10(C>A), IVSII-16(G>C), IVSII-74(T>G), -42(C>G). The present study is the first attempt to screen for β-thalassemia-causing mutations by direct sequencing in different districts of West Bengal. The information obtained from the present study may be helpful for thalassemia management and prenatal mutation detection.

  18. Evaluation of the HB&L carbapenemase and extended spectrum beta lactamase-AmpC automated screening kits for the rapid detection of resistant Enterobacteriaceae in rectal swabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Marani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the past two decades, a rapid increase of infections due to multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae was reported worldwide, including in Italy. These bacteria express genes encoding for extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL or bear a plasmid-mediated AmpC that induce phenotypically a resistance to the last-generation cephalosporins; even more worrying is the rapid increase of Enterobacteriaceae carrying genes conferring resistance to carbapenems (CPE. Materials and methods. The gut may serve as reservoir for these antibiotic drug-resistant bacteria: as a consequence, the rapid detection of drug resistant Enterobacteriaceae from rectal swabs is an important tool to identify rectal carriage of resistant bacteria. This procedure is the basic tool to successfully implement the infection control measures in the hospital wards. The study evaluated the capability of the HB&L ESBL/AmpC and CARBAPENEMASE screening kit (Alifax, Padua, Italy to rapidly identify the drug resistant enterobacteriaceae from rectal swabs: the performance was compared with the conventional method. Results and conclusions. The overall agreement was very good (91% for the detection of ESBL-AmpC, and 96.2% for the identification of CPE; this method is thus an efficient tool to quickly report positive multidrug resistant bacteria in rectal swabs.

  19. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  20. Biosynthesis and release of beta-endorphin-, N-acetyl beta-endorphin-, beta-endorphin-(1-27)-, and N-acetyl beta-endorphin-(1-27)-like peptides by rat pituitary neurointermediate lobe: beta-endorphin is not further processed by anterior lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liotta, A.S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Krieger, D.T.

    1981-01-01

    Continuous labeling and pulse-chase techniques were employed to study the synthesis and secretion of multiple forms of immunoreactive beta-endorphin by cultured dispersed rat anterior lobe cells and intact neurointermediate pituitary lobe. Intact neurointermediate lobes incorporated radiolabeled amino acids into four to six forms of immunoreactive beta-endorphin. Four of these forms were physicochemically similar to authentic beta-endorphin, N-acetylated beta-endorphin, beta-endorphin-(1-27), and N-acetylated beta-endorphin-(1-27). Pulse-chase studies indicated that a beta-lipotropin-like molecule served as a metabolic intermediate for a beta-endorphin-like molecule. As beta-endorphin-like material accumulated in the cell, some of it was N-acetylated (approximately 18% at 2 hr chase and approximately 65% at 18 hr chase). At later chase times, beta-endorphin-(1-27)- and N-acetylated beta-endorphin-(1-27)-like peptides were the predominant molecular species detected. All endorphin forms were detected in unlabeled tissue maintained in culture or tissue continuously labeled for 72 hr and were released into the medium under basal, stimulatory (10(-8) M norepinephrine), or inhibitory (10(-7) M dopamine) incubation conditions. In all cases, beta-endorphin-(1-27)-like species were the predominant forms (more than 70% of total) present in the cells and released into the medium. In contrast, approximately 90% of radiolabeled immunoreactive beta-endorphin extracted from anterior lobe cells and medium similarly incubated appeared to represent the authentic beta-endorphin molecule. Continuous labeling (72 hr) revealed the beta-lipotropin/beta-endorphin molar ratio to be approximately 4. We conclude that, in anterior lobe, most of the beta-endorphin is not processed further and is released intact, while in neurointermediate lobe, it serves as a biosynthetic intermediate

  1. Beta attenuation transmission system (BATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, R.C.; Fullbright, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm/sup 2/, of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A /sup 90/Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (..mu..P) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined.

  2. Beta attenuation transmission system (BATS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, R.C.; Fullbright, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm 2 , of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A 90 Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (μP) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined

  3. Beta particle measurement fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The necessary concepts for understanding beta particle behavior are stopping power, range, and scattering. Dose as a consequence of beta particle interaction with tissue can be derived and explained by these concepts. Any calculations of dose, however, assume or require detailed knowledge of the beta spectrum at the tissue depth of calculation. A rudimentary knowledge of the incident spectrum can be of use in estimating dose, interpretating dose measuring devices and designing protection. The stopping power and range based on the csda will give a conservative estimate in cases of protection design, as scattering will reduce the range. Estimates of dose may be low because scattering effects were neglected

  4. Detection of serum antibodies cross-reacting with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and beta-cell antigen zinc transporter 8 homologous peptides in patients with high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Antonio; Masala, Speranza; Blasetti, Francesco; Maiore, Irene; Cossu, Davide; Paccagnini, Daniela; Mameli, Giuseppe; Sechi, Leonardo A

    2014-01-01

    MAP3865c, a Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) cell membrane protein, has a relevant sequence homology with zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8), a beta-cell membrane protein involved in Zn++ transportation. Recently, antibodies recognizing MAP3865c epitopes have been shown to cross-react with ZnT8 in type 1 diabetes patients. The purpose of this study was to detect antibodies against MAP3865c peptides in patients with high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy and speculate on whether they may somehow be involved in the pathogenesis of this severe retinal disorder. Blood samples were obtained from 62 type 1 and 80 type 2 diabetes patients with high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy and 81 healthy controls. Antibodies against 6 highly immunogenic MAP3865c peptides were detected by indirect ELISA. Type 1 diabetes patients had significantly higher rates of positive antibodies than controls. Conversely, no statistically significant differences were found between type 2 diabetes patients and controls. After categorization of type 1 diabetes patients into two groups, one with positive, the other with negative antibodies, we found that they had similar mean visual acuity (∼ 0.6) and identical rates of vitreous hemorrhage (28.6%). Conversely, Hashimoto's thyroiditis prevalence was 4/13 (30.7%) in the positive antibody group and 1/49 (2%) in the negative antibody group, a statistically significant difference (P = 0.016). This study confirmed that type 1 diabetes patients have significantly higher rates of positive antibodies against MAP/ZnT8 peptides, but failed to find a correlation between the presence of these antibodies and the severity degree of high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The significantly higher prevalence of Hashimoto's disease among type 1 diabetes patients with positive antibodies might suggest a possible common environmental trigger for these conditions.

  5. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-06

    Oct 6, 2012 ... Anyhow, the 'multi-isotope' ansatz is needed to compensate for matrix element ... The neccessary half-life requirement to touch this ... site energy depositions (like double beta decay) and multiple site interactions (most of.

  6. Beta-Carotene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease (COPD). It is also used to improve memory and muscle strength. Some people use beta-carotene ... to reduce the chance of death and night blindness during pregnancy, as well as diarrhea and fever ...

  7. Double beta decay: experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorini, Ettore

    2006-01-01

    The results obtained so far and those of the running experiments on neutrinoless double beta decay are reviewed. The plans for second generation experiments, the techniques to be adopted and the expected sensitivities are compared and discussed

  8. Métodos alternativos para detecção de betalactamase de espectro estendido em Escherichia coli e Klebsiella pneumoniae Alternative methods for the detection of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsander Costa Martins

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A resistência a antimicrobianos tem aumentado rapidamente nos últimos anos no Brasil e no mundo e, embora exista uma variedade de mecanismos de resistência, destaca-se a produção de betalactamase de espectro estendido (ESBL como um dos principais. Essas enzimas são mediadas por plasmídios, conferem resistência a vários antimicrobianos betalactâmicos e são inibidas por compostos, como ácido clavulânico, sulbactam e tazobactam. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar metodologias alternativas à técnica padrão preconizada pelo Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI para detecção de ESBL. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram realizados testes com 36 isolados (26 de E. coli e 10 de K. pneumoniae mediante disco combinado (CLSI e técnicas alternativas designadas meio disco (MD e substituição de discos (SD. CONCLUSÃO: As duas metodologias propostas apresentaram resultados satisfatórios com sensibilidade superior a 90% e custo inferior à técnica de referência (disco combinado, podendo ser utilizadas na pesquisa de ESBL.INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance has increased apace in Brazil and worldwide in the last years, even though there is a great variety of resistance mechanisms and extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL is among the main ones. These enzymes are plasmid mediated, which causes resistance to some beta-lactam antimicrobials and are inhibited by compounds such as clavulanic acid, sulbactam and tazobactam. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare alternative methods to the standard ESBL detection technique recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Tests with 36 isolates (26 E. coli and 10 K. pneumoniae were performed by means of CLSI disk diffusion method and alternative techniques designated as half disk (HD and disk substitution (SD. CONCLUSION: Both methods yielded satisfactory results with higher sensitivity (90% and lower costs

  9. Purification and properties of beta-galactosidase from Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, M; Pedregosa, A M; de Lucas, J R; Torralba, S; Monistrol, I F; Laborda, F

    1996-12-01

    Beta-Galactosidase from mycelial extract of Aspergillus nidulans has been purified by substrate affinity chromatography and used to obtain anti-beta-galactosidase polyclonal antibodies. A. nidulans growing in lactose as carbon source synthesizes one active form of beta-galactosidase which seems to be a multimeric enzyme of 450 kDa composed of monomers with 120 and 97 kDa. Although the enzyme was not released to the culture medium, some enzymatic activity was detected in a cell-wall extract, thus suggesting that it can be an extracellular enzyme. Beta-Galactosidase of A. nidulans is a very unstable enzyme with an optimum pH value of 7.5 and an optimum temperature of 30 degrees C. It was only active against beta-galactoside substrates like lactose and p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside (PNPG).

  10. The BetaCage: Ultrasensitive Screener for Radioactive Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; BetaCage Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Rare event searches, such as dark matter detection and neutrinoless double beta decay, require screening of materials for backgrounds such as beta emission and alpha decaying isotopes. The BetaCage is a proposed ultra-sensitive time-projection chamber to screen for alpha-emitting and low energy beta-emitting (10-200 keV) contaminants. The expected sensitivity is 0.1 beta particles (perkeV -m2 - day) and 0.1 alpha particles (perm2 - day) , where the former will be limited by Compton scattering of external photons in the screening samples and the latter is expected to be signal-limited. The prototype BetaCage under commissioning at South Dakota School of Mines & Technology is filled with P10 gas (10% methane, 90% argon) in place of neon and is 40×40×20 cm in size. Details on design, construction and characterization will be presented.

  11. Study of collagen metabolism and regulation after {beta} radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yinghui, Zhou; Lan, Xu; Shiliang, Wu; Hao, Qiu; Zhi, Jiang; Youbin, Tu; Xueguang, Zhang [Suzhou Medical College (China)

    2001-04-01

    The animal model of {beta} radiation injury was established by the {beta} radiation produced by the linear accelerator; and irradiated NIH 3T3 cells were studied. In the experiment the contents of total collagen, collagen type I and type III were measured. The activity of MMPs-1 were tested. The contents of TGF-{beta}{sub 1}, IL-6 were also detected. The results showed that after exposure to {beta} radiation, little change was found in the content of total collagen, but the content of collagen I decreased and the content of collagen III, MMPs-1 activity increased; the expression of TGF-{beta}{sub 1}, IL-6 increased. The results suggest that changes in the metabolism of collagen play an important role in the irradiated injury of the skin; TGF-{beta}{sub 1}, IL-6 may be essential in the regulation of the collagen metabolism.

  12. {beta} - amyloid imaging probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Imaging distribution of {beta} - amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease is very important for early and accurate diagnosis. Early trial of the {beta} -amyloid plaques includes using radiolabeled peptides which can be only applied for peripheral {beta} - amyloid plaques due to limited penetration through the blood brain barrier (BBB). Congo red or Chrysamine G derivatives were labeled with Tc-99m for imaging {beta} - amyloid plaques of Alzheimer patient's brain without success due to problem with BBB penetration. Thioflavin T derivatives gave breakthrough for {beta} - amyloid imaging in vivo, and a benzothiazole derivative [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 brought a great success. Many other benzothiazole, benzoxazole, benzofuran, imidazopyridine, and styrylbenzene derivatives have been labeled with F-18 and I-123 to improve the imaging quality. However, [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 still remains as the best. However, short half-life of C-11 is a limitation of wide distribution of this agent. So, it is still required to develop an Tc-99m, F-18 or I-123 labeled agent for {beta} - amyloid imaging agent.

  13. Transforming growth factor-beta messenger RNA and protein in murine colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whiting, C V; Williams, A M; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    2001-01-01

    Using a CD4+ T-cell-transplanted SCID mouse model of colitis, we have analyzed TGF-beta transcription and translation in advanced disease. By in situ hybridization, the epithelium of both control and inflamed tissues transcribed TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3 mRNAs, but both were expressed significantly...... farther along the crypt axis in disease. Control lamina propria cells transcribed little TGF-beta1 or TGF-beta3 mRNA, but in inflamed tissues many cells expressed mRNA for both isoforms. No TGF-beta2 message was detected in either control or inflamed tissues. Immunohistochemistry for latent and active TGF...

  14. T cell precursor migration towards beta 2-microglobulin is involved in thymus colonization of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunon, D; Kaufman, J; Salomonsen, J

    1990-01-01

    beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) attracts hemopoietic precursors from chicken bone marrow cells in vitro. The cell population responding to beta 2m increases during the second period of thymus colonization, which takes place at days 12-14 of incubation. The precursors from 13.5 day old embryos were...... isolated after migration towards beta 2m in vitro and shown to be able to colonize a 13 day old thymus in ovo, where they subsequently acquire thymocyte markers. In contrast these beta 2m responsive precursors did not colonize embryonic bursa, i.e. differentiate into B lymphocytes. During chicken...... embryogenesis, peaks of beta 2m transcripts and of free beta 2m synthesis can only be detected in the thymus. The peak of free beta 2m synthesis in the thymus and the increase of beta 2m responding bone marrow cells both occur concomitantly with the second wave of thymus colonization in chicken embryo, facts...

  15. Boosted beta regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schmid

    Full Text Available Regression analysis with a bounded outcome is a common problem in applied statistics. Typical examples include regression models for percentage outcomes and the analysis of ratings that are measured on a bounded scale. In this paper, we consider beta regression, which is a generalization of logit models to situations where the response is continuous on the interval (0,1. Consequently, beta regression is a convenient tool for analyzing percentage responses. The classical approach to fit a beta regression model is to use maximum likelihood estimation with subsequent AIC-based variable selection. As an alternative to this established - yet unstable - approach, we propose a new estimation technique called boosted beta regression. With boosted beta regression estimation and variable selection can be carried out simultaneously in a highly efficient way. Additionally, both the mean and the variance of a percentage response can be modeled using flexible nonlinear covariate effects. As a consequence, the new method accounts for common problems such as overdispersion and non-binomial variance structures.

  16. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in Klebsiella spp and Escherichia coli obtained in a Brazilian teaching hospital: detection, prevalence and molecular typing beta-lactamases de espectro ampliado em Klebsiella spp e em Escherichia coli obtidas em um hospital escola brasileiro: detecção, prevalência e tipagem molecular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Peixoto de Freitas

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available His study was performed to compare the methods of detection and to estimate the prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL among Klebsiella spp and E.coli in a university hospital in southern Brazil. We also used a molecular typing method to evaluate the genetic correlation between isolates of ESBL K.pneumoniae. Production of ESBL was investigated in 95 clinical isolates of Klebsiella spp and Escherichia coli from Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, using Kirby-Bauer zone diameter (KB, double-disk diffusion (DD, breakpoint for ceftazidime (MIC CAZ, increased zone diameter with clavulanate (CAZ/CAC and ratio of ceftazidime MIC/ceftazidime-clavulanate MIC (MIC CAZ/CAC. Molecular typing was performed by DNA macrorestriction analysis followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The KB method displayed the highest rates of ESBL (up to 70% of Klebsiella and 59% of E.coli, contrasting with all the other methods (p Este estudo foi desenvolvido para comparar métodos de detecção e para estimar a prevalência de Klebsiella spp e E.coli produtoras de beta-lactamases de espetro ampliado (ESBL em um Hospital Universitário no sul do Brasil. A correlação genética, determinada através de método molecular de tipagem, entre as amostras de K. pneumoniae também foi determinada. A produção de ESBL foi investigada em 95 amostras de Klebsiella spp e E.coli obtidas de pacientes no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre usando-se: medida do diâmetro a zona de inibição (KB, dupla-difusão de disco (DD, valores de concentração inibitória mínima da ceftazidima (MIC CAZ, aumento do diâmetro da zona de inibição com adição de clavulanato (CAZ/CAC e a relação entre o MIC da ceftazidima/MIC ceftazidima com clavulanato (MIC CAZ/CAC. A tipagem molecular foi realizada utilizando-se o método de macrorestrição de DNA e eletroforese em campo pulsado (PFGE. O método KB apresentou as maiores taxas de produção de ESBL (> 70% para Klebsiella e

  17. Labelling of. beta. -endorphin (. beta. -END) and. beta. -lipotropin (. beta. -LPH) by /sup 125/I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deby-Dupont, G.; Joris, J.; Franchimont, P. (Universite de Liege (Belgique)); Reuter, A.M.; Vrindts-Gevaert, Y. (Institut des Radioelements, Fleurus (Belgique))

    1983-01-01

    5 ..mu..g of human ..beta..-endorphin were labelled with 2 mCi /sup 125/I by the chloramine T technique. After two gel filtrations on Sephadex G-15 and on Sephadex G-50 in phosphate buffer with EDTA, Trasylol and mercapto-ethanol, a pure tracer was obtained with a specific activity about 150 ..mu..Ci/..mu..g.Kept at + 4/sup 0/C, the tracer remained utilizable for 30 days without loss of immunoreactivity. The labelling with lactoperoxydase and the use of another gel filtration method (filtration on Aca 202) gave a /sup 125/I ..beta..-END tracer with the same immunoreactivity. The binding of this tracer to the antibody of an anti-..beta..-END antiserum diluted at 1/8000 was 32% with a non specific binding of 2%. 5 ..mu..g of human ..beta..-lipotropin were labelled with 0.5 mCi /sup 125/I by the lactoperoxydase method. After two gel filtrations on Sephadex G-25 and on Sephadex G-75 in phosphate buffer with EDTA, Trasylol and mercapto-ethanol, a pure tracer with a specific activity of 140 ..mu..Ci/..mu..g was obtained. It remained utilizable for 30 days when kept at + 4/sup 0/C. Gel filtration on Aca 202 did not give good purification, while gel filtration on Aca 54 was good but slower than on Sephadex G-75. The binding to antibody in absence of unlabelled ..beta..-LPH was 32% for an anti-..beta..-LPH antiserum diluted at 1/4000. The non specific binding was 2.5%.

  18. Interleukin-1beta gene polymorphisms in Taiwanese patients with gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Man-Ling; Huang, Chung-Ming; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) promoter and exon 5 gene polymorphisms are markers of susceptibility or clinical manifestations in Taiwanese patients with gout. The study included 196 patients in addition to 103 unrelated healthy control subjects living in central Taiwan. From genomic DNA, polymorphisms of the gene for IL-1beta promoter and IL-1beta exon 5 were typed. Allelic frequencies were compared between the two groups, and the relationship between allelic frequencies and clinical manifestations of gout was evaluated. No significant differences were observed in the allelic frequencies of the IL-1beta promoter between patients with gout and healthy control subjects. Additionally, we did not detect any association of the IL-1beta promoter genotype with the clinical and laboratory profiles of gout patients. However, there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of hypertriglyceridemia (P=0.0004, chi(2)=12.52, OR 7.14, 95%CI 0.012-0.22). There was also a significant difference in the genotype of IL-1beta exon 5 polymorphism between patients with and without hypertriglyceridemia. Results of the present study suggest that polymorphisms of the IL-1beta promoter and IL-1beta exon 5 are not related to gout patients in central Taiwan.

  19. Metalo-beta-lactamases Metallo-beta-lactamases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Elisandro Mendes

    2006-04-01

    the monobactam aztreonam, this class of enzyme virtually hydrolyze all the commercially available beta-lactams. Since 90s, several clinical important nosocomial microorganisms, including members of Enterobacteriaceae family, Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp., have been found to produce MbetaLs enzymes. When these carbapenem non-susceptible strains are found, they may be submitted to phenotypic MbetaL detection test in the microbiology laboratory in order to help infection control practioners and prevent the MbetaL gene dissemination, once these genes are embedded in mobile genetic elements, which can spread rapidly to other Gram-negative species.

  20. Plasma beta HCG determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, L.B.D.; Pinto, J.C.M.; Linhares, E.; Linhares, Estevao

    1981-01-01

    There are three important indications for the early diagnosis of pregnancy through the determination of the beta sub-unit of chorionic gonadotrophin using radioimmunoassay: 1) some patient's or doctor's anxiety to discover the problem; 2) when it will be necessary to employ diagnostic or treatment procedures susceptible to affect the ovum; and 3) in the differential diagnosis of amenorrhoea, uterine hemorrhage and abdominal tumors. Other user's are the diagnosis of missed absortion, and the diagnosis and follow-up of chrorioncarcinoma. The AA. studied 200 determinations of plasma beta-HCG, considering the main difficulties occuring in the clinical use of this relevant laboratory tool in actual Obstetrics. (author) [pt

  1. Relation between the 2{nu}{beta}{beta} and 0{nu}{beta}{beta} nuclear matrix elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Petr [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Simkovic, Fedor [Department of Nuclear Physics and Biophysics, Comenius University, Mlynska dolina F1, SK-84248 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2011-12-16

    A formal relation between the GT part of the nuclear matrix elements M{sub GT}{sup 0{nu}} of 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay and the closure matrix elements M{sub cl}{sup 2{nu}} of 2{nu}{beta}{beta} decay is established. This relation is based on the integral representation of these quantities in terms of their dependence on the distance r between the two nucleons undergoing transformation. We also discuss the difficulties in determining the correct values of the closure 2{nu}{beta}{beta} decay matrix elements.

  2. Induced nuclear beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    Certain nuclear beta decay transitions normally inhibited by angular momentum or parity considerations can be induced to occur by the application of an electromagnetic field. Such decays can be useful in the controlled production of power, and in fission waste disposal

  3. Trichoderma .beta.-glucosidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2006-01-03

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl3, and the corresponding BGL3 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL3, recombinant BGL3 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  4. Applied Beta Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of beta and/or nonpenetrating exposure results is complicated and past techniques and capabilities have resulted in significant inaccuracies in recorded results. Current developments have resulted in increased capabilities which make the results more accurate and should result in less total exposure to the work force. Continued development of works in progress should provide equivalent future improvements

  5. Beta thalassemia - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Jha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia is a globin gene disorder that results in a diminished rate of synthesis of one or more of the globin chains. About 1.5% of the global population (80 to 90 million people are carriers of beta Thalassemia. More than 200 mutations are described in beta thalassemia. However not all mutations are common in different ethnic groups. The only effective way to reduce burden of thalassemia is to prevent birth of homozygotes. Diagnosis of beta thalassemia can be done by fetal DNA analysis for molecular defects of beta thalassemia or by fetal blood analysis. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only available curative approach for Thalassemia. Many patients with thalassemia in underdeveloped nations die in childhood or adolescence. Programs that provide acceptable care, including transfusion of safe blood and supportive therapy including chelation must be established.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v4i8.11609 Journal of Pathology of Nepal; Vol.4,No. 8 (2014 663-671

  6. Double Beta Decay Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepke, A.

    2005-01-01

    The experimental observation of neutrino oscillations and thus neutrino mass and mixing gives a first hint at new particle physics. The absolute values of the neutrino mass and the properties of neutrinos under CP-conjugation remain unknown. The experimental investigation of the nuclear double beta decay is one of the key techniques for solving these open problems

  7. Beta cell adaptation in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with a compensatory increase in beta cell mass. It is well established that somatolactogenic hormones contribute to the expansion both indirectly by their insulin antagonistic effects and directly by their mitogenic effects on the beta cells via receptors for prolactin...... and growth hormone expressed in rodent beta cells. However, the beta cell expansion in human pregnancy seems to occur by neogenesis of beta cells from putative progenitor cells rather than by proliferation of existing beta cells. Claes Hellerström has pioneered the research on beta cell growth for decades...... in the expansion of the beta cell mass in human pregnancy, and the relative roles of endocrine factors and nutrients....

  8. Misleading Betas: An Educational Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, James; Halcoussis, Dennis; Phillips, G. Michael

    2012-01-01

    The dual-beta model is a generalization of the CAPM model. In the dual-beta model, separate beta estimates are provided for up-market and down-market days. This paper uses the historical "Anscombe quartet" results which illustrated how very different datasets can produce the same regression coefficients to motivate a discussion of the…

  9. Thymosin beta 4 and thymosin beta 10 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Theunissen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4 and thymosin beta 10 (Tβ10 are two members of the beta-thymosin family involved in many cellular processes such as cellular motility, angiogenesis, inflammation, cell survival and wound healing. Recently, a role for beta-thymosins has been proposed in the process of carcinogenesis as both peptides were detected in several types of cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression pattern of Tβ4 and Tβ10 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. To this end, the expression pattern of both peptides was analyzed in liver samples obtained from 23 subjects diagnosed with HCC. Routinely formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded liver samples were immunostained by indirect immunohistochemistry with polyclonal antibodies to Tβ4 and Tβ10. Immunoreactivity for Tβ4 and Tβ10 was detected in the liver parenchyma of the surrounding tumor area. Both peptides showed an increase in granular reactivity from the periportal to the periterminal hepatocytes. Regarding HCC, Tβ4 reactivity was detected in 7/23 cases (30% and Tβ10 reactivity in 22/23 (97% cases analyzed, adding HCC to human cancers that express these beta-thymosins. Intriguing finding was seen looking at the reactivity of both peptides in tumor cells infiltrating the surrounding liver. Where Tβ10 showed a strong homogeneous expression, was Tβ4 completely absent in cells undergoing stromal invasion. The current study shows expression of both beta-thymosins in HCC with marked differences in their degree of expression and frequency of immunoreactivity. The higher incidence of Tβ10 expression and its higher reactivity in tumor cells involved in stromal invasion indicate a possible major role for Tβ10 in HCC progression.

  10. Interaction with beta-arrestin determines the difference in internalization behavor between beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, T; Kawasaki, A; Nagao, T; Kurose, H

    2000-09-15

    The beta(1)-adrenergic receptor (beta(1)AR) shows the resistance to agonist-induced internalization. As beta-arrestin is important for internalization, we examine the interaction of beta-arrestin with beta(1)AR with three different methods: intracellular trafficking of beta-arrestin, binding of in vitro translated beta-arrestin to intracellular domains of beta(1)- and beta(2)ARs, and inhibition of betaAR-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activities by beta-arrestin. The green fluorescent protein-tagged beta-arrestin 2 translocates to and stays at the plasma membrane by beta(2)AR stimulation. Although green fluorescent protein-tagged beta-arrestin 2 also translocates to the plasma membrane, it returns to the cytoplasm 10-30 min after beta(1)AR stimulation. The binding of in vitro translated beta-arrestin 1 and beta-arrestin 2 to the third intracellular loop and the carboxyl tail of beta(1)AR is lower than that of beta(2)AR. The fusion protein of beta-arrestin 1 with glutathione S-transferase inhibits the beta(1)- and beta(2)AR-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activities, although inhibition of the beta(1)AR-stimulated activity requires a higher concentration of the fusion protein than that of the beta(2)AR-stimulated activity. These results suggest that weak interaction of beta(1)AR with beta-arrestins explains the resistance to agonist-induced internalization. This is further supported by the finding that beta-arrestin can induce internalization of beta(1)AR when beta-arrestin 1 does not dissociate from beta(1)AR by fusing to the carboxyl tail of beta(1)AR.

  11. Sizeable beta-strength in 31Ar (beta 3p) decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Koldste, G.; Blank, B.; J. G. Borge, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present for the first time precise spectroscopic information on the recently discovered decay mode beta-delayed 3p-emission. The detection of the 3p events gives an increased sensitivity to the high energy part of the Gamow-Teller strength distribution from the decay of 31Ar revealing that as ...... that as much as 30% of the strength resides in the beta-3p decay mode. A simplified description of how the main decay modes evolve as the excitation energy increases in 31Cl is provided....

  12. Defining beta adrenoreceptors in the living heart with iodocyanopindolol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisson, J.C.; Wieland, D.M.; Koeppe, R.A.; Frey, K.A.; Normolle, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    Beta adrenoreceptors in the heart are integral to the regulation of myocardial function by the sympathetic nervous system and are important in adaptations to physiologic stress and disease. However, these adrenoreceptors have not been defined throughout the living heart. Iodocyanopindolol (ICYP), a nonselective beta antagonist, binds with high affinity to beta adrenoreceptors and, when radiolabeled, offers a method for portraying the receptors quantitatively. When administered intravenously to rats, [ 125 I]ICYP in the heart was fitted with a mathematical model. The T 1/2 of offset of binding from the heart was several hours, and metabolism of ICYP in blood and heart was modest. ICYP in the heart fulfilled the following criteria for binding to beta adrenoreceptors: Patterns of inhibition produced by a beta agonist and beta antagonists were according to dose and potency; binding of (-)ICYP and (±)ICYP were stereospecific; and binding was saturable. When administered intravenously to dogs at 3-5 mCi, [ 123 I]ICYP distributed diffusely in the myocardium, as seen in scintigraphic tomographs of the heart. A small quantity of another beta antagonist selectively reduced lung binding to improve image quality. Thus, [ 123 I]ICYP portrays beta adrenoreceptors in the living heart. With newer detection instruments, dynamic data of [ 123 I]ICYP can be acquired to quantify the adrenoreceptors

  13. Gastrointestinal hyperplasia with altered expression of DNA polymerase beta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiko Yoshizawa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Altered expression of DNA polymerase beta (Pol beta has been documented in a large percentage of human tumors. However, tumor prevalence or predisposition resulting from Pol beta over-expression has not yet been evaluated in a mouse model.We have recently developed a novel transgenic mouse model that over-expresses Pol beta. These mice present with an elevated incidence of spontaneous histologic lesions, including cataracts, hyperplasia of Brunner's gland and mucosal hyperplasia in the duodenum. In addition, osteogenic tumors in mice tails, such as osteoma and osteosarcoma were detected. This is the first report of elevated tumor incidence in a mouse model of Pol beta over-expression. These findings prompted an evaluation of human gastrointestinal tumors with regard to Pol beta expression. We observed elevated expression of Pol beta in stomach adenomas and thyroid follicular carcinomas, but reduced Pol beta expression in esophageal adenocarcinomas and squamous carcinomas.These data support the hypothesis that balanced and proficient base excision repair protein expression and base excision repair capacity is required for genome stability and protection from hyperplasia and tumor formation.

  14. Low-beta investment strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Korn, Olaf; Kuntz, Laura-Chloé

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates investment strategies that exploit the low-beta anomaly. Although the notion of buying low-beta stocks and selling high-beta stocks is natural, a choice is necessary with respect to the relative weighting of high-beta stocks and low-beta stocks in the investment portfolio. Our empirical results for US large-cap stocks show that this choice is very important for the risk-return characteristics of the resulting portfolios and their sensitivities to common risk factors. W...

  15. Neutrophil beta-2 microglobulin: an inflammatory mediator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, O W; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Borregaard, N

    1990-01-01

    Beta-2 microglobulin (beta 2m) constitutes the light invariant chain of HLA class I antigen, and is a constituent of mobilizable compartments of neutrophils. Two forms of beta 2m exist: native beta 2m and proteolytically modified beta 2m (Des-Lys58-beta 2m), which shows alpha mobility in crossed ...

  16. Beta and muon decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo, A.; Pascual, P.

    1967-01-01

    These notes represent a series of lectures delivered by the authors in the Junta de Energia Nuclear, during the Spring term of 1965. They were devoted to graduate students interested in the Theory of Elementary Particles. Special emphasis was focussed into the computational problems. Chapter I is a review of basic principles (Dirac equation, transition probabilities, final state interactions.) which will be needed later. In Chapter II the four-fermion punctual Interaction is discussed, Chapter III is devoted to the study of beta-decay; the main emphasis is given to the deduction of the formulae corresponding to electron-antineutrino correlation, electron energy spectrum, lifetimes, asymmetry of electrons emitted from polarized nuclei, electron and neutrino polarization and time reversal invariance in beta decay. In Chapter IV we deal with the decay of polarized muons with radiative corrections. Chapter V is devoted to an introduction to C.V.C. theory. (Author)

  17. Beta-thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Origa Raffaella

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands, dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes, gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely

  18. Beta and Gamma Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Gaffney, C. F.; Clark, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and/or theoretical estimates are presented concerning, (i) attenuation within the sample of beta and gamma radiation from the soil, (ii) the gamma dose within the sample due to its own radioactivity, and (iii) the soil gamma dose in the proximity of boundaries between regions...... of differing radioactivity. It is confirmed that removal of the outer 2 mm of sample is adequate to remove influence from soil beta dose and estimates are made of the error introduced by non-removal. Other evaluations include variation of the soil gamma dose near the ground surface and it appears...... that the present practice of avoiding samples above a depth of 0.3 m may be over-cautious...

  19. Beta and muon decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, A; Pascual, P

    1967-07-01

    These notes represent a series of lectures delivered by the authors in the Junta de Energia Nuclear, during the Spring term of 1965. They were devoted to graduate students interested in the Theory of Elementary Particles. Special emphasis was focussed into the computational problems. Chapter I is a review of basic principles (Dirac equation, transition probabilities, final state interactions.) which will be needed later. In Chapter II the four-fermion punctual Interaction is discussed, Chapter III is devoted to the study of beta-decay; the main emphasis is given to the deduction of the formulae corresponding to electron-antineutrino correlation, electron energy spectrum, lifetimes, asymmetry of electrons emitted from polarized nuclei, electron and neutrino polarization and time reversal invariance in beta decay. In Chapter IV we deal with the decay of polarized muons with radiative corrections. Chapter V is devoted to an introduction to C.V.C. theory. (Author)

  20. Regulation of beta cell replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Ying C; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2008-01-01

    Beta cell mass, at any given time, is governed by cell differentiation, neogenesis, increased or decreased cell size (cell hypertrophy or atrophy), cell death (apoptosis), and beta cell proliferation. Nutrients, hormones and growth factors coupled with their signalling intermediates have been...... suggested to play a role in beta cell mass regulation. In addition, genetic mouse model studies have indicated that cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases that determine cell cycle progression are involved in beta cell replication, and more recently, menin in association with cyclin-dependent kinase...... inhibitors has been demonstrated to be important in beta cell growth. In this review, we consider and highlight some aspects of cell cycle regulation in relation to beta cell replication. The role of cell cycle regulation in beta cell replication is mostly from studies in rodent models, but whether...

  1. High beta experiments in CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Nishimura, K.

    1994-09-01

    High beta experiments were performed in the low-aspect-ratio helical device CHS with the volume-averaged equilibrium beta up to 2.1 %. These values (highest for helical systems) are obtained for high density plasmas in low magnetic field heated with two tangential neutral beams. Confinement improvement given by means of turning off gas puffing helped significantly to make high betas. Magnetic fluctuations increased with increasing beta, but finally stopped to increase in the beta range > 1 %. The coherent modes appearing in the magnetic hill region showed strong dependence on the beta values. The dynamic poloidal field control was applied to suppress the outward plasma movement with the plasma pressure. Such an operation gave fixed boundary operations of high beta plasmas in helical systems. (author)

  2. Coroutine Sequencing in BETA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    In object-oriented programming, a program execution is viewed as a physical model of some real or imaginary part of the world. A language supporting object-oriented programming must therefore contain comprehensive facilities for modeling phenomena and concepts form the application domain. Many...... applications in the real world consist of objects carrying out sequential processes. Coroutines may be used for modeling objects that alternate between a number of sequential processes. The authors describe coroutines in BETA...

  3. COM Support in BETA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1999-01-01

    Component technologies based on binary units of independent production are some of the most important contributions to software architecture and reuse during recent years. Especially the COM technologies and the CORBA standard from the Object Management Group have contributed new and interesting...... principles for software architecture, and proven to be useful in parctice. In this paper ongoing work with component support in the BETA language is described....

  4. LHCb: $2\\beta_s$ measurement at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Conti, G

    2009-01-01

    A measurement of $2\\beta_s$, the phase of the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ oscillation amplitude with respect to that of the ${\\rm b} \\rightarrow {\\rm c^{+}}{\\rm W^{-}}$ tree decay amplitude, is one of the key goals of the LHCb experiment with first data. In the Standard Model (SM), $2\\beta_s$ is predicted to be $0.0360^{+0.0020}_{-0.0016} \\rm rad$. The current constraints from the Tevatron are: $2\\beta_{s}\\in[0.32 ; 2.82]$ at 68$\\%$CL from the CDF experiment and $2\\beta_{s}=0.57^{+0.24}_{-0.30}$ from the D$\\oslash$ experiment. Although the statistical uncertainties are large, these results hint at the possible contribution of New Physics in the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ box diagram. After one year of data taking at LHCb at an average luminosity of $\\mathcal{L}\\sim2\\cdot10^{32}\\rm cm^{-2} \\rm s^{-1}$ (integrated luminosity $\\mathcal{L}_{\\rm int}\\sim 2 \\rm fb^{-1}$), the expected statistical uncertainty on the measurement is $\\sigma(2\\beta_s)\\simeq 0.03$. This uncertainty is similar to the $2\\beta_s$ value predicted by the SM.

  5. Effects of drugs on beta-endorphin and cortisol in smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Tongxin; Wang Zizheng; Wang Shukui

    2001-01-01

    The authors observed the effects of drugs on beta-endorphin and cortisol in smokers and their correlation. The levels of plasma beta-endorphin and cortisol of smokers before and after cigarette withdrawal were detected by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The Levels of plasma beta-endorphin and cortisol in smokers is significantly higher than in controls. After natural withdrawal, the levels of plasma cortisol increased significantly, while beta-endorphin decreased significantly. After drug treatment, the levels of beta-endorphin and cortisol balanced. The drugs may play the role of cigarette withdrawal by improving the secretion of endogenous opium and the axis of hypothalamus-pituitary adrenal

  6. Characterization of a Commercial Silicon Beta Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foxe, Michael P.; Hayes, James C.; Mayer, Michael F.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Sivels, Ciara B.; Suarez, Rey

    2016-01-01

    Silicon detectors are of interest for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) due to their enhanced energy resolution compared to plastic scintillators beta cells. Previous work developing a figure-of-merit (FOM) for comparison of beta cells suggests that the minimum detectable activity (MDA) could be reduced by a factor of two to three with the use of silicon detectors. Silicon beta cells have been developed by CEA (France) and Lares Ltd. (Russia), with the PIPSBox developed by CEA being commercially available from Canberra for approximately $35k, but there is still uncertainty about the reproducibility of the capabilities in the field. PNNL is developing a high-resolution beta-gamma detector system in the shallow underground laboratory, which will utilize and characterize the operation of the PIPSBox detector. Throughout this report, we examine the capabilities of the PIPSBox as developed by CEA. The lessons learned through the testing and use of the PIPSBox will allow PNNL to strategically develop a silicon detector optimized to better suit the communities needs in the future.

  7. Phenotypic Characterization of Multidrug-resistant Escherichia Coli with Special Reference to Extended-spectrum-beta-lactamases and Metallo-beta-lactamases in a Tertiary Care Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, B; Shrestha, S; Mishra, S K; Kattel, H P; Tada, T; Ohara, H; Kirikae, T; Rijal, B P; Sherchand, J B; Pokhrel, B M

    2015-01-01

    The increasing reports on extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase and metallo-beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli have addressed a potential threat to global health since it is found to be highly resistance to most of the currently available antibiotics including carbapenems. The present study was aimed to determine the antibiogram of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase and metallo-beta-lactamase producing MDR E. coli isolates from various clinical samples. This was a cross-sectional study conducted over a period of seven months from December 2013 to July 2014 at bacteriology laboratory of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital. A total of 250 clinical specimens (urine, pus, sputum, blood, body fluid, bile, tissue and central venous pressure line tip) were processed from inpatients, with multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli infections. Standard microbiological techniques were used for isolation and identification of the isolates. The presence of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase was detected by phenotypic confirmatory test recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and imipenem (IMP) /EDTA combined disc method was performed to detect metallo-beta-lactamase mediated resistance mechanism. We found high level of beta lactamase mediated resistance mechanism as part of multidrug resistance. Among 250 MDR isolates, 60% isolates were extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase producers and 17.2% isolates were metallo-beta-lactamase producers. Co-existence of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase and metallo-beta-lactamase identified in 6.8% isolates. Beta-lactamase mediated resistance mechanisms are accounting very high in the multidrug resistant isolates of E. coli. Therefore, early detection of beta lactamase mediated resistant strains and their current antibiotic susceptibility pattern is necessary to avoid treatment failure and prevent the spread of MDR.

  8. Elaboration and evaluation of a new screening medium for detection and presumptive identification of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing organisms (ESBL Elaboração e avaliação de um novo meio de triagem para a detecção e identificação presuntiva de enterobactérias produtoras de beta-lactamase de espectro estendido (ESBL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Pessôa de Menezes e Silva

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The new ß-lactamases have arisen largely as a consequence of heavy use of new expanded spectrum ß-lactam antibiotics. Health professionals need to be aware of the resistance problems caused by the new enzymes, and know the correct procedures to detect, prevent and control such problems. In this study, a new screening medium called Ceftazidime-Inositol-Vancomycin-Amphotericin B Agar (CIVA was elaborated and the microbiological performance was evaluated for the detection and presumptive identification of ESBL-producing members of Enterobacteriaceae. It was performed in 126 stool samples from hospitalized patients at Santa Monica Hospital (Vila Velha, ES, Brazil, who had been heavily exposed to broad-spectrum antibiotic combinations. The bacteria were detected by the medium based on their colony colours (due to inositol fermentation. Additional tests were required for correct identification of these strains. No false positive rates were detected.As novas beta-lactamases têm aparecido, na maioria das vezes, como consequência do amplo uso de antibióticos beta-lactâmicos de largo espectro. Os profissionais de saúde precisam estar atentos acerca do problema da resistência bacteriana causado por estas novas enzimas e conhecer os corretos procedimentos para detectar, prevenir e controlar tais situações. Neste estudo, um novo meio de triagem foi desenvolvido no setor de Microbiologia do Marcos Daniel Laboratório - Vitória, ES (denominado CIVA - Ceftazidima-Inositol-Vancomicina-Anfotericina B e a sua performance microbiológica foi avaliada quanto à detecção e identificação presuntiva de enterobactérias produtoras de ESBL. Foram realizadas 126 culturas de amostras fecais de pacientes hospitalizados no Hospital Santa Monica (Vila Velha, ES, Brasil, previamente expostos a combinações de antibióticos de largo espectro. As bactérias foram detectadas pelo meio baseado nas cores das colônias desenvolvidas (devido à fermentação do

  9. [{sup 18}F]{beta}-CIT-FP is superior to [{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT-FP for quantitation of the dopamine transporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundkvist, Camilla; Halldin, Christer; Ginovart, Nathalie; Swahn, Carl-Gunnar; Farde, Lars

    1997-10-01

    {beta}-CIT-FP [N-(3-fluoropropyl)-2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane] is a cocaine analogue with high affinity for the dopamine transporter. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies with [O-methyl-{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT-FP ([{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT-FP) has shown that equilibrium conditions were approached but, however, not reached at the end of measurement. Moreover, metabolite studies of [{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT-FP in monkey plasma demonstrated a lipophilic-labelled metabolite that may enter the brain. We therefore labelled {beta}-CIT-FP with fluorine-18 in a position that may avoid the formation of labelled lipophilic metabolites. The more long-lived radionuclide ({sup 18}F) was used to allow for measurements over longer time. [N-fluoropropyl-{sup 18}F]{beta}-CIT-FP ([{sup 18}F]{beta}-CIT-FP) was prepared by N-alkylation of nor-{beta}-CIT with [{sup 18}F]fluoropropyl bromide. PET studies were performed in cynomolgus monkeys. [{sup 18}F]{beta}-CIT-FP entered the brain rapidly. There was a high concentration of radioactivity in the striatum and much lower in the thalamus, neocortex, and cerebellum. The striatum-to-cerebellum ratio was about 5 at time of transient equilibrium, which occurred after 60 to 100 min. After pretreatment with GBR 12909, radioactivity in the striatum was markedly reduced, thus indicating specific [{sup 18}F]{beta}-CIT-FP binding to the dopamine transporter. The fraction of unchanged [{sup 18}F]{beta}-CIT-FP determined by HPLC was 10-15% after 140 min. No lipophilic labelled metabolites were detected. The absence of measurable lipophilic labelled metabolites and the occurrence of transient equilibrium within the time of the PET measurement indicate that [{sup 18}F]{beta}-CIT-FP is superior to [{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT-FP as a PET radioligand for quantification of the dopamine transporter in the human brain.

  10. Quantification of amyloid-beta 40 in cerebrospinal fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, N.A.; Veerhuis, R.; Twaalfhoven, H.A.M.; Wouters, D.; Hoozemans, J.J.M.; Bollen, Y.J.M.; Killestein, J.; Bibl, M.; Wiltfang, J.; Hack, C.E.; Scheltens, P.; Blankenstein, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Truncated forms and full-length forms of the amyloid-beta 40 (Aβ40) are key molecules in the pathogenesis of dementia, and are detectable in CSF. Reliable methods to detect these biomarkers in CSF are of great importance for understanding the disease mechanisms and for diagnostic

  11. Enantioselective synthesis of alpha,beta-disubstituted-beta-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, Mukund P; Prabagaran, Narayanasamy; Ghorpade, Sandeep G; Jasperse, Craig P

    2003-10-01

    Highly diastereoselective and enantioselective addition of N-benzylhydroxylamine to imides 17 and 20-30 produces alpha,beta-trans-disubstituted N-benzylisoxazolidinones 19 and 31-41. These reactions proceed in 60-96% ee with 93-99% de's using 5 mol % of Mg(NTf2)2 and ligand 18. The product isoxazolidinones can be hydrogenolyzed directly to provide alpha,beta-disubstituted-beta-amino acids.

  12. Discrimination indices as screening tests for beta-thalassemic trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntaios, George; Chatzinikolaou, Anastasia; Saouli, Zoi; Girtovitis, Fotios; Tsapanidou, Maria; Kaiafa, Georgia; Kontoninas, Zisis; Nikolaidou, Androula; Savopoulos, Christos; Pidonia, Ifigenia; Alexiou-Daniel, Stiliani

    2007-07-01

    The two most frequent microcytic anemias are beta-thalassemic trait (beta-TT) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Several discrimination indices have been proposed to distinguish between these two conditions. These indices are derived from several simple red blood cell indices, like red blood cell (RBC) count, mean cell volume, and RBC distribution width (RDW), as these are provided by electronic cell counters. The purpose of the study is to examine the diagnostic accuracy of six discrimination indices in the differentiation between IDA and beta-TT. The six discrimination indices that were examined were as follows: Mentzer Index (MI), Green & King Index (G&K), RDW Index (RDWI), England & Fraser Index (E&F), RDW, and RBC count. We calculated these indices on 373 patients (205 men, 168 women) with beta-TT and 120 patients (50 men, 70 women) with IDA, as well as their sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative prognostic value, efficiency, and Youden's index (YI). G&K shows the highest reliability, followed by E&F, RBC count, MI, and RDWI. On the contrary, RDW completely failed to differentiate between IDA and beta-TT. G&K proved to be the most reliable index as it had the highest sensitivity (75.06%), efficiency (80.12%), and YI (70.86%) for the detection of beta-TT. These six discrimination indices cannot be relied on for a safe differential diagnosis between beta-TT and IDA. They do have high specificity, but their sensitivity for the detection of beta-TT is not satisfactory. Consequently, they cannot be used neither as a screening tool for beta-TT because they could result in a significant number of false negative results.

  13. Detection of the sulfhydryl groups in proteins with slow hydrogen exchange rates and determination of their proton/deuteron fractionation factors using the deuterium-induced effects on the 13C(beta) NMR signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Jee, JunGoo; Terauchi, Tsutomu; Kainosho, Masatsune

    2010-05-05

    A method for identifying cysteine (Cys) residues with sulfhydryl (SH) groups exhibiting slow hydrogen exchange rates has been developed for proteins in aqueous media. The method utilizes the isotope shifts of the C(beta) chemical shifts induced by the deuteration of the SH groups. The 18.2 kDa E. coli peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase b (EPPIb), which was selectively labeled with [3-(13)C;3,3-(2)H(2)]Cys, showed much narrower line widths for the (13)C(beta) NMR signals, as compared to those of the proteins labeled with either [3-(13)C]Cys or (3R)-[3-(13)C;3-(2)H]Cys. The (13)C(beta) signals of the two Cys residues of EPPIb, i.e. Cys-31 and Cys-121, labeled with [3-(13)C;3,3-(2)H(2)]Cys, split into four signals in H(2)O/D(2)O (1:1) at 40 degrees C and pH 7.5, indicating that the exchange rates of the side-chain SH's and the backbone amides are too slow to average the chemical shift differences of the (13)C(beta) signals, due to the two- and three-bond isotope shifts. By virtue of the well-separated signals, the proton/deuteron fractional factors for both the SH and amide groups of the two Cys residues in EPPIb could be directly determined, as approximately 0.4-0.5 for [SD]/[SH] and 0.9-1.0 for [ND]/[NH], by the relative intensities of the NMR signals for the isotopomers. The proton NOE's of the two slowly exchanging SH's were clearly identified in the NOESY spectra and were useful for the determining the local structure of EPPIb around the Cys residues.

  14. Beta measurement evaluation and upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Rathbun, L.A.; Roberson, P.L.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1986-01-01

    This program focuses on the resolution of problems associated with the field measurement of the beta dose component at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The change in DOE programs, including increased efforts in improved waste management and decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of facilities, coupled with beta measurement problems identified at Three Mile Island has increased the need to improve beta measurements. In FY 1982, work was initiated to provide a continuing effort to identify problems associated with beta dose assessment at DOE facilities. The problems identified resulted in the development of this program. The investigation includes (1) an assessment of measurement systems now in use, (2) development of improved calibration systems and procedures, (3) application of innovative beta dosimetry concepts, (4) investigation of new instruments or concepts for monitoring and spectroscopy, and (5) development of recommendations to assure an adequate beta measurement program within DOE facilities

  15. Conditional Betas and Investor Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando D. Chague

    2013-01-01

    We derive theoretical expressions for market betas from a rational expectation equilibrium model where the representative investor does not observe if the economy is in a recession or an expansion. Market betas in this economy are time-varying and related to investor uncertainty about the state of the economy. The dynamics of betas will also vary across assets according to the assets' cash-flow structure. In a calibration exercise, we show that value and growth firms have cash-flow structures...

  16. Dynamic returns of beta arbitrage

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Mafalda

    2017-01-01

    This thesis studies the patterns of the abnormal returns of the beta strategy. The topic can be helpful for professional investors, who intend to achieve a better performance in their portfolios. Following the methodology of Lou, Polk, & Huang (2016), the COBAR measure is computed in order to determine the levels of beta arbitrage in the market in each point in time. It is argued that beta arbitrage activity can have impact on the returns of the beta strategy. In fact, it is demonstrated that...

  17. Integration of BETA with Eclipse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Enevoldsen, Mads Brøgger

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents language interoperability issues appearing in order to implement support for the BETA language in the Java-based Eclipse integrated development environment. One of the challenges is to implement plug-ins in BETA and be able to load them in Eclipse. In order to do this, some fo...... it is possible to implement plug-ins in BETA and even inherit from Java classes. In the paper the two approaches are described together with part of the mapping from BETA to Java class files. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/15710661...

  18. Source preparations for alpha and beta measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    Regarding alpha particle emitters subject for environmental studies, electrodeposition or co-precipitation as fluorides are the most common methods. For electro deposition stainless steel is generally used as cathode material but also other metals such as Ni, Ag, and Cu showed promising results. The use of other anode material than platinum, such as graphite should be investigated. For other purposes such as optimal resolution other more sophisticated methods are used but often resulting in poorer recovery. For beta particle emitters the type of detection system will decide the source preparation. Similar methods as for alpha particle emitters, electrodeposition or precipitation techniques can be used. Due to the continuous energy distribution of the beta pulse height distribution a high resolution is not required. Thicker sources from the precipitates or a stable isotopic carrier can be accepted but correction for absorption in the source must be done. (au)

  19. Phenotypic Characterization of Multidrug-resistant Escherichia Coli with Special Reference to Extended-spectrum-beta-lactamases and Metallo-beta-lactamases in a Tertiary Care Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basudha Shrestha

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Beta-lactamase mediated resistance mechanisms are accounting very high in the multidrug resistant isolates of E. coli. Therefore, early detection of beta lactamase mediated resistant strains and their current antibiotic susceptibility pattern is necessary to avoid treatment failure and prevent the spread of MDR. Keywords: e. coli; extended-spectrum-β-lactamase; metallo-β-lactamase; multidrug-resistance.

  20. Dysfunctional C8 beta chain in patients with C8 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, J; Penea, F; Schifferli, J; Späth, P

    1986-12-01

    Two sera from unrelated individuals, each lacking C8 activity, were examined by Western blot analysis. Using antisera raised against whole C8, the two sera are shown to lack the C8 beta chain, indicating a C8 beta deficiency, which is frequently observed in cases of dysfunctional C8. In contrast, by means of a specific anti-C8-beta antiserum, a C8 beta-like polypeptide chain of apparently identical molecular weight compared to normal C8 beta was detected. Digestion of normal and dysfunctional C8 beta with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease revealed distinct differences in the enzymatic digestion pattern. We conclude that the dysfunction in the C8 protein in these two patients resides in the dysfunctional C8 beta chain, and that this form of C8 deficiency is distinct from C8 deficiencies previously reported, in which one or both C8 subunits are lacking.

  1. Identification of active anti-inflammatory principles of beta- beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chromatography. Components of the extracts were identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC) scanner and UV-visible spectroscopy, using scopoletin as standard. Results: ... basic coumarin skeleton ring structure reduce ... Figure 2: Thin-layer chromatogram: (1) Ethanol extract; (2) Dichloromethane fraction; (3) Beta-beta.

  2. Improved limits on beta(-) and beta(-) decays of Ca-48

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakalyarov, A.; Balysh, A.; Barabash, AS.; Beneš, P.; Briancon, C.; Brudanin, V. B.; Čermák, P.; Egorov, V.; Hubert, F.; Hubert, P.; Korolev, NA.; Kosjakov, VN.; Kovalík, Alojz; Lebedev, NA.; Novgorodov, A. F.; Rukhadze, NI.; Štekl, NI.; Timkin, VV.; Veleshko, IE.; Vylov, T.; Umatov, VI.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 9 (2002), s. 545-547 ISSN 0021-3640 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : beta decay * double beta decay * Ca-48 Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.483, year: 2002

  3. Conversion of beta-methylbutyric acid to beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyric acid by Galactomyces reessii.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, I Y; Nissen, S L; Rosazza, J P

    1997-01-01

    beta-Hydroxy-beta-methylbutyric acid (HMB) has been shown to increase strength and lean mass gains in humans undergoing resistance-exercise training. HMB is currently marketed as a calcium salt of HMB, and thus, environmentally sound and inexpensive methods of manufacture are being sought. This study investigates the microbial conversion of beta-methylbutyric acid (MBA) to HMB by cultures of Galactomyces reessii. Optimal concentrations of MBA were in the range of 5 to 20 g/liter for HMB produ...

  4. Beta-delayed proton emission from {sup 20}Mg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, M.V.; Fynbo, H.O.U.; Howard, A.M.; Kirsebom, O.S.; Munch, M.; Riisager, K. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus C (Denmark); Andreyev, A.; Wadsworth, R. [University of York, Department of Physics, York (United Kingdom); Borge, M.J.G. [CSIC, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Madrid (Spain); CERN, ISOLDE, PH Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Cederkaell, J. [Lund University, Department of Nuclear Physics, Lund (Sweden); Witte, H. de; Huyse, M.; Duppen, P. van [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU-Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Fraile, L.M.; Vedia, V. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, CEI Moncloa, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Madrid (Spain); Greenlees, P.T.; Konki, J.; Rahkila, P. [University of Helsinki, Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Harkness-Brennan, L.J.; Judson, D.S.; Page, R.D. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Jonson, B.; Lindberg, S.; Nilsson, T. [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Physics, Goeteborg (Sweden); Kurcewicz, J.; Madurga, M.; Rapisarda, E. [CERN, ISOLDE, PH Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Lazarus, I.; Pucknell, V. [STFC Daresbury, Daresbury, Warrington (United Kingdom); Lica, R. [CERN, ISOLDE, PH Department, Geneva (Switzerland); ' ' Horia Hulubei' ' National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Magurele (Romania); Marginean, N.; Marginean, R.; Mihai, C.; Negret, A.; Pascu, S.; Rotaru, F.; Stanoiu, M.; Turturica, A. [' ' Horia Hulubei' ' National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Magurele (Romania); Marroquin, I.; Nacher, E.; Perea, A.; Tengblad, O. [CSIC, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Madrid (Spain); Sotty, C. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU-Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); ' ' Horia Hulubei' ' National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Magurele (Romania); Warr, N. [Universitaet Koeln, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Koeln (Germany); Collaboration: IDS Collaboration

    2016-10-15

    Beta-delayed proton emission from {sup 20} Mg has been measured at ISOLDE, CERN, with the ISOLDE Decay Station (IDS) setup including both charged-particle and gamma-ray detection capabilities. A total of 27 delayed proton branches were measured including seven so far unobserved. An updated decay scheme, including three new resonances above the proton separation energy in {sup 20}Na and more precise resonance energies, is presented. Beta-decay feeding to two resonances above the Isobaric Analogue State (IAS) in {sup 20}Na is observed. This may allow studies of the 4032.9(2.4) keV resonance in {sup 19}Ne through the beta decay of {sup 20}Mg, which is important for the astrophysically relevant reaction {sup 15}O(α, γ){sup 19}Ne. Beta-delayed protons were used to obtain a more precise value for the half-life of {sup 20}Mg, 91.4(1.0) ms. (orig.)

  5. Beet necrotic yellow vein virus accumulates inside resting spores and zoosporangia of its vector Polymyxa betae BNYVV infects P. betae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payton Mark

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodiophorids and chytrids are zoosporic parasites of algae and land plant and are distributed worldwide. There are 35 species belonging to the order Plasmodiophorales and three species, Polymyxa betae, P. graminis, and Spongospora subterranea, are plant viral vectors. Plasmodiophorid transmitted viruses are positive strand RNA viruses belonging to five genera. Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV and its vector, P. betae, are the causal agents for rhizomania. Results Evidence of BNYVV replication and movement proteins associating with P. betae resting spores was initially obtained using immunofluorescence labeling and well characterized antisera to each of the BNYVV proteins. Root cross sections were further examined using immunogold labeling and electron microscopy. BNYVV proteins translated from each of the four genomic and subgenomic RNAs accumulate inside P. betae resting spores and zoospores. Statistical analysis was used to determine if immunolabelling detected viral proteins in specific subcellular domains and at a level greater than in control samples. Conclusion Virus-like particles were detected in zoosporangia. Association of BNYVV replication and movement proteins with sporangial and sporogenic stages of P. betae suggest that BNYVV resides inside its vector during more than one life cycle stage. These data suggest that P. betae might be a host as well as a vector for BNYVV

  6. Beet necrotic yellow vein virus accumulates inside resting spores and zoosporangia of its vector Polymyxa betae BNYVV infects P. betae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubicz, Jeanmarie Verchot; Rush, Charles M; Payton, Mark; Colberg, Terry

    2007-04-05

    Plasmodiophorids and chytrids are zoosporic parasites of algae and land plant and are distributed worldwide. There are 35 species belonging to the order Plasmodiophorales and three species, Polymyxa betae, P. graminis, and Spongospora subterranea, are plant viral vectors. Plasmodiophorid transmitted viruses are positive strand RNA viruses belonging to five genera. Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and its vector, P. betae, are the causal agents for rhizomania. Evidence of BNYVV replication and movement proteins associating with P. betae resting spores was initially obtained using immunofluorescence labeling and well characterized antisera to each of the BNYVV proteins. Root cross sections were further examined using immunogold labeling and electron microscopy. BNYVV proteins translated from each of the four genomic and subgenomic RNAs accumulate inside P. betae resting spores and zoospores. Statistical analysis was used to determine if immunolabelling detected viral proteins in specific subcellular domains and at a level greater than in control samples. Virus-like particles were detected in zoosporangia. Association of BNYVV replication and movement proteins with sporangial and sporogenic stages of P. betae suggest that BNYVV resides inside its vector during more than one life cycle stage. These data suggest that P. betae might be a host as well as a vector for BNYVV.

  7. Stabilization of beta-catenin induces pancreas tumor formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Patrick W; Cano, David A; Landsman, Limor; Kim, Grace E; Kench, James G; Klimstra, David S; Taketo, Maketo M; Biankin, Andrew V; Hebrok, Matthias

    2008-10-01

    beta-Catenin signaling within the canonical Wnt pathway is essential for pancreas development. However, the pathway is normally down-regulated in the adult organ. Increased cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of beta-catenin can be detected in nearly all human solid pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPN), a rare tumor with low malignant potential. Conversely, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) accounts for the majority of pancreatic tumors and is among the leading causes of cancer death. Whereas activating mutations within beta-catenin and other members of the canonical Wnt pathway are rare, recent reports have implicated Wnt signaling in the development and progression of human PDA. Here, we sought to address the role of beta-catenin signaling in pancreas tumorigenesis. Using Cre/lox technology, we conditionally activated beta-catenin in a subset of murine pancreatic cells in vivo. Activation of beta-catenin results in the formation of large pancreatic tumors at a high frequency in adult mice. These tumors resemble human SPN based on morphologic and immunohistochemical comparisons. Interestingly, stabilization of beta-catenin blocks the formation of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) in the presence of an activating mutation in Kras that is known to predispose individuals to PDA. Instead, mice in which beta-catenin and Kras are concurrently activated develop distinct ductal neoplasms that do not resemble PanIN lesions. These results demonstrate that activation of beta-catenin is sufficient to induce pancreas tumorigenesis. Moreover, they indicate that the sequence in which oncogenic mutations are acquired has profound consequences on the phenotype of the resulting tumor.

  8. The best-beta CAPM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, L.

    2006-01-01

    The issue of 'best-beta' arises as soon as potential errors in the Sharpe-Lintner-Black capital asset pricing model (CAPM) are acknowledged. By incorporating a target variable into the investor preferences, this study derives a best-beta CAPM (BCAPM) that maintains the CAPM's theoretical appeal and

  9. BETA SPECTRA. I. Negatrons spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Malonda, A.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    1978-01-01

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 62 negatrons emitters have been computed introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. These spectra are plotted vs. energy, once normal i sed, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (Author)

  10. Review of the beta situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, J.

    1982-01-01

    This note lists some of the possible causes of beta limitation in tokamak and discusses what is known and what is involved in investigating them. The motivation for preparing this note is the observed degradation of confinement with increasing beta poloidal β/sub p/ and beam power P/sub b/ in ISX-B

  11. RAVEN Beta Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabiti, Cristian; Alfonsi, Andrea; Cogliati, Joshua Joseph; Mandelli, Diego; Kinoshita, Robert Arthur; Wang, Congjian; Maljovec, Daniel Patrick; Talbot, Paul William

    2016-01-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  12. RAVEN Beta Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert Arthur [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Congjian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maljovec, Daniel Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Talbot, Paul William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  13. Interactions between two beta-sheets. Energetics of beta/beta packing in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, K C; Némethy, G; Rumsey, S; Tuttle, R W; Scheraga, H A

    1986-04-20

    The analysis of the interactions between regularly folded segments of the polypeptide chain contributes to an understanding of the energetics of protein folding. Conformational energy-minimization calculations have been carried out to determine the favorable ways of packing two right-twisted beta-sheets. The packing of two five-stranded beta-sheets was investigated, with the strands having the composition CH3CO-(L-Ile)6-NHCH3 in one beta-sheet and CH3CO-(L-Val)6-NHCH3 in the other. Two distinct classes of low-energy packing arrangements were found. In the class with lowest energies, the strands of the two beta-sheets are aligned nearly parallel (or antiparallel) with each other, with a preference for a negative orientation angle, because this arrangement corresponds to the best complementary packing of the two twisted saddle-shaped beta-sheets. In the second class, with higher interaction energies, the strands of the two beta-sheets are oriented nearly perpendicular to each other. While the surfaces of the two beta-sheets are not complementary in this arrangement, there is good packing between the corner of one beta-sheet and the interior part of the surface of the other, resulting in a favorable energy of packing. Both classes correspond to frequently observed orientations of beta-sheets in proteins. In proteins, the second class of packing is usually observed when the two beta-sheets are covalently linked, i.e. when a polypeptide strand passes from one beta-sheet to the other, but we have shown here that a large contribution to the stabilization of this packing arrangement arises from noncovalent interactions.

  14. [Prevalence survey and molecular characterization of alpha and beta thalassemia in Liuzhou city of Guangxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ren; Li, Liyan; Liang, Xin; Liu, Zhongying; Su, Liu; Li, Wenjun; Zhu, Qiangui; Mo, Qiuhua; Pan, Lizhen; Ouyang, Hong; Huang, Lihua; Xu, Xiangmin

    2002-08-01

    To investigate the gene frequencies and mutation patterns of alpha thalassemia (alpha-thal) and beta thalassemia (beta-thal) in Liuzhou city of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Cluster sampling was used. A total of 1 028 of umbilical blood samples were collected for a prevalence study of alpha-thal and a total of 1 312 healthy young people when receiving pre-marriage consultation were recruited for a beta-thal prevalence survey. Individuals live in city or town area of Liuzhou. A complete blood count as well as hemoglobin electrophoresis analysis were done in all of samples for phenotyping of alpha and beta-thals. Those with Hb Bart's for alpha-thal indicator and those with both microcytosis (MCV /=4.0%) for beta-thal were further studied by DNA analysis. PCR-based methodologies were used to characterize the mutation contributions of alpha and beta-thals. All the subjects were tested for the state of carrying beta-thala alleles for evaluating the situation of the compound heterozygotes of alpha-thal with beta-thal. Of 1 028 random samples of umbilical blood screened, 112 of subjects were defined to be the gene carriers of alpha-thal. The alpha-thal carrier rate was as high as 11.19% including 3 compound heterozygotes. Five well-known types of alpha-thal alleles were detected with gene contributions of 37.4% (--(SEA) deletion), 31.3% (-alpha(3.7) deletion), 17.4% (-alpha(4.2) deletion), 12.1% (alpha(CS)alpha mutation), and 0.9% (alpha(QS)alpha mutation), successively. Of the 1 312 adult specimens studied, 89 with beta-thal including 14 of the compound higher Hb F subjects were detected. All of the 89 phenotypic beta-thal carriers had the mutations in the beta-globin gene, making the overall prevalence 6.78%. The commonly seen three mutations, beta CD41 - 42 (-CTTT) frameshift, beta CD17 (T-A) nonsense mutation and beta-28 (A-G) promoter variation were accounted for 90% of the beta-thal alleles in Liuzhou. Of these beta-thal subjects, 16 (accounting for 18%) were

  15. Derivatives of the Incomplete Beta Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Boik

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The incomplete beta function is defined as where Beta(p, q is the beta function. Dutka (1981 gave a history of the development and numerical evaluation of this function. In this article, an algorithm for computing first and second derivatives of Ix,p,q with respect to p and q is described. The algorithm is useful, for example, when fitting parameters to a censored beta, truncated beta, or a truncated beta-binomial model.

  16. Differential expression of human beta defensins in placenta and detection of allelic variants in the DEFB1 gene from HIV-1 positive mothers Expresión diferencial en placenta de beta-defensinas humanas y detección de variantes alélicas en el gen DEFB1 de madres positivas para VIH-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Rugeles

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Low infection rates in neonates born to HIV-1-seropositive mothers highlight the existence of natural defense mechanisms in the maternal-fetal interface. Human beta defensins (HBDs inhibit HIV-1 replication in vitro and their variants are associated with HIV-1 resistance/susceptibility.
    Objective. Levels of HBD mRNA expression in placentas were obtained from seropositive and healthy mothers to determine whether HIV-1 infection induces anti-viral factors.
    Materials and methods. HBD-1, -2 and -3 transcripts were quantified by real time RT-PCR, and A692G/G1654A/A1836G variants in the DEFB1 gene were evaluated by sequencing.
    Results. Transcript levels of HBD-1 were significantly higher, and those of HBD-3 were lower in placenta from seropositive mothers compared to controls. Additionally, simultaneous presence of the A692G A/G and A1836G G/G genotypes was associated with high expression of HBD-1 in all populations and the A692G variant in babies born to seropositive mothers was in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium.
    Conclusion. Contrasting results in levels of HBDs were probably due to viral stimuli and suggest that HIV-1 induce a differential expression of HBDs in placenta and these proteins could be involved in protecting against HIV-1 at least early in pregnancy. However, it was not possible to associate these findings directly with protection against HIV-1 vertical transmission since none of the newborn infants became infected.
    Introducción. Las bajas tasas de infección en neonatos nacidos de madres seropositivas para el VIH-1 resaltan la existencia de mecanismos de defensa natural en la interfase materno-fetal. Las beta-defensinas humanas inhiben la replicación del VIH-1 in vitro y sus polimorfismos están asociados con la resistencia o susceptibilidad al VIH-1.
    Objetivo. Comparar los niveles de expresión de ARNm de beta-defensinas humanas en placentas de madres seropositivas y en seronegativas para

  17. A Figure-of-Merit for Beta Cell Detector Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxe, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miller, Brian W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suarez, Rey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-02

    In order to decrease the minimum detectable activities (MDAs) of beta-gamma radioxenon detectors, it is important to increase the ability to resolve the individual isotopes. One proposed method for doing this is to increase the energy resolution of the beta cell through the use of silicon detectors. While silicon detectors can improve the energy resolution, it is accompanied with a decrease in detection efficiency compared to plastic scintillator beta cells. Due to the uncertainty on the impact of the competing variables, we have developed a figure-of-merit (FOM) capable of determining the impact of detector parameters on the MDAs. By utilizing the FOM to analyze different detectors, we are able to directly compare current and future detectors and estimate their impact on the radioxenon MDAs.

  18. Development of beta reference radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Zhaoyong; Cai Shanyu; Li Yanbo; Yin Wei; Feng Jiamin; Sun Yuhua; Li Yongqiang

    1997-09-01

    A system of beta reference radiation has been developed, that is composed of 740 MBq 147 Pm beta source, 74 MBq and 740 MBq 90 Sr + 90 Y β sources, compensation filters, a source handling tool, a source jig, spacing bars, a shutter, a control unit and a beta dose meter calibration stand. For 740 MBq 147 Pm and 74 MBq 90 Sr + 90 Y beta reference radiations with compensation filters and 740 MBq 90 Sr + 90 Y beta reference radiation without compensation filter, at 20 cm, 30 cm and 30 cm distance separately; the residual energy of maximum is 0.14 MeV, 1.98 MeV and 2.18 MeV separately; the absorbed dose to tissue D (0.07) is 1.547 mGy/h (1996-05-20), 5.037 mGy/h (1996-05-10) and 93.57 mGy/h (1996-05-15) separately; the total uncertainty is 3.0%, 1.7% and 1.7% separately. For the first and the second beta reference radiation, the dose rate variability in the area of 18 cm diameter in the plane perpendicular to the beta-ray beam axis is within +-6% and +-3% separately. (3 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.)

  19. A semiconductor beta ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bom, V.R.

    1987-01-01

    Measurement of energy spectra of beta particles emitted from nuclei in beta-decay processes provides information concerning the mass difference of these nuclei between initial and final state. Moreover, experimental beta spectra yield information on the feeding of the levels in the daughter nucleus. Such data are valuable in the construction and checking of the level schemes. This thesis describes the design, construction, testing and usage of a detector for the accurate measurement of the mentioned spectra. In ch. 2 the design and construction of the beta spectrometer, which uses a hyper-pure germanium crystal for energy determination, is described. A simple wire chamber is used to discriminate beta particles from gamma radiation. Disadvantages arise from the large amounts of scattered beta particles deforming the continua. A method is described to minimize the scattering. In ch. 3 some theoretical aspects of data analysis are described and the results of Monte-Carlo simulations of the summation of annihilation radiation are compared with experiments. Ch. 4 comprises the results of the measurements of the beta decay energies of 103-108 In. 87 refs.; 34 figs.; 7 tabs

  20. BETA (Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Evan M.; Birmingham, William J.; Rivera, William F.; Romero-Talamas, Carlos A.

    2017-10-01

    The Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus (BETA) is a 1-Tesla (T) prototype of the 10-T Adjustable Long Pulse High-Field Apparatus (ALPHA). These water-cooled resistive magnets use high DC currents to produce strong uniform magnetic fields. Presented here is the successful completion of the BETA project and experimental results validating analytical magnet designing methods developed at the Dusty Plasma Laboratory (DPL). BETA's final design specifications will be highlighted which include electromagnetic, thermal and stress analyses. The magnet core design will be explained which include: Bitter Arcs, helix starters, and clamping annuli. The final version of the magnet's vessel and cooling system are also presented, as well as the electrical system of BETA, which is composed of a unique solid-state breaker circuit. Experimental results presented will show the operation of BETA at 1 T. The results are compared to both analytical design methods and finite element analysis calculations. We also explore the steady state maximums and theoretical limits of BETA's design. The completion of BETA validates the design and manufacturing techniques that will be used in the succeeding magnet, ALPHA.

  1. Beta decay of twelve light neutron-rich isotopes from 17C to 40S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufour, J.P.; Del Moral, R.; Fleury, A.; Hubert, F.; Jean, D.; Pravikoff, M.S.; Geissel, H.; Schmidt, K.H.

    1986-07-01

    The results reported here have been obtained with an 40 Argon beam on a Be target. The separated nuclei were implanted in a catcher foil placed in between a thin scintillator detecting the betas and a high volume Ge detector; only gammas in coincidence with betas were recorded. Results for the gamma energies and the half-lives of the observed isotopes are given

  2. Could the beta rebound in the EEG be suitable to realize a "brain switch"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfurtscheller, G; Solis-Escalante, T

    2009-01-01

    Performing foot motor imagery is accompanied by a peri-imagery ERD and a post-imagery beta ERS (beta rebound). Our aim was to study whether the post-imagery beta rebound is a suitable feature for a simple "brain switch". Such a brain switch is a specifically designed brain-computer interface (BCI) with the aim to detect only one predefined brain state (e.g. EEG pattern) in ongoing brain activity. One EEG (Laplacian) recorded at the vertex during cue-based brisk foot motor imagery was analysed in 5 healthy subjects. The peri-imagery ERD and the post-imagery beta rebound (ERS) were analysed in detail between 6 and 40Hz and classified with two support vector machines. The ERD was detected in ongoing EEG (simulation of asynchronous BCI) with a true positive rate (TPR) of 28.4%+/-13.5 and the beta rebound with a TPR of 59.2%+/-20.3. In single runs with 30 cues each, the TPR for beta rebound detection was 78.6%+/-12.8. The false positive rate was always kept below 10%. The findings suggest that the beta rebound at Cz during foot motor imagery is a relatively stable and reproducible phenomenon detectable in single EEG trials. Our results indicate that the beta rebound is a suitable feature to realize a "brain switch" with one single EEG (Laplacian) channel only.

  3. Experiments on double beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busto, J [Neuchatel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique

    1996-11-01

    The Double Beta Decay, and especially ({beta}{beta}){sub 0{nu}} mode, is an excellent test of Standard Model as well as of neutrino physics. From experimental point of view, a very large number of different techniques are or have been used increasing the sensitivity of this experiments quite a lot (the factor of 10{sup 4} in the last 20 years). In future, in spite of several difficulties, the sensitivity would be increased further, keeping the interest of this very important process. (author) 4 figs., 5 tabs., 21 refs.

  4. Beta-Glucan Synthase Gene Expression in Pleurotus sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar Mohamad; Nie, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Pleurotus sp. is a popular edible mushroom, containing various functional component, in particular, Beta-glucan. Beta-glucans is a part of glucan family of polysaccharides and supposedly contribute to medicinal and nutritional value of Pleurotus.sp. In order to understand the distribution of Beta-glucan in Pleurotus.sp, the Beta-glucan synthase gene expression was determined and compared in different part of Pleurotus, namely mycelium, stripe and cap. The Pleurotus.sp RNA was extracted using commercial kit, employing Tissuelyser ll (Qiagen, USA) to disrupt the cell walls. Then the RNA was quantified by Nano drop (Thermo Fisher, USA) and visualized using denaturing agarose gel. RNA with good OD 260.280 reading (∼2.0) was chosen and converted to cDNA. Using Laccase synthase gene as home keeping gene, Beta-glucan synthase gene expression was quantified using CFX 96 Real Time PCR detection system (Biorad, USA). Preliminary result shows that Beta-glucan synthase was relatively expressed the most in stripe, followed by mycelium and barely in cap. (author)

  5. Rapid method of identification of {beta}-ray emitters and of {beta}-radioactive impurity dosage (1961); Methode rapide d'identification des emetteurs-{beta} et de dosage d'impuretes radioactives-{beta} (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Gallic, Y; Legrand, J; Grinberg, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    We describe a simple method of radioactive analysis, which allows an accurate determination of maximal energies of {beta}-emitters, and detection and titration of radioactive impurities in radionuclides as well. The method described, which uses a plastic scintillator, is based on the fact that the curve obtained by plotting the number of pulses measured against the threshold is a straight line, in the case of pure {beta}-emitters. We then derive a simple relation between the data of this straight line and the maximal energy of the {beta}-spectrum of the radionuclide under consideration. (authors) [French] Description d'une methode simple d'analyse radioactive, permettant de determiner avec precision l'energie maximum des emetteurs-{beta}, ainsi que de deceler et de doser les impuretes radioactives dans un radionuclide. La technique decrite utilise un scintillateur plastique. On exploite le fait que la courbe du nombre d'impulsions mesurees, en fonction du seuil de discrimination, est une droite, pour un emetteur-{beta} pur. Une relation simple entre les caracteristiques de cette droite et l'energie maximum du spectre-{beta} du radionuclide, correspondant, a ete etablie. (auteurs)

  6. Effect of Beta-Carotene on Oxidative Stress and Expression of Cardiac Connexin 43

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novo, Rosangela; Azevedo, Paula S.; Minicucci, Marcos F.; Zornoff, Leonardo A. M., E-mail: lzornoff@fmb.unesp.br; Paiva, Sergio A. R. [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu - Universidade Estadual Paulista ' Júlio de Mesquita Filho' , Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Intervention studies have shown an increased mortality in patients who received beta-carotene. However, the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are still unknown. Evaluate the influence of beta-carotene on oxidative stress and the expression of connexin 43 in rat hearts. Wistar rats, weighing approximately 100 g, were allocated in two groups: Control Group (n = 30), that received the diet routinely used in our laboratory, and Beta-Carotene Group (n = 28), which received beta-carotene (in crystal form, added and mixed to the diet) at a dose of 500 mg of beta carotene/kg of diet. The animals received the treatment until they reached 200-250g, when they were sacrificed. Samples of blood, liver and heart were collected to perform Western blotting and immunohistochemistry for connexin 43; morphometric studies, dosages of beta carotene by high performance liquid chromatography as well as reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione and lipids hydroperoxides were performed by biochemical analysis. Beta-carotene was detected only in the liver of Beta-Carotene Group animals (288 ± 94.7 μg/kg). Levels of reduced/ oxidized glutathione were higher in the liver and heart of Beta-Carotene Group animals (liver - Control Group: 42.60 ± 1.62; liver - Beta-Carotene Group: 57.40 ± 5.90; p = 0.04; heart: - Control Group: 117.40 ± 1.01; heart - Beta-Carotene Group: 121.81 ± 1.32 nmol/mg protein; p = 0.03). The content of total connexin 43 was larger in Beta-Carotene Group. Beta-carotene demonstrated a positive effect, characterized by the increase of intercellular communication and improvement of anti-oxidizing defense system. In this model, mechanism does not explain the increased mortality rate observed with the beta-carotene supplementation in clinical studies.

  7. Preventive Effects of Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methyl Butyrate

    OpenAIRE

    N. Ravanbakhsh; N. Torabi; M. Foadoddini

    2016-01-01

    Aims: One of the major factors in sudden cardiac arrest is the initiation and continuation of deadly arrhythmias during ischemia. It is known that beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) has useful effects such as anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis effects in the skeletal muscles. The aim of this study was to investigate the preventive effects of HMB on the ventricular arrhythmias due to the ischemia. Materials & Methods: In the experimental study, 30 Wistar male rats were randomly div...

  8. Dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources; Dosimetria de fuentes {beta} extensas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Lallena R, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    In this work, we have been studied, making use of the Penelope Monte Carlo simulation code, the dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources in situations of spherical geometry including interfaces. These configurations are of interest in the treatment of the called cranealfaringyomes of some synovia leisure of knee and other problems of interest in medical physics. Therefore, its application can be extended toward problems of another areas with similar geometric situation and beta sources. (Author)

  9. Double Beta Decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorini, Ettore

    2008-01-01

    The importance of neutrinoless Double Beta Decay (DBD) is stressed in view of the recent results of experiments on neutrino oscillations which indicate that the difference between the squared masses of two neutrinos of different flavours is finite [For a recent review including neutrino properties and recent results see: Review of Particle Physics, J. of Phys. G: Nuclear and Particle Physics 33, 1]. As a consequence the mass of at least one neutrino has to be different from zero and it becomes imperative to determine its absolute value. The various experimental techniques to search for DBD are discussed together with the difficult problems of the evaluation of the corresponding nuclear matrix elements. The upper limits on neutrino mass coming from the results of the various experiments are reported together with the indication for a non zero value by one of them not confirmed so far. The two presently running experiments on neutrinoless DBD are briefly described together with the already approved or designed second generation searches aiming to reach the values on the absolute neutrino mass indicated by the results on neutrino oscillations

  10. Hypertrophic effect of inhaled beta -agonist with and without concurrent exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Søren; Onslev, Johan; Lemminger, Anders

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Due to a high prevalence of asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes, there is a high use of beta2 -adrenoceptor agonists (beta2 -agonists) in the athletic population. While anabolic in rodents, no study has been able to detect hypertrophy in humans after...... chronic beta2 -agonist inhalation. METHODS: We investigated if inhaled beta2 -agonist, terbutaline, alters body composition and metabolic rate with and without concurrent exercise training in healthy young men. Sixty-seven participants completed a four-week intervention of daily terbutaline (8×0.5 mg...

  11. Field measurement and interpretation of beta doses and dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, J.M.; Swinth, K.L.; Hooker, C.D.; Kenoyer, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    A wide variety of portable survey instruments employing GM, ionization chamber and scintillation detectors exist for the measurement of gamma exposure rates. Often these same survey instruments are used for monitoring beta fields. This is done by making measurements with and without a removable shield which is intended to shield out the non-penetrating component (beta) of the radiation field. The difference does not correspond to an absorbed dose rate for the beta field due to a variety of factors. Among these factors are the dependence on beta energy, source-detector geometries, mixed fields and variable ambient conditions. Attempting to use such measurements directly can lead to errors as high as a factor of 100. In many instances correction factors have been derived, that if properly applied, can reduce these errors substantially. However, this requires some knowledge of the beta spectra, calibration techniques and source geometry. This paper discusses some aspects of the proper use of instruments for beta measurements including the application of appropriate correction factors. Ionization type instruments are commonly used to measure beta dose rates. Through design and calibration these instruments will give an accurate reading only for uniform irradiation of the detection volume. Often in the field it is not feasible to meet these conditions. Large area uniform distributions of activity are not generally encountered and it is not possible to use large source-to-detector distances due to beta particle absorption in air. An example of correction factors required for various point sources is presented when a cutie pie ionization chamber is employed. The instrument reading is multiplied by the appropriate correction factor to obtain the dose rate at the window. When a different detector is used or for other geometries, a different set of correction factors must be used

  12. GSK3 beta forms a tetrameric complex with endogenous PS1-CTF/NTF and beta-catenin. Effects of the D257/D385A and FAD-linked mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesco, G; Tanzi, R E

    2000-01-01

    We have previously shown that the endogenous C-terminal fragment of presenilin 1 co-immunoprecipitates with endogenous beta-catenin. Since PS1 has been suggested to be involved in beta-catenin stabilization, we further investigated whether GSK3 beta, responsible for beta-catenin phosphorylation and degradation, is part of the PS1/beta-catenin complex. In naïve H4 and CHO cells, PS1 co-immunoprecipitated with both endogenous beta-catenin and GSK3 beta. In addition, GSK3 beta endogenously binds to the PS1-CTF/NTF complex and beta-catenin in naïve CHO cells. GSK3 beta also co-immunoprecipitated with PS1 full length in CHO cell lines overexpressing PS1 wild type. Given that it has been recently shown that PS1 mutations of aspartate 257 or 385 result in prevention of PS1 endoproteolysis and inhibition of gamma-secretase activity, we also tested whether PS1 endoproteolysis is required for beta-catenin/GSK3 beta/PS1 binding and whether PS1 FAD-linked mutations affect GSK3 beta recruitment in the PS1/beta-catenin complex. GSK3 beta was detected in PS1 immunoprecipitates from H4 cell lines overexpressing PS1 wild type, delta E10, A286E, L246V and in CHO cell lines overexpressing aspartate or M146L mutations. The latter data show that the absence of PS1 endoproteolysis (D257A/D385A and delta E10) or the presence of PS1-FAD mutations does not interfere with beta-catenin/GSK3 beta/PS1 complex formation.

  13. Murrayafoline A attenuates the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway by promoting the degradation of intracellular {beta}-catenin proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyuk; Gwak, Jungsug; Cho, Munju; Ryu, Min-Jung [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jee-Hyun; Kim, Sang Kyum; Kim, Young Ho [College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gye Won [Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Konyang University, Nonsan 320-711 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Mi-Young [Department of Beauty Health Care, Daejeon University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Cuong, Nguyen Manh [Institute of Natural Products Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Shin, Jae-Gook [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Gyu-Yong, E-mail: gysong@cnu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sangtaek, E-mail: ohsa@inje.ac.kr [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-01

    Molecular lesions in Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling and subsequent up-regulation of {beta}-catenin response transcription (CRT) occur frequently during the development of colon cancer. To identify small molecules that suppress CRT, we screened natural compounds in a cell-based assay for detection of TOPFalsh reporter activity. Murrayafoline A, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from Glycosmis stenocarpa, antagonized CRT that was stimulated by Wnt3a-conditioned medium (Wnt3a-CM) or LiCl, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}), and promoted the degradation of intracellular {beta}-catenin without altering its N-terminal phosphorylation at the Ser33/37 residues, marking it for proteasomal degradation, or the expression of Siah-1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Murrayafoline A repressed the expression of cyclin D1 and c-myc, which is known {beta}-catenin/T cell factor (TCF)-dependent genes and thus inhibited the proliferation of various colon cancer cells. These findings indicate that murrayafoline A may be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for use in the treatment of colon cancer.

  14. (beta-HC CG) in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    Urothelial tumour samples were obtained from all the 86 patients requiring surgical ..... and/or urine beta HCG appears to be an efficient diagnostic marker for the ..... collected all urothelial tumour specimens for storage, cutting and staining.

  15. Beta-glucans and cholesterol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šíma, Petr; Vannucci, Luca; Větvička, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 4 (2017), s. 1799-1808 ISSN 1107-3756 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : cholesterol * beta-glucans * diet Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.341, year: 2016

  16. Radioisotope indicator, type BETA 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duszanski, M.; Pankow, A.; Skwarczynski, B.

    1975-01-01

    The authors describe a radioisotope indicator, type BETA 2, constructed in the ZKMPW Works to be employed in mines for counting, checking, signalling the presence and positioning of cars, as well as monitoring the state of some other equipment. (author)

  17. Beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic 125I-pindolol binding sites in the interpeduncular nucleus of the rat: Normal distribution and the effects of deafferentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battisti, W.P.; Artymyshyn, R.P.; Murray, M.

    1989-01-01

    The plasticity of the beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptor subtypes was examined in the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) of the adult rat. The beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist 125I-pindolol (125I-PIN) was used in conjunction with the selective subtype antagonists ICI 118,551 and ICI 89,406 to determine the subnuclear distribution of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptors in this nucleus and to correlate the receptor distribution with the distribution of both noradrenergic afferents from the locus coeruleus (LC) and non-noradrenergic afferents from the fasiculus retroflexus (FR). The density of these binding sites was examined following lesions that decreased (LC lesions) or increased (FR lesions) the density of the noradrenergic projection in the IPN. Quantitative radioautography indicated that beta 1-labeled binding sites account for the larger percentage of binding sites in the IPN. The beta 1-binding sites are densest in those subnuclei that receive a noradrenergic projection from the LC: the central, rostral, and intermediate subnuclei. beta 1-binding sites are algo homogeneously distributed throughout the lateral subnuclei, where there is no detectable noradrenergic innervation. beta 2-binding sites have a more restricted distribution. They are concentrated in the ventral half of the lateral subnuclei, where they account for 70% of total 125I-PIN binding sites. beta 2-binding sites are also present along the ventral border of the IPN. Some of this labeling extends into the central and intermediate subnuclei. Bilateral lesions of the LC, which selectively remove noradrenergic innervation to the IPN, result in an increase in the beta 1-binding sites. Bilateral lesions of the FR, which remove the major cholinergic and peptidergic input from the IPN, elicit an increase in noradrenergic projections and a decrease in beta 1-binding sites

  18. IL-1beta induced protein changes in diabetes prone BB rat islets of Langerhans identified by proteome analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, T; Bjerre-Christensen, Ulla; Mose Larsen, P

    2002-01-01

    of 82 out of 1 815 protein spots detected by two dimensional gel electrophoresis in IL-1beta exposed diabetes prone Bio Breeding (BB-DP) rat islets of Langerhans in vitro. The aim of this study was to identify the proteins in these 82 spots by mass spectrometry and compare these changes with those seen......Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus is characterized by selective destruction of the insulin producing beta cells. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) modulates the beta-cell function, protein synthesis, energy production and causes apoptosis. We have previously shown changes in the expression...

  19. Activity of beta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations against extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing enterobacteriaceae in urinary isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, F.I.; Farooqi, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the susceptibility pattern of beta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae in urinary isolates. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Ziauddin University Hospital, Karachi, from February to October 2008. Methodology: A total of 190 consecutive non-duplicate isolates of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae from urine samples of in-patients were included in the study. Urinary samples from out-patients, repeat samples and non-ESBL producing isolates were excluded. Detection of ESBL was carried out by double disk diffusion technique. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using modified Kirby Bauer's disk diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS version 10. Results: Of the 190 ESBL isolates tested, 88 cases (46.31%) were sensitive and 6 cases (3.15%) were resistant to all three combinations, the rest 96 cases (50.52%) were resistant to at least one of the combinations. Susceptibility pattern of cefoperazone/sulbactam, piperacillin/tazobactam, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was 95.26, 92.10, and 44.31 percent respectively. Conclusion: Cefoperazone/sulbactam exhibited the best activity against ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae followed by piperacillin/tazobactam. Hospital antibiotic policies should be reviewed periodically to reduce the usage of extended spectrum cephalosporins and replace them with beta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations agent for treating urinary tract infections. (author)

  20. New lupane triterpenoids from Solidago canadensis that inhibit the lyase activity of DNA polymerase beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedula, V S Prakash; Zhou, Bing-Nan; Gao, Zhijie; Thomas, Shannon J; Hecht, Sidney M; Kingston, David G I

    2004-12-01

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of a methyl ethyl ketone extract of Solidago canadensis L. (Asteraceae), using an assay to detect the lyase activity of DNA polymerase beta, resulted in the isolation of the four new lupane triterpenoids 1-4 and the seven known compounds lupeol, lupeyl acetate, ursolic acid, cycloartenol, cycloartenyl palmitate, alpha-amyrin acetate, and stigmasterol. The structures of the new compounds were established as 3beta-(3R-acetoxyhexadecanoyloxy)-lup-20(29)-ene (1), 3beta-(3-ketohexadecanoyloxy)-lup-20(29)-ene (2), 3beta-(3R-acetoxyhexadecanoyloxy)-29-nor-lupan-20-one (3), and 3beta-(3-hetohexadecanoyloxy)-29-nor-lupan-20-one (4), respectively, on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic interpretation and chemical modification studies. All 11 compounds were inhibitory to the lyase activity of DNA polymerase beta.

  1. Detection of Beta-Emitting Nuclides of Energy >1 Mev in Urine After an Accident by Means of Measurement of the Cerenkov Effect in a Liquid Scintillation Counting System; Detection des Radioelements Emetteurs Beta d'une Energie Superieure a 1 Mev dans l'Urine Apres un Accident, par la Mesure de l'Effet Cerenkov Avec un Ensemble de Comptage a Scintillation Liquide; 041e 0411 041d 0414 ; Deteccion en la Orina de Emisores Beta de Energia Superior a 1 Mev, Despues de un Accidente, por Medicion del Efecto Cerenkov en un Contador de Centelleador Liquido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narrog, J. [Landesinstitut fuer Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1965-06-15

    Beta particles of energy >1 MeV in water can be measured by Cerenkov effect in liquid scintillation counters without any further preparation. Since Hoffman reported about this possibility at the Symposium held by the Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (1-2 April 1964) in Karlsruhe-Leopoldshafen, experiments have been carried out in our institute to apply this method to urine. When experiments were carried out with unprepared urine, the measurements were insensitive because of the strong absorption effect. The urine must be cleared. Therefore we tried to oxidate with KMnO{sub 4} and got a clear liquid. The background was very high, because the K of the KMnO{sub 4} contains the radioactive K{sup 40}, which also emits {beta}-rays of energy > 1 MeV (1.32 MeV). We used Na MnO{sub 4} instead of KMnO{sub 4} and got better results. The background is now about 30 counts/min, the lower limit (measured with Sr{sup 90}/Y{sup 90}) about 1 pc/ml urine. If in accidents the content of radioactive K{sup 40} in urine cannot be assessed (e.g. by flame-photometry of the K-content in urine) this method gives the same sensitivity as other methods (e.g. bum and measure in a large-area proportional counting system), in this case (> 2 pc/ml). The measurement with the large-area proportional counter and additional assessment of the K{sup 40} {beta}-activity of the urine is mere sensitive and more accurate. This method is useful for a rapid measurement of large body burdens (and following excretion) of {beta}-nuclides of energy > 1 MeV, demanded by an accidental situation. With these methods we need no more than 90 min total time. (author) [French] On peut mesurer les particules beta d'une energie superieure a 1 MeV grace a l'effet Cerenkov dans des compteurs a scintillation liquide sans aucune autre preparation. Depuis que Hoffmann en a signale la possibilite a un colloque organise par la Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker les 1{sup er} et 2 avril 1964 a Karlsruhe-Leopoldshafen, l'auteur a

  2. Beta-thalassaemia trait: haematological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousafzai, Y.M.; Khan, S.; Raziq, F.

    2010-01-01

    Thalassaemia syndromes are a group of hereditary disorders characterised by a genetic deficiency in the synthesis of --globin genes. The objective of this study was to determine the haematological features -thalassaemia trait (BTT), and to determine the sensitivity of Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH) and -thalassaemia trait. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted in Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar from May 2009 to May 2010 with 203 subjects having BTT. Blood samples were collected in EDTA anti-coagulated tubes. RBC indices were taken as part of complete blood count (CBC) by haematology analyser, and Haemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis was done to determine the HbA2 percentage. The data was collected and analyzed on statistical software for demographic details, RBC indices and HBA2 levels. Results: Out of 203 patients, 92 (45%) were males and 111 (55%) were females. Most patients tested were in the 15-45 year age group. One-hundred-sixty (79%) patients had anaemia. MCV was lower than 76 fl in all the cases. Mean MCV was 59.1 fl. MCH was low, the mean MCH being 19.3 g/dl. MCH <26 gave sensitivity of 99% in detecting BTT. We calculated MI for these cases and found out that it was <12 in 75% of cases and <15 in 197 (97%). Conclusion: Beta-thalassaemia traits present with a microcytic hypochromic blood picture, detected on simple haematology analysers as low MCV and MCH and MI which provide a beta- thalassaemia trait. (author)

  3. A background free double beta decay experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giomataris, I

    2011-01-01

    We present a new detection scheme for rejecting backgrounds in neutrino-less double beta decay experiments. It relies on the detection of Cherenkov light emitted by electrons in the MeV region. The momentum threshold is tuned to reach a good discrimination between background and good events. We consider many detector concepts and a range of target materials. The most promising is the high-pressure 136 Xe emitter where the required energy threshold is easily adjusted. Combination of this concept and a high pressure Time Projection Chamber could provide an optimal solution. A simple and low cost effective solution is the use of the Spherical Proportional Counter that provides, using a single read-out channel, two delayed signals from ionization and Cherenkov light. In solid-state double beta decay emitters, because of its higher density, the considered process is out of energy range. An escape will be the fabrication of double decay emitters having lower density by using for instance the aerogel technique. It is surprising that a technology used for particle identification in high-energy physics becomes a powerful tool for rejecting backgrounds in such low-energy experiments.

  4. BENIGN EPITHELIAL NEOPLASIA ASSOCIATED WITH BETA-HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Molochkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study an association between acrochordon and human papilloma virus (HPV using quantitative analysis of viral desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA; to detect different phenotypes of beta-HPV. Materials and methods: We examined 52  patients (22 immuno-suppressed patients and 30 immunocompetent subjects in the Dermatovenereology and Dermato-Oncology Department and Chronic Dialysis and Kidney Transplantation Department of the Moscow Regional Research and Clinical Institute (MONIKI. Control group included 49 healthy donors. Burr biopsy samples (micro-samples of acrochordon and intact skin (apper arm were collected in sterile conditions. After sample procession and DNA isolation using DNK-sorb-C kit (Central Research Institute for Epidemiology – CRIE, polymerase chain reaction for HPV was performed with real-time fluorescent hybridization detection. For DNA amplification and detection we used RotorGene 3000 analyzer (Corbett Research, Australia. In the beta-HPV assay, recombinant plasmids were used as positive controls and control human beta-globin gene fragments (CRIE. 4 oligo-nucleotide systems (group-specific primers and probes were used for the detection of beta-HPV DNA. Results: Preliminary data indicated that acrochordons of open and covered skin regions were common in renal transplant recipients. Beta-HPV DNA was more frequent in acrochordons and intact skin (64% and 54% of renal transplant recipients compared to healthy donors (47%. 57% of renal transplant recipients demonstrated mixed infection in acrochordons. Conclusion: HPV DNA was frequently detected in acrochordons and intact skin of renal transplant recipients. In immunocompetent patients prevalence of HPV DNA in acrochordons was significantly higher compared to intact skin.

  5. First on-line $\\beta$-NMR on oriented nuclei magnetic dipole moments of the $\

    CERN Document Server

    Giles, T; Stone, N J; Van Esbroeck, K; White, G; Wöhr, A; Veskovic, M; Towner, I S; Mantica, P F; Prisciandaro, J I; Morrissey, D J; Fedosseev, V; Mishin, V I; Köster, U; Walters, W B

    2000-01-01

    The first fully on-line use of the angular distribution of $\\beta$ - emission in detection of NMR of nuclei oriented at low temperatures is reported. The magnetic moments of the single valence particle, intermediate mass, isotopes $^{67}$Ni($\

  6. A method for the determination of residual beta activity in drinking water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idoeta, R. [Dpto. Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, E. T. S. Ingenieria de Bilbao - Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alda. Urquijo s/n. 48013 Bilbao (Spain)], E-mail: raquel.idoeta@ehu.es; Herranz, M.; Abelairas, A.; Legarda, F. [Dpto. Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, E. T. S. Ingenieria de Bilbao - Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alda. Urquijo s/n. 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2007-09-15

    The determination of residual beta activity in drinking water is usually needed in most monitoring programs. In this work a procedure for its determination is described and expressions for the calculations of detection limits and uncertainties are proposed.

  7. A method for the determination of residual beta activity in drinking water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idoeta, R.; Herranz, M.; Abelairas, A.; Legarda, F.

    2007-01-01

    The determination of residual beta activity in drinking water is usually needed in most monitoring programs. In this work a procedure for its determination is described and expressions for the calculations of detection limits and uncertainties are proposed

  8. Tables of double beta decay data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tretyak, V.I. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine)]|[Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Zdesenko, Y.G. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1995-12-31

    A compilation of experimental data on double beta decay is presented. The tables contain the most stringent known experimental limits or positive results of 2{beta} transitions of 69 natural nuclides to ground and excited states of daughter nuclei for different channels (2{beta}{sup -}; 2{beta}{sup +}; {epsilon}{beta}{sup +}; 2{epsilon}) and modes (0{nu}; 2{nu}; 0{nu}M) of decay. (authors). 189 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Beta Instability and Stochastic Market Weights

    OpenAIRE

    David H. Goldenberg

    1985-01-01

    An argument is given for individual firm beta instability based upon the stochastic character of the market weights defining the market portfolio and the constancy of its beta. This argument is generalized to market weighted portfolios and the form of the stochastic process generating betas is linked to that of the market return process. The implications of this analysis for adequacy of models of beta nonstationarity and estimation of betas are considered in light of the available empirical e...

  10. Selective elution of HLA antigens and beta 2-microglobulin from human platelets by chloroquine diphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, K.J.

    1988-01-01

    To determine whether chloroquine can specifically elute HLA antigens and beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-M) from the platelet surface, quantitative immunofluorescence flow cytometry and monoclonal antibodies were used to show that HLA antigens and beta 2-M were proportionally eluted from the platelet surface without affecting the membrane glycoproteins IIb and IIIa. Second, an autoradiogram of electrophoresed I-125-labeled platelets showed that only beta 2-M but not other I-125-labeled membrane proteins could be eluted. Although HLA antigens were poorly labeled by I-125 and could not be detected on the autoradiogram, the eluted HLA antigens could be detected by anti-HLA monoclonal antibody and immunoblotting techniques. No loss of plasma membrane integrity was observed by transmission electron microscopy after chloroquine treatment of platelets. The results indicate that chloroquine selectively elutes HLA antigens and their noncovalently associated beta 2-M without affecting other integral platelet membrane proteins

  11. RFLP for the human retinoic acid receptor gene RAR-. beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datson, N A; Oostra, B A [Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands); van der Saag, P T [Netherlands Institute for Developmental Biology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1989-11-11

    1.4 kb Mae I fragment containing the entire RAR-{beta} ORF was cloned into the Sma I site of pTZ18U, yielding the plasmid pCOD20. Msp I digestion of genomic DNA and hybridization with the pCOD20 probe detects a two allele polymorphism with allelic fragments of 8.1 and 7.7 kb. The human RAR-{beta} gene has been localized to the p24 band of chromosome 3. Co-dominant segregation of the alleles was observed in 4 Caucasian families.

  12. Determination of beta and gamma radioactivity on the coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhardi; Mulyono; Sutanto WW; Rosidi

    2013-01-01

    Radioactivity in coal, botton ash and fly ash. This determination was carried out to know each the radioactivity of β gross, γ gross on the coal, botton ash and fly ash, which accommodation of environment data the present in PLTU Paiton Probolinggo. Samples taken preparation and analysis based on the procedures of environmental radioactivity analysis. The radioactivity on the PLTU Paiton Probolinggo detected by beta gross Spectrometer with Geiger Muller (GM) and gamma Spectrometer with Ge(Li) detector. The result indicates that radioactivity concentration of beta and gamma gross are (95,57-308,26) Bq/kg and (1,374 - 31,677) Bq/kg respectively. (author)

  13. Efficiency enhancements for MCP-based beta autoradiography imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lees, J E

    2002-01-01

    We describe three approaches to increase the beta detection efficiency of microchannel plate detectors for biological beta autoradiography:(a)reversing the microchannel plate (MCP) bias polarity, changing the conventional high negative voltage on the input MCP to a grounded input, (b) a reduction in MCP pore size from 12.5 to 6 mu m, (c) using a CsI coating as an efficient secondary electron emitter. We also present our first measurements of double-tracer ( sup 3 H and sup 1 sup 4 C) imaging using pulse height analysis to distinguish between isotopes.

  14. G-parity violation of weak nucleon current and in-medium mass renormalization of nucleons detected through the beta decays of spin aligned sup 1 sup 2 B and sup 1 sup 2 N

    CERN Document Server

    Minamisono, K; Sumikama, T; Nagatomo, T; Matsuta, K; Minamisono, T; Fukuda, M; Koshigiri, K; Morita, M

    2000-01-01

    The beta-ray angular distributions from purely spin aligned sup 1 sup 2 B and sup 1 sup 2 N were precisely measured to determine a new limit of the G-parity irregular induced tensor form factor in weak nucleon axial vector currents and to study the in-medium mass renormalization of nucleons through the axial charge. Since the major systematic error in the previous result which originated from the intensity fluctuation of the incident beam used for the production of the nuclei was removed in the present measurement, the more reliable result was obtained: 0.01 <= 2M f sub T /f sub A <= 0.34 (90 % CL). The result is consistent with the theoretical prediction in the framework of which induced tensor form factor is proportional to the mass difference between the up and down quarks. We also determined the axial charge of the weak nucleon current to be y = 4.66 +- 0.12, which may disclose an in-medium mass reduction of the decaying nucleon of 11 +- 4 %.

  15. Acquired TGF beta 1 sensitivity and TGF beta 1 expression in cell lines established from a single small cell lung cancer patient during clinical progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, P; Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K

    1996-01-01

    Three small cell lung cancer cell lines established from a single patient during longitudinal follow-up were examined for in vitro expression of TGF beta and TGF beta receptors, i.e. the components of an autocrine loop. GLC 14 was established prior to treatment, GLC 16 on relapse after chemotherapy...... was found in GLC 16 and GLC 19. These cell lines were also growth inhibited by exogenously administrated TGF beta 1. TGF beta 1 mRNA and protein in its latent form was only expressed in the radiotherapy-resistant cell line, GLC 19. The results indicate that disease progression in this patient was paralleled...... II receptor gene, as examined by Southern blotting. Also, the type I receptor could not be detected by ligand binding assay in this cell line, despite expression of mRNA for this receptor. This agrees with previous findings that type I receptor cannot bind TGF beta 1 without co-expression of the type...

  16. Elaboration of supports for beta emitting sources (with vyns); Elaboracion de soportes para fuentes emisoras beta (con vyns)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes P, A.; Torre O, J. De la; Tejera R, A.; Becerril V, A.; Bribiesca S, L

    1990-04-15

    The Laboratory of Radioactive patterns account with a 4 {pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence system of recent acquisition with which absolute measures of radioactive activity with uncertainties of the order of 0.1% can be made. Since the coincidence method for the activity measure consists on detecting to the particle and the photon corresponding to oneself nuclear disintegration, it is necessary to elaborate special radioactive sources on thin supports, in order to allowing the maximum possible fluence of {beta} particles ({approx} 100%). This work a technique for the elaboration of these sources and for the measure of the thickness of the walls of the support is presented. (Author)

  17. Preliminary evidence for a postsynaptic action of beta-bungarotoxin in mammalian skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storella, R. J.; Schouchoff, A. L.; Fujii, M.; Hill, J.; Fletcher, J. E.; Jiang, M. S.; Smith, L. A.

    1992-01-01

    Two hours after treatment with beta-bungarotoxin (0.34-0.4 microM), when there was complete neuromuscular block, the peak contracture response to 50 microM succinylcholine was significantly reduced by about 35% in the mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation. Additionally, significant phospholipase A2 activity was detected on primary cell cultures from skeletal muscle which were incubated for 2 hr with concentrations of beta-bungarotoxin greater than or equal to 0.1 microM. Thus, beta-bungarotoxin appears to have pharmacologically and biochemically detectable postsynaptic actions in mammalian muscle systems.

  18. Photochemical fate of beta-blockers in NOM enriched waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ling; Xu, Haomin; Cooper, William J.; Song, Weihua

    2012-01-01

    Beta-blockers, prescribed for the treatment of high blood pressure and for long-term use after a heart attack, have been detected in surface and ground waters. This study examines the photochemical fate of three beta-blockers, atenolol, metoprolol, and nadolol. Hydrolysis accounted for minor losses of these beta-blockers in the pH range 4–10. The rate of direct photolysis at pH 7 in a solar simulator varied from 6.1 to 8.9 h −1 at pH 7. However, the addition of a natural organic matter (NOM) isolate enhanced the photochemical loss of all three compounds. Indirect photochemical fate, generally described by reactions with hydroxyl radical (·OH) and singlet oxygen ( 1 ΔO 2 ), and, the direct reaction with the triplet excited state, 3 NOM ⁎ , also varied but collectively appeared to be the major loss factor. Bimolecular reaction rate constants of the three beta-blockers with 1 ΔO 2 and ·OH were measured and accounted for 0.02–0.04% and 7.2–38.9% of their loss, respectively. These data suggest that the 3 NOM ⁎ contributed 50.6–85.4%. Experiments with various 3 NOM ⁎ quenchers supported the hypothesis that it was singly the most important reaction. Atenolol was chosen for more detailed investigation, with the photoproducts identified by LC–MS analysis. The results suggested that electron-transfer could be an important mechanism in photochemical fate of beta-blockers in the presence of NOM. - Highlights: ► Photochemical degradation of beta-blockers in the simulated natural waters. ► Reactive Oxygen Species play a minor role in the indirect photodegradation. ► The loss of beta-blockers results from direct reaction with 3 DOM ⁎ .

  19. OXA beta-lactamase-mediated carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Amudhan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Acinetobacter baumannii is a significant pathogen in health care settings. In recent years, an increase in carbapenem resistance among A. baumannii due to Ambler class B metallo-beta-lactamases or class D OXA carbapenamases has been reported. In this study we detected the presence of OXA carbapenamases and coproduction of metallo-beta-lactamases (blaVIM and blaIMP by phenotypic and genotypic methods in carbapenem resistant clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii. Materials and Methods: A total of 116 consecutive, non-duplicate carbapenem resistant A. baumannii isolated from various clinical specimens were included in the study. The modified Hodge test and inhibitor potentiated disk diffusion tests were done for the screening of carbapenamase and metallo-beta-lactamase production, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was performed for the detection of OXA (blaOXA 23 like, blaOXA 24 like, blaOXA-51 like and blaOXA-58 like genes and metallo-beta-lactamases (blaVIM and blaIMP genes. Gene sequencing was performed for representative isolates. Results: Among 116 A. baumannii, OXA genes were detected in 106 isolates. BlaOXA 51 like (n = 99 and blaOXA -23 like (n = 95 were the most common and they coexisted in 89 isolates. blaOXA-24 like gene was detected in two isolates of which one also carried blaOXA-51 like and blaOXA-58 like genes. The modified Hodge test was positive in 113 isolates. The metallo-beta-lactamase screening test was positive in 92 isolates. blavim was detected in 54 isolates of which 1 also carried the blaIMP gene. Conclusions: blaOXA-23 like and bla OXA 51 like genes are the most common types of OXA carbapenamases while the blaVIM type is the most common type of metallo-beta-lactamase contributing to carbapenem resistance in clinical isolates of A. baumannii. The coproduction of OXA and metallo-beta-lactamases is not an uncommon phenomenon in A. baumannii.

  20. Marcadores eletrocardiográficos para detecção precoce de doença cardíaca em pacientes com talassemia beta maior Electrocardiographic markers for the early detection of cardiac disease in patients with beta-thalassemia major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Nisli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar comparativamente a dispersão da onda P (DOP em pacientes com talassemia beta maior (β-TM e indivíduos saudáveis (controles para a detecção precoce do risco de arritmias. MÉTODOS: Oitenta e uma crianças com β-TM, com idades entre 4 e 19 anos, e 74 crianças saudáveis (grupo controle foram submetidas a exame eletrocardiográfico e ecocardiograma transtorácico de rotina para avaliação cardíaca. A DOP foi calculada como a diferença entre as durações máxima e mínima da onda P. RESULTADOS: Houve uma diferença estatisticamente significativa entre o grupo de estudo e o grupo controle no pico de velocidade do fluxo transmitral no início da diástole (E e na razão E/fluxo transmitral tardio (A. A duração máxima da onda P e a DOP foram significativamente maiores nos pacientes com β-TM do que nos indivíduos controles. CONCLUSÕES: O aumento da DOP em nossos pacientes com β-TM pode estar relacionado à depressão na condução intra-atrial, devido à dilatação atrial, e ao aumento da atividade simpática. Estes pacientes devem ser acompanhados atentamente devido à possibilidade de ocorrência de arritmias com risco de vida.OBJECTIVE: To comparatively evaluate P-wave dispersion (PWD in patients with β-thalassemia major (TM and healthy control subjects for the early prediction of arrhythmia risk. METHODS: Eighty-one children with β-TM, aged 4-19 years, and 74 healthy children (control group underwent routine electrocardiography and transthoracic echocardiography for cardiac evaluation. PWD was calculated as the difference between the maximum and the minimum P-wave duration. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference between study and control groups in peak early (E mitral inflow velocity and E/late (A velocity ratio. Maximum P-wave duration and PWD were found to be significantly higher in β-TM patients than in control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Increased PWD in our β-TM patients might be related

  1. Serum amyloid beta peptides in patients with dementia and age-matched non-demented controls as detected by surface-enhanced laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankfort, Suzanne V; van Campen, Jos P C M; Tulner, Linda R; Beijnen, Jos H

    2008-09-01

    By using surface enhanced laser desorption/ionisation- time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) an amyloid beta (Abeta) profile was shown in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with dementia. To investigate the Abeta-profile in serum with SELDI-TOF MS, to evaluate if this profile resembles CSF profiles and to investigate the correlation between intensity of Abeta-peptide-peaks in serum and clinical, demographical and genetic variables. Duplicate profiling of Abeta by an SELDI-TOF MS immunocapture assay was performed in 106 patients, suffering from Alzheimer's Disease or Vascular Dementia and age-matched non-demented control patients. Linear regression analyses were performed to investigate the intensities of four selected Abeta peaks as dependent variables in relation to the independent clinical, demographic or genetic variables. Abeta37, Abeta38 and Abeta40 were found among additional unidentified Abeta peptides, with the most pronounced Abeta peak at a molecular mass of 7752. This profile partly resembled the CSF profile. The clinical diagnosis was not a predictive independent variable, however ABCB1 genotypes C1236T, G2677T/A, age and creatinine level showed to be related to Abeta peak intensities in multivariate analyses. We found an Abeta profile in serum that partly resembled the CSF profile in demented patients. Age, creatinine levels, presence of the APOE epsilon4 allele and ABCB1 genotypes (C1236T and G2677T/A) were correlated with the Abeta serum profile. The role of P-gp as an Abeta transporter and the role of ABCB1 genotypes deserves further research. The investigated serum Abeta profile is probably not useful in the diagnosis of dementia.

  2. Molecular investigations of BK(Ca) channels and the modulatory beta-subunits in porcine basilar and middle cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Helle Wulf; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Poulsen, Asser Nyander

    2009-01-01

    arteries using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR. Western blotting was used to detect immunoreactivity for the porcine BK(Ca) channel alpha-subunit and beta-subunit proteins. The BK(Ca) channel alpha-subunit RNA and protein distribution patterns were......Large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK(Ca)) channels are fundamental in the regulation of cerebral vascular basal tone. We investigated the expression of the mRNA transcripts for the BK(Ca) channel and its modulatory beta-subunits (beta1-beta4) in porcine basilar and middle cerebral...... visualized using in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence studies, respectively. The study verified that the BK(Ca) channel alpha-subunit is located to smooth muscle cells of porcine basilar and middle cerebral arteries. The mRNA transcript for beta1-, beta2- and beta4-subunit were shown by RT...

  3. Proposal of a dosemeter for skin beta radiation dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.A.R. da; Caldas, L.V.E.

    1987-08-01

    Beta radiation is, undoubtedly, less penetrating than X or gamma radiation. Thus, beta radiation sources external to the human body do not cause a significant irradiation of its deeper tissues. However, in some cases, they may contribute in a very important way to the irradiation of the lens of the eyes and, mainly, of the skin. Specially, the hands and finger tips may receive a high dose. In this work some relevant aspects of the individual monitoring in beta radiation fields are discussed and the importance of monitoring this kind of radiation in some activities where the skin absorbed dose may be a limiting factor is evidenced. The main characteristics of the thermoluminescent (TL) response of ultra-thin CaSO 4 : Dy detectors (UT-CaSO 4 : Dy) in the detection of this kind of radiation are also studied. The irradiation are performed with 90 Sr 90 Y, 204 TI and 147 Pm sources. The reproducibility, linearity, dependence on the absorbed dose rate, optical fading, energy and angular dependences of the detector TL responce are investigated. Transmission factors for different thicknesses of tissue equivalent material are obtained for the TL detectors using the three available beta sources. Based on the results obtained, a dosemeter for skin beta radiation absorbed dose assessment with an energy dependence better than 12% is proposed. (Author) [pt

  4. Prevalence of hepatosplenomegaly in beta thalassemia minor subjects in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi, Mehran [Hemostasis and Thrombosis Unit, Hematology Research Center, school of Medicine, Shiraz University of medical sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: Karimim@sums.ac.ir; Bagheri, Mohammad Hadi [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tahmtan, Mehdi [Hemostasis and Thrombosis Unit, Hematology Research Center, school of Medicine, Shiraz University of medical sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shakibafard, Alireza [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashid, Murtaza [Hemostasis and Thrombosis Unit, Hematology Research Center, school of Medicine, Shiraz University of medical sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-01-15

    Introduction: Thalassemia is the most common hereditary blood disorder in the world. Iran is located on the thalassemic belt and there is a high prevalence of the hepatosplenomegaly in beta thalassemia minor patients which is reported to be very variable. The goal of this research was to study the frequency of these signs in the cases with beta thalassemia minor patients in Iran. Materials and methods: Two hundred and fifty-nine cases that referred to center for pre-marriage tests were divided into two groups according to their MCV, MCH, and HbA2 (beta thalassemia minor cases and control groups). Liver and spleen sizes were determined by ultrasonographic method and the two groups were compared with each other. Results: Average spleen volumes in case and control groups were 163.48 {+-} 133.97 and 126.29 {+-} 53.98 mm{sup 3}, respectively. Average spleen lengths in case and control groups were 10.71 {+-} 1.52 and 10.60 {+-} 5.4 cm, respectively. Conclusion: In the regions with high frequency of beta thalassemia, in case of finding large spleen size in the ultrasonography, a probable harmless differential diagnosis will be beta thalassemia minor that is not indicative of any serious disease. Volumetric measurement of spleen is more reliable for detection of splenomegaly in these patients.

  5. Prevalence of hepatosplenomegaly in beta thalassemia minor subjects in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi, Mehran; Bagheri, Mohammad Hadi; Tahmtan, Mehdi; Shakibafard, Alireza; Rashid, Murtaza

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Thalassemia is the most common hereditary blood disorder in the world. Iran is located on the thalassemic belt and there is a high prevalence of the hepatosplenomegaly in beta thalassemia minor patients which is reported to be very variable. The goal of this research was to study the frequency of these signs in the cases with beta thalassemia minor patients in Iran. Materials and methods: Two hundred and fifty-nine cases that referred to center for pre-marriage tests were divided into two groups according to their MCV, MCH, and HbA2 (beta thalassemia minor cases and control groups). Liver and spleen sizes were determined by ultrasonographic method and the two groups were compared with each other. Results: Average spleen volumes in case and control groups were 163.48 ± 133.97 and 126.29 ± 53.98 mm 3 , respectively. Average spleen lengths in case and control groups were 10.71 ± 1.52 and 10.60 ± 5.4 cm, respectively. Conclusion: In the regions with high frequency of beta thalassemia, in case of finding large spleen size in the ultrasonography, a probable harmless differential diagnosis will be beta thalassemia minor that is not indicative of any serious disease. Volumetric measurement of spleen is more reliable for detection of splenomegaly in these patients

  6. Smart Beta or Smart Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kenneth Lillelund; Steenstrup, Søren Resen

    2016-01-01

    that smart beta investing probably will do better than passive market capitalization investing over time, we believe many are coming to a conclusion too quickly regarding active managers. Institutional investors are able to guide managers through benchmarks and risk frameworks toward the same well......Smart beta has become the flavor of the decade in the investment world with its low fees, easy access to rewarded risk premiums, and appearance of providing good investment results relative to both traditional passive benchmarks and actively managed funds. Although we consider it well documented......-documented smart beta risk premiums and still motivate active managers to avoid value traps, too highly priced small caps, defensives, etc. By constructing the equity portfolios of active managers that resemble the most widely used risk premiums, we show that the returns and risk-adjusted returns measures...

  7. Demonstration of interleukin-1 beta transcripts in acute myeloblastic leukemic cells by in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, M; Kanakura, Y; Furukawa, Y; Ernst, T J; Griffin, J D

    1990-07-01

    The cells from some patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia will secrete autostimulatory cytokines in tissue culture without the addition of stimulators such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Production of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), for example, has been observed in up to 50% of cases. In order to investigate the nature of the cell secreting IL-1 beta in AML, we used an antisense RNA probe to detect specific IL-1 beta transcripts in individual leukemic cells by in situ hybridization. In fresh, uncultured cells, IL-1 beta transcripts were observed in 1-40% of undifferentiated leukemic blast cells in 17 of 19 cases. In situ hybridization was at least as sensitive as Northern blot analysis in detecting IL-1 beta transcripts. No correlation of IL-1 beta transcript expression with FAB classification was observed. Normal blood and bone marrow mononuclear cells did not contain cells expressing IL-1 beta transcripts. These results support the concept that the regulation of cytokine genes in AML cells is aberrant.

  8. High-resolution melting analysis for prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassemia in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenkwan, Pimlak; Sirichotiyakul, Supatra; Phusua, Arunee; Suanta, Sudjai; Fanhchaksai, Kanda; Sae-Tung, Rattika; Sanguansermsri, Torpong

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis is a rapid mutation analysis which assesses the pattern of reduction of fluorescence signal after subjecting the amplified PCR product with saturated fluorescence dye to an increasing temperature. We used HRM analysis for prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassemia disease in northern Thailand. Five PCR-HRM protocols were used to detect point mutations in five different segments of the beta-globin gene, and one protocol to detect the 3.4 kb beta-globin deletion. We sought to characterize the mutations in carriers and to enable prenatal diagnosis in 126 couples at risk of having a fetus with beta-thalassemia disease. The protocols identified 18 common mutations causing beta-thalassemia, including the rare codon 132 (A-T) mutation. Each mutation showed a specific HRM pattern and all results were in concordance with those from direct DNA sequencing or gap-PCR methods. In cases of beta-thalassemia disease resulting from homozygosity for a mutation or compound heterozygosity for two mutations on the same amplified segment, the HRM patterns were different to those of a single mutation and were specific for each combination. HRM analysis is a simple and useful method for mutation identification in beta-thalassemia carriers and prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassemia in northern Thailand.

  9. Beta decay of 22O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, F.; Dufour, J.P.; Moral, R. del; Fleury, A.; Jean, D.; Pravikoff, M.S.; Delagrange, H.; Geissel, H.; Schmidt, K.H.; Hanelt, E.

    1989-01-01

    The beta-gamma spectroscopic study of 22 O is presented. This nucleus, produced as a projectile-like fragment from the interaction of a 60 MeV/n 40 Ar beam with a Be target, has been separated by the LISE spectrometer. Several gamma rays from 22 O decay have been observed, from which a half-life of (2.25±0.15) s has been determined. Accurate excitation energies have been deduced for several states in 22 F. A partial beta decay scheme of 22 O has been established. Experimental results have been compared with shell model calculations. (orig.)

  10. Beta-hemolytic Streptococcal Bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Kolmos, Hans Jørn; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2002-01-01

    Bacteremia with beta-hemolytic Streptococci groups A, B, C and G has a mortality rate of approximately 20%. In this study we analyzed the association of various patient risk factors with mortality. Records from 241 patients with beta-hemolytic streptococcal bacteremia were reviewed with particular...... attention to which predisposing factors were predictors of death. A logistic regression model found age, burns, immunosuppressive treatment and iatrogenic procedures prior to the infection to be significant predictors of death, with odds ratios of 1.7 (per decade), 19.7, 3.6 and 6.8, respectively...

  11. The Beta Transmuted Weibull Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Pal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a beta transmuted Weibull distribution, which contains a number ofdistributions as special cases. The properties of the distribution are discussed and explicit expressions are derived for the mean deviations, Bonferroni and Lorenz curves, and reliability. The distribution and moments of order statistics are also studied. Estimation of the model parameters by the method of maximum likelihood is discussed. The log beta transmuted Weibull model is introduced to analyze censored data. Finally, the usefulness of the new distribution in analyzing positive data is illustrated.

  12. Beta activity of enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambiar, P.P.V.J.; Ramachandran, V.

    1975-01-01

    Use of enriched uranium as reactor fuel necessitates its handling in various forms. For purposes of planning and organising radiation protection measures in enriched uranium handling facilities, it is necessary to have a basic knowledge of the radiation status of enriched uranium systems. The theoretical variations in beta activity and energy with U 235 enrichment are presented. Depletion is considered separately. Beta activity build up is also studied for two specific enrichments, in respect of which experimental values for specific alpha activity are available. (author)

  13. A {beta} - {gamma} coincidence; Metodo de coincidencias {beta} - {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agullo, F

    1960-07-01

    A {beta} - {gamma} coincidence method for absolute counting is given. The fundamental principles are revised and the experimental part is detailed. The results from {sup 1}98 Au irradiated in the JEN 1 Swimming pool reactor are given. The maximal accuracy is 1 per cent. (Author) 11 refs.

  14. Essential role of TGF-beta/Smad pathway on statin dependent vascular smooth muscle cell regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rodríguez-Vita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase inhibitors (also called statins exert proven beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases. Recent data suggest a protective role for Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-beta in atherosclerosis by regulating the balance between inflammation and extracellular matrix accumulation. However, there are no studies about the effect of statins on TGF-beta/Smad pathway in atherosclerosis and vascular cells. METHODOLOGY: In cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs statins enhanced Smad pathway activation caused by TGF-beta. In addition, statins upregulated TGF-beta receptor type II (TRII, and increased TGF-beta synthesis and TGF-beta/Smad-dependent actions. In this sense, statins, through Smad activation, render VSMCs more susceptible to TGF-beta induced apoptosis and increased TGF-beta-mediated ECM production. It is well documented that high doses of statins induce apoptosis in cultured VSMC in the presence of serum; however the precise mechanism of this effect remains to be elucidated. We have found that statins-induced apoptosis was mediated by TGF-beta/Smad pathway. Finally, we have described that RhoA inhibition is a common intracellular mechanisms involved in statins effects. The in vivo relevance of these findings was assessed in an experimental model of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E deficient mice: Treatment with Atorvastatin increased Smad3 phosphorylation and TRII overexpression, associated to elevated ECM deposition in the VSMCs within atheroma plaques, while apoptosis was not detected. CONCLUSIONS: Statins enhance TGF-beta/Smad pathway, regulating ligand levels, receptor, main signaling pathway and cellular responses of VSMC, including apoptosis and ECM accumulation. Our findings show that TGF-beta/Smad pathway is essential for statins-dependent actions in VSMCs.

  15. The {beta}-decay Paul trap: A radiofrequency-quadrupole ion trap for precision {beta}-decay studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scielzo, N.D., E-mail: scielzo1@llnl.gov [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Li, G. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2T8 (Canada); Sternberg, M.G.; Savard, G. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Bertone, P.F. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Buchinger, F. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2T8 (Canada); Caldwell, S. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Clark, J.A. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Crawford, J. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2T8 (Canada); Deibel, C.M. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Fallis, J. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3T 2N2 (Canada); Greene, J.P. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); and others

    2012-07-21

    The {beta}-decay Paul trap is a linear radiofrequency-quadrupole ion trap that has been developed for precision {beta}-decay studies. The design of the trap electrodes allows a variety of radiation detectors to surround the cloud of trapped ions. The momentum of the low-energy recoiling daughter nuclei following {beta} decay is negligibly perturbed by scattering and is available for study. This advantageous property of traps allows the kinematics of particles that are difficult or even impossible to directly detect to be precisely reconstructed using conservation of energy and momentum. An ion-trap system offers several advantages over atom traps, such as higher trapping efficiencies and element-independent capabilities. The first precision experiment using this system is a measurement of {beta}-decay angular correlations in the decay of {sup 8}Li performed by inferring the momentum of the neutrino from the kinematic shifts imparted to the breakup {alpha} particles. Many other {beta}-decay studies that would benefit from a determination of the nuclear recoil can be performed with this system.

  16. N-Benzylhydroxylamine addition to beta-aryl enoates. Enantioselective synthesis of beta-aryl-beta-amino acid precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi; Liu

    2000-10-19

    Chiral Lewis acid catalyzed N-benzylhydroxylamine addition to pyrrolidinone-derived enoates afforded beta-aryl-beta-amino acid derivatives in high enantiomeric purity with moderate to very good chemical efficiency.

  17. Mechanism of the hydrolysis of 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucoside by germinating and outgrowing spores of Bacillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlow, B; Cabrera-Martinez, R-M; Setlow, P

    2004-01-01

    To determine the mechanism of the hydrolysis of 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (beta-MUG) by germinating and outgrowing spores of Bacillus species. Spores of B. atrophaeus (formerly B. subtilis var. niger, Fritze and Pukall 2001) are used as biological indicators of the efficacy of ethylene oxide sterilization by measurement of beta-MUG hydrolysis during spore germination and outgrowth. It was previously shown that beta-MUG is hydrolysed to 4-methylumbelliferone (MU) during the germination and outgrowth of B. atrophaeus spores (Chandrapati and Woodson 2003), and this was also the case with spores of B. subtilis 168. Germination of spores of either B. atrophaeus or B. subtilis with chloramphenicol reduced beta-MUG hydrolysis by almost 99%, indicating that proteins needed for rapid beta-MUG hydrolysis are synthesized during spore outgrowth. However, the residual beta-MUG hydrolysis during spore germination with chloramphenicol indicated that dormant spores contain low levels of proteins needed for beta-MUG uptake and hydrolysis. With B. subtilis 168 spores that lacked several general proteins of the phosphotransferase system (PTS) for sugar uptake, beta-MUG hydrolysis during spore germination and outgrowth was decreased >99.9%. This indicated that beta-MUG is taken up by the PTS, resulting in the intracellular accumulation of the phosphorylated form of beta-MUG, beta-MUG-6-phosphate (beta-MUG-P). This was further demonstrated by the lack of detectable glucosidase activity on beta-MUG in dormant, germinated and outgrowing spore extracts, while phosphoglucosidase active on beta-MUG-P was readily detected. Dormant B. subtilis 168 spores had low levels of at least four phosphoglucosidases active on beta-MUG-P: BglA, BglH, BglC (originally called YckE) and BglD (originally called YdhP). These enzymes were also detected in spores germinating and outgrowing with beta-MUG, but levels of BglH were the highest, as this enzyme's synthesis was induced ca 100-fold

  18. Using the {Beta}-binomial distribution to characterize forest health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarnoch, S. J. [USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Athens, GA (United States); Anderson, R.L.; Sheffield, R. M. [USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Asheville, NC (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Forest health monitoring programs often use base variables which are dichotomous (i e. alive/dead, damaged/undamaged) to describe the health of trees. Typical sampling designs usually consist of randomly or systematically chosen clusters of trees for observation.It was claimed that contagiousness of diseases for example may result in non-uniformity of affected trees, so that distribution of the proportions, rather than simply the mean proportion, becomes important. The use of the {Beta}-binomial model was suggested for such cases. Use of the {Beta}-binomial distribution model applied in forest health analyses, was described.. Data on dogwood anthracnose (caused by Discula destructiva), a disease of flowering dogwood (Cornus florida L.), was used to illustrate the utility of the model. The {Beta}-binomial model allowed the detection of different distributional patterns of dogwood anthracnose over time and space. Results led to further speculation regarding the cause of the patterns. Traditional proportion analyses like ANOVA would not have detected the trends found using the {Beta}-binomial model, until more distinct patterns had evolved at a later date. The model was said to be flexible and require no special weighting or transformations of data.Another advantage claimed was its ability to handle unequal sample sizes.

  19. Electret dosemeter for beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, L.L.; Caldas, L.V.E.; Mascarenhas, S.

    The response characteristics of an electret dosemeter for beta radiation are studied. Experiments were performed using different geometries and walls, and it was verified for which geometry the dosemeter sensitivity is greater. Sources of 90 Sr - 90 Y, 204 Tl and 85 Kr were used in the experiments. (I.C.R.) [pt

  20. Personnel monitoring for beta rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piesch, E.; Johns, T.F.

    1983-01-01

    The practical considerations which have to be taken into account in the design of personnel monitors intended to measure doses resulting from exposure to beta rays are discussed. These include the measurement of doses in situations involving either fairly uniform or non-uniform irradiation and of doses to the male gonads. (UK)

  1. Constraining neutrinoless double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorame, L.; Meloni, D.; Morisi, S.; Peinado, E.; Valle, J.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    A class of discrete flavor-symmetry-based models predicts constrained neutrino mass matrix schemes that lead to specific neutrino mass sum-rules (MSR). We show how these theories may constrain the absolute scale of neutrino mass, leading in most of the cases to a lower bound on the neutrinoless double beta decay effective amplitude.

  2. Beta Cell Workshop 2013 Kyoto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, R Scott; Madsen, Ole D; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2013-01-01

    The very modern Kyoto International Conference Center provided the site for the 8th workshop on Beta cells on April 23-26, 2013. The preceding workshops were held in Boston, USA (1991); Kyoto, Japan (1994); Helsingør, Denmark (1997); Helsinki, Finland (2003); El Perello, Spain (2006); Peebles...

  3. Clinical Significance of Retinoic Acid Receptor Beta Promoter Methylation in Prostate Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, MengMeng; Zhou, XueLiang; Fan, ZhiRui; Ding, XianFei; Li, LiFeng; Wang, ShuLing; Xue, Wenhua; Wang, Hui; Suo, Zhenhe; Deng, XiaoMing

    2018-01-01

    Retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR beta) is a retinoic acid receptor gene that has been shown to play key roles during multiple cancer processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion. Numerous studies have found that methylation of the RAR beta promoter contributed to the occurrence and development of malignant tumors. However, the connection between RAR beta promoter methylation and prostate cancer (PCa) remains unknown. This meta-analysis evaluated the clinical significance of RAR beta promoter methylation in PCa. We searched all published records relevant to RAR beta and PCa in a series of databases, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Science and CNKI. The rates of RAR beta promoter methylation in the PCa and control groups (including benign prostatic hyperplasia and normal prostate tissues) were summarized. In addition, we evaluated the source region of available samples and the methods used to detect methylation. To compare the incidence and variation in RAR beta promoter methylation in PCa and non-PCa tissues, the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated accordingly. All the data were analyzed with the statistical software STATA 12.0. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 15 articles assessing 1,339 samples were further analyzed. These data showed that the RAR beta promoter methylation rates in PCa tissues were significantly higher than the rates in the non-PCa group (OR=21.65, 95% CI: 9.27-50.57). Subgroup analysis according to the source region of samples showed that heterogeneity in Asia was small (I2=0.0%, P=0.430). Additional subgroup analysis based on the method used to detect RAR beta promoter methylation showed that the heterogeneity detected by MSP (methylation-specific PCR) was relatively small (I2=11.3%, P=0.343). Although studies reported different rates for RAR beta promoter methylation in PCa tissues, the total analysis demonstrated that RAR beta promoter methylation

  4. Clinical Significance of Retinoic Acid Receptor Beta Promoter Methylation in Prostate Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MengMeng Dou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR beta is a retinoic acid receptor gene that has been shown to play key roles during multiple cancer processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion. Numerous studies have found that methylation of the RAR beta promoter contributed to the occurrence and development of malignant tumors. However, the connection between RAR beta promoter methylation and prostate cancer (PCa remains unknown. This meta-analysis evaluated the clinical significance of RAR beta promoter methylation in PCa. Materials and Methods: We searched all published records relevant to RAR beta and PCa in a series of databases, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Science and CNKI. The rates of RAR beta promoter methylation in the PCa and control groups (including benign prostatic hyperplasia and normal prostate tissues were summarized. In addition, we evaluated the source region of available samples and the methods used to detect methylation. To compare the incidence and variation in RAR beta promoter methylation in PCa and non-PCa tissues, the odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated accordingly. All the data were analyzed with the statistical software STATA 12.0. Results: Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 15 articles assessing 1,339 samples were further analyzed. These data showed that the RAR beta promoter methylation rates in PCa tissues were significantly higher than the rates in the non-PCa group (OR=21.65, 95% CI: 9.27-50.57. Subgroup analysis according to the source region of samples showed that heterogeneity in Asia was small (I2=0.0%, P=0.430. Additional subgroup analysis based on the method used to detect RAR beta promoter methylation showed that the heterogeneity detected by MSP (methylation-specific PCR was relatively small (I2=11.3%, P=0.343. Conclusion: Although studies reported different rates for RAR beta promoter methylation in PCa

  5. Beta calibration and dosimetry at IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, L.V.E.

    1983-01-01

    A commercial extrapolation chamber (PTW, Germany) was tested in different beta radiation fields and its properties investigated. Its usefullness for beta radiation calibration and dosimetry was demonstrated. (Author) [pt

  6. Characterization of a Full-Length Endogenous Beta-Retrovirus, EqERV-Beta1, in the Genome of the Horse (Equus caballus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette C. van der Kuyl

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Information on endogenous retroviruses fixed in the horse (Equus caballus genome is scarce. The recent availability of a draft sequence of the horse genome enables the detection of such integrated viruses by similarity search. Using translated nucleotide fragments from gamma-, beta-, and delta-retroviral genera for initial searches, a full-length beta-retrovirus genome was retrieved from a horse chromosome 5 contig. The provirus, tentatively named EqERV-beta1 (for the first equine endogenous beta-retrovirus, was 10434 nucleotide (nt in length with the usual retroviral genome structure of 5’LTR-gag-pro-pol-env-3’LTR. The LTRs were 1361 nt long, and differed approximately 1% from each other, suggestive of a relatively recent integration. Coding sequences for gag, pro and pol were present in three different reading-frames, as common for beta-retroviruses, and the reading frames were completely open, except that the env gene was interrupted by a single stopcodon. No reading frame was apparent downstream of the env gene, suggesting that EqERV-beta1 does not encode a superantigen like mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV. A second proviral genome of EqERV-beta1, with no stopcodon in env, is additionally integrated on chromosome 5 downstream of the first virus. Single EqERV-beta1 LTRs were abundantly present on all chromosomes except chromosome 24. Phylogenetically, EqERV-beta1 most closely resembles an unclassified retroviral sequence from cattle (Bos taurus, and the murine beta-retrovirus MMTV.

  7. Validation of the BetaStar® Advanced for Beta-lactams Test Kit for the Screening of Bulk Tank and Tanker Truck Milks for the Presence of Beta-lactam Drug Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denhartigh, Andrew; Reynolds, Lindsay; Palmer, Katherine; Klein, Frank; Rice, Jennifer; Rejman, John J

    2018-05-18

    A validation study was conducted for an immunochromatographic method (BetaStar ® Advanced for Beta-lactams) for the detection of beta-lactam residues in raw, commingled bovine milk. The assay detected amoxicillin, ampicillin, cloxacillin, penicillin, cephapirin, and ceftiofur below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration tolerance levels but above the maximum sensitivity thresholds established by the National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments. The results of internal and independent laboratory dose-response studies employing spiked samples were in agreement. The test detected all six drugs at the approximate 90/95% sensitivity levels in milk from cows treated with each drug. Selectivity of the assay was 100%, as no false-positive results were obtained in testing 1148 control milk samples. Testing the estimated 90/95% sensitivity level for amoxicillin (8.5 ppb), ampicillin (6.9 ppb), cloxacillin (8.9 ppb), penicillin (4.2 ppb), and cephapirin (17.6 ppb), and at 100 ppb for each antibiotic, resulted in 94-100% positive tests for each of the beta-lactam drugs. The results of ruggedness experiments established the operating parameter tolerances for the assay. Cross-reactivity testing established that the assay detects other certain beta-lactam drugs, but it does not cross-react with any of 30 drugs belonging to seven different drug classes. Abnormally high bacterial or somatic cell counts in raw milk produced no assay interference.

  8. Alpha–beta monitoring system based on pair of simultaneous Multi-Wire Proportional Counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wengrowicz, U.; Amidan, D. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); NRC-Negev, P.O. Box 9001, Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel); Orion, I. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2016-08-11

    A new approach for a simultaneous alpha–beta Multi-wire Proportional Counter (MWPC) is presented. The popular approach for alpha–beta monitoring systems consists of a large area MWPC using noble gas flow such as Argon Methane. This method of measurement is effective but requires large-scale and expensive maintenance due to the needs of gas flow control and periodic replacements. In this work, a pair of simultaneous MWPCs for alpha–beta measuring is presented. The developed detector consists of a sealed gas MWPC sensor for beta particles, behind a free air alpha sensor. This approach allows effective simultaneous detection and discrimination of both alpha and beta radiation without the maintenance cost noble gas flow required for unsealed detectors.

  9. On Fuzzy {beta}-I-open sets and Fuzzy {beta}-I-continuous functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, Aynur [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Arts, Selcuk University, Campus, 42075 Konya (Turkey)], E-mail: akeskin@selcuk.edu.tr

    2009-11-15

    In this paper, first of all we obtain some properties and characterizations of fuzzy {beta}-I-open sets. After that, we also define the notion of {beta}-I-closed sets and obtain some properties. Lastly, we introduce the notions of fuzzy {beta}-I-continuity with the help of fuzzy {beta}-I-open sets to obtain decomposition of fuzzy continuity.

  10. Beta-Catenin Stability in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baswaran, Vijay

    1999-01-01

    .... beta-catenin also binds the adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC). The tumor suppressor function of APC is suggested to depend in part on its ability to bind beta-catenin and to facilitate beta-catenin degradation by an unknown mechanism...

  11. Beta-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierikx, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to cephalosprins due to the production of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) or plasmid mediated AmpC beta-lactamases is increasingly found in infections in humans outside the hospital. The genes encoding for these beta-lactamases are located on mobile DNA (plasmids), which can be

  12. NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase in Penicillium chrysogenum is involved in regulation of beta-lactam production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thykær, Jette; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Noorman, H.

    2008-01-01

    was detected in either of the Delta gdhA strains. Supplementation with glutamate restored growth but no beta-lactam production was detected for the constructed strains. Cultures with high ammonium concentrations (repressing conditions) and with proline as nitrogen source (de-repressed conditions) showed......The interactions between the ammonium assimilatory pathways and beta-lactam production were investigated by disruption of the NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase gene (gdhA) in two industrial beta-lactam-producing strains of Penicillium chrysogenum. The strains used were an adipoyl-7-ADCA...... continued beta-lactam production for the reference strains whereas the Delta gdhA strains remained non-productive under all conditions. By overexpressing the NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase, the specific growth rate could be restored, but still no beta-lactam production was detected. The results...

  13. Strategic Design of an Effective beta-Lactamase Inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattanaik, P.; Bethel, C; Hujer, A; Hujer, K; Distler, A; Taracila, M; Anderson, V; Fritsche, T; Jones, R; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to devise strategies for overcoming bacterial beta-lactamases, we studied LN-1-255, a 6-alkylidene-2'-substituted penicillin sulfone inhibitor. By possessing a catecholic functionality that resembles a natural bacterial siderophore, LN-1-255 is unique among beta-lactamase inhibitors. LN-1-255 combined with piperacillin was more potent against Escherichia coli DH10B strains bearing bla(SHV) extended-spectrum and inhibitor-resistant beta-lactamases than an equivalent amount of tazobactam and piperacillin. In addition, LN-1-255 significantly enhanced the activity of ceftazidime and cefpirome against extended-spectrum cephalosporin and Sme-1 containing carbapenem-resistant clinical strains. LN-1-255 inhibited SHV-1 and SHV-2 beta-lactamases with nm affinity (K(I) = 110 +/- 10 and 100 +/- 10 nm, respectively). When LN-1-255 inactivated SHV beta-lactamases, a single intermediate was detected by mass spectrometry. The crystal structure of LN-1-255 in complex with SHV-1 was determined at 1.55A resolution. Interestingly, this novel inhibitor forms a bicyclic aromatic intermediate with its carbonyl oxygen pointing out of the oxyanion hole and forming hydrogen bonds with Lys-234 and Ser-130 in the active site. Electron density for the 'tail' of LN-1-255 is less ordered and modeled in two conformations. Both conformations have the LN-1-255 carboxyl group interacting with Arg-244, yet the remaining tails of the two conformations diverge. The observed presence of the bicyclic aromatic intermediate with its carbonyl oxygen positioned outside of the oxyanion hole provides a rationale for the stability of this inhibitory intermediate. The 2'-substituted penicillin sulfone, LN-1-255, is proving to be an important lead compound for novel beta-lactamase inhibitor design.

  14. SOFT CORONAL X-RAYS FROM {beta} PICTORIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, H. M.; Wolk, S. J.; Drake, J. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lisse, C. M. [Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Robrade, J.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M., E-mail: hguenther@cfa.harvard.edu [Hamburger Sternwarte, Universitaet Hamburg, Gojenbergsweg 112, 21029 Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-05-01

    A-type stars are expected to be X-ray dark, yet weak emission has been detected from several objects in this class. We present new Chandra/HRC-I observations of the A5 V star {beta} Pictoris. It is clearly detected with a flux of (9 {+-} 2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} counts s{sup -1}. In comparison with previous data this constrains the emission mechanism and we find that the most likely explanation is an optically thin, collisionally dominated, thermal emission component with a temperature around 1.1 MK. We interpret this component as a very cool and dim corona, with log L{sub X} /L{sub bol} = -8.2 (0.2-2.0 keV). Thus, it seems that {beta} Pictoris shares more characteristics with cool stars than previously thought.

  15. Development and applications of beta and near beta titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemura, A.; Ohyama, H.; Nishimura, T.; Abumiya, T.

    1993-01-01

    In this report the authors introduced application of beta and near beta titanium alloys also development and processing of these alloys at Kobe Steel LTD. Ti-15Mo-5Zr-3Al is an alloy developed by Kobe Steel which has been applied for variety of sporting goods, also used as an erosion shield of steam turbine blades. Ti-15Mo-5Zr-3Al high strength wire for valve springs is under development. New beta alloys(Ti-V-Nb-Sn-Al) are under development which have lower flow stress at room temperature than Ti 15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al, expected to improve productivity of cold forging. NNS forging and thermo mechanical treatment of Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al were studied. Ti-10V-2Fe3Al steam turbine blades and structural parts for aircraft were developed. Fine grain cold strips of Ti 15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al are produced by annealing and pickling process. These cold strips are used for parts of a fishing rod

  16. Detection of CTX-M-15 beta-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae causing hospital- and community-acquired urinary tract infections as early as 2004, in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyahi, Joel; Moyo, Sabrina J; Tellevik, Marit Gjerde; Ndugulile, Faustine; Urassa, Willy; Blomberg, Bjørn; Langeland, Nina

    2017-04-17

    The spread of Extended Spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) among Enterobacteriaceae and other Gram-Negative pathogens in the community and hospitals represents a major challenge to combat infections. We conducted a study to assess the prevalence and genetic makeup of ESBL-type resistance in bacterial isolates causing community- and hospital-acquired urinary tract infections. A total of 172 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae were collected in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, from patients who met criteria of community and hospital-acquired urinary tract infections. We used E-test ESBL strips to test for ESBL-phenotype and PCR and sequencing for detection of ESBL genes. Overall 23.8% (41/172) of all isolates were ESBL-producers. ESBL-producers were more frequently isolated from hospital-acquired infections (32%, 27/84 than from community-acquired infections (16%, 14/88, p Enterobacteriaceae causing both hospital- and community-acquired infections in Tanzania.

  17. Beta aerosols beacon, a truly portable continuous air monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, R.P.; Garber, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Beta Aerosols Beacon (BAB) is a portable (57 lbs) continuous air monitor designed to detect airborne radiation. Utilizing solid state detectors has eliminated the use of lead shielding usually necessary for achieving accurate readings in high background areas, making the monitor lightweight as well as portable. The size of a small suitcase, it can be carried into confined work areas, eliminating the requirement for workers to wear respirators for many maintenance tasks. This paper describes the operation and applications of the BAB

  18. The change of transforming growth factor {beta} 1 (TGF- {beta} 1) expression by melatonin in irradiated lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Seong Soon; Choi, Ihl Bohng [College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-09-15

    The changed expressions of TGF- {beta} 1, as a key cytokine in the fibrotic process, due to melatonin with potent antioxidative effects, were investigated in the irradiated lung using fibrosis-sensitive C57BL/6 mice. Female C57BL/6 mice were divided into control irradiation-only, and melatonin (300 mg/kg i.p. 1 hr before irradiation) pretreatment groups. The thoraces of the mice were irradiated with a single dose of 12 Gy. The mRNA expressions of TGF-{beta} 1 in the lung tissue 2 and 4 weeks after irradiation were quantified using semiquantitive RT-PCR, and the cellular origin and expression levels of TGF- {beta} 1 protein were identified using immunohistochemical staining. The relative mRNA expression levels in the irradiation-only and melatonin pretreatment group 2 and 4 weeks after irradiation were 1.92- and 1.80-fold ({rho} = 0.064) and 2.38- and 1.94-fold ({rho} = 0.004) increased, respectively compared to those in the control group. Increased expressions of TGF- {beta} 1 protein were prominently detected in regions of histopathological radiation injury, with alveolar macrophages and septal epithelial cells serving as important sources of TGF- {beta} 1 expression. At 2 and 4 weeks after irradiation, the expression levels of protein were 15.8% vs. 16.9% ({rho} = 0.565) and 36.1% vs. 25.7% ({rho} = 0.009), respectively. The mRNA and protein expressions of TGF- {beta} 1 in the lung tissue following thoracic irradiation with 12 Gy were significantly decreased by melatonin pretreatment at 4 weeks. These results indicate that melatonin may have a possible application as an antifibrotic agent in radiation-induced lung injury.

  19. Energy response of detectors to alpha/beta particles and compatibility of the equivalent factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Bingxing; Li Guangxian; Lin Lixiong

    2011-01-01

    By measuring detect efficiency and equivalent factors of alpha/beta radiation with different energies on three types of detectors, this paper compares compatibility of their equivalent factors and discusses applicability of detectors to measuring total alpha/beta radiation. The result shows the relationship between efficiency of alpha/beta radiation and their energies on 3 types of detectors, such as scintillation and proportional and semiconductor counters, are overall identical. Alpha count efficiency display exponential relation with alpha-particle energy. While beta count efficiency display logarithm relation with beta-particle energy, but the curves appears deflection at low energy. Comparison test of energy response also shows that alpha and beta equivalent factors of scintillation and proportional counters have a good compatibility, and alpha equivalent factors of the semiconductor counters are in good agreement with those of the above two types of counters, but beta equivalent factors have obvious difference, or equivalent factors of low energy beta-particle are lower than those of other detectors. So, the semiconductor counter can not be used for measuring total radioactivity or for the measurements for the purpose of food safety. (authors)

  20. Beta genus papillomaviruses and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Peter M; Pfister, Herbert J

    2015-05-01

    A role for the beta genus HPVs in keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) remains to be established. In this article we examine the potential role of the beta HPVs in cancer revealed by the epidemiology associating these viruses with KC and supported by oncogenic properties of the beta HPV proteins. Unlike the cancer associated alpha genus HPVs, in which transcriptionally active viral genomes are invariably found associated with the cancers, that is not the case for the beta genus HPVs and keratinocyte carcinomas. Thus a role for the beta HPVs in KC would necessarily be in the carcinogenesis initiation and not in the maintenance of the tumor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Antibodies against chromosomal beta-lactamase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giwercman, B; Rasmussen, J W; Ciofu, Oana

    1994-01-01

    A murine monoclonal anti-chromosomal beta-lactamase antibody was developed and an immunoblotting technique was used to study the presence of serum and sputum antibodies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa chromosomal group 1 beta-lactamase in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The serum antibody...... 1 cephalosporinase. We found a wide range of chromosomal beta-lactamase activity in the sputum samples, with no correlation with basal or induced activity of beta-lactamase expression. The presence of anti-beta-lactamase antibodies in endobronchial sputum could be an important factor in the defense...

  2. High-level transfer and long-term expression of the human beta-globin gene in a mouse transplant model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftopoulos, H; Ward, M; Bank, A

    1998-06-30

    Insertion of a normally functioning human beta-globin gene into the hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) of patients with beta-thalassemia may be an effective approach to the therapy of this disorder. Safe, efficient gene transfer and long-term, high-level expression of the transferred human beta-globin gene in animal models are prerequisites for HSC somatic gene therapy. We have recently shown for the first time that, using a modified beta-globin retroviral vector in a mouse transplant model, long-term, high-level expression of a transferred human beta-globin gene is possible. The human beta-globin gene continues to be detected up to eight months post-transplantation of beta-globin-transduced hematopoietic cells into lethally irradiated mice. The transferred human beta-globin gene is detected in three of five mice surviving long-term (> 4 months) transplanted with bone marrow cells transduced with high-titer virus. The unrearranged 5.1 kb human beta-globin gene-containing provirus is seen by Southern blotting in two of these mice. More importantly, long-term expression of the transferred gene is seen in two mice at levels of 5% and 20% that of endogenous murine beta-globin. We document stem cell transduction by showing continued high-level expression of the human beta-globin gene in secondarily transplanted recipient mice. These results provide evidence of HSC transduction with a human beta-globin gene in animals and demonstrate that retroviral-mediated unrearranged human beta-globin gene transfer leads to a high level of human beta-globin gene expression in the long term for the first time. A gene therapy strategy may be a feasible therapeutic approach to the beta-thalassemias if consistent human beta-globin gene transfer and expression into HSC can be achieved.

  3. Evidence for the association of the S100beta gene with low cognitive performance and dementia in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, J-C; Ferreira, S; Gussekloo, J

    2007-01-01

    independent populations. Moreover, we detected a significant association of this SNP with increased risk of developing dementia or Alzheimer's disease (AD) in six independent populations, especially in women and in the oldest. Furthermore, we characterised a new primate-specific exon within intron 2 (the...... corresponding mRNA isoform was called S100beta2). S100beta2 expression was increased in AD brain compared with controls, and the rs2300403 SNP was associated with elevated levels of S100beta2 mRNA in AD brains, especially in women. Therefore, this genetic variant in S100beta increases the risk of low cognitive...

  4. Prevalence of beta-lactamases among ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolated from food animals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Inger; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2004-01-01

    The genetic background for beta-lactamase-mediated resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics was examined by PCR and sequencing in 160 ampicillin-resistant isolates (109 Escherichia coli and 51 Salmonella) obtained from healthy and diseased food animals in Denmark. Sequencing revealed three different...... leading to increased production of the AmpC beta-lactamase were demonstrated in 11 cefoxitin-resistant or intermediate E. coli isolates. Nine of these isolates did not contain any bla(TEM) genes, whereas the remaining two did. No genes encoding SHV or extended-spectrum beta-lactamases were detected. Two...

  5. Hb taradale [beta82(EF6)Lys-->Arg]: a novel mutation at a 2,3-diphosphoglycerate binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Stephen O; Sheen, Campbell; Chan, Tim; George, Peter M

    2005-01-01

    Hb Taradale [beta82(EF6)Lys-->Arg] was initially detected as a split Hb A0 peak on Hb A1c, monitoring. Red cell parameters, hemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis and stability tests were normal. Mass spectrometry (ms) clearly identified a variant beta chain with a mass increase of 28 Da and peptide mapping located the mutation site to peptide betaT-9. DNA sequencing confirmed the presence of a novel beta82(EF6)Lys-->Arg mutation. This conservative substitution at a 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) binding site did not, however, appear to affect the P50 for oxygen binding.

  6. Anti-beta2 glycoprotein 1 and the anti-phospholipid syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keane, Pearse A

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: To describe a patient who presented with bilateral retinal vascular occlusion and the use of anti-beta2 glycoprotein 1 (GPI) antibody testing in the diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome. DESIGN: Observational case report. METHODS: Hematological investigations were performed on a 49-year-old man who presented with rapid onset of bilateral severe central retinal vein occlusion. RESULTS: Lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibody testing was negative. Markedly raised titers of anti-beta2 GPI antibodies were detected on two separate occasions. CONCLUSIONS: The raised titers of anti-beta2 GPI antibodies were considered to strongly suggest an underlying diagnosis of the antiphospholipid syndrome.

  7. DMPD: Immunoreceptor-like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17913496 Immunoreceptor-like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. Jakus Z, Fod...) Show Immunoreceptor-like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. PubmedID 17913496 Title Immunoreceptor-...like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. Authors Jakus Z, Fodor S, Abram CL

  8. Production and localization of cellulases and. beta. -glucosidase from the thermophilic fungus Thielavia terrestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuil, C; Wojtczak, G; Saddler, J N

    1986-01-01

    The enzyme production and localization of Thielavia terrestris strains C464 and NRRL 8126 were compared to determine their optimum temperature and pH for cellulase activity. High levels of intracellular ..beta..-glucosidase activity were detected in the former strain. The intracellular ..beta..-glucosidase of both strains were more thermostable than the extra-cellular enzyme; the half life of T. terrestris (C464) endoglucanase activity at 60 degrees C was greater than 96 hours. 12 references.

  9. Method and apparatus for selective capture of gas phase analytes using metal .beta.-diketonate polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Scott D [Kennewick, WA

    2011-06-21

    A process and sensor device are disclosed that employ metal .beta.-diketonate polymers to selectively capture gas-phase explosives and weaponized chemical agents in a sampling area or volume. The metal .beta.-diketonate polymers can be applied to surfaces in various analytical formats for detection of: improvised explosive devices, unexploded ordinance, munitions hidden in cargo holds, explosives, and chemical weapons in public areas.

  10. Anaerobic degradation of veratrylglycerol-beta-guaiacyl ether and guaiacoxyacetic acid by mixed rumen bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, W; Supanwong, K; Ohmiya, K; Shimizu, S; Kawakami, H

    1985-01-01

    Veratrylglycerol-beta-guaiacyl ether (0.2 g/liter), a lignin model compound, was found to be degraded by mixed rumen bacteria in a yeast extract medium under strictly anaerobic conditions to the extent of 19% within 24 h. Guaiacoxyacetic acid, 2-(o-methoxyphenoxy)ethanol, vanillic acid, and vanillin were detected as degradation products of veratrylglycerol-beta-guaiacyl ether by thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Guaiacoxyacetic acid (0.25...

  11. Advanced Beta Dosimetry Techniques.Final Scientific/Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David M. Hamby, PhD

    2006-01-01

    Final report describing NEER research on Advanced Beta Dosimetry Techniques. The research funded by this NEER grant establishes the framework for a detailed understanding of the challenges in beta dosimetry, especially in the presence of a mixed radiation field. The work also stimulated the thinking of the research group which will lead to new concepts in digital signal processing to allow collection of detection signals and real-time analysis such that simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy can take place. The work described herein (with detail in the many publications that came out of this research) was conducted in a manner that provided dissertation and thesis topics for three students, one of which was completely funded by this grant. The overall benefit of the work came in the form of a dramatic shift in signal processing that is normally conducted in pulse shape analysis. Analog signal processing was shown not to be feasible for this type of work and that digital signal processing was a must. This, in turn, led the research team to a new understanding of pulse analysis, one in which expands the state-of-the-art in simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy with a single detector

  12. New technique to determine beta half-lives in complex background conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtukian-Nieto, T.; Benlliure, J.; Casarejos, E.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Fernandez-Ordonez, M.; Pereira, J.; Schmidt, K.H.; Becker, F.; Henzlova, D.; Yordanov, O.; Audouin, L.; Blank, B.; Giovinazzo, J.; Jurado, B.; Rejmund, F.

    2008-01-01

    Very neutron-rich nuclei near the A = 195 r-process waiting point were produced as projectile fragments from a 208 Pb primary beam at GSI, Darmstadt, by cold fragmentation. After in-flight separation, the fragments were implanted in an active catcher, and time correlations to the subsequent beta-decay were established. Due to the periodic operation cycles of the synchrotron, providing the primary beam, the background shows a complex time structure, which prevents applying well established analytical methods to extract the half-life information. A new mathematical analysis method has been developed, which is based on a Monte Carlo code, simulating the time sequence of implantation and beta detection according to the experimental conditions, leaving the beta lifetimes and the beta detection efficiency as free parameters. In addition, both the analysis of the experimental data and the simulation were performed in time-reversed sequence. The ratio of forward/backward time spectra contains the information of the 'true' fragment-beta correlations. Half-lives were obtained from two-dimensional fits of the measured and simulated ratios of time correlations in forward- and backward-time direction by the least-squares method, being the lifetime and the beta-detection efficiency the two fitting parameters. Half-lives of 8 heavy neutron-rich nuclei approaching the r-process waiting point A = 195 have been determined. (authors)

  13. Detection of glycemic abnormalities in adolescents with beta thalassemia using continuous glucose monitoring and oral glucose tolerance in adolescents and young adults with β-thalassemia major: Pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf T Soliman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Both insulin deficiency and resistance are reported in patients with β-thalassemia major (BTM. The use of continuous blood glucose monitoring (CGM, among the different methods for early detection of glycemic abnormalities, has not been studied thoroughly in these adolescents. Materials and Methods: To assess the oralglucose tolerance (OGT and 72-h continuous glucose concentration by the continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS and calculate homeostatic model assessment (HOMA, and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI was conducted in 16 adolescents with BTM who were receiving regular blood transfusions every 2-4 weeks and iron-chelation therapy since early childhood. Results: Sixteen adolescents with BTM (age: 19.75 ± 3 years were investigated. Using OGTT, (25% had impaired fasting blood (plasma glucose concentration (BG (>5.6 mmol/L. 2-h after the glucose load, one of them had BG = 16.2 mmol/L (diabetic and two had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT (BG > 7.8 and 11.1 mmol/L and 9 with IGT (56%. HOMA and QUICKI revealed levels 0.33 (0.36 ± 0.03, respectively, ruling out significant insulin resistance in these adolescents. There was a significant negative correlation between the β-cell function (B% on one hand and the fasting and the 2-h BG (r=−0.6, and − 0.48, P < 0.01, respectively on the other hand. Neither fasting serum insulin nor c-peptide concentrations were correlated with fasting BG or ferritin levels. The average and maximum blood glucose levels during CGM were significantly correlated with the fasting BG (r = 0.68 and 0.39, respectively, with P < 0.01 and with the BG at 2-hour after oral glucose intake (r = 0.87 and 0.86 respectively, with P < 0.001. Ferritin concentrations were correlated with the fasting BG and the 2-h blood glucose levels in the OGTT (r = 0.52, and r = 0.43, respectively, P < 0.01 as well as with the average BG recorded by CGM (r = 0.75, P < 0.01. Conclusion: CGM has proven to

  14. Analysis of low energy beta-emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, D.L.

    1979-10-01

    A survey was made of the instruments used for the determination of low energy beta radioactivity. Techniques commonly used are gas flow proportional counting, liquid scintillation counting, solid scintillation counting, and internal ionization chamber counting, solid state detector counting, and radiochemical separation followed by counting using one of the preceeding techniques. The first four techniques were examined and compared with each other. The sensitivities of the techniques were compared on the basis of the detection limits quoted for instruments described in the technical and reviewed literature. The detection limits were then related to the occupational and public individual maximum levels for air and water. Attention is focused primarily on the continuous monitoring of air for 3 H and 85 Kr, a medium energy β-emitter. It is clear that several continuous air monitoring instruments are readily available for measuring low energy β concentrations, even in presence of certain other activity, at occupational levels. However, these instruments do not typically have sensitivities comparable to the public individual levels. Moreover, their capabilities for giving results in real time and for differentiating among the radionuclides actually present is limited

  15. Improvement of macrophage dysfunction by administration of anti-transforming growth factor-beta antibody in EL4-bearing hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, H; Tsuru, S; Shiraishi, A

    1994-11-01

    An experimental therapy for improvement of macrophage dysfunction caused by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) was tried in EL4 tumor-bearing mice. TGF-beta was detected in cell-free ascitic fluid from EL4-bearers, but not in that from normal mice, by western blot analysis. The ascites also showed growth-suppressive activity against Mv1Lu cells, and the suppressive activity was potentiated by transient acidification. To investigate whether the functions of peritoneal macrophages were suppressed in EL4-bearers, the abilities to produce nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation were measured. Both abilities of macrophages in EL4-bearing mice were suppressed remarkably on day 9, and decreased further by day 14, compared with non-tumor-bearing controls. TGF-beta activity was abrogated by administration of anti-TGF-beta antibody to EL4-bearing mice. While a large amount of TGF-beta was detected in ascitic fluid from control EL4-bearers, little TGF-beta was detectable in ascites from EL4-bearers given anti-TGF-beta antibody. Furthermore, while control macrophages exhibited little or no production of nitric oxide and TNF-alpha on LPS stimulation in vitro, macrophages from EL4-bearers administered with anti-TGF-beta antibody showed the same ability as normal macrophages. These results clearly indicate that TGF-beta contributes to macrophage dysfunction and that the administration of specific antibody for TGF-beta reverses macrophage dysfunction in EL4-bearing hosts.

  16. Resistance training & beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation on hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOIntroduction:In recent years, there was an increased interest on the effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB supplementation on skeletal muscle due to its anti-catabolic effects.Objectives:To investigate the effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, muscular strength and anabolic-catabolic hormones after resistance training.Methods:Twenty amateur male athletes were randomly assigned to supplement and control groups in a double-blind crossover design and participated in four weeks resistance training. Before and after the test period fasting blood samples were obtained to determine anabolic (the growth hormone and testosterone and catabolic (cortisol hormones, and fat mass, lean body mass (LBM and muscular strength were measured. Dependent and independent t-tests were used to analyze data.Results:After the training period, there were no significant differen-ces between the groups with respect to fat mass, LBM and anabolic-catabolic hormones. HMB supplementation resulted in a significantly greater strength gain (p≤0.05.Conclusion:Greater increase in strength for HMB group was not accompanied by body composition and basal circulating anabolic-catabolic hormonal changes. It seems that HMB supplementation may have beneficial effects on neurological adaptations of strength gain.

  17. Developments for the 6He beta - nu angular correlation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumwalt, David W.

    This thesis describes developments toward the measurement of the angular correlation between the beta and the antineutrino in the beta decay of 6He. This decay is a pure Gamow-Teller decay which is described in the Standard Model as a purely axial vector weak interaction. The angular correlation is characterized by the parameter abetanu = -1/3 in the Standard Model. Any deviation from this value would be evidence for tensor components in the weak interaction and would constitute new physics. A new method will be used to measure the parameter a betanu from 6He decays, featuring a magneto-optical trap that will measure the beta particle in coincidence with the recoiling 6Li daughter ion. This neutral atom trapping scheme provides cold, tightly confined atoms which will reduce systematic uncertainties related to the initial position of the decay. By knowing the initial position of the decay and measuring the time of flight of the recoiling 6Li daughter ion in coincidence with the beta, the angular correlation between the beta and the antineutrino can be deduced. We aim to measure a betanu first to the level of 1%, and eventually to the 0.1% level, which would represent an order of magnitude improvement in precision over past experiments. Towards this goal, we have designed, built, and successfully tested a liquid lithium target to provide >2×10. {10} 6He atoms/sto a low-background environment, which is the most intense source of 6He presently available. This allowed for an additional measurement of the 6He half-life (806.89 +/- 0.11stat +0.23-0.19syst ms) to be made with unprecedented precision, resolving discrepancies in past measurements. We have also tested our trapping and detection apparatus and have begun to record preliminary coincidence events.

  18. Abstraction Mechanisms in the BETA Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    1983-01-01

    . It is then necessary that the abstraction mechanisms are powerful in order to define more specialized constructs. BETA is an object oriented language like SIMULA 67 ([SIMULA]) and SMALLTALK ([SMALLTALK]). By this is meant that a construct like the SIMULA class/subclass mechanism is fundamental in BETA. In contrast......]) --- covering both data, procedural and control abstractions, substituting constructs like class, procedure, function and type. Correspondingly objects, procedure activation records and variables are all regarded as special cases of the basic building block of program executions: the entity. A pattern thus......The BETA programming language is developed as part of the BETA project. The purpose of this project is to develop concepts, constructs and tools in the field of programming and programming languages. BETA has been developed from 1975 on and the various stages of the language are documented in [BETA...

  19. High-beta linac structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriber, S.O.

    1979-01-01

    Accelerating structures for high-beta linacs that have been and are in use are reviewed in terms of their performance. Particular emphasis is given to room-temperature structures and the disk-and-washer structure. The disk-and-washer structure has many attractive features that are discussed for pulsed high-gradient linacs, for 100% duty-cycle medium-gradient linacs and for high-current linacs requiring maximal amounts of stored energy in the electric fields available to the beam

  20. Theoretical aspects of double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    Considerable effort has been expended recently in theoretical studies of double beta decay. Much of this work has focussed on the constraints this process places on gauge theories of the weak interaction, in general, and on the neutrino mass matrix, in particular. In addition, interesting nuclear structure questions have arisen in studies of double beta decay matrix elements. After briefly reviewing the theory of double beta decay, some of the progress that has been made in these areas is summarized. 25 references

  1. Origins of Beta Tantalum in Sputtered Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mulligan, C

    2001-01-01

    .... Some of the most recent work has attempted to relate the energetics (i.e., atom/ion energy) of the plasma to the alpha right arrow beta transition. It has been shown that the energetics of the plasma can relate to the most crucial sputtering parameters. The most significant feature of the use of plasma energy to explain the alpha right arrow beta transition is that it relates the formation of beta-tantalum to a quantifiable measure.

  2. High beta plasmas in the PBX tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol, K.; Buchenauer, D.; Chance, M.

    1986-04-01

    Bean-shaped configurations favorable for high β discharges have been investigated in the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) tokamak. Strongly indented bean-shaped plasmas have been successfully formed, and beta values of over 5% have been obtained with 5 MW of injected neutral beam power. These high beta discharges still lie in the first stability regime for ballooning modes, and MHD stability analysis implicates the external kink as responsible for the present β limit

  3. Photochemical fate of beta-blockers in NOM enriched waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ling; Xu, Haomin; Cooper, William J. [Urban Water Research Center, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2175 (United States); Song, Weihua, E-mail: wsong@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2012-06-01

    Beta-blockers, prescribed for the treatment of high blood pressure and for long-term use after a heart attack, have been detected in surface and ground waters. This study examines the photochemical fate of three beta-blockers, atenolol, metoprolol, and nadolol. Hydrolysis accounted for minor losses of these beta-blockers in the pH range 4-10. The rate of direct photolysis at pH 7 in a solar simulator varied from 6.1 to 8.9 h{sup -1} at pH 7. However, the addition of a natural organic matter (NOM) isolate enhanced the photochemical loss of all three compounds. Indirect photochemical fate, generally described by reactions with hydroxyl radical ({center_dot}OH) and singlet oxygen ({sup 1}{Delta}O{sub 2}), and, the direct reaction with the triplet excited state, {sup 3}NOM{sup Low-Asterisk }, also varied but collectively appeared to be the major loss factor. Bimolecular reaction rate constants of the three beta-blockers with {sup 1}{Delta}O{sub 2} and {center_dot}OH were measured and accounted for 0.02-0.04% and 7.2-38.9% of their loss, respectively. These data suggest that the {sup 3}NOM{sup Low-Asterisk} contributed 50.6-85.4%. Experiments with various {sup 3}NOM{sup Low-Asterisk} quenchers supported the hypothesis that it was singly the most important reaction. Atenolol was chosen for more detailed investigation, with the photoproducts identified by LC-MS analysis. The results suggested that electron-transfer could be an important mechanism in photochemical fate of beta-blockers in the presence of NOM. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photochemical degradation of beta-blockers in the simulated natural waters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reactive Oxygen Species play a minor role in the indirect photodegradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The loss of beta-blockers results from direct reaction with {sup 3}DOM{sup Low-Asterisk }.

  4. Low level GAMMA0 spectrometry by beta-gamma coincidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigorescu, E.L.; Luca, A.; Razdolescu, A.C.; Ivan, C.

    1999-01-01

    Low level gamma spectrometry has a wide application, especially in environmental monitoring. Two variants, based on a beta-gamma coincidence technique, were studied. The equipment was composed of a beta detector and a Ge(Li) gamma detector (6% - relative efficiency), with the associated electronics. The gamma rays are recorded by the multichannel analyzer (4096 channels) only if the associated beta particles, which precede the gamma transitions, are registered in coincidence. Two types of beta detectors were used: plastic and liquid scintillators. In both cases, an external lead shield of 5 cm thick was used. The integral gamma background (50-1700 KeV) was reduced about 85 and 50 times, respectively. The corresponding MDA (Minimum Detectable Activity) values decreased about 1.5 and (3-7) times, respectively. The 2π sr plastic beta detector was placed on top the Ge(Li). The sample was inserted between the two detectors. The measurement time was 10 4 s. A 4π sr detector, built of the same material, was also studied, but it proved to be less advantageous because the background was reduced only 16 times; for a MDA reduction similar with that of the 2π sr variant, a longer measurement was needed (3.10 4 s). The other type of beta detector used, was a liquid scintillator. The dissolving of the samples in scintillator ensures a 4π sr measurement geometry. The vials with scintillator (10 ml volume) were placed on top the Ge(Li) and visualised by the photocathode of a phototube. This setup was surrounded by an enclosure which prevent the light penetration. The measurement time was 10 4 s. The only difficulty encountered in this low level measurement method is the accurate determination of the beta efficiency. A limitation is the possibility to measure only small mass samples. These variants are more simple and cheaper than others, previously studied. The advantage of the method is obvious when, instead of low MDA values, shorter measurement times are preferred. The

  5. Sawtooth crashes at high beta on JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alper, B; Huysmans, G T.A.; Sips, A C.C. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Nave, M F.F. [Universidade Tecnica, Lisbon (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico

    1994-07-01

    The sawtooth crashes on JET display features which depend on beta. The main observation is a transient bulging of flux surfaces (duration inferior to 30 microsec.), which is predominantly on the low field side and extends to larger radii as beta increases. This phenomenon reaches the plasma boundary when beta{sub N} exceeds 0.5 and in these cases is followed by an ELM within 50 microsec. These sawtooth/ELM events limit plasma performance. Modelling of mode coupling shows qualitative agreement between observations of the structure of the sawtooth precursor and the calculated internal kink mode at high beta. (authors). 6 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen

    2015-08-31

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows' milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows' milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows' milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  7. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebely Pal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows’ milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows’ milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows’ milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  8. MOPITT Beta Level 1 Radiances V107

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOPITT Beta Level 1 data product consists of the geolocated, calibrated earth scene radiances, associated instrument engineering data summaries, and inflight...

  9. Human amyloid beta protein gene locus: HaeIII RFLP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J E; Gonzalez-DeWhitt, P A; Fuller, F; Cordell, B; Frossard, P M [California Biotechnology Inc., Mountain View (USA); Tinklenberg, J R; Davies, H D; Eng, L F; Yesavage, J A [Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA (USA)

    1988-07-25

    A 2.2 kb EcoRI-EcoRI fragment from the 5{prime} end of the human amyloid beta protein cDNA was isolated from a human fibroblast cDNA library and subcloned into pGEM3. HaeIII (GGCC) detects 6 invariant bands at 0.5 kb, 1.0 kb, 1.1 kb, 1.3 kb, 1.4 kb and 1.6 kb and a two-allele polymorphism with bands at either 1.9 kb or 2.1 kb. Its frequency was studied in 50 North Americans. Human amyloid beta protein gene mapped to the long arm of chromosome 21 (21q11.2-21q21) by Southern blot analysis of human-rodent somatic cell hybrids. Co-dominant segregation was observed in two families (15 individuals).

  10. Specific binding of beta-endorphin to normal human erythrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenet, B.; Hollis, V. Jr.; Kang, Y.; Simpkins, C.

    1986-03-05

    Beta-endorphin (BE) exhibits peripheral functions which may not be mediated by interactions with receptors in the brain. Recent studies have demonstrated binding of BE to both opioid and non-opioid receptors on lymphocytes and monocytes. Abood has reported specific binding of /sup 3/H-dihydromorphine in erythrocytes. Using 5 x 10/sup -11/M /sup 125/I-beta-endorphin and 10/sup -5/M unlabeled BE, they have detected 50% specific binding to human erythrocytes. This finding is supported by results from immunoelectron microscopy using rabbit anti-BE antibody and biotinylated secondary antibody with avidin-biotin complexes horseradish peroxidase. Binding is clearly observed and is confined to only one side of the cells. Conclusions: (1) BE binding to human erythrocytes was demonstrated by radioreceptor assay and immunoelectron microscopy, and (2) BE binding sites exist on only one side of the cells.

  11. A manual low background alpha beta counting system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levison, S; German, U; Peled, O; Turgeman, S; Vangrovitz, U; Tirosh, D; Piestum, S; Assido, H [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beersheba (Israel). Nuclear Research Center-Negev

    1996-12-01

    An Alpha and Beta counting system consisting of a micro controller-based electronic unit and detectors assembly was developed. The radiation detection unit consists of two proportional detectors (a main detector and a cosmic-ray guard detector) which can be easily disassembled for decontamination or repair. The detectors are mounted in a manual operating sample changer shielded by 5 cm of lead. Simplicity of maintenance and functional operation were taken into consideration in the design. The electronic unit supplies the high voltage and enables the operational functions including controls anti alarms. Calculations of net cpm of Alpha and Beta counting are displayed and can be printed. RS-232 communication option enables connection to a computer and operation of more sophisticated programs for calculations and data storage in the future (authors).

  12. A manual low background alpha beta counting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levison, S.; German, U.; Peled, O.; Turgeman, S.; Vangrovitz, U.; Tirosh, D.; Piestum, S.; Assido, H.

    1996-01-01

    An Alpha and Beta counting system consisting of a micro controller-based electronic unit and detectors assembly was developed. The radiation detection unit consists of two proportional detectors (a main detector and a cosmic-ray guard detector) which can be easily disassembled for decontamination or repair. The detectors are mounted in a manual operating sample changer shielded by 5 cm of lead. Simplicity of maintenance and functional operation were taken into consideration in the design. The electronic unit supplies the high voltage and enables the operational functions including controls anti alarms. Calculations of net cpm of Alpha and Beta counting are displayed and can be printed. RS-232 communication option enables connection to a computer and operation of more sophisticated programs for calculations and data storage in the future (authors)

  13. A GUI tool for beta function measurement using MATLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guangling; Tian Shunqiang; Liu Guimin; Jiang Bocheng

    2009-01-01

    The beta function measurement is used to detect the shift in the betatron tune as the strength of an individual quadrupole magnet is varied. A GUI (graphic user interface) tool for the beta function measurement is developed using the MATLAB program language in the Linux environment, which facilitates the commissioning of the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) storage ring. In this paper, we describe the design of the application and give some measuring results and discussions about the definition of the measurement. The program has been optimized to solve some restrictions of the AT tracking code. After the correction with LOCO (linear optics from closed orbits), the horizontal and the vertical root mean square values (rms values) can be reduced to 0.12 and 0.10. (authors)

  14. Coexistence of Southeast Asian ovalocytosis and beta-thalassemia: a molecular and hematological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Fucharoen, Supan; Singsanan, Sanita; Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan

    2007-05-01

    We describe hematological and molecular characterization of a Thai female who had Southeast Asian ovalocytosis (SAO) associated with beta+-thalassemia trait. The proband had mild microcytosis with Hb 12.9 g/dl, Hct 35.8%, MCV 74.4 fl, MCH 26.8 pg, MCHC 36.0 g/dl, and elevated Hb A2 (5.6%), characteristics of beta-thalassemia trait. Peripheral blood film examination revealed prominent ovalocytosis. However, a one-tube osmotic fragility (OF) test commonly used for thalassemia screening was negative and a normal OF curve was observed. Further polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses identified the beta(-28A-G) mutation in the beta-globin gene and a 27 bp deletion in erythrocyte band 3 protein gene, indicating a genetically compound heterozygote. Hematological data of the proband was comparatively presented with those of eight female and 15 male carriers of pure beta-thalassemia with the same mutation. The finding demonstrates that although the association of the SAO and beta-thalassemia does not produce a more severe clinical picture, this could lead to a mis-screening of beta-thalassemia using an OF test as a primary screening test. Additional blood film examination followed by PCR could help in the detection of this unusual genetic interaction in the region. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. E-cadherin and beta-catenin are down-regulated in prostatic bone metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryden, A A G; Hoyland, J A; Freemont, A J; Clarke, N W; Schembri Wismayer, D; George, N J R

    2002-03-01

    To determine the E-cadherin and beta-catenin expression phenotype in untreated primary prostate cancer and corresponding bone metastases. Paired bone metastasis and primary prostate specimens were obtained from 14 men with untreated metastatic prostate carcinoma. The tumours were histologically graded by an independent pathologist. Expression of mRNA for E-cadherin and beta-catenin was detected within the tumour cells using in-situ hybridization with a 35S-labelled cDNA probe. The expression of E-cadherin and beta-catenin were graded as uniform, heterogeneous or negative. The mRNA for E-cadherin was expressed in 13 of 14 primary carcinomas and 11 bone metastases; beta-catenin was expressed by 13 and nine, respectively. Of the primary tumours, nine expressed E-cadherin and beta-catenin uniformly; in contrast, all metastases had down-regulated E-cadherin and/or beta-catenin. The down-regulation of E-cadherin and beta-catenin are a feature of the metastatic phenotype, which may be a significant factor in the genesis of bone metastases. However, this does not appear to be reflected in the expression of these molecules in the primary tumours.

  16. Thermoreflectance characterization of beta-Ga2O3 thin-film nanostrips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ching-Hwa; Tseng, Chiao-Yeh; Tien, Li-Chia

    2010-08-02

    Nanostructure of beta-Ga(2)O(3) is wide-band-gap material with white-light-emission function because of its abundance in gap states. In this study, the gap states and near-band-edge transitions in beta-Ga(2)O(3) nanostrips have been characterized using temperature-dependent thermoreflectance (TR) measurements in the temperature range between 30 and 320 K. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements were carried to identify the gap-state transitions in the beta-Ga(2)O(3) nanostrips. Experimental analysis of the TR spectra revealed that the direct gap (E(0)) of beta-Ga(2)O(3) is 4.656 eV at 300 K. There are a lot of gap-state and near-band-edge (GSNBE) transitions denoted as E(D3), E(W1), E(W2), E(W3), E(D2), EDBex, E(DB), E(D1), E(0), and E(0)' can be detected in the TR and PL spectra at 30 K. Transition origins for the GSNBE features in the beta-Ga(2)O(3) nanostrips are respectively evaluated. Temperature dependences of transition energies of the GSNBE transitions in the beta-Ga(2)O(3) nanostrips are analyzed. The probable band scheme for the GSNBE transitions in the beta-Ga(2)O(3) nanostrips is constructed.

  17. Analysis of hydrophobic interactions of antagonists with the beta2-adrenergic receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoseletsky, V N; Pyrkov, T V; Efremov, R G

    2010-01-01

    The adrenergic receptors mediate a wide variety of physiological responses, including vasodilatation and vasoconstriction, heart rate modulation, and others. Beta-adrenergic antagonists ('beta-blockers') thus constitute a widely used class of drugs in cardiovascular medicine as well as in management of anxiety, migraine, and glaucoma. The importance of the hydrophobic effect has been evidenced for a wide range of beta-blocker properties. To better understand the role of the hydrophobic effect in recognition of beta-blockers by their receptor, we carried out a molecular docking study combined with an original approach to estimate receptor-ligand hydrophobic interactions. The proposed method is based on automatic detection of molecular fragments in ligands and the analysis of their interactions with receptors separately. A series of beta-blockers, based on phenylethanolamines and phenoxypropanolamines, were docked to the beta2-adrenoceptor binding site in the crystal structure. Hydrophobic complementarity between the ligand and the receptor was calculated using the PLATINUM web-server (http://model.nmr.ru/platinum). Based on the analysis of the hydrophobic match for molecular fragments of beta-blockers, we have developed a new scoring function which efficiently predicts dissociation constant (pKd) with strong correlations (r(2) approximately 0.8) with experimental data.

  18. Single fiber beta detector for stereotactic biopsy and intraoperative lumpectomy of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atac, M.; Nalcioglu, O.; Roeck, W.W.

    1996-10-01

    We have developed an intraoperative probe for use in early detection of breast cancer and aiding lumpectomy. The probe consists of a small plastic scintillator, 0.8mm dia and 3mm long, coupled to a single clear optical-fiber strand, and solid state photomultiplier. Due to the small size of the probe, it can be placed inside of a small gauge biopsy needle. The scintillator is very efficient in detecting betas and positrons while being very in efficient to energetic gammas due to small size and low density. High quantum efficiency, 80%, and high gain obtainable, solid state photomultiplier makes the probe very low noise device in detecting beta particles. Intrinsic resolution of the probe is expected to be around 1 mm. Preliminary results using beta sources and a rat bearing R320 adenocarcinoma tumor were very successful

  19. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garfagnini, A.

    2014-08-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is the only process known so far able to test the neutrino intrinsic nature: its experimental observation would imply that the lepton number is violated by two units and prove that neutrinos have a Majorana mass components, being their own anti-particle. While several experiments searching for such a rare decay have been per- formed in the past, a new generation of experiments using different isotopes and techniques have recently released their results or are taking data and will provide new limits, should no signal be observed, in the next few years to come. The present contribution reviews the latest public results on double beta decay searches and gives an overview on the expected sensitivities of the experiments in construction which will be able to set stronger limits in the near future. EXO and KamLAND-Zen experiments are based on the decay of Xe 136 , GERDA and MAJORANA experiments are based on the decay of Ge 76 , and the CUORE experiment is based on the decay of Te 130

  20. Challenges in Double Beta Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliviero Cremonesi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past ten years, neutrino oscillation experiments have provided the incontrovertible evidence that neutrinos mix and have finite masses. These results represent the strongest demonstration that the electroweak Standard Model is incomplete and that new Physics beyond it must exist. In this scenario, a unique role is played by the Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay searches which can probe lepton number conservation and investigate the Dirac/Majorana nature of the neutrinos and their absolute mass scale (hierarchy problem with unprecedented sensitivity. Today Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay faces a new era where large-scale experiments with a sensitivity approaching the so-called degenerate-hierarchy region are nearly ready to start and where the challenge for the next future is the construction of detectors characterized by a tonne-scale size and an incredibly low background. A number of new proposed projects took up this challenge. These are based either on large expansions of the present experiments or on new ideas to improve the technical performance and/or reduce the background contributions. In this paper, a review of the most relevant ongoing experiments is given. The most relevant parameters contributing to the experimental sensitivity are discussed and a critical comparison of the future projects is proposed.

  1. Natural polypeptide scaffolds: beta-sheets, beta-turns, and beta-hairpins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondi, Kenneth S; Gierasch, Lila M

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to fundamental conformational states of polypeptides in the beta-region of phi,psi space, in which the backbone is extended near to its maximal length, and to more complex architectures in which extended segments are linked by turns and loops. There are several variants on these conformations, and they comprise versatile scaffolds for presentation of side chains and backbone amides for molecular recognition and designed catalysts. In addition, the geometry of these fundamental folds can be readily mimicked in peptidomimetics. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Complement activation by the amyloid proteins A beta peptide and beta 2-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Nielsen, E H; Svehag, S E

    1999-01-01

    component nor heparan sulfate did significantly alter the A beta-induced CA. The results indicate that not only fibrillar A beta but also oligomers of, in particular, beta 2M from patients with dialysis-associated amyloidosis are capable of inducing CA at supra-physiological concentrations....

  3. Cloning and characterization of human liver cytosolic beta-glycosidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Graaf, M; Van Veen, IC; Van Der Meulen-Muileman, IH; Gerritsen, WR; Pinedo, HM; Haisma, HJ

    2001-01-01

    Cytosolic beta -glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21) from mammalian liver is a member of the family 1 glycoside hydrolases and is known for its ability to hydrolyse a range of beta -D-glycosides. including beta -D-glucoside acid beta -D-galactoside. We therefore refer to this enzyme as cytosolic beta

  4. Beta-glucosidase variants and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogulis, Mark; Harris, Paul; Osborn, David

    2017-06-27

    The present invention relates to beta-glucosidase variants, e.g. beta-glucosidase variants of a parent Family GH3A beta-glucosidase from Aspergillus fumigatus. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the beta-glucosidase variants; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the beta-glucosidase variants.

  5. {beta} {gamma} porch detector; Detecteur portique {beta} {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roulet, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    This device is to be placed at the outside of reactors, hot laboratories and others where radioactive products are treated; it is intended to give the alarm when someone, passing through the porch is greatly contaminated, or carries, without his knowing, a radioactive substance. Being to be used in places where there might be an important ground noise, this device is provided with an automatic offset of this noise; an adjusting system of sensitivity allows to obtain a 15 {mu}Ci in {gamma} and 10 {mu}Ci in {beta} radioactive source, passing through the porch at the normal speed at which man is walking. A battery, set in buffer, allows working of the device, even when current is off. (author) [French] Cet appareil est destine a etre place a la sortie des reacteurs, laboratoires chauds ou autres laboratoires travaillant sur des produits radioactifs; son but est de donner une alarme lorsque quelqu'un, passant sous le portique, presente une forte contamination, ou surtout transporte par inadvertance un corps radioactif. Cet appareil devant etre utilise dans les lieux ou peut regner un bruit de fond important, possede une compensation automatique de ce bruit de fond; un reglage de la sensibilite permet d'obtenir au mieux un declenchement pour une source. de 15 {mu}Ci en {gamma} et 10 {mu}Ci en {beta} passant sous le portique a la vitesse normale d'un homme qui marche. Une batterie montee en tampon permet a l'appareil de fonctionner meme en cas de coupure de courant. (auteur)

  6. Preventive Effects of Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methyl Butyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ravanbakhsh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: One of the major factors in sudden cardiac arrest is the initiation and continuation of deadly arrhythmias during ischemia. It is known that beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB has useful effects such as anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis effects in the skeletal muscles. The aim of this study was to investigate the preventive effects of HMB on the ventricular arrhythmias due to the ischemia. Materials & Methods: In the experimental study, 30 Wistar male rats were randomly divided into three groups including control, HMB320, and HMB700. As control group received normal saline, HMB320 and HMB700 groups orally received 320 and 700 mg/Kg HMB as gavage for 2 weeks, respectively. The rats, having been anesthetized, underwent 30-minute ischemia. Then, the numbers of premature ventricular contractions (PVC, the appearance duration of ventricular tachycardia (VT, and the ventricular fibrillation (VF were assessed. Data was analyzed by SPSS 16 software using Kruskal-Walis, one-way ANOVA, Tukey’s post-hoc, and Chi-square tests. Findings: There was a significant reduction in the mean PVC number in HMB320 and HMB700 groups than control group (p=0.001. In addition, there was such a significant difference between the groups received the doses (p=0.008. There was a reduction in the mean appearance duration of VT in HMB320 and HMB700 groups than control group (p=0.001. There was a significant reduction in the mean appearance duration of VF in HMB700 group compared to control group, only (p=0.003. Conclusion: Through arrhythmias reduction, 2-week preventive consumption of HMB might considerably reduce the severe side effects of ischemia.

  7. [Association between polymorphism in DVWA and IL-1beta and Kashin-Beck disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y U, Min; Guo, Xiong; Gao, Xiao-Yun; Lai, Jiang-Hua; Tu, Qian-Qian

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the association between IL-1beta and DVWA gene and Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). Peripheral genomic DNA were extracted from 105 patients with KBD and 98 healthy controls. PCR-RFLP were performed to detect SNP loci of IL-1beta gene and DVWA gene. The patients with KBD had significantly higher frequency of rs16944 (IL-1beta) locus (chi2 = 24.28, P rs16944 (chi2 = 5.683, P = 0.0171) than the healthy controls. There were no significant differences in genotype frequencies,single allele frequencies and haplotypes in rs4685241 and rs1143627 between the patients with KBD and the healthy controls. rs16944 (IL-1beta) is associated with KBD.

  8. A Method Validation for Determination of Gross Alpha and Gross Beta in Water Sample Using Low Background Gross Alpha/ Beta Counting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal Uyun Wan Mahmood; Norfaizal Mohamed; Nita Salina Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    Method validation (MV) for the measurement of gross alpha and gross beta activity in water (drinking, mineral and environmental) samples using Low Background Gross Alpha/ Beta Counting System was performed to characterize precision, accuracy and reliable results. The main objective of this assignment is to ensure that both the instrument and method always good performed and resulting accuracy and reliable results. Generally, almost the results of estimated RSD, z-score and U_s_c_o_r_e were reliable which are recorded as ≤30 %, less than 2 and less than 1.5, respectively. Minimum Detected Activity (MDA) was estimated based on the counting time of 100 minutes and present background counting value of gross alpha (0.01 - 0.35 cpm) and gross beta (0.50 - 2.18 cpm). Estimated Detection Limit (DL) was 0.1 Bq/ L for gross alpha and 0.2 Bq/ L for gross beta and expended uncertainty was relatively small of 9.77 % for gross alpha and 10.57 % for gross beta. Align with that, background counting for gross alpha and gross beta was ranged of 0.01 - 0.35 cpm and 0.50 - 2.18 cpm, respectively. While, sample volume was set at minimum of 500 mL and maximum of 2000 mL. These proven the accuracy and precision result that are generated from developed method/ technique is satisfactory and method is recommended to be used. Therefore, it can be concluded that the MV found no doubtful on the ability of the developed method. The test result showed the method is suitable for all types of water samples which are contained several radionuclides and elements as well as any impurities that interfere the measurement analysis of gross alpha and gross beta. (author)

  9. Expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) receptors and expression of TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1993-01-01

    A panel of 21 small cell lung cancer cell (SCLC) lines were examined for the presence of Transforming growth factor beta receptors (TGF beta-r) and the expression of TGF beta mRNAs. By the radioreceptor assay we found high affinity receptors to be expressed in six cell lines. scatchard analysis......(r) = 65,000 and 90,000 and the betaglycan (type III) with M(r) = 280,000. Northern blotting showed expression of TGF beta 1 mRNA in ten, TGF beta 2 mRNA in two and TGF beta 3 mRNA in seven cell lines. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence that a large proportion of a broad panel of SCLC cell...... lines express TGF beta-receptors and also produce TGF beta mRNAs....

  10. IN-SITU TRITIUM BETA DETECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthold, J.W.; Jeffers, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of this three-phase project were to design, develop, and demonstrate a monitoring system capable of detecting and quantifying tritium in situ in ground and surface waters, and in water from effluent lines prior to discharge into public waterways. The tritium detection system design is based on measurement of the low energy beta radiation from the radioactive decay of tritium using a special form of scintillating optical fiber directly in contact with the water to be measured. The system consists of the immersible sensor module containing the optical fiber, and an electronics package, connected by an umbilical cable. The system can be permanently installed for routine water monitoring in wells or process or effluent lines, or can be moved from one location to another for survey use. The electronics will read out tritium activity directly in units of pico Curies per liter, with straightforward calibration. In Phase 1 of the project, we characterized the sensitivity of fluor-doped plastic optical fiber to tritium beta radiation. In addition, we characterized the performance of photomultiplier tubes needed for the system. In parallel with this work, we defined the functional requirements, target specifications, and system configuration for an in situ tritium beta detector that would use the fluor-doped fibers as primary sensors of tritium concentration in water. The major conclusions from the characterization work are: A polystyrene optical fiber with fluor dopant concentration of 2% gave best performance. This fiber had the highest dopant concentration of any fibers tested. Stability may be a problem. The fibers exposed to a 22-day soak in 120 F water experienced a 10x reduction in sensitivity. It is not known whether this was due to the build up of a deposit (a potentially reversible effect) or an irreversible process such as leaching of the scintillating dye. Based on the results achieved, it is premature to initiate Phase 2 and commit to a prototype

  11. IN-SITU TRITIUM BETA DETECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.W. Berthold; L.A. Jeffers

    1998-04-15

    The objectives of this three-phase project were to design, develop, and demonstrate a monitoring system capable of detecting and quantifying tritium in situ in ground and surface waters, and in water from effluent lines prior to discharge into public waterways. The tritium detection system design is based on measurement of the low energy beta radiation from the radioactive decay of tritium using a special form of scintillating optical fiber directly in contact with the water to be measured. The system consists of the immersible sensor module containing the optical fiber, and an electronics package, connected by an umbilical cable. The system can be permanently installed for routine water monitoring in wells or process or effluent lines, or can be moved from one location to another for survey use. The electronics will read out tritium activity directly in units of pico Curies per liter, with straightforward calibration. In Phase 1 of the project, we characterized the sensitivity of fluor-doped plastic optical fiber to tritium beta radiation. In addition, we characterized the performance of photomultiplier tubes needed for the system. In parallel with this work, we defined the functional requirements, target specifications, and system configuration for an in situ tritium beta detector that would use the fluor-doped fibers as primary sensors of tritium concentration in water. The major conclusions from the characterization work are: A polystyrene optical fiber with fluor dopant concentration of 2% gave best performance. This fiber had the highest dopant concentration of any fibers tested. Stability may be a problem. The fibers exposed to a 22-day soak in 120 F water experienced a 10x reduction in sensitivity. It is not known whether this was due to the build up of a deposit (a potentially reversible effect) or an irreversible process such as leaching of the scintillating dye. Based on the results achieved, it is premature to initiate Phase 2 and commit to a prototype

  12. Characterisation and confirmation of rare beta-thalassaemia mutations in the Malay, Chinese and Indian ethnic groups in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne; Chin, Pui See; Wong, Yean Ching; Tan, Kim Lian; Chan, Lee Lee; George, Elizabeth

    2006-10-01

    In Malaysia, about 4.5% of the Malay and Chinese populations are heterozygous carriers of beta-thalassaemia. The initial identification of rare beta-globin gene mutations by genomic sequencing will allow the development of simpler and cost-effective PCR-based techniques to complement the existing amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) and gap-PCR used for the identification of beta-thalassaemia mutations. DNA from 173 beta-thalassaemia carriers and five beta-thalassaemia major patients from the Malay, Chinese and Indian ethnic groups were first analysed by ARMS and gap-PCR. Ninety-five per cent (174/183) of the 183 beta-globin genes studied were characterised using these two techiques. The remaining nine uncharacterised beta-globin genes (4.9%) were analysed using genomic sequencing of a 904 bp amplified PCR product consisting of the promoter region, exon 1, intervening sequence (IVS) 1, exon 2 and the 5' IVS2 regions of the beta-globin gene. The rare beta-globin mutations detected in the Chinese patients were CD27/28 (+C) and CD43 (GAG-TAG), and -88 (C-T) in an Indian patient. Beta-globin mutations at CD16 (-C), IVS1-1 (G-A), IVS2-1 (G-A), -86 (C-G) and Haemoglobin South Florida (CD1, GTG-ATG) were confirmed in the Malay patients. The seven rare beta-globin mutations and a rare haemoglobin variant confirmed in this study have been described in other populations but have not been previously described in Malaysian beta-thalassemia patients.

  13. Detection of metallo-beta-lactamase producing Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2016-02-24

    Feb 24, 2016 ... A big concern with using these methods is the direct bactericidal effect of EDTA on .... comparison; it was about 20 mm (data not shown). The diminution ... disadvantages of the DDST is the subjective interpretation of results ...

  14. Resistance Pattern and Detection of Metallo-beta-lactamase Genes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-23

    Feb 23, 2018 ... Background: Acquired metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) pose serious problem both in terms of ... P. aeruginosa from clinical samples submitted to the Medical Microbiology ... pan-drug-resistant .... Phenotypically confirmed MBL producers were stored ... 103 (51.5%); ear swab 32 (16%); urine 27 (13.5%); and.

  15. Phenotypic Detection of extended spectrum beta lactamase and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The finding of the study therefore indicates that carbapenem resistance is mediated by carbapenemase production and or overproduction of ESBL coupled with reduced porins. Co-production of carbapenemase, MBLs and ESBLs by some of the isolates is worrisome. Susceptibility to colistin and tigecycline was ...

  16. Detection of beta radiation emitted from painted tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, L.V.E.

    1988-06-01

    At the Kraftwerk Union (KWU), Erlangen, Federal Republic of Germany, it was confirmed that some types of painted tiles of italian origin were radioactive. In this work, performed at Institut fur Strahlenschutz, GSF, Munich, Germany, ultra-thin (60μm) thermoluminescent samples of CaSO 4 :Tm were used for the determination of absorved dose rates in air (at the tile surface and at the distance of 5 cm from it) and of transmission factors for different tissue equivalent material thicknesses. For comparison the absorved dose rates in air from cement walls without tile revestment and with simple tile revestment (tiles without painted ornaments) were also determined. In these cases the results were the same as those obtained normally from building materials. (author) [pt

  17. Detection of beta radiation emitted from painted tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, L.V.E.

    1987-01-01

    At the Krafwerk Union (KWU), Erlangen, Germany, it was confirmed that some types of painted tiles of italian origin were radioactive. In this Work, performed at Institut fur Strahlenschutz, GSF, Germany, ultrathin 60μm) thermoluminescent samples of CaSO 4 :Tm were used for the determination of absorved dose rates in air (at the tile surface and at distance of 5cm from it) and of transmission factors for different tissue equivalent material thicknesses. For comparison the absorved dose rates in air from cement walls without tile revestment and with simple tile revestment (tiles without painted ornaments) were also determined. In these cases the results were the same as those obtained normally from building materials. (Author) [pt

  18. Detection of Amp C Beta Lactamases in Clinical Isolates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 81 consecutive non repetitive clinical isolates of Escherichia coli (n=40) and Klebsiella spp. (n=41) were screened for AmpC production by disc diffusion method using cefoxitin (30 Zg) disc and confirmed by inhibitor based test using boronic acid as inhibitor. A total of 16 E.coli isolates (40%) and 16 Klebsiella ...

  19. Resistance Pattern and Detection of Metallo-beta-lactamase Genes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-23

    Feb 23, 2018 ... P. aeruginosa from clinical samples submitted to the Medical Microbiology .... 28 species of Gram-negative bacteria from more than ..... medical tourism, and work. .... aeruginosa: Mechanisms and impact on treatment.

  20. Effect of citric pectin on beta-carotene bioavailability in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanutto, Márcia E; Jordão Júnior, Alceu A; Meirelles, Mônica S S; Fávaro, Rosa M D; Vannucchi, Hélio

    2002-07-01

    The effect of citric pectin on the bioavailability of synthetic beta-carotene was studied. Thirty Wistar rats were used, ten animals were sacrificed at the beginning of the experiment and remaining animals were divided into two groups and received the following diets for 30 days: control group (CG)--24 micrograms beta-carotene/g diet + 0% citric pectin; experimental group (EG)--24 micrograms beta-carotene/g diet + 7% citric pectin. Plasma and liver beta-carotene, vitamin A, and retinyl palmitate concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Plasma retinol concentration was 1.42 +/- 0.36 mumol/L for CG and 1.10 +/- 0.24 mumol/L for EG (p = 0.1), and plasma beta-carotene concentration was 0.20 +/- 2.51 mumol/L for CG and 0.07 +/- 0.04 mumol/L for EG (p = 0.01). Only traces of retinyl palmitate were detected in CG and none in EG. Retinol did not differ significantly between groups CG and EG, while a significantly higher beta-carotene concentration was observed for CG. Liver concentrations of retinol (CG: 4.90 +/- 2.51 micrograms/g; EG: 2.68 +/- 1.12 micrograms/g), beta-carotene (CG: 0.98 +/- 0.28 microgram/g; EG: 0.11 +/- 0.06 microgram/g), and retinyl palmitate (CG: 95.47 +/- 45.13 micrograms/g, EG: 37.01 +/- 17.20 micrograms/g) differed significantly between groups (p < 0.05), with a lower concentration being observed for EG. We conclude that 7% citric pectin in the rat diet decreases the bioavailability of synthetic beta-carotene, reducing the liver reserves of vitamin A and beta-carotene.

  1. Meta-analysis of studies with bivariate binary outcomes: a marginal beta-binomial model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Hong, Chuan; Ning, Yang; Su, Xiao

    2016-01-15

    When conducting a meta-analysis of studies with bivariate binary outcomes, challenges arise when the within-study correlation and between-study heterogeneity should be taken into account. In this paper, we propose a marginal beta-binomial model for the meta-analysis of studies with binary outcomes. This model is based on the composite likelihood approach and has several attractive features compared with the existing models such as bivariate generalized linear mixed model (Chu and Cole, 2006) and Sarmanov beta-binomial model (Chen et al., 2012). The advantages of the proposed marginal model include modeling the probabilities in the original scale, not requiring any transformation of probabilities or any link function, having closed-form expression of likelihood function, and no constraints on the correlation parameter. More importantly, because the marginal beta-binomial model is only based on the marginal distributions, it does not suffer from potential misspecification of the joint distribution of bivariate study-specific probabilities. Such misspecification is difficult to detect and can lead to biased inference using currents methods. We compare the performance of the marginal beta-binomial model with the bivariate generalized linear mixed model and the Sarmanov beta-binomial model by simulation studies. Interestingly, the results show that the marginal beta-binomial model performs better than the Sarmanov beta-binomial model, whether or not the true model is Sarmanov beta-binomial, and the marginal beta-binomial model is more robust than the bivariate generalized linear mixed model under model misspecifications. Two meta-analyses of diagnostic accuracy studies and a meta-analysis of case-control studies are conducted for illustration. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Beta-agonists and animal welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of beta-agonists in animal feed is a high profile topic within the U.S. as consumers and activist groups continue to question its safety. The only beta-agonist currently available for use in swine is ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC). This is available as Paylean™ (Elanco Animal Health – FDA a...

  3. Beta-2-mikroglobulin ved medicinske sygdomme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1989-01-01

    Beta-2-microglobulin (beta 2M) is a low-molecular protein which is filtered freely over the glomeruli. Under normal circumstances, more than 99.9% is resorbed in the proximal tubuli of the kidneys and is metabolized there. In renal disease with damage to this segment of the nephron, eg acute tubulo...

  4. Topical beta-blockers and mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müskens, Rogier P. H. M.; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Stricker, Bruno H. C.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2008-01-01

    To study the associations between long-term and short-term use of topical beta-blockers and mortality. Prospective population-based cohort study. To examine long-term effects, 3842 participants aged 55 years and older were recruited. To examine short-term effects, 484 incident beta-blocker users and

  5. The beta subunit of casein kinase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Piontek, K; Schmidt-Spaniol, I

    1991-01-01

    cDNAs encoding the beta subunit of pig and mouse CKII were isolated. The porcine cDNA was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used for the production of anti-CKII-beta subunit specific antibodies....

  6. Exotic nuclear beta transitions astrophysical examples

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, K

    1981-01-01

    A theoretical study of nuclear beta -transitions under various astrophysical circumstances is reviewed by illustrative examples: 1) continuum-state electron captures in a matter in the nuclear statistical equiplibrium, and ii) bound-state beta -decays in stars in connection with a cosmochronometer and with the s-process branchings. (45 refs).

  7. Beta spectra. II-Positron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, A.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    1981-01-01

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 30 positron emitters have been computed, introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. The spectra are ploted vs. energy, once normalised, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (author)

  8. Beta delayed particle emission in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riisager, K.; Gabelmann, H.

    1991-01-01

    A short discussion of theoretical treatments of beta delayed particle emission is followed by a presentation of data on the newly found beta delayed deuteron decay of 6 He. This decay cannot be described properly with existing theories. (author) 8 refs.; 3 figs

  9. MINIMUM VARIANCE BETA ESTIMATION WITH DYNAMIC CONSTRAINTS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    developed (at AFETR ) and is being used to isolate the primary error sources in the beta estimation task. This computer program is additionally used to...determine what success in beta estimation can be achieved with foreseeable instrumentation accuracies. Results are included that illustrate the effects on

  10. Purification of beta-acetylglucosaminase and beta-galactosidase from ram testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caygill, J C; Roston, C P; Jevons, F R

    1966-02-01

    1. The presence of beta-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23) in an acetic acid extract of ram testis is reported. Some properties of the crude enzyme preparation were studied. 2. The purification of beta-acetylglucosaminase (EC 3.2.1.30) and of beta-galactosidase from the ram-testis extract by ammonium sulphate precipitation and chromatography on a CM-cellulose column is described. 3. The final purifications of the separated enzymes achieved were for the beta-acetylglucosaminase 35 times and for the beta-galactosidase 99 times. 4. The possibility of using DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-200 to purify the enzymes was investigated.

  11. Clusters of conserved beta cell marker genes for assessment of beta cell phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Geert A; Jiang, Lei; Hellemans, Karine H

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a gene expression blueprint of pancreatic beta cells conserved from rodents to humans and to evaluate its applicability to assess shifts in the beta cell differentiated state. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of isolated beta cells were compared to those...... of a large panel of other tissue and cell types, and transcripts with beta cell-abundant and -selective expression were identified. Iteration of this analysis in mouse, rat and human tissues generated a panel of conserved beta cell biomarkers. This panel was then used to compare isolated versus laser capture...

  12. Endovascular Irradiations with beta sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scmidt, W F.O.; Hawliczek, R [Inst of Radiooncology IRO, Donauspital, Vienna (Austria); Mueck, K [Austrian Research Centre, Siebersdorf ARCS (Austria); Lehmann, D [Inst of Radiotherapy, Univ. Dresden (Germany); Pichler, L [Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Endovascular Radiotherapy, Donauspital, Vienna (Austria)

    1999-12-31

    For treatment of restenoses tubes (inner/outer diameter 1 and 2 mm; length 3 or 5 mm) with Y-90 foils, shielded by Ti-layers on all sides have been developed (activity 0.5 - 2 GBq). Quality checks with plastic scintillators have been developed and are correlated to absolute dose measurements performed with TLDs (1x1 mm2; 40 mg/cm2). TLD-handling and calibration for beta-dosimetry are described. Additional measurements for depth-dose and dose distribution around the tubes were done with GAFCHROMIC- films and compared to Monte-Carlo calculations with the MCNP4-code, yielding a half-value depth of 0.8 mm from the tube-surface. Manufacturing and delivery of the sources including leakage tests has been standardized, treatments (irradiation times <5min; irradiation length <30mm) are planned to start in spring `98. (authors) 1 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Beta decay of 22O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, F.; Dufour, J.P.; Del Moral, R.; Fleury, A.; Jean, D.; Pravikoff, M.S.; Geissel, H.; Schmidt, K.H.; Hanelt, E.

    1989-01-01

    The study of light nuclei far from stability has been recently renewed by the possibility of production through the projectile fragmentation of intermediate energy heavy ion beams at GANIL. The results presented here have been obtained with the Projectile Fragments Isotopic Separation method developed at the LISE spectrometer. 22 O is a Tz = 3 nucleus and is the first in a series of seven such nuclei in the sd shell extending from 22 O to 24 Mg. Although the half life of 22 O was previously measured by Murphy et al., the present study is the first beta-gamma spectroscopy on this neutron rich nucleus. Five gamma lines have been attributed to the β decay of 22 O with a measured half life of T = (2.25±0.15)s and a partial decay scheme has been established

  14. $\\beta$ decay of $^{47}$Ar

    CERN Document Server

    Weissman, L; Bergmann, U C; Brown, B A; Catherall, R; Cederkäll, J; Dillmann, I; Hallmann, O; Fraile-Prieto, L M; Franchoo, S; Gaudefroy, L; Köster, U; Kratz, K L; Pfeiffer, B; Sorlin, O; 10.1103/PhysRevC.70.024304

    2004-01-01

    Information on beta -decay properties of neutron-rich /sup 47/Ar was obtained at the ISOLDE facility at CERN using isobaric selectivity. This was achieved by a combination of a plasma-ion source with a cooled transfer line and subsequent mass separation. A doubly charged beam was used in order to improve the signal-to-background ratio associated with multi-charged noble gas fission products. The identification of the /sup 47/Ar gamma -ray transitions was performed by comparing the spectra obtained from direct proton bombardment of the target and of the neutron converter. New excited levels in the daughter /sup 47/K nucleus corresponding to the negative-parity states were observed. The obtained data are compared to the result of large-scale shell model calculations and quasiparticle random-phase approximation predictions. (29 refs).

  15. PBX: the Princeton beta experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol, K.; Chance, M.; Dewar, R.

    1983-09-01

    A rearrangement of the divertor coils in PDX will enable a test in 1984 of the MHD stability properties of deeply indented bean-shaped plasmas. The goal is a beta of 10%. Indentation is expected to counter the deterioration of MHD stability against pressure driven modes that is occasioned by the larger aspect ratios typical of anticipated reactor oriented devices. Indeed, as shown by M. Chance et al., indentation may offer direct access to the second region of stability for ballooning modes, and numerical analyses with PEST show the internal kink to be stabilized completely with even relatively modest indentation. The internal kink is implicated in the loss of beam ions in PDX. In this report the theoretical basis for the forthcoming experiment, and the design considerations underlying the modification from PDX to PBX, are described in detail. Additional theoretical material, including an analysis of particle orbits in an indented tokamak plasma, is appended

  16. Selective Beta and Gamma-ray Discrimination by CdWO{sub 4} and PlasticScintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jun Woo; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Radiation monitoring technique has been used for monitoring of decommissioning site of nuclear facility, radioactive waste disposal site, or in case of radioactivity accident. For rapid measurement of gamma-ray and beta-ray, many portable radiation detectors were developed but they are sensitive to specific radiation type. For example, portable detectors using NaI(Tl) or high purity germanium (HPGe) are suitable to detect gamma-ray. Otherwise, Geiger-müller (GM) tube or ionization chamber are suitable to detect all-types of radiation but it is hard to determine which particle is detected in the detector. In this reason, phoswich detectors for discrimination of beta-ray and gamma-ray were developed by using pulse shape discrimination. In this study, another approach to discriminate the beta-ray and gamma-ray is carried out. Two scintillators are used, cadmium tungstate (CdWO{sub 4}) and plastic scintillator. They have huge difference in their effective atomic number and mass density, thus they have huge difference in their gamma-ray sensitivity while the sensitivity of beta-ray is similar. The characterization of beta-ray and gamma-ray discrimination by using this characteristics is include. A technique of discrimination between beta-ray and gamma-ray was suggested. The method was verified by Monte Carlo simulation and experiment. This work showed feasibility on in field measurement of radiation with discrimination of beta-ray and gamma-ray.

  17. Localization of thymosin beta-4 in tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, L. -I.; Holck, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    in colorectal carcinomas. The degree of staining of breast cancer cells for thymosin beta-4 correlated neither to histological grade nor to endothelial cell staining. However, there was a tendency toward correlation (P = 0.07) between staining of endothelial cells and histological grade. Treatment of cultured......Overexpression of thymosin beta-4 has been linked to malignant progression but the localization of this polypeptide within tumors is incompletely known. We therefore examined breast cancers for thymosin beta-4 using immunofluorescence. Reactive cells were identified with monoclonal cell marker...... breast cancer cells (SK-BR-3) with 1-4 microg thymosin beta-4/mL significantly increased cell numbers, as determined by MTT-assays. These data reveal an unexpected cellular heterogeneity of thymosin beta-4 expression in breast and colonic carcinomas and suggest that local release of this polypeptide...

  18. Ranking beta sheet topologies of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Rasmus; Helles, Glennie; Winter, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    One of the challenges of protein structure prediction is to identify long-range interactions between amino acids. To reliably predict such interactions, we enumerate, score and rank all beta-topologies (partitions of beta-strands into sheets, orderings of strands within sheets and orientations...... of paired strands) of a given protein. We show that the beta-topology corresponding to the native structure is, with high probability, among the top-ranked. Since full enumeration is very time-consuming, we also suggest a method to deal with proteins with many beta-strands. The results reported...... in this paper are highly relevant for ab initio protein structure prediction methods based on decoy generation. The top-ranked beta-topologies can be used to find initial conformations from which conformational searches can be started. They can also be used to filter decoys by removing those with poorly...

  19. alpha-thalassemia, HbS, and beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes in two Afro-Uruguayan sub-populations from northern and southern Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. da Luz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobinopathies are the most common monogenic disorders worldwide; however, they have never been systematically studied from a genetic perspective in Uruguay. In this study, we determined the frequencies of hemoglobin variants in Afro-Uruguayans. A sample of 52 healthy unrelated Afro-Uruguayans from the northern (N = 28 and southern (N = 24 regions of the country was analyzed. Eight individuals (15.4% were heterozygous for -alpha3,7thalassemia; seven of them (29.2% were originally from the southern region, whereas one of them (3.6% was from the northern region; the differences between both regions were statistically significant (p = 0.016 +/-0.003. The only structural mutation detected was betaS, which is typical of African populations. Four individuals (10% were heterozygous for betaS, three of them (13.6% from the South, and one (5.6% from the North. The betaS haplotypes were analyzed in eight individuals: two were homozygous betaS/betaS, two were heterozygous betaS/betathal, and four were heterozygous betaS/betaª. This haplotype distribution (60% Bantu, 20% Benin, and 20% Bantu A2 is in agreement with historical records reporting a predominantly Bantu origin for the enslaved Africans brought to Uruguay. Even though this is a preliminary study, due to the small sample size, our results are suggestive of a relatively high incidence of hemoglobinopathies in the Afro-Uruguayan population.

  20. Abnormal expression of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in human pituitary adenomas: a prereceptor determinant of pituitary cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbitt, E H; Ayuk, J; Boelaert, K; Sheppard, M C; Hewison, M; Stewart, P M; Gittoes, N J L

    2003-03-20

    The physiological effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) are, at least in part, mediated by inhibition of cell proliferation. Two isozymes of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 beta-HSD) interconvert cortisol (F) and inactive cortisone (E), and are thus able to modulate GC action at an autocrine level. Previously, we have demonstrated absent expression of 11 beta-HSD2 in normal pituitaries; however, in a small number of pituitary tumors analysed, 11 beta-HSD2 was readily demonstrable. Here we have used real-time RT-PCR to quantify expression of mRNA for 11 beta-HSD1 and 2 in 105 human pituitary tumors and have performed enzyme expression and activity studies in primary pituitary cultures. Overall, pituitary tumors expressed lower levels of 11 beta-HSDl mRNA compared with normals (0.2-fold, Pprotein (mean+/-s.d.)) but no detectable 11 beta-HSDl activity. Proliferation assays showed that addition of glycyrrhetinic acid (an 11 beta-HSD2 inhibitor) resulted in a 30.3+/-7.7% inhibition of cell proliferation. In summary, we describe a switch in expression from 11 beta-HSDl to 11 beta-HSD2 in neoplastic pituitary tissue. We propose that abnormal expression of 11 beta-HSD2 acts as a proproliferative prereceptor determinant of pituitary cell growth, and may provide a novel target for future tumor therapy.

  1. Maternal plasma concentrations of beta-lipotrophin, beta-endorphin and gamma-lipotrophin throughout pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, A J; Butt, W R; Lynch, S S; Shakespear, R A

    1983-12-01

    Plasma beta-LPH, beta-EP and gamma-LPH concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay in 10 pregnant women from 12 weeks gestation until term and in nine women in the early follicular phase of the cycle. There was a progressive and significant rise in the concentration of all three peptides throughout pregnancy and by 32 weeks the concentrations of beta-LPH and beta-EP were greater than the corresponding concentrations in the follicular phase: gamma-LPH was greater than in the follicular phase by the end of pregnancy in those women who were delivered after 40 weeks. The ratio of beta-LPH to gamma-LPH did not change significantly throughout pregnancy, but there was a progressive fall in the beta-LPH/beta-EP ratio. The possible presence of a 'big LPH' to explain this finding is discussed.

  2. Clusters of conserved beta cell marker genes for assessment of beta cell phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Geert A; Jiang, Lei; Hellemans, Karine H

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a gene expression blueprint of pancreatic beta cells conserved from rodents to humans and to evaluate its applicability to assess shifts in the beta cell differentiated state. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of isolated beta cells were compared to those...... of a large panel of other tissue and cell types, and transcripts with beta cell-abundant and -selective expression were identified. Iteration of this analysis in mouse, rat and human tissues generated a panel of conserved beta cell biomarkers. This panel was then used to compare isolated versus laser capture...... microdissected beta cells, monitor adaptations of the beta cell phenotype to fasting, and retrieve possible conserved transcriptional regulators....

  3. Serum-SP/sub 1/-pregnancy-specific-. beta. -glycoprotein in choriocarcinoma and other neoplastic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Searle, F; Leake, B A; Bagshawe, K D; Dent, J [Charing Cross Group of Hospitals, London (UK)

    1978-03-18

    A radioimmunoassay for a placental glycoprotein, ..beta../sub 1/SP/sub 1/, capable of detecting 2 ..mu..g/l of the glycoprotein in serum was used to measure concentrations of ..beta../sub 1/SP/sub 1/ in patients with choriocarcinoma, teratoma, colonic cancer, breast cancer, and ovarian cancer. Twelve out of 94 (13%) healthy men and healthy non-pregnant women had detectable serum-..beta../sub 1/SP/sub 1/ concentrations. Concentrations up to 50,000 ..mu..g/l were found in the sera of patients with hydatidiform mole, invasive mole, choriocarcinoma, and malignant teratoma. ..beta../sub 1/-glycoprotein concentrations were generally much lower than corresponding concentrations of chorionic gonadotrophin which is the most reliable marker for trophoblastic tumors. In a few cases, however, ..beta../sub 1/-glycoprotein measurements may be useful in the detection of minimal residual tumor. The slightly raised values found in some patients with carcinoma of the colon, breast, or ovary seem unlikely to be useful for diagnostic purposes or for monitoring the course of these cancers.

  4. Measurement of the beta-neutrino correlation in laser trapped 21Na

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scielzo, Nicholas David [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Trapped radioactive atoms are an appealing source for precise measurements of the beta-neutrino correlation coefficient, a, since the momentum of the neutrino can be inferred from the detection of the unperturbed low-energy recoil daughter nucleus. Sodium-21 is produced on-line at the 88'' cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and 8e5 atoms have been maintained in a magneto-optical trap. A static electric field draws daughter Neon-21 ions to a microchannel plate detector and betas are detected in coincidence with a plastic scintillator beta detector. The Neon-21 time-of-flight distribution determines the beta neutrino correlation coefficient, a. The resulting charge-state distribution is compared to a simple model based on the sudden approximation which suggests a small but important contribution from nuclear recoil-induced ionization. A larger than expected fraction of the daughters are detected in positive charge-states, but no dependence on either the beta or recoil nucleus energy was observed. We find a = 0.5243 plus or minus 0.0092, which is in 3.6 sigma disagreement with the Standard Model prediction of a = 0.559 plus or minus 0.003. Aside from a deviation from the Standard Model, a possible explanation for the discrepancy is that the branching ratio to the first excited state is in error.

  5. The antifibrotic effects of TGF-{beta}1 siRNA on hepatic fibrosis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Qing; Liu, Qi [Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Infectious Diseases, Ministry of Education, Instituted for Virus Hepatitis and Department of Infectious Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Xu, Ning [The Second Hospital of YuLin, Shanxi Province (China); Qian, Ke-Li; Qi, Jing-Hu; Sun, Yin-Chun; Xiao, Lang [Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Infectious Diseases, Ministry of Education, Instituted for Virus Hepatitis and Department of Infectious Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Shi, Xiao-Feng, E-mail: sxff2003@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Infectious Diseases, Ministry of Education, Instituted for Virus Hepatitis and Department of Infectious Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} We constructed CCL4 induced liver fibrosis model successfully. {yields} We proofed that the TGF-{beta}1 siRNA had a definite therapy effect to CCL4 induced liver fibrosis. {yields} The therapy effect of TGF-{beta}1 siRNA had dose-dependent. -- Abstract: Background/aims: Hepatic fibrosis results from the excessive secretion of matrix proteins by hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which proliferate during fibrotic liver injury. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta}1 is the dominant stimulus for extracellular matrix (ECM) production by stellate cells. Our study was designed to investigate the antifibrotic effects of using short interference RNA (siRNA) to target TGF-{beta}1 in hepatic fibrosis and its mechanism in rats exposed to a high-fat diet and carbon tetrachloride (CCL4). Methods: A total of 40 healthy, male SD (Sprague-Dawley) rats were randomly divided into five even groups containing of eight rats each: normal group, model group, TGF-{beta}1 siRNA 0.125 mg/kg treatment group, TGF-{beta}1 siRNA 0.25 mg/kg treatment group and TGF-{beta}1 siRNA negative control group (0.25 mg/kg). CCL4 and a high-fat diet were used for 8 weeks to induce hepatic fibrosis. All the rats were then sacrificed to collect liver tissue samples. A portion of the liver samples were soaked in formalin for Hematoxylin-Eosin staining, classifying the degree of liver fibrosis, and detecting the expression of type I and III collagen and TGF-{beta}1; the remaining liver samples were stored in liquid nitrogen to be used for detecting TGF-{beta}1 by Western blotting and for measuring the mRNA expression of type I and III collagen and TGF-{beta}1 by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: Comparing the TGF-{beta}1 siRNA 0.25 mg/kg treatment group to the model group, the TGF-{beta}1 siRNA negative control group and the TGF-{beta}1 siRNA 0.125 mg/kg treatment group showed significantly reduced levels of pathological changes, protein expression and the m

  6. Dimers of beta 2-glycoprotein I mimic the in vitro effects of beta 2-glycoprotein I-anti-beta 2-glycoprotein I antibody complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutters, B. C.; Meijers, J. C.; Derksen, R. H.; Arnout, J.; de Groot, P. G.

    2001-01-01

    Anti-beta(2)-glycoprotein I antibodies are thought to cause lupus anticoagulant activity by forming bivalent complexes with beta(2)-glycoprotein I (beta(2)GPI). To test this hypothesis, chimeric fusion proteins were constructed of the dimerization domain (apple 4) of factor XI and beta(2)GPI. Both a

  7. [Molecular characterization of heterozygous beta-thalassemia in Lanzarote, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Villas, José Manuel; de la Iglesia Iñigo, Silvia; Ropero Gradilla, Paloma; Zapata Ramos, María Francisca; Cuesta Tovar, Jorge; Sicilia Guillén, Francisco

    2008-04-05

    The aim of this study was to determine the molecular defects of heterozygous beta thalassaemia and to ascertain their distribution in Lanzarote. Molecular characterization was achieved by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR LightCycler, Roche), PCR-ARMS (PCR-amplification reaction mutations system) and DNA sequencing on an automated DNA sequencer. Two hundred forty-three heterozygous beta thalassaemia carriers were included between July 1991 and February 2007. RT-PCR detected the molecular defect in 81% of the beta thalassaemia chromosomes analyzed [113 codon CD 39 (C --> T); 41 IVS-1-nt-110 (G --> A), 25 IVS 1-nt-1 (G --> A) and 19 IVS 1-nt-6 (T --> C)]. The remaining 12 molecular defects included the deletion 619 bp (7.8%) and the mutations -28 (A --> G), IVS1-nt-2 (T --> G), CD 41/42 (-TTCT), CD 8/9 (+G), CD 51 (-C), CD 22 (G --> T) and CD 24 (T --> A), CD 67 (-TG) and the novel mutation CD 20/21-TGGA. The distribution of the mutations is similar to that found in the Mediterranean area. The increasing migratory flow received in the Canary Islands may explain the emergence of new mutations not reported before in our area.

  8. Sequence swapping does not result in conformation swapping for the beta4/beta5 and beta8/beta9 beta-hairpin turns in human acidic fibroblast growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaewon; Lee, Jihun; Brych, Stephen R; Logan, Timothy M; Blaber, Michael

    2005-02-01

    The beta-turn is the most common type of nonrepetitive structure in globular proteins, comprising ~25% of all residues; however, a detailed understanding of effects of specific residues upon beta-turn stability and conformation is lacking. Human acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1) is a member of the beta-trefoil superfold and contains a total of five beta-hairpin structures (antiparallel beta-sheets connected by a reverse turn). beta-Turns related by the characteristic threefold structural symmetry of this superfold exhibit different primary structures, and in some cases, different secondary structures. As such, they represent a useful system with which to study the role that turn sequences play in determining structure, stability, and folding of the protein. Two turns related by the threefold structural symmetry, the beta4/beta5 and beta8/beta9 turns, were subjected to both sequence-swapping and poly-glycine substitution mutations, and the effects upon stability, folding, and structure were investigated. In the wild-type protein these turns are of identical length, but exhibit different conformations. These conformations were observed to be retained during sequence-swapping and glycine substitution mutagenesis. The results indicate that the beta-turn structure at these positions is not determined by the turn sequence. Structural analysis suggests that residues flanking the turn are a primary structural determinant of the conformation within the turn.

  9. Assessment of affinities of beta-CIT, beta-CIT-FE, and beta-CIT-FP for monoamine transporters permanently expressed in cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Tomoya; Fujita, Masahiro; Shimada, Shoichi; Sato, Kohji; Schloss, Patrick; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Itoh, Yasushi; Tohyama, Masaya; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the effects of three cocaine analogs, beta-CIT (2-beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl)-tropane), beta-CIT-FE (2-beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(2-fluoroethyl)-nortropane), and beta-CIT-FP (2-beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)-nortropane), on the uptake of [ 3 H]dopamine(DA), serotonin(5-HT), and 1-norepinephrine (NE) using cell lines permanently expressing DA, 5-HT, and NE transporters, respectively, to determine their affinities for these three transporters. We generated cell lines stably expressing DA, 5-HT, and NE transporters, respectively, by the Chen-Okayama method, and then tested the abilities of (-)cocaine, beta-CIT, beta-CIT-FE, beta-CIT-FP, and clomipramine to inhibit the uptake of [ 3 H]DA, 5-HT, and 1-NE. Ki values of beta-CIT, beta-CIT-FE, and beta-CIT-FP for [ 3 H]DA, 5-HT, 1-NE uptake were 6, 29, and 33 nM, 91, 133, and 130 nM, and 28, 113 and 70 nM, respectively, whereas those of cocaine and clomipramine were 316, 581, and 176 nM and > 10,000, 437, and 851 nM, respectively. Beta-CIT, beta-CIT-FE, and beta-CIT-FP were shown to be potent DA, 5-HT, and NE uptake inhibitors. Beta-CIT and beta-CIT-FP were highly potent and selective dopamine uptake inhibitors, and therefore might be useful for imaging of DA transporter with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET)

  10. Proposed experimental test of Bell's inequality in nuclear beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalsey, M.

    1986-01-01

    A β decay experiment is proposed for testing Bell's inequality, related to hidden-variables alternatives to quantum mechanics. The experiment uses Mott scattering for spin polarization analysis of internal conversion electrons. Beta-decay electrons, in cascade with the conversion electrons, are longitudinally polarized due to parity violation in the weak interaction. So simply detecting the β electron direction effectively measures the spin. A two-particle spin-spin correlation can thus be investigated and related, within certain assumptions, to Bell's inequality. The example of 203 Hg decay is used for a calculation of expected results. Specific problems related to nuclear structure and experimental inconsistencies are also discussed

  11. Skin dose assessment in routine personnel beta/gamma dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, P.

    1980-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (Publication 26) has recommended a tissue depth of 5 to 10 mg.cm -2 for skin dose assessments. This requirement is generally not fulfilled by routine monitoring procedures because of practical difficulties in using very thin dosemeters with low sensitivity and therefore a high minimum detectable dose. Especially for low-energy beta-ray exposures underestimations of the skin dose by a factor of more than ten may occur. Low-transparent graphite-mixed sintered LiF and Li 2 B 4 0 7 : Mn dosemeters were produced which show a skin-equivalent response to beta and gamma exposures over a wide range of energies. These have found wide-spread application for extremity dosimetry but have not yet been generally introduced in routine personnel beta/gamma monitoring. The following adaptations of existing routine monitoring systems for improved skin dose assessments have been investigated: 1) Placement of a supplementary, thin, skin-dose equivalent dosemeter in the TLD badge to give additional information on low-energy exposures. 2) Introduction of a second photomultiplier in the read-out chamber which enables a simultaneous determination of emitted TL from both sides of the dosemeter separately. This method makes use of the selfshielding of the dosemeter to give information on the low-energy dose contribution. 3) By diffusion of Li 2 B 4 0 7 into solid LiF-dosemeters it was possible to produce a surface layer with a new distinct glow-peak at about 340 deg C which is not present in the undiffused part of the LiF chip, and which can be utilized for the assessment of the skin-dose. Data on energy response and accuracy of dose measurement for beta/gamma exposures are given for the three methods and advantages and disadvantages are discussed (H.K.)

  12. Stereoselective determination of amino acids in beta-amyloid peptides and senile plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsén, G; Bergquist, J; Westlind-Danielsson, A; Josefsson, B

    2001-06-01

    A novel method for the determination of the enantiomeric composition of peptides is presented. In this paper, the focus has been on beta-amyloid peptides from deceased Alzheimer's disease patients. The peptides are hydrolyzed using mineral acid. The free amino acids are derivatized with the chiral reagent (+)- or (-)-1-(9-anthryl)-2-propyl chloroformate and subsequently separated using micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) and detected using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. The high separation efficiency of the MEKC-LIF system, yielding approximately 1 million theoretical plates/m for most amino acids, facilitates the simultaneous chiral determination of nine amino acids. The samples that have been analyzed were standard 1-40 beta-amyloid peptides, in vitro precipitated beta-amyloid fibrils, and human senile plaque samples.

  13. Ellagic acid promotes A{beta}42 fibrillization and inhibits A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Ying [Department of Histology and Embryology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Yang, Shi-gao; Du, Xue-ting; Zhang, Xi; Sun, Xiao-xia; Zhao, Min [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Sun, Gui-yuan, E-mail: sungy2004@sohu.com [Department of Histology and Embryology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Liu, Rui-tian, E-mail: rtliu@tsinghua.edu.cn [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-12-25

    Smaller, soluble oligomers of {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Selective inhibition of A{beta} oligomer formation provides an optimum target for AD therapy. Some polyphenols have potent anti-amyloidogenic activities and protect against A{beta} neurotoxicity. Here, we tested the effects of ellagic acid (EA), a polyphenolic compound, on A{beta}42 aggregation and neurotoxicity in vitro. EA promoted A{beta} fibril formation and significant oligomer loss, contrary to previous results that polyphenols inhibited A{beta} aggregation. The results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western blot displayed more fibrils in A{beta}42 samples co-incubated with EA in earlier phases of aggregation. Consistent with the hypothesis that plaque formation may represent a protective mechanism in which the body sequesters toxic A{beta} aggregates to render them harmless, our MTT results showed that EA could significantly reduce A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity toward SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, our results suggest that EA, an active ingredient in many fruits and nuts, may have therapeutic potential in AD.

  14. Hemoglobina C em homozigose e interação com talassemia beta Homozygous hemoglobin C and its interaction with beta thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan L. Angulo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A hemoglobina C (Hb C é originária do oeste da África e é detectada por migração lenta na eletroforese alcalina em acetato de celulose. Consiste na mutação do gene da globina beta no códon 6 (GAG-AAG, resultando na substituição do sexto aminoácido da cadeia beta da hemoglobina humana, o ácido glutâmico, pelo aminoácido lisina. A cromatografia de alto desempenho (HPLC separa completamente as frações C e A2, permitindo caracterizar a presença da interação com talassemia beta. Esta entidade (Hb CC, em homozigoze é considerada benigna em relação à doença falciforme, já que a falcização não faz parte de sua fisiopatologia. A raridade do diagnóstico C homozigoto e C talassemia beta nos pacientes portadores de hemoglobinopatias nos alertou para a necessidade de se conhecer melhor e estudar aspectos clínicos e hematológicos dos casos dessa mutação em homozigose e na interação com a talassemia beta no ambulatório de anemias do Centro Regional de Hematologia e Hemoterapia de Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil.Hemoglobin C (Hb C originated in the west of Africa and is detected by alkaline electrophoresis by slow migration in cellulose acetate. It consists of a mutation of the beta globin gene in codon 6 (GAG-AAG, resulting in a substitution of glutamic acid, the sixth amino acid of the beta string of the human hemoglobin, for lysine. High performance chromatography (HPLC separates the C and A2 fractions completely, allowing the characterization of the presence of interactions with thalassemia beta. This entity (Hb CC is considered benign in respect to sickle cell disease, as sickle cells are not part of its physiopathology. The rarity of the diagnosis of homozygous C and beta thalassemia in patients with hemoglobinopathies showed the necessity of studying clinical and hematologic aspects of the cases of this mutation in homozygosis carriers and the interaction with beta thalassemia in the anemias clinic of the Regional Blood

  15. Determinants of RNA polymerase alpha subunit for interaction with beta, beta', and sigma subunits: hydroxyl-radical protein footprinting.

    OpenAIRE

    Heyduk, T; Heyduk, E; Severinov, K; Tang, H; Ebright, R H

    1996-01-01

    Escherichia coli RNA polymerase (RNAP) alpha subunit serves as the initiator for RNAP assembly, which proceeds according to the pathway 2 alpha-->alpha 2-->alpha 2 beta-->alpha 2 beta beta'-->alpha 2 beta beta' sigma. In this work, we have used hydroxyl-radical protein footprinting to define determinants of alpha for interaction with beta, beta', and sigma. Our results indicate that amino acids 30-75 of alpha are protected from hydroxyl-radical-mediated proteolysis upon interaction with beta ...

  16. Theoretical study and construction of a multichannel {beta} spectrometer with uniform magnetic field; Etude et realisation d'un spectrometre {beta} multivoies a champ magnetique uniforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schussler, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-09-01

    After a brief survey of the interest of a multichannel beta spectrometer for studying decay schemes of short lived nuclides (30 seconds minimum, the theoretically well known characteristics of uniform magnetic field analyser (image of a large source, transmission and resolution) are briefly remembered. In the second part, the apparatus built as a result of these calculations is described. This apparatus allows the determination of beta spectra by simultaneous determination of the beta spectra in coincidence with four gamma rays predetermined in the gamma spectrum of the studied nuclide. Finally, in the last part, the experimental characteristics of the spectrometer (calibration in energy and transmission) and the first measurement of beta spectra ({sup 155}Sm) and of coincidences ({sup 24}Na), are given. (author) [French] Apres avoir brievement souligne l'interet pratique que presente un spectrometre multivoies pour l'etude des schemas de desintegration des corps radioactifs de courtes periodes (30 secondes au maximum), l'auteur effectue un rappel des caracteristiques theoriques bien connues d'un analyseur magnetique a champ uniforme (image d'une source etendue) calcul de la transmission et du pouvoir de resolution. Une deuxieme partie est consacree a la description de l'appareil realise d'apres ces calculs. Cet appareil permet le releve des spectres beta par detection, simultanee de dix groupes d'electrons d'energies differentes; il permet egalement le releve simultane des spectres beta en coincidence avec quatre rayonnements gammas preselectionnes a l'avance dans le spectre gamma du corps etudie. Dans une derniere partie enfin, sont donnees les caracteristiques experimentales du spectrometre (etalonnage en energie et en transmission) ainsi que les premiers resultats des etudes de spectre beta ({sup 155}Sm) et de coincidence ({sup 24}Na). (auteur)

  17. Review of modern double beta decay experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabash, A. S.

    2015-10-01

    The review of modern experiments on search and studying of double beta decay processes is done. Results of the most sensitive current experiments are discussed. The main attention is paid to EXO-200, KamLAND-Zen, GERDA-I and CUORE-0 experiments. Modern values of T1/2(2ν) and best present limits on neutrinoless double beta decay and double beta decay with Majoron emission are presented. Conservative limits on effective mass of a Majorana neutrino ( at the level of ˜ 0.01-0.1 eV are discussed.

  18. Silent ischemia and beta-blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egstrup, K

    1991-01-01

    and should also be directed at the other coronary artery risk factors of the patients. The effects of beta-blockers, which reduce the duration and frequency of silent ischemic episodes, is well described. The effect is most pronounced in the morning, when the frequency of ischemia is highest......, and the mechanism of action seems mainly mediated through a reduction in myocardial oxygen demand. beta-Blockers have shown effectiveness in both effort-induced angina and mixed angina, and increased anti-ischemic potency may be achieved by combination therapy with a calcium antagonist. Abrupt withdrawal of beta-blockers...

  19. Venus gravity - Analysis of Beta Regio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, P. B.; Sjogren, W. L.; Mottinger, N. A.; Bills, B. G.; Abbott, E.

    1982-01-01

    Radio tracking data acquired over Beta Regio were analyzed to obtain a surface mass distribution from which a detailed vertical gravity field was derived. In addition, a corresponding vertical gravity field was evaluated solely from the topography of the Beta region. A comparison of these two maps confirms the strong correlation between gravity and topography which was previously seen in line-of-sight gravity maps. It also demonstrates that the observed gravity is a significant fraction of that predicted from the topography alone. The effective depth of complete isostatic compensation for the Beta region is estimated to be 330 km, which is somewhat deeper than that found for other areas of Venus.

  20. Measurement of gross alpha and beta in air filter samples by using liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudheendran, V.; Baburajan, A.; Gaikwad, R.H.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The determination of gross alpha and gross beta in particulate air filter samples was carried out by alpha, beta discrimination method using Liquid Scintillation Analyzer by setting the PSA value at 55 for 5 ml 0.1 HCl plus 15 ml of Ultima Gold AB cocktail by using 241 Am and 90 Sr/ 90 Y sources. The standardized method was compared with the gross alpha and gross beta activity determined by conventional method of direct counting with end window G.M. counter and ZnS (Ag). The minimum detectable activity of LSA method was found to be 9.3 mBq and 17.7 mBq for gross alpha and gross beta respectively for 6000 sec compared to the conventional method of 9.8 mBq and 189 mBq respectively at the same counting time. The result of analysis by both method indicate that the alpha, beta discrimination set up of LSA method is highly effective in the determination of low level alpha, beta activity in air filter samples. (author)

  1. Autoantibodies to IA-2beta improve diabetes risk assessment in high-risk relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achenbach, P; Bonifacio, E; Williams, A J K

    2008-01-01

    -positive participants (median age 12.1 years; 57% male), 113 developed diabetes (5 year cumulative risk 56%), and 148 were also GADA-positive and IAA-positive (4Ab-positive). IA2betaA were detected in 137 (65%) ICA/IA2A-positive participants and were associated with an increased 5 year diabetes risk (IA2beta......A-positive 65 vs 39% in IA2betaA-negative, p=0.0002). The effect was most marked in 4Ab-positive relatives (72% vs 52%, p=0.003). Metabolic testing further refined risk assessment. Among 101 4Ab-positive relatives with IA2betaA, the 5 year risk was 94% in those with a low FPIR (vs 50% in those with a normal...... FPIR, p4Ab/IA2betaA-positive participants with a low FPIR was 1.5 years. Multivariate analysis confirmed IA2betaA status, antibody number, young...

  2. Beta-lipotropin is the major component of the plasma opioid response to surgical stress in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porro, C.A.; Facchinetti, F.; Bertellini, E.; Petraglia, F.; Stacca, R.; Barbieri, G.C.; Genazzani, A.R.

    1987-12-07

    There is growing experimental evidence that beta-endorphin immunoreactivity is raised by surgical stress in patients undergoing general anesthesia. As the assay methods employed to date did not allow to fully discriminate between beta-endorphin and its immediate precursor, beta-lipotropin, the authors have investigated in the present study plasma levels of these two peptides by separating them by chromatography on plasma extracts prior to radioimmunoassay. Beta-lipotropin, but not beta-endorphin, plasma levels were found to be significantly elevated during surgery in the general anesthesia group, while no change was found in either peptide concentration in the spinal one. Cortisol plasma levels also increased significantly 90 minutes after the beginning of surgery. Although the sampling time they adopted may have prevented them from detecting an early peak of beta-endorphin during the first 30 minutes of surgery, the major component of the pituitary opioid response to surgical stress appears to be related to beta-lipotropin. This is in agreement with results of experimental work on various kinds of stress in animals and humans and seems to rule out a role for plasma beta-endorphin in post-operative analgesia. 38 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  3. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senard Jean-Michel

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DβH deficiency is a very rare form of primary autonomic failure characterized by a complete absence of noradrenaline and adrenaline in plasma together with increased dopamine plasma levels. The prevalence of DβH deficiency is unknown. Only a limited number of cases with this disease have been reported. DβH deficiency is mainly characterized by cardiovascular disorders and severe orthostatic hypotension. First symptoms often start during a complicated perinatal period with hypotension, muscle hypotonia, hypothermia and hypoglycemia. Children with DβH deficiency exhibit reduced ability to exercise because of blood pressure inadaptation with exertion and syncope. Symptoms usually worsen progressively during late adolescence and early adulthood with severe orthostatic hypotension, eyelid ptosis, nasal stuffiness and sexual disorders. Limitation in standing tolerance, limited ability to exercise and traumatic morbidity related to falls and syncope may represent later evolution. The syndrome is caused by heterogeneous molecular alterations of the DBH gene and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Restoration of plasma noradrenaline to the normal range can be achieved by therapy with the synthetic precursor of noradrenaline, L-threo-dihydroxyphenylserine (DOPS. Oral administration of 100 to 500 mg DOPS, twice or three times daily, increases blood pressure and reverses the orthostatic intolerance.

  4. Evaluation of the transforming growth factor-beta activity in normal and dry eye human tears by CCL-185 cell bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaofen; De Paiva, Cintia S; Rao, Kavita; Li, De-Quan; Farley, William J; Stern, Michael; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2010-09-01

    To develop a new bioassay method using human lung epithelial cells (CCL-185) to assess activity of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) in human tear fluid from normal subjects and patients with dry eye. Two epithelial cell lines, mink lung cells (CCL-64) and human lung cells (CCL-185), were compared to detect the active form of TGF-beta by BrdU incorporation (quantitation of cell DNA synthesis) and WST assay (metabolic activity of viable cells). The effect of TGF-beta on the growth of CCL-185 cells was observed microscopically. Human tears from normal control subjects and patients with dry eye (DE) with and without Sjögren syndrome were evaluated for TGF-beta concentration by Luminex microbead assay, and TGF-beta activity by the CCL-185 cell growth inhibition bioassay. The metabolic activity of viable CCL-185 cells, measured by WST, was shown to be proportional to the TGF-beta1 concentration (R = 0.919) and confirmed by BrdU assay (R = 0.969). Compared with CCL-185, metabolic activity of viable cells and DNA synthesis, measured by WST and BrdU incorporation assays, were shown to be less proportional to the TGF-beta1 concentration in the CCL-64 line (R = 0.42 and 0.17, respectively). Coincubation with human anti-TGF-beta1 antibody (MAB-240) yielded a dose-dependent inhibition of TGF-beta1 (0.3 ng/mL) activity. CCL-185 cell growth observed microscopically was noted to decrease in response to increasing TGF-beta1 concentrations. Levels of immuodetectable TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2 were similar in normal and DE tears. TGF-beta bioactivity in DE human tears measured by the CCL-185 cells assay was found to be higher (9777.5 +/- 10481.9 pg/mL) than those in normal controls (4129.3 +/- 1342.9 pg/mL) (P tears and 37.6% TGF-beta in normal tears were found to be biologically active. The CCL-185 cell assay was found to be a suitable tool for assessing TGF-beta activity in human tears. Tear TGF-beta bioactivity increases in DE, particularly in Sjögren syndrome, where

  5. Correction of a splice-site mutation in the beta-globin gene stimulated by triplex-forming peptide nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chin, Joanna Y; Kuan, Jean Y; Lonkar, Pallavi S

    2008-01-01

    Splice-site mutations in the beta-globin gene can lead to aberrant transcripts and decreased functional beta-globin, causing beta-thalassemia. Triplex-forming DNA oligonucleotides (TFOs) and peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) have been shown to stimulate recombination in reporter gene loci in mammalian...... DNA fragments, can promote single base-pair modification at the start of the second intron of the beta-globin gene, the site of a common thalassemia-associated mutation. This single base pair change was detected by the restoration of proper splicing of transcripts produced from a green fluorescent...

  6. Beta-irradiation used for systemic radioimmunotherapy induces apoptosis and activates apoptosis pathways in leukaemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesen, Claudia; Lubatschofski, Annelie; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Kotzerke, Joerg; Buchmann, Inga; Reske, Sven N.

    2003-01-01

    Beta-irradiation used for systemic radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a promising treatment approach for high-risk leukaemia and lymphoma. In bone marrow-selective radioimmunotherapy, beta-irradiation is applied using iodine-131, yttrium-90 or rhenium-188 labelled radioimmunoconjugates. However, the mechanisms by which beta-irradiation induces cell death are not understood at the molecular level. Here, we report that beta-irradiation induced apoptosis and activated apoptosis pathways in leukaemia cells depending on doses, time points and dose rates. After beta-irradiation, upregulation of CD95 ligand and CD95 receptor was detected and activation of caspases resulting in apoptosis was found. These effects were completely blocked by the broad-range caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk. In addition, irradiation-mediated mitochondrial damage resulted in perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-9 activation and cytochrome c release. Bax, a death-promoting protein, was upregulated and Bcl-x L , a death-inhibiting protein, was downregulated. We also found higher apoptosis rates and earlier activation of apoptosis pathways after gamma-irradiation in comparison to beta-irradiation at the same dose rate. Furthermore, irradiation-resistant cells were cross-resistant to CD95 and CD95-resistant cells were cross-resistant to irradiation, indicating that CD95 and irradiation used, at least in part, identical effector pathways. These findings demonstrate that beta-irradiation induces apoptosis and activates apoptosis pathways in leukaemia cells using both mitochondrial and death receptor pathways. Understanding the timing, sequence and molecular pathways of beta-irradiation-mediated apoptosis may allow rational adjustment of chemo- and radiotherapeutic strategies. (orig.)

  7. Phoswich Detector for Simultaneous Counting of Alpha- and Beta-ray in a Pipe during Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, B.K.; Kim, G.H.; Woo, Z.H.; Jung, Y.H.; Oh, W.Z.; Lee, K.W.; Han, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    A great quantity of waste has been generated during the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. These wastes are contaminated with various types of alpha, beta, and gamma nuclides. The contamination level of the decommissioning wastes must be surveyed for free release, but it is very difficult to monitor the radioactive contamination level of the pipe inside using conventional counting methods because of the small diameter. In this study a Phoswich detector for simultaneous counting of alpha- and beta-rays in a pipe was developed. The Phoswich detector is convenient for monitoring of alpha and beta contamination using only a single detector, which was composed of thin cylindrical ZnS(Ag) and plastic scintillator. The scintillator for counting an alpha particle has been applied a cylindrical polymer composite sheet, having a double layer structure of an inorganic scintillator ZnS(Ag) layer adhered onto a polymer sub-layer. The sub-layer in an alpha particle counting sheet is made of polysulfone, working as a mechanical and optical support. The ZnS(Ag) layer is formed by coating a ternary mixture of ZnS(Ag), cyano resin as a binder and solvent onto the top of a sub-layer via the screen printing method. The other layer for counting a beta particle used a commercially available plastic scintillator. The plastic scintillator was simulated by using the Monte Carlo simulation method for detection of beta radiation emitted from internal surfaces of small diameter pipe. Simulation results predicted the optimum thickness and geometry of plastic scintillator at which energy absorption for beta radiation was maximized. Characteristics of the detector fabricated were also estimated. As a result, it was confirmed that detector capability was suitable for counting the beta ray. The overall counting results reveal that the developed Phoswich detector is efficient for simultaneous counting of alpha and beta ray in a pipe. (authors)

  8. Evaluation of induced radioactivity in 10 MeV-Electron irradiated spices, (2); [beta]-ray counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Tadashi; Furuta, Masakazu; Shibata, Setsuko; Matsunami, Tadao; Ito, Norio; Mizohata, Akira; Toratani, Hirokazu (Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan). Research Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology); Takeda, Atsuhiko

    1994-02-01

    In order to check radioactivity of beta-emmitters produced by ([gamma], n) reactions which could occur at energies up to 10 MeV, black pepper, white pepper, red pepper, ginger and turmeric were irradiated with 10 MeV electron from a linear accelerator to a dose of 100 kGy. Beta-rays were counted using a 2[pi] gas flow counter and a liquid scintillation counter. Any induced radioactivity could not be detected in irradiated samples. When inorganic compounds containing the nuclides in the list were artificially added in the samples and were irradiated, the [beta]-activities were detected. From the amount of observed radioactivities of [beta]-emmitters produced in the compounds as photonuclear products, it is concluded that the induced radioactivity in natural samples by 10 MeV-electron irradiation were far smaller than natural radioactivity from [sup 40]K contained in the samples and, hence, its biological effects should be negligible. (author).

  9. Systematic Risk on Istanbul Stock Exchange: Traditional Beta Coefficient Versus Downside Beta Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülfen TUNA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to test the validity of Downside Capital Asset Pricing Model (D-CAPM on the ISE. At the same time, the explanatory power of CAPM's traditional beta and D-CAPM's downside beta on the changes in the average return values are examined comparatively. In this context, the monthly data for seventy three stocks that are continuously traded on the ISE for the period 1991-2009 is used. Regression analysis is applied in this study. The research results have shown that D-CAPM is valid on the ISE. In addition, it is obtained that the power of downside beta coefficient is higher than traditional beta coefficient on explaining the return changes. Therefore, it can be said that the downside beta is superior to traditional beta in the ISE for chosen period.

  10. Beta-lactam antibiotics during pregnancy: a cross-sectional comparative study Zagreb-Novi Sad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erić, M; Leppée, M; Sabo, A; Culig, J

    2012-01-01

    During pregnancy, a number of changes occur in women's body, and some medications are safe and some are not. The aim of our study was to establish the possible correlation between use of beta-lactam antibiotics in pregnancy and occurrence of congenital malformations. The study included 893 pregnant women from Zagreb and 6099 pregnant women from Novi Sad. 527 pregnant women used beta-lactams. First part of the study (one month study) was performed at four maternity hospitals in Zagreb, Croatia. Second part were collected as a part of the study analysing the teratogenicity of drugs used in pregnancy, a longitudinal study performed in Novi Sad district. Pregnant women most frequently used antibacterial agents in the first trimester of pregnancy. They used 15 different antibacterial medications, most often beta-lactams. In Zagreb arm, out of the total number of pregnant women that used medications during pregnancy (859), 231 (26.9%) used beta-lactam antibiotics. Malformations were detected in 8 (3.5%) cases. The prevalence of malformations in newborns whose mothers did not take beta-lactam antibiotics in pregnancy (662) was 2.7% (18 newborns with malformations). In Novi Sad arm, out of the total number of pregnant women that used medications during pregnancy (2013), 296 (14.7%) used beta-lactam antibiotics. Malformations were detected in 14 (4.7%) cases. The prevalence of malformations in newborns whose mothers did not take beta-lactam antibiotics in pregnancy (5803) was 1.7% (99 newborns with malformations). The results show possible teratogenic potential even with those antibacterials which are considered safe (amoxicillin) but as those are usually minor malformations they often pass undetected. International pharmacoepidemiological studies of drug use in pregnancy could substantially contribute to the improvement of pharmacotherapy, and could be of great help in assessing the fetal risks.

  11. How Do Beta Blocker Drugs Affect Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in lieu of exercise. Exercise has many other benefits and is important to maintain your health. Read how physical activity improves the quality of life . Concerns About Exercising While on Beta Blockers “It’s important to remember ...

  12. Review of modern double beta decay experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabash, A. S., E-mail: barabash@itep.ru [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (NRC ”Kurchatov Institute”), B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-28

    The review of modern experiments on search and studying of double beta decay processes is done. Results of the most sensitive current experiments are discussed. The main attention is paid to EXO-200, KamLAND-Zen, GERDA-I and CUORE-0 experiments. Modern values of T{sub 1/2}(2ν) and best present limits on neutrinoless double beta decay and double beta decay with Majoron emission are presented. Conservative limits on effective mass of a Majorana neutrino (〈m{sub ν}〉 < 0.46 eV) and a coupling constant of Majoron to neutrino (〈g{sub ee}〉 < 1.3 · 10{sup −5}) are obtained. Prospects of search for neutrinoless double beta decay in new experiments with sensitivity to 〈m{sub ν}〉 at the level of ∼ 0.01-0.1 eV are discussed.

  13. Split Beta-Lactamase Complementation Assay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    A Search for the Molecular Better Half! Vaishali Verma ... These assays comprise of a protein molecule, ... ciferase, beta-galactosidase, GFP, g3p of M13 filamentous ph- .... sensors of protein–protein interactions, Nature Biotechnology, Vol.20,.

  14. Nuclear beta decay and the weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kean, D.C.

    1975-11-01

    Short notes are presented on various aspects of nuclear beta decay and weak interactions including: super-allowed transitions, parity violation, interaction strengths, coupling constants, and the current-current formalism of weak interaction. (R.L.)

  15. Beta cell proliferation and growth factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis; Svensson, C; Møldrup, Annette

    1999-01-01

    Formation of new beta cells can take place by two pathways: replication of already differentiated beta cells or neogenesis from putative islet stem cells. Under physiological conditions both processes are most pronounced during the fetal and neonatal development of the pancreas. In adulthood little...... increase in the beta cell number seems to occur. In pregnancy, however, a marked hyperplasia of the beta cells is observed both in rodents and man. Increased mitotic activity has been seen both in vivo and in vitro in islets exposed to placental lactogen (PL), prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH...... and activation of the tyrosine kinase JAK2 and the transcription factors STAT1 and 3. The activation of the insulin gene however also requires the distal part of the receptor and activation of calcium uptake and STAT5. In order to identify putative autocrine growth factors or targets for growth factors we have...

  16. Beta-binomial regression and bimodal utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan-Fen; Burgess, James F; Manning, Willard G; Maciejewski, Matthew L

    2013-10-01

    To illustrate how the analysis of bimodal U-shaped distributed utilization can be modeled with beta-binomial regression, which is rarely used in health services research. Veterans Affairs (VA) administrative data and Medicare claims in 2001-2004 for 11,123 Medicare-eligible VA primary care users in 2000. We compared means and distributions of VA reliance (the proportion of all VA/Medicare primary care visits occurring in VA) predicted from beta-binomial, binomial, and ordinary least-squares (OLS) models. Beta-binomial model fits the bimodal distribution of VA reliance better than binomial and OLS models due to the nondependence on normality and the greater flexibility in shape parameters. Increased awareness of beta-binomial regression may help analysts apply appropriate methods to outcomes with bimodal or U-shaped distributions. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  17. Encoded Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Produced

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    26.1 % Klebsiella spp were positive for extended spectrum beta-lactamases ... issue, and TEM, OXA and SHV type ESBL were the most common genotypes. ... mechanism of action. ..... and Multiplex PCR Screening of AmpC Genes from.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: beta-mannosidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enzyme beta-mannosidase. This enzyme works in the lysosomes , which are compartments that digest and recycle materials in the cell. Within lysosomes, the enzyme helps break down complexes of sugar ...

  19. Literature in Focus Beta Beams: Neutrino Beams

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    By Mats Lindroos (CERN) and Mauro Mezzetto (INFN Padova, Italy) Imperial Press, 2009 The beta-beam concept for the generation of electron neutrino beams was first proposed by Piero Zucchelli in 2002. The idea created quite a stir, challenging the idea that intense neutrino beams only could be produced from the decay of pions or muons in classical neutrino beams facilities or in future neutrino factories. The concept initially struggled to make an impact but the hard work by many machine physicists, phenomenologists and theoreticians over the last five years has won the beta-beam a well-earned position as one of the frontrunners for a possible future world laboratory for high intensity neutrino oscillation physics. This is the first complete monograph on the beta-beam concept. The book describes both technical aspects and experimental aspects of the beta-beam, providing students and scientists with an insight into the possibilities o...

  20. Assignment of the Raman lines in single crystal barium metaborate (beta-BaB sub 2 O sub 4)

    CERN Document Server

    Ney, P; Maillard, A; Polgar, K

    1998-01-01

    A Raman-scattering study performed on beta-BaB sub 2 O sub 4 (beta-BBO) at room temperature allows us to assign all the vibrational modes detected in the Raman spectra. The internal and external vibration modes are properly obtained by taking account of the light polarization, mode contamination and isotope effects. A correspondence between the lattice and the free-ring modes is also presented. (author)

  1. Field transportable beta spectrometer. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    The objective of the Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) Chicago Pile-5 Test Reactor (CP-5). The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that by using innovative and improved deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources, significant benefits can be achieved when compared to baseline D and D technologies. One such capability being addressed by the D and D Focus Area is rapid characterization for facility contaminants. The technology was field demonstrated during the period January 7 through January 9, 1997, and offers several potential benefits, including faster turn-around time, cost reduction, and reduction in secondary waste. This report describes a PC controlled, field-transportable beta counter-spectrometer which uses solid scintillation coincident counting and low-noise photomultiplier tubes to count element-selective filters and other solid media. The dry scintillation counter used in combination with an element-selective technology eliminates the mess and disposal costs of liquid scintillation cocktails. Software in the instrument provides real-time spectral analysis. The instrument can detect and measure Tc-99, Sr-90, and other beta emitters reaching detection limits in the 20 pCi range (with shielding). Full analysis can be achieved in 30 minutes. The potential advantages of a field-portable beta counter-spectrometer include the savings gained from field generated results. The basis for decision-making is provided with a rapid turnaround analysis in the field. This technology would be competitive with the radiometric analysis done in fixed laboratories and the associated chain of custody operations

  2. Micro-battery Development using beta radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, H. K.; Cheong, Y. M.; Lee, N. H.; Choi, Y. S.; Joo, Y. S.; Lee, J. S.; Jeon, B. H.

    2007-06-01

    Nuclear battery which use the beta radiation sources emitting the low penetration radiation energy from radioisotope can be applied as the long term (more than 10 years) micro power source in MEMS and nano components. This report describes the basic concept and principles of nuclear micro-battery and its fabrication in space and military field. In particular direct conversion method is described by investigating the electron-hole generation and recombination in p-n junction of silicon betavoltaics with beta radiation

  3. Beta/alpha continuous air monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, G.K.; Martz, D.E.

    1988-06-27

    A single deep layer silicon detector in combination with a microcomputer, recording both alpha and beta activity and the energy of each pulse, distinquishing energy peaks using a novel curve fitting technique to reduce the natural alpha counts in the energy region where plutonium and other transuranic alpha emitters are present, and using a novel algorithm to strip out radon daughter contribution to actual beta counts. 7 figs.

  4. Turbulence of high-beta plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvesyuk, V.I.; Chirkov, A.Y.

    1999-01-01

    Principals of numerical modelling of turbulence in high-beta plasma (β > 0.1) are discussed. Creation of transport model for axial symmetric nonuniform confining magnetic field is considered. Numerical model of plasma turbulence in FRC is presented. The physical and mathematical models are formulated from nonuniform axial symmetric high-beta plasma. It is shown that influence of waves arise under this plasma conditions lead to chaotic motion of charged particles across magnetic field. (author)

  5. Double beta decay of 82Se

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, S.R.; Hahn, A.A.; Moe, M.K.; Nelson, M.A.; Vient, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    The two-neutrino double beta decay of 82 Se has been measured during a 20 244 h run resulting in a half-life of 1.08 -0.06 +0.26 x10 20 years (68% C.L.). No candidate events for the zero-neutrino double beta decay during 21 924 h results in a half-life limit of 2.7x10 22 years at the 68% confidence level

  6. Stabilization of mismatch repair gene PMS2 by glycogen synthase kinase 3beta is implicated in the treatment of cervical carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Shu, Yi Min; Wang, Shu Fang; Da, Bang Hong; Wang, Ze Hua; Li, Hua Bin

    2010-02-23

    PMS2 expression loss was reported in a variety of human. However, its importance has not been fully understood in cervical carcinoma. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of PMS2 in cervical carcinoma and evaluate the significance of mismatch repair gene PMS2 regulated by glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta) in chemosensitivity. We examined PMS2 and phosphorylated GSK-3beta(s9) expression in cervical carcinoma tissues using immunohistochemical staining. Furthermore, we detected PMS2 expression in HeLa cells and evaluate the interaction with GSK-3beta after transfection with GSK-3beta by small interference RNA (siRNA), co-immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting. We also evaluated the effect of PMS2 transfection on HeLa cells' chemosensitivity to cisplatin treatment. We found significant downregulation of PMS2 in cervical carcinoma, which was negatively associated with phosphorylated GSK-3beta (s9). Furthermore, we demonstrated GSK-3beta transfection was able to interact with PMS2 and enhance PMS2 production in HeLa cells, and increased PMS2 production was responsible for enhanced chemosensitivity. Our results provide the evidence that stabilization of PMS2 production by GSK-3beta was important to improve chemosensitization, indicating the significance of GSK-3beta-related PMS2 downregulation in the development of cervical carcinoma and in developing a potential strategy for chemotherapy.

  7. Isotope Effects in the Bonds of beta-CrOOH and beta-CrOOD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørlund Christensen, A.; Hansen, P.; Lehmann, M. S.

    1976-01-01

    Samples of orthorhombic chromium oxide hydroxide, beta -CrOOH, and the deuterated compound, beta -CrOOD, were prepared hydrothermally. The crystal structures were determined by powder profile refinement technique using neutron diffraction data. Unit cells are: beta -CrOOH: a equals 4. 862(2) A, b...... equals 4. 298(a) A, c equals 2. 995(1) A; beta -CrOOD: a equals 4. 873(5) A, b equals 4. 332(7) A, c equals 2. 963(2) A, with Z equals 2. The space group is P2//1nm or Pnnm....

  8. Production of beta-xylanase and beta-xylosidase by the extremely halophilic archaeon Halorhabdus utahensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wainø, M.; Ingvorsen, K.

    2003-01-01

    -xylosidase stabilities, approximately 55% and 83% of the initial beta-xylanase and beta-xylosidase activities, respectively, remained after 24 h incubation at 20% NaCl. The enzymes were also shown to be slightly thermophilic: P-xylanase activity exhibiting two optima at 55degrees and 70degreesC, while beta......The extremely halophilic archaeon, Halorhabdus utahensis, isolated from the Great Salt Lake, Utah, produced beta-xylanase and beta-xylosidase activities. Both enzymes were active over a broad NaCl range from near zero to 30% NaCl when tested with culture broth. A broad NaCl optimum was observed...... for beta-xylanase activity between 5% and 15% NaCl, while beta-xylosidase activity was highest at 5% NaCl. Almost half of the maximum activities remained at 27%-30% NaCl for both enzyme activities. When dialyzed culture supernatant and culture broth were employed for determination of beta-xylanase and beta...

  9. Thymosin Beta-4 Induces Mouse Hair Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Gao

    Full Text Available Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4 is known to induce hair growth and hair follicle (HF development; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. We generated mice that overexpressed Tβ4 in the epidermis, as well as Tβ4 global knockout mice, to study the role of Tβ4 in HF development and explore the mechanism of Tβ4 on hair growth. To study Tβ4 function, we depilated control and experimental mice and made tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E. To explore the effect of Tβ4 on hair growth and HF development, the mRNA and protein levels of Tβ4 and VEGF were detected by real-time PCR and western blotting in control and experimental mice. Protein expression levels and the phosphorylation of P38, ERK and AKT were also examined by western blotting. The results of depilation indicated that hair re-growth was faster in Tβ4-overexpressing mice, but slower in knockout mice. Histological examination revealed that Tβ4-overexpressing mice had a higher number of hair shafts and HFs clustered together to form groups, while the HFs of control mice and knockout mice were separate. Hair shafts in knockout mice were significantly reduced in number compared with control mice. Increased Tβ4 expression at the mRNA and protein levels was confirmed in Tβ4-overexpressing mice, which also had increased VEGF expression. On the other hand, knockout mice had reduced levels of VEGF expression. Mechanistically, Tβ4-overexpressing mice showed increased protein expression levels and phosphorylation of P38, ERK and AKT, whereas knockout mice had decreased levels of both expression and phosphorylation of these proteins. Tβ4 appears to regulate P38/ERK/AKT signaling via its effect on VEGF expression, with a resultant effect on the speed of hair growth, the pattern of HFs and the number of hair shafts.

  10. Evaluation of partial beta-adrenoceptor agonist activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipworth, B J; Grove, A

    1997-01-01

    A partial beta-adrenoceptor (beta-AR) agonist will exhibit opposite agonist and antagonist activity depending on the prevailing degree of adrenergic tone or the presence of a beta-AR agonist with higher intrinsic activity. In vivo partial beta-AR agonist activity will be evident at rest with low endogenous adrenergic tone, as for example with chronotropicity (beta 1/beta 2), inotropicity (beta 1) or peripheral vasodilatation and finger tremor (beta 2). beta-AR blocking drugs which have partial agonist activity may exhibit a better therapeutic profile when used for hypertension because of maintained cardiac output without increased systemic vascular resistance, along with an improved lipid profile. In the presence of raised endogenous adrenergic tone such as exercise or an exogenous full agonist, beta-AR subtype antagonist activity will become evident in terms of effects on exercise induced heart rate (beta 1) and potassium (beta 2) responses. Reduction of exercise heart rate will occur to a lesser degree in the case of a beta-adrenoceptor blocker with partial beta 1-AR agonist activity compared with a beta-adrenoceptor blocker devoid of partial agonist activity. This may result in reduced therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of angina on effort when using beta-AR blocking drugs with partial beta 1-AR agonist activity. Effects on exercise hyperkalaemia are determined by the balance between beta 2-AR partial agonist activity and endogenous adrenergic activity. For predominantly beta 2-AR agonist such as salmeterol and salbutamol, potentiation of exercise hyperkalaemia occurs. For predominantly beta 2-AR antagonists such as carteolol, either potentiation or attenuation of exercise hyperkalaemia occurs at low and high doses respectively. beta 2-AR partial agonist activity may also be expressed as antagonism in the presence of an exogenous full agonist, as for example attenuation of fenoterol induced responses by salmeterol. Studies are required to investigate whether

  11. Beta adrenergic receptors in human cavernous tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhabuwala, C.B.; Ramakrishna, C.V.; Anderson, G.F.

    1985-04-01

    Beta adrenergic receptor binding was performed with /sup 125/I iodocyanopindolol on human cavernous tissue membrane fractions from normal tissue and transsexual procedures obtained postoperatively, as well as from postmortem sources. Isotherm binding studies on normal fresh tissues indicated that the receptor density was 9.1 fmoles/mg. with a KD of 23 pM. Tissue stored at room temperature for 4 to 6 hours, then at 4C in saline solution for 19 to 20 hours before freezing showed no significant changes in receptor density or affinity, and provided evidence for the stability of postmortem tissue obtained within the same time period. Beta receptor density of 2 cavernous preparations from transsexual procedures was not significantly different from normal control tissues, and showed that high concentrations of estrogen received by these patients had no effect on beta adrenergic receptor density. Displacement of /sup 125/iodocyanopindolol by 5 beta adrenergic agents demonstrated that 1-propranolol had the greatest affinity followed by ICI 118,551, zinterol, metoprolol and practolol. When the results of these displacement studies were subjected to Scatfit, non- linear regression line analysis, a single binding site was described. Based on the relative potency of the selective beta adrenergic agents it appears that these receptors were of the beta 2 subtype.

  12. Other characterizations of $\\beta$-$\\theta$-R0 topological spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Caldas Cueva

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we give other characterizations of $\\beta$-$\\theta$-$%R_0$ and also introduce a new separation axiom called$\\beta$-$\\theta$-$R_1$. It turns out that $\\beta$-$\\theta$-$R_1$ isstronger that $\\beta$-$\\theta$-$R_0$

  13. Estimating Security Betas Using Prior Information Based on Firm Fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cosemans, Mathijs; Frehen, Rik; Schotman, Peter; Bauer, Rob

    2016-01-01

    We propose a hybrid approach for estimating beta that shrinks rolling window estimates toward firm-specific priors motivated by economic theory. Our method yields superior forecasts of beta that have important practical implications. First, unlike standard rolling window betas, hybrid betas carry a

  14. Beta decay and rhenium cosmochronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashktorab, K.

    1992-01-01

    Among the problems which limit the use of the 187 Re/ 187 Os isobaric pair as a cosmochronometer for the age of the galaxy and the universe are the uncertainties in the partial half-lives of the continuum and bound state decays of 187 Re. While the total half-life of the decay is well established, the partial half-life for the continuum decay is uncertain, and several measurements are not compatible. A high temperature quartz proportional counter was used in this work to remeasure the continuum β - decay of 187 Re. The β endpoint energy for the decay of neutral 187 Re to singly ionized 187 Os of 2.75 ± 0.06 keV agrees with the earlier results. The corresponding half-life of (45 ± 3) x 10 9 years improves and agrees with the earlier measurement of Payne and Drever and refutes other measurements. Based on the new half-life for the continuum decay and a total half-life of (43.5 ± 1.3) x 10 9 years reported by Linder et al., the branching ratio for the bound state decay into discrete atomic states is estimated to be (3 ± 6)% in agreement with the most recent calculated theoretical branching ratio of approximately 1%. Anomalies in beta spectra reported by J.J. Simpson and others have been attributed to a 17 keV heavy-neutrino admixture. If confirmed, the implications from the existence of such a neutrino for particle and astrophysics would be significant. A multiwire open-quotes wall-lessclose quotes stainless steel proportional counter has been used in the present work to investigate the spectral shape of the β decay of 63 Ni. No anomalies in the spectral shape were observed which could be attributed to the presence of 17 keV heavy neutrino

  15. DNA polymerase beta participates in mitochondrial DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sykora, P; Kanno, S; Akbari, M

    2017-01-01

    We have detected DNA polymerase beta (Polβ), known as a key nuclear base excision repair (BER) protein, in mitochondrial protein extracts derived from mammalian tissue and cells. Manipulation of the N-terminal sequence affected the amount of Polβ in the mitochondria. Using Polβ fragments, mitocho......We have detected DNA polymerase beta (Polβ), known as a key nuclear base excision repair (BER) protein, in mitochondrial protein extracts derived from mammalian tissue and cells. Manipulation of the N-terminal sequence affected the amount of Polβ in the mitochondria. Using Polβ fragments......, mitochondrial-specific protein partners were identified, with the interactors mainly functioning in DNA maintenance and mitochondrial import. Of particular interest was the identification of the proteins TWINKLE, SSBP1 and TFAM, all of which are mitochondria specific DNA effectors and are known to function...... in the nucleoid. Polβ directly interacted with, and influenced the activity of, the mitochondrial helicase TWINKLE. Human kidney cells with Polβ knock-out (KO) had higher endogenous mtDNA damage. Mitochondrial extracts derived from heterozygous Polβ mouse tissue and KO cells had lower nucleotide incorporation...

  16. A scintillation detector for measuring inert gas beta rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Hengchang; Yu Yunchang

    1989-10-01

    The inert gas beta ray scintillation detector, which is made of organic high polymers as the base and coated with compact fluorescence materials, is a lower energy scintillation detector. It can be used in the nuclear power plant and radioactive fields as a lower energy monitor to detect inert gas beta rays. Under the conditions of time constant 10 minutes, confidence level is 99.7% (3σ), the intensity of gamma rays 2.6 x 10 -7 C/kg ( 60 Co), and the minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of this detector for 133 Xe 1.2 Bq/L. The measuring range for 133 Xe is 11.1 ∼ 3.7 x 10 4 Bq/L. After a special measure is taken, the device is able to withstand 3 x 10 5 Pa gauge pressure. In the loss-of-cooolant-accident, it can prevent the radioactive gas of the detector from leaking. This detector is easier to be manufactured and decontaminated

  17. The properties of the gas around beta Pictoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, A.

    2014-09-01

    Debris disks are often described as gas-free. Compared to protoplanetary disks, they do in general have low gas abundances, as evidenced by the very few detections of sub-mm CO emission from bona fide debris disks to date. However, some debris disks do contain low levels of detectable gas, typically seen in absorption against the stellar spectrum at UV and optical wavelengths. Of all debris disks, the gas in the Beta Pic disk is the best characterized and understood. Here, I describe those characteristics and explain our current understanding of the nature of the gas. Like the dust, the gas is secondary material coming from planetesimal destruction, and provides opportunities for sensitive probes of the bulk composition of young planetary bodies. The gas can also be a sensitive tracer of disk asymmetries and dynamical interactions, as shown by new ALMA observations of CO emission from Beta Pic (see attached infographic and YouTube video explaining the discovery). Very likely, every debris disk contains its due portion of gas, but how much that is, we do not yet know. We are poised to answer this question with the advent of ALMA. With its unprecedented sensitivity and spatial resolution, ALMA may usher in a golden age for general studies of debris gas.

  18. 4{pi} proportional counter for absolute measurement of {beta}-emitters; Compteur 4{pi} proportionnel destine a la mesure absolue d'emetteurs {beta}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perolat, J P; Laine, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The 4{pi} counter is commonly used to measure the activity of {beta} sources, the one we describe does not advance a new conception but the issue of several years of investigations. The apparatus presents good performances about the qualities commonly required in that kind of counter: detection efficiency, plateau and dead time. Moreover technical characteristics give a great flexibility in use, particularly a possibility of adaptation in a {beta},{gamma} coincidence unit. (authors) [French] Le compteur 4{pi} proportionnel est couramment, utilise pour mesurer l'activite de sources {beta}, celui que nous decrivons ne represente pas une conception nouvelle, mais plutot l'aboutissement de plusieurs annees d'etudes. Cette installation presente des performances satisfaisantes en ce qui concerne les qualites habituellement requises dans ce type de compteur: l'efficacite de detection, le palier et le temps mort. En outre, certaines caracteristiques techniques qui lui sont propres lui conferent une grande souplesse d'utilisation, en particulier la possibilite d'adaptation a un ensemble de mesures par coincidences 4{pi} {beta} {gamma}. (auteurs)

  19. Beta2- and beta3-adrenoceptors activate glucose uptake in chick astrocytes by distinct mechanisms: a mechanism for memory enhancement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Dana S; Summers, Roger J; Gibbs, Marie E

    2007-11-01

    Isoprenaline, acting at beta-adrenoceptors (ARs), enhances memory formation in single trial discriminated avoidance learning in day-old chicks by mechanisms involving alterations in glucose and glycogen metabolism. Earlier studies of memory consolidation in chicks indicated that beta3-ARs enhanced memory by increasing glucose uptake, whereas beta2-ARs enhance memory by increasing glycogenolysis. This study examines the ability of beta-ARs to increase glucose uptake in chick forebrain astrocytes. The beta-AR agonist isoprenaline increased glucose uptake in a concentration-dependent manner, as did insulin. Glucose uptake was increased by the beta2-AR agonist zinterol and the beta3-AR agonist CL316243, but not by the beta1-AR agonist RO363. In chick astrocytes, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction studies showed that beta1-, beta2-, and beta3-AR mRNA were present, whereas radioligand-binding studies showed the presence of only beta2- and beta3-ARs. beta-AR or insulin-mediated glucose uptake was inhibited by phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase and protein kinase C inhibitors, suggesting a possible interaction between the beta-AR and insulin pathways. However beta2- and beta3-ARs increase glucose uptake by two different mechanisms: beta2-ARs via a Gs-cAMP-protein kinase A-dependent pathway, while beta3-ARs via interactions with Gi. These results indicate that activation of beta2- and beta3-ARs causes glucose uptake in chick astrocytes by distinct mechanisms, which may be relevant for memory enhancement.

  20. Exercise- and cold-induced changes in plasma beta-endorphin and beta-lipotropin in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, M; Van Dijk, J P; Graham, T E; Bonen, A; George, J C

    1987-02-01

    The plasma beta-endorphin (beta-EP) and beta-lipotropin (beta-LPH) response of men, eumenorrheic women, and amenorrheic women (n = 6) to 1 h of rest or to a bicycle ergometer test [20 min at 30% maximum O2 uptake (VO2max), 20 min at 60% VO2max, and at 90% VO2max to exhaustion] was studied in both normal (22 degrees C) and cold (5 degrees C) environments. beta-EP and beta-LPH was measured by radioimmunoassay in venous samples collected every 20 min during rest or after each exercise bout. Exhaustive exercise at ambient temperature (Ta) 22 degrees C induced significant increases in plasma beta-EP and beta-LPH in all subjects as did work at 60% VO2max in amenorrheic and eumenorrheic women. During work at Ta 5 degrees C, the relative increase in beta-EP and beta-LPH was suppressed in eumenorrheic women and completely prevented in amenorrheic women. Although significant lowering of beta-EP and beta-LPH was observed in men and eumenorrheic women during rest at 5 degrees C, amenorrheic women maintained precold exposure levels. These findings suggest that plasma beta-EP and beta-LPH may reflect a thermoregulatory response to heat load. There appears to be a sexual dimorphism in exercise- and cold-induced release of beta-EP and beta-LPH and amenorrhea may be accompanied by alterations in these responses.

  1. Beta-1-Selective Beta-Blockers and Cognitive Functions in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkauskas, Julius; Noreikaite, Aurelija; Bunevicius, Adomas; Brozaitiene, Julija; Neverauskas, Julius; Mickuviene, Narseta; Bunevicius, Robertas

    2016-01-01

    The association between current beta-1-selective beta-blocker use and cognitive function was evaluated in 722 patients with coronary artery disease without dementia. Beta-1-selective beta-blocker use was associated with worse incidental learning independently of sociodemographic characteristics, clinical coronary artery disease severity, and depression/anxiety.

  2. Concentration of carcinoembryonic antigen alpha-fetoprotein and beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin in the serum of coke oven workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snit, M. [Silesian Medical Academy, Zabrze (Poland)

    1993-01-01

    Increased levels of carcinoembryonic antigen and {alpha}-fetoprotein were found in blood serum of coke oven workers, and also to some extent in smokers and in residents of industrial cities. The {beta} subunit of chorionic gonadotropin was barely detectable.

  3. Long-term transfer and expression of the human beta-globin gene in a mouse transplant model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftopoulos, H; Ward, M; Leboulch, P; Bank, A

    1997-11-01

    Somatic gene therapy of hemoglobinopathies depends initially on the demonstration of safe, efficient gene transfer and long-term, high-level expression of the transferred human beta-globin gene in animal models. We have used a beta-globin gene/beta-locus control region retroviral vector containing several modifications to optimize gene transfer and expression in a mouse transplant model. In this report we show that transplantation of beta-globin-transduced hematopoietic cells into lethally irradiated mice leads to the continued presence of the gene up to 8 months posttransplantation. The transferred human beta-globin gene is detected in 3 of 5 mice surviving long term (>4 months) transplanted with bone marrow cells transduced with high-titer virus. Southern blotting confirms the presence of the unrearranged 5.1-kb human beta-globin gene-containing provirus in 2 of these mice. In addition, long-term expression of the transferred gene is seen in 2 mice at levels of 5% and 20% that of endogenous murine beta-globin at 6 and 8 months posttransplantation. We further document stem cell transduction by the successful transfer and high-level expression of the human beta-globin gene from mice transduced 9 months earlier into irradiated secondary recipient mice. These results demonstrate high-level, long-term somatic human beta-globin gene transfer into the hematopoietic stem cells of an animal for the first time, and suggest the potential feasibility of a retroviral gene therapy approach to sickle cell disease and the beta thalassemias.

  4. Genetic models rule out a major role of beta cell glycogen in the control of glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir-Coll, Joan; Duran, Jordi; Slebe, Felipe; García-Rocha, Mar; Gomis, Ramon; Gasa, Rosa; Guinovart, Joan J

    2016-05-01

    Glycogen accumulation occurs in beta cells of diabetic patients and has been proposed to partly mediate glucotoxicity-induced beta cell dysfunction. However, the role of glycogen metabolism in beta cell function and its contribution to diabetes pathophysiology remain poorly understood. We investigated the function of beta cell glycogen by studying glucose homeostasis in mice with (1) defective glycogen synthesis in the pancreas; and (2) excessive glycogen accumulation in beta cells. Conditional deletion of the Gys1 gene and overexpression of protein targeting to glycogen (PTG) was accomplished by Cre-lox recombination using pancreas-specific Cre lines. Glucose homeostasis was assessed by determining fasting glycaemia, insulinaemia and glucose tolerance. Beta cell mass was determined by morphometry. Glycogen was detected histologically by periodic acid-Schiff's reagent staining. Isolated islets were used for the determination of glycogen and insulin content, insulin secretion, immunoblots and gene expression assays. Gys1 knockout (Gys1 (KO)) mice did not exhibit differences in glucose tolerance or basal glycaemia and insulinaemia relative to controls. Insulin secretion and gene expression in isolated islets was also indistinguishable between Gys1 (KO) and controls. Conversely, despite effective glycogen overaccumulation in islets, mice with PTG overexpression (PTG(OE)) presented similar glucose tolerance to controls. However, under fasting conditions they exhibited lower glycaemia and higher insulinaemia. Importantly, neither young nor aged PTG(OE) mice showed differences in beta cell mass relative to age-matched controls. Finally, a high-fat diet did not reveal a beta cell-autonomous phenotype in either model. Glycogen metabolism is not required for the maintenance of beta cell function. Glycogen accumulation in beta cells alone is not sufficient to trigger the dysfunction or loss of these cells, or progression to diabetes.

  5. Discoidin domain receptor 1 is activated independently of beta(1) integrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, W; Brakebusch, C; Fässler, R

    2000-01-01

    independent of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. In cells that endogenously express both DDR1 and the EGF receptor, stimulation with EGF does not induce DDR activation. Third, we detected full DDR1 activation after collagen stimulation in cells that have been treated with blocking antibodies...... for alpha(2)beta(1) integrin or in cells with a targeted deletion of the beta(1) integrin gene. Finally, we show that overexpression of dominant negative DDR1 in the myoblast cell line C2C12 blocks cellular differentiation and the formation of myofibers....

  6. Analysis method for beta-gamma coincidence spectra from radio-xenon isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wenjing; Yin Jingpeng; Huang Xiongliang; Cheng Zhiwei; Shen Maoquan; Zhang Yang

    2012-01-01

    Radio-xenon isotopes monitoring is one important method for the verification of CTBT, what includes the measurement methods of HPGe γ spectrometer and β-γ coincidence. The article describes the analytic flowchart and method of three-dimensional beta-gamma coincidence spectra from β-γ systems, and analyses in detail the principles and methods of the regions of interest of coincidence spectra and subtracting the interference, finally gives the formula of radioactivity of Xenon isotopes and minimum detectable concentrations. Studying on the principles of three-dimensional beta-gamma coincidence spectra, which can supply the foundation for designing the software of β-γ coincidence systems. (authors)

  7. Defect reactions of implanted Li in ZnSe observed by $\\beta$-NMR

    CERN Document Server

    Kroll, F; Füllgrabe, M; Mai, F; Marbach, K; Peters, D; Geithner, W; Kappertz, S; Keim, M; Kloos, S; Wilbert, S; Neugart, R; Lievens, P; Georg, U

    2001-01-01

    Using $\\beta$-radiation-detected nuclear magnetic resonance ($\\beta$-NMR), we investigated the microscopic behavior of implanted $^{8}$Li in nominally undoped ZnSe crystals. From the temperature-dependent amplitudes of high-resolution NMR spectra we conclude a gradual interstitial-to-substitutional site change between 200 and 350 K. This is in accordance with earlier emission channeling results. We argue that this conversion proceeds via Li$_{i}^+$ + V$_{\\textrm{Zn}}^{2-}$ to ${\\textrm{Li}}_{\\textrm{Zn}}^{-}$ and involves implantation-related Zn vacancies. (13 refs).

  8. Overview of total beta activity index and beta rest in surface waters of the Spanish rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol, L.; Payeras, J.; Pablo, M. A. de

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to give an overview of the index of total beta activity and the activity index beta rest in surface waters of the main Spanish rivers. These indices are a parameter over water quality that CEDEX comes determined by order of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment, in water policy. (Author)

  9. BetaTPred: prediction of beta-TURNS in a protein using statistical algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harpreet; Raghava, G P S

    2002-03-01

    beta-turns play an important role from a structural and functional point of view. beta-turns are the most common type of non-repetitive structures in proteins and comprise on average, 25% of the residues. In the past numerous methods have been developed to predict beta-turns in a protein. Most of these prediction methods are based on statistical approaches. In order to utilize the full potential of these methods, there is a need to develop a web server. This paper describes a web server called BetaTPred, developed for predicting beta-TURNS in a protein from its amino acid sequence. BetaTPred allows the user to predict turns in a protein using existing statistical algorithms. It also allows to predict different types of beta-TURNS e.g. type I, I', II, II', VI, VIII and non-specific. This server assists the users in predicting the consensus beta-TURNS in a protein. The server is accessible from http://imtech.res.in/raghava/betatpred/

  10. Automation of electrostatic and magnetic beta-spectrometers; Avtomatizatsiya ehlektrostaticheskogo i magnitnogo {beta}-spektrometra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorov, V T; Petev, P A

    1996-12-31

    Paper describes control units of voltage and current NM respectively, for electrostatic and magnetic beta-spectrometers. These units may be designed on the basis of either SPELMAN company voltage devider ensuring 0.5 accuracy or using a computer modification of feedback. Software for automated electrostatic beta-spectrometer made according to CAMAC standards is considered. 5 figs.

  11. Superconducting tests of beta = 0.1 and beta = 0.2 resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, D.W.; Amsbaugh, J.F.; Corcoran, D.T.; Howe, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Several low beta (0.10) and two high beta (0.21) lead plated copper quarter wave resonators were cooled down, multipactor conditioned, tested, helium conditioned, and retested. The choice of the quarter wave resonator and of the lead plated copper technology is discussed. The fabrication is described and techniques for conditioning the resonators are presented. Performances are presented. 5 refs., 4 figs

  12. Integrins beta 5, beta 3 and alpha v are apically distributed in endometrial epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, J D; Spanswick, C; Behzad, F; Kimber, S J; Vićovac, L

    1996-07-01

    Several adhesion molecules have been shown to occur at the surface of endometrial cells. One of these is the integrin alpha v subunit which associates with various beta chains including beta 5. We demonstrate the presence of integrin beta 5 polypeptide in human endometrial epithelial cells throughout the menstrual cycle using immunocytochemistry with monospecific antibodies, and at the mRNA level by thermal amplification from endometrial cDNA. Integrin beta 5 is also found in a population of bone marrow-derived cells. A notable feature of the distribution of the beta 5 subunit in the glandular and luminal epithelium is its apical localization, which may suggest an involvement in implantation. However, no evidence was found for regulated expression of epithelial beta 5. In mouse, the beta 5 subunit is found at both the apical and basal surface of epithelial cells and expression is essentially oestrous cycle-independent. Comparisons are made in both species with the distribution of the alpha v and beta 3 subunits which also localize to the apical epithelium.

  13. BETA SPECTRA. I. Negatrons spectra; ESPECTROS BETA. I. Espectros simples de negatrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Malonda, A; Garcia-Torano, E

    1978-07-01

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 62 negatrons emitters have been computed introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. These spectra are plotted vs. energy, once normal i sed, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (Author)

  14. Alpha-in-air monitor for continuous monitoring based on alpha to beta ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somayaji, K.S.; Venkataramani, R.; Swaminathan, N.; Pushparaja

    1997-01-01

    Measurement of long-lived alpha activity collected on a filter paper in continuous air monitoring of ambient working environment is difficult due to interference from much larger concentrations of short-lived alpha emitting daughter products of 222 Rn and 220 Rn. However, the ratio between the natural alpha and beta activity is approximately constant and this constancy of the ratio is used to discriminate against short-lived natural radioactivity in continuous air monitoring. Detection system was specially designed for the purpose of simultaneous counting of alpha and beta activity deposited on the filter paper during continuous monitoring. The activity ratios were calculated and plotted against the monitoring duration up to about six hours. Monitoring was carried out in three facilities with different ventilation conditions. Presence of any long-lived alpha contamination on the filter paper results in increase in the alpha to beta ratio. Long-lived 239 Pu contamination of about 16 DAC.h could be detected after about 45 minutes of commencement of the sampling. The experimental results using prototype units have shown that the approach of using alpha to beta activity ratio method to detect long-lived alpha activity in the presence of short-lived natural activity is satisfactory. (author)

  15. Gross alpha and gross beta determination in surface and groundwater water by liquid scintillation counting (LSC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Ligia S.; Moreira, Rubens M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study has used 40 samples of groundwater and surface water collected at four different sites along the period of one year in Brumadinho and Nova Lima, two municipalities in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, as part of a more extensive study aiming at determination of the natural radioactivity in the water used for domestic use. These two sites are inside an Environmental Protection Area is located in a region of very intensive iron ore exploration. In addition of mineral resources, the region has a geological characteristic that includes quartzitic conglomerates associated with uranium. Radioactivity levels were determined via liquid scintillation counting (LSC), a fast and high counting efficiency method that can be advantageously employed to determine gross alpha and gross beta activity in liquid samples. Previously to gross alpha and gross beta counting the samples were acidified with concentrated HNO 3 in the field. The technique involved a pre-concentration of the sample to obtain a low detection limit. Specific details of the employed methodology are commented. The results showed that concentrations of gross alpha natural activity and gross beta values ranged from less than the detection limit of the equipment (0.03 Bq.L -1 ) to 0.275 ± 0.05 Bq.L -1 for gross alpha. As regards gross beta, all samples were below the limit of detection. (author)

  16. Kinematic shifts of beta -delayed particles as a probe of beta - nu angular correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Clifford, E T H; Evans, H C; Fästermann, T; Hagberg, E; Hardy, J C; Jackson, K P; Koslowsky, V T; Schmeing, H; Schrewe, U J

    1981-01-01

    Beta-delayed particles undergo a kinematic shift in energy due to recoil motion of the daughter nucleus following beta decay. A careful measurement of this energy shift can be used to establish the ratio of vector to axial vector components in beta transitions. Alpha-beta coincidence data for the beta-delayed alpha decay of /sup 20/Na have been obtained. Component ratios for 6 transitions including the superallowed branch are found. Limits on charge dependent mixing with the analogue state are deduced for 5 states in /sup 20/Ne*. For the superallowed branch the axial vector component is found; the polar vector component is deduced and establishes a value for the vector weak coupling constant of G/sub V/=(1.355+or-0.036)*10/sup -49/ erg cm /sup 3/. (13 refs).

  17. Regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) after ionizing radiation; Regulation der Glykogen Synthase Kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) nach ionisierender Strahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehme, K.A.

    2006-12-15

    Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) phosphorylates the Mdm2 protein in the central domain. This phosphorylation is absolutely required for p53 degradation. Ionizing radiation inactivates GSK-3{beta} by phosphorylation at serine 9 and in consequence prevents Mdm2 mediated p53 degradation. During the work for my PhD I identified Akt/PKB as the kinase that phosphorylates GSK-3{beta} at serine 9 after ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation leads to phosphorylation of Akt/PKB at threonine 308 and serine 473. The PI3 Kinase inhibitor LY294002 completely abolished Akt/PKB serine 473 phosphorylation and prevented the induction of GSK-3{beta} serine 9 phosphorylation after ionizing radiation. Interestingly, the most significant activation of Akt/PKB after ionizing radiation occurred in the nucleus while cytoplasmic Akt/PKB was only weakly activated after radiation. By using siRNA, I showed that Akt1/PKBa, but not Akt2/PKB{beta}, is required for phosphorylation of GSK- 3{beta} at serine 9 after ionizing radiation. Phosphorylation and activation of Akt/PKB after ionizing radiation depends on the DNA dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), a member of the PI3 Kinase family, that is activated by free DNA ends. Both, in cells from SCID mice and after knockdown of the catalytic subunit of DNA-PK by siRNA in osteosarcoma cells, phosphorylation of Akt/PKB at serine 473 and of GSK-3{beta} at serine 9 was completely abolished. Consistent with the principle that phosphorylation of GSK-3 at serine 9 contributes to p53 stabilization after radiation, the accumulation of p53 in response to ionizing radiation was largely prevented by downregulation of DNA-PK. From these results I conclude, that ionizing radiation induces a signaling cascade that leads to Akt1/PKBa activation mediated by DNA-PK dependent phosphorylation of serine 473. After activation Akt1/PKBa phosphorylates and inhibits GSK-3{beta} in the nucleus. The resulting hypophosphorylated form of Mdm2 protein is no longer

  18. Pengaruh Downside Beta, Upside Beta, Dan Beta Terhadap Expected Return (Studi Pada Saham Yang Termasuk Dalam 50 Leading Market Capitalization Di Bursa Efek Indonesia Periode 2012-2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaga, Maria Goretty; Sulasmiyati, Sri

    2017-01-01

    Return or return on an investment is required by the investor. Most investors currently prefer shares in emerging markets. Return in the emerging market is not always symmetrical, it shows return in the emerging market is not normally distributed. The purposive of this research want to learn, compare, and explain about some model of stock risk. On this research downside risk expressed with beta downside. The models used in this research among others, dowside beta, upside beta, and beta. The k...

  19. Molecular mass distribution and epitopes of the beta lactoglobulin submitted to hydrolysis pre-transglutaminase treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villas-Boas, M.B.; Zollner, R.L.; Netto, F.M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Paes Leme, A.F. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Benede, S.; Molina, E. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)

    2012-07-01

    modified {beta}-Lg were not detected by LC-MS/MS, suggesting that structural change occurred in the protein after hydrolysis and polymerization and also resulted in low amount of fragments that could promote antigenic response. (author)

  20. Beta-structures in fibrous proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajava, Andrey V; Squire, John M; Parry, David A D

    2006-01-01

    The beta-form of protein folding, one of the earliest protein structures to be defined, was originally observed in studies of silks. It was then seen in early studies of synthetic polypeptides and, of course, is now known to be present in a variety of guises as an essential component of globular protein structures. However, in the last decade or so it has become clear that the beta-conformation of chains is present not only in many of the amyloid structures associated with, for example, Alzheimer's Disease, but also in the prion structures associated with the spongiform encephalopathies. Furthermore, X-ray crystallography studies have revealed the high incidence of the beta-fibrous proteins among virulence factors of pathogenic bacteria and viruses. Here we describe the basic forms of the beta-fold, summarize the many different new forms of beta-structural fibrous arrangements that have been discovered, and review advances in structural studies of amyloid and prion fibrils. These and other issues are described in detail in later chapters.

  1. Towards Alzheimer's beta-amyloid vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, D; Solomon, B

    2001-01-01

    Beta-amyloid pathology, the main hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), has been linked to its conformational status and aggregation. We recently showed that site-directed monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) towards the N-terminal region of the human beta-amyloid peptide bind to preformed beta-amyloid fibrils (Abeta), leading to disaggregation and inhibition of their neurotoxic effect. Here we report the development of a novel immunization procedure to raise effective anti-aggregating amyloid beta-protein (AbetaP) antibodies, using as antigen filamentous phages displaying the only EFRH peptide found to be the epitope of these antibodies. Due to the high antigenicity of the phage no adjuvant is required to obtain high affinity anti-aggregating IgG antibodies in animals model, that exhibit identity to human AbetaP. Such antibodies are able to sequester peripheral AbetaP, thus avoiding passage through the blood brain barrier (BBB) and, as recently shown in a transgenic mouse model, to cross the BBB and dissolve already formed beta-amyloid plaques. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to use as a vaccine a self-anti-aggregating epitope displayed on a phage, and this may pave the way to treat abnormal accumulation-peptide diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease or other amyloidogenic diseases. Copyright 2001 The International Association for Biologicals.

  2. Proton microprobe analysis of pancreatic. beta. cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindh, U [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Gustaf Werner Inst.; Juntti-Berggren, L; Berggren, P O; Hellman, B [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    1985-01-01

    Freeze-dried pancreas sections from obese hyperglycemic mice were subjected to proton bombardment and the elemental contents in the ..beta.. cells and the exocrine part were obtained from the characteristic X-rays emitted. Quantitative data were provided for 18 different elements. The mole ratio between K and Na exceeded 10, implying that neither the sample preparation nor the irradiation had induced significant diffuse changes. With the demonstration of this high K/Na ratio it seems likely that also the ..beta.. cells are equipped with an efficient Na/sup +//K/sup +/ pump. The ..beta.. cells contained about 70 mmoles Cl per litre cell water. Observed amounts of Ca and Mg were equivalent to those previously recorded by electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy. The significant role of Zn for the storage of insulin was emphasized by the demonstration of 3 times as much of this element in the ..beta.. cells as compared with the exocrine pancreas. In addition, the sensitivity of the proton microprobe enabled measurements of various trace elements such as Rb, Cr, Cu, Al and Pb not previously demonstrated in the pancreatic ..beta.. cells.

  3. Double beta decay and majorana neutrinos. Right-handed currents or nonzero masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, S.P.; Perlmutter, A.

    1981-01-01

    This chapter describes some new developments concerning the mechanism for lepton number nonconservation in no-neutrino double beta decay. Explains that lepton number nonconservation in no-neutrino double beta decay comes about either because both left- and right-handed components of a Majorano neutrino are coupled to the electron in the weak leptonic current, or because the neutrino has nonzero mass. Shows that while nuclear ground-state to ground-state transitions arise from right-handed currents and from neutrino mass terms, transitions to low-lying excited states with J /SUP P/ =2 + can arise only from right-handed currents. Emphasizes that the possibilities of detecting small admixtures of right-handed currents, and of setting limits on neutrino masses that are either very small or very large, make double beta decay a most rewarding phenomenon to study

  4. Methodology assessment of the total beta activity in tobacco and tobacco products and certain results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, A.; Srentz, A.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of alpha and beta radionuclides in tobacco and tobacco products is a frequently discussed issue. However, any information in publications about them and their presence in tobacco products is too scarce. World Health care Organization monitors the influence of tobacco smoking on human health. In 2003, a Framework Convention on Tobacco Control was accepted with the aim to protect human health, which was signed by 179 countries, including Bulgaria. The first debates on the presence of radionuclides in tobacco products are raised in Moscow in 2014. These were instigated by data on the findings of polonium-210, reported by USA and Russia. The aim of the report is to outline a methodology to detect the presence of beta-active radionuclides in tobacco and its products. Keywords: beta activity, geiger counter, samples with infinite thickness, tobacco samples

  5. Interleukin-1beta induced changes in the protein expression of rat islets: a computerized database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H U; Fey, S J; Larsen, Peter Mose

    1997-01-01

    as well as the intracellular mechanisms of action of interleukin 1-mediated beta-cell cytotoxicity are unknown. However, previous studies have found an association of beta-cell destruction with alterations in protein synthesis. Thus, two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis of pancreatic islet proteins...... may be an important tool facilitating studies of the molecular pathogenesis of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 2-D gel electrophoresis of islet proteins may lead to (i) the determination of qualitative and quantitative changes in specific islet proteins induced by cytokines, (ii......) the determination of the effects of agents modulating cytokine action, and (iii) the identification of primary islet protein antigen(s) initiating the immune destruction of the beta-cells. Therefore, the aim of this study was to create databases (DB) of all reproducibly detectable protein spots on 10% and 15...

  6. Innovative procedure for the determination of gross-alpha/gross-beta activities in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisser, S.; Frenzel, E.; Dittmer, M.

    2006-01-01

    An alternative sample preparation method for the determination of gross-alpha/beta activity concentrations in drinking water is introduced in this paper. After the freeze-drying of tap water samples, determination by liquid scintillation counting can be applied utilizing alpha/beta separation. It has been shown that there is no adsorption or loss of solid radionuclides during the freeze-drying procedure. However, the samples have to be measured quickly after the preparation since the ingrowth of daughter isotopes negatively effects the measurement. The limits of detection for gross-alpha and gross-beta activity are in the range 25-210 mBq/l, respectively, for a measurement time of only 8-9 h

  7. Screening procedures for alpha, beta and gamma emitting radionuclides in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.H.; Gardner, S.E.; Johnson, J.R.

    1983-08-01

    The gross actinide and beta screening methods currently used by the Bioassay Laboratory at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories have been documented and tested. The gross gamma method has also been documented. The gross actinide method was tested with Th-nat, Pu-239, Np-237, Am-241 and Cm-244 and the average percent recoveries were 90, 99, 45, 72 and 78, respectively. The gross beta method was tested with Sr-90/Y-90, Ce-144/Pr-144, Pm-147 and Ba-133 and the average percent recoveries were 78, 100, 46 and 46, respectively. Detection limits for the gross actinide (alpha) method are found to be about 0.4 mBq and about 39 mBq for the gross beta method

  8. Group B streptococcal beta-hemolysin/cytolysin directly impairs cardiomyocyte viability and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E Hensler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS is a leading cause of neonatal sepsis where myocardial dysfunction is an important contributor to poor outcome. Here we study the effects of the GBS pore-forming beta-hemolysin/cytolysin (Bh/c exotoxin on cardiomyocyte viability, contractility, and calcium transients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HL-1 cardiomyocytes exposed to intact wild-type (WT or isogenic Deltabeta h/c mutant GBS, or to cell-free extracts from either strain, were assessed for viability by trypan blue exclusion and for apoptosis by TUNEL staining. Functionality of exposed cardiomyocytes was analyzed by visual quantitation of the rate and extent of contractility. Mitochondrial membrane polarization was measured in TMRE-loaded cells exposed to GBS beta h/c. Effects of GBS beta h/c on calcium transients were studied in fura-2AM-loaded primary rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. Exposure of HL-1 cardiomyocytes to either WT GBS or beta h/c extracts significantly reduced both rate and extent of contractility and later induced necrotic and apoptotic cell death. No effects on cardiomyocyte viability or function were observed after treatment with Deltabeta h/c mutant bacteria or extracts. The beta h/c toxin was associated with complete and rapid loss of detectable calcium transients in primary neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes and induced a loss of mitochondrial membrane polarization. These effects on viability and function were abrogated by the beta h/c inhibitor, dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data show a rapid loss of cardiomyocyte viability and function induced by GBS beta h/c, and these deleterious effects are inhibited by DPPC, a normal constituent of human pulmonary surfactant.. These findings have clinical implications for the cardiac dysfunction observed in neonatal GBS infections.

  9. X11beta rescues memory and long-term potentiation deficits in Alzheimer's disease APPswe Tg2576 mice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mitchell, Jacqueline C

    2009-12-01

    Increased production and deposition of amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) are believed to be key pathogenic events in Alzheimer\\'s disease. As such, routes for lowering cerebral Abeta levels represent potential therapeutic targets for Alzheimer\\'s disease. X11beta is a neuronal adaptor protein that binds to the intracellular domain of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Overexpression of X11beta inhibits Abeta production in a number of experimental systems. However, whether these changes to APP processing and Abeta production induced by X11beta overexpression also induce beneficial effects to memory and synaptic plasticity are not known. We report here that X11beta-mediated reduction in cerebral Abeta is associated with normalization of both cognition and in vivo long-term potentiation in aged APPswe Tg2576 transgenic mice that model the amyloid pathology of Alzheimer\\'s disease. Overexpression of X11beta itself has no detectable adverse effects upon mouse behaviour. These findings support the notion that modulation of X11beta function represents a therapeutic target for Abeta-mediated neuronal dysfunction in Alzheimer\\'s disease.

  10. Spreadsheet design and validation for characteristic limits determination in gross alpha and beta measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, Rodrigo G.P. do; Dalmazio, Ilza

    2013-01-01

    The identification and detection of ionizing radiation are essential requisites of radiation protection. Gross alpha and beta measurements are widely applied as a screening method in radiological characterization, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. As in any other analytical technique, test performance depends on the quality of instrumental measurements and reliability of calculations. Characteristic limits refer to three specific statistics, namely, decision threshold, detection limit and confidence interval, which are fundamental to ensuring the quality of determinations. This work describes a way to calculate characteristic limits for measurements of gross alpha and beta activity applying spreadsheets. The approach used for determination of decision threshold, detection limit and limits of the confidence interval, the mathematical expressions of measurands and uncertainty followed standards guidelines. A succinct overview of this approach and examples are presented and spreadsheets were validated using specific software. Furthermore, these spreadsheets could be used as tool to instruct beginner users of methods for ionizing radiation measurements. (author)

  11. Measurement of low-level beta activity of samples in liquid state using plastic scintillator vials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wezranowski, E.; Panczyk, E.; Radwan, M.

    1977-01-01

    Plastic scintillation vials having walls from a plastic scintillator and the bottom from perspex were used. Wall thickness was 0.8 to 3 mm. The solution radioactivity was measured by a scintillation beta spectrometer. The total measurement errors were found for the following radionuclides: 14 C +-3.7%; 204 Tl +-3%; 32 P +-2.8%; 137 Cs +-2%, and 72 Ga +-5%. Detection efficiency was found to decrease rapidly with the solution layer thickness. For a solution thickness of 0.2 mm the highest detection efficiency was observed with the 4% measurement error. Linear dependence was found of detection efficiency on beta energy. For a solution layer thickness of 0.2 mm the minimum measurable activities were determined to be 30.3 pCi for 14 C and 2.12 pCi for 32 P. The use of the above vials permits quick and simple measurement without sample chemical preparation. (J.P.)

  12. Mass measurement project by determination of Q{sub {beta}} for neutron-rich nuclei; Projet de mesure des masses par determination des Q{sub {beta}} pour des noyaux tres riches en neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pautrat, M; Lagrange, J M; Petizon, L [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Vanhorenbeeck, J; Duhamel, P [Brussels Univ. (Belgium). Inst. d` Astronomie et d` Astrophysique; Binon, F [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1994-12-31

    The aim of the project described hereafter is to collect new data on the exotic neutron rich nuclei of the Fe to Zn region, and in particular to determine their masses, for both nuclear physics and astrophysics purposes. These isotopes will be produced through projectile fragmentation at the GANIL facility and selected by the LISE3 spectrometer. Their half-lives will be measured as well as the energy of their main {gamma} rays; {gamma} - {gamma} coincidences will then allow to build a preliminary level scheme. The analysis of {beta} spectra and {beta} - {gamma} coincidences will finally provide the maximum {beta} decay energies of the studied nuclei leading to their masses. The difficulties arising from the low production rates, the {beta} detection, the data handling are discussed together with the solutions proposed to overcome them. (authors). 17 refs.

  13. Alpha/beta pulse shape discrimination in plastic scintillation using commercial scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagan, H.; Tarancon, A.; Rauret, G.; Garcia, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Activity determination in different types of samples is a current need in many different fields. Simultaneously analysing alpha and beta emitters is now a routine option when using liquid scintillation (LS) and pulse shape discrimination. However, LS has an important drawback, the generation of mixed waste. Recently, several studies have shown the capability of plastic scintillation (PS) as an alternative to LS, but no research has been carried out to determine its capability for alpha/beta discrimination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the capability of PS to discriminate alpha/beta emitters on the basis of pulse shape analysis (PSA). The results obtained show that PS pulses had lower energy than LS pulses. As a consequence, a lower detection efficiency, a shift to lower energies and a better discrimination of beta and a worst discrimination of alpha disintegrations was observed for PS. Colour quenching also produced a decrease in the energy of the particles, as well as the effects described above. It is clear that in PS, the discrimination capability was correlated with the energy of the particles detected. Taking into account the discrimination capabilities of PS, a protocol for the measurement and the calculation of alpha and beta activities in mixtures using PS and commercial scintillation detectors has been proposed. The new protocol was applied to the quantification of spiked river water samples containing a pair of radionuclides ( 3 H- 241 Am or 90 Sr/ 90 Y- 241 Am) in different activity proportions. The relative errors in all determinations were lower than 7%. These results demonstrate the capability of PS to discriminate alpha/beta emitters on the basis of pulse shape and to quantify mixtures without generating mixed waste.

  14. Continuous infusion vs. bolus dosing: implications for beta-lactam antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Hafiz, Abdul-Aziz; Staatz, C E; Kirkpatrick, C M J; Lipman, J; Roberts, J A

    2012-01-01

    Beta-lactam antibiotics display time-dependant pharmacodynamics whereby constant antibiotic concentrations rather than high peak concentrations are most likely to result in effective treatment of infections caused by susceptible bacteria. Continuous administration has been suggested as an alternative strategy, to conventional intermittent dosing, to optimise beta-lactam pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) properties. With the availability of emerging data, we elected to systematically investigate the published literature describing the comparative PK/PD and clinical outcomes of beta-lactam antibiotics administered by continuous or intermittent infusion. We found that the studies have been performed in various patient populations including critically ill, cancer and cystic fibrosis patients. Available in vitro PK/PD data conclusively support the administration of beta-lactams via continuous infusion for maximizing bacterial killing from consistent attainment of pharmacodynamic end-points. In addition, clinical outcome data supports equivalence, even with the use of a lower dose by continuous infusion. However, the present clinical data is limited with small sample sizes common with insufficient power to detect advantages in favour of either dosing strategy. With abundant positive pre-clinical data as well as document in vivo PK/PD advantages, large multi-centre trials are needed to describe whether continuous administration of beta-lactams is truly more effective than intermittent dosing.

  15. Design and device construction for plane tables preparation for counter alpha/beta total

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galicia C, F. J.; Monroy G, F.

    2014-10-01

    This work presents the design and assembly of a device for plane tables preparation for quantification alpha/beta total of radioactive waste samples. The determination of the activity index alpha/beta total is used to detect a wide variety of matrices quickly and the concentration of alpha and/or beta emitters of the contained radionuclides in different samples. In particular, the determination of the activity index alpha and beta total of radioactive wastes involves the digestion of samples in aggressive means that will be evaporated to dryness for its quantification. With the purpose of controlling the emission of corrosive gases during the preparation of the plane tables for the quantification of the index alpha and beta total, was designed and built the device in the Radioactive Waste Laboratory that allows to prepare plane tables for proportional counters in a sure and efficient way. The device is constituted by heating equipment, evaporation cylinder and a gases cleaning system. The self-absorption curve got ready starting from the device. (Author)

  16. Interleukin-1{beta} regulates cell proliferation and activity of extracellular matrix remodelling enzymes in cultured primary pig heart cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitta, Karina; Brandt, Berenice [Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel (Germany); Wuensch, Annegret [Institute of Molecular Animal Breeding and Biotechnology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich (Germany); Meybohm, Patrick; Bein, Berthold; Steinfath, Markus; Scholz, Jens [Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel (Germany); Albrecht, Martin, E-mail: Albrecht@anaesthesie.uni-kiel.de [Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel (Germany)

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Levels of IL-1{beta} are increased in the pig myocardium after infarction. {yields} Cultured pig heart cells possess IL-1 receptors. {yields} IL-1{beta} increases cell proliferation of pig heart cells in-vitro. {yields} IL-1{beta} increases MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in pig heart cells in-vitro. {yields} IL-1{beta} may be important for tissue remodelling events after myocardial infarction. -- Abstract: After myocardial infarction, elevated levels of interleukins (ILs) are found within the myocardial tissue and IL-1{beta} is considered to play a major role in tissue remodelling events throughout the body. In the study presented, we have established a cell culture model of primary pig heart cells to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of IL-1{beta} on cell proliferation as well as expression and activity of enzymes typically involved in tissue remodelling. Primary pig heart cell cultures were derived from three different animals and stimulated with recombinant pig IL-1{beta}. RNA expression was detected by RT-PCR, protein levels were evaluated by Western blotting, activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was quantified by gelatine zymography and cell proliferation was measured using colorimetric MTS assays. Pig heart cells express receptors for IL-1 and application of IL-1{beta} resulted in a dose-dependent increase of cell proliferation (P < 0.05 vs. control; 100 ng/ml; 24 h). Gene expression of caspase-3 was increased by IL-1{beta} (P < 0.05 vs. control; 100 ng/ml; 3 h), and pro-caspase-3 but not active caspase was detected in lysates of pig heart cells by Western blotting. MMP-2 gene expression as well as enzymatic activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were increased by IL-1{beta} (P < 0.05 vs. control; 100 ng/ml; 3 h for gene expression, 48 and 72 h for enzymatic activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9, respectively). Our in vitro data suggest that IL-1{beta} plays a major role in the events of tissue remodelling in the heart. Combined

  17. Tevatron B0 low beta tuning report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed study of the low beta insertion for the B0 experimental area has been carried out and is described below. This insertion is similar to the Type C low beta previously report, anti p Note 169, although some changes have been made to the quadrupole lengths and positions. This insertion is designated Type E. The purpose of the study was to see if it is possible to turn the insertion on in a smooth and continuous manner and tune the insertion to a value of β* of less than one meter while maintaining the overall tune of the j Tevatron to a constant value. This was found to be possible. An examination of chromaticity corrections for the Tevatron with the low beta insertion on in various configurations was also undertaken

  18. beta. -Amyloid gene dosage in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdoch, G H; Manuelidis, L; Kim, J H; Manuelidis, E E

    1988-01-11

    The 4-5 kd amyloid ..beta..-peptide is a major constituent of the characteristic amyloid plaque of Alzheimer's disease. It has been reported that some cases of sporatic Alzheimer's disease are associated with at least a partial duplication of chromosome 21 containing the gene corresponding to the 695 residue precursor of this peptide. To contribute to an understanding of the frequency to such a duplication event in the overall Alzheimer's population, the authors have determined the gene dosage of the ..beta..-amyloid gene in this collection of cases. All cases had a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's confirmed neuropathologically. Each Alzheimer's case had an apparent normal diploid ..beta..-amyloid gene dosage, while control Down's cases had the expected triploid dosage. Thus partial duplication of chromosome 21 may be a rare finding in Alzheimer's disease. Similar conclusions were just reported in several studies of the Harvard Alzheimer collection.

  19. Beta ray backscattering studies for thickness measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M; Sharma, K K [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Nuclear Science Labs.

    1979-01-01

    Back-scattering of beta rays from /sup 204/Tl (Esub(..beta..)max = 740 keV) and /sup 90/Sr-/sup 90/Y (Esub(..beta..)max =550 and 2250 keV) has been studied in an improved reflection geometry, using annular sources, from a number of elemental targets with Z values ranging from 13 to 82. Source to target and target to detector geometry factors are 0.0225 and 0.0282 respectively. Values of saturation back scattering thickness obtained in the two cases are 72 +- 10 and 190 +- 40 mg/cm/sup 2/ respectively. It is observed that the intensity of back scattered radiation varies linearly with thickness upto a value of 12 +- 2 mg/cm/sup 2/ in /sup 204/Tl and 17 +- 3 mg/cm/sup 2/ in /sup 90/Sr-/sup 90/Y.

  20. Procedure to carry out leakage test in beta radiation sealed sources emitters of 90Sr/90Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J. T.

    2010-09-01

    In the alpha-beta room of the Secondary Laboratory of Dosimetric Calibration of the Metrology Department of Ionizing Radiations ophthalmic applicators are calibrated in absorbed dose terms in water D w ; these applicators, basically are emitter sealed sources of pure beta radiation of 90 Sr / 90 Y. Concretely, the laboratory quality system indicates to use the established procedure for the calibration of these sources, which establishes the requirement of to carry out a leakage test, before to calibrate the source. However, in the Laboratory leakage test certificates sent by specialized companies in radiological protection services have been received, in which are used gamma spectrometry equipment s for beta radiation leakage tests, since it is not reliable to detect pure beta radiation with a scintillating detector with NaI crystal, (because it could detect the braking radiation produced in the detector). Therefore the Laboratory has had to verify the results of the tests with a correct technique, with the purpose of determining the presence of sources with their altered integrity and radioactive material leakage. The objective of this work is to describe a technique for beta activity measurement - of the standard ISO 7503, part 1 (1988) - and its application with a detector Gm plane (type pankage) in the realization of leakage tests in emitter sources of pure beta radiation, inside the mark of quality assurance indicated by the report ICRU 76. (Author)