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Sample records for beta carotene

  1. Beta-carotene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemotherapy for a blood cancer called lymphoblastic leukemia. Mental performance. Some evidence suggests that taking beta-carotene ... One is water-based, and the other is oil-based. Studies show that the water-based version ...

  2. Beta-carotene blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotene test ... anything for up to 8 hours before the test. You may also be asked not to eat ... vitamin A (carotene) for 48 hours before the test. Your provider may also tell you to temporarily ...

  3. The genus Rhodosporidium: a potential source of beta-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, T; Calo, P; Díaz, A; Villa, T G

    1997-03-01

    Four wild-type species of the genus Rhodosporidium have been studied as as possible sources for the industrial production of beta-carotene. HPLC-based studies showed that their carotenoid composition consisted of almost pure beta-carotene at concentrations ranging from 226 to 685 micrograms/g of dried yeast biomass. These results are consistent with those obtained by spectrophotometry at 480 nm.

  4. : beta-carotene, alpha-linolenate and carcinogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Maillard, Virginie; Hoinard, Claude; Arab, Khelifa; Jourdan, Marie-Lise; Bougnoux, Philippe; Chajès, Véronique

    2006-01-01

    To investigate whether dietary alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) content alters the effect of beta-carotene on mammary carcinogenesis, we conducted a chemically induced mammary tumorigenesis experiment in rats randomly assigned to four nutritional groups (15 rats per group) varying in beta-carotene supplementation and ALA content. Two oil formula-enriched diets (15 %) were used: one with 6 g ALA/kg diet in an essential fatty acids (EFA) ratio of linoleic acid:ALA of 5:1 w/w (EFA 5 diet), the other w...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1245 - Beta-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... molecular formula C40H56. It is synthesized by saponification of vitamin A acetate. The resulting alcohol is either reacted to form vitamin A Wittig reagent or oxidized to vitamin A aldehyde. Vitamin A Wittig reagent and vitamin A aldehyde are reacted together to form beta-carotene. (b) The ingredient meets...

  6. Effect of Beta-Carotene on Oxidative Stress and Expression of Cardiac Connexin 43

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novo, Rosangela; Azevedo, Paula S.; Minicucci, Marcos F.; Zornoff, Leonardo A. M., E-mail: lzornoff@fmb.unesp.br; Paiva, Sergio A. R. [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu - Universidade Estadual Paulista ' Júlio de Mesquita Filho' , Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Intervention studies have shown an increased mortality in patients who received beta-carotene. However, the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are still unknown. Evaluate the influence of beta-carotene on oxidative stress and the expression of connexin 43 in rat hearts. Wistar rats, weighing approximately 100 g, were allocated in two groups: Control Group (n = 30), that received the diet routinely used in our laboratory, and Beta-Carotene Group (n = 28), which received beta-carotene (in crystal form, added and mixed to the diet) at a dose of 500 mg of beta carotene/kg of diet. The animals received the treatment until they reached 200-250g, when they were sacrificed. Samples of blood, liver and heart were collected to perform Western blotting and immunohistochemistry for connexin 43; morphometric studies, dosages of beta carotene by high performance liquid chromatography as well as reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione and lipids hydroperoxides were performed by biochemical analysis. Beta-carotene was detected only in the liver of Beta-Carotene Group animals (288 ± 94.7 μg/kg). Levels of reduced/ oxidized glutathione were higher in the liver and heart of Beta-Carotene Group animals (liver - Control Group: 42.60 ± 1.62; liver - Beta-Carotene Group: 57.40 ± 5.90; p = 0.04; heart: - Control Group: 117.40 ± 1.01; heart - Beta-Carotene Group: 121.81 ± 1.32 nmol/mg protein; p = 0.03). The content of total connexin 43 was larger in Beta-Carotene Group. Beta-carotene demonstrated a positive effect, characterized by the increase of intercellular communication and improvement of anti-oxidizing defense system. In this model, mechanism does not explain the increased mortality rate observed with the beta-carotene supplementation in clinical studies.

  7. Use of oral contraceptives and serum beta-carotene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Gabriele; Kohlmeier, L; Brenner, H

    1997-01-01

    impact. DESIGN: Cross-sectional epidemiologic study. Examinations included a detailed questionnaire on medical history and lifestyle factors, a 7 day food record, and blood samples. SETTING: National health and nutrition survey among healthy people living in private homes in West Germany in 1987......OBJECTIVE: Antioxidants, in particular carotenoids, may influence the risk for cardiovascular disease. This study investigates the influence of oral contraceptives (OC) on the serum concentration of beta-carotene, which may in turn affect the risk of cardiovascular diseases due to its antioxidative...... with higher estrogen content. CONCLUSIONS: OC use seems to be strongly related to serum beta-carotene levels, particularly among women above the age of 35. Further studies are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms of this association and its implications for health risks of OC use....

  8. Dietary carotenoids, serum beta-carotene, and retinol and risk of lung cancer in the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holick, Crystal N; Michaud, Dominique S; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Mayne, Susan T; Pietinen, Pirjo; Taylor, Philip R; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2002-09-15

    Findings from several beta-carotene supplementation trials were unexpected and conflicted with most observational studies. Carotenoids other than beta-carotene are found in a variety of fruits and vegetables and may play a role in this important malignancy, but previous findings regarding the five major carotenoids are inconsistent. The authors analyzed the associations between dietary beta-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein/zeaxanthin, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin, vitamin A, serum beta-carotene, and serum retinol and the lung cancer risk in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort of male smokers conducted in southwestern Finland between 1985 and 1993. Of the 27,084 male smokers aged 50-69 years who completed the 276-food item dietary questionnaire at baseline, 1,644 developed lung cancer during up to 14 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. Consumption of fruits and vegetables was associated with a lower lung cancer risk (relative risk = 0.73, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.86, highest vs. lowest quintile). Lower risks of lung cancer were observed for the highest versus the lowest quintiles of lycopene (28%), lutein/zeaxanthin (17%), beta-cryptoxanthin (15%), total carotenoids (16%), serum beta-carotene (19%), and serum retinol (27%). These findings suggest that high fruit and vegetable consumption, particularly a diet rich in carotenoids, tomatoes, and tomato-based products, may reduce the risk of lung cancer.

  9. Beta-carotene from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) leaves improves vitamin A status in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Egle Machado de Almeida; Arruda, Sandra Fernandes; de Vargas, Rodrigo Martins; de Souza, Elizabeth Maria Talá

    2007-01-01

    The bioavailability of beta-carotene from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) leaves was assayed in vitamin A deficient Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus). Rats were separated into three groups and fed with a modified AIN-93G--vitamin A deficient--diet. Deficient rat received this diet without any additional vitamin A source. Controls received the diet with 7200 microg of synthetic beta-carotene (control), while experimentals (test) received 19.5 g of cassava leaves powder per kg of diet. The cassava leaves with beta-carotene promotes similar growth and tissue weight in rats to the synthetic beta-carotene. The relative bioavailability, estimated as the Retinol Accumulation Factor (RAF), was 16.5 and 27.5 for control and test groups, respectively, indicating that control and test rats should have an intake of 16.5 microg or 27.5 microg of beta-carotene from synthetic form or cassava leaves powder for each 1 microg of hepatic retinol stored, respectively. The cassava leaves beta-carotene bioavailability was lower than the synthetic beta-carotene probably because the beta-carotene from the leaf matrix may be bounded to protein complex or inside organelles, which impair carotenoid absorption. Our findings showed that beside the hepatic retinol recovery, cassava leaf beta-carotene could maintain rat growth and avoid vitamin A deficient symptoms.

  10. Gene expression of beta carotene genes in transgenic biofortified cassava

    OpenAIRE

    Telengech, P. K.; Maling’a, J. N.; Nyende, A. B.; Gichuki, S. T.; Wanjala, B. W.

    2014-01-01

    Cassava is an important food for millions of people around the world. However, cassava is deficient in protein, iron, zinc, pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Cassava biofortified with pro-vitamin A can help reduce Vitamin A Deficiency among the undernourished communities that rely upon it for sustenance. BioCassava Plus project has developed transgenic cassava that expresses beta carotene in roots using root specific patatin promoter. This study aimed at confirming expression of nptII, crtB and DX...

  11. Effect of mixing rate on Beta-carotene production and extraction by dunaliella salina in two-phase bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hejazi, M.; Andrysiewicz, E.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    beta-Carotene has many applications in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries; Dunaliella salina is currently the main source for natural beta-carotene. We have investigated the effect of mixing rate and whether it leads to the facilitated release of beta-carotene from the cells of Dunali

  12. The effects of beta-carotene and vitamin E on erythrocytes lipid peroxidation in beta-thalassemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleiman Mahjoub

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thalassemia is the most common hereditary disease in the world. Thalassemic erythrocytes are exposed to higher oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of beta-carotene and vitamin E on erythrocytes lipid peroxidation in beta-thalassemia patients.
    METHODS: A prospective double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effect of beta-carotene and vitamin E on lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes membranes was performed on 120 beta-thalassemia major patients in four groups. The patients were supplemented for 4 weeks as follows: group 1 with beta-carotene (13 mg/day, group 2 with vitamin E (550 mg/day, group 3 with beta-carotene plus vitamin E and group 4 with placebo. We prepared all capsules for 4 roups in the same shape and color. Measurements of serum beta-carotene and vitamin E were performed by high performance
    liquid chromatography. After preparation of ghost cells from blood specimens, malondialdehyde (MDA was determined as index of lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes membranes before and after treatment. RESULTS: The levels of serum beta-carotene and vitamin E were significantly lower and MDA concentrations in erythrocytes membranes were significantly higher in beta-thalassemia patients compared to controls (P<0.001. In groups that treated with vitamin supplements for 4-weeks, lipid peroxidation rates were significantly reduced after treatment (P<0.001, but in placebo group there was not significant difference (P>0.05.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence that an oral treatment with beta-carotene and vitamin E can significantly reduce lipid peroxidation of erythrocytes membranes and could be useful in management of beta-thalassemia major patients. KEYWORDS: Beta-thalassemia major, beta-carotene, vitamin E, malondialdehyde, lipid peroxidation.

  13. Effects of purified dietary fiber sources on beta-carotene utilization by the chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, J W; Fahey, G C; White, C B

    1986-12-01

    Effects of various purified dietary fiber components on beta-carotene utilization by the chick were investigated in two experiments (expt.). Eight-day-old Columbian X New Hampshire male (expt. 1) or female (expt. 2) chicks were fed a vitamin A-deficient diet for 1 wk and then fed beta-carotene-supplemented diets containing 0% fiber, 7% arenaceous flour or 7% of a purified fiber source for 4 wk. Results of expt. 1 showed that hemicellulose, lignin and citrus pectin, but not arenaceous flour or polygalacturonic acid, depressed beta-carotene utilization by the chick, as measured by percentage of consumed beta-carotene stored in liver as vitamin A relative to the 0% fiber control. In expt. 2, effects of the methoxyl content of pectin were studied. High and medium methoxyl apple pectin, citrus pectin and polygalacturonic acid reduced storage of vitamin A in liver. Low methoxyl apple pectin had no significant effect on beta-carotene utilization. Thus, several purified forms of dietary fiber significantly reduced beta-carotene utilization by chicks when fed at the 7% supplementary level. Moreover, with pectin, there was an inverse relationship between methoxyl content of pectin and beta-carotene utilization. PMID:3027282

  14. Beta-carotene supplementation in smokers reduces the frequency of micronuclei in sputum.

    OpenAIRE

    Poppel, G. van; Kok, F. J.; Hermus, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    beta-carotene has been hypothesised to reduce lung cancer risk. We studied the effect of 14 weeks of beta-carotene supplementation (20 mg d-1) on the frequency of micronuclei in sputum in 114 heavy smokers in a double-blind trial. Micronuclei reflect DNA damage in exfoliated cells and may thus provide a marker of early-stage carcinogenesis. Pre-treatment blood levels of cotinine, beta-carotene, retinol and vitamins C and E were similar in the placebo group (n = 61) and the treatment group (n ...

  15. Lycopene is a more potent inhibitor of human cancer cell proliferation than either alpha-carotene or beta-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, J; Bosin, E; Feldman, B; Giat, Y; Miinster, A; Danilenko, M; Sharoni, Y

    1995-01-01

    The antiproliferative properties of lycopene, the major tomato carotenoid, were compared with those of alpha- and beta-carotene. Lycopene, delivered in cell culture medium from stock solutions in tetrahydrofuran, strongly inhibited proliferation of endometrial (Ishikawa), mammary (MCF-7), and lung (NCI-H226) human cancer cells with half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 1-2 microM; alpha- and beta-carotene were far less effective inhibitors. For example, in Ishikawa cells, a 4-fold higher concentration of alpha-carotene or a 10-fold higher concentration of beta-carotene was needed for the same order of growth suppression. The inhibitory effect of lycopene was detected after 24 hours of incubation, and it was maintained for at least three days. In contrast to cancer cells, human fibroblasts were less sensitive to lycopene, and the cells gradually escaped growth inhibition over time. In addition to its inhibitory effect on basal endometrial cancer cell proliferation, lycopene also suppressed insulin-like growth factor-I-stimulated growth. Insulin-like growth factors are major autocrine/paracrine regulators of mammary and endometrial cancer cell growth. Therefore, lycopene interference in this major autocrine/paracrine system may open new avenues for research on the role of lycopene in the regulation of endometrial cancer and other tumors. PMID:8610045

  16. The effect of solar radiation on beta-carotene and other carotenoid content in carrot roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three following cultivars of carrot - Napoli F1, Fantazja, Kazan F1 - were grown in the years 1998-00. The seeds were sown in ridges from the end of April until the beginning of June. Throughout the growth period the total solar radiation was recorded by an automatic system. Every 2 weeks, the leaf area index and the amount of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were calculated. Correlation was found between solar radiation and beta-carotene as well as other carotenoid content in carrot roots. It was found that beta-carotene content depended mainly on the amount of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation by single carrot plants, and not by area unit. Differences in beta-carotene content in carrot cultivars were caused by the time of root formation, rate of beta-carotene production, and total absorbed PAR (PARa)

  17. Vitamin E and Beta Carotene Composition in Four Different Vegetable Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ab. G.M. Top

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Some vegetable oils contains natural antioxidants such as beta carotene and vitamin E namely tocopherol and tocotrienol. Different vegetable oils contained different amount of vitamin E and β-carotene. Approach: Study was carried out to investigate the natural antioxidants (vitamin E and beta carotene composition in four different vegetable oils [Red Palm Olein (RPO, palm plein (PO, Corn Oil (CO and Coconut Oil (COC]. Results: The results showed that RPO contained the highest amount of vitamin E and β-carotene compared to the other three types of vegetable oils studied. Conclusion: The RPO can be considered as a good source of natural antioxidant (tocopherol, tocotrienol and β-carotene.

  18. Lycopene and beta-carotene ameliorate catechol estrogen-mediated DNA damage

    OpenAIRE

    Muzandu, Kaampwe; El. Bohi, Khlood; Shaban, Zein; ISHIZUKA, Mayumi; KAZUSAKA, Akio; Fujita, Shoichi

    2005-01-01

    The consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of various ailments, including cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Carotenoids, such as lycopene and beta-carotene, are natural constituents of edible plants and may protect against disease. In this study, the influence of lycopene and beta-carotene on DNA damage caused by catechol-estrogens in vitro is examined. One possible mechanism by which catechol estrogens such as 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE2) and 2-hydroxyestradi...

  19. Enhancing beta-carotene production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Sun, Zhiqiang; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yansheng

    2013-08-01

    Beta-carotene is known to exhibit a number of pharmacological and nutraceutical benefits to human health. Metabolic engineering of beta-carotene biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been attracting the interest of many researchers. A previous work has shown that S. cerevisiae successfully integrated with phytoene synthase (crtYB) and phytoene desaturase (crtI) from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous could produce beta-carotene. In the present study, we achieved around 200% improvement in beta-carotene production in S. cerevisiae through specific site optimization of crtI and crtYB, in which five codons of crtI and eight codons of crtYB were rationally mutated. Furthermore, the effects of the truncated HMG-CoA reductase (tHMG1) from S. cerevisiae and HMG-CoA reductase (mva) from Staphylococcus aureus on the production of beta-carotene in S. cerevisiae were also evaluated. Our results indicated that mva from a prokaryotic organism might be more effective than tHMG1 for beta-carotene production in S. cerevisiae. PMID:23718229

  20. Influence of parenteral application of beta-carotene on fertility in cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veličković Miljan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty Holstein breed cows from the breeding stock of high yielding dairy cattle were selected for testing. The cows were selected during their high gravidity and fell into two groups. The i.m beta-carotene, Carofertin, of 20 ml (200 mg of beta-carotene was applied to the experimental group (n=15 two weeks before the expected parturition date. Another injection of the beta-carotene preparation was applied to the experimental group two weeks after parturition. Simultaneously, a physiological solution of 20 ml was injected i.m to the experimental group (n=15. The blood samples for testing of the beta-carotene and vitamin A concentration were taken during high gravidity and in the early puerperium two days after the beta-carotene application and on the day of parturition. Two-of parenteral application of beta-carotene before parturition does not have an impact significantly on the frequency of the occurrence of retained placenta in experimental cows comparing to the cows of the control group (x=33.3 % and x=20.0 % and length of the service period (x =97.20±31.64 and x=98.8±35.8 days. Based on the results obtained during this research, it can be concluded that the parenteral application of the beta-carotene (Carofertin as 200 mg per cow, which is meant for protection of the reproductive disorders of cows, does not affect the level of carotinemia when its concentration in the blood serum is within the physiological limits. Therefore, no significant discrepancy in values of the reproduction figures between the cows of the experimental and control group was found. All in all, its usage is advisable only during scarce feeding.

  1. Disposition of {sup 14}C-{beta}-carotene following delivery with autologous triacylglyceride-rich lipoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dueker, Stephen R. [Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis 95616 (United States) and Vitalea Science, Inc. 1233 East Beamer, Woodland, CA 95776 (United States)]. E-mail: srdueker@vitaleascience.com; Le Thuy Vuong [Vitalea Science, Inc. 1233 East Beamer, Woodland, CA 95776 (United States); Faulkner, Brian [Vitalea Science, Inc. 1233 East Beamer, Woodland, CA 95776 (United States); Buchholz, Bruce A. [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Vogel, John S. [Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis 95616 (United States); Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Following ingestion, a fraction of {beta}-carotene is cleaved into vitamin A in the intestine, while another is absorbed intact and distributed among tissues and organs. The extent to which this absorbed {beta}-carotene serves as a source of vitamin A is unknown in vivo. In the present study we use the attomole sensitivity of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for {sup 14}C to quantify the disposition of {sup 14}C-{beta}-carotene (930 ng; 60.4 nCi of activity) after intravenous injection with an autologous triacylglyceride-rich lipoprotein fraction in a single volunteer. Total {sup 14}C was quantified in serial plasma samples and also in triglyceride-rich, and low density lipoprotein, subfractions. The appearance of {sup 14}C-retinol, the circulating form of vitamin A in plasma, was determined by chromatographic separation of plasma retinol extracts prior to AMS analysis. The data showed that {sup 14}C concentrations rapidly decayed within the triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fractions after injection, whereas low density lipoprotein {sup 14}C began a significant rise in {sup 14}C 5 h post dose. Plasma {sup 14}C-retinol also appeared at 5 h post dose and its concentrations were maintained above baseline for >88 days. Based upon comparisons of {sup 14}C-retinol concentrations following an earlier study with orally dosed {sup 14}C-{beta}-carotene, a molar vitamin A value of the absorbed {beta}-carotene of 0.19 was derived, meaning that 1 mole of absorbed {beta}-carotene provides 0.19 moles of vitamin A. This is the first study to show that infused {beta}-carotene contributes to the vitamin A economy in humans in vivo.

  2. Vitamin C, Vitamin E and Beta-Carotene in Relation to Common Cold Incidence in Male Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    HemilÀ Harri; Kaprio Jaakko; Albanes Demetrius; Heinonen Olli P; Virtamo Jarmo

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the role of dietary vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta-carotene, as well as long-term vitamin E and beta-carotene supplementation, on the incidence of common cold episodes. A cohort of 21,796 male smokers was drawn from the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, which examined the effects of 50 mg per day vitamin E and 20 mg per day beta-carotene on lung cancer. Diet and background characteristics were recorded at the study entry, and subjects were queried three time...

  3. Solubility of {beta}-carotene in ethanol- and triolein-modified CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araus, Karina A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Bioprocesos, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Avda. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Canales, Roberto I. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avda. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Valle, Jose M. del [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Bioprocesos, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Avda. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Fuente, Juan C. de la, E-mail: juan.delafuente@usm.cl [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avda. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Centro Regional de Estudios en Alimentos Saludables, Blanco 1623, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > We measure solubility of {beta}-carotene in pure CO{sub 2}, and with ethanol and triolein as co-solvents. > We model the solubility of {beta}-carotene in pure CO{sub 2}, and with co-solvents. > The co-solvent effect of triolein over solubility of {beta}-carotene in CO{sub 2} was higher than ethanol. - Abstract: Modification of an experimental device and methodology improved speed and reproducibility of measurement of solubility of {beta}-carotene in pure and modified SuperCritical (SC) CO{sub 2} at (313 to 333) K. Solubilities of {beta}-carotene in pure CO{sub 2} at (17 to 34) MPa ranged (0.17 to 1.06) {mu}mol/mol and agreed with values reported in literature. The solubility of {beta}-carotene in CO{sub 2} modified with (1.2 to 1.6) % mol ethanol increased by a factor of 1.7 to 3.0 as compared to its solubility in pure CO{sub 2} under equivalent conditions. The concentration of triolein in equilibrated ternary (CO{sub 2} + {beta}-carotene + triolein) mixtures having excess triolein reached values (0.01 to 0.39) mmol/mol corresponding to its solubility in pure SC CO{sub 2} under equivalent conditions. Under these conditions, the solubility of {beta}-carotene in triolein-modified CO{sub 2} increased by a factor of up to 4.0 in relation with its solubility in pure CO{sub 2} at comparable system temperature and pressure, reaching an uppermost value of 3.3 {mu}mol/mol at 333 K and 32 MPa. Unlike in the case of ethanol, where enhancements in solubility where relatively independent on system conditions, solubility enhancements using triolein as co-solvent increased markedly with system pressure, being larger than using (1.2 to 1.6) % mol ethanol at about (24 to 28) MPa, depending on system temperature. The increase in the solubility {beta}-carotene in SC CO{sub 2} as a result of using ethanol or triolein as co-solvent apparently does not depend on the increase in density associated with the dissolution of the co-solvent in CO{sub 2}. Enhancements may be due

  4. Kinetics of Beta-14[14C] Carotene in a Human Subject Using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dueker, S.R.; Lin, Y.; Follett, J.R.; Clifford, A.J.; Buchholz, B.A.

    2000-01-31

    {beta}-Carotene is a tetraterpenoid distributed widely throughout the plant kingdom. It is a member of a group of pigments referred to as carotenoids that have the distinction of serving as metabolic precursors to vitamin A in humans and many animals [1,2]. We used Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) [3] to determine the metabolic behavior of a physiologic oral dose of {beta}-[{sup 14}C]carotene (200 nanoCuries; 0.57 {micro}mol) in a healthy human subject. Serial blood specimens were collected for 210-d and complete urine and feces were collected for 17 and 10-d, respectively. Balance data indicated that the dose was 42% bioavailable. The absorbed {beta}-carotene was lost slowly via urine in accord with the slow body turnover of {beta}-carotene and vitamin A [4]. HPLC fractionation of plasma taken at early time points (0-24-h) showed the label was distributed between {beta}-carotene and retinyl esters (vitamin A) derived from intestinal metabolism.

  5. Ustilago maydis accumulates beta-carotene at levels determined by a retinal-forming carotenoid oxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Alejandro F; Brefort, Thomas; Mengel, Carina; Díaz-Sánchez, Violeta; Alder, Adrian; Al-Babili, Salim; Avalos, Javier

    2009-10-01

    The basidiomycete Ustilago maydis, the causative agent of corn smut disease, has emerged as a model organism for dimorphism and fungal phytopathogenicity. In this work, we line out the key conserved enzymes for beta-carotene biosynthesis encoded by the U. maydis genome and show that this biotrophic fungus accumulates beta-carotene. The amount of this pigment depended on culture pH and aeration but was not affected by light and was not increased by oxidative stress. Moreover, we identified the U. maydis gene, cco1, encoding a putative beta-carotene cleavage oxygenase. Heterologous overexpression and in vitro analyses of purified enzyme demonstrated that Cco1 catalyzes the symmetrical cleavage of beta-carotene to yield two molecules of retinal. Analyses of beta-carotene and retinal contents in U. maydiscco1 deletion and over-expression strains confirmed the enzymatic function of Cco1, and revealed that Cco1 determines the beta-carotene content. Our data indicate that carotenoid biosynthesis in U. maydis is carried out to provide retinal rather than to deliver protective pigments. The U. maydis genome also encodes three potential opsins, a family of photoactive proteins that use retinal as chromophore. Two opsin genes showed different light-regulated expression patterns, suggesting specialized roles in photobiology, while no mRNA was detected for the third opsin gene in the same experiments. However, deletion of the cco1 gene, which should abolish function of all the retinal-dependent opsins, did not affect growth, morphology or pathogenicity, suggesting that retinal and opsin proteins play no relevant role in U. maydis under the tested conditions.

  6. Serum beta-carotene and subsequent risk of cancer: results from the BUPA Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Wald, N J; Thompson, S G; Densem, J W; Boreham, J.; Bailey, A

    1988-01-01

    In the BUPA Study, a prospective study of 22,000 men attending a screening centre in London, serum samples were collected and stored. The concentration of beta-carotene was measured in the stored serum samples from 271 men who were subsequently notified as having cancer and from 533 unaffected controls, matched for age, smoking history and duration of storage of the serum samples. The mean beta-carotene level of the cancer subjects was significantly lower than that of their matched controls (...

  7. Beta-carotene and the application of transcriptomics in risk-benefit evaluation of natural dietary components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijer, J.; Bunschoten, J.E.; Palou, A.; Franssen-Hal, van N.L.W.

    2005-01-01

    Beta-carotene is a natural food component that is present in fruits and vegetables and is also used as a food colorant and a supplement. Beta-carotene is an anti-oxidant and a source of vitamin A. It is endowed with health beneficial properties, but a number of studies showed that with high intakes

  8. Beta-carotene affects gene-expression in lungs of male and female Bcmo1-/-mice in opposite directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helden, Y.G.J.; Godschalk, R.W.L.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Schooten, van F.J.; Keijer, J.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms triggered by high dietary beta-carotene (BC) intake in lung are largely unknown. We performed microarray gene expression analysis on lung tissue of BC supplemented beta-carotene 15,150-monooxygenase 1 knockout (Bcmo1-/-) mice, which are—like humans—able to accumulate BC. Our mai

  9. Vitamin A equivalency and apparent absorption of beta-carotene in ileostomy subjects using a dual-isotope dilution technique.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loo-Bouwman, C.A. Van; Naber, T.H.; Breemen, R.B. van; Zhu, D.; Dicke, H.; Siebelink, E.; Hulshof, P.J.; Russel, F.G.M.; Schaafsma, G.; West, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to quantify the vitamin A equivalency of beta-carotene in two diets using a dual-isotope dilution technique and the apparent beta-carotene absorption as measured by the oral-faecal balance technique. Seventeen healthy adults with an ileostomy completed the 4-week diet-controlled, c

  10. Microbial betacarotene use as a food additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Buţu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The present article presents one of the possibilities to use in the food industry a microbial bio product type of vitamin A precursor. The microbial bioproduct has a high level of beta–carotene and has been obtained from the biomass resulted from the cultivation in optimum conditions of a yeast strain. The strain used is from Rhodotorula spp. and it has been selected from the natural environment. We studied the possibility to enrich with beta–carotene some natural syrups, by adding the microbial product in the original recipe. The bioproduct has been used in several recipes, in different concentrations and under several forms of presentation. We analyzed the following: the degree of bioproduct integration in the syrup, the physico–chemical and microbiological parameters of the syrup and the stability over time.

  11. Organ specificity of beta-carotene induced lung gene-expression changes in Bcmo 1-/- mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helden, Y.G.J.; Godschalk, R.W.L.; Schooten, van F.J.; Keijer, J.

    2013-01-01

    Scope - Whole genome transcriptome analysis of male and female beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase knockout (Bcmo1-/-) and Bcmo1+/+ (wild-type) mice with or without 14 wk of BC supplementation was done. We previously showed that only 1.8% of the genes regulated by BC in lung were also regulated in li

  12. Effect of natural {beta}-carotene supplementation in children exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Amotz, A. [Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, Haifa (Israel); Yatziv, S. [Pediatric Department, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Sela, M. [Maxillary-Facial Rehabilitation, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Greenberg, S.; Rachmilevich, B.; Shwarzman, M.; Weshler, Z. [Sharett Institute of Oncology, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel)

    1998-10-01

    Attempts were made to evaluate 709 children (324 boys and 385 girls) who had been exposed long-term to different doses of radiation during and after the Chernobyl accident and had moved to Israel between 1990 and 1994. Upon arrival, all of them underwent a check-up for most common clinical disorders and were then divided into three groups according to their residences (distance from the reactor) and the level of irradiation exposure: no radiation, <5 Ci/m{sup 2}, and >5 Ci/m{sup 2}, respectively. Blood serum analyses for total carotenoids, retinol, {alpha}-tocopherol and oxidized conjugated dienes in 262 of the children showed increased HPLC levels of conjugated dienes, indicating increased levels of oxidation of in vivo blood lipids in children from the contaminated areas. The levels were higher in girls than in boys. Some 57 boys and 42 girls were given a basal diet with a diurnal supplementation of 40 mg natural 9-cis and all-trans equal isomer mixture {beta}-carotene in a capsulated powder form of the alga Dunaliella bardawil, for a period of 3 months. Blood serum analyses were regularly conducted before supplementation to determine the baseline effect of radiation exposure to the children, after 1 and 3 months of natural {beta}-carotene supplementation. After supplementation, the levels of the oxidized conjugated dienes decreased in the children`s sera without any significant changes in the level of total carotenoids, retinol or {alpha}-tocopherol. Other common blood biochemicals were within the normal range for all tests and no statistical differences before or after supplementation of {beta}-carotene were noted. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses for carotenoids in the blood detected mainly oxycarotenoids, and to a lesser extent, all-trans {beta}-carotene, {alpha}-carotene, but not 9-cis {beta}-carotene. The results suggest that irradiation increases the susceptibility of lipids to oxidation in the Chernobyl children and that natural {beta}-carotene

  13. Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress, improves glutathione metabolism and modifies antioxidant defense systems in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasperczyk, Sławomir, E-mail: kaslav@mp.pl [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Dobrakowski, Michał [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Kasperczyk, Janusz [Dept. of Environmental Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Ostałowska, Alina; Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta; Birkner, Ewa [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland)

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether beta-carotene administration reduces oxidative stress and influences antioxidant, mainly glutathione-related, defense systems in workers chronically exposed to lead. The population consisted of two randomly divided groups of healthy male volunteers exposed to lead. Workers in the first group (reference group) were not administered any antioxidants, while workers in the second group (CAR group) were treated orally with 10 mg of beta-carotene once a day for 12 weeks. Biochemical analysis included measuring markers of lead-exposure and oxidative stress in addition to the levels and activities of selected antioxidants. After treatment, levels of malondialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxides and lipofuscin significantly decreased compared with the reference group. However, the level of glutathione significantly increased compared with the baseline. Treatment with beta-carotene also resulted in significantly decreased glutathione peroxidase activity compared with the reference group, while the activities of other glutathione-related enzymes and of superoxide dismutase were not significantly changed. However, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase, as well as the level of alpha-tocopherol, were significantly higher after treatment compared with the baseline. Despite controversy over the antioxidant properties of beta-carotene in vivo, our findings showed reduced oxidative stress after beta-carotene supplementation in chronic lead poisoning. - Highlights: • Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene elevates glutathione level in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene administration could be beneficial in lead poisoning.

  14. Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress, improves glutathione metabolism and modifies antioxidant defense systems in lead-exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine whether beta-carotene administration reduces oxidative stress and influences antioxidant, mainly glutathione-related, defense systems in workers chronically exposed to lead. The population consisted of two randomly divided groups of healthy male volunteers exposed to lead. Workers in the first group (reference group) were not administered any antioxidants, while workers in the second group (CAR group) were treated orally with 10 mg of beta-carotene once a day for 12 weeks. Biochemical analysis included measuring markers of lead-exposure and oxidative stress in addition to the levels and activities of selected antioxidants. After treatment, levels of malondialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxides and lipofuscin significantly decreased compared with the reference group. However, the level of glutathione significantly increased compared with the baseline. Treatment with beta-carotene also resulted in significantly decreased glutathione peroxidase activity compared with the reference group, while the activities of other glutathione-related enzymes and of superoxide dismutase were not significantly changed. However, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase, as well as the level of alpha-tocopherol, were significantly higher after treatment compared with the baseline. Despite controversy over the antioxidant properties of beta-carotene in vivo, our findings showed reduced oxidative stress after beta-carotene supplementation in chronic lead poisoning. - Highlights: • Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene elevates glutathione level in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene administration could be beneficial in lead poisoning

  15. Concentration of beta-carotene and vitamin A in blood serum of cows in peripartal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veličković Miljan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In a herd of high-productive dairy cows of the Holstein breed, 40 cows were selected for an experiment. The animals were chosen at the period of advanced gravidity. Data on mean values of beta-carotene concentrations in blood serum of the cows show that significantly higher values (p<0.01 were established in advanced gravidity (x=9.53± 3.49 μmol/l in comparison with the values on calving day (x=5.69±3.14 μmol/l and in early puerperium (x=2.25±1.00 μmol/l. The average concentration of vitamin A in blood serum of cows varied approximately the same as the concentration of beta-carotene. The highest average concentration of vitamin A in blood serum of cows was determined in advanced gravidity (x=1.856±0.52 μmol/l, and the lowest in early puerperium (x=0.988±0.31 μmol/l (p<0.05. It can be concluded on the grounds of the results obtained in this work that the average concentration of beta-carotene and vitamin A in blood serum of cows in advanced gravidity and on the day of calving is within the limits of physiological values and in keeping with the values cited in literature, and that concentrations of beta-carotene and vitamin A in blood serum of cows two weeks after calving are significantly lower than the values obtained in advanced gravidity and on the day of calving and are lower than the physiological values most often reported in literature for this animal specie.

  16. Vibrationally coherent crossing and coupling of electronic states during internal conversion in beta-carotene

    OpenAIRE

    Liebel, Matz; Schnedermann, Christoph; Kukura, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Coupling of nuclear and electronic degrees of freedom mediates energy flow in molecules after optical excitation. The associated coherent dynamics in polyatomic systems, however, remain experimentally unexplored. Here, we combined transient absorption spectroscopy with electronic population control to reveal nuclear wavepacket dynamics during the S2-S1 internal conversion in beta-carotene. We show that passage through a conical intersection is vibrationally coherent and thereby provides direc...

  17. DNA repair genotype and lung cancer risk in the beta-carotene and retinol efficacy trial

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, Jennifer A; Sakoda, Lori C.; Loomis, Melissa M; Barnett, Matt J.; Julianto, Liberto; Thornquist, Mark D; Neuhouser, Marian L; Weiss, Noel S.; Goodman, Gary E.; Chen, Chu

    2013-01-01

    Many carcinogens in tobacco smoke cause DNA damage, and some of that damage can be mitigated by the actions of DNA repair enzymes. In a case-control study nested within the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial, a randomized chemoprevention trial in current and former heavy smokers, we examined whether lung cancer risk was associated with variation in 26 base excision repair, mismatch repair, and homologous recombination repair genes. Analyses were limited to Caucasians (744 cases, 1477 co...

  18. Beta-carotene metabolites enhance inflammation-induced oxidative DNA damage in lung epithelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    van Helden, Yvonne G. J.; Keijer, Jaap; Knaapen, Ad M; Heil, Sandra G.; Briede, Jacob J.; Schooten, Frederik J.; Godschalk, Roger W. L.

    2009-01-01

    beta-Carotene (BC) intake has been shown to enhance lung cancer risk in smokers and asbestos-exposed subjects (according to the ATBC and CARET studies), but the mechanism behind this procarcinogenic effect of BC is unclear. Both smoking and asbestos exposure induce an influx of inflammatory neutrophils into the airways, which results in an increased production of reactive oxygen species and formation of promutagenic DNA lesions. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the effects o...

  19. The Effect of Beta-Carotene Intake on Lung Cancer Development

    OpenAIRE

    Brar, Rondeep Singh

    2007-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death in the United States, comprising nearly 30% of all cancer-related mortality. Investigation into nutritional supplementation with beta-carotene as a means of reducing lung cancer incidence remains an active and intriguing area of research. The present review summarizes the salient findings in the literature to date. Although a number of observational studies have suggested an association between carotenoid consumption and reduced...

  20. {beta}-Carotene to bacteriochlorophyll c energy transfer in self-assembled aggregates mimicking chlorosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alster, J. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Praha (Czech Republic); Polivka, T. [Institute of Physical Biology, University of South Bohemia, Zamek 136, 373 33 Nove Hrady (Czech Republic); Biology Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Branisovska 31, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Arellano, J.B. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Salamanca (IRNASA-CSIC), Apdo. 257, 37071 Salamanca (Spain); Chabera, P. [Institute of Physical Biology, University of South Bohemia, Zamek 136, 373 33 Nove Hrady (Czech Republic); Vacha, F. [Institute of Physical Biology, University of South Bohemia, Zamek 136, 373 33 Nove Hrady (Czech Republic); Biology Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Branisovska 31, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Psencik, J., E-mail: psencik@karlov.mff.cuni.cz [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Praha (Czech Republic); Institute of Physical Biology, University of South Bohemia, Zamek 136, 373 33 Nove Hrady (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-19

    Carotenoids are together with bacteriochlorophylls important constituents of chlorosomes, the light-harvesting antennae of green photosynthetic bacteria. Majority of bacteriochlorophyll molecules form self-assembling aggregates inside the chlorosomes. Aggregates of bacteriochlorophylls with optical properties similar to those of chlorosomes can also be prepared in non-polar organic solvents or in aqueous environments when a suitable non-polar molecule is added. In this work, the ability of {beta}-carotene to induce aggregation of bacteriochlorophyll c in aqueous buffer was studied. Excitation relaxation and energy transfer in the carotenoid-bacteriochlorophyll assemblies were measured using femtosecond and nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. A fast, {approx}100-fs energy transfer from the S{sub 2} state of {beta}-carotene to bacteriochlorophyll c was revealed, while no evidence for significant energy transfer from the S{sub 1} state was found. Picosecond formation of the carotenoid triplet state (T{sub 1}) was observed, which was likely generated by singlet homo-fission from the S{sub 1} state of {beta}-carotene.

  1. Improved simultaneous determination method of beta-carotene and retinol with saponification in human serum and rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosotani, Keisuke; Kitagawa, Masahiro

    2003-07-01

    Among the many simultaneous determination methods for carotenoid and retinoid, there are only a few reports including the saponification process. However, the yields of beta-carotene and retinol were higher when using this process. In this study, the analytical conditions, including saponification, were investigated. The extraction solvent was n-hexane and the sample solvent was HPLC mobile phase in the beta-carotene and retinol analysis. BHT as an antioxidant was added at concentrations of 0.125 and 0.025%, respectively, to ethanol and n-hexane phase in the extraction process for serum. The recovery rates were 99.7, 93.7 and 98.3% for beta-carotene, retinol and retinyl palmitate in serum, respectively, and 107.1, 92.8 and 98.8% for beta-carotene, retinol and retinyl palmitate in liver, respectively. The within-day coefficients of variation (C.V.) were 6.0% for serum and 4.7% for liver in the case of beta-carotene, 7.1% for serum, and 5.1% for liver in the case of retinol. The between-day coefficients of variation were 2.7% for serum and 2.7% for liver in the case of beta-carotene, and for retinol, 6.4% for serum and 2.7% for liver.

  2. Spectral difference method applied in determination of beta-carotene, chlorophyll a and b from irradiated seeds of Calendula Officinalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta-carotene is part of the class of the carotenoid pigments that have a special function in the pigmentation of flowers and fruits. These pigments are essential in photosynthesis where they are retaining energy and are photoprotectors by forming the redox system. They are also precursors of vitamin A, pigments involved in the process of seeing. Beta-carotene is responsible for the growth and development of organisms, for the protection and recovery of epithelial tissue, etc. Next to chlorophyll, carotenoids are the major components of the complex pigment-protein from the thylacoide membrane, and some of them, such as beta-carotene, were for a long time considered to be protecting the membrane against destructive events caused by the over excitement of the chlorophyll. This paper presents spectral difference method for physico-chemical characterisation of three components (beta-carotene, chlorophyll a and b) from Calendula officinalis leaves and stalks, after irradiation of germinated seeds. The germinated seeds of Calendula officinalis has been irradiated at 8 different doses ( 1 k Rad, 3 k Rad, 5 k Rad, 10 k Rad, 20 k Rad, 50 k Rad, 100 k Rad, 500 krad), one set of seeds remaining unirradiated for comparison. The plants had been grown in the same conditions of light, temperature and humidity. The identification of beta-carotene was performed through thin layer chromatography. The chemical concentrations of beta-carotene, chlorophyll a and b were determined by spectral difference method. (authors)

  3. Role of beta carotene on histomorphology of rat kidneys in subacute apap induced renal damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the role of beta carotene on histomorphology of rat kidneys In subacute Acetaminophen (APAP)- induced renal damage. Study Design: Lab based randomized control trial Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the department of Anatomy Army Medical College, Rawalpindi; in collaboration with National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabd for one week in June 2009. Material and Methods: Sixty young adult (4-6 weeks old) Sprague -Dawley rats of both sexes weighing 180-240 g were randomized into three groups. Experimental group A was treated with 700 mg/kg body weight subacute APAP orally once daily for 7 consecutive days. Experimental group B was administered beta carotene 30 mg/kg body weight once daily one hour before 700 mg/kg body weight subacute APAP once daily for 7 consecutive days. Control group C animals were fed NIH laboratory diet. Kidney specimens were collected 24 hours after the last dose. Five micron thick sections of kidney were stained with H and E for histomorphological study. Frequencies and percentages were calculated to describe the variables p-values less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant Results: Microscopic examination in experimental group A demonstrated tubular necrosis of level 2 (35% animals) and level 3 (65% animals). Mild vacuolar degeneration was also observed in 90% of the experimental group A animals. In experimental group B, there was statistically significant difference (p-value < 0.001 in levels of renal tubular necrosis (15% animals) and grades of vacuolar degeneration (5% animals) as compared to experimental group A.Findings in experimental group B were not significantly different from that of control group C. Conclusion: Beta carotene has protective role on histomorphology of kidneys in subacute APAP-induced renal damage in rats. (author)

  4. Beta - caroteno e câncer Beta - carotene and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Margareth Veloso Naves

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Há mais de vinte anos tem-se pesquisado sobre a relação entre β-caroteno e câncer. Inúmeros trabalhos têm tentado esclarecer a hipótese, formulada a partir de achados epidemiológicos e experimentais, de que o carotenóide poderia agir como anticarcinogênico de origem alimentar. Estudos epidemiológicos observacionais, tipo caso-controle e coorte, sugerem que o consumo elevado de frutas e vegetais ricos em β-caroteno reduz o risco de câncer, especialmente de pulmão. Estudos de intervenção em humanos, administrando doses farmacológicas crônicas a milhares de indivíduos, têm demonstrado resultados contraditórios. Pesquisas em animais experimentais e em cultura de células apontam o carotenóide como quimiopreventivo, agindo sobretudo como retinóides, através de conversão metabólica extra-intestinal e como antioxidante de membrana. Conclui-se que o β-caroteno pode proteger contra o câncer, quando suplementado em doses fisiológicas, isto é, cerca de 4 a 6mg/dia. Doses farmacológicas crônicas não estão recomendadas para indivíduos saudáveis e particularmente para tabagistas.The subject β-carotene and cancer has been studied for more than twenty years, through epidemiologic and experimental researches.Observational epidemiologic studies, both prospective and retrospective, have suggested strongly that high intake of vegetables and fruits which are sources of β-carotene is associated with reduced risk of cancer, specially of lung cancer. However, the results of intervention trials do not demonstrate a preventive potential of β-carotene. Nevertheless, in many studies in experimental animals and in cell cultures, this carotenoid had been shown to act as a potent cancer chemopreventive agent and mechanisms have been proposed to explain this protective effect on biological systems. Researchers suggest that β-carotene protects against cancer, in the amounts easily attained by the consumption of a wide variety of diets

  5. Beta-carotene Antioxidant Use During Radiation Therapy and Prostate Cancer Outcome in the Physicians' Health Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The safety of antioxidant supplementation during radiation therapy (RT) for cancer is controversial. Antioxidants could potentially counteract the pro-oxidant effects of RT and compromise therapeutic efficacy. We performed a prospective study nested within the Physicians’ Health Study (PHS) randomized trial to determine if supplemental antioxidant use during RT for prostate cancer is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death or metastases. Methods and Materials: PHS participants (383) received RT for prostate cancer while randomized to receive beta-carotene (50 mg on alternate days) or placebo. The primary endpoint was time from RT to lethal prostate cancer, defined as prostate cancer death or bone metastases. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival probabilities and the log-rank test to compare groups. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the effect of beta-carotene compared with that of placebo during RT. Results: With a median follow-up of 10.5 years, there was no significant difference between risk of lethal prostate cancer with the use of beta-carotene during RT compared with that of placebo (hazard ratio = 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42–1.24; p = 0.24). After we adjusted for age at RT, prostate-specific antigen serum level, Gleason score, and clinical stage, the difference remained nonsignificant. The 10-year freedom from lethal prostate cancer was 92% (95% CI, 87–95%) in the beta-carotene group and 89% (95% CI, 84–93%) in the placebo group. Conclusion: The use of supplemental antioxidant beta-carotene during RT was not associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death or metastases. This study suggests a lack of harm from supplemental beta-carotene during RT for prostate cancer.

  6. Beta-carotene Antioxidant Use During Radiation Therapy and Prostate Cancer Outcome in the Physicians' Health Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margalit, Danielle N., E-mail: dmargalit@lroc.harvard.edu [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kasperzyk, Julie L. [Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Martin, Neil E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sesso, Howard D. [Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Gaziano, John Michael [Division of Aging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Veterans' Affairs Boston Healthcare System, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ma, Jing [Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Stampfer, Meir J.; Mucci, Lorelei A. [Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: The safety of antioxidant supplementation during radiation therapy (RT) for cancer is controversial. Antioxidants could potentially counteract the pro-oxidant effects of RT and compromise therapeutic efficacy. We performed a prospective study nested within the Physicians' Health Study (PHS) randomized trial to determine if supplemental antioxidant use during RT for prostate cancer is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death or metastases. Methods and Materials: PHS participants (383) received RT for prostate cancer while randomized to receive beta-carotene (50 mg on alternate days) or placebo. The primary endpoint was time from RT to lethal prostate cancer, defined as prostate cancer death or bone metastases. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival probabilities and the log-rank test to compare groups. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the effect of beta-carotene compared with that of placebo during RT. Results: With a median follow-up of 10.5 years, there was no significant difference between risk of lethal prostate cancer with the use of beta-carotene during RT compared with that of placebo (hazard ratio = 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42-1.24; p = 0.24). After we adjusted for age at RT, prostate-specific antigen serum level, Gleason score, and clinical stage, the difference remained nonsignificant. The 10-year freedom from lethal prostate cancer was 92% (95% CI, 87-95%) in the beta-carotene group and 89% (95% CI, 84-93%) in the placebo group. Conclusion: The use of supplemental antioxidant beta-carotene during RT was not associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death or metastases. This study suggests a lack of harm from supplemental beta-carotene during RT for prostate cancer.

  7. Beta-carotene and the application of transcriptomics in risk-benefit evaluation of natural dietary components

    OpenAIRE

    Keijer, J.; Bunschoten, J.E.; PALOU, A.; Franssen-Hal, van, N.L.W.

    2005-01-01

    Beta-carotene is a natural food component that is present in fruits and vegetables and is also used as a food colorant and a supplement. Beta-carotene is an anti-oxidant and a source of vitamin A. It is endowed with health beneficial properties, but a number of studies showed that with high intakes it may increase the risk for lung cancer in at risk individuals (heavy smokers, asbestos workers and alcohol users). To establish the window of benefit, it is necessary to identify early markers of...

  8. Randomized double-blind trial of beta-carotene and vitamin C in women with minor cervical abnormalities

    OpenAIRE

    Mackerras, D; Irwig, L.; Simpson, J M; Weisberg, E; Cardona, M.; Webster, F.; Walton, L.; Ghersi, D

    1999-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, factorial study using a daily oral administration of 30 mg beta-carotene and/or 500 mg vitamin C was conducted in 141 women with colposcopically and histologically confirmed minor squamous atypia or cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) I. Over approximately 2 years of follow-up, 43 lesions regressed to normal and 13 progressed to CIN II. The regression rate was slightly higher, but not significantly so, in those randomized to beta-carotene ...

  9. Dual Association of beta-carotene with risk of tobacco-related cancers in a cohort of French women.

    OpenAIRE

    Touvier, Mathilde; Kesse, Emmanuelle; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intervention studies have demonstrated that, in smokers, beta-carotene supplements had a deleterious effect on risk of lung cancer and may have a deleterious effect on digestive cancers as well. We investigated a potential interaction between beta-carotene intake and smoking on the risk of tobacco-related cancers in women. METHODS: A total of 59,910 women from the French Etude Epid?ologique de Femmes de la Mutuelle G?rale de l'Education Nationale (E3N) prospective investigation we...

  10. Beta-carotene affects gene-expression in lungs of male and female Bcmo1-/-mice in opposite directions

    OpenAIRE

    Helden, Y.G.J.; Godschalk, R. W. L.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Schooten, van, E.; Keijer, J.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms triggered by high dietary beta-carotene (BC) intake in lung are largely unknown. We performed microarray gene expression analysis on lung tissue of BC supplemented beta-carotene 15,15′-monooxygenase 1 knockout (Bcmo1 −/−) mice, which are—like humans—able to accumulate BC. Our main observation was that the genes were regulated in an opposite direction in male and female Bcmo1 −/− mice by BC. The steroid biosynthetic pathway was overrepresented in BC-supplemented male Bcmo1...

  11. Vitamin A equivalency of beta-carotene in healthy adults: limitation of the extrinsic dual-isotope dilution technique to measure matrix effect.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loo-Bouwman, C.A. Van; West, C.E.; Breemen, R.B. van; Zhu, D.; Siebelink, E.; Versloot, P.; Hulshof, P.J.; Lieshout, M. van; Russel, F.G.M.; Schaafsma, G.; Naber, T.H.

    2009-01-01

    Data on the vitamin A equivalency of beta-carotene in food are inconsistent. We quantified the vitamin A equivalency (microg) of beta-carotene in two diets using the dual-isotope dilution technique and the oral-faecal balance technique. A diet-controlled, cross-over intervention study was conducted

  12. Ultrafast optical responses of {beta}-carotene and lycopene probed by sub-20-fs time-resolved coherent spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, M.; Sugisaki, M. [CREST-JST and Department of Physics, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Gall, A.; Robert, B. [CEA, Institut de Biologie et Technologies de Saclay, and CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette F-91191 (France); Cogdell, R.J. [IBLS, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Hashimoto, H., E-mail: hassy@sci.osaka-cu.ac.j [CREST-JST and Department of Physics, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    We investigate how structural distortions in carotenoid cause decoherences of its high-frequency vibrational modes by applying the sub-20-fs time-resolved transient grating spectroscopy to {beta}-carotene and lycopene. The results indicate that the C=C central stretching mode shows significant loss of coherence under the effects of the steric hindrance between {beta}-ionone ring and polyene backbone, whereas the other high-frequency modes do not show such dependency on the structural distortions.

  13. Lycopene and beta-carotene induce growth inhibition and proapoptotic effects on ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália F Haddad

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenomas comprise approximately 10-15% of intracranial tumors and result in morbidity associated with altered hormonal patterns, therapy and compression of adjacent sella turcica structures. The use of functional foods containing carotenoids contributes to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and vascular disorders. In this study, we evaluated the influence of different concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene on cell viability, colony formation, cell cycle, apoptosis, hormone secretion, intercellular communication and expression of connexin 43, Skp2 and p27(kip1 in ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma cells, the AtT20 cells, incubated for 48 and 96 h with these carotenoids. We observed a decrease in cell viability caused by the lycopene and beta-carotene treatments; in these conditions, the clonogenic ability of the cells was also significantly decreased. Cell cycle analysis revealed that beta-carotene induced an increase of the cells in S and G2/M phases; furthermore, lycopene increased the proportion of these cells in G0/G1 while decreasing the S and G2/M phases. Also, carotenoids induced apoptosis after 96 h. Lycopene and beta-carotene decreased the secretion of ACTH in AtT20 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Carotenoids blocked the gap junction intercellular communication. In addition, the treatments increased the expression of phosphorylated connexin43. Finally, we also demonstrate decreased expression of S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2 and increased expression of p27(kip1 in carotenoid-treated cells. These results show that lycopene and beta-carotene were able to negatively modulate events related to the malignant phenotype of AtT-20 cells, through a mechanism that could involve changes in the expression of connexin 43, Skp2 and p27(kip1; and suggest that these compounds might provide a novel pharmacological approach to the treatment of Cushing's disease.

  14. Effect of gamma radiation on the content {beta}-carotene and volatile compounds of cantaloupe melon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Stefania P. de; Cardozo, Monique; Lima, Keila dos S.C.; Lima, Antonio L. dos S., E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br, E-mail: santoslima@ime.eb.br [Departamento de Quimica - IME - Instituto Militar de Engenharia, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Japanese melon or cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) is characterized by fruits with almost 1.0 Kg, pulp usually salmon and musky scent. The fruits when ripe are sensitive to post harvest handling. This low transport resistance and reduced shelf-life makes it necessary to delay the ripening of fruit. In this way the use of irradiation technique is a good choice. Irradiation is the process of exposing food to high doses of gamma rays. The processing of fruits and vegetables with ionizing radiation has as main purpose to ensure its preservation. However, like other forms of food processing, irradiation may cause changes in chemical composition and nutritional value. This study aims to assess possible changes in carotene content and volatile compounds caused by exposure of cantaloupe melon fruit to gamma irradiation. Irradiation of the samples occurred in Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (Guaratiba-RJ), using Gamma irradiator (Cs{sub 137} source, dose rate 1.8 kGy/h), being applied 0.5 and 1.0 kGy doses and separated a control group not irradiated. Carotenoids were extracted with acetone and then suffered partition to petroleum ether, solvent was removed under nitrogen flow and the remainder dissolved in acetone again. The chromatographic analysis was performed using a Shimadzu gas chromatograph, with C30 column. For volatile compounds, we used gas chromatography (GC) associated with mass (MS). As a result, it was verified in analysis of carotenoids that cantaloupe melon is rich in {beta}-carotene. Both total content of carotenoids and specific {beta}-carotene amount wasn't suffer significant reduction in irradiated fruits at two doses, demonstrating that the irradiation process under these conditions implies a small loss of nutrients. The major volatile compounds were: 2-methyl-1-butyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, n-hexyl acetate, benzyl acetate, 6-nonenyl acetate and {alpha} -terpinyl acetate. For all compounds we observed an increase in the volatile content in 0.5 k

  15. PENGARUH PENGERINGAN DENGAN FAR INFRARED DRYER, OVEN VAKUM DAN FREEZE DRYER TERHADAP WARNA, KADAR TOTAL KAROTEN, BETA KAROTEN DAN VITAMIN C PADA DAUM BAYAM (Amaranthus Tricolor L. [Effect of Drying with Far Infrared Dryer, Oven Vacuum, and Freeze Dryer on the Color, Total Carotene, Beta-Carotene, and Vitamin C of Spinach Leaves (Amaranthus Tricolor L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Thahir2

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Spinach is a well known vegetable as a source of nutrition especially for is carotene. Soinach leaves need to be dried for application in product development of food like biscuit, extruded products and analysis. One the drying method that became popular is drying using infrared wave. The aim of this research was to compare the effect of blanching and drying (far infrared dryer, oven vacuum, and freeze dryer on the color, total carotene, beta-carotene, and vitamin C of spinach leaves. Blanching and drying of increased brightness, a value, and b value. The a value is shows spinach brightness in mix red-green color while b value shows mix blue-yellow. Total carotene of fresh spinach decreased by 10.47% after blanching. Drying with vacuum decreased the total carotene by 39.31% (with blanching and 31.66 (with blanching. Drying with freeze dryer decreased the beta carotene by 4.99% (with blanching and 18.60% (with blanching. Drying with FIR dryer decreased spinach total carotene by 34.90% (with blanching and 24.86% (with blanching. The beta-carotene of fresh spinach with balancing treatment decreased of by 16.53%.drying oven vacuum decreased the beta carotene by 42.80% (wiyh blanching and 18.91% (with blanching. Drying with freeze dyer decreased the beta carotene by 29.03% (with blanching the beta carotene. The decreased of beta-carotene is bigger than total carotene. Vitamin C of fresh spinach decreased by 20.35% after blanching. Drying with oven vacuum decreased of 55.77% (without blanching and 65.42% (with blanching f the vitamin C. drying with freeze dryer decreased the vitamin C by 13.21% (without blanching and 30.67% (with blanching. Meanwhile, the vitamin C of spinach after drying with FIR dyer decreased of 60.53% (without blanching and 70.29% (with blanching.

  16. Short-term intake of beta-carotene-supplemented diets enhances ovarian function and progesterone synthesis in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Rodriguez, G; Meza-Herrera, C A; Rodriguez-Martinez, R; Dionisio-Tapia, R; Hallford, D M; Mellado, M; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A

    2009-12-01

    The effect of beta-carotene supplementation upon luteal activity, measured as number (CLT) and volume (VLT) of corpus luteum, and P4 synthesis in goats, was evaluated. Goats (n = 22, 34 months) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups: (i) beta-carotene [Beta, n = 10; body weight (BW = 44.8 +/- 1.45 kg), body condition score (BCS = 3.25 +/- 0.07)], and (ii) Control (Control, n = 12; BW = 45.30 +/- 1.32 kg, BCS = 3.33 +/- 0.06). Upon oestrus synchronization, the Beta group received 50 mg of beta-carotene per day during 35 days pre- and 17 days post-ovulation. The day 4, 8, 12 and 16 post-ovulation, blood samples were collected for quantification of serum P4 concentrations by radioimmmunoassay, and transrectal ultrasonographic scanning was performed at day 18 for evaluating CLT and VLT. Overall, CLT and VLT mean were 3.10 and 2211.1 mm(3) respectively. The Beta-goats depicted both the largest values for CLT (p = 0.07) and serum P4 levels (p = 0.05), with no differences (p = 0.53) for VLT between treatments. Results suggest a higher efficiency within the cellular-enzymatic groups defining the steroidogenic pathways in the beta-carotene-supplemented goats, generating a larger P4 synthesis. The last is essential for ovulation of healthy oocytes, maintenance of uterine quiescence, nourishment and survival of the embryo around implantation; all of them of paramount significance during the maternal recognition of pregnancy process. PMID:19141099

  17. [The effect of vitamin- and beta-carotene-enriched products on the vitamin A allowance and the concentration of different carotenoids of the blood serum in victims of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakushina, L M; Taranova, A G; Pokrovskaia, G R; Shatniuk, L N; Spirichev, V B

    1996-01-01

    The results of clinical trials of efficiency of foods enriched by vitamins and beta-carotene in people suffered from Chernobyl's accident are presented. The level of beta-carotene in clinical diets was the same during trial. Daily consumption of enriched food supplying ingestion of 4-5 mg of beta-carotene increased the level of beta-carotene in serum by 2-4 times. The concentration of total carotenoides in serum was increased by 1.6 times practically at the expense of beta-carotene.

  18. Role of Frizzled6 in the molecular mechanism of beta-carotene action in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    β-Carotene (BC) is omnipresent in our diet, both as natural food component as well as an additive. BC and its metabolites have important biological functions. For this reason, BC is generally considered to be a health promoting compound. Two human trials, however, have described adverse effects in lung tissue, increasing the risk of lung cancer. We previously applied transcriptomic analyses in a unique animal model, beta-carotene 15,15′-monooxygenase 1 knockout (Bcmo1−/−) mice that are, like humans, able to accumulate intact BC. In our search to unravel the molecular action of BC in the lung, we previously identified two genes particularly strongly down-regulated by BC in lung tissue of the male Bcmo1−/− mice: frizzled homologue 6 (Fzd6) and collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (Cthrc1). In the present study, our aim was to further elucidate the role of FZD6 in lung epithelial cells and to provide a mechanistic explanation for BC increased lung cancer risk in humans. We performed whole genome microarray analysis on silenced FZD6 in non-tumor human type II bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells using RNAi. To directly link FZD6 to BC-effects on the lung, we compared the FZD6-silenced BEAS-2B gene expression profile to the BC-dependent gene expression profile of Bcmo1−/− mouse lungs. A number of relevant genes were regulated in the same direction in FZD6− BEAS-2B and in BC-exposed lungs of Bcmo1−/− mice and revealed enrichment of the Gene Ontology terms “oncogenes”, “cell proliferation” and “cell cycle”, which suggests a mediating role of FZD6 in BC-induced uncontrolled proliferation of lung cells

  19. Effects of α-Tocopherol and β-Carotene Supplementation on Cancer Incidence and Mortality: 18-Year Post-Intervention Follow-Up of the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Virtamo, Jarmo; Taylor, Phil R; Kontto, Jukka; Männistö, Satu; Utriainen, Meri; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Huttunen, Jussi; Albanes, Demetrius

    2013-01-01

    In the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study among 29,133 Finnish male smokers aged 50–69 years, daily α-tocopherol (50 mg) for a median of 6.1 years decreased the risk of prostate cancer, whereas β-carotene (20 mg) increased risk of lung cancer and overall mortality. To determine the post-intervention effects of α-tocopherol and β-carotene, 25,563 men were followed 18 years for cancer incidence and all causes of mortality through national registers. Neither supplemen...

  20. HPLC Analysis of Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, and Beta-Carotene in Collard Greens: A Project for a Problem-Oriented Laboratory Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is used to separate and quantitate beta-carotene, chlorophyll a, and chlorophyll b originating from collard greens. Experimental procedures used and typical results obtained are discussed. (JN)

  1. Comparative actions of clomazone on beta-carotene levels and growth in rice (Oryza sativa) and watergrasses (Echinochloa spp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    TenBrook, Patti L; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2005-06-01

    Seedlings of rice, early watergrass (thiobencarb-resistant and thiobencarb-susceptible biotypes, R and S, respectively), and late watergrass (thiobencarb-resistant and thiobencarb-susceptible biotypes, R and S, respectively) were hydroponically exposed to clomazone at concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 7.9 microM. Whole-plant growth (mg fresh wt) and beta-carotene concentrations (microg g(-1) fresh wt) were measured after a 7-day exposure period. For growth, the no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) were 7.9, 0.21, 0.21, 0.46 and 0.46 microM clomazone for rice, early watergrass (R), early watergrass (S), late watergrass (R) and late watergrass (S), respectively, while the concentrations causing 25% inhibition in response (IC25) were 5.6 (+/-1.6), 0.46 (+/-0.06), 0.42 (+/-0.08), 0.92 (+/-0.45) and 0.79 (+/-0.08) microM clomazone, respectively. Clomazone inhibits beta-carotene synthesis via inhibition of the non-mevalonate isoprenoid synthetic pathway. For assessment of clomazone effects, beta-carotene levels proved to be a more sensitive toxicological endpoint than growth. For rice, early watergrass (R), early watergrass (S), late watergrass (R) and late watergrass (S), the beta-carotene NOECs were 0.21, clomazone respectively, while IC25 values were 0.42 (+/-0.26), 0.08 (+/-0.02), 0.08 (+/-0.02), 0.33 (+/-0.09) and 0.54 (+/-0.15) microM, respectively. No evidence was found that the thiobencarb-resistance mechanisms present in early and late watergrasses impart resistance to clomazone. Due to similar sensitivity between rice and late watergrass, use of clomazone in rice culture will require the use of a safening technique.

  2. Lycopene and Beta-Carotene Induce Growth Inhibition and Proapoptotic Effects on ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Natália F Haddad; Anderson J Teodoro; Felipe Leite de Oliveira; Nathália Soares; Rômulo Medina de Mattos; Fábio Hecht; Rômulo Sperduto Dezonne; Leandro Vairo; Regina Coeli Dos Santos Goldenberg; Flávia Carvalho Alcântara Gomes; Denise Pires de Carvalho; Gadelha, Mônica R.; Luiz Eurico Nasciutti; Leandro Miranda-Alves

    2013-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas comprise approximately 10-15% of intracranial tumors and result in morbidity associated with altered hormonal patterns, therapy and compression of adjacent sella turcica structures. The use of functional foods containing carotenoids contributes to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and vascular disorders. In this study, we evaluated the influence of different concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene on cell viability, colony formation, cell cycle, apopto...

  3. Non-invasive in vivo determination of the carotenoids beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations in the human skin using the Raman spectroscopic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy was used as a fast and non-invasive optical method of measuring the absolute concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene in living human skin. Beta-carotene and lycopene have different absorption values at 488 and 514.5 nm and, consequently, the Raman lines for beta-carotene and lycopene have different scattering efficiencies at 488 and 514.5 nm excitations. These differences were used for the determination of the concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene. Using multiline Ar+ laser excitation, clearly distinguishable carotenoid Raman spectra can be obtained which are superimposed on a large fluorescence background. The Raman signals are characterized by two prominent Stokes lines at 1160 and 1525 cm-1, which have nearly identical relative intensities. Both substances were detected simultaneously. The Raman spectra are obtained rapidly, i.e. within about 10 s, and the required laser light exposure level is well within safety standards. The disturbance of the measurements by non-homogeneous skin pigmentation was avoided by using a relatively large measuring area of 35 mm2. It was shown that beta-carotene and lycopene distribution in human skin strongly depends upon the skin region studied and drastically changed inter-individually. Skin beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations are lower in smokers than in non-smokers and higher in the vegetarian group

  4. Non-invasive in vivo determination of the carotenoids beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations in the human skin using the Raman spectroscopic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darvin, M E [Center of Experimental and Applied Cutaneous Physiology (CCP), Department of Dermatology, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Gersonde, I [Institute of Medical Physics and Laser Medicine, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Meinke, M [Institute of Medical Physics and Laser Medicine, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Sterry, W [Center of Experimental and Applied Cutaneous Physiology (CCP), Department of Dermatology, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Lademann, J [Center of Experimental and Applied Cutaneous Physiology (CCP), Department of Dermatology, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany)

    2005-08-07

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy was used as a fast and non-invasive optical method of measuring the absolute concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene in living human skin. Beta-carotene and lycopene have different absorption values at 488 and 514.5 nm and, consequently, the Raman lines for beta-carotene and lycopene have different scattering efficiencies at 488 and 514.5 nm excitations. These differences were used for the determination of the concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene. Using multiline Ar{sup +} laser excitation, clearly distinguishable carotenoid Raman spectra can be obtained which are superimposed on a large fluorescence background. The Raman signals are characterized by two prominent Stokes lines at 1160 and 1525 cm{sup -1}, which have nearly identical relative intensities. Both substances were detected simultaneously. The Raman spectra are obtained rapidly, i.e. within about 10 s, and the required laser light exposure level is well within safety standards. The disturbance of the measurements by non-homogeneous skin pigmentation was avoided by using a relatively large measuring area of 35 mm{sup 2}. It was shown that beta-carotene and lycopene distribution in human skin strongly depends upon the skin region studied and drastically changed inter-individually. Skin beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations are lower in smokers than in non-smokers and higher in the vegetarian group.

  5. Stimulation or inhibition of beta-carotene's biosynthesis by irradiation with γ-rays of Calendula Officinalis seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to see what is the effect of irradiation with gamma rays of Calendula officinalis (marigolds) seeds. Could it be a stimulation or a inhibition of beta-carotene's biosynthesis? This paper presents results of irradiation of germinated seeds of marigolds. It was carried out irradiation of seeds at 8 different doses ( 1 kRad, 3.3 kRad, 10 kRad, 25 kRad, 50 kRad, 100 kRad, 200 kRad, 500 krad), one set of seeds being unirradiated for comparison. The plants had been grown in the same conditions of light, temperature and humidity. The identification of β-carotene was realized through thin layer chromatography (TLC). The chemical concentrations of β-carotene in leaves and stalks of marigolds had been determined by Varian spectrophotometer. Quantitative determination of β-carotene was carried out through spectral analysis using a standard spectrum of carotenoids and chlorophyll a and b. (authors)

  6. PENGARUH PENGERINGAN DENGAN FAR INFRARED DRYER, OVEN VAKUM DAN FREEZE DRYER TERHADAP WARNA, KADAR TOTAL KAROTEN, BETA KAROTEN DAN VITAMIN C PADA DAUM BAYAM (Amaranthus Tricolor L.) [Effect of Drying with Far Infrared Dryer, Oven Vacuum, and Freeze Dryer on the Color, Total Carotene, Beta-Carotene, and Vitamin C of Spinach Leaves (Amaranthus Tricolor L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ridwan Thahir2); Asep Sopian; Tien R. Muchtadi 2)

    2005-01-01

    Spinach is a well known vegetable as a source of nutrition especially for is carotene. Soinach leaves need to be dried for application in product development of food like biscuit, extruded products and analysis. One the drying method that became popular is drying using infrared wave. The aim of this research was to compare the effect of blanching and drying (far infrared dryer, oven vacuum, and freeze dryer) on the color, total carotene, beta-carotene, and vitamin C of spinach leaves. Blanchi...

  7. Exploring the potential of the bacterial carotene desaturase CrtI to increase the beta-carotene content in Golden Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Babili, Salim; Hoa, Tran Thi Cuc; Schaub, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    To increase the beta-carotene (provitamin A) content and thus the nutritional value of Golden Rice, the optimization of the enzymes employed, phytoene synthase (PSY) and the Erwinia uredovora carotene desaturase (CrtI), must be considered. CrtI was chosen for this study because this bacterial enzyme, unlike phytoene synthase, was expressed at barely detectable levels in the endosperm of the Golden Rice events investigated. The low protein amounts observed may be caused by either weak cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter activity in the endosperm or by inappropriate codon usage. The protein level of CrtI was increased to explore its potential for enhancing the flux of metabolites through the pathway. For this purpose, a synthetic CrtI gene with a codon usage matching that of rice storage proteins was generated. Rice plants were transformed to express the synthetic gene under the control of the endosperm-specific glutelin B1 promoter. In addition, transgenic plants expressing the original bacterial gene were generated, but the endosperm-specific glutelin B1 promoter was employed instead of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Independent of codon optimization, the use of the endosperm-specific promoter resulted in a large increase in bacterial desaturase production in the T(1) rice grains. However, this did not lead to a significant increase in the carotenoid content, suggesting that the bacterial enzyme is sufficiently active in rice endosperm even at very low levels and is not rate-limiting. The endosperm-specific expression of CrtI did not affect the carotenoid pattern in the leaves, which was observed upon its constitutive expression. Therefore, tissue-specific expression of CrtI represents the better option. PMID:16488912

  8. Sensitized Triplet Formation of Chlorophyll-A and beta-Carotene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nina Mejlhede; Wilbrandt, Robert Walter; Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn

    1980-01-01

    The naphthalene-sensitized formation of triplet excited chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and all-transß-carotene has been studied by pulse radiolysis. The rate constants for transfer of triplet energy from naphthalene to Chl-a and all-transß-carotene in benzene at 25°C are (3.6 ± 0.6)·109M-1 s-1 and (10.7 ± 1...

  9. Vitamins C and E, retinol, beta-carotene and dietary fibre in relation to breast cancer risk: a prospective cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoeven, D. T.; Assen, N.; Goldbohm, R. A.; Dorant, E.; van't Veer, P; Sturmans, F.; Hermus, R. J.; van den Brandt, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    Association between breast cancer risk and the intake of vitamins C and E, retinol, beta (beta)-carotene, dietary fibre, vegetables, fruit and potatoes was examined in The Netherlands Cohort Study, for 62,573 women aged 55-69 years. After 4.3 years of follow-up, 650 incident breast cancer cases were identified. After adjusting for traditional risk factors, breast cancer risk was not influenced by the intake of beta-carotene, vitamin E, dietary fibre, supplements with vitamin C, vegetables or ...

  10. Detection of bixin, lycopene, canthaxanthin, and beta-apo-8'-carotenal in products derived from red pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez-Mosquera, M I; Hornero-Méndez, D; Garrido-Fernández, J

    1995-01-01

    An analytical method using either thin layer or liquid chromatography is proposed for the detection of 4 pigments (bixin, lycopene, canthaxanthin and beta-apo-8'-carotenal) that can be used fraudulently to intensify the natural color of products derived from red pepper (oleoresins, paprika, paprika paste, etc.). Similarly, the addition of other colorant natural products containing some of these pigments as major pigments (such as tomato for lycopene and Bixa orellana seeds for bixin) can be detected. The method proposed can also be used to control the aforementioned pigments in their natural sources as well as in food products. PMID:7756865

  11. Plasma retinol, beta-carotene and vitamin E levels in relation to the future risk of breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Wald, N J; Boreham, J.; Hayward, J L; Bulbrook, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    In a prospective study of 5,004 women in Guernsey, plasma samples were collected and stored. Retinol, beta-carotene and vitamin E levels were later measured in the samples from 39 women who subsequently developed breast cancer and from 78 controls who did not develop cancer. Plasma retinol levels were not related to the risk of breast cancer, mean levels among cases and controls being 485 micrograms l-1 and 479 micrograms l-1 respectively. Plasma vitamin E levels showed a clear association, l...

  12. Determination of beta-carotene and lutein available from green leafy vegetables by an in vitro digestion and colonic fermentation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, José; Goñi, Isabel; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2005-04-20

    Green leafy vegetables (Spinacea oleracea, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, and Solanum americanum) contain a high amount of beta-carotene (27-52 mg/100 g of dry sample) and lutein (140-193 mg/100 g of dry sample). The amount of beta-carotene and lutein released from the food matrix by the action of digestive enzymes ranged from 22 to 67% and from 27 to 77%, respectively. There was a significant correlation between the enzymatic release of carotenoids (lutein + beta-carotene) and the content of Klason lignin, nonstarch polysaccharides, and resistant protein. The carotenoids released by the in vitro colonic fermentation ranged from 2 to 11%, and part of them (0.251-4.03 mg/100 g of original dry sample) remained intact in the fermentation media and could be potentially absorbed in the colon. A significant part of carotenoids seems to be unavailable in the intestinal tract (16% in S. oleracea to 58% in C. aconitifolius). PMID:15826042

  13. Hot compressed water extraction curve for palm oil and beta carotene concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharizan, M. S. M.; Azian, M. N.; Yoshiyuki, Y.; Kamal, A. A. M.; Che Yunus, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    Hot compressed water extraction (HCWE) is a promising green alternative for palm oil milling. The kinetic characteristic of HCWE for palm oil and it β-carotene concentration was experimentally investigated in this study at the different temperature and pressure. Semi-batch HCW extractor from 120 to 180 oC and 30 to 50 bar was used to evaluated the process for 60 mins of extraction in 10 mins interval. The results obtain using the HCWE process was compared with other extraction method. The oil extraction achieved the maximum extraction rate within 20 mins of extraction in most of the condition and starting to decrease until 60 mins of extraction time. The extraction rate for β-carotene was achieved the maximum rate in 10 mins and starting to decrease until 30 mins. None of β-carotene concentration had been extracted out from the palm oil mesocarp after 30 mins of extraction in all condition. The oil recovery of using HCWE was relatively low compare with the mechanical screw press, subcritical R134b, supercritical carbon dioxide and hexane extraction due to the oil loses in the oil-water emulsion. However, the β-carotene concentration in extracted oil using HCWE was improved compare with commercial crude palm oil (CPO) and subcritical R134a extraction.

  14. Beta-Carotene, Vitamin E, MDA, Glutathione Reductase and Arylesterase Activity Levels in Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Aryaeian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Many studies have investigated the possible role of reactive oxygen species in the etiology and patho­gene­sis of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA. The aim of this study was to investigate the activities of some antioxidants in RA patients."nMethods: In this case-control study, 59 RA patients and 60 healthy sex and age-matched controls were selected. Vitamin E and Beta-carotene were determined using HPLC. Erythrocytes glutathione reductase (GR activity was meas­ured spec­trophotometrically, and malondialdehyde (MDA was determined by colorimetric method. Aryles­terase activity (AEA was measured by Phenylacetate. The clinical data were determined by a rheumatologist, medical history and filling the questionnaire by interview. Statistical analyses were carried out using the SPSS software."nResults: In patients with RA, serum MDA level was significantly higher and plasma concentration of vitamin E, Beta-carotene and GR activity, were significantly lower than healthy control (P<0.001. AEA activity differences between two groups were non-significant."nConclusions: Oxidative stress may play an important role in the inflammation and pathogenesis of RA.  

  15. Downregulation of Fzd6 and Cthrc1 and upregulation of olfactory receptors and protocadherins by dietary beta-carotene in lungs of Bcmo1-/- mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Helden, Y.G.J.; Godschalk, R. W. L.; Heil, S.G.; Bunschoten, A.; Hessel, S.; Amengual, J.; Bonet, M L; Lintig, von, J.; Schooten, van, E.; Keijer, J.

    2010-01-01

    An ongoing controversy exists on beneficial versus harmful effects of high beta-carotene (BC) intake, especially for the lung. To elucidate potential mechanisms, we studied effects of BC on lung gene expression. We used a beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 (Bcmo1) knockout mouse (Bcmo1-/-) model, unable to convert BC to retinoids, and wild-type mice (Bcmo1+/+) mice to dissect the effects of intact BC from effects of BC metabolites. As expected, BC supplementation resulted in a higher BC acc...

  16. Metabolomic profile of response to supplementation with β-carotene in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study123

    OpenAIRE

    Mondul, Alison M.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Moore, Steven C.; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Evans, Anne M.; Karoly, Edward D; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2013-01-01

    Background: Two chemoprevention trials found that supplementation with β-carotene increased the risk of lung cancer and overall mortality. The biologic basis of these findings remains poorly understood.

  17. Supplemental and dietary vitamin E, beta-carotene, and vitamin C intakes and prostate cancer risk.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsh, Victoria A.; Hayes, Richard B; Mayne, Susan T; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Subar, Amy F; Dixon, L. Beth; Albanes, Demetrius; Gerald L. Andriole; Urban, Donald A.; Peters, Ulrike

    2006-01-01

    Dietary modulation of cancer & cancer biomarkers Dietary item or component studied: Vitamin E, caroteniods, vitamin COutcome studied (cancer or cancer biomarker): prastate cancerStudy type (in vitro, animals, humans): humansStudy design (if human): cross-sectionalStudy size (if human):29361 menMode of exposure (if in vivo): through normal diet (no administration)Impact on outcome (including dose-response): inverse association between β-carotene intake and prostate cancer risk (RR for >2000μg...

  18. Serum levels of lycopene, beta-carotene, and retinol and their correlation with sperm DNA damage in normospermic and infertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiebeh Ghyasvand

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress in reproductive system leads to sperm DNA damage and sperm membrane lipid peroxidation and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of male infertility, especially in idiopathic cases. Antioxidants such as carotenoids function against free radical damages. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the levels of lycopene, beta-carotene and retinol in serum and their relationship with sperm DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in infertile and normospermic males. Materials and Methods: Sixty two infertile men and 71 normospermic men participated in this study. Blood and semen samples were collected from all subjects. Sperm DNA damage was measured using TUNEL method. Carotenoids, retinol, and malonedildehyde in serum were also determined. Results: DNA fragmentation was higher in infertile group comparing to control group. Serum levels of lycopene, beta-carotene and, vitamin A in infertile men were significantly lower than normospermic men (p< 0.001, =0.005, and =0.003 respectively. While serum MDA was not significantly different between two groups, MDA in seminal plasma of infertile men was significantly higher than control group (p< 0.001. Conclusion: We concluded that lycopene, beta-carotene, and retinol can reduce sperm DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation through their antioxidant effect. Therefore the DNA fragmentation assay and determination of antioxidants factors such as lycopene, beta-carotene and retinol, along with sperm analysis can be useful in diagnosis and treatment of men with idiopathic infertility.

  19. Beta-carotene Reduces Body Adiposity of Mice Via BCMO1

    OpenAIRE

    Amengual, J.; Gouranton, E.; Helden, Y.G.J.; Keijer, J.; Kramer, E.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from cell culture studies indicates that ß-carotene-(BC)-derived apocarotenoid signaling molecules can modulate the activities of nuclear receptors that regulate many aspects of adipocyte physiology. Two BC metabolizing enzymes, the BC-15,15'-oxygenase (Bcmo1) and the BC-9',10'-oxygenase (Bcdo2) are expressed in adipocytes. Bcmo1 catalyzes the conversion of BC into retinaldehyde and Bcdo2 into ß-10'-apocarotenal and ß-ionone. Here we analyzed the impact of BC on body adiposity of mic...

  20. Alfa-tocopherol and beta-carotene in roughages and milk in organic dairy herds

    OpenAIRE

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren K; Sehested, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to increase our knowledge about the vitamin content in roughage at harvest and during storage on organic commercial farms and to analyze the vitamin content in the milk. Roughages produced at the five organic dairy farms were monitored from harvest when the silage was laid in the silo and until the roughage was fed during the winter. The roughages had average α-tocopherol and β-carotene contents during the feeding period of, respectively, 30 mg and 21 mg per k...

  1. Abiotic stress modifies the synthesis of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene in phytoplankton species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häubner, Norbert; Sylvander, Peter; Vuori, Kristiina; Snoeijs, Pauline

    2014-08-01

    We performed laboratory experiments to investi-gate whether the synthesis of the antioxidants α-tocopherol (vitamin E) and β-carotene in phytoplankton depends on changes in abiotic factors. Cultures of Nodularia spumigena, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Skeletonema costatum, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Prorocentrum cordatum, and Rhodomonas salina were incubated at different tempe-ratures, photon flux densities and salinities for 48 h. We found that abiotic stress, within natural ecological ranges, affects the synthesis of the two antioxidants in different ways in different species. In most cases antioxidant production was stimulated by increased abiotic stress. In P. tricornutum KAC 37 and D. tertiolecta SCCAP K-0591, both good producers of this compound, α-tocopherol accumulation was negatively affected by environmentally induced higher photosystem II efficiency (Fv /Fm ). On the other hand, β-carotene accumulation was positively affected by higher Fv /Fm in N. spumigena KAC 7, P. tricornutum KAC 37, D. tertiolecta SCCAP K-0591 and R. salina SCCAP K-0294. These different patterns in the synthesis of the two compounds may be explained by their different locations and functions in the cell. While α-tocopherol is heavily involved in the protection of prevention of lipid peroxidation in membranes, β-carotene performs immediate photo-oxidative protection in the antennae complex of photosystem II. Overall, our results suggest a high variability in the antioxidant pool of natural aquatic ecosystems, which can be subject to short-term temperature, photon flux density and salinity fluctuations. The antioxidant levels in natural phytoplankton communities depend on species composition, the physiological condition of the species, and their respective strategies to deal with reactive oxygen species. Since α-tocopherol and β-carotene, as well as many other nonenzymatic antioxidants, are exclusively produced by photo-synthetic organisms, and are required by higher

  2. Red palm oil as a source of beta-carotene in a school biscuit used to address vitamin A deficiency in primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Stuijvenberg, M E; Faber, M; Dhansay, M A; Lombard, C J; Vorster, N; Benadé, A J

    2000-01-01

    The effect of a biscuit with red palm oil as a source of beta-carotene was compared with the effect of a biscuit with beta-carotene from a synthetic source on the vitamin A status of primary school children in a randomised controlled trial. Children aged 5-11 years (n = 265) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) placebo biscuit; (2) biscuit with synthetic beta-carotene as a vitamin A fortificant; and (3) biscuit with red palm oil as a source of beta-carotene. The two non-placebo biscuits were designed to provide 34% of the RDA for vitamin A per serving (4 x 15 g biscuits). The biscuits were distributed daily during the school week and compliance was closely monitored and recorded. Children were assessed at baseline and after 6 months of intervention. Mean serum retinol in all three groups increased significantly compared to baseline (P palm oil group. There was no significant treatment effect compared to the control group in either the synthetic beta-carotene or red palm oil group. The increase in the control group was probably due to a school feeding scheme (providing 33% of the RDA for vitamin A) introduced during the latter part of the study. Our results were thus confounded and the 'true' effect of the red palm oil biscuit on vitamin A status could not be established. The study has, however, shown that red palm oil can be incorporated in a biscuit and that the end product with regard to taste and appearance was well accepted by the school children. A follow-up study in a school where there is no school feeding is indicated.

  3. [The effect of beta-ionine on biosynthesis of carotenes by Actinomyces chrysomallus var. carotenoides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverdlova, A N; Alekseeva, L N; Nefelova, M V

    1977-01-01

    Biosynthesis of carotenoids by a growing culture of Actinomyces chrysomallus var. carotenoides is totally inhibited by beta-ionone added at different concentrations, at various time of the cultural growth, and in various combinations with oil. The inhibition of carotenoid synthesis by beta-ionone is of a specific character since the biomass growth under the same conditions does not increase.

  4. Alfa-tocopherol and beta-carotene in roughages and milk in organic dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels; Søegaard, Karen;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present on-farm study was to analyse vitamin content in roughage at harvest and during storage and to analyze milk vitamin content when feeding the roughage to dairy cows. Roughages produced at five organic dairy farms were monitored at harvest and several times during winter as...... of α-tocopherol was 876 mg per cow–431 mg from roughages, 89 mg from concentrates and 356 mg from a vitamin supplement. Milk yield was 25.9 kg energy-corrected milk (ECM) per cow per day with α-tocopherol and β-carotene contents (μg/ml) of 0.82 and 0.17. The study additionally showed the following...... tendency, but due to few observations no final conclusions could be drawn: •For grass–clover silage there were generally no losses of vitamins during the ensiling process and during storage, but there were huge variations between farms. •For wholecrop silage there was a loss of vitamins during the ensiling...

  5. The radiomodifying efficacy of beta carotene rich plant extracts on neuroethology of Swiss albino mice: perception, perspectives and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: High utilization of O2 and rather poorly developed antioxidative defence mechanism makes the brain highly susceptible to oxidative damage. High enrichment with PUFA also renders it susceptible to radiation damage by free radicals. The pure form of beta carotene has proved quite effective against radiation but only at optimum dose level when tested for survivability and lipid peroxidation, protein, cholesterol, DNA content of brain. This induced us to extend our investigation on plants, Amaranthus and Spinach enriched with beta carotene, which could be recommended in the nutritional dietary course without causing psychological stress of availability and affordability unlike of tablets of medicines. Both Amaranthus paniculatus and Spinacea oleracea, commonly occurring weeds have good nutritive values due to their carotenoid, vitamin C, folate, folic acid contents; additionally Amaranthus with high level of lysine and methionine. Swiss albino male mice of 6-8 week(22±3 gm)selected from an inbred colony were administered with alcoholic extract at a dose of 600-mg/kg-body weight/day dissolved in distilled water with and without prior to irradiation (5 Gy of gamma radiation). The animals were studied on 1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days after radiation exposure. On the basis of LD50/30 values the DRFs were computed as 1.43(AE) and 1.39(S.E). The plant extracts improved learning performance in mice in with and without rradiation. Male mice showed better learning performance as compared to females in all the groups. The brain showed that the radiation induced depletion of protein, glutathione and cholesterol and histopathology was significantly compensated/defied and was brought to near-normal level by the 15 days oral administration of crude extract of the plants. Radiation induced augmentation in glycogen, cholesterol and lipid peroxidation products were significantly checked. The protection appears to be afforded by combined or synergistic effects of plants leaves

  6. beta-carotene-induced changes in RARbeta isoform mRNA expression patterns do not influence lung adenoma multiplicity in the NNK-initiated A/J mouse model.

    OpenAIRE

    Goralczyk, Regina; Bachmann, Heinrich; Wertz, Karin; Lenz, Barbara; Riss, Georges; Buchwald Hunziker, Petra; Greatrix, Brad; Aebischer, Claude-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Dietary modulation of cancer & cancer biomarkers; Dietary modulation of carcinogenesis-related pathways. Dietary item or component studied: beta-carotene Outcome studied: lung adenoma; gene regulation of the putative tumor suppressor RARbeta in mouse lung. Study type: A/J-mice Tissue/biological material/sample size: lung; blood. Mode of exposure: dietaryImpact on outcome (including dose-response): Despite high lung beta-carotene concentrations of up to 6 micromol/kg, tumor multiplicity was n...

  7. Effects of quercetin and beta-carotene supplementation on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis and inflammatory responses in rats fed with high-fat diet rich in omega-6 fatty acids.

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Soo-Yeon; Park, Jung Han Yoon; Kim, Jong-Sang; Kim, Mi Kyung; Aruoma, Okezie I; Sung, Mi-Kyung

    2006-01-01

    Dietary modulation of cancer & cancer biomarkers. Dietary item or component studied: quercetin; beta-carotene. Outcome studied: aberrant crypt foci in colon; colon tumor incidence; colonic mucosa levels of iNOS and COX-2 proteins and PGE2 levels. Study type: Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rats. Tissue/biological material/sample size: colon; blood. Mode of exposure: dietary. Impact on outcome (including dose-response): Quercetin or beta-carotene supplementation reduced the number of ACF only in an...

  8. Beta-carotene reduces body adiposity of mice via BCMO1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Amengual

    Full Text Available Evidence from cell culture studies indicates that β-carotene-(BC-derived apocarotenoid signaling molecules can modulate the activities of nuclear receptors that regulate many aspects of adipocyte physiology. Two BC metabolizing enzymes, the BC-15,15'-oxygenase (Bcmo1 and the BC-9',10'-oxygenase (Bcdo2 are expressed in adipocytes. Bcmo1 catalyzes the conversion of BC into retinaldehyde and Bcdo2 into β-10'-apocarotenal and β-ionone. Here we analyzed the impact of BC on body adiposity of mice. To genetically dissect the roles of Bcmo1 and Bcdo2 in this process, we used wild-type and Bcmo1(-/- mice for this study. In wild-type mice, BC was converted into retinoids. In contrast, Bcmo1(-/- mice showed increased expression of Bcdo2 in adipocytes and β-10'-apocarotenol accumulated as the major BC derivative. In wild-type mice, BC significantly reduced body adiposity (by 28%, leptinemia and adipocyte size. Genome wide microarray analysis of inguinal white adipose tissue revealed a generalized decrease of mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ target genes. Consistently, the expression of this key transcription factor for lipogenesis was significantly reduced both on the mRNA and protein levels. Despite β-10'-apocarotenoid production, this effect of BC was absent in Bcmo1(-/- mice, demonstrating that it was dependent on the Bcmo1-mediated production of retinoids. Our study evidences an important role of BC for the control of body adiposity in mice and identifies Bcmo1 as critical molecular player for the regulation of PPARγ activity in adipocytes.

  9. In vitro photosafety and efficacy screening of apigenin, chrysin and beta-carotene for UVA and VIS protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Juliana Vescovi; Gaspar, Lorena Rigo

    2016-06-30

    Currently most of sunscreens provide effective protection in the full UV range but lack VIS protection. The addition of effective antioxidants to sunscreens might afford suitable UV-VIS protection. Apigenin (API), chrysin (CRI) and beta-carotene (BTC) have shown potential for UV-VIS protection. This paper reports a photosafety and efficacy screening of such antioxidants through evaluation of the photostability, photoreactivity and phototoxicity as well as UVA/UVB ratio and critical wavelength. The assessment of the photostability, photoreactivity and phototoxicity of API, CRI and BTC, isolated and combined (CMB) was performed by HPLC, ROS assay and 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test, respectively. The phototoxicity test was also performed for CMB plus bemotrizinol (BMZ). The in vitro evaluation of the UVA protection was assessed by the determination of the UVA/UVB ratio and the critical wavelength. The antioxidants API, CRI, BTC and CMB were stable under UVA/VIS and VIS light. However weak photoreactivity after UVA/VIS irradiation was observed for API, CRI and CMB in the ROS assay. In the 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test, phototoxic potential was observed for CRI, BTC, CMB and CMB+BMZ after UVA/VIS exposure, and for BTC and CMB after VIS exposure. BMZ reduced the phototoxic potential of CMB in the VIS range. In the in vitro evaluation of UVA protection API, CRI, BTC, CMB and CMB+BMZ presented ultra UVA protection (UVA/UVB ratio>0.9) and exhibited critical wavelength close to or above 370nm. In conclusion, the use of API, CRI, BTC and their CMB aiming skin photoprotection could be considered safer in the VIS range. Furthermore, API presented the best performance in the photosafety screening among the studied antioxidants, since it was photostable and non-phototoxic in UVA/VIS and photostable, non-photoreactive and non-phototoxic in VIS range.

  10. In vitro photosafety and efficacy screening of apigenin, chrysin and beta-carotene for UVA and VIS protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Juliana Vescovi; Gaspar, Lorena Rigo

    2016-06-30

    Currently most of sunscreens provide effective protection in the full UV range but lack VIS protection. The addition of effective antioxidants to sunscreens might afford suitable UV-VIS protection. Apigenin (API), chrysin (CRI) and beta-carotene (BTC) have shown potential for UV-VIS protection. This paper reports a photosafety and efficacy screening of such antioxidants through evaluation of the photostability, photoreactivity and phototoxicity as well as UVA/UVB ratio and critical wavelength. The assessment of the photostability, photoreactivity and phototoxicity of API, CRI and BTC, isolated and combined (CMB) was performed by HPLC, ROS assay and 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test, respectively. The phototoxicity test was also performed for CMB plus bemotrizinol (BMZ). The in vitro evaluation of the UVA protection was assessed by the determination of the UVA/UVB ratio and the critical wavelength. The antioxidants API, CRI, BTC and CMB were stable under UVA/VIS and VIS light. However weak photoreactivity after UVA/VIS irradiation was observed for API, CRI and CMB in the ROS assay. In the 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test, phototoxic potential was observed for CRI, BTC, CMB and CMB+BMZ after UVA/VIS exposure, and for BTC and CMB after VIS exposure. BMZ reduced the phototoxic potential of CMB in the VIS range. In the in vitro evaluation of UVA protection API, CRI, BTC, CMB and CMB+BMZ presented ultra UVA protection (UVA/UVB ratio>0.9) and exhibited critical wavelength close to or above 370nm. In conclusion, the use of API, CRI, BTC and their CMB aiming skin photoprotection could be considered safer in the VIS range. Furthermore, API presented the best performance in the photosafety screening among the studied antioxidants, since it was photostable and non-phototoxic in UVA/VIS and photostable, non-photoreactive and non-phototoxic in VIS range. PMID:27130544

  11. Impact of style of processing on retention and bioaccessibility of beta-carotene in cassava (Manihot esculanta, Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Sagar K; Huo, Tianyao; Maziya-Dixon, Bussie; Failla, Mark L

    2009-02-25

    We previously demonstrated that the quantity of beta-carotene (BC) partitioning in mixed micelles during simulated small intestinal digestion, i.e., the bioaccessibility, of boiled cassava is highly correlated with the BC content of different cultivars. However, cassava is also traditionally prepared by fermentation and roasting. These different methods of preparation have the potential to affect both the retention and bioaccessibility of BC. Here, we first compared retention of BC in boiled cassava, gari (fermentation followed by roasting), and fufu (fermentation followed by sieving and cooking into a paste) prepared from roots of three cultivars. BC content in unprocessed cultivars ranged from 6-8 microg/g wet weight, with cis isomers accounting for approximately one-third of total BC. Apparent retention of BC was approximately 90% for boiled cassava and fufu. In contrast, roasting fermented cassava at 195 degrees C for 20 min to prepare gari decreased BC content by 90%. Retention was increased to 63% when temperature was decreased to 165 degrees C and roasting was limited to 10 min. Processing was also associated with a decline in all-trans-BC and concomitant increase in 13-cis-BC. The efficiency of micellarization of all-trans and cis isomers of BC during simulated digestion was 25-30% for boiled cassava and gari and independent of cultivar. However, micellarization of BC isomers during digestion of fufu was only 12-15% (P cassava products prepared according to traditional processing methods suggest that gari and fufu may provide less retinol activity equivalents than isocaloric intake of boiled cassava.

  12. Beta-carotene suppression of benzophenone-sensitized lipid peroxidation in hexane through additional chain-breaking activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to estimate the antioxidant activity of β-carotene in the presence of two different mixtures of phospholipids in hexane solution, under continuous UV-irradiation from three different ranges (UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C). β-Carotene is employed to control lipid peroxidation process generated by UV-irradiation, in the presence and in the absence of selected photosensitizer, benzophenone, by scavenging the involved, created free radicals. The results show that β-carotene undergoes to a substantial, probably structural dependent destruction (bleaching), highly dependent on UV-photons energy input, more expressed in the presence than in the absence of benzophenone. The additional bleaching is synchronized with the further increase in β-carotene antioxidant activity in the presence of benzophenone, implying the same cause: increase in (phospholipids peroxidation) chain-breaking activities.

  13. {beta} -carotene effect the induction of the sister chromatid exchanges (ICH) by gamma radiation in mouse radiosensibilized osseous marrow cells In vivo; Efecto del {beta}- caroteno la induccion de intercambios en las cromatidas hermanas (ICH) por radiacion gamma en celulas radiosensibilizadas de la medula osea de raton In vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales R, P.; Cruz V, V.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Dept. de Biologia

    1997-07-01

    The effect of {beta}- carotene over the ICH radioinduction in radiosensibilized with BrdU osseous marrow cells of mouse was determined In vivo. The treatment with 50 {mu}g {beta} carotene per se induces a significant increment in the ICH frequency and the pre or post-treatment with the same dose causes an additive effect in the ICH frequency produced by 0.62 Gy of gamma radiation. This implies that {beta}- carotene does not have radioprotective activity, under conditions which was developed this experiment. (Author)

  14. Nonlinear optical parameters of 7-prime,7-prime-dicyano-7-prime-apo-beta-carotene in hexane by self-action techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin A.; Sheng, Wen; Venkateswarlu, P.; Witherow, William K.; Frazier, Don O.; Chandra Sekhar, P.; George, M. C.; Kispert, Lowell; Wasielewski, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of the nonlinear refractive index coefficient n(2) and the third-order nonlinear susceptibility chi(3) for a solution of 7-prime,7-prime-dicyano-7-prime-apo-beta-carotene (DCAC) in hexane have been measured at different concentrations. The measurements have been performed by both the self-trapping and self-phase modulation techniques using a CW Ar(+) laser. The results show that DCAC has a relatively large nonlinearity, attributed to a thermal mechanism, with n(2) of the order of 10 exp 9 times that of CS2.

  15. Intake of vegetables, fruits, beta-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin supplements and cancer incidence among the elderly: a prospective study.

    OpenAIRE

    Shibata, A.; Paganini-Hill, A.; Ross, R K; Henderson, B. E.

    1992-01-01

    A cohort of 11,580 residents of a retirement community initially free from cancer were followed from 1981 to 1989. A total of 1,335 incident cancer cases were diagnosed during the period. Relative risks of cancer were calculated for baseline consumption of vegetables, fruits, beta-carotene, dietary vitamin C, and vitamin supplements. After adjustment for age and smoking, no evidence of a protective effect was found for any of the dietary variables in men. However, an inverse association was o...

  16. Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE Analysis and DNA-chain Break study in rat hepatocarcinogenesis: A possible chemopreventive role by combined supplementation of vanadium and beta-carotene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanjilal NB

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Combined effect of vanadium and beta-carotene on rat liver DNA-chain break and Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE analysis was studied during a necrogenic dose (200 mg/kg of body weight of Diethyl Nitrosamine (DENA induced rat liver carcinogenesis. Morphological and histopathological changes were observed as an end point biomarker. Supplementation of vanadium (0.5 ppm ad libitum in drinking water and beta-carotene in the basal diet (120 mg/Kg of body weight were performed four weeks before DENA treatment and continued till the end of the experiment (16 weeks. PIXE analysis revealed the restoration of near normal value of zinc, copper, and iron, which were substantially altered when compared to carcinogen treated groups. Supplementation of both vanadium and beta-carotene four weeks before DENA injection was found to offer significant (64.73%, P

  17. High-level production of beta-carotene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by successive transformation with carotenogenic genes from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwaal, R.; Wang, J.; Meijnen, J.P.; Visser, H.; Sandmann, G.; Berg, van den J.A.; Ooyen, van A.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    To determine whether Saccharomyces cerevisiae can serve as a host for efficient carotenoid and especially ß-carotene production, carotenogenic genes from the carotenoid-producing yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous were introduced and overexpressed in S. cerevisiae. Because overexpression of these g

  18. Effect of light intensity on Beta-carotene production and extraction by Dunaliella salina in two-phase bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hejazi, M.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    Application of two-phase bioreactors is a useful technique for improvement of the productivity of fermentations. Fermentative extraction of the products in situ is performed in this technique. The effect of light intensity on the extraction of ß-carotene from Dunaliella salina, in the fermentative e

  19. Low dietary intake of beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid is associated with increased inflammatory and oxidative stress status in a Swedish cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmersson, Johanna; Arnlöv, Johan; Larsson, Anders; Basu, Samar

    2009-06-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption has been associated with a reduced risk of several diseases including CVD. A part of these effects seen could be linked to anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects, although this has not been thoroughly investigated. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of the dietary intake of beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid on in vivo biomarkers of inflammation (PGF2alpha, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and IL-6 formation) and oxidative stress (F2-isoprostane formation), the two important factors associated with accelerated atherosclerosis. The dietary intake of 704 participants in the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM) at age 70 years was registered and inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers were quantified 7 years later. The registered dietary intakes of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol were negatively associated linearly and in quartiles with both PGF2alpha, hsCRP, IL-6 and F2-isoprostanes, where ascorbic acid intake generally was more strongly associated. Dietary intake of beta-carotene was only significantly negatively associated with F2-isoprostanes. In conclusion, the present study is the first to suggest that the intake of food rich in antioxidants is associated with reduced cyclo-oxygenase- and cytokine-mediated inflammation and oxidative stress at 7 years of follow-up. These associations could be linked to the beneficial effects of fruit and vegetables observed on CVD.

  20. Evaluation of total carotenoids, alpha- and beta-carotene in carrots (Daucus carota L. during home processing Avaliação de carotenóides totais, alfa e beta-caroteno em cenoura (Daucus carota L. durante processamento a nível doméstico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Maria PINHEIRO-SANT’ANA

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the influence of dehydration and different preparation methods during home processing related toalpha-carotene, beta-carotene and total carotenoids stability in carrots. Vitamin A values were evaluated after different treatments. Thus, carrots were submitted to steam cooking, water cooking with and without pressure, moist/dry cooking and conventional dehydration. Determination of alpha- and beta-carotenes was made by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC (conditions were developed by us using spectrophotometric detection visible-UV at 470 nm; a RP-18 column and methanol: acetonitrile: ethyl acetate (80: 10: 10 as mobile phase. Total carotenoids quantification was made by 449 nm spectrophotometer. The retention of the analyzed carotenoids ranged from 60.13 to 85.64%. Water cooking without pressure promoted higher retention levels of alpha- and beta-carotene and vitamin A values, while water cooking with pressure promoted higher retention levels of total carotenoids. Dehydration promoted the highest carotenoid losses. The results showed that, among the routinely utilized methods under domestic condition, cooking without pressure, if performed under controlled time and temperature, is the best method as it reduces losses in the amount of alpha- and beta-carotene, the main carotenoids present in the carrots. Despite the significant carotenoid losses, carrots prepared through domestic methods, remain a rich source of provitamin A.O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a influência da desidratação e de diferentes métodos de preparo a nível doméstico sobre a estabilidade de alfa-caroteno, beta-caroteno e carotenóides totais em cenouras. Os valores de vitamina A foram avaliados após os diferentes tratamentos. Para tanto, amostras de cenoura foram submetidas à cocção a vapor, cocção em água com e sem pressão, cocção úmida/seca e à desidratação convencional. Para a determinação de alfa e beta

  1. Transcriptional-metabolic networks in beta-carotene-enriched potato tubers: the long and winding road to the Golden phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diretto, Gianfranco; Al-Babili, Salim; Tavazza, Raffaela; Scossa, Federico; Papacchioli, Velia; Migliore, Melania; Beyer, Peter; Giuliano, Giovanni

    2010-10-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in a large number of countries. Biofortification of major staple crops (wheat [Triticum aestivum], rice [Oryza sativa], maize [Zea mays], and potato [Solanum tuberosum]) with β-carotene has the potential to alleviate this nutritional problem. Previously, we engineered transgenic "Golden" potato tubers overexpressing three bacterial genes for β-carotene synthesis (CrtB, CrtI, and CrtY, encoding phytoene synthase, phytoene desaturase, and lycopene β-cyclase, respectively) and accumulating the highest amount of β-carotene in the four aforementioned crops. Here, we report the systematic quantitation of carotenoid metabolites and transcripts in 24 lines carrying six different transgene combinations under the control of the 35S and Patatin (Pat) promoters. Low levels of B-I expression are sufficient for interfering with leaf carotenogenesis, but not for β-carotene accumulation in tubers and calli, which requires high expression levels of all three genes under the control of the Pat promoter. Tubers expressing the B-I transgenes show large perturbations in the transcription of endogenous carotenoid genes, with only minor changes in carotenoid content, while the opposite phenotype (low levels of transcriptional perturbation and high carotenoid levels) is observed in Golden (Y-B-I) tubers. We used hierarchical clustering and pairwise correlation analysis, together with a new method for network correlation analysis, developed for this purpose, to assess the perturbations in transcript and metabolite levels in transgenic leaves and tubers. Through a "guilt-by-profiling" approach, we identified several endogenous genes for carotenoid biosynthesis likely to play a key regulatory role in Golden tubers, which are candidates for manipulations aimed at the further optimization of tuber carotenoid content. PMID:20671108

  2. Ultrafast relaxation kinetics of the dark S{sub 1} state in all-trans-{beta}-carotene explored by one- and two-photon pump-probe spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosumi, Daisuke, E-mail: kosumi@sci.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki-Aza-Aoba, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Abe, Kenta; Karasawa, Hiroshi [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki-Aza-Aoba, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Fujiwara, Masazumi [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Cogdell, Richard J. [Glasgow Biomedical Research Center, University of Glasgow, 120 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA, Scotland (United Kingdom); Hashimoto, Hideki [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); JST/CREST, 4-1-8 Hon-chou, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Yoshizawa, Masayuki [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki-Aza-Aoba, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); JST/CREST, 4-1-8 Hon-chou, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2010-07-19

    Femtosecond one- and two-photon pump-probe dispersive spectroscopic measurements have been applied to the investigation of the vibrational relaxation kinetics of the dark S{sub 1} (2{sup 1}A{sub g}{sup -}) state in {beta}-carotene, combining a higher sensitive detection system with tunable visible and infrared excitation pulses. The two-photon excitation measurements enable the preferential detection of the dark S{sub 1} state. The tunable infrared excitation pulses allowed selective excitation to a different vibrational level of S{sub 1}. The S{sub 1} dynamics at early delay times depend strongly on excitation energy. A dependence of the initial S{sub 1} dynamics on excitation energy is discussed in term of the vibrational relaxation of S{sub 1}.

  3. Streamlining IRB review in multisite trials through single-study IRB Cooperative Agreements: experience of the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornquist, Mark D; Edelstein, Cim; Goodman, Gary E; Omenn, Gilbert S

    2002-02-01

    With their extensive data and specimen repositories, clinical trials are a long-term, valuable resource to health researchers. However, assuring protection of participants' rights can be challenging, particularly when such trials are conducted at multiple sites with multiple Institutional Review Boards (IRBs). One little-used mechanism that can streamline IRB review in multisite trials while maintaining participants' protections is the single-study IRB Cooperative Agreement. This agreement is entirely different from reciprocity agreements between institutions. Beginning in 1996, the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial established single-study IRB Cooperative Agreements among its performance sites, which reduced the average time to complete IRB approval from over 6 months to 1 month for each of many substudies. We describe our experience and make recommendations for other multisite clinical trials.

  4. Atividade antioxidante do beta-caroteno e da vitamina A. Estudo comparativo com antioxidante sintético beta-carotene and vitamin A antioxidant activity. Comparative study with synthetic antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Afonso PASSOTTO

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a atividade antioxidante da vitamina A na forma de acetato de retinol e de seu principal precursor, o beta-caroteno, adicionados a um sistema de óleo de soja previamente sensibilizado à oxidação. Os parâmetros utilizados como grau de atividade oxidativa foram: índice de peróxidos, teores de malonaldeído durante os intervalos de 24 a 72 horas, e perfil dos ácidos linoléico e linolênico após 144 horas de oxidação. Pelos resultados pode-se verificar que o retinol apresentou atividade antioxidante superior ao beta-caroteno. As determinações das atividades antioxidantes foram comparadas à do butilhidroxitolueno (BHT. A eficiência antioxidante da vitamina A e do beta-caroteno foram proporcionais às suas resistências à decomposição no sistema oxidativo. O acetato de retinol, a exemplo do BHT, mostrou uma rápida interação com os radicais ativos, pois já no início de sua adição ao óleo de soja, reduziu o nível da oxidação em relação ao respectivo controle.In soybean oil suceptible to oxidation the authors studied the antioxidant activity of the vitamin A as retinol acetate and the beta-carotene was studied. The oxidation index of the system was determined by peroxide and malonaldehyde values during the intervals from 24 to 72 hours and profile of the linoleic and linolenic acids after 144 hours of oxidation. It was observed that the retinol acetate had an antioxidant activity greater than beta-carotene. The antioxidant activity of retinol acetate and beta-carotene were compared to the butyl hidroxi toluene (BHT and was observed that the antioxidant efficiency was directly proportional to degradation resistance of them in the oxidative system. The retinol acetate, as such BHT, showed a fast interaction with actives radicals, in the beginning of the addition to the soybean oil, reducing the oxidation level when compared to the control.

  5. THE BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF FERRET CAROTENE-9', 10'-MONOOXYGENASE CATALYZING CLEAVAGE OF CAROTENOIDS IN VITRO AND IN VIVO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown that beta -carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase (CMO1) catalyzes the cleavage of beta -carotene at the central carbon 15, 15’-double bond, but cleaves lycopene with much lower activity. However, expressing the mouse carotene-9’,10’-monooxygenase (CMO2) in beta-carotene/lycopene...

  6. Efeito da suplementação de beta-caroteno na pressão arterial de ratos Effect of beta-carotene supplementation on the blood pressure of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Santos de Oliveira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar se a suplementação com doses suprafisiológicas de beta-caroteno exerce efeito positivo no controle da hipertensão arterial, e detectar possíveis efeitos adversos dessa suplementação. MÉTODOS: Ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (n=12 e normotensos (n=12 com 20 semanas, foram submetidos a um período basal de 10 dias, e subdivididos em 4 grupos de 6 animais, suplementados com beta-caroteno em três diferentes doses: 2,5mg, 3,75mg e 5,0mg por animal, via gavagem orogástrica diária, durante 14 dias para cada dose, intercaladas por um período de wash-out de 7 dias; os grupos controle receberam apenas o veículo (óleo de coco. Foram ainda submetidos à avaliação ectoscópica para possível detecção de efeitos tóxicos ou interação entre nutrientes, e à análise dos parâmetros biológicos; a pressão sistólica foi aferida por pletismografia duas vezes na semana, em dias alternados. Após o período de suplementação os animais foram sacrificados, e tiveram o peso do fígado determinado pelo método de Scherle. RESULTADOS: A administração de beta-caroteno não levou a alterações dos parâmetros biológicos dos animais, assim como não foi detectado efeito tóxico. Quanto à pressão arterial sistólica, as duas linhagens apresentaram redução significante (pOBJECTIVE: To investigate if supplementation with supraphysiological doses of beta-carotene has a positive effect on controlling hypertension and detect possible adverse effects of this supplementation. METHODS: 20-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (n=12 and normotensive rats (n=12 were submitted to a basal period of 10 days, then divided into 4 groups of 6 animals and supplemented daily by orogastric gavage with beta-carotene in 3 different doses: 2.5mg, 3.75mg and 5.0mg/animal during 14 days for each dose that was inserted by a seven day wash-out period; control groups received only coconut oil. Animals were submitted to ectoscopic evaluation to

  7. Photochemical reactions in dehydrated photosynthetic organisms, leaves, chloroplasts and photosystem II particles: reversible reduction of pheophytin and chlorophyll and oxidation of {beta}-carotene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuvalov, Vladimir A.; Heber, Ulrich

    2003-11-01

    Photoreactions of dehydrated leaves, isolated broken chloroplasts and PSII membrane fragments of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) were studied at different air humidities and compared with photoreactions of dry fronds of a fern, Polypodium vulgare, and a dry lichen, Parmelia sulcata, which in contrast to spinach are insensitive to photoinactivation in the dry state. Even in very dry air, P700 in the reaction center of photosystem I of dry leaves was oxidized, and the primary quinone acceptor Q{sub A} in the reaction center of photosystem II was photoreduced by low light. These reactions were only very slowly reversed in the dark and saturated under low light intensity. Light-minus-dark difference absorption spectra of the dry leaves, isolated chloroplasts and PSII membrane fragments measured at higher light intensities revealed absorbance changes of {beta}-carotene at 500 nm (light-dependent bleaching) and 980 nm (light-dependent band formation) and bleaching of chlorophyll at 436 and 680 nm with appearance of bands at 450 and 800 nm. Decrease of chlorophyll fluorescence upon strong illumination indicated photoaccumulation of a quencher. All these changes were kinetically related and readily reversible. They are interpreted to show light-induced oxidation of {beta}-carotene (Car) and reduction of chlorophyll-680 (Chl-680) in the reaction center of photosystem II of the dried leaves, chloroplasts and photosystem II particles. The fluorescence quencher was suggested to be Chl-680{sup -} or Car{sup +} in close proximity to P680, the primary electron donor. Appreciable photoaccumulation of reduced pheophytin was only observed in dry leaves after Q{sub A} reduction had been lost during heat treatment of hydrated leaves prior to dehydration. The observations are interpreted to show light-dependent cyclic electron flow within the reaction center of photosystem II in which Chl-680 (or Pheo) is reduced by P680* and Car is oxidized by P680{sup +} with consequent recombination of

  8. A cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled, maternal vitamin a or beta-carotene supplementation trial in bangladesh: design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulze Kerry

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present the design, methods and population characteristics of a large community trial that assessed the efficacy of a weekly supplement containing vitamin A or beta-carotene, at recommended dietary levels, in reducing maternal mortality from early gestation through 12 weeks postpartum. We identify challenges faced and report solutions in implementing an intervention trial under low-resource, rural conditions, including the importance of population choice in promoting generalizability, maintaining rigorous data quality control to reduce inter- and intra- worker variation, and optimizing efficiencies in information and resources flow from and to the field. Methods This trial was a double-masked, cluster-randomized, dual intervention, placebo-controlled trial in a contiguous rural area of ~435 sq km with a population of ~650,000 in Gaibandha and Rangpur Districts of Northwestern Bangladesh. Approximately 120,000 married women of reproductive age underwent 5-weekly home surveillance, of whom ~60,000 were detected as pregnant, enrolled into the trial and gave birth to ~44,000 live-born infants. Upon enrollment, at ~ 9 weeks' gestation, pregnant women received a weekly oral supplement containing vitamin A (7000 ug retinol equivalents (RE, beta-carotene (42 mg, or ~7000 ug RE or a placebo through 12 weeks postpartum, according to prior randomized allocation of their cluster of residence. Systems described include enlistment and 5-weekly home surveillance for pregnancy based on menstrual history and urine testing, weekly supervised supplementation, periodic risk factor interviews, maternal and infant vital outcome monitoring, birth defect surveillance and clinical/biochemical substudies. Results The primary outcome was pregnancy-related mortality assessed for 3 months following parturition. Secondary outcomes included fetal loss due to miscarriage or stillbirth, infant mortality under three months of age, maternal obstetric and

  9. Analytical and microscopical studies on the protective effect of ascorbic acid (vitamin C and beta-carotene against the toxicityinduced by fenitrothion on the liver of female albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekram F. Hashim and Kadry Weshahy

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The organophosphate insecticide feneitrothion is a contact insecticide and selective acaricide. It is used as a fly, mosquito and cockroach, residual contact spray for farms and public health programs. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the toxicity of fenitrothion on the female rate and the possible protective effects of ascorbic acid (vitamine C and beta­carotene as antioxidant agents against the toxicity induced by fenitrothion. Sixty of adult female albino rats were randomly assigned to six equal groups including control group and groups treat­!"successive days. Ingestion of fenitrtothion caused a significant increase in ALT (alanine transferase, AST (aspartate transferase, and AP (alkaline phosphatase. It decreased signifiantly GL (glucose level, AchE (acetyle cholinesterase and GSH (glutathion reductase activities, while, it had insignificant effects on TB (total bilirubine and a slight decrease in TP (total protein. The histological study of female rat liver tissues by Hx & Eosin,P.A.S, and Methyl Green Pyronine revealed that, fenitrothion showed vascular and degenrative changes in the hepatic cells, Also, it caused a significant decrease in glycogen contents and depletion in of nucleic acids in hepatic cells. Treatments with ascorbic acid and beta­carotene plus fenitrothion hasn't been caused any significant changes in all parameters in serum of female rats. Treatment with ascorbic acid plus fenitrothion resulted a significant improvement in all parameters tested regarding to the histological study, while, beta-carotene plus fenitrothion showed the same improvement except in glycogen content in hepatic cells . Key Words : Fenitrothion ­ Toxicity ­ ALT ­ AST ­ GL ­ AChE ­ Rats ­ Histological ­ beta ­ carotene ­ Ascorbic acid .

  10. Association between beta-carotene and acute myocardial infarction depends on polyunsaturated fatty acid status. The EURAMIC Study. European Study on Antioxidants, Myocardial Infarction, and Cancer of the Breast

    OpenAIRE

    Kardinaal, Alwine F; Aro, Antti; Kark, Jeremy D; Riemersma, Rudolph A; van't Veer, Pieter; Gomez-Aracena, Jorge; Kohlmeier, Lenore; Ringstad, Jetmund; Martin, Blaise C; Mazaev, Vladimir P; Delgado-Rodriguez, Miguel; Thamm, Michael; Huttunen, Jussi K; Martin-Moreno, José M; Kok, Frans J.

    1995-01-01

    Because antioxidants may play a role in the prevention of coronary heart disease by inhibiting the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), the combined association of diet-derived antioxidants and PUFAs with acute myocardial infarction (MI) was investigated. This multicenter case-control study included 674 patients and 725 control subjects in eight European countries and Israel. Fatty acid composition and alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene levels were determined in adipose tissue...

  11. Convenient solvatochromic probes for the determination of solvent properties: {beta}-carotene and 2-chloro-7-nitro-9H-fluorene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seoud, Omar A. El; Pires, Paulo A.R.; Loffredo, Carina; Imran, Muhammad; Pulcini, Paolo D.; Correa, Michelle F.; Mustafa, Rizwana, E-mail: elseoud@iq.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2013-07-15

    Solvent dipolarity/polarizability (SDP) has been previously calculated from the UV-Vis spectra of 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)-7-nitro-9H-fluorene and 2-fluoro-7-nitro-9H- fluorene. Based on theoretical calculations (23 solvents) and experimental data (56 solvents), it is shown that 2-chloro-7-nitro-9H-fluorene (commercially available) can be conveniently employed for the calculation of this property, instead of its 2-fluoro-7-nitro counterpart. The splitting of SDP into its components (solvent dipolarity (SD) and polarizability (SP)) requires the use of a synthetic polyene compound whose synthesis is laborious, involving 15 steps. Our research group has recently shown that the natural dye {beta}-carotene can be conveniently employed for the determination of SP, allowing the calculation of SD. Using these solvatochromic probes, SDP, SP and SD for a series of 1-bromo alkanes were calculated. For several homologous series, the dependence of solvent SDP (SD and SP for one series) on the number of carbon atoms in the 1-alkyl- or acyl-group was calculated and discussed. (author)

  12. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the quantification of bioavailability and bioconversion of beta-carotene to retinol in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan Wang,; Xiaoying Xu,; Lieshout, van M.; West, C.E.; Lugtenburg, J.; Verhoeven, M.A.; Creemers, A.F.L.

    2000-01-01

    A method based on high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI LC-MS) was developed for the quantification of the bioavailability of retinyl palmitate and -carotene and the bioconversion of -carotene to retinol in humans. Following oral admi

  13. Thermal degradation of carotenes and influence on their physiological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, L

    1991-01-01

    Raw carrot juice contains a considerable amount of alpha- and beta-carotene, which makes carrot an excellent source of vitamin A. Heat treatment of the juice at temperatures comparable to those at pasteurization and boiling does not change the carotenes, while heating at temperatures used during sterilization results in rearrangement of the carotene molecules and a decrease in total carotenes. The all-trans alpha- and beta-carotenes appear partly as cis-isomers, especially the 13-cis-isomer. Isomerization of the carotenes leads to a decrease in their vitamin A activity. Carotenes also seem to be anticarcinogens but the extent to which this property is influenced by isomerization is still unknown.

  14. Bioengineered 'golden' indica rice cultivars with beta-carotene metabolism in the endosperm with hygromycin and mannose selection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Karabi; Baisakh, Niranjan; Oliva, Norman; Torrizo, Lina; Abrigo, Editha; Tan, Jing; Rai, Mayank; Rehana, Sayda; Al-Babili, Salim; Beyer, Peter; Potrykus, Ingo; Datta, Swapan K

    2003-03-01

    Vitamin-A deficiency (VAD) is a major malnutrition problem in South Asia, where indica rice is the staple food. Indica-type rice varieties feed more than 2 billion people. Hence, we introduced a combination of transgenes using the biolistic system of transformation enabling biosynthesis of provitamin A in the endosperm of several indica rice cultivars adapted to diverse ecosystems of different countries. The rice seed-specific glutelin promoter (Gt-1 P) was used to drive the expression of phytoene synthase (psy), while lycopene beta-cyclase (lcy) and phytoene desaturase (crtI), fused to the transit peptide sequence of the pea-Rubisco small subunit, were driven by the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus promoter (CaMV35S P). Transgenic plants were recovered through selection with either CaMV35S P driven hph (hygromycin phosphotransferase) gene or cestrum yellow leaf curling virus promoter (CMP) driven pmi (phophomannose isomerase) gene. Molecular and biochemical analyses demonstrated stable integration and expression of the transgenes. The yellow colour of the polished rice grain evidenced the carotenoid accumulation in the endosperm. The colour intensity correlated with the estimated carotenoid content by spectrophotometric and HPLC analysis. Carotenoid level in cooked polished seeds was comparable (with minor loss of xanthophylls) to that in non-cooked seeds of the same transgenic line. The variable segregation pattern in T1 selfing generation indicated single to multiple loci insertion of the transgenes in the genome. This is the first report of using nonantibiotic pmi driven by a novel promoter in generating transgenic indica rice for possible future use in human nutrition. PMID:17147745

  15. Strong and weak plasma response to dietary carotenoids identified by cluster analysis and linked to beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Thomas T Y; Edwards, Alison J; Clevidence, Beverly A

    2013-08-01

    The mechanisms as well the genetics underlying the bioavailability and metabolism of carotenoids in humans remain unclear. To begin to address these questions, we used cluster analysis to examine individual temporal responses of plasma carotenoids from a controlled-diet study of subjects who consumed carotenoid-rich beverages. Treatments, given daily for 3 weeks, were watermelon juice at two levels (20-mg lycopene, 2.5-mg β-carotene, n=23 and 40-mg lycopene, 5-mg β-carotene, n=12) and tomato juice (18-mg lycopene, 0.6-mg β-carotene, n=10). Cluster analysis revealed distinct groups of subjects differing in the temporal response of plasma carotenoids and provided the basis for classifying subjects as strong responders or weak responders for β-carotene, lycopene, phytoene and phytofluene. Individuals who were strong or weak responders for one carotenoid were not necessarily strong or weak responders for another carotenoid. Furthermore, individual responsiveness was associated with genetic variants of the carotenoid metabolizing enzyme β-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1. These results support the concept that individuals absorb or metabolize carotenoids differently across time and suggest that bioavailability of carotenoids may involve specific genetic variants of β-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1. PMID:23517913

  16. Radiation effects on vitamin A and {beta}-carotene contents in bovine liver and swine pate de foie; Efeito da radiacao gama sobre a vitamina A e o {beta}-caroteno de figado bovino e suino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda Sinigalia

    2001-07-01

    In this study, vitamin A and {beta}-carotene contents and the percent of activity retention were analyzed in 3 kGy and 30 kGy {sup 60}Co {gamma}-irradiated samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate. Six different lots of liver samples weighing 100 g obtained at the meat market were employed. Irradiation was performed with liver samples initially frozen (-15 deg C). Similarly, six different lots of swine liver pate samples weighing about 100 - 125 g , at temperature of 7 deg C were irradiated. Pre-treatments and analysis methods were those described in Instituto Adolfo Lutz Norms for food analyses. Two and five- gram samples in duplicates for bovine liver and five gram-samples for swine liver pate were used. The results showed that there were no losses of either vitamin A or provitamin A activities in the samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate irradiated with a dose of 3 kGy (retention about 100%). On the other hand, for swine liver pate samples of vitamin A were maintained after irradiation with 30 kGy. (author)

  17. Alterations in fruit and vegetable beta-carotene and vitamin C content caused by open-sun drying, visqueen-covered and polyethylene-covered solar-dryers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndawula, J; Kabasa, J D; Byaruhanga, Y B

    2004-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of three drying methods (open sun drying, visqueen-covered solar dryer and polyethylene-covered solar dryer) on b-carotene and vitamin C content of edible portions of mango fruit (Mangifera indica) and cowpea leaves (Vigna unguiculata). Commercial samples were analysed for vitamin C by titrimetry and b-carotene by spectrophotometry at 450 nm. Differences in vitamin retention and loss associated with the three drying methods were assessed by analysis of variance and least significant difference (LSD) at (psolar dryer caused the least loss (34.5% and 71% respectively). Blanching cowpea leaves improved b-carotene and vitamin C retention by 15% and 7.5% respectively. The b-carotene and vitamin C content of fresh ripe mango fruit was 5.9 and 164.3 mg/100g DM respectively. Similar to effects on cowpea leaves, the mango micronutrient content decreased (psolar dryer caused the least (73 and 53% respectively). These results show that the three solar drying methods cause significant loss of pro-vitamin A and vitamin C in dried fruits and vegetables. However, open sun drying causes the most loss and the visqueen-covered solar dryer the least, making the later a probable better drying technology for fruit and vegetable preservation. The drying technologies should be improved to enhance vitamin retention. PMID:15477192

  18. A Consensus Linkage Map that Identifies Genomic Regions Controlling Beta-Carotene Quantity and Fruit Maturity in Melon (Cucumis Melo L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nutritional value and yield potential of U.S. Western Shipping melon (Cucumis melo L.) could be improved through the introgression of genes for early fruit maturity (FM) and the enhancement of the quantity of B-carotene (QBC) in fruit mesocarp (i.e., orange mesocarp). Therefore, a set of 116 F3...

  19. [Effect of organic acids on the biosynthesis of carotenes by an Actinomyces chrysomallus strain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefelova, M V; Sverdlova, A N; Alekseeva, L N

    1978-01-01

    Synthesis of carotenes by Actinomyces chrysomallus var. carotenoides was stimulated by citric, acetic, oxalacetic, fumaric, succinic, malic, alpha-ketoglutaric, tartaric, pyruvic, and propionic acids. Acetic acid acts as a precursor of carotene synthesis and also has another stimulating mechanism of action on carotenogenesis of the actinomycete. Acetic, furmaric, malic, succinic, and alpha-ketoglutaric acids stimulate cyclization of lycopene yielding beta-carotene.

  20. Teores de retinol, beta-caroteno e alfa-tocoferol em leites bovinos comercializados na cidade de São Paulo Amounts of retinol, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol in cow milk comercialized in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rute BIANCHINI

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Os teores de retinol, beta-caroteno e alfa-tocoferol foram determinados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência em leites em pó, pasteurizados e esterilizados, comercializados na Cidade de São Paulo. Após a saponificação e extração, os compostos foram determinados simultaneamente utilizando-se coluna de sílica, fase móvel constituída por hexano:isopropanol (99:1 e fluxo de 2,0mL/min. O retinol e o beta-caroteno foram determinados no detector UV/visível e o alfa-tocoferol no detector de fluorescência, ligado em série com o anterior. Os valores de vitamina A dos leites foram calculados com e sem a consideração do beta-caroteno. A maior contribuição deste nutriente no valor de vitamina A esteve entre os leites em pó, cerca de 17% em uma das marcas. Os altos teores das vitamina A e E encontrados em alguns leites, indicam que os mesmos provavelmente receberam adição destas vitaminas, não trazendo, entretanto, tal informação no rótulo. A análise de vitaminas nestes produtos indica a necessidade de maior controle de qualidade dos mesmos.The amount of retinol, beta-carotene, alpha -tocopherol in powder, pasteurized and sterilized milk, comercialized in the city of São Paulo, were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. After saponification and extraction, compounds were determined simultaneously through a normal-phase column, mobile phase composed by hexan:2-propanol (99:1 and 2 mL/min flow. The retinol and beta-carotene were analysed by a UV/visible detector and the alpha-tocopherol by a fluorescence detector, both linked in series. The milk vitamin A values were calculated with and without beta-carotene. The major contribution of beta-carotene in the vitamin A value was in powder milks, around 17% in one of the brands. The high amounts of vitamin A and E found in some milks indicate that they probably were enriched with these vitamins but nothing is mentioned about this in their labels. The analysis of

  1. Ameliorating effect of wheat bran, Beta-carotene and Curcumin on K-ras gene mutations and expression of ntioxidant enzymes in rat colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Egypt, colon cancer has unique characterises differ than other countries, more than third cases happen in people under 40 years, with advanced stage, high grade tumors that carry more mutations . This may be return to increase pollution in food and water. The aim of the present study, is the investigation of the role of some natural products approaches for colorectal carcinoma including curcumin, wheat bran and β-Carotene. Accordingly, animals were injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine hydrochloride (DMH) and/or dually exposed to ionizing radiation to induce colorectal cancer. The frequency of mutation of K-ras gene, the level activity of SOD, GpX antioxidant enzymes and expression of SOD1, SOD2 and GpX1 in tissue of 120 colon rats from 10 different treated groups were studied. Curcumin, wheat bran and D-carotene have inhibition effect on formation of colon cancer and decrease the mutations in K-ras gene. Moreover, they have ameliorating effect on antioxidants enzymes activities and expressions. The present study revealed that wheat bran and D-carotene have better effect than curcumin.

  2. Preparation and characterization for mineral elements and total dietary fiber and testing for stability of {beta}-carotene of an ARC/CL carrot powder multipurpose candidate reference material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpulainen, J.T. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry; Hyvaerinen, H. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry; Haegg, M. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry; Plaami, S. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry; Tahvonen, R. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry

    1995-05-01

    As part of the analytical assurance system of the FAO European Cooperative Research Network on Trace Elements programme an ARC/CL-coded carrot flakes powder (CFP) candidate reference material (RM) has been prepared from a lot of commercial carrot flakes. The candidate RM has been homogenized using a Robot Coupe blender fitted with titanium blades, carefully homogenized in large teflon/polypropylene containers, bottled in 1000 numbered polyethylene containers (20 g samples) and tested for homogeneity. Interlaboratory comparison studies for 9 essential elements, cadmium and total dietary fiber (TDF) based on the AOAC-method resulted in the characterization of the contents of those compounds in the above material. After exclusion of outliers, mean values from at least nine different laboratories based altogether on three independent analytical principles have been used to calculate the recommended concentration ranges for mineral elements. Testing of homogeneity and stability for {beta}-carotene over a period of one year has been additionally carried out. The mean water content in the material amounted to 4.97% and remained stable over a one-year period. Homogeneity of the RM was within 3.0% for almost all included mineral elements as tested for a sample size of 0.5 g. The 95% confidence limits for the mean values of the established recommended concentrations of mineral elements in the present ARC/CL Carrot Powder candidate RM fell within 5% for all the other elements and TDF except for Fe (6.3%) and B (5.7%). The stability of {beta}-carotene in the present candidate RM stored in darkness over a one-year period at room temperature was within 6.3%. (orig.)

  3. Concentrações de retinol e de beta-caroteno séricos e perfil nutricional de crianças em Teresina, Piauí, Brasil Serum concentrations of retinol and beta-carotene, and nutritional status of children in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joilane Alves Pereira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as concentrações séricas de retinol e beta-caroteno de pré-escolares em Teresina, Piauí, com caracterização do perfil antropométrico e do consumo alimentar. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal envolvendo 135 crianças em creche municipal, com avaliação do estado nutricional pelos métodos: bioquímico (concentração sérica de retinol e beta-caroteno, antropométrico (índices de peso para estatura - P/E e estatura para idade - E/I e dietético (freqüência de consumo alimentar. RESULTADOS: Observou-se prevalência de deficiência de vitamina A (DVA de 8,9% (IC95%: 4,7 - 15,0% e existência de associação entre suplementação anterior e concentrações de retinol, com maior proporção de crianças com níveis normais de retinol entre as suplementadas (p = 0,025. As concentrações de retinol e de beta-caroteno mostraram-se correlacionadas, porém com força leve a moderada (p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate serum concentrations of retinol and beta-carotene of children in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, and to evaluate their anthropometric profile and consumption of food sources of vitamin A. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 135 children from 36 to 83 months of age who attended a public child day care center. Nutritional status was evaluated by: biochemical (serum concentrations of retinol and beta-carotene, anthropometric (weight for height - W/H and height for age - H/A indexes, and dietary (frequency of consumption of food sources of vitamin A methods. RESULTS: The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD was 8.9% (95%CI: 4.7-15.0%. An association between previous supplementation with vitamin A and serum concentrations of retinol was observed, with a higher proportion of children with normal concentrations of retinol among those supplemented (p=0.025. There was a weak to moderate statistically significant correlation between the concentrations of retinol and beta-carotene, (p<0.021. The prevalence of low W/H and low H

  4. Meta-regression analyses, meta-analyses, and trial sequential analyses of the effects of supplementation with beta-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E singly or in different combinations on all-cause mortality: do we have evidence for lack of harm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Bjelakovic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Evidence shows that antioxidant supplements may increase mortality. Our aims were to assess whether different doses of beta-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E affect mortality in primary and secondary prevention randomized clinical trials with low risk of bias. METHODS: The present study is based on our 2012 Cochrane systematic review analyzing beneficial and harmful effects of antioxidant supplements in adults. Using random-effects meta-analyses, meta-regression analyses, and trial sequential analyses, we examined the association between beta-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E, and mortality according to their daily doses and doses below and above the recommended daily allowances (RDA. RESULTS: We included 53 randomized trials with low risk of bias (241,883 participants, aged 18 to 103 years, 44.6% women assessing beta-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E. Meta-regression analysis showed that the dose of vitamin A was significantly positively associated with all-cause mortality. Beta-carotene in a dose above 9.6 mg significantly increased mortality (relative risk (RR 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.02 to 1.09, I(2 = 13%. Vitamin A in a dose above the RDA (> 800 µg did not significantly influence mortality (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.19, I(2 = 53%. Vitamin E in a dose above the RDA (> 15 mg significantly increased mortality (RR 1.03, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.05, I(2 = 0%. Doses below the RDAs did not affect mortality, but data were sparse. CONCLUSIONS: Beta-carotene and vitamin E in doses higher than the RDA seem to significantly increase mortality, whereas we lack information on vitamin A. Dose of vitamin A was significantly associated with increased mortality in meta-regression. We lack information on doses below the RDA. BACKGROUND: All essential compounds to stay healthy cannot be synthesized in our body. Therefore, these compounds must be taken through our diet or obtained in other ways [1]. Oxidative stress has been

  5. Associations Between α-Tocopherol, β-Carotene, and Retinol and Prostate Cancer Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Watters, Joanne L; Gail, Mitchell H.; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that carotenoids and tocopherols (vitamin E compounds) may be inversely associated with prostate cancer risk, yet little is known about how they affect prostate cancer progression and survival. We investigated whether serum α-tocopherol, β-carotene, and retinol concentrations, or the α-tocopherol and β-carotene trial supplementation, affected survival of men diagnosed with prostate cancer during the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study, a ran...

  6. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to a combination of lycopene, proanthocyanidins, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and beta-carotene and contribution to normal collagen formation (ID 1669) and protection, of the skin from UV-induced damage (ID 1669) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to a combination of lycopene, proanthocyanidins, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and beta-carotene and contribution to normal collagen formation and protection of the skin from UV-induced damage. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States...

  7. Extraction of carotenoids from feces enabling the bioavailability of ß-carotene to be studied in Indonesian children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, van M.; West, C.E.; Bovenkamp, van de P.; Wang, Y.; Sun, Y.; Breemen, van R.B.; Permaesih, D.; Muhilal,; Verhoeven, M.A.; Creemers, A.F.L.; Lugtenburg, J.

    2003-01-01

    Previously, we have presented a method for quantifying beta-carotene bioavailability based on analysis in serum, following administration of C-13-labeled beta-carotene. Because stool samples can be collected noninvasively, we have now extended the method to measure the bioavailability based on measu

  8. Effects of processing, cooking, and storage on ß-carotene retention and bioaccessibility in biofortified cassava (Manihot esculenta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofortification of cassava with beta-carotene is currently being tested in African populations where cassava is a staple food and vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem. Measuring the impact of traditional African processing and cooking on beta-carotene concentration and bioaccessibility ...

  9. Highly antioxidant carotene-lipid nanocarriers: synthesis and antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacatusu, Ioana; Badea, Nicoleta, E-mail: nicoleta.badea@gmail.com; Ovidiu, Oprea [University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science (Romania); Bojin, Dionezie [Faculty of Engineering and Materials Science (Romania); Meghea, Aurelia [University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science (Romania)

    2012-06-15

    The objective of this study was to explore the potential of two natural oils (squalene-Sq and grape seed oil-GSO) to prepare biocompatible antioxidant nanostructured lipid carriers-NLCs as a safety and protective formulation for sensitive {beta}-carotene. For this purpose different oil-in-water nanoemulsions stabilized by a combination of alkylpolyoxy ethylene sorbitans, lecithin and a block copolymer, were prepared using a melt high-shear homogenization process. The physico-chemical characteristics of the carotene-loaded NLCs were firstly investigated in detail. The smaller lipid nanoparticles have been obtained by using Tween 20 as main non-ionic surfactant, with average diameters of about 85 nm for GSO and 89 nm for Sq, with a polydispersity index <0.19. The developed carotene-NLCs presented an excellent physical stability with almost all zeta potential values ranging between -29 Division-Sign -40 mV. The differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the {beta}-carotene incorporation has led to a perturbation of solid lipid matrix with a less ordered arrangement. By UV-Vis spectroscopy it was evidenced that after encapsulation {beta}-carotene adopts a supramolecular structure demonstrated by appearance of a shoulder at 530 nm related to a {beta}-carotene triplet-triplet absorption. The carotene-NLCs have been also evaluated in terms of in vitro antioxidant properties. The presence of Sq and GSO produced a significant effect on the antioxidant capacity of developed NLCs. The samples prepared with GSO and Tween 80 as main surfactant showed the highest antioxidant activity (AA %) against free oxygen radicals, exhibiting an enhancement of 35 % for loaded NLCs, as comparing to pure carotene. In addition to these properties, the ability of NLCs to manifest antibacterial activity was tested against Escherichiacoli bacteria. The antibacterial analysis shown that loaded-NLCs develop an effective inhibition zone against bacteria growth and it was dependent in a

  10. beta-caroteno, ácido ascórbico e antocianinas totais em polpa de frutos de aceroleira conservada por congelamento durante 12 meses beta-carotene, ascorbic acid and total antocyanins in fruit pulp of the acerola tree conserved by the cold for 12 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Germanno Lima de Araújo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar as alterações de b-caroteno, ácido ascórbico e antocianinas totais na polpa de frutos de clones de aceroleira conservada por congelamento. Os frutos dos clones BRS 152 (Sertaneja BRS 235 (Apodi, BRS 236 (Cereja, BRS 237 (Roxinha, BRS 238 (Frutacor e II 47/1 foram colhidos no estádio de maturação comercial (vermelho maduro em Limoeiro do Norte, Ceará, Brasil, transportados para a Planta Piloto de Processamento de Frutos da Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, despolpados, acondicionada a polpa em sacos de polietileno (100 g, congelada, mantida em freezer a -20 °C, e avaliada a cada 30 dias durante 12 meses. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 6 x 13 (clones x tempo, com 3 repetições. A concentração de beta-caroteno foi estável no clone Cereja, enquanto, nos demais, houve decréscimo durante todo o período do experimento. Houve pequeno decréscimo no teor de ácido ascórbico em todos os clones estudados durante o armazenamento, provavelmente devido à alta acidez da polpa, que auxilia na manutenção deste nutriente. O teor de antocianinas totais foi estável nos clones Frutacor e Sertaneja, enquanto nos demais houve diminuição. O clone II 47/1 foi dentre os estudados o que apresentou maiores teores de ácido ascórbico e antocianinas totais, mantendo estas características durante todo o armazenamento. De um modo geral, os clones em que se determinou menor teor de beta-caroteno foram observadas as mais elevadas concentrações de antocianinas totais.The objective of the work was to evaluate b-carotene, ascorbic acid and total anthocyanins alterations in fruit pulp of acerola tree clones conserved by the cold. The fruit clones BRS 152 (Sertaneja, BRS 235 (Apodi, BRS 236 (Cereja, BRS 237 (Roxinha, BRS 238 (Frutacor and II 47/1 were harvested in a commercial maturation stage (ripe red in Limoeiro do Norte, Ceará, Brasil, carried to Planta Piloto de

  11. In vitro conversion of ß-carotene to retinal in bovine rumen fluid by a recombinant ß-carotene- 15, 15'-monooxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, Esperanza; González-Gallardo, Adriana; Antaramián, Anaid; González-Dávalos, María Laura; Shimada, Armando; Varela-Echavarria, Alfredo; Mora, Ofelia

    2012-04-01

    Pasture-fed cattle yield carcasses with yellow fat; consumers often reject the resulting meat products because they assume they come from old and/or culled animals. Recombinant bacteria expressing beta-carotene 15, 15'-monooxygenase, introduced into the rumen of the animal, might help to reduce the coloration since this enzyme converts carotene to retinal, thereby eliminating the source of yellowness. The goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of a recombinant beta-carotene 15, 15'-monooxygenase (BCMO1) from Gallus gallus, expressed in Escherichia coli. The genetically modified microbe was introduced into ruminal fluid, and carotene conversion to retinal was measured. Under optimum conditions the enzyme produced 6.8 nmol of retinal per 1 mg of protein in 1 hour at 37 °C. The data on in vitro digestibility in ruminal fluid showed no differences in beta-carotene breakdown or in retinal production (p > 0.1) between E. coli with pBAD vector alone and E. coli with pBAD/BCMO1. The pBAD/BCMO1 plasmid was stable in E. coli for 750 generations. These results indicate that the protein did not break beta-carotene into retinal in ruminal fluid, perhaps due to its location in the periplasmic space in E. coli. Future research must consider strategies to release the enzyme into the rumen environment. PMID:23065834

  12. Excited-state kinetics of the carotenoid S//1 state in LHC II and two-photon excitation spectra of lutein and beta-carotene in solution Efficient Car S//1 yields Chl electronic energy transfer via hot S//1 states?

    CERN Document Server

    Walla, P J; Linden, Patricia A; Ohta, Kaoru

    2002-01-01

    The excited-state dynamics of the carotenoids (Car) in light- harvesting complex II (LHC II) of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were studied by transient absorption measurements. The decay of the Car S //1 population ranges from similar to 200 fs to over 7 ps, depending on the excitation and detection wavelengths. In contrast, a 200 fs Car S//1 yields Chlorophyll (Chl) energy transfer component was the dominant time constant for our earlier two-photon fluorescence up- conversion measurements (Walla, P.J. ; et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2000, 104, 4799-4806). We also present the two-photon excitation (TPE) spectra of lutein and beta-carotene in solution and compare them with the TPE spectrum of LHC II. The TPE-spectrum of LHC II has an onset much further to the blue and a width that is narrower than expected from comparison to the S//1 fluorescence of lutein and beta-carotene in solution. Different environments may affect the shape of the S//1 spectrum significantly. To explain the blue shift of the TPE spectrum and the d...

  13. Composição de carotenóides de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa) in natura

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Sandra Regina da; Mercadante Adriana Z.

    2002-01-01

    A composição de carotenóides de maracujá-amarelo in natura (Passiflora edulis) comercializado em Campinas, Brasil, foi avaliada utilizando-se cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Em todas as amostras foram encontrados os seguintes carotenóides: beta-criptoxantina, prolicopeno, cis-zeta-caroteno, zeta-caroteno, beta-caroteno e 13-cis-beta-caroteno, além de neurosporeno e gama-caroteno em alguns lotes. Em geral, os teores de carotenóides nos diversos lotes foram significativamente diferent...

  14. Ubiquinone and carotene production in the Mucorales Blakeslea and Phycomyces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzina, Vera; Cerda-Olmedo, E.

    2007-01-01

    The filamentous fungi Phycomyces blakesleeanus and Blakeslea trispora (Zygomycota, Mucorales) are actual or potential industrial sources of beta-carotene and lycopene. These chemicals and the large terpenoid moiety of ubiquinone derive from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate. We measured the ubiquinone...... does not affect even indirectly the production of ubiquinone, as would be expected if terpenoids were synthesized through a branched pathway that could divert precursor flows from one branch to another....

  15. Exploitation of natural variability in maize for β - carotene content using HPLC and gene specific markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tura Safawo, N. Senthil*, M. Raveendran, S. Vellaikumar, K. N. Ganesan, G. Nallathambi, S. Saranya, V. G. Shobhana, B. Abirami and E. Vijaya Gowri

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A deficiency is a major world health problem, affecting up to 127 million pre-school children and 7 millionpregnant women worldwide (West, 2003. Human selection for yellow endosperm has led to diversification of graincarotenoid content and composition. This variation has remained largely untapped in modern breeding programs thathave focused nearly exclusively on yield gains. Maize displays considerable natural variation for carotenoidcomposition, including vitamin A precursors α-carotene, β-carotene, and β -cryptoxanthin. Sixty four maize inbred linesof India were grown and evaluated for whole kernel carotenoids and beta carotene content using high performanceliquid chromatography (HPLC. The lines averaged 14 :g/g for total carotenoids (5.58 to 63.9 :g/g and 1.69 :g/g for β-carotene (0.122 to 4.74 :g/g. High level of β - carotene was observed in UMI 946, UMI 176, UMI 79, UMI 34 andUMI 12 and these would be used in the breeding programs to enhance the β – carotene contents. Previous study showedfour natural lcyE polymorphisms explained 58% of the variation in these two branches and a threefold difference in provitaminA compounds. In screening for polymorphisms in key haplotypes, four regions were selected and scored acrossthe entire panel of favourable haplotype using SNP and SSR markers. The polymorphs were obtained for all primer usedand the presence of the amplification of for particular marker showed the increase in β - carotene content across theinbreds. Development of LCYE based breeding markers for maize alone will not be effective unless hydroxylation isalso controlled, for non pro vitamin A xanthophylls compounds will predominate. So in our future study, we should beaiming at breeding for high β - carotene in maize by emphasizing on characterization of β - carotene hydroxylase genesfor enhancing the relative levels of seed β - carotene.

  16. Safety evaluation of synthetic β-carotene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Wolterbeek, A.P.M.; Appel, M.J.; Berg, H. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Feron, V.J.

    1999-01-01

    The safety of β-carotene was reassessed by evaluating the relevant literature on the beneficial and adverse effects of β-carotene on cancer and, in particular, by evaluating the results of toxicity studies. β- Carotene appeared neither genotoxic nor reprotoxic or teratogenic, and no signs of organ t

  17. Zinc plus ß-carotene supplementation of pregnant women is superior to ß-carotene supplementation alone in improving vitamin A status in both mothers and infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, M.A.; Wieringa, F.T.; West, C.E.; Muhilal,

    2004-01-01

    Background: Deficiencies of vitamin A, iron, and zinc are prevalent in women and infants in developing countries. Supplementation during pregnancy can benefit mother and infant. Objective: We examined whether supplementation during pregnancy with iron and folic acid plus beta-carotene or zinc or bot

  18. Identificação de bergenina e carotenóides no fruto de uchi (Endopleura uchi, Humiriaceae Identification of bergenin and carotenoids in the uchi (Endopleura uchi, Humiriaceae fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyege Amazonas M. Magalhães

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O extrato obtido em metanol da polpa de frutos Endopleura uchi foi submetido a fracionamento utilizando-se técnicas cromatográficas convencionais levando ao isolamento de bergenina. Na análise da composição dos carotenóides foi evidenciada a predominância de beta-caroteno (16,57 mig.g-1. Os isômeros do beta-caroteno foram detectados, trans-beta-caroteno (89,3%, 13-cis-beta-caroteno (8% e 9-cis-beta-caroteno (3%. Considerando a importância do papel nutricional dos carotenóides e a bioatividade do glicosídeo bergenina, esse estudo sugeriu o potencial desse fruto como alimento funcional.The extract obtained in methanol from the fruits pulp of Endopleura uchi was fractionated using conventional chromatographic tecniques to isolate bergenin. In the analysis of the composition of carotenoids was evidenced the predominance of beta-carotene (16.57 mug.g-1. The isomers of beta-carotene: trans-beta-carotene (89.3%, 13-cis-beta-carotene (8% and 9-cis-beta-carotene (3% were detected. Considering the importance of the nutritional role of carotenoids and the bioactivity of the bergenina, this study suggested the potential of this fruit as functional food.

  19. Composição de carotenóides de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa in natura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Sandra Regina da

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A composição de carotenóides de maracujá-amarelo in natura (Passiflora edulis comercializado em Campinas, Brasil, foi avaliada utilizando-se cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Em todas as amostras foram encontrados os seguintes carotenóides: beta-criptoxantina, prolicopeno, cis-zeta-caroteno, zeta-caroteno, beta-caroteno e 13-cis-beta-caroteno, além de neurosporeno e gama-caroteno em alguns lotes. Em geral, os teores de carotenóides nos diversos lotes foram significativamente diferentes. Em dois dos cinco lotes analisados, o z-caroteno foi o carotenóide principal, contribuindo com 41 e 62% do total de carotenóides, enquanto que em outros dois lotes, o beta-caroteno foi o majoritário, com 55 e 74% do total e em um dos lotes o cis-zeta-caroteno esteve presente em maior concentração, com 29%. Este tipo de inversão entre os carotenóides majoritários não é comumente encontrado em frutas e vegetais.

  20. Avaliação da atividade antioxidante utilizando sistema beta-caroteno/ácido linoléico e método de seqüestro de radicais DPPH• Evaluation of the antioxidant activity using the b-carotene/linoleic acid system and the DPPH scavenging method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Maurício Duarte-Almeida

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A atividade antioxidante de extratos de frutas (acerola, amora, açaí e morango e compostos puros foi avaliada por meio de dois métodos: sistema beta-caroteno/ácido linoléico e método de seqüestro de radicais livres (DPPH• - 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazila. As metodologias foram previamente adaptadas para a realização em microplacas, de forma a reduzir a quantidade de reagentes e amostras necessárias, aumentar o número de análises simultâneas e permitir a automatização das leituras de absorbância. Os resultados mostraram que a atividade antioxidante dos extratos metanólicos dos frutos estava de acordo com a apresentada pelos compostos puros, isto é ácido ascórbico e compostos fenólicos, nos dois sistemas. O extrato de acerola, devido ao seu alto conteúdo de vitamina C, comportou-se como pró-oxidante e os de açaí, amora e morango como antioxidantes no sistema beta-caroteno/ácido linoléico. Entretanto, quando avaliado pelo método de seqüestro de radicais livres, o extrato de acerola apresentou a maior atividade antioxidante, seguido pelos extratos de amora, açaí e morango. As adaptações realizadas nos métodos de avaliação de atividade antioxidante utilizando microplaca permitiram a realização de múltiplas análises simultâneas, além de minimizar significativamente o uso de reagentes e amostras.The antioxidant activity of fruit extracts (acerola, açaí, black-berry and strawberry and pure compounds has been analysed by two methods: beta-carotene/linoleic acid and DPPH•(2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay. First, those methodologies were adapted to be performed in microplates, in order to reduce the sample and reagent amounts, to increase the number of simultaneous analyses and to automate absorbance lectures. The results showed that the antioxidant activity of the fruit extracts was in accordance with those of pure ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds, in the two systems. The acerola

  1. Isomerization of -carotene by titanium tetrachloride catalyst

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Rajendran; B H Chen

    2007-05-01

    Isomerization of all-trans--carotene occurs during shaking with 0.5% of titanium tetrachloride catalyst in methylene chloride at room temperature. In the present study we compared two types of columns C18 and C30 and various solvent systems for the separation of -carotene and its cis isomers by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that -carotene isomers were resolved by employing a C30 column with a mobile phase of methanol (100%) (A) and methylene chloride (100%) (B) under a gradient elution condition. A total of eleven cis isomers and one all-trans--carotene isomer were resolved within 50 min at a flow rate of 1 ml/min and detection wave-length of 470 nm.

  2. Biofortified cassava increases ß-carotene and vitamin A concentrations in the TAG-rich plasma layer of American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Biofortification of cassava with the provitamin A (PVA) carotenoid beta-carotene (BC) is a potential mechanism for alleviating vitamin A (VA) deficiency. Cassava is a staple food in the African diet, but the human bioavailability of BC within this food is unknown. Objective: To evaluat...

  3. A comparison of retinyl palmitate and red palm oil β-carotene as strategies to address Vitamin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souganidis, Ellie; Laillou, Arnaud; Leyvraz, Magali; Moench-Pfanner, Regina

    2013-08-15

    Vitamin A deficiency continues to be an international public health problem with several important health consequences including blindness and overall increased rates of morbidity and mortality. To address this widespread issue, a series of strategies have been put into place from dietary diversification to supplementation and fortification programs. Retinyl palmitate has been used successfully for decades as a supplement as well as a way to fortify numerous foods, including vegetable oil, rice, monosodium glutamate, cereal flours and sugar. Recently, there has been rising interest in using a natural source of carotenoids, β-carotene from red palm oil (RPO), for fortification. Although RPO interventions have also been shown to effectively prevent Vitamin A deficiency, there are numerous challenges in using beta-carotene from RPO as a fortification technique. β-Carotene can induce significant changes in appearance and taste of the fortified product. Moreover, costs of fortifying with beta-carotene are higher than with retinyl palmitate. Therefore, RPO should only be used as a source of Vitamin A if it is produced and used in its crude form and regularly consumed without frying. Furthermore, refined RPO should be fortified with retinyl palmitate, not β-carotene, to ensure that there is adequate Vitamin A content.

  4. A comparison of retinyl palmitate and red palm oil β-carotene as strategies to address Vitamin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souganidis, Ellie; Laillou, Arnaud; Leyvraz, Magali; Moench-Pfanner, Regina

    2013-08-01

    Vitamin A deficiency continues to be an international public health problem with several important health consequences including blindness and overall increased rates of morbidity and mortality. To address this widespread issue, a series of strategies have been put into place from dietary diversification to supplementation and fortification programs. Retinyl palmitate has been used successfully for decades as a supplement as well as a way to fortify numerous foods, including vegetable oil, rice, monosodium glutamate, cereal flours and sugar. Recently, there has been rising interest in using a natural source of carotenoids, β-carotene from red palm oil (RPO), for fortification. Although RPO interventions have also been shown to effectively prevent Vitamin A deficiency, there are numerous challenges in using beta-carotene from RPO as a fortification technique. β-Carotene can induce significant changes in appearance and taste of the fortified product. Moreover, costs of fortifying with beta-carotene are higher than with retinyl palmitate. Therefore, RPO should only be used as a source of Vitamin A if it is produced and used in its crude form and regularly consumed without frying. Furthermore, refined RPO should be fortified with retinyl palmitate, not β-carotene, to ensure that there is adequate Vitamin A content. PMID:23955382

  5. A Comparison of Retinyl Palmitate and Red Palm Oil β-Carotene as Strategies to Address Vitamin A Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Moench-Pfanner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A deficiency continues to be an international public health problem with several important health consequences including blindness and overall increased rates of morbidity and mortality. To address this widespread issue, a series of strategies have been put into place from dietary diversification to supplementation and fortification programs. Retinyl palmitate has been used successfully for decades as a supplement as well as a way to fortify numerous foods, including vegetable oil, rice, monosodium glutamate, cereal flours and sugar. Recently, there has been rising interest in using a natural source of carotenoids, β-carotene from red palm oil (RPO, for fortification. Although RPO interventions have also been shown to effectively prevent Vitamin A deficiency, there are numerous challenges in using beta-carotene from RPO as a fortification technique. β-Carotene can induce significant changes in appearance and taste of the fortified product. Moreover, costs of fortifying with beta-carotene are higher than with retinyl palmitate. Therefore, RPO should only be used as a source of Vitamin A if it is produced and used in its crude form and regularly consumed without frying. Furthermore, refined RPO should be fortified with retinyl palmitate, not β-carotene, to ensure that there is adequate Vitamin A content.

  6. Papel da lipoperoxidação na intensificação da remodelação causada pelo betacaroteno após o infarto Rol de la lipoperoxidación en la intensificación de la remodelación ocasionada por el betacaroteno tras infarto Role of lipoperoxidation in the remodeling intensification induced by beta-carotene after infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula S. Azevedo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Os mecanismos envolvidos na maior remodelação causada pelo betacaroteno após o infarto são desconhecidos. OBJETIVO: Analisar o papel da lipoperoxidação na remodelação ventricular após o infarto do miocárdio, em ratos suplementados com betacaroteno. MÉTODOS: Ratos foram infartados e distribuídos em dois grupos: C (controle e BC (500mg/kg/dieta. Após seis meses, foram realizados ecocardiograma e avaliação bioquímica. Utilizamos o teste t, com significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Os animais do grupo BC apresentaram maiores médias das áreas diastólicas (C = 1,57 ± 0,4 mm²/g, BC = 2,09 ± 0,3 mm²/g; p FUNDAMENTO: Los mecanismos implicados en la mayor remodelación ocasionada por betacaroteno tras el infarto son desconocidos. OBJETIVO: Analizar el rol que juega la lipoperoxidación en la remodelación ventricular tras el infarto de miocardio, en ratas suplementadas con betacaroteno. MÉTODOS: Se había inducido a un infarto a las ratas y se las distribuyó en grupos: C (control y BC (500mg/kg/dieta. Tras seis meses, se realizaron ecocardiograma y evaluación bioquímica. Utilizamos la prueba t, con significancia del 5%. RESULTADOS: Los animales del grupo BC presentaron mayores promedios de las áreas diastólicas (C = 1,57 ± 0,4 mm²/g, BC = 2,09 ± 0,3 mm²/g; p BACKGROUND: The mechanisms involved in the biggest remodeling caused by the post-infarct beta-carotene are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the role of lipoperoxidation in the ventricular remodeling after infarct of the myocardium in rats supplemented with beta-carotene. METHODS: Rats were infarcted and divided into two groups: C (control and BC (500mg/kg/regimen. After six months, echocardiogram and biochemical evaluation were performed. The t test was used, with 5% significance. RESULTS: The animals from BC group presented highest means of the diastolic (C = 1.57 ± 0.4 mm²/g, BC = 2.09 ± 0.3 mm²/g; p < 0.001 and systolic (C = 1.05 ± 0.3 mm²/g, BC = 1.61

  7. Industrial Production of High-carotene-content Carrot Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Scientific experiments have shown that β-carotene from fresh carrots and other fruits and vegetables, rather than chemosynthetic ones, could have preventive effects on the lung cancer. This makes β-carotene processing an industry with great prospects.

  8. Techniques for measuring vitamin A activity from β-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guangwen

    2012-11-01

    Dietary β-carotene is the most important precursor of vitamin A. However, the determination of the efficiency of in vivo conversion of β-carotene to vitamin A requires sensitive and safe techniques. It presents the following challenges: 1) circulating β-carotene concentration cannot be altered by eating a meal containing ≤6 mg β-carotene; 2) because retinol concentrations are homeostatically controlled, the conversion of β-carotene into vitamin A cannot be estimated accurately in well-nourished humans by assessing changes in serum retinol after supplementation with β-carotene. In the past half-century, techniques using radioisotopes of β-carotene and vitamin A, depletion-repletion with vitamin A and β-carotene supplements, measurement of postprandial chylomicron fractions after consumption of a β-carotene dose, and finally, stable isotopes as tracers to follow the absorption and conversion of β-carotene in humans have been developed. The reported values for β-carotene to vitamin A conversion showed a wide variation from 2 μg β-carotene to 1 μg retinol (for synthetic pure β-carotene in oil) and 28 μg β-carotene to 1 μg retinol (for β-carotene from vegetables). In recent years, a stable isotope reference method (IRM) was developed that used labeled synthetic β-carotene. The IRM method provided evidence that the conversion of β-carotene to vitamin A is likely dose dependent. With the development of intrinsically labeled plant foods harvested from a hydroponic system with heavy water, vitamin A activity of stable isotope-labeled biosynthetic β-carotene from various foods consumed by humans was studied. The efficacy of plant foods rich in β-carotene, such as natural (spinach, carrots, spirulina), hybrid (high-β-carotene yellow maize), and bioengineered (Golden Rice) foods, to provide vitamin A has shown promising results. The results from these studies will be of practical importance in recommendations for the use of pure β-carotene and foods

  9. Physical Activity and the Risk of Pneumonia in Male Smokers Administered Vitamin E and β-Carotene

    OpenAIRE

    HemilÀ Harri; Kaprio Jaakko; Albanes Demetrius; Virtamo Jarmo

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that moderate exercise may enhance the immune system. We evaluated whether physical activity at work or at leisure is associated with the risk of pneumonia, and whether the antioxidants vitamin E and β-carotene affect pneumonia risk in physically active people. A cohort of 16 804 male smokers aged 50 – 69 years and working at study entry was drawn from the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study, which examined the effect of vitamin E, 50 mg/day,...

  10. Randomised β-carotene supplementation and incidence of cancer and cardiovascular disease in women: is the association modified by baseline plasma level?

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, I-M; Cook, N R; Manson, J E; Buring, J. E.

    2002-01-01

    In a nested case-control study of 513 women with cancer; 130 with cardiovascular disease and equal numbers of controls, we found no effect of randomised beta-carotene on risk of cancer or cardiovascular disease within any quartile of baseline plasma beta-carotene, nor was there a trend across quartiles (P for trend 0.15 and 0.62, respectively). British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 698–701. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600147 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK

  11. Teores de retinol, beta-caroteno e alfa-tocoferol em leites bovinos comercializados na cidade de São Paulo Amounts of retinol, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol in cow milk comercialized in the city of São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    BIANCHINI Rute; Marilene de Vuono Camargo PENTEADO

    1999-01-01

    Os teores de retinol, beta-caroteno e alfa-tocoferol foram determinados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência em leites em pó, pasteurizados e esterilizados, comercializados na Cidade de São Paulo. Após a saponificação e extração, os compostos foram determinados simultaneamente utilizando-se coluna de sílica, fase móvel constituída por hexano:isopropanol (99:1) e fluxo de 2,0mL/min. O retinol e o beta-caroteno foram determinados no detector UV/visível e o alfa-tocoferol no detector de ...

  12. β-carotene-producing bacteria residing in the intestine provide vitamin A to mouse tissues in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassef, Lesley; Wirawan, Ruth; Chikindas, Michael; Breslin, Paul A S; Hoffman, Daniel J; Quadro, Loredana

    2014-05-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is an overwhelming public health problem that affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. A definitive solution to VAD has yet to be identified. Because it is an essential nutrient, vitamin A or its carotenoid precursor β-carotene can only be obtained from food or supplements. In this study, we wanted to establish whether β-carotene produced in the mouse intestine by bacteria synthesizing the provitamin A carotenoid could be delivered to various tissues within the body. To achieve this, we took advantage of the Escherichia coli MG1655*, an intestine-adapted spontaneous mutant of E. coli MG1655, and the plasmid pAC-BETA, containing the genes coding for the 4 key enzymes of the β-carotene biosynthetic pathway (geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase, phytoene synthase, phytoene desaturase, and lycopene cyclase) from Erwinia herbicola. We engineered the E. coli MG1655* to produce β-carotene during transformation with pAC-BETA (MG1655*-βC) and gavaged wild-type and knockout mice for the enzyme β-carotene 15,15'-oxygenase with this recombinant strain. Various regimens of bacteria administration were tested (single vs. multiple and low vs. high doses). β-Carotene concentration was measured by HPLC in mouse serum, liver, intestine, and feces. Enumeration of MG1655*-βC cells in the feces was performed to assess efficiency of intestinal colonization. We demonstrated in vivo that probiotic bacteria could be used to deliver vitamin A to the tissues of a mammalian host. These results have the potential to pave the road for future investigations aimed at identifying alternative, novel approaches to treat VAD.

  13. β-carotene-producing bacteria residing in the intestine provide vitamin A to mouse tissues in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassef, Lesley; Wirawan, Ruth; Chikindas, Michael; Breslin, Paul A S; Hoffman, Daniel J; Quadro, Loredana

    2014-05-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is an overwhelming public health problem that affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. A definitive solution to VAD has yet to be identified. Because it is an essential nutrient, vitamin A or its carotenoid precursor β-carotene can only be obtained from food or supplements. In this study, we wanted to establish whether β-carotene produced in the mouse intestine by bacteria synthesizing the provitamin A carotenoid could be delivered to various tissues within the body. To achieve this, we took advantage of the Escherichia coli MG1655*, an intestine-adapted spontaneous mutant of E. coli MG1655, and the plasmid pAC-BETA, containing the genes coding for the 4 key enzymes of the β-carotene biosynthetic pathway (geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase, phytoene synthase, phytoene desaturase, and lycopene cyclase) from Erwinia herbicola. We engineered the E. coli MG1655* to produce β-carotene during transformation with pAC-BETA (MG1655*-βC) and gavaged wild-type and knockout mice for the enzyme β-carotene 15,15'-oxygenase with this recombinant strain. Various regimens of bacteria administration were tested (single vs. multiple and low vs. high doses). β-Carotene concentration was measured by HPLC in mouse serum, liver, intestine, and feces. Enumeration of MG1655*-βC cells in the feces was performed to assess efficiency of intestinal colonization. We demonstrated in vivo that probiotic bacteria could be used to deliver vitamin A to the tissues of a mammalian host. These results have the potential to pave the road for future investigations aimed at identifying alternative, novel approaches to treat VAD. PMID:24598882

  14. Blakeslea trispora Genes for Carotene Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Sáiz, M.; Paz, B.; de la Fuente, J L; López-Nieto, M J; Cabri, W.; Barredo, J L

    2004-01-01

    We cloned the carB and carRA genes involved in β-carotene biosynthesis from overproducing and wild-type strains of Blakeslea trispora. The carB gene has a length of 1,955 bp, including two introns of 141 and 68 bp, and encodes a protein of 66.4 kDa with phytoene dehydrogenase activity. The carRA gene contains 1,894 bp, with a single intron of 70 bp, and encodes a protein of 69.6 kDa with separate domains for lycopene cyclase and phytoene synthase. The estimated transcript sizes for carB and c...

  15. New simple spectrophotometric assay of total carotenes in margarines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luterotti, S.; Bicanic, D.D.; Pozgaj, R.

    2006-01-01

    Direct and reliable spectrophotometric method for assaying total carotenes (TC) in margarines with the minimum of sample manipulation is proposed. For the first time saponification step used in determination of carotenes in margarines was omitted leading to a substantial cost saving and reduction of

  16. 21 CFR 73.95 - β-Carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false β-Carotene. 73.95 Section 73.95 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR...-carotene prepared synthetically or obtained from natural sources. (2) Color additive mixtures for food...

  17. Genetically engineered rice. The source of β-carotene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Terlecki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available β-carotene is a precursor of vitamin A. It is converted to vitamin A in the humans intestine by the β-carotene-15,15’-monooxygenase. Vitamin A is essential to support vision, as an antioxidant it protects the body from free radicals, it helps to integrate the immune system, as well as takes part in cellular differentiation and proliferation. Vitamin A deficiency is a major public health problem especially among developing countries. Nyctalopia, commonly known as „Night Blindness” is one of the major symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency (VAD. Plants such as apricots, broccoli, carrots, and sweet potatoes are rich in β-carotene. Some of the plants are characterized by a higher content of provitamin-A. Among vegetables rich sources of β-carotene are: carrots, pumpkin, spinach, lettuce, green peas, tomatoes, watercress, broccoli and parsley leaves. Amongst fruits the highest content of β-carotene is in apricot, cherry, sweet cherry, plum, orange and mango. The aim of the present study was to analyze available literature data of increasing the content of β-carotene in genetically engineered rice. The genetically modified cultivar contains additional genes: PSY and CRTI thanks to which rice seed endosperm contains β-carotene. Genetically engineered rice with β-carotene is an effective source of vitamin A, it contains approximately 30 μg β-carotene per 1 g. Fortunately some of the advantages of Genetically Modified Food give an opportunity to reduce VAD worldwide, by introducing the rice which has been genetically engineered to be rich in β-carotene. The popularity of this plant as an element of nutrition is simultaneously a source of vitamin A.

  18. Influência da embalagem e estocagem no conteúdo de betacaroteno e ácido ascórbico em suco de manga “Ubá” industrializado = Influence of package and storage on the content of beta-carotene and ascorbic acid in industrialized “Ubá” mango juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela da Silva Oliveira

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho investigou o conteudo e avaliou a estabilidade de doisantioxidantes naturais - β-caroteno e acido ascorbico (AA - em suco de manga "Uba" industrializado e armazenado em diferentes tempos de estocagem e correlacionou as recomendacoes de vitaminas A e C com o teor encontrado nos sucos. O β-caroteno e o AA foram analisados nos sucos comercializados em embalagem tetra pak, em cinco tempos de estocagem (1 a 5 meses e em embalagem de vidro, em tres tempos de estocagem (apos 3, 4 e 5 meses de armazenamento. A analise foi realizada por Cromatografia Liquida de Alta Eficiencia (CLAE. Nao foram detectadas diferencas estatisticamente significativas (α = 5% entre os diferentes tempos de estocagem, para ambos os componentes analisados, tanto em embalagens tetra pak quanto em embalagens de vidro. Alem disso, nao foram observadas diferencas significativas entre o conteudo de β-caroteno dos sucos comercializados nas duas embalagens. No entanto, houve diferenca significativa no teor de AA entre as diferentes embalagens, e a embalagem de vidro apresentou maior teor em relacao a embalagem tetrapak. Assim, as perdas ocasionadas especialmente pela permeabilidade da embalagem ao oxigenio deveriam ser alvo de atencao das industrias de alimentos.This work investigated the content and stability of two natural antioxidants . β-carotene and ascorbic acid (AA - in mango juice industrialized and stored during different storage times, correlating the recommendations of vitamins A and C with the content found in the juice. β-carotene and AA were analyzed in juice sold in tetra pak packaging, during five storage times (1 to 5months and in glass containers, during three storage times (after 3, 4 and 5 months of storage. The analysis was carried out using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. No statically differences (α = 5 % were found between the different times of storage for both compounds analyzed, both in tetra pak package and glass container

  19. The safety of β-carotene from Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell-Lee, Daniel; Zeller, Samuel; Cardoso, Renato; Pucaj, Kresimir

    2014-03-01

    Crystalline β-carotene from genetically modified Yarrowia lipolytica is an alternative source of β-carotene for use as a nutritional supplement. To support the use of β-carotene from Y. lipolytica as a food ingredient, the genotoxic and subchronic toxicity potential of this compound was determined. Genotoxicity was examined using Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli (Ames test), a chromosomal aberration assay in Chinese Hamster Ovary WBL cells, and the micronucleus test in CD-1 mice. All three assays showed no significant results due to β-carotene from Y. lipolytica. In a subchronic toxicity study in SD rats, β-carotene from Y. lipolytica was administered by oral gavage for 13weeks at 0, 125, 250 or 500mg/kg per day. Adverse effects were not observed following clinical, clinical pathology and gross- and histopathological evaluations of dosed rats; thus, the no-observed-adverse effect level (NOAEL) for β-carotene from Y. lipolytica was 500mg/kg, the highest dose used in the study. In conclusion, β-carotene derived from Y. lipolytica was shown in genotoxicity models and a standard rat subchronic rat study to have a safety profile similar to that of the current commercial products (synthetic and natural) with no unexpected finding attributable to the alternative source.

  20. Plasma retinol, carotene and vitamin E concentrations and lung function in a crocidolite-exposed cohort from Wittenoom, Western Australia: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosini Gina

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased rates of death from asbestos related diseases have been reported for people previously employed in the mining and milling operations at Wittenoom (Western Australia, and people who lived in the nearby town, where they were environmentally exposed to crocidolite. Methods Annual measurements of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC and plasma concentrations of retinol, carotene and vitamin E have been made since 1992. Mixed effects models were used to examine the associations between lung function and the plasma vitamin levels of retinol, carotene and vitamin E. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, higher plasma retinol and carotene concentrations were significantly associated with higher levels of lung function at entry into the study, while vitamin E concentrations were associated with lower entry lung function. Retinol was associated with a less steep decline of lung function over time, while carotene concentrations were associated with an increased decline of lung function over time and vitamin E levels were not associated with changes of lung function over time. Conclusion These results support a beneficial relationship between plasma concentrations of retinol on the levels and rates of change of lung function, while showing no such consistent beneficial effect for plasma levels of beta-carotene or vitamin E.

  1. Statement on the safety of ?-carotene use in heavy smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Following a request by the European Commission the Scientific Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS was asked to conclude on the possible link between the ingestion of β-carotene and cancer enhancement in heavy smokers. The safety of (synthetic β-carotene [E 160a (ii] has been evaluated previously by JECFA (1975 and by the SCF (2000a.  In 2000, the SCF concluded that there were insufficient data to set a precise figure for a Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL of β-carotene (SCF, 2000b. Unexpectedly, two independent trials revealed that heavy smokers (at least 1 package/day for 36 years on average receiving long-term β-carotene (20 mg/day supplementation or β-carotene (30 mg/day + retinol (25 000 International Unit (IU vitamin A supplementation, showed increased rather than decreased incidences of lung cancer. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT demonstrated absence of any protective effect associated with β-carotene supplementation with regard to cancer risk. Epidemiological studies reported no increased lung cancer incidence in heavy smokers at supplemental dose levels of β-carotene varying from 6 – 15 mg/day for about 5 up to 7 years. The Panel concluded that exposure to β-carotene from its use as food additive and as food supplement at a level below 15 mg/day do not give rise to concerns about adverse health effects in the general population, including heavy smokers.

  2. β-Carotene and its cleavage enzyme β-carotene-15,15′-oxygenase (CMOI) affect retinoid metabolism in developing tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Youn-Kyung; Wassef, Lesley; Chung, Stacey; Jiang, Hongfeng; Wyss, Adrian; Blaner, William S.; Quadro, Loredana

    2011-01-01

    The mammalian embryo relies on maternal circulating retinoids (vitamin A derivatives) for development. β-Carotene is the major human dietary provitamin A. β-Carotene-15,15′-oxygenase (CMOI) has been proposed as the main enzyme generating retinoid from β-carotene in vivo. CMOI is expressed in embryonic tissues, suggesting that β-carotene provides retinoids locally during development. We performed loss of CMOI function studies in mice lacking retinol-binding protein (RBP), an established model ...

  3. Mammalian Metabolism of β-Carotene: Gaps in Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Shete

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available β-carotene is the most abundant provitamin A carotenoid in human diet and tissues. It exerts a number of beneficial functions in mammals, including humans, owing to its ability to generate vitamin A as well as to emerging crucial signaling functions of its metabolites. Even though β-carotene is generally considered a safer form of vitamin A due to its highly regulated intestinal absorption, detrimental effects have also been ascribed to its intake, at least under specific circumstances. A better understanding of the metabolism of β-carotene is still needed to unequivocally discriminate the conditions under which it may exert beneficial or detrimental effects on human health and thus to enable the formulation of dietary recommendations adequate for different groups of individuals and populations worldwide. Here we provide a general overview of the metabolism of this vitamin A precursor in mammals with the aim of identifying the gaps in knowledge that call for immediate attention. We highlight the main questions that remain to be answered in regards to the cleavage, uptake, extracellular and intracellular transport of β-carotene as well as the interactions between the metabolism of β-carotene and that of other macronutrients such as lipids.

  4. Genetically engineered rice. The source of β-carotene

    OpenAIRE

    Karol Terlecki; Paulina Chwil; Jan Sobstyl; Paulina Sobstyl; Lidia Kotuła

    2014-01-01

    β-carotene is a precursor of vitamin A. It is converted to vitamin A in the humans intestine by the β-carotene-15,15’-monooxygenase. Vitamin A is essential to support vision, as an antioxidant it protects the body from free radicals, it helps to integrate the immune system, as well as takes part in cellular differentiation and proliferation. Vitamin A deficiency is a major public health problem especially among developing countries. Nyctalopia, commonly known as „Night Blindness” is one of th...

  5. α-Carotene and β-Carotene Content in Raw and Cooked Pulp of Three Mature Stage Winter Squash “Type Butternut”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Zaccari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Winter squash “type butternut” is harvested in physiological ripening for better commercial distribution, when sensory and/or nutritional quality is not optimum for consumption. The objective of this study was to quantify the content of α-carotene, β-carotene, color and dry matter in the pulp of raw and microwave-cooked winter squash “type butternut” (variety CosmoF1 in three states of commercial maturity. Immature, mature, and very mature fruit, defined at the time of the harvest by the percentage of orange peel and green stalk, were evaluated. The highest concentration of carotenes (α-carotene + β-carotene in mg.100 g−1 pulp wet basis was found in very mature fruits (31.96 mg, followed by mature fruits (24.65 mg, and immature fruits (18.82 mg. Microwave cooking caused the loss of β-carotene (28.6% wet basis and α-carotene (34.1%. Cooking promote a greater reduction of α-carotene in immature (40.3% and mature (34.5% fruits. The ratio of β-carotene and α-carotene content increased with commercial maturity from 0.93 for immature fruits to 1.0 for very mature fruit, with higher ratio in cooked pulp (1.04 vs. raw pulp (0.96.

  6. ß-carotene conversion products and their effects on adipose tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tourniaire, F.; Gouranton, E.; Lintig, von J.; Keijer, J.; Bonet, M.L.; Amengual, J.; Lietz, G.; Landrier, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Recent epidemiological data suggest that ß-carotene may be protective against metabolic diseases in which adipose tissue plays a key role. Adipose tissue constitutes the major ß-carotene storage tissue and its functions have been shown to be modulated in response to ß-carotene breakdown products, es

  7. Avaliação da atividade antioxidante utilizando sistema beta-caroteno/ácido linoléico e método de seqüestro de radicais DPPH• Evaluation of the antioxidant activity using the b-carotene/linoleic acid system and the DPPH scavenging method

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquim Maurício Duarte-Almeida; Ricardo José dos Santos; Maria Inês Genovese; Franco Maria Lajolo

    2006-01-01

    A atividade antioxidante de extratos de frutas (acerola, amora, açaí e morango) e compostos puros foi avaliada por meio de dois métodos: sistema beta-caroteno/ácido linoléico e método de seqüestro de radicais livres (DPPH• - 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazila). As metodologias foram previamente adaptadas para a realização em microplacas, de forma a reduzir a quantidade de reagentes e amostras necessárias, aumentar o número de análises simultâneas e permitir a automatização das leituras de absorbân...

  8. Bioavailability and bioefficacy of [beta]-carotene measured using 13C-labeled [beta]-carotene and retinol; studies in Indonesian children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, van M.

    2001-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is a serious health problem in many developing countries. Improved vitamin A status can reduce morbidity and mortality by one-third in developing countries. Vitamin A occurs in food as preformed vitamin A (retinol), present in animal foods and breastmilk, and as provitamin A car

  9. Lycopene inhibits the isomerization of β-carotene during quenching of singlet oxygen and free radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Thomas; Heinz, Philipp; Glomb, Marcus A

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the influence of singlet oxygen and radical species on the isomerization of carotenoids. On the one hand, lycopene and β-carotene standards were incubated with 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene-1,4-endoperoxide that produced singlet oxygen in situ. (13Z)- and (15Z)-β-carotene were preferentially generated at low concentrations of singlet oxygen, while high concentrations resulted in formation of (9Z)-β-carotene. The addition of different concentrations of lycopene led to the same isomerization progress of β-carotene, but resulted in a decreased formation of (9Z)-β-carotene and retarded degradation of (all-E)-β-carotene. On the other hand, isomerization of β-carotene and lycopene was induced by ABTS-radicals, too. As expected from the literature, chemical quenching was observed especially for lycopene, while physical quenching was preferred for β-carotene. Mixtures of β-carotene and lycopene resulted in a different isomerization progress compared to the separate β-carotene model. As long as lycopene was present, almost no isomerization of β-carotene was triggered; after that, strong formation of (13Z)-, (9Z)-, and (15Z)-β-carotene was initiated. In summary, lycopene protected β-carotene against isomerization during reactions with singlet oxygen and radicals. These findings can explain the pattern of carotenoid isomers analyzed in fruits and vegetables, where lycopene containing samples showed higher (all-E)/(9Z)-β-carotene ratios, and also in in vivo samples such as human blood plasma.

  10. Stability of β-carotene in polyethylene oxide electrospun nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinado, I.; Mason, M.; Romano, A.; Biasioli, F.; Scampicchio, M.

    2016-05-01

    β-carotene (βc) was successfully incorporated into electrospun nanofibers of poly-(ethylene oxide) (PEO) with the aim of prolonging its shelf life and thermal stability. The physical and thermal properties of the βc-PEO-nanofibers were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), color analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The nanofibers of PEO and βc-PEO exhibited average fiber diameters of 320 ± 46 and 230 ± 21 nm, with colorimetric coordinates L* = 95.7 ± 2.4 and 89.4 ± 4.6 and b* = -0.5 ± 0.1 and 6.2 ± 3.0 respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis coupled with Proton Transfer-Mass Spectroscopy (TGA/PTR-ms) demonstrated that coated βc inside PEO nanofibers increased thermal stability when compared to standard βc in powder form. In addition, β-carotene in the membranes showed higher stability during storage when compared with β-carotene in solution with a decrease in concentration of 57 ± 4% and 70 ± 2% respectively, thus should extend the shelf life of this compound. Also, TGA coupled with PTR-MS resulted in a promising technique to online-monitoring thermal degradation.

  11. Mapeo genético y análisis de QTL para carotenos en una población s1 de yuca Genetic mapping and QTL analysis for carotenes in a s1 population of cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alberto Marín Colorado

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La población S1 de la variedad tailandesa de yuca MTAi8 (AM320, la cual presenta patrones de segregación definidos para el contenido de carotenos totales (Beta-caroteno, se sometió a un análisis de agrupamiento segregante (BSA = Bulk Segregant Analysis empleando 700 marcadores moleculares tipo microsatélites o SSR. Se generaron 25 grupos de ligamiento identificando 3 QTL mayores asociados con una región del genoma de yuca con el contenido de carotenos totales. Tres marcadores SSR explicaron el 37.2% (NS109, 32% (rSSRY251 y 27.7% (rSSRY313 de la varianza fenotipica total, situados en el grupo de ligamiento D fuertemente asociados con el contenido de carotenos totales en la familia AM320 S1, se estableció una fuerte correlación positiva entre color de pulpa de raíz y contenido de carotenos totales (r=0.81, y negativa entre carotenos totales y materia seca (r= -0.31. Los tres posibles QTL presentaron efecto positivo y de carácter aditivo para el contenido de carotenos totales, pueden ser la oportunidad para implementar selección asistida por marcadores para carotenos totales en yuca.The S1 population of the Thai variety MTAi8 (AM320, which shows patterns of segregation defined by the content of total carotenes (beta-carotene, underwent an analysis of segregating bulk (BSA = Bulk segregating Analysis using 700 molecular markers type microsatellites or SSR. There were generated 25 tying groups and identifying 3 major QTLs associated with a region of the genome of cassava with the content of total carotenes. Three markers SSR; explained the 37.2% (NS109, 32% (rSSRY251 and 27.7% (rSSRY313 of the total phenotypic variance, placed in the Group D strongly tying, associated with the content of total carotenes in the family AM320 S1, which established a strong positive correlation between color and content root pulp carotenes total (r = 0.81, and between negative and carotenes total dry matter (r = -0.31. The three possible QTLs showed positive

  12. Improved Method for the Qualitative Analyses of Palm Oil Carotenes Using UPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Mei Han; Choo, Yuen May

    2016-04-01

    Palm oil is the richest source of natural carotenes, comprising 500-700 ppm in crude palm oil (CPO). Its concentration is found to be much higher in oil extracted from palm-pressed fiber, a by-product from the milling of oil palm fruits. There are 11 types of carotenes in palm oil, excluding the cis/trans isomers of some of the carotenes. Qualitative separation of these individual carotenes is particularly useful for the identification and confirmation of different types of oil as the carotenes profile is unique to each type of vegetable oil. Previous studies on HPLC separation of the individual palm carotenes reported a total analyses time of up to 100 min using C30 stationary phase. In this study, the separation was completed in <5 min. The qualitative separation was successfully carried out using a commonly used stationary phase, C18. PMID:26941414

  13. Improved Method for the Qualitative Analyses of Palm Oil Carotenes Using UPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Mei Han; Choo, Yuen May

    2016-04-01

    Palm oil is the richest source of natural carotenes, comprising 500-700 ppm in crude palm oil (CPO). Its concentration is found to be much higher in oil extracted from palm-pressed fiber, a by-product from the milling of oil palm fruits. There are 11 types of carotenes in palm oil, excluding the cis/trans isomers of some of the carotenes. Qualitative separation of these individual carotenes is particularly useful for the identification and confirmation of different types of oil as the carotenes profile is unique to each type of vegetable oil. Previous studies on HPLC separation of the individual palm carotenes reported a total analyses time of up to 100 min using C30 stationary phase. In this study, the separation was completed in <5 min. The qualitative separation was successfully carried out using a commonly used stationary phase, C18.

  14. Biosynthesis of β-carotene in engineered E. coli using the MEP and MVA pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jianming; Guo, Lizhong

    2014-01-01

    Background β-carotene is a carotenoid compound that has been widely used not only in the industrial production of pharmaceuticals but also as nutraceuticals, animal feed additives, functional cosmetics, and food colorants. Currently, more than 90% of commercial β-carotene is produced by chemical synthesis. Due to the growing public concern over food safety, the use of chemically synthesized β-carotene as food additives or functional cosmetic agents has been severely controlled in recent years...

  15. 9-cis -carotene Inhibits Atherosclerosis Development in Female LDLR-/- Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Zolberg Relevy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several epidemiological studies have shown that diets rich in carotenoids are associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, administration of synthetic all-trans -carotene was reported to have no effect on cardiovascular disease. We previously showed that the 9-cis -carotene-rich powder of the alga Dunaliella bardawil inhibits atherogenesis and reduces plasma non-HDL cholesterol levels in mice. Context and purpose of this study: We sought to study whether isolated 9-cis -carotene inhibits atherogenesis in a murine model of atherosclerosis. Results: Twelve-week-old female LDL receptor knockout mice (LDLR-/- were pretreated for 2 weeks with regular chow diet fortified with the alga Dunaliella powder, 9-cis β-carotene isomer, all-trans β-carotene isomer, or 9-cis retinoic acid, followed by 10 weeks of a high-fat diet with the same fortifications. In contrast to Dunaliella, 9-cis β-carotene did not inhibit the high fat dietinduced elevation of plasma cholesterol. In addition, diet fortification with Dunaliella powder, β-carotene isomers, or 9-cis retinoic acid did not change the plasma retinol or retinoic acid levels.Nevertheless, 9-cis β-carotene significantly inhibited atherogenesis compared to the control mice (39% reduction. Conclusions: The results suggest that 9-cis β-carotene should be considered as an antiatherogenic agent in the human diet

  16. 21 CFR 73.90 - β-Apo-8′-carotenal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... is β-apo-8′-carotenal. (2) Color additive mixtures for food use made with β-apo-8′-carotenal may... solid or semisolid food or 15 milligrams per pint of liquid food. (2) It may not be used to color...

  17. Waste cooking oil: A new substrate for carotene production by Blakeslea trispora in submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanou, Konstantina; Roukas, Triantafyllos

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a waste, waste cooking oil (WCO) as substrate for carotene production by Blakeslea trispora in shake flask culture. WCO was found to be a useful substrate for carotene production. B. trispora formed only pellets during fermentation. The oxidative stress in B. trispora induced by hydroperoxides and BHT as evidenced by increase of the specific activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) increased significantly the production of carotenes. The highest concentration of carotenes (2021 ± 75 mg/l or 49.3 ± 0.2 mg/g dry biomass) was obtained in culture grown in WCO (50.0 g/l) supplemented with CSL (80.0 g/l) and BHT (4.0 g/l). In this case the carotenes produced consisted of β-carotene (74.2%), γ-carotene (23.2%), and lycopene (2.6%). The external addition in the above medium glucose, Span 80, yeast extract, casein acid hydrolysate, l-asparagine, thiamine. HCl, KH2PO4, and MgSO4·7H2O did not improve the production of carotenes. PMID:26724551

  18. Content of carotene and vitamins of antioxidant action in animals on the radionuclide contaminated territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A significant lack of carotene and vitamins of antioxidant action was revealed in the animals kept for 5 months on the radionuclide contaminated territory and fed by the diet of local production. The intensity of the lipids peroxidation process was lowered and the carotene, tocopherol, retinol and ascorbate levels were normalized by the antioxidant complex vitamins introduction. 11 refs., 3 tabs

  19. Efeito de baixas doses de irradiação nos carotenóides majoritários em cenouras prontas para o consumo Effect of low doses of irradiation on the carotenoids in read-to-eat carrots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keila S. Cople Lima

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito das baixas doses da radiação gama na concentração de carotenóides totais, alfa e beta-caroteno em cenouras minimamente processadas, durante a vida-útil. As cenouras são as principais fontes de carotenóides provitamínicos A (alfa e beta-caroteno de origem vegetal. De acordo com a Pesquisa de Orçamento Familiar (POF realizada na região Sudeste do Brasil, no grupo de raízes e tubérculos a cenoura é amplamente consumida. A estabilidade dos carotenóides varia grandemente durante o processamento e o armazenamento, dependendo de sua estrutura, temperatura, oxigênio, luz, umidade, atividade de água e presença de ácidos e metais antioxidantes e pró-oxidantes. As cenouras minimamente processadas neste experimento foram manualmente descascadas, lavadas, cortadas mecanicamente, acondicionadas em embalagens com atmosferas modificadas de 5% O2 / 10% CO2 e 21% O2 (ar sintético, tratadas com radiação ionizante gama, fonte de césio, nas doses de 0,25, 0,50, 0,75 e 1,00kGy, e armazenadas a 5°C durante 24 dias. Os carotenóides totais foram quantificados por espectrofotometria a 449nm. Para a determinação de alfa e beta-caroteno utilizou-se cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE. Os diferentes tratamentos e o grupo controle foram, também, avaliados através das análises de cor e voláteis, por cromatografia gasosa/espectrometria de massas associada à microextração em fase sólida (CG-EM/MEFS, para estudar as perdas dos carotenóides durante o processamento.This study aims was to evaluate the effect of low doses of gamma radiation on the total carotenoids, alpha and beta-carotene content in minimally processed carrots, during the shelflife. Carrots are the mains vegetable source of carotenoids provitamin A (alpha and beta-carotene. According to the Family Budget Survey (FBS carried out in the Brazilian Southeast, within the roots and tubers group, carrots are widely

  20. Ultratraces of carotenes in tomato purées: HPLC-TLS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luterotti, S.; Marković, K.; Franko, M.; Bicanic, D.; Vahčić, N.; Doka, O.

    2003-01-01

    The present study was designed to provide information about (i) the profile of carotene pigments and (ii) trace quantities of lycopene and β-carotene left in tomato purées. The ultrasensitive method comprising HPLC and thermal lens spectrometric (TLS) detection enabled us to detect as low as 0.3 and 1.1 ng ml-1 lycopene and β-carotene in purée extracts, respectively. Total concentration of β-carotene and lycopene (varying from 3 to 170 ng g-1) in the examined tomato purées may serve as an indicator of the carotene-specific antioxidative capacity of these products. Although conventional spectrophotometry can be used to rapidly assess the quality of products derived from tomatoes, a highly sensitive and selective method such as HPLC-TLS is needed for reliable analyses of samples such as, for example, those subjected to inappropriate storage and/or handling.

  1. Mutation Breeding of β-carotene Producing Strain B. trispora by Low Energy Ion Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ning; Yu Long

    2009-01-01

    Ion beam bioengineering technology as a new mutation approach has been widely used in the biological breeding field.In this paper the application of low energy nitrogen ion implantation in the β-carotene producing strain,Blakeslea trispora(-)was investigated. The efflects of difflerent fermentation conditions on β-carotene production by a high yield strain were examined.Results showed that two β-carotene high yielding strains B.trispora(-)BH3-701 and BH3-728 were screened out and the averaged production of β-carotene was raised by 178.7%and 164.6%respectively after five passages in the shaking flasks.Compared with the original strain, the highest yield strain BH3-701 was potent in accumulating fl-carotene·especiallY in the later stage,and greatly increased production efficiency.

  2. beta-carotene does not change markers of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant activity in human blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castenmiller, J.J.M.; Lauridsen, Søren T.; Dragsted, Lars O.;

    1999-01-01

    In vitamin A-replete populations, increased concentrations of serum carotenoids have been associated with a decreased risk of degenerative diseases. The mechanism of action of carotenoids in determining antioxidant activity is largely unknown. The aim of the study was to examine the effect...... of carotenoid supplementation and spinach intake on erythrocyte enzyme antioxidant activities, serum or plasma nonenzymatic antioxidant concentrations, and concentrations of oxidatively damaged amino acids in plasma; Subjects received for 3 wk a basic diet (n = 10), a basic diet with a carotenoid supplement (n...... and erythrocyte enzyme activities were assessed, and differences among experimental groups were tested. Consumption of spinach resulted in greater (P activity and lower (P activity and serum alpha-tocopherol concentration compared...

  3. An investigation of anti-oxidant properties of salvia, conducting beta-carotene bleaching assay

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjbar, Fatemeh; ABEDPOUR, Marziyeh; ABDOSHEIKHI, Meysam; AHMADI, Elmira; ABEDI, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Due to the large amount of oils, Salvia (officinalis species) has always been one of the most popular medicinal plants used in traditional medicine. In this theses, the aerial parts of the plant Salvia officinalis were collected from greenhouses of Shiraz city and dried in shade for 15 days. Its essential oil was extracted using Clevenger method and analyzed using Gas Chromatography –Mass Spectrometer. Twenty compound was analyzed in the essential oil of salvia as the main compounds...

  4. The role of oxidative stress on carotene production by Blakeslea trispora in submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roukas, Triantafyllos

    2016-01-01

    In aerobic metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are formed during the fermentation that can cause oxidative stress in microorganisms. Microbial cells possess both enzymatic and non-enzymatic defensive systems that may protect cells from oxidative damage. The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase are the two key defensive enzymes to oxidative stress. The factors that induce oxidative stress in microorganisms include butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), hydrogen peroxide, metal ions, dissolved oxygen tension, elevated temperature, menadione, junglone, paraquat, liquid paraffin, introduction to bioreactors of shake flask inocula and synthetic medium sterilized at initial pH 11.0. Carotenes are highly unsaturated isoprene derivatives. They are used as antioxidants and as coloring agents for food products. In fungi, carotenes are derived via the mevalonate biosynthesis pathway. The key genes in carotene biosynthesis are hmgR, ipi, isoA, carG, carRA and carB. Among microorganisms, Βlakeslea trispora is the main microorganism used for the production of carotenes on the industrial scale. Currently, the synthetic medium is considered the superior substrate for the production of carotenes in a pilot plant scale. The fermentation systems used for the production of carotenes include shake flasks, stirred tank fermentor, bubble column reactor and flat panel photobioreactor. This review summarizes the oxidative stresses in microorganisms and it is focused on the current status of carotene production by B. trispora including oxidative stress induced by BHT, enhanced dissolved oxygen levels, iron ions, liquid paraffin and synthetic medium sterilized at an initial pH 11.0. The oxidative stress induced by the above factors increases significantly the production of carotenes. However, to further reduce the cost of carotene production, new biotechnological methods with higher productivity still need to be explored. PMID:25600464

  5. [Preparation and stability of β-carotene loaded using mesoporous silica nanoparticles as carriers system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Ren, Zhi-hui; Wang, Hai-yuan; Jin, Xing-hua

    2015-09-01

    1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene (1,3,5-TMB) was used as the pore-enlarging modifier to expand the pore size of MCM-41 (mobil company of matter) mesoporous silica nanoparticles. The solvent impregnation method was adopted to assemble non-water-soluble β-carotene into the pore channel of MCM-41. The MCM-41 and drug assemblies were characterized by TEM, FT-IR, elemental analysis and N2 adsorption-desorption. The results showed that MCM-41 has good sphericity and regular pore structure. The research also investigated the optimal loading time, the drug loading and the vitro stability of the β-carotene. As a drug carrier, the modified MCM-41 showing a shorter drug loading time, the drug loading as high as 85.58% and the stability of β-carotene in drug assemblies has improved. The study of this new formulation provides a new way for β-carotene application. PMID:26983203

  6. 9-cis -carotene Inhibits Atherosclerosis Development in Female LDLR-/- Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Noa Zolberg Relevy; Ralph Rühl; Ayelet Harari; Itamar Grosskopf; Iris Barshack; Ami Ben-Amotz; Uri Nir; Hugo Gottlieb; Yehuda Kamari; Dror Harats; Aviv Shaish

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several epidemiological studies have shown that diets rich in carotenoids are associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, administration of synthetic all-trans -carotene was reported to have no effect on cardiovascular disease. We previously showed that the 9-cis -carotene-rich powder of the alga Dunaliella bardawil inhibits atherogenesis and reduces plasma non-HDL cholesterol levels in mice. Context and purpose of this study: We sought to study...

  7. Physicochemical properties of β-carotene emulsions stabilized by chlorogenic acid-lactoferrin-glucose/polydextrose conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuguo; Wang, Di; Xu, Honggao; Sun, Cuixia; Gao, Yanxiang

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the influence of chlorogenic acid (CA)-lactoferrin (LF)-glucose (Glc) conjugate and CA-LF-polydextrose (PD) conjugate on the physicochemical characteristics of β-carotene emulsions was investigated. Novel emulsifiers were formed during Maillard reaction between CA-LF conjugate and Glc/PD. The physicochemical properties of β-carotene emulsions were characterized by droplet size, ζ-potential, rheological behavior, transmission changes during centrifugal sedimentation and β-carotene degradation. Results showed that the covalent attachment of Glc or PD to CA-LF conjugate effectively increased the hydrophilicity of the oil droplets surfaces and strengthened the steric repulsion between the oil droplets. Glucose was better than polydextrose for the conjugation with CA-LF conjugate to stabilize β-carotene emulsions. In comparison with LF and CA-LF-Glc/PD mixtures, CA-LF-Glc/PD ternary conjugates exhibited better emulsifying properties and improved physical stability of β-carotene emulsions during the freeze-thaw treatment. In addition, CA-LF-Glc/PD conjugates significantly enhanced chemical stability of β-carotene in the emulsions against ultraviolet light exposure. PMID:26593499

  8. β-Carotene Supplementation Decreases Placental Transcription of LDL Receptor-Related Protein 1 in Wild-Type Mice and Stimulates Placental β-Carotene Uptake in Marginally Vitamin A-Deficient Mice123

    OpenAIRE

    Wassef, Lesley; Shete, Varsha; Hong, Alice; Spiegler, Elizabeth; Quadro, Loredana

    2012-01-01

    The human diet contains β-carotene as the most abundant precursor of vitamin A, an essential nutrient for embryogenesis. Our laboratory previously showed the importance of β-carotene metabolism via β-carotene-15,15′-oxygenase (CMOI) to support mouse embryonic development. However, the mechanisms regulating embryonic acquisition and utilization of β-carotene from the maternal circulation via placenta remain unknown. We used wild-type (WT) and Lrat−/−Rbp−/− (L−/−R−/−) mice, the latter being a m...

  9. Teores de carotenóides em mamão e pêssego determinados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência Carotenoid levels in papaya and peach determined by high performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Andriati Sentanin

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Os carotenóides são pigmentos naturais, responsáveis pela cor em muitos alimentos como frutas e vegetais, gema de ovo, pele e músculo de alguns peixes. Porém, sua importância também está relacionada a funções ou ações biológicas nos seres humanos, como atividade pró-vitamínica A, fortalecimento do sistema imunológico, diminuição do risco de doenças degenerativas como câncer, doenças cardiovasculares, degeneração macular e catarata. A determinação da composição de carotenóides em alimentos, portanto, é considerada prioritária mundialmente. O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar quantitativamente, por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, os principais carotenóides presentes em três cultivares de mamão (Formosa, Golden e Sunrise e três cultivares de pêssego (Xiripá, Coral e Diamante. Para cada cultivar, foram analisados cinco lotes durante o ano para mamão e durante a safra para pêssego. Os três cultivares de mamão apresentaram composição parecida com as médias dos conteúdos totais de licopeno, beta-criptoxantina e beta-caroteno variando de 18,5 a 23,9, 8,2 a 11,7 e 0,5 a 1,2 µg.g -1, respectivamente. Em relação ao pêssego, os cultivares Coral e Xiripá tiveram níveis muito baixos de carotenóides. O cultivar Diamante teve um teor total médio de 6,4 µg.g -1 de beta-criptoxantina, o carotenóide principal.Carotenoids are natural pigments responsible for the color of many foods such as fruit, vegetables, egg yolk, skin and the flesh of some fish. However, its importance is also related to biological functions or actions in humans, such as the provitamin A activity, enhancement of the immune system, reduction of the risk of degenerative diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, macular degeneration and cataract. The determination of the carotenoid composition of foods is therefore considered a priority worldwide. The objective of the present study was to analyze quantitatively, by

  10. Luminescence property and lowest excited singlet state level of various carotenes; Shuju no karochinrui no hako tokusei to saitei reiki -juko jotai jun'i

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, T. [Miyagi Midical Univ., Miyagi (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    Specification of the lowest excited singlet state (S{sub l}) of the butadiene which is the simplest {pi} electron conjugated system molecule has not sufficiently clarified at present. Recently, Andersson et al. found the weak light emission which was considered to be the S{sub 1} fluorescence in a near infrared region in a room temperature solution of {beta}- carotene (n=11), and specified the S{sub 1} level in 14,200{+-}500cm {sup -1}. And, Fujii et al. reported the S{sub 1} fluorescence of spheroidine (n=10). In very recent, Christensen et al. measured the comparatively clear fluorescence spectrum of carotenes n=5 to 11 separated by HPLC in EPA glass at 77K, and systematically examined the unique luminescence property observed in polyene. Christensen et al. issued the warning for the rough conventional method that the S{sub 1} level was estimated from the S{sub 1} fluorescence lifetime of the polyene molecule using the comprehensive energy gap law, because the ratio of quantum yield of the S{sub 1} and S{sub 2} fluorescence is different by the substituent type of the polyene end even if n is same. (NEDO)

  11. Carotenóides: uma possível proteção contra o desenvolvimento de câncer Carotenoids: a possible protection against cancer development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio da Silva Gomes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute as possibilidades de proteção contra o desenvolvimento do câncer, proporcionadas por carotenóides provenientes da alimentação, com base em uma revisão da literatura. Os carotenóides têm demonstrado uma ação protetora contra a carcinogênese, tanto em estudos in vitro como in vivo, com animais e humanos. Entre eles, a beta-criptoxantina, a fucoxantina, a astaxantina, a capsantina, a crocetina e o fitoeno, têm sido pouco explorados, e a literatura ainda se mostra extremamente limitada e pouco conclusiva. Estudos experimentais com humanos demonstraram não haver efeito, ou efeito reverso, do beta-caroteno, no entanto, não incluíram anteriormente variáveis intervenientes e interativas que deveriam ter sido controladas. A partir da evidência científica, baseada em estudos epidemiológicos e ensaios experimentais recentes, e da elucidação dos mecanismos de atuação de fitoquímicos relacionados à maior proteção contra o câncer, conclui-se que a alimentação rica em carotenóides provenientes das frutas, legumes e verduras, representa um possível fator de proteção contra o desenvolvimento do câncer.This study is a literature review that discusses the likelihood of dietary carotenoids offering protection against cancer. Carotenoids have been demonstrating a protective action against carcinogenesis both in vitro and in vivo, in animals and humans. Among them, beta-cryptoxanthin, fucoxanthin, astaxanthin, capsanthin, crocetin and phytoene have been little explored and literature is still very lacking and little conclusive. Experimental studies with humans have shown beta-carotene to have no effect or reverse effect; however, they have never included intervenient and interactive variables that should have been controlled. Scientific evidence based on epidemiological studies and recent experimental assays and the elucidation of phytochemical activity mechanisms associated with greater protection against

  12. Zein based oil-in-glycerol emulgels enriched with β-carotene as margarine alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Wei; Fu, Shi-Yao; Hou, Jun-Jie; Guo, Jian; Wang, Jin-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Quan

    2016-11-15

    Structuring edible oils into solid lipids without saturated and trans fats has attracted increasing interest due to the benefits for human health and promises potential as novel delivery systems for lipophilic bioactive ingredients. The study shows that a zein stabilized high (ϕ=0.6) oil-in-glycerol (O/G) emulgels enriched with β-carotene was performed, by a facile one-step homogenization. Rheological measurements and morphologies observations indicated that increasing β-carotene resulted in a progressive strengthening of gel-like network and improving their spreadability in the O/G emulgels stabilized by zein, which was closely related to the hydrophobic interaction of zein and β-carotene. The formation of emulgels significantly enhanced the UV photo-stability of β-carotene, and more than 88% of β-carotene was retained in 64h storage under UV exposure, and consequently retarded oil oxidation while storage. Further, cakes prepared using zein-based O/G emulgels as a margarine alternative showed comparable functionalities (texture and sensory attributes) to the standard cake. PMID:27283703

  13. Temperature dependence of aggregated structure of β-carotene by absorption spectral experiment and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Liping; Wu, Jie; Wei, Liangshu; Wu, Fang

    2016-12-01

    β-carotene can self-assemble to form J- or H-type aggregate in hydrophilic environments, which is crucial for the proper functioning of biological system. Although several ways controlling the formation of the two types of aggregate in hydrated ethanol have been investigated in recent years, our study provided another way to control whether J- or H- β-carotene was formed and presented a method to investigate the aggregated structure. For this purpose, the aggregates of β-carotene formed at different temperatures were studied by UV-Vis spectra and a computational method based on Frenkel exciton was applied to simulate the absorption spectra to obtain the aggregated structure of the β-carotene. The analysis showed that β-carotene formed weakly coupled H-aggregate at 15°C in 1:1 ethanol-water solvent, and with the increase of temperature it tended to form J-type of aggregate. The absorption spectral simulation based on one-dimensional Frenkel exciton model revealed that good fit with the experiment was obtained with distance between neighbor molecules r=0.82nm, disorder of the system D=1500cm(-1) for H-type and r=1.04nm, D=1800cm(-1) for J-type. PMID:27348046

  14. The challenge to reach nutritional adequacy for vitamin A: β-carotene bioavailability and conversion--evidence in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Marjorie J

    2012-11-01

    β-Carotene is an important dietary source of vitamin A for humans. However, the bioavailability and vitamin A equivalency of β-carotene are highly variable and can be affected by food- and diet-related factors, including the food matrix, food-processing techniques, size of the dose of β-carotene, and the amounts of dietary fat, fiber, vitamin A, and other carotenoids in the diet as well as by characteristics of the target population, such as vitamin A status, nutrient deficiencies, gut integrity, and genetic polymorphisms associated with β-carotene metabolism. The absorption of β-carotene from plant sources ranges from 5% to 65% in humans. Vitamin A equivalency ratios for β-carotene to vitamin A from plant sources range from 3.8:1 to 28:1, by weight. Vitamin A equivalency ratios for β-carotene from biofortified Golden Rice or biofortified maize are 3.8:1 and 6.5:1, respectively, and are lower than ratios for vegetables that have more complex food matrices (10:1 to 28:1). The vitamin A equivalency of β-carotene is likely to be context-specific and dependent on specific food- and diet-related factors and the health, nutritional, and genetic characteristics of human populations. Although the vitamin A equivalency of β-carotene is highly variable, the provision of vegetable and fruit sources of β-carotene has significantly increased vitamin A status in women and children in community settings in developing countries; these results support the inclusion of dietary interventions with plant sources of β-carotene as a strategy for increasing vitamin A status in populations at risk of deficiency. PMID:23053560

  15. β-carotene losses due to handling and cooking in Kenyan leafy vegetables connote no comparative nutritional superiority over kales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oiye, Shadrack O; Oniang'o, Ruth K; Shiundu, Kennedy

    2016-01-01

    African leafy vegetables (ALVs) are known to be high in β-carotene content and are preferred over kales due to this nutritional superiority. Ten different vegetables were collected from farm and market locations and analyzed for β-carotene content. Cooked vegetables (in single or in combination) as well as solar dried samples were prepared by the community members in the study area in the usual way and without any instruction or conditions given. β-carotene content was analyzed using a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The results provided new representative β-carotene content of the fresh, marketed, cooked and dried vegetables without controlling or simulating the household handling or processing methods in a laboratory. While edible portions of kales are relatively inferior as a β-carotene source as compare to ALVs when in raw form, this is not the case at market place where kales exhibit comparable level of the β-carotene. As much as 280 μRE/100 g (a dietarily significant amount) can be lost through β-carotene oxidation before farm-fresh ALVs are sold in the market place with the losses severe in some ALVs and only subtle and relatively lower in kales. Post-cooking, kales had statistically comparable β-carotene content to ALVs save for when compared with purple amaranths and blacknight shade. Due to losses experienced in ALVs, kales are not comparatively inferior vegetables in terms of β-carotene content. Measures to prevent β-carotene losses in ALVs between the farm and market, during cooking and drying should be instituted in order to benefit from their high β-carotene content. PMID:27222406

  16. β-carotene protects rats against bronchitis induced by cigarette smoking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞宝森; 王辰; 翁心植; 唐小奈; 张红玉; 牛淑洁; 毛燕玲; 辛平; 黄秀霞; 张海燕; 祝锦

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the protective effects of β-carotene in rats against the development of chronic bronchitis induced by cigarette smoking. Results Long-term cigarette smoking caused an obvious increase in the amount of IL-6, IL-8 and LPO and a sharp decrease in the levels of NO and SOD in smoking animals compared to controls. β-carotene intake reversed all the changes induced by smoking and alleviated the pathological changes caused by chronic bronchitis. Conclusions Quantitative oral intake of β-carotene had protective effects against chronic bronchitis induced by long-term cigarette smoking, which was associated with the increased production of NO, the clearance of some oxidative free radicals (OFR) and the alleviation of chronic inflammation.

  17. Improvement of β-Carotene Bioaccessibility from Dietary Supplements Using Excipient Nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvia-Trujillo, Laura; McClements, David Julian

    2016-06-01

    The influence of excipient nanoemulsions on β-carotene bioaccessibility from commercial dietary supplements (tablets or soft gels) was studied employing an in vitro gastrointestinal tract (GIT) model. Excipient nanoemulsions were formulated from long or medium chain triglycerides (LCT or MCT) to determine the impact of lipid type on carotenoid bioaccessibility. Dietary supplements were tested using the GIT model in the absence or presence of excipient nanoemulsions. β-carotene bioaccessibility from tablets (0.3%) or soft gels (2.4%) was low when tested in isolation. LCT nanoemulsions greatly improved β-carotene bioaccessibility from tablets (20%) and slightly improved it from soft gels (5%), whereas MCT nanoemulsions only slightly improved bioaccessibility. These results were attributed to the ability of large carotenoid molecules to be incorporated into large mixed micelles formed by LCT digestion but not by small ones formed by MCT digestion. Our results indicate that excipient nanoemulsions have considerable potential for improving nutraceutical bioavailability from dietary supplements. PMID:27198626

  18. Vitamin A equivalency and apparent absorption of ß-carotene in ileostomy subjects using a dual-isotope dilution technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, C.A.; Naber, T.H.J.; Breemen, van R.B.; Zhu, D.; Dicke, H.; Siebelink, E.; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Russel, F.G.M.; Schaafsma, G.; West, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to quantify the vitamin A equivalency of ß-carotene in two diets using a dual-isotope dilution technique and the apparent ß-carotene absorption as measured by the oral–faecal balance technique. Seventeen healthy adults with an ileostomy completed the 4-week diet-controlled, cross-o

  19. Supplementation with Red Palm Oil Increases β-Carotene and Vitamin A Blood Levels in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Sommerburg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF show decreased plasma concentrations of antioxidants due to malabsorption of lipid soluble vitamins and consumption by chronic pulmonary inflammation. β-Carotene is a major source of retinol and therefore is of particular significance in CF. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of daily intake of red palm oil (RPO containing high amounts of β-carotene on the antioxidant levels in CF patients. Sixteen subjects were recruited and instructed to enrich their food with 2 to 3 tablespoons of RPO (~1.5 mg of β-carotene daily over 8 weeks. Carotenoids, retinol, and α-tocopherol were measured in plasma at baseline and after intervention. In addition β-carotene, lycopene, α-tocopherol, and vitamin C were measured in buccal mucosa cells (BMC to determine the influence of RPO on antioxidant tissue levels. Eleven subjects completed the study properly. Plasma β-carotene, retinol, and α-carotene of these patients increased, but plasma concentrations of other carotenoids and α-tocopherol as well as concentrations of β-carotene, lycopene, α-tocopherol, and vitamin C in BMC remained unchanged. Since RPO on a daily basis did not show negative side effects the data suggest that RPO may be used to elevate plasma β-carotene in CF.

  20. Maternal serum retinal and β-carotene concentrations and neonatal bone mineralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handel, Mina N.; Moon, Rebecca J.; Titcombe, Philip;

    2016-01-01

    the associations between maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations during late pregnancy and offspring bone mineralization assessed at birth with the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Design: In the Southampton Women’s Survey mother-offspring birth cohort, maternal health, lifestyle, and diet...... were assessed prepregnancy and at 11 and 34 wk of gestation. In late pregnancy, maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations were measured. Offspring total body bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone area (BA) were measured within 2 wk after birth. Results: In total...

  1. A Study for Extraction Kinetics of Β-Carotene from Oven Dried Carrot by Solvent Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Sudipta Das; Saikat Mazumder

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this work was to study the kinetics of the extraction of β-carotene by solvent (ethanol) extraction from carrots dried at 50ºC in an oven. The moisture content after drying was 11±1.5% (dry weight basis). Extraction time was 5 hours and extraction process was carried out at 30ºC. The ratio of Carrot (gm): ethanol (ml) of 1:60 was maintained throughout the extraction process. The experimental data of extracted β- Carotene yield during solvent extraction were mode...

  2. Thermal protection of β-carotene in re-assembled casein micelles during different processing technologies applied in food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáiz-Abajo, María-José; González-Ferrero, Carolina; Moreno-Ruiz, Ana; Romo-Hualde, Ana; González-Navarro, Carlos J

    2013-06-01

    β-Carotene is a carotenoid usually applied in the food industry as a precursor of vitamin A or as a colourant. β-Carotene is a labile compound easily degraded by light, heat and oxygen. Casein micelles were used as nanostructures to encapsulate, stabilise and protect β-carotene from degradation during processing in the food industry. Self-assembly method was applied to re-assemble nanomicelles containing β-carotene. The protective effect of the nanostructures against degradation during the most common industrial treatments (sterilisation, pasteurisation, high hydrostatic pressure and baking) was proven. Casein micelles protected β-carotene from degradation during heat stabilisation, high pressure processing and the processes most commonly used in the food industry including baking. This opens new possibilities for introducing thermolabile ingredients in bakery products.

  3. Efeito do congelamento e do tempo de estocagem da polpa de acerola sobre o teor de carotenóides Effect of freezing and storing time of pulp of acerola on the carotenoid contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia da Silveira Agostini-Costa

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A acerola (Malpighia glabra L. é uma das principais fontes naturais de vitamina C e, também, excelente fonte de carotenóides. O potencial vitamínico destes pigmentos e sua possível associação com o processo de carcinogênese têm despertado grande interesse na química e estabilidade dos carotenóides em alimentos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do processo industrial de congelamento da polpa de acerola, praticado em pequena empresa do município de Fortaleza-CE, visando à manutenção da estabilidade dos carotenóides durante a estocagem da mesma. Os carotenóides foram determinados na polpa recém-processada não congelada (controle e nas polpas congeladas em álcool -20ºC, estocadas por onze meses. Após quatro meses de estocagem, o conteúdo de beta-caroteno da polpa congelada apresentou redução significativa de 20%, em relação ao conteúdo da polpa-controle (7,09 µg/g, sem alteração significativa após esse período. A beta-criptoxantina (1,7µg/g de polpa foi reduzida em 37% após o primeiro mês de estocagem, mantendo estes teores estáveis até o décimo primeiro mês, quando totalizou uma perda de 62%. O alfa-caroteno foi encontrado em pequenas quantidades. Quanto ao potencial vitamínico, a polpa-controle apresentou 1338 UI/100g, correspondendo, aproximadamente, a 25% das recomendações diárias de vitamina A /100g de polpa para uma pessoa adulta. Este potencial foi mantido até o terceiro mês de estocagem, quando houve uma redução de 20%, sem alteração significativa após este período.Acerola (Malpighia glabra L. is one of the main natural sources of vitamin C and is an excellent source of carotenoids. Due to the vitamin potential of carotenoids, and their possible association with the carcinogenesis process, there is an increasing concern of the scientific community about their chemistry and stability in food. The objective of this research was to study the effect of commercial freezing and

  4. Resíduos do beneficiamento do camarão cultivado: obtenção de pigmentos carotenóides Waste from the processing of farmed shrimp: a source of carotenoid pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayoshi Ogawa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A extração de pigmentos carotenóides constitui uma possível alternativa, de grande agregação de valor, para o aproveitamento da cabeça do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi a identificação, a extração e a quantificação dos principais pigmentos desta matéria-prima, coletados a partir de uma planta de beneficiamento de camarão no Ceará - Brasil. Após cocção dos resíduos a 100 °C, na proporção 1:2 cabeça de camarão e água durante 15 minutos, obteve-se uma pasta de pigmentos brutos extraindo-se os carotenóides com acetona resfriada e, posteriormente, com hexano, obtendo a fase pigmento-hexano. Obteve-se também a fase DMSO, após o material ser particionado com dimetilsulfóxido, e uma fração acidificada. Estas frações sofreram evaporação e secagem, sendo os carotenóides identificados em coluna aberta, utilizando-se o parâmetro de eluição das frações, o espectro de absorção visível e o valor de Rf na camada delgada de sílica gel. Os espectros de absorção de cada fração foram obtidos a 350 a 550 nm e quantificados por cromatografia de camada delgada. Para o cálculo de carotenóides totais (37,62 µg.g-1 da pasta de pigmentos, utilizou-se o somatório das frações hexano, DMSO e acidificada, e coeficientes de extinção 2592, 2100 e 1690 referentes ao beta-caroteno, astaxantina e astaceno, respectivamente. A astaxantina foi o pigmento mais abundante (45,5%, seguido do beta-caroteno-5,6-epóxido (33,5% e do astaceno (21,0%.The extraction of carotenoid pigments from shrimp heads left over from the processing of Litopenaeus vannamei has been shown to constitute an economically feasible alternative for aggregating value to shrimp processing waste. The objective of the present study was to extract, identify and quantify the main pigments found in shrimp heads collected at a shrimp processing plant in Ceará (Brazil. Samples were cooked for 15 minutes at 100 °C in water at a

  5. Effect of dissolved inorganic carbon on β-carotene and fatty acid production in Dunaliella sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Ramachandran; Kumar, Velayutham Arumuga; Kumar, Dileep; Ramesh, Nachimuthu; Babu, Subramanian; Gothandam, Kodiveri Muthukalianan

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to explore the effect of sodium bicarbonate (0-200 mM) on the production of β-carotene and lipid content in Dunaliella salina and Dunaliella bardawil. Total carotenoid and chlorophyll content were determined at regular intervals by a UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The β-carotene and lipid contents were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The HPLC results revealed a twofold increase of β-carotene in D. salina and D. bardawil cultures grown with sodium bicarbonate. Moreover, total fatty acid profiles from GC-MS indicated a maximum relative percentage of saturated fatty acids (tetradecanoic acid, 10,13-diethyl, methyl ester and methyl 16-methyl-heptadecanoate) compared to polyunsaturated fatty acids in both algae. Our results indicate that the optimum concentration of bicarbonate (100 to 150 mM) was required to stimulate a positive effect on β-carotene production as well as the lipid profile in Dunaliella sp. PMID:25575588

  6. Stability of β-carotene in protein-stabilized oil-in-water delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornacchia, Leonardo; Roos, Yrjo H

    2011-07-13

    Inclusion of liposoluble bioactive compounds in fortified foods represents a complex challenge due to the labile nature of such compounds and the instability of oil-in-water emulsion-based delivery systems. In the present study, dispersions prepared with 10% (w/w) sunflower oil (SO) or hydrogenated palm kernel oil (HPKO) containing 0.05% (w/w) β-carotene were stabilized by various concentrations of whey protein isolate (WPI) or sodium caseinate (NaCas) (0.1 to 2.0% w/w) in 30% (w/w) sucrose aqueous solutions. Physicochemical characterization of emulsions was done considering the particle size, the particle surface protein coverage, and the physical state of continuous and dispersed phases. Physical stability of the systems and their protection properties on β-carotene were compared. The lipid carrier type and interfacial structure were investigated as the two key factors which regulate the stability of labile lipophilic bioactive molecules in food model systems. Our results showed high β-carotene stability when O/W systems were stable (protein concentration ≥0.8% w/w.) A (partially) solid lipid carrier (HPKO) enhanced protection compared to the liquid carrier (SO) as the bioactive molecules were entrapped in isolated domains within the solid lattice and kept apart from reactive species in the surroundings. NaCas provided a better barrier than WPI due to the different amino acid composition and interface structure which significantly reduced β-carotene degradation rate.

  7. Serum a- and b-carotene concentrations qualitatively respond to sustained carrot feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    b-Carotene is a predominant source of vitamin A in developing countries. Genetically selected ‘‘high carotene’’ carrots could have an impact on the vitamin A and antioxidant status of people if widely adopted. A 3 3 3 crossover study in humans (n = 10) evaluated the difference in uptake and clearanc...

  8. α-Tocopherol and β-carotene contents of forage species in four-cut system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, H.; Nadeau, A.; Jensen, Søren Krogh;

    2014-01-01

    α-Tocopherol and β-carotene concentrations were measured in herbage of birdsfoot trefoil (Bft), red clover (Rc), white clover (Wc), timothy (Ti) and perennial ryegrass (Pr) grown in four mixtures (Bft+Ti, Rc+Ti, Rc+Pr and Wc+Pr) in a small-plot field experiment at Foulum, Denmark, over 2 years. P...

  9. B-Carotene metabolites enhance inflammation-induced oxidative DNA damage in lung epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helden, Y.G.J.; Keijer, J.; Knaapen, J.P.; Heil, S.G.; Briedé, J.J.; Schooten, van F.J.; Godschalk, R.W.L.

    2009-01-01

    ß-Carotene (BC) intake has been shown to enhance lung cancer risk in smokers and asbestos-exposed subjects (according to the ATBC and CARET studies), but the mechanism behind this procarcinogenic effect of BC is unclear. Both smoking and asbestos exposure induce an influx of inflammatory neutrophils

  10. Iron availability in the presence of β-carotene in different mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romilda Maria de Arruda Germano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron availability in the diet is very important because iron deficiency affects a large population in the world. The matrix where iron is present has an influence in its availability. The presence of β-carotene is a factor that alters the availability of iron. This research aims to estimate the iron availability in the presence of β-carotene in food mixtures: M1 = egg and pumpkin; M2 = spinach and pumpkin; M3 = spinach and cabbage; M4 = egg and cabbage; M5 = spinach and carrot; M6 = egg and carrot; M7 = bean and carrot; M8 = bean and pumpkin and M9 = bean and cabbage. After cooking, the following figures were determined: proximate composition, oxalic acid, phytic acid, tannin, iron, iron availability in vitro and β-carotene. The data were analyzed by Tukey test (5%. There were no significant statistical differences for oxalic acid. Tannin presented greater results in mixtures with spinach (M2 and M5; phytic acid was greater in bean samples (M7, M8 and M9 and with spinach (M2. Mixtures M5 e M7, with carrot, presented more β-carotene than the others. The best result for iron availability appeared in mixture (M6. A positive correlation was verified between protein and iron dialysis, and between lipids and iron dialysis. Dietetic fiber was an inhibitor to iron availability. Mixtures with egg showed greater iron availability

  11. Preparation of Microcapsules Containing β-Carotene with Thermo Sensitive Curdlan by Utilizing Reverse Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinari Taguchi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We have tried to microencapsulate β-carotene with curdlan of a thermogelation type polysaccharide. Microcapsules were prepared by utilizing reverse dispersion, in which salada oil was the continuous phase (O’ and the curdlan water slurry (W was the dispersed phase. β-carotene (O as a core material was broken into fine oil droplets in the dispersed phase to form the (O/W dispersion. The (O/W dispersion was poured in the continuous phase (O’ and stirred to form the (O/W/O’ dispersion at room temperature and then, temperature of the dispersion was raised to 80 °C to prepare curdlan-microcapusles containing β-carotene. In this microencapsulation process, the concentrations of curdlan and oil soluble surfactant and the impeller speed to form the (O/W/O’ dispersion were mainly changed stepwise. We were able to prepare microcapsules by the microencapsulation method adopted here. The content of core material was increased with the curdlan concentration and decreased with the impeller speed and the oil soluble surfactant concentration. With the curdlan concentration, the drying rate of microcapsules was decreased and the retention ability for water was increased due to the stable preservation of β-carotene.

  12. Inheritance of the Quantity of ß-carotene and Fruit Maturity of Melon (Cucumis Melon L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit production in U.S. can be improved through the introgression of early fruit maturity (FM) and the enhancement of fruit color [i.e., quantity of ß-carotene (QßC); orange fruit mesocarp]. However, the genetics of FM and QßC have not been clearly defined in U.S. Western Sh...

  13. Effects of antioxidants on the stability of β-Carotene in O/W emulsions stabilized by Gum Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuwei; Hou, Zhanqun; Yang, Jia; Gao, Yanxiang

    2015-06-01

    The potential of oil-in-water emulsions as a β-carotene delivery system was examined in this study. Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions containing β-carotene were formed by gum arabic with α-tocopherol, tertiary butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) and ascorbyl palmitate, respectively. The influence of antioxidants on the chemical degradation of β-carotene in gum arabic stabilized emulsions was investigated at 4, 25, 45 and 65 °C in the dark, respectively. An accelerated photo-oxidation test was carried out at 45 °C (450 W/m(2)). Moreover, β-carotene degradation rate constants (k 1-value), activation energy (E a ) and decimal reduction time (D-value) were estimated to interpret the degradation kinetics. The impact of antioxidants on the thermal stability of β-carotene in diluted emulsions was generally in the following order: α-tocopherol > TBHQ > ascorbyl palmitate. α-Tocopherol was found to be the most effective to the antioxidation of β-carotene at the concentration of 0.10 wt% under light exposure. It was concluded that the stability of β-carotene in oil-in-water emulsions could be improved by the presence of different antioxidants. PMID:26028711

  14. Employing Response Surface Methodology for the Optimization of Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Lutein and β-Carotene from Spinach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Altemimi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of lutein and β-carotene from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. leaves is important to the dietary supplement industry. A Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology (RSM were used to investigate the effect of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE of lutein and β-carotene from spinach. Three independent variables, extraction temperature (°C, extraction power (% and extraction time (min were studied. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC followed by UV visualization and densitometry was used as a simple and rapid method for both identification and quantification of lutein and β-carotene during UAE. Methanol extracts of leaves from spinach and authentic standards of lutein and β-carotene were separated by normal-phase TLC with ethyl acetate-acetone (5:4 (v/v as the mobile phase. In this study, the combination of TLC, densitometry, and Box–Behnken with RSM methods were effective for the quantitative analysis of lutein and β-carotene from spinach extracts. The resulting quadratic polynomial models for optimizing lutein and β-carotene from spinach had high coefficients of determination of 0.96 and 0.94, respectively. The optimal UAE settings for output of lutein and β-carotene simultaneously from spinach extracts were an extraction temperature of 40 °C, extraction power of 40% (28 W/cm3 and extraction time of 16 min. The identity and purity of each TLC spot was measured using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Therefore, UAE assisted extraction of carotenes from spinach can provide a source of lutein and β-carotene for the dietary supplement industry.

  15. Effects of antioxidants on the stability of β-Carotene in O/W emulsions stabilized by Gum Arabic

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yuwei; Hou, Zhanqun; Yang, Jia; Gao, Yanxiang

    2014-01-01

    The potential of oil-in-water emulsions as a β-carotene delivery system was examined in this study. Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions containing β-carotene were formed by gum arabic with α-tocopherol, tertiary butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) and ascorbyl palmitate, respectively. The influence of antioxidants on the chemical degradation of β-carotene in gum arabic stabilized emulsions was investigated at 4, 25, 45 and 65 °C in the dark, respectively. An accelerated photo-oxidation test was carried out at...

  16. BETA-S, Multi-Group Beta-Ray Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: BETA-S calculates beta-decay source terms and energy spectra in multigroup format for time-dependent radionuclide inventories of actinides, fission products, and activation products. Multigroup spectra may be calculated in any arbitrary energy-group structure. The code also calculates the total beta energy release rate from the sum of the average beta-ray energies as determined from the spectral distributions. BETA-S also provides users with an option to determine principal beta-decaying radionuclides contributing to each energy group. The CCC-545/SCALE 4.3 (or SCALE4.2) code system must be installed on the computer before installing BETA-S, which requires the SCALE subroutine library and nuclide-inventory generation from the ORIGEN-S code. 2 - Methods:Well-established models for beta-energy distributions are used to explicitly represent allowed, and 1., 2. - and 3. -forbidden transition types. Forbidden non-unique transitions are assumed to have a spectral shape of allowed transitions. The multigroup energy spectra are calculated by numerically integrating the energy distribution functions using an adaptive Simpson's Rule algorithm. Nuclide inventories are obtained from a binary interface produced by the ORIGEN-S code. BETA-S calculates the spectra for all isotopes on the binary interface that have associated beta-decay transition data in the ENSDF-95 library, developed for the BETA-S code. This library was generated from ENSDF data and contains 715 materials, representing approximately 8500 individual beta transition branches. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The algorithms do not treat positron decay transitions or internal conversion electrons. The neglect of positron transitions in inconsequential for most applications involving aggregate fission products, since most of the decay modes are via electrons. The neglect of internal conversion electrons may impact on the accuracy of the spectrum in the low

  17. The inhibition of macrophage foam cell formation by 9-cis β-carotene is driven by BCMO1 activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Zolberg Relevy

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developed societies, and begins when activated endothelial cells recruit monocytes and T-cells from the bloodstream into the arterial wall. Macrophages that accumulate cholesterol and other fatty materials are transformed into foam cells. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated that a diet rich in carotenoids is associated with a reduced risk of heart disease; while previous work in our laboratory has shown that the 9-cis β-carotene rich alga Dunaliella inhibits atherogenesis in mice. The effect of 9-cis β-carotene on macrophage foam cell formation has not yet been investigated. In the present work, we sought to study whether the 9-cis β-carotene isomer, isolated from the alga Dunaliella, can inhibit macrophage foam cell formation upon its conversion to retinoids. The 9-cis β-carotene and Dunaliella lipid extract inhibited foam cell formation in the RAW264.7 cell line, similar to 9-cis retinoic acid. Furthermore, dietary enrichment with the algal powder in mice resulted in carotenoid accumulation in the peritoneal macrophages and in the inhibition of foam cell formation ex-vivo and in-vivo. We also found that the β-carotene cleavage enzyme β-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase (BCMO1 is expressed and active in macrophages. Finally, 9-cis β-carotene, as well as the Dunaliella extract, activated the nuclear receptor RXR in hepa1-6 cells. These results indicate that dietary carotenoids, such as 9-cis β-carotene, accumulate in macrophages and can be locally cleaved by endogenous BCMO1 to form 9-cis retinoic acid and other retinoids. Subsequently, these retinoids activate the nuclear receptor RXR that, along with additional nuclear receptors, can affect various metabolic pathways, including those involved in foam cell formation and atherosclerosis.

  18. The Inhibition of Macrophage Foam Cell Formation by 9-Cis β-Carotene Is Driven by BCMO1 Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolberg Relevy, Noa; Bechor, Sapir; Harari, Ayelet; Ben-Amotz, Ami; Kamari, Yehuda; Harats, Dror; Shaish, Aviv

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developed societies, and begins when activated endothelial cells recruit monocytes and T-cells from the bloodstream into the arterial wall. Macrophages that accumulate cholesterol and other fatty materials are transformed into foam cells. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated that a diet rich in carotenoids is associated with a reduced risk of heart disease; while previous work in our laboratory has shown that the 9-cis β-carotene rich alga Dunaliella inhibits atherogenesis in mice. The effect of 9-cis β-carotene on macrophage foam cell formation has not yet been investigated. In the present work, we sought to study whether the 9-cis β-carotene isomer, isolated from the alga Dunaliella, can inhibit macrophage foam cell formation upon its conversion to retinoids. The 9-cis β-carotene and Dunaliella lipid extract inhibited foam cell formation in the RAW264.7 cell line, similar to 9-cis retinoic acid. Furthermore, dietary enrichment with the algal powder in mice resulted in carotenoid accumulation in the peritoneal macrophages and in the inhibition of foam cell formation ex-vivo and in-vivo. We also found that the β-carotene cleavage enzyme β-carotene 15,15’-monooxygenase (BCMO1) is expressed and active in macrophages. Finally, 9-cis β-carotene, as well as the Dunaliella extract, activated the nuclear receptor RXR in hepa1-6 cells. These results indicate that dietary carotenoids, such as 9-cis β-carotene, accumulate in macrophages and can be locally cleaved by endogenous BCMO1 to form 9-cis retinoic acid and other retinoids. Subsequently, these retinoids activate the nuclear receptor RXR that, along with additional nuclear receptors, can affect various metabolic pathways, including those involved in foam cell formation and atherosclerosis. PMID:25629601

  19. Carotene-degrading activities from Bjerkandera adusta possess an application in detergent industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Diana; Leonhardt, Robin; Eisele, Nadine; Petersen, Laura M; Riemer, Stephanie; Nimtz, Manfred; Berger, Ralf G

    2015-06-01

    Four extracellular enzymes, a versatile peroxidase, a manganese peroxidase, a dye-decolorizing peroxidase and a lignin peroxidase were discovered in liquid cultures of the basidiomycete Bjerkandera adusta. All of them cleaved β-carotene effectively. Expression was enhanced in the presence of β-carotene or Coomassie Brilliant Blue and peaked after 7-9 days. The monomeric proteins were purified by ion exchange and size exclusion chromatography and exhibited molecular masses of 41, 43, 51 and 43 kDa, respectively. The coding sequences showed homologies from 61 to 89 % to peroxidases from other basidiomycetes. The novel enzymes retained strong activity even in the absence of hydrogen peroxide and at alkaline pH. De-staining of fabrics using detergent-tolerant enzymes may help to save the most important bio-resources, energy and water, in washing processes and led to green processes in textile cleaning. PMID:25614450

  20. Hepatic and duodenal expression of β, β-carotene 15, 15' oxygenase in beef cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In Mexico most bovines are finished on pasture: the adipose tissue of those animals shows a yellow pigmentation which results in an important economic loss for the producer, because pg downgrading or even rejection of resulting carcasses. Yellowness of fat is caused by excessive carotenoids in the diet, of which β-carotene is predominant. β, β-carotene 15, 15' oxygenase (β-ox) is the enzyme that cleaves it into two molecules of vitamin A. In cattle not all the absorbed β-carotene is transformed into vitamin A; the excess is transported to the liver where it might be cleaved by the enzyme and stored or packaged with other lipid compounds and carried to different tissues, including the adipose. The aim of this study was to determine the expression pattern of β-ox in duodenal mucosae and hepatic tissue of grass-fed compared with grain-fed cattle. Biological samples were taken at Queretaro's Municipal abattoir from bovines at slaughter. For tRNA assays, intestinal mucosae was taken in Trizol reagent (Gibco BRL cat. 15595- 026), homogenized and transported on ice to the laboratory. For in situ hybridization duodenal and hepatic tissue samples were taken and fixed on 3.5% paraformaldehyde. A partial cDNA for β-ox of 744 nt was obtained by RT-PCR amplification, this product was inserted into TOPO vector 4.0 (Invitrogen cat. K457501) and cloned into E. coli bacteria. Then two sense and antisense digoxygenin labeled probes were synthesized and used for the hybridization of duodenal and hepatic cryosections of 15 μm from four pigmented and four non-pigmented carcasses. The hybridization conditions were a four-hour pre-hybridization at 65 deg. C and a overnight hybridization at the same temperature. The slides were washed and incubated overnight at 4 deg. C with digoxygenin/alkaline phosphatase antibody. The slides were washed and incubated with alkaline phosphatase-nitro blue tetrazolim/5-bromo-4-cloro-3- indoly-phosphate in darkness overnight at room

  1. Efficient scavenging of β-carotene radical cations by antiinflammatory salicylates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hong; Liang, Ran; Han, Rui-Min;

    2014-01-01

    by the anion of salicylic acid with 2.2 × 10 L mol s, but still of possible importance for light-exposed tissue. Surprisingly, acetylsalicylate, the aspirin anion, reacts with an intermediate rate in a reaction assigned to the anion of the mixed acetic-salicylic acid anhydride formed through base induced......The radical cation generated during photobleaching of β-carotene is scavenged efficiently by the anion of methyl salicylate from wintergreen oil in a second-order reaction approaching the diffusion limit with k = 3.2 × 10 L mol s in 9:1 v/v chloroform-methanol at 23 °C, less efficiently...... rearrangements. The relative scavenging rate of the β-carotene radical cation by the three salicylates is supported by DFT-calculations. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry....

  2. Transgenic soya bean seeds accumulating β-carotene exhibit the collateral enhancements of oleate and protein content traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Monica A; Parrott, Wayne A; Hildebrand, David F; Berg, R Howard; Cooksey, Amanda; Pendarvis, Ken; He, Yonghua; McCarthy, Fiona; Herman, Eliot M

    2015-05-01

    Transgenic soya bean (Glycine max) plants overexpressing a seed-specific bacterial phytoene synthase gene from Pantoea ananatis modified to target to plastids accumulated 845 μg β carotene g(-1) dry seed weight with a desirable 12:1 ratio of β to α. The β carotene accumulating seeds exhibited a shift in oil composition increasing oleic acid with a concomitant decrease in linoleic acid and an increase in seed protein content by at least 4% (w/w). Elevated β-carotene accumulating soya bean cotyledons contain 40% the amount of abscisic acid compared to nontransgenic cotyledons. Proteomic and nontargeted metabolomic analysis of the mid-maturation β-carotene cotyledons compared to the nontransgenic did not reveal any significant differences that would account for the altered phenotypes of both elevated oleate and protein content. Transcriptomic analysis, confirmed by RT-PCR, revealed a number of significant differences in ABA-responsive transcripton factor gene expression in the crtB transgenics compared to nontransgenic cotyledons of the same maturation stage. The altered seed composition traits seem to be attributed to altered ABA hormone levels varying transcription factor expression. The elevated β-carotene, oleic acid and protein traits in the β-carotene soya beans confer a substantial additive nutritional quality to soya beans.

  3. Nonradiative transitions in the media of different polarity and their simulation for 12'-apo-b-caroten-12'-al and 8'-apo-b-caroten-8'-al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theory of nonradiative transitions based on the model of orientation broadening of electronic levels has been used to interpret known data on the medium polarity and temperature effect on the S1(Ag-) state lifetime of 12'-apo-b-caroten-12'-al and 8'-apo-b-caroten-8'-al. The effect of promotion vibrations on the rate constant of the nonradiative transitions has been considered. The results allow assuming that the internal electric field produced by the environment heavily perturbs molecules of the pigments. In consequence of this, at both pigments in the excited S1(Ag-) state exist in the form of different conformers I and II. Their structure differs by 180° turn of the cyclohexene ring relative to the polyene chain. Conformer II dominates in the polar media, and it is in the intramolecular charge transfer state S1(Ag-/ICT). In addition, it can also be in the charge separated state S1(Ag-/CS) due to the fluctuations of internal electric field. (authors)

  4. Non-invasive laser Raman detection of lycopene and ž-carotene antioxidants in skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, Igor V.; Ermakova, Maia R.; Gellermann, Werner

    2003-07-01

    The predominant long-chain carotenoids found in the human skin are lycopene and β-carotene. They are powerful antioxidants and thought to act as scavengers for free radicals and single oxygen that are formed by excessive exposure of skin to sunlight. However the role of the particular representatives of the carotenoid antioxidants family in the skin defense mechanism is still unclear and has to be clarified. We demonstrate the opportunity for fast non-invasive selective quantitative detection of β-carotene and lycopene in human skin employing Raman spectroscopy. Analyzing Raman signals originating from the carbon-carbon double bond stretch vibrations of the molecules under blue and green laser excitation we were able to characterize quantitativly the concentrations of each carotenoid in alive human skin. In this method we take an advantage of different Raman cross-section spectral profile for β-carotene and lycopene molecules. This novel technique allows the quantitative assessment of individual carotenoid species in the skin rather then the cumulative level of long-chain carotenoids mixture as we could measure in our previous works. The required laser light exposure levels are well within safety standards. Prelimininary dichoromatic Raman measurements reveal significant differences in the carotenoid composition of different volunteer's skin: even in statistically small group of seven subjects the ratio of β-carotene-to-lycopene in their skin vary from 0.5 to 1.6. This technique holds promise as a method of rapid screening of carotenoids composition of human skin in large populations and suitable in clinical studies for assessing the risk for cutaneous diseases.

  5. Modelling potential β-carotene intake and cyanide exposure from consumption of biofortified cassava

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, Josh M.; Michael R La Frano; Winter, Carl K.; Burri, Betty J.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin A (VA) deficiency causes disability and mortality. Cassava can be crossbred to improve its β-carotene (BC) content; typical white cassava contains negligible amounts of BC. However, cassava contains cyanide and its continued consumption may lead to chronic disability. Our objective was to estimate the risk–benefit of consuming BC-enhanced cassava to increase VA intake. A total of ten American women were fed white and BC-enhanced cassava. BC and cyanide data from the feeding study were...

  6. Relationship between vegetable and carotene intake and risk of prostate cancer: the JACC study

    OpenAIRE

    Umesawa, M; Iso, H.; Mikami, K.; Kubo, T.; K. Suzuki; Watanabe, Y.; M. Mori; Miki, T; Tamakoshi, A; ,

    2013-01-01

    Background: We examined the associations of intakes of vegetables and carotenes with risk of prostate cancer in Japanese. Methods: A total of 15 471 Japanese men participating in the Japan Collaborative Cohort study completed a questionnaire including food intake. Of them, 143 incident prostate cancers were documented. We examined the associations stated above by using Cox proportional hazard model. Results: Vegetable intake was not associated with the risk of prostate cancer, but so was diet...

  7. Efficacy of beta-carotene rich sweet potato to improve vitamin a status of Bangladeshi women - Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitamin A deficiency is the leading cause of preventable blindness in children, which also increases the risk of disease and death from severe infections. Orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) is a good source of pro-vitamin A and has been successfully tried in African countries as an effective means to ensure adequate intake of pro-vitamin A by mothers and children. We have conducted a randomized controlled trial in an urban poor community of Bangladesh to examine the efficacy of two different preparations of OFSP in women with marginal vitamin A deficiency. The subjects (n=120) were aged between 18-35 years with serum retinol 90 g/L and CRP 2H4]-retinyl acetate) was given orally to determine total body vitamin A pool size. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following four treatment groups to receive 6 d/wk for 60 days: (1) boiled white-fleshed sweet potatoes (WFSP); (2) 600 μg RAE as boiled OFSP; (3) 600 μg RAE as fried OFSP; or (4) 600 μg RAE as a retinyl palmitate capsule, and boiled WFSP. Night vision of the subjects was assessed, as a proxy for vitamin A status, before and after intervention by performing 'dark adaptation test'. Blood samples collected before and after intervention were light-protected and stored on ice until plasma was separated, and then stored at - 20C until shipment to University of California Davis under frozen condition. The samples will be analyzed in UC Davis for plasma isotopic ratios using GC-MS following the isolation of retinol from plasma with HPLC, to determine vitamin A pool size before and after supplementation. The preliminary results from partial analysis of the available data will be presented. (author)

  8. Serum retinol of Chadian nomadic pastoralist women in relation to their livestocks' milk retinol and beta-carotene content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther; Daoud, Saada; Schierle, Josef; Hofmann, Peter; Diguimbaye, Colette; Daugla, Doumagoum Moto; Ndoutamia, Guelmbaye; Knopf, Lea; Vounatsou, Penelope; Tanner, Marcel

    2002-07-01

    Human serum retinol and livestock milk retinol levels were assessed as part of a study on the health status of Chadian nomadic pastoralists and their livestock in close partnership between Chadian public health and livestock institutions. Of the examined women (n = 99), 43% were moderately retinol-deficient (0.35 mol/L livestock milk retinol levels (partial slope 0.23; 95% CI: 0.008-0.47). Our study supports the use of goat and cow milk as an important source of vitamin A in pastoral nomadic settings. However, the levels still require to be complemented further by promoting green leafy vegetables, fruits, and supplements. PMID:12214559

  9. Eugenol improves physical and chemical stabilities of nanoemulsions loaded with β-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yongguang; Wu, Jine; Zhong, Qixin

    2016-03-01

    Food-grade nanoemulsions are potential vehicles of labile lipophilic compounds such as β-carotene, but much work is needed to improve physical and chemical stabilities. The objective of this work was to study impacts of eugenol on physical and chemical stabilities of β-carotene-loaded nanoemulsions prepared with whey protein and lecithin. The combination of whey protein and lecithin resulted in stable nanoemulsions with eugenol added at 10% mass of soybean oil. Nanoemulsions, especially with eugenol, drastically reduced the degradation of β-carotene during ambient storage, heating at 60 and 80°C, and UV radiation at 254, 302, and 365nm. The droplet diameter of the nanoemulsion without eugenol increased from 153.6 to 227.3nm after 30-day ambient storage, contrasting with no significant changes of nanoemulsions with eugenol. Heating or UV radiation up to 8h did not significantly change the droplet diameter. Therefore, eugenol can be used to improve the stability of nanoemulsion delivery systems.

  10. Eugenol improves physical and chemical stabilities of nanoemulsions loaded with β-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yongguang; Wu, Jine; Zhong, Qixin

    2016-03-01

    Food-grade nanoemulsions are potential vehicles of labile lipophilic compounds such as β-carotene, but much work is needed to improve physical and chemical stabilities. The objective of this work was to study impacts of eugenol on physical and chemical stabilities of β-carotene-loaded nanoemulsions prepared with whey protein and lecithin. The combination of whey protein and lecithin resulted in stable nanoemulsions with eugenol added at 10% mass of soybean oil. Nanoemulsions, especially with eugenol, drastically reduced the degradation of β-carotene during ambient storage, heating at 60 and 80°C, and UV radiation at 254, 302, and 365nm. The droplet diameter of the nanoemulsion without eugenol increased from 153.6 to 227.3nm after 30-day ambient storage, contrasting with no significant changes of nanoemulsions with eugenol. Heating or UV radiation up to 8h did not significantly change the droplet diameter. Therefore, eugenol can be used to improve the stability of nanoemulsion delivery systems. PMID:26471619

  11. Preparation of β-carotene nanoparticles by antisolvent precipitation under power ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Fei, E-mail: shengf@ices.a-star.edu.sg; Chow, Pui Shan; Dong, Yuancai; Tan, Reginald B. H., E-mail: reginald.tan@ices.a-star.edu.sg [Institute of Chemical and Engineering Sciences (Singapore)

    2014-12-15

    This work seeks to produce β-carotene nanoparticles by ultrasound-assisted antisolvent precipitation and to understand the influences of the various process parameters on the synthesized nanoparticles. At the active concentration of 5–15 mg/ml, 112–141 nm β-carotene particles were precipitated under 1 min ultrasound (18 W); while precipitation without ultrasound resulted in 144–365 nm particles. Without ultrasound, addition of the active solution to water (antisolvent) produced 241 nm particles while addition of water to active solution led to bigger particles, i.e., 519 nm. When the precipitation was carried out under ultrasound, the particle size had only a small increment from 117 to 132 nm. Furthermore, active/antisolvent volume ratio influenced particle size significantly; the particle size decreased from 432 to 223 nm as the active/antisolvent volume ratio decreased from 1:1 to 1:4 without ultrasound. However, the smallest β-carotene particles (117 nm) were precipitated with active/antisolvent volume ratio at 1:2 under ultrasound. Nanoparticles precipitated under ultrasound showed faster dissolution rate in comparison with the raw active and nanoparticles precipitated without ultrasound.

  12. Genetic stability developed for β-carotene synthesis in BR29 rice line using dihaploid homozygosity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabi Datta

    Full Text Available Obtaining transgenic crop lines with stable levels of carotenoids is highly desirable. We addressed this issue by employing the anther culture technique to develop dihaploid lines containing genes involved in β-carotene metabolism. First, we used Agrobacterium- mediated transformation to develop primary transgenic plants containing the β-carotene biosynthetic genes, phytoene synthase (psy and phytoene desaturase (crtI, which were engineered for expression and accumulation in the endosperm. Transgenic plants were recovered by selecting for the expression of the phosphomannose isomerase (pmi gene. Dihaploid plants in addition to haploid and tetraploid plant were generated from anther cultures of these primary transgenic plants. In addition to anatomical features of stomata, pollen of different ploidy-plants, molecular analyses confirmed the stable integration of the genes in the anther culture-derived dihaploid plants, and the yellow color of the polished seeds indicated the accumulation of carotenoids in the endosperm. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis of the carotenoid extract further confirmed the levels of β-carotene accumulation in the endosperms of the transgenic dihaploid rice seeds.

  13. Plausible antioxidant biomechanics and anticonvulsant pharmacological activity of brain-targeted β-carotene nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Mohammad; Khan, Riaz A; Khan, Maria; Ahmed, Bahar

    2012-01-01

    β-Carotene has been established as a known free radical scavenger with chain-breaking antioxidant properties. It has been documented for the treatment of epileptic convulsions at a 200 mg/kg body weight dose. The reported pathogenesis for epileptic convulsions is oxidative stress. Hence, experimental epileptic convulsions via oxidative stress was induced in albino mice epileptic models (maximal electroshock seizure and pentylenetetrazole [PTZ]). A dose concentration equivalent to 2 mg/kg was efficaciously administered in the form of brain-targeted polysorbate-80-coated poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were prepared by solvent evaporation technique and further characterized for their physical parameters, in-vitro release kinetics, and in-vivo brain release via various standard methods. Normal β-carotene nanoparticles (BCNP) and polysorbate-80-coated β-carotene nanoparticles (P-80-BCNP) of 169.8 ± 4.8 nm and 176.3 ± 3.2 nm in size, respectively, were formulated and characterized. Their zeta potential and polydispersity index were subsequently evaluated after 5 months of storage to confirm stability. In vivo activity results showed that a 2 mg unformulated β-carotene dose was ineffective as an anticonvulsant. However, salutary response was reported from BCNP at the same dose, as the hind limb duration decreased significantly in maximal electroshock seizure to 9.30 ± 0.86 seconds, which further decreased with polysorbate-80 coating to 2.10 ± 1.16 seconds as compared to normal control (15.8 ± 1.49 seconds) and placebo control (16.50 ± 1.43 seconds). In the PTZ model, the duration of general tonic-clonic seizures reduced significantly to 2.90 ± 0.98 seconds by the use of BCNP and was further reduced on P-80-BCNP to 1.20 ± 0.20 seconds as compared to PTZ control and PTZ-placebo control (8.09 ± 0.26 seconds). General tonic-clonic seizures latency was increased significantly to 191.0 ± 9.80 seconds in BCNP and was further

  14. Isolation and functional characterization of a lycopene beta-cyclase gene that controls fruit colour of papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, Luke C; Fanning, Kent; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Holton, Timothy A

    2010-01-01

    The colour of papaya fruit flesh is determined largely by the presence of carotenoid pigments. Red-fleshed papaya fruit contain lycopene, whilst this pigment is absent from yellow-fleshed fruit. The conversion of lycopene (red) to beta-carotene (yellow) is catalysed by lycopene beta-cyclase. This present study describes the cloning and functional characterization of two different genes encoding lycopene beta-cyclases (lcy-beta1 and lcy-beta2) from red (Tainung) and yellow (Hybrid 1B) papaya cultivars. A mutation in the lcy-beta2 gene, which inactivates enzyme activity, controls lycopene production in fruit and is responsible for the difference in carotenoid production between red and yellow-fleshed papaya fruit. The expression level of both lcy-beta1 and lcy-beta2 genes is similar and low in leaves, but lcy-beta2 expression increases markedly in ripe fruit. Isolation of the lcy-beta2 gene from papaya, that is preferentially expressed in fruit and is correlated with fruit colour, will facilitate marker-assisted breeding for fruit colour in papaya and should create possibilities for metabolic engineering of carotenoid production in papaya fruit to alter both colour and nutritional properties.

  15. Prevention of Atherosclerosis Progression by 9-cis-β-Carotene Rich Alga Dunaliella in apoE-Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayelet Harari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. β-Carotene-rich diet has been shown to be inversely associated with the risk of coronary heart disease. However, clinical trials using synthetic all-trans-β-carotene failed to demonstrate a beneficial effect. We therefore sought to study the effect of natural source of β-carotene, the alga Dunaliella, containing both all-trans and 9-cis-β-carotene on atherosclerosis. In a previous study we showed that 9-cis-β-carotene-rich powder of the alga Dunaliella inhibits early atherogenesis in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice. Aims. The aims of the current work were to study whether diet enriched with Dunaliella powder would inhibit the progression of established atherosclerosis in old male apoE-deficient mice and to compare the effect of Dunaliella on lipid profile and atherosclerosis in a low-versus high-fat diet fed mice. Methods. In the first experiment, young mice (12 weeks old were allocated into 3 groups: (1 low-fat diet; (2 low-fat diet + Dunaliella powder (8%; (3 low-fat diet + β-carotene-deficient Dunaliella. In the second experiment, old mice (7 months old with established atherosclerotic lesions were allocated into 4 groups: (1 low-fat diet; (2 low-fat diet + Dunaliella; (3 high fat-diet; (4 high-fat diet + Dunaliella. Results. In young mice fed a low-fat diet, a trend toward lower atherosclerotic lesion area in the aortic sinus was found in the Dunaliella group compared with the control group. In old mice with established atherosclerotic lesion, Dunaliella inhibited significantly plasma cholesterol elevation and atherosclerosis progression in mice fed a high-fat diet. Conclusion. The results of this study suggest that a diet containing natural carotenoids, rich in 9-cis-β-carotene, has the potential to inhibit atherosclerosis progression, particularly in high-fat diet regime.

  16. β-Carotene Attenuates Angiotensin II-Induced Aortic Aneurysm by Alleviating Macrophage Recruitment in Apoe(-/- Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliappan Gopal

    Full Text Available Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA is a common chronic degenerative disease characterized by progressive aortic dilation and rupture. The mechanisms underlying the role of α-tocopherol and β-carotene on AAA have not been comprehensively assessed. We investigated if α-tocopherol and β-carotene supplementation could attenuate AAA, and studied the underlying mechanisms utilized by the antioxidants to alleviate AAA. Four-months-old Apoe(-/- mice were used in the induction of aneurysm by infusion of angiotensin II (Ang II, and were orally administered with α-tocopherol and β-carotene enriched diet for 60 days. Significant increase of LDL, cholesterol, triglycerides and circulating inflammatory cells was observed in the Ang II-treated animals, and gene expression studies showed that ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MCP-1, M-CSF, MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-12 were upregulated in the aorta of aneurysm-induced mice. Extensive plaques, aneurysm and diffusion of inflammatory cells into the tunica intima were also noticed. The size of aorta was significantly (P = 0.0002 increased (2.24±0.20 mm in the aneurysm-induced animals as compared to control mice (1.17±0.06 mm. Interestingly, β-carotene dramatically controlled the diffusion of macrophages into the aortic tunica intima, and circulation. It also dissolved the formation of atheromatous plaque. Further, β-carotene significantly decreased the aortic diameter (1.33±0.12 mm in the aneurysm-induced mice (β-carotene, P = 0.0002. It also downregulated ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MCP-1, M-CSF, MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-12, PPAR-α and PPAR-γ following treatment. Hence, dietary supplementation of β-carotene may have a protective function against Ang II-induced AAA by ameliorating macrophage recruitment in Apoe(-/- mice.

  17. Asymmetrically acting lycopene beta-cyclases (CrtLm) from non-photosynthetic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, L; Picataggio, S; Rouvière, P E; Cheng, Q

    2004-03-01

    Carotenoids have important functions in photosynthesis, nutrition, and protection against oxidative damage. Some natural carotenoids are asymmetrical molecules that are difficult to produce chemically. Biological production of carotenoids using specific enzymes is a potential alternative to extraction from natural sources. Here we report the isolation of lycopene beta-cyclases that selectively cyclize only one end of lycopene or neurosporene. The crtLm genes encoding the asymmetrically acting lycopene beta-cyclases were isolated from non-photosynthetic bacteria that produced monocyclic carotenoids. Co-expression of these crtLm genes with the crtEIB genes from Pantoea stewartii (responsible for lycopene synthesis) resulted in the production of monocyclic gamma-carotene in Escherichia coli. The asymmetric cyclization activity of CrtLm could be inhibited by the lycopene beta-cyclase inhibitor 2-(4-chlorophenylthio)-triethylamine (CPTA). Phylogenetic analysis suggested that bacterial CrtL-type lycopene beta-cyclases might represent an evolutionary link between the common bacterial CrtY-type of lycopene beta-cyclases and plant lycopene beta- and epsilon-cyclases. These lycopene beta-cyclases may be used for efficient production of high-value asymmetrically cyclized carotenoids. PMID:14740205

  18. Levered and unlevered Beta

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2003-01-01

    We prove that in a world without leverage cost the relationship between the levered beta ( L) and the unlevered beta ( u) is the No-costs-of-leverage formula: L = u + ( u - d) D (1 - T) / E. We also analyze 6 alternative valuation theories proposed in the literature to estimate the relationship between the levered beta and the unlevered beta (Harris and Pringle (1985), Modigliani and Miller (1963), Damodaran (1994), Myers (1974), Miles and Ezzell (1980), and practitioners) and prove that all ...

  19. Density Functional Theoretical Analysis of the Molecular Structural Effects on Raman Spectra of β-Carotene and Lycopene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟龙; 王志刚; 郑植仁; 蒋礼林; 杨延强; 赵连城; 苏文辉

    2012-01-01

    The molecular structural and Raman spectroscopic characteristics of fl-carotene and lycopene are investigated by density functional calculations. The effects of molecular structure and solvent environment on the Raman spectra are analyzed by comparing the calculated and measured results. It is found that the B3LYP/6-31G(d) method can predict the reasonable result for β-carotene, but the vl Raman activities of lycopene overflow at all the used theo- retical methods because of the longer conjugation length in β-carotene impedes the delocalization of ~r-electrons The calculated results indicate that the rotation of β-rings shortens the effective conjugation length, and results in higher frequency and lower activity of the vl mode in /q-carotene than lycopene. The measured vl bands of β-carotene and lycopene shift respectively to higher and lower frequencies in solution compared with that in crystals since the crystal packing forces can lead to different conformational variations in the carotenoids molecules. The polarized continuum model theoretical analysis suggests that solvent has slight (significant) effects on the Raman frequencies (intensities) of both carotenoids.

  20. Thermal and UV stability of β-carotene dissolved in peppermint oil microemulsified by sunflower lecithin and Tween 20 blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huaiqiong; Zhong, Qixin

    2015-05-01

    Microemulsions are suitable for simultaneous delivery of flavour oils and lipophilic bioactive compounds in transparent beverages. In the present study, the feasibility of delivering β-carotene in microemulsions formulated with peppermint oil and a blend of Tween® 20 and various amounts of sunflower lecithin was investigated. The poorly water- and oil-soluble β-carotene was dissolved in the transparent microemulsions that had particles smaller than 10nm and were stable during ambient storage for 65 d. The inclusion of β-carotene did not change the flow-behaviour and Newtonian viscosity. The degradation of β-carotene in microemulsions during ambient storage, ultraviolet radiation, and thermal treatments at 60 and 80 °C followed first order kinetics and was greatly suppressed when compared to the solution control. The antioxidant potential of peppermint oil and a greater content of lecithin in microemulsions enabled the better protection of β-carotene. The studied microemulsions may find various applications in manufacturing transparent beverages.

  1. Metabolic alterations of lutein, β-carotene and chlorophyll a during germination of two soybean sprout varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinwook; Hwang, Young-Sun; Lee, Jeong-Dong; Chang, Woo-Suk; Choung, Myoung-Gun

    2013-12-01

    The metabolic changes of lutein, β-carotene and chlorophyll a during germination of the soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) sprout varieties, 'Pungsannamulkong' and 'Bosug', have been studied. Seeds were germinated at 20 °C with 80% humidity in the darkness and sampled at 2 day intervals for 10 days. Partial least squares (PLS) scores plot showed that the responses of three metabolites during germination were linearly linked with each other except for day 2 in both varieties. PLS loading plots indicated that lutein content in whole sprout and cotyledon was closely associated with germination in 'Pungsannamulkong' while the chlorophyll a content in whole sprouts was highly linked with germination in 'Bosug'. Heatmap analyses revealed that lutein and β-carotene levels, but not those of chlorophyll a, accumulated in whole soybean sprouts and cotyledon. While hypocotyls did not accumulate lipophilic pigments during germination, the accumulation of lutein and β-carotene in the cotyledons was greater in 'Pungsannamulkong' than in 'Bosug' sprouts. In addition, the contents of lutein, β-carotene and chlorophyll a increased from those in the seeds. Overall, the metabolic changes of lutein, β-carotene and chlorophyll a during germination are affected not only by variety but also by organ type.

  2. Plausible antioxidant biomechanics and anticonvulsant pharmacological activity of brain-targeted β-carotene nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Yusuf,1 Riaz A Khan,3 Maria Khan,2 Bahar Ahmed11Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 2Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hamdard University, New Delhi, India; 3Department of Chemistry, Manav Rachna International University, National Capital Region, Aravali Hills, Faridabad, IndiaAbstract: β-Carotene has been established as a known free radical scavenger with chain-breaking antioxidant properties. It has been documented for the treatment of epileptic convulsions at a 200 mg/kg body weight dose. The reported pathogenesis for epileptic convulsions is oxidative stress. Hence, experimental epileptic convulsions via oxidative stress was induced in albino mice epileptic models (maximal electroshock seizure and pentylenetetrazole [PTZ]. A dose concentration equivalent to 2 mg/kg was efficaciously administered in the form of brain-targeted polysorbate-80-coated poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were prepared by solvent evaporation technique and further characterized for their physical parameters, in-vitro release kinetics, and in-vivo brain release via various standard methods. Normal β-carotene nanoparticles (BCNP and polysorbate-80-coated β-carotene nanoparticles (P-80-BCNP of 169.8 ± 4.8 nm and 176.3 ± 3.2 nm in size, respectively, were formulated and characterized. Their zeta potential and polydispersity index were subsequently evaluated after 5 months of storage to confirm stability. In vivo activity results showed that a 2 mg unformulated β-carotene dose was ineffective as an anticonvulsant. However, salutary response was reported from BCNP at the same dose, as the hind limb duration decreased significantly in maximal electroshock seizure to 9.30 ± 0.86 seconds, which further decreased with polysorbate-80 coating to 2.10 ± 1.16 seconds as compared to normal control (15.8 ± 1.49 seconds and placebo control (16.50 ± 1.43 seconds. In the PTZ model, the duration of

  3. Realized Beta GARCH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger; Voev, Valeri Radkov

    2014-01-01

    as the beta. We apply the model to a large set of assets and find the conditional betas to be far more variable than usually found with rolling-window regressions based exclusively on daily returns. In the empirical part of the paper, we examine the cross-sectional as well as the time variation...... of the conditional beta series during the financial crises....

  4. Utilization of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw for production of bioethanol and carotene-enriched biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrik, SiniŠa; Márová, Ivana; Kádár, Zsófia

    2013-01-01

    In this work hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw was used for production of bioethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and carotene-enriched biomass by red yeasts Rhodotorula glutinis, Cystofilobasidium capitatum and Sporobolomyces roseus. To evaluate the convertibility of pretreated wheat straw into...... ethanol, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of S. cerevisiae was performed under semi-anaerobic conditions. The highest ethanol production efficiency of 65-66% was obtained following pretreatment at 200°C without the catalytic action of acetic acid, and at 195 and 200°C respectively in the...

  5. Vibrationally coherent crossing and coupling of electronic states during internal conversion in β-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebel, M; Schnedermann, C; Kukura, P

    2014-05-16

    Coupling of nuclear and electronic degrees of freedom mediates energy flow in molecules after optical excitation. The associated coherent dynamics in polyatomic systems, however, remain experimentally unexplored. Here, we combined transient absorption spectroscopy with electronic population control to reveal nuclear wave packet dynamics during the S2 → S1 internal conversion in β-carotene. We show that passage through a conical intersection is vibrationally coherent and thereby provides direct feedback on the role of different vibrational coordinates in the breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. PMID:24877970

  6. Investigating the impact of NaCl salinity on growth, β-carotene, and chlorophyll a in the content life of halophytes of algae Chlorella sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Fathi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Algae are used for many purposes as: food industry, animal feeding, soil enrichment andbiodiesel production. Chlorella is widely cultivated from microalgae species as it is rich in nutrients andhas its implementation as a healthy food use. In this study, the impact of NaCl salinity on growth, betacarotene,and chlorophyll a of Chlorella sp. has been investigated. This study results in three salinities(10, 30, 50 g L-1, respectively have shown that 30 g L-1 concentration has the highest value of cellnumber in day 15th and there was no significant difference between salinities on day 15th (p>0.05. Βetacaroteneresult has shown 50 g L-1 salinity and the highest value of beta-carotene did not indicate anystatistically significant differences between treatments (p>0.05. Chlorophyll a result has shown highestvalue in all treatments (it was in 50 g L-1. However, there was no significant difference betweensalinities on day 5th (p>0.05.

  7. Vitamins A, C, and E and β-Carotene Content in Seeds of Seven Species of Vicia L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmet SAHIN; Yasar KIRAN; Fikret KARATAS; Senem SONMEZ

    2005-01-01

    To determine the vitamins A, C, and E and β-carotene content of Vicia species that can be used in animal feed, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used to investigate the vitamin and β-carotene content in mature and immature seeds of seven Vicia species (Vicia anatolica Turrill., V. ervilia (L.) Willd., V. michauxii Sprengel, V. mollis Boiss. et Hausskn. ex Boiss., V. noeana Reuter ex Boiss., V. peregrina L., and V. sericocarpa Fenzl.), which are useful plants in animal feed in the eastern Anatolia region in Turkey. The vitamin content was found to differ between mature and immature seeds. The levels of vitamins A, C, and E and β-carotene were higher in mature seeds than in immature seeds (P < 0.01).

  8. Quantitative secretion and maximal secretion capacity of retinol, b-carotene and a-tocopherol into cows' milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Krogh; Kjær, Anna Kirstin Bjørnbak; Hermansen, John Erik

    1999-01-01

    Changes in the contents of retinol, a-tocopherol and b-carotene in plasma, milk and milk fat from 38 Holstein-Friesian cows were followed during their ®rst lactation, and the quantitative and kinetic relationships for secretion of a-tocopherol and b-carotene from blood into milk were determined....... The cows were assigned to three groups such that all cows in the same group had the same sire. Milk yield and milk fat content differed with stage of lactation, but not according to sire. The plasma concentrations of retinol, a-tocopherol and b-carotene differed with stage of lactation; in addition...... on increasing milk and milk fat yield will result in a steady dilution in the milk fat of these vitamins and antioxidants important for the immune defence of the cows and oxidative stability of milk products. The genetic variation found offers the possibility of utilizing these variations in breeding systems....

  9. ZmcrtRB3 Encodes a Carotenoid Hydroxylase that Affects the Accumulation of α-carotene in Maize Kernel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Zhou; Yingjia Han; Zhigang Li; Yang Fu; Zhiyuan Fu; Shutu Xu; Jiansheng Li; Jianbing Yan; Xiaohong Yang

    2012-01-01

    α-carotene is one of the important components of pro-vitamin A,which is able to be converted into vitamin A in the human body.One maize (Zea mays L.) ortholog of carotenoid hydroxylases in Arabidopsis thaliana,ZmcrtRB3,was cloned and its role in carotenoid hydrolyzations was addressed.ZmcrtRB3 was mapped in a quantitative trait locus (QTL) cluster for carotenoid-related traits on chromosome 2 (bin 2.03) in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from By804 and B73.Candidate-gene association analysis identified 18 polymorphic sites in ZmcrtRB3 significantly associated with one or more carotenoid-related traits in 126 diverse yellow maize inbred lines.These results indicate that the enzyme ZmcrtRB3 plays a role in hydrolyzing both α- andβ-carotenes,while polymorphisms in ZmcrtRB3 contributed more variation in α-carotene than that inβ-carotene.Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs),SNP1343 in 5'untranslated region and SNP2172 in the second intron,consistently had effects on α-carotene content and composition with explained phenotypic variations ranging from 8.7% to 34.8%.There was 1.7- to 3.7-fold change between the inferior and superior haplotype for α-carotene content and composition.Thus,SNP1343 and SNP2172 are potential polymorphic sites to develop functional markers for applying marker-assisted selection in the improvement of pro-vitamin A carotenoids in maize kernels.

  10. Lycopene and ß-carotene protect in vivo iron-induced oxidative stress damage in rat prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. Matos

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that iron overload may be carcinogenic. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of plasma and prostate carotenoid concentration on oxidative DNA damage in 12-week-old Wistar rats treated with intraperitoneal (ip ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA (10 mg Fe/kg. Plasma ß-carotene and lycopene concentrations were measured as a function of time after ip injection of carotenoids (10 mg kg-1 day-1 ß-carotene or lycopene in rats. The highest total plasma concentration was reached 3 and 6 h after ip injection of lycopene or ß-carotene, respectively. After 5 days of carotenoid treatment, lycopene and ß-carotene were present in the 0.10-0.51 nmol/g wet tissue range in the prostate. Using a sensitive method to detected 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo by HPLC/EC, the level of 8-oxodGuo in rat prostate DNA was significantly higher (6.3 ± 0.6 residues/10(6 dGuo 3 h after Fe-NTA injection compared with control rats (1.7 ± 0.3 residues/10(6 dGuo. Rats supplemented with lycopene or ß-carotene for 5 days prior to Fe-NTA treatment showed a reduction of about 70% in 8-oxodGuo levels to almost control levels. Compared with control rats, the prostate of Fe-NTA-treated animals showed a 78% increase in malondialdehyde accumulation. Lycopene or ß-carotene pre-treatment almost completely prevented lipid damage. Epidemiological studies have suggested a lower risk of prostate cancer in men reporting a higher consumption of tomato products. However, before associating this effect with tomato sauce constituents, more information is required. The results described here may contribute to the understanding of the protective effects of carotenoids against iron-induced oxidative stress.

  11. Role of continuous phase protein, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and carrier oil on β-carotene degradation in oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Gao, Yanxiang; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric Andrew

    2016-11-01

    The chemical instability of β-carotene limits its utilization as a nutraceutical ingredient in foods. In this research, the effect of continuous phase alpha-lactalbumin (α-LA) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on β-carotene degradation in medium chain triacylglycerol (MCT)- and corn oil-in-water emulsions was examined. EGCG significantly inhibited β-carotene degradation in both MCT and corn oil-in-water emulsions in a dose dependent manner. α-LA was not able to protect β-carotene in MCT emulsions and the combination of EGCG and α-LA had a similar effect as EGCG alone. EGCG had no effect on lipid oxidation in corn oil-in-water emulsions but can protect β-carotene. β-Carotene was more stable in corn oil emulsions stabilized by α-LA compared to emulsions stabilized by Tween 20. These results show that EGCG is effective at protecting β-carotene in different emulsion systems without negatively impacting lipid oxidation suggesting that it could be utilized to increase the incorporation of β-carotene into food emulsions. PMID:27211644

  12. Vitamin A equivalency of ß-carotene in healthy adults: limitation of the extrinsic dual-isotope dilution technique to measure matrix effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, C.A.; West, C.E.; Breemen, van R.B.; Zhu, D.; Siebelink, E.; Versloot, P.; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Lieshout, van M.; Russel, F.G.M.; Schaafsma, G.; Naber, T.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Data on the vitamin A equivalency of ß-carotene in food are inconsistent. We quantified the vitamin A equivalency (¿g) of ß-carotene in two diets using the dual-isotope dilution technique and the oral¿faecal balance technique. A diet-controlled, cross-over intervention study was conducted in twenty-

  13. POTENSI MIKROEMULSI β-KAROTEN DALAM MENGHAMBAT FOTOOKSIDASI VITAMIN C SISTEM AQUEOUS [The Potential Inhibition of Β-Carotene Microemulsion on Vitamin C Photooxidation in Aqueous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyaningrum Ariviani1*

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Photooxidation in food system causes nutritional losses and produces undesirable flavor, toxic and color compounds, which make foods unacceptable to consumers. The objective of this research was to determine β–carotene microemulsion inhibitory effect on vitamin C photooxidation in aqueous food model. Into aqueous food models containing vitamin C (450 ppm for model 1; 300 ppm for model 2 2% microemulsion or β–carotene microemulsion and erythrosine as photosensitizer, were added. The final β–carotene content in aqueous food model was equal to 0.6 or 12 ppm. The result indicated that microemulsion have ability to inhibit vitamin C photodegradation under light but did not show the ability under dark condition. The inhibitory effectiveness of both 6 and 12 ppm β-carotene microemulsion on vitamin C photodegradation were insignificant. The 6 ppm β-carotene microemulsion was proven to effectively inhibit vitamin C photooxidation in aqueous food model better than that of empty microemulsion or free β-carotene. The vitamin C photodegradation rate on model system 1 and 2 were 9.5 ± 2.48 and 6.4 ± 1.58 mg.L-1. hour-1 (β-carotene microemulsion; -14.8 ± 1.69 and -9.5 ± 1.23 mg.L-1. hour -1 (empty microemulsion; -16.0 ± 1.64 and -10.3 ± 0.46 mg.L-1. hour -1 (freeβ-carotene, respectively.

  14. GC-MS Analysis of β-Carotene Ethenolysis Products and their Synthesis as Potentially Active Vitamin A Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermacz, I.; Maj, J.; Morzycki, J. W.; Wojtkielewicz, A.

    2008-01-01

    β-Carotene ethenolysis under promotion of well-defined ruthenium catalysts were examined as a novel method of synthesis of vitamin A derivatives. Efficient reaction was promoted by the second-generation Hoveyda catalyst. The products of ethenolysis in positions C15-C15′, C11-C12, and C9-C10 were detected, but cleavage of the C11-C12 double bond predominated. Even better regioselectivity at this position was observed for cross—metathesis between β-carotene and functionalized alkenes. PMID:19696942

  15. Simulations of the polarisation-dependent Raman intensity of β-carotene in photosystem II crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • First polarisation-dependent Raman spectroscopy on photosystem II crystals. • Orientation-dependent Raman intensity simulations for di- and monomeric crystals. • Simulations account for all β-carotenes (β-Car) in the unit cell for the first time. • Prediction for identificationy of the β-Car cation in side-path electron transport. - Abstract: In order to clarify possibilities to identify the β-carotene (β-Car) radicals in secondary electron transfer (ET) reactions in the photosystem II core complex (PSIIcc), Raman intensities of all 96 β-Car cofactors in the unit cell of PSIIcc-dimer crystals as a function of polarisation and crystal orientation were simulated based on the 2.9 Å resolution structure. The Raman-active symmetry Ag in the C2h group is assigned to the β-Car modes ν66 and ν67. Simulations are in agreement with experiment for off-resonant excitation at 1064 nm. Resonant measurements at 476 and 532 nm excitation can not be explained, which is attributed to mode mixing in the excited state and the existence of different spectral pools. The identity of the β-Car oxidised in secondary ET can not be resolved by Raman measurements on PSIIcc-dimer crystals. Additional simulations show that similar measurements on PSIIcc-monomer crystals could provide a possible route to solve this issue

  16. Antioxidative Reaction of Carotenes against Peroxidation of Fatty Acids Initiated by Nitrogen Dioxide: A Theoretical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shau-Jiun; Huang, Li-Yen; Hu, Ching-Han

    2015-07-30

    In this study, we investigated the antioxidative functions of carotenes (CARs) against the peroxidation of lipids initiated by nitrogen dioxide using density functional theory. The hydrogen-atom transfer (HAT), radical adduct formation (RAF), and electron transfer (ET) mechanisms were investigated. We chose β-carotene (β-CAR) and lycopene (LYC) and compared their NO2(•) initiations and peroxidations with those of linoleic acid (LAH), the model of the lipid. We found that for CARs ET is more likely to occur in the most polar (water) environment than are HAT and RAF. In less polar environments, CARs react more readily with NO2(•) via HAT and RAF than does the lipid model, LAH. Comparatively, reaction barriers for the RAF between CARs and NO2(•) are smaller than those for the HAT. The additions of O2 to the radical intermediates O2N-CAR(•) and CAR(-H)(•) involve sizable barriers and are endergonic. Other than HAT of LAH, we revealed that lipid peroxidation is likely to be initiated by -NO2 addition and the subsequent barrierless addition of O2. Finally, LYC is a more effective antioxidative agent against NO2(•)-initiated lipid peroxidation than is β-CAR.

  17. Antioxidant capacity and contents of phenols, ascorbic acid, β-carotene and lycopene in lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Jasmina M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of three lettuce varieties (Lactuca sativa L. Emerald, Vera and Neva, cultivated in two kinds of protected spaces, a glasshouse and a plastic greenhouse, under controlled conditions, was determined. The content of antioxidant compounds: total phenols, flavonoids, L-ascorbic acid, ß-carotene and lycopene, were determined in ethanolic extracts of the lettuce with spectrophotometric methods. The largest content of total phenols (78.98 ± 0.67 mg GAE/g of dry extract was found in ethanolic extract of the lettuce variety Neva cultivated in a plastic greenhouse, whereas the largest content of flavonoids (35.45 ± 0.95 mg RU/g of dry extract was displayed in the lettuce Emerald cultivated in a glasshouse. It was observed that the lettuce cultivated in the glasshouse contained a somewhat higher content of L-ascorbic acid than the lettuce same variety from plastic greenhouse. The content of lycopene in the examined lettuce is negligible, and the content of ß-carotene is low. On the other hand, the high content of phenolic components causes favourable antioxidant properties found in all varieties of examined lettuce. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31059: A new concept in breeding vegetable cultivars and hybrids designed for sustainable growing systems using biotechnological methods

  18. Simulations of the polarisation-dependent Raman intensity of β-carotene in photosystem II crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brose, K., E-mail: katharina.brose@gmx.net [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Zouni, A. [Institut für Chemie, Max-Volmer-Laboratorium, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Müh, F. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Johannes Kepler Universität Linz, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Mroginski, M.A. [Institut für Chemie, Max-Volmer-Laboratorium, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Maultzsch, J. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-06-03

    Highlights: • First polarisation-dependent Raman spectroscopy on photosystem II crystals. • Orientation-dependent Raman intensity simulations for di- and monomeric crystals. • Simulations account for all β-carotenes (β-Car) in the unit cell for the first time. • Prediction for identificationy of the β-Car cation in side-path electron transport. - Abstract: In order to clarify possibilities to identify the β-carotene (β-Car) radicals in secondary electron transfer (ET) reactions in the photosystem II core complex (PSIIcc), Raman intensities of all 96 β-Car cofactors in the unit cell of PSIIcc-dimer crystals as a function of polarisation and crystal orientation were simulated based on the 2.9 Å resolution structure. The Raman-active symmetry A{sub g} in the C{sub 2h} group is assigned to the β-Car modes ν{sub 66} and ν{sub 67}. Simulations are in agreement with experiment for off-resonant excitation at 1064 nm. Resonant measurements at 476 and 532 nm excitation can not be explained, which is attributed to mode mixing in the excited state and the existence of different spectral pools. The identity of the β-Car oxidised in secondary ET can not be resolved by Raman measurements on PSIIcc-dimer crystals. Additional simulations show that similar measurements on PSIIcc-monomer crystals could provide a possible route to solve this issue.

  19. Betting Against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model’s five central predictions: (1) Since constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for U.......S. equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures; (2) A betting-against-beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns; (3) When funding constraints tighten, the return...... of the BAB factor is low; (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one; (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets....

  20. Betting against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model's five central predictions: (1) Because constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically...... for US equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures. (2) A betting against beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low-beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns. (3) When funding constraints tighten......, the return of the BAB factor is low. (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one. (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets....

  1. Roughing up Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Li, Sophia Zhengzi; Todorov, Viktor

    Motivated by the implications from a stylized equilibrium pricing framework, we investigate empirically how individual equity prices respond to continuous, or \\smooth," and jumpy, or \\rough," market price moves, and how these different market price risks, or betas, are priced in the cross......-section of expected returns. Based on a novel highfrequency dataset of almost one-thousand individual stocks over two decades, we find that the two rough betas associated with intraday discontinuous and overnight returns entail significant risk premiums, while the intraday continuous beta is not priced in the cross......-section. An investment strategy that goes long stocks with high jump betas and short stocks with low jump betas produces significant average excess returns. These higher risk premiums for the discontinuous and overnight market betas remain significant after controlling for a long list of other firm characteristics...

  2. Effects of Lactic Acid Fermentation on the Retention of Β-Carotene Content in Orange Fleshed Sweet Potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benard O. Oloo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish the effects of lactic fermentation on the levels of β-carotene in selected  orange fleshed sweet potato (OFSP varieties from Kenya.  Furthermore,it sought to demonstrate fermentation as a potential process for making new products from sweet potato with enhanced nutraceutical attributes. The varieties (Zapallo, Nyathiodiewo and SPK004/06 were fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 1407 at 25 ± 2°C for 48 h and kept for 28 days to make lacto-pickles. During fermentation both analytical [pH, titratable acidity (TA, lactic acid (LA, starch, total sugar, reducing sugar (g/kg roots, texture (N/m2, β-carotene (mg/kg roots] and sensory (texture, taste, flavour and after taste attributes of sweet potato lacto-juice were evaluated. Process conditions were optimized by varying brine levels, with fermentation time. A UV-visible spectrophotometer was used to identify and quantify β-carotene. Any significant variations (p < 0.05 in analytical attributes between the fermented and unfermented samples (pH, LA, TA and β-carotene concentration of lacto-pickles, prepared from the potato roots, were assessed. The study reported a final composition of 156.49mg/kg, 0.53mg/kg, 0.3N/m2, 1.3g/kg, 5.86g/kg, 0.5g/kg and 5.86g/kg for β-carotene, Ascorbic acid, texture; Starch, total sugars, LA and TA respectively, and a pH of 3.27. The fermented products were subjected to flavour profiling by a panel. The product sensory scores were 1.5 to 2.5 on a 5 point hedonic scale, ranging from dislike slightly to like much. The products with brine levels at 4 and 6% were most preferred. The retention of β-carotene was 93.97%. This demonstrated lactic acid fermentation as a better method for processing OFSP as the main nutritional attributes are retained. The final product was resistant to spoilage microorganisms after 28 days of fermentation. Further preservation could be obtained by addition of sodium metabisulphite. In conclusion, Lactic

  3. Carotene and provitamin A content of vegetables sold in Viçosa, MG, Brazil, during spring and winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollyanna Costa Cardoso

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the α- and β-carotene content and provitamin A value of four leafy vegetables sold at local and street markets in Viçosa, MG, Brazil, in the spring and winter of 2002. Carotenoids were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. α-Carotene was detected in all samples sold during spring, but was only present in a few samples of smooth and curly lettuce and kale in winter. β-Carotene was found in marked quantities in all leafy vegetables analyzed. Duncan's test (α = 5% showed significantly higher α-carotene content in curly lettuce and vitamin A value in large-leaved watercress in the spring. Mean β-carotene content and vitamin A value were 7544, 8751, 2584, 2792, 8193, and 5338 μg/100 g and 666, 760, 227, 238, 698, and 460 μg RAE/100 g in large-leaved and hydroponic watercress, smooth and curly lettuce, kale and spinach, respectively. All leafy vegetables analyzed represent important sources of provitamin A and supply an important part of the daily requirements of children and adults.Investigou-se o conteúdo de α e β-caroteno e avaliou-se o valor pro-vitamínico A de quatro hortaliças folhosas comercializadas em mercados locais e feira- livre de Viçosa, MG durante a primavera e o inverno de 2002. Os carotenóides foram analisados por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE. O α-caroteno foi detectado em todas as amostras analisadas na primavera, porém no inverno, somente algumas amostras de alface crespa e lisa, e couve apresentaram tal carotenóide. O β-caroteno foi encontrado, em quantidades apreciáveis, em todas as hortaliças folhosas analisadas. O teste de Duncan (α=5% detectou que o conteúdo de α-caroteno em alface crespa e o valor de vitamina A em agrião de folha larga foram estatisticamente superiores na primavera. Os teores médios de β-caroteno e de valor de vitamina A para agrião de folha larga e hidropônico, alface crespa e lisa, couve e espinafre foram: 7544; 8751

  4. The Association between Dietary Vitamin A and Carotenes and the Risk of Primary Liver Cancer: A Case–Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Qiu-Ye; Zhang, Yao-Jun; Liao, Gong-Cheng; Zhou, Rui-Fen; Zhou, Zhong-Guo; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhu, Hui-Lian

    2016-01-01

    Dietary intake of vitamin A (VA) and carotenes has shown beneficial effects for decreasing the risk of some types of cancer, but findings on the risk of primary liver cancer (PLC) are inconsistent. This case–control study explored the associations between the dietary intake of VA and carotenes and the risk of PLC. We recruited 644 incident PLC patients (diagnosed within one month of each other) and 644 age- and gender-matched controls in Guangzhou, China. A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess habitual dietary intake. Logistic regression analyses found that higher intakes of VA and carotenes were independently associated with decreased PLC risk (all P-trend < 0.001). The multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CI) of PLC for the highest (vs. lowest) quartile were 0.34 (0.24–0.48) for vitamin A and 0.35 (0.25–0.49) for carotenes. The associations were not significantly modified by smoking, alcohol, or tea drinking (P-interactions: 0.062–0.912). Dose–response analysis showed a U-shaped VA–PLC relationship, with sharply decreased risks at the intakes of about 1000 μg retinol equivalent (RE)/day, and then slowly went down toward the flat-bottomed risks with the lowest risk at 2300 μg RE/day. Our findings suggest that greater intake of retinol, carotenes, and total VA may decrease PLC risk among the Chinese population at an intake of 1000 μg RE/day or greater from food sources. PMID:27727160

  5. Lifestyle Behaviours and Plasma Vitamin C and β-Carotene Levels from the ELAN Population (Liège, Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël Pincemail

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several factors, including fruit and vegetables intakes, have been shown to significantly influence the plasma concentrations of the two antioxidants vitamin C and β-carotene. Deficiency levels of 6 mg/L (34.2 μM for vitamin C and of 0.22 mg/L (0.4 μM for β-carotene have been suggested below which cardiovascular risk might be increased. The present study performed on 897 presumably healthy subjects aged 40–60 years aimed to examine how modifiable lifestyle factors may be related to vitamin C and/or β-carotene deficiency. Gender, smoking, lack of regular physical activity and of daily fruit consumption (≥2/day, and social status (in particular, unemployment were found to be significant risk factors for vitamin C deficiency. For β-carotene deficiency, the same factors were identified except social status; moreover, overweight and OC use in women were also found to have a deleterious effect. For non exposed subjects, the probability of developing vitamin C deficiency was 4% in men and 2.4% in women. This probability increased to 66.3% for men and to 44.3% for women (and even to 50.4% under OC use, when all risk factors were present. For β-carotene deficiency, the corresponding probabilities were equal to 29.7% in men and 13.7% in women (no risk factor present, and to 86.1% for men and 69.9% (91.6% for OC use for women (all factors present, respectively.

  6. Application of derivative ratio spectrophotometry for determination of β-carotene and astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Hui; HE Guo-qing; RUAN Hui; CHEN Qi-he; CHEN Feng

    2005-01-01

    A derivative ratio spectrophotometric method was used for the simultaneous determination of β-carotene and astaxanthin produced from Phaffia rhodozyma. Absorbencies of a series of the standard carotenoids in the range of 441 nm to 490nm demonstrated that their absorptive spectra accorded with Beer's law and that the additivity when the concentrations of β-carotene and astaxanthin and their mixture were within the range of 0 to 5 μg/ml, 0 to 6 μg/ml, and 0 to 6 μg/ml, respectively.When the wavelength interval (△λ) at 2 nm was selected to calculate the first derivative ratio spectra values, the first derivative amplitudes at 461 nm and 466 nm were suitable for quantitatively determining β-carotene and astaxanthin, respectively. Effect of divisor on derivative ratio spectra could be neglected; any concentration used as divisor in range of 1.0 to 4.0 μg/ml is ideal for calculating the derivative ratio spectra values of the two carotenoids. Calibration graphs were established for β-carotene within 0-6.0 μg/ml and for astaxanthin within 0-5.0 μg/ml with their corresponding regressive equations in: y=-0.0082x-0.0002 and y=0.0146x-0.0006, respectively. R-square values in excess of 0.999 indicated the good linearity of the calibration graphs. Sample recovery rates were found satisfactory (>99%) with relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 5%. This method was successfully applied to simultaneous determination of β-carotene and astaxanthin in the laboratory-prepared mixtures and the extract from the Phaffia rhodozyma culture.

  7. The Effect of β-Carotene Supplementation on the Pharmacokinetics of Nelfinavir and Its Active Metabolite M8 in HIV-1-infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humayoun Akhtar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available β-Carotene supplements are often taken by individuals living with HIV-1. Contradictory results from in vitro studies suggest that β-carotene may inhibit or induce cytochrome P450 enzymes and transporters. The study objective was to investigate the effect of β-carotene on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of nelfinavir and its active metabolite M8 in HIV-1 infected individuals. Twelve hour nelfinavir pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted at baseline and after 28 days of β-carotene supplementation (25,000 IU twice daily. Nelfinavir and M8 concentrations were measured with validated assays. Non-compartmental methods were used to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters. Geometric mean ratios comparing day 28 to day 1 area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0–12 h, maximum (Cmax and minimum (Cmin concentrations of nelfinavir and M8 are presented with 90% confidence intervals. Eleven subjects completed the study and were included in the analysis. There were no significant differences in nelfinavir AUC0–12 h and Cmin (−10%, +4% after β-carotene supplementation. The M8 Cmin was increased by 31% while the M8 AUC0–12 h and Cmax were unchanged. During the 28 day period, mean CD4+ % and CD4+:CD8+ ratio increased significantly (p < 0.01. β-carotene supplementation increased serum carotene levels but did not cause any clinically significant difference in the nelfinavir and M8 exposure.

  8. Combining Ability and Parent-Offspring Correlation of Maize (Zea may L.) Grainβ-Carotene Content with a Complete Diallel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Run; CAO Mo-ju; XIAO Lan-hai; WANG Jing; LU Yan-li; RONG Ting-zhao; PAN Guang-tang; WU Yuan-qi; TANG Qi-lin; LAN Hai

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency has become a worldwide problem. Biofortified foods can potentially be an inexpensive, locally adaptable, and long-term solution to dietary-nutrient deficiency. In order to improve theβ-carotene content in maize grain by breeding and minimize vitamin A deficiency, a complete diallel cross was designed with eight inbred lines of maize, and 64 combinations were obtained in this study. The experimental combinations were planted in Yunnan and Sichuan provinces, respectively, with a random complete block design. Theβ-carotene contents in the grains of the experimental materials were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Among the tested materials, the effect difference of general combining ability of theβ-carotene content was significant;however, the effect difference of the special combining ability and the reciprocal effect were not significant. Theβ-carotene content of maize grain was not influenced significantly by the cross and the reciprocal cross. There was a significant correlation about theβ-carotene content in the maize grains between the F1 and their parents. The combinations with high β-carotene content were obviously influenced by the environment, and the mean value ofβ-carotene content for the experimental materials planted in Ya’an of Sichuan was higher than that planted in Yuanjiang of Yunnan, with the results being significant at the 0.01 level.

  9. Structural changes of β-carotene and some retinoid pharmaceuticals induced by environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Maciej; Kaczor, Agnieszka; Dobrowolski, Jan Cz.; Baranska, Malgorzata

    2013-04-01

    Four pharmaceuticals (β-carotene (1), retinoic acid (2), isotretinoin (3), and etretinate (4)) were analyzed using Raman spectroscopy and quantum-chemical calculations followed by potential energy distribution (PED) analysis to gain deeper insight into the experimental vibrational spectra. Small shifts of characteristic bands of (4) upon change of solvent and pH were interpreted as a result of molecular aggregation. Temperature-dependent studies on the Raman spectrum of (1) were performed in the temperature region of -150 °C to +150 °C. The observed small shifts in the experimental spectra upon heating were explained by increase of the high-energy conformers (of the trans type) in the population of (1) related to weakening of the intermolecular interactions that enables rotation of the terminal rings with respect to the polyene chain. Deconvolution of the ν1 band showed changes in intensity and position of the deconvoluted bands with the increase of temperature.

  10. Cloning and Characterization of the -Carotene Desaturase Gene from Chlorella protothecoides CS-41

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiya Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the lutein biosynthesis pathway in the lutein-producing alga, Chlorella protothecoides CS-41, the -carotene desaturase gene (zds was isolated from Chlorella protothecoides using the approach of rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA sequence was 2031 bp and contained 1755 bp putative open reading frame which encodes a 584 amino acid deduced polypeptide whose computed molecular weight was 63.7 kDa. Sequence homology research indicated that the nucleotide and putative protein had sequence identities of 72.5% and 69.5% with those of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the ZDS from C. protothecoides CS-41 had a closer relationship with those of chlorophyta and higher plants than with those of other species. In addition, we also found that the zds gene expression was upregulated in response to light.

  11. Systematic Evaluation and Mechanistic Investigation of Antioxidant Activity of Fullerenols Using β-Carotene Bleaching Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ueno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity of hydroxylated fullerenes, so-called fullerenols, against lipid peroxyl radical was evaluated by β-carotene bleaching assay. All samples showed moderate to high antioxidant activity (%AOA, especially for C60(OH12 (70.1 and C60(OH44 (66.0 as compared with 8, 24, 26, and 36 hydroxylated ones (31.7–62.8. The detection of the possible products was conducted in the model reaction of both fullerenols and C60 with methyl linoleate by MALDI-TOF-MS. These results suggested that the two possible mechanisms, such as C-addition to double bonds and H-abstraction from –OH groups, are involved in the present radical scavenging reaction.

  12. Forward-Looking Betas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Vainberg, Gregory

    -looking. This paper introduces a radically different approach to estimating market betas. Using the tools in Bakshi and Madan (2000) and Bakshi, Kapadia and Madan (2003) we employ the information embedded in the prices of individual stock options and index options to compute our forward-looking market beta...

  13. Cucurbita moschata Duch. and its active component, β-carotene effectively promote the immune responses through the activation of splenocytes and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Yun; Nam, Sun-Young; Yang, Shi-Young; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2016-10-01

    Cucurbita moschata Duch. has long been used for traditional health food in many countries. However, to enhance the immune system of Cucurbita moschata Duch. and its major component, β-carotene is not clear. Here, we determined the immune enhancement effect of Cucurbita moschata Duch. and β-carotene in mouse splenocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line. We prepared baked Cucurbita moschata Duch. (Sweetme Sweet Pumpkin(TM), SSP) and steamed Cucurbita moschata Duch. (SC). Splenocytes isolated from the spleen of BALB/c mice were treated with SSP, SC, and β-carotene for 24 h. RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated with recombinant interferon-γ (rIFN-γ) for 6 h before treatment with SSP, SC, or β-carotene. SSP, SC and β-carotene significantly up-regulated the proliferation of splenocyte and mRNA expression of KI-67. The levels of interleukin-2 and IFN-γ were up-regulated by SSP, SC, or β-carotene in the splenocytes. SC and β-carotene also increased the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the splenocytes. In addition, SSP, SC, or β-carotene significantly increased the levels of TNF-α through the nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor-κB and phosphorylation of IκBα in the rIFN-γ-primed RAW 264.7 cells. These data indicate that Cucurbita moschata Duch. and β-carotene may have an immune-enhancing effect through the production of Th1 cytokines by activation of splenocytes and macrophages.

  14. A Study of the Cis—Trans Isomers of β—Apo—12′—Carotenal By Resonance Raman Spectroscopy at Low Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YingHu; TadashiMizoguchi; 等

    1995-01-01

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique to study the cis-trans configurations and the intermolecular interactions of carotenoids bound to pigmentprotein complexes[1,2].In the present invertigation,we studied a set of cis-trans isomers of β-Apo-12′-carotenal,the conjugated chain of which has a length in -between those of β-carotene and retinal,to examine whether the configurational key Raman lines which have been established for β-carotene are still valid for β-Apo-12′-caotenal[3

  15. Influence of the ordered structure of short-chain polymer molecule all-trans-β-carotene on Raman scattering cross section in liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Guan-Nan; OuYang Shun-Li; Wang Wei-Wei; Li Zuo-Wei; Sun Cheng-Lin; Men Zhi-Wei

    2011-01-01

    We measured the resonant Raman spectra of all-trans-β-carotene in solvents with different densities and concentrations at different temperatures. The results demonstrated that the Raman scattering cross section (RSCS) of short-chain polymer all-trans-β-carotene is extremely high in liquid. Resonance and strong coherent weakly damped CC bond vibrating properties play important roles under these conditions. Coherent weakly damped CC bond vibration strength is associated with molecular ordered structure. All-trans-β-carotene has highly ordered structure and strong coherent weakly damped CC bond vibrating properties, which lead to large RSCS in the solvent with large density and low concentration at low temperature.

  16. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kai Zuber

    2012-10-01

    The physics potential of neutrinoless double beta decay is discussed. Furthermore, experimental considerations as well as the current status of experiments are presented. Finally, an outlook towards the future, work on nuclear matrix elements and alternative processes is given.

  17. [High beta tokamak research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our activities on High Beta Tokamak Research during the past 20 months of the present grant period can be divided into six areas: reconstruction and modeling of high beta equilibria in HBT; measurement and analysis of MHD instabilities observed in HBT; measurements of impurity transport; diagnostic development on HBT; numerical parameterization of the second stability regime; and conceptual design and assembly of HBT-EP. Each of these is described in some detail in the sections of this progress report

  18. Effect of Carotene and Lycopene on the Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulan Wang

    Full Text Available Many epidemiologic studies have investigated the association between carotenoids intake and risk of Prostate cancer (PCa. However, results have been inconclusive.We conducted a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of dietary intake or blood concentrations of carotenoids in relation to PCa risk. We summarized the data from 34 eligible studies (10 cohort, 11 nested case-control and 13 case-control studies and estimated summary Risk Ratios (RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs using random-effects models.Neither dietary β-carotene intake nor its blood levels was associated with reduced PCa risk. Dietary α-carotene intake and lycopene consumption (both dietary intake and its blood levels were all associated with reduced risk of PCa (RR for dietary α-carotene intake: 0.87, 95%CI: 0.76-0.99; RR for dietary lycopene intake: 0.86, 95%CI: 0.75-0.98; RR for blood lycopene levels: 0.81, 95%CI: 0.69-0.96. However, neither blood α-carotene levels nor blood lycopene levels could reduce the risk of advanced PCa. Dose-response analysis indicated that risk of PCa was reduced by 2% per 0.2mg/day (95%CI: 0.96-0.99 increment of dietary α-carotene intake or 3% per 1mg/day (95%CI: 0.94-0.99 increment of dietary lycopene intake.α-carotene and lycopene, but not β-carotene, were inversely associated with the risk of PCa. However, both α-carotene and lycopene could not lower the risk of advanced PCa.

  19. Melatonin is more effective than ascorbic acid and β-carotene in improvement of gastric mucosal damage induced by intensive stress

    OpenAIRE

    Akinci, Aysin; Esrefoglu, Mukaddes; Cetin, Asli; Ates, Burhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oxidative stress has been considered to play a primary role in the pathogenesis of stress-induced gastric damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of melatonin, ascorbic acid and β-carotene on stress-induced gastric mucosal damage. Material and methods Fifty-six male Wistar albino rats were divided into control, stress, stress + standard diet, stress + saline, stress + melatonin, stress + ascorbic acid and stress + β-carotene groups. The rats from stress group...

  20. {beta} - amyloid imaging probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Imaging distribution of {beta} - amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease is very important for early and accurate diagnosis. Early trial of the {beta} -amyloid plaques includes using radiolabeled peptides which can be only applied for peripheral {beta} - amyloid plaques due to limited penetration through the blood brain barrier (BBB). Congo red or Chrysamine G derivatives were labeled with Tc-99m for imaging {beta} - amyloid plaques of Alzheimer patient's brain without success due to problem with BBB penetration. Thioflavin T derivatives gave breakthrough for {beta} - amyloid imaging in vivo, and a benzothiazole derivative [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 brought a great success. Many other benzothiazole, benzoxazole, benzofuran, imidazopyridine, and styrylbenzene derivatives have been labeled with F-18 and I-123 to improve the imaging quality. However, [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 still remains as the best. However, short half-life of C-11 is a limitation of wide distribution of this agent. So, it is still required to develop an Tc-99m, F-18 or I-123 labeled agent for {beta} - amyloid imaging agent.

  1. β-胡萝卜素的研究进展%Research Progress on β-Carotene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪岩; 辛乃宏

    2013-01-01

    β - carotene is a kind of important natural pigment and antioxidant. It is widely used in industry of food, medicine and heath care, cosmetic, animal feed and so on. The advanced research progress on β - carotene at home and abroad on function, production and method of extraction and detection etc. is discussed in the article.%β-胡萝卜素是一种重要的天然色素和抗氧化剂,它在食品工业、医药保健、化妆品和动物饲料等行业都有广泛的应用.文章对B-胡萝卜素的功能、生产、提取与检测方法等国内外最新研究进展进行了论述.

  2. The P450-type carotene hydroxylase PuCHY1 from Porphyra suggests the evolution of carotenoid metabolism in red algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-En Yang; Xing-Qi Huang; Yu Hang; Yin-Yin Deng; Qin-Qin Lu; Shan Lu

    2014-01-01

    Carotene hydroxylases catalyze the hydroxylation of a-and b-carotene hydrocarbons into xanthophylls. In red algae, b-carotene is a ubiquitously distributed carotenoid, and hydroxylated carotenoids such as zeaxanthin and lutein are also found. However, no enzyme with carotene hydroxy-lase activity had been previously identified in red algae. Here, we report the isolation of a gene encoding a cytochrome P450-type carotene hydroxylase (PuCHY1) from Porphyra umbilicalis, a red alga with an ancient origin. Sequence comparisons found PuCHY1 belongs to the CYP97B subfamily, which has members from different photosynthetic organisms ranging from red algae to land plants. Functional comple-mentation in Escherichia coli suggested that PuCHY1 catalyzed the conversion from b-carotene to zeaxanthin. When we overexpressed PuCHY1 in the Arabidopsis thaliana chy2 mutant, pigment analysis showed a significant accumu-lation of hydroxylated carotenoids, including neoxanthin, violaxanthin, and lutein in the leaves of transgenic plants. These results confirmed a b-hydroxylation activity of PuCHY1, and also suggested a possible e-hydroxylation function. The pigment profile and gene expression analyses of the algal thallus under high-light stress suggested that P. umbilicalis is unlikely to operate a partial xanthophyll cycle for photoprotection.

  3. The potato carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 catalyzes a single cleavage of β-ionone ring-containing carotenes and non-epoxidated xanthophylls

    KAUST Repository

    Bruno, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Down-regulation of the potato carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 (StCCD4) transcript level led to tubers with altered morphology and sprouting activity, which also accumulated higher levels of violaxanthin and lutein leading to elevated carotenoid amounts. This phenotype indicates a role of this enzyme in tuber development, which may be exerted by a cleavage product. In this work, we investigated the enzymatic activity of StCCD4, by expressing the corresponding cDNA in carotenoid accumulating Escherichia coli strains and by performing in vitro assays with heterologously expressed enzyme. StCCD4 catalyzed the cleavage of all-. trans-β-carotene at the C9\\'-C10\\' double bond, leading to β-ionone and all-. trans-β-apo-10\\'-carotenal, both in vivo and in vitro. The enzyme also cleaved β,β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein either at the C9\\'-C10\\' or the C9-C10 double bond in vitro. In contrast, we did not observe any conversion of violaxanthin and only traces of activity with 9-. cis-β-carotene, which led to 9-. cis-β-apo-10\\'-carotenal. Our data indicate that all-. trans-β-carotene is the likely substrate of StCCD4 in planta, and that this carotene may be precursor of an unknown compound involved in tuber development.

  4. Comparative studies on the stability of vitamin C and β-carotene of some sliced vegetables and fruit juices exposed to microwaves and γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this work was to maintain the integrity and contents of vitamin C and β-carotene, carrots, sweet potatoes and mango serving as main sources of β-carotene, while guava, lime and orange were considered as major reservoir for vitamin C. Microwave and γ-irradiation treatments were applied to keep the vitamin C and β-Carotene of the aforementioned natural sources. The samples were exposed to γ-irradiation at doses of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5,2.0,2.5 and 3 kGy and microwaves for 1,2,3 and 4 min at low power setting. The results indicate that the vitamin C and β-Carotene levels of the samples were variably degraded depending upon the conditions of treatments. Microwave treatment caused decreases in the levels of vitamin C of lime, orange and guava and the extent of reduction was dependent upon the exposure time. In general, γ-irradiation treatment was better than exposure to microwaves for retention of vitamin C and β-carotene and hence extending the shelf life of the food sources under study. The mode of action of these physical methods on vitamin C and β-carotene content is discussed.

  5. The potato carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 catalyzes a single cleavage of β-ionone ring-containing carotenes and non-epoxidated xanthophylls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Mark; Beyer, Peter; Al-Babili, Salim

    2015-04-15

    Down-regulation of the potato carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 (StCCD4) transcript level led to tubers with altered morphology and sprouting activity, which also accumulated higher levels of violaxanthin and lutein leading to elevated carotenoid amounts. This phenotype indicates a role of this enzyme in tuber development, which may be exerted by a cleavage product. In this work, we investigated the enzymatic activity of StCCD4, by expressing the corresponding cDNA in carotenoid accumulating Escherichia coli strains and by performing in vitro assays with heterologously expressed enzyme. StCCD4 catalyzed the cleavage of all-trans-β-carotene at the C9'-C10' double bond, leading to β-ionone and all-trans-β-apo-10'-carotenal, both in vivo and in vitro. The enzyme also cleaved β,β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein either at the C9'-C10' or the C9-C10 double bond in vitro. In contrast, we did not observe any conversion of violaxanthin and only traces of activity with 9-cis-β-carotene, which led to 9-cis-β-apo-10'-carotenal. Our data indicate that all-trans-β-carotene is the likely substrate of StCCD4 in planta, and that this carotene may be precursor of an unknown compound involved in tuber development. PMID:25703194

  6. Cooperation between MEF2 and PPARγ in human intestinal β,β-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Bingfang

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin A and its derivatives, the retinoids, are essential for normal embryonic development and maintenance of cell differentiation. β, β-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 (BCMO1 catalyzes the central cleavage of β-carotene to all-trans retinal and is the key enzyme in the intestinal metabolism of carotenes to vitamin A. However, human and various rodent species show markedly different efficiencies in intestinal BCMO1-mediated carotene to retinoid conversion. The aim of this study is to identify potentially human-specific regulatory control mechanisms of BCMO1 gene expression. Results We identified and functionally characterized the human BCMO1 promoter sequence and determined the transcriptional regulation of the BCMO1 gene in a BCMO1 expressing human intestinal cell line, TC-7. Several functional transcription factor-binding sites were identified in the human promoter that are absent in the mouse BCMO1 promoter. We demonstrate that the proximal promoter sequence, nt -190 to +35, confers basal transcriptional activity of the human BCMO1 gene. Site-directed mutagenesis of the myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR binding elements resulted in decreased basal promoter activity. Mutation of both promoter elements abrogated the expression of intestinal cell BCMO1. Electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays and transcription factor co-expression in TC-7 cells showed MEF2C and PPARγ bind to their respective DNA elements and synergistically transactivate BCMO1 expression. Conclusion We demonstrate that human intestinal cell BCMO1 expression is dependent on the functional cooperation between PPARγ and MEF2 isoforms. The findings suggest that the interaction between MEF2 and PPAR factors may provide a molecular basis for interspecies differences in the transcriptional regulation of the BCMO1 gene.

  7. Biochemical changes in phenols, flavonoids, tannins, vitamin E,β-carotene and antioxidant activity during soaking of three whitesorghum varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abd El-Moneim MR Afify; Hossam S El-Beltagi; Samiha M Abd El-Salam; Azza A Omran

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes in total phenols, flavonoids, tannins, vitamin E,β-carotene and antioxidant activity during soaking of three white sorghum varieties. Methods:The changes in total phenols, total flavonoids, tannins, phenolic acids compounds, flavonoid components, vitamin E, β-carotene and antioxidant activity during soaking of sorghum grains were determined. Results: Total phenols, total flavonoids, tannins, vitamin E, β-carotene and antioxidant activity in raw sorghum were ranged from 109.21 to 116.70, 45.91 to 54.69, 1.39 to 21.79 mg/100 g, 1.74 to 5.25, 0.54 to 1.19 mg/kg and 21.72% to 27.69% and 25.29% to 31.97%, respectively. The above measured compounds were significantly decreased after soaking. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid and cinnamic acid represent the major phenolic acids in Dorado variety. While ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid and caffeic acid represent the major phenolic acids in Shandaweel-6. On the other hand, protocatechuic acid represents the major phenolic acids in Giza-15. Regarding flavonoids components, Dorado was the highest variety in kampferol and naringenin while Shandaweel-6 was the highest variety in luteolin, apigenin, hypersoid, quercetin and christen. Finally, Giza-15 was the highest variety in catechin. Phenolic acids, flavonoid compounds and antioxidant activities were decreased after soaking.Conclusions:tannins, phenolic acids compounds, flavonoid components, vitamin E, β-carotene and antioxidant activity which decreased after soaking. Sorghum varieties have moderate quantities from total phenols, total flavonoids

  8. Genetic modification of the soybean to enhance the β-carotene content through seed-specific expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Jin Kim

    Full Text Available The carotenoid biosynthetic pathway was genetically manipulated using the recombinant PAC (Phytoene synthase-2A-Carotene desaturase gene in Korean soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Kwangan. The PAC gene was linked to either the β-conglycinin (β or CaMV-35S (35S promoter to generate β-PAC and 35S-PAC constructs, respectively. A total of 37 transgenic lines (19 for β-PAC and 18 for 35S-PAC were obtained through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using the modified half-seed method. The multi-copy insertion of the transgene was determined by genomic Southern blot analysis. Four lines for β-PAC were selected by visual inspection to confirm an orange endosperm, which was not found in the seeds of the 35S-PAC lines. The strong expression of PAC gene was detected in the seeds of the β-PAC lines and in the leaves of the 35S-PAC lines by RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analyses, suggesting that these two different promoters function distinctively. HPLC analysis of the seeds and leaves of the T(2 generation plants revealed that the best line among the β-PAC transgenic seeds accumulated 146 µg/g of total carotenoids (approximately 62-fold higher than non-transgenic seeds, of which 112 µg/g (77% was β-carotene. In contrast, the level and composition of the leaf carotenoids showed little difference between transgenic and non-transgenic soybean plants. We have therefore demonstrated the production of a high β-carotene soybean through the seed-specific overexpression of two carotenoid biosynthetic genes, Capsicum phytoene synthase and Pantoea carotene desaturase. This nutritional enhancement of soybean seeds through the elevation of the provitamin A content to produce biofortified food may have practical health benefits in the future in both humans and livestock.

  9. A review of vitamin A equivalency of β-carotene in various food matrices for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loo-Bouwman, Carolien A; Naber, Ton H J; Schaafsma, Gertjan

    2014-06-28

    Vitamin A equivalency of β-carotene (VEB) is defined as the amount of ingested β-carotene in μg that is absorbed and converted into 1 μg retinol (vitamin A) in the human body. The objective of the present review was to discuss the different estimates for VEB in various types of dietary food matrices. Different methods are discussed such as mass balance, dose-response and isotopic labelling. The VEB is currently estimated by the US Institute of Medicine (IOM) as 12:1 in a mixed diet and 2:1 in oil. For humans consuming β-carotene dissolved in oil, a VEB between 2:1 and 4:1 is feasible. A VEB of approximately 4:1 is applicable for biofortified cassava, yellow maize and Golden Rice, which are specially bred for human consumption in developing countries. We propose a range of 9:1-16:1 for VEB in a mixed diet that encompasses the IOM VEB of 12:1 and is realistic for a Western diet under Western conditions. For a 'prudent' (i.e. non-Western) diet including a variety of commonly consumed vegetables, a VEB could range from 9:1 to 28:1 in a mixed diet. PMID:24513222

  10. Impact of different drying parameters on color, β-carotene, antioxidant activity and minerals of apricot (Prunus armeniacaL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bige İNCEDAYI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Apricot is one of the fruits dried by using different methods, such as sun, convective or microwave drying. The effects of drying methods on the components of this fruit differ depending upon the temperature or time parameters. In this research, the impacts of convective, microwave and microwave–convective drying techniques on color, β-carotene, minerals and antioxidant activity of apricots were investigated. The color values (L*, b*,ΔEab, h° and C*ab of dried fruit were decreased, while the a* values increased. Compared with a fresh sample, the dried apricots showed a 1.4-3.9-fold proportional increase in β-carotene based on the increment of dry matter. The samples dried at high temperature and microwave levels, at 75 °C+90 watt and 75 °C+160 watt, showed lower antioxidant activity. Of the different drying treatments, the microwave-convective method (50 °C+160 watt obtained a higher β-carotene content while maintaining antioxidant activity with a short drying time.

  11. Characterization and enhancement of the electrical performance of radiation modified poly (vinyl alcohol/gelatin copolymer films doped with carotene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lotfy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of poly (vinyl alcohol/gelatin copolymer (PVA/Gel with different entrapped carotene (Carot concentration into the films has been devised. The films were irradiated with γ-rays at dose levels of 10, 50, 100, 150 and 250 kGy. The crystalline and chemical structures of the samples have been studied using XRD and FTIR techniques. The direct current electrical conductivity (σDC has been determined from the proposed sampling before and after gamma exposure. It is clearly demonstrated that the electrical conductivity of PVA/Gel/Carot films was increased from two to three orders of magnitude due to carotene doping, and decreased one order of magnitude due to gamma radiation. The obtained results can be attributed to the existence of the conjugated double bonds in the aliphatic side chain of the carotene molecule. Thus, this work suggests the possibility of the use of the gamma irradiated PVA/Gel/Carot films in different electronic applications.

  12. Changes in antioxidant capacity and colour associated with the formation of β-carotene epoxides and oxidative cleavage derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurak, Poliana D; Mercadante, Adriana Z; González-Miret, M L; Heredia, Francisco J; Meléndez-Martínez, Antonio J

    2014-03-15

    In this study HPLC-DAD-MS/MS was applied for the identification of compounds derived from (all-E)-β-carotene following epoxidation and oxidative cleavage. The consequences on the CIELAB colour parameters and antioxidant capacity (AC) were also evaluated. Five apocarotenoids, three secocarotenoids, seven Z isomers and two epoxides were detected as a result of the oxidative cleavage. Four epoxides and three Z isomers were detected as a consequence of the epoxidation reaction. Some compounds were detected for the first time as a result of oxidation reactions. Both treatments led to a marked decrease in b(∗) and Cab(∗) values, indicating that these colour parameters can be used for the rapid assessment of β-carotene oxidation. The oxidative cleavage of β-carotene resulted in increased capacity to both scavenge ABTS(+) and quench singlet oxygen. These results suggest that the study of the AC of these oxidative derivatives and their possible usefulness as food ingredients deserves further attention.

  13. Determination of Vitamin C, b-carotene and Riboflavin Contents in Five Green Vegetables Organically and Conventionally Grown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Amin; Cheah, Sook Fun

    2003-03-01

    As consumer interest in organically grown vegetables is increasing in Malaysia, there is a need to answer whether the vegetables are more nutritious than those conventionally grown. This study investigates commercially available vegetables grown organically and conventionally, purchased from retailers to analyse β-carotene, vitamin C and riboflavin contents. Five types of green vegetables were selected, namely Chinese mustard (sawi) (Brassica juncea), Chinese kale (kai-lan) (Brassica alboglabra), lettuce (daun salad) (Lactuca sativa), spinach (bayam putih) (Amaranthus viridis) and swamp cabbage (kangkung) (Ipomoea aquatica). For vitamin analysis, a reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography was used to identify and quantify β -carotene, vitamin C and riboflavin. The findings showed that not all of the organically grown vegetables were higher in vitamins than that conventionally grown. This study found that only swamp cabbage grown organically was highest in β -carotene, vitamin C and riboflavin contents among the entire samples studied. The various nutrients in organically grown vegetables need to be analysed for the generation of a database on nutritional value which is important for future research. PMID:22692530

  14. Multi-functionality Redefined with Colloidal Carotene Carbon Nanoparticles for Synchronized Chemical Imaging, Enriched Cellular Uptake and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Santosh K.; Mukherjee, Prabuddha; Chang, Huei-Huei; Tiwari, Saumya; Gryka, Mark; Bhargava, Rohit; Pan, Dipanjan

    2016-07-01

    Typically, multiplexing high nanoparticle uptake, imaging, and therapy requires careful integration of three different functions of a multiscale molecular-particle assembly. Here, we present a simpler approach to multiplexing by utilizing one component of the system for multiple functions. Specifically, we successfully synthesized and characterized colloidal carotene carbon nanoparticle (C3-NP), in which a single functional molecule served a threefold purpose. First, the presence of carotene moieties promoted the passage of the particle through the cell membrane and into the cells. Second, the ligand acted as a potent detrimental moiety for cancer cells and, finally, the ligands produced optical contrast for robust microscopic detection in complex cellular environments. In comparative tests, C3-NP were found to provide effective intracellular delivery that enables both robust detection at cellular and tissue level and presents significant therapeutic potential without altering the mechanism of intracellular action of β-carotene. Surface coating of C3 with phospholipid was used to generate C3-Lipocoat nanoparticles with further improved function and biocompatibility, paving the path to eventual in vivo studies.

  15. Multi-functionality Redefined with Colloidal Carotene Carbon Nanoparticles for Synchronized Chemical Imaging, Enriched Cellular Uptake and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Santosh K.; Mukherjee, Prabuddha; Chang, Huei-Huei; Tiwari, Saumya; Gryka, Mark; Bhargava, Rohit; Pan, Dipanjan

    2016-01-01

    Typically, multiplexing high nanoparticle uptake, imaging, and therapy requires careful integration of three different functions of a multiscale molecular-particle assembly. Here, we present a simpler approach to multiplexing by utilizing one component of the system for multiple functions. Specifically, we successfully synthesized and characterized colloidal carotene carbon nanoparticle (C3-NP), in which a single functional molecule served a threefold purpose. First, the presence of carotene moieties promoted the passage of the particle through the cell membrane and into the cells. Second, the ligand acted as a potent detrimental moiety for cancer cells and, finally, the ligands produced optical contrast for robust microscopic detection in complex cellular environments. In comparative tests, C3-NP were found to provide effective intracellular delivery that enables both robust detection at cellular and tissue level and presents significant therapeutic potential without altering the mechanism of intracellular action of β-carotene. Surface coating of C3 with phospholipid was used to generate C3-Lipocoat nanoparticles with further improved function and biocompatibility, paving the path to eventual in vivo studies. PMID:27405011

  16. Two-wavelength Raman detector for noninvasive measurements of carotenes and lycopene in human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, Igor V.; Ermakova, Maia R.; Gellermann, Werner

    2005-04-01

    Carotenoids are an important part of the antioxidant system in human skin. Carotenoid molecules, provided by fruits and vegetables, are potent free radical quenchers that accumulate in the body. If not balanced by carotenoids and other antioxidants, free radicals may cause premature skin aging, oxidative cell damage, and even skin cancers. As carotenoids depletion may predispose a person to cancer or other disease, rapid and noninvasive measurement of carotenoid level in skin may be of preventive or diagnostic help. At the very least, such measurement can be used to obtain a biomarker for healthy levels of fruit and vegetable consumption. Recently we have developed noninvasive optical technique based on Raman spectroscopy. In this paper we describe compact optical detector for clinical applications that utilizes two-wavelength excitation. It selectively measures the two most prominent skin carotenoids found in the human skin, lycopene and carotenes. According to the medical literature, these two compounds may play different roles in the human body and be part of different tissue defense mechanisms. Dual-wavelength Raman measurements reveal significant differences in the carotenoid composition of different subjects.

  17. Beta and Gamma Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Gaffney, C. F.; Clark, P. A.;

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and/or theoretical estimates are presented concerning, (i) attenuation within the sample of beta and gamma radiation from the soil, (ii) the gamma dose within the sample due to its own radioactivity, and (iii) the soil gamma dose in the proximity of boundaries between regions...... of differing radioactivity. It is confirmed that removal of the outer 2 mm of sample is adequate to remove influence from soil beta dose and estimates are made of the error introduced by non-removal. Other evaluations include variation of the soil gamma dose near the ground surface and it appears...

  18. Double beta decay experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The great sensitivity of double beta decay to neutrino mass and right handed currents has motivated many new and exciting attempts to observe this elusive nuclear phenomenon directly. Experiments in operation and other coming on line in the next one or two years are expected to result in order-of-magnitude improvements in detectable half lives for both the two-neutrino and no-neutrino modes. A brief history of double beta decay experiments is presented together with a discussion of current experimental efforts, including a gas filled time projection chamber being used to study selenium-82. (author)

  19. Evaluation of neutrino masses from $m_{\\beta\\beta}$ values

    CERN Document Server

    Khrushchov, V V

    2008-01-01

    A neutrino mass matrix is considered under conditions of the CP invariance and the negligible reactor mixing $\\theta_{13}$ angle. Absolute mass values for three neutrinos are evaluated in normal and inverted hierarchy spectra on the ground of data for oscillation mixing neutrino parameters and effective neutrino mass entering into a probability of neutrinoless two beta decay $m_{\\beta\\beta}$ values.

  20. Trichoderma .beta.-glucosidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2006-01-03

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl3, and the corresponding BGL3 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL3, recombinant BGL3 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  1. Applied Beta Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of beta and/or nonpenetrating exposure results is complicated and past techniques and capabilities have resulted in significant inaccuracies in recorded results. Current developments have resulted in increased capabilities which make the results more accurate and should result in less total exposure to the work force. Continued development of works in progress should provide equivalent future improvements.

  2. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Päs, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    We review the potential to probe new physics with neutrinoless double beta decay $(A,Z) \\to (A,Z+2) + 2 e^-$. Both the standard long-range light neutrino mechanism as well as short-range mechanisms mediated by heavy particles are discussed. We also stress aspects of the connection to lepton number violation at colliders and the implications for baryogenesis.

  3. Cloning and expression analysis of phytoene desaturase and ζ-carotene desaturase genes in Carica papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, P; Gao, X Z; Shen, W T; Zhou, P

    2011-02-01

    The fruit flesh color of papaya is an important nutritional quality trait and is due to the accumulation of carotenoid. To elucidate the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in Carica papaya, the phytoene desaturase (PDS) and the ζ-carotene desaturase (ZDS) genes were isolated from papaya (named CpPDS and CpZDS) using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approach, and their expression levels were investigated in red- and yellow-fleshed papaya varieties. CpPDS contains a 1749 bp open reading frame coding for 583 amino acids, while CpZDS contains a 1716 bp open reading frame coding for 572 amino acids. The deduced CpPDS and CpZDS proteins contain a conserved dinucleotide-binding site at the N-terminus and a carotenoid-binding domain at the C-terminus. Papaya genome sequence analysis revealed that CpPDS and CpZDS are single copy; the CpPDS was mapped to papaya chromosome LG6, and the CpZDS was mapped to chromosome LG3. Quantitative PCR showed that both CpPDS and CpZDS were expressed in all tissues examined with the highest expression in maturing fruits, and that the expression of CpPDS and CpZDS were higher in red-fleshed fruits than in yellow-fleshed fruits. These results indicated that the differential accumulation of carotenoids in red- and yellow-fleshed papaya varieties might be partly explained by the transcriptional level of CpPDS and CpZDS.

  4. 9-cis β-Carotene Increased Cholesterol Efflux to HDL in Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapir Bechor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol efflux from macrophages is a key process in reverse cholesterol transport and, therefore, might inhibit atherogenesis. 9-cis-β-carotene (9-cis-βc is a precursor for 9-cis-retinoic-acid (9-cis-RA, which regulates macrophage cholesterol efflux. Our objective was to assess whether 9-cis-βc increases macrophage cholesterol efflux and induces the expression of cholesterol transporters. Enrichment of a mouse diet with βc from the alga Dunaliella led to βc accumulation in peritoneal macrophages. 9-cis-βc increased the mRNA levels of CYP26B1, an enzyme that regulates RA cellular levels, indicating the formation of RA from βc in RAW264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, 9-cis-βc, as well as all-trans-βc, significantly increased cholesterol efflux to high-density lipoprotein (HDL by 50% in RAW264.7 macrophages. Likewise, food fortification with 9-cis-βc augmented cholesterol efflux from macrophages ex vivo. 9-cis-βc increased both the mRNA and protein levels of ABCA1 and apolipoprotein E (APOE and the mRNA level of ABCG1. Our study shows, for the first time, that 9-cis-βc from the diet accumulates in peritoneal macrophages and increases cholesterol efflux to HDL. These effects might be ascribed to transcriptional induction of ABCA1, ABCG1, and APOE. These results highlight the beneficial effect of βc in inhibition of atherosclerosis by improving cholesterol efflux from macrophages.

  5. 9-cis β-Carotene Increased Cholesterol Efflux to HDL in Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechor, Sapir; Zolberg Relevy, Noa; Harari, Ayelet; Almog, Tal; Kamari, Yehuda; Ben-Amotz, Ami; Harats, Dror; Shaish, Aviv

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol efflux from macrophages is a key process in reverse cholesterol transport and, therefore, might inhibit atherogenesis. 9-cis-β-carotene (9-cis-βc) is a precursor for 9-cis-retinoic-acid (9-cis-RA), which regulates macrophage cholesterol efflux. Our objective was to assess whether 9-cis-βc increases macrophage cholesterol efflux and induces the expression of cholesterol transporters. Enrichment of a mouse diet with βc from the alga Dunaliella led to βc accumulation in peritoneal macrophages. 9-cis-βc increased the mRNA levels of CYP26B1, an enzyme that regulates RA cellular levels, indicating the formation of RA from βc in RAW264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, 9-cis-βc, as well as all-trans-βc, significantly increased cholesterol efflux to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) by 50% in RAW264.7 macrophages. Likewise, food fortification with 9-cis-βc augmented cholesterol efflux from macrophages ex vivo. 9-cis-βc increased both the mRNA and protein levels of ABCA1 and apolipoprotein E (APOE) and the mRNA level of ABCG1. Our study shows, for the first time, that 9-cis-βc from the diet accumulates in peritoneal macrophages and increases cholesterol efflux to HDL. These effects might be ascribed to transcriptional induction of ABCA1, ABCG1, and APOE. These results highlight the beneficial effect of βc in inhibition of atherosclerosis by improving cholesterol efflux from macrophages. PMID:27447665

  6. 1H NMR, electronic-absorption and resonance-Raman spectra of isomeric okenone as compared with those of isomeric β-carotene, canthaxanthin, β-apo-8'-carotenal and spheroidene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Ritsuko; Chen, Chun-Hai; Mizoguchi, Tadashi; Koyama, Yasushi

    1998-05-01

    Eleven cis- trans isomers of okenone were isolated by means of HPLC using a silica-gel column from an isomeric mixture which was obtained by iodine-sensitized photo-isomerization of the all- trans isomer. The configurations of eight isomers among them were determined by NMR spectroscopy using the isomerization shifts of the olefinic 1Hs and the 1H- 1H NOE correlations to be all- trans, 7- cis, 7- cis,8-s- cis, 9- cis, 9'- cis, 13- cis, 13'- cis and 9,9'-di- cis, and their electronic-absorption and resonance-Raman spectra were recorded. Based on the results: (1) the chemical shifts of the olefinic 1Hs in NMR; (2) the wavelength of the A g-→B u+ transition; and (3) the relative intensity of the A g-→A g+ versus the A g-→B u+ transition in electronic absorption; (4) the CC stretching frequency; and (5) the relative intensity of the C10-C11 (C10'-C11') versus the C14-C15 (C14'-C15') stretching vibration in resonance Raman were compared among the all- trans, 7- cis, 9- cis (9'- cis) and 13- cis (13'- cis) isomers of β-carotene, canthaxanthin, β-apo-8'-carotenal, neurosporene, spheroidene and okenone. Relevance of the systematic changes in the above five different parameters originally found in β-carotene was examined in the rest of the carotenoids, and the effects of the peripheral groups on them were explained in terms of the length and asymmetry of the conjugated system consisting of the CC and CO bonds.

  7. Cellular localization of β-carotene 15,15' oxygenase-1 (BCO1) and β-carotene 9',10' oxygenase-2 (BCO2) in rat liver and intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuvanshi, Shiva; Reed, Vanessa; Blaner, William S; Harrison, Earl H

    2015-04-15

    The intestine and liver are crucial organs for vitamin A uptake and storage. Liver accounts for 70% of total body retinoid stores. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a major micronutrient deficiency around the world. The provitamin A carotenoid, β-carotene, is a significant source of vitamin A in the diet. β-Carotene 15,15' oxygenase-1 (BCO1) and β-carotene 9',10' oxygenase-2 (BCO2) are the two known carotenoid cleavage enzymes in humans. BCO1 and BCO2 are highly expressed in liver and intestine. Hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells are two main cell types involved in the hepatic metabolism of retinoids. Stellate-like cells in the intestine also show ability to store vitamin A. Liver is also known to accumulate carotenoids, however, their uptake, retention and metabolism in specific liver and intestinal cell types is still unknown. Hence, we studied the cellular and subcellular expression and localization of BCO1 and BCO2 proteins in rat liver and intestine. We demonstrate that both BCO1 and BCO2 proteins are localized in hepatocytes and mucosal epithelium. We also show that BCO1 is also highly expressed in hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and portal endothelial cells in liver. At the subcellular level in liver, BCO1 is found in cytosol, while BCO2 is found in mitochondria. In intestine, immunohistochemistry showed strong BCO1 immunoreactivity in the duodenum, particularly in Brunner's glands. Both BCO1 and BCO2 showed diffuse presence along epithelia with strong immunoreactivity in endothelial cells and in certain epithelial cells which warrant further investigation as possible intestinal retinoid storage cells.

  8. Interferon Beta-1b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon beta-1b injection is used to reduce episodes of symptoms in patients with relapsing-remitting (course ... and problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1b is in a class of medications ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: beta thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Disease Control and Prevention Centre for Genetics Education (Australia) Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory: Your Genes Your Health Disease InfoSearch: Beta Thalassemia Genomics Education Programme (UK) MalaCards: dominant beta-thalassemia Merck Manual ...

  10. Beta emitters and radiation protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Beta emitters, such as 90Y, are increasingly being used for cancer treatment. However, beta emitters demand other precautions than gamma emitters during preparation and administration, especially concerning shielding. AIM. To discuss practical precautions for handling beta emitters...... on the outside of the primary shielding material. If suitable shielding is used and larger numbers of handlings are divided among several persons, then handling of beta emitters can be a safe procedure....

  11. Fenólicos e carotenóides totais em pitanga Total phenolics and carotenoids in surinam cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Arroxelas Galvão de Lima

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Em decorrência de uma ampla diversidade genética, a pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L. apresenta cor que varia do alaranjado até o vermelho escuro quase negro. Em Pernambuco, no entanto, é comum encontrá-la com coloração laranja-avermelhada. Como muitos fitoquímicos presentes em frutos exibem propriedades antioxidantes, com destaque para carotenóides e compostos fenólicos, e frente a escassez de informações sobre seus teores em pitanga, objetivou-se quantificá-los nas seleções cujos frutos apresentam coloração vermelha e roxa. Assim, foram determinados espectrofotometricamente os teores de carotenóides e fenólicos totais nos frutos destas seleções nos estádios maduro e semi-maduro. Na pitanga roxa madura e em sua película também foram determinados os teores de antocianinas, flavonóis e carotenóides totais. Os compostos fenólicos e os carotenóides totais na pitanga roxa madura encontram-se em maiores teores do que na pitanga vermelha no mesmo estádio de maturação. A seleção roxa exibiu quantidade significante de antocianinas, cujo teor foi mais elevado no fruto maduro do que no semi-maduro. Os carotenóides, antocianinas e flavonóis encontram-se mais concentrados na película do que na polpa deste fruto maduro. A presença de antocianinas, flavonóis e carotenóides totais na pitanga roxa fazem deste fruto uma fonte promissora de compostos antioxidantes cujo cultivo deveria ser estimulado.Because of the genetic diversity, fruits of Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora L. show colours that range from orange to deep, almost dark red. However, in Pernambuco, Brazil, it is common to find this fruit with an orange-red colour. Many phytochemicals in fruits have antioxidant properties with emphasis on phenolic compounds and carotenoids. Since the information on these phytochemicals in surinam cherry is scarce, the aim of this research was to analyse them in fruits which show red and purple colours. Half-mature and mature fruits

  12. Misleading Betas: An Educational Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, James; Halcoussis, Dennis; Phillips, G. Michael

    2012-01-01

    The dual-beta model is a generalization of the CAPM model. In the dual-beta model, separate beta estimates are provided for up-market and down-market days. This paper uses the historical "Anscombe quartet" results which illustrated how very different datasets can produce the same regression coefficients to motivate a discussion of the…

  13. TGF-beta and osteoarthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaney Davidson, E.N.; Kraan, P.M. van der; Berg, W.B. van den

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cartilage damage is a major problem in osteoarthritis (OA). Growth factors like transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) have great potential in cartilage repair. In this review, we will focus on the potential therapeutic intervention in OA with TGF-beta, application of the growth facto

  14. Annatto extract and β-carotene enhances antioxidant status and regulate gene expression in neutrophils of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossoni Júnior, Joamyr Victor; Araújo, Glaucy Rodrigues; Pádua, Bruno Da Cruz; Magalhães, Cíntia Lopes de Brito; Chaves, Míriam Martins; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Costa, Daniela Caldeira

    2012-03-01

    Annatto (Bixa orellana L.) contains a mixture of orange-yellowish pigments due to the presence of various carotenoids that have antioxidant effect. The immune system is especially vulnerable to oxidative damage because many immune cells, such as neutrophils, produce reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) as part of the body's defence mechanisms to destroy invading pathogens. It is well known that the function of neutrophils is altered in diabetes; one of the major functional changes in neutrophils in diabetes is the increased generation of extracellular superoxide via the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase system. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the production of ROS and nitric oxide (NO) as well as the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits, inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in neutrophils from diabetic rats treated with annatto extract and β-carotene. Forty-eight female Fisher rats were distributed into six groups according to the treatment received. All animals were sacrificed 7 days after treatment, and the neutrophils were isolated using two gradients of different densities. The ROS and NO were quantified by a chemiluminescence and spectrophotometric assays, respectively. Analyses of gene expression were performed using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The results show that treatment with annatto extract and β-carotene was able to decrease ROS production and the mRNA levels of p22(phox) and p47(phox) and increase the mRNA levels of SOD and CAT in neutrophils from diabetic rats. These data suggest that annatto extract and β-carotene exerts antioxidant effect via inhibition of expression of the NADPH oxidase subunits and increase expression/activity of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:22239725

  15. Effect of domestic processing treatments on iron, β-carotene, phytic acid and polyphenols of pearl millet

    OpenAIRE

    Manvesh Kumar Sihag; Vivek Sharma; Ankit Goyal; Sumit Arora; Ashish Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of various processing treatments (individual and combination) on iron, β-carotene, phytic acid, polyphenols and ash content of pearl millet (Pennisetum americanam). Grains were subjected to soaking, pressure cooking, steaming, malting, pearling and extrusion cooking for different time intervals such as soaking for 3, 6, 9 and 12 h; steaming for 5, 10, 15 and 20 min; pressure cooking for 2, 5, 7 and 10 min; controlled germination (m...

  16. Temperature-dependent bifurcation of cooperative interactions in pure and enriched in β-carotene DPPC liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyńska, D; Burda, K; Jemioła-Rzemińska, M; Strzałka, K

    2016-08-25

    We examined the influence of temperature on lipid intermolecular interactions and the organization of bilayers within multilamellar dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes. We also investigated the effect of 0.5 mol% β-carotene, a non-polar carotenoid, on the adhesive properties of these liposomes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to correlate the changes in the physical properties of the liposomal systems with their thermotropic behaviour. Using DSC we detected two transitions in pure DPPC vesicles and in those containing 0.5 mol% β-carotene. In both systems the pretransition occurred at 34.5(1)°C and the main phase transition at 41.4 °C during heating. Upon cooling, the temperatures of the pretransition and the main transition decreased by about 6 °C and 1 °C, respectively. Changes in enthalpy and entropy were also similar in the two investigated systems. Data obtained in parallel AFM force experiments show that the adhesive forces between the liposomal systems and AFM probe strongly depend on the loading rate. Moreover, their characteristic monotonic changes and discontinuities are sensitive to temperature. In the range of temperatures from 27 °C to 31 °C, i.e. below the temperature of phase transition from gel to ripple phase, the adhesive forces measured in a water environment are about an order of magnitude higher in the presence of β-carotene than in pure DPPC liposomes. The observed variable dependence of adhesion on the loading rate suggests that there are changes in the long- and short-range interactions between lipids, and that these may be related to the occurrence of some clustering effects. In addition, the simultaneous existence of different subphases was found in the gel phase of DPPC liposomes. The presence of β-carotene at a level of 0.5 mol% stimulates the structural reorganization of DPPC multilamellar vesicles and enhances the bifurcation phenomenon detected in these

  17. Beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanello, Renzo; Origa, Raffaella

    2010-05-21

    Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands), dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis). Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes), gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely, deletions in the beta

  18. Beta-thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Origa Raffaella

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands, dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes, gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely

  19. Stimulus-responsive light-harvesting complexes based on the pillararene-induced co-assembly of β-carotene and chlorophyll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Guo, Fang; Zuo, Tongfei; Hua, Jingjing; Diao, Guowang

    2016-06-01

    The locations and arrangements of carotenoids at the subcellular level are responsible for their designated functions, which reinforces the necessity of developing methods for constructing carotenoid-based suprastructures beyond the molecular level. Because carotenoids lack the binding sites necessary for controlled interactions, functional structures based on carotenoids are not easily obtained. Here, we show that carotene-based suprastructures were formed via the induction of pillararene through a phase-transfer-mediated host-guest interaction. More importantly, similar to the main component in natural photosynthesis, complexes could be synthesized after chlorophyll was introduced into the carotene-based suprastructure assembly process. Remarkably, compared with molecular carotene or chlorophyll, this synthesized suprastructure exhibits some photocatalytic activity when exposed to light, which can be exploited for photocatalytic reaction studies of energy capture and solar conversion in living organisms.

  20. Stimulus-responsive light-harvesting complexes based on the pillararene-induced co-assembly of β-carotene and chlorophyll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Guo, Fang; Zuo, Tongfei; Hua, Jingjing; Diao, Guowang

    2016-01-01

    The locations and arrangements of carotenoids at the subcellular level are responsible for their designated functions, which reinforces the necessity of developing methods for constructing carotenoid-based suprastructures beyond the molecular level. Because carotenoids lack the binding sites necessary for controlled interactions, functional structures based on carotenoids are not easily obtained. Here, we show that carotene-based suprastructures were formed via the induction of pillararene through a phase-transfer-mediated host-guest interaction. More importantly, similar to the main component in natural photosynthesis, complexes could be synthesized after chlorophyll was introduced into the carotene-based suprastructure assembly process. Remarkably, compared with molecular carotene or chlorophyll, this synthesized suprastructure exhibits some photocatalytic activity when exposed to light, which can be exploited for photocatalytic reaction studies of energy capture and solar conversion in living organisms. PMID:27345928

  1. Difference in effect of temperature on absorption and Raman spectra between all-trans-β-carotene and all-trans-retinol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Guan-Nan; Li Zuo-Wei; Gao Shu-Qin; Li Shuo; Sun Cheng-Lin; Liu Tian-Yuan; Wu Yong-Ling; Sun Shang; Shan Xiao-Ning; Men Zhi-Wei; Chen Wei

    2012-01-01

    Temperature dependencies (81 ℃-18 ℃) of visible absorption and Raman spectra of all-trans-β-carotene and all-trans-retinol extremely diluted in dimethyl sulfoxide are investigated in order to clarify temperature effects on different polyenes.Their absorption spectra are identified to be redshifted with temperature decreasing.Moreover,all-trans-β-carotene is more sensitive to temperature due to the presence of a longer length of conjugated system.The characteristic energy responsible for the conformational changes in all-trans-β-carotene is smaller than that in all-trans-retinol.Both of the Raman scattering cross sections increase with temperature decreasing.The results are explained with electron-phonon coupling theory and coherent weakly damped electron-lattice vibrations model.

  2. Coroutine Sequencing in BETA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger;

    In object-oriented programming, a program execution is viewed as a physical model of some real or imaginary part of the world. A language supporting object-oriented programming must therefore contain comprehensive facilities for modeling phenomena and concepts form the application domain. Many ap...... applications in the real world consist of objects carrying out sequential processes. Coroutines may be used for modeling objects that alternate between a number of sequential processes. The authors describe coroutines in BETA...

  3. Beta decay for pedestrians

    CERN Document Server

    Lipkin, Harry Jeannot

    1962-01-01

    The ""pedestrian approach"" was developed to describe some essentially simple experimental results and their theoretical implications in plain language. In this graduate-level text, Harry J. Lipkin presents simply, but without oversimplification, the aspects of beta decay that can be understood without reference to the formal theory; that is, the reactions that follow directly from conservation laws and elementary quantum mechanics.The pedestrian treatment is neither a substitute for a complete treatment nor a watered-down version.

  4. Integration of BETA with Eclipse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Enevoldsen, Mads Brøgger

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents language interoperability issues appearing in order to implement support for the BETA language in the Java-based Eclipse integrated development environment. One of the challenges is to implement plug-ins in BETA and be able to load them in Eclipse. In order to do this, some form...... of language interoperability between Java and BETA is required. The first approach is to use the Java Native Interface and use C to bridge between Java and BETA. This results in a workable, but complicated solution. The second approach is to let the BETA compiler generate Java class files. With this approach...... it is possible to implement plug-ins in BETA and even inherit from Java classes. In the paper the two approaches are described together with part of the mapping from BETA to Java class files. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/15710661...

  5. Regulation of beta cell replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Ying C; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2008-01-01

    Beta cell mass, at any given time, is governed by cell differentiation, neogenesis, increased or decreased cell size (cell hypertrophy or atrophy), cell death (apoptosis), and beta cell proliferation. Nutrients, hormones and growth factors coupled with their signalling intermediates have been...... suggested to play a role in beta cell mass regulation. In addition, genetic mouse model studies have indicated that cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases that determine cell cycle progression are involved in beta cell replication, and more recently, menin in association with cyclin-dependent kinase...... inhibitors has been demonstrated to be important in beta cell growth. In this review, we consider and highlight some aspects of cell cycle regulation in relation to beta cell replication. The role of cell cycle regulation in beta cell replication is mostly from studies in rodent models, but whether...

  6. Beta cell adaptation in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with a compensatory increase in beta cell mass. It is well established that somatolactogenic hormones contribute to the expansion both indirectly by their insulin antagonistic effects and directly by their mitogenic effects on the beta cells via receptors for prolactin...... and growth hormone expressed in rodent beta cells. However, the beta cell expansion in human pregnancy seems to occur by neogenesis of beta cells from putative progenitor cells rather than by proliferation of existing beta cells. Claes Hellerström has pioneered the research on beta cell growth for decades......, but the mechanisms involved are still not clarified. In this review the information obtained in previous studies is recapitulated together with some of the current attempts to resolve the controversy in the field: identification of the putative progenitor cells, identification of the factors involved...

  7. LHCb: $2\\beta_s$ measurement at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Conti, G

    2009-01-01

    A measurement of $2\\beta_s$, the phase of the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ oscillation amplitude with respect to that of the ${\\rm b} \\rightarrow {\\rm c^{+}}{\\rm W^{-}}$ tree decay amplitude, is one of the key goals of the LHCb experiment with first data. In the Standard Model (SM), $2\\beta_s$ is predicted to be $0.0360^{+0.0020}_{-0.0016} \\rm rad$. The current constraints from the Tevatron are: $2\\beta_{s}\\in[0.32 ; 2.82]$ at 68$\\%$CL from the CDF experiment and $2\\beta_{s}=0.57^{+0.24}_{-0.30}$ from the D$\\oslash$ experiment. Although the statistical uncertainties are large, these results hint at the possible contribution of New Physics in the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ box diagram. After one year of data taking at LHCb at an average luminosity of $\\mathcal{L}\\sim2\\cdot10^{32}\\rm cm^{-2} \\rm s^{-1}$ (integrated luminosity $\\mathcal{L}_{\\rm int}\\sim 2 \\rm fb^{-1}$), the expected statistical uncertainty on the measurement is $\\sigma(2\\beta_s)\\simeq 0.03$. This uncertainty is similar to the $2\\beta_s$ value predicted by the SM.

  8. Determination of some minerals and β-carotene contents in aromatic indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renuka, N; Mathure, Sarika V; Zanan, Rahul L; Thengane, Ratnakar J; Nadaf, Altafhusain B

    2016-01-15

    39 aromatic indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars were characterized for Iron, Zinc, Calcium, Magnesium, Copper and β-carotene contents. The β-carotene contents were ranging from 1.23 to 9.9μg/g in brown and 0.08 to 1.99μg/g in milled rice. Among the mineral contents, Magnesium was found ranging from 855μg/g (Gham) to maximum of 1636μg/g (Badshahbhog) followed by Iron in 32μg/g (Jirga) to 218μg/g (Kalsal), Copper content from 2μg/g (Girga) to 1004μg/g (Gham), Zinc content from 25 (Gham) to 165μg/g (Ambemohar-157) and Calcium ranged from 14μg/g (Ambemohar pandhara) to 67μg/g (Kate chinoor). The study showed that the germplasm assessed is a good source of micronutrients and can be further exploited in breeding programme.

  9. Thermal Degradation and Isomerization of β-Carotene in Oil-in-Water Nanoemulsions Supplemented with Natural Antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jiang; Fan, Yuting; Yokoyama, Wallace; Zhang, Yuzhu; Zhao, Liqing

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study was to see the impact on the retention and isomerization of encapsulated β-carotene (BC) in nanoemulsions fortified with natural antioxidants (α-tocopherol (AT) and l-ascorbic acid (AA)). The physical stability of nanoemulsion, oxidative stability, and isomerization of all-trans-β-carotene (BC) in oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsions were determined in the presence or absence of natural antioxidants at 25 and 50 °C at certain intervals of time by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Sodium caseinate was used as the emulsifier, and corn oil (CO) was more protective than medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) and used for isomerization studies. Mean diameters of control (without antioxidants) and AA- and AT-fortified particles were similar. Mean particle diameter of nanoemulsions increased from 10 to 25 nm at 25 °C and from 40 to 50 nm at 50 °C during 30 days of storage. The isomerization from all-trans-BC to cis-BC isomers was inhibited by antioxidants. The isomerization rates were in the following order: 13-cis-BC > 15-cis-BC > 9-cis-BC. AT had better antioxidant activities than AA in inhibiting BC degradation in O/W nanoemulsions. The results indicated that BC encapsulated in nanoemulsions supplemented with antioxidants could significantly improve BC's chemical stability. PMID:26881704

  10. Femtosecond time-resolved difference absorption spectroscopy of all-trans-β-Apo-8′-carotenal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; QUAN Donghui; WANG Li; YANG Guozhen; WENG Yuxiang

    2004-01-01

    The femtosecond time-resolved difference absorption spectra of all-trans-βApo-8′-carotenal have been recorded and analyzed by the singular-value decomposition (SVD) method followed by global fitting using a sequential model for the excited-state energy relaxation. With this model, we have obtained the excited-state absorption spectra and the lifetimes of the corresponding excited states both in nonpolar solvent n-hexane and polar solvent methanol. Three excited states, namely S3(170fs), S2(2.32ps) and S1(26ps) in n-hexane, and two excited states S2 (190fs) and S1(9.4ps) in methanol have been observed. The excited-state absorption spectra of all-trans-β-Apo-8′-carotenal in methanol display a red shift and broadeness, while the lifetime of S1 state becomes shorter. It is proposed that these effects are related to the presence of a carbonyl functional group that leads to the solvent effect on the excited-state energy level. At the same time, it is shown that the SVD method is a useful tool in resolving the time-resolved absorption spectra.

  11. Maternal micronutrient supplementation with zinc and beta-carotene affects morbidity and immune function of infants during the first 6 months of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, F.T.; Dijkhuizen, M.A.; Muhilal,; Meer, van der J.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent worldwide, and a major cause of infant death. Supplementation with multiple micronutrients during pregnancy might improve micronutrient status of the newborn, thereby reducing morbidity and death. Moreover, maternal supplementation migh

  12. A dietary oxidative balance score of vitamin C, beta-carotene and iron intakes and mortality risk in male smoking Belgians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoydonck, van P.G.A.; Temme, E.H.M.; Schouten, E.G.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, in smokers, whether the oxidative balance of their dietary pattern affected mortality risk. To evaluate the oxidative balance of the dietary pattern, an oxidative balance score was constructed that summarized the combined intake of dietary antioxidants (

  13. Analysis of beta-carotene hydroxylase gene cDNA isolated from the American oil-palm (Elaeis oleifera) mesocarp tissue cDNA library

    OpenAIRE

    Bhore, Subhash J.; Kassim, Amelia; Loh, Chye Ying; Shah, Farida H

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that the nutritional quality of the American oil-palm (Elaeis oleifera) mesocarp oil is superior to that of African oil-palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. Tenera) mesocarp oil. Therefore, it is of important to identify the genetic features for its superior value. This could be achieved through the genome sequencing of the oil-palm. However, the genome sequence is not available in the public domain due to commercial secrecy. Hence, we constructed a cDNA library and generated expres...

  14. α-, β-caroteno e α-tocoferol em algas marinhas in natura α- and β-carotene, and α-tocopherol in fresh seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Barbosa de Sousa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de 32 espécies de algas marinhas das divisões Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta e Phaeophyta como fontes de α- e β-caroteno e α-tocoferol. Todas as clorofíceas analisadas apresentaram α- e β-caroteno. Os teores máximo e mínimo de α-caroteno foram detectados nas espécies do gênero Caulerpa e em Codium decorticatum, respectivamente; e β-caroteno foi mais baixo em Caulerpa mexicana e mais elevado em Ulva fasciata. Dentre as rodofíceas, 11 espécies apresentaram α-caroteno, com máximo em Botryocladia occidentalis. β-caroteno foi encontrado em todas as algas vermelhas analisadas com teores mínimo e máximo em Gracilaria caudata e Bryothamnion triquetrum, respectivamente. As feofíceas apresentaram apenas β-caroteno, com mínimo e máximo em Dictyopteris delicatula e Padina gymnospora, respectivamente. Na divisão Chlorophyta, α-tocoferol, foi máximo em Codium decorticatum e mínimo em Caulerpa prolifera. Na Rhodophyta, 12 espécies apresentaram α-tocoferol com teor máximo em Enantiocladia duperreyi. Na Phaeophyta, α-tocoferol foi encontrado com valores mínimo e máximo em Lobophora variegata e Dictyota dichotoma, respectivamente.The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of 32 marine macro algae species, members of Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta, as sources of a-carotene, b-carotene and a-tocopherol. Both b-carotene and a-carotene were found in all species of green macroalgae analyzed. The maximum content of a-carotene was detected in algae belonging to Caulerpa genus and the minimum in Codium decorticatum. The amount of b-carotene found was minimum in Caulerpa mexicana and maximum in Ulva fasciata. Among the Rhodophyta species, eleven contain a-carotene, the maximum content was found in Botryocladia occidentalis. b-Carotene was found in all red macroalgae analyzed presenting the lowest and highest values in Gracilaria caudata and Bryothamnion triquetrum, respectively

  15. Xeroradiography in. beta. -thalassaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scutellari, P.N.; Orzincolo, C.; Tamarozzi, R.

    1985-01-01

    Xeroradiographic investigations of the skull, hand, and elbow were performed on 27 patients with homozygous ..beta..-thalassaemia. The results were compared with plain radiographic examinations. Xeroradiography, because of its technical properties (i.e. edge contrast enhancement and wide latitude), was shown to demonstrate cortical thinning of long bones, swelling of the diploic space in the skull, and reticulated patterns in the elbow better than standard radiography. Moreover, the use of 'positive' mode imaging was shown to have advantages in the study of the skull and extremities.

  16. Double beta decay: present status

    OpenAIRE

    Barabash, A. S.

    2008-01-01

    The present status of double beta decay experiments (including the search for $2\\beta^{+}$, EC$\\beta^{+}$ and ECEC processes) are reviewed. The results of the most sensitive experiments are discussed. Average and recommended half-life values for two-neutrino double beta decay are presented. Conservative upper limits on effective Majorana neutrino mass and the coupling constant of the Majoron to the neutrino are established as $ < 0.75$ eV and $ < 1.9 \\cdot 10^{-4}$, respectively. Proposals fo...

  17. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.

    2010-03-23

    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  18. Scintillator based beta batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensing, Noa M.; Tiernan, Timothy C.; Shirwadkar, Urmila; O'Dougherty, Patrick; Freed, Sara; Hawrami, Rastgo; Squillante, Michael R.

    2013-05-01

    Some long-term, remote applications do not have access to conventional harvestable energy in the form of solar radiation (or other ambient light), wind, environmental vibration, or wave motion. Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc. (RMD) is carrying out research to address the most challenging applications that need power for many months or years and which have undependable or no access to environmental energy. Radioisotopes are an attractive candidate for this energy source, as they can offer a very high energy density combined with a long lifetime. Both large scale nuclear power plants and radiothermal generators are based on converting nuclear energy to heat, but do not scale well to small sizes. Furthermore, thermo-mechanical power plants depend on moving parts, and RTG's suffer from low efficiency. To address the need for compact nuclear power devices, RMD is developing a novel beta battery, in which the beta emissions from a radioisotope are converted to visible light in a scintillator and then the visible light is converted to electrical power in a photodiode. By incorporating 90Sr into the scintillator SrI2 and coupling the material to a wavelength-matched solar cell, we will create a scalable, compact power source capable of supplying milliwatts to several watts of power over a period of up to 30 years. We will present the latest results of radiation damage studies and materials processing development efforts, and discuss how these factors interact to set the operating life and energy density of the device.

  19. High Preformed Vitamin A Intake during Pregnancy Prevents Embryonic Accumulation of Intact β-Carotene from the Maternal Circulation in Mice123

    OpenAIRE

    Wassef, Lesley; Shete, Varsha; Costabile, Brianna; Rodas, Rebeka; Quadro, Loredana

    2015-01-01

    Background: The vitamin A precursor β-carotene (BC) promotes mammalian embryonic development by serving as a source of retinoids (vitamin A derivatives) to the developing tissues. In the Western world, increased consumption of dietary supplements, including vitamin A and BC, is common; however, the consequences of maternal high preformed vitamin A intake on embryonic uptake and metabolism of BC are poorly understood.

  20. A bulk segregant transcriptome analysis reveals metabolic and cellular processes associated with melon orange allelic variation and fruit B-carotene accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Melon fruit flesh color is primarily controlled by the “golden” single nucleotide polymorhism of the “Orange” gene, CmOr, which dominantly triggers the accumulation of the pro-vitamin A molecule, B-carotene, in the fruit mesocarp. The mechanism by which CmOr operates is not fully underst...

  1. Effects of Fat-soluble Extracts From Vegetable Powder and β-carotene on Proliferation and Apoptosis of Lung Cancer Cell YTMLC-90

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUAN-JUN LU; CHENG-YU HUANG; SHU-XIANG YAO; RUI-SHU WANG; XIAO-NA WU

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the effects of fat-soluble extracts from vegetable powder (FEFVP) and β-carotene on the proliferation and apoptosis of cultured YTMLC-90lung cancer cells. Methods The lung cancer cells were continuously exposed to a broad range of concentration of FEFVP and β-carotene. The proliferation was evaluated in MTT test. The induction of apoptosis was evaluated by morphological change, DNA fragmentation analysis, and DNA content analysis combined with flow cytometric analysis. Results Both FEFVP and β-carotene were found to inhibit cell proliferation and to induce morphologic changes consistent with apoptosis in YTMLC-90 cancer cells, including cellular shrinkage, chromatin condensation and cytometric analysis revealed decreased DNA content and the presence of a sub-G1 apoptotic peak.Conclusion These findings are consistent with the induction of apoptosis. Moreover, the effects of FEFVP are stronger than those of β-carotene. FEFVP inhibits the growth of YTMLC-90 probably via the induction of apoptosis cancer cells.

  2. Carotenoid absorption, chylomicron response curves, the influence of β-carotene supplementation on immune function and the measurement of natural killer cell function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absorption of β-carotene from raw, uncooked vegetables can be very low. Particle size of uncooked foods is particularly important; β-carotene absorption from pureed or finely chopped vegetables is considerably higher than from whole or sliced raw vegetables. Cooking procedures (boiling/steaming) improves the chemical extractability of carotenoids from foods and also appears to improve absorption. Dietary fat stimulates bile flow from the gall bladder which facilitates the emulsification of fat and fat soluble dietary components into lipid micelles within the small intestine. Without micelle formation carotenoids are very poorly absorbed. Several studies have shown that the absence of dietary fat or very low fat diets substantially reduces β-carotene absorption in human volunteers. Carotenoid absorption is thought to be a passive process. The assumption is that carotenoids within lipid micelles come into contact with the intestinal epithelial cell membranes and that transport from micelles to the plasma membrane and cytosol of the cell occur together with the transport of fatty acids. β-carotene appears simultaneously in lymph with newly absorbed fat from a meal and thus it is assumed that they move together across the plasma membrane and within the mucosal cell

  3. Effect of Infrared Blanching on Enzyme Activity and Retention of β-Carotene and Vitamin C in Dried Mango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiamba, Isabel R F; Svanberg, Ulf; Ahrné, Lilia

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of this work were to evaluate infrared (IR) dry blanching in comparison with conventional water blanching prior to hot air drying of mango to inactivate polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) enzymes, and to study its effect on color change and retention of vitamin C and β-carotene. Mango cylinders were blanched under similar temperature-time conditions either by IR heating or by immersion in a water bath during 2 min at 90 °C (high-temperature-short-time-HTST) or for 10 min at 65 °C (low-temperature-long-time-LTLT). After blanching mango was hot air dried at 70 °C. PPO was completely inactivated during the blanching treatments, but AAO had a moderate remaining activity after LTLT treatment (∼30%) and a low remaining activity after HTST treatment (9% to 15%). A higher retention of vitamin C was observed in mango subjected to IR dry blanching, 88.3 ± 1.0% (HTST) and 69.2 ± 2.9% (LTLT), compared with water blanching, 61.4 ± 5.3% (HTST) and 50.7 ± 9.6% (LTLT). All-trans-β-carotene retention was significantly higher in water blanched dried mango, 93.2 ± 5.2% (LTLT) and 91.4 ± 5.1% (HTST), compared with IR dry blanched, 73.6 ± 3.6% (LTLT) and 76.9 ± 2.9% (HTST). Increased levels of 13-cis-β-carotene isomer were detected only in IR dry blanched mango, and the corresponding dried mango also had a slightly darker color. IR blanching of mango prior to drying can improve the retention of vitamin C, but not the retention of carotenoids, which showed to be more dependent on the temperature than the blanching process. A reduction of drying time was observed in LTLT IR-blanching mango.

  4. Sinergismo potencial entre herbicidas inibidores do fotossistema II e da síntese de carotenóides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruse Nelson Diehl

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbicidas inibidores do transporte de elétrons na fotossíntese geram estresse oxidativo. Esse estresse normalmente é amenizado pela ação dos carotenóides que dissipam a energia acumulada na forma de calor. Assim, hipotetiza-se que misturas entre herbicidas inibidores do transporte de elétrons, em nível do fotossistema II, e inibidores da síntese de carotenóides possam resultar em sinergismo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a existência de sinergismo em misturas com herbicidas pertencentes aos dois mecanismos de ação acima mencionados. Para tanto, foram conduzidos dois experimentos: um, com a cultura do milho, nos EUA, em 1998; e outro com cultura da soja, no Brasil, em 1998/99. No experimento com milho, testou-se isoxaflutole nas doses de 0 e 52,5g ha-1 e atrazine nas doses de 0 e 840g ha-1, isolados e em mistura. No experimento com soja, testou-se metribuzin, nas doses de 0 e 280g ha-1, e clomazone, nas doses de 0 e 560g ha-1, isolados e em mistura, bem como tratamentos adicionais isolados de metribuzin 560g ha-1, clomazone 1.120g ha-1 e testemunha capinada. Na cultura do milho, foram avaliadas as densidades de Abutilon theophrasti (ABUTH, Ipomoea hederacea (IPOHE e Amaranthus retroflexus (AMARE aos 52 dias após a aplicação dos herbicidas (DAA e o rendimento de grãos de milho. Na cultura da soja, foram avaliadas aos 55 DAA, a porcentagem de cobertura e controle de Bidens pilosa (BIDPI, sua densidade aos 30 e 55 DAA, além de massa seca, área foliar e rendimento de grãos de soja. Os resultados indicaram a ocorrência de antagonismo entre os herbicidas, no controle de ABUTH e IPOHE, mas sinergismo entre os mesmos, quando se considera o rendimento de grãos de milho. Para BIDPI, verificou-se sinergismo entre os herbicidas nos percentuais de cobertura e controle, sem valores conclusivos nas demais variáveis. Conclui-se que, embora seja complexa a comprovação de sinergismo a campo, os resultados indicam, ao menos para

  5. Beta section Beta: biogeographical patterns of variation and taxonomy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letschert, J.P.W.

    1993-01-01

    In Chapter 1 an account is given of the historical subdivision of the genus Beta and its sections, and the relations of the sections are discussed. Emphasis is given to the taxonomic treatment of wild section Beta by various authors. The Linnaean names B. vulgaris L. and B. maritima L. are lectotypi

  6. 改进胡萝卜素测定方法的探讨%Discussion on Improved Determination Methods of Carotene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秋婵; 许元明; 韦友欢

    2013-01-01

      In order to improve determination method of carotene ,the carotene of Daucus carrot ,flower of Senna surat‐tensis and Citrus reticulata Banco were determinated at different extraction time by spectrophotometry to extraction of acetone and alcohol(1∶1) .The results showed that when the extraction time 24 h ,carotene content of Daucus carrot was the highest(0 .132 3 mg・g‐1 FW and carotene content of Senna surattensis was the highest (1 .112 2 mg・g‐1 FW) . When the extraction time was 14 h ,carotene content of Citrus reticulata Banco peel extract was the highest levels(0 .034 1 mg・g‐1 FW)that was to say ,24 h was the best extraction time for carotene from Daucus carrot and Senna surattensis ,14 h was the best extraction time for carotene from Citrus reticulata Banco .%  为改进胡萝卜素的测定方法,采用丙酮和无水酒精(1∶1)进行萃取,用分光光度法在不同的萃取时间对胡萝卜、黄槐决明花和柑橘果皮中的胡萝卜素含量进行测定。结果表明:胡萝卜萃取24 h时胡萝卜素含量达最高(0.1323 mg・g‐1 FW);黄槐决明花萃取24 h时其胡萝卜素含量为最多(1.1122 mg・g‐1 FW);柑橘皮萃取14 h时胡萝卜素含量达最大(0.0341 mg・g‐1 FW)。说明24 h是胡萝卜中和黄槐花中胡萝卜素最好的萃取时间,14 h是柑橘皮中胡萝卜素最好的萃取时间。

  7. Avocado consumption enhances human postprandial provitamin A absorption and conversion from a novel high-β-carotene tomato sauce and from carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, Rachel E; Cooperstone, Jessica L; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Young, Gregory S; Harrison, Earl H; Francis, David M; Clinton, Steven K; Schwartz, Steven J

    2014-08-01

    Dietary lipids have been shown to increase bioavailability of provitamin A carotenoids from a single meal, but the effects of dietary lipids on conversion to vitamin A during absorption are essentially unknown. Based on previous animal studies, we hypothesized that the consumption of provitamin A carotenoids with dietary lipid would enhance conversion to vitamin A during absorption compared with the consumption of provitamin A carotenoids alone. Two separate sets of 12 healthy men and women were recruited for 2 randomized, 2-way crossover studies. One meal was served with fresh avocado (Persea americana Mill), cultivated variety Hass (delivering 23 g of lipid), and a second meal was served without avocado. In study 1, the source of provitamin A carotenoids was a tomato sauce made from a novel, high-β-carotene variety of tomatoes (delivering 33.7 mg of β-carotene). In study 2, the source of provitamin A carotenoids was raw carrots (delivering 27.3 mg of β-carotene and 18.7 mg of α-carotene). Postprandial blood samples were taken over 12 h, and provitamin A carotenoids and vitamin A were quantified in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fractions to determine baseline-corrected area under the concentration-vs.-time curve. Consumption of lipid-rich avocado enhanced the absorption of β-carotene from study 1 by 2.4-fold (P < 0.0001). In study 2, the absorption of β-carotene and α-carotene increased by 6.6- and 4.8-fold, respectively (P < 0.0001 for both). Most notably, consumption of avocado enhanced the efficiency of conversion to vitamin A (as measured by retinyl esters) by 4.6-fold in study 1 (P < 0.0001) and 12.6-fold in study 2 (P = 0.0013). These observations highlight the importance of provitamin A carotenoid consumption with a lipid-rich food such as avocado for maximum absorption and conversion to vitamin A, especially in populations in which vitamin A deficiency is prevalent. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01432210. PMID:24899156

  8. The Carotenogenesis Pathway via the Isoprenoid-β-carotene Interference Approach in a New Strain of Dunaliella salina Isolated from Baja California Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Enrique Gutierrez-Millan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available D. salina is one of the recognized natural sources to produce β-carotene, and an useful model for studying the role of inhibitors and enhancers of carotenogenesis. However there is little information in D. salina regarding whether the isoprenoid substrate can be influenced by stress factors (carotenogenic or selective inhibitors which in turn may further contribute to elucidate the early steps of carotenogenesis and biosynthesis of β-carotene. In this study,Dunaliella salina (BC02 isolated from La Salina BC Mexico, was subjected to the method of isoprenoids-β-carotene interference in order to promote the interruption or accumulation of the programmed biosynthesis of carotenoids. When Carotenogenic and non-carotenogenic cells of D. salina BC02 were grown under photoautotrophicgrowth conditions in the presence of 200 µM fosmidomycin, carotenogenesis and the synthesis of β-carotene were interrupted after two days in cultured D. salina cells. This result is an indirect consequence of the inhibition of the synthesis of isoprenoids and activity of the recombinant DXR enzyme thereby preventing the conversionof 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP to 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol (MEP and consequently interrupts the early steps of carotenogenesis in D. salina. The effect at the level of proteins and RNA was not evident. Mevinolin treated D. salina cells exhibited carotenogenesis and β-carotene levels very similar to those of control cell cultures indicating that mevinolin not pursued any indirect action in the biosynthesis of isoprenoids and had no effect at the level of the HMG-CoA reductase, the key enzyme of the Ac/MVA pathway.

  9. Avocado consumption enhances human postprandial provitamin A absorption and conversion from a novel high-β-carotene tomato sauce and from carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, Rachel E; Cooperstone, Jessica L; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Young, Gregory S; Harrison, Earl H; Francis, David M; Clinton, Steven K; Schwartz, Steven J

    2014-08-01

    Dietary lipids have been shown to increase bioavailability of provitamin A carotenoids from a single meal, but the effects of dietary lipids on conversion to vitamin A during absorption are essentially unknown. Based on previous animal studies, we hypothesized that the consumption of provitamin A carotenoids with dietary lipid would enhance conversion to vitamin A during absorption compared with the consumption of provitamin A carotenoids alone. Two separate sets of 12 healthy men and women were recruited for 2 randomized, 2-way crossover studies. One meal was served with fresh avocado (Persea americana Mill), cultivated variety Hass (delivering 23 g of lipid), and a second meal was served without avocado. In study 1, the source of provitamin A carotenoids was a tomato sauce made from a novel, high-β-carotene variety of tomatoes (delivering 33.7 mg of β-carotene). In study 2, the source of provitamin A carotenoids was raw carrots (delivering 27.3 mg of β-carotene and 18.7 mg of α-carotene). Postprandial blood samples were taken over 12 h, and provitamin A carotenoids and vitamin A were quantified in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fractions to determine baseline-corrected area under the concentration-vs.-time curve. Consumption of lipid-rich avocado enhanced the absorption of β-carotene from study 1 by 2.4-fold (P avocado enhanced the efficiency of conversion to vitamin A (as measured by retinyl esters) by 4.6-fold in study 1 (P avocado for maximum absorption and conversion to vitamin A, especially in populations in which vitamin A deficiency is prevalent. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01432210.

  10. Scientific Opinion on the reconsideration of the ADI and a refined exposure assessment of β-apo-8?-carotenal (E 160e

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to food (ANS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS has previously provided a scientific opinion re-evaluating the safety of β-apo-8′-carotenal (E 160e as a food additive in the EU and establishing an acceptable daily intake (ADI of 0.05 mg/kg body weight (bw/day (EFSA ANS Panel, 2012. Following a request by the European Commission, the ANS Panel was asked to consider newly submitted information on the interpretation of the 13-week study in rats used as a basis to establish the ADI, to clarify its impact on that ADI and to carry out the refined exposure assessment of β-apo-8′-carotenal. The new information comprised an evaluation of all of the original kidney section slides from the 13-week toxicological study under improved visualisation conditions. The ANS Panel has considered that the supplementary information provided by the Commission and the present toxicological database on β-apo-8′-carotenal provides a basis to revise the established ADI and concluded that, based on the NOAEL of 30 mg/kg bw/day from the 13-week study in rats and an uncertainty factor of 100, a new ADI for β-apo-8′-carotenal of 0.3 mg/kg bw/day can be established. The Panel concluded that using data provided by the food industry, which are based only on a limited number of regulated categories, the reported uses and use levels of β-apo-8’-carotenal (E 160e would not be of safety concern.

  11. Avocado Consumption Enhances Human Postprandial Provitamin A Absorption and Conversion from a Novel High–β-Carotene Tomato Sauce and from Carrots12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, Rachel E.; Cooperstone, Jessica L.; Schweiggert, Ralf M.; Young, Gregory S.; Harrison, Earl H.; Francis, David M.; Clinton, Steven K.; Schwartz, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary lipids have been shown to increase bioavailability of provitamin A carotenoids from a single meal, but the effects of dietary lipids on conversion to vitamin A during absorption are essentially unknown. Based on previous animal studies, we hypothesized that the consumption of provitamin A carotenoids with dietary lipid would enhance conversion to vitamin A during absorption compared with the consumption of provitamin A carotenoids alone. Two separate sets of 12 healthy men and women were recruited for 2 randomized, 2-way crossover studies. One meal was served with fresh avocado (Persea americana Mill), cultivated variety Hass (delivering 23 g of lipid), and a second meal was served without avocado. In study 1, the source of provitamin A carotenoids was a tomato sauce made from a novel, high–β-carotene variety of tomatoes (delivering 33.7 mg of β-carotene). In study 2, the source of provitamin A carotenoids was raw carrots (delivering 27.3 mg of β-carotene and 18.7 mg of α-carotene). Postprandial blood samples were taken over 12 h, and provitamin A carotenoids and vitamin A were quantified in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fractions to determine baseline-corrected area under the concentration-vs.-time curve. Consumption of lipid-rich avocado enhanced the absorption of β-carotene from study 1 by 2.4-fold (P avocado enhanced the efficiency of conversion to vitamin A (as measured by retinyl esters) by 4.6-fold in study 1 (P avocado for maximum absorption and conversion to vitamin A, especially in populations in which vitamin A deficiency is prevalent. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01432210. PMID:24899156

  12. The Chlorophyll a Fluorescence Modulated by All-Trans-β-Carotene in the Process of Photosystem II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyu Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Modulating the chlorophyll a (Chl-a fluorescence by all-trans-β-Carotene (β-Car in the polarity and non-polarity solutions was investigated. The fluorescence intensity of Chl-a decreased as the concentration of β-Car increased. The excited electronic levels of Chl-a and β-Car became much closer owing to the solvent effect, which led to the electron transfer between both two molecules. A electron-separated pair Chl−·Chl+ that is not luminous was formed due to electron transfer. The solution of Chl-a and β-car in C3H6O was similar to the internal environment of chloroplast. We conclude that the polar solvent is good for the fluorescent modulation in photosystem II.

  13. Study on genetic toxicity of β-carotene%β-胡萝卜素遗传毒性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴琴; 张俊刚; 洪丽华; 陈淑芬

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]To investigate the genetic toxicity ofβ-carotene, and provide the scientific basis for its safe use. [Methods] Ames teat, sub-plus and without S9 metabolic activation system in 2 parallel tests, the tested compounds with 5 dose groups, and the revertant colonies were scored. Cell micronucleus test of marrow was used. The tested compounds located 3 dose groups, and the micronucleus polychromatic erythrocytes of marrow were observed and measured. Mouse sperm morphology test located 3 dose groups. The deform numbers of sperm due to different doses of β-carotene were noted. The negative control test group and positive control group were located above 3 tests. Ames test located a single blank control group. [Results] In Ames test , the number of revertant colonies due toβ-carotene was less than that of control group. The micronucleus test showed there were no significant difference in micronucleus rate and deform numbers of sperm between β-carotene groups and negative control group (P > 0.05) , but there was a significant difference between negative control group and positive control group (P < 0.01). [Conclusion] Theβ-caro-tene is not mutagenic to tested strains, somatic cell and germ cells in mice.%目的 探讨β-胡萝卜素的遗传毒性,为其安全使用提供科学依据.方法 Ames试验,采用平板掺入法,分加和不加代谢激活系统S92组平行试验,受试物设5个剂量组,计数各组回变菌落数;骨髓嗜多染红细胞微核试验,受试物设3个剂量组,检测骨髓嗜多染红细胞微核率;小鼠精子畸形试验,受试物设3个剂量组,观察不同剂最的β-胡萝卜素致小鼠精子畸形的数目.上述试验均设阴性对照组和阳性对照组.Ames试验另设一组空白对照组.结果 Ames试验,β-胡萝卜素各剂量组引起的回变菌落数未超过空白对照组自发回变菌落数的1倍以上;骨髓嗜多染红细胞微核试验,受试物各剂量组微核率与阴性对照组之

  14. Beta Function and Anomalous Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that it is possible to determine the coefficients of an all-order beta function linear in the anomalous dimensions using as data the two-loop coefficients together with the first one of the anomalous dimensions which are universal. The beta function allows to determine the anomalous...

  15. The best-beta CAPM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Zou

    2006-01-01

    The issue of 'best-beta' arises as soon as potential errors in the Sharpe-Lintner-Black capital asset pricing model (CAPM) are acknowledged. By incorporating a target variable into the investor preferences, this study derives a best-beta CAPM (BCAPM) that maintains the CAPM's theoretical appeal and

  16. RAVEN Beta Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert Arthur [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Congjian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maljovec, Daniel Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Talbot, Paul William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  17. Beta systems error analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The atmospheric backscatter coefficient, beta, measured with an airborne CO Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) system operating in a continuous wave, focussed model is discussed. The Single Particle Mode (SPM) algorithm, was developed from concept through analysis of an extensive amount of data obtained with the system on board a NASA aircraft. The SPM algorithm is intended to be employed in situations where one particle at a time appears in the sensitive volume of the LDV. In addition to giving the backscatter coefficient, the SPM algorithm also produces as intermediate results the aerosol density and the aerosol backscatter cross section distribution. A second method, which measures only the atmospheric backscatter coefficient, is called the Volume Mode (VM) and was simultaneously employed. The results of these two methods differed by slightly less than an order of magnitude. The measurement uncertainties or other errors in the results of the two methods are examined.

  18. RAVEN Beta Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  19. Beta Beams Implementation at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Beta Beam,the concept of generating a pure and intense (anti) neutrino beam by letting accelerated radioactive ions beta decay in a storage ring, called Decay Ring (DR), is the base of one of the proposed next generation neutrino oscillation facilities, necessary for a complete study of the neutrino oscillation parameter space. Sensitivities of the unknown neutrino oscillation parameters depend on the Decay Ring's ion intensity and of it's duty factor (the filled ratio of the ring). Therefore efficient ion production, stripping, bunching, acceleration and storing are crucial sub-projects under study and development within the Beta Beam collaboration. Specifically the feasibility of these tasks as parts of a Beta Beam implementation at CERN will be discussed in this report. The positive impact of the large {\\theta}13 indications from T2K on the Beta Beam performance will also be discussed.

  20. [Serum beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2M) following renal transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Silva, A; Nishida, S K; Silva, M S; Ramos, O L; Azjen, H; Pereira, A B

    1994-01-01

    Although there was an important improvement in graft and patient survival the last 10 years, graft rejection continues to be a major barrier to the success of renal transplantation. Identification of a laboratory test that could help to diagnose graft rejection would facilitate the management of renal transplanted patients. PURPOSE--To evaluate the utility of monitoring serum beta 2M in recently transplanted patients. METHODS--We daily determined serum beta 2M levels in 20 receptors of renal grafts (10 from living related and 10 from cadaveric donors) and compared them to their clinical and laboratory evolution. RESULTS--Eight patients who presented immediate good renal function following grafting and did not have rejection had a mean serum beta 2M of 3.7 mg/L on the 4th day post transplant. The sensitivity of the test for the diagnosis of acute rejection was 87.5%, but the specificity was only 46%. Patients who presented acute tubular necrosis (ATN) without rejection had a progressive decrease in their serum levels of beta 2M, while their serum creatinine changed as they were dialyzed. In contrast, patients with ATN and concomitance of acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity presented elevated beta 2M and creatinine serum levels. CONCLUSION--Daily monitoring of serum beta 2M does not improve the ability to diagnose acute rejection in patients with good renal function. However, serum beta 2M levels seemed to be useful in diagnosing acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity in patients with ATN.

  1. Intuitionistic Fuzzy Generalized Beta Closed Mappings

    OpenAIRE

    D. Jayanthi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we introduce intuitionistic fuzzy generalized beta closed mappings and intuitionistic fuzzy generalized beta open mappings. We investigate some of their properties. We also introduce intuitionistic fuzzy M-generalized beta closed mappings as well as intuitionistic fuzzy M-generalized beta open mappings. We provide the relation between intuitionistic fuzzy M-generalized beta closed mappings and intuitionistic fuzzy generalized beta closed mappings.

  2. Effect of beta blockade and beta stimulation on stage fright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantigan, C O; Brantigan, T A; Joseph, N

    1982-01-01

    Stage fright, physiologically the "fight or flight" reaction, is a disabling condition to the professional musician. Because it is mediated by the sympathetic nervous system, we have investigated the effects of beta blockade on musical performance with propranolol in a double blind fashion and the effects of beta stimulation using terbutaline. Stage fright symptoms were evaluated in two trials, which included a total of 29 subjects, by questionnaire and by the State Trai Anxiety Inventory. Quality of musical performance was evaluated by experienced music critics. Beta blockade eliminates the physical impediments to performance caused by stage fright and even eliminates the dry mouth so frequently encountered. The quality of musical performance as judged by experienced music critics is significantly improved. This effect is achieved without tranquilization. Beta stimulating drugs increase stage fright problems, and should be used in performing musicians only after consideration of the detrimental effects which they may have on musical performance. PMID:6120650

  3. Experiments on double beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busto, J. [Neuchatel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique

    1996-11-01

    The Double Beta Decay, and especially ({beta}{beta}){sub 0{nu}} mode, is an excellent test of Standard Model as well as of neutrino physics. From experimental point of view, a very large number of different techniques are or have been used increasing the sensitivity of this experiments quite a lot (the factor of 10{sup 4} in the last 20 years). In future, in spite of several difficulties, the sensitivity would be increased further, keeping the interest of this very important process. (author) 4 figs., 5 tabs., 21 refs.

  4. Dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources; Dosimetria de fuentes {beta} extensas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Lallena R, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    In this work, we have been studied, making use of the Penelope Monte Carlo simulation code, the dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources in situations of spherical geometry including interfaces. These configurations are of interest in the treatment of the called cranealfaringyomes of some synovia leisure of knee and other problems of interest in medical physics. Therefore, its application can be extended toward problems of another areas with similar geometric situation and beta sources. (Author)

  5. Beta-gamma discriminator circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major difficulty encountered in the determination of beta-ray dose in field conditions is generally the presence of a relatively high gamma-ray component. Conventional dosimetry instruments use a shield on the detector to estimate the gamma-ray component in comparison with the beta-ray component. More accurate dosimetry information can be obtained from the measured beta spectrum itself. At Los Alamos, a detector and discriminator circuit suitable for use in a portable spectrometer have been developed. This instrument will discriminate between gammas and betas in a mixed field. The portable package includes a 256-channel MCA which can be programmed to give a variety of outputs, including a spectral display, and may be programmed to read dose directly

  6. Peginterferon Beta-1a Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms such as headaches, bone or muscle aches, fever, chills, and tiredness during your treatment with peginterferon beta- ... not go away: headache muscle or joint pain fever chills weakness Some side effects can be serious. If ...

  7. Synthesis of Beta Pyridyl Carbinol Tartrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Shukla

    1968-04-01

    Full Text Available A process for the synthesis of Beta pyridine carboxylic acid ethy1 ester starting from quinoline has been developed. Beta-pyridine carboxylic acid ethy1 ester on reduction with lithium aluminium hydride gave Beta-pyridy1 carbinol which on treatment tartaric acid yielded Beta-pyridy1 carbinol tartrate, a vaso dilator known in trade as "Ronicoltartrate".

  8. Apollo applications of beta fiber glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimer, J.

    1971-01-01

    The physical characteristics of Beta fiber glass are discussed. The application of Beta fiber glass for fireproofing the interior of spacecraft compartments is described. Tests to determine the flammability of Beta fiber glass are presented. The application of Beta fiber glass for commercial purposes is examined.

  9. β-carotene and retinol contents in the meat of herbivorous ungulates with a special reference to their public health importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Morshdy, Alaa Eldin; Eldesoky, Kamal Ibrahim; Nakayama, Shouta; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate total carotenoids, β-carotene and retinol concentrations in the livers and muscles of some ungulates (cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats and horses) in comparison with the Wistar rats as a control. Cattle and horses had the highest contents of total carotenoids and β-carotene. Unexpectedly, sheep was the highest accumulator of retinol with a mean concentration of 203 ± 23.34 µg/g, while the least accumulator was buffalo, having a mean value of 58.28 ± 13.77 µg/g. Livers had higher contents of the examined phytochemicals than muscles. Consumption of these tissues may provide human with some needs from these important phytochemicals, though ingestion of livers, especially that of the sheep, is not advisable for the pregnant women. PMID:26498400

  10. Plant carotene cis-trans isomerase CRTISO: a new member of the FAD(RED)-dependent flavoproteins catalyzing non-redox reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiuju; Ghisla, Sandro; Hirschberg, Joseph; Mann, Varda; Beyer, Peter

    2011-03-11

    The carotene cis-trans isomerase CRTISO is a constituent of the carotene desaturation pathway as evolved in cyanobacteria and prevailing in plants, in which a tetra-cis-lycopene species, termed prolycopene, is formed. CRTISO, an evolutionary descendant of the bacterial carotene desaturase CRTI, catalyzes the cis-to-trans isomerization reactions leading to all-trans-lycopene, the substrate for the subsequent lycopene cyclization to form all-trans-α/β-carotene. CRTISO and CRTI share a dinucleotide binding motif at the N terminus. Here we report that this site is occupied by FAD in CRTISO. The reduced form of this cofactor catalyzes a reaction not involving net redox changes. Results obtained with C(1)- and C(5)-deaza-FAD suggest mechanistic similarities with type II isopentenyl diphosphate: dimethylallyl diphosphate isomerase (IDI-2). CRTISO, together with lycopene cyclase CRTY and IDI-2, thus represents the third enzyme in isoprenoid metabolism belonging to the class of non-redox enzymes depending on reduced flavin for activity. The regional specificity and the kinetics of the isomerization reaction were investigated in vitro using purified enzyme and biphasic liposome-based systems carrying specific cis-configured lycopene species as substrates. The reaction proceeded from cis to trans, recognizing half-sides of the symmetrical prolycopene and was accompanied by one trans-to-cis isomerization step specific for the C(5)-C(6) double bond. Rice lycopene β-cyclase (OsLCY-b), when additionally introduced into the biphasic in vitro system used, was found to be stereospecific for all-trans-lycopene and allowed the CRTISO reaction to proceed toward completion by modifying the thermodynamics of the overall reaction. PMID:21209101

  11. Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Potential of Crataegus Fruits Grown in Tunisia as Determined by DPPH, FRAP, and β-Carotene/Linoleic Acid Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Munevver Sokmen; Atalay Sokmen; Malika Trabelsi-Ayadi; Mohamed Journi; Jamila Kalthoum Chérif; Farouk Mraihi

    2013-01-01

    Crataegus fruit is one of most important fruits in Tunisian flora. Some fruits of this genus are edible. This study was undertaken in order to examine the benefits of these fruits in human health and their composition of antioxidants including total polyphenol, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins content, and total anthocyanins. The antioxidative properties of the ultrasonic methanolic extract were assessed by different in vitro methods such as the FRAP, DPPH, and β-carotene/linoleic acid assay. We...

  12. Effects of blanching, acidification, or addition of EDTA on vitamin C and β-carotene stability during mango purée preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiamba, Isabel R F; Svanberg, Ulf

    2016-09-01

    The impact of acidification with citric acid, addition of EDTA or water blanching at high temperature, and short time (HTST) conducted at 90°C for 4 min, on the retention of vitamin C (L-AA and DHAA) and β-carotene was studied in mango purée 30 min after crushing. HTST blanching prior to matrix disruption into purée resulted in complete inactivation of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and minor residual activity (8%) of ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO). The retention of total vitamin C was 100% in blanched purées and in purée with EDTA and about 90% in purées at pH 3.9 and 5.0. Acidification, blanching, and addition of EDTA preserved vitamin C mainly as L-AA, while complete conversion into DHAA was observed in purée at pH 5.0. The retention of all-trans-β-carotene was between 65 and 72%, with the highest value in purée with EDTA and the lowest value in purée of blanched mango. The ratio of 13-cis-β-carotene in fresh mango was 8.2 ± 0.5% that increased significantly after blanching and in purée at pH 5.0.

  13. Effects of blanching, acidification, or addition of EDTA on vitamin C and β-carotene stability during mango purée preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiamba, Isabel R F; Svanberg, Ulf

    2016-09-01

    The impact of acidification with citric acid, addition of EDTA or water blanching at high temperature, and short time (HTST) conducted at 90°C for 4 min, on the retention of vitamin C (L-AA and DHAA) and β-carotene was studied in mango purée 30 min after crushing. HTST blanching prior to matrix disruption into purée resulted in complete inactivation of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and minor residual activity (8%) of ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO). The retention of total vitamin C was 100% in blanched purées and in purée with EDTA and about 90% in purées at pH 3.9 and 5.0. Acidification, blanching, and addition of EDTA preserved vitamin C mainly as L-AA, while complete conversion into DHAA was observed in purée at pH 5.0. The retention of all-trans-β-carotene was between 65 and 72%, with the highest value in purée with EDTA and the lowest value in purée of blanched mango. The ratio of 13-cis-β-carotene in fresh mango was 8.2 ± 0.5% that increased significantly after blanching and in purée at pH 5.0. PMID:27625774

  14. Spectroscopic studies of neutral and chemically oxidized species of β-carotene, lycopene and norbixin in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}: Fluorescence from intermediate compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alwis, D.D.D.H [Department of Chemistry, The Open University of Sri Lanka, Nawala (Sri Lanka); Department of Chemistry, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda (Sri Lanka); Chandrika, U.G. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda (Sri Lanka); Jayaweera, P.M., E-mail: pradeep@sjp.ac.lk [Department of Chemistry, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda (Sri Lanka)

    2015-02-15

    Radical cations, dications and oxidized intermediate species of three carotenoids, namely, β-carotene, lycopene and norbixin, were generated in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} solutions via chemical oxidation using anhydrous FeCl{sub 3}. UV–vis, fluorescence and fluorescence-excitation spectroscopic studies were performed to understand and compare the nature of intermediate species generated during the chemical oxidation process and subsequent degradation. The intense emission observed at 550 nm can be assigned to the S{sub 2}→S{sub 0} (1{sup 1}B{sub u}→1{sup 1}A{sub g}) transition of the carotenoid molecules. The 350 nm excitation during the oxidation process for β-carotene, lycopene and norbixin exhibit intense fluorescence peaks at 492 nm, 493 nm and 500 nm, respectively. These peaks are assigned to intermediate peroxy/epoxy compounds of the three molecules that are formed with molecular oxygen prior to the formation of oxidized short-chain stable compounds. - Highlights: • Fluorescence and UV–vis studies on β-carotene, lycopene and norbixin. • Oxidation, induced by FeCl{sub 3} in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} shows blue shifted fluorescence peaks. • Fluorescence peaks were assigned to intermediate peroxy/epoxy forms of carotenoids. • The D0→D3 transition of radical cations are observed in the near IR region.

  15. Vasodilatory mechanisms of beta receptor blockade.

    OpenAIRE

    Rath, Géraldine; Balligand, Jean-Luc; Dessy, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    Beta-blockers are widely prescribed for the treatment of a variety of cardiovascular pathologies. Compared to traditional beta-adrenergic antagonists, beta-blockers of the new generation exhibit ancillary properties such as vasodilation through different mechanisms. This translates into a more favorable hemodynamic profile. The relative affinities of beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists towards the three beta-adrenoreceptor isotypes matter for predicting their functional impact on vasomotor contro...

  16. Tables of double beta decay data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tretyak, V.I. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine)]|[Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Zdesenko, Y.G. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1995-12-31

    A compilation of experimental data on double beta decay is presented. The tables contain the most stringent known experimental limits or positive results of 2{beta} transitions of 69 natural nuclides to ground and excited states of daughter nuclei for different channels (2{beta}{sup -}; 2{beta}{sup +}; {epsilon}{beta}{sup +}; 2{epsilon}) and modes (0{nu}; 2{nu}; 0{nu}M) of decay. (authors). 189 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. The GERDA experiment on 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, Kai [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    The Gerda (Germanium Detector Array) collaboration searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) of {sup 76}Ge. The existence of this decay would give rise to the assumption that the neutrino is a Majorana particle, i.e. its own antiparticle. A measured half-life could be used to determine the effective neutrino mass and hence resolve the neutrino mass hierarchy problem. Germanium diodes, isotopically enriched in {sup 76}Ge, are used as both source and detector. Due to the low rate of this decay (T{sub 1/2}>10{sup 25} y), the experimental background must be reduced to a level of 10{sup -2}counts/(kg y keV) or better in the region around Q{sub {beta}{beta}}. To minimize background from cosmogenically produced secondary particles, a low Z shielding is employed. Thus, the naked diodes are operated in a liquid argon cryostat, which is surrounded by a water tank acting as both passive shield and active muon Cherenkov veto. Gerda started the commissioning runs in 2010 and in November 2011, the first phase of data taking with enriched detectors has begun. In this talk, the first year of the experiment is summarized.

  18. In-trap decay spectroscopy for {beta}{beta} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Thomas

    2011-01-18

    The presented work describes the implementation of a new technique to measure electron-capture (EC) branching ratios (BRs) of intermediate nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. This technique has been developed at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. It facilitates one of TRIUMF's Ion Traps for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN), the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) that is used as a spectroscopy Penning trap. Radioactive ions, produced at the radioactive isotope facility ISAC, are injected and stored in the spectroscopy Penning trap while their decays are observed. A key feature of this technique is the use of a strong magnetic field, required for trapping. It radially confines electrons from {beta} decays along the trap axis while X-rays, following an EC, are emitted isotropically. This provides spatial separation of X-ray and {beta} detection with almost no {beta}-induced background at the X-ray detector, allowing weak EC branches to be measured. Furthermore, the combination of several traps allows one to isobarically clean the sample prior to the in-trap decay spectroscopy measurement. This technique has been developed to measure ECBRs of transition nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. Detailed knowledge of these electron capture branches is crucial for a better understanding of the underlying nuclear physics in {beta}{beta} decays. These branches are typically of the order of 10{sup -5} and therefore difficult to measure. Conventional measurements suffer from isobaric contamination and a dominating {beta} background at theX-ray detector. Additionally, X-rays are attenuated by the material where the radioactive sample is implanted. To overcome these limitations, the technique of in-trap decay spectroscopy has been developed. In this work, the EBIT was connected to the TITAN beam line and has been commissioned. Using the developed beam diagnostics, ions were injected into the Penning trap and systematic studies on injection and storage optimization were performed. Furthermore, Ge

  19. Genotype × Environment Interaction of Mosaic Disease, Root Yields and Total Carotene Concentration of Yellow-Fleshed Cassava in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert G. Maroya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one yellow-fleshed cassava genotypes were evaluated over two years in five major cassava growing agroecological zones in Nigeria. The trials were established in a randomized complete block design with four replications to assess genotype performance and Genotype × Environment interaction for cassava mosaic disease (CMD, fresh and dry root yield (FYLD; DYLD, root dry matter content (DMC, and total carotene concentration (TCC. Combined analysis of variance showed significant differences (P<0.001 among genotypes (G, environment (E, and Genotype × Environment interaction (GE for all the traits tested. For reaction to CMD, the best genotypes showing stable resistance were TMS 07/0539 and TMS 07/0628. For root yield, the best genotypes were TMS 01/1368 and TMS 07/0553. Genotype TMS 07/0593 was the best for DMC and TCC across the 10 environments. Variation among genotypes accounted for most of the Total Sum of Squares for CMD (72.1% and TCC (34.4%. Environmental variation accounted for most of the Total Sum of Squares for FYLD (42.8%, DYLD (39.6%, and DMC (29.2%. This study revealed that TMS 07/0593 has the highest and most stable TCC, DMC with the lowest CMD severity score and appeared to be the best genotype.

  20. Salinity Induced Changes in β-carotene, Thiamine, Riboflavin and Ascorbic Acid Content in Spinacia oleracea L. var. All Green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Ratnakar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins are the functional components of various enzyme-regulated biochemical reactions occurring to create energy. Vitamin contents of plants are known to show altered metabolism under the influence of salinity. Not much of work has been done on the influence of salinity on the vitamin content in higher plants. Present study was carried out to study the influence of NaCl salinity on vitamin content in the leaves of Spinacia oleracea. Spinacia oleracea plants were grown in earthen pots and were subjected to different concentrations of saline water (NaCl treatment. Control plants were irrigated with tap water. Treatments started after the seedling emergence and continued till the plants were 45 day old. Mature leaves of these plants were harvested and used for studies. Thiamine and riboflavin content were found to increase with increase in NaCl concentration, however, β-carotene was found to decrease with increasing level of NaCl in the growth medium.

  1. Reduction of chromate and carotene-synthesizing activity of selenite-resistant mutants of the yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzàdka M.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The yeast P. rhodozyma is a perspective microbial producer of carotenoid pigment astaxanthin with a high antioxidant power. The aim of the work was to study the ability of the selenite-resistant strains of this yeast to reduce chrome(VI compounds, as well as to analyze the relations between synthesis of carotenoids, resistance to selenite and chromate-reducing activity of P. rhodozyma. Methods. The yeast cells were grown at standard conditions for this species. The residual chromate content in cultural liquid was determined colorimetrically using diphenylcarbazide. The carotenoid content was determined after extraction of the pigments from the previously permeabilized cells by organic solvents. Results. The selected selenite-resistant mutants of the yeast P. rhodozyma revealed the different combinations of the phenotypes related with tolerance/sensitivity to chromate and selenite, as well as ability to reduce chromate. Conclusions. The obtained results give reasons for suggesting that pathways of detoxification of chromate and selenite by the yeast P. rhodozyma are different, although run through a common reductive type. The isolated mutant strains would be served as the useful models to study relations between homeostasis of Se and Cr oxyanions and biosynthesis of carotenes.

  2. Radiation effects on vitamin A and β-carotene contents in bovine liver and swine pate de foie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, vitamin A and β-carotene contents and the percent of activity retention were analyzed in 3 kGy and 30 kGy 60Co γ-irradiated samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate. Six different lots of liver samples weighing 100 g obtained at the meat market were employed. Irradiation was performed with liver samples initially frozen (-15 deg C). Similarly, six different lots of swine liver pate samples weighing about 100 - 125 g , at temperature of 7 deg C were irradiated. Pre-treatments and analysis methods were those described in Instituto Adolfo Lutz Norms for food analyses. Two and five- gram samples in duplicates for bovine liver and five gram-samples for swine liver pate were used. The results showed that there were no losses of either vitamin A or provitamin A activities in the samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate irradiated with a dose of 3 kGy (retention about 100%). On the other hand, for swine liver pate samples of vitamin A were maintained after irradiation with 30 kGy. (author)

  3. 橙汁饮料中β-胡萝卜素乳状液的稳定性%Stability of β-Carotene Emulsion in Orange Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙术国; 高彦祥; 尹红; 麻成金; 王小虎

    2012-01-01

    摘要:研究均质条件、VC添加量、阿拉伯胶的添加量和杀菌时间对橙汁饮料中β一胡萝卜素放置前2h期间的迁移速率和贮藏两周粒径变化的影响,从而评价橙汁饮料β-胡萝h素的物理稳定性;研究贮藏两周橙汁饮料β-胡萝卜素含量的变化,判别橙汁饮料β-胡萝卜素的化学稳定性。结果表明:均质压力30MPa、VC添加的质量分数为0.03%、阿拉伯胶添加的质量分数为0.08%和杀菌时间7min制备的橙汁饮料β-胡萝卜素乳状液物理化学稳定性最佳。研究不同贮藏温度条件橙汁饮料β-胡萝卜素的稳定性,结果发现:饮料β-胡萝卜素含量与贮藏时间变化拟合一阶动力学模型lnC=lnCo—kt(R^2=0.992),不同温度梯度条件下β-胡萝卜素降解速率常数的对数与温度的倒数很好的拟合Arrhenius模型(R^2=0.961)。%The stability of β-carotene emulsion in orange juice was evaluated under different preparation conditions and different storage temperatures. The effects of homogenization pressure, vitamin C concentration, arabic gum concentration and sterilization time on the stability of β-carotene emulsion in orange juice were monitored based on the changes in particle size and migration rate of β-carotene emulsion droplets during the first two hours and β-carotene content during two-week storage. The results showed that the best stability for β-carotene emulsion in orange juice was achieved under the conditions: homogenization pressure of 30 MPa, vitamin C concentration of 0.03%, Arabic gum concentration of 0.08% and sterilization time of 7 rain. The stability of β-carotene emulsion in orange juice was also investigated at different storage temperatures. We found that β-carotene degradation could be fitted into a first-order kinetic model with a regression coefficient (R^2) of 0.992. The logarithm of degradation rate constant against the reciprocal of absolute temperature

  4. Teores de β-caroteno em suplementos e biomassa de Spirulina Contents of β-carotene in supplements and biomass of Spirulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barroso de Alencar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A cianobactéria Spirulina tem sido utilizada há séculos, tendo em vista suas propriedades nutricionais e medicinais. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se analisar os teores de β-caroteno tanto em suplementos alimentares a base de Spirulina comercializados em estabelecimentos de produtos naturais no mercado varejista, quanto em S. platensis cultivada em laboratório. Alguns pigmentos carotenóides possuem atividade de vitamina A e, dentre eles, o β-caroteno é o que apresenta maior atividade biológica. A extração de β-caroteno foi feita com metanol:água (90:10 v/v, seguida de saponificação e partição em n-hexano. As análises cromatográficas foram realizadas em coluna Waters Spherisorb S5 ODS 2 (4,6 x 250 mm, usando metanol:tetrahidrofurano (90:10, v/v bombeado a 2 mL min-1, com registro dos cromatogramas em 450 nm. Os suplementos alimentares a base de Spirulina apresentaram baixos teores de β-caroteno. A maior concentração foi encontrada em S. platensis cultivada a 24º C com fotoperíodo de 16 h claro e 8 h escuro. Considerando sua atividade provitamínica, os teores de retinol equivalente (RE nas microalgas analisadas no presente trabalho foram calculados a partir do β-caroteno para classificá-las como fonte excelente ou fonte útil de vitamina A.Spirulina is a cyanobacterium that has been used for several centuries due to its nutritional and medicinal properties. This work has evaluated the contents of β-carotene both in Spirulina commercialized as food supplement, purchased from natural product shops, and in S. platensis reared under laboratory conditions. Some carotenoids exhibit pro-vitamin A activity, and β-carotene presents the greatest biological activity. β-Carotene of microalgae was extracted in 90% aqueous methanol. These extracts were saponified and partitioned in n-hexane. Chromatographic analyses were carried out in a Spherisorb column S5 ODS 2 (4.6 x 250 mm, with a mobile phase of methanol:tetrahydrofuran (90:10, v

  5. The microbial oxidation of (-)-beta-pinene by Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Afgan; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Tahara, Satoshi; Rahman, Atta-ur; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Demirci, Fatih

    2002-01-01

    (-)-beta-pinene, a flavor and fragrance monoterpene is an important constituent of essential oils of many aromatic plants. It was oxidized by a plant-pathogenic fungus, Botrytis cinerea to afford four metabolites characterized as (-)-6a-hydroxy-beta-pinene, (-)-4beta,5beta-dihydroxy-beta-pinene, (-)-2beta,3beta-dihydroxypinane, and (-)-4beta-hydroxy-beta-pinene-6-one by detailed spectroscopic studies along with other known metabolites.

  6. Mechanism of inactivation of alanine racemase by beta, beta, beta-trifluoroalanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alanine racemases are a group of PLP-dependent bacterial enzymes that catalyze the racemization of alanine, providing D-alanine for cell wall synthesis. Inactivation of the alanine racemases from the Gram-negative organism Salmonella typhimurium and Gram-positive organism Bacillus stearothermophilus with beta, beta, beta-trifluoroalanine has been studied. The inactivation occurs with the same rate constant as that for formation of a broad 460-490-nm chromophore. Loss of two fluoride ions per mole of inactivated enzyme and retention of [1-14C]trifluoroalanine label accompany inhibition, suggesting a monofluoro enzyme adduct. Partial denaturation (1 M guanidine) leads to rapid return of the initial 420-nm chromophore, followed by a slower (t1/2 approximately 30 min-1 h) loss of the fluoride ion and 14CO2 release. At this point, reduction by NaB3H4 and tryptic digestion yield a single radiolabeled peptide. Purification and sequencing of the peptide reveals that lysine-38 is covalently attached to the PLP cofactor. A mechanism for enzyme inactivation by trifluoroalanine is proposed and contrasted with earlier results on monohaloalanines, in which nucleophilic attack of released aminoacrylate on the PLP aldimine leads to enzyme inactivation. For trifluoroalanine inactivation, nucleophilic attack of lysine-38 on the electrophilic beta-difluoro-alpha, beta-unsaturated imine provides an alternative mode of inhibition for these enzymes

  7. Smart Beta or Smart Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kenneth Lillelund; Steenstrup, Søren Resen

    2016-01-01

    Smart beta has become the flavor of the decade in the investment world with its low fees, easy access to rewarded risk premiums, and appearance of providing good investment results relative to both traditional passive benchmarks and actively managed funds. Although we consider it well documented......-documented smart beta risk premiums and still motivate active managers to avoid value traps, too highly priced small caps, defensives, etc. By constructing the equity portfolios of active managers that resemble the most widely used risk premiums, we show that the returns and risk-adjusted returns measures...

  8. Novel anthracycline-spacer-beta-glucuronide, -beta-glucoside, and -beta-galactoside prodrugs for application in selective chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, RGG; Damen, EWP; Bijsterveld, EJA; Scheeren, HW; Houba, PHJ; van der Meulen-Muileman, IH; Boven, E; Haisma, HJ

    1999-01-01

    A series of anthracycline prodrugs containing an immolative spacer was synthesized for application in selective chemotherapy. The prodrugs having the general structure anthracycline-spacer-beta-glycoside were designed to be activated by beta-glucuronidase or beta-galactosidase. Prodrugs with -chloro

  9. Constraining neutrinoless double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A class of discrete flavor-symmetry-based models predicts constrained neutrino mass matrix schemes that lead to specific neutrino mass sum-rules (MSR). We show how these theories may constrain the absolute scale of neutrino mass, leading in most of the cases to a lower bound on the neutrinoless double beta decay effective amplitude.

  10. Beta Cell Workshop 2013 Kyoto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, R Scott; Madsen, Ole D; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2013-01-01

    The very modern Kyoto International Conference Center provided the site for the 8th workshop on Beta cells on April 23-26, 2013. The preceding workshops were held in Boston, USA (1991); Kyoto, Japan (1994); Helsingør, Denmark (1997); Helsinki, Finland (2003); El Perello, Spain (2006); Peebles...

  11. Abstraction Mechanisms in the BETA Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger;

    1983-01-01

    The BETA programming language is developed as part of the BETA project. The purpose of this project is to develop concepts, constructs and tools in the field of programming and programming languages. BETA has been developed from 1975 on and the various stages of the language are documented in [BETA...... a]. The application area of BETA is programming of embedded as well as distributed computing systems. For this reason a major goal has been to develop constructs that may be efficiently implemented. Furthermore the BETA language is intended to have a few number of basic but general constructs....... It is then necessary that the abstraction mechanisms are powerful in order to define more specialized constructs. BETA is an object oriented language like SIMULA 67 ([SIMULA]) and SMALLTALK ([SMALLTALK]). By this is meant that a construct like the SIMULA class/subclass mechanism is fundamental in BETA. In contrast...

  12. Neutron Beta Decay Studies with Nab

    CERN Document Server

    Baeßler, S; Alonzi, L P; Balascuta, S; Barrón-Palos, L; Bowman, J D; Bychkov, M A; Byrne, J; Calarco, J R; Chupp, T; Vianciolo, T V; Crawford, C; Frlež, E; Gericke, M T; Glück, F; Greene, G L; Grzywacz, R K; Gudkov, V; Harrison, D; Hersman, F W; Ito, T; Makela, M; Martin, J; McGaughey, P L; McGovern, S; Page, S; Penttilä, S I; Počanić, D; Rykaczewski, K P; Salas-Bacci, A; Tompkins, Z; Wagner, D; Wilburn, W S; Young, A R

    2012-01-01

    Precision measurements in neutron beta decay serve to determine the coupling constants of beta decay and allow for several stringent tests of the standard model. This paper discusses the design and the expected performance of the Nab spectrometer.

  13. How Do Beta Blocker Drugs Affect Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke More How do beta blocker drugs affect exercise? Updated:Aug 5,2015 Beta blockers are a ... about them: Do they affect your ability to exercise? The answer can vary a great deal, depending ...

  14. The beta subunit of casein kinase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Piontek, K; Schmidt-Spaniol, I;

    1991-01-01

    cDNAs encoding the beta subunit of pig and mouse CKII were isolated. The porcine cDNA was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used for the production of anti-CKII-beta subunit specific antibodies.......cDNAs encoding the beta subunit of pig and mouse CKII were isolated. The porcine cDNA was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used for the production of anti-CKII-beta subunit specific antibodies....

  15. Neoclassical transport in high [beta] tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, S.C.

    1992-12-01

    Neoclassical, transport in high [beta] large aspect ratio tokamaks is calculated. The variational method introduced by Rosenbluth, et al., is used to calculate the full Onsager matrix in the banana regime. These results are part of a continuing study of the high [beta] large aspect ratio equilibria introduced in Cowley, et al. All the neoclassical coefficients are reduced from their nominal low [beta] values by a factor ([var epsilon]/q[sup 2][beta])[sup [1/2

  16. Beta measurements at Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory performed a two-step process to characterize the current beta measurement practices at DOE facilities. PNL issued a survey questionnaire on beta measurement practices to DOE facilities and reported the results. PNL measured beta doses and spectra at seven selected DOE facilities and compared selected measurement techniques in the facility environment. This report documents the results of the radiation field measurements and the comparison of measurement techniques at the seven facilities. Data collected included beta dose and spectral measurements at seven DOE facilities that had high beta-to-gamma ratios (using a silicon surface barrier spectrometer, a plastic scintillator spectrometer, and a multielement beta dosimeter). Other dosimeters and survey meters representative of those used at DOE facilities or under development were also used for comparison. Field spectra were obtained under two distinct conditions. Silicon- and scintillation-based spectrometer systems were used under laboratory conditions where high beta-to-gamma dose ratios made the beta spectra easier to observe and analyze. In the second case, beta spectrometers were taken into actual production and maintenance areas of DOE facilities. Analyses of beta and gamma spectra showed that 234Th- /sup 234m/Pa, 231Th, 137Cs, and 90Sr/90Y were the major nuclides contributing to beta doses at the facilities visited. Beta doses from other fission products and 60Co were also measured, but the potential for exposure was less significant. 21 refs., 64 figs., 18 tabs

  17. Effect of supplementation with vitamins E, C and β-carotene on antioxidative/oxidative status parameters in sows during the postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczubiał, M

    2015-01-01

    The effect of vitamins E, C and β-carotene supplementation in sows on the parameters of antioxidative/oxidative status during the postpartum period was investigated. Twenty four primiparous sows, divided into two groups (experimental and control), were included in the study. After the half-way point of pregnancy until farrowing, each experimental sow received feed supplemented twice a week with 200 mg of vitamin E and 1000 mg of vitamin C, and additionally, 70 mg of β-carotene were administered via intramuscular injection, on day 14 and day 7 before farrowing. The control group was not supplemented. Blood samples were collected before supplementation (gestational day 57-58), 48 hours and 7 days after parturition. The following antioxidative and oxidative parameters were measured using spectrophotometric methods: glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), vitamin C, vitamin E, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and sulfhydryl groups (SH groups). In supplemented sows the erythrocyte activity of GSH-Px and CAT was found to be significantly higher on day 7 after farrowing and the activity of SOD was significantly higher at 48 hours postpartum, compared to the control group. The concentration of vitamins C and E in plasma of the supplemented group was found to be significantly higher and the content of TBARS was found significantly lower at both postpartum measurement points, compared to the control group. The content of SH groups was significantly higher on day 7 postpartum, compared to the control group. The study findings indicate that supplementation of pregnant sows with vitamins E, C and β-carotene in the second half of pregnancy has beneficial effects on the antioxidative/oxidative balance in the postpartum period by increasing the antioxidative potential and reducing lipid and protein peroxidation. PMID:26172179

  18. Measurement of the beta asymmetry in neutron beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron beta decay is the simplest semi-leptonic weak decay and described accurately by the standard model using the first CKM-matrix element and the ratio of vector and axial vector couplings, λ. With more than a dozen observables it is a sensitive probe for investigating the nature of weak interaction and to search for physics beyond the standard model. In the past, measuring the beta asymmetry A in polarized neutron decay has been the most precise way of determining λ and nowadays it allows - together with other observables - to derive limits on non-standard model interactions, such as scalar and tensor couplings. The neutron decay spectrometer Perkeo III was installed at the PF1B cold neutron beam site at the Institut Laue-Langevin to measure the beta asymmetry. By using a pulsed beam combined with an improved detector design a significant reduction of several systematic uncertainties has been achieved compared to the predecessor, Perkeo II. In this talk recent results of the measurements with Perkeo III will be presented. In particular, we show the energy distribution of the electrons together with the calibration tools for the detectors.

  19. Cloning and soluble expression of β-carotene converting enzyme (Asy) gene from Phaffia rhodozyma%法夫酵母β-胡萝卜素转化酶(Asy)基因的克隆及可溶性表达研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹樱; 蔡慧农; 李利君; 倪辉; 苏文金

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] We cloned the cDNA of P-carotene converting enzyme gene (asy) from Phaffia rhodozyma 7B12, a high astaxanthin-producing strain, and expressed the recombi-nant pET32-asy in E. coli BL21(DE3). Our work could lead to an important use for the study of Asy properties and further applications in vitro. [Methods] Using RACE method, we cloned the asy cDNA from Phaffia rhodozyma 7B12, and constructed recombinant plasmid pET32-asy. After optimizing the temperature and IPTG concentration, the soluble expression of Asy was achieved in E. coli BL21(DE3). pET32-asy and pACCAR16Acrtx which carried the genes chain on the synthesis of beta-carotene by acetyl CoA were co-transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3), and the changes of carotenoid species were analyzed by HPLC to detect the activity of Asy. [Results] The homology between new cloned cDNA sequence of asy gene (accession No. HM204708.1) and the only reported asy mRNA sequence (accession No. DQ002007.1) was 97%. The obtained cDNA was 1 971 bp in length, the longest open reading frame was 1 614 bp encoding 538 amino acids, and therefore the fusion protein expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) was about 70 kD. At the optimizing condition (induced by 0.5 mmol/L IPTG, at 26 癈, 5 h), 85% fusion protein expressed by recombinant pET32-asy was soluble. Compared the components of pigment in the E. coli strain only transformed with pAC-CAR16Acrtx with the strain co-transformed with pACCAR16Acrtx and pET32-asy, we found some changes of carotenoid components. The peak presented a-carotene was disappeared and three new peaks were shown, suggested that p-cryptoxanthin which is one of themetabolic intermediates between P-carotene and astaxanthin were produced because of Asy expression. [Conclusion] Astaxanthin synthase cDNA was cloned from Phaffia rhodozyma 7B12 and the soluble expression of astaxanthin synthase in E. coli BL21(DE3) was obtained. The fusion protein had a certain activity to transform p-carotene.%[目的]从高

  20. Effect of foliar calcium chloride treatment on the level of chlorogenic acid, β-carotene, lutein and tocopherols in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Perucka; Katarzyna Olszówka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the presented study was to determine the effect of foliar application of CaCl2 on the level of β-carotene, lutein, tocopherols and phenolic compounds in the leaves of lettuce cv. Omega (Lactuca sativa L.). The experiments were conducted in the greenhouse of the Faculty of Cultivation and Fertilisation of Horticultural Plants, University of Life Sciences in Lublin. During the growing period, 7 and 14 days before harvest, the plants were treated with a solution of CaCl2 with concentr...

  1. Teores de β-caroteno em suplementos e biomassa de Spirulina Contents of β-carotene in supplements and biomass of Spirulina

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Barroso Alencar; Kelma Maria dos Santos Pires-Cavalcante; Jefferson Pablo de Souza Saboya; Márcia Barbosa de Sousa; Wladimir Ronald Lobo Farias; Silvana Saker-Sampaio

    2011-01-01

    A cianobactéria Spirulina tem sido utilizada há séculos, tendo em vista suas propriedades nutricionais e medicinais. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se analisar os teores de β-caroteno tanto em suplementos alimentares a base de Spirulina comercializados em estabelecimentos de produtos naturais no mercado varejista, quanto em S. platensis cultivada em laboratório. Alguns pigmentos carotenóides possuem atividade de vitamina A e, dentre eles, o β-caroteno é o que apresenta maior atividade bi...

  2. Distribution of β-carotene-encapsulated polysorbate 80-coated poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles in rodent tissues following intravenous administration

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazawa, Taiki; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Harigae, Takahiro; Onuma, Ryo; Kimura, Fumiko; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) composed of poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) have attracted considerable attention as delivery systems of drugs and antioxidative compounds, such as β-carotene (BC). Intravenous (IV) administration of BC-containing PLGA-NPs (BC-PLGA-NPs) coated with polysorbate 80 (PS80) has been shown to effectively deliver BC to the brain. However, the whole-body distribution profile of BC is still not clear. Therefore, we investigated the accumulation of BC i...

  3. Beta thalassaemia mutations in Turkish Cypriots.

    OpenAIRE

    Sozuoz, A; Berkalp, A; A. Figus; Loi, A; Pirastu, M.; Cao, A

    1988-01-01

    Using oligonucleotide hybridisation or restriction endonuclease analysis, we have characterised the molecular defect in 94 patients with thalassaemia major and four with thalassaemia intermedia of Turkish Cypriot descent. We found that four mutations, namely beta+ IVS-1 nt 110, beta zero IVS-1 nt, beta+ IVS-1 nt 6, and beta+ IVS-2 nt 745 were prevalent, accounting for 69.9%, 11.7%, 8.7%, and 5.6% respectively of the beta thalassaemia chromosomes. This information may help in the organisation ...

  4. Plan beta: Core or Cusp?

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Thomas; Lehnert, Matt

    2013-01-01

    The inner profile of Dark Matter (DM) halos remains one of the central problems in small-scale cosmology. At present, the problem can not be resolved in dwarf spheroidal galaxies due to a degeneracy between the DM profile and the velocity anisotropy beta of the stellar population. We discuss a method which can break the degeneracy by exploiting 3D positions and 1D line-of-sight (LOS) velocities. With the full 3D spatial information, we can determine precisely what fraction of each stars LOS motion is in the radial and tangential direction. This enables us to infer the anisotropy parameter beta directly from the data. The method is particularly effective if the galaxy is highly anisotropic. Finally, we argue that such a test could be applied to Sagittarius and potentially other dwarfs with RR Lyrae providing the necessary depth information.

  5. Beta spectrum of 185W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of the shape of the first forbidden beta transition of 185W is interesting from the point of view of the fact that this nucleus belongs to the deformed region 150185W is carried out employing an optimized Siegbahn-Slatis beta ray spectrometer and the result is compared with the theoretical shape factor incorporating Nilsson's wavefunctions using Simms formalism. The experimental shape factor is fitted to the correction factor C(W)=k(1+aW) with α=0.0026+-0.0432. The theoretical shape factor computed following the matrix elements due to Nilsson model is in good agreement with the present experimental shape factor. The value Λ(2.358) computed in the present measurement in the light of Nilsson model matrix elements of 185W is in agreement with the predicted value (2.4) of J.J. Fujita. (author)

  6. Review of double beta experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Sarazin, X.

    2012-01-01

    C13-10-22.1 International audience This paper gives a review of the double beta experimental techniques and projects, in the search for the Majorana neutrino. The purpose of this review is to detail, for each technique, the different origins of background, how they can be identified, and how they can be reduced. Advantages and limitations of the different techniques are discussed. 1. Introduction The neutrino is one of the most puzzling elementary particle with very unique properties. I...

  7. Myokardinfarkt und Beta-Blocker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stühlinger H-G

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Im Rahmen eines akuten koronaren Syndroms (akuter Herzinfarkt, Angina pectoris kommt es, aufgrund eines Ungleichgewichtes zwischen Angebot und Bedarf, zu einem akuten Mangel an Sauerstoff im Herzmuskel. Ursache ist eine reduzierte Sauerstoffzufuhr durch verengte bzw. verschlossene Gefäße. Bis zur Behebung der Ursache vergehen oft mehrere Stunden. In dieser Phase muß - durch Verminderung des Sauerstoffbedarfs im Herzmuskel - eine Verlangsamung der Nekroseentwicklung erreicht werden. Das Ausmaß der Nekrose wird reduziert, somit die für die Langzeitprognose wichtige Linksventrikelfunktion verbessert. Eine Verminderung des Sauerstoffbedarfs erreicht man durch kontrollierte Frequenzsenkung mittels intravenöser Beta-Blockade. In optimaler Weise wird diese Methode durch die Anwendung eines kardioselektiven Beta-Blockers mit kurzer Halbwertszeit durchgeführt. Beta-Blocker haben nicht nur auf die Nekroseentwicklung, sondern auch auf die Inzidenz von Rhythmusstörungen - besonders in der Akutphase - Auswirkungen. Vor allem die mit dieser therapeutischen Maßnahme verbundene Reduktion von Kammerflimmern ist von großer Bedeutung.

  8. Enhancement of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in juvenile brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus californiensis (Holmes, 1900, fed β-1.3 glucan vitamin E, and β-carotene and infected with white spot syndrome virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Pacheco

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary β-Ο-glucan, vitamin E, and β-carotene supplements in juvenile brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus californiensis, inoculated with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV was evaluated. Groups of 30 organisms (weighing 1 ± 0.5 g were cultured in 60 L fiberglass tanks and fed daily with β-1.3-glucan (0.1%, vitamin E (0.01%, and β-carotene (0.01% for 23 days; the specimens were then inoculated with WSSV. The antioxidant activity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT were determined in the hepatopancreas and muscle at 0, 1, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after inoculation. Shrimp fed with β-1.3-glucan, vitamin E, and β-carotene significantly increased SOD activity in the hepatopancreas and muscle at 12 and 24 h post-infection, respectively. Shrimp fed with vitamin E and β-1.3-glucan registered an increment in SOD activity from 12 to 48 h post-infection. Shrimp fed with β-carotene increased SOD activity before infection with WSSV, and shrimp fed with β-1.3-glucan and vitamin E increased CAT activity, also before infection. The CAT activity response in shrimp muscle increased with respect to the control group for all treatments tested from 1 to 6 h after inoculation with WSSV. The highest antioxidant response was registered in shrimp fed with vitamin E. Juvenile shrimp fed with vitamin E and later inoculated with WSSV registered 100% mortality at 72 h, but shrimp fed with β-Ο-glucan and β-carotene showed greater resistance to WSSV, with mortality at 144 h post-infection. This study demonstrated the capacity of juvenile Farfantepenaeus californiensis fed β-Ο-glucan, vitamin E, or β-carotene to increase the antioxidant response before and after viral infection.

  9. DMPD: Immunoreceptor-like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17913496 Immunoreceptor-like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. Jakus Z, Fod...) Show Immunoreceptor-like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. PubmedID 17913496 Title Immunoreceptor-like signaling by beta... 2 and beta 3 integrins. Authors Jakus Z, Fodor S, Abram CL

  10. Carotenoid composition and vitamin A value of an Argentinian squash (Cucurbita moschata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, E; Montenegro, M A; Nazareno, M A; López de Mishima, B A

    2001-12-01

    The carotenoid composition of butternut squash (Cucurbita moschata) cultivated in the province of Santiago del Estero, Argentina, was determined. The main carotenoids isolated were identified as beta-carotene (beta,beta-carotene), alpha-carotene (beta,epsilon-carotene), and lutein (beta,epsilon-carotene-3,3'-diol) and the minor carotenoids, as phytofluene (7,8,11,12,7',8'-hexahydro-psi,psi-carotene), zeta-carotene (7,8,7',8'-tetrahydro-psi,psi-carotene), neurosporene (7,8-dihydro-psi,psi-carotene), violaxanthin (5,6,5',6'- diepoxy-5,6,5',6'-tetrahydro-beta,beta-carotene-3,3'-diol) and neoxanthin (5,6-epoxy-6,7-didehydro-5,6,5',6'-tetrahydro-beta,beta- carotene-3,5,3'-triol). In some samples, 5,6,5',6'-beta-carotene diepoxide, (5,6,5',6'-diepoxy-5,6,5',6'-tetrahydro-beta,beta-carotene) and flavoxanthin (5,8-epoxy-5,8-dihydro-beta,epsilon-carotene-3,3'-diol) were detected. The presence of cis-isomers of beta,beta-carotene was also detected by HPLC. The vitamin A value obtained was 432 micrograms RE/100 g fresh sample, which indicates that this vegetable is an important source of provitamin A.

  11. Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Potential of Crataegus Fruits Grown in Tunisia as Determined by DPPH, FRAP, and β-Carotene/Linoleic Acid Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farouk Mraihi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Crataegus fruit is one of most important fruits in Tunisian flora. Some fruits of this genus are edible. This study was undertaken in order to examine the benefits of these fruits in human health and their composition of antioxidants including total polyphenol, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins content, and total anthocyanins. The antioxidative properties of the ultrasonic methanolic extract were assessed by different in vitro methods such as the FRAP, DPPH, and β-carotene/linoleic acid assay. We concluded that peel fraction of red fruits possessed relatively high antioxidant activity and might be a rich source of natural antioxidants in comparison with the pulp and seed fruit extract. The results also showed that hawthorn yellow fruit presents lower amounts of phenolic content, absence of anthocyanins, and less antioxidant capacity. Most of peel and seed fractions were stronger than the pulp fractions in antioxidant activity based on their DPPH IC50, FRAP values, and results of β-carotene/linoleic acid. The total phenolic compounds contents were also highly correlated with the DPPH method and the FRAP assay.

  12. Computer simulations of material ejection during C{sub 60} and Ar{sub m} bombardment of octane and β-carotene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palka, G.; Kanski, M.; Maciazek, D. [Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Garrison, B.J. [Department of Chemistry, 104 Chemistry Building, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Postawa, Z., E-mail: zbigniew.postawa@uj.edu.pl [Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2015-06-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations are used to investigate material ejection and fragment formation during keV C{sub 60} and Ar{sub m} (m = 60, 101, 205, 366, 872 and 2953) bombardment of organic solids composed from octane and β-carotene molecules at 0° and 45° impact angle. Both systems are found to sputter efficiently. For the octane system, material removal occurs predominantly by ejection of intact molecules, while fragment emission is a significant ejection channel for β-carotene. A difference in the molecular dimensions is proposed to explain this observation. It has been shown that the dependence of the sputtering yield Y on the primary kinetic energy E and the cluster size n can be expressed in a simplified form if represented in reduced units. A linear and nonlinear dependence of the Y/n on the E/n are identified and the position of the transition point from the linear to nonlinear regions depends on the size of the cluster projectile. The impact angle has a minor influence on the shape of the simplified representation.

  13. Early and late trisporoids differentially regulate β-carotene production and gene transcript Levels in the mucoralean fungi Blakeslea trispora and Mucor mucedo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahadevan, Yamuna; Richter-Fecken, Mareike; Kaerger, Kerstin; Voigt, Kerstin; Boland, Wilhelm

    2013-12-01

    The multistep cleavage of carotenoids in Mucorales during the sexual phase results in a cocktail of trisporic acid (C18) sex pheromones. We hypothesized that the C18 trisporoid intermediates have a specific regulatory function for sex pheromone production and carotenogenesis that varies with genus/species and vegetative and sexual phases of their life cycles. Real-time quantitative PCR kinetics determined for Blakeslea trispora displayed a very high transcript turnover in the gene for carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase, tsp3, during the sexual phase. An in vivo enzyme assay and chromatographic analysis led to the identification of β-apo-12'-carotenal as the first apocarotenoid involved in trisporic acid biosynthesis in B. trispora. Supplementation of C18 trisporoids, namely D'orenone, methyl trisporate C, and trisporin C, increased tsp3 transcripts in the plus compared to minus partners. Interestingly, the tsp1 gene, which is involved in trisporic acid biosynthesis, was downregulated compared to tsp3 irrespective of asexual or sexual phase. Only the minus partners of both B. trispora and Mucor mucedo had enhanced β-carotene production after treatment with C20 apocarotenoids, 15 different trisporoids, and their analogues. We conclude that the apocarotenoids and trisporoids influence gene transcription and metabolite production, depending upon the fungal strain, corresponding genus, and developmental phase, representing a "chemical dialect" during sexual communication.

  14. Beta-dosimetry studies at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes three beta-dosimetry studies made recently at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first study was to determine the beta-gamma exposure rates at the Los Alamos Godiva IV Critical Assembly. The beta spectra from the assembly were evaluated using absorption curves and the beta-gamma dose-rate ratios were determined at various distances from the assembly. A comparison was made of the doses determined using two types of TLD personnel dosimeters and a film badge. The readings of an Eberline RO-7 instrument and the dose rates determined by TLDs were compared. Shielding provided by various metals, gloves, and clothing were measured. The second study was to determine the beta energy response of the Eberline RO-7 instrument based on measurements made with the PTB beta sources. This study required additional calibration points for the PTB sources which were made using extrapolation chamber measurements. The third study resulted in two techniques to determine the beta energy (E/sub max/) from the readings of this-window portable survey instruments. Both techniques are based on the readings obtained using aluminium filters. One technique is for field application, requires one filter, and provides a quick estimate of the beta energy in three energy groups: 1.5 MeV. The second technique is more complex requiring measurements with two or three filters, but gives the beta energy and the approximate shape of the beta spectrum. 9 references, 6 figures

  15. Beta

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter covers the use of wild beets in sugar beet improvement, including the basic botany of the species, its distribution; geographical locations of genetic diversity; morphology; cytology and karyotype; genome size; taxonomic position; agricultural status (model plant/weeds/invasive species/...

  16. Binding of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) to pregnancy zone protein (PZP). Comparison to the TGF-beta-alpha 2-macroglobulin interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, A; Bostedt, L; Stigbrand, T; O'Connor-McCourt, M D

    1994-04-15

    Pregnancy zone protein (PZP) is quantitatively the most important pregnancy-associated plasma protein and it has strong similarity to alpha 2-macroglobulin. Since alpha 2-macroglobulin is a binding protein for transforming growth factors-beta (TGF-beta), it was of interest to test whether the related protein, PZP, also binds to these growth-regulatory proteins. Using affinity-labelling methods, we demonstrate that PZP binds both TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 and that the binding characteristics are similar to those of the TGF-beta-alpha 2-macroglobulin interaction. TGF-beta 2 and TGF-beta 1 bind to PZP in a predominantly noncovalent manner in vitro. TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 bind to both the dimeric and tetrameric forms of PZP. Our studies also indicate that PZP binds TGF-beta 2 with higher affinity than TGF-beta 1. Finally, we demonstrate that PZP inhibits the binding of TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 to their cell surface receptors. The increased level of PZP during pregnancy may affect the action of TGF-beta by regulating the distribution, clearance and/or general availability of TGF-beta. The preferential binding of TGF-beta 2 over TGF-beta 1 by PZP implies that PZP may differentially regulate the action of TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2.

  17. On gaps in Rényi $\\beta$-expansions of unity for $\\beta > 1$ an algebraic number.

    OpenAIRE

    Verger-Gaugry, Jean-Louis

    2006-01-01

    Let $\\beta> 1$ be an algebraic number. We study the strings of zeros (“gaps”) in the Rényi $\\beta$ -expansion $d_{\\beta}(1)$ of unity which controls the set $\\mathbb{Z}_{\\beta}$ of $\\beta$-integers. Using a version of Liouville's inequality which extends Mahler's and Güting's approximation theorems, the strings of zeros in $d_{\\beta}(1)$ are shown to exhibit a “gappiness” asymptotically bounded above by $log(M(\\beta ))/ log(\\beta)$, where $M(\\beta)$ is the Mahler measure of $\\beta$ . The proo...

  18. Resistance training & beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation on hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOIntroduction:In recent years, there was an increased interest on the effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB supplementation on skeletal muscle due to its anti-catabolic effects.Objectives:To investigate the effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, muscular strength and anabolic-catabolic hormones after resistance training.Methods:Twenty amateur male athletes were randomly assigned to supplement and control groups in a double-blind crossover design and participated in four weeks resistance training. Before and after the test period fasting blood samples were obtained to determine anabolic (the growth hormone and testosterone and catabolic (cortisol hormones, and fat mass, lean body mass (LBM and muscular strength were measured. Dependent and independent t-tests were used to analyze data.Results:After the training period, there were no significant differen-ces between the groups with respect to fat mass, LBM and anabolic-catabolic hormones. HMB supplementation resulted in a significantly greater strength gain (p≤0.05.Conclusion:Greater increase in strength for HMB group was not accompanied by body composition and basal circulating anabolic-catabolic hormonal changes. It seems that HMB supplementation may have beneficial effects on neurological adaptations of strength gain.

  19. GSK3beta is involved in JNK2-mediated beta-catenin inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have recently reported that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK JNK1 downregulates beta-catenin signaling and plays a critical role in regulating intestinal homeostasis and in suppressing tumor formation. This study was designed to determine whether JNK2, another MAPK, has similar and/or different functions in the regulation of beta-catenin signaling. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used an in vitro system with manipulation of JNK2 and beta-catenin expression and found that activated JNK2 increased GSK3beta activity and inhibited beta-catenin expression and transcriptional activity. However, JNK2-mediated downregulation of beta-catenin was blocked by the proteasome inhibitor MG132 and GSK3beta inhibitor lithium chloride. Moreover, targeted mutations at GSK3beta phosphorylation sites (Ser33 and Ser37 of beta-catenin abrogated JNK2-mediated suppression of beta-catenin. In vivo studies further revealed that JNK2 deficiency led to upregulation of beta-catenin and increase of GSK3-beta phosphorylation in JNK2-/- mouse intestinal epithelial cells. Additionally, physical interaction and co-localization among JNK2, beta-catenin and GSK3beta were observed by immunoprecipitation, mammalian two-hybridization assay and confocal microscopy, respectively. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: In general, our data suggested that JNK2, like JNK1, interacts with and suppresses beta-catenin signaling in vitro and in vivo, in which GSK3beta plays a key role, although previous studies have shown distinct functions of JNK1 and JNK2. Our study also provides a novel insight into the crosstalk between Wnt/beta-catenin and MAPK JNKs signaling.

  20. Hyper-beta-alaninemia associated with beta-aminoaciduria and gamma-aminobutyricaciduaia, somnolence and seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriver, C R; Pueschel, S; Davies, E

    1966-03-24

    Hyper-beta-alaninemia was found in a somnolent, convulsing infant. Hyper-beta-aminoaciduria (beta-ala, betaAIB and taurine) was also observed, varying directly with plasma beta-alanine concentration. The beta-aminoaciduria is explained by the interaction between beta-alanine and a specific cellular-transport system with preference for beta-amino compounds. Gamma-aminobutyricaciduria was also observed, its excretion being independent of beta-alanine levels. Dietary modifications, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid and antibiotic therapy were not beneficial. Post-mortem tissues had elevated levels of beta-alanine and carnosine; GABA levels in brain were probably elevated for the age of the patient. A proposed block in beta-alanine-alpha-ketoglutarate transaminase would expand the free beta-alanine pool, thus increasing tissue carnosine. beta-Alanine is a central-nervous-system depressant. Associated inhibition of GABA transaminase and displacement of GABA from central-nervous-system binding sites would produce GABAuria and convulsions. PMID:17926374

  1. Beta-2-mikroglobulin ved medicinske sygdomme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1989-01-01

    Beta-2-microglobulin (beta 2M) is a low-molecular protein which is filtered freely over the glomeruli. Under normal circumstances, more than 99.9% is resorbed in the proximal tubuli of the kidneys and is metabolized there. In renal disease with damage to this segment of the nephron, eg acute tubulo......-interstitial nephropathy, increased quantities of beta 2M are excreted in the urine. If the rate of glomerular filtration is reduced, serum-beta 2M is increased and this is also the case in persons with increased cell division despite normal renal function. Serum-beta 2M is, therefore, raised in numerous malignant...... diseases and reflects the size of the tumour mass. During cytostatic treatment of myelomatosis and chronic lymphatic leukaemia, the serum-beta 2M levels decrease on remission and increase on relapse. In acute leukaemia and malignant lymphoma with infiltration of the CNS, similar conditions prevail for CSF...

  2. Hypersomnolence with beta-adrenergic blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thachil, J; Zeller, J R; Kochar, M S

    1987-11-01

    An elderly, mildly demented, hypertensive male patient developed hypersomnolence on administration of propranolol for treatment of hypertension; no other cause for hypersomnolence was detected. Upon replacement of propranolol with atenolol, he felt better but continued to be quite somnolent. When atenolol was discontinued, he reported to have lack of sleep. On readministration of subtherapeutic doses of the same beta-adrenergic blocking agents, he once again experienced excessive sleepiness. By discontinuing beta-blocking agents and introducing captopril, he felt much better, became pleasant and talkative, and blood pressure was well controlled. Beta antagonists are important drugs in the management of many cardiovascular problems. Propranolol, a lipophilic beta-blocking agent, and atenolol, a hydrophilic beta-blocking agent, are two of the major agents currently used clinically in the United States. Numerous neuropsychiatric side-effects of the beta-adrenergic blocking drugs have been reported, but hypersomnolence is not readily recognized as one of them. PMID:3665616

  3. Beta blockers: A new role in chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Nagaraja, Archana S; Sadaoui, Nouara C.; Lutgendorf, Susan K.; Ramondetta, Lois M.; Sood, Anil K

    2013-01-01

    Beta-blockers are a class of drugs widely used to treat cardiac, respiratory and other ailments. They act by blocking beta-adrenergic receptor–mediated signalling. Studies in various cancers have shown that patients taking a beta-blocker have higher survival and lower recurrence and metastasis rates. This is supported by several preclinical and in vitro studies showing that adrenergic activation modulates apoptosis, promotes angiogenesis and other cancer hallmarks, and these effects can be ab...

  4. The pancreatic beta cell surface proteome

    OpenAIRE

    Stützer, I.; Esterházy, D.; Stoffel, M.

    2012-01-01

    The pancreatic beta cell is responsible for maintaining normoglycaemia by secreting an appropriate amount of insulin according to blood glucose levels. The accurate sensing of the beta cell extracellular environment is therefore crucial to this endocrine function and is transmitted via its cell surface proteome. Various surface proteins that mediate or affect beta cell endocrine function have been identified, including growth factor and cytokine receptors, transporters, ion channels and prote...

  5. Constructions for a bivariate beta distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Olkin, Ingram; Trikalinos, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    The beta distribution is a basic distribution serving several purposes. It is used to model data, and also, as a more flexible version of the uniform distribution, it serves as a prior distribution for a binomial probability. The bivariate beta distribution plays a similar role for two probabilities that have a bivariate binomial distribution. We provide a new multivariate distribution with beta marginal distributions, positive probability over the unit square, and correlations over the full ...

  6. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose

    OpenAIRE

    Sebely Pal; Keith Woodford; Sonja Kukuljan; Suleen Ho

    2015-01-01

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows’ milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows’ milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-...

  7. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebely Pal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows’ milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows’ milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows’ milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  8. NMR Spectroscopic Analysis on the Chiral Recognition of Noradrenaline by {beta}-Cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) and Carboxymethyl- {beta}-cyclodextrin (CM- {beta}-CD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hoo; Yi, Dong Heui; Jung, Seun Ho [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    {beta}-CD and CM-{beta}-CD as chiral NMR shift agents were used to resolve the enantiomers of noradrenaline (NA). The stoichiometry of each complex formed between the CDs and the enantiomers of NA was found to be 1 : 1 through the continuous variation plots. The binding constants (K) of the complexes were determined from 1H NMR titration curves. This result indicated that both {beta}-CD and CM-{beta}-CD formed the complexes with the S (+)-NA more preferentially than its R(.)-enantiomer. The K values for the complexes with {beta}-CD (KS(+) = 537 M{sup -1} and K{sub R}({sub -}) = 516 M{sup -1}) was larger than those with CM-{beta}-CD (K{sub S}({sub +}) = 435 M{sup -1} and K{sub R}({sub -}) = 313 M{sup -1}), however, enantioselectivity ({alpha}) of S({sub +})- and R(-)-NA to CM-{beta}-CD ({alpha} = 1.38) was larger than that to {beta}-CD ({alpha} = 1.04), indicating that CM-{beta}-CD was the better chiral NMR solvating agents for the recognition of the enantiomers of NA. Two dimensional rotating frame nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (ROESY) experiments were also performed to explain the binding properties in terms of spatial fitting of the NA molecule into the macrocyclic cavities

  9. Review of double beta experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Sarazin, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the first part of the manuscript written in April 2012 for my academic Accreditation to supervise research. It offers a review of the double beta experimental techniques. My purpose is to detail, for each technique, the different origins of background, how they can be identified, and how they can be reduced. Advantages and limitations are discussed. This review is organized as follows. First, the question of the possible Majorana nature for the neutrino is presented and the physic of neutrinoless double beta decay is summarized. Then I begin by presenting the tracko-calo NEMO-3 and SuperNEMO experiments. I've worked on these two experiments since 15 years. So it was natural to start with them with a relatively more exhaustive description. I will then present the germanium technique. I will then review the bolometer technique. I will describe in detail the recent progress in scintillating bolometers because I think that it is one of the most promising techniques. Finally I will review the large l...

  10. Beta attenuation transmission system (BATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, R.C.; Fullbright, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm/sup 2/, of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A /sup 90/Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (..mu..P) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined.

  11. Challenges in Double Beta Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliviero Cremonesi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past ten years, neutrino oscillation experiments have provided the incontrovertible evidence that neutrinos mix and have finite masses. These results represent the strongest demonstration that the electroweak Standard Model is incomplete and that new Physics beyond it must exist. In this scenario, a unique role is played by the Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay searches which can probe lepton number conservation and investigate the Dirac/Majorana nature of the neutrinos and their absolute mass scale (hierarchy problem with unprecedented sensitivity. Today Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay faces a new era where large-scale experiments with a sensitivity approaching the so-called degenerate-hierarchy region are nearly ready to start and where the challenge for the next future is the construction of detectors characterized by a tonne-scale size and an incredibly low background. A number of new proposed projects took up this challenge. These are based either on large expansions of the present experiments or on new ideas to improve the technical performance and/or reduce the background contributions. In this paper, a review of the most relevant ongoing experiments is given. The most relevant parameters contributing to the experimental sensitivity are discussed and a critical comparison of the future projects is proposed.

  12. Association of heterocellular HPFH, beta(+)-thalassaemia, and delta beta(0)-thalassaemia: haematological and molecular aspects.

    OpenAIRE

    Cianetti, L; Care, A; Sposi, N M; Giampaolo, A; Calandrini, M; Petrini, M.; Massa, A.; Marinucci, M.; Mavilio, F; Ceccanti, M.

    1984-01-01

    An Italian family in which heterocellular hereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin (HPFH) interacts with both beta(+)- and delta beta-thalassaemia is described. The index case was an 8 year old girl who was presumed to inherit both heterocellular HPFH and beta (+)-thalassaemia from her mother and delta beta-thalassaemia from her father. She was healthy and never needed blood transfusions. The possible contribution of heterocellular HPFH to the less severe expression of the compound delta b...

  13. Interrelations between herbage yield, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, lutein, protein, and fiber in non-leguminous forbs, forage legumes, and a grass-clover mixture as affected by harvest date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgersma, Anjo; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2015-01-21

    Pastures with diverse botanical composition may enhance animal-derived product quality. A recent study demonstrated high vitamin concentrations and yields in some forb species. The objectives of the present study were to investigate interrelations between herbage yields, vitamin concentrations, protein and fiber contents and analyze the effect of harvest date. We hypothesized that interrelations would be similar across investigated forage species. Four nonleguminous forbs: salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor), caraway (Carum carvi), chicory (Cichorium intybus), and ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata), three legumes: yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis), lucerne (Medicago sativa), and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) and a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne)-white clover (Trifolium repens) mixture were sown in a field trial with two replicated and randomized blocks. Forage in 1.5 m × 9 m plots was grown in two consecutive years and cut four times per year (May-October). Analyses of variance were performed. In most herbages, α-tocopherol and β-carotene were positively correlated as were β-carotene and lutein; all vitamins were negatively correlated with fiber content and herbage yield. β-Carotene was positively correlated with protein content. α-Tocopherol and β-carotene contents were generally highest in October and lowest in July. Our results showed similar interrelationships in most investigated species, and we suggest that these species may be mixed when designing novel biodiverse mixtures for particular product quality characteristics. PMID:25573460

  14. Effect of legume–grass silages and α-tocopherol supplementation on fatty acid composition and α-tocopherol, β-carotene and retinol concentrations in organically produced bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höjer, A; Adler, S; Martinsson, K;

    2012-01-01

    Two feeding experiments were performed to study the effects of silage botanical composition, regrowth interval and α-tocopherol supplementation on the fatty acid (FA) composition and α-tocopherol, β-carotene and retinol concentrations of milk. In Exp. 1, 24 Swedish Red dairy cows were fed two...

  15. The impact of beta-elemene on beta-tubulin of human hepatoma hepg2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuqiu Mao; Liying Ban; Jielin Zhang; Li Hou; Xiaonan Cui

    2014-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of beta-elemene injection on the growth and beta-tubulin of human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Methods:cellproliferation was assessed by MTT assay. cellcycle distribution was detected by flow cytometry (FCM). The mRNA expression of beta-tubulin was measured by RT-PCR. West-ern blot analysis was used to determine protein expression of beta-tubulin and the polymerization of beta-tubulin. Results:Beta-elemene injection inhibited HepG2 cells proliferation in a dose-and time-dependent manner;FCM analysis indicated beta-elemene injection induced cellcycle arrested at S phase. RT-PCR and western-blot analysis showed that beta-elemene injection down-regulated beta-tubulin expression at both mRNA and protein levels, presenting a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, beta-elemene injection reduced the polymerization of microtubules in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion:Beta-elemene injection can inhibit the proliferation of hepatoma HepG2 cells, the mechanism might be partly related to the down-regulation of beta-tubulin and inhibition of microtubular polymerization.

  16. Expressions of GSK-3beta, Beta-Catenin and PPAR-Gamma in Medulloblastoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Zhang; Lu Si; Yu Li; Can Mi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expressions of GSK-3beta, Beta-catenin and PPAR-gamma, and their relationship in medulloblastoma, and to explore their value in clinic application.Methods: Immunohistochemical staining with SP method was conducted to determine the expressions of GSK-3beta, Beta-catenin and PPAR-gamma in 48 cases of medulloblastoma and 10 normal cerebellar tissues.Results: The rate of abnormal expressions of beta-catenin and PPAR-gamma in MB was higher than that in normal. Conversely, GSK-3beta in MB was lower than that in the normal (P<0.05). Furthermore, in medulloblastoma, beta-catenin and GSK-3beta showed a negative correlation, PPAR-gamma and beta-catenin had a positive correlation.Conclusion: Abnormal expression of beta-catenin plays a crucial role in the development of medulloblastoma. Meanwhile, PPAR-gamma and GSK-3beta which are tightly related with beta-catenin are both involved in the genesis and development of medulloblastoma.

  17. The pharmacokinetics of beta-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijlink, H W; Visser, J; Hefting, N R; Oosting, R; Meijer, D K; Lerk, C F

    1990-01-01

    Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin was analyzed by HPLC using postcolumn complexation with phenolphthalein and negative colorimetric detection, with a detection limit of 20 micrograms/ml. The pharmacokinetics of beta-cyclodextrin and of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin were studied after intravenous adm

  18. Radiation-induced polymerization of {beta}(+)-pinene and synthesis of optically active {beta}(+)/{beta}(-)pinene polymers and copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, Franco, E-mail: franco.cataldo@fastwebnet.i [Lupi Chemical Research, Via Casilina 1626/A, 00133 Rome (Italy); Lilla, Edo; Ursini, Ornella [Institute of Chemical Methodologies, CNR, Via Salaria Km. 29300, Monterotondo Stazione 00016, Rome (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    Poly-{beta}(+)-pinene (pB(+)p) was synthesized with {gamma} irradiation of the monomer {beta}(+)-pinene in bulk under vacuum at 1181 kGy. Also scalemic mixtures of {beta}(+)-pinene and {beta}(-)-pinene were irradiated at 1181 kGy to obtain synthetic copolymers of pB(+)/B(-)p. For comparison also {beta}(-)-pinene was converted into poly-{beta}(-)-pinene (pB(-)p) under the identical conditions adopted for its enantiomer. Furthermore pB(+)p and pB(-)p were also synthesized by thermal processing under the action of a chemical free radical initiator. The optical rotatory dispersion (ORD) of all pBp resins synthesized were accurately studied in the spectral range comprised between 375 and 625 nm and a curious asymmetry in the ORD of pB(+)p versus the ORD of pB(-)p is reported. Furthermore, it is shown that (+)-p-menth-1-ene and (-)-p-menth-1-ene are useful as a model compounds for the pBp resins and for the explanation of the amplification of the optical activity of the {beta}(+)-pinene and {beta}(-)-pinene after their ring-opening polymerization to pB(+)p and pB(-)p. The pBp resins were studied also by FT-IR spectroscopy and by thermal analysis (TGA and DTG).

  19. Imperfect World of beta beta-decay Nuclear Data Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritychenko, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). NNDC

    2015-01-03

    The precision of double-beta ββ-decay experimental half lives and their uncertainties is reanalyzed. The method of Benford's distributions has been applied to nuclear reaction, structure and decay data sets. First-digit distribution trend for ββ-decay T2v1/2 is consistent with large nuclear reaction and structure data sets and provides validation of experimental half-lives. A complementary analysis of the decay uncertainties indicates deficiencies due to small size of statistical samples, and incomplete collection of experimental information. Further experimental and theoretical efforts would lead toward more precise values of-decay half-lives and nuclear matrix elements.

  20. Beta-glucosidase I variants with improved properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bott, Richard R.; Kaper, Thijs; Kelemen, Bradley; Goedegebuur, Frits; Hommes, Ronaldus Wilhelmus; Kralj, Slavko; Kruithof, Paulien; Nikolaev, Igor; Van Der Kley, Wilhelmus Antonious Hendricus; Van Lieshout, Johannes Franciscus Thomas; Van Stigt Thans, Sander

    2016-09-20

    The present disclosure is generally directed to enzymes and in particular beta-glucosidase variants. Also described are nucleic acids encoding beta-glucosidase variants, compositions comprising beta-glucosidase variants, methods of using beta-glucosidase variants, and methods of identifying additional useful beta-glucosidase variants.

  1. Dosimetry of low-energy beta radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, J.

    1996-08-01

    Useful techniques and procedures for determination of absorbed doses from exposure in a low-energy {beta} radiation field were studied and evaluated in this project. The four different techniques included were {beta} spectrometry, extrapolation chamber dosimetry, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, and exoelectron dosimetry. As a typical low-energy {beta} radiation field a moderated spectrum from a {sup 14}C source (E{sub {beta}},{sub max} =156 keV) was chosen for the study. The measured response of a Si(Li) detector to photons (bremsstrahlung) showed fine agreement with the MC calculated photon response, whereas the difference between measured and MC calculated responses to electrons indicates an additional dead layer thickness of about 12 {mu}m in the Si(Li) detector. The depth-dose profiles measured with extrapolation chambers at two laboratories agreed very well, and it was confirmed that the fitting procedure previously reported for {sup 147}Pm depth-dose profiles is also suitable for {beta} radiation from {sup 14}C. An increasing difference between measured and MC calculated dose rates for increasing absorber thickness was found, which is explained by limitations of the EGS4 code for transport of very low-energy electrons (below 10-20 keV). Finally a study of the thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) response of BeO thin film dosemeters to {beta} radiation for radiation fields with maximum {beta} energies ranging from 67 keV to 2.27 MeV is reported. For maximum {beta} energies below approximately 500 keV, a decrease in the response amounting to about 20% was observed. It is thus concluded that a {beta} dose higher than about 10 {mu}Gy can be measured with these dosemeters to within 0 to -20% independently of the {beta}energy for E{sub {beta}},{sub max} values down to 67 keV. (au) 12 tabs., 38 ills., 71 refs.

  2. Search for beta sup - and beta sup -beta sup - decays of sup 4 sup 8 Ca

    CERN Document Server

    Bakalyarov, A; Barabash, A; Briançon, C; Brudanin, V; Egorov, V; Hubert, F; Hubert, P; Kovalik, A; Lebedev, V I; Rukhadze, N I; Stekl, I; Umatov, V; Vylov, T D

    2002-01-01

    A sup 4 sup 8 CaCO sub 3 powder sample containing 20.18 g of sup 4 sup 8 Ca was measured for 797 h with a 400 cm sup 3 low-background HPGe detector. New limits on decays of sup 4 sup 8 Ca were obtained. For single beta transitions to sup 4 sup 8 Sc the limits are equal to 0.71x10 sup 2 sup 0 y, 1.1x10 sup 2 sup 0 y, and 0.82x10 sup 2 sup 0 y for transitions to the ground state, excited 5 sup + and 4 sup + states, respectively. The new limits on double beta decay to excited states of sup 4 sup 8 Ti are equal to 0.47x10 sup 2 sup 0 y, 1.1x10 sup 2 sup 0 y, and 0.90x10 sup 2 sup 0 y for transitions to the first 2 sup + , second 2 sup + and first 0 sup + excited states, respectively. All limits are given at the 90% CL.

  3. [Hemoglobin C -- beta-thalassemia disease and homozygous beta-thalassemia in a black African family (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset, P; Fall, M; Oudart, J L

    1975-01-01

    The study of a Malian family has allowed to prove existence of two types of beta-thalassemia genes: the beta0 gene which suppresses the synthesis of the beta chain into cis position and the beta+ gene which slows down only partially this synthesis. The difference between this two genes has been possible owing to the hemoglobin C found in this family and induced by the betaC mutated gene. The segregation of the four genes betaA, betaC, beta0 thal, and beta+ thal. has allowed to compare all the possible phenotypes deriving from the combinations by two of these allelic genes. PMID:128735

  4. Broad resonances and beta-decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, K.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Hyldegaard, S.;

    2015-01-01

    Beta-decay into broad resonances gives a distorted lineshape in the observed energy spectrum. Part of the distortion arises from the phase space factor, but we show that the beta-decay matrix element may also contribute. Based on a schematic model for p-wave continuum neutron states it is argued...

  5. A proportional-scintillation counter beta spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a proportional counter for coincidence gating of events in a plastic scintillator provides selective registration of beta interactions in the scintillator. This technique has been used to construct a field instrument that can selectively collect beta spectra (coincidence gating) or gamma spectra (anticoincidence gating). Associated dose rates are calculated from the spectra

  6. Localization of thymosin beta-4 in tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, L. -I.; Holck, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Overexpression of thymosin beta-4 has been linked to malignant progression but the localization of this polypeptide within tumors is incompletely known. We therefore examined breast cancers for thymosin beta-4 using immunofluorescence. Reactive cells were identified with monoclonal cell marker...... in the tumor microenvironment may modulate tumor behavior....

  7. Higher-Order Beta Matching with Solutions in Long Beta-Eta Normal Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støvring, Kristian

    2006-01-01

    Higher-order matching is a special case of unification of simply-typed lambda-terms: in a matching equation, one of the two sides contains no unification variables. Loader has recently shown that higher-order matching up to beta equivalence is undecidable, but decidability of higher-order matching...... up to beta-eta equivalence is a long-standing open problem.We show that higher-order matching up to beta-eta equivalence is decidable if and only if a restricted form of higher-order matching up to beta equivalence is decidable: the restriction is that solutions must be in long beta-eta normal form....

  8. Adaptive changes in pancreatic beta cell fractional area and beta cell turnover in human pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, A. E.; Cao-Minh, L.; Galasso, R; Rizza, R. A.; Corradin, A.; Cobelli, C; Butler, P C

    2010-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis We sought to establish the extent and basis for adaptive changes in beta cell numbers in human pregnancy. Methods Pancreas was obtained at autopsy from women who had died while pregnant (n = 18), post-partum (n = 6) or were not pregnant at or shortly before death (controls; n = 20). Pancreases were evaluated for fractional pancreatic beta cell area, islet size and islet fraction of beta cells, beta cell replication (Ki67) and apoptosis (TUNEL), and indirect markers of beta cel...

  9. Constitutive Effects of Lead on Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Gene Battery and Protection by β-carotene and Ascorbic Acid in Human HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Wageh S; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2016-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is an environmental pollutant that can get entry into human body through contaminated foods, drinks, and inhaled air leading to severe biological consequences, and has been responsible for many deaths worldwide. The objectives of this study were 1st to investigate the modulatory effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of Pb on AhR gene battery, which is controlling xenobiotics metabolism. 2nd, trials to reduce Pb-induced adverse effects were done using some phytochemicals like β-carotene or ascorbic acid. Human hepatoma (HepG2) cell lines were exposed to a wide range of Pb concentrations varying from physiological to toxic levels (0 to 10 mg/L) for 24 h. High Pb concentrations (1 to 10 mg/L) significantly reduced phase I (CYP1A1 and 1A2) and phase II (UGT1A6 and NQO1) xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme mRNA expression in a mechanistic manner through the AhR regulation pathway. Additionally, these Pb concentrations induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells in terms of production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induced heme oxygenase-1 mRNA expression in a concentration-dependent phenomenon. Coexposure of HepG2 cells to physiological concentrations of some micronutrients, like β-carotene (10 μM) or ascorbic acid (0.1 mM), along with Pb (1 mg/L) for 24 h significantly reduced the levels of ROS production and recovered AhR mRNA expression into the normal levels. Thus, consumption of foods rich in these micronutrients may help to reduce the adverse effects of lead in areas with high levels of pollution.

  10. Ascorbic acid, β-carotene, sugars, phenols, and heavy metals in sweet potatoes grown in soil fertilized with municipal sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Dennis, Sam O; Unrine, Jason M; Snyder, John C

    2011-01-01

    Municipal sewage sludge (MSS) used for land farming typically contains heavy metals that might impact crop quality and human health. A completely randomized experimental design with three treatments (six replicates each) was used to monitor the impact of mixing native soil with MSS or yard waste (YW) mixed with MSS (YW +MSS) on: i) sweet potato yield and quality; ii) concentration of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Mo, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni) in sweet potato plant parts (edible roots, leaves, stem, and feeder roots); and iii) concentrations of ascorbic acid, total phenols, free sugars, and β-carotene in sweet potato edible roots at harvest. Soil samples were collected and analyzed for total and extractable metals using two extraction procedures, concentrated nitric acid (to extract total metals from soil) as well as CaCl₂ solution (to extract soluble metals in soil that are available to plants), respectively. Elemental analyses were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Overall, plant available metals were greater in soils amended with MSS compared to control plots. Concentration of Pb was greater in YW than MSS amendments. Total concentrations of Pb, Ni, and Cr were greater in plants grown in MSS+YW treatments compared to control plants. MSS+YW treatments increased sweet potato yield, ascorbic acid, soluble sugars, and phenols in edible roots by 53, 28, 27, and 48%, respectively compared to plants grown in native soil. B-carotene concentration (157.5 μg g⁻¹ fresh weight) was greater in the roots of plants grown in MSS compared to roots of plants grown in MSS+YW treatments (99.9 μg g⁻¹ fresh weight). Concentration of heavy metals in MSS-amended soil and in sweet potato roots were below their respective permissible limits. PMID:21207309

  11. Beta-conjugates of real algebraic numbers as Puiseux expansions

    CERN Document Server

    Verger-Gaugry, Jean-Louis

    2011-01-01

    The beta-conjugates of a base of numeration $\\beta > 1$, $\\beta$ being a Parry number, were introduced by Boyd, in the context of the R\\'enyi-Parry dynamics of numeration system and the beta-transformation. These beta-conjugates are canonically associated with $\\beta$. Let $\\beta > 1$ be a real algebraic number. A more general definition of the beta-conjugates of $\\beta$ is introduced in terms of the Parry Upper function $f_{\\beta}(z)$ of the beta-transformation. We introduce the concept of a germ of curve at $(0,1/\\beta) \\in \\mathbb{C}^{2}$ associated with $f_{\\beta}(z)$ and the reciprocal of the minimal polynomial of $\\beta$. This germ is decomposed into irreducible elements according to the theory of Puiseux, gathered into conjugacy classes. The beta-conjugates of $\\beta$, in terms of the Puiseux expansions, are given a new equivalent definition in this new context. If $\\beta$ is a Parry number the (Artin-Mazur) dynamical zeta function $\\zeta_{\\beta}(z)$ of the beta-transformation, simply related to $f_{\\b...

  12. Ranking Beta Sheet Topologies of Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Rasmus; Helles, Glennie; Winter, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    One of the challenges of protein structure prediction is to identify long-range interactions between amino acids.  To reliably predict such interactions, we enumerate, score and rank all beta-topologies (partitions of beta-strands into sheets, orderings of strands within sheets and orientations...... of paired strands) of a given protein.  We show that the beta-topology corresponding to the native structure is, with high probability, among the top-ranked. Since full enumeration is very time-consuming, we also suggest a method to deal with proteins with many beta-strands. The results reported...... in this paper are highly relevant for ab initio protein structure prediction methods based on decoy generation. The top-ranked beta-topologies can be used to find initial conformations from which conformational searches can be started. They can also be used to filter decoys by removing those with poorly...

  13. Beta cell proliferation and growth factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis; Svensson, C; Møldrup, Annette;

    1999-01-01

    Formation of new beta cells can take place by two pathways: replication of already differentiated beta cells or neogenesis from putative islet stem cells. Under physiological conditions both processes are most pronounced during the fetal and neonatal development of the pancreas. In adulthood little...... cloned a novel GH/PRL stimulated rat islet gene product, Pref-1 (preadipocyte factor-1). This protein contains six EGF-like motifs and may play a role both in embryonic pancreas differentiation and in beta cell growth and function. In summary, the increasing knowledge about the mechanisms involved...... increase in the beta cell number seems to occur. In pregnancy, however, a marked hyperplasia of the beta cells is observed both in rodents and man. Increased mitotic activity has been seen both in vivo and in vitro in islets exposed to placental lactogen (PL), prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH...

  14. Simultaneous beta/gamma digital spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.

    A state-of-the-art radiation detection system for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta-particles and gamma-rays has been developed. The system utilizes a triple-layer phoswich detector and a customized Digital Pulse Processor (DPP) built in our laboratory. The DPP board was designed to digitally capture the analog signal pulses and, following several digital preprocessing steps, transfer valid pulses to the host computer for further digital processing. A MATLAB algorithm was developed to digitally discriminate beta and gamma events and reconstruct separate beta and gamma-ray energy spectra with minimum crosstalk. The spectrometer proved to be an effective tool for recording separate beta and gamma-ray spectra from mixed radiation fields. The system as a beta-gamma spectrometer will have broad-ranging applications in nuclear non-proliferation, radioactive waste management, worker safety, systems reliability, dose assessment, and risk analysis.

  15. Peripheral beta-endorphin and pain modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, A C

    1991-01-01

    Beta-endorphin is a peptide with morphine-like effects produced primarily in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. After its cleavage from the parent molecule, proopiomelanocortin, beta-endorphin is circulated via the blood stream to interact with specific opioid receptors located throughout the body. The peptide produces analgesia by inhibiting the firing of peripheral somatosensory fibers. It also affects other senses, such as vision, hearing, and smell. Whereas the ability to increase beta-endorphin secretion during times of surgical stress is positively correlated with amelioration of pain, the administration of exogenous opioids, such as fentanyl, reduces plasma beta-endorphin. Decreased beta-endorphin concentrations may play a role in trigeminal neuralgia, migraine headache, and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:1814247

  16. Clusters of conserved beta cell marker genes for assessment of beta cell phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Geert A; Jiang, Lei; Hellemans, Karine H;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a gene expression blueprint of pancreatic beta cells conserved from rodents to humans and to evaluate its applicability to assess shifts in the beta cell differentiated state. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of isolated beta cells were compared to those...... of a large panel of other tissue and cell types, and transcripts with beta cell-abundant and -selective expression were identified. Iteration of this analysis in mouse, rat and human tissues generated a panel of conserved beta cell biomarkers. This panel was then used to compare isolated versus laser capture...... microdissected beta cells, monitor adaptations of the beta cell phenotype to fasting, and retrieve possible conserved transcriptional regulators....

  17. Complement activation by the amyloid proteins A beta peptide and beta 2-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Nielsen, E H; Svehag, S E

    1999-01-01

    Complement activation (CA) has been reported to play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate whether CA may contribute to amyloidogenesis in general, the CA potential of different amyloid fibril proteins was tested. CA induced by A beta preparations containing soluble...... protein, protofilaments and some fibrils or only fibrils in a solid phase system (ELISA) was modest with a slow kinetics compared to the positive delta IgG control. Soluble A beta induced no detectable CA in a liquid phase system (complement consumption assay) while fibrillar A beta caused CA at 200 mg....../ml and higher concentrations. Soluble beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2M) purified from peritoneal dialysates was found to be as potent a complement activator as A beta in both solid and liquid phase systems while beta 2M purified from urine exhibited lower activity, a difference which may be explained...

  18. Clusters of conserved beta cell marker genes for assessment of beta cell phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Geert A; Jiang, Lei; Hellemans, Karine H;

    2011-01-01

    of a large panel of other tissue and cell types, and transcripts with beta cell-abundant and -selective expression were identified. Iteration of this analysis in mouse, rat and human tissues generated a panel of conserved beta cell biomarkers. This panel was then used to compare isolated versus laser......The aim of this study was to establish a gene expression blueprint of pancreatic beta cells conserved from rodents to humans and to evaluate its applicability to assess shifts in the beta cell differentiated state. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of isolated beta cells were compared to those...... capture microdissected beta cells, monitor adaptations of the beta cell phenotype to fasting, and retrieve possible conserved transcriptional regulators....

  19. Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaf supplementation improves antioxidant status in C57BL/6J mice fed high fat high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeung Hee; Son, Chan Wook; Kim, Mi Yeon; Kim, Min Hee; Kim, Hye Ran; Kwak, Eun Shil; Kim, Sena; Kim, Mee Ree

    2009-01-01

    The effect of diet supplemented with red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaf on antioxidant status of plasma and tissue was investigated in C57BL/6J mice. The mice were randomly divided into two groups after one-week acclimation, and fed a high fat (20%) and high cholesterol (1%) diet without (control group) or with 8% freeze-dried red beet leaf (RBL group) for 4 weeks. In RBL mice, lipid peroxidation determined as 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS value) was significantly reduced in the plasma and selected organs (liver, heart, and kidney). Levels of antioxidants (glutathione and beta-carotene) and the activities of antioxidant enzyme (glutathione peroxidase) in plasma and liver were considerably increased, suggesting that antioxidant defenses were improved by RBL diet. Comet parameters such as tail DNA (%), tail extent moment, olive tail moment and tail length were significantly reduced by 25.1%, 49.4%, 35.4%, and 23.7%, respectively, in plasma lymphocyte DNA of RBL mice compared with control mice, and indicated the increased resistance of lymphocyte DNA to oxidative damage. In addition, the RBL diet controlled body weight together with a significant reduction of fat pad (retroperitoneal, epididymal, inguinal fat, and total fat). Therefore, the present study suggested that the supplementation of 8% red beet leaf in high fat high cholesterol diet could prevent lipid peroxidation and improve antioxidant defense system in the plasma and tissue of C57BL/6J mice. PMID:20016711

  20. Ellagic acid promotes A{beta}42 fibrillization and inhibits A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Ying [Department of Histology and Embryology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Yang, Shi-gao; Du, Xue-ting; Zhang, Xi; Sun, Xiao-xia; Zhao, Min [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Sun, Gui-yuan, E-mail: sungy2004@sohu.com [Department of Histology and Embryology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Liu, Rui-tian, E-mail: rtliu@tsinghua.edu.cn [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-12-25

    Smaller, soluble oligomers of {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Selective inhibition of A{beta} oligomer formation provides an optimum target for AD therapy. Some polyphenols have potent anti-amyloidogenic activities and protect against A{beta} neurotoxicity. Here, we tested the effects of ellagic acid (EA), a polyphenolic compound, on A{beta}42 aggregation and neurotoxicity in vitro. EA promoted A{beta} fibril formation and significant oligomer loss, contrary to previous results that polyphenols inhibited A{beta} aggregation. The results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western blot displayed more fibrils in A{beta}42 samples co-incubated with EA in earlier phases of aggregation. Consistent with the hypothesis that plaque formation may represent a protective mechanism in which the body sequesters toxic A{beta} aggregates to render them harmless, our MTT results showed that EA could significantly reduce A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity toward SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, our results suggest that EA, an active ingredient in many fruits and nuts, may have therapeutic potential in AD.

  1. Evidence for Novel [beta]-Sheet Structures in Iowa Mutant [beta]-Amyloid Fibrils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tycko, Robert; Sciarretta, Kimberly L.; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O.; Meredith, Stephen C.; (IIT); (NIH); (UC)

    2009-07-24

    Asp23-to-Asn mutation within the coding sequence of {beta}-amyloid, called the Iowa mutation, is associated with early onset, familial Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, in which patients develop neuritic plaques and massive vascular deposition predominantly of the mutant peptide. We examined the mutant peptide, D23N-A{beta}40, by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. D23N-A{beta}40 forms fibrils considerably faster than the wild-type peptide (k = 3.77 x 10{sup -3} min{sup -1} and 1.07 x 10{sup -4} min{sup -1} for D23N-A{beta}40 and the wild-type peptide WT-A{beta}40, respectively) and without a lag phase. Electron microscopy shows that D23N-A{beta}40 forms fibrils with multiple morphologies. X-ray fiber diffraction shows a cross-{beta} pattern, with a sharp reflection at 4.7 {angstrom} and a broad reflection at 9.4 {angstrom}, which is notably smaller than the value for WT-A{beta}40 fibrils (10.4 {angstrom}). Solid-state NMR measurements indicate molecular level polymorphism of the fibrils, with only a minority of D23N-A{beta}40 fibrils containing the in-register, parallel {beta}-sheet structure commonly found in WT-A{beta}40 fibrils and most other amyloid fibrils. Antiparallel {beta}-sheet structures in the majority of fibrils are indicated by measurements of intermolecular distances through 13C-13C and 15N-13C dipole-dipole couplings. An intriguing possibility exists that there is a relationship between the aberrant structure of D23N-A{beta}40 fibrils and the unusual vasculotropic clinical picture in these patients.

  2. Dosimetry of Low-Energy Beta Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Jette

    Useful techniques and procedures for derermination of absorbed doses from exposure in a low-energy beta radiation were studied and evaluated. The four techniques included were beta spectrometry, extrapolation chamber dosimetry, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, and exoelectron dosimetry. As a typical...... low-energy beta radiation field a moderated spectrum from a carbon-14 source was used. The measured responce of a Si(Li) detector to photons (bremsstrahlung) showed fine agreemant with the MC calculated photon response, whereas the difference between measured and MC calculated response to electrons...

  3. Rotational beta expansion: Ergodicity and Soficness

    OpenAIRE

    Akiyama, Shigeki; Caalim, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    We study a family of piecewise expanding maps on the plane, generated by composition of a rotation and an expansive similitude of expansion constant $\\beta$. We give two constants $B_1$ and $B_2$ depending only on the fundamental domain that if $\\beta>B_1$ then the expanding map has a unique absolutely continuous invariant probability measure, and if $\\beta>B_2$ then it is equivalent to $2$-dimensional Lebesgue measure. Restricting to a rotation generated by $q$-th root of unity $\\zeta$ with ...

  4. Falsifying Baryogenesis with Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the relation between lepton number violation at high and low energies, particularly, the constraints on baryogenesis models, which would be implied by an observation of neutrinoless double beta decay. The primordial baryon asymmetry can be washed out by effective lepton number violating operators triggering neutrinoless double beta decay in combination with sphaleron processes. A generic conclusion is that popular models of baryogenesis are excluded if a non-standard mechanism of neutrinoless double beta decay, i.e., other than the standard light neutrino exchange, is observed. Apart from the effective field approach, we also outline the possible extension of our arguments to a general UV-completed model.

  5. Beta-alanine synthesis in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Cronan, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    The enzyme, aspartate 1-decarboxylase (L-aspartate 1-carboxy-lyase; EC 4.1.1.15), that catalyzes the reaction aspartate leads to beta-alanine + CO2 was found in extracts of Escherichia coli. panD mutants of E. coli are defective in beta-alanine biosynthesis and lack aspartate 1-decarboxylase. Therefore, the enzyme functions in the biosynthesis of the beta-alanine moiety of pantothenate. The genetic lesion in these mutants is closely linked to the other pantothenate (pan) loci of E. coli K-12.

  6. Review of modern double beta decay experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabash, A. S.

    2015-10-01

    The review of modern experiments on search and studying of double beta decay processes is done. Results of the most sensitive current experiments are discussed. The main attention is paid to EXO-200, KamLAND-Zen, GERDA-I and CUORE-0 experiments. Modern values of T1/2(2ν) and best present limits on neutrinoless double beta decay and double beta decay with Majoron emission are presented. Conservative limits on effective mass of a Majorana neutrino ( at the level of ˜ 0.01-0.1 eV are discussed.

  7. Bound beta-decay: BOB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many years exotic decay modes of the neutron have been investigated as possible doorways to the exploration of new physics. The bound beta-decay (BOB) of the neutron into a hydrogen atom and an anti-neutrino offers a very elegant method to study neutrino helicities. However, this rare decay has not yet been observed for the free neutron, owing to the challenge of measuring a decay involving only electrically neutral particles and with an estimated branching ratio of only a few 106 of the three-body decay mode. During the past few years scientists from the TUM E18 Group have developed a novel experimental scheme which addresses all necessary problems associated with the observation of this two-body neutron decay in a very coherent way. The BOB experiment shall be installed at a tangential beam tube of a powerful research reactor such as the SR6 at the FRMII in Garching or H6-H7 beam tube at ILL. This talk will provide insights and ideas on how such an experiment is to be performed.

  8. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senard Jean-Michel

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DβH deficiency is a very rare form of primary autonomic failure characterized by a complete absence of noradrenaline and adrenaline in plasma together with increased dopamine plasma levels. The prevalence of DβH deficiency is unknown. Only a limited number of cases with this disease have been reported. DβH deficiency is mainly characterized by cardiovascular disorders and severe orthostatic hypotension. First symptoms often start during a complicated perinatal period with hypotension, muscle hypotonia, hypothermia and hypoglycemia. Children with DβH deficiency exhibit reduced ability to exercise because of blood pressure inadaptation with exertion and syncope. Symptoms usually worsen progressively during late adolescence and early adulthood with severe orthostatic hypotension, eyelid ptosis, nasal stuffiness and sexual disorders. Limitation in standing tolerance, limited ability to exercise and traumatic morbidity related to falls and syncope may represent later evolution. The syndrome is caused by heterogeneous molecular alterations of the DBH gene and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Restoration of plasma noradrenaline to the normal range can be achieved by therapy with the synthetic precursor of noradrenaline, L-threo-dihydroxyphenylserine (DOPS. Oral administration of 100 to 500 mg DOPS, twice or three times daily, increases blood pressure and reverses the orthostatic intolerance.

  9. Neutron bound {beta}- decay- BOB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, M.; Berger, M.; Emmerich, R.; Faestermann, T.; Gutsmiedl, E.; Hartmann, F.J.; Paul, S.; Ruschel, S.; Schoen, J.; Schott, W.; Schubert, U.; Trautner, A. [Physik-Department, TUM, 85748 Garching (Germany); Engels, R. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Fierlinger, P. [Excellence Cluster Universe, TUM, 85748 Garching (Germany); Hertenberger, R. [Sektion Physik, LMU, 85748 Garching (Germany); Roehrmoser, R. [FRM2, TUM, 85748 Garching (Germany); Udem, T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The bound neutron {beta}-decay(BOB) into a hydrogen atom and an electron antineutrino is investigated.The hyper-fine-state population of the monoenergetic hydrogen atoms (326.3 eV) yields the neutrino left-handed-ness or a possible right-handed admixture and possible small scalar and tensor contributions to the weak force. Preexperiments to measure the BOB H(2s) atoms have been done or are being set up using ionizer and RF discharge proton sources, a Wien filter, Cs and Ar cells, a spin filter, electric counter and accelerating fields, a double focusing magnet and a solar blind PM for the Lyman-{alpha} photons. In a first experiment, the charge exchange of the H(2s) atoms into H{sup -}, offering a selective method to discriminate these states against background, is investigated. In a second step the number of background H(2s) resulting from protons interacting with the walls of the experimental setup are determined. For this a quenching E field and a solar blind PM are used.

  10. Beta cell count instead of beta cell mass to assess and localize growth in beta cell population following pancreatic duct ligation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Chintinne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pancreatic-tail duct ligation (PDL in adult rodents has been reported to induce beta cell generation and increase beta cell mass but increases in beta cell number have not been demonstrated. This study examines whether PDL increases beta cell number and whether this is caused by neogenesis of small clusters and/or their growth to larger aggregates. METHODOLOGY: Total beta cell number and its distribution over small (100 µm clusters was determined in pancreatic tails of 10-week-old mice, 2 weeks after PDL or sham. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PDL increased total beta cell mass but not total beta cell number. It induced neogenesis of small beta cell clusters (2.2-fold higher number which contained a higher percent proliferating beta cells (1.9% Ki67+cells than sham tails (<0.2%; their higher beta cell number represented <5% of total beta cell number and was associated with a similar increase in alpha cell number. It is unknown whether the regenerative process is causally related to the inflammatory infiltration in PDL-tails. Human pancreases with inflammatory infiltration also exhibited activation of proliferation in small beta cell clusters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The PDL model illustrates the advantage of direct beta cell counts over beta cell mass measurements when assessing and localizing beta cell regeneration in the pancreas. It demonstrates the ability of the adult mouse pancreas for neogenesis of small beta cell clusters with activated beta cell proliferation. Further studies should investigate conditions under which neoformed small beta cell clusters grow to larger aggregates and hence to higher total beta cell numbers.

  11. Energetic, Structural, and Antimicrobial Analyses of [beta]-Lactam Side Chain Recognition by [beta]-Lactamases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caselli, E.; Powers, R.A.; Blaszczak, L.C.; Wu, C.Y.E.; Prati, F.; Shoichet, B.K. (NWU)

    2010-03-05

    Penicillins and cephalosporins are among the most widely used and successful antibiotics. The emergence of resistance to these {beta}-lactams, most often through bacterial expression of {beta}-lactamases, threatens public health. To understand how {beta}-lactamases recognize their substrates, it would be helpful to know their binding energies. Unfortunately, these have been difficult to measure because {beta}-lactams form covalent adducts with {beta}-lactamases. This has complicated functional analyses and inhibitor design. To investigate the contribution to interaction energy of the key amide (R1) side chain of {beta}-lactam antibiotics, eight acylglycineboronic acids that bear the side chains of characteristic penicillins and cephalosporins, as well as four other analogs, were synthesized. These transition-state analogs form reversible adducts with serine {beta}-lactamases. Therefore, binding energies can be calculated directly from K{sub i} values. The K{sub i} values measured span four orders of magnitude against the Group I {beta}-lactamase AmpC and three orders of magnitude against the Group II {beta}-lactamase TEM-1. The acylglycineboronic acids have K{sub i} values as low as 20 nM against AmpC and as low as 390 nM against TEM-1. The inhibitors showed little activity against serine proteases, such as chymotrypsin. R1 side chains characteristic of {beta}-lactam inhibitors did not have better affinity for AmpC than did side chains characteristic of {beta}-lactam substrates. Two of the inhibitors reversed the resistance of pathogenic bacteria to {beta}-lactams in cell culture. Structures of two inhibitors in their complexes with AmpC were determined by X-ray crystallography to 1.90 {angstrom} and 1.75 {angstrom} resolution; these structures suggest interactions that are important to the affinity of the inhibitors. Acylglycineboronic acids allow us to begin to dissect interaction energies between {beta}-lactam side chains and {beta}-lactamases. Surprisingly

  12. Synthesis of mesoporous Beta and Sn-Beta zeolites and their catalytic performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Junjiang; Ye, Xinxin; Li, Yongsheng; Wang, Yanqin; Li, Liang; Gu, Jinlou; Zhao, Wenru; Shi, Jianlin

    2014-06-14

    Mesoporous Beta zeolite has been successfully prepared through hydrothermal synthesis in the presence of cationic ammonium-modified chitosan as the meso-template. Through a subsequent solid-gas reaction between highly dealuminated mesoporous Beta zeolite and SnCl4 steam at an elevated temperature, mesoporous Sn-Beta has been facilely obtained. It was revealed that the addition of cationic chitosan induced the nanocrystal aggregation to particle sizes of ∼300 nm, giving rise to the intercrystalline/interparticle mesoporosity. In the Sn-implanting procedure, Sn species were demonstrated to be doped into the framework of the resulting mesoporous Beta zeolite in a tetrahedral environment without structural collapse. Due to the micro/mesoporous structures, both mesoporous Beta and Sn-Beta exhibited superior performances in α-pinene isomerization, Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of 2-adamantanone by hydrogen peroxide and the isomerization of glucose in water, respectively.

  13. Pressure phase lines and enthalpies for the. cap alpha. -. beta. and. beta. -liquid transitions in beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abey, A.

    1984-10-31

    The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the ..cap alpha..-..beta.. and ..beta..-liquid transition temperatures in Be was measured in a gas pressure system. Differential thermal analysis was used in the pressure range from 0.1 MPa to 0.7 GPa. For the ..cap alpha..-..beta.. transition, dT/dP = 43 +- 7 K/GPa; for the ..beta..-liquid transition, dT/dP = 35 +- 7 K/GPa. Although it is possible that large systematic errors may arise from experimental procedures, our results are seriously at odds with those of other investigators. Transition enthalpies for the ..cap alpha..-..beta.. and ..beta..-liquid transitions were 1.9 +- 0.2 and 2.2 +- 0.2 kcal/g.m., respectively, at a pressure of 0.1 MPa.

  14. Systematic Risk on Istanbul Stock Exchange: Traditional Beta Coefficient Versus Downside Beta Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülfen TUNA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to test the validity of Downside Capital Asset Pricing Model (D-CAPM on the ISE. At the same time, the explanatory power of CAPM's traditional beta and D-CAPM's downside beta on the changes in the average return values are examined comparatively. In this context, the monthly data for seventy three stocks that are continuously traded on the ISE for the period 1991-2009 is used. Regression analysis is applied in this study. The research results have shown that D-CAPM is valid on the ISE. In addition, it is obtained that the power of downside beta coefficient is higher than traditional beta coefficient on explaining the return changes. Therefore, it can be said that the downside beta is superior to traditional beta in the ISE for chosen period.

  15. A comparison of enzymatic phosphorylation and phosphatidylation of beta-L- and beta-D-nucleosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birichevskaya, Larisa L; Kvach, Sergei V; Sivets, Grigorii G; Kalinichenko, Elena N; Zinchenko, Anatoly I; Mikhailopulo, Igor A

    2007-04-01

    Enzymatic 5'-monophosphorylation and 5'-phosphatidylation of a number of beta-L- and beta-D-nucleosides was investigated. The first reaction, catalyzed by nucleoside phosphotransferase (NPT) from Erwinia herbicola, consisted of the transfer of the phosphate residue from p-nitrophenylphosphate (p-NPP) to the 5'-hydroxyl group of nucleoside; the second was the phospholipase D (PLD)-catalyzed transphosphatidylation of L-alpha-lecithin with a series of beta-L- and beta-D-nucleosides as the phosphatidyl acceptor resulted in the formation of the respective phospholipid-nucleoside conjugates. Some beta-L-nucleosides displayed similar or even higher substrate activity compared to the beta-D-enantiomers. PMID:17206374

  16. Expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) receptors and expression of TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K; Spang-Thomsen, M;

    1993-01-01

    A panel of 21 small cell lung cancer cell (SCLC) lines were examined for the presence of Transforming growth factor beta receptors (TGF beta-r) and the expression of TGF beta mRNAs. By the radioreceptor assay we found high affinity receptors to be expressed in six cell lines. scatchard analysis...... of the binding data demonstrated that the cells bound between 4.5 and 27.5 fmol mg-1 protein with a KD ranging from 16 to 40 pM. TGF beta 1 binding to the receptors was confirmed by cross-linking TGF beta 1 to the TGF beta-r. Three classes of TGF beta-r were demonstrated, type I and type II receptors with M......(r) = 65,000 and 90,000 and the betaglycan (type III) with M(r) = 280,000. Northern blotting showed expression of TGF beta 1 mRNA in ten, TGF beta 2 mRNA in two and TGF beta 3 mRNA in seven cell lines. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence that a large proportion of a broad panel of SCLC cell...

  17. Neutrino potential for neutrinoless double beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Iwata, Yoritaka

    2016-01-01

    Neutrino potential for neutrinoless double beta decay is studied with focusing on its statistical property. The statistics provide a gross view of understanding amplitude of constitutional components of the nuclear matrix element.

  18. Literature in Focus Beta Beams: Neutrino Beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    By Mats Lindroos (CERN) and Mauro Mezzetto (INFN Padova, Italy) Imperial Press, 2009 The beta-beam concept for the generation of electron neutrino beams was first proposed by Piero Zucchelli in 2002. The idea created quite a stir, challenging the idea that intense neutrino beams only could be produced from the decay of pions or muons in classical neutrino beams facilities or in future neutrino factories. The concept initially struggled to make an impact but the hard work by many machine physicists, phenomenologists and theoreticians over the last five years has won the beta-beam a well-earned position as one of the frontrunners for a possible future world laboratory for high intensity neutrino oscillation physics. This is the first complete monograph on the beta-beam concept. The book describes both technical aspects and experimental aspects of the beta-beam, providing students and scientists with an insight into the possibilities o...

  19. Probing neutrinoless double beta decay with SNO+

    CERN Document Server

    Arushanova, Evelina

    2015-01-01

    Probing neutrinoless double beta decay is one of the primary goals for SNO+, SNOLAB's multi-purpose neutrino detector. In order to achieve this goal the SNO detector has been adapted so that it can be filled with Te-loaded liquid scintillator. During the initial double beta phase the target loading is 0.3% natural Te, which equates to $\\sim790$ kg of double beta isotope. Estimating the sensitivity to neutrinoless double beta decay requires a well understood background model. For SNO+ this is provided by a comprehensive study considering all possible background contributions, whether they originate from within the liquid scintillator cocktail, the surrounding parts of the detector or other irreducible backgrounds. Given these considerations, for five years running in the initial phase, the expected sensitivity is $T_{1/2}^{0\

  20. Review of modern double beta decay experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabash, A. S., E-mail: barabash@itep.ru [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (NRC ”Kurchatov Institute”), B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-28

    The review of modern experiments on search and studying of double beta decay processes is done. Results of the most sensitive current experiments are discussed. The main attention is paid to EXO-200, KamLAND-Zen, GERDA-I and CUORE-0 experiments. Modern values of T{sub 1/2}(2ν) and best present limits on neutrinoless double beta decay and double beta decay with Majoron emission are presented. Conservative limits on effective mass of a Majorana neutrino (〈m{sub ν}〉 < 0.46 eV) and a coupling constant of Majoron to neutrino (〈g{sub ee}〉 < 1.3 · 10{sup −5}) are obtained. Prospects of search for neutrinoless double beta decay in new experiments with sensitivity to 〈m{sub ν}〉 at the level of ∼ 0.01-0.1 eV are discussed.

  1. Beta decay of highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion storage rings and ion traps provide the very first opportunity to address nuclear beta decay under conditions prevailing in hot stellar plasmas during nucleosynthesis, i.e. at high atomic charge states. Experiments are summarized that were performed in this field during the last decade at the ion storage-cooler ring ESR in Darmstadt. Special emphasis is given to the first observation of bound-state beta decay, where the created electron remains bound in an inner orbital of the daughter atom. The impact of this specific 'stellar' decay mode for s-process nucleosynthesis as well as for nuclear 'eon clocks' is outlined. Finally, a new technique, single-ion decay spectroscopy, is presented, where one observes two-body beta decay characteristics (i.e. orbital electron capture or bound-state beta decay) of highly charged, single ions for well-defined nuclear and atomic quantum states of both the mother - and the daughter - ion.

  2. Solid-state NMR analysis of the {beta}-strand orientation of the protofibrils of amyloid {beta}-protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, Takashi [Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Masuda, Yuichi, E-mail: masuda@mail.pharm.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Irie, Kazuhiro [Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Akagi, Ken-ichi; Monobe, Youko; Imazawa, Takayoshi [Section of Laboratory Equipment, Division of Biomedical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Takegoshi, K. [Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The supramolecular structure of A{beta}42 protofibrils was analyzed by solid-state NMR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ala-21 residue in the A{beta}42 protofibrils is included in a slightly disordered {beta}-strand. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The A{beta}42 protofibrils do not form intermolecular in-register parallel {beta}-sheets. -- Abstract: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is caused by abnormal deposition (fibrillation) of a 42-residue amyloid {beta}-protein (A{beta}42) in the brain. During the process of fibrillation, the A{beta}42 takes the form of protofibrils with strong neurotoxicity, and is thus believed to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of AD. To elucidate the supramolecular structure of the A{beta}42 protofibrils, the intermolecular proximity of the Ala-21 residues in the A{beta}42 protofibrils was analyzed by {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C rotational resonance experiments in the solid state. Unlike the A{beta}42 fibrils, an intermolecular {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C correlation was not found in the A{beta}42 protofibrils. This result suggests that the {beta}-strands of the A{beta}42 protofibrils are not in an in-register parallel orientation. A{beta}42 monomers would assemble to form protofibrils with the {beta}-strand conformation, then transform into fibrils by forming intermolecular parallel {beta}-sheets.

  3. Genetic counselling in the beta-thalassaemias

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannides, Adonis S.

    2013-01-01

    The beta-thalassaemias are very important genetic disorders of haemoglobin synthesis and are amongst the commonest monogenic disorders. In view of the severity of beta-thalassaemia major, a number of screening programmes have been developed aimed at reducing the number of individuals born with the condition. Genetic counsellingplays a vital role in this process supporting the successful implementation of screening and delineating available options to at risk individuals. This review assesses ...

  4. Searches for neutrinoless double beta decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingenheuer, Bernhard

    2012-07-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is a lepton number violating process whose observation would also establish that neutrinos are their own anti-particles. There are many experimental efforts with a variety of techniques. Some (EXO, Kamland-Zen, GERDA phase I and CANDLES) started take data in 2011 and EXO has reported the first measurement of the half life for the double beta decay with two neutrinos of 136Xe. The sensitivities of the different proposals are reviewed.

  5. Searches for neutrinoless double beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Schwingenheuer, B

    2012-01-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is a lepton number violating process whose observation would also establish that neutrinos are their own anti-particles. There are many experimental efforts with a variety of techniques. Some (EXO, Kamland-Zen, GERDA phase I and CANDLES) started take data in 2011 and EXO has reported the first measurement of the half life for the double beta decay with two neutrinos of $^{136}$Xe. The sensitivities of the different proposals are reviewed.

  6. Peripheral beta-endorphin and pain modulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Hartwig, A. C.

    1991-01-01

    Beta-endorphin is a peptide with morphine-like effects produced primarily in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. After its cleavage from the parent molecule, proopiomelanocortin, beta-endorphin is circulated via the blood stream to interact with specific opioid receptors located throughout the body. The peptide produces analgesia by inhibiting the firing of peripheral somatosensory fibers. It also affects other senses, such as vision, hearing, and smell. Whereas the ability to increase ...

  7. Unexpected pattern of beta-globin mutations in beta-thalassaemia patients from northern Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Cabeda, J.; Correia, C.; Estevinho, A.; Simões, C.; Amorim, M; L. Pinho; Justiça, B

    1999-01-01

    We characterized the genetic nature of beta-thalassaemia in northern Portugal. Of the 164 patients studied three were beta-thalassaemia major cases (one IVS-1-6/beta degrees 39 and two homozygous IVS-1-110). The analysis of the frequency of each mutation in the families revealed that the codon 6(-A) mutation was unexpectedly frequent (40%) and associated with the beta-globin haplotype E, and not with the usual European and North African CD6(-A) haplotypes. In contrast, the frequency of IVS-1-...

  8. Isotope Effects in the Bonds of beta-CrOOH and beta-CrOOD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørlund Christensen, A.; Hansen, P.; Lehmann, M. S.

    1976-01-01

    Samples of orthorhombic chromium oxide hydroxide, beta -CrOOH, and the deuterated compound, beta -CrOOD, were prepared hydrothermally. The crystal structures were determined by powder profile refinement technique using neutron diffraction data. Unit cells are: beta -CrOOH: a equals 4. 862(2) A, b...... equals 4. 298(a) A, c equals 2. 995(1) A; beta -CrOOD: a equals 4. 873(5) A, b equals 4. 332(7) A, c equals 2. 963(2) A, with Z equals 2. The space group is P2//1nm or Pnnm....

  9. Phenolic compounds, carotenoids and antioxidant activity in plant products / Compostos fenólicos, carotenóides e atividade antioxidante em produtos vegetais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela Bello Koblitz

    2010-09-01

    variedade de doenças crônicas como aterosclerose e câncer, efeitos que têm sido particularmente atribuídos aos compostos que possuem atividade antioxidante nos vegetais: vitaminas C e E, os compostos fenólicos, especialmente os flavonóides, e os carotenóides. Compostos fenólicos agem como antioxidantes, não somente por sua habilidade em doar hidrogênio ou elétrons, mas também em virtude de seus radicais intermediários estáveis, que impedem a oxidação de vários ingredientes do alimento, particularmente de lipídios. Carotenóides são constituídos de cadeias de polienos, em um longo sistema de duplas ligações conjugadas, rico em elétrons, responsável pela atividade antioxidante desses compostos: tanto na absorção do oxigênio singlet quanto de radicais livres, para interromper as reações em cadeia onde eles estão envolvidos. Este trabalho teve por finalidade revisar as diferentes formas de avaliação qualitativa e quantitativa dos principais componentes não-nutrientes antioxidantes em alimentos de origem vegetal: compostos fenólicos e carotenóides.

  10. L-ascorbic acid, β-carotene and lycopene content in papaya fruits (Carica papaya) with or without physiological skin freckles Conteúdo de ácido l-ascórbico, β-caroteno e licopeno em frutos de mamão (Carica papaya) com e sem mancha fisiológica

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Marelli de Souza; Karla Silva Ferreira; José Benício Paes Chaves; Sílvio Lopes Teixeira

    2008-01-01

    The Skin Freckles is a papaya skin disorder that depreciates de fruit appearance and hampers its commercialization, although not lowering its nutritive value. Being the papaya a good source of ascorbic acid, β-carotene and licopene this research aimed at determining L-ascorbic acid, β-carotene and licopene content in papaya fruits, from 'Formosa' and 'Solo' group varieties, with and without apparent physiological skin disease (skin freckles). Fruits were harvested in the Southeast R...

  11. Toward beta cell replacement for diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Bjarki; Sui, Lina; Freytes, Donald O; Creusot, Remi J; Egli, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    The discovery of insulin more than 90 years ago introduced a life-saving treatment for patients with type 1 diabetes, and since then, significant progress has been made in clinical care for all forms of diabetes. However, no method of insulin delivery matches the ability of the human pancreas to reliably and automatically maintain glucose levels within a tight range. Transplantation of human islets or of an intact pancreas can in principle cure diabetes, but this approach is generally reserved for cases with simultaneous transplantation of a kidney, where immunosuppression is already a requirement. Recent advances in cell reprogramming and beta cell differentiation now allow the generation of personalized stem cells, providing an unlimited source of beta cells for research and for developing autologous cell therapies. In this review, we will discuss the utility of stem cell-derived beta cells to investigate the mechanisms of beta cell failure in diabetes, and the challenges to develop beta cell replacement therapies. These challenges include appropriate quality controls of the cells being used, the ability to generate beta cell grafts of stable cellular composition, and in the case of type 1 diabetes, protecting implanted cells from autoimmune destruction without compromising other aspects of the immune system or the functionality of the graft. Such novel treatments will need to match or exceed the relative safety and efficacy of available care for diabetes.

  12. Neoclassical transport in high {beta} tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, S.C.

    1992-12-01

    Neoclassical, transport in high {beta} large aspect ratio tokamaks is calculated. The variational method introduced by Rosenbluth, et al., is used to calculate the full Onsager matrix in the banana regime. These results are part of a continuing study of the high {beta} large aspect ratio equilibria introduced in Cowley, et al. All the neoclassical coefficients are reduced from their nominal low {beta} values by a factor ({var_epsilon}/q{sup 2}{beta}){sup {1/2}} II. This factor is the ratio of plasma volume in the boundary layer to the volume in the core. The fraction of trapped particles on a given flux surface (f{sub t}) is also reduced by this factor so that {approximately} {sub ({var_epsilon}}/q{sup 2}{beta}){sup {1/2}}. Special attention is given to the current equation, since this is thought to be relevant at low 3 and therefore may also be relevant at high {beta}. The bootstrap current term is found to exceed the actual current by a factor of the square root of the aspect ratio.

  13. Possible errors in assay for beta-glycosidase activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, R W; Allison, J C; Talley, D L; George, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    Cecal homogenates were assayed for the enzymes beta-glucosidase, beta-glucuronidase, and beta-galactosidase. Anaerobic incubation with the addition of excess 3,4-dichloronitrobenzene, a substrate for nitroreductase, significantly increased the detection of the beta-glycosidase enzymes' activities.

  14. Continuous and Jump Betas: Implications for Portfolio Diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitali Alexeev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using high-frequency data, we decompose the time-varying beta for stocks into beta for continuous systematic risk and beta for discontinuous systematic risk. Estimated discontinuous betas for S&P500 constituents between 2003 and 2011 generally exceed the corresponding continuous betas. We demonstrate how continuous and discontinuous betas decrease with portfolio diversification. Using an equiweighted broad market index, we assess the speed of convergence of continuous and discontinuous betas in portfolios of stocks as the number of holdings increase. We show that discontinuous risk dissipates faster with fewer stocks in a portfolio compared to its continuous counterpart.

  15. Photochemical reactions in dehydrated photosynthetic organisms, leaves, chloroplasts and photosystem II particles: reversible reduction of pheophytin and chlorophyll and oxidation of β-carotene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photoreactions of dehydrated leaves, isolated broken chloroplasts and PSII membrane fragments of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) were studied at different air humidities and compared with photoreactions of dry fronds of a fern, Polypodium vulgare, and a dry lichen, Parmelia sulcata, which in contrast to spinach are insensitive to photoinactivation in the dry state. Even in very dry air, P700 in the reaction center of photosystem I of dry leaves was oxidized, and the primary quinone acceptor QA in the reaction center of photosystem II was photoreduced by low light. These reactions were only very slowly reversed in the dark and saturated under low light intensity. Light-minus-dark difference absorption spectra of the dry leaves, isolated chloroplasts and PSII membrane fragments measured at higher light intensities revealed absorbance changes of β-carotene at 500 nm (light-dependent bleaching) and 980 nm (light-dependent band formation) and bleaching of chlorophyll at 436 and 680 nm with appearance of bands at 450 and 800 nm. Decrease of chlorophyll fluorescence upon strong illumination indicated photoaccumulation of a quencher. All these changes were kinetically related and readily reversible. They are interpreted to show light-induced oxidation of β-carotene (Car) and reduction of chlorophyll-680 (Chl-680) in the reaction center of photosystem II of the dried leaves, chloroplasts and photosystem II particles. The fluorescence quencher was suggested to be Chl-680- or Car+ in close proximity to P680, the primary electron donor. Appreciable photoaccumulation of reduced pheophytin was only observed in dry leaves after QA reduction had been lost during heat treatment of hydrated leaves prior to dehydration. The observations are interpreted to show light-dependent cyclic electron flow within the reaction center of photosystem II in which Chl-680 (or Pheo) is reduced by P680* and Car is oxidized by P680+ with consequent recombination of Car+ and Chl-680- (or Pheo-). Cyclic

  16. 大分子乳化剂稳定的纳米乳中β-胡萝卜素的降解%Degradation of β-carotene in Nanoemulsions Stabilized by Macromolecular Emulsifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕; 刘成梅; 刘伟

    2012-01-01

    Macromolecular emulsifiers including whey protein isolate, heated whey isolate protein, mixture and maillard reaction products (MRPs) of whey protein isolate and maltodextrin were used to prepared β - carotene nanoemulsions. The particle size distribution as well as the β - carotene degradation at different temperatures of the obtained emulsions were investigated. The results showed that the average particle size of the nanoemulsions stabilized by MRPs was significantly lower and the β - carotene encapsulated in them degradated more rapidly than the other samples. Besides that,the heated whey isolate protein could effectively decrease the β-carotene degradation rate,which might be attributed to the protection effect of the protein aggregates formed during the heat process.%分别以乳清分离蛋白、热处理乳清分离蛋白、乳清分离蛋白与麦芽糖糊精的混合物和美拉德反应复合物为乳化剂,制备β-胡萝卜素纳米乳,并考察其乳滴粒径分布及β-胡萝卜素的降解.结果表明:乳清分离蛋白与麦芽糖糊精共价复合后,形成的纳米乳液平均粒径更小,但复合物加速纳米乳中β-胡萝卜素的降解.而热处理乳清分离蛋白能显著抑制纳米乳中β-胡萝卜素的降解,其机制可能是蛋白质大分子聚集体的形成对β-胡萝卜素起保护作用.

  17. Rheumatoid factors from patients with rheumatoid arthritis react with Des-Lys58-beta 2m, modified beta 2-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, R C; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Malone, C C

    1993-01-01

    -cleaved beta 2m and Des-Lys58-beta 2m) appeared to parallel the previously determined beta 2m single amino acid specificities, in that RF showing strong reactivity with Lysine 58 also showed a significant diminished reactivity with the Des-Lys58-beta 2m lacking the critical lysine residue. The present...

  18. beta-adrenoceptor density in chronic infarcted myocardium : a subtype specific decrease of beta(1)-adrenoceptor density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anthonio, RL; Brodde, OE; van Veldhuisen, DJ; Crijns, HJGM; van Gilst, WH

    2000-01-01

    beta-adrenoceptor density is altered in different cardiac diseases. In heart failure beta-adrenoceptor density is down regulated but in acute myocardial ischemia beta-adrenoceptor density is up regulated. In hearts with myocardial infarction total beta-adrenoceptor density is decreased shortly after

  19. Characterization of beta-R1, a gene that is selectively induced by interferon beta (IFN-beta) compared with IFN-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, M R; Foster, G R; Leung, S; Leaman, D; Stark, G R; Ransohoff, R M

    1996-09-13

    We report preliminary characterization of a gene designated beta-R1, which is selectively expressed in response to interferon beta (IFN-beta) compared with IFN-alpha. In human astrocytoma cells, beta-R1 was induced to an equivalent extent by 10 IU/mL IFN-beta or 2500 IU/mL IFN-alpha2. To address the mechanism of this differential response, we analyzed induction of the beta-R1 gene in fibrosarcoma cells and derivative mutant cells lacking components required for signaling by type I IFNs. beta-R1 was readily induced by IFN-beta in the parental 2fTGH cell line, but not by recombinant IFN-alpha2, IFN-alpha Con1, or a mixture of IFN-alpha subtypes. IFN-alpha8 induced beta-R1 weakly. beta-R1 was not induced by IFN-beta in mutant cell lines U2A, U3A, U4A, and U6A, which lack, respectively, p48, STAT1, JAK1, and STAT2. U5A cells, which lack the Ifnar 2.2 component of the IFN-alpha and -beta receptor, also failed to express beta-R1. U1A cells are partially responsive to IFN-beta and IFN-alpha8 but lacked beta-R1 expression, indicating that TYK2 protein is essential for induction of this gene. Taken together, these results suggest that the expression of beta-R1 in response to type I IFN requires IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 plus an additional component, which is more efficiently formed on induction by IFN-beta compared with IFN-alpha.

  20. Genetic analysis of beta1 integrin "activation motifs" in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czuchra, Aleksandra; Meyer, Hannelore; Legate, Kyle R;

    2006-01-01

    /beta tails, leading to tail separation and integrin activation. We analyzed mice in which we mutated the tyrosines of the beta1 tail and the membrane-proximal aspartic acid required for the salt bridge. Tyrosine-to-alanine substitutions abolished beta1 integrin functions and led to a beta1 integrin...... and the membrane-proximal salt bridge between alpha and beta1 tails have no apparent function under physiological conditions in vivo....