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Sample records for beta blocking agents

  1. Selectivity of beta-adrenergic stimulating and blocking agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfdahl, C G; Svedmyr, N

    1984-01-01

    Studies have been performed to answer two questions: whether there are subgroups of beta 2-receptors separating effects in bronchial and skeletal muscle and whether beta 1-receptors in asthmatic airways mediate bronchoconstriction. Asthmatic patients have been studied in randomised cross-over trials. Effects on FEV1, heart rate and skeletal muscle tremor have been monitored. In some experimental studies, two new compounds, D2343 and QH-25, have shown a selectivity for beta 2-receptors in bronchial muscle compared to skeletal muscle. Studies in asthmatics did not confirm this. Thus, the beta 2-receptors in the two organs appear to be identical. The clinical effect of beta 1-receptors in the the airways was studied by giving selective beta 1-receptor blocking agents. It was shown that pafenolol , a beta-blocker more beta 1-selective than metoprolol, had less effect on FEV1 than metoprolol given in equipotent beta 1-blocking doses. Beta 1-receptor stimulation with a new selective beta 1-stimulating agent, prenalterol, did not give bronchodilation in doses which gave a significant increase of heart rate. Thus, beta 1-receptors do not contribute to bronchodilation in asthmatic patients.

  2. Beta-Blocking Agents and Electroconvulsive Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.W. van den Broek (Walter); T.H.N. Groenland (Theo); A. Kusuma (Ari); T.K. Birkenhäger (Tom); E.M. Pluijms (Esther); J.A. Bruijn (Jan); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this review we want to summarize the results of the placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials with betablocking adrenergic agents during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), and review the effect on seizure duration and cardiovascular variables. We searched for studies in the

  3. Beta-blocking agents during electroconvulsive therapy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boere, E; Birkenhäger, T K; Groenland, T H N; van den Broek, W W

    2014-07-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is associated with at least transient episodes of hypertension and tachycardia. Beta-blocking agents may be indicated to prevent cardiovascular complications and may shorten seizure duration. This review evaluates studies that used beta-blocking agents during ECT to determine which agent has the most favourable outcomes on cardiovascular variables and seizure duration. A Medline database search was made using the combined keywords 'adrenergic beta-antagonists' and 'electroconvulsive therapy'. The search was restricted to double-blind randomized controlled trials and yielded 29 original studies. With the use of esmolol, significant attenuating effects were found on cardiovascular parameters in the first 5 min after stimulation; its shortening effects on seizure duration may be dose-related. With the use of labetalol, findings on cardiovascular effects were inconsistent during the first minutes after stimulation but were significant after 5 min and thereafter; seizure duration was scarcely studied. Landiolol attenuates heart rate but with inconsistent findings regarding arterial pressure (AP); seizure duration was mostly unaffected. Esmolol appears to be effective in reducing the cardiovascular response, although seizure duration may be affected with higher dosages. Landiolol can be considered a suitable alternative, but effects on AP need further investigation. Labetalol has been studied to a lesser extent and may have prolonged cardiovascular effects. The included studies varied in design, methodology, and the amount of exact data provided in the publications. Further study of beta-blocking agents in ECT is clearly necessary. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Orange juice substantially reduces the bioavailability of the beta-adrenergic-blocking agent celiprolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilja, Jari J; Juntti-Patinen, Laura; Neuvonen, Pertti J

    2004-03-01

    Grapefruit juice was recently found to decrease plasma concentrations of the beta-adrenergic receptor-blocking agent celiprolol. Our objective was to investigate the effect of orange juice on the pharmacokinetics of celiprolol in healthy subjects. In a randomized crossover study with 2 phases and a washout of 2 weeks, 10 healthy volunteers ingested either 200 mL normal-strength orange juice or water 3 times a day for 2 days. On the morning of day 3, 1 hour after ingestion of 200 mL orange juice or water, each subject ingested 100 mg celiprolol with either 200 mL orange juice or water. In addition, 200 mL orange juice or water was ingested at 4, 10, 22, and 27 hours after celiprolol intake. The concentrations of celiprolol in plasma and its excretion into urine were measured up to 33 hours after its dosing. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures and heart rate were recorded up to 10 hours. Orange juice reduced the mean peak plasma concentration of celiprolol by 89% (P orange juice. Orange juice reduced the urinary excretion of celiprolol by 77% (P Orange juice substantially reduces the bioavailability of celiprolol, but the mechanism of this interaction remains to be resolved. For example, modulation of intestinal pH and of function of transporters implicated in the absorption of celiprolol may be involved. Because of the great extent of the orange juice-celiprolol interaction and a wide use of orange juice, this interaction is likely to have clinical importance in some patients, although hemodynamic consequences were not seen in young healthy subjects.

  5. Protein degradation in skeletal muscle during experimental hyperthyroidism in rats and the effect of beta-blocking agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angerås, U; Hasselgren, P O

    1987-04-01

    beta-Blocking agents are increasingly used in the management of hyperthyroid patients. The effect of this treatment on increased muscle protein breakdown in the hyperthyroid state is not known. In the present study, experimental hyperthyroidism was induced in rats by daily ip injections of T3 (100 micrograms/100 g BW) during a 10-day period. Control animals received corresponding volumes of solvent. In groups of rats the selective beta-1-blocking agent metoprolol or the nonselective beta-blocker propranolol was infused by miniosmotic pumps implanted sc on the backs of the animals. Protein degradation was measured in incubated intact soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles by determining tyrosine release into the incubation medium. The protein degradation rate in incubated extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles was increased by 50-60% during T3 treatment. Metoprolol or propranolol did not influence muscle protein breakdown in either T3-treated or control animals. The results suggest that T3-induced increased muscle proteolysis is not mediated by beta-receptors, and muscle weakness and wasting in hyperthyroidism might not be affected by beta-blockers.

  6. Labetalol, a new alpha- and beta-adrenoreceptor blocking agent, in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, L; Hänel, B

    1976-08-01

    1Labetalol is a new compound with antagonistic effects at both alpha- and beta-adrenoreceptor sites. 2 When given to 12 hypertensive patients at an average daily dosage of 273 mg for 7 months statistically significant reductions (compared with pretreatment values) in recumbent and standing blood pressure were observed. 3 Treatment has to be withdrawn in one patient because of vivid dreams, and dosage was reduced in one patient because of dizziness. Otherwise no side-effects of importance were noted. 4 It can therefore be concluded that labetalol offers a useful anti-hypertensive effect and that this compound is well tolerated.

  7. Cetamolol: a new cardioselective beta-adrenoceptor blocking agent without membrane-stabilizing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, G; Jaramillo, J; Cummings, J R

    1984-03-01

    Cetamolol, a new beta-adrenoceptor blocker with partial agonist activity and cardioselectivity, was studied in vivo to determine its membrane-stabilizing effects. Comparisons were carried out with atenolol, pindolol, practolol, propranolol, timolol, dexpropranolol, lidocaine, and procaine. The following results indicated that cetamolol lacked membrane-stabilizing activity: (i) failure to cause local anesthesia on the rabbit cornea and motor nerve of the rat tail; (ii) ineffectiveness in reversing ventricular arrhythmias induced by coronary artery litigation in dogs; (iii) failure to reduce cardiac automaticity in catecholamine-depleted dogs as determined by the rate of a subatrial rhythm during ventricular (vagal) escape; and (iv) lack of a significant increase in atrioventricular conduction time in vagotomized or atropinized dogs in contrast to the effect in normal dogs indicating a reflex effect of cetamolol. Other results include a restoration of sinus rhythm in dogs with ventricular tachycardia induced by ouabain, and a dose-related decline in the force of cardiac contraction in anesthetized dogs at doses from 3 to 15 mg/kg, which occurred after an initial increase in force owing to intrinsic sympathomimetic activity. Although the mechanisms for the latter two effects are not clear at this time, explanations other than membrane-stabilizing activity have been considered in view of the other findings. It is concluded that cetamolol lacks membrane-stabilizing activity even at inordinately high doses.

  8. Electroanalysis of cardioselective beta-adrenoreceptor blocking agent acebutolol by disposable graphite pencil electrodes with detailed redox mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Atmanand M. Bagoji; Shreekant M. Patil; Sharanappa T. Nandibewoor

    2016-01-01

    A simple economic graphite pencil electrode (GPE) was used for analysis of cardioselective, hydrophilic-adrenoreceptor blocking agent, acebutolol (ACBT) using the cyclic voltammetric, linear sweep voltammetric, differential pulse voltammetric (DPV), and square-wave voltammetric (SWV) techniques. The dependence of the current on pH, concentration, and scan rate was investigated to optimize the experimental condition for determination of ACBT. The electrochemical behavior of the ACBT at GPE was...

  9. Electroanalysis of cardioselective beta-adrenoreceptor blocking agent acebutolol by disposable graphite pencil electrodes with detailed redox mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atmanand M. Bagoji

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple economic graphite pencil electrode (GPE was used for analysis of cardioselective, hydrophilic-adrenoreceptor blocking agent, acebutolol (ACBT using the cyclic voltammetric, linear sweep voltammetric, differential pulse voltammetric (DPV, and square-wave voltammetric (SWV techniques. The dependence of the current on pH, concentration, and scan rate was investigated to optimize the experimental condition for determination of ACBT. The electrochemical behavior of the ACBT at GPE was a diffusion-controlled process. A probable electro-redox mechanism was proposed. Under the optimal conditions, the anodic peak current was linearly proportional to the concentration of ACBT in the range from 1.00 to 15.0 μM with a limit of detection 1.26 × 10−8 M for DPV and 1.28 × 10−8 M for the SWV. This method was applied for quantitative determination of the ACBT levels in urine as real samples. The obtained recovery ranges for ACBT in urine were from 95.4 to101% as found by the standard addition technique. Further interference study was also carried with some common interfering substances.

  10. The selective beta 1-blocking agent metoprolol compared with antithyroid drug and thyroxine as preoperative treatment of patients with hyperthyroidism. Results from a prospective, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlerberth, A; Stenström, G; Hasselgren, P O

    1987-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of beta-blocking agents alone as preoperative treatment of patients with hyperthyroidism, there are no controlled clinical studies in which this regimen has been compared with a more conventional preoperative treatment. Thirty patients with newly diagnosed and untreated hyperthyroidism were randomized to preoperative treatment with methimazole in combination with thyroxine (Group I) or the beta 1-blocking agent metoprolol (Group II). Metoprolol was used since it has been demonstrated that the beneficial effect of beta-blockade in hyperthyroidism is mainly due to beta 1-blockade. The preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative courses in the two groups were compared, and patients were followed up for 1 year after thyroidectomy. At the time of diagnosis, serum concentration of triiodothyronine (T3) was 6.1 +/- 0.59 nmol/L in Group I and 5.7 +/- 0.66 nmol/L in Group II (reference interval 1.5-3.0 nmol/L). Clinical improvement during preoperative treatment was similar in the two groups of patients, but serum T3 was normalized only in Group I. The median length of preoperative treatment was 12 weeks in Group I and 5 weeks in Group II (p less than 0.01). There were no serious adverse effects of the drugs during preoperative preparation in either treatment group. Operating time, consistency and vascularity of the thyroid gland, and intraoperative blood loss were similar in the two groups. No anesthesiologic or cardiovascular complications occurred during operation in either group. One patient in Group I (7%) and three patients in Group II (20%) had clinical signs of hyperthyroid function during the first postoperative day. These symptoms were abolished by the administration of small doses of metoprolol, and no case of thyroid storm occurred. Postoperative hypocalcemia or recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis did not occur in either group. During the first postoperative year, hypothyroidism developed in two patients in Group I (13%) and in six

  11. Severe iatrogenic bradycardia related to the combined use of beta-blocking agents and sodium channel blockers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawabata M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mihoko Kawabata,1 Yasuhiro Yokoyama,1 Takeshi Sasaki,1 Susumu Tao,1 Kensuke Ihara,1 Yasuhiro Shirai,1 Tetsuo Sasano,2 Masahiko Goya,1 Tetsushi Furukawa,3 Mitsuaki Isobe,4 Kenzo Hirao1 1Heart Rhythm Center, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Biofunctional Informatics, Graduate School of Health Care Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Bio-informational Pharmacology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: Drug-induced bradycardia is common during antiarrhythmic therapy; the major culprits are beta-blockers. However, whether other antiarrhythmic drugs are also a significant cause of this, alone or in combination with beta-blockers, is not well known. Methods: We retrospectively investigated the records of all patients hospitalized at our institution for drug-related bradycardia from the years 2004 to 2012. Patients with cardiac disease and electrolytic or hormonal abnormalities that could cause bradyarrhythmias were excluded. Results: Eight patients were identified (mean age, 79±5 years; range, 71–85 years; 6 women. Three patients were taking only beta-blockers (hereafter referred to as the BB group, while five patients were on both beta-blockers and Na channel blockers (hereafter referred to as the BB + Na group. Heart rates ranged from 20~49 beats/minute on arrival. The initial electrocardiogram showed sinus bradycardia (n=6 or sinus arrest with escape beats (n=2. QRS duration was 80–100 ms. The clinical presentation of the BB + Na group was considerably worse than that of the BB group, and included cardiogenic shock and heart failure. Four of the BB + Na patients had been on their medications for over 300 days. The BB group recovered solely with drug discontinuation, while 4 of the 5 patients in the BB + Na group needed additional

  12. Use of beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs in hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feely, J; Peden, N

    1984-05-01

    There is an increasing use and variety of beta-adrenoceptor blocking agents (beta-blockers) available for the treatment of hyperthyroidism. Recent comparative studies suggest that atenolol (200mg daily), metoprolol (200mg daily); acebutolol (400mg daily), oxprenolol ( 160mg daily), nadolol ( 80mg daily) and timolol (20mg daily) produce a beneficial clinical response equal to that seen with propranolol ( 160mg daily). Most beta-blockers reduce resting heart rate by approximately 25 to 30 beats/min, although a lesser reduction is seen with those possessing intrinsic sympathomimetic activity such as oxprenolol and pindolol. While earlier studies employing large doses of intravenous propranolol concluded that beta-blockade reduced myocardial contractility, more recent non-invasive studies suggest that the predominant cardiac effect is on heart rate. In patients with cardiac failure, beta-blockers may, however, produce a profound fall in cardiac output. Nevertheless, in combination with digoxin they may be useful in controlling the atrial fibrillation of thyrocardiac disease. beta-Blockers improve nervousness and tremor (although to a lesser extent with cardioselective agents) and severe myopathy, and they also reduce the frequency of paralysis in patients with thyrotoxic periodic paralysis. There is often subjective improvement in sweating but usually no major effect on eye signs. Recent studies show a 10% reduction in oxygen consumption/basal metabolic rate with long term oral use of selective or nonselective beta-blockers. In addition, many agents (propranolol, metoprolol, nadolol and sotalol but not acebutolol, atenolol or oxprenolol) reduce circulating tri-iodothyronine (T3) concentration by between 10 and 40%, although the clinical significance of this effect (if any) is not established. beta-Blockers may also have endocrinological effects on gastrin, cyclic AMP, catecholamines and other hormone levels. Given in adequate dosage, propranolol has been shown to

  13. Abrupt withdrawal of beta-blocking agents in patients with arterial hypertension. Effect on blood pressure, heart rate and plasma catecholamines and prolactin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederballe Pedersen, O; Mikkelsen, E; Lanng Nielsen, J; Christensen, N J

    1979-04-17

    Chronic treatment with beta-blockers was interrupted abruptly in six patients with arterial hypertension. Three patients, who had experienced symptoms during a previous withdrawal, again complained of transient palpitations, tremor, sweating, headache and general malaise. A significant increase in standing blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) was noted after 24 h. The standing HR reached a maximum after 48 h and had decreased significantly on the 7th day (p less than 0.005). There was a strong tendency to greater increase in standing BP and HR in the patients who experienced symptoms than in those who did not. Plasma concentrations of noradrenaline, adrenaline and prolactin did not change significantly. Thus, beta-blocker withdrawal symptoms are reproducible and are indicative of a transient sympathetic hyperresponse. The increased activity is not likely to be caused by increased production of circulating catecholamines, but rather by increased sensitivity of the beta-receptor.

  14. Efficacy of controlled-release isosorbide-5-mononitrate as adjunctive treatment to beta-blocking agents in patients with stable angina pectoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Aldershvile, J; Abildgaard, U

    1989-01-01

    to a beta blocker. In bicycle ergometer exercise tests performed 4 h after study drug intake, total exercise time and time until 1-mm ST-depression increased significantly during both regimens as compared with placebo (p less than 0.05). However, only the 60-mg once-daily regimen was significantly better...... than placebo with regard to time until angina pectoris. The results indicate that ISMN-CR 60 mg once daily is effective as adjunctive to beta-blocker treatment, and nitrate tolerance appeared to develop during the twice-daily regimen. In 10 of the patients, the effect of additional sublingual...

  15. IL-2 induction of IL-1 beta mRNA expression in monocytes. Regulation by agents that block second messenger pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacs, E J; Brock, B; Varesio, L

    1989-01-01

    We have previously shown that in mixed cultures of PBL incubation with human rIL-2 induces the rapid expression of IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta mRNA. Because studies have demonstrated that IL-2R can be expressed on the surface of human peripheral blood monocytes, we chose to investigate whether IL-1 ...

  16. Treatment of chronic heart failure with aldosterone-blocking agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Swedberg, Karl

    Three large randomized trials in advanced heart failure (RALES), in heart failure after myocardial infarction (EPHESUS), and most recently mild heart failure (EMPHASIS-HF) have firmly established the place of aldosterone-blocking agents in patients with heart failure. In this paper we will shortly

  17. Smad7 induces tumorigenicity by blocking TGF-beta-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Sunil K; Beauchamp, R Daniel; Datta, Pran K

    2005-07-01

    Smad proteins play a key role in the intracellular signaling of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of extracellular polypeptides that initiate signaling to regulate a wide variety of biological processes. The inhibitory Smad, Smad7, has been shown to function as intracellular antagonists of TGF-beta family signaling and is upregulated in several cancers. To determine the effect of Smad7-mediated blockade of TGF-beta signaling, we have stably expressed Smad7 in a TGF-beta-sensitive, well-differentiated, and non-tumorigenic cell line, FET, that was derived from human colon adenocarcinoma. Smad7 inhibits TGF-beta-induced transcriptional responses by blocking complex formation between Smad 2/3 and Smad4. While Smad7 has no effect on TGF-beta-induced activation of p38 MAPK and ERK, it blocks the phosphorylation of Akt by TGF-beta and enhances TGF-beta-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun. FET cells expressing Smad7 show anchorage-independent growth and enhance tumorigenicity in athymic nude mice. Smad7 blocks TGF-beta-induced growth inhibition by preventing TGF-beta-induced G1 arrest. Smad7 inhibits TGF-beta-mediated downregulation of c-Myc, CDK4, and Cyclin D1, and suppresses the expression of p21(Cip1). As a result, Smad7 inhibits TGF-beta-mediated downregulation of Rb phosphorylation. Furthermore, Smad7 inhibits the apoptosis of these cells. Together, Smad7 may increase the tumorigenicity of FET cells by blocking TGF-beta-induced growth inhibition and by inhibiting apoptosis. Thus, this study provides a mechanism by which a portion of human colorectal tumors may become refractory to tumor-suppressive actions of TGF-beta that might result in increased tumorigenicity.

  18. Different antihypertensive effect of beta-blocking drugs in low and normal-high renin hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralberg, B E; Tolagen, K

    1976-05-31

    The treatment response to beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs was compared in two groups of patients with primary (essential) hypertension and different renin levels. Each group consisted of 25 patients and was equally distributed regarding age, severity and stage of hypertension. In the first group (group 1), the mean upright plasma renin activity was 0.8 ng ml-1h-1 (range 0.3 to 1.5) and the patients were considered to have low renin hypertension. In the other group (group 2) the patients had a mean plasma renin activity of 2.1 ng ml-1h-1 (range 1.1 to 5.1) and were considered to have normal to high renin hypertension. In both groups the patients were initially treated with beta-blocking drugs; in group 1 with a beta-blocker corresponding to an average dose of 311 mg propranolol a day for at least eight weeks and in group 2 with propranolol 320 mg a day in a fixed dose for eight weeks. The hypotensive response differed significantly between the two groups (p less than 0.001). In group 1 the pretreatment blood pressure was 197/117 mm Hg supine and 198/120 mm Hg standing. During treatment blood pressure decreased only 5/3 mm Hg supine and 9/5 mm Hg standing. The pretreatment blood pressure in group 2 was 187/114 mm Hg supine and 186/117 mm Hg standing. Beta-blocking therapy reduced blood pressure 36/23 and 34/18 mm Hg, respectively (both p less than 0.001). Pulse rates fell significantly in the two groups, both in the lying and standing positions. In 17 patients with low renin hypertension (group 1), a volume-depleting drug was added (spironolactone, 14 patients; thiazides, 3 patients) and this achieved a marked fall in blood pressure levels of 38/16 mm Hg supine and 37/19 mm Hg standing (both p less than 0.001). These results suggest the following: (1) Most patients with normal to high plasma renin activity respond well to moderate doses of propranolol. (2) Propranolol given in the same doses is almost without antihypertensive effect in patients with low renin

  19. Pharmacokinetic studies of neuromuscular blocking agents: Good Clinical Research Practice (GCRP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viby-Mogensen, J.; Østergaard, D.; Donati, F.

    2000-01-01

    Good Clinical Research Practice (GCRP), neuromuscular blocking agents, pharmacokinetics, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling, population pharmacokinetics, statistics, study design......Good Clinical Research Practice (GCRP), neuromuscular blocking agents, pharmacokinetics, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling, population pharmacokinetics, statistics, study design...

  20. The treatment of anxiety with beta-blocking drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peet, M

    1988-01-01

    Evidence supporting the efficacy of beta blockers in anxiety is reviewed. Propranolol and oxprenolol are the most clearly established in efficacy. A placebo-controlled trial is described, in which propranolol and atenolol were both effective in the symptomatic treatment of generalized anxiety in patients who had been referred by their family doctors for specialist treatment. If initial psychological treatment for chronic anxiety is ineffective, and a drug is considered necessary, then a beta blocker or an antidepressant should be considered as first choice in preference to a benzodiazepine.

  1. Nicotinic {alpha}4{beta}2 receptor imaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichika, Rama [Brain Imaging Center, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3960 (United States); Easwaramoorthy, Balasubramaniam [Brain Imaging Center, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3960 (United States); Collins, Daphne [Brain Imaging Center, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3960 (United States); Christian, Bradley T. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kettering Medical Center, Dayton, OH 45429 (United States); Shi, Bingzhi [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kettering Medical Center, Dayton, OH 45429 (United States); Narayanan, Tanjore K. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kettering Medical Center, Dayton, OH 45429 (United States); Potkin, Steven G. [Brain Imaging Center, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3960 (United States); Mukherjee, Jogeshwar [Brain Imaging Center, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3960 (United States)]. E-mail: j.mukherjee@uci.edu

    2006-04-15

    The {alpha}4{beta}2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) has been implicated in various neurodegenerative diseases. Optimal positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents are therefore highly desired for this receptor. We report here the development and initial evaluation of 2-fluoro-3-[2-((S)-3-pyrrolinyl)methoxy]pyridine (nifene). In vitro binding affinity of nifene in rat brain homogenate using {sup 3}H-cytisine exhibited a K {sub i}=0.50 nM for the {alpha}4{beta}2 sites. The radiosynthesis of 2-{sup 18}F-fluoro-3-[2-((S)-3-pyrrolinyl)methoxy]pyridine ({sup 18}F-nifene) was accomplished in 2.5 h with an overall radiochemical yield of 40-50%, decay corrected. The specific activity was estimated to be approx. 37-185 GBq/{mu}mol. In vitro autoradiography in rat brain slices indicated selective binding of {sup 18}F-nifene to anteroventral thalamic (AVT) nucleus, thalamus, subiculum, striata, cortex and other regions consistent with {alpha}4{beta}2 receptor distribution. Rat cerebellum showed some binding, whereas regions in the hippocampus had the lowest binding. The highest ratio of >13 between AVT and cerebellum was measured for {sup 18}F-nifene in rat brain slices. The specific binding was reduced (>95%) by 300 {mu}M nicotine in these brain regions. Positron emission tomography imaging study of {sup 18}F-nifene (130 MBq) in anesthetized rhesus monkey was carried out using an ECAT EXACT HR+ scanner. PET study showed selective maximal uptake in the regions of the anterior medial thalamus, ventro-lateral thalamus, lateral geniculate, cingulate gyrus, temporal cortex including the subiculum. The cerebellum in the monkeys showed lower binding than the other regions. Thalamus-to-cerebellum ratio peaked at 30-35 min postinjection to a value of 2.2 and subsequently reduced. The faster binding profile of {sup 18}F-nifene indicates promise as a PET imaging agent and thus needs further evaluation.

  2. Selective adrenergic beta-2-receptor blocking drug, ICI-118.551, is effective in essential tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teräväinen, H; Huttunen, J; Larsen, T A

    1986-07-01

    Eighteen patients with essential tremor were treated for 2 days with a non-selective adrenergic beta-blocking drug (dl-propranolol, 80 mg X 3), a beta-2-selective blocker (ICI-118.551, 50 mg X 3) and placebo (X 3) in a randomized double blind cross-over study. Postural hand tremor was recorded with an accelerometer before administration of the drugs and at the end of each treatment period. Compared with placebo, both the beta-blocking drugs caused a statistically significant decrease in tremor intensity and they possessed approximately similar antitremor potency. Subjective benefit was reported by 12 of the 18 patients receiving ICI-118.551, 13 when on propranolol and 3 when on placebo.

  3. Study on Surface Modification of Glass Bead by a Block Copolymer Coupling Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yin; ZHANG Bing; ZHOU Xiao-dong

    2008-01-01

    A tri-block copolymer coupling agent polystyrene biock-poly(n-butyl-acrylate)-block-poly(r-methacryloxypro pylt rimethoxysilane)(PS-b-PnBA-b-PMPS)was synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization(ATRP),and its molecular structure was characterized by fourier-transform infrared spectra,hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance and gel permeation chromatography.The glass bead was treated with the block copolymer coupling agent,and then studied by transmission electron microscopy.The result showed that strong interaction was formed between the block copolymer coupling agent and the surface of glass bead,and then the block of poly(n-butylacrylate)formed a layer of film on the surface.

  4. Neuromuscular blocking and cardiovascular effects of Org 9487, a new short-acting aminosteroidal blocking agent, in anaesthetized animals and in isolated muscle preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muir, A.W.; Sleigh, T.; Marshall, R.J.; Pow, E.; Anderson, K.; Booij, L.H.D.J.; Hill, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the neuromuscular blocking profile and cardiovascular effects of Org 9487, a new aminosteroidal, non-depolarizing, neuromuscular blocking agent structurally related to vecuronium, in anaesthetized animals and in isolated muscle preparations. In in vitro

  5. Blocking of beta-2 adrenergic receptors hastens recovery from hypoglycemia-associated social withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min Jung; Guest, Christopher B; Barnes, Meredith B; Martin, Jonathan; Ahmad, Uzma; York, Jason M; Freund, Gregory G

    2008-11-01

    Hypoglycemia is associated with a variety of adverse behaviors including fatigue, confusion and social withdrawal. While these clinical symptoms are well characterized, the mechanism of their cause is not understood. Here we investigated how insulin-induced hypoglycemia causes social withdrawal. Male 8-12-week-old C57BL/6J mice were injected intraperitoneally (IP) with or without and/or insulin, norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (Epi), terbutaline and butoxamine with subsequent measurement of blood glucose, social withdrawal and plasma catecholamines. Insulin generated (0.75h post-injection) significant hypoglycemia with blood glucose nadirs of 64+/-4 and 48+/-5mg/dl for 0.8 and 1.2units/kg of insulin, respectively. Insulin (0.8 or 1.2units/kg) caused near total social withdrawal at 0.75h with full recovery not occurring until 4h (0.8units/kg) or 8h (1.2units/kg) post-insulin injection. Insulin also caused a marked elevation in plasma catecholamines. Basal 12h fasting NE and Epi were 287+/-38 and 350+/-47pg/ml, respectively. Insulin at 0.8units/kg increased plasma NE and Epi to 994+/-73 and 1842+/-473pg/ml, respectively. Administration of exogenous NE or Epi caused social withdrawal similar in magnitude to insulin. Importantly, administration of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonist terbutaline also caused social withdrawal while administration of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist butoxamine blocked NE-induced social withdrawal. Finally, butoxamine blocked insulin-induced social withdrawal. These data demonstrate that hypoglycemia-associated social withdrawal is dependent on catecholamines via a beta-2 receptor-mediated pathway.

  6. The reason for discontinuation of the first tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blocking agent does not influence the effect of a second TNF blocking agent in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Marlies; Kievit, Wietske; Fransen, Jaap; Kuper, Ina H.; den Broeder, Alfons A.; De Gendt, Carla M.A.; Jansen, Tim L.; Brus, Herman L.M.; van de Laar, Mart A.F.J.; van Riel, Piet L.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To investigate whether the reason for discontinuation of the first tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blocking agent influences the effect of a second TNF blocking agent. METHODS:Data were used from 2 Dutch registries including patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with TNF blocking

  7. The reason for discontinuation of the first tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blocking agent does not influence the effect of a second TNF blocking agent in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, M.; Kievit, W.; Fransen, J.; Kuper, I.H.; Broeder, A. den; Gendt, C.M. de; Jansen, T.L.Th.A.; Brus, H.L.; Laar, M.A. van der; Riel, P.L.C.M. van

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the reason for discontinuation of the first tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blocking agent influences the effect of a second TNF blocking agent. METHODS: Data were used from 2 Dutch registries including patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with TNF blocking

  8. Mechanistic studies of cancer cell mitochondria- and NQO1-mediated redox activation of beta-lapachone, a potentially novel anticancer agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jason Z.; Ke, Yuebin; Misra, Hara P.; Trush, Michael A.; Li, Y. Robert; Zhu, Hong; Jia, Zhenquan

    2014-01-01

    Beta-lapachone (beta-Lp) derived from the Lapacho tree is a potentially novel anticancer agent currently under clinical trials. Previous studies suggested that redox activation of beta-Lp catalyzed by NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) accounted for its killing of cancer cells. However, the exact mechanisms of this effect remain largely unknown. Using chemiluminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin-trapping techniques, this study for the first time demonstrated the real-time formation of ROS in the redox activation of beta-lapachone from cancer cells mediated by mitochondria and NQO1 in melanoma B16–F10 and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cancer cells. ES936, a highly selective NQO1 inhibitor, and rotenone, a selective inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport chain (METC) complex I were found to significantly block beta-Lp meditated redox activation in B16–F10 cells. In HepG2 cells ES936 inhibited beta-Lp-mediated oxygen radical formation by ∼ 80% while rotenone exerted no significant effect. These results revealed the differential contribution of METC and NQO1 to beta-lapachone-induced ROS formation and cancer cell killing. In melanoma B16–F10 cells that do not express high NQO1 activity, both NOQ1 and METC play a critical role in beta-Lp redox activation. In contrast, in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells expressing extremely high NQO1 activity, redox activation of beta-Lp is primarily mediated by NQO1 (METC plays a minor role). These findings will contribute to our understanding of how cancer cells are selectively killed by beta-lapachone and increase our ability to devise strategies to enhance the anticancer efficacy of this potentially novel drug while minimizing its possible adverse effects on normal cells. - Highlights: • Both isolated mitochondria and purified NQO1 are able to generate ROS by beta-Lp. • The differential roles of mitochondria and NQO1 in mediating redox activation of beta-Lp • In cancer cells with

  9. Mechanistic studies of cancer cell mitochondria- and NQO1-mediated redox activation of beta-lapachone, a potentially novel anticancer agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jason Z. [Virginia Tech CRC, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Ke, Yuebin [Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Misra, Hara P. [Virginia Tech CRC, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Trush, Michael A. [Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Li, Y. Robert [Campbell University School of Osteopathic Medicine, Buies Creek, NC (United States); Virginia Tech-Wake Forest University SBES, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, NC (United States); Zhu, Hong, E-mail: zhu@campbell.edu [Campbell University School of Osteopathic Medicine, Buies Creek, NC (United States); Jia, Zhenquan, E-mail: z_jia@uncg.edu [Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, NC (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Beta-lapachone (beta-Lp) derived from the Lapacho tree is a potentially novel anticancer agent currently under clinical trials. Previous studies suggested that redox activation of beta-Lp catalyzed by NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) accounted for its killing of cancer cells. However, the exact mechanisms of this effect remain largely unknown. Using chemiluminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin-trapping techniques, this study for the first time demonstrated the real-time formation of ROS in the redox activation of beta-lapachone from cancer cells mediated by mitochondria and NQO1 in melanoma B16–F10 and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cancer cells. ES936, a highly selective NQO1 inhibitor, and rotenone, a selective inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport chain (METC) complex I were found to significantly block beta-Lp meditated redox activation in B16–F10 cells. In HepG2 cells ES936 inhibited beta-Lp-mediated oxygen radical formation by ∼ 80% while rotenone exerted no significant effect. These results revealed the differential contribution of METC and NQO1 to beta-lapachone-induced ROS formation and cancer cell killing. In melanoma B16–F10 cells that do not express high NQO1 activity, both NOQ1 and METC play a critical role in beta-Lp redox activation. In contrast, in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells expressing extremely high NQO1 activity, redox activation of beta-Lp is primarily mediated by NQO1 (METC plays a minor role). These findings will contribute to our understanding of how cancer cells are selectively killed by beta-lapachone and increase our ability to devise strategies to enhance the anticancer efficacy of this potentially novel drug while minimizing its possible adverse effects on normal cells. - Highlights: • Both isolated mitochondria and purified NQO1 are able to generate ROS by beta-Lp. • The differential roles of mitochondria and NQO1 in mediating redox activation of beta-Lp • In cancer cells with

  10. The role of isotopes in the development of β-adrenoceptor blocking agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter is devoted to the applications of labelled β-blocking agents in drug development and to the procedures which have been described in the literature for labelling this class of compounds with radioactive or stable isotopes. 149 refs.; 4 figs

  11. Immediate haemodynamic effects of a novel partial agonist, beta 1-adrenoceptor blocking drug ICI 141,292 after intravenous administration to healthy young volunteers and patients with ischaemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, J; Svendsen, T L; Lyngborg, K

    1987-01-01

    administration of four sequential doses (0.5, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg) of ICI 141,292 was examined. HR decreased 7% (P less than 0.05) following ICI 141,292 1 mg with no further decrease following the succeeding doses. Cardiac output decreased 5.2% (P less than 0.05) following a cumulative dose of 4 mg...... as atenolol) beta 1-adrenoceptor blocking agent possessing moderate intrinsic sympathomimetic activity....

  12. Blocking beta 2-adrenergic receptor inhibits dendrite ramification in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qin; Sun, Jin-Xia; Song, Xiang-He; Wang, Jing; Xiong, Cun-Quan; Teng, Fei-Xiang; Gao, Cui-Xiang

    2017-09-01

    Dendrite ramification affects synaptic strength and plays a crucial role in memory. Previous studies revealed a correlation between beta 2-adrenergic receptor dysfunction and Alzheimer's disease (AD), although the mechanism involved is still poorly understood. The current study investigated the potential effect of the selective β 2 -adrenergic receptor antagonist, ICI 118551 (ICI), on Aβ deposits and AD-related cognitive impairment. Morris water maze test results demonstrated that the performance of AD-transgenic (TG) mice treated with ICI (AD-TG/ICI) was significantly poorer compared with NaCl-treated AD-TG mice (AD-TG/NaCl), suggesting that β 2 -adrenergic receptor blockage by ICI might reduce the learning and memory abilities of mice. Golgi staining and immunohistochemical staining revealed that blockage of the β 2 -adrenergic receptor by ICI treatment decreased the number of dendritic branches, and ICI treatment in AD-TG mice decreased the expression of hippocampal synaptophysin and synapsin 1. Western blot assay results showed that the blockage of β 2 -adrenergic receptor increased amyloid-β accumulation by downregulating hippocampal α-secretase activity and increasing the phosphorylation of amyloid precursor protein. These findings suggest that blocking the β 2 -adrenergic receptor inhibits dendrite ramification of hippocampal neurons in a mouse model of AD.

  13. Beta-elemene blocks epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 through Smad3-mediated down-regulation of nuclear transcription factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Zhang

    Full Text Available Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT is the first step required for breast cancer to initiate metastasis. However, the potential of drugs to block and reverse the EMT process are not well explored. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of beta-elemene (ELE, an active component of a natural plant-derived anti-neoplastic agent in an established EMT model mediated by transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1. We found that ELE (40 µg/ml blocked the TGF-β1-induced phenotypic transition in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. ELE was able to inhibit TGF-β1-mediated upregulation of mRNA and protein expression of nuclear transcription factors (SNAI1, SNAI2, TWIST and SIP1, potentially through decreasing the expression and phosphorylation of Smad3, a central protein mediating the TGF-β1 signalling pathway. These findings suggest a potential therapeutic benefit of ELE in treating basal-like breast cancer.

  14. Radiolabeled adrenergic neuron-blocking agents: Adrenomedullary imaging with [131I]iodobenzylguanidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieland, D.M.; Wu, J.; Brown, L.E.; Mangner, T.J.; Swanson, D.P.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    The tissue distributions of three radioiodinated neuron-blocking agents have been determined in dogs. Iodine-125-labeled meta- and para-iodobenzylguanidines show a striking affinity for, and retention in, the adrenal medulla. Peak concentrations of the two isomers exceed those of previously reported adrenophilic compounds. High myocardial concentrations were also observed at early time intervals. Images of the dog's adrenal medullae have been obtained with para[ 131 I]-iodobenzylguanidine

  15. An Agent-Based Solution Framework for Inter-Block Yard Crane Scheduling Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omor Sharif

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of yard operations is critical to the overall productivity of a container terminal because the yard serves as the interface between the landside and waterside operations. Most container terminals use yard cranes to transfer containers between the yard and trucks (both external and internal. To facilitate vessel operations, an efficient work schedule for the yard cranes is necessary given varying work volumes among yard blocks with different planning periods. This paper investigated an agent-based approach to assign and relocate yard cranes among yard blocks based on the forecasted work volumes. The goal of our study is to reduce the work volume that remains incomplete at the end of a planning period. We offered several preference functions for yard cranes and blocks which are modeled as agents. These preference functions are designed to find effective schedules for yard cranes. In addition, we examined various rules for the initial assignment of yard cranes to blocks. Our analysis demonstrated that our model can effectively and efficiently reduce the percentage of incomplete work volume for any real-world sized problem.

  16. Effect of autonomic blocking agents and structurally related substances on the “salt arousal of drinking”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wied, D. de

    The effect of autonomic blocking agents and structurally related substances was studied in rats in which thirst was produced by the administration of a hypertonic sodium chloride solution. Scopolamine, methamphetamine, amphetamine, chlorpromazine, atropine, mecamylamine, hexamethonium, nethalide,

  17. A reactive polystyrene-block-polyisoprene star copolymer as a toughening agent in an epoxy thermoset

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Raju

    2015-12-29

    © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg A polystyrene-block-polyisoprene ((PS-b-PI)3) star polymer was synthesized by photochemical reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The obtained star polymer was epoxidized and used as a toughening agent in an epoxy thermoset. The incorporation of the epoxidized star polymer resulted in the formation of nanostructures and it was fixed by a crosslinking reaction. The formation of nanostructures in the thermosets follows the mechanism of reaction-induced microphase separation. The mechanical properties such as toughness and tensile strength were considerably increased due to the nanostructures formed by reactive blending.

  18. Reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block by the selective relaxant binding agent sugammadex: a dose-finding and safety study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorgenfrei, Iben F; Norrild, Kathrine; Larsen, Per Bo

    2006-01-01

    Sugammadex (Org 25969) forms a complex with steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents, thereby reversing neuromuscular block. This study investigated the dose-response relation, safety, and pharmacokinetics of sugammadex to reverse rocuronium-induced block.......Sugammadex (Org 25969) forms a complex with steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents, thereby reversing neuromuscular block. This study investigated the dose-response relation, safety, and pharmacokinetics of sugammadex to reverse rocuronium-induced block....

  19. Dispersiones acuosas de poliuretano bloqueado: una alternativa como agente curtiente Aqueous dispersions of blocked polyurethane: an alternative as tanning agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Mata-Mata

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se sintetizaron y se evaluaron como agentes curtientes de pieles vacunas dos tipos de agentes de reticulación base poliuretano bloqueado. Se presentan los resultados de la síntesis de dispersiones acuosas de poliuretano bloqueado (DPU’s, basadas en prepolímeros a partir de la reacción de los diisocianatos alifáticos H12MDI (4,4’ metilenbis-ciclohexilisocianato y HDI (hexametilendiisocianato con polioles base poliéter óxido de etileno de peso molecular 1 y 2 KDa, en una relación molar isocianato/oxhidrilo (NCO/OH de 4:1 y 6:1 a 100 °C por 2 y 4 horas. En una segunda reacción, los grupos isocianato (NCO libres del prepolímero se bloquearon con una solución acuosa de NaHSO3 ó Na2S2O5 al 40%p/p. Los prepolímeros se caracterizaron mediante espectroscopia IR y RMN de ¹H. El tanto por ciento de isocianato libre en el prepolímero, así como el bloqueo de dichos grupos, se determinaron por espectroscopía IR. La evaluación de la capacidad curtiente de las DPU’s se determinó de acuerdo a la estabilidad térmica de la piel (temperatura de desnaturalización, mediante Calorimetría Diferencial de Barrido (DSC y a la determinación del índice de reticulación de las DPU’s con la colágena de la piel mediante un ensayo con ninhidrina.Two types of crosslinking agents blocked polyurethanes were synthesized and evaluated as tanning agents of bovine skins. The results of the synthesis of aqueous dispersions of blocked polyurethane (DPU’s are presented. They were based on prepolymers from the reaction of the aliphatic diisocyanates H12MDI 4,4’-methylenebis(cyclohexyl isocyanate and HDI (hexamethylene diisocyanate with HO-polyols such as polyethylene oxide of molecular weight 1 and 2 kDa. The molar NCO/OH ratio was fixed in 4:1 or 6:1, at 100 °C and 2 or 4 hours for the reaction time. In a second reaction, the prepolymer containing terminal NCO groups were blocked by reaction with an aqueous NaHSO3 or Na2S2O5 solution to 40% w/w. The

  20. Inhibition of polymerases-alpha and -beta completely blocks DNA repair induced by UV irradiation in cultured mouse neuronal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licastro, F.; Sarafian, T.; Verity, A.M.; Walford, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of hydroxyurea, aphidicolin and dideoxythymidine on UV-induced DNA repair of mouse neuronal granular cells were studied. Aphidicolin, which is considered a specific inhibitor of polymerase-alpha, decreased spontaneous DNA synthesis by 93% and totally suppressed DNA repair. Dideoxythymidine, an inhibitor of polymerase-beta, was more potent in decreasing scheduled DNA synthesis than aphidicolin, and also completely blocked the UV-induced DNA repair. Hydroxyurea, a specific inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase, inhibited scheduled DNA synthesis, but unscheduled DNA synthesis after UV irradiation was always well detectable. Our data suggest that in neuronal cells from 5 to 10 days old mice both polymerases-alpha and -beta are required for both DNA synthesis and repair. These two enzymes may act jointly in filling up the gaps along the DNA molecule and elongating the DNA chain

  1. The influence of cold on the recovery of three neuromuscular blocking agents in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, A J; Wu, X; Richards, K M; Redai, I; Feldman, S A

    1996-03-01

    The Arrhenius hypothesis suggests that change in temperature has a less marked effect on the rate of physical processes than on biological reactions. We have investigated the process underlying recovery from neuromuscular block in man by studying the effect of cooling on the rate of recovery from depolarising and non-depolarising block. Vecuronium, rocuronium and decamethonium (C10) neuromuscular block were investigated using the isolated forearm technique on awake human volunteers. In these experiments, one arm was cooled whilst the other was used as control. Moderate hypothermia decreased the rate of recovery from all three agents, but this was significantly less marked with the depolarising drug. The mean Q10 (the anticipated change in rate of a reaction across of 10 degrees C temperature gradient) of the rate of recovery for vecuronium was 3.21, rocuronium 2.86 and decamethonium 1.29. This suggests a different process in the recovery of these two types of drug. According to the Arrhenius hypothesis this would suggest that the recovery from non-depolarising drugs is likely to involve a biochemical mechanism and that recovery from decamethonium is controlled by a physical process.

  2. Determination of beta-adrenergic receptor blocking pharmaceuticals in united states wastewater effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huggett, D.B.; Khan, I.A.; Foran, C.M.; Schlenk, D

    2003-02-01

    This is the first report of beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist pharmaceuticals in United States wastewater effluent. - Beta adrenergic receptor antagonists ({beta}-Blockers) are frequently prescribed medications in the United States and have been identified in European municipal wastewater effluent, however no studies to date have investigated these compounds in United States wastewater effluent. Municipal wastewater effluent was collected from treatment facilities in Mississippi, Texas, and New York to investigate the occurrence of metoprolol, nadolol, and propranolol. Propranolol was identified in all wastewater samples analyzed (n=34) at concentrations {<=}1.9 {mu}g/l. Metoprolol and nadolol were identified in {>=}71% of the samples with concentrations of metoprolol {<=}1.2 {mu}g/l and nadolol {<=}0.36 {mu}g/l. Time course studies at both Mississippi plants and the Texas plant indicate that concentrations of propranolol, metoprolol, and nadolol remain relatively constant at each sampling period. This study indicates that {beta}-Blockers are present in United States wastewater effluent in the ng/l to {mu}g/l range.

  3. Inhibition of endocytosis blocks Wnt signalling to beta-catenin by promoting dishevelled degradation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bryja, Vítězslav; Čajánek, L.; Grahn, A.; Schulte, G.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 190, č. 1 (2007), s. 53-596 ISSN 0001-6772 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : beta-catenin * clathrin-mediated endocytosis * desensitization Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.554, year: 2007

  4. Preferences of Mexican anesthesiologists for vecuronium, rocuronium, or other neuromuscular blocking agents: a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garduño-Espinosa J

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several neuromuscular blocking (NMB agents are available for clinical use in anesthesia. The present study was performed in order to identify preferences and behaviors of anesthesiologists for using vecuronium, rocuronium or other NMB agents in their clinical practice. Material and methods The cross-sectional survey was applied at the Updated Course of the Colegio Mexicano de Anestesiología performed last year. Of 989, 282 (28.5% surveys were returned. Results Most anesthesiologists were working at both public and private hospitals, performed anesthetic procedures for hospitalized and ambulatory patients, and anesthetized children as well as adults. Respondents did not consider mechanomyography as the gold standard method for neuromuscular monitoring. The T25 was not recognized as a pharmacodynamic parameter that represents the clinical duration of the neuromuscular block. Most answered that vecuronium induces less histamine release than rocuronium, had never used any neuromuscular monitor, did not know the cost of vecuronium and rocuronium, and preferred rocuronium in multiple-sampling vials and vecuronium in either a vial for single or multiple sampling. Rocuronium was preferred for emergency surgery in patients with full stomach only. Almost all of anesthesiologists that conserve the unused drug did it without refrigeration and more than 30% conserve the unused drug in one syringe for further use. Conclusion Vecuronium was preferred for most clinical situations, and the decision for this choice was not based on costs. Storage of unused drugs without refrigeration in a single syringe for purpose of future use in several patients represented a dangerous common practice.

  5. Sugammadex as a reversal agent for neuromuscular block: an evidence-based review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Stefan Josef; Fink, Heidrun

    2013-01-01

    Sugammadex is the first clinical representative of a new class of drugs called selective relaxant binding agents. It has revolutionized the way anesthesiologists think about drug reversal. Sugammadex selectively binds rocuronium or vecuronium, thereby reversing their neuromuscular blocking action. Due to its 1:1 binding of rocuronium or vecuronium, it is able to reverse any depth of neuromuscular block. So far, it has been approved for use in adult patients and for pediatric patients over 2 years. Since its approval in Europe, Japan, and Australia, further insight on its use in special patient populations and specific diseases have become available. Due to its pharmacodynamic profile, sugammadex, in combination with rocuronium, may have the potential to displace succinylcholine as the “gold standard” muscle relaxant for rapid sequence induction. The use of rocuronium or vecuronium, with the potential of reverse of their action with sugammadex, seems to be safe in patients with impaired neuromuscular transmission, ie, neuromuscular diseases, including myasthenia gravis. Data from long-term use of sugammadex is not yet available. Evidence suggesting an economic advantage of using sugammadex and justifying its relatively high cost for an anesthesia-related drug, is missing. PMID:24098155

  6. Comparative effectiveness of Calabadion and sugammadex to reverse non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerter, Friederike; Simons, Jeroen Cedric Peter; Foerster, Urs; Duarte, Ingrid Moreno; Diaz-Gil, Daniel; Ganapati, Shweta; Eikermann-Haerter, Katharina; Ayata, Cenk; Zhang, Ben; Blobner, Manfred; Isaacs, Lyle; Eikermann, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Background We evaluated the comparative effectiveness of calabadion 2 to reverse non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) by binding and inactivation. Methods The dose-response relationship of drugs to reverse vecuronium, rocuronium, and cisatracurium-induced neuromuscular block (NMB) was evaluated in vitro (competition binding assays and urine analysis), ex vivo (n=34; phrenic nerve hemidiaphragm preparation) and in vivo (n=108; quadriceps femoris muscle of the rat). Cumulative dose-response curves of calabadions, neostigmine, or sugammadex were created ex vivo at steady-state deep NMB. In living rats, we studied the dose-response relationship of the test drugs to reverse deep block under physiological conditions and we measured the amount of calabadion 2 excreted in the urine. Results In vitro experiments showed that calabadion 2 binds rocuronium with 89 times the affinity of sugammadex (Ka = 3.4 × 109 M−1 and Ka = 3.8 × 107 M−1). Urine analysis (proton nuclear magnetic resonance), competition binding assays and ex vivo study results obtained in the absence of metabolic deactivation are in accordance with an 1:1 binding ratio of sugammadex and calabadion 2 toward rocuronium. In living rats, calabadion 2 dose-dependently and rapidly reversed all NMBAs tested. The molar potency of calabadion 2 to reverse vecuronium and rocuronium was higher compared to sugammadex. Calabadion 2 was eliminated renally, and did not affect blood pressure or heart rate. Conclusion Calabadion 2 reverses NMB-induced by benzylisoquinolines and steroidal NMBAs in rats more effectively, i.e. faster, than sugammadex. Calabadion 2 is eliminated in the urine and well tolerated in rats. PMID:26418697

  7. Determination of beta-adrenergic receptor blocking pharmaceuticals in united states wastewater effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huggett, D.B.; Khan, I.A.; Foran, C.M.; Schlenk, D.

    2003-01-01

    This is the first report of beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist pharmaceuticals in United States wastewater effluent. - Beta adrenergic receptor antagonists (β-Blockers) are frequently prescribed medications in the United States and have been identified in European municipal wastewater effluent, however no studies to date have investigated these compounds in United States wastewater effluent. Municipal wastewater effluent was collected from treatment facilities in Mississippi, Texas, and New York to investigate the occurrence of metoprolol, nadolol, and propranolol. Propranolol was identified in all wastewater samples analyzed (n=34) at concentrations ≤1.9 μg/l. Metoprolol and nadolol were identified in ≥71% of the samples with concentrations of metoprolol ≤1.2 μg/l and nadolol ≤0.36 μg/l. Time course studies at both Mississippi plants and the Texas plant indicate that concentrations of propranolol, metoprolol, and nadolol remain relatively constant at each sampling period. This study indicates that β-Blockers are present in United States wastewater effluent in the ng/l to μg/l range

  8. Evaluating the influence of increasing block tariffs in residential gas sector using agent-based computational economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Chengzhu; Yu, Shiwei; Zhu, Kejun; Hailu, Atakelty

    2016-01-01

    Designing a desirable increasing block tariff for the residential gas retail market has been a challenging task for regulated utilities, especially in China. To deal with such problems, in this paper, we establish an agent-based, computational economics system to provide a formal evaluation of the direct and indirect influences of several issued increasing block tariffs in the residential gas market. Moreover, a comprehensive demand response behaviour model has been improved in term of price elasticity, while still coping with income levels and complex social environment. We also compute and compare the outcomes of several increasing block tariffs with the initial flat tariff by running the system on a test-case using real-world data from a middle-scale gas retail market in Wuhan. The results indicate that there is an appropriate increasing block gas tariff scheme that has greater ability to improve social equity while still ensuring operator revenue and promoting gas conservation. In order to offset the limitations of the proposed increasing block tariffs, the regulator should adopt some complementary measures, such as applying appropriate policies targeting the intended consumers, and allowing large families to obtain extra allowance of volume. - Highlights: •Analyse the influence of increasing block tariffs in residential gas sector. •An agent-based computational economics system is utilised for policy analysis. •Increasing block tariff can generate revenue while still promote gas conservation. •The increasing subsidy for low income household can improve the social equity.

  9. Novel {beta}-Carboline Alkaloid from Peganum Harmala As Antibacterial Agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel Aziz, H G; Abdel Kader, S M; El-Sayed, M M; EL-Malt, E A; Shaker, E S [Chem. Dept., Fac. Agric., Minia Univ., Minia (Egypt)

    2011-07-01

    A novel {beta}-carboline alkaloid isolated from the aerial parts of Peganum harmala L. (Gen: Phyeophylaceae) have been characterized as l-thioformyl-8-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside-bis-2,3-dihydro-isopyridinopyrrol. It is one of {beta}-carboline alkaloids derivatives. The chemical structure was elucidated on the basis of elementary analysis and spectroscopic studies (UV, IR, {sup 1}H-NMR and MS). The isolated compound showed significant antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pyogenus.

  10. A Rare Side Effect due to TNF-Alpha Blocking Agent: Acute Pleuropericarditis with Adalimumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Ozkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonism is an important treatment strategy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, vasculitis, and ankylosing spondylitis. Adalimumab is one of the well-known tumor necrosis factor-alpha blocking agents. There are several side effects reported in patients with adalimumab therapy. Cardiac side effects of adalimumab are rare. Only a few cardiac side effects were reported. A 61-year-old man treated with adalimumab for the last 6 months due to psoriatic arthritis presented with typically acute pleuropericarditis. Chest X-ray and echocardiography demonstrated marked pericardial effusion. Patient was successfully evaluated for the etiology of acute pleuro-pericarditis. Every etiology was excluded except the usage of adalimumab. Adalimumab was discontinued, and patient was treated with 1200 mg of ibuprofen daily. Control chest X-ray and echocardiography after three weeks demonstrated complete resolution of both pleural and pericardial effusions. This case clearly demonstrated the acute onset of pericarditis with adalimumab usage. Acute pericarditis and pericardial effusion should be kept in mind in patients with adalimumab treatment.

  11. Occurrence and profiles of organic sun-blocking agents in surface waters and sediments in Japanese rivers and lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameda, Yutaka; Kimura, Kumiko; Miyazaki, Motonobu

    2011-01-01

    Sun-blocking agents including eight UV filters (UVF) and 10 UV light stabilizers (UVLS) were measured in water and sediment collected from 22 rivers, four sewage treatment plant effluents (STPE) and three lakes in Japan. Total sun blocking agents levels ranged from N.D. to 4928 ng/L and from 2.0 to 3422 μg/kg dry wt in surface water and in sediment, respectively. Benzyl salicylate, benzophenone-3, 2-ethyl hexyl-4-methoxycinnamte (EHMC) and octyl salicylate were dominant in surface water receiving wastewater effluents and STPE, although UV-328, benzophenone and EHMC were dominant in other surface water except background sites. Three UVF and nine UVLS were observed from all sediment and their compositions showed similar patterns with UV-328 and UV-234 as the most prevalent compounds. Homosalate, octocrylene, UV-326, UV-327, UV-328 and UV-234 were significantly correlated with Galaxolide in sediments. Concentrations of UV-327 and UV-328 also had strong correlation between those of UV-326 in sediment. - Highlights: → Total sun-blocking agents levels ranged from N.D. to 4928 ng/L in surface water from 29 sampling sites. → The maximum concentration of total sun-blocking agents was 3422 μg/kg dry wt. in sediment. → Residential wastewaters and STPE were considered to be potential sources of UVLS in river and lakes. → Most of sun-blocking agents in sediment were significantly correlated with HHCB. → UV-326 had a strong linear correlation between UV-327 as well as UV-328 in all sediment. - Occurrence of eight UV filters and 10 UV light stabilizers in surface water and sediment were investigated and characterized their compositions in water and sediment.

  12. Stereoselective separation of β-adrenergic blocking agents containing two chiral centers by countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Liqiong; Bu, Zhisi; Lu, Mengxia; Wang, Xiaoping; Yan, Jizhong; Tong, Shengqiang

    2017-09-01

    Four β-adrenergic blocking agents, including 1-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-3-phenoxy-2-propanol (1), 1-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-3-(3-methylphenoxy)-2-propanol (2), 1,1'-[1,4-phenylenebis(oxy)]bis[3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-2-propanol (3) and 1,1'-[(4-methyl-1,2-phenylene)bis(oxy)]bis[3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-2-propanol (4), were stereoselectively separated by countercurrent chromatography using di-n-hexyl l-tartrate and boric acid as chiral selector. The compounds (3) and (4) have four optical isomers since they contained two chiral centers. A two-phase solvent system composed of chloroform-0.05molL -1 of acetate buffer containing 0.10molL -1 of boric acid (1:1, v/v) was selected, in which 0.10molL -1 of di-n-hexyl l-tartrate was added in the organic phase as chiral selector. 20-42mg of each racemate was stereoselectively separated by countercurrent chromatography in a single run with high purity of 96-98%, and the recovery of each separated compound reached around 87-93%. This is the first time report on successful stereoselective separation of optical isomeric compounds containing two chiral centers by countercurrent chromatography. At the same time, a chiral stationary phase was screened for analytical stereoselective separation of compounds (3) and (4) by high performance liquid chromatography. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Istaroxime, a positive inotropic agent devoid of proarrhythmic properties in sensitive chronic atrioventricular block dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossu, Alexandre; Kostense, Amée; Beekman, Henriette D M; Houtman, Marien J C; van der Heyden, Marcel A G; Vos, Marc A

    2018-05-10

    Current inotropic agents in heart failure therapy associate with low benefit and significant adverse effects, including ventricular arrhythmias. Istaroxime, a novel Na + /K + -transporting ATPase inhibitor, also stimulates SERCA2a activity, which would confer improved inotropic and lusitropic properties with less proarrhythmic effects. We investigated hemodynamic, electrophysiological and potential proarrhythmic and antiarrhythmic effects of istaroxime in control and chronic atrioventricular block (CAVB) dogs sensitive to drug-induced Torsades de Pointes arrhythmias (TdP). In isolated normal canine ventricular cardiomyocytes, istaroxime (0.3-10 μM) evoked no afterdepolarizations and significantly shortened action potential duration (APD) at 3 and 10 μM. Istaroxime at 3 μg/kg/min significantly increased left ventricular (LV) contractility (dP/dt + ) and relaxation (dP/dt-) respectively by 81 and 94% in anesthetized control dogs (n = 6) and by 61 and 49% in anesthetized CAVB dogs (n = 7) sensitive to dofetilide-induced TdP. While istaroxime induced no ventricular arrhythmias in control conditions, only single ectopic beats occurred in 2/7 CAVB dogs, which were preceded by increase of short-term variability of repolarization (STV) and T wave alternans in LV unipolar electrograms. Istaroxime pre-treatment (3 μg/kg/min for 60 min) did not alleviate dofetilide-induced increase in repolarization and STV, and mildly reduced incidence of TdP from 6/6 to 4/6 CAVB dogs. In six CAVB dogs with dofetilide-induced TdP, administration of istaroxime (90 μg/kg/5 min) suppressed arrhythmic episodes in two animals. Taken together, inotropic and lusitropic properties of istaroxime in CAVB dogs were devoid of significant proarrhythmic effects in sensitive CAVB dogs, and istaroxime provides a moderate antiarrhythmic efficacy in prevention and suppression of dofetilide-induced TdP. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Sugammadex, a new reversal agent for neuromuscular block induced by rocuronium in the anaesthetized Rhesus monkey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, H.D. de; Egmond, J. van; Pol, F. van de; Bom, A.; Booij, L.H.D.J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Binding of the steroidal molecule of rocuronium by a cyclodextrin is a new concept for reversal of neuromuscular block. The present study evaluated the ability of Sugammadex Org 25969, a synthetic gamma-cyclodextrin derivative, to reverse constant neuromuscular block of about 90% induced

  15. Prevalence of IgE against neuromuscular blocking agents in hairdressers and bakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, S; Acouetey, D S; Guéant-Rodriguez, R-M; Zmirou-Navier, D; Rémen, T; Blanca, M; Mertes, P M; Guéant, J-L

    2013-11-01

    Allergic IgE-mediated reactions to neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are the main cause of immediate hypersensitivity reactions in anaesthesia; their predominant occurrence in the absence of previous exposure to NMBAs suggests a risk related to environmental exposure. To investigate the prevalence of specific IgE to quaternary ammonium ions in two populations professionally exposed to quaternary ammonium compounds, in the north-eastern France. The study had a retrospective follow-up design whereby apprentices were assessed after their 2-year training period as apprentices. The professionally exposed hairdresser populations (n = 128) were compared with baker/pastry makers (n = 108) and 'non-exposed' matched control subjects (n = 379). We observed a 4.6-fold higher frequency of positive IgE against quaternary ammonium ions in hairdressers (HD), compared with baker/pastry makers (BP) and control (C) groups. The competitive inhibition of quaternary ammonium Sepharose radioimmunoassay (QAS-IgE RIA) with succinylcholine was significantly higher in HD, compared with BP and C groups, with inhibition percentage of 66.2 ± 7.4, 39.7 ± 6.0 and 43.8 ± 9.9, respectively (P  100 kU/L were the two significant predictors of IgE-sensitization against quaternary ammonium ions in the multivariate analysis of a model that included age, sex, professional exposure, increased concentration of total IgE (IgE > 100 kU/L) and positive IgE against prevalent allergens (Phadiatop(®) ; P = 0.019 and P = 0.001, respectively). The exposure to hairdressing professional occupational factors increases IgE-sensitization to NMBAs and quaternary ammonium ion compounds used in hairdressing. Besides the pholcodine hypothesis, our study suggests that repetitive exposure to quaternary ammonium compounds used in hairdressing is a risk factor for NMBAs sensitization. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. HeLa Cells Containing a Truncated Form of DNA Polymerase Beta are More Sensitized to Alkylating Agents than to Agents Inducing Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanra, Kalyani; Chakraborty, Anindita; Bhattacharyya, Nandan

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the effects of alkylating and oxidative stress inducing agents on a newly identified variant of DNA polymerase beta (polβ Δ208-304) specific for ovarian cancer. Pol β Δ208-304 has a deletion of exons 11-13 which lie in the catalytic part of enzyme. We compared the effect of these chemicals on HeLa cells and HeLa cells stably transfected with this variant cloned into in pcDNAI/neo vector by MTT, colony forming and apoptosis assays. Polβ Δ208-304 cells exhibited greater sensitivity to an alkylating agent and less sensitivity towards H2O2 and UV when compared with HeLa cells alone. It has been shown that cell death in Pol β Δ208-304 transfected HeLa cells is mediated by the caspase 9 cascade. Exon 11 has nucleotidyl selection activity, while exons 12 and 13 have dNTP selection activity. Hence deletion of this part may affect polymerizing activity although single strand binding and double strand binding activity may remain same. The lack of this part may adversely affect catalytic activity of DNA polymerase beta so that the variant may act as a dominant negative mutant. This would represent clinical significance if translated into a clinical setting because resistance to radiation or chemotherapy during the relapse of the disease could be potentially overcome by this approach.

  17. Mucin2 is Required for Probiotic Agents-Mediated Blocking Effects on Meningitic E. coli-Induced Pathogenicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing-Yi; He, Xiao-Long; Puthiyakunnon, Santhosh; Peng, Liang; Li, Yan; Wu, Li-Sha; Peng, Wen-Ling; Zhang, Ya; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Yao-Yuan; Boddu, Swapna; Long, Min; Cao, Hong; Huang, Sheng-He

    2015-10-01

    Mucin2 (MUC2), an important regulatory factor in the immune system, plays an important role in the host defense system against bacterial translocation. Probiotics known to regulate MUC2 gene expression have been widely studied, but the interactions among probiotic, pathogens, and mucin gene are still not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of MUC2 in blocking effects of probiotics on meningitic E. coli-induced pathogenicities. In this study, live combined probiotic tablets containing living Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, and Streptococcus thermophilus were used. MUC2 expression was knocked down in Caco-2 cells by RNA interference. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR), which enhances mucin-promoted probiotic effects through inducing production of Sadenosyl- L-methionine (SAMe), was used to up-regulate MUC2 expression in Caco-2 cells. The adhesion to and invasion of meningitic E. coli were detected by competition assays. Our studies showed that probiotic agents could block E. coli-caused intestinal colonization, bacteremia, and meningitis in a neonatal sepsis and meningitis rat model. MUC2 gene expression in the neonatal rats given probiotic agents was obviously higher than that of the infected and uninfected control groups without probiotic treatment. The prohibitive effects of probiotic agents on MUC2-knockdown Caco-2 cells infected with E44 were significantly reduced compared with nontransfected Caco-2 cells. Moreover, the results also showed that 5- Aza-CdR, a drug enhancing the production of SAMe that is a protective agent of probiotics, was able to significantly suppress adhesion and invasion of E44 to Caco-2 cells by upregulation of MUC2 expression. Taken together, our data suggest that probiotic agents can efficiently block meningitic E. coli-induced pathogenicities in a manner dependent on MUC2.

  18. Encapsulation and release of the hypnotic agent zolpidem from biodegradable polymer microparticles containing hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapani, Giuseppe; Lopedota, Angela; Boghetich, Giancarlo; Latrofa, Andrea; Franco, Massimo; Sanna, Enrico; Liso, Gaetano

    2003-12-11

    The goal of this study was to design a prolonged release system of the hypnotic agent zolpidem (ZP) useful for the treatment of insomnia. In this work, ZP alone or in the presence of HP-beta-CD was encapsulated in microparticles constituted by poly(DL-lactide) (PDLLA) and poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and the drug release from these systems was evaluated. ZP alone-loaded microparticles were prepared by the classical O/W emulsion-solvent evaporation method. Conversely, ZP/HP-beta-CD containing microparticles were prepared by the W/O/W emulsion-solvent evaporation method following two different procedures (i.e. A and B). Following procedure A, the previously produced ZP/HP-beta-CD solid complex was added to the water phase of primary emulsion. In the procedure B, HP-beta-CD was added to the aqueous phase and ZP to the organic phase. The resulting microparticles were characterized about morphology, size, encapsulation efficiency and release rates. FT-IR, X-ray, and DSC results suggest the drug is in an essentially amorphous state within the microparticles. The release profiles of ZP from microparticles were in general biphasic, being characterized by an initial burst effect and a subsequent slow ZP release. It resulted that co-encapsulating ZP with or without HP-beta-CD in PDLLA and PLGA the drug release from the corresponding microparticles was protracted. Moreover, in a preliminary pharmacological screening, the ataxic activity in rats was investigated and it was found that intragastric administration of the ZP/HP-beta-CD/PLGA microparticles prepared according to procedure B produced the same ataxic induction time as the one induced by the currently used formulation Stilnox. Interestingly moreover, there was a longer ataxic lasting and a lower intensity of ataxia produced by the ZP/HP-beta-CD/PLGA-B-formulation already after 60 min following the administration. However, a need for further pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies resulted to fully evaluate

  19. A reactive polystyrene-block-polyisoprene star copolymer as a toughening agent in an epoxy thermoset

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Raju; Baby, Deepa K.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg A polystyrene-block-polyisoprene ((PS-b-PI)3) star polymer was synthesized by photochemical reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The obtained star polymer was epoxidized

  20. Using colloidal silica as isolator, diverter and blocking agent for subsurface geological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourcier, William L.; Roberts, Sarah K.; Roberts, Jeffery J.; Ezzedine, Souheil M.; Hunt, Jonathan D.

    2018-03-06

    A system for blocking fast flow paths in geological formations includes preparing a solution of colloidal silica having a nonviscous phase and a solid gel phase. The solution of colloidal silica is injected into the geological formations while the solution of colloidal silica is in the nonviscous phase. The solution of colloidal silica is directed into the fast flow paths and reaches the solid gel phase in the fast flow paths thereby blocking flow of fluid in the fast paths.

  1. The uptake and overflow of radiolabelled β-adrenoceptor blocking agents by the isolated vas deferens of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    A comparison of uptake into and overflow from the isolated vas deferens of the rat has been made between [ 3 H]-noradrenaline ([ 3 H]-NA), [ 14 C]-D-sorbitol and three radio-labelled β-adrenoceptor blocking agents, [ 14 C]-practolol, [ 14 C]-(+-)-propranolol and [ 3 H]-penbutolol. The accumulation of [ 3 H]-NA after 30 min incubation was reduced by desmethylimipramine (DMI) 1 x 10 -8 M and was also reduced in vasa from rats pretreated with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). This was not so with [ 14 C]-D-sorbitol. 6-OHDA pretreatment of the rats reduced the uptake of [ 3 H]-penbutolol after 30 min incubation but not that of [ 14 C]-propranolol or [ 14 C]-practolol. DMI 1 x 10 -8 M did not alter the tissue uptake of [ 14 C]-propanolol, [ 14 C]-practolol or [ 3 H]-penbutolol. Electrical stimulation of vasa preloaded with [ 3 H]-NA caused a significantly greater increase in [ 3 H]-NA overflow than during the resting, unstimulated periods. No such increase in overflow was observed with [ 14 C]-sorbitol or any of the three β-adrenoceptor blocking agents used. The β-adrenoceptor blocking agent penbutolol was shown to possess adrenergic neurone blocking activity in the isolated vas deferens of the rat. It is concluded that any effect that practolol or (+-)-propranolol have on noradrenergic neurones is brought about without the need for these drugs to gain access to the interior of the neurone. (author)

  2. Correlation between the duration of perphenazine catalepsy and pressure maintained tonic immobility under the influence of beta-sympathotropic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikal, K

    1989-10-01

    In rats the effect of i.p. applied beta-adrenomimetic isoprenaline (ISO) 0.4 mg/kg, sulbutamol (SAL) 2mg/kg, beta-adrenoblocker propranolol (PRO) 2 mg/kg and metipranolol (MET) 4 mg/kg on the duration of perphenazine-induced catalepsy (CAT) and pressure-maintained tonic immobility (TI) was studied. It appeared that a mild constant pressure on the rat body permitted to measure the length of duration of TI in adult rats. The time course of changes in the duration of CAT and TI was repeatedly measured in one-hour intervals with different results. While ISO had no effect on the duration of CAT, SAL prolonged it. Both beta-symathomimetic compounds prolonged the duration of TI. PRO and MET shortened the duration of CAT. PRO did not influence, MET failed in the first phase but in the second phase it significantly prolonged TI duration. In spite of a certain affinity of both phenomena the two, that is, CAT and TI were not parallely influenced by the betasympathotropic agents used.

  3. Survey of how different groups of veterinarians manage the use of neuromuscular blocking agents in anesthetized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Flores, Manuel; Sakai, Daniel M; Campoy, Luis; Gleed, Robin D

    2018-03-23

    To analyze practice habits associated with the use, reversal and monitoring of nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) in dogs by different groups of veterinarians. Online anonymous survey to veterinarians. Data from 390 answered surveys. A questionnaire was sent to e-mail list servers of the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia (ACVAA-list), Sociedad Española de Anestesia y Analgesia Veterinaria (SEEAV-list), Colégio Brasileiro de Anestesiologia Veterinária (Brazilian College of Veterinary Anesthesiology; CBAV-list) and American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists (ACVO-list) to elicit information regarding use of NMBAs and reversal agents, monitoring techniques, criteria for redosing, reversing and assessing adequacy of recovery of neuromuscular function. Binomial logistic regression was used to test for association between responses and group of veterinarians in selected questions. Veterinarians of the ACVO-list use NMBAs on a higher fraction of their caseload than other groups (all p < 0.0001). Subjective assessment (observation) of spontaneous movement, including spontaneous breathing, is the most common method for assessing neuromuscular function (43% of pooled responses); 18% of participants always reverse NMBAs, whereas 16% never reverse them. Restoration of neuromuscular function is assessed subjectively by 35% of respondents. Residual neuromuscular block is the most common concern regarding the use of NMBAs for all groups of veterinarians. Side effects of reversal agents (anticholinesterases) were of least concern for all groups. While most veterinarians are concerned about residual neuromuscular block, relatively few steps are implemented to reduce the risks of this complication, such as routine use of quantitative neuromuscular monitoring or routine reversal of NMBAs. These results suggest a limitation in transferring information among groups of veterinarians, or in implementing techniques suggested by scientific

  4. Comparison of the effectiveness and safety between lymphocytes scavenger and IL-2 receptor blocking agent induction in living kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning-bo QIN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To compare the safety of two antibody inductors, namely lymphocytes scavenger and IL-2 receptor blocking agent, in living kidney transplantation. Methods  The data of 191 patients, who received living kidney transplant in our hospital from Feb. 2007 to Jul. 2012, were retrospectively analyzed, and grouped according to the inductors they received as: a lymphocytes scavenger group (n=56, with rabbit antithymocyte immunoglobulin (rATG, 4 cases and porcine antihuman T-lymphocyte immunoglobulin (pATG, 52 cases served as the inductor; b IL -2 receptor blocking agent group (n=54, with basiliximab (40 cases and daclizumab (14 cases served as the inductor; and c control group (n=81. The incidence of rejection and infection, and the survival rate of patient/allograft within one year were then compared among the three groups. Results  Within one year after the transplantation, the incidence of acute rejection in lymphocytes scavenger group, IL-2 receptor blocking agent group and control group was 12.5%, 11.1% and 28.4%, respectively. There was a significant difference between the two inductor groups and control group (P=0.003, but no significant difference was found between the two inductor groups (P>0.05. The incidence of delayed graft function (DGF in the three groups was 8.9%, 7.4% and 13.6%, respectively, with no statistical significance (P>0.05. Also there was no significant difference among the three groups in the incidence of infection and the survival rate of patient/allograft within one year after transplantation (P>0.05. Conclusion  Both inductors may significantly reduce the incidence of acute rejection within one year without increasing the incidence of infection and other adverse events, nor affect the postoperative patient/graft survival, so they are both safe and effective.

  5. Influence of surface active agents on the detection of beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, T.B.; Ruegg, E.F.

    1984-01-01

    It has been studied the efficiency of beta irradiation detection by liquid scintillation counting using the pesticide 14 C-lindane as radiation source and scientillation cocktails containing Triton-X, Arkopal, Tinoventin, Extravon-200, Oswalmida, Bigral, ethanol and methanol. Excepting the last 5 products, which led to a phase formation in the mixture, all other compounds, that are easily available in the local market, proved to be good substitute products for the well known Triton-X, an expensive and restrict emulsifier used for liquid scintillation measurement of aqueous solutions. (Author) [pt

  6. Effect of beta2-adrenoceptor agonists and other cAMP-elevating agents on inflammatory gene expression in human ASM cells: a role for protein kinase A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Manminder; Holden, Neil S; Wilson, Sylvia M; Sukkar, Maria B; Chung, Kian Fan; Barnes, Peter J; Newton, Robert; Giembycz, Mark A

    2008-09-01

    In diseases such as asthma, airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells play a synthetic role by secreting inflammatory mediators such as granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-6, or IL-8 and by expressing surface adhesion molecules, including ICAM-1. In the present study, PGE(2), forskolin, and short-acting (salbutamol) and long-acting (salmeterol and formoterol) beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonists reduced the expression of ICAM-1 and the release of GM-CSF evoked by IL-1beta in ASM cells. IL-1beta-induced IL-8 release was also repressed by PGE(2) and forskolin, whereas the beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonists were ineffective. In each case, repression of these inflammatory indexes was prevented by adenoviral overexpression of PKIalpha, a highly selective PKA inhibitor. These data indicate a PKA-dependent mechanism of repression and suggest that agents that elevate intracellular cAMP, and thereby activate PKA, may have a widespread anti-inflammatory effect in ASM cells. Since ICAM-1 and GM-CSF are highly NF-kappaB-dependent genes, we used an adenoviral-delivered NF-kappaB-dependent luciferase reporter to examine the effects of forskolin and the beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonists on NF-kappaB activation. There was no effect on luciferase activity measured in the presence of forskolin or beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonists. This finding is consistent with the observation that IL-1beta-induced expression of IL-6, a known NF-kappaB-dependent gene in ASM, was also unaffected by beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonists, forskolin, PGE(2), 8-bromo-cAMP, or rolipram. Collectively, these results indicate that repression of IL-1beta-induced ICAM-1 expression and GM-CSF release by cAMP-elevating agents, including beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonists, may not occur through a generic effect on NF-kappaB.

  7. Classification of neuromuscular blocking agents in a new neuromuscular preparation of the chick in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezen, H. van

    1968-01-01

    A neuromuscular preparation of the chick is described: 1. 1. The sciatic nerve-tibilis anterior muscle preparation of the 2–10 days old chick fulfils all criteria of an assay preparation and differentiates between curare-like and decamethonium-like agents. 2. 2. The preparation responds to

  8. Chloroquine, an Endocytosis Blocking Agent, Inhibits Zika Virus Infection in Different Cell Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Delvecchio

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV infection in utero might lead to microcephaly and other congenital defects. Since no specific therapy is available thus far, there is an urgent need for the discovery of agents capable of inhibiting its viral replication and deleterious effects. Chloroquine is widely used as an antimalarial drug, anti-inflammatory agent, and it also shows antiviral activity against several viruses. Here we show that chloroquine exhibits antiviral activity against ZIKV in Vero cells, human brain microvascular endothelial cells, human neural stem cells, and mouse neurospheres. We demonstrate that chloroquine reduces the number of ZIKV-infected cells in vitro, and inhibits virus production and cell death promoted by ZIKV infection without cytotoxic effects. In addition, chloroquine treatment partially reveres morphological changes induced by ZIKV infection in mouse neurospheres.

  9. Chloroquine, an Endocytosis Blocking Agent, Inhibits Zika Virus Infection in Different Cell Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvecchio, Rodrigo; Higa, Luiza M; Pezzuto, Paula; Valadão, Ana Luiza; Garcez, Patrícia P; Monteiro, Fábio L; Loiola, Erick C; Dias, André A; Silva, Fábio J M; Aliota, Matthew T; Caine, Elizabeth A; Osorio, Jorge E; Bellio, Maria; O'Connor, David H; Rehen, Stevens; de Aguiar, Renato Santana; Savarino, Andrea; Campanati, Loraine; Tanuri, Amilcar

    2016-11-29

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in utero might lead to microcephaly and other congenital defects. Since no specific therapy is available thus far, there is an urgent need for the discovery of agents capable of inhibiting its viral replication and deleterious effects. Chloroquine is widely used as an antimalarial drug, anti-inflammatory agent, and it also shows antiviral activity against several viruses. Here we show that chloroquine exhibits antiviral activity against ZIKV in Vero cells, human brain microvascular endothelial cells, human neural stem cells, and mouse neurospheres. We demonstrate that chloroquine reduces the number of ZIKV-infected cells in vitro, and inhibits virus production and cell death promoted by ZIKV infection without cytotoxic effects. In addition, chloroquine treatment partially reveres morphological changes induced by ZIKV infection in mouse neurospheres.

  10. Chloroquine, an Endocytosis Blocking Agent, Inhibits Zika Virus Infection in Different Cell Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvecchio, Rodrigo; Higa, Luiza M.; Pezzuto, Paula; Valadão, Ana Luiza; Garcez, Patrícia P.; Monteiro, Fábio L.; Loiola, Erick C.; Dias, André A.; Silva, Fábio J. M.; Aliota, Matthew T.; Caine, Elizabeth A.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Bellio, Maria; O’Connor, David H.; Rehen, Stevens; de Aguiar, Renato Santana; Savarino, Andrea; Campanati, Loraine; Tanuri, Amilcar

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in utero might lead to microcephaly and other congenital defects. Since no specific therapy is available thus far, there is an urgent need for the discovery of agents capable of inhibiting its viral replication and deleterious effects. Chloroquine is widely used as an antimalarial drug, anti-inflammatory agent, and it also shows antiviral activity against several viruses. Here we show that chloroquine exhibits antiviral activity against ZIKV in Vero cells, human brain microvascular endothelial cells, human neural stem cells, and mouse neurospheres. We demonstrate that chloroquine reduces the number of ZIKV-infected cells in vitro, and inhibits virus production and cell death promoted by ZIKV infection without cytotoxic effects. In addition, chloroquine treatment partially reveres morphological changes induced by ZIKV infection in mouse neurospheres. PMID:27916837

  11. Biosynthesis of ilamycins featuring unusual building blocks and engineered production of enhanced anti-tuberculosis agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junying; Huang, Hongbo; Xie, Yunchang; Liu, Zhiyong; Zhao, Jin; Zhang, Chunyan; Jia, Yanxi; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Tianyu; Ju, Jianhua

    2017-08-30

    Tuberculosis remains one of the world's deadliest communicable diseases, novel anti-tuberculosis agents are urgently needed due to severe drug resistance and the co-epidemic of tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus. Here, we show the isolation of six anti-mycobacterial ilamycin congeners (1-6) bearing rare L-3-nitro-tyrosine and L-2-amino-4-hexenoic acid structural units from the deep sea-derived Streptomyces atratus SCSIO ZH16. The biosynthesis of the rare L-3-nitrotyrosine and L-2-amino-4-hexenoic acid units as well as three pre-tailoring and two post-tailoring steps are probed in the ilamycin biosynthetic machinery through a series of gene inactivation, precursor chemical complementation, isotope-labeled precursor feeding experiments, as well as structural elucidation of three intermediates (6-8) from the respective mutants. Most impressively, ilamycins E 1 /E 2 , which are produced in high titers by a genetically engineered mutant strain, show very potent anti-tuberculosis activity with an minimum inhibitory concentration value ≈9.8 nM to Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv constituting extremely potent and exciting anti-tuberculosis drug leads.Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the world's deadliest communicable diseases, novel anti-TB agents are urgently needed due to severe drug resistance and the co-epidemic of TB/HIV. Here, the authors show that anti-mycobacterial ilamycin congeners bearing unusual structural units possess extremely potent anti-tuberculosis activities.

  12. Blocked-micropores, surface functionalized, bio-compatible and silica-coated iron oxide nanocomposites as advanced MRI contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darbandi, Masih; Laurent, Sophie; Busch, Martin; Li Zian; Yuan Ying; Krüger, Michael; Farle, Michael; Winterer, Markus; Vander Elst, Luce; Muller, Robert N.; Wende, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    Biocompatible magnetic nanoparticles have been found promising in several biomedical applications for tagging, imaging, sensing and separation in recent years. In this article, a systematic study of the design and development of surface-modification schemes for silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) via a one-pot, in situ method at room temperature is presented. Silica-coated IONP were prepared in a water-in-oil microemulsion, and subsequently the surface was modified via addition of organosilane reagents to the microemulsion system. The structure and the morphology of the as synthesized nanoparticles have been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and measurement of N 2 adsorption–desorption. Electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopic (TEM) images of the nanoparticles showed the highly crystalline nature of the IONP structures. Nitrogen adsorption indicates microporous and blocked-microporous structures for the silica-coated and amine functionalized silica-coated IONP, respectively which could prove less cytotoxicity of the functionalized final product. Besides, the colloidal stability of the final product and the presence of the modified functional groups on top of surface layer have been proven by zeta-potential measurements. Owing to the benefit from the inner IONP core and the hydrophilic silica shell, the as-synthesized nanocomposites were exploited as an MRI contrast enhancement agent. Relaxometric results prove that the surface functionalized IONP have also signal enhancement properties. These surface functionalized nanocomposites are not only potential candidates for highly efficient contrast agents for MRI, but could also be used as ultrasensitive biological-magnetic labels, because they are in nanoscale size, having magnetic properties, blocked-microporous and are well dispersible in biological environment.

  13. Architectural design criteria for f-block metal ion sequestering agents. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.A.; Hay, B.P.; Paine, R.T.; Raymond, K.N.; Rogers, R.D.; Roundhill, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    'The objective of this project is to provide a means to optimize ligand architecture for f-block metal recognition. The authors strategy builds on an innovative and successful molecular modeling approach in developing polyether ligand design criteria for the alkali and alkaline earth cations. The hypothesis underlying this proposal is that differences in metal ion binding with multidentate ligands bearing the same number and type of donor groups are primarily attributable to intramolecular steric factors. They propose quantifying these steric factors through the application of molecular mechanics models. The research involves close integration of theoretical and experimental chemistry. The experimental work entails synthesizing novel ligands and experimentally determining structures and binding constants for metal ion complexation by series of ligands in which architecture is systematically varied. The theoretical work entails using electronic structure calculations to parameterize a molecular mechanics force field for a range of metal ions and ligand types. The resulting molecular mechanics force field will be used to predict low energy structures for unidentate, bidentate, and multidentate ligands and their metal complexes through conformational searches. Results will be analyzed to assess the relative importance of several steric factors including optimal M-L length, optimal geometry at the metal center, optimal geometry at the donor atoms (complementarity), and conformation prior to binding (preorganization). An accurate set of criteria for the design of ligand architecture will be obtained from these results. These criteria will enable researchers to target ligand structures for synthesis and thereby dramatically reduce the time and cost associated with metal-specific ligand development.'

  14. Architectural design criteria for f-block metal sequestering agents. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, B.P.; Paine, R.T.; Roundhill, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    'The objective of this project is to provide the means to optimize ligand architecture for f-block metal recognition. The authors strategy builds on an innovative and successful molecular modeling approach in developing polyether ligand design criteria for the alkali and alkaline earth cations. The hypothesis underlying this proposal is that differences in metal ion binding with multidentate ligands bearing the same number and type of donor groups are primarily attributable to intramolecular steric factors. The authors propose quantifying these steric factors through the application of molecular mechanics models. The proposed research involves close integration of theoretical and experimental chemistry. The experimental work entails synthesizing novel ligands and experimentally determining structures and binding constants for metal ion complexation by series of ligands in which architecture is systematically varied. The theoretical work entails using electronic structure calculations to parameterize a molecular mechanics force field for a range of metal ions and ligand types. The resulting molecular mechanics force field will be used to predict low-energy structures for unidentate, bidentate, and multidentate ligands and their metal complexes through conformational searches. Results will be analyzed to assess the relative importance of several steric factors including optimal M-L length, optimal geometry at the metal center, optimal geometry at the donor atoms (complementarity), and conformation prior to binding (preorganization). An accurate set of criteria for the design of ligand architecture will be obtained from these results. These criteria will enable researchers to target ligand structures for synthesis and thereby dramatically reduce the time and cost associated with metal-specific ligand development.'

  15. Reversing resistance to vascular-disrupting agents by blocking late mobilization of circulating endothelial progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Melissa; Billiot, Fanny; Marty, Virginie; Rouffiac, Valérie; Cohen, Patrick; Tournay, Elodie; Opolon, Paule; Louache, Fawzia; Vassal, Gilles; Laplace-Builhé, Corinne; Vielh, Philippe; Soria, Jean-Charles; Farace, Françoise

    2012-05-01

    The prevailing concept is that immediate mobilization of bone marrow-derived circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEP) is a key mechanism mediating tumor resistance to vascular-disrupting agents (VDA). Here, we show that administration of VDA to tumor-bearing mice induces 2 distinct peaks in CEPs: an early, unspecific CEP efflux followed by a late yet more dramatic tumor-specific CEP burst that infiltrates tumors and is recruited to vessels. Combination with antiangiogenic drugs could not disrupt the early peak but completely abrogated the late VDA-induced CEP burst, blunted bone marrow-derived cell recruitment to tumors, and resulted in striking antitumor efficacy, indicating that the late CEP burst might be crucial to tumor recovery after VDA therapy. CEP and circulating endothelial cell kinetics in VDA-treated patients with cancer were remarkably consistent with our preclinical data. These findings expand the current understanding of vasculogenic "rebounds" that may be targeted to improve VDA-based strategies. Our findings suggest that resistance to VDA therapy may be strongly mediated by late, rather than early, tumor-specific recruitment of CEPs, the suppression of which resulted in increased VDA-mediated antitumor efficacy. VDA-based therapy might thus be significantly enhanced by combination strategies targeting late CEP mobilization. © 2012 AACR

  16. Short-chain fatty acids and poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates: (New) Biocontrol agents for a sustainable animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoirdt, Tom; Boon, Nico; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Verstraete, Willy; Bossier, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Because of the risk of antibiotic resistance development, there is a growing awareness that antibiotics should be used more carefully in animal production. However, a decreased use of antibiotics could result in a higher frequency of pathogenic bacteria, which in its turn could lead to a higher incidence of infections. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have long been known to exhibit bacteriostatic activity. These compounds also specifically downregulate virulence factor expression and positively influence the gastrointestinal health of the host. As a consequence, there is currently considerable interest in SCFAs as biocontrol agents in animal production. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are polymers of beta-hydroxy short-chain fatty acids. Currently, PHAs are applied as replacements for synthetic polymers. These biopolymers can be depolymerised by many different microorganisms that produce extracellular PHA depolymerases. Interestingly, different studies provided some evidence that PHAs can also be degraded upon passage through the gastrointestinal tract of animals and consequently, adding these compounds to the feed might result in biocontrol effects similar to those described for SCFAs.

  17. A comparison of the dose of anesthetic agents and the effective interval from the block procedure to skin incision for ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block in upper extremity surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Masanori; Sakuma, Yu; Imamura, Hitoshi; Yano, Koichiro; Kodama, Takao; Ikari, Katsunori

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to review and evaluate the selection and dose of anesthetic agents and the interval from the block procedure to skin incision for supraclavicular brachial plexus block in upper extremity surgery. We reviewed our cases that underwent upper extremity surgery using only ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block in our hospital between 2011 and 2016. Adverse events during surgery were evaluated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to investigate the relationship between the time from the end of the block procedure to skin incision and the use of local anesthesia on the surgical site. There were 255 patients who were divided into three groups according to the anesthetic agents used: group 1, 1% lidocaine (L) 10 ml + 0.75% ropivacaine (R) 20 ml (n = 62); group 2, L 20 ml + R 10 ml (n = 93); and group 3, L 10 ml + R 15 ml (n = 100). The rate of use of local anesthesia on the surgical site was significantly higher in group 3 than in the other two groups. There were no significant differences in the other evaluated items among the three groups. ROC curve analysis indicated that ≥24 min from the end of the block procedure to skin incision might reduce the use of local anesthesia. The total volume of anesthetic agents had an important influence on the rate of the addition of local anesthesia for surgical pain; however, the combined dose of agents did not influence the evaluation items. For effective analgesia, ≥24 min should elapse from the end of the block procedure to skin incision. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Synthesis and tissue distribution of fluorine-18 labeled trifluorohexadecanoic acids. Considerations in the development of metabolically blocked myocardial imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochapsky, S.S.; Katzenellenbogen, J.A.; VanBrocklin, H.F.; Welch, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    A versatile method for the synthesis of trifluoro fatty acids, potential metabolically blocked myocardial imaging agents, has been developed. Two trifluorohexadecanoic (palmitic) acids have been prepared [6,6,16-trifluorohexadecanoic acid (I) and 7,7,16-trifluorohexadecanoic acid (II)], each of which bears two of the fluorine atoms as a gem-difluoromethylene unit on the fatty acid chain (at C-6 or C-7) and the third at the ω (C-16) position. The metabolic stability of carbon-fluorine bonds suggests the gem-difluoro group may block the β-oxidation pathway, while the terminal fluorine could be the site for labeling with fluorine-18. The convergent synthetic approach utilizes a 2-lithio-1,3-dithiane derived from 10-undecenal or 9-decenal, which is alkylated with the OBO (oxabicyclooctyl) ester of 5-bromopentanoic acid or 6-bromohexanoic acid, respectively. Hydroboration-oxidation and alcohol protection are followed by halofluorination to convert the 1,3-dithiane system to a gem-difluoro group. The third fluorine is introduced by fluoride ion displacement of a trifluoromethanesulfonate. This synthesis is adapted to the labeling of these trifluoro fatty acids with the short-lived radionuclide fluorine-18 (t 1/2 = 110 min), with the third fluorine introduced as fluoride ion in the penultimate step. The radiochemical syntheses proceed in 3-34% radiochemical yield (decay corrected), with an overall synthesis and purification time of 90 min. Tissue distribution studies in rats were performed with I and II, as well as with 16-[ 18 F]fluoropalmitic acid (III), [ 11 C]palmitic acid, and [ 11 C]octanoic acid. The heart uptake of the fluoropalmitic acids decreases with substitution, the 2-min activity level for 16-fluoropalmitic acid being 65% and that for both 6,6,16-and 7,7,17-trifluoropalmitic acids being 30% that of palmitic acid

  19. Surfactant-Free RAFT Emulsion Polymerization of Styrene Using Thermoresponsive macroRAFT Agents: Towards Smart Well-Defined Block Copolymers with High Molecular Weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Eggers

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The combination of reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT and emulsion polymerization has recently attracted much attention as a synthetic tool for high-molecular-weight block copolymers and their micellar nano-objects. Up to recently, though, the use of thermoresponsive polymers as both macroRAFT agents and latex stabilizers was impossible in aqueous media due to their hydrophobicity at the usually high polymerization temperatures. In this work, we present a straightforward surfactant-free RAFT emulsion polymerization to obtain thermoresponsive styrenic block copolymers with molecular weights of around 100 kDa and their well-defined latexes. The stability of the aqueous latexes is achieved by adding 20 vol % of the cosolvent 1,4-dioxane (DOX, increasing the phase transition temperature (PTT of the used thermoresponsive poly(N-acryloylpyrrolidine (PAPy macroRAFT agents above the polymerization temperature. Furthermore, this cosolvent approach is combined with the use of poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-block-poly(N-acryloylpiperidine-co-N-acryloylpyrrolidine (PDMA-b-P(APi-co-APy as the macroRAFT agent owning a short stabilizing PDMA end block and a widely adjustable PTT of the P(APi-co-APy block in between 4 and 47 °C. The temperature-induced collapse of the latter under emulsion polymerization conditions leads to the formation of RAFT nanoreactors, which allows for a very fast chain growth of the polystyrene (PS block. In dynamic light scattering (DLS, as well as cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryoTEM, moreover, all created latexes indeed reveal a high (temperature stability and a reversible collapse of the thermoresponsive coronal block upon heating. Hence, this paper pioneers a versatile way towards amphiphilic thermoresponsive high-molecular-weight block copolymers and their nano-objects with tailored corona switchability.

  20. THE PHARMACODYNAMICS AND PHARMACOKINETICS OF ORG-9426, A NEW NONDEPOLARIZING NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING-AGENT, IN PATIENTS ANESTHETIZED WITH NITROUS-OXIDE, HALOTHANE AND FENTANYL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIERDA, JMKH; KLEEF, UW; LAMBALK, LM; KLOPPENBURG, WD; AGOSTON, S

    The pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of a new non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent, Org 9426, were investigated. Ten patients undergoing elective head and neck surgery and anaesthetized with nitrous oxide, halothane and fentanyl, received a bolus dose of Org 9426 (1 mg.kg-1, 3 x ED90).

  1. Microtubule disruption induced in vivo by alkylation of beta-tubulin by 1-aryl-3-(2-chloroethyl)ureas, a novel class of soft alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legault, J; Gaulin, J F; Mounetou, E; Bolduc, S; Lacroix, J; Poyet, P; Gaudreault, R C

    2000-02-15

    We have previously reported that 4-tert-butyl-[3-(2-chloroethyl)ureido] benzene (4-tBCEU), a potent cytotoxic agent, modulates the synthesis of tubulins, suggesting that its cytotoxicity may be mediated through an antimicrotubule mechanism. Indeed, 4-tBCEU and its 4-iso-propyl (4-isopropyl [3-(2-chloroethyl)ureido] benzene) and 4-sec-butyl (4-sec-butyl [3-(2-chloroethyl)ureido] benzene) homologues induced disruption of the cytoskeleton and arrest of the cell cycle in G2 transition and mitosis. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for microtubule disruption by 1-aryl-3-(2-chloroethyl)ureas (CEU), we first examined their cytotoxicity on Chinese hamster ovary cells resistant to vinblastine and colchicine due to the expression of mutated tubulins (CHO-VV 3-2). These cells showed resistance to CEU, e.g., 4-tBCEU having an IC50 of 21.3+/-1.1 microM as compared with an IC50 of 11.6+/-0.7 microM for wild-type cells, suggesting a direct effect of the drugs on tubulins. Western blot analysis confirmed the disruption of microtubules and evidenced the formation of an additional immunoreactive beta-tubulin with an apparent lower molecular weight on SDS polyacrylamide gel. Incubation of MDA-MB-231 cells with [urea-14C]-4-tBCEU revealed the presence of a radioactive protein that coincided with the additional beta-tubulin band, indicating that CEU could covalently bind to the beta-tubulin. The 4-tBCEU-binding site on beta-tubulin was identified by competition of the CEU with colchicine, vinblastine, and iodoacetamide, a specific alkylating agent of sulfhydryl groups of cysteine residues. Colchicine, but not vinblastine, prevented the formation of the additional beta-tubulin band, suggesting that 4-tBCEU alkylates either Cys239 or Cys354 residues near the colchicine-binding site. To determine the cysteine residue alkylated by 4-tBCEU, we incubated the radiolabeled drug with human neuroblastoma cells (SK-N-SH) that overexpress the betaIII-tubulin, an isoform where Cys239

  2. Beta-blockers influence the short-term and long-term prognostic information of natriuretic peptides and catecholamines in chronic heart failure independent from specific agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenstein, Lutz; Nelles, Manfred; Slavutsky, Maxim; Schellberg, Dieter; Doesch, Andreas; Katus, Hugo; Remppis, Andrew; Zugck, Christian

    2007-10-01

    In chronic heart failure (CHF), the physiologic effects of natriuretic peptides and catecholamines are interdependent. Furthermore, reports state an agent-dependent effect of individual beta-blockers on biomarkers. Data on the short-term and long-term predictive power comparing these biomarkers as well as accounting for the influence of beta-blocker treatment both on the marker or the resultant prognostic information are scarce. We included 513 consecutive patients with systolic CHF, measured atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP), noradrenaline, and adrenaline, and monitored them for 90 +/- 25 months. Death or the combination of death and cardiac transplantation at 1 year, 5 years, and overall follow-up were considered end points. Compared with patients not taking beta-blockers, patients taking beta-blockers had significantly lower levels of catecholamines but not natriuretic peptides. Only for adrenaline was the amount of this effect related to the specific beta-blocker chosen. Receiver operating characteristic curves demonstrated superior prognostic accuracy for NTproBNP both at the 1- and 5-year follow-up compared with ANP, noradrenaline, and adrenaline. In multivariate analysis including established risk markers (New York Heart Association functional class, left ventricular ejection fraction, peak oxygen uptake, and 6-minute walk test), of all neurohumoral parameters, only NTproBNP remained an independent predictor for both end points. Long-term beta-blocker therapy is associated with decreased levels of plasma catecholamines but not natriuretic peptides. This effect is independent from the actual beta-blocker chosen for natriuretic peptides and noradrenaline. In multivariate analysis, both for short-term and long-term prediction of mortality or the combined end point of death and cardiac transplantation, only NTproBNP remained independent from established clinical risk markers.

  3. Harnessing high density lipoproteins to block transforming growth factor beta and to inhibit the growth of liver tumor metastases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Medina-Echeverz

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β is a powerful promoter of cancer progression and a key target for antitumor therapy. As cancer cells exhibit active cholesterol metabolism, high density lipoproteins (HDLs appear as an attractive delivery system for anticancer TGFβ-inhibitory molecules. We constructed a plasmid encoding a potent TGF-β-blocking peptide (P144 linked to apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I through a flexible linker (pApoLinkerP144. The ApoLinkerP144 sequence was then incorporated into a hepatotropic adeno-associated vector (AAVApoLinkerP144. The aim was to induce hepatocytes to produce HDLs containing a modified ApoA-I capable of blocking TGF-β. We observed that transduction of the murine liver with pApoLinkerP144 led to the appearance of a fraction of circulating HDL containing the fusion protein. These HDLs were able to attenuate TGF-β signaling in the liver and to enhance IL-12 -mediated IFN-γ production. Treatment of liver metastasis of MC38 colorectal cancer with AAVApoLinkerP144 resulted in a significant reduction of tumor growth and enhanced expression of IFN-γ and GM-CSF in cancerous tissue. ApoLinkerP144 also delayed MC38 liver metastasis in Rag2-/-IL2rγ-/- immunodeficient mice. This effect was associated with downregulation of TGF-β target genes essential for metastatic niche conditioning. Finally, in a subset of ret transgenic mice, a model of aggressive spontaneous metastatic melanoma, AAVApoLinkerP144 delayed tumor growth in association with increased CD8+ T cell numbers in regional lymph nodes. In conclusion, modification of HDLs to transport TGF-β-blocking molecules is a novel and promising approach to inhibit the growth of liver metastases by immunological and non-immunological mechanisms.

  4. Antibiotic-induced immediate type hypersensitivity is a risk factor for positive allergy skin tests for neuromuscular blocking agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagau, Natalia; Gherman, Nadia; Cocis, Mihaela; Petrisor, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Skin tests for neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are not currently recommended for the general population undergoing general anaesthesia. In a previous study we have reported a high incidence of positive allergy tests for NMBAs in patients with a positive history of non-anaesthetic drug allergy, a larger prospective study being needed to confirm those preliminary results. The objective of this study was to compare the skin tests results for patients with a positive history of antibiotic-induced immediate type hypersensitivity reactions to those of controls without drug allergies. Ninety eight patients with previous antibiotic hypersensitivity and 72 controls were prospectively included. Skin tests were performed for atracurium, pancuronium, rocuronium, and suxamethonium. We found 65 positive skin tests from the 392 tests performed in patients with a positive history of antibiotic hypersensitivity (1 6.58%) and 23 positive skin tests from the 288 performed in controls (7.98%), the two incidences showing significant statistical difference (p = 0.0011). The relative risk for having a positive skin test for NMBAs for patients versus controls was 1.77 (1.15-2.76). For atracurium, skin tests were more often positive in patients with a positive history of antibiotic hypersensitivity versus controls (p = 0.02). For pancuronium, rocuronium and suxamethonium the statistical difference was not attained (p-values 0.08 for pancuronium, 0.23 for rocuronium, and 0.26 for suxamethonium). Patients with a positive history of antibiotic hypersensitivity seem to have a higher incidence of positive skin tests for NMBAs. They might represent a group at higher risk for developing intraoperative anaphylaxis compared to the general population. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. IL-6 inhibits upregulation of membrane-bound TGF-beta 1 on CD4+ T cells and blocking IL-6 enhances oral tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Chantal; Rezende, Rafael Machado; M'Hamdi, Hanane; da Cunha, Andre Pires; Weiner, Howard L.

    2016-01-01

    Oral administration of antigen induces regulatory T cells that express latent membrane-bound TGF-beta (LAP) and that have been shown to play an important role in the induction of oral tolerance. We developed an in vitro model to study modulation of LAP+ on CD4+ T cells. The combination of anti-CD3 mAb, anti-CD28 mAb and recombinant IL-2 induced expression of LAP on naïve CD4+ T cells, independent of FoxP3 or exogenous TGF-β. In vitro generated CD4+LAP+FoxP3− T cells were suppressive in vitro, inhibiting proliferation of naïve CD4+ T cells and IL-17A secretion by Th17 cells. Assessing the impact of different cytokines and neutralizing antibodies against cytokines we found that LAP induction was decreased in the presence of IL-6 and IL-21, and to a lesser extent by IL-4 and TNFα. IL-6 abrogated the in vitro induction of CD4+LAP+ T cells by STAT3 dependent inhibition of Lrrc32 (GARP), the adapter protein that tethers TGF-beta to the membrane. Oral tolerance induction was enhanced in mice lacking expression of IL-6R by CD4+ T cells and by treatment of wild-type mice with neutralizing anti-IL-6 mAb. These results suggest that pro-inflammatory cytokines interfere with oral tolerance induction and that blocking the IL-6 pathway is a potential strategy for enhancing oral tolerance in the setting of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. PMID:28039301

  6. Low Molecular Weight pDMAEMA-block-pHEMA Block-Copolymers Synthesized via RAFT-Polymerization: Potential Non-Viral Gene Delivery Agents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kissel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate non-viral pDNA carriers based on diblock-copolymers consisting of poly(2-(dimethyl aminoethyl methacrylate (pDMAEMA and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (pHEMA. Specifically the block-lengths and molecular weights were varied to determine the minimal requirements for transfection. Such vectors should allow better transfection at acceptable toxicity levels and the entire diblock-copolymer should be suitable for renal clearance. For this purpose, a library of linear poly(2-(dimethyl aminoethyl methacrylate-block-poly(2-hydroxyl methacrylate (pDMAEMA-block-pHEMA copolymers was synthesized via RAFT (reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization in a molecular weight (Mw range of 17–35.7 kDa and analyzed using 1H and 13C NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance, ATR (attenuated total reflectance, GPC (gel permeation chromatography and DSC (differential scanning calorimetry. Copolymers possessing short pDMAEMA-polycation chains were 1.4–9.7 times less toxic in vitro than polyethylenimine (PEI 25 kDa, and complexed DNA into polyplexes of 100–170 nm, favorable for cellular uptake. The DNA-binding affinity and polyplex stability against competing polyanions was comparable with PEI 25 kDa. The zeta-potential of polyplexes of pDMAEMA-grafted copolymers remained positive (+15–30 mV. In comparison with earlier reported low molecular weight homo pDMAEMA vectors, these diblock-copolymers showed enhanced transfection efficacy under in vitro conditions due to their lower cytotoxicity, efficient cellular uptake and DNA packaging. The homo pDMAEMA115 (18.3 kDa self-assembled with DNA into small positively charged polyplexes, but was not able to transfect cells. The grafting of 6 and 57 repeating units of pHEMA (0.8 and 7.4 kDa to pDMAEMA115 increased the transfection efficacy significantly, implying a crucial impact of pHEMA on vector-cell interactions. The intracellular trafficking, in vivo transfection

  7. A three-dimensional cell-loading system using autologous plasma loaded into a porous {beta}-tricalcium-phosphate block promotes bone formation at extraskeletal sites in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, Nobutaka [Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate school, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Orthopaedic and Spinal Surgery, Graduate school, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Sotome, Shinichi [Orthopaedic and Spinal Surgery, Graduate school, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Marukawa, Eriko [Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate school, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Orthopaedic and Spinal Surgery, Graduate school, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Omura, Ken [Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate school, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Center of Excellence Program for Frontier Research on Molecular Destruction and Reconstruction of Tooth and Bone, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Shinomiya, Kenichi [Orthopaedic and Spinal Surgery, Graduate school, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan) and Center of Excellence Program for Frontier Research on Molecular Destruction and Reconstruction of Tooth and Bone, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan) and Advanced Bone and Joint Science (Japan)]. E-mail: shinomiya.orth@tmd.ac.jp

    2007-05-16

    The effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) on bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) with respect to proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, and bone formation capability were investigated. MSCs derived from rats were cultured in medium containing mixtures of PRP and PPP. Fibrinogen was eliminated prior to the experiment. The DNA content and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were measured. PRP stimulated cell proliferation and inhibited osteoblastic differentiation. To examine the effects of fibrin in plasma, MSCs were cultured in PRP or PPP fibrin gels formed both on a cell culture insert installed in a culture well and on the bottom surface of the same culture well. The ALP activities of the MSCs in both of the gels were higher than those on the surface of the culture wells. The MSCs cultured on the PPP gel showed the highest ALP activity. The effects of PRP and PPP used as scaffolds for bone formation were also investigated. MSCs were suspended in PRP or PPP, introduced into porous {beta}-tricalcium phosphate blocks, and then implanted into subcutaneous sites. Subsequently, bone formation was quantified. Further in vivo studies found that implants prepared using PPP had a greater osteoinductive capability than implants prepared with PRP.

  8. Down-regulation of connective tissue growth factor by inhibition of transforming growth factor beta blocks the tumor-stroma cross-talk and tumor progression in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocca, Antonio; Fransvea, Emilia; Dituri, Francesco; Lupo, Luigi; Antonaci, Salvatore; Giannelli, Gianluigi

    2010-02-01

    Tumor-stroma interactions in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are of key importance to tumor progression. In this study, we show that HCC invasive cells produce high levels of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and generate tumors with a high stromal component in a xenograft model. A transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) receptor inhibitor, LY2109761, inhibited the synthesis and release of CTGF, as well as reducing the stromal component of the tumors. In addition, the TGF-beta-dependent down-regulation of CTGF diminished tumor growth, intravasation, and metastatic dissemination of HCC cells by inhibiting cancer-associated fibroblast proliferation. By contrast, noninvasive HCC cells were found to produce low levels of CTGF. Upon TGF-beta1 stimulation, noninvasive HCC cells form tumors with a high stromal content and CTGF expression, which is inhibited by treatment with LY2109761. In addition, the acquired intravasation and metastatic spread of noninvasive HCC cells after TGF-beta1 stimulation was blocked by LY2109761. LY2109761 interrupts the cross-talk between cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts, leading to a significant reduction of HCC growth and dissemination. Interestingly, patients with high CTGF expression had poor prognosis, suggesting that treatment aimed at reducing TGF-beta-dependent CTGF expression may offer clinical benefits. Taken together, our preclinical results indicate that LY2109761 targets the cross-talk between HCC and the stroma and provide a rationale for future clinical trials.

  9. Evaluation of Isoprene Chain Extension from PEO Macromolecular Chain Transfer Agents for the Preparation of Dual, Invertible Block Copolymer Nanoassemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Jeremy W; Cauët, Solène I; Billings, Peter L; Lin, Lily Yun; Zhu, Jiahua; Fidge, Christopher; Pochan, Darrin J; Wooley, Karen L

    2010-09-14

    Two RAFT-capable PEO macro-CTAs, 2 and 5 kDa, were prepared and used for the polymerization of isoprene which yielded well-defined block copolymers of varied lengths and compositions. GPC analysis of the PEO macro-CTAs and block copolymers showed remaining unreacted PEO macro-CTA. Mathematical deconvolution of the GPC chromatograms allowed for the estimation of the blocking efficiency, about 50% for the 5 kDa PEO macro-CTA and 64% for the 2 kDa CTA. Self assembly of the block copolymers in both water and decane was investigated and the resulting regular and inverse assemblies, respectively, were analyzed with DLS, AFM, and TEM to ascertain their dimensions and properties. Assembly of PEO-b-PIp block copolymers in aqueous solution resulted in well-defined micelles of varying sizes while the assembly in hydrophobic, organic solvent resulted in the formation of different morphologies including large aggregates and well-defined cylindrical and spherical structures.

  10. The effect of verapamil as an adjuvant agent with local anesthetic on sensory block level, hemodynamic and postoperative pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabaeizavareh, M.H.; Omranifard, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Coadministration of verapamil with local anesthetics could potentiate the sensory block of peripheral nerve, increase the duration of sensory nerve block and reduce postoperative pain and analgesic consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of verapamil as an adjuvant with bupivacaine on level of sensory block, post-operative pain and analgesic consumption among patients undergone elective surgery in Isfahan. Methodology: In this prospective randomized interventional clinical double-blind study ASA physical status I or II male patients referred for elective lower abdominal surgery were enrolled. They randomized in group A (20 cc of 0.5% bupivacaine plus 5 mg verapamil) and B(20 cc of 0.5% bupivacaine plus 2 cc normal saline). The sensory level block, postoperative pain, opioid consumption and vomiting and nausa and hemodynamic state was recorded and compared in two groups. Results: Sixty two patients were studied. Mean of the sensory level block 20 minutes after stating epidural anesthesia and immediately after surgery, postoperative pain score, opioid consumption and nausea and vomiting and fluid intake was not significantly different in two groups (P>0.05). Mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate changes was not significantly different in two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: Verapamil as an adjuvant with bupivacaine could not significantly increase the level of sensory block and attenuate post-operative pain and analgesic consumption and hemodynamic condition of the patients. For more accurate results it is recommended to determine the effect of different dose of verapamil in larger sample size of the patients. Studying the effect of other Ca channel blockers would be favorable in this regard. (author)

  11. Potential impact of policy regulation and generic competition on sales of cholesterol lowering medication, antidepressants and acid blocking agents in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraeyman, J; Van Hal, G; De Loof, H; Remmen, R; De Meyer, G R Y; Beutels, P

    2012-01-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditures are increasing as a proportion of health expenditures in most rich countries. Antidepressants, acid blocking agents and cholesterol lowering medication are major contributors to medicine sales around the globe. We aimed to document the possible impact of policy regulations and generic market penetration on the evolution of sales volume and average cost per unit (Defined Daily Doses and packages) of antidepressants, acid blocking agents and cholesterol lowering medication. We extracted data from the IMS health database regarding the public price and sales volume of the antidepressants (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI's), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOl's) and tricyclic and remaining antidepressants (TCA's)), acid blocking agents (proton pump inhibitors (PPl's) and H2 receptor antagonists) and cholesterol lowering medication (statins and fibrates) in Belgium between 1995 and 2009. We describe these sales data in relation to various national policy measures which were systematically searched in official records. Our analysis suggests that particular policy regulations have had immediate impact on sales figures and expenditures on pharmaceuticals in Belgium: changes in reimbursement conditions, a public tender and entry of generic competitors in a reference pricing system. However, possible sustainable effects seem to be counteracted by other mechanisms such as marketing strategies, prescribing behaviour, brand loyalty and the entry of pseudogenerics. It is likely that demand-side measures have a more sustainable impact on expenditure. Compared with other European countries, generic penetration in Belgium remains low. Alternative policy regulations aimed at enlarging the generic market and influencing pharmaceutical expenditures deserve consideration. This should include policies aiming to influence physicians' prescribing and a shared responsibility of pharmacists, physicians and patients towards expenditures.

  12. Use of sodium salicylate as a blocking agent for cortisol-binding-globulin in a radioimmunoassay for cortisol on unextracted plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, J W [Withington Hospital, Manchester (UK)

    1979-07-01

    This report describes investigations into the use of sodium salicylate as a cortisol-binding-globulin blocking agent and the subsequent development of a radioimmunoassay for cortisol on unextracted plasma. Cortisol antiserum was raised against a cortisol 3-0-(carboxy-methyl) oxime-bovine serum albumin conjugate. A /sup 125/I-labelled cortisol-tyrosine methyl ester conjugate was also prepared for use in the assay. The radioimmunoassay developed involved no pre-treatment or extraction of the samples before analysis and was extremely simple to perform. Comparison with another radioimmunoassay for cortisol and with the Mattingly fluorimetric assay gave good correlation.

  13. Use of sodium salicylate as a blocking agent for cortisol-binding-globulin in a radioimmunoassay for cortisol on unextracted plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes investigations into the use of sodium salicylate as a cortisol-binding-globulin blocking agent and the subsequent development of a radioimmunoassay for cortisol on unextracted plasma. Cortisol antiserum was raised against a cortisol 3-0-(carboxy-methyl) oxime-bovine serum albumin conjugate. A 125 I-labelled cortisol-tyrosine methyl ester conjugate was also prepared for use in the assay. The radioimmunoassay developed involved no pre-treatment or extraction of the samples before analysis and was extremely simple to perform. Comparison with another radioimmunoassay for cortisol and with the Mattingly fluorimetric assay gave good correlation. (author)

  14. Efficacy of tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222 as an anesthetic agent for blocking sensory-motor responses in Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlana Ramlochansingh

    Full Text Available Anesthetics are drugs that reversibly relieve pain, decrease body movements and suppress neuronal activity. Most drugs only cover one of these effects; for instance, analgesics relieve pain but fail to block primary fiber responses to noxious stimuli. Alternately, paralytic drugs block synaptic transmission at neuromuscular junctions, thereby effectively paralyzing skeletal muscles. Thus, both analgesics and paralytics each accomplish one effect, but fail to singularly account for all three. Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222 is structurally similar to benzocaine, a typical anesthetic for anamniote vertebrates, but contains a sulfate moiety rendering this drug more hydrophilic. MS-222 is used as anesthetic in poikilothermic animals such as fish and amphibians. However, it is often argued that MS-222 is only a hypnotic drug and its ability to block neural activity has been questioned. This prompted us to evaluate the potency and dynamics of MS-222-induced effects on neuronal firing of sensory and motor nerves alongside a defined motor behavior in semi-intact in vitro preparations of Xenopus laevis tadpoles. Electrophysiological recordings of extraocular motor discharge and both spontaneous and evoked mechanosensory nerve activity were measured before, during and after administration of MS-222, then compared to benzocaine and a known paralytic, pancuronium. Both MS-222 and benzocaine, but not pancuronium caused a dose-dependent, reversible blockade of extraocular motor and sensory nerve activity. These results indicate that MS-222 as benzocaine blocks the activity of both sensory and motor nerves compatible with the mechanistic action of effective anesthetics, indicating that both caine-derivates are effective as single-drug anesthetics for surgical interventions in anamniotes.

  15. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of enantiomeric beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase inhibitors LABNAc and DABNAc as potential agents against Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rountree, J S Shane; Butters, Terry D; Wormald, Mark R; Boomkamp, Stephanie D; Dwek, Raymond A; Asano, Naoki; Ikeda, Kyoko; Evinson, Emma L; Nash, Robert J; Fleet, George W J

    2009-03-01

    N-Acetylhexosaminidases are of considerable importance in mammals and are involved in various significant biological processes. In humans, deficiencies of these enzymes in the lysosome, resulting from inherited genetic defects, cause the glycolipid storage disorders Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases. One promising therapy for these diseases involves the use of beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase inhibitors as chemical chaperones to enhance the enzyme activity above sub-critical levels. Herein we describe the synthesis and biological evaluation of a potent inhibitor, 2-acetamido-1,4-imino-1,2,4-trideoxy-L-arabinitol (LABNAc), in a high-yielding 11-step procedure from D-lyxonolactone. The N-benzyl and N-butyl analogues were also prepared and found to be potent inhibitors. The enantiomers DABNAc and NBn-DABNAc were synthesised from L-lyxonolactone, and were also evaluated. The L-iminosugar LABNAc and its derivatives were found to be potent noncompetitive inhibitors of some beta-N-acetylhexosaminidases, while the D-iminosugar DABNAc and its derivatives were found to be weaker competitive inhibitors. These results support previous work postulating that D-iminosugar mimics inhibit D-glycohydrolases competitively, and that their corresponding L-enantiomers show noncompetitive inhibition of these enzymes. Molecular modelling studies confirm that the spatial organisation in enantiomeric inhibitors leads to a different overlay with the monosaccharide substrate. Initial cell-based studies suggest that NBn-LABNAc can act as a chemical chaperone to enhance the deficient enzyme's activity to levels that may cause a positive pharmacological effect. LABNAc, NBn-LABNAc, and NBu-LABNAc are potent and selective inhibitors of beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase and may be useful as therapeutic agents for treating adult Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases.

  16. The action of blocking agents applied to the inner face of Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels from human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, P M

    1998-09-15

    The actions of clotrimazole and cetiedil, two drugs known to inhibit the Gardos channel, have been studied on single intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium (IKCa) channels in inside out patches from human red blood cells, and compared with those of TEA and Ba2+ applied to the cytoplasmic face of the membrane. TEA produced a fast block which was observed as a reduction in the amplitude of the single channel current. This effect was weakly voltage dependent with the fraction of the membrane potential sensed by TEA at its binding site (delta) of 0.18 and a Kd at 0 mV of 20.5 mM. Ba2+ was a very potent blocker of the channel, breaking the single channel activity up into bursts, inter-spersed with silent periods lasting several seconds. The effect of Ba2+ was very voltage sensitive, delta = 0.44, and a Kd at 0 mV of 0.15 microM. Clotrimazole applied to the inner face of the membrane at a concentration block resulting in bursts of channel activity separated by quiescent periods lasting many seconds. The effect of clotrimazole was mimicked by a quaternary derivative UCL 1559, in keeping with an action at the cytoplasmic face of the channel. A high concentration of cetiedil (100 microM) produced only a weak block of the channel. The kinetics of this action were very slow, with burst and inter-burst intervals lasting several minutes. While inhibition of the Gardos channel by cetiedil is unlikely to involve an intracellular site of action, if clotrimazole is able to penetrate the membrane, part of its effect may result from binding to an intracellular site on the channel.

  17. Water-soluble organo-building blocks of aminoclay as a soil-flushing agent for heavy metal contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Chul [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (BK21 program), KAIST, 335 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Jung [Advanced Biomass R and D Center, KAIST, 291 Daehakno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Dong Ah [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (BK21 program), KAIST, 335 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Ji-Won, E-mail: jiwonyang@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (BK21 program), KAIST, 335 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Biomass R and D Center, KAIST, 291 Daehakno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aminoclays have synthesized using centered metals with aminopropyl silane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Developed aminoclay has unique nano-sized and water-soluble properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aminoclay showed high heavy metal capacity with metal ions and its less toxicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aminoclay could be used to remediate heavy metals from soils an alternative soil-flushing agent. - Abstract: We demonstrated that water-soluble aminopropyl magnesium functionalized phyllosilicate could be used as a soil-flushing agent for heavy metal contaminated soils. Soil flushing has been an attractive means to remediate heavy metal contamination because it is less disruptive to the soil environment after the treatment was performed. However, development of efficient and non-toxic soil-flushing agents is still required. We have synthesized aminoclays with three different central metal ions such as magnesium, aluminum, and ferric ions and investigated applicability of aminoclays as soil flushing agents. Among them, magnesium (Mg)-centered aminoclay showed the smallest size distribution and superior water solubility, up to 100 mg/mL. Mg aminoclay exhibited cadmium and lead binding capacity of 26.50 and 91.31 mg/g of Mg clay, respectively, at near neutral pH, but it showed negligible binding affinity to metals in acidic conditions. For soil flushing with Mg clay at neutral pH showed cadmium and lead were efficiently extracted from soils by Mg clay, suggesting strong binding ability of Mg clay with cadmium and lead. As the organic matter and clay compositions increased in the soil, the removal efficiency by Mg clay decreased and the operation time increased.

  18. Water-soluble organo-building blocks of aminoclay as a soil-flushing agent for heavy metal contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Eun Jung; Ko, Dong Ah; Yang, Ji-Won

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Aminoclays have synthesized using centered metals with aminopropyl silane. ► Developed aminoclay has unique nano-sized and water-soluble properties. ► Aminoclay showed high heavy metal capacity with metal ions and its less toxicity. ► Aminoclay could be used to remediate heavy metals from soils an alternative soil-flushing agent. - Abstract: We demonstrated that water-soluble aminopropyl magnesium functionalized phyllosilicate could be used as a soil-flushing agent for heavy metal contaminated soils. Soil flushing has been an attractive means to remediate heavy metal contamination because it is less disruptive to the soil environment after the treatment was performed. However, development of efficient and non-toxic soil-flushing agents is still required. We have synthesized aminoclays with three different central metal ions such as magnesium, aluminum, and ferric ions and investigated applicability of aminoclays as soil flushing agents. Among them, magnesium (Mg)-centered aminoclay showed the smallest size distribution and superior water solubility, up to 100 mg/mL. Mg aminoclay exhibited cadmium and lead binding capacity of 26.50 and 91.31 mg/g of Mg clay, respectively, at near neutral pH, but it showed negligible binding affinity to metals in acidic conditions. For soil flushing with Mg clay at neutral pH showed cadmium and lead were efficiently extracted from soils by Mg clay, suggesting strong binding ability of Mg clay with cadmium and lead. As the organic matter and clay compositions increased in the soil, the removal efficiency by Mg clay decreased and the operation time increased.

  19. No meaningful association between suicidal behavior and the use of IL-17A-neutralizing or IL-17RA-blocking agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiricozzi, Andrea; Romanelli, Marco; Saraceno, Rosita; Torres, Tiago

    2016-12-01

    An emerging class of agents blocking IL-17 signaling represents a very promising therapeutic approach. One of these agents, brodalumab, has been associated with an increased risk of suicide behavior. Areas covered: This review sought to provide an overview strictly focused on suicide behavior signals related to the use of IL-17 agents. Data collection regarding this peculiar safety aspect was primarily based on: (i) a revision of safety outcomes belonging to phase II and phase III trials; (ii) a systematic search using the Pubmed Medline database; and (iii) collecting recent data issued as posters or communications in eminent international meetings. Expert opinion: Whilst secukinumab and ixekizumab were not associated with increased signal of suicidal behavior, being recently approved for the treatment of psoriasis by EMA and FDA, brodalumab raised concern because of suicide behavior cases that led to pause momentarily its development program during pre-marketing stage before obtaining the positive recommendation by an FDA advisory panel for its approval. Indeed, a careful re-evaluation of brodalumab safety profile is being performed and no evidence clarified a significant association or a pathogenic mechanism linking brodalumab treatment to the risk of suicidal behavior, suggesting that cases of suicidal behavior accidentally occurred during brodalumab trials.

  20. Effects of long-term adrenergic beta-blockade on left ventricular diastolic filling in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, S H; Jensen, S E; Egstrup, K

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function are known to be affected in the wake of a myocardial infarction (MI). beta-Adrenergic blocking agents have demonstrated improvement of LV systolic and diastolic function in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and theoretically would...... have same beneficial effects in MI. beta-Adrenergic blocking agents are widely used in MI; however only few reports on changes of LV systolic and diastolic function during long-term treatment after acute MI are available. METHODS: Two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography were used to evaluate LV...

  1. Surface Modification of Gd Nanoparticles with pH-Responsive Block Copolymers for Use As Smart MRI Contrast Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liping; Yang, Yuan; Farquhar, Kirsten; Wang, Jingjing; Tian, Chixia; Ranville, James; Boyes, Stephen G

    2016-02-01

    Despite recent advances in the understanding of fundamental cancer biology, cancer remains the second most common cause of death in the United States. One of the primary factors indicative of high cancer morbidity and mortality and aggressive cancer phenotypes is tumors with a low extracellular pH (pHe). Thus, the ability to measure tumor pHe in vivo using noninvasive and accurate techniques that also provide high spatiotemporal resolution has become increasingly important and is of great interest to researchers and clinicians. In an effort to develop a pH-responsive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent (CA) that has the potential to be used to measure tumor pHe, well-defined pH-responsive polymers, synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, were attached to the surface of gadolinium-based nanoparticles (GdNPs) via a "grafting to" method after reduction of the thiocarbonylthio end groups. The successful modification of the GdNPs was verified by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and dynamic light scattering. The performance of the pH-responsive polymer modified GdNPs was then evaluated for potential use as smart MRI CAs via monitoring the relaxivity changes with changing environmental pH. The results suggested that the pH-responsive polymers can be used to effectively modify the GdNPs surface to prepare a smart contrast agent for MRI.

  2. Prolonged Atrioventricular Block and Ventricular Standstill Following Adenosine Triphosphate Injection in a Patient Taking Dipyridamole and Antiarrhythmic Agents: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Oe, MD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An 83-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of palpitation. She had hypertension and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, treated with digoxin and cibenzoline, and took dipyridamole for microalbuminuria. Before admission, she had taken pilsicainide pills in addition. On admission, electrocardiogram showed regular tachycardia with mildly prolonged QRS width. For the purpose of terminating tachycardia, 10 mg of adenosine triphosphate (ATP was rapidly injected. About 20 sec later, atrioventricular block and ventricular standstill occurred. She presented loss of consciousness and convulsion, and chest compression was performed. About 30 sec later, the QRS complex reappeared, and she became alert. Serum concentration of digoxin, cibenzoline and pilsicainide was within therapeutic level, respectively. We should be cautious in using ATP for a patient taking dipyridamole and antiarrhythmic agents.

  3. High improvement in trap level density and direct current breakdown strength of block polypropylene by doping with a β-nucleating agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chong; Zha, Jun-Wei; Yan, Hong-Da; Li, Wei-Kang; Dang, Zhi-Min

    2018-02-01

    Polypropylene is one kind of eco-friendly insulating material, which has attracted more attention for use in high voltage direct current (HVDC) insulation due to the long-distance transmission, low loss, and recyclability. In this work, the morphology and thermal and electrical properties of the block polypropylene with various β-nucleating agent (β-NA) contents were investigated. The relative fraction of the β-crystal can reach 64.7% after adding 0.05 wt. % β-NA. The β-NA also greatly reduced the melting point and improved the crystallization temperature. The electrical property results showed that the alternating and direct current breakdown strength and conduction current were obviously improved. In addition, space charge accumulation was significantly suppressed by introducing the β-NA. This work provides an attractive strategy of design and fabrication of polypropylene for HVDC application.

  4. Non-obese adult onset diabetes with oral hypoglycemic agent failure: islet cell autoantibodies or reversible beta cell refractoriness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Sá

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ß cell function and insulin sensitivity, analyzed by the homeostasis model assessment, before and after 24 weeks of insulin therapy were studied and correlated with the presence of autoantibodies against ß cells (islet cell and anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies, in a group of 18 Brazilian lean adult non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM patients with oral hypoglycemic agent failure (OHAF. Median fasting plasma glucose before and after insulin treatment was 19.1 and 8.5 mmol/l, respectively (P < 0.001; median HbA1c was 11.7% before vs 7.2% after insulin treatment (P < 0.001. Forty-four percent of the patients were positive (Ab+ to at least one autoantibody. Fasting C-peptide levels were lower in Ab+ than Ab- patients, both before (Ab+: 0.16 ± 0.09 vs Ab-: 0.41 ± 0.35 nmol/l, P < 0.003 and after insulin treatment (Ab+: 0.22 ± 0.13 vs Ab-: 0.44 ± 0.24 nmol/l, P < 0.03. Improvement of Hß was seen in Ab- (median before: 7.3 vs after insulin therapy: 33.4%, P = 0.003 but not in Ab+ patients (median before: 6.6 vs after insulin therapy: 20.9%. These results show that the OHAF observed in the 18 NIDDM patients studied was due mainly to two major causes: autoantibodies and ß cell desensitization. Autoantibodies against ß cells could account for 44% of OHAF, but Ab- patients may still present ß cell function recovery, mainly after a period of ß cell rest with insulin therapy. However, the effects of ß cell function recovery on the restoration of the response to oral hypoglycemic agents need to be determined.

  5. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition delays wound healing and blocks the latent transforming growth factor-beta1-promoted myofibroblast formation and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirastschijski, Ursula; Schnabel, Reinhild; Claes, Juliane

    2010-01-01

    applied topically to full-thickness skin excisional wounds in rats and its ability to inhibit the promotion of myofibroblast formation and function by the latent transforming-growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1). BB-94 delayed wound contraction, as well as all other associated aspects of wound healing examined......, including myofibroblast formation, stromal cell proliferation, blood vessel formation, and epithelial wound coverage. Interestingly, BB-94 dramatically increased the level of latent and active MMP-9. The increased levels of active MMP-9 may eventually overcome the ability of BB-94 to inhibit this MMP...... and may explain why wound contraction and other associated events of wound healing were only delayed and not completely inhibited. BB-94 was also found to inhibit the ability of latent TGF-beta1 to promote the formation and function of myofibroblasts. These results suggest that BB-94 could delay wound...

  6. The success rate of bupivacaine and lidocaine as anesthetic agents in inferior alveolar nerve block in teeth with irreversible pulpitis without spontaneous pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Parirokh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Achieving adequate anesthesia with inferior alveolar nerve blocks (IANB is of great importance during dental procedures. The aim of the present study was to assess the success rate of two anesthetic agents (bupivacaine and lidocaine for IANB when treating teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Materials and Methods Sixty volunteer male and female patients who required root canal treatment of a mandibular molar due to caries participated in the present study. The inclusion criteria included prolonged pain to thermal stimulus but no spontaneous pain. The patients were randomly allocated to receive either 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine or 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine as an IANB injection. The sensitivity of the teeth to a cold test as well as the amount of pain during access cavity preparation and root canal instrumentation were recorded. Results were statistically analyzed with the Chi-Square and Fischer's exact tests. Results At the final step, fifty-nine patients were included in the study. The success rate for bupivacaine and lidocaine groups were 20.0% and 24.1%, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups at any stage of the treatment procedure. Conclusions There was no difference in success rates of anesthesia when bupivacaine and lidocaine were used for IANB injections to treat mandibular molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Neither agent was able to completely anesthetize the teeth effectively. Therefore, practitioners should be prepared to administer supplemental anesthesia to overcome pain during root canal treatment.

  7. The success rate of bupivacaine and lidocaine as anesthetic agents in inferior alveolar nerve block in teeth with irreversible pulpitis without spontaneous pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosefi, Mohammad Hosein; Nakhaee, Nouzar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Achieving adequate anesthesia with inferior alveolar nerve blocks (IANB) is of great importance during dental procedures. The aim of the present study was to assess the success rate of two anesthetic agents (bupivacaine and lidocaine) for IANB when treating teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Materials and Methods Sixty volunteer male and female patients who required root canal treatment of a mandibular molar due to caries participated in the present study. The inclusion criteria included prolonged pain to thermal stimulus but no spontaneous pain. The patients were randomly allocated to receive either 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine or 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine as an IANB injection. The sensitivity of the teeth to a cold test as well as the amount of pain during access cavity preparation and root canal instrumentation were recorded. Results were statistically analyzed with the Chi-Square and Fischer's exact tests. Results At the final step, fifty-nine patients were included in the study. The success rate for bupivacaine and lidocaine groups were 20.0% and 24.1%, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups at any stage of the treatment procedure. Conclusions There was no difference in success rates of anesthesia when bupivacaine and lidocaine were used for IANB injections to treat mandibular molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Neither agent was able to completely anesthetize the teeth effectively. Therefore, practitioners should be prepared to administer supplemental anesthesia to overcome pain during root canal treatment. PMID:25984478

  8. The success rate of bupivacaine and lidocaine as anesthetic agents in inferior alveolar nerve block in teeth with irreversible pulpitis without spontaneous pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parirokh, Masoud; Yosefi, Mohammad Hosein; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Abbott, Paul V; Manochehrifar, Hamed

    2015-05-01

    Achieving adequate anesthesia with inferior alveolar nerve blocks (IANB) is of great importance during dental procedures. The aim of the present study was to assess the success rate of two anesthetic agents (bupivacaine and lidocaine) for IANB when treating teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Sixty volunteer male and female patients who required root canal treatment of a mandibular molar due to caries participated in the present study. The inclusion criteria included prolonged pain to thermal stimulus but no spontaneous pain. The patients were randomly allocated to receive either 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine or 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine as an IANB injection. The sensitivity of the teeth to a cold test as well as the amount of pain during access cavity preparation and root canal instrumentation were recorded. Results were statistically analyzed with the Chi-Square and Fischer's exact tests. At the final step, fifty-nine patients were included in the study. The success rate for bupivacaine and lidocaine groups were 20.0% and 24.1%, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups at any stage of the treatment procedure. There was no difference in success rates of anesthesia when bupivacaine and lidocaine were used for IANB injections to treat mandibular molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Neither agent was able to completely anesthetize the teeth effectively. Therefore, practitioners should be prepared to administer supplemental anesthesia to overcome pain during root canal treatment.

  9. Involvement of stress-activated protein kinase in the cellular response to 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine and other DNA-damaging agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, A; Datta, R; Yuan, Z M; Kharbanda, S; Kufe, D

    1995-12-01

    The cellular response to 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C) includes activation of Jun/AP-1, induction of c-jun transcription, and programmed cell death. The stress-activated protein (SAP) kinases stimulate the transactivation function of c-jun by amino terminal phosphorylation. The present work demonstrates that ara-C activates p54 SAP kinase. The finding that SAP kinase is also activated by alkylating agents (mitomycin C and cisplatinum) and the topoisomerase I inhibitor 9-amino-camptothecin supports DNA damage as an initial signal in this cascade. The results demonstrate that ara-C also induces binding of SAP kinase to the SH2/SH3-containing adapter protein Grb2. SAP kinase binds to the SH3 domains of Grb2, while interaction of the p85 alpha-subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex. The results also demonstrate that ara-C treatment is associated with inhibition of lipid and serine kinase activities of PI 3-kinase. The potential significance of the ara-C-induced interaction between SAP kinase and PI 3-kinase is further supported by the demonstration that Wortmannin, an inhibitor of PI 3-kinase, stimulates SAP kinase activity. The finding that Wortmannin treatment is also associated with internucleosomal DNA fragmentation may support a potential link between PI 3-kinase and regulation of both SAP kinase and programmed cell death.

  10. Investigation of six-membered carbocyclic compounds as a molecular switch block of room temperature phosphorescence in nondeoxygenated {beta}-cyclodextrin solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Hairong; Wei Yansheng; Jin Weijun; Liu Changsong

    2003-05-07

    An aerated aqueous solution, intense room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) of nitrogen heterocyclic compounds (NHCs) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be observed when micro amounts of six-membered carbocyclic compounds (6-MCCs) are introduced in {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) solution. In order to find the predominating factors of the enhanced phosphorescence observed with this novel approach, 22 typical phosphors of NHCs and PAHs were carefully screened and served as model compounds. The role of the inner heavy atom, the substituent group and the host-guest molecules space-matching on the RTP of different phosphors were investigated. The results demonstrated that the enhancement effects of cyclohexane, bromocyclohexane and cyclohexanol for the RTP of NHCs and PAHs have precedence over traditional halide alkanes such as 1,2-dibromoethane (DBE), exhibiting an obvious sequence as following: cyclohexane > bromocyclohexane > cyclohexanol. This new approach compared with other RTP methods is simple, convenient and fast.

  11. Beta-adrenergic blockade for the treatment of hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffner, D L; Hershman, J M

    1992-07-01

    To review the clinical and biochemical effects of beta-adrenergic blocking drugs on hyperthyroidism. Studies published since 1972 were identified through a computerized search of MEDLINE and extensive searching of the bibliographies of the articles identified. Based on an understanding of the differences in beta-blocker metabolism in euthyroid and hyperthyroid patients, we reviewed the differences in pharmacokinetics and metabolic and clinical outcomes during their use in hyperthyroidism, as reported in the articles reviewed. beta Blockers have been used to modify the severity of the hyperadrenergic symptoms of hyperthyroidism for the past 20 years. The clinical efficacy of these agents is affected by hyperthyroid-induced alterations in their gastrointestinal absorption, hepatic metabolism, and renal excretion. The mechanisms whereby these clinical changes are effected is unknown. The agents differ in their beta 1 cardioselectivity, membrane-stabilizing activity, intrinsic sympathomimetic activity, and lipid solubility. They do not appear to alter synthesis or secretion of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland. Their effects on thyroxine metabolism are contradictory. Decreased thyroxine to triiodothyronine conversion is caused by some, but not all, beta blockers, and this appears to correlate with membrane-stabilizing activity. There does not appear to be any alteration in catecholamine sensitivity during beta-adrenergic blockade. The principal mechanism of action of beta blockers in hyperthyroidism is to antagonize beta-receptor-mediated effects of catecholamines. beta Blockers are effective in treating hypermetabolic symptoms in a variety of hyperthyroid states. Used alone, they offer significant symptomatic relief. They are also useful adjuvants to antithyroid medications, surgery, and radioactive iodide treatment in patients with Graves' disease and toxic nodular goiters.

  12. Increased sensitivity of transforming growth factor (TGF) beta 1 null cells to alkylating agents reveals a novel link between TGFbeta signaling and O(6)-methylguanine methyltransferase promoter hypermethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, H; Vijayachandra, K; Penner, C; Glick, A

    2001-06-01

    Inactivation of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta)-signaling pathway and gene silencing through hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands are two frequent alterations in human and experimental cancers. Here we report that nonneoplastic TGFbeta1-/- keratinocyte cell lines exhibit increased sensitivity to cell killing by alkylating agents, and this is due to lack of expression of the DNA repair enzyme O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). In TGFbeta1-/- but not TGFbeta1+/- cell lines, the CpG dinucleotides in the MGMT promoter are hypermethylated, as measured by restriction enzyme analysis and methylation specific polymerase chain reaction. In one unstable TGFbeta1+/- cell line, loss of the wild type TGFbeta1 allele correlates with the appearance of methylation in the MGMT promoter. Bisulfite sequencing shows that in the KO3 TGFbeta1-/- cell line nearly all of the 28 CpG sites in the MGMT promoter 475 base pairs upstream of the start site of transcription are methylated, whereas most are unmethylated in the H1 TGFbeta1+/- line. Treatment of the TGFbeta1-/- cell lines with 5-azacytidine causes reexpression of MGMT mRNA and demethylation of CpG islands in the promoter. Analysis of the time course of methylation using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction shows a lack of methylation in primary TGFbeta1-/- keratinocytes and increasing methylation with passage number of immortalized clones. Subcloning of early passage clones reveals a remarkable heterogeneity and instability of the methylation state in the TGFbeta1-/- keratinocytes. Thus, the TGFbeta1-/- genotype does not directly regulate MGMT methylation but predisposes cells to immortalization-associated MGMT hypermethylation.

  13. Nerve Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Nerve Blocks A nerve block is an injection to ... the limitations of Nerve Block? What is a Nerve Block? A nerve block is an anesthetic and/ ...

  14. BETA digital beta radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovikov, N.V.; Kosinov, G.A.; Fedorov, Yu.N.

    1989-01-01

    Portable transportable digital beta radiometer providing for measuring beta-decay radionuclide specific activity in the range from 5x10 -9 up to 10 -6 Cu/kg (Cu/l) with error of ±25% is designed and introduced into commercial production for determination of volume and specific water and food radioactivity. The device specifications are given. Experience in the BETA radiometer application under conditions of the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone has shown that it is convenient for measuring specific activity of the order of 10 -8 Cu/kg, and application of a set of different beta detectors gives an opportunity to use it for surface contamination measurement in wide range of the measured value

  15. [Use of beta receptor blockers in performance sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, P

    1990-04-15

    The application of beta-blocking agents in endurance sports leads to deterioration of physical capacity because of negative influence of hemodynamics and metabolism. In sports with modest dynamic but high psychological strain it leads to an increase of physical capacity and decrease of stress caused by competition. The present paper summarizes changes in ski jumping, flying, motor car racing, parachute jumping, bob running and shooting. Significant decreases of heart rate, modest decreases in blood pressure as well as a reduction of occasionally appearing extrasystoles are found. Levels of glucose and lactate as well as cholesterol and triglycerides remain unchanged during beta-blockade, as do free fatty acids and free glycerol with placebo under beta-adrenolyse. Whereas ski and parachute jumpers display psychologic stress, bob runners and sport shooters were positively influenced. As a possible reason for an increased physical capacity after sympathicolysis, changes of cardiovascular parameters as well as central influences are conceivable. The application of beta-blocking agents should be regarded as "doping" because of the increases of physical capacity and should be avoided in healthy sportsmen.

  16. Beta-Blockers and Nitrates: Pharmacotherapy and Indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, Emanuela; Degiovanni, Anna; Cavallino, Chiara; Lupi, Alessandro; Rognoni, Andrea; Bongo, Angelo S

    2015-01-01

    Many clinically important differences exist between beta blockers. B1-selectivity is of clinical interest because at clinically used doses, b1- selective agents block cardiac b-receptors while having minor effects on bronchial and vascular b-receptors. Beta-adrenergic blocking agents significantly decrease the frequency and duration of angina pectoris, instead the prognostic benefit of beta-blockers in stable angina has been extrapolated from studies of post myocardial infarction but has not yet been documented without left ventricular disfunction or previous myocardial infarction. Organic nitrates are among the oldest drugs, but they still remain a widely used adjuvant in the treatment of symptomatic coronary artery disease. While their efficacy in relieving angina pectoris symptoms in acute settings and in preventing angina before physical or emotional stress is undisputed, the chronic use of nitrates has been associated with potentially important side effects such as tolerance and endothelial dysfunction. B-blockers are the firstline anti-anginal therapy in stable stable angina patients without contraindications, while nitrates are the secondline anti-anginal therapy. Despite 150 years of clinical practice, they remain fascinating drugs, which in a chronic setting still deserve investigation. This review evaluated pharmacotherapy and indications of Beta-blockers and nitrates in stable angina.

  17. Treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: comparison of a new beta-blocking drug (CGP 361 A), low-dose neuroleptic (flupenthixol), and placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerrum, H; Allerup, P; Thunedborg, K; Jakobsen, K; Bech, P

    1992-09-01

    In an attempt to evaluate an alternative drug treatment to benzodiazepines in generalized anxiety disorders, a placebo controlled trial was carried out with a new beta-adrenergic blocker (CPG 361 A). A low-dosage neuroleptic (flupenthixol) was included as a reference drug. Depending on the clinical assessment scales the placebo treatment resulted in moderate to excellent improvement in 36% to 56% of the patients after four weeks of treatment. The active drugs generally had a higher improvement range (from 31% to 80%). The global improvement scale was found to be better than the other scales in discriminating between placebo (50% improvement) and the active drugs (CGP 361 A brought about 78% improvement and flupenthixol brought about 80% improvement). However, only for flupenthixol was the difference of statistical significance.

  18. [Impact of sugammadex on neuromuscular blocking agents use: a multicentric, pharmaco-epidemiologic study in French university hospitals and military hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beny, K; Piriou, V; Dussart, C; Hénaine, R; Aulagner, G; Armoiry, X

    2013-12-01

    Seven Neuromuscular Blocking Agents (NMBA) are commercialized in France. Four of them have an intermediate duration of action. Sugammadex required the use of NMBA slightly employed in clinical practice in France. Its introduction in routine practice could have an impact on NMBA use in clinical practice. This study was then conducted to assess and compare NMBA use before and after the commercialization of sugammadex. A longitudinal, retrospective, observational study was conducted between 2008 and 2011 in French university hospitals and military hospitals. The consumption data for sugammadex and NMBA were collected using a collection grid which was filled by pharmacists or anesthesiologists. Drug use was measured by the number of vials used divided by the annual number of hospitalizations in surgery and obstetrics (HSO). An overall analysis of the annual frequency of NMBA use was firstly performed, then individual data of each hospital were analyzed. Descriptive statistical analysis including mean, standard deviation, median, minimum and maximum was achieved. Thirty-four out of 39 hospitals participated in the study (87%) and analysis was performed on 26 of them (7%). The data of eight institutions were excluded due to missing values or because of the non-admission of sugammadex in their formulary. The NMBA mostly used were non-steroidal NMBA (75% of market share) with an increased use between 2008 and 2011 concerning atracurium (from 41 to 51 vials of 50mg atracurium used per 100 HSO). The overall analysis revealed an increase of the occurrence of rocuronium (between 2008 and 2011: from 1 to 4.8 vials of 50mg rocuronium used per 100 HSO). Individual analyses on each hospital showed a possible effect of sugammadex introduction on NMBA use in nine hospitals. The commercialization of sugammadex seems to have induced a discrete increase of steroidal NMBA but non-steroidal NMBA remain the leading agent in France. A long-term follow-up is deserved. Copyright © 2013 Soci

  19. Reclassifying Anaphylaxis to Neuromuscular Blocking Agents Based on the Presumed Patho-Mechanism: IgE-Mediated, Pharmacological Adverse Reaction or “Innate Hypersensitivity”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Spoerl

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 60% of perioperative anaphylactic reactions are thought to be immunoglobulin IgE mediated, whereas 40% are thought to be non-IgE mediated hypersensitivity reactions (both considered non-dose-related type B adverse drug reactions. In both cases, symptoms are elicited by mast cell degranulation. Also, pharmacological reactions to drugs (type A, dose-related may sometimes mimic symptoms triggered by mast cell degranulation. In case of hypotension, bronchospasm, or urticarial rash due to mast cell degranulation, identification of the responsible mechanism is complicated. However, determination of the type of the underlying adverse drug reaction is of paramount interest for the decision of whether the culprit drug may be re-administered. Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA are among the most frequent cause of perioperative anaphylaxis. Recently, it has been shown that NMBA may activate mast cells independently from IgE antibodies via the human Mas-related G-protein-coupled receptor member X2 (MRGPRX2. In light of this new insight into the patho-mechanism of pseudo-allergic adverse drug reactions, in which as drug-receptor interaction results in anaphylaxis like symptoms, we critically reviewed the literature on NMBA-induced perioperative anaphylaxis. We challenge the dogma that NMBA mainly cause IgE-mediated anaphylaxis via an IgE-mediated mechanism, which is based on studies that consider positive skin test to be specific for IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. Finally, we discuss the question whether MRGPRX2 mediated pseudo-allergic reactions should be re-classified as type A adverse reactions.

  20. {beta} - amyloid imaging probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Imaging distribution of {beta} - amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease is very important for early and accurate diagnosis. Early trial of the {beta} -amyloid plaques includes using radiolabeled peptides which can be only applied for peripheral {beta} - amyloid plaques due to limited penetration through the blood brain barrier (BBB). Congo red or Chrysamine G derivatives were labeled with Tc-99m for imaging {beta} - amyloid plaques of Alzheimer patient's brain without success due to problem with BBB penetration. Thioflavin T derivatives gave breakthrough for {beta} - amyloid imaging in vivo, and a benzothiazole derivative [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 brought a great success. Many other benzothiazole, benzoxazole, benzofuran, imidazopyridine, and styrylbenzene derivatives have been labeled with F-18 and I-123 to improve the imaging quality. However, [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 still remains as the best. However, short half-life of C-11 is a limitation of wide distribution of this agent. So, it is still required to develop an Tc-99m, F-18 or I-123 labeled agent for {beta} - amyloid imaging agent.

  1. Impact of high- versus low-dose neuromuscular blocking agent administration on unplanned 30-day readmission rates in retroperitoneal laparoscopic surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Boon

    Full Text Available Recent data shows that a neuromuscular block (NMB induced by administration of high doses of rocuronium improves surgical conditions in certain procedures. However, there are limited data on the effect such practices on postoperative outcomes. We performed a retrospective analysis to compare unplanned 30-day readmissions in patients that received high-dose versus low-dose rocuronium administration during general anesthesia for laparoscopic retroperitoneal surgery. This retrospective cohort study was performed in the Netherlands in an academic hospital where routine high-dose rocuronium NMB has been practiced since July 2015. Charts of patients receiving anesthesia between January 2014 and December 2016 were searched for surgical cases receiving high-dose rocuronium and matched with respect to procedure, age, sex and ASA classification to patients receiving low-dose rocuronium. The primary post-operative outcome was unplanned 30-day readmission rate. There were 130 patients in each cohort. Patients in the high- and low-dose rocuronium cohorts received 217 ± 49 versus 37 ± 5 mg rocuronium, respectively. In the high-dose rocuronium group neuromuscular activity was consistently monitored; matched patients were unreliably monitored. All patients receiving high-dose rocuronium were reversed with sugammadex, while just 33% of matched patients were reversed with sugammadex and 20% with neostigmine; the remaining patients were not reversed. Unplanned 30-day readmission rate was significantly lower in the high-dose compared to the low-dose rocuronium cohort (3.8% vs. 12.7%; p = 0.03; odds ratio = 0.33, 95% C.I. 0.12-0.95. This small retrospective study demonstrates a lower incidence of unplanned readmissions within 30-days following laparoscopic retroperitoneal surgery with high-dose relaxant anesthesia and sugammadex reversal in comparison to low-dose relaxant anesthesia. Further prospective studies are needed in larger samples to corroborate our

  2. Impact of high- versus low-dose neuromuscular blocking agent administration on unplanned 30-day readmission rates in retroperitoneal laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Martijn; Martini, Chris; Yang, H Keri; Sen, Shuvayu S; Bevers, Rob; Warlé, Michiel; Aarts, Leon; Niesters, Marieke; Dahan, Albert

    2018-01-01

    Recent data shows that a neuromuscular block (NMB) induced by administration of high doses of rocuronium improves surgical conditions in certain procedures. However, there are limited data on the effect such practices on postoperative outcomes. We performed a retrospective analysis to compare unplanned 30-day readmissions in patients that received high-dose versus low-dose rocuronium administration during general anesthesia for laparoscopic retroperitoneal surgery. This retrospective cohort study was performed in the Netherlands in an academic hospital where routine high-dose rocuronium NMB has been practiced since July 2015. Charts of patients receiving anesthesia between January 2014 and December 2016 were searched for surgical cases receiving high-dose rocuronium and matched with respect to procedure, age, sex and ASA classification to patients receiving low-dose rocuronium. The primary post-operative outcome was unplanned 30-day readmission rate. There were 130 patients in each cohort. Patients in the high- and low-dose rocuronium cohorts received 217 ± 49 versus 37 ± 5 mg rocuronium, respectively. In the high-dose rocuronium group neuromuscular activity was consistently monitored; matched patients were unreliably monitored. All patients receiving high-dose rocuronium were reversed with sugammadex, while just 33% of matched patients were reversed with sugammadex and 20% with neostigmine; the remaining patients were not reversed. Unplanned 30-day readmission rate was significantly lower in the high-dose compared to the low-dose rocuronium cohort (3.8% vs. 12.7%; p = 0.03; odds ratio = 0.33, 95% C.I. 0.12-0.95). This small retrospective study demonstrates a lower incidence of unplanned readmissions within 30-days following laparoscopic retroperitoneal surgery with high-dose relaxant anesthesia and sugammadex reversal in comparison to low-dose relaxant anesthesia. Further prospective studies are needed in larger samples to corroborate our findings and

  3. Combination monoamine oxidase inhibitor and beta-blocker treatment of migraine, with anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merikangas, K R; Merikangas, J R

    1995-11-01

    This paper presents the results of a study comparing the effectiveness of a beta-adrenergic blocking agent, atenolol, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAO-I), phenelzine, and the combination in treatment of 61 adults with migraine headache. The goals of the study are (1) to investigate the safety of concomitant treatment of migraine with beta-blockers and phenelzine, (2) to assess whether orthostatic hypertension and other side effects would be relieved, and (3) to compare the results of this open trial of phenelzine to those of a previous study using similar methods. Phenelzine was associated with a large decrease in the frequency and severity of migraine attacks. Anxiety and depression were also reduced by phenelzine both alone, and in combination with a beta-blocker. The results show that the combination of MAO-I's and beta-blockers can be administered safely, and can lead to the reduction in the side effects with either drug alone.

  4. Evaluation of indoramin added to oxprenolol and bendrofluazide as a third agent in severe hypertension.

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, A J; Kettle, M A; Barritt, D W

    1980-01-01

    1 Indoramin, an alpha-adrenoreceptor blocking agent has been given as a third agent to patients with severe hypertension treated with adequate doses of a beta-adrenoceptor blocking drug and a thiazide diuretic. 2 A further fall in blood pressure followed the addition of indoramin. With 75 mg twice daily this was on average a fall of 12% of mean arterial pressure in the supine position, 16% standing an 17% after exercise. 3 The rise in blood pressure caused by isometric exercise was not altere...

  5. Effect of beta-blockade on low-dose dobutamine-induced changes in left ventricular function in healthy volunteers: assessment by gated SPET myocardial perfusion scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everaert, H.; Vanhove, C.; Franken, P.R. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Free University of Brussels (AZ VUB), Brussels (Belgium)

    2000-04-01

    Viability studies are often performed in patients receiving beta-blocking agents. However, the intake of beta-blocking agents could influence the identification of viable myocardium when low-dose dobutamine is used to demonstrate inotropic reserve. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of beta-blockade on global and regional left ventricular function in healthy volunteers using low-dose dobutamine gated single-photon emission tomographic (SPET) myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Ten subjects were studied once ''on'' and once ''off'' beta-blocker therapy (metoprolol succinate, 100 mg day{sup -1}). On each occasion four consecutive gated SPET acquisitions (of 7 min duration) were recorded after injection of 925 MBq technetium-99m tetrofosmin on a triple-headed camera equipped with focussing (Cardiofocal) collimators. Acquisitions were made at rest (baseline 1 and 2) and 5 min after the beginning of the infusion of 5 and 10 {mu}g kg{sup -1} min{sup -1} dobutamine. Wall thickening (WT) was quantified using a method based on circumferential profile analysis. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was obtained using the Cedars-Sinai algorithm. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded at the end of each acquisition. At baseline LVEF, WT and systolic BP values under beta-blockade were not significantly different from those obtained in the non-beta-blocked state. The mean HR and diastolic BP at baseline were lower under beta-blockade. Dobutamine administration (at 5 and 10 {mu}g kg{sup -1} min{sup -1}) induced a significant increase in WT, LVEF and systolic BP in all subjects both on and off beta-blockade. The increases in WT, LVEF and systolic BP in the beta-blocked state were less pronounced but not significantly different. HR increased significantly at 10 {mu}g kg{sup -1} min{sup -1} dobutamine without beta-blocker administration, while no increase in HR was observed in the beta-blocked state. Beta

  6. Speculative Betas

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison Hong; David Sraer

    2012-01-01

    We provide a model for why high beta assets are more prone to speculative overpricing than low beta ones. When investors disagree about the common factor of cash-flows, high beta assets are more sensitive to this macro-disagreement and experience a greater divergence-of-opinion about their payoffs. Short-sales constraints for some investors such as retail mutual funds result in high beta assets being over-priced. When aggregate disagreement is low, expected return increases with beta due to r...

  7. Metabolic consequences of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade for the acutely ischemic dog myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westera, G.; Hollander, W. den; Wall, E.E. van der; Eenige, M.J. van; Scholtalbers, S.; Visser, F.C.; Roos, J.P.

    1984-02-01

    In an experimental study in 50 dogs the myocardial uptake of free fatty acids (FFAs) after beta-blockade was determined using radioiodinated heptadecanoic acid as a metabolic tracer. All 4 beta-blockers used (metoprolol, timolol, propranolol and pindolol) lowered the uptake of FFAs in the normal canine heart. Uptake of FFAs was also diminished after coronary artery occlusion per se, but administration of beta-blockers exerted little additional influence on the uptake of FFAs. This observation was qualitatively parallelled by the uptake of /sup 201/Tl in concomitant experiments. Plasma FFA levels were increased by pindolol (non-selective with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity), not changed by metoprolol (a cardioselective betablocking agent) and lowered by timolol and propranolol (both non-selective compounds). The extent of ischemic tissue, as reflected by uptake of iodoheptadecanoic acid and /sup 201/Tl, was diminished by metoprolol but not by other beta-blockers. Regional distribution of both tracers, as shown in the endo-epicardial uptake ratios, was hardly influenced by beta-blockade, except for a small increase of /sup 201/Tl uptake in non-occluded endocardium. Uptake of /sup 201/Tl as well as of iodoheptadecanoic acid in the ischemic area was increased by metoprolol, timolol and propranolol and decreased by pindolol. We conclude that beta-blocking agents confer different effects on myocardial uptake and metabolism of FFAs which might possibly be related to their different inherent properties.

  8. Metabolic consequences of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade for the acutely ischemic dog myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westera, G.; Hollander, W. den; Wall, E.E. van der; Eenige, M.J. van; Scholtalbers, S.; Visser, F.C.; Roos, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    In an experimental study in 50 dogs the myocardial uptake of free fatty acids (FFAs) after beta-blockade was determined using radioiodinated heptadecanoic acid as a metabolic tracer. All 4 beta-blockers used (metoprolol, timolol, propranolol and pindolol) lowered the uptake of FFAs in the normal canine heart. Uptake of FFAs was also diminished after coronary artery occlusion per se, but administration of beta-blockers exerted little additional influence on the uptake of FFAs. This observation was qualitatively parallelled by the uptake of 201 Tl in concomitant experiments. Plasma FFA levels were increased by pindolol (non-selective with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity), not changed by metoprolol (a cardioselective betablocking agent) and lowered by timolol and propranolol (both non-selective compounds). The extent of ischemic tissue, as reflected by uptake of iodoheptadecanoic acid and 201 Tl, was diminished by metoprolol but not by other beta-blockers. Regional distribution of both tracers, as shown in the endo-epicardial uptake ratios, was hardly influenced by beta-blockade, except for a small increase of 201 Tl uptake in non-occluded endocardium. Uptake of 201 Tl as well as of iodoheptadecanoic acid in the ischemic area was increased by metoprolol, timolol and propranolol and decreased by pindolol. We conclude that beta-blocking agents confer different effects on myocardial uptake and metabolism of FFAs which might possibly be related to their different inherent properties. (orig.) [de

  9. Doxorubicin-loaded micelles of reverse poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide) block copolymers as efficient "active" chemotherapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambón, A; Rey-Rico, A; Mistry, D; Brea, J; Loza, M I; Attwood, D; Barbosa, S; Alvarez-Lorenzo, C; Concheiro, A; Taboada, P; Mosquera, V

    2013-03-10

    Five reverse poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide) block copolymers, BOnEOmBOn, with BO ranging from 8 to 21 units and EO from 90 to 411 were synthesized and evaluated as efficient chemotherapeutic drug delivery nanocarriers and inhibitors of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump in a multidrug resistant (MDR) cell line. The copolymers were obtained by reverse polymerization of poly(butylene oxide), which avoids transfer reaction and widening of the EO block distribution, commonly found in commercial poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) block copolymers (poloxamers). BOnEOmBOn copolymers formed spherical micelles of 10-40 nm diameter at lower concentrations (one order of magnitude) than those of equivalent poloxamers. The influence of copolymer block lengths and BO/EO ratios on the solubilization capacity and protective environment for doxorubicin (DOXO) was investigated. Micelles showed drug loading capacity ranging from ca. 0.04% to 1.5%, more than 150 times the aqueous solubility of DOXO, and protected the cargo from hydrolysis for more than a month due to their greater colloidal stability in solution. Drug release profiles at various pHs, and the cytocompatibility and cytotoxicity of the DOXO-loaded micelles were assessed in vitro. DOXO loaded in the polymeric micelles accumulated more slowly inside the cells than free DOXO due to its sustained release. All copolymers were found to be cytocompatible, with viability extents larger than 95%. In addition, the cytotoxicity of DOXO-loaded micelles was higher than that observed for free drug solutions in a MDR ovarian NCI-ADR-RES cell line which overexpressed P-gp. The inhibition of the P-gp efflux pump by some BOnEOmBOn copolymers, similar to that measured for the common P-gp inhibitor verapamil, favored the retention of DOXO inside the cell increasing its cytotoxic activity. Therefore, poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymers offer interesting features as cell

  10. Biochemical Study on the Protective Effect of Antioxidant and Β-Adrenergic Blocking Agent Against Experimental Myocardial Infarction in Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Hamied, H.F.

    2009-01-01

    Ionizing Radiations Radiation is a form of energy that has two basic types, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. The basic difference between them is the amount of energy they possess. Ionizing radiation has higher energy and has an ability to break chemical bonds, causing ionization of atoms and production of free radicals that can result in biological damage. Non-ionizing radiation does not have enough energy to cause ionization but disperses the energy through heat. Ionizing radiation characterized by being particulate and electromagnetic (photons). Particulate radiations include electrons, cathode rays, protons, neutrons, deuterons, beta and alpha particles. Photons are charge less bundles of energy that travel in a vacuum at the velocity of light, which is 300 000 km/sec. X-ray and γ-rays are electromagnetic radiations. They cause the ejection of electrons from the atoms through which they pass through, resulting in ionization and are accordingly referred to as ionizing radiation (Upton et al., 1994).

  11. Alkylating Agent-Induced NRF2 Blocks Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Mediated Apoptosis via Control of Glutathione Pools and Protein Thiol Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Masamsetti, V Pragathi; Loranc, Eva; Tonapi, Sonal S; Gorthi, Aparna; Bernard, Xavier; Gonçalves, Rosângela Mayer; Moreira, José C F; Chen, Yidong; Bishop, Alexander J R

    2016-12-01

    Alkylating agents are a commonly used cytotoxic class of anticancer drugs. Understanding the mechanisms whereby cells respond to these drugs is key to identify means to improve therapy while reducing toxicity. By integrating genome-wide gene expression profiling, protein analysis, and functional cell validation, we herein demonstrated a direct relationship between NRF2 and Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress pathways in response to alkylating agents, which is coordinated by the availability of glutathione (GSH) pools. GSH is essential for both drug detoxification and protein thiol homeostasis within the ER, thus inhibiting ER stress induction and promoting survival, an effect independent of its antioxidant role. NRF2 accumulation induced by alkylating agents resulted in increased GSH synthesis via GCLC/GCLM enzyme, and interfering with this NRF2 response by either NRF2 knockdown or GCLC/GCLM inhibition with buthionine sulfoximine caused accumulation of damaged proteins within the ER, leading to PERK-dependent apoptosis. Conversely, upregulation of NRF2, through KEAP1 depletion or NRF2-myc overexpression, or increasing GSH levels with N-acetylcysteine or glutathione-ethyl-ester, decreased ER stress and abrogated alkylating agents-induced cell death. Based on these results, we identified a subset of lung and head-and-neck carcinomas with mutations in either KEAP1 or NRF2/NFE2L2 genes that correlate with NRF2 target overexpression and poor survival. In KEAP1-mutant cancer cells, NRF2 knockdown and GSH depletion increased cell sensitivity via ER stress induction in a mechanism specific to alkylating drugs. Overall, we show that the NRF2-GSH influence on ER homeostasis implicates defects in NRF2-GSH or ER stress machineries as affecting alkylating therapy toxicity. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(12); 3000-14. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Alkylating agent induced NRF2 blocks endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis via control of glutathione pools and protein thiol homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Masamsetti, V. Pragathi; Loranc, Eva; Tonapi, Sonal S.; Gorthi, Aparna; Bernard, Xavier; Gonçalves, Rosângela Mayer; Moreira, José C. F.; Chen, Yidong; Bishop, Alexander J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Alkylating agents are a commonly used cytotoxic class of anticancer drugs. Understanding the mechanisms whereby cells respond to these drugs is key to identify means to improve therapy while reducing toxicity. By integrating genome-wide gene expression profiling, protein analysis and functional cell validation, we herein demonstrated a direct relationship between NRF2 and Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress pathways in response to alkylating agents, which is coordinated by the availability of glutathione (GSH) pools. GSH is essential for both drug detoxification and protein thiol homeostasis within the ER, thus inhibiting ER stress induction and promoting survival; an effect independent of its antioxidant role. NRF2 accumulation induced by alkylating agents resulted in increased GSH synthesis via GCLC/GCLM enzyme, and interfering with this NRF2 response by either NRF2 knockdown or GCLC/GCLM inhibition with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) caused accumulation of damaged proteins within the ER, leading to PERK-dependent apoptosis. Conversely, upregulation of NRF2, through KEAP1 depletion or NRF2-myc overexpression, or increasing GSH levels with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or glutathione-ethyl-ester (GSH-E), decreased ER stress and abrogated alkylating agents-induced cell death. Based on these results, we identified a subset of lung and head-and-neck carcinomas with mutations in either KEAP1 or NRF2/NFE2L2 genes that correlate with NRF2 targets overexpression and poor survival. In KEAP1 mutant cancer cells, NRF2 knockdown and GSH depletion increased cell sensitivity via ER stress induction in a mechanism specific to alkylating drugs. Overall, we show that the NRF2-GSH influence on ER homeostasis implicates defects in NRF2-GSH or ER stress machineries as affecting alkylating therapy toxicity. PMID:27638861

  13. Epidural block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000484.htm Epidural block - pregnancy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An epidural block is a numbing medicine given by injection (shot) ...

  14. Synthesis and biological activity of analogues of the antimicrotubule agent N,beta,beta-trimethyl-L-phenylalanyl-N(1)-[(1S,2E)-3-carboxy-1-isopropylbut-2-enyl]- N(1),3-dimethyl-L-valinamide (HTI-286).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zask, Arie; Birnberg, Gary; Cheung, Katherine; Kaplan, Joshua; Niu, Chuan; Norton, Emily; Suayan, Ronald; Yamashita, Ayako; Cole, Derek; Tang, Zhilian; Krishnamurthy, Girija; Williamson, Robert; Khafizova, Gulnaz; Musto, Sylvia; Hernandez, Richard; Annable, Tami; Yang, Xiaoran; Discafani, Carolyn; Beyer, Carl; Greenberger, Lee M; Loganzo, Frank; Ayral-Kaloustian, Semiramis

    2004-09-09

    Hemiasterlin, a tripeptide isolated from marine sponges, induces microtubule depolymerization and mitotic arrest in cells. HTI-286, an analogue from an initial study of the hemiasterlins, is presently in clinical trials. In addition to its potent antitumor effects, 2 has the advantage of circumventing the P-glycoprotein-mediated resistance that hampers the efficacy of other antimicrotubule agents such as paclitaxel and vincristine in animal models. This paper describes an in-depth study of the structure--activity relationships of analogues of 2, their effects on microtubule polymerization, and their in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity. Regions of the molecule necessary for potent activity are identified. Groups tolerant of modification, leading to novel analogues, are reported. Potent analogues identified through in vivo studies in tumor xenograft models include one superior analogue, HTI-042.

  15. Population Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  16. Role of beta adrenoceptors in the hypertrophic response to thyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliades, D.; Weiss, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    The ability of beta-adrenoceptor blockade to reduce the hypertrophic response to thyroxine (T4, 0.5 mg/kg per day, s.c.) was tested in New Zealand white rabbits. Two beta-adrenergic blocking agents, one a full antagonist (propranolol, 9.6 mg/kg per day) and the other a partial agonist (pindolol, 0.96 mg/kg per day) were administered in combination with T4 in an effort to reduce myocardial hypertrophy. A 3 and 16 day group were generated to test the time course of the hypertrophic and receptor responses. Coronary blood flow was measured using radioactive microspheres, and beta-adrenoceptor number and affinity were measured using 125I(-) pindolol as the radioligand. T4 increased coronary blood flow to 1.95 times control values in the 3 day group and 2.2 times control levels in the 16 day group; beta-adrenoceptor number was increased similarly in 3 and 16 day groups to 1.9 times control Bmax levels. Heart weight (HW) to body weight (BW) ratios were significantly increased in only the 16 day group to 1.22 and 1.61 times control, respectively. Treatment with propranolol + T4 blunted the coronary blood flow increase, but receptor upregulation occurred to the same extent as with either substance alone. The HW/BW was increased to 1.49 times control. Pindolol + T4 did not decrease coronary blood flow but blocked beta-adrenoceptor upregulation. The HW was reduced to control levels and the HW/BW ratio was 1.40 times control and significantly decreased from T4 alone. Thus, pindolol was effective in reducing the hypertrophic response to T4, whereas propranolol was only moderately effective in doing so

  17. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the Streptomyces coelicolor klmp33 pigment: An antimicrobial agent against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manikprabhu, Deene; Lingappa, K.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) occurred mainly due to continuous persistent exposure to antibiotics causing high morbidity and mortality so studies in controlling this infection are required. In the present investigation, we developed a synthesis for silver nanoparticles employing a pigment produced by Streptomyces coelicolor klmp33, and assessed the antimicrobial activity of these nanoparticles against ESBL producing E. coli. The ESBL producing E. coli were isolated from urine samples collected from the Gulbarga region in India. As can been seen from our studies, the silver nanoparticles having irregular shapes and size of 28–50 nm showed remarkable antimicrobial activity and moreover the synthesis time is just 20 min and thus the same can be used for formulating pharmaceutical remedies. - Highlights: • Silver nanoparticle synthesis by photo-irradiation method in just 20 min • Isolation of ESBL producing E. coli from urine samples from the Gulbarga region. • Antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles against ESBL producing E. coli • The minimum inhibitory concentration of silver nanoparticles against ESBL producing E. coli was 40 μL

  18. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the Streptomyces coelicolor klmp33 pigment: An antimicrobial agent against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manikprabhu, Deene; Lingappa, K., E-mail: lingappak123@gmail.com

    2014-12-01

    The increasing emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) occurred mainly due to continuous persistent exposure to antibiotics causing high morbidity and mortality so studies in controlling this infection are required. In the present investigation, we developed a synthesis for silver nanoparticles employing a pigment produced by Streptomyces coelicolor klmp33, and assessed the antimicrobial activity of these nanoparticles against ESBL producing E. coli. The ESBL producing E. coli were isolated from urine samples collected from the Gulbarga region in India. As can been seen from our studies, the silver nanoparticles having irregular shapes and size of 28–50 nm showed remarkable antimicrobial activity and moreover the synthesis time is just 20 min and thus the same can be used for formulating pharmaceutical remedies. - Highlights: • Silver nanoparticle synthesis by photo-irradiation method in just 20 min • Isolation of ESBL producing E. coli from urine samples from the Gulbarga region. • Antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles against ESBL producing E. coli • The minimum inhibitory concentration of silver nanoparticles against ESBL producing E. coli was 40 μL.

  19. Beta spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryak, P.; Zderadicka, J.; Plch, J.; Kokta, L.; Novotna, P.

    1977-01-01

    For the purpose of beta spectrometry, a semiconductor spectrometer with one Si(Li) detector cooled with liquid nitrogen was designed. Geometrical detection efficiency is about 10% 4 sr. The achieved resolution for 624 keV conversion electrons of sup(137m)Ba is 2.6 keV (FWHM). A program was written in the FORTRAN language for the correction of the deformation of the measured spectra by backscattering in the analysis of continuous beta spectra. The method permits the determination of the maximum energy of the beta spectrum with an accuracy of +-5 keV. (author)

  20. Down-titration and discontinuation strategies of tumor necrosis factor-blocking agents for rheumatoid arthritis in patients with low disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Herwaarden, Noortje; den Broeder, Alfons A; Jacobs, Wilco; van der Maas, Aatke; Bijlsma, Johannes W J; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F; van den Bemt, Bart J F

    2014-09-29

    Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents are effective in treating patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but they are associated with (dose-dependent) adverse effects and high costs. To prevent overtreatment, several trials have assessed the effectiveness of down-titration compared with continuation of the standard dose. To evaluate the benefits and harms of down-titration (dose reduction, discontinuation or disease activity guided dose tapering) of anti-TNF agents (adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, etanercept, golimumab, infliximab) on disease activity, functioning, costs, safety and radiographic damage compared with usual care in patients with RA and low disease activity. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Issue 8, 2013; Ovid MEDLINE (1946 to 8 September 2013); EMBASE (1947 to 8 September 2013); Science Citation Index (Web of Science); and conference proceedings of the American College of Rheumatology (2005 to 2012) and European League against Rheumatism (2005 to 2013). We contacted authors of the seven included studies to ask for additional information on their study; five responded. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing down-titration (dose reduction, discontinuation, disease activity-guided dose tapering) of anti-TNF agents (adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, etanercept, golimumab, infliximab) to usual care/no down-titration in patients with RA and a low disease activity state. Two review authors independently selected studies, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. Six RCTs and one CCT (total 1203 participants), reporting anti-TNF down-titration, were included. Three studies (559 participants) reported anti-TNF dose reduction compared with anti-TNF continuation. Five studies (732 participants) reported anti-TNF discontinuation compared with anti-TNF continuation (two studies assessed both anti-TNF discontinuation and dose reduction), and one study assessed disease activity

  1. Beta Blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may not work as effectively for people of African heritage and older people, especially when taken without ... conditions/high-blood-pressure/in-depth/beta-blockers/ART-20044522 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  2. Ionizing radiation predisposes non-malignant human mammaryepithelial cells to undergo TGF beta-induced epithelial to mesenchymaltransition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andarawewa, Kumari L.; Erickson, Anna C.; Chou, William S.; Costes, Sylvain; Gascard, Philippe; Mott, Joni D.; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2007-04-06

    Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}) is a tumor suppressor during the initial stage of tumorigenesis, but it can switch to a tumor promoter during neoplastic progression. Ionizing radiation (IR), both a carcinogen and a therapeutic agent, induces TGF{beta}, activation in vivo. We now show that IR sensitizes human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to undergo TGF{beta}-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Non-malignant HMEC (MCF10A, HMT3522 S1 and 184v) were irradiated with 2 Gy shortly after attachment in monolayer culture, or treated with a low concentration of TGF{beta} (0.4 ng/ml), or double-treated. All double-treated (IR+TGF{beta}) HMEC underwent a morphological shift from cuboidal to spindle-shaped. This phenotype was accompanied by decreased expression of epithelial markers E-cadherin, {beta}-catenin and ZO-1, remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, and increased expression of mesenchymal markers N-cadherin, fibronectin and vimentin. Furthermore, double-treatment increased cell motility, promoted invasion and disrupted acinar morphogenesis of cells subsequently plated in Matrigel{trademark}. Neither radiation nor TGF{beta} alone elicited EMT, even though IR increased chronic TGF{beta} signaling and activity. Gene expression profiling revealed that double treated cells exhibit a specific 10-gene signature associated with Erk/MAPK signaling. We hypothesized that IR-induced MAPK activation primes non-malignant HMEC to undergo TGF{beta}-mediated EMT. Consistent with this, Erk phosphorylation were transiently induced by irradiation, persisted in irradiated cells treated with TGF{beta}, and treatment with U0126, a Mek inhibitor, blocked the EMT phenotype. Together, these data demonstrate that the interactions between radiation-induced signaling pathways elicit heritable phenotypes that could contribute to neoplastic progression.

  3. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals carbohydrate and lipid metabolism blocks in Brassica napus L. male sterility induced by the chemical hybridization agent monosulfuron ester sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanjie; Cheng, Yufeng; Cui, Jianmin; Zhang, Peipei; Zhao, Huixian; Hu, Shengwu

    2015-03-17

    Chemical hybridization agents (CHAs) are often used to induce male sterility for the production of hybrid seeds. We previously discovered that monosulfuron ester sodium (MES), an acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor of the herbicide sulfonylurea family, can induce rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) male sterility at approximately 1% concentration required for its herbicidal activity. To find some clues to the mechanism of MES inducing male sterility, the ultrastructural cytology observations, comparative transcriptome analysis, and physiological analysis on carbohydrate content were carried out in leaves and anthers at different developmental stages between the MES-treated and mock-treated rapeseed plants. Cytological analysis revealed that the plastid ultrastructure was abnormal in pollen mother cells and tapetal cells in male sterility anthers induced by MES treatment, with less material accumulation in it. However, starch granules were observed in chloroplastids of the epidermis cells in male sterility anthers. Comparative transcriptome analysis identified 1501 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) in leaves and anthers at different developmental stages, most of these DETs being localized in plastid and mitochondrion. Transcripts involved in metabolism, especially in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and cellular transport were differentially expressed. Pathway visualization showed that the tightly regulated gene network for metabolism was reprogrammed to respond to MES treatment. The results of cytological observation and transcriptome analysis in the MES-treated rapeseed plants were mirrored by carbohydrate content analysis. MES treatment led to decrease in soluble sugars content in leaves and early stage buds, but increase in soluble sugars content and decrease in starch content in middle stage buds. Our integrative results suggested that carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were influenced by CHA-MES treatment during rapeseed anther development, which might

  4. Evaluation of partial beta-adrenoceptor agonist activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipworth, B J; Grove, A

    1997-01-01

    A partial beta-adrenoceptor (beta-AR) agonist will exhibit opposite agonist and antagonist activity depending on the prevailing degree of adrenergic tone or the presence of a beta-AR agonist with higher intrinsic activity. In vivo partial beta-AR agonist activity will be evident at rest with low endogenous adrenergic tone, as for example with chronotropicity (beta 1/beta 2), inotropicity (beta 1) or peripheral vasodilatation and finger tremor (beta 2). beta-AR blocking drugs which have partial agonist activity may exhibit a better therapeutic profile when used for hypertension because of maintained cardiac output without increased systemic vascular resistance, along with an improved lipid profile. In the presence of raised endogenous adrenergic tone such as exercise or an exogenous full agonist, beta-AR subtype antagonist activity will become evident in terms of effects on exercise induced heart rate (beta 1) and potassium (beta 2) responses. Reduction of exercise heart rate will occur to a lesser degree in the case of a beta-adrenoceptor blocker with partial beta 1-AR agonist activity compared with a beta-adrenoceptor blocker devoid of partial agonist activity. This may result in reduced therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of angina on effort when using beta-AR blocking drugs with partial beta 1-AR agonist activity. Effects on exercise hyperkalaemia are determined by the balance between beta 2-AR partial agonist activity and endogenous adrenergic activity. For predominantly beta 2-AR agonist such as salmeterol and salbutamol, potentiation of exercise hyperkalaemia occurs. For predominantly beta 2-AR antagonists such as carteolol, either potentiation or attenuation of exercise hyperkalaemia occurs at low and high doses respectively. beta 2-AR partial agonist activity may also be expressed as antagonism in the presence of an exogenous full agonist, as for example attenuation of fenoterol induced responses by salmeterol. Studies are required to investigate whether

  5. Detection block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezak, A.

    1987-01-01

    A diagram is given of a detection block used for monitoring burnup of nuclear reactor fuel. A shielding block is an important part of the detection block. It stabilizes the fuel assembly in the fixing hole in front of a collimator where a suitable gamma beam is defined for gamma spectrometry determination of fuel burnup. The detector case and a neutron source case are placed on opposite sides of the fixing hole. For neutron measurement for which the water in the tank is used as a moderator, the neutron detector-fuel assembly configuration is selected such that neutrons from spontaneous fission and neutrons induced with the neutron source can both be measured. The patented design of the detection block permits longitudinal travel and rotation of the fuel assembly to any position, and thus more reliable determination of nuclear fuel burnup. (E.S.). 1 fig

  6. Synthesis of a novel 'smart' bifunctional chelating agent 1-(2-[beta,D-galactopyranosyloxy]ethyl)-7-(1-carboxy-3-[4-aminophenyl]propyl)-4,10-bis(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (Gal-PA-DO3A-NH2) and its Gd(III) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, Nick J; Herlihy, Amy H; So, Po-Wah; Bell, Jimmy D; Bligh, S W Annie

    2007-07-15

    A new synthetic pathway to 1-(2-[beta,D-galactopyranosyloxy]ethyl)-7-(1-carboxy-3-[4-aminophenyl]propyl)-4,10-bis(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (Gal-PA-DO3A-NH2) and 1-(2-[beta,D-galactopyranosyloxy]ethyl)-4,7,10-tris(carboxymethyl)-1, 4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (Gal-DO3A) chelating agents was developed involving full hydroxyl- and carboxyl-group protection in precursors to product. Two sequences of cyclen-N-functionalisation were subsequently investigated, one successfully, towards synthesis of the novel 'smart' bifunctional Gal-PA-DO3A-NH2 chelate. The longitudinal proton relaxivities of the neutral [Gd-(Gal-PA-DO3A-NH2)] and [Gd-(Gal-DO3A)] complexes were increased by 28% and 37% in the presence of beta-galactosidase, respectively.

  7. Abstraction Mechanisms in the BETA Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    1983-01-01

    . It is then necessary that the abstraction mechanisms are powerful in order to define more specialized constructs. BETA is an object oriented language like SIMULA 67 ([SIMULA]) and SMALLTALK ([SMALLTALK]). By this is meant that a construct like the SIMULA class/subclass mechanism is fundamental in BETA. In contrast......]) --- covering both data, procedural and control abstractions, substituting constructs like class, procedure, function and type. Correspondingly objects, procedure activation records and variables are all regarded as special cases of the basic building block of program executions: the entity. A pattern thus......The BETA programming language is developed as part of the BETA project. The purpose of this project is to develop concepts, constructs and tools in the field of programming and programming languages. BETA has been developed from 1975 on and the various stages of the language are documented in [BETA...

  8. Constructing Secure Mobile Agent Systems Using the Agent Operating System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van t Noordende, G.J.; Overeinder, B.J.; Timmer, R.J.; Brazier, F.M.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Designing a secure and reliable mobile agent system is a difficult task. The agent operating system (AOS) is a building block that simplifies this task. AOS provides common primitives required by most mobile agent middleware systems, such as primitives for secure communication, secure and

  9. Conformational Studies of ε- CBz- L- Lysine and L- Valine Block Copolypeptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Conformational studies of ε-CBz-L-lysine and L-valine block copoylpeptides using x- ray diffraction and CD spectra are described. The block copolypeptides contain valine block in the center and on both side of the valine are ε-CBz-L-lysine blocks. The conformation of the copolypeptides changes with increases in the chain length of ε- CBz-L- lysine blocks. When length of ε- CBZ- L- lysine blocks is 9, the block copolypeptide has exclusive beta sheet structure. With the increase in chain length of ε-CBz-L-lysine blocks from 9 to 14, the block copolypeptide shows presence of both alpha helix and beta sheet components. With further increase in chain length of ε- CBz- L- lysine blocks, the beta sheet component disappears and block copolypeptides exhibits exclusive α -helix conformation.

  10. Conformational Studies on γ - Benzyl- L- Glutamate and L- Valine Containing Block Copolypeptides

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Ajay

    2010-01-01

    Conformational studies on γ - benzyl-L- glutamate and L- valine containing block copolypeptides are reported using IR and CD spectra. The block copolypeptides contain valine block in the center and on both sides of the valine are γ - benzyl- L- glutamate blocks. The changes in conformation with increase in chain length of γ - benzyl- L- glutamate blocks are observed. When the chain length of γ - benzyl-L- glutamate block is 13, the block copolypeptide crystallized into beta conformation. With...

  11. Iodine-123 labelled nor-{beta}-CIT binds to the serotonin transporter in vivo as assessed by biodistribution studies in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booij, J.; Knol, R.J.J.; Reneman, L.; De Bruin, K.; Van Royen, E.A. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Janssen, A.G.M. [Amersham Cygne and Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands)

    1998-12-01

    Iodine-123 labelled 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane (nor-{beta}-CIT), a radioiodinated cocaine analogue, was evaluated as an agent for the in vivo labelling of serotonin transporters by biodistribution studies in rats. Intravenous injection of [{sup 123}I]nor-{beta}-CIT resulted in high accumulation of radioactivity in brain areas with high densities of serotonin (hypothalamus) and dopamine transporters (striatum), although the binding was less pronounced in the hypothalamus. While binding of [{sup 123}I]nor-{beta}-CIT in the hypothalamus was blocked significantly by fluvoxamine (a selective serotonin transporter blocker) but not by GBR12,909 (a selective dopamine transporter blocker), the opposite was observed in the striatum. The results of this study indicate that [{sup 123}I]nor-{beta}-CIT, although not being a selective radioligand, binds specifically to serotonin transporters in the hypothalamus in vivo and thus suggest that [{sup 123}I]nor-{beta}-CIT promises to be a suitable radioligand for single-photon emission tomography imaging of serotonin transporters in humans. (orig.) With 1 fig., 2 tabs., 15 refs.

  12. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen

    2015-08-31

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows' milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows' milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows' milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  13. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebely Pal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows’ milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows’ milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows’ milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  14. Evaluation of indoramin added to oxprenolol and bendrofluazide as a third agent in severe hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, A J; Kettle, M A; Barritt, D W

    1980-09-01

    1 Indoramin, an alpha-adrenoreceptor blocking agent has been given as a third agent to patients with severe hypertension treated with adequate doses of a beta-adrenoceptor blocking drug and a thiazide diuretic. 2 A further fall in blood pressure followed the addition of indoramin. With 75 mg twice daily this was on average a fall of 12% of mean arterial pressure in the supine position, 16% standing an 17% after exercise. 3 The rise in blood pressure caused by isometric exercise was not altered by indoramin. 4 Indoramin slowed the heart rate. On 75 mg twice daily the reduction was 14% at rest and 19% after exercise. 5 Side effects of indoramin were sedation, sleep disturbance and vivid dreams.

  15. Comparison of a new adrenal scanning agent, 6-methyl-75Se-selenomethyl-19-norcholest-5(10)-en-3beta-ol(75Se-Scintadren) and 6beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholest-5(10)-en-3beta-ol(131I-Adosterol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seto, Hikaru; Futatsuya, Ryusuke; Mori, Hirofumi; Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Hisada, Kinichi

    1979-01-01

    Tissue distribution study in rats and adrenal uptake in humans were carried out with 6 methyl- 75 Se-selenomethyl-19-norcholest-5(10)-en-3β-ol ( 75 Se-Scintadren) and 6β-iodomethyl-19-norcholest-5(10)-en-3β-ol ( 131 I-Adosterol). At Day 7, concentration of 75 Se-Scintadren in the adrenals was 8.9% kg dose/gm, which is approximately 40% of 131 I-Adosterol and adrenal-to-liver concentration ratio was about 30% of 131 I-Adosterol in rats. From the rat data and sequential adrenal uptake measurement in humans, it is recommended to take human adrenal images at 5 days later after a dose administration. However there are several advantages of 75 Se-Scintadren versus 131 I-Adosterol. On the contrary to the rat data, adrenal uptake in humans was calculated about 0.20 - 0.41% dose, which is nearly as same as that, of 131 I-Adosterol. Furthermore, counting efficiency of 75 Se with a scinitillation camera is 2.3 times that of 131 I. The advantages are as follows: (1) Administered dose can be reduced one-fourth of 131 I-Adosterol. (2) Estimated absorbed doses of adrenals were 99.8 rads/mCi extrapolated from the rat data and 31.6 - 63.2 rads/mCi from the human data, which are significantly less than that of 131 I-Adosterol per administered dose. (3) No thyroid-blocking is required. (4) Shelf-life is longer than that of 131 I-Adosterol. (author)

  16. Beta Blockers Suppress Dextrose-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Oxidative Stress, and Apoptosis in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Michael J; Kurban, William; Shah, Harshit; Onstead-Haas, Luisa; Mooradian, Arshag D

    Beta blockers are known to have favorable effects on endothelial function partly because of their capacity to reduce oxidative stress. To determine whether beta blockers can also prevent dextrose-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in addition to their antioxidative effects, human coronary artery endothelial cells and hepatocyte-derived HepG2 cells were treated with 27.5 mM dextrose for 24 hours in the presence of carvedilol (a lipophilic beta blockers with alpha blocking activity), propranolol (a lipophilic nonselective beta blockers), and atenolol (a water-soluble selective beta blockers), and ER stress, oxidative, stress and cell death were measured. ER stress was measured using the placental alkaline phosphatase assay and Western blot analysis of glucose regulated protein 78, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), phospho-JNK, eukaryotic initiating factor 2α (eIF2α), and phospho-eIF2α and measurement of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA splicing using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Superoxide (SO) generation was measured using the superoxide-reactive probe 2-methyl-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-A]pyrazin-3-one hydrochloride (MCLA) chemiluminescence. Cell viability was measured by propidium iodide staining method. The ER stress, SO production, and cell death induced by 27.5 mM dextrose were inhibited by all 3 beta blockers tested. The antioxidative and ER stress reducing effects of beta blockers were also observed in HepG2 cells. The salutary effects of beta blockers on endothelial cells in reducing both ER stress and oxidative stress may contribute to the cardioprotective effects of these agents.

  17. Dopaminergic and beta-adrenergic effects on gastric antral motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, K; Hovendal, C P; Gottrup, F

    1984-01-01

    of bethanechol or pentagastrin inducing motor activity patterns as in the phase III of the MMC and the digestive state respectively. The stimulated antral motility was dose-dependently inhibited by dopamine. The effect was significantly blocked by specifically acting dopaminergic blockers, while alpha- and beta......-adrenergic blockers were without any significant effects. Dose-response experiments with bethanechol and dopamine showed inhibition of a non-competitive type. Isoprenaline was used alone and in conjunction with selective blockade of beta 1- and beta 2-receptors during infusion of bethanechol which induces a pattern...... similar to phase III in the migrating myoelectric complex. The stimulated antral motility was dose-dependently inhibited by isoprenaline. The effect could be significantly blocked by propranolol (beta 1 + beta 2-adrenoceptor blocker) and by using in conjunction the beta 1-adrenoceptor blocker practolol...

  18. Chemical encapsulation of rocuronium by synthetic cyclodextrin derivatives: reversal of neuromuscular block in anaesthetized Rhesus monkeys.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, H.D. de; Egmond, J. van; Pol, F. van de; Bom, A.; Booij, L.H.D.J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At present, reversal of neuromuscular block induced by steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) is achieved by administration of cholinesterase inhibitors. Chemical encapsulation of steroidal NMBAs, such as rocuronium, by a cyclodextrin is a new concept in neuromuscular block

  19. Functional characterization of the beta-adrenergic receptor subtypes expressed by CA1 pyramidal cells in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Kristin L; Doze, Van A; Porter, James E

    2005-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that activation of the beta-adrenergic receptor (AR) using the selective beta-AR agonist isoproterenol (ISO) facilitates pyramidal cell long-term potentiation in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region of the rat hippocampus. We have previously analyzed beta-AR genomic expression patterns of 17 CA1 pyramidal cells using single cell reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, demonstrating that all samples expressed the beta2-AR transcript, with four of the 17 cells additionally expressing mRNA for the beta1-AR subtype. However, it has not been determined which beta-AR subtypes are functionally expressed in CA1 for these same pyramidal neurons. Using cell-attached recordings, we tested the ability of ISO to increase pyramidal cell action potential (AP) frequency in the presence of subtype-selective beta-AR antagonists. ICI-118,551 [(+/-)-1-[2,3-(dihydro-7-methyl-1H-inden-4-yl)oxy]-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-2-butanol] and butoxamine [alpha-[1-(t-butylamino)ethyl]-2,5-dimethoxybenzyl alcohol) hydrochloride], agents that selectively block the beta2-AR, produced significant parallel rightward shifts in the concentration-response curves for ISO. From these curves, apparent equilibrium dissociation constant (K(b)) values of 0.3 nM for ICI-118,551 and 355 nM for butoxamine were calculated using Schild regression analysis. Conversely, effective concentrations of the selective beta1-AR antagonists CGP 20712A [(+/-)-2-hydroxy-5-[2-([2-hydroxy-3-(4-[1-methyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-imidazol-2-yl]phenoxy)propyl]amino)ethoxy]-benzamide methanesulfonate] and atenolol [4-[2'-hydroxy-3'-(isopropyl-amino)propoxy]phenylacetamide] did not significantly affect the pyramidal cell response to ISO. However, at higher concentrations, atenolol significantly decreased the potency for ISO-mediated AP frequencies. From these curves, an apparent atenolol K(b) value of 3162 nM was calculated. This pharmacological profile for subtype-selective beta-AR antagonists

  20. An efficient, block-by-block algorithm for inverting a block tridiagonal, nearly block Toeplitz matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, Matthew G; Hill, Judith C

    2012-01-01

    We present an algorithm for computing any block of the inverse of a block tridiagonal, nearly block Toeplitz matrix (defined as a block tridiagonal matrix with a small number of deviations from the purely block Toeplitz structure). By exploiting both the block tridiagonal and the nearly block Toeplitz structures, this method scales independently of the total number of blocks in the matrix and linearly with the number of deviations. Numerical studies demonstrate this scaling and the advantages of our method over alternatives.

  1. Beta Emission and Bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-13

    Bremsstrahlung is continuous radiation produced by beta particles decelerating in matter; different beta emitters have different endpoint energies; high-energy betas interacting with high-Z materials will more likely produce bremsstrahlung; depending on the data, sometimes all you can say is that a beta emitter is present.

  2. Analysis of Block OMP using Block RIP

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jun; Li, Gang; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Xiqin

    2011-01-01

    Orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) is a canonical greedy algorithm for sparse signal reconstruction. When the signal of interest is block sparse, i.e., it has nonzero coefficients occurring in clusters, the block version of OMP algorithm (i.e., Block OMP) outperforms the conventional OMP. In this paper, we demonstrate that a new notion of block restricted isometry property (Block RIP), which is less stringent than standard restricted isometry property (RIP), can be used for a very straightforw...

  3. Biological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... E-Tools Safety and Health Topics / Biological Agents Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... 202) 693-2300 if additional assistance is required. Biological Agents Menu Overview In Focus: Ebola Frederick A. ...

  4. Beta adrenergic receptors in human cavernous tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhabuwala, C.B.; Ramakrishna, C.V.; Anderson, G.F.

    1985-04-01

    Beta adrenergic receptor binding was performed with /sup 125/I iodocyanopindolol on human cavernous tissue membrane fractions from normal tissue and transsexual procedures obtained postoperatively, as well as from postmortem sources. Isotherm binding studies on normal fresh tissues indicated that the receptor density was 9.1 fmoles/mg. with a KD of 23 pM. Tissue stored at room temperature for 4 to 6 hours, then at 4C in saline solution for 19 to 20 hours before freezing showed no significant changes in receptor density or affinity, and provided evidence for the stability of postmortem tissue obtained within the same time period. Beta receptor density of 2 cavernous preparations from transsexual procedures was not significantly different from normal control tissues, and showed that high concentrations of estrogen received by these patients had no effect on beta adrenergic receptor density. Displacement of /sup 125/iodocyanopindolol by 5 beta adrenergic agents demonstrated that 1-propranolol had the greatest affinity followed by ICI 118,551, zinterol, metoprolol and practolol. When the results of these displacement studies were subjected to Scatfit, non- linear regression line analysis, a single binding site was described. Based on the relative potency of the selective beta adrenergic agents it appears that these receptors were of the beta 2 subtype.

  5. The effects of beta-adrenergic blockade on body composition in free-fed and diet-restricted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, L L; Doan, T D; Lennon, D L; Nagle, F J; Lardy, H A

    1987-04-01

    The effects of the non-selective beta-adrenergic blocking agent propranolol (known for its anti-lipolytic activity) on body composition were investigated in growing male rats on normal unrestricted diet (N = 7) and on diet restriction (N = 7, 95% of controls). Three animals in each group were injected i.p. with 30 mg propranolol per kg body weight (bw) dissolved in saline, 5 days/week. This dose attenuates exercising heart rate by 25% and exercise training-induced enzyme activity. The remaining animals received saline. Fat, glycogen, moisture and non-ether extractable residue were determined in the homogenized residue of the whole animal. After 9 weeks on the experimental regimen, bw gain was significantly lower in the diet restricted rats, whereas propranolol had no effect on the bw gain. The percentage of fat, moisture and non-ether extractable residue were unchanged by either propranolol or diet restriction. However, glycogen content was significantly lower in the beta-blocked rats either with or without diet restriction. These data indicated that neither beta-adrenergic blockade nor minimal diet restriction influences the percentage body fat, whereas body glycogen content is decreased under both conditions.

  6. Research in 'prostatitis syndromes': the use of alfuzosin (a new alpha 1-receptor-blocking agent) in patients mainly presenting with micturition complaints of an irritative nature and confirmed urodynamic abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de la Rosette, J. J.; Karthaus, H. F.; van Kerrebroeck, P. E.; de Boo, T.; Debruyne, F. M.

    1992-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 20 patients with 'prostatitis syndromes' and confirmed urodynamic abnormalities using the alpha 1-receptor-blocking compound alfuzosin is reported. Flow rate recordings are probably the most reliable and useful objective variables in this type of

  7. Ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia is becoming increasingly popular. The supraclavicular block has been transformed by ultrasound guidance into a potentially safe superficial block. We reviewed the techniques of performing supraclavicular block with special focus on ultrasound guidance.

  8. Levered and unlevered Beta

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2003-01-01

    We prove that in a world without leverage cost the relationship between the levered beta ( L) and the unlevered beta ( u) is the No-costs-of-leverage formula: L = u + ( u - d) D (1 - T) / E. We also analyze 6 alternative valuation theories proposed in the literature to estimate the relationship between the levered beta and the unlevered beta (Harris and Pringle (1985), Modigliani and Miller (1963), Damodaran (1994), Myers (1974), Miles and Ezzell (1980), and practitioners) and prove that all ...

  9. Effects of the beta-carbolines, harmane and pinoline, on insulin secretion from isolated human islets of Langerhans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, E Jane; Hudson, Alan L; Parker, Christine A; Morgan, Noel G

    2003-12-15

    It is well known that certain imidazoline compounds can stimulate insulin secretion and this has been attributed to the activation of imidazoline I(3) binding sites in the pancreatic beta-cell. Recently, it has been proposed that beta-carbolines may be endogenous ligands having activity at imidazoline sites and we have, therefore, studied the effects of beta-carbolines on insulin secretion. The beta-carbolines harmane, norharmane and pinoline increased insulin secretion two- to threefold from isolated human islets of Langerhans. The effects of harmane and pinoline were dose-dependent (EC(50): 5 and 25 microM, respectively) and these agents also blocked the inhibitory effects of the potassium channel agonist, diazoxide, on glucose-induced insulin release. Stimulation of insulin secretion by harmane was glucose-dependent but, unlike the imidazoline I(3) receptor agonist efaroxan, it increased the rate of insulin release beyond that elicited by 20 mM glucose (20 mM glucose alone: 253+/-34% vs. basal; 20 mM glucose plus 100 microM harmane: 327+/-15%; P<0.01). Stimulation of insulin secretion by harmane was attenuated by the imidazoline I(3) receptor antagonist KU14R (2 (2-ethyl 2,3-dihydro-2-benzofuranyl)-2-imidazole) and was reduced when islets were treated with efaroxan for 18 h, prior to the addition of harmane. The results reveal that beta-carbolines can potentiate the rate of insulin secretion from human islets and suggest that these agents may be useful prototypes for the development of novel insulin secretagogues.

  10. Beta Thalassemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Beta Thalassemia KidsHealth / For Parents / Beta Thalassemia What's in this ... Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Print en español Beta talasemia Thalassemias Thalassemias are a group of blood disorders that ...

  11. Forward-Looking Betas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Vainberg, Gregory

    Few issues are more important for finance practice than the computation of market betas. Existing approaches compute market betas using historical data. While these approaches differ in terms of statistical sophistication and the modeling of the time-variation in the betas, they are all backward......-looking. This paper introduces a radically different approach to estimating market betas. Using the tools in Bakshi and Madan (2000) and Bakshi, Kapadia and Madan (2003) we employ the information embedded in the prices of individual stock options and index options to compute our forward-looking market beta...

  12. Proteolytically modified human beta 2-microglobulin augments the specific cytotoxic activity in murine mixed lymphocyte culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Holst; Claësson, M H

    1987-01-01

    the endogenous production of interleukin 2 in the MLC culture; monoclonal antibody which reacts with both the native beta 2-m and M-beta 2-m molecule blocks the augmentation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte production induced by M-beta 2-m; murine as well as human MLC responder cells can proteolytically modify native......A proteolytically modified form of beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-m) present in the serum of patients suffering from autoimmune, immunodeficient diseases and cancer has been reported in the literature. In the present study we show that human beta 2-m as well as the proteolytically modified human form...... (M-beta 2-m) bind to murine lymphocytes expressing H-2 class I antigens; M-beta 2-m, when added at day 0 and 1 of culture in nanomolar concentrations to a one-way murine allogeneic mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) augments the generation of specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes; M-beta 2-m increases...

  13. Homogeneous bilateral block shifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Douglas class were classified in [3]; they are unilateral block shifts of arbitrary block size (i.e. dim H(n) can be anything). However, no examples of irreducible homogeneous bilateral block shifts of block size larger than 1 were known until now.

  14. Synaptic transmission block by presynaptic injection of oligomeric amyloid beta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Herman; Yu, Eunah; Pigino, Gustavo; Hernandez, Alejandro I.; Kim, Natalia; Moreira, Jorge E.; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinás, Rodolfo R.

    2009-01-01

    Early Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathophysiology is characterized by synaptic changes induced by degradation products of amyloid precursor protein (APP). The exact mechanisms of such modulation are unknown. Here, we report that nanomolar concentrations of intraaxonal oligomeric (o)Aβ42, but not oAβ40 or extracellular oAβ42, acutely inhibited synaptic transmission at the squid giant synapse. Further characterization of this phenotype demonstrated that presynaptic calcium currents were unaffected. However, electron microscopy experiments revealed diminished docked synaptic vesicles in oAβ42-microinjected terminals, without affecting clathrin-coated vesicles. The molecular events of this modulation involved casein kinase 2 and the synaptic vesicle rapid endocytosis pathway. These findings open the possibility of a new therapeutic target aimed at ameliorating synaptic dysfunction in AD. PMID:19304802

  15. Testing block subdivision algorithms on block designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Natalie; Patterson, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Integrated land use-transportation models predict future transportation demand taking into account how households and firms arrange themselves partly as a function of the transportation system. Recent integrated models require parcels as inputs and produce household and employment predictions at the parcel scale. Block subdivision algorithms automatically generate parcel patterns within blocks. Evaluating block subdivision algorithms is done by way of generating parcels and comparing them to those in a parcel database. Three block subdivision algorithms are evaluated on how closely they reproduce parcels of different block types found in a parcel database from Montreal, Canada. While the authors who developed each of the algorithms have evaluated them, they have used their own metrics and block types to evaluate their own algorithms. This makes it difficult to compare their strengths and weaknesses. The contribution of this paper is in resolving this difficulty with the aim of finding a better algorithm suited to subdividing each block type. The proposed hypothesis is that given the different approaches that block subdivision algorithms take, it's likely that different algorithms are better adapted to subdividing different block types. To test this, a standardized block type classification is used that consists of mutually exclusive and comprehensive categories. A statistical method is used for finding a better algorithm and the probability it will perform well for a given block type. Results suggest the oriented bounding box algorithm performs better for warped non-uniform sites, as well as gridiron and fragmented uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel areas and widths. The Generalized Parcel Divider 1 algorithm performs better for gridiron non-uniform sites. The Straight Skeleton algorithm performs better for loop and lollipop networks as well as fragmented non-uniform and warped uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel shapes and patterns.

  16. Poly(ferrocenylsilane)-block-Polylactide Block Copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, M.; van Zanten, Thomas S.; Hempenius, Mark A.; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Feijen, Jan; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2007-01-01

    A PFS/PLA block copolymer was studied to probe the effect of strong surface interactions on pattern formation in PFS block copolymer thin films. Successful synthesis of PFS-b-PLA was demonstrated. Thin films of these polymers show phase separation to form PFS microdomains in a PLA matrix, and

  17. Betting Against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model’s five central predictions: (1) Since constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for U...... of the BAB factor is low; (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one; (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets........S. equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures; (2) A betting-against-beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns; (3) When funding constraints tighten, the return...

  18. Roughing up Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Li, Sophia Zhengzi; Todorov, Viktor

    -section. An investment strategy that goes long stocks with high jump betas and short stocks with low jump betas produces significant average excess returns. These higher risk premiums for the discontinuous and overnight market betas remain significant after controlling for a long list of other firm characteristics......Motivated by the implications from a stylized equilibrium pricing framework, we investigate empirically how individual equity prices respond to continuous, or \\smooth," and jumpy, or \\rough," market price moves, and how these different market price risks, or betas, are priced in the cross......-section of expected returns. Based on a novel highfrequency dataset of almost one-thousand individual stocks over two decades, we find that the two rough betas associated with intraday discontinuous and overnight returns entail significant risk premiums, while the intraday continuous beta is not priced in the cross...

  19. Beta limits for ETF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, F.J.; Miller, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    ETF (Engineering Test Facility) one-dimensional transport simulations indicate that a volume-average beta of 4% is required for ignition. It is therefore important that theoretical beta limits, determined by requiring equilibria to be stable to all ideal modes, exceed 4%. This paper documents an ideal MHD analysis wherein it is shown that, with appropriate plasma cross-sectional shape and current profile optimization, operation near 5% is possible. The critical beta value, however, depends on the functional form used for ff', which suggests that higher critical betas could be achieved by directly optimizing the safety factor profile. (author)

  20. Beta-energy averaging and beta spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamatelatos, M.G.; England, T.R.

    1976-07-01

    A simple yet highly accurate method for approximately calculating spectrum-averaged beta energies and beta spectra for radioactive nuclei is presented. This method should prove useful for users who wish to obtain accurate answers without complicated calculations of Fermi functions, complex gamma functions, and time-consuming numerical integrations as required by the more exact theoretical expressions. Therefore, this method should be a good time-saving alternative for investigators who need to make calculations involving large numbers of nuclei (e.g., fission products) as well as for occasional users interested in restricted number of nuclides. The average beta-energy values calculated by this method differ from those calculated by ''exact'' methods by no more than 1 percent for nuclides with atomic numbers in the 20 to 100 range and which emit betas of energies up to approximately 8 MeV. These include all fission products and the actinides. The beta-energy spectra calculated by the present method are also of the same quality

  1. A Novel Dimeric Inhibitor Targeting Beta2GPI in Beta2GPI/Antibody Complexes Implicated in Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A Kolyada; C Lee; A De Biasio; N Beglova

    2011-12-31

    {beta}2GPI is a major antigen for autoantibodies associated with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), an autoimmune disease characterized by thrombosis and recurrent pregnancy loss. Only the dimeric form of {beta}2GPI generated by anti-{beta}2GPI antibodies is pathologically important, in contrast to monomeric {beta}2GPI which is abundant in plasma. We created a dimeric inhibitor, A1-A1, to selectively target {beta}2GPI in {beta}2GPI/antibody complexes. To make this inhibitor, we isolated the first ligand-binding module from ApoER2 (A1) and connected two A1 modules with a flexible linker. A1-A1 interferes with two pathologically important interactions in APS, the binding of {beta}2GPI/antibody complexes with anionic phospholipids and ApoER2. We compared the efficiency of A1-A1 to monomeric A1 for inhibition of the binding of {beta}2GPI/antibody complexes to anionic phospholipids. We tested the inhibition of {beta}2GPI present in human serum, {beta}2GPI purified from human plasma and the individual domain V of {beta}2GPI. We demonstrated that when {beta}2GPI/antibody complexes are formed, A1-A1 is much more effective than A1 in inhibition of the binding of {beta}2GPI to cardiolipin, regardless of the source of {beta}2GPI. Similarly, A1-A1 strongly inhibits the binding of dimerized domain V of {beta}2GPI to cardiolipin compared to the monomeric A1 inhibitor. In the absence of anti-{beta}2GPI antibodies, both A1-A1 and A1 only weakly inhibit the binding of pathologically inactive monomeric {beta}2GPI to cardiolipin. Our results suggest that the approach of using a dimeric inhibitor to block {beta}2GPI in the pathological multivalent {beta}2GPI/antibody complexes holds significant promise. The novel inhibitor A1-A1 may be a starting point in the development of an effective therapeutic for antiphospholipid syndrome.

  2. Multiblock copolymers synthesized in aqueous dispersions using multifunctional RAFT agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bussels, R.; Bergman-Göttgens, C.M.; Meuldijk, J.; Koning, C.E.

    2005-01-01

    Triblock copolymers were synthesized in aqueous dispersions in two polymerization steps using a low molar mass difunctional dithiocarbamate-based RAFT agent, and in merely one polymerization step using a macromolecular difunctional dithiocarbamate-based RAFT agent. Segmented block copolymers

  3. Synthesis of tritium and carbon-14 labelled N-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)-N-(ethylaminocarbonyl)-6-(2-propenyl) ergoline-8. beta. -carboxamide (cabergoline), a potent long lasting prolactin lowering agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantegani, S.; Brambilla, E.; Ermoli, A.; Fontana, E.; Angiuli, P.; Vicario, G.P. (Farmitalia Carlo Erba s.r.l., Milan (Italy))

    1991-05-01

    The syntheses of {sup 3}H- and {sup 14}C-labelled cabergoline and its analogues are described. Tritiated cabergoline (({sup 3}H)cabergoline), namely N-(3-di-methylaminopropyl)-N-(ethylaminocarbonyl)-6-(2-(2,3-{sup 3}H)-propenyl)ergoline-8{beta}-carboxamide, was obtained, by catalytic reduction with tritium gas, according to two different synthetic procedures: A- a three step route, starting from 6-(2-propargyl)-dihydro lysergic acid-methyl ester gave ({sup 3}H)cabergoline, B - a one step route, starting from 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl-aminopropyl)-3-(6'-(2-propargyl)ergoline-8'-carbonyl )-urea 5' yielded ({sup 3}H)cabergoline. A modification of this last procedure also gave ({sup 3}H)dihydro cabergoline. The synthesis of ({sup 14}C)cabergoline was carried out, in a three step route, by addition of potassium ({sup 14}C)cyanide to 6-(2-propenyl)-8-chloroergoline to give the expected N-(dimethylaminopropyl)-N-(ethylaminocarbonyl)-6-(2-propenyl)-ergoline-8-({sup 14}C)carboxamide, 97% radiochemically pure with a specific radioactivity of 2.09 GBq/mmol and an overall radiochemical yield of 16%. (author).

  4. Iodine-123 labelled nor-beta-CIT binds to the serotonin transporter in vivo as assessed by biodistribution studies in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, J.; Knol, R. J.; Reneman, L.; de Bruin, K.; Janssen, A. G.; van Royen, E. A.

    1998-01-01

    Iodine-123 labelled 2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-4-iodophenylnortropane (nor-beta-CIT), a radioiodinated cocaine analogue, was evaluated as an agent for the in vivo labelling of serotonin transporters by biodistribution studies in rats. Intravenous injection of [123I]nor-beta-CIT resulted in high

  5. Block That Pain!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Block That Pain! Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of ... contrast, most pain relievers used for surgical procedures block activity in all types of neurons. This can ...

  6. Bundle Branch Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... known cause. Causes can include: Left bundle branch block Heart attacks (myocardial infarction) Thickened, stiffened or weakened ... myocarditis) High blood pressure (hypertension) Right bundle branch block A heart abnormality that's present at birth (congenital) — ...

  7. Building blocks of Collagen based biomaterial devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Building blocks of Collagen based biomaterial devices. Collagen as a protein. Collagen in tissues and organs. Stabilizing and cross linking agents. Immunogenicity. Hosts (drugs). Controlled release mechanisms of hosts. Biodegradability, workability into devices ...

  8. High beta tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dory, R.A.; Berger, D.P.; Charlton, L.A.; Hogan, J.T.; Munro, J.K.; Nelson, D.B.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Sigmar, D.J.; Strickler, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    MHD equilibrium, stability, and transport calculations are made to study the accessibility and behavior of ''high beta'' tokamak plasmas in the range β approximately 5 to 15 percent. For next generation devices, beta values of at least 8 percent appear to be accessible and stable if there is a conducting surface nearby

  9. Sorting out Downside Beta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.T. Post (Thierry); P. van Vliet (Pim); S.D. Lansdorp (Simon)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractDownside risk, when properly defined and estimated, helps to explain the cross-section of US stock returns. Sorting stocks by a proper estimate of downside market beta leads to a substantially larger cross-sectional spread in average returns than sorting on regular market beta. This

  10. Betting against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model's five central predictions: (1) Because constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically...

  11. Environmental pollution with antimicrobial agents from bulk drug manufacturing industries in Hyderabad, South India, is associated with dissemination of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase and carbapenemase-producing pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübbert, Christoph; Baars, Christian; Dayakar, Anil; Lippmann, Norman; Rodloff, Arne C; Kinzig, Martina; Sörgel, Fritz

    2017-08-01

    High antibiotic and antifungal concentrations in wastewater from anti-infective drug production may exert selection pressure for multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. We investigated the environmental presence of active pharmaceutical ingredients and their association with MDR Gram-negative bacteria in Hyderabad, South India, a major production area for the global bulk drug market. From Nov 19 to 28, 2016, water samples were collected from the direct environment of bulk drug manufacturing facilities, the vicinity of two sewage treatment plants, the Musi River, and habitats in Hyderabad and nearby villages. Samples were analyzed for 25 anti-infective pharmaceuticals with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and for MDR Gram-negative bacteria using chromogenic culture media. In addition, specimens were screened with PCR for bla VIM , bla KPC , bla NDM , bla IMP-1 , and bla OXA-48 resistance genes. All environmental specimens from 28 different sampling sites were contaminated with antimicrobials. High concentrations of moxifloxacin, voriconazole, and fluconazole (up to 694.1, 2500, and 236,950 µg/L, respectively) as well as increased concentrations of eight other antibiotics were found in sewers in the Patancheru-Bollaram industrial area. Corresponding microbiological analyses revealed an extensive presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermenters (carrying mainly bla OXA-48 , bla NDM , and bla KPC ) in more than 95% of the samples. Insufficient wastewater management by bulk drug manufacturing facilities leads to unprecedented contamination of water resources with antimicrobial pharmaceuticals, which seems to be associated with the selection and dissemination of carbapenemase-producing pathogens. The development and global spread of antimicrobial resistance present a major challenge for pharmaceutical producers and regulatory agencies.

  12. [Alkylating agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourquier, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    With the approval of mechlorethamine by the FDA in 1949 for the treatment of hematologic malignancies, alkylating agents are the oldest class of anticancer agents. Even though their clinical use is far beyond the use of new targeted therapies, they still occupy a major place in specific indications and sometimes represent the unique option for the treatment of refractory diseases. Here, we are reviewing the major classes of alkylating agents and their mechanism of action, with a particular emphasis for the new generations of alkylating agents. As for most of the chemotherapeutic agents used in the clinic, these compounds are derived from natural sources. With a complex but original mechanism of action, they represent new interesting alternatives for the clinicians, especially for tumors that are resistant to conventional DNA damaging agents. We also briefly describe the different strategies that have been or are currently developed to potentiate the use of classical alkylating agents, especially the inhibition of pathways that are involved in the repair of DNA lesions induced by these agents. In this line, the development of PARP inhibitors is a striking example of the recent regain of interest towards the "old" alkylating agents.

  13. Metalo-beta-lactamases Metallo-beta-lactamases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Elisandro Mendes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos tem sido observada maior incidência de bacilos Gram-negativos resistentes a cefalosporinas de espectro ampliado no ambiente hospitalar, ocasionando, assim, maior uso de betalactâmicos mais potentes, como os carbapenens. A utilização de carbapenens exerce maior pressão seletiva sobre a microbiota hospitalar, o que pode ocasionar aumento da resistência a esses agentes. Entre os mecanismos de resistência a carbapenens mais comumente identificados estão a produção de betalactamases, como, por exemplo, as pertencentes à classe D de Ambler e as que pertencem à classe B de Ambler, ou metalo-beta-lactamases (MbetaL. Essas últimas hidrolisam todos betalactâmicos comercialmente disponíveis, sendo a única exceção o monobactam aztreonam. Desde o início da década de 1990, novos genes que codificam MbetaLs têm sido descritos em microrganismos clinicamente importantes, como Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter spp. e membros da família Enterobacteriaceae. O encontro desses microrganismos não-sensíveis a carbapenens pode ser submetido a metodologias fenotípicas para detecção da produção de MbetaL com o intuito de auxiliar a Comissão de Controle de Infecção Hospitalar (CCIH e prevenir a disseminação desses determinantes de resistência, uma vez que genes que codificam MbetaLs estão contidos em estruturas genéticas que propiciam sua mobilidade de forma muito efetiva, sendo então facilmente disseminados.Increase isolation of Gram-negative bacilli resistant to broad-spectrum cephalosporin has been observed during the last few years, thus determining the use of more potent beta-lactams, such as carbapenems. The use of these antimicrobial agents may lead to the emergence of carbapenem resistant Gram-negative bacilli in the nosocomial environment. Carbapenem resistance may be due to the production of Ambler class D beta-lactamase or Ambler class B beta-lactamase, also called metallo-beta-lactamase (MbetaL. Apart from

  14. Genetics Home Reference: beta thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Beta thalassemia Beta thalassemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Beta thalassemia is a blood disorder that reduces the production ...

  15. Adrenergic beta 2-selective blocker in isoprenaline-enhanced essential tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teräväinen, H; Huttunen, J

    1987-01-01

    A beta 2-selective adrenergic-receptor-blocking drug, ICI 118.551, 150 mg/day, prevented almost as effectively as the nonselective antagonist propranolol, 240 mg/day, the isoprenaline enhancement of essential tremor amplitude.

  16. Generalized Block Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Block tearing is considered in several codes as a pure block tension or a pure block shear failure mechanism. However in many situations the load acts eccentrically and involves the transfer of a substantial moment in combination with the shear force and perhaps a normal force. A literature study...... shows that no readily available tests with a well-defined substantial eccentricity have been performed. This paper presents theoretical and experimental work leading towards generalized block failure capacity methods. Simple combination of normal force, shear force and moment stress distributions along...... yield lines around the block leads to simple interaction formulas similar to other interaction formulas in the codes....

  17. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  18. Comparative studies of the influence of cyclodextrins on the stability of the sunscreen agent, 2-ethylhexyl-p-methoxycinnamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalia, Santo; Casolari, Alberto; Iaconinoto, Antonietta; Simeoni, Silvia

    2002-11-07

    The effects of beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) on the base-catalyzed degradation and light-induced decomposition of the sunscreen agent, trans-2-ethylhexyl-p-methoxycinnamate (trans-EHMC) were investigated. Reversed-phase liquid chromatography was used to study the interaction between natural and modified cyclodextrins, added to the mobile phase, and the sunscreen. Among the available cyclodextrins (beta-CD, HP-beta-CD, hydroxypropyl-alpha-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-gamma-cyclodextrin), only HP-beta-CD and beta-CD produced a significant decrease in the chromatographic retention of trans-EHMC. The complexation of the sunscreen agent with HP-beta-CD and beta-CD was confirmed by thermal analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. beta-CD depressed the decomposition of trans-EHMC in alkaline solutions more effectively than HP-beta-CD. Moreover, the irradiation-induced degradation of the sunscreen agent in emulsion vehicles was reduced by complexation with beta-CD (the extent of degradation was 26.1% for the complex compared to 35.8% for free trans-EHMC) whereas HP-beta-CD had no significant effect. Therefore, the complex of beta-CD with trans-EHMC enhances the chemical- and photo-stability of the sunscreen agent. Moreover, it limits adverse interactions of the UV filter with other formulation ingredients.

  19. ADAM12 and alpha9beta1 integrin are instrumental in human myogenic cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafuste, Peggy; Sonnet, Corinne; Chazaud, Bénédicte

    2005-01-01

    of alpha9 parallels that of ADAM12 and culminates at time of fusion. alpha9 and ADAM12 coimmunoprecipitate and participate to mpc adhesion. Inhibition of ADAM12/alpha9beta1 integrin interplay, by either ADAM12 antisense oligonucleotides or blocking antibody to alpha9beta1, inhibited overall mpc fusion...

  20. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Efird

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  1. 31 CFR 595.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 595.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked...

  2. Beta particle measurement fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The necessary concepts for understanding beta particle behavior are stopping power, range, and scattering. Dose as a consequence of beta particle interaction with tissue can be derived and explained by these concepts. Any calculations of dose, however, assume or require detailed knowledge of the beta spectrum at the tissue depth of calculation. A rudimentary knowledge of the incident spectrum can be of use in estimating dose, interpretating dose measuring devices and designing protection. The stopping power and range based on the csda will give a conservative estimate in cases of protection design, as scattering will reduce the range. Estimates of dose may be low because scattering effects were neglected

  3. Amphiphilic block copolymers for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Monica L; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh; Kwon, Glen S

    2003-07-01

    Amphiphilic block copolymers (ABCs) have been used extensively in pharmaceutical applications ranging from sustained-release technologies to gene delivery. The utility of ABCs for delivery of therapeutic agents results from their unique chemical composition, which is characterized by a hydrophilic block that is chemically tethered to a hydrophobic block. In aqueous solution, polymeric micelles are formed via the association of ABCs into nanoscopic core/shell structures at or above the critical micelle concentration. Upon micellization, the hydrophobic core regions serve as reservoirs for hydrophobic drugs, which may be loaded by chemical, physical, or electrostatic means, depending on the specific functionalities of the core-forming block and the solubilizate. Although the Pluronics, composed of poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(propylene oxide)-block-poly(ethylene oxide), are the most widely studied ABC system, copolymers containing poly(L-amino acid) and poly(ester) hydrophobic blocks have also shown great promise in delivery applications. Because each ABC has unique advantages with respect to drug delivery, it may be possible to choose appropriate block copolymers for specific purposes, such as prolonging circulation time, introduction of targeting moieties, and modification of the drug-release profile. ABCs have been used for numerous pharmaceutical applications including drug solubilization/stabilization, alteration of the pharmacokinetic profile of encapsulated substances, and suppression of multidrug resistance. The purpose of this minireview is to provide a concise, yet detailed, introduction to the use of ABCs and polymeric micelles as delivery agents as well as to highlight current and past work in this area. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  4. Beta-blockers for prevention and treatment of retinopathy of prematurity in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaempfen, Siree; Neumann, Roland P; Jost, Kerstin; Schulzke, Sven M

    2018-03-02

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a vision-threatening disease of preterm neonates. The use of beta-adrenergic blocking agents (beta-blockers), which modulate the vasoproliferative retinal process, may reduce the progression of ROP or even reverse established ROP. To determine the effect of beta-blockers on short-term structural outcomes, long-term functional outcomes, and the need for additional treatment, when used either as prophylaxis in preterm infants without ROP, stage 1 ROP (zone I), or stage 2 ROP (zone II) without plus disease or as treatment in preterm infants with at least prethreshold ROP. We searched the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group Specialized Register; CENTRAL (in the Cochrane Library Issue 7, 2017); Embase (January 1974 to 7 August 2017); PubMed (January 1966 to 7 August 2017); and CINAHL (January 1982 to 7 August 2017). We checked references and cross-references and handsearched abstracts from the proceedings of the Pediatric Academic Societies Meetings. We considered for inclusion randomised or quasi-randomised clinical trials that used beta-blockers for prevention or treatment of ROP in preterm neonates of less than 37 weeks' gestational age. We used the standard methods of Cochrane and the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. We included three randomised trials (N = 366) in this review. Two of these studies were at high risk of bias. All studies reported on prevention of ROP and compared oral propranolol with placebo or no treatment. We found no trials assessing beta-blockers in infants with established stage 2 or higher ROP with plus disease.In one trial, study medication was started after one week of life, i.e. prior to the first ROP screening. The other two trials included preterm infants if they had stage 2 or lower ROP without plus disease. Based on the GRADE assessment, we considered evidence to be of low quality for the following outcomes: rescue treatment with anti-VEGF or

  5. Beta adrenoreceptors in the rabbit bladder detrusor muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, G.F.; Marks, B.H.

    1984-01-01

    This study examines the beta adrenergic receptors of the rabbit detrusor smooth muscle, employing [ 125 I]iodocyanopindolol (ICYP) as a ligand for the binding of beta adrenergic receptors. Saturation binding experiments on the isolated membrane fraction yielded a KD for ICYP of 14.7 pM and a maximum binding of 147.6 fmol/mg of protein. Displacement of labeled ICYP by a series of beta adrenergic agents yielded the following KD values for the combined high and low affinity binding sites: I-propranolol, 0.76 nM; ICI 118,551, 1.7 nM; zinterol, 38.0 nM; metoprolol, 3.5 microM; and practolol, 61.4 microM. When these displacement experimental results were compared to KD values from other reported binding studies with ICYP for beta adrenoreceptors, both the order of potency and the KD values indicated primarily beta-2 adrenergic receptor subtypes. Computer program Scatfit analysis of the displacement curves indicated a single slope and affinity constant for all five beta adrenergic agents. Hofstee plots for zinterol, ICI 118,551 and metoprolol, however, were not linear and indicated that minor populations of beta-1 adrenoreceptors were also present as both high and low affinity binding sites could be defined. It is concluded that the primary receptor population is beta-2 and that this tissue is heterogenous with a small population of beta-1 adrenoreceptors representing approximately 13 to 23% of the total beta adrenoreceptor population

  6. Beta adrenoreceptors in the rabbit bladder detrusor muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, G.F.; Marks, B.H.

    1984-02-01

    This study examines the beta adrenergic receptors of the rabbit detrusor smooth muscle, employing (/sup 125/I)iodocyanopindolol (ICYP) as a ligand for the binding of beta adrenergic receptors. Saturation binding experiments on the isolated membrane fraction yielded a KD for ICYP of 14.7 pM and a maximum binding of 147.6 fmol/mg of protein. Displacement of labeled ICYP by a series of beta adrenergic agents yielded the following KD values for the combined high and low affinity binding sites: I-propranolol, 0.76 nM; ICI 118,551, 1.7 nM; zinterol, 38.0 nM; metoprolol, 3.5 microM; and practolol, 61.4 microM. When these displacement experimental results were compared to KD values from other reported binding studies with ICYP for beta adrenoreceptors, both the order of potency and the KD values indicated primarily beta-2 adrenergic receptor subtypes. Computer program Scatfit analysis of the displacement curves indicated a single slope and affinity constant for all five beta adrenergic agents. Hofstee plots for zinterol, ICI 118,551 and metoprolol, however, were not linear and indicated that minor populations of beta-1 adrenoreceptors were also present as both high and low affinity binding sites could be defined. It is concluded that the primary receptor population is beta-2 and that this tissue is heterogenous with a small population of beta-1 adrenoreceptors representing approximately 13 to 23% of the total beta adrenoreceptor population.

  7. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-06

    Oct 6, 2012 ... Anyhow, the 'multi-isotope' ansatz is needed to compensate for matrix element ... The neccessary half-life requirement to touch this ... site energy depositions (like double beta decay) and multiple site interactions (most of.

  8. Beta-Carotene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease (COPD). It is also used to improve memory and muscle strength. Some people use beta-carotene ... to reduce the chance of death and night blindness during pregnancy, as well as diarrhea and fever ...

  9. Double beta decay: experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorini, Ettore

    2006-01-01

    The results obtained so far and those of the running experiments on neutrinoless double beta decay are reviewed. The plans for second generation experiments, the techniques to be adopted and the expected sensitivities are compared and discussed

  10. Block Cipher Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miolane, Charlotte Vikkelsø

    ensurethat no attack violatesthe securitybounds specifiedbygeneric attack namely exhaustivekey search and table lookup attacks. This thesis contains a general introduction to cryptography with focus on block ciphers and important block cipher designs, in particular the Advanced Encryption Standard(AES...... on small scale variants of AES. In the final part of the thesis we present a new block cipher proposal Present and examine its security against algebraic and differential cryptanalysis in particular....

  11. Chemical Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CR) see Riot Control Agents Digitalis Distilled mustard (HD) see Sulfur mustard E Ethylene glycol F Fentanyls and other opioids H Hydrazine Hydrofluoric acid (hydrogen fluoride) Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen cyanide (AC) Hydrogen ...

  12. Potential targets of transforming growth factor-beta1 during inhibition of oocyte maturation in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelland Eric

    2005-09-01

    follicles. On the other hand, TGF-beta1 had no effect on mPR-alpha mRNA expression and increased FSHR mRNA levels. Furthermore, hCG upregulated 20beta-HSD, LHR and mPR-beta mRNA levels, but this stimulatory effect was blocked by TGF-beta1. Conclusion These findings suggest that TGF-beta1 acts at multiple sites, including LHR, 20beta-HSD and mPR-beta, to inhibit zebrafish oocyte maturation.

  13. HLA Dr beta 1 alleles in Pakistani patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqi, N.; Ahmed, T.A.; Bashir, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine frequencies of HLA DR beta 1 alleles in rheumatoid arthritis in Pakistani patients. Study Design: Cross sectional / analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Immunology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi in collaboration with Rheumatology departments of Military Hospital, Rawalpindi and Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, from January 2009 to January 2010. Methodology: HLA DR beta 1 genotyping of one hundred Pakistani patients, diagnosed as having RA as per American College of Rheumatology revised criteria 1987, was done. HLA DR beta 1 genotyping was carried out at allele group level (DR beta 1*01-DR beta 1*16) by sequence specific primers in RA patients. Comparison of HLA DR beta 1 allele frequencies between patients and control groups was made using Pearson's chi-square test to find possible association of HLA DR?1 alleles with RA in Pakistani rheumatoid patients. Results: HLA DR beta 1*04 was expressed with significantly increased frequency in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (p <0.05). HLA DR?1*11 was expressed statistically significantly more in control group as compared to rheumatoid patients indicating a possible protective effect. There was no statistically significant difference observed in frequencies of HLA DR beta 1 allele *01, DR beta 1 allele *03, DR beta 1 allele *07, DR beta 1 allele *08, DR beta 1 allele *09, DR beta 1 allele *10, DR beta 1 allele *12, DR beta 1 allele *13, DR beta 1 allele *14, DR?1 allele *15 and DR beta 1 allele *16 between patients and control groups. Conclusion: The identification of susceptible HLA DR beta 1 alleles in Pakistani RA patients may help physicians to make early decisions regarding initiation of early intensive therapy with disease modifying anti rheumatic medicines and biological agents decreasing disability in RA patients. (author)

  14. Formulary considerations in selection of beta-blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedinak, K C

    1993-08-01

    Selection of beta-adrenergic blockers for formulary addition can be a difficult task, especially with the increasing availability of new beta-blockers, as well as the numerous differences in pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of currently available agents. Nevertheless, appropriate evaluation of the important characteristics of beta-blockers should allow selection of the most cost-effective agents for formulary addition. Most importantly, differences in efficacy, product formulation and cost should be carefully considered when making formulary decisions. Notably, evidence from clinical trials indicates differences in efficacy among beta-blockers for post-myocardial infarction prophylaxis, situational anxiety, essential tremor, thyrotoxicosis, migraine prophylaxis and prevention of bleeding associated with oesophageal varices. For many clinical situations, it is also important to select an effective agent that is available in both an oral and intravenous formulation, especially for cardioprotection after acute myocardial infarction and for use in supraventricular arrhythmias. In addition, availability of sustained release products and generic formulations should be considered for their potential to increase compliance and decrease cost, respectively. Comparative drug costs, as well as costs associated with decreased compliance, should also be carefully evaluated. Differences in beta-receptor selectivity, duration of action and presence of intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA) are also important considerations in the selection of beta-blockers for formulary consideration. Although degree of selectivity is relative, beta 1-selective agents may be less likely to induce bronchospasm in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and may be less likely to affect glucose homeostasis in patients with diabetes mellitus. Duration of action of a beta-blocker is an important consideration for evaluation of efficacy throughout the recommended

  15. Related Drupal Nodes Block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Related Drupal Nodes Block This module exposes a block that uses Latent Semantic Analysis (Lsa) internally to suggest three nodes that are relevant to the node a user is viewing. This module performs three tasks. 1) It periodically indexes a Drupal site and generates a Lsa Term Document Matrix.

  16. Designers Block 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickson, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Artiklen indleder med: ved siden aaf Londons etablerede designmesse '100% Design', er der vokset et undergrundsmiljø af designudstillinger op. Det dominerende og mest kendte initiativ er Designers Block, der i år udstillede to steder i byen. Designers Block er et mere uformelt udstillingsforum...

  17. Quantitative NMR Approach to Optimize the Formation of Chemical Building Blocks from Abundant Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elliot, Samuel Gilbert; Tolborg, Søren; Sádaba, Irantzu

    2017-01-01

    -containing catalysts such as Sn-Beta. These compounds are potential building blocks for polyesters with additional olefin and alcohol functionalities. We employ an NMR approach to identify, quantify and optimize the formation these building blocks in the chemocatalytic transformation of abundant carbohydrates by Sn...

  18. Mathematical Validation and Credibility of Diagnostic Blocks for Spinal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Andrew J; Bogduk, Nikolai

    2016-10-01

    Diagnostic blocks are used in different ways for the diagnosis of spinal pain, but their validity has not been fully evaluated. Four clinical protocols were analyzed mathematically to determine the probability of correct responses arising by chance. The complement of this probability was adopted as a measure of the credibility of correct responses. The credibility of responses varied from 50% to 95%, and was determined less by the agents used but more by what information was given to patients and if the agents were fully randomized for each block. Randomized, comparative local anesthetic blocks offer a credibility of 75%, but randomized, placebo-controlled blocks provide a credibility of 95%, and are thereby suitable as a criterion standard for diagnostic blocks. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Boosted beta regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schmid

    Full Text Available Regression analysis with a bounded outcome is a common problem in applied statistics. Typical examples include regression models for percentage outcomes and the analysis of ratings that are measured on a bounded scale. In this paper, we consider beta regression, which is a generalization of logit models to situations where the response is continuous on the interval (0,1. Consequently, beta regression is a convenient tool for analyzing percentage responses. The classical approach to fit a beta regression model is to use maximum likelihood estimation with subsequent AIC-based variable selection. As an alternative to this established - yet unstable - approach, we propose a new estimation technique called boosted beta regression. With boosted beta regression estimation and variable selection can be carried out simultaneously in a highly efficient way. Additionally, both the mean and the variance of a percentage response can be modeled using flexible nonlinear covariate effects. As a consequence, the new method accounts for common problems such as overdispersion and non-binomial variance structures.

  20. Enantioselective synthesis of the novel chiral sulfoxide derivative as a glycogen synthase kinase 3beta inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Morihisa; Kunitomo, Jun; Kimura, Eiji; Yamano, Toru; Itoh, Fumio; Kori, Masakuni

    2010-09-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta) inhibitors are expected to be attractive therapeutic agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently we discovered sulfoxides (S)-1 as a novel GSK-3beta inhibitor having in vivo efficacy. We investigated practical asymmetric preparation methods for the scale-up synthesis of (S)-1. The highly enantioselective synthesis of (S)-1 (94% ee) was achieved by titanium-mediated oxidation with D-(-)-diethyl tartrate on gram scale.

  1. Utility of atropine in patients under beta-blocker effect during exercise stress echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munera, Ana G; Restrepo, Gustavo; Aristizabal, Dagnovar; Cubides, Carlos A

    2006-01-01

    The objective is to assess the usefulness of adding atropine 0.5 to 1.0 mg by intravenous injection during peak exercise in patients under beta-blocker effect that are subjected to exercise stress echocardiography. Population: exercise stress echocardiography was performed in 73 patients receiving beta-blocking agents with basal heart rate below 60 beats per minute (BPM). Two groups were established at random: group I (18 patients that did not receive atropine during maximal exercise) and group II (50 patients from whom 28 received 0.5 mg atropine IV 30 seconds to one minute before concluding the exercise and 22 patients who received 1.0 mg atropine IV 30 seconds to one minute before its conclusion). From a demographic point of view, there were no differences between the two groups. Mean age was 59 ± 10.8 years (57% male). Most of the patients received metoprolol (87%) and no significant statistical differences in relation with the doses were found in these two groups. At the end of the exercise, the patients had a mean heart rate of 84% from their maximal heart rate (MHR). The values post-exercise were 76% at 30 seconds, 68% at 60 sec., 62% at 90 sec., and 59% of the maximal heart rate at 120 sec. When comparing the percentage of the maximal heart rate achieved in maximal exercise and the one observed during the first 120 sec. after exercise, no statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion: during the performance of stress exercise echocardiography, the administration of intravenous atropine was of no use for incrementing the peak heart rate post-exercise in patients with significant beta-blocker effect (basal heart rate < 60 BPM)

  2. Predictability of blocking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, E.; Ruti, P.; Tibaldi, S.; D'Andrea, F.

    1994-01-01

    Tibaldi and Molteni (1990, hereafter referred to as TM) had previously investigated operational blocking predictability by the ECMWF model and the possible relationships between model systematic error and blocking in the winter season of the Northern Hemisphere, using seven years of ECMWF operational archives of analyses and day 1 to 10 forecasts. They showed that fewer blocking episodes than in the real atmosphere were generally simulated by the model, and that this deficiency increased with increasing forecast time. As a consequence of this, a major contribution to the systematic error in the winter season was shown to derive from the inability of the model to properly forecast blocking. In this study, the analysis performed in TM for the first seven winter seasons of the ECMWF operational model is extended to the subsequent five winters, during which model development, reflecting both resolution increases and parametrisation modifications, continued unabated. In addition the objective blocking index developed by TM has been applied to the observed data to study the natural low frequency variability of blocking. The ability to simulate blocking of some climate models has also been tested

  3. Beta-Blocker Use in Pregnancy and Risk of Specific Congenital Anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Jorieke E H; Lutke, L Renée; Gans, Rijk O B

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of chronic hypertension is increasing in pregnant women. Beta-blockers are among the most prevalent anti-hypertensive agents used in early pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate whether first-trimester use of beta-blockers increases the r...

  4. Labelling of. beta. -endorphin (. beta. -END) and. beta. -lipotropin (. beta. -LPH) by /sup 125/I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deby-Dupont, G.; Joris, J.; Franchimont, P. (Universite de Liege (Belgique)); Reuter, A.M.; Vrindts-Gevaert, Y. (Institut des Radioelements, Fleurus (Belgique))

    1983-01-01

    5 ..mu..g of human ..beta..-endorphin were labelled with 2 mCi /sup 125/I by the chloramine T technique. After two gel filtrations on Sephadex G-15 and on Sephadex G-50 in phosphate buffer with EDTA, Trasylol and mercapto-ethanol, a pure tracer was obtained with a specific activity about 150 ..mu..Ci/..mu..g.Kept at + 4/sup 0/C, the tracer remained utilizable for 30 days without loss of immunoreactivity. The labelling with lactoperoxydase and the use of another gel filtration method (filtration on Aca 202) gave a /sup 125/I ..beta..-END tracer with the same immunoreactivity. The binding of this tracer to the antibody of an anti-..beta..-END antiserum diluted at 1/8000 was 32% with a non specific binding of 2%. 5 ..mu..g of human ..beta..-lipotropin were labelled with 0.5 mCi /sup 125/I by the lactoperoxydase method. After two gel filtrations on Sephadex G-25 and on Sephadex G-75 in phosphate buffer with EDTA, Trasylol and mercapto-ethanol, a pure tracer with a specific activity of 140 ..mu..Ci/..mu..g was obtained. It remained utilizable for 30 days when kept at + 4/sup 0/C. Gel filtration on Aca 202 did not give good purification, while gel filtration on Aca 54 was good but slower than on Sephadex G-75. The binding to antibody in absence of unlabelled ..beta..-LPH was 32% for an anti-..beta..-LPH antiserum diluted at 1/4000. The non specific binding was 2.5%.

  5. Plasma beta HCG determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, L.B.D.; Pinto, J.C.M.; Linhares, E.; Linhares, Estevao

    1981-01-01

    There are three important indications for the early diagnosis of pregnancy through the determination of the beta sub-unit of chorionic gonadotrophin using radioimmunoassay: 1) some patient's or doctor's anxiety to discover the problem; 2) when it will be necessary to employ diagnostic or treatment procedures susceptible to affect the ovum; and 3) in the differential diagnosis of amenorrhoea, uterine hemorrhage and abdominal tumors. Other user's are the diagnosis of missed absortion, and the diagnosis and follow-up of chrorioncarcinoma. The AA. studied 200 determinations of plasma beta-HCG, considering the main difficulties occuring in the clinical use of this relevant laboratory tool in actual Obstetrics. (author) [pt

  6. Relation between the 2{nu}{beta}{beta} and 0{nu}{beta}{beta} nuclear matrix elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Petr [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Simkovic, Fedor [Department of Nuclear Physics and Biophysics, Comenius University, Mlynska dolina F1, SK-84248 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2011-12-16

    A formal relation between the GT part of the nuclear matrix elements M{sub GT}{sup 0{nu}} of 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay and the closure matrix elements M{sub cl}{sup 2{nu}} of 2{nu}{beta}{beta} decay is established. This relation is based on the integral representation of these quantities in terms of their dependence on the distance r between the two nucleons undergoing transformation. We also discuss the difficulties in determining the correct values of the closure 2{nu}{beta}{beta} decay matrix elements.

  7. Temporary Blindness after Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barodiya, Animesh; Thukral, Rishi; Agrawal, Shaila Mahendra; Rai, Anshul; Singh, Siddharth

    2017-03-01

    Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block (IANB) anaesthesia is one of the common procedures in dental clinic. This procedure is safe, but complications may still occur. Ocular complications such as diplopia, loss of vision, or ophthalmoplegia are extremely rare. This case report explains an event where due to individual anatomic variation of the sympathetic vasoconstrictor nerve and maxillary and middle meningeal arteries, intravascular administration of anaesthetic agent caused unusual ocular signs and symptoms such as temporary blindness.

  8. 31 CFR 594.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and...

  9. Effects of beta-lactamases and omp mutation on susceptibility to beta-lactam antibiotics in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, M; Okamoto, R; Inoue, M; Mitsuhashi, S

    1989-01-01

    Four types of beta-lactamases consisting of a penicillinase type I (TEM-1), a penicillinase type II (OXA-1), a cephalosporinase of Citrobacter freundii, and a cephalosporinase of Proteus vulgaris were introduced into Escherichia coli MC4100 and its omp mutants, MH1160 (MC4100 ompR1) and MH760 (MC4100 ompR2), by transformation. Effects of the combination of the omp mutations and these beta-lactamases on the susceptibility of E. coli strains were studied with 15 beta-lactam antibiotics including cephalosporins, cephamycins, penicillins, imipenem, and aztreonam. The ompR1 mutant, MH1160, lacks OmpF and OmpC, and it showed reduced susceptibility to 11 of the 15 beta-lactam agents. The reduction in susceptibility to cefoxitin, moxalactam, and flomoxef was much greater than reduction in susceptibility to the other agents. When the ompR1 mutant produced the cephalosporinase of C. freundii, the susceptibility of the mutant to 12 of the 15 beta-lactam antibiotics decreased. The reduction in susceptibility of MH1160 to 10 of the 12 agents affected by the enzyme was two- to fourfold greater than that observed in MC4100. Such a synergistic effect was also observed with the cephalosporinase of P. vulgaris and ompR1 mutation against six cephalosporins, moxalactam, and aztreonam. Images PMID:2658786

  10. RX for Writer's Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Gail E.; Camp, Donna J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes four prewriting techniques that elementary and middle grade students can use to gather and organize ideas for writing, and by so doing, cure writer's block. Techniques discussed are: (1) brainstorming; (2) clustering; (3) freewriting; and (4) cubing.

  11. Block copolymer battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  12. Blocking in Category Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bott, Lewis; Hoffman, Aaron B.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Many theories of category learning assume that learning is driven by a need to minimize classification error. When there is no classification error, therefore, learning of individual features should be negligible. We tested this hypothesis by conducting three category learning experiments adapted from an associative learning blocking paradigm. Contrary to an error-driven account of learning, participants learned a wide range of information when they learned about categories, and blocking effe...

  13. HPLC Analysis of [Alpha]- and [Beta]-Acids in Hops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danenhower, Travis M.; Force, Leyna J.; Petersen, Kenneth J.; Betts, Thomas A.; Baker, Gary A.

    2008-01-01

    Hops have been used for centuries to impart aroma and bitterness to beer. The cones of the female hop plant contain both essential oils, which include many of the fragrant components of hops, and a collection of compounds known as [alpha]- and [beta]-acids that are the precursors to bittering agents. In order for brewers to predict the ultimate…

  14. Induced nuclear beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    Certain nuclear beta decay transitions normally inhibited by angular momentum or parity considerations can be induced to occur by the application of an electromagnetic field. Such decays can be useful in the controlled production of power, and in fission waste disposal

  15. Trichoderma .beta.-glucosidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2006-01-03

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl3, and the corresponding BGL3 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL3, recombinant BGL3 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  16. Applied Beta Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of beta and/or nonpenetrating exposure results is complicated and past techniques and capabilities have resulted in significant inaccuracies in recorded results. Current developments have resulted in increased capabilities which make the results more accurate and should result in less total exposure to the work force. Continued development of works in progress should provide equivalent future improvements

  17. Beta thalassemia - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Jha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia is a globin gene disorder that results in a diminished rate of synthesis of one or more of the globin chains. About 1.5% of the global population (80 to 90 million people are carriers of beta Thalassemia. More than 200 mutations are described in beta thalassemia. However not all mutations are common in different ethnic groups. The only effective way to reduce burden of thalassemia is to prevent birth of homozygotes. Diagnosis of beta thalassemia can be done by fetal DNA analysis for molecular defects of beta thalassemia or by fetal blood analysis. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only available curative approach for Thalassemia. Many patients with thalassemia in underdeveloped nations die in childhood or adolescence. Programs that provide acceptable care, including transfusion of safe blood and supportive therapy including chelation must be established.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v4i8.11609 Journal of Pathology of Nepal; Vol.4,No. 8 (2014 663-671

  18. Double Beta Decay Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepke, A.

    2005-01-01

    The experimental observation of neutrino oscillations and thus neutrino mass and mixing gives a first hint at new particle physics. The absolute values of the neutrino mass and the properties of neutrinos under CP-conjugation remain unknown. The experimental investigation of the nuclear double beta decay is one of the key techniques for solving these open problems

  19. [Biological agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Koichi

    2009-03-01

    There are two types of biological agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins. Among the latter, etanercept, a recombinant fusion protein of soluble TNF receptor and IgG was approved in 2005 in Japan. The post-marketing surveillance of 13,894 RA patients revealed the efficacy and safety profiles of etanercept in the Japanese population, as well as overseas studies. Abatacept, a recombinant fusion protein of CTLA4 and IgG, is another biological agent for RA. Two clinical trials disclosed the efficacy of abatacept for difficult-to-treat patients: the AIM for MTX-resistant cases and the ATTAIN for patients who are resistant to anti-TNF. The ATTEST trial suggested abatacept might have more acceptable safety profile than infliximab. These biologics are also promising for the treatment of RA for not only relieving clinical symptoms and signs but retarding structural damage.

  20. Beta cell adaptation in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with a compensatory increase in beta cell mass. It is well established that somatolactogenic hormones contribute to the expansion both indirectly by their insulin antagonistic effects and directly by their mitogenic effects on the beta cells via receptors for prolactin...... and growth hormone expressed in rodent beta cells. However, the beta cell expansion in human pregnancy seems to occur by neogenesis of beta cells from putative progenitor cells rather than by proliferation of existing beta cells. Claes Hellerström has pioneered the research on beta cell growth for decades...... in the expansion of the beta cell mass in human pregnancy, and the relative roles of endocrine factors and nutrients....

  1. Stabilization of beta-catenin induces pancreas tumor formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Patrick W; Cano, David A; Landsman, Limor; Kim, Grace E; Kench, James G; Klimstra, David S; Taketo, Maketo M; Biankin, Andrew V; Hebrok, Matthias

    2008-10-01

    beta-Catenin signaling within the canonical Wnt pathway is essential for pancreas development. However, the pathway is normally down-regulated in the adult organ. Increased cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of beta-catenin can be detected in nearly all human solid pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPN), a rare tumor with low malignant potential. Conversely, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) accounts for the majority of pancreatic tumors and is among the leading causes of cancer death. Whereas activating mutations within beta-catenin and other members of the canonical Wnt pathway are rare, recent reports have implicated Wnt signaling in the development and progression of human PDA. Here, we sought to address the role of beta-catenin signaling in pancreas tumorigenesis. Using Cre/lox technology, we conditionally activated beta-catenin in a subset of murine pancreatic cells in vivo. Activation of beta-catenin results in the formation of large pancreatic tumors at a high frequency in adult mice. These tumors resemble human SPN based on morphologic and immunohistochemical comparisons. Interestingly, stabilization of beta-catenin blocks the formation of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) in the presence of an activating mutation in Kras that is known to predispose individuals to PDA. Instead, mice in which beta-catenin and Kras are concurrently activated develop distinct ductal neoplasms that do not resemble PanIN lesions. These results demonstrate that activation of beta-catenin is sufficient to induce pancreas tumorigenesis. Moreover, they indicate that the sequence in which oncogenic mutations are acquired has profound consequences on the phenotype of the resulting tumor.

  2. Atualizações sobre beta-hidroxi-beta-metilbutirato: suplementação e efeitos sobre o catabolismo de proteínas New findings on beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyirate: supplementation and effects on the protein catabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everson Araújo Nunes

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O beta-hidroxi-beta-metilbutirato, metabólito do aminoácido leucina, vem sendo utilizado como suplemento alimentar, em situações específicas, com o intuito de aumentar ou manter a massa isenta de gordura. Os relatos dos efeitos do beta-hidroxi-beta-metilbutirato em estudos recentes fizeram crescer as expectativas sobre sua utilização em casos patológicos. Também foram demonstrados melhores resultados, quando da sua ingestão, no treinamento de força em indivíduos iniciantes e em idosos. Em humanos o beta-hidroxi-beta-metilbutirato tem sido usado como agente anti-catabólico, e em modelos animais foi demonstrado ser eficaz em inibir a atividade de vias proteolíticas em células musculares de indivíduos caquéticos in vitro e in vivo. Os mecanismos participantes desses processos envolvem: a inibição da atividade do sistema ubiquitina proteossoma ATP-dependente, a inibição de vias de sinalização com participação da proteína quinase C-alfa e a diminuição da concentração citoplasmática do fator nuclear - kappa B livre, eventos relacionados ao decréscimo da proteólise em células musculares.The leucine metabolite beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate has been used as a nutritional supplement in specific situations to prevent losing or to increase lean mass. Recent studies showed interesting results of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation in certain disease states. Better results have also been demonstrated when it is taken by starters or old individuals doing strength training. In humans, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate has been used as an anticatabolic agent and in animal models it has been demonstrated to be effective in inhibiting the activity of the proteolytic pathways in muscle cells of extremely weak individuals in vivo and in vitro. The mechanisms that participate in this process involve: inhibition of the ATP-ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, inhibition of the signalization pathways involving protein kinase C

  3. Desensitization in patients with beta-lactam drug allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusin, J S; Klaustermeyer, W; Simmons, C W; Baum, M

    2013-01-01

    Patients with a history of beta-lactam antibiotic allergy are often admitted to the hospital with severe or life-threatening infections requiring beta-lactam antibiotics. Strict avoidance of beta lactams to such patients may prevent them from getting adequate coverage and can lead to an increase in the use of alternative antibiotics, which can predispose to antibiotic resistance. Past studies revealed a lower incidence of pen allergy then patients' histories suggest. Fortunately today, there are three options for patients presenting with a history of beta-lactam allergy. Penicillin skin testing, beta-lactam challenge or beta-lactam desensitization. Recently Pre Pen has been FDA re-approved and when combined with Pen G is a valid way to determine if patients are able to tolerate beta-lactam antibiotic. When these agents are not available one must decide about desensitization or challenge. When a patient has a positive penicillin skin test, desensitization or beta-lactam avoidance are the only options. This paper reviews the safety of beta-lactam desensitization. To perform a chart review on patients desensitised with beta lactam to determine if desensitizations can be performed safely without minimal complications. A retrospective chart review was performed on allergy and immunology inpatient consultations for beta-lactam desensitization between September 2003 and August 2006 at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Centre in Los Angeles. Patient data and outcomes of desensitization were analysed. A total of 13 intravenous desensitizations were performed on 12 patients. The patients consisted of eight females and four males with an average age of 65 years. Age range was 36-92 years old. All 13 intravenous desensitizations were completed without complications. No patient required a slower rate of desensitization or discontinuance of the desensitization. Patients were able to tolerate the initial therapeutic dose of their beta-lactam antibiotic and were then able to complete full

  4. Misleading Betas: An Educational Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, James; Halcoussis, Dennis; Phillips, G. Michael

    2012-01-01

    The dual-beta model is a generalization of the CAPM model. In the dual-beta model, separate beta estimates are provided for up-market and down-market days. This paper uses the historical "Anscombe quartet" results which illustrated how very different datasets can produce the same regression coefficients to motivate a discussion of the…

  5. Uniaxial backfill block compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskinen, V.

    2012-05-01

    The main parts of the project were: to make a literature survey of the previous uniaxial compaction experiments; do uniaxial compaction tests in laboratory scale; and do industrial scale production tests. Object of the project was to sort out the different factors affecting the quality assurance chain of the backfill block uniaxial production and solve a material sticking to mould problem which appeared during manufacturing the blocks of bentonite and cruched rock mixture. The effect of mineralogical and chemical composition on the long term functionality of the backfill was excluded from the project. However, the used smectite-rich clays have been tested for mineralogical consistency. These tests were done in B and Tech OY according their SOPs. The objective of the Laboratory scale tests was to find right material- and compaction parameters for the industrial scale tests. Direct comparison between the laboratory scale tests and industrial scale tests is not possible because the mould geometry and compaction speed has a big influence for the compaction process. For this reason the selected material parameters were also affected by the previous compaction experiments. The industrial scale tests were done in summer of 2010 in southern Sweden. Blocks were done with uniaxial compaction. A 40 tons of the mixture of bentonite and crushed rock blocks and almost 50 tons of Friedland-clay blocks were compacted. (orig.)

  6. Impression block with orientator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brilin, V I; Ulyanova, O S

    2015-01-01

    Tool review, namely the impression block, applied to check the shape and size of the top of fish as well as to determine the appropriate tool for fishing operation was realized. For multiple application and obtaining of the impress depth of 3 cm and more, the standard volumetric impression blocks with fix rods are used. However, the registered impress of fish is not oriented in space and the rods during fishing are in the extended position. This leads to rods deformation and sinking due to accidental impacts of impression block over the borehole irregularity and finally results in faulty detection of the top end of fishing object in hole. The impression blocks with copy rods and fixed magnetic needle allow estimating the object configuration and fix the position of magnetic needle determining the position of the top end of object in hole. However, the magnetic needle fixation is realized in staged and the rods are in extended position during fishing operations as well as it is in standard design. The most efficient tool is the impression block with copy rods which directs the examined object in the borehole during readings of magnetic needles data from azimuth plate and averaging of readings. This significantly increases the accuracy of fishing toll direction. The rods during fishing are located in the body and extended only when they reach the top of fishing object

  7. Interaction with beta-arrestin determines the difference in internalization behavor between beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, T; Kawasaki, A; Nagao, T; Kurose, H

    2000-09-15

    The beta(1)-adrenergic receptor (beta(1)AR) shows the resistance to agonist-induced internalization. As beta-arrestin is important for internalization, we examine the interaction of beta-arrestin with beta(1)AR with three different methods: intracellular trafficking of beta-arrestin, binding of in vitro translated beta-arrestin to intracellular domains of beta(1)- and beta(2)ARs, and inhibition of betaAR-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activities by beta-arrestin. The green fluorescent protein-tagged beta-arrestin 2 translocates to and stays at the plasma membrane by beta(2)AR stimulation. Although green fluorescent protein-tagged beta-arrestin 2 also translocates to the plasma membrane, it returns to the cytoplasm 10-30 min after beta(1)AR stimulation. The binding of in vitro translated beta-arrestin 1 and beta-arrestin 2 to the third intracellular loop and the carboxyl tail of beta(1)AR is lower than that of beta(2)AR. The fusion protein of beta-arrestin 1 with glutathione S-transferase inhibits the beta(1)- and beta(2)AR-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activities, although inhibition of the beta(1)AR-stimulated activity requires a higher concentration of the fusion protein than that of the beta(2)AR-stimulated activity. These results suggest that weak interaction of beta(1)AR with beta-arrestins explains the resistance to agonist-induced internalization. This is further supported by the finding that beta-arrestin can induce internalization of beta(1)AR when beta-arrestin 1 does not dissociate from beta(1)AR by fusing to the carboxyl tail of beta(1)AR.

  8. Tumor targeting with radiolabeled alpha(v)beta(3) integrin binding peptides in a nude mouse model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.L.H.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Dijkgraaf, I.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Frielink, C.; Edwards, D.S.; Rajopadhye, M.; Boonstra, H.; Corstens, F.H.M.; Boerman, O.C.

    2002-01-01

    The alpha(v)beta(3) integrin is expressed on proliferating endothelial cells such as those present in growing tumors, as well as on tumor cells of various origin. Tumor-induced angiogenesis can be blocked in vivo by antagonizing the alpha(v)beta(3) integrin with small peptides containing the

  9. Reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block by sugammadex is independent of renal perfusion in anesthetized cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staals, L.M.; Boer, H.D. de; Egmond, J. van; Hope, F.; Pol, F.M. van de; Bom, A.H.; Driessen, J.J.; Booij, L.H.D.J.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Sugammadex is a selective relaxant binding agent designed to encapsulate the aminosteroidal neuromuscular blocking agent rocuronium, thereby reversing its effect. Both sugammadex and the sugammadex-rocuronium complex are eliminated by the kidneys. This study investigated the effect of

  10. Maternal and cord plasma concentrations of beta-lipotrophin, beta-endorphin and gamma-lipotrophin at delivery; effect of analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, A J; Butt, W R; Lynch, S S; Shakespear, R A; Crawford, J S

    1983-12-01

    Maternal venous plasma concentrations of beta-LPH, beta-EP and gamma-LPH were compared in (i) patients undergoing vaginal delivery, 11 with an epidural block and 13 with pethidine and nitrous oxide or no analgesics; (ii) patients delivered by caesarean section, 7 under epidural block and 8 under general anaesthesia. Patients delivered by either method under epidural block had significantly lower levels of all three peptides than those receiving no epidural. There were significant negative correlations between umbilical vein beta-LPH, beta-EP and gamma-LPH concentrations and umbilical artery pH and positive correlations between beta-LPH and beta-EP but not gamma-LPH and cord PCO2 in 29 patients. There was no relation between cord levels of any of the three peptides and the method of analgesia or the route of delivery. Although concentrations of all three peptides were closely correlated to one another in either maternal or cord plasma, there was no relationship between maternal and fetal levels.

  11. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  12. Integral-fuel blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, C.; Simpkin, S.D.

    1975-01-01

    A prismatic moderator block is described which has fuel-containing channels and coolant channels disposed parallel to each other and to edge faces of the block. The coolant channels are arranged in rows on an equilateral triangular lattice pattern and the fuel-containing channels are disposed in a regular lattice pattern with one fuel-containing channel between and equidistant from each of the coolant channels in each group of three mutually adjacent coolant channels. The edge faces of the block are parallel to the rows of coolant channels and the channels nearest to each edge face are disposed in two rows parallel thereto, with one of the rows containing only coolant channels and the other row containing only fuel-containing channels. (Official Gazette)

  13. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included...... in the Copenhagen City Heart Study examined in 1976-2003 free from previous myocardial infarction (MI), chronic heart failure, and left bundle branch block through registry linkage until 2009 for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular outcomes. The prevalence of RBBB/IRBBB was higher in men (1.4%/4.7% in men vs. 0.......5%/2.3% in women, P block was associated with significantly...

  14. Low-beta investment strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Korn, Olaf; Kuntz, Laura-Chloé

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates investment strategies that exploit the low-beta anomaly. Although the notion of buying low-beta stocks and selling high-beta stocks is natural, a choice is necessary with respect to the relative weighting of high-beta stocks and low-beta stocks in the investment portfolio. Our empirical results for US large-cap stocks show that this choice is very important for the risk-return characteristics of the resulting portfolios and their sensitivities to common risk factors. W...

  15. Neutrophil beta-2 microglobulin: an inflammatory mediator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, O W; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Borregaard, N

    1990-01-01

    Beta-2 microglobulin (beta 2m) constitutes the light invariant chain of HLA class I antigen, and is a constituent of mobilizable compartments of neutrophils. Two forms of beta 2m exist: native beta 2m and proteolytically modified beta 2m (Des-Lys58-beta 2m), which shows alpha mobility in crossed ...

  16. ["Habitual" left branch block alternating with 2 "disguised" bracnch block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, S; Jullien, G; Mathieu, P; Mostefa, S; Gérard, R

    1976-10-01

    Two cases of alternating left bundle branch block and "masquerading block" (with left bundle branch morphology in the stnadard leads and right bundle branch block morphology in the precordial leads) were studied by serial tracings and his bundle electrocardiography. In case 1 "the masquerading" block was associated with a first degree AV block related to a prolongation of HV interval. This case is to our knowledge the first cas of alternating bundle branch block in which his bundle activity was recorded in man. In case 2, the patient had atrial fibrilation and His bundle recordings were performed while differents degrees of left bundle branch block were present: The mechanism of the alternation and the concept of "masquerading" block are discussed. It is suggested that this type of block represents a right bundle branch block associated with severe lesions of the "left system".

  17. Beta and muon decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo, A.; Pascual, P.

    1967-01-01

    These notes represent a series of lectures delivered by the authors in the Junta de Energia Nuclear, during the Spring term of 1965. They were devoted to graduate students interested in the Theory of Elementary Particles. Special emphasis was focussed into the computational problems. Chapter I is a review of basic principles (Dirac equation, transition probabilities, final state interactions.) which will be needed later. In Chapter II the four-fermion punctual Interaction is discussed, Chapter III is devoted to the study of beta-decay; the main emphasis is given to the deduction of the formulae corresponding to electron-antineutrino correlation, electron energy spectrum, lifetimes, asymmetry of electrons emitted from polarized nuclei, electron and neutrino polarization and time reversal invariance in beta decay. In Chapter IV we deal with the decay of polarized muons with radiative corrections. Chapter V is devoted to an introduction to C.V.C. theory. (Author)

  18. Beta-thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Origa Raffaella

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands, dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes, gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely

  19. Beta and Gamma Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Gaffney, C. F.; Clark, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and/or theoretical estimates are presented concerning, (i) attenuation within the sample of beta and gamma radiation from the soil, (ii) the gamma dose within the sample due to its own radioactivity, and (iii) the soil gamma dose in the proximity of boundaries between regions...... of differing radioactivity. It is confirmed that removal of the outer 2 mm of sample is adequate to remove influence from soil beta dose and estimates are made of the error introduced by non-removal. Other evaluations include variation of the soil gamma dose near the ground surface and it appears...... that the present practice of avoiding samples above a depth of 0.3 m may be over-cautious...

  20. Beta and muon decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, A; Pascual, P

    1967-07-01

    These notes represent a series of lectures delivered by the authors in the Junta de Energia Nuclear, during the Spring term of 1965. They were devoted to graduate students interested in the Theory of Elementary Particles. Special emphasis was focussed into the computational problems. Chapter I is a review of basic principles (Dirac equation, transition probabilities, final state interactions.) which will be needed later. In Chapter II the four-fermion punctual Interaction is discussed, Chapter III is devoted to the study of beta-decay; the main emphasis is given to the deduction of the formulae corresponding to electron-antineutrino correlation, electron energy spectrum, lifetimes, asymmetry of electrons emitted from polarized nuclei, electron and neutrino polarization and time reversal invariance in beta decay. In Chapter IV we deal with the decay of polarized muons with radiative corrections. Chapter V is devoted to an introduction to C.V.C. theory. (Author)

  1. Regulation of beta cell replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Ying C; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2008-01-01

    Beta cell mass, at any given time, is governed by cell differentiation, neogenesis, increased or decreased cell size (cell hypertrophy or atrophy), cell death (apoptosis), and beta cell proliferation. Nutrients, hormones and growth factors coupled with their signalling intermediates have been...... suggested to play a role in beta cell mass regulation. In addition, genetic mouse model studies have indicated that cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases that determine cell cycle progression are involved in beta cell replication, and more recently, menin in association with cyclin-dependent kinase...... inhibitors has been demonstrated to be important in beta cell growth. In this review, we consider and highlight some aspects of cell cycle regulation in relation to beta cell replication. The role of cell cycle regulation in beta cell replication is mostly from studies in rodent models, but whether...

  2. High beta experiments in CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Nishimura, K.

    1994-09-01

    High beta experiments were performed in the low-aspect-ratio helical device CHS with the volume-averaged equilibrium beta up to 2.1 %. These values (highest for helical systems) are obtained for high density plasmas in low magnetic field heated with two tangential neutral beams. Confinement improvement given by means of turning off gas puffing helped significantly to make high betas. Magnetic fluctuations increased with increasing beta, but finally stopped to increase in the beta range > 1 %. The coherent modes appearing in the magnetic hill region showed strong dependence on the beta values. The dynamic poloidal field control was applied to suppress the outward plasma movement with the plasma pressure. Such an operation gave fixed boundary operations of high beta plasmas in helical systems. (author)

  3. Beta rays and neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.F.

    1992-01-01

    It was over 30 years between the first observation of the enigmatic process of beta decay and the first postulation of the neutrino. It took a further 26 years until the first neutrino was detected and yet another 27 until the electroweak theory was confirmed by the discovery of W and Z particles. This article traces some of the puzzles and paradoxes associated with the history of the neutrino. (author)

  4. Coroutine Sequencing in BETA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    In object-oriented programming, a program execution is viewed as a physical model of some real or imaginary part of the world. A language supporting object-oriented programming must therefore contain comprehensive facilities for modeling phenomena and concepts form the application domain. Many...... applications in the real world consist of objects carrying out sequential processes. Coroutines may be used for modeling objects that alternate between a number of sequential processes. The authors describe coroutines in BETA...

  5. COM Support in BETA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1999-01-01

    Component technologies based on binary units of independent production are some of the most important contributions to software architecture and reuse during recent years. Especially the COM technologies and the CORBA standard from the Object Management Group have contributed new and interesting...... principles for software architecture, and proven to be useful in parctice. In this paper ongoing work with component support in the BETA language is described....

  6. E-Block: A Tangible Programming Tool with Graphical Blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Danli Wang; Yang Zhang; Shengyong Chen

    2013-01-01

    This paper designs a tangible programming tool, E-Block, for children aged 5 to 9 to experience the preliminary understanding of programming by building blocks. With embedded artificial intelligence, the tool defines the programming blocks with the sensors as the input and enables children to write programs to complete the tasks in the computer. The symbol on the programming block's surface is used to help children understanding the function of each block. The sequence information is transfer...

  7. LHCb: $2\\beta_s$ measurement at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Conti, G

    2009-01-01

    A measurement of $2\\beta_s$, the phase of the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ oscillation amplitude with respect to that of the ${\\rm b} \\rightarrow {\\rm c^{+}}{\\rm W^{-}}$ tree decay amplitude, is one of the key goals of the LHCb experiment with first data. In the Standard Model (SM), $2\\beta_s$ is predicted to be $0.0360^{+0.0020}_{-0.0016} \\rm rad$. The current constraints from the Tevatron are: $2\\beta_{s}\\in[0.32 ; 2.82]$ at 68$\\%$CL from the CDF experiment and $2\\beta_{s}=0.57^{+0.24}_{-0.30}$ from the D$\\oslash$ experiment. Although the statistical uncertainties are large, these results hint at the possible contribution of New Physics in the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ box diagram. After one year of data taking at LHCb at an average luminosity of $\\mathcal{L}\\sim2\\cdot10^{32}\\rm cm^{-2} \\rm s^{-1}$ (integrated luminosity $\\mathcal{L}_{\\rm int}\\sim 2 \\rm fb^{-1}$), the expected statistical uncertainty on the measurement is $\\sigma(2\\beta_s)\\simeq 0.03$. This uncertainty is similar to the $2\\beta_s$ value predicted by the SM.

  8. . Redundancy and blocking in the spatial domain: A connectionist model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. L. Mc Laren

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available How can the observations of spatial blocking (Rodrigo, Chamizo, McLaren & Mackintosh, 1997 and cue redundancy (O’Keefe and Conway, 1978 be reconciled within the framework provided by an error-correcting, connectionist account of spatial navigation? I show that an implementation of McLaren’s (1995 better beta model can serve this purpose, and examine some of the implications for spatial learning and memory.

  9. Linoleum Block Printing Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetelat, Frank J.

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses practical considerations of teaching linoleum block printing in the elementary grades (tool use, materials, motivation) and outlines a sequence of design concepts in this area for the primary, intermediate and junior high grades. A short list of books and audiovisual aids is appended. (SJL)

  10. Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of…

  11. Contaminated soil concrete blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Korte, A.C.J.; Brouwers, Jos; Limbachiya, Mukesh C.; Kew, Hsein Y.

    2009-01-01

    According to Dutch law the contaminated soil needs to be remediated or immobilised. The main focus in this article is the design of concrete blocks, containing contaminated soil, that are suitable for large production, financial feasible and meets all technical and environmental requirements. In

  12. Radioprotective Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Kelle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective activity of various chemical substances. Thiol compounds, compounds which contain –SH radical, different classes of pharmacological agents and other compounds such as vitamine C and WR-2721 have been shown to reduce mortality when administered prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Recently, honey bee venom as well as that of its components melittin and histamine have shown to be valuable in reduction of radiation-induced damage and also provide prophylactic alternative treatment for serious side effects related with radiotherapy. It has been suggested that the radioprotective activity of bee venom components is related with the stimulation of the hematopoetic system.

  13. Enantioselective synthesis of alpha,beta-disubstituted-beta-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, Mukund P; Prabagaran, Narayanasamy; Ghorpade, Sandeep G; Jasperse, Craig P

    2003-10-01

    Highly diastereoselective and enantioselective addition of N-benzylhydroxylamine to imides 17 and 20-30 produces alpha,beta-trans-disubstituted N-benzylisoxazolidinones 19 and 31-41. These reactions proceed in 60-96% ee with 93-99% de's using 5 mol % of Mg(NTf2)2 and ligand 18. The product isoxazolidinones can be hydrogenolyzed directly to provide alpha,beta-disubstituted-beta-amino acids.

  14. NANOSTRUCTURED METAL OXIDE CATALYSTS VIA BUILDING BLOCK SYNTHESES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig E. Barnes

    2013-03-05

    A broadly applicable methodology has been developed to prepare new single site catalysts on silica supports. This methodology requires of three critical components: a rigid building block that will be the main structural and compositional component of the support matrix; a family of linking reagents that will be used to insert active metals into the matrix as well as cross link building blocks into a three dimensional matrix; and a clean coupling reaction that will connect building blocks and linking agents together in a controlled fashion. The final piece of conceptual strategy at the center of this methodology involves dosing the building block with known amounts of linking agents so that the targeted connectivity of a linking center to surrounding building blocks is obtained. Achieving targeted connectivities around catalytically active metals in these building block matrices is a critical element of the strategy by which single site catalysts are obtained. This methodology has been demonstrated with a model system involving only silicon and then with two metal-containing systems (titanium and vanadium). The effect that connectivity has on the reactivity of atomically dispersed titanium sites in silica building block matrices has been investigated in the selective oxidation of phenols to benezoquinones. 2-connected titanium sites are found to be five times as active (i.e. initial turnover frequencies) than 4-connected titanium sites (i.e. framework titanium sites).

  15. Amino acid nitrosation products as alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Santos, M del P; Calle, E; Casado, J

    2001-08-08

    Nitrosation reactions of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-amino acids whose reaction products can act as alkylating agents of DNA were investigated. To approach in vivo conditions for the two-step mechanism (nitrosation and alkylation), nitrosation reactions were carried out in aqueous acid conditions (mimicking the conditions of the stomach lumen) while the alkylating potential of the nitrosation products was investigated at neutral pH, as in the stomach lining cells into which such products can diffuse. These conclusions were drawn: (i) The alkylating species resulting from the nitrosation of amino acids with an -NH(2) group are the corresponding lactones; (ii) the sequence of alkylating power is: alpha-lactones > beta-lactones > gamma-lactones, coming respectively from the nitrosation of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-amino acids; and (iii) the results obtained may be useful in predicting the mutagenic effectiveness of the nitrosation products of amino acids.

  16. Murrayafoline A attenuates the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway by promoting the degradation of intracellular {beta}-catenin proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyuk; Gwak, Jungsug; Cho, Munju; Ryu, Min-Jung [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jee-Hyun; Kim, Sang Kyum; Kim, Young Ho [College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gye Won [Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Konyang University, Nonsan 320-711 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Mi-Young [Department of Beauty Health Care, Daejeon University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Cuong, Nguyen Manh [Institute of Natural Products Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Shin, Jae-Gook [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Gyu-Yong, E-mail: gysong@cnu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sangtaek, E-mail: ohsa@inje.ac.kr [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-01

    Molecular lesions in Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling and subsequent up-regulation of {beta}-catenin response transcription (CRT) occur frequently during the development of colon cancer. To identify small molecules that suppress CRT, we screened natural compounds in a cell-based assay for detection of TOPFalsh reporter activity. Murrayafoline A, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from Glycosmis stenocarpa, antagonized CRT that was stimulated by Wnt3a-conditioned medium (Wnt3a-CM) or LiCl, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}), and promoted the degradation of intracellular {beta}-catenin without altering its N-terminal phosphorylation at the Ser33/37 residues, marking it for proteasomal degradation, or the expression of Siah-1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Murrayafoline A repressed the expression of cyclin D1 and c-myc, which is known {beta}-catenin/T cell factor (TCF)-dependent genes and thus inhibited the proliferation of various colon cancer cells. These findings indicate that murrayafoline A may be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for use in the treatment of colon cancer.

  17. Beet necrotic yellow vein virus accumulates inside resting spores and zoosporangia of its vector Polymyxa betae BNYVV infects P. betae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payton Mark

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodiophorids and chytrids are zoosporic parasites of algae and land plant and are distributed worldwide. There are 35 species belonging to the order Plasmodiophorales and three species, Polymyxa betae, P. graminis, and Spongospora subterranea, are plant viral vectors. Plasmodiophorid transmitted viruses are positive strand RNA viruses belonging to five genera. Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV and its vector, P. betae, are the causal agents for rhizomania. Results Evidence of BNYVV replication and movement proteins associating with P. betae resting spores was initially obtained using immunofluorescence labeling and well characterized antisera to each of the BNYVV proteins. Root cross sections were further examined using immunogold labeling and electron microscopy. BNYVV proteins translated from each of the four genomic and subgenomic RNAs accumulate inside P. betae resting spores and zoospores. Statistical analysis was used to determine if immunolabelling detected viral proteins in specific subcellular domains and at a level greater than in control samples. Conclusion Virus-like particles were detected in zoosporangia. Association of BNYVV replication and movement proteins with sporangial and sporogenic stages of P. betae suggest that BNYVV resides inside its vector during more than one life cycle stage. These data suggest that P. betae might be a host as well as a vector for BNYVV

  18. Beet necrotic yellow vein virus accumulates inside resting spores and zoosporangia of its vector Polymyxa betae BNYVV infects P. betae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubicz, Jeanmarie Verchot; Rush, Charles M; Payton, Mark; Colberg, Terry

    2007-04-05

    Plasmodiophorids and chytrids are zoosporic parasites of algae and land plant and are distributed worldwide. There are 35 species belonging to the order Plasmodiophorales and three species, Polymyxa betae, P. graminis, and Spongospora subterranea, are plant viral vectors. Plasmodiophorid transmitted viruses are positive strand RNA viruses belonging to five genera. Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and its vector, P. betae, are the causal agents for rhizomania. Evidence of BNYVV replication and movement proteins associating with P. betae resting spores was initially obtained using immunofluorescence labeling and well characterized antisera to each of the BNYVV proteins. Root cross sections were further examined using immunogold labeling and electron microscopy. BNYVV proteins translated from each of the four genomic and subgenomic RNAs accumulate inside P. betae resting spores and zoospores. Statistical analysis was used to determine if immunolabelling detected viral proteins in specific subcellular domains and at a level greater than in control samples. Virus-like particles were detected in zoosporangia. Association of BNYVV replication and movement proteins with sporangial and sporogenic stages of P. betae suggest that BNYVV resides inside its vector during more than one life cycle stage. These data suggest that P. betae might be a host as well as a vector for BNYVV.

  19. Beta measurement evaluation and upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Rathbun, L.A.; Roberson, P.L.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1986-01-01

    This program focuses on the resolution of problems associated with the field measurement of the beta dose component at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The change in DOE programs, including increased efforts in improved waste management and decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of facilities, coupled with beta measurement problems identified at Three Mile Island has increased the need to improve beta measurements. In FY 1982, work was initiated to provide a continuing effort to identify problems associated with beta dose assessment at DOE facilities. The problems identified resulted in the development of this program. The investigation includes (1) an assessment of measurement systems now in use, (2) development of improved calibration systems and procedures, (3) application of innovative beta dosimetry concepts, (4) investigation of new instruments or concepts for monitoring and spectroscopy, and (5) development of recommendations to assure an adequate beta measurement program within DOE facilities

  20. Abdominal wall blocks in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børglum, Jens; Gögenür, Ismail; Bendtsen, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    been introduced with success. Future research should also investigate the effect of specific abdominal wall blocks on neuroendocrine and inflammatory stress response after surgery.  Summary USG abdominal wall blocks in adults are commonplace techniques today. Most abdominal wall blocks are assigned......Purpose of review Abdominal wall blocks in adults have evolved much during the last decade; that is, particularly with the introduction of ultrasound-guided (USG) blocks. This review highlights recent advances of block techniques within this field and proposes directions for future research.......  Recent findings Ultrasound guidance is now considered the golden standard for abdominal wall blocks in adults, even though some landmark-based blocks are still being investigated. The efficiency of USG transversus abdominis plane blocks in relation to many surgical procedures involving the abdominal wall...

  1. 17 beta-estradiol modifies nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase expression and down-regulates its activity in rat anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabilla, Jimena P; Díaz, María del Carmen; Machiavelli, Leticia I; Poliandri, Ariel H; Quinteros, Fernanda A; Lasaga, Mercedes; Duvilanski, Beatriz H

    2006-09-01

    Previous studies showed that 17 beta-estradiol (17 beta-E2) regulates the nitric oxide (NO)/soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/cGMP pathway in many tissues. Evidence from our laboratory indicates that 17 beta-E2 disrupts the inhibitory effect of NO on prolactin release, decreasing sGC activity and affecting the cGMP pathway in anterior pituitary gland of adult ovariectomized and estrogenized rats. To ascertain the mechanisms by which 17 beta-E2 affects sGC activity, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro effects of 17 beta-E2 on sGC protein and mRNA expression in anterior pituitary gland from immature female rats. In the present work, we showed that 17 beta-E2 acute treatment exerted opposite effects on the two sGC subunits, increasing alpha1 and decreasing beta1 subunit protein and mRNA expression. This action on sGC protein expression was maximal 6-9 h after 17 beta-E2 administration. 17beta-E2 also caused the same effect on mRNA expression at earlier times. Concomitantly, 17 beta-E2 dramatically decreased sGC activity 6 and 9 h after injection. These effects were specific of 17 beta-E2, because they were not observed with the administration of other steroids such as progesterone and 17 alpha-estradiol. This inhibitory action of 17beta-E2 on sGC also required the activation of estrogen receptor (ER), because treatment with the pure ER antagonist ICI 182,780 completely blocked 17 beta-E2 action. 17 beta-E2 acute treatment caused the same effects on pituitary cells in culture. These results suggest that 17 beta-E2 exerts an acute inhibitory effect on sGC in anterior pituitary gland by down-regulating sGC beta 1 subunit and sGC activity in a specific, ER-dependent manner.

  2. SNUPPS power block engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, C A [Bechtel Power Corp., San Francisco, Calif. (USA)

    1975-11-01

    The Standard Power Block is based on a modular concept and consists of the following: turbine building, auxiliary building, fuel building, control building, radwaste building, diesel generators building, and outside storage tanks and transformers. Each power block unit includes a Westinghouse pressurized water reactor and has a thermal power rating of 3425 MW(t). The corresponding General Electric turbine generator net electrical output is 1188 MW(e). This standardization approach results in not only a reduction in the costs of engineering, licensing, procurement, and project planning, but should also result in additional savings by the application of experience gained in the construction of the first unit to the following units and early input of construction data to design.

  3. Conditional Betas and Investor Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando D. Chague

    2013-01-01

    We derive theoretical expressions for market betas from a rational expectation equilibrium model where the representative investor does not observe if the economy is in a recession or an expansion. Market betas in this economy are time-varying and related to investor uncertainty about the state of the economy. The dynamics of betas will also vary across assets according to the assets' cash-flow structure. In a calibration exercise, we show that value and growth firms have cash-flow structures...

  4. Change Around the Block?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Joey

    2017-04-01

    Proponents of a block grant or per-capita cap trumpet them as vehicles for the federal government to give the states a capped amount of funding for Medicaid that legislatures would effectively distribute how they see fit. Questions abound as to what capped Medicaid funding would look like, and what effect it would have on the current Medicaid-eligible population, covered services, and physician payments.

  5. SUPERFICIAL CERVICAL PLEXUS BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Mega Puspadisari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superficial cervical plexus block is one of the regional anesthesia in  neck were limited to thesuperficial fascia. Anesthesia is used to relieve pain caused either during or after the surgery iscompleted. This technique can be done by landmark or with ultrasound guiding. The midpointof posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid was identified and the prosedure done on thatplace or on the level of cartilage cricoid.

  6. Activity of beta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations against extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing enterobacteriaceae in urinary isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, F.I.; Farooqi, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the susceptibility pattern of beta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae in urinary isolates. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Ziauddin University Hospital, Karachi, from February to October 2008. Methodology: A total of 190 consecutive non-duplicate isolates of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae from urine samples of in-patients were included in the study. Urinary samples from out-patients, repeat samples and non-ESBL producing isolates were excluded. Detection of ESBL was carried out by double disk diffusion technique. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using modified Kirby Bauer's disk diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS version 10. Results: Of the 190 ESBL isolates tested, 88 cases (46.31%) were sensitive and 6 cases (3.15%) were resistant to all three combinations, the rest 96 cases (50.52%) were resistant to at least one of the combinations. Susceptibility pattern of cefoperazone/sulbactam, piperacillin/tazobactam, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was 95.26, 92.10, and 44.31 percent respectively. Conclusion: Cefoperazone/sulbactam exhibited the best activity against ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae followed by piperacillin/tazobactam. Hospital antibiotic policies should be reviewed periodically to reduce the usage of extended spectrum cephalosporins and replace them with beta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations agent for treating urinary tract infections. (author)

  7. Dynamic returns of beta arbitrage

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Mafalda

    2017-01-01

    This thesis studies the patterns of the abnormal returns of the beta strategy. The topic can be helpful for professional investors, who intend to achieve a better performance in their portfolios. Following the methodology of Lou, Polk, & Huang (2016), the COBAR measure is computed in order to determine the levels of beta arbitrage in the market in each point in time. It is argued that beta arbitrage activity can have impact on the returns of the beta strategy. In fact, it is demonstrated that...

  8. Integration of BETA with Eclipse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Enevoldsen, Mads Brøgger

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents language interoperability issues appearing in order to implement support for the BETA language in the Java-based Eclipse integrated development environment. One of the challenges is to implement plug-ins in BETA and be able to load them in Eclipse. In order to do this, some fo...... it is possible to implement plug-ins in BETA and even inherit from Java classes. In the paper the two approaches are described together with part of the mapping from BETA to Java class files. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/15710661...

  9. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.

    2010-03-23

    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  10. E-Block: A Tangible Programming Tool with Graphical Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danli Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper designs a tangible programming tool, E-Block, for children aged 5 to 9 to experience the preliminary understanding of programming by building blocks. With embedded artificial intelligence, the tool defines the programming blocks with the sensors as the input and enables children to write programs to complete the tasks in the computer. The symbol on the programming block's surface is used to help children understanding the function of each block. The sequence information is transferred to computer by microcomputers and then translated into semantic information. The system applies wireless and infrared technologies and provides user with feedbacks on both screen and programming blocks. Preliminary user studies using observation and user interview methods are shown for E-Block's prototype. The test results prove that E-Block is attractive to children and easy to learn and use. The project also highlights potential advantages of using single chip microcomputer (SCM technology to develop tangible programming tools for children.

  11. [New antibacterial agents on the market and in the pipeline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, W V

    2015-11-01

    After some years of stagnation there have been several new successful developments in the field of antibacterial agents. Most of these new developments have been in conventional antibacterial classes. New drugs among the beta-lactam agents are methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) active cephalosporins (ceftaroline and ceftobiprole) and new combinations of beta-lactam with beta-lactamase inhibitors (ceftolozane/tazobactam, ceftazidime/avibactam, imipenem/relebactam and meropenem/RPX7009). New developments can also be observed among oxazolidinones (tedizolid, radezolid, cadazolid and MRX-I), macrolides/ketolides (modithromycin and solithromycin), aminoglycosides (plazomicin), quinolones (nemonoxacin, delafloxacin and avarofloxacin), tetracyclines (omadacycline and eravacycline) as well as among glycopeptides and lipopeptides (oritavancin, telavancin, dalbavancin and surotomycin). New agents in a very early developmental phase are FabI inhibitors, endolysines, peptidomimetics, lipid A inhibitors, methionyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitors and teixobactin.

  12. Discoidin domain receptor 1 is activated independently of beta(1) integrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, W; Brakebusch, C; Fässler, R

    2000-01-01

    independent of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. In cells that endogenously express both DDR1 and the EGF receptor, stimulation with EGF does not induce DDR activation. Third, we detected full DDR1 activation after collagen stimulation in cells that have been treated with blocking antibodies...... for alpha(2)beta(1) integrin or in cells with a targeted deletion of the beta(1) integrin gene. Finally, we show that overexpression of dominant negative DDR1 in the myoblast cell line C2C12 blocks cellular differentiation and the formation of myofibers....

  13. New Insights in the Amyloid-Beta Interaction with Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Spuch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical and morphological alterations of mitochondria may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Particularly, mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of amyloid-beta-induced neuronal toxicity in Alzheimer’s disease. The recent emphasis on the intracellular biology of amyloid-beta and its precursor protein (APP has led researchers to consider the possibility that mitochondria-associated and mitochondrial amyloid-beta may directly cause neurotoxicity. Both proteins are known to localize to mitochondrial membranes, block the transport of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins to mitochondria, interact with mitochondrial proteins, disrupt the electron transport chain, increase reactive oxygen species production, cause mitochondrial damage, and prevent neurons from functioning normally. In this paper, we will outline current knowledge of the intracellular localization of amyloid-beta. Moreover, we summarize evidence from AD postmortem brain as well as animal AD models showing that amyloid-beta triggers mitochondrial dysfunction through a number of pathways such as impairment of oxidative phosphorylation, elevation of reactive oxygen species production, alteration of mitochondrial dynamics, and interaction with mitochondrial proteins. Thus, this paper supports the Alzheimer cascade mitochondrial hypothesis such as the most important early events in this disease, and probably one of the future strategies on the therapy of this neurodegenerative disease.

  14. Neuromuscular transmission: new concepts and agents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, H.D. de

    2009-01-01

    Sugammadex is the first selective relaxant binding agent which was originally designed to reverse the steroidal NMB drug rocuronium. The results of recent studies demonstrate that sugammadex is effective for reversal of rocuronium and vecuronium-induced neuromuscular block without apparent

  15. Block and sub-block boundary strengthening in lath martensite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, C.; Hoefnagels, J.P.M.; Vaes, R.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2016-01-01

    Well-defined uniaxial micro-tensile tests were performed on lath martensite single block specimens and multi-block specimens with different number of block boundaries parallel to the loading direction. Detailed slip trace analyses consistently revealed that in the {110}<111> slip system with the

  16. Identification of active anti-inflammatory principles of beta- beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chromatography. Components of the extracts were identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC) scanner and UV-visible spectroscopy, using scopoletin as standard. Results: ... basic coumarin skeleton ring structure reduce ... Figure 2: Thin-layer chromatogram: (1) Ethanol extract; (2) Dichloromethane fraction; (3) Beta-beta.

  17. Improved limits on beta(-) and beta(-) decays of Ca-48

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakalyarov, A.; Balysh, A.; Barabash, AS.; Beneš, P.; Briancon, C.; Brudanin, V. B.; Čermák, P.; Egorov, V.; Hubert, F.; Hubert, P.; Korolev, NA.; Kosjakov, VN.; Kovalík, Alojz; Lebedev, NA.; Novgorodov, A. F.; Rukhadze, NI.; Štekl, NI.; Timkin, VV.; Veleshko, IE.; Vylov, T.; Umatov, VI.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 9 (2002), s. 545-547 ISSN 0021-3640 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : beta decay * double beta decay * Ca-48 Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.483, year: 2002

  18. Preliminary evidence for a postsynaptic action of beta-bungarotoxin in mammalian skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storella, R. J.; Schouchoff, A. L.; Fujii, M.; Hill, J.; Fletcher, J. E.; Jiang, M. S.; Smith, L. A.

    1992-01-01

    Two hours after treatment with beta-bungarotoxin (0.34-0.4 microM), when there was complete neuromuscular block, the peak contracture response to 50 microM succinylcholine was significantly reduced by about 35% in the mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation. Additionally, significant phospholipase A2 activity was detected on primary cell cultures from skeletal muscle which were incubated for 2 hr with concentrations of beta-bungarotoxin greater than or equal to 0.1 microM. Thus, beta-bungarotoxin appears to have pharmacologically and biochemically detectable postsynaptic actions in mammalian muscle systems.

  19. Conversion of beta-methylbutyric acid to beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyric acid by Galactomyces reessii.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, I Y; Nissen, S L; Rosazza, J P

    1997-01-01

    beta-Hydroxy-beta-methylbutyric acid (HMB) has been shown to increase strength and lean mass gains in humans undergoing resistance-exercise training. HMB is currently marketed as a calcium salt of HMB, and thus, environmentally sound and inexpensive methods of manufacture are being sought. This study investigates the microbial conversion of beta-methylbutyric acid (MBA) to HMB by cultures of Galactomyces reessii. Optimal concentrations of MBA were in the range of 5 to 20 g/liter for HMB produ...

  20. Dual beta-lactam therapy for serious Gram-negative infections: is it time to revisit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahme, Christine; Butterfield, Jill M; Nicasio, Anthony M; Lodise, Thomas P

    2014-12-01

    We are rapidly approaching a crisis in antibiotic resistance, particularly among Gram-negative pathogens. This, coupled with the slow development of novel antimicrobial agents, underscores the exigency of redeploying existing antimicrobial agents in innovative ways. One therapeutic approach that was heavily studied in the 1980s but abandoned over time is dual beta-lactam therapy. This article reviews the evidence for combination beta-lactam therapy. Overall, in vitro, animal and clinical data are positive and suggest that beta-lactam combinations produce a synergistic effect against Gram-negative pathogens that rivals that of beta-lactam-aminoglycoside or beta-lactam-fluoroquinolone combination therapy. Although the precise mechanism of improved activity is not completely understood, it is likely attributable to an enhanced affinity to the diverse penicillin-binding proteins found among Gram negatives. The collective data indicate that dual beta-lactam therapy should be revisited for serious Gram-negative infections, especially in light of the near availability of potent beta-lactamase inhibitors, which neutralize the effect of problematic beta-lactamases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ophthalmic regional blocks: management, challenges, and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palte HD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Howard D Palte Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative Medicine and Pain Management, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: In the past decade ophthalmic anesthesia has witnessed a major transformation. The sun has set on the landscape of ophthalmic procedures performed under general anesthesia at in-hospital settings. In its place a new dawn has ushered in the panorama of eye surgeries conducted under regional and topical anesthesia at specialty eye care centers. The impact of the burgeoning geriatric population is that an increasing number of elderly patients will present for eye surgery. In order to accommodate increased patient volumes and simultaneously satisfy administrative initiatives directed at economic frugality, administrators will seek assistance from anesthesia providers in adopting measures that enhance operating room efficiency. The performance of eye blocks in a holding suite meets many of these objectives. Unfortunately, most practicing anesthesiologists resist performing ophthalmic regional blocks because they lack formal training. In future, anesthesiologists will need to block eyes and manage common medical conditions because economic pressures will eliminate routine preoperative testing. This review addresses a variety of topical issues in ophthalmic anesthesia with special emphasis on cannula and needle-based blocks and the new-generation antithrombotic agents. In a constantly evolving arena, the sub-Tenon’s block has gained popularity while the deep angulated intraconal (retrobulbar block has been largely superseded by the shallower extraconal (peribulbar approach. Improvements in surgical technique have also impacted anesthetic practice. For example, phacoemulsification techniques facilitate the conduct of cataract surgery under topical anesthesia, and suture-free vitrectomy ports may cause venous air embolism during air/fluid exchange. Hyaluronidase is a useful adjuvant because it

  2. Habitat Blocks and Wildlife Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Habitat blocks are areas of contiguous forest and other natural habitats that are unfragmented by roads, development, or agriculture. Vermonts habitat blocks are...

  3. Atrioventricular block, ECG tracing (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an abnormal rhythm (arrhythmia) called an atrioventricular (AV) block. P waves show that the top of the ... wave (and heart contraction), there is an atrioventricular block, and a very slow pulse (bradycardia).

  4. Reversal of acute and chronic synovial inflammation by anti-transforming growth factor beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, S M; Allen, J B; Costa, G L; Wong, H L; Dasch, J R

    1993-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) induces leukocyte recruitment and activation, events central to an inflammatory response. In this study, we demonstrate that antagonism of TGF-beta with a neutralizing antibody not only blocks inflammatory cell accumulation, but also tissue pathology in an experimental model of chronic erosive polyarthritis. Intraarticular injection of monoclonal antibody 1D11.16, which inhibits both TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 bioactivity, into animals receiving an arthropathic dose of bacterial cell walls significantly inhibits arthritis. Inhibition was observed with a single injection of 50 micrograms antibody, and a 1-mg injection blocked acute inflammation > 75% compared with the contralateral joints injected with an irrelevant isotype control antibody (MOPC21) as quantitated by an articular index (AI = 0.93 +/- 0.23 for 1D11.16, and AI = 4.0 +/- 0 on day 4; p histopathologic and radiologic evidence of a therapeutic response. These data implicate TGF-beta as a profound agonist not only in the early events responsible for synovial inflammation, but also in the chronicity of streptococcal cell wall fragment-induced inflammation culminating in destructive pathology. Interrupting the cycle of leukocyte recruitment and activation with TGF-beta antagonists may provide a mechanism for resolution of chronic destructive lesions.

  5. The role of beta amyloid in Alzheimer's disease: still a cause of everything or the only one who got caught?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdile, Giuseppe; Fuller, Stephanie; Atwood, Craig S; Laws, Simon M; Gandy, Samuel E; Martins, Ralph N

    2004-10-01

    The beta amyloid (A beta) protein is a key molecule in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The tendency of the A beta peptide to aggregate, its reported neurotoxicity, and genetic linkage studies, have led to a hypothesis of AD pathogenesis that many AD researchers term the amyloid cascade hypothesis. In this hypothesis, an increased production of A beta results in neurodegeneration and ultimately dementia through a cascade of events. In the past 15 years, debate amongst AD researchers has arisen as to whether A beta is a cause or an effect of the pathogenic process. Recent in vitro and in vivo research has consolidated the theory that A beta is the primary cause, initiating secondary events, culminating in the neuropathological hallmarks associated with AD. This research has led to the development of therapeutic agents, currently in human clinical trials, which target A beta.

  6. Fermion-scalar conformal blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliesiu, Luca [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Kos, Filip [Department of Physics, Yale University,217 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Poland, David [Department of Physics, Yale University,217 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Dr, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Pufu, Silviu S. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Simmons-Duffin, David [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Dr, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Yacoby, Ran [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-04-13

    We compute the conformal blocks associated with scalar-scalar-fermion-fermion 4-point functions in 3D CFTs. Together with the known scalar conformal blocks, our result completes the task of determining the so-called ‘seed blocks’ in three dimensions. Conformal blocks associated with 4-point functions of operators with arbitrary spins can now be determined from these seed blocks by using known differential operators.

  7. Powder wastes confinement block and manufacturing process of this block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagot, L.; Brunel, G.

    1996-01-01

    This invention concerns a powder wastes containment block and a manufacturing process of this block. In this block, the waste powder is encapsulated in a thermo hardening polymer as for example an epoxy resin, the encapsulated resin being spread into cement. This block can contain between 45 and 55% in mass of wastes, between 18 and 36% in mass of polymer and between 14 and 32% in mass of cement. Such a containment block can be used for the radioactive wastes storage. (O.M.). 4 refs

  8. Differences between primed allogeneic T-cell responses and the primary mixed leucocyte reaction. Primed T cells become independent of the blocking effects of monoclonal antibodies against IL-1 beta and the CD5, CD11a (LFA-1), and CD11c (p 150,95) molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Niels; Hofmann, B; Morling, N

    1988-01-01

    .01) and the purified protein derivative (PPD) induced lymphocyte transformation response (42%, P less than or equal to 0.01) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), whereas primed allogeneic responses to PBMC and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) cell lines were unaffected by this MoAb. In addition, preliminary data...... monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) directed against (i) adhesion molecules belonging to the CD11 cluster of leucocyte antigens (CD11a, LFA-1; CD11b, MAC1 = CR3; and CD11c, p 150,95); (ii) various T cell-related antigens (CD2, CD4, CD5 and CD8); and (iii) recombinant IL-1 beta. The CD5-, CD11a- and CD11c...

  9. Building Curriculum during Block Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Blocks are not just for play! In this article, Nicole Andrews describes observing the interactions of three young boys enthusiastically engaged in the kindergarten block center of their classroom, using blocks in a building project that displayed their ability to use critical thinking skills, physics exploration, and the development of language…

  10. The best-beta CAPM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, L.

    2006-01-01

    The issue of 'best-beta' arises as soon as potential errors in the Sharpe-Lintner-Black capital asset pricing model (CAPM) are acknowledged. By incorporating a target variable into the investor preferences, this study derives a best-beta CAPM (BCAPM) that maintains the CAPM's theoretical appeal and

  11. Beta decay of Cu-56

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borcea, R; Aysto, J; Caurier, E; Dendooven, P; Doring, J; Gierlik, M; Gorska, M; Grawe, H; Hellstrom, M; Janas, Z; Jokinen, A; Karny, M; Kirchner, R; La Commara, M; Langanke, K; Martinez-Pinedo, G; Mayet, P; Nieminen, A; Nowacki, F; Penttila, H; Plochocki, A; Rejmund, M; Roeckl, E; Schlegel, C; Schmidt, K; Schwengner, R; Sawicka, M

    2001-01-01

    The proton-rich isotope Cu-56 was produced at the GSI On-Line Mass Separator by means of the Si-28(S-32, p3n) fusion-evaporation reaction. Its beta -decay properties were studied by detecting beta -delayed gamma rays and protons. A half-Life of 93 +/- 3 ms was determined for Cu-56. Compared to the

  12. BETA SPECTRA. I. Negatrons spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Malonda, A.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    1978-01-01

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 62 negatrons emitters have been computed introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. These spectra are plotted vs. energy, once normal i sed, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (Author)

  13. Review of the beta situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, J.

    1982-01-01

    This note lists some of the possible causes of beta limitation in tokamak and discusses what is known and what is involved in investigating them. The motivation for preparing this note is the observed degradation of confinement with increasing beta poloidal β/sub p/ and beam power P/sub b/ in ISX-B

  14. Isotope heating block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenk, E.

    1976-01-01

    A suggestion is made not to lead the separated nuclear 'waste' from spent nuclear fuel elements directly to end storage, but to make use of the heat produced from the remaining radiation, e.g. for seawater desalination. According to the invention, the activated fission products are to be processed, e.g. by calcination or vitrification, so that one can handle them. They should then be arranged in layers alternately with plate-shaped heat conducting pipes to form a homogeneous block; the heat absorbed by the thermal plates should be further passed on to evaporators or heat exchangers. (UWI) [de

  15. Blocking the Hawking radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autzen, M.; Kouvaris, C.

    2014-01-01

    grows after its formation (and eventually destroys the star) instead of evaporating. The fate of the black hole is dictated by the two opposite mechanics, i.e., accretion of nuclear matter from the center of the star and Hawking radiation that tends to decrease the mass of the black hole. We study how...... the assumptions for the accretion rate can in fact affect the critical mass beyond which a black hole always grows. We also study to what extent degenerate nuclear matter can impede Hawking radiation due to the fact that emitted particles can be Pauli blocked at the core of the star....

  16. TGF{beta} induces proHB-EGF shedding and EGFR transactivation through ADAM activation in gastric cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebi, Masahide [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Kataoka, Hiromi, E-mail: hkataoka@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Shimura, Takaya; Kubota, Eiji; Hirata, Yoshikazu; Mizushima, Takashi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Mamoru; Mabuchi, Motoshi; Tsukamoto, Hironobu; Tanida, Satoshi; Kamiya, Takeshi [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Higashiyama, Shigeki [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime (Japan); Joh, Takashi [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan)

    2010-11-19

    Research highlights: {yields} TGF{beta} induces EGFR transactivation through proHB-EGF shedding by activated ADAM members in gastric cancer cells. {yields} TGF{beta} induces nuclear translocation of HB-EGF-CTF cleaved by ADAM members. {yields} TGF{beta} enhances cell growth by EGFR transactivation and HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation and ADAM inhibitors block these effects. {yields} Silencing of ADAM17 also blocks EGFR transactivation, HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation and cancer cell growth by TGF{beta}. {yields} ADAM17 may play a crucial role in this TGF{beta}-HB-EGF signal transduction. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF{beta}) is known to potently inhibit cell growth. Loss of responsiveness to TGF{beta} inhibition on cell growth is a hallmark of many types of cancer, yet its mechanism is not fully understood. Membrane-anchored heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (proHB-EGF) ectodomain is cleaved by a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) members and is implicated in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation. Recently, nuclear translocation of the C-terminal fragment (CTF) of pro-HB-EGF was found to induce cell growth. We investigated the association between TGF{beta} and HB-EGF signal transduction via ADAM activation. Materials and methods: The CCK-8 assay in two gastric cancer cell lines was used to determine the effect for cell growth by TGF{beta}. The effect of two ADAM inhibitors was also evaluated. Induction of EGFR phosphorylation by TGF{beta} was analyzed and the effect of the ADAM inhibitors was also examined. Nuclear translocation of HB-EGF-CTF by shedding through ADAM activated by TGF{beta} was also analyzed. EGFR transactivation, HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation, and cell growth were examined under the condition of ADAM17 knockdown. Result: TGF{beta}-induced EGFR phosphorylation of which ADAM inhibitors were able to inhibit. TGF{beta} induced shedding of proHB-EGF allowing HB-EGF-CTF to

  17. Beta-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxon, Christopher Alan; Paulus, Stéphane

    2016-07-05

    Multi-drug resistance in Gram negative bacteria, particularly in Enterobacteriaceae, is a major clinical and public health challenge. The main mechanism of resistance in Enterobacteriaceae is linked to the production of beta-lactamase hydrolysing enzymes such as extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), AmpC beta-lactamases and carbapenemases (Carbapenemase Producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE)). ESBL and CPE resistance genes are located on plasmids, which can be transmitted between Enterobacteriaceae, facilitating their spread in hospitals and communities. These plasmids usually harbour multiple additional co-resistance genes, including to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones, making these infections challenging to treat. Asymptomatic carriage in healthy children as well as community acquired infections are increasingly reported, particularly with ESBL. Therapeutic options are limited and previously little used antimicrobials such as fosfomycin and colistin have been re-introduced in clinical practice. Paediatric experience with these agents is limited hence there is a need to further examine their clinical efficacy, dosage and toxicity in children. Antimicrobial stewardship along with strict infection prevention and control practices need to be adopted widely in order to preserve currently available antimicrobials. The future development of novel agents effective against beta-lactamases producers and their applicability in children is urgently needed to address the challenge of multi-resistant Gram negative infections. Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. RAVEN Beta Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabiti, Cristian; Alfonsi, Andrea; Cogliati, Joshua Joseph; Mandelli, Diego; Kinoshita, Robert Arthur; Wang, Congjian; Maljovec, Daniel Patrick; Talbot, Paul William

    2016-01-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  19. RAVEN Beta Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert Arthur [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Congjian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maljovec, Daniel Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Talbot, Paul William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  20. The costo-uterine muscle of the rat contains a homogeneous population of beta-adrenoceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, M. L.; Pennefather, J. N.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of two selective beta-adrenoceptor antagonists on the inhibitory responses to some sympathomimetic amines of electrically-stimulated preparations of costo-uterine muscle, taken from virgin rats, have been examined quantitatively. pA2 values for the antagonist, atenolol (beta 1-selective) and ICI 118,551 (beta 2-selective) were obtained using as agonists, fenoterol (beta 2-selective agonist) and noradrenaline (alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor agonist, beta 1-selective); and in addition, with ICI 118,551 only, isoprenaline (beta-agonist, non-selective) and adrenaline (alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor agonist, beta 2-selective). Catecholamine uptake mechanisms and alpha-adrenoceptors were not blocked in any of these experiments. Atenolol competitively antagonized the effects of fenoterol and noradrenaline to a similar extent, the pA2 values being 5.4 and 5.7, respectively. ICI 118,551 competitively antagonized the effects of fenoterol, isoprenaline, adrenaline and noradrenaline to a similar extent; pA2 values ranged from 8.7 with noradrenaline to 9.1 with isoprenaline. These results extend our previous observations which indicated that the adrenoceptors mediating inhibition of electrically-evoked contractions of costo-uterine muscle of the virgin rat are homogeneous and of the beta 2-subtype. The potency of the beta 1-selective agonist RO 363 in producing inhibition of electrically-evoked contractions of this tissue was also examined. RO 363 was 200 times less potent than isoprenaline but was a full agonist. This indicates that there is efficient coupling between beta 2-adrenoceptor activation and tissue response in this non-innervated preparation. PMID:2858239

  1. Interactions between two beta-sheets. Energetics of beta/beta packing in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, K C; Némethy, G; Rumsey, S; Tuttle, R W; Scheraga, H A

    1986-04-20

    The analysis of the interactions between regularly folded segments of the polypeptide chain contributes to an understanding of the energetics of protein folding. Conformational energy-minimization calculations have been carried out to determine the favorable ways of packing two right-twisted beta-sheets. The packing of two five-stranded beta-sheets was investigated, with the strands having the composition CH3CO-(L-Ile)6-NHCH3 in one beta-sheet and CH3CO-(L-Val)6-NHCH3 in the other. Two distinct classes of low-energy packing arrangements were found. In the class with lowest energies, the strands of the two beta-sheets are aligned nearly parallel (or antiparallel) with each other, with a preference for a negative orientation angle, because this arrangement corresponds to the best complementary packing of the two twisted saddle-shaped beta-sheets. In the second class, with higher interaction energies, the strands of the two beta-sheets are oriented nearly perpendicular to each other. While the surfaces of the two beta-sheets are not complementary in this arrangement, there is good packing between the corner of one beta-sheet and the interior part of the surface of the other, resulting in a favorable energy of packing. Both classes correspond to frequently observed orientations of beta-sheets in proteins. In proteins, the second class of packing is usually observed when the two beta-sheets are covalently linked, i.e. when a polypeptide strand passes from one beta-sheet to the other, but we have shown here that a large contribution to the stabilization of this packing arrangement arises from noncovalent interactions.

  2. Purine analogs as phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase III beta inhibitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šála, Michal; Kögler, Martin; Plačková, Pavla; Mejdrová, Ivana; Hřebabecký, Hubert; Procházková, Eliška; Strunin, Dmytro; Lee, G.; Birkuš, G.; Weber, Jan; Mertlíková-Kaiserová, Helena; Nencka, Radim

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 11 (2016), s. 2706-2712 ISSN 0960-894X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-09310S; GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase * purine * PI4K III beta * antiviral agent * hepatitis C virus Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.454, year: 2016

  3. A standard graphite block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivkovic, M; Zdravkovic, Z; Sotic, O [Department of Reactor Physics and Dynamics, Boris Kidric Institute of nuclear sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1966-04-15

    A graphite block was calibrated for the thermal neutron flux of the Ra-Be source using indium foils as detectors. Experimental values of the thermal neutron flux along the central vertical axis of the system were corrected for the self-shielding effect and depression of flux in the detector. The experimental values obtained were compared with the values calculated on the basis of solving the conservation neutron equation by the continuous slowing-down theory. In this theoretical calculation of the flux the Ra-Be source was divided into three resonance energy regions. The measurement of the thermal neutron diffusion length in the standard graphite block is described. The measurements were performed in the thermal neutron region of the system. The experimental results were interpreted by the diffusion theory for point thermal neutron source in the finite system. The thermal neutron diffusion length was calculated to be L= 50.9 {+-}3.1 cm for the following graphite characteristics: density = 1.7 g/cm{sup 3}; boron content = 0.1 ppm; absorption cross section = 3.7 mb.

  4. A standard graphite block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivkovic, M.; Zdravkovic, Z.; Sotic, O.

    1966-04-01

    A graphite block was calibrated for the thermal neutron flux of the Ra-Be source using indium foils as detectors. Experimental values of the thermal neutron flux along the central vertical axis of the system were corrected for the self-shielding effect and depression of flux in the detector. The experimental values obtained were compared with the values calculated on the basis of solving the conservation neutron equation by the continuous slowing-down theory. In this theoretical calculation of the flux the Ra-Be source was divided into three resonance energy regions. The measurement of the thermal neutron diffusion length in the standard graphite block is described. The measurements were performed in the thermal neutron region of the system. The experimental results were interpreted by the diffusion theory for point thermal neutron source in the finite system. The thermal neutron diffusion length was calculated to be L= 50.9 ±3.1 cm for the following graphite characteristics: density = 1.7 g/cm 3 ; boron content = 0.1 ppm; absorption cross section = 3.7 mb

  5. Multi-agent platform for development of educational games for children with autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alers, S.H.M.; Barakova, E.I.

    2009-01-01

    Multi-agent system of autonomous interactive blocks that can display its active state through color and light intensity has been developed. Depending on the individual rules, these autonomous blocks could express emergent behaviors which are a basis for various educational games. The multi-agent

  6. Derivatives of the Incomplete Beta Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Boik

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The incomplete beta function is defined as where Beta(p, q is the beta function. Dutka (1981 gave a history of the development and numerical evaluation of this function. In this article, an algorithm for computing first and second derivatives of Ix,p,q with respect to p and q is described. The algorithm is useful, for example, when fitting parameters to a censored beta, truncated beta, or a truncated beta-binomial model.

  7. The wild tapered block bootstrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounyo, Ulrich

    In this paper, a new resampling procedure, called the wild tapered block bootstrap, is introduced as a means of calculating standard errors of estimators and constructing confidence regions for parameters based on dependent heterogeneous data. The method consists in tapering each overlapping block...... of the series first, the applying the standard wild bootstrap for independent and heteroscedastic distrbuted observations to overlapping tapered blocks in an appropriate way. Its perserves the favorable bias and mean squared error properties of the tapered block bootstrap, which is the state-of-the-art block......-order asymptotic validity of the tapered block bootstrap as well as the wild tapered block bootstrap approximation to the actual distribution of the sample mean is also established when data are assumed to satisfy a near epoch dependent condition. The consistency of the bootstrap variance estimator for the sample...

  8. Method and apparatus for selective capture of gas phase analytes using metal .beta.-diketonate polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Scott D [Kennewick, WA

    2011-06-21

    A process and sensor device are disclosed that employ metal .beta.-diketonate polymers to selectively capture gas-phase explosives and weaponized chemical agents in a sampling area or volume. The metal .beta.-diketonate polymers can be applied to surfaces in various analytical formats for detection of: improvised explosive devices, unexploded ordinance, munitions hidden in cargo holds, explosives, and chemical weapons in public areas.

  9. Development of beta reference radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Zhaoyong; Cai Shanyu; Li Yanbo; Yin Wei; Feng Jiamin; Sun Yuhua; Li Yongqiang

    1997-09-01

    A system of beta reference radiation has been developed, that is composed of 740 MBq 147 Pm beta source, 74 MBq and 740 MBq 90 Sr + 90 Y β sources, compensation filters, a source handling tool, a source jig, spacing bars, a shutter, a control unit and a beta dose meter calibration stand. For 740 MBq 147 Pm and 74 MBq 90 Sr + 90 Y beta reference radiations with compensation filters and 740 MBq 90 Sr + 90 Y beta reference radiation without compensation filter, at 20 cm, 30 cm and 30 cm distance separately; the residual energy of maximum is 0.14 MeV, 1.98 MeV and 2.18 MeV separately; the absorbed dose to tissue D (0.07) is 1.547 mGy/h (1996-05-20), 5.037 mGy/h (1996-05-10) and 93.57 mGy/h (1996-05-15) separately; the total uncertainty is 3.0%, 1.7% and 1.7% separately. For the first and the second beta reference radiation, the dose rate variability in the area of 18 cm diameter in the plane perpendicular to the beta-ray beam axis is within +-6% and +-3% separately. (3 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.)

  10. A semiconductor beta ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bom, V.R.

    1987-01-01

    Measurement of energy spectra of beta particles emitted from nuclei in beta-decay processes provides information concerning the mass difference of these nuclei between initial and final state. Moreover, experimental beta spectra yield information on the feeding of the levels in the daughter nucleus. Such data are valuable in the construction and checking of the level schemes. This thesis describes the design, construction, testing and usage of a detector for the accurate measurement of the mentioned spectra. In ch. 2 the design and construction of the beta spectrometer, which uses a hyper-pure germanium crystal for energy determination, is described. A simple wire chamber is used to discriminate beta particles from gamma radiation. Disadvantages arise from the large amounts of scattered beta particles deforming the continua. A method is described to minimize the scattering. In ch. 3 some theoretical aspects of data analysis are described and the results of Monte-Carlo simulations of the summation of annihilation radiation are compared with experiments. Ch. 4 comprises the results of the measurements of the beta decay energies of 103-108 In. 87 refs.; 34 figs.; 7 tabs

  11. BETA (Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Evan M.; Birmingham, William J.; Rivera, William F.; Romero-Talamas, Carlos A.

    2017-10-01

    The Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus (BETA) is a 1-Tesla (T) prototype of the 10-T Adjustable Long Pulse High-Field Apparatus (ALPHA). These water-cooled resistive magnets use high DC currents to produce strong uniform magnetic fields. Presented here is the successful completion of the BETA project and experimental results validating analytical magnet designing methods developed at the Dusty Plasma Laboratory (DPL). BETA's final design specifications will be highlighted which include electromagnetic, thermal and stress analyses. The magnet core design will be explained which include: Bitter Arcs, helix starters, and clamping annuli. The final version of the magnet's vessel and cooling system are also presented, as well as the electrical system of BETA, which is composed of a unique solid-state breaker circuit. Experimental results presented will show the operation of BETA at 1 T. The results are compared to both analytical design methods and finite element analysis calculations. We also explore the steady state maximums and theoretical limits of BETA's design. The completion of BETA validates the design and manufacturing techniques that will be used in the succeeding magnet, ALPHA.

  12. Interacting agents in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2008-01-01

    Interacting agents in finance represent a behavioural, agent-based approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex adaptive systems consisting of many boundedly rational agents interacting through simple heterogeneous investment strategies, constantly adapting their behaviour in response

  13. Riot Control Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Facts About Riot Control Agents Interim document Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What riot control agents are Riot control agents (sometimes referred to ...

  14. Photovoltaic building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanberg, Peter Jesper; Jørgensen, Anders Michael

    2014-01-01

    efficiency of about 15% for commercial Silicon solar cells there is still much to gain. DTU Danchip provides research facilities, equipment and expertise for the building blocks that comprises fabricating the efficient solar cell. In order to get more of the sun light into the device we provide thin film......Photovoltaics (PV), better known as solar cells, are now a common day sight on many rooftops in Denmark.The installed capacity of PV systems worldwide is growing exponentially1 and is the third most importantrenewable energy source today. The cost of PV is decreasing fast with ~10%/year but to make...... it directcompetitive with fossil energy sources a further reduction is needed. By increasing the efficiency of the solar cells one gain an advantage through the whole chain of cost. So that per produced Watt of power less material is spent, installation costs are lower, less area is used etc. With an average...

  15. Celiac ganglia block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinci, Devrim; Akhan, Okan

    2005-01-01

    Pain occurs frequently in patients with advanced cancers. Tumors originating from upper abdominal viscera such as pancreas, stomach, duodenum, proximal small bowel, liver and biliary tract and from compressing enlarged lymph nodes can cause severe abdominal pain, which do not respond satisfactorily to medical treatment or radiotherapy. Percutaneous celiac ganglia block (CGB) can be performed with high success and low complication rates under imaging guidance to obtain pain relief in patients with upper abdominal malignancies. A significant relationship between pain relief and degree of tumoral celiac ganglia invasion according to CT features was described in the literature. Performing the procedure in the early grades of celiac ganglia invasion on CT can increase the effectiveness of the CGB, which is contrary to World Health Organization criteria stating that CGB must be performed in patients with advanced stage cancer. CGB may also be effectively performed in patients with chronic pancreatitis for pain palliation

  16. Atomic Basic Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheler, Fabian; Mitzlaff, Martin; Schröder-Preikschat, Wolfgang

    Die Entscheidung, einen zeit- bzw. ereignisgesteuerten Ansatz für ein Echtzeitsystem zu verwenden, ist schwierig und sehr weitreichend. Weitreichend vor allem deshalb, weil diese beiden Ansätze mit äußerst unterschiedlichen Kontrollflussabstraktionen verknüpft sind, die eine spätere Migration zum anderen Paradigma sehr schwer oder gar unmöglich machen. Wir schlagen daher die Verwendung einer Zwischendarstellung vor, die unabhängig von der jeweils verwendeten Kontrollflussabstraktion ist. Für diesen Zweck verwenden wir auf Basisblöcken basierende Atomic Basic Blocks (ABB) und bauen darauf ein Werkzeug, den Real-Time Systems Compiler (RTSC) auf, der die Migration zwischen zeit- und ereignisgesteuerten Systemen unterstützt.

  17. Activities of beta-lactam antibiotics against Escherichia coli strains producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, G A; Carreras, I

    1990-01-01

    Seven extended-spectrum beta-lactamases related to TEM and four enzymes derived from SHV-1 were transferred to a common Escherichia coli host so that the activity of a variety of beta-lactams could be tested in a uniform genetic environment. For most derivatives, penicillinase activity was 10% or less than that of strains making TEM-1, TEM-2, or SHV-1 beta-lactamase, suggesting that reduced catalytic efficiency accompanied the broader substrate spectrum. Despite this deficit, resistance to aztreonam, carumonam, cefdinir, cefepime, cefixime, cefmenoxime, cefotaxime, cefotiam, cefpirome, cefpodoxime, ceftazidime, ceftibuten, ceftizoxime, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, and E1040 was enhanced. For strains producing TEM-type enzymes, however, MICs of carumonam, cefepime, cefmenoxime, cefotiam, cefpirome, and ceftibuten were 8 micrograms/ml or less. Susceptibilities of cefmetazole, cefotetan, cefoxitin, flomoxef, imipenem, meropenem, moxalactam, temocillin, FCE 22101, and Sch 34343 were unaffected. FCE 22101, imipenem, meropenem, and Sch 34343 were inhibitory for all strains at 1 microgram/ml or less. In E. coli an OmpF- porin mutation in combination with an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase enhanced resistance to many of these agents, but generally by only fourfold. Hyperproduction of chromosomal AmpC beta-lactamase increased resistance to 7-alpha-methoxy beta-lactams but not that to temocillin. When tested at 8 micrograms/ml, clavulanate was more potent than sulbactam or tazobactam in overcoming resistance to ampicillin, while cefoperazone-sulbactam was more active than ticarcillin-clavulanate or piperacillin-tazobactam, especially against TEM-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. PMID:2193623

  18. Some Blocks from Heliopolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dr.Nageh Omar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available These group of Architectural Fragments have been discovered during Excavations at Souq el – Khamees Site at the end of Mostorod Street in el – Matarya Area by the Supreme Council of Antiquities Mission Season 2003 and none published before . The Site of Excavations is Situated about 500 metres to the west Obelisk of the King Senusert I According to the inscriptions on the block (pl.1.a,fig.1 represents the coronation name of the king Senusret III, the fifth king of the twelfth dynasty within the cartouche .Through This recent discover and his Sphinx statue we Suggest that the king Senusret III built a shrine or Temple at Heliopols which was possibly a part of the great Temple of the universal God of Heliopolis . For block dating to the king Akhenaten and many monuments are discovered in Heliopolis at the same period emphasized that the king Akhenaten built temple for the god Aten in Heliopolis and through Studies about the king Akhenaten, we suggest that the king Akhenaten take his new principles from Heliopolis . The king Ramesses II mentioned from stela which discovered at Manshyt el- Sader, in the second horizontal line that he erected oblesk and some statues at the great Temple in Heliopolis , this recent Discover about Statue of the king Ramesses II emphasized site of excavations perhaps a shrine or open court from temple of the king Ramesses II at the great Temple in Heliopolis For nbt – htpt, we could show that the goddess Hathor take a forward position in Heliopolis and become the Lady of Hetepet in Heliopolis since Eighteenth dynasty at least

  19. Reversal of rocuronium-induced profound neuromuscular block by sugammadex in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, H.D. de; Egmond, J. van; Booij, L.H.D.J.; Driessen, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    A case is reported in which a child with Duchenne muscular dystrophy received a dose of sugammadex to reverse a rocuronium-induced profound neuromuscular block. Sugammadex is the first selective relaxant binding agent and reverses rocuronium- and vecuronium-induced neuromuscular block. A fast and

  20. Experiments on double beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busto, J [Neuchatel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique

    1996-11-01

    The Double Beta Decay, and especially ({beta}{beta}){sub 0{nu}} mode, is an excellent test of Standard Model as well as of neutrino physics. From experimental point of view, a very large number of different techniques are or have been used increasing the sensitivity of this experiments quite a lot (the factor of 10{sup 4} in the last 20 years). In future, in spite of several difficulties, the sensitivity would be increased further, keeping the interest of this very important process. (author) 4 figs., 5 tabs., 21 refs.

  1. Preventive Effects of Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methyl Butyrate

    OpenAIRE

    N. Ravanbakhsh; N. Torabi; M. Foadoddini

    2016-01-01

    Aims: One of the major factors in sudden cardiac arrest is the initiation and continuation of deadly arrhythmias during ischemia. It is known that beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) has useful effects such as anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis effects in the skeletal muscles. The aim of this study was to investigate the preventive effects of HMB on the ventricular arrhythmias due to the ischemia. Materials & Methods: In the experimental study, 30 Wistar male rats were randomly div...

  2. Dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources; Dosimetria de fuentes {beta} extensas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Lallena R, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    In this work, we have been studied, making use of the Penelope Monte Carlo simulation code, the dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources in situations of spherical geometry including interfaces. These configurations are of interest in the treatment of the called cranealfaringyomes of some synovia leisure of knee and other problems of interest in medical physics. Therefore, its application can be extended toward problems of another areas with similar geometric situation and beta sources. (Author)

  3. TGF-beta1 expression in EL4 lymphoma cells overexpressing growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, John T; Weigent, Douglas A

    2006-03-01

    Our previous studies show that growth hormone overexpression (GHo) upregulates the expression of the IGF-1R and IGF-2R resulting in the protection of the EL4 lymphoma cell line from apoptosis. In this study, we report that GHo also increases TGF-beta1 protein expression measured by luciferase promoter assay, Western analysis, and ELISA. Further, the data show that antibody to TGF-betaR2 decreases TGF-beta1 promoter activity to the level of vector alone control cells. GHo cells treated with (125)I-rh-latent TGF-beta1 showed increased activation of latent TGF-beta1 as measured by an increase in the active 24kDa, TGF-beta1 compared to vector alone control cells. The ability of endogenous GH to increase TGF-beta1 expression is blocked in EL4 cells by antisense but not sense oligodeoxynucleotides or in cells cultured with antibody to growth hormone (GH). The data suggest that endogenous GH may protect from apoptosis through the IGF-1R receptor while limiting cellular growth through increased expression and activation of TGF-beta1.

  4. Effect of beta-agonists on LAM progression and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Kang; Steagall, Wendy K; Stylianou, Mario; Pacheco-Rodriguez, Gustavo; Darling, Thomas N; Vaughan, Martha; Moss, Joel

    2018-01-30

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a rare disease of women, is associated with cystic lung destruction resulting from the proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle-like LAM cells with mutations in the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) genes TSC1 and/or TSC2 The mutant genes and encoded proteins are responsible for activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), which is inhibited by sirolimus (rapamycin), a drug used to treat LAM. Patients who have LAM may also be treated with bronchodilators for asthma-like symptoms due to LAM. We observed stabilization of forced expiratory volume in 1 s over time in patients receiving sirolimus and long-acting beta-agonists with short-acting rescue inhalers compared with patients receiving only sirolimus. Because beta-agonists increase cAMP and PKA activity, we investigated effects of PKA activation on the mTOR pathway. Human skin TSC2 +/- fibroblasts or LAM lung cells incubated short-term with isoproterenol (beta-agonist) showed a sirolimus-independent increase in phosphorylation of S6, a downstream effector of the mTOR pathway, and increased cell growth. Cells incubated long-term with isoproterenol, which may lead to beta-adrenergic receptor desensitization, did not show increased S6 phosphorylation. Inhibition of PKA blocked the isoproterenol effect on S6 phosphorylation. Thus, activation of PKA by beta-agonists increased phospho-S6 independent of mTOR, an effect abrogated by beta-agonist-driven receptor desensitization. In agreement, retrospective clinical data from patients with LAM suggested that a combination of bronchodilators in conjunction with sirolimus may be preferable to sirolimus alone for stabilization of pulmonary function.

  5. Prevalence and prognostic significance of adrenergic escape during chronic beta-blocker therapy in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenstein, Lutz; Zugck, Christian; Schellberg, Dieter; Nelles, Manfred; Froehlich, Hanna; Katus, Hugo; Remppis, Andrew

    2009-02-01

    Like aldosterone escape to ACE-inhibitors, adrenergic escape (AE) to beta-blockers appears conceivable in chronic heart failure (CHF), as generalized systemic neurohumoral activation has been described as the pathophysiological basis of this syndrome. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and prognostic value of AE with respect to different beta-blocker agents and doses. This was a prospective, observational study of 415 patients with systolic CHF receiving chronic stable beta-blocker therapy. AE was defined by norepinephrine levels above the upper limit of normal. Irrespective of the individual beta-blocker agents used and the dose equivalent taken, the prevalence of AE was 31-39%. Norepinephrine levels neither correlated with heart rate (r=0.02; 95% CI: -0.08-0.11; P=0.74) nor were they related to underlying rhythm (P=0.09) or the individual beta-blocker agent used (P=0.87). The presence of AE was a strong and independent indicator of mortality (adjusted HR: 1.915; 95% CI: 1.387-2.645; chi2: 15.60). We verified the presence of AE in CHF patients on chronic stable beta-blocker therapy, irrespective of the individual beta-blocker agent and the dose equivalent. As AE might indicate therapeutic failure, the determination of AE could help to identify those patients with CHF that might benefit from more aggressive treatment modalities. Heart rate, however, is not a surrogate for adrenergic escape.

  6. Sigma beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, D.E.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment to measure beta decays of the sigma particle. Sigmas produced by stopping a K - beam in a liquid hydrogen target decayed in the following reactions: Kp → Σπ; Σ → Neν. The electron and pion were detected by wire spark chambers in a magnetic spectrometer and by plastic scintillators, and were differentiated by a threshold gas Cherenkov counter. The neutron was detected by liquid scintillation counters. The data (n = 3) shell electrons or the highly excited electrons decay first. Instead, it is suggested that when there are two to five electrons in highly excited states immediately after a heavy ion--atom collision the first transitions to occur will be among highly excited Rydberg states in a cascade down to the 4s, 4p, and 3d-subshells. If one of the long lived states becomes occupied by electrons promoted during the collision or by electrons falling from higher levels, it will not decay until after the valence shell decays. LMM rates calculated to test the methods used are compared to previous works. The mixing coefficients are given in terms of the states 4s4p, 45sp+-, and 5s5p. The applicability of Cooper, Fano, and Prats' discussion of the energies and transition rates of doubly excited states is considered

  7. Double Beta Decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorini, Ettore

    2008-01-01

    The importance of neutrinoless Double Beta Decay (DBD) is stressed in view of the recent results of experiments on neutrino oscillations which indicate that the difference between the squared masses of two neutrinos of different flavours is finite [For a recent review including neutrino properties and recent results see: Review of Particle Physics, J. of Phys. G: Nuclear and Particle Physics 33, 1]. As a consequence the mass of at least one neutrino has to be different from zero and it becomes imperative to determine its absolute value. The various experimental techniques to search for DBD are discussed together with the difficult problems of the evaluation of the corresponding nuclear matrix elements. The upper limits on neutrino mass coming from the results of the various experiments are reported together with the indication for a non zero value by one of them not confirmed so far. The two presently running experiments on neutrinoless DBD are briefly described together with the already approved or designed second generation searches aiming to reach the values on the absolute neutrino mass indicated by the results on neutrino oscillations

  8. Regulation of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes in the rat kidney by estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Sanchez, Elise P; Ganjam, Venkataseshu; Chen, Yuan Jian; Liu, Ying; Zhou, Ming Yi; Toroslu, Cigdem; Romero, Damian G; Hughson, Michael D; de Rodriguez, Angela; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E

    2003-08-01

    The 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11betaHSD) type 1 (11betaHSD1) enzyme is an NADP+-dependent oxidoreductase, usually reductase, of major glucocorticoids. The NAD+-dependent type 2 (11betaHSD2) enzyme is an oxidase that inactivates cortisol and corticosterone, conferring extrinsic specificity of the mineralocorticoid receptor for aldosterone. We reported that addition of a reducing agent to renal homogenates results in the monomerization of 11betaHSD2 dimers and a significant increase in NAD+-dependent corticosterone conversion. Estrogenic effects on expression, dimerization, and activity of the kidney 11betaHSD1 and -2 enzymes are described herein. Renal 11betaHSD1 mRNA and protein expressions were decreased to very low levels by estradiol (E2) treatment of both intact and castrated male rats; testosterone had no effect. NADP+-dependent enzymatic activity of renal homogenates from E2-treated rats measured under nonreducing conditions was less than that of homogenates from intact animals. Addition of 10 mM DTT to aliquots from these same homogenates abrogated the difference in NADP+-dependent activity between E2-treated and control rats. In contrast, 11betaHSD2 mRNA and protein expressions were significantly increased by E2 treatment. There was a marked increase in the number of juxtamedullary proximal tubules stained by the antibody against 11betaHSD2 after the administration of E2. Notwithstanding, neither the total corticosterone and 11-dehydrocorticosterone excreted in the urine nor their ratio differed between E2- and vehicle-treated rats. NAD+-dependent enzymatic activity in the absence or presence of a reducing agent demonstrated that the increase in 11betaHSD2 protein was not associated with an increase in in vitro activity unless the dimers were reduced to monomers.

  9. Quantification of metoprolol beta 2-adrenoceptor antagonism in asthmatic patients by pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braat, M. C.; Jonkers, R. E.; van Boxtel, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    An integrated pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model was used to quantify the beta 2-blocking activity of metoprolol in seven asthmatic patients. The patients received a subcutaneous dose of terbutaline on two consecutive days. On day 1 they were pretreated with placebo and on day 2 with metoprolol

  10. (beta-HC CG) in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    Urothelial tumour samples were obtained from all the 86 patients requiring surgical ..... and/or urine beta HCG appears to be an efficient diagnostic marker for the ..... collected all urothelial tumour specimens for storage, cutting and staining.

  11. Beta-glucans and cholesterol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šíma, Petr; Vannucci, Luca; Větvička, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 4 (2017), s. 1799-1808 ISSN 1107-3756 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : cholesterol * beta-glucans * diet Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.341, year: 2016

  12. Radioisotope indicator, type BETA 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duszanski, M.; Pankow, A.; Skwarczynski, B.

    1975-01-01

    The authors describe a radioisotope indicator, type BETA 2, constructed in the ZKMPW Works to be employed in mines for counting, checking, signalling the presence and positioning of cars, as well as monitoring the state of some other equipment. (author)

  13. TRUE Block Scale Continuation Project. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Peter; Byegaard, Johan [Geosigma AB (Sweden); Billaux, Daniel [Itasca Consultants SA (France); Cvetkovic, Vladimir [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Dershowitz, William; Doe, Thomas [Golder Associates Inc. (United States); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates AB (Sweden); Poteri, Antti [VTT (Finland); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB (Sweden); Winberg, Anders [Conterra AB (SE)] (ed.)

    2007-03-15

    developed microstructural model. It is noted that the observed difference is applicable to experimental time scales while at longer time scales the retention capacity of the fault type fractures may become saturated. The overall retention (taking effects of both {kappa} and {beta} into account) in the background fracture Flow path II is found to be about one order of magnitude higher than for Flow path I. This finding is attributed to the fact that that the flow rate is significantly lower compared with Flow path I, resulting in longer residence times. The presented results are consistent with Flow path I being contained in a planar structure with immobile zones assigned according to the microstructural model. Similarly, the results suggest Flow path II is being made up of a set of background fractures, including BG1. The uncertainty associated with the analysis and interpretations has been evaluated quantitatively, demonstrating that the uncertainty in the hydrodynamic (pathway length and velocity) parameter group {beta} is higher than that for the retention (physical and geochemical) parameter group {kappa}. This analysis supports the development of more realistic hydrostructural models with uncertainty represented through discrete fracture network (DFN) simulations for radionuclide transport in crystalline rock. The analysis (prediction and evaluation) made of the TRUE Block Scale Continuation tracer tests demonstrates clearly that a good geological basis (as expressed in the developed hydrostructural and microstructure models) is important for understanding sorbing tracer transport in fractured crystalline rock.The quantitative analysis pertaining to the background fracture Flow path II suggests that background fracture flow paths, although with poor material retention properties, may contribute significantly to retention because of the low flow rates expected in them. Given that the current results are based on one sole experimental result there exists a need to

  14. Common blocks for ASQS(12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Milazzo

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available An ASQS(v is a particular Steiner system featuring a set of v vertices and two separate families of blocks, B and G, whose elements have a respective cardinality of 4 and 6. It has the property that any three vertices of X belong either to a B-block or to a G-block. The parameter cb is the number of common blocks in two separate ASQSs, both defined on the same set of vertices X . In this paper it is shown that cb ≤ 29 for any pair of ASQSs(12.

  15. Putative neuroprotective agents in neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Seetal; Maes, Michael; Anderson, George; Dean, Olivia M; Moylan, Steven; Berk, Michael

    2013-04-05

    In many individuals with major neuropsychiatric disorders including depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, their disease characteristics are consistent with a neuroprogressive illness. This includes progressive structural brain changes, cognitive and functional decline, poorer treatment response and an increasing vulnerability to relapse with chronicity. The underlying molecular mechanisms of neuroprogression are thought to include neurotrophins and regulation of neurogenesis and apoptosis, neurotransmitters, inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, cortisol and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and epigenetic influences. Knowledge of the involvement of each of these pathways implies that specific agents that act on some or multiple of these pathways may thus block this cascade and have neuroprotective properties. This paper reviews the potential of the most promising of these agents, including lithium and other known psychotropics, aspirin, minocycline, statins, N-acetylcysteine, leptin and melatonin. These agents are putative neuroprotective agents for schizophrenia and mood disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Adductor Canal Block versus Femoral Nerve Block and Quadriceps Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Pia Therese; Nielsen, Zbigniew Jerzy Koscielniak; Henningsen, Lene Marianne

    2013-01-01

    : The authors hypothesized that the adductor canal block (ACB), a predominant sensory blockade, reduces quadriceps strength compared with placebo (primary endpoint, area under the curve, 0.5-6 h), but less than the femoral nerve block (FNB; secondary endpoint). Other secondary endpoints were...

  17. Beneficial and adverse effects of chemopreventive agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2003-01-01

    The beneficial and adverse effects of some chemopreventive agents, such as Vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, indole-3-carbinol, capsaicin, garlic, and aloe are reviewed. Two large randomized trials with a lung cancer endpoint, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Prevention Study and the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), suggested that antioxidants might be harmful in smokers. However, the results of the Linxian study and of the ATBC or the CARET studies were significantly different in this respect, and therefore, the relationship between antioxidant and carcinogenesis remains open to debate. Indole-3-carbinol has cancer promoting activities in the colon, thyroid, pancreas, and liver, whereas capsaicin alters the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and may promote carcinogenesis at high doses. Organosulfur compounds and selenium from garlic have no or a little enhancing effect on cancer promotion stage. Information upon chemopreventive mechanisms that inhibit carcinogenesis is imperfect, although the causes and natures of certain human cancers are known. Therefore, definitive preventive guidelines should be carefully offered for various types of tumors, which properly consider ethnic variations, and the efficacies and the safety of chemopreventive agents

  18. Beneficial and adverse effects of chemopreventive agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2003-03-01

    The beneficial and adverse effects of some chemopreventive agents, such as Vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, indole-3-carbinol, capsaicin, garlic, and aloe are reviewed. Two large randomized trials with a lung cancer endpoint, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Prevention Study and the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), suggested that antioxidants might be harmful in smokers. However, the results of the Linxian study and of the ATBC or the CARET studies were significantly different in this respect, and therefore, the relationship between antioxidant and carcinogenesis remains open to debate. Indole-3-carbinol has cancer promoting activities in the colon, thyroid, pancreas, and liver, whereas capsaicin alters the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and may promote carcinogenesis at high doses. Organosulfur compounds and selenium from garlic have no or a little enhancing effect on cancer promotion stage. Information upon chemopreventive mechanisms that inhibit carcinogenesis is imperfect, although the causes and natures of certain human cancers are known. Therefore, definitive preventive guidelines should be carefully offered for various types of tumors, which properly consider ethnic variations, and the efficacies and the safety of chemopreventive agents.

  19. The block transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradish, G.J. III; Reid, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    The central instrumentation control and data acquisition (CICADA) computer system is comprised of a functionally distributed hierarchical network of thirteen (13) 32-bit mini-computers that are the heart of the control, monitoring, data collection and data analysis for the tokamak fusion test reactor (TFTR). The CICADA system was designed with the goal of providing complete control, monitoring, and data acquisition for TFTR, which includes the acquisition and storage of 20M points of data within a five-minute shot cycle. It was realized early in the system design that in order to meet this goal an ancillary system would have to be provided to supplement the subsystem CAMAC systems that, due to the relatively slow throughput of the serial highways and the overhead of relaying data to the central facilities within a star network, would not provide the necessary throughput. The authors discuss how the block transfer system provided a means of moving data directly from the CAMAC crate to the application running on the central facility computers

  20. Reasoning about emotional agents

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, J.-J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in this framework how emotions are related to the action monitoring capabilities of an agent.

  1. Covalent labeling of the beta-adrenergic ligand-binding site with para-(bromoacetamidyl)benzylcarazolol. A highly potent beta-adrenergic affinity label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, K.E.; Heald, S.L.; Jeffs, P.W.; Lefkowitz, R.J.; Caron, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    Para-(Bromoacetamidyl)benzylcarazolol (pBABC) was synthesized and found to be an extremely potent affinity label for beta-adrenergic receptors. Its interaction with mammalian (rabbit and hamster lung) and nonmammalian (turkey and frog erythrocyte) beta-adrenergic receptors was similar, displaying EC 50 values of 400-900 pM for inhibiting 125 I-cyanopindolol binding to these receptors. pBABC reduced the number of beta-adrenergic receptors in frog erythrocyte membranes, without any change in the affinity of the remaining sites for [ 125 I]iodocyanopindolol. pBABC has been radioiodinated. As assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, this affinity probe specifically labeled the beta-adrenergic peptide of a purified preparation of hamster lung, with high efficiency (approximately 40%) and with a pharmacological specificity characteristic of an interaction at the beta 2-adrenergic receptor ligand-binding site. Comparison of the proteolyzed products derived from purified receptor labeled with [ 125 I]pBABC and with the photoaffinity agent [ 125 I]p-azidobenzylcarazolol suggested that covalent labeling of the beta-adrenergic receptor by these probes occurs at similar domains of the beta-adrenergic receptor

  2. Block fuel element for gas-cooled high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrovat, M.F.

    1978-01-01

    The invention concerns a block fuel element consisting of only one carbon matrix which is almost isotropic of high crystallinity into which the coated particles are incorporated by a pressing process. This block element is produced under isostatic pressure from graphite matrix powder and coated particles in a rubber die and is subsequently subjected to heat treatment. The main component of the graphite matrix powder consists of natural graphite powder to which artificial graphite powder and a small amount of a phenol resin binding agent are added

  3. Total-Count Calibration Blocks for use in uranium Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif

    Transportable calibration blocks for field scintillometers and borehole probes were manufactured from concrete and installed at calibration sites in Denmark and Greece. The concrete mixes were prepared from aggregates of quartz sand and crushed uranium-thorium ore. Hater-reducing agents and silica...... dust added to the cement paste produced concretes of acceptable porosity and pore structure. The content of ore was adjusted to provide block grades of approximately 2, 140, and 540 units of radioelement concentration (Ur). Thorium was estimated to contribute 0.39 ± 0.02 Ur per ppm Th. The adopted...

  4. Tables of double beta decay data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tretyak, V.I. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine)]|[Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Zdesenko, Y.G. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1995-12-31

    A compilation of experimental data on double beta decay is presented. The tables contain the most stringent known experimental limits or positive results of 2{beta} transitions of 69 natural nuclides to ground and excited states of daughter nuclei for different channels (2{beta}{sup -}; 2{beta}{sup +}; {epsilon}{beta}{sup +}; 2{epsilon}) and modes (0{nu}; 2{nu}; 0{nu}M) of decay. (authors). 189 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Beta Instability and Stochastic Market Weights

    OpenAIRE

    David H. Goldenberg

    1985-01-01

    An argument is given for individual firm beta instability based upon the stochastic character of the market weights defining the market portfolio and the constancy of its beta. This argument is generalized to market weighted portfolios and the form of the stochastic process generating betas is linked to that of the market return process. The implications of this analysis for adequacy of models of beta nonstationarity and estimation of betas are considered in light of the available empirical e...

  6. Effect of beta-adrenoceptor blockers on human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Delphine S; Klaerke, Dan A; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2005-01-01

    Patients with congenital long QT syndrome may develop arrhythmias under conditions of increased sympathetic tone. We have addressed whether some of the beta-adrenoceptor blockers commonly used to prevent the development of these arrhythmias could per se block the cardiac HERG (Human Ether....... These data showed that HERG blockade by beta-adrenoceptor blockers occurred only at high micromolar concentrations, which are significantly above the recently established safe margin of 100 (Redfern et al., 2003).......-1H-inden-4-yl)oxy]-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-2-butanol hydrochloride) blocked the HERG channel with similar affinity, whereas the beta1-receptor antagonists metoprolol and atenolol showed weak effects. Further, the four compounds blocked HERG channels expressed in a mammalian HEK293 cell line...

  7. OPAL Various Lead Glass Blocks

    CERN Multimedia

    These lead glass blocks were part of a CERN detector called OPAL (one of the four experiments at the LEP particle detector). OPAL uses some 12 000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies in the electromagnetic calorimeter. This detector measured the energy deposited when electrons and photons were slowed down and stopped.

  8. Writing Blocks and Tacit Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boice, Robert

    1993-01-01

    A review of the literature on writing block looks at two kinds: inability to write in a timely, fluent fashion, and reluctance by academicians to assist others in writing. Obstacles to fluent writing are outlined, four historical trends in treating blocks are discussed, and implications are examined. (MSE)

  9. Block storage subsystem performance analysis

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    You feel that your service is slow because of the storage subsystem? But there are too many abstraction layers between your software and the raw block device for you to debug all this pile... Let's dive on the platters and check out how the block storage sees your I/Os! We can even figure out what those patterns are meaning.

  10. Region 9 Census Block 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geography:The TIGER Line Files are feature classes and related database files (.) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (MAF/TIGER) Database (MTDB). The MTDB represents a seamless national file with no overlaps or gaps between parts, however, each TIGER Line File is designed to stand alone as an independent data set, or they can be combined to cover the entire nation. Census Blocks are statistical areas bounded on all sides by visible features, such as streets, roads, streams, and railroad tracks, and/or by non visible boundaries such as city, town, township, and county limits, and short line-of-sight extensions of streets and roads. Census blocks are relatively small in area; for example, a block in a city bounded by streets. However, census blocks in remote areas are often large and irregular and may even be many square miles in area. A common misunderstanding is that data users think census blocks are used geographically to build all other census geographic areas, rather all other census geographic areas are updated and then used as the primary constraints, along with roads and water features, to delineate the tabulation blocks. As a result, all 2010 Census blocks nest within every other 2010 Census geographic area, so that Census Bureau statistical data can be tabulated at the block level and aggregated up t

  11. Psoriatic arthritis: treatment strategies using biologic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Palazzi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional management of psoriatic arthritis (PsA includes NSAIDs, corticosteroids and DMARDs. Advancement in the knowledge of the immunopathogenesis of PsA has been associated with the development of biologic agents which have revolutionized the management of the disease. Among biologics drugs, there are the 4 currently availablee anti-TNFα blocking agents (etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab and golimumab which are more effective than traditional DMARDs on symptoms/signs of inflammation, quality of life, function, and in inhibiting the progression of the structural joint damage. Despite of the high cost, TNF inhibitors are costeffective on both the musculoskeletal and skin manifestations of psoriatic disease.

  12. Mycophenolate mofetil modulates adhesion receptors of the beta1 integrin family on tumor cells: impact on tumor recurrence and malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engl, Tobias; Makarević, Jasmina; Relja, Borna; Natsheh, Iyad; Müller, Iris; Beecken, Wolf-Dietrich; Jonas, Dietger; Blaheta, Roman A

    2005-01-01

    Tumor development remains one of the major obstacles following organ transplantation. Immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporine and tacrolimus directly contribute to enhanced malignancy, whereas the influence of the novel compound mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) on tumor cell dissemination has not been explored. We therefore investigated the adhesion capacity of colon, pancreas, prostate and kidney carcinoma cell lines to endothelium, as well as their beta1 integrin expression profile before and after MMF treatment. Tumor cell adhesion to endothelial cell monolayers was evaluated in the presence of 0.1 and 1 μM MMF and compared to unstimulated controls. beta1 integrin analysis included alpha1beta1 (CD49a), alpha2beta1 (CD49b), alpha3beta1 (CD49c), alpha4beta1 (CD49d), alpha5beta1 (CD49e), and alpha6beta1 (CD49f) receptors, and was carried out by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Adhesion of the colon carcinoma cell line HT-29 was strongly reduced in the presence of 0.1 μM MMF. This effect was accompanied by down-regulation of alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1 surface expression and of alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1 coding mRNA. Adhesion of the prostate tumor cell line DU-145 was blocked dose-dependently by MMF. In contrast to MMF's effects on HT-29 cells, MMF dose-dependently up-regulated alpha1beta1, alpha2beta1, alpha3beta1, and alpha5beta1 on DU-145 tumor cell membranes. We conclude that MMF possesses distinct anti-tumoral properties, particularly in colon and prostate carcinoma cells. Adhesion blockage of HT-29 cells was due to the loss of alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1 surface expression, which might contribute to a reduced invasive behaviour of this tumor entity. The enhancement of integrin beta1 subtypes observed in DU-145 cells possibly causes re-differentiation towards a low-invasive phenotype

  13. Mycophenolate mofetil modulates adhesion receptors of the beta1 integrin family on tumor cells: impact on tumor recurrence and malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beecken Wolf-Dietrich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor development remains one of the major obstacles following organ transplantation. Immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporine and tacrolimus directly contribute to enhanced malignancy, whereas the influence of the novel compound mycophenolate mofetil (MMF on tumor cell dissemination has not been explored. We therefore investigated the adhesion capacity of colon, pancreas, prostate and kidney carcinoma cell lines to endothelium, as well as their beta1 integrin expression profile before and after MMF treatment. Methods Tumor cell adhesion to endothelial cell monolayers was evaluated in the presence of 0.1 and 1 μM MMF and compared to unstimulated controls. beta1 integrin analysis included alpha1beta1 (CD49a, alpha2beta1 (CD49b, alpha3beta1 (CD49c, alpha4beta1 (CD49d, alpha5beta1 (CD49e, and alpha6beta1 (CD49f receptors, and was carried out by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Results Adhesion of the colon carcinoma cell line HT-29 was strongly reduced in the presence of 0.1 μM MMF. This effect was accompanied by down-regulation of alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1 surface expression and of alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1 coding mRNA. Adhesion of the prostate tumor cell line DU-145 was blocked dose-dependently by MMF. In contrast to MMF's effects on HT-29 cells, MMF dose-dependently up-regulated alpha1beta1, alpha2beta1, alpha3beta1, and alpha5beta1 on DU-145 tumor cell membranes. Conclusion We conclude that MMF possesses distinct anti-tumoral properties, particularly in colon and prostate carcinoma cells. Adhesion blockage of HT-29 cells was due to the loss of alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1 surface expression, which might contribute to a reduced invasive behaviour of this tumor entity. The enhancement of integrin beta1 subtypes observed in DU-145 cells possibly causes re-differentiation towards a low-invasive phenotype.

  14. Beta,beta-Disilylated Sulfones as Versatile Building Blocks in Organic Chemistry – A New Sulfonyl Carbanion Transmetalation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Puget, Bertrand; Jahn, Ullrich

    -, č. 17 (2010), s. 2579-2582 ISSN 0936-5214 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : carbanions * transmetalation * silanes * sulfones * Julia olefination Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.447, year: 2010

  15. The change of transforming growth factor {beta} 1 (TGF- {beta} 1) expression by melatonin in irradiated lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Seong Soon; Choi, Ihl Bohng [College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-09-15

    The changed expressions of TGF- {beta} 1, as a key cytokine in the fibrotic process, due to melatonin with potent antioxidative effects, were investigated in the irradiated lung using fibrosis-sensitive C57BL/6 mice. Female C57BL/6 mice were divided into control irradiation-only, and melatonin (300 mg/kg i.p. 1 hr before irradiation) pretreatment groups. The thoraces of the mice were irradiated with a single dose of 12 Gy. The mRNA expressions of TGF-{beta} 1 in the lung tissue 2 and 4 weeks after irradiation were quantified using semiquantitive RT-PCR, and the cellular origin and expression levels of TGF- {beta} 1 protein were identified using immunohistochemical staining. The relative mRNA expression levels in the irradiation-only and melatonin pretreatment group 2 and 4 weeks after irradiation were 1.92- and 1.80-fold ({rho} = 0.064) and 2.38- and 1.94-fold ({rho} = 0.004) increased, respectively compared to those in the control group. Increased expressions of TGF- {beta} 1 protein were prominently detected in regions of histopathological radiation injury, with alveolar macrophages and septal epithelial cells serving as important sources of TGF- {beta} 1 expression. At 2 and 4 weeks after irradiation, the expression levels of protein were 15.8% vs. 16.9% ({rho} = 0.565) and 36.1% vs. 25.7% ({rho} = 0.009), respectively. The mRNA and protein expressions of TGF- {beta} 1 in the lung tissue following thoracic irradiation with 12 Gy were significantly decreased by melatonin pretreatment at 4 weeks. These results indicate that melatonin may have a possible application as an antifibrotic agent in radiation-induced lung injury.

  16. In-trap decay spectroscopy for {beta}{beta} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Thomas

    2011-01-18

    The presented work describes the implementation of a new technique to measure electron-capture (EC) branching ratios (BRs) of intermediate nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. This technique has been developed at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. It facilitates one of TRIUMF's Ion Traps for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN), the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) that is used as a spectroscopy Penning trap. Radioactive ions, produced at the radioactive isotope facility ISAC, are injected and stored in the spectroscopy Penning trap while their decays are observed. A key feature of this technique is the use of a strong magnetic field, required for trapping. It radially confines electrons from {beta} decays along the trap axis while X-rays, following an EC, are emitted isotropically. This provides spatial separation of X-ray and {beta} detection with almost no {beta}-induced background at the X-ray detector, allowing weak EC branches to be measured. Furthermore, the combination of several traps allows one to isobarically clean the sample prior to the in-trap decay spectroscopy measurement. This technique has been developed to measure ECBRs of transition nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. Detailed knowledge of these electron capture branches is crucial for a better understanding of the underlying nuclear physics in {beta}{beta} decays. These branches are typically of the order of 10{sup -5} and therefore difficult to measure. Conventional measurements suffer from isobaric contamination and a dominating {beta} background at theX-ray detector. Additionally, X-rays are attenuated by the material where the radioactive sample is implanted. To overcome these limitations, the technique of in-trap decay spectroscopy has been developed. In this work, the EBIT was connected to the TITAN beam line and has been commissioned. Using the developed beam diagnostics, ions were injected into the Penning trap and systematic studies on injection and storage optimization were performed. Furthermore, Ge

  17. Interaction of the sliding clamp beta-subunit and Hda, a DnaA-related protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Mareike; Dalrymple, Brian; Wijffels, Gene; Kongsuwan, Kritaya

    2004-06-01

    In Escherichia coli, interactions between the replication initiation protein DnaA, the beta subunit of DNA polymerase III (the sliding clamp protein), and Hda, the recently identified DnaA-related protein, are required to convert the active ATP-bound form of DnaA to an inactive ADP-bound form through the accelerated hydrolysis of ATP. This rapid hydrolysis of ATP is proposed to be the main mechanism that blocks multiple initiations during cell cycle and acts as a molecular switch from initiation to replication. However, the biochemical mechanism for this crucial step in DNA synthesis has not been resolved. Using purified Hda and beta proteins in a plate binding assay and Ni-nitrilotriacetic acid pulldown analysis, we show for the first time that Hda directly interacts with beta in vitro. A new beta-binding motif, a hexapeptide with the consensus sequence QL[SP]LPL, related to the previously identified beta-binding pentapeptide motif (QL[SD]LF) was found in the amino terminus of the Hda protein. Mutants of Hda with amino acid changes in the hexapeptide motif are severely defective in their ability to bind beta. A 10-amino-acid peptide containing the E. coli Hda beta-binding motif was shown to compete with Hda for binding to beta in an Hda-beta interaction assay. These results establish that the interaction of Hda with beta is mediated through the hexapeptide sequence. We propose that this interaction may be crucial to the events that lead to the inactivation of DnaA and the prevention of excess initiation of rounds of replication.

  18. Chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuca, Kamil; Pohanka, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents are compounds of different chemical structures. Simple molecules such as chlorine as well as complex structures such as ricin belong to this group. Nerve agents, vesicants, incapacitating agents, blood agents, lung-damaging agents, riot-control agents and several toxins are among chemical warfare agents. Although the use of these compounds is strictly prohibited, the possible misuse by terrorist groups is a reality nowadays. Owing to this fact, knowledge of the basic properties of these substances is of a high importance. This chapter briefly introduces the separate groups of chemical warfare agents together with their members and the potential therapy that should be applied in case someone is intoxicated by these agents.

  19. Infundibular neurons of the human hypothalamus simultaneously reactive with antisera against endorphins, ACTH, MSH and beta-LPH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugnon, C; Bloch, B; Lenys, D; Fellmann, D

    1979-06-27

    In man, discrete neurons of the infundibular (arcuate) nucleus contain compounds that can be stained with anti-endorphin (alpha and beta), anti-ACTH, anti-MSH (alpha and beta) and anti-beta-LPH immune sera (I.S.). In the fetus, certain neurons stain with anti-beta-endorphin or anti((17--39)ACTH starting from the 11th week of fetal life. At the ultrastructural level, these neurons contain elementary granules that are immunoreactive with anti-beta-endorphin. In the adult, neurons immunoreactive with anti-beta-endorphin are found in the infundibular nucleus. Their axonal fibers terminate around blood vessels in the neurovascular zone and in the pituitary stalk, or establish contacts with non-immunoreactive perikarya of the infundibular nucleus. These neurons can be stained with anti(17--39)ACTH and anti-beta-endorphin I.S. The most reactive are also stained moderately with anti-alpha-MSH, anti-beta-MSH, anti-beta-LPH, anti-alpha-endorphin, or anti(1--24)ACTH I.S. These results indicate that, in man, compound(s) identical with or immunologically related to endorphins, beta-LPH, ACTH and MSH are secreted by certain hypothalamic neurons. These agents probably originate from a common precursor molecula similar to the so-called pro-opiocortin.

  20. Radiation protection: an analysis of thyroid blocking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrich, D.C.; Blond, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis was performed to provide guidance to policymakers concerning the effectiveness of potassium iodide (KI) as a thyroid blocking agent in potential reactor accident situations, the distance to which (or area within which) it should be distributed, and its relative effectiveness compared to other available protective measures. The analysis was performed using the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) consequence model. Four categories of accidents were addressed: gap activity release accident (GAP), GAP without containment isolation, core melt with a melt-through release, and core melt with an atmospheric release. Cost-benefit ratios (US $/thyroid nodule prevented) are given assuming that no other protective measures are taken. Uncertainties due to health effects parameters, accident probabilities, and costs are assessed. The effects of other potential protective measures, such as evacuation and sheltering, and the impact on children (critical population) are evaluated. Finally, risk-benefit considerations are briefly discussed

  1. Fibrinogen adsorption on blocked surface of albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Maria; Hou, Xiaolin

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the adsorption of albumin and fibrinogen onto PET (polyethylene terephthalate) and glass surfaces and how pre-adsorption of albumin onto these surfaces can affect the adsorption of later added fibrinogen. For materials and devices being exposed to blood, adsorption...... of fibrinogen is often a non-wanted event, since fibrinogen is part of the clotting cascade and unspecific adsorption of fibrinogen can have an influence on the activation of platelets. Albumin is often used as blocking agent for avoiding unspecific protein adsorption onto surfaces in devices designed to handle...... energies, the adsorption of both albumin and fibrinogen has been monitored simultaneously on the same sample. Information about topography and coverage of adsorbed protein layers has been obtained using AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) analysis in liquid. Our studies show that albumin adsorbs in a multilayer...

  2. Studies of insulin secretory responses and of arachidonic acid incorporation into phospholipids of stably transfected insulinoma cells that overexpress group VIA phospholipase A2 (iPLA2beta ) indicate a signaling rather than a housekeeping role for iPLA2beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Z; Ramanadham, S; Wohltmann, M; Bohrer, A; Hsu, F F; Turk, J

    2001-04-20

    A cytosolic 84-kDa group VIA phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2)beta) that does not require Ca(2+) for catalysis has been cloned from several sources, including rat and human pancreatic islet beta-cells and murine P388D1 cells. Many potential iPLA(2)beta functions have been proposed, including a signaling role in beta-cell insulin secretion and a role in generating lysophosphatidylcholine acceptors for arachidonic acid incorporation into P388D1 cell phosphatidylcholine (PC). Proposals for iPLA(2)beta function rest in part on effects of inhibiting iPLA(2)beta activity with a bromoenol lactone (BEL) suicide substrate, but BEL also inhibits phosphatidate phosphohydrolase-1 and a group VIB phospholipase A(2). Manipulation of iPLA(2)beta expression by molecular biologic means is an alternative approach to study iPLA(2)beta functions, and we have used a retroviral construct containing iPLA(2)beta cDNA to prepare two INS-1 insulinoma cell clonal lines that stably overexpress iPLA(2)beta. Compared with parental INS-1 cells or cells transfected with empty vector, both iPLA(2)beta-overexpressing lines exhibit amplified insulin secretory responses to glucose and cAMP-elevating agents, and BEL substantially attenuates stimulated secretion. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometric analyses of arachidonic acid incorporation into INS-1 cell PC indicate that neither overexpression nor inhibition of iPLA(2)beta affects the rate or extent of this process in INS-1 cells. Immunocytofluorescence studies with antibodies directed against iPLA(2)beta indicate that cAMP-elevating agents increase perinuclear fluorescence in INS-1 cells, suggesting that iPLA(2)beta associates with nuclei. These studies are more consistent with a signaling than with a housekeeping role for iPLA(2)beta in insulin-secreting beta-cells.

  3. Influence of beta blockade on gastric acid secretion and changes in gastric mucosal blood flow before and after parietal cell vagotomy in dogs and man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovendal, C P; Bech, K; Bekker, C

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the present study was, in paired experiments in dogs, to examine the effect of beta-receptor blockade on gastric acid secretion and mucosal blood flow before and after parietal cell vagotomy (PCV). The secretory response to pentagastrin was reduced after vagotomy. beta-Adrenergic block......The aim of the present study was, in paired experiments in dogs, to examine the effect of beta-receptor blockade on gastric acid secretion and mucosal blood flow before and after parietal cell vagotomy (PCV). The secretory response to pentagastrin was reduced after vagotomy. beta...

  4. Intergrown new zeolite beta polymorphs with interconnected 12-ring channels solved by combining electron crystallography and single-crystal X-ray diffraction

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Zhengbao; Han, Yu; Zhao, Lan; Huang, Shiliang; Zheng, Qiyu; Lin, Shuangzheng; Cõ rdova, Armando C.; Zou, Xiaodong; Sun, Junliang

    2012-01-01

    Two new polymorphs of zeolite beta, denoted as SU-78A and SU-78B, were synthesized by employing dicyclohexylammonium hydroxides as organic structure-directing agents. The structure was solved by combining transmission electron microscopy and single

  5. Smart Beta or Smart Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kenneth Lillelund; Steenstrup, Søren Resen

    2016-01-01

    that smart beta investing probably will do better than passive market capitalization investing over time, we believe many are coming to a conclusion too quickly regarding active managers. Institutional investors are able to guide managers through benchmarks and risk frameworks toward the same well......Smart beta has become the flavor of the decade in the investment world with its low fees, easy access to rewarded risk premiums, and appearance of providing good investment results relative to both traditional passive benchmarks and actively managed funds. Although we consider it well documented......-documented smart beta risk premiums and still motivate active managers to avoid value traps, too highly priced small caps, defensives, etc. By constructing the equity portfolios of active managers that resemble the most widely used risk premiums, we show that the returns and risk-adjusted returns measures...

  6. Effect of acute ethanol on beta-endorphin secretion from rat fetal hypothalamic neurons in primary cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, D.K.; Minami, S. (Washington State Univ., Pullman (USA))

    1990-01-01

    To characterize the effect of ethanol on the hypothalamic {beta}-endorphin-containing neurons, rat fetal hypothalamic neurons were maintained in primary culture, and the secretion of {beta}-endorphin ({beta}-EP) was determined after ethanol challenges. Constant exposure to ethanol at doses of 6-50 mM produced a dose-dependent increase in basal secretion of {beta}-EP from these cultured cells. These doses of ethanol did not produce any significant effect on cell viability, DNA or protein content. The stimulated secretion of {beta}-EP following constant ethanol exposure is short-lasting. However, intermittent ethanol exposures maintained the ethanol stimulatory action on {beta}-EP secretion for a longer time. The magnitude of the {beta}-EP response to 50 mM ethanol is similar to that of the {beta}-EP response to 56 mM of potassium. Ethanol-stimulated {beta}-EP secretion required extracellular calcium and was blocked by a calcium channel blocker; a sodium channel blocker did not affect ethanol-stimulated secretion. These results suggest that the neuron culture system is a useful model for studying the cellular mechanisms involved in the ethanol-regulated hypothalamic opioid secretion.

  7. Aplikace cíleně modifikovaných enzymů v biosyntézách beta-laktamových antibiotik

    OpenAIRE

    Schneiderová, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays beta-lactam antibiotics are widely used as bacteriostatic agents. The chemical synthesis of antibiotics or its derivatives could be replaced with biocatalysis. This work deals with basics of industrial synthesis beta-lactam antibiotics and, mainly, with used enzymes. This work acquainted with methodes used in enzyme modifications and improving, so they could fit the best for the industrial syntheses.

  8. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  9. Harmony of spinning conformal blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomerus, Volker [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Sobko, Evgeny [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Nordita, Stockholm (Sweden); Isachenkov, Mikhail [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovoth (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics and Astrophysics

    2016-12-07

    Conformal blocks for correlation functions of tensor operators play an increasingly important role for the conformal bootstrap programme. We develop a universal approach to such spinning blocks through the harmonic analysis of certain bundles over a coset of the conformal group. The resulting Casimir equations are given by a matrix version of the Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian that describes the scattering of interacting spinning particles in a 1-dimensional external potential. The approach is illustrated in several examples including fermionic seed blocks in 3D CFT where they take a very simple form.

  10. Harmony of spinning conformal blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomerus, Volker [DESY Hamburg, Theory Group,Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Sobko, Evgeny [Nordita and Stockholm University,Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Isachenkov, Mikhail [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 7610001 (Israel)

    2017-03-15

    Conformal blocks for correlation functions of tensor operators play an increasingly important role for the conformal bootstrap programme. We develop a universal approach to such spinning blocks through the harmonic analysis of certain bundles over a coset of the conformal group. The resulting Casimir equations are given by a matrix version of the Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian that describes the scattering of interacting spinning particles in a 1-dimensional external potential. The approach is illustrated in several examples including fermionic seed blocks in 3D CFT where they take a very simple form.

  11. Beta decay of 22O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, F.; Dufour, J.P.; Moral, R. del; Fleury, A.; Jean, D.; Pravikoff, M.S.; Delagrange, H.; Geissel, H.; Schmidt, K.H.; Hanelt, E.

    1989-01-01

    The beta-gamma spectroscopic study of 22 O is presented. This nucleus, produced as a projectile-like fragment from the interaction of a 60 MeV/n 40 Ar beam with a Be target, has been separated by the LISE spectrometer. Several gamma rays from 22 O decay have been observed, from which a half-life of (2.25±0.15) s has been determined. Accurate excitation energies have been deduced for several states in 22 F. A partial beta decay scheme of 22 O has been established. Experimental results have been compared with shell model calculations. (orig.)

  12. Beta-hemolytic Streptococcal Bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Kolmos, Hans Jørn; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2002-01-01

    Bacteremia with beta-hemolytic Streptococci groups A, B, C and G has a mortality rate of approximately 20%. In this study we analyzed the association of various patient risk factors with mortality. Records from 241 patients with beta-hemolytic streptococcal bacteremia were reviewed with particular...... attention to which predisposing factors were predictors of death. A logistic regression model found age, burns, immunosuppressive treatment and iatrogenic procedures prior to the infection to be significant predictors of death, with odds ratios of 1.7 (per decade), 19.7, 3.6 and 6.8, respectively...

  13. The Beta Transmuted Weibull Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Pal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a beta transmuted Weibull distribution, which contains a number ofdistributions as special cases. The properties of the distribution are discussed and explicit expressions are derived for the mean deviations, Bonferroni and Lorenz curves, and reliability. The distribution and moments of order statistics are also studied. Estimation of the model parameters by the method of maximum likelihood is discussed. The log beta transmuted Weibull model is introduced to analyze censored data. Finally, the usefulness of the new distribution in analyzing positive data is illustrated.

  14. Beta activity of enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambiar, P.P.V.J.; Ramachandran, V.

    1975-01-01

    Use of enriched uranium as reactor fuel necessitates its handling in various forms. For purposes of planning and organising radiation protection measures in enriched uranium handling facilities, it is necessary to have a basic knowledge of the radiation status of enriched uranium systems. The theoretical variations in beta activity and energy with U 235 enrichment are presented. Depletion is considered separately. Beta activity build up is also studied for two specific enrichments, in respect of which experimental values for specific alpha activity are available. (author)

  15. Microculture system for studying monolayers of functional beta-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobersen, M J; Scharff, J E; Notkins, A L

    1980-04-01

    A method is described for growing monolayers of newborn rat beta-cells in microculture trays. After disruption of the pancreas with collagenase, islets were isolated by Ficoll density gradient centrifugation, trypsinized to obtain individual cells, and plated in 96-well tissue culture trays. The cells were incubated for the first 3 days in growth medium containing 0.1 mM 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine to promote monolayer formation. The cultures could be maintained in a functional state, as defined by their responsiveness to known modulators of insulin secretion, for at least 2 weeks. As few as 1 X 10(3) islet cells/well gave results that were reproducible within +/- 10%. It is suggested that the microculture system for islet cells might prove to be a rapid and reproducible screening technique for studying drugs, viruses, or other agents that affect beta-cell function.

  16. Epoxidation of limonene over Ti MCM 41 and Ti BETA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubillos Lobo, Jairo Antonio; Gonzalez Rodriguez, Lina Maria; Montes de Correa, Consuelo

    2002-01-01

    Ti MCM 41 were synthesized and evaluated in the epoxidation of limonene, using peroxide of hydrogen (H 2 O) as agent oxidizer. The characteristic hexagonal phase of Ti MCM 41 was obtained by heating the precursor gel during three days at 100 centigrade degrees. Further heating up to ten days leads to a decrease of this phase. The increase (Ti) in the synthesis gel also decreases that phase. The increase of Ti in the synthesis gel also decreases that phase UV VIS and FTIR spectroscopy indicates that Ti was incorporated in the lattice of Ti MCM 41 as well as, in Ti BETA. SEM micrographs of Ti MCM 41 show that the morphology changes with the Ti loading. Ti MCM 41 was most active than Ti BETA for limonene epoxidation even though both show high selectivity to epoxides

  17. Treatment of resting tremor by beta-adrenergic blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, N L; Newman, R P; LeWitt, P A; Gillespie, M M; Chase, T N

    1984-10-01

    The effect of nadolol, a peripherally acting beta-adrenergic blocker, on resting tremor was examined in eight patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. With the use of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of crossover design, patients received 80 to 320 mg of nadolol for 6 weeks while continuing their previous treatment regimen. Accelerometer readings showed a progressive reduction in tremor amplitude, but no change in tremor frequency, with increasing nadolol dosage. Maximum benefit was achieved at 240 mg, when resting tremor improved 50% (p less than 0.01). Physician ratings confirmed these findings. The results suggest that response to beta-adrenergic blockade may not be limited to postural or intention tremor and that such agents may not reliably differentiate between the tremor of Parkinson's disease and essential tremor.

  18. A {beta} - {gamma} coincidence; Metodo de coincidencias {beta} - {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agullo, F

    1960-07-01

    A {beta} - {gamma} coincidence method for absolute counting is given. The fundamental principles are revised and the experimental part is detailed. The results from {sup 1}98 Au irradiated in the JEN 1 Swimming pool reactor are given. The maximal accuracy is 1 per cent. (Author) 11 refs.

  19. Epidural analgesia in early labour blocks the stress response but uterine contractions remain unchanged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scull, T J; Hemmings, G T; Carli, F; Weeks, S K; Mazza, L; Zingg, H H

    1998-07-01

    To determine the effect of epidural analgesia on biochemical markers of stress, plasma oxytocin concentrations and frequency of uterine contractions during the first stage of labour. Nine nulliparous women, in spontaneous labour, with a singleton fetus and cervical dilatation < or = 5 cm were enrolled. Epidural bupivacaine 0.25% (range 10-14 ml) was administered and bilateral sensory blockade to ice (T8-L4) achieved. Blood samples were collected before the epidermal block and every 10 min for one hour after the block was achieved for the measurement of plasma beta-endorphin, cortical, glucose, lactate and oxytocin concentrations. No exogenous oxytocin was given. Intensity of pain was assessed at the time of the blood sampling using a 10 cm visual analogue scale (VAS). The frequency of uterine contractions was recorded for 60 min before and after the epidural block. There was a decrease in plasma beta-endorphin and cortisol concentrations after epidural block (P < 0.01). There were no changes in plasma glucose and lactate concentrations. The mean VAS for pain decreased 10 min after epidural block was achieved and remained < 2 throughout the study period (P < 0.001). Mean plasma oxytocin concentrations did not change. The frequency of uterine contractions before and after the epidural block was similar. The metabolic stress response to the pain of labour was attenuated by epidural analgesia. In contrast, plasma oxytocin concentration and frequency of uterine contractions were unaffected by the attenuation of metabolic stress response.

  20. Radiopharmaceutical scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This invention is directed to dispersions useful in preparing radiopharmaceutical scanning agents, to technetium labelled dispersions, to methods for preparing such dispersions and to their use as scanning agents

  1. Taskable Reactive Agent Communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Myers, Karen

    2002-01-01

    The focus of Taskable Reactive Agent Communities (TRAC) project was to develop mixed-initiative technology to enable humans to supervise and manage teams of agents as they perform tasks in dynamic environments...

  2. N-Benzylhydroxylamine addition to beta-aryl enoates. Enantioselective synthesis of beta-aryl-beta-amino acid precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi; Liu

    2000-10-19

    Chiral Lewis acid catalyzed N-benzylhydroxylamine addition to pyrrolidinone-derived enoates afforded beta-aryl-beta-amino acid derivatives in high enantiomeric purity with moderate to very good chemical efficiency.

  3. Rolling block mazes are PSPACE-complete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, K.; Buchin, M.

    2012-01-01

    In a rolling block maze, one or more blocks lie on a rectangular board with square cells. In most mazes, the blocks have size k × m × n where k, m, n are integers that determine the size of the block in terms of units of the size of the board cells. The task of a rolling block maze is to roll a

  4. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  5. Recursion Relations for Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Penedones, João; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2016-09-12

    In the context of conformal field theories in general space-time dimension, we find all the possible singularities of the conformal blocks as functions of the scaling dimension $\\Delta$ of the exchanged operator. In particular, we argue, using representation theory of parabolic Verma modules, that in odd spacetime dimension the singularities are only simple poles. We discuss how to use this information to write recursion relations that determine the conformal blocks. We first recover the recursion relation introduced in 1307.6856 for conformal blocks of external scalar operators. We then generalize this recursion relation for the conformal blocks associated to the four point function of three scalar and one vector operator. Finally we specialize to the case in which the vector operator is a conserved current.

  6. Defying gravity using Jenga™ blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yin-Soo; Yap, Kueh-Chin

    2007-11-01

    This paper describes how Jenga™ blocks can be used to demonstrate the physics of an overhanging tower that appears to defy gravity. We also propose ideas for how this demonstration can be adapted for the A-level physics curriculum.

  7. Users, Bystanders and Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2015-01-01

    Human-agent interaction (HAI), especially in the field of embodied conversational agents (ECA), is mainly construed as dyadic communication between a human user and a virtual agent. This is despite the fact that many application scenarios for future ECAs involve the presence of others. This paper...

  8. Asymptotically Optimal Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Lattimore, Tor; Hutter, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Artificial general intelligence aims to create agents capable of learning to solve arbitrary interesting problems. We define two versions of asymptotic optimality and prove that no agent can satisfy the strong version while in some cases, depending on discounting, there does exist a non-computable weak asymptotically optimal agent.

  9. Reasoning about emotional agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, J.-J.

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in

  10. Risking Aggression: Reply to Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Borer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In his paper, “Is There an ‘Anomalous’ Section of the Laffer Curve?”, Walter Block describes some situations in which it appears that a libertarian should violate the non-aggression principle. To rectify this, Block proposes a different perspective on libertarianism which he calls punishment theory. This paper argues that no new theory is needed, as the non-aggression principle can be used to resolve theapparent conundrums.

  11. Risking Aggression: Reply to Block

    OpenAIRE

    Kris Borer

    2010-01-01

    In his paper, “Is There an ‘Anomalous’ Section of the Laffer Curve?”, Walter Block describes some situations in which it appears that a libertarian should violate the non-aggression principle. To rectify this, Block proposes a different perspective on libertarianism which he calls punishment theory. This paper argues that no new theory is needed, as the non-aggression principle can be used to resolve theapparent conundrums.

  12. A Novel Tetrathiafulvalene Building Block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jan Oskar; Takimiya, Kazuo; Thorup, Niels

    1999-01-01

    Efficient synthesis of a novel tetrathiafulvalene building block. 2,3-bis(2-cyanoethylthio)-6,7-bis(thiocyanato-methyl)tetrathiafulv alene (7) useful for stepwise and asymmetrical bis-function-alization is reported.......Efficient synthesis of a novel tetrathiafulvalene building block. 2,3-bis(2-cyanoethylthio)-6,7-bis(thiocyanato-methyl)tetrathiafulv alene (7) useful for stepwise and asymmetrical bis-function-alization is reported....

  13. Experimental device for the residential heating with heat pipe and electric heat storage blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, L L; Boldak, I M; Domorod, L S; Rabetsky, M I; Schirokov, E I [AN Belorusskoj SSR, Minsk (Belarus). Inst. Teplo- i Massoobmena

    1992-01-01

    Residential heating using electric heat storage blocks nowadays is an actual problem from the point of view of heat recovery and nature protection. In the Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Institute a new residential electrical heater capable of heating chambers by controlling air temperature and heat output using heat pipes and an electric heat storage block was developed. This heater (BETA) is fed from the source of energy and during 7 h of night time accumulates energy sufficiently to heat 10 m{sup 3} during 24 h. Heating device BETA has a ceramic thermal storage block, electric heaters and a heat pipe with evaporator inside the ceramic block and constant temperature (65{sup o}C) finned condenser outside it. The condenser temperature could be controlled easily. BETA is compact, has high thermal response, accurate air temperature control and safe operation. Such types of residential heaters are necessary for heating residential and office building in the Mogilev and Gomel regions in Byelorussia which suffered after the Chernobyl catastrophe. (Author).

  14. Efficacy of cyclin dependent kinase 4 inhibitors as potent neuroprotective agents against insults relevant to Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyankar Sanphui

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with no cure till today. Aberrant activation of cell cycle regulatory proteins is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases including AD. We and others have shown that Cyclin dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4 is activated in AD brain and is required for neuron death. In this study, we tested the efficiency of commercially available Cdk4 specific inhibitors as well as a small library of synthetic molecule inhibitors targeting Cdk4 as neuroprotective agents in cellular models of neuron death. We found that several of these inhibitors significantly protected neuronal cells against death induced by nerve growth factor (NGF deprivation and oligomeric beta amyloid (Aβ that are implicated in AD. These neuroprotective agents inhibit specifically Cdk4 kinase activity, loss of mitochondrial integrity, induction of pro-apoptotic protein Bim and caspase3 activation in response to NGF deprivation. The efficacies of commercial and synthesized inhibitors are comparable. The synthesized molecules are either phenanthrene based or naphthalene based and they are synthesized by using Pschorr reaction and Buchwald coupling respectively as one of the key steps. A number of molecules of both kinds block neurodegeneration effectively. Therefore, we propose that Cdk4 inhibition would be a therapeutic choice for ameliorating neurodegeneration in AD and these synthetic Cdk4 inhibitors could lead to development of effective drugs for AD.

  15. Generalized Macdonald polynomials, spectral duality for conformal blocks and AGT correspondence in five dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenkevich, Yegor [ITEP,25 Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya street, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences,7a Prospekt 60-letiya Oktyabrya, Moscow (Russian Federation); NRNU Moscow Engineering Physics Institute,31 Kasirskoe chaussee, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-26

    We study five dimensional AGT correspondence by means of the q-deformed beta-ensemble technique. We provide a special basis of states in the q-deformed CFT Hilbert space consisting of generalized Macdonald polynomials, derive the loop equations for the beta-ensemble and obtain the factorization formulas for the corresponding matrix elements. We prove the spectral duality for SU(2) Nekrasov functions and discuss its meaning for conformal blocks. We also clarify the relation between topological strings and q-Liouville vertex operators.

  16. Generalized Macdonald polynomials, spectral duality for conformal blocks and AGT correspondence in five dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenkevich, Yegor

    2015-01-01

    We study five dimensional AGT correspondence by means of the q-deformed beta-ensemble technique. We provide a special basis of states in the q-deformed CFT Hilbert space consisting of generalized Macdonald polynomials, derive the loop equations for the beta-ensemble and obtain the factorization formulas for the corresponding matrix elements. We prove the spectral duality for SU(2) Nekrasov functions and discuss its meaning for conformal blocks. We also clarify the relation between topological strings and q-Liouville vertex operators.

  17. Electret dosemeter for beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, L.L.; Caldas, L.V.E.; Mascarenhas, S.

    The response characteristics of an electret dosemeter for beta radiation are studied. Experiments were performed using different geometries and walls, and it was verified for which geometry the dosemeter sensitivity is greater. Sources of 90 Sr - 90 Y, 204 Tl and 85 Kr were used in the experiments. (I.C.R.) [pt

  18. Personnel monitoring for beta rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piesch, E.; Johns, T.F.

    1983-01-01

    The practical considerations which have to be taken into account in the design of personnel monitors intended to measure doses resulting from exposure to beta rays are discussed. These include the measurement of doses in situations involving either fairly uniform or non-uniform irradiation and of doses to the male gonads. (UK)

  19. Constraining neutrinoless double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorame, L.; Meloni, D.; Morisi, S.; Peinado, E.; Valle, J.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    A class of discrete flavor-symmetry-based models predicts constrained neutrino mass matrix schemes that lead to specific neutrino mass sum-rules (MSR). We show how these theories may constrain the absolute scale of neutrino mass, leading in most of the cases to a lower bound on the neutrinoless double beta decay effective amplitude.

  20. Beta Cell Workshop 2013 Kyoto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, R Scott; Madsen, Ole D; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2013-01-01

    The very modern Kyoto International Conference Center provided the site for the 8th workshop on Beta cells on April 23-26, 2013. The preceding workshops were held in Boston, USA (1991); Kyoto, Japan (1994); Helsingør, Denmark (1997); Helsinki, Finland (2003); El Perello, Spain (2006); Peebles...

  1. Inhibition of beta-amino acid transport by diamide does not involve the brush border membrane surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesney, R.W.; Gusowski, N.; Albright, P.

    1985-01-01

    Diamide (dicarboxylic acid bis-(N,N-dimethylamide) has been shown in previous studies to block the uptake of the beta-amino acid taurine at its high affinity transport site in rat renal cortex slices. Diamide may act by increasing the efflux of taurine from the slice. Studies performed in rat slices again indicate enhanced efflux over 8-12 minutes. The time course of reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion from renal cortex is similar, indicating a potential interaction between GSH depletion and inhibition of taurine accumulation. The effect of 9 mM diamide on the Na+ -dependent accumulation of taurine (10 and 250 microM) by brush border membrane vesicles was examined, and the taurine uptake value both initially and at equilibrium was the same in the presence and absence of diamide. Isolation of the brush border surface and subsequent transport studies of taurine are not influenced by diamide. Thus, diamide inhibition of taurine uptake does not involve physiochemical alteration of the membrane surface where active amino acid transport occurs, despite the thiol-oxidizing properties of this agent. Further, these studies suggest that diamide either acts at the basolateral surface, rather than the brush border surface of rat renal cortex or requires the presence of an intact tubule, capable of metabolism, prior to its inhibitory action

  2. Therapeutic effects of arotinolol, a beta-adrenergic blocker, on tremor in MPTP-induced parkinsonian monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuno, S; Mizuta, E; Nishida, J; Takechi, M

    1992-10-01

    The effect of arotinolol, a peripherally acting beta-adrenergic-blocking agent, on postural or kinetic tremor was studied in monkeys with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced parkinsonism. Male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were treated with three injections of MPTP hydrochloride (0.3 mg/kg, i.v.) at an interval of 3-4 days, followed by several injections of the same dose every 7 days. Four monkeys with persistent parkinsonian symptoms manifested for greater than 1 year were used. The animals developed mild to moderate degrees of postural or kinetic tremor, and their motor activity was reduced. Arotinolol (20-30 mg/kg, s.c.) significantly suppressed postural tremor in a dose-dependent manner. Propranolol (20-30 mg/kg) was also effective in suppressing the tremor. However, the application of propranolol induced emesis, whereas arotinolol had no adverse effects. These results suggest that arotinolol is a useful adjunct to dopaminergic therapy for tremor in Parkinson's disease.

  3. Beta calibration and dosimetry at IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, L.V.E.

    1983-01-01

    A commercial extrapolation chamber (PTW, Germany) was tested in different beta radiation fields and its properties investigated. Its usefullness for beta radiation calibration and dosimetry was demonstrated. (Author) [pt

  4. Radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to radiodiagnostic agents and more particularly to a composition and method for preparing a highly effective technetium-99m-based bone scanning agent. One deficiency of x-ray examination is the inability of that technique to detect skeletal metastases in their incipient stages. It has been discovered that the methanehydroxydiphosphonate bone mineral-seeking agent is unique in that it provides the dual benefits of sharp radiographic imaging and excellent lesion detection when used with technetium-99m. This agent can also be used with technetium-99m for detecting soft tissue calcification in the manner of the inorganic phosphate radiodiagnostic agents

  5. Agente adaptable y aprendizaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Angel Lara Rivero

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se contrasta el concepto de agente programado con el de agente complejo adaptable, se presenta una nueva visión ligada al aprendizaje y la estructura del agente. La imagen del agente se analiza considerando los modelos internos, la práctica, el concepto de rutina y la influencia en su comportamiento, y la importancia del aprendizaje ex ante y ex post. Por último se muestra que la resolución de problemas está sujeta a restricciones del agente y se describen las formas de explorar el espacio de soluciones mediante tres tipos de exploración: exhaustiva, aleatoria y selectiva.

  6. Lipidated alpha-Peptide/beta-Peptoid Hybrids with Potent Antiinflammatory Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbakke, Sarah L.; Larsen, Camilla J.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2015-01-01

    is dependent on the length and position of the lipid element(s). The resulting lead compound, Pam-(Lys-beta NSpe)(6)-NH2, blocks LPS-induced cytokine secretion with a potency comparable to that of polymyxin B. The mode of action of this HDP mimic appears not to involve direct LPS interaction since it......, in contrast to polymyxin B, displayed only minor activity in the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Flow cytometry data showed specific interaction of a fluorophore-labeled lipidated a-peptide/beta-peptoid hybrid with monocytes and granulocytes indicating a cellular target expressed by these leukocyte subsets....

  7. Comparative study between ultrasound guided TAP block and paravertebral block in upper abdominal surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruqaya M Elsayed Goda

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: We concluded that ultrasound guided transverses abdominis plane block and thoracic paravertebral block were safe and effective anesthetic technique for upper abdominal surgery with longer and potent postoperative analgesia in thoracic paravertebral block than transverses abdominis block.

  8. Measurement of aerosol concentration with a beta-ray gage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auzac, G. d'; Dubillot, J.

    1978-01-01

    Because dusts in suspension are a dangerous polluting agent, several methods have been used to monitor their concentration. Among these, the beta-ray gage enjoys a privileged position. The authors describe such a gage and discuss the conditions to be observed for it to be capable of giving results comparable to those obtained with manual gravimetric methods. The satisfactory results obtained led to standardization of the method and a whole range of instruments based on this principle are employed in pollution supervising networks and for continuously monitoring industrial emissions [fr

  9. On Fuzzy {beta}-I-open sets and Fuzzy {beta}-I-continuous functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, Aynur [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Arts, Selcuk University, Campus, 42075 Konya (Turkey)], E-mail: akeskin@selcuk.edu.tr

    2009-11-15

    In this paper, first of all we obtain some properties and characterizations of fuzzy {beta}-I-open sets. After that, we also define the notion of {beta}-I-closed sets and obtain some properties. Lastly, we introduce the notions of fuzzy {beta}-I-continuity with the help of fuzzy {beta}-I-open sets to obtain decomposition of fuzzy continuity.

  10. Beta-Catenin Stability in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baswaran, Vijay

    1999-01-01

    .... beta-catenin also binds the adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC). The tumor suppressor function of APC is suggested to depend in part on its ability to bind beta-catenin and to facilitate beta-catenin degradation by an unknown mechanism...

  11. Beta-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierikx, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to cephalosprins due to the production of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) or plasmid mediated AmpC beta-lactamases is increasingly found in infections in humans outside the hospital. The genes encoding for these beta-lactamases are located on mobile DNA (plasmids), which can be

  12. Various semiclassical limits of torus conformal blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkalaev, Konstantin [I.E. Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute,Leninsky ave. 53, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Department of General and Applied Physics, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology,Institutskiy per. 7, Dolgoprudnyi, Moscow region, 141700 (Russian Federation); Geiko, Roman [Mathematics Department, National Research University Higher School of Economics,Usacheva str. 6, Moscow, 119048 (Russian Federation); Rappoport, Vladimir [I.E. Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute,Leninsky ave. 53, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Department of Quantum Physics, Institute for Information Transmission Problems,Bolshoy Karetny per. 19, Moscow, 127994 (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-12

    We study four types of one-point torus blocks arising in the large central charge regime. There are the global block, the light block, the heavy-light block, and the linearized classical block, according to different regimes of conformal dimensions. It is shown that the blocks are not independent being connected to each other by various links. We find that the global, light, and heavy-light blocks correspond to three different contractions of the Virasoro algebra. Also, we formulate the c-recursive representation of the one-point torus blocks which is relevant in the semiclassical approximation.

  13. Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poindl, M., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Bonten, C., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Kunststofftechnik, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

  14. The alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-selective antagonist, methyllycaconitine, partially protects against beta-amyloid1-42 toxicity in primary neuron-enriched cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Shelley E; de Fiebre, Nancy Ellen C; de Fiebre, Christopher M

    2004-10-01

    Studies have suggested that the neuroprotective actions of alpha7 nicotinic agonists arise from activation of receptors and not from the extensive desensitization which rapidly follows activation. Here, we report that the alpha7-selective nicotinic antagonist, methyllycaconitine (MLA), protects against beta-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity; whereas the alpha4beta2-selective antagonist, dihydro-beta-erythroidine, does not. These findings suggest that neuroprotective actions of alpha7-acting agents arise from receptor inhibition/desensitization and that alpha7 antagonists may be useful neuroprotective agents.

  15. Development and applications of beta and near beta titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemura, A.; Ohyama, H.; Nishimura, T.; Abumiya, T.

    1993-01-01

    In this report the authors introduced application of beta and near beta titanium alloys also development and processing of these alloys at Kobe Steel LTD. Ti-15Mo-5Zr-3Al is an alloy developed by Kobe Steel which has been applied for variety of sporting goods, also used as an erosion shield of steam turbine blades. Ti-15Mo-5Zr-3Al high strength wire for valve springs is under development. New beta alloys(Ti-V-Nb-Sn-Al) are under development which have lower flow stress at room temperature than Ti 15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al, expected to improve productivity of cold forging. NNS forging and thermo mechanical treatment of Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al were studied. Ti-10V-2Fe3Al steam turbine blades and structural parts for aircraft were developed. Fine grain cold strips of Ti 15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al are produced by annealing and pickling process. These cold strips are used for parts of a fishing rod

  16. Moral actor, selfish agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

    2014-05-01

    People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature.

  17. Tributyltin alters secretion of interleukin 1 beta from human immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shyretha; Whalen, Margaret

    2015-08-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) has been used as a biocide in industrial applications such as wood preservation, antifouling paint and antifungal agents. Owing to its many uses, it contaminates the environment and has been found in human blood samples. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that promotes cell growth, tissue repair and immune response regulation. Produced predominately by both monocytes and macrophages, IL-1β appears to increase the invasiveness of certain tumors. This study shows that TBT modifies the secretion of IL-1β from increasingly reconstituted preparations of human immune cells. IL-1β secretion was examined after 24-, 48-h or 6-day exposures to TBT in highly enriched human natural killer (NK) cells, monocyte-depleted peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MD-PBMCs), PBMCs, granulocytes and a preparation combining both PBMCs and granulocytes (PBMCs+granulocytes). TBT altered IL-1β secretion from all of the cell preparations. The 200 nM concentration of TBT normally blocked the secretion of IL-1β, whereas lower concentrations (usually 5-50 nM) elevated secretion of IL-1β. Examination of the signaling pathway(s) responsible for the elevated secretion of IL-1β was carried out in MD-PBMCs. Pathways examined were IL-1β processing (Caspase-1), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB). Results indicated that MAPK pathways (p44/42 and p38) appear to be the targets of TBT that lead to increased IL-1β secretion from immune cells. These results from human immune cells show IL-1β dysregulation by TBT is occurring ex vivo. Thus, the potential for in vivo effects on pro-inflammatory cytokine levels may possibly be a consequence of TBT exposures. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. IL-1beta signals through the EGF receptor and activates Egr-1 through MMP-ADAM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estella Sanchez-Guerrero

    Full Text Available The immediate-early gene Egr-1 controls the inducible expression of many genes implicated in the pathogenesis of a range of vascular disorders, yet our understanding of the mechanisms controlling the rapid expression of this prototypic zinc finger transcription factor is poor. Here we show that Egr-1 expression induced by IL-1beta is dependent on metalloproteinases (MMP and a disintegrin and a metalloproteinase (ADAM. Pharmacologic MMP/ADAM inhibitors and siRNA knockdown prevent IL-1beta induction of Egr-1. Further, IL-1beta activates Egr-1 via the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. This is blocked by EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibition and EGFR knockdown. IL-1beta induction of Egr-1 expression is reduced in murine embryonic fibroblasts (mEFs deficient in ADAM17 despite unbiased expression of EGFR and IL-1RI in ADAM17-deficient and wild-type mEFs. Finally, we show that IL-1beta-inducible wound repair after mechanical injury requires both EGFR and MMP/ADAM. This study reports for the first time that Egr-1 induction by IL-1beta involves EGFR and MMP/ADAM-dependent EGFR phosphorylation.

  19. Cellular demise and inflammatory microglial activation during beta-amyloid toxicity are governed by Wnt1 and canonical signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Zhao Zhong; Li, Faqi; Maiese, Kenneth

    2007-06-01

    Initially described as a modulator of embryogenesis for a number of organ systems, Wnt1 has recently been linked to the development of several neurodegenerative disorders, none being of greater significance than Alzheimer's disease. We therefore examined the ability of Wnt1 to oversee vital pathways responsible for cell survival during beta-amyloid (Abeta1-42) exposure. Here we show that Wnt1 is critical for protection in the SH-SY5Y neuronal cell line against genomic DNA degradation, membrane phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, and microglial activation, since these neuroprotective attributes of Wnt1 are lost during gene silencing of Wnt1 protein expression. Intimately tied to Wnt1 protection is the presence and activation of Akt1. Pharmacological inhibition of the PI 3-K pathway or gene silencing of Akt1 expression can abrogate the protective capacity of Wnt1. Closely aligned with Wnt1 and Akt1 are the integrated canonical pathways of synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) and beta-catenin. Through Akt1 dependent pathways, Wnt1 phosphorylates GSK-3beta and maintains beta-catenin integrity to insure its translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus to block apoptosis. Our work outlines a highly novel role for Wnt1 and its integration with Akt1, GSK-3beta, and beta-catenin to foster neuronal cell survival and repress inflammatory microglial activation that can identify new avenues of therapy against neurodegenerative disorders.

  20. Beta genus papillomaviruses and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Peter M; Pfister, Herbert J

    2015-05-01

    A role for the beta genus HPVs in keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) remains to be established. In this article we examine the potential role of the beta HPVs in cancer revealed by the epidemiology associating these viruses with KC and supported by oncogenic properties of the beta HPV proteins. Unlike the cancer associated alpha genus HPVs, in which transcriptionally active viral genomes are invariably found associated with the cancers, that is not the case for the beta genus HPVs and keratinocyte carcinomas. Thus a role for the beta HPVs in KC would necessarily be in the carcinogenesis initiation and not in the maintenance of the tumor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Alpha and beta detection and spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saro, S.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of alpha and beta radioactive decay, the interaction of alpha and beta particles with matter, and their detection and spectrometry are dealt with in seven chapters: 1. Alpha transformation of atomic nuclei; 2. Basic properties of detectors and statistics of detection; 3. Alpha detectors and spectrometers; 4. Applications of alpha detection and spectrometry; 5. Beta transformation of atomic nuclei; 6. Beta particle detectors and spectrometers; 7. Detection of low energy beta particles. Chapter 8 is devoted to sampling and preparation of samples for radiometry. (E.F.)

  2. Antibodies against chromosomal beta-lactamase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giwercman, B; Rasmussen, J W; Ciofu, Oana

    1994-01-01

    A murine monoclonal anti-chromosomal beta-lactamase antibody was developed and an immunoblotting technique was used to study the presence of serum and sputum antibodies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa chromosomal group 1 beta-lactamase in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The serum antibody...... 1 cephalosporinase. We found a wide range of chromosomal beta-lactamase activity in the sputum samples, with no correlation with basal or induced activity of beta-lactamase expression. The presence of anti-beta-lactamase antibodies in endobronchial sputum could be an important factor in the defense...

  3. Climatological features of blocking anticyclones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupo, A.R.; Smith, P.J.; Oglesby, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    Several climatological studies have been previously performed using large observational data sets (i.e., 10 years or longer) in order to determine the predominant characteristics of blocking anticyclones, including favored development regions, duration, preferred seasonal occurrence, and frequency of occurrence. These studies have shown that blocking anticyclones occur most frequently from October to April over the eastern Atlantic and Pacific oceans downstream from both the North American and Asian continental regions and the storm track regions to the east of these continents. Some studies have also revealed the presence of a third region block formation in western Russia near 40 degrees E which is associated with another storm track region over the Mediterranean and western Asia

  4. Beneficial Effect of Jojoba Seed Extracts on Hyperglycemia-Induced Oxidative Stress in RINm5f Beta Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhadj, Sahla; Hentati, Olfa; Hamdaoui, Ghaith; Fakhreddine, Khaskhoussi; Maillard, Elisa; Dal, Stéphanie; Sigrist, Séverine

    2018-03-20

    Hyperglycemia occurs during diabetes and insulin resistance. It causes oxidative stress by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, leading to cellular damage. Polyphenols play a central role in defense against oxidative stress. In our study, we investigated the antioxidant properties of simmondsin, a pure molecule present in jojoba seeds, and of the aqueous extract of jojoba seeds on fructose-induced oxidative stress in RINm5f beta cells. The exposure of RINm5f beta cells to fructose triggered the loss of cell viability (-48%, p jojoba seed extract makes jojoba a powerful agent to prevent the destruction of RINm5f beta cells induced by hyperglycemia.

  5. Block ground interaction of rockfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkwein, Axel; Gerber, Werner; Kummer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    During a rockfall the interaction of the falling block with the ground is one of the most important factors that define the evolution of a rockfall trajectory. It steers the rebound, the rotational movement, possibly brake effects, friction losses and damping effects. Therefore, if most reliable rockfall /trajectory simulation software is sought a good understanding of the block ground interaction is necessary. Today's rockfall codes enable the simulation of a fully 3D modelled block within a full 3D surface . However, the details during the contact, i.e. the contact duration, the penetration depth or the dimension of the marks in the ground are usually not part of the simulation. Recent field tests with rocks between 20 and 80 kg have been conducted on a grassy slope in 2014 [1]. A special rockfall sensor [2] within the blocks measured the rotational velocity and the acting accelerations during the tests. External video records and a so-called LocalPositioningSystem deliver information on the travel velocity. With these data not only the flight phases of the trajectories but also the contacts with the ground can be analysed. During the single jumps of a block the flight time, jump length, the velocity, and the rotation are known. During the single impacts their duration and the acting accelerations are visible. Further, the changes of rotational and translational velocity influence the next jump of the block. The change of the rotational velocity over the whole trajectory nicely visualizes the different phases of a rockfall regarding general acceleration and deceleration in respect to the inclination and the topography of the field. References: [1] Volkwein A, Krummenacher B, Gerber W, Lardon J, Gees F, Brügger L, Ott T (2015) Repeated controlled rockfall trajectory testing. [Abstract] Geophys. Res. Abstr. 17: EGU2015-9779. [2] Volkwein A, Klette J (2014) Semi-Automatic Determination of Rockfall Trajectories. Sensors 14: 18187-18210.

  6. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  7. The effects of cysteamine on thyrotropin and immunoreactive beta-endorphin secretion in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millard, W.J.; Sagar, S.M.; Badger, T.M.; Carr, D.B.; Arnold, M.A.; Spindel, E.; Kasting, N.W.; Martin, J.B.

    1983-02-01

    We examined the effects of the thiol agent cysteamine (CSH), which is known to deplete the hypothalamus of immunoreactive somatostatin, on physiological TSH and beta- endorphin secretion in the adult male rat. CSH at doses of 90 and 300 mg/kg CSH produced a rapid decline in plasma TSH, whereas a dose of 30 mg/kg did not alter plasma TSH levels. After the higher doses of CSH, TSH levels in the blood remained lower than control values on day 2, but returned to normal by 1 week. This decrease in TSH within the plasma was not associated with a reduction in hypothalamic TRH concentrations. The TSH response to 500 ng/kg TRH was normal in CSH-treated animals. Blockade of norepinephrine synthesis with diethyldithiocarbamate (500 mg/kg) or fusaric acid (100 mg/kg) inhibited TSH secretion in a manner similar to that of CSH. beta-Endorphin-like immunoreactivity (bet-End-LI) was elevated in the plasma immediately after CSH (300 mg/kg) administration. This was associated with a 58% reduction in anterior pituitary beta-End-LI and no change in hypothalmic beta-End-LI. Plasma beta-End-LI returned to normal on day 2. The increase in plasma beta-End-LI induced by immobilization stress was not compromised by CSH treatment. The observed effects of CSH on both TSH and beta-End-LI are consistent with a reduction in central norepinephrine neurotransmission through the known actin of CSH to inhibit dopamine-beta-hydroxylase. Acute stress may play a role as well in the observed changes in TSH and beta-End-LI secretion.

  8. Cryptanalysis of Selected Block Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkhzaimi, Hoda A.

    , pseudorandom number generators, and authenticated encryption designs. For this reason a multitude of initiatives over the years has been established to provide a secure and sound designs for block ciphers as in the calls for Data Encryption Standard (DES) and Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), lightweight...... ciphers initiatives, and the Competition for Authenticated Encryption: Security, Applicability, and Robustness (CAESAR). In this thesis, we first present cryptanalytic results on different ciphers. We propose attack named the Invariant Subspace Attack. It is utilized to break the full block cipher...

  9. Beta Cell Mass Restoration in Alloxan-Diabetic Mice Treated with EGF and Gastrin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imane Song

    Full Text Available One week of treatment with EGF and gastrin (EGF/G was shown to restore normoglycemia and to induce islet regeneration in mice treated with the diabetogenic agent alloxan. The mechanisms underlying this regeneration are not fully understood. We performed genetic lineage tracing experiments to evaluate the contribution of beta cell neogenesis in this model. One day after alloxan administration, mice received EGF/G treatment for one week. The treatment could not prevent the initial alloxan-induced beta cell mass destruction, however it did reverse glycemia to control levels within one day, suggesting improved peripheral glucose uptake. In vitro experiments with C2C12 cell line showed that EGF could stimulate glucose uptake with an efficacy comparable to that of insulin. Subsequently, EGF/G treatment stimulated a 3-fold increase in beta cell mass, which was partially driven by neogenesis and beta cell proliferation as assessed by beta cell lineage tracing and BrdU-labeling experiments, respectively. Acinar cell lineage tracing failed to show an important contribution of acinar cells to the newly formed beta cells. No appearance of transitional cells co-expressing insulin and glucagon, a hallmark for alpha-to-beta cell conversion, was found, suggesting that alpha cells did not significantly contribute to the regeneration. An important fraction of the beta cells significantly lost insulin positivity after alloxan administration, which was restored to normal after one week of EGF/G treatment. Alloxan-only mice showed more pronounced beta cell neogenesis and proliferation, even though beta cell mass remained significantly depleted, suggesting ongoing beta cell death in that group. After one week, macrophage infiltration was significantly reduced in EGF/G-treated group compared to the alloxan-only group. Our results suggest that EGF/G-induced beta cell regeneration in alloxan-diabetic mice is driven by beta cell neogenesis, proliferation and recovery of

  10. Stabilized radiographic scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawzi, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    Stable compositions useful as technetium 99m-based scintigraphic agents comprise gentisic acid or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcOsub(4)sup(-)) solution. The compositions are especially useful in combination with a phosphate or phosphonate material that carries the radionuclide to bone, thus providing a skeletal imaging agent

  11. Genus beta human papillomavirus E6 proteins vary in their effects on the transactivation of p53 target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Elizabeth A; Walther, Johanna; Javanbakht, Hassan; Howley, Peter M

    2014-08-01

    The genus beta human papillomaviruses (beta HPVs) cause cutaneous lesions and are thought to be involved in the initiation of some nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), particularly in patients with the genetic disorder epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV). We have previously reported that at least two of the genus beta HPV E6 proteins bind to and/or increase the steady-state levels of p53 in squamous epithelial cells. This is in contrast to a well-characterized ability of the E6 proteins of cancer-associated HPVs of genus alpha HPV, which inactivate p53 by targeting its ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. In this study, we have investigated the ability of genus beta E6 proteins from eight different HPV types to block the transactivation of p53 target genes following DNA damage. We find that the E6 proteins from diverse beta HPV species and types vary in their capacity to block the induction of MDM2, p21, and proapoptotic genes after genotoxic stress. We conclude that some genus beta HPV E6 proteins inhibit at least some p53 target genes, although perhaps not by the same mechanism or to the same degree as the high-risk genus alpha HPV E6 proteins. This study addresses the ability of various human papillomavirus E6 proteins to block the activation of p53-responsive cellular genes following DNA damage in human keratinocytes, the normal host cell for HPVs. The E6 proteins encoded by the high-risk, cancer-associated HPV types of genus alpha HPV have a well-established activity to target p53 degradation and thereby inhibit the response to DNA damage. In this study, we have investigated the ability of genus beta HPV E6 proteins from eight different HPV types to block the ability of p53 to transactivate downstream genes following DNA damage. We find that some, but not all, genus beta HPV E6 proteins can block the transactivation of some p53 target genes. This differential response to DNA damage furthers the understanding of cutaneous HPV biology and may help to explain the

  12. Contrast agents for MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnemain, B.

    1994-01-01

    Contrast agents MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) have been developed to improve the diagnostic information obtained by this technic. They mainly interact on T1 and T2 parameters and increase consequently normal to abnormal tissues contrast. The paramagnetic agents which mainly act on longitudinal relaxation rate (T1) are gadolinium complexes for which stability is the main parameter to avoid any release of free gadolinium. The superparamagnetic agents that decrease signal intensity by an effect on transversal relaxation rate (T2) are developed for liver, digestive and lymph node imaging. Many area of research are now opened for optimal use of present and future contrast agents in MRI. (author). 28 refs., 4 tabs

  13. Decontamination Data - Blister Agents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination efficacy data for blister agents on various building materials using various decontamination solutions. This dataset is associated with the following...

  14. Quantitative NMR Approach to Optimize the Formation of Chemical Building Blocks from Abundant Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Samuel G; Tolborg, Søren; Sádaba, Irantzu; Taarning, Esben; Meier, Sebastian

    2017-07-21

    The future role of biomass-derived chemicals relies on the formation of diverse functional monomers in high yields from carbohydrates. Recently, it has become clear that a series of α-hydroxy acids, esters, and lactones can be formed from carbohydrates in alcohol and water solvents using tin-containing catalysts such as Sn-Beta. These compounds are potential building blocks for polyesters bearing additional olefin and alcohol functionalities. An NMR approach was used to identify, quantify, and optimize the formation of these building blocks in the Sn-Beta-catalyzed transformation of abundant carbohydrates. Record yields of the target molecules can be achieved by obstructing competing reactions through solvent selection. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Hydroxamic acid derivatives as potent peptide deformylase inhibitors and antibacterial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfel, C; Banner, D W; Bur, D; Dietz, M; Hirata, T; Hubschwerlen, C; Locher, H; Page, M G; Pirson, W; Rossé, G; Specklin, J L

    2000-06-15

    Low-molecular-weight beta-sulfonyl- and beta-sulfinylhydroxamic acid derivatives have been synthesized and found to be potent inhibitors of Escherichia coli peptide deformylase (PDF). Most of the compounds synthesized and tested displayed antibacterial activities that cover several pathogens found in respiratory tract infections, including Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. The potential of these compounds as antibacterial agents is discussed with respect to selectivity, intracellular concentrations in bacteria, and potential for resistance development.

  16. DMPD: Immunoreceptor-like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17913496 Immunoreceptor-like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. Jakus Z, Fod...) Show Immunoreceptor-like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. PubmedID 17913496 Title Immunoreceptor-...like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. Authors Jakus Z, Fodor S, Abram CL

  17. Asymmetric PS-block-(PS-co-PB)-block-PS block copolymers: morphology formation and deformation behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, Rameshwar; Huy, Trinh An; Buschnakowski, Matthias; Michler, Goerg H; Knoll, Konrad

    2004-01-01

    Morphology formation and deformation behaviour of asymmetric styrene/butadiene triblock copolymers (total polystyrene (PS) content ∼70%) consisting of PS outer blocks held apart by a styrene-co-butadiene random copolymer block (PS-co-PB) each were investigated. The techniques used were differential scanning calorimetry, transmission electron microscopy, uniaxial tensile testing and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. A significant shift of the phase behaviour relative to that of a neat symmetric triblock copolymer was observed, which can be attributed to the asymmetric architecture and the presence of PS-co-PB as a soft block. The mechanical properties and the microdeformation phenomena were mainly controlled by the nature of their solid-state morphology. Independent of morphology type, the soft phase was found to deform to a significantly higher degree of orientation when compared with the hard phase

  18. Beta-irradiation used for systemic radioimmunotherapy induces apoptosis and activates apoptosis pathways in leukaemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesen, Claudia; Lubatschofski, Annelie; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Kotzerke, Joerg; Buchmann, Inga; Reske, Sven N.

    2003-01-01

    Beta-irradiation used for systemic radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a promising treatment approach for high-risk leukaemia and lymphoma. In bone marrow-selective radioimmunotherapy, beta-irradiation is applied using iodine-131, yttrium-90 or rhenium-188 labelled radioimmunoconjugates. However, the mechanisms by which beta-irradiation induces cell death are not understood at the molecular level. Here, we report that beta-irradiation induced apoptosis and activated apoptosis pathways in leukaemia cells depending on doses, time points and dose rates. After beta-irradiation, upregulation of CD95 ligand and CD95 receptor was detected and activation of caspases resulting in apoptosis was found. These effects were completely blocked by the broad-range caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk. In addition, irradiation-mediated mitochondrial damage resulted in perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-9 activation and cytochrome c release. Bax, a death-promoting protein, was upregulated and Bcl-x L , a death-inhibiting protein, was downregulated. We also found higher apoptosis rates and earlier activation of apoptosis pathways after gamma-irradiation in comparison to beta-irradiation at the same dose rate. Furthermore, irradiation-resistant cells were cross-resistant to CD95 and CD95-resistant cells were cross-resistant to irradiation, indicating that CD95 and irradiation used, at least in part, identical effector pathways. These findings demonstrate that beta-irradiation induces apoptosis and activates apoptosis pathways in leukaemia cells using both mitochondrial and death receptor pathways. Understanding the timing, sequence and molecular pathways of beta-irradiation-mediated apoptosis may allow rational adjustment of chemo- and radiotherapeutic strategies. (orig.)

  19. Main-chain supramolecular block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Si Kyung; Ambade, Ashootosh V; Weck, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Block copolymers are key building blocks for a variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to drug delivery. The material properties of block copolymers can be tuned and potentially improved by introducing noncovalent interactions in place of covalent linkages between polymeric blocks resulting in the formation of supramolecular block copolymers. Such materials combine the microphase separation behavior inherent to block copolymers with the responsiveness of supramolecular materials thereby affording dynamic and reversible materials. This tutorial review covers recent advances in main-chain supramolecular block copolymers and describes the design principles, synthetic approaches, advantages, and potential applications.

  20. Comprehensive identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with beta-lactam resistance within pneumococcal mosaic genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Chewapreecha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional genetic association studies are very difficult in bacteria, as the generally limited recombination leads to large linked haplotype blocks, confounding the identification of causative variants. Beta-lactam antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae arises readily as the bacteria can quickly incorporate DNA fragments encompassing variants that make the transformed strains resistant. However, the causative mutations themselves are embedded within larger recombined blocks, and previous studies have only analysed a limited number of isolates, leading to the description of "mosaic genes" as being responsible for resistance. By comparing a large number of genomes of beta-lactam susceptible and non-susceptible strains, the high frequency of recombination should break up these haplotype blocks and allow the use of genetic association approaches to identify individual causative variants. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and indels that could confer beta-lactam non-susceptibility using 3,085 Thai and 616 USA pneumococcal isolates as independent datasets for the variant discovery. The large sample sizes allowed us to narrow the source of beta-lactam non-susceptibility from long recombinant fragments down to much smaller loci comprised of discrete or linked SNPs. While some loci appear to be universal resistance determinants, contributing equally to non-susceptibility for at least two classes of beta-lactam antibiotics, some play a larger role in resistance to particular antibiotics. All of the identified loci have a highly non-uniform distribution in the populations. They are enriched not only in vaccine-targeted, but also non-vaccine-targeted lineages, which may raise clinical concerns. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms underlying resistance will be essential for future use of genome sequencing to predict antibiotic sensitivity in clinical microbiology.

  1. Smart ampholytic ABC block copolypeptide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schlaad, H.; Sun, J.; Černoch, Peter; Ruokolainen, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 254, 20 August (2017), s. 79 ISSN 0065-7727. [ACS National Meeting & Exposition /254./. 20.08.2017-24.08.2017, Washington] Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : block copolypeptide * smart ampholytic Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science

  2. First Degree Pacemaker Exit Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Francis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Usually atrial and ventricular depolarizations follow soon after the pacemaker stimulus (spike on the ECG. But there can be an exit block due to fibrosis at the electrode - tissue interface at the lead tip. This can increase the delay between the spike and atrial or ventricular depolarization.

  3. Building Blocks for Personal Brands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the four essential building blocks for personal brands: (1) name; (2) message; (3) channels; and (4) bridges. However, outstanding building materials can only take a person so far. The author emphasizes that vision, determination, faith, a sense of humor, and humility are also required.

  4. Thermo-responsive block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mocan Cetintas, Merve

    2017-01-01

    Block copolymers (BCPs) are remarkable materials because of their self-assembly behavior into nano-sized regular structures and high tunable properties. BCPs are in used various applications such as surfactants, nanolithography, biomedicine and nanoporous membranes. In these thesis, we aimed to

  5. Cervical plexus block for thyroidectomy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    RESEARCH. Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia & Analgesia - November 2003 ... Cervical plexus block has also been found useful for thy- .... lar, transverse cervical and supraclavicular nerves. ... administration of midazolam and pentazocine as required. ... find out if there were postoperative complications specific to.

  6. Blocking sets in Desarguesian planes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, A.; Miklós, D.; Sós, V.T.; Szönyi, T.

    1996-01-01

    We survey recent results concerning the size of blocking sets in desarguesian projective and affine planes, and implications of these results and the technique to prove them, to related problemis, such as the size of maximal partial spreads, small complete arcs, small strong representative systems

  7. Latent transforming growth factor beta1 activation in situ: quantitative and functional evidence after low-dose gamma-irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, E. J.; Segarini, P.; Tsang, M. L.; Carroll, A. G.; Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    The biological activity of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta) is controlled by its secretion as a latent complex in which it is noncovalently associated with latency-associated peptide (LAP). Activation is the extracellular process in which TGF-beta is released from LAP, and is considered to be a primary regulatory control. We recently reported rapid and persistent changes in TGF-beta immunoreactivity in conjunction with extracellular matrix remodeling in gamma-irradiated mouse mammary gland. Our hypothesis is that these specific changes in immunoreactivity are indicative of latent TGF-beta activation. In the present study, we determined the radiation dose response and tested whether a functional relationship exists between radiation-induced TGF-beta and collagen type III remodeling. After radiation exposures as low as 0.1 Gy, we detected increased TGF-beta immunoreactivity in the mammary epithelium concomitant with decreased LAP immunostaining, which are events consistent with activation. Quantitative image analysis demonstrated a significant (P=0.0005) response at 0.1 Gy without an apparent threshold and a linear dose response to 5 Gy. However, in the adipose stroma, loss of LAP demonstrated a qualitative threshold at 0.5 Gy. Loss of LAP paralleled induction of collagen III immunoreactivity in this tissue compartment. We tested whether TGF-beta mediates collagen III expression by treating animals with TGF-beta panspecific monoclonal antibody, 1D11.16, administered i.p. shortly before irradiation. Radiation-induced collagen III staining in the adipose stroma was blocked in an antibody dose-dependent manner, which persisted through 7 days postirradiation. RNase protection assay revealed that radiation-induced elevation of total gland collagen III mRNA was also blocked by neutralizing antibody treatment. These data provide functional confirmation of the hypothesis that radiation exposure leads to latent TGF-beta activation, support our interpretation of the

  8. Hypoglycemic and beta cell protective effects of andrographolide analogue for diabetes treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larrick James W

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While all anti-diabetic agents can decrease blood glucose level directly or indirectly, few are able to protect and preserve both pancreatic beta cell mass and their insulin-secreting functions. Thus, there is an urgent need to find an agent or combination of agents that can lower blood glucose and preserve pancreatic beta cells at the same time. Herein, we report a dual-functional andrographolide-lipoic acid conjugate (AL-1. The anti-diabetic and beta cell protective activities of this novel andrographolide-lipoic acid conjugate were investigated. Methods In alloxan-treated mice (a model of type 1 diabetes, drugs were administered orally once daily for 6 days post-alloxan treatment. Fasting blood glucose and serum insulin were determined. Pathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of pancreatic islets were performed. Translocation of glucose transporter subtype 4 in soleus muscle was detected by western blot. In RIN-m cells in vitro, the effect of AL-1 on H2O2-induced damage and reactive oxidative species production stimulated by high glucose and glibenclamide were measured. Inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB activation induced by IL-1β and IFN-γ was investigated. Results In alloxan-induced diabetic mouse model, AL-1 lowered blood glucose, increased insulin and prevented loss of beta cells and their dysfunction, stimulated glucose transport protein subtype 4 (GLUT4 membrane translocation in soleus muscles. Pretreatment of RIN-m cells with AL-1 prevented H2O2-induced cellular damage, quenched glucose and glibenclamide-stimulated reactive oxidative species production, and inhibited cytokine-stimulated NF-κB activation. Conclusion We have demonstrated that AL-1 had both hypoglycemic and beta cell protective effects which translated into antioxidant and NF-κB inhibitory activity. AL-1 is a potential new anti-diabetic agent.

  9. Change Agent Survival Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Folwell L.

    2011-01-01

    Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…

  10. Teaching Tourism Change Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stilling Blichfeldt, Bodil; Kvistgaard, Hans-Peter; Hird, John

    2017-01-01

    course that is part of a Tourism Master’s program, where a major challenge is not only to teach students about change and change agents, but to teach them how change feels and ho w to become change agents. The c hange management course contains an experiment inspired by experiential teaching literature...... change in tourism in the future....

  11. Travel Agent Course Outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…

  12. Radiographic scintiscanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    A new technetium-based scintiscanning agent has been prepared comprising a water soluble sup(99m)Tc-methanehydroxydiphosphonate in combination with a reducing agent selected from stannous, ferrous, chromous and titanous salts. As an additional stabilizer salts and esters of gentisic or ascorbic acids have been used. (E.G.)

  13. Radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    A stable radiographic scanning agent on a sup(99m)Tc basis has been developed. The substance contains a pertechnetate reduction agent, tin(II)-chloride, chromium(II)-chloride, or iron(II)-sulphate, as well as an organospecific carrier and ascorbic acid or a pharmacologically admissible salt or ester of ascorbic acid. (VJ) [de

  14. Stable radiographic scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Stable compositions which are useful in the preparation of Technetium-99m-based scintigraphic agents are discussed. They are comprised of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in oxidized pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcO 4 - ) solution

  15. Development of novel alkylating drugs as anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izbicka, Elzbieta; Tolcher, Anthony W

    2004-06-01

    Although conventional alkylating drugs have proven efficacy in the treatment of malignancies, the agents themselves are not selective. Therefore, non-specific alkylation of cellular nucleophilic targets may contribute to many of the observed toxic effects. Novel approaches to drug discovery have resulted in candidate agents that are focused on 'soft alkylation'--alkylators with greater target selectivity. This review highlights the discovery of small molecule drugs that bind to DNA with higher selectivity, act in a unique hypoxic tumor environment, or covalently bind specific protein targets overexpressed in cancer, such as topoisomerase II, glutathione transferase pi1, beta-tubulin and histone deacetylase.

  16. Hyperthermia and chemotherapy agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roizin-Towle, L.; Hall, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    The use of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer dates back to the late 19th century, but the modern era of chemotherapy drugs was ushered in during the 1940's with the development of the polyfunctional alkylating agent. Since then, numerous classes of drugs have evolved and the combined use of antineoplastic agents with other treatment modalities such as radiation or heat, remains a large relatively unexplored area. This approach, combining local hyperthermia with chemotherapy agents affords a measure of targeting and selective toxicity not previously available for drugs. In this paper, the effects of adriamycin, bleomycin and cis-platinum are examined. The adjuvant use of heat may also reverse the resistance of hypoxic cells noted for some chemotherapy agents

  17. Cutaneous Sensory Block Area, Muscle-Relaxing Effect, and Block Duration of the Transversus Abdominis Plane Block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, Kion; Rothe, Christian; Rosenstock, Charlotte V

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a widely used nerve block. However, basic block characteristics are poorly described. The purpose of this study was to assess the cutaneous sensory block area, muscle-relaxing effect, and block duration. METHODS: Sixteen...... healthy volunteers were randomized to receive an ultrasound-guided unilateral TAP block with 20 mL 7.5 mg/mL ropivacaine and placebo on the contralateral side. Measurements were performed at baseline and 90 minutes after performing the block. Cutaneous sensory block area was mapped and separated...... into a medial and lateral part by a vertical line through the anterior superior iliac spine. We measured muscle thickness of the 3 lateral abdominal muscle layers with ultrasound in the relaxed state and during maximal voluntary muscle contraction. The volunteers reported the duration of the sensory block...

  18. Normotensive sodium loading in conscious dogs: Regulation of renin secretion during beta receptor blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bie, Peter; Mølstrøm, Simon; Wamberg, Søren

    2009-01-01

    Cl (20 micromol/kg/min for 180 min, NaLoad) during regular or low-sodium diet (0.03 mmol/kg/d, LowNa) with and without metoprolol (2 mg/kg plus 0.9 mg/kg/h). Vasopressin V2 receptors were blocked by Otsuka compound OPC31260 to facilitate clearance measurements. Body fluid volume was maintained by servo-controlled...... that in this setting, renin secretion and renin-dependent sodium excretion are controlled by via the renal nerves and therefore eliminated or reduced by blocking the action of norepinephrine on the juxtaglomerular cells with the beta1-receptor antagonist metoprolol. This was tested in conscious dogs by infusion of Na...... irrespective of diet. In conclusion, PRC depended on dietary sodium and beta1-adrenergic control as expected; however, the acute sodium-driven decrease in PRC at constant MAP and GFR was unaffected by beta1-receptor blockade demonstrating that renin may be regulated without changes in MAP, GFR, or beta1...

  19. Targeting Cellular Calcium Homeostasis to Prevent Cytokine-Mediated Beta Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Amy L; Kanekura, Kohsuke; Lavagnino, Zeno; Spears, Larry D; Abreu, Damien; Mahadevan, Jana; Yagi, Takuya; Semenkovich, Clay F; Piston, David W; Urano, Fumihiko

    2017-07-17

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines are important mediators of islet inflammation, leading to beta cell death in type 1 diabetes. Although alterations in both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and cytosolic free calcium levels are known to play a role in cytokine-mediated beta cell death, there are currently no treatments targeting cellular calcium homeostasis to combat type 1 diabetes. Here we show that modulation of cellular calcium homeostasis can mitigate cytokine- and ER stress-mediated beta cell death. The calcium modulating compounds, dantrolene and sitagliptin, both prevent cytokine and ER stress-induced activation of the pro-apoptotic calcium-dependent enzyme, calpain, and partly suppress beta cell death in INS1E cells and human primary islets. These agents are also able to restore cytokine-mediated suppression of functional ER calcium release. In addition, sitagliptin preserves function of the ER calcium pump, sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase (SERCA), and decreases levels of the pro-apoptotic protein thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP). Supporting the role of TXNIP in cytokine-mediated cell death, knock down of TXNIP in INS1-E cells prevents cytokine-mediated beta cell death. Our findings demonstrate that modulation of dynamic cellular calcium homeostasis and TXNIP suppression present viable pharmacologic targets to prevent cytokine-mediated beta cell loss in diabetes.

  20. Ethacrynic acid exhibits selective toxicity to chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells by inhibition of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desheng Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aberrant activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling promotes the development of several cancers. It has been demonstrated that the Wnt signaling pathway is activated in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL cells, and that uncontrolled Wnt/beta-catenin signaling may contribute to the defect in apoptosis that characterizes this malignancy. Thus, the Wnt signaling pathway is an attractive candidate for developing targeted therapies for CLL. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The diuretic agent ethacrynic acid (EA was identified as a Wnt inhibitor using a cell-based Wnt reporter assay. In vitro assays further confirmed the inhibitory effect of EA on Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Cell viability assays showed that EA selectively induced cell death in primary CLL cells. Exposure of CLL cells to EA decreased the expression of Wnt/beta-catenin target genes, including LEF-1, cyclin D1 and fibronectin. Immune co-precipitation experiments demonstrated that EA could directly bind to LEF-1 protein and destabilize the LEF-1/beta-catenin complex. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, which can react with the alpha, beta-unsaturated ketone in EA, but not other anti-oxidants, prevented the drug's inhibition of Wnt/beta-catenin activation and its ability to induce apoptosis in CLL cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our studies indicate that EA selectively suppresses CLL survival due to inhibition of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Antagonizing Wnt signaling in CLL with EA or related drugs may represent an effective treatment of this disease.

  1. Polysaccharides of algae. Pt. 37. Characterization of hybrid structure of substituted agarose from Polysiphonia morrowii (Rhodophyta, Rhodomelaceae) using. beta. -agarase and /sup 13/C-NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usov, A.I.; Ivanova, E.G.

    1987-09-01

    Structure of gel-forming galactan from Polysiphonia morrowii was analysed using bacterial ..beta..-agarase and /sup 13/C-nuclear magnetic resonance (/sup 13/C-NMR) spectroscopy. The polysaccharide was shown to contain: a) blocks composed of agarobiose residues, partly 6-O-methylated and 6-sulfated, which are sensitive to enzymolysis; b) extended blocks composed of agarobiose 6-sulfate residues, which are resistant to ..beta..-agarase action. The latter blocks contain also ..beta..-D-galactopyranosyl-(1->4)-..cap alpha..-L-galactopyranose 6.6'-disulfate residues (biogenetic precursors of agarobiose 6-sulfate), which are hardly detectable by /sup 13/C-NMR spectrum of the starting polysaccharide. Action of alkali on the enzyme-resistant fraction afforded a polysaccharide preparation having /sup 13/C-NMR spectrum of agarose 6-sulfate.

  2. Role of IL-1 beta and 5-HT2 receptors in midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) in potentiating defensive rage behavior in cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Suresh; Bhatt, Rekha; Zalcman, Steven S; Siegel, Allan

    2008-02-01

    Feline defensive rage, a form of aggressive behavior that occurs in response to a threat can be elicited by electrical stimulation of the medial hypothalamus or midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG). Our laboratory has recently begun a systematic examination of the role of cytokines in the regulation of rage and aggressive behavior. It was shown that the cytokine, interleukin-2 (IL-2), differentially modulates defensive rage when microinjected into the medial hypothalamus and PAG by acting through separate neurotransmitter systems. The present study sought to determine whether a similar relationship exists with respect to interleukin 1-beta (IL-1 beta), whose receptor activation in the medial hypothalamus potentiates defensive rage. Thus, the present study identified the effects of administration of IL-1 beta into the PAG upon defensive rage elicited from the medial hypothalamus. Microinjections of IL-1 beta into the dorsal PAG significantly facilitated defensive rage behavior elicited from the medial hypothalamus in a dose and time dependent manner. In addition, the facilitative effects of IL-1 beta were blocked by pre-treatment with anti-IL-1 beta receptor antibody, while IL-1 beta administration into the PAG had no effect upon predatory attack elicited from the lateral hypothalamus. The findings further demonstrated that IL-1 beta's effects were mediated through 5-HT(2) receptors since pretreatment with a 5-HT(2C) receptors antagonist blocked the facilitating effects of IL-1 beta. An extensive pattern of labeling of IL-1 beta and 5-HT(2C) receptors in the dorsal PAG supported these findings. The present study demonstrates that IL-beta in the dorsal PAG, similar to the medial hypothalamus, potentiates defensive rage behavior and is mediated through a 5-HT(2C) receptor mechanism.

  3. Non-immunogenic, hydrophilic/cationic block copolymers and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, Charles W.; Huang, Faqing; McCormick, Charles L.

    2010-05-18

    The present invention provides novel non-immunogenic, hydrophilic/cationic block copolymers comprising a neutral-hydrophilic polymer and a cationic polymer, wherein both polymers have well-defined chain-end functionality. A representative example of such a block copolymer comprises poly(N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide) (PHPMA) and poly(N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]methacrylamide) (PDMAPMA). Also provided is a synthesis method thereof in aqueous media via reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Further provided are uses of these block copolymers as drug delivery vehicles and protection agents.

  4. Intracerebral beta-endorphin, met-enkephalin and morphine: kindling of seizures and handling-induced potentiation of epileptiform effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, D P; Corcoran, M E

    1984-06-18

    The effects of repeated infusion of small, initially subconvulsive amounts of beta-endorphin, met-enkephalin or morphine sulfate into the amygdala and hippocampus were investigated. beta-endorphin and met-enkephalin evoked epileptiform spiking when infused into the posterior amygdala or ventral hippocampus. Morphine evoked epileptiform spiking when infused into the anterior amygdala. Naloxone blocked or terminated the spiking. Repetition of the infusions led to the gradual development of bilateral generalized convulsions by beta-endorphin and met-enkephalin and to the development of tolerance to morphine. An unexpected observation was that handling, immobilization or conspecific threat potentiated the epileptiform effects of beta-endorphin and morphine in many cases. These results suggest that endogenous opiate mechanisms might play a role in convulsive seizures and that stressful stimuli can exacerbate opiate seizures.

  5. Tailor-made polyfluoroacrylate and its block copolymer by RAFT polymerization in miniemulsion; improved hydrophobicity in the core-shell block copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Arindam; Singha, Nikhil K

    2013-10-15

    Controlled/living radical polymerization (CRP) of a fluoroacrylate was successfully carried out in miniemulsion by Reversible Addition Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT) process. In this case, 2,2,3,3,4,4,4-heptafluorobutyl acrylate (HFBA) was polymerized using 2-cyanopropyl dodecyl trithiocarbonate (CPDTC) as RAFT agent, Triton X-405 and sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS) as surfactant, and potassium persulphate (KPS) or 2,2'-azobis isobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator. Being compatible with hydrophobic fluoroacrylate, this RAFT agent offered very high conversion and good control over the molecular weight of the polymer. The miniemulsion was stable without any costabilizer. The long chain dodecyl group (-C12H25) (Z-group in the RAFT agent) had beneficial effect in stabilizing the miniemulsion. When 2-cyano 2-propyl benzodithioate (CPBD) (Z=-C6H5) was used as RAFT agent, the conversion was less and particle size distribution was very broad. Block copolymerization with butyl acrylate (BA) using PHFBA as macro-RAFT agent showed core-shell morphology with the aggregation of PHFBA segment in the shell. GPC as well as DSC analysis confirmed the formation of block copolymer. The core-shell morphology was confirmed by TEM analysis. The block copolymers (PHFBA-b-PBA) showed significantly higher water contact angle (WCA) showing much better hydrophobicity compared to PHFBA alone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthetic peptides corresponding to human follicle-stimulating hormone (hFSH)-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) induce uptake of 45Ca++ by liposomes: evidence for calcium-conducting transmembrane channel formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, P.; Santa-Coloma, T.A.; Reichert, L.E. Jr. (Department of Biochemistry, Albany Medical College, New York, NY (USA))

    1991-06-01

    We have previously described FSH receptor-mediated influx of 45Ca++ in cultured Sertoli cells from immature rats and receptor-enriched proteoliposomes via activation of voltage-sensitive and voltage-independent calcium channels. We have further shown that this effect of FSH does not require cholera toxin- or pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding protein or activation of adenylate cyclase. In the present study, we have identified regions of human FSH-beta-subunit which appear to be involved in mediating calcium influx. We screened 11 overlapping peptide amides representing the entire primary structure of hFSH-beta-subunit for their effects on 45Ca++ flux in FSH receptor-enriched proteoliposomes. hFSH-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) induced uptake of 45Ca++ in a concentration-related manner. This effect of hFSH-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) was also observed in liposomes lacking incorporated FSH receptor. Reducing membrane fluidity by incubating liposomes (containing no receptor) with hFSH-beta-(1-15) or hFSH-beta-(51-65) at temperatures lower than the transition temperatures of their constituent phospholipids resulted in no significant (P greater than 0.05) difference in 45Ca++ uptake. The effectiveness of the calcium ionophore A23187, however, was abolished. Ruthenium red, a voltage-independent calcium channel antagonist, was able to completely block uptake of 45Ca++ induced by hFSH-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) whereas nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker specific for L-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels, was without effect. These results suggest that in addition to its effect on voltage-sensitive calcium channel activity, interaction of FSH with its receptor may induce formation of transmembrane aqueous channels which also facilitate influx of extracellular calcium.

  7. Miscoding properties of 1,N{sup 6}-ethanoadenine, a DNA adduct derived from reaction with antitumor agent 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hang, Bo; Guliaev, Anton B.; Chenna, Ahmed; Singer, B.

    2003-03-05

    1,N{sup 6}-Ethanoadenine (EA) is an exocyclic adduct formed from DNA reaction with the antitumor agent, 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU). To understand the role of this adduct in the mechanism of mutagenicity or carcinogenicity by BCNU, an oligonucleotide with a site-specific EA was synthesized using phosphoramidite chemistry. We now report the in vitro miscoding properties of EA in translesion DNA synthesis catalyzed by mammalian DNA polymerases (pols) {alpha}, {beta}, {eta} and {iota}. These data were also compared with those obtained for the structurally related exocyclic adduct, 1,N{sup 6}-ethenoadenine ({var_epsilon}A). Using a primer extension assay, both pols {alpha} and {beta} were primarily blocked by EA or {var_epsilon}A with very minor extension. Pol {eta} a member of the Y family of polymerases, was capable of catalyzing a significant amount of bypass across both adducts. Pol {eta} incorporated all four nucleotides opposite EA and {var_epsilon}A, but with differential preferences and mainly in an error-prone manner. Human pol {iota}, a paralog of human pol {eta}, was blocked by both adducts with a very small amount of synthesis past {var_epsilon}A. It incorporated C and, to a much lesser extent, T, opposite either adduct. In addition, the presence of an A adduct, e.g. {var_epsilon}A, could affect the specificity of pol {iota} toward the template T immediately 3 feet to the adduct. In conclusion, the four polymerases assayed on templates containing an EA or {var_epsilon}A showed differential bypass capacity and nucleotide incorporation specificity, with the two adducts not completely identical in influencing these properties. Although there was a measurable extent of error-free nucleotide incorporation, all these polymerases primarily misincorporated opposite EA, indicating that the adduct, similar to {var_epsilon}A, is a miscoding lesion.

  8. On the Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of Block Triangular Preconditioned Block Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Block lower triangular matrices and block upper triangular matrices are popular preconditioners for 2×2 block matrices. In this note we show that a block lower triangular preconditioner gives the same spectrum as a block upper triangular preconditioner and that the eigenvectors of the two preconditioned matrices are related. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  9. Resistance training & beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation on hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOIntroduction:In recent years, there was an increased interest on the effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB supplementation on skeletal muscle due to its anti-catabolic effects.Objectives:To investigate the effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, muscular strength and anabolic-catabolic hormones after resistance training.Methods:Twenty amateur male athletes were randomly assigned to supplement and control groups in a double-blind crossover design and participated in four weeks resistance training. Before and after the test period fasting blood samples were obtained to determine anabolic (the growth hormone and testosterone and catabolic (cortisol hormones, and fat mass, lean body mass (LBM and muscular strength were measured. Dependent and independent t-tests were used to analyze data.Results:After the training period, there were no significant differen-ces between the groups with respect to fat mass, LBM and anabolic-catabolic hormones. HMB supplementation resulted in a significantly greater strength gain (p≤0.05.Conclusion:Greater increase in strength for HMB group was not accompanied by body composition and basal circulating anabolic-catabolic hormonal changes. It seems that HMB supplementation may have beneficial effects on neurological adaptations of strength gain.

  10. Hybrid titanium dioxide/PS-b-PEO block copolymer nanocomposites based on sol-gel synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, J; Tercjak, A; Garcia, I; Peponi, L; Mondragon, I

    2008-01-01

    The poly(styrene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (SEO) amphiphilic block copolymer, with two different molecular weights, has been used as a structure directing agent for generating nanocomposites of TiO 2 /SEO via the sol-gel process. SEO amphiphilic block copolymers are designed with a hydrophilic PEO-block which can interact with inorganic molecules, as well as a hydrophobic PS-block which builds the matrix. The addition of different amounts of sol-gel provokes strong variations in the self-assembled morphology of TiO 2 /SEO nanocomposites with respect to the neat block copolymer. As confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), TiO 2 /PEO-block micelles get closer, forming well-ordered spherical domains, in which TiO 2 nanoparticles constitute the core surrounded by a corona of PEO-blocks. Moreover, for 20 vol% sol-gel the generated morphology changes to a hexagonally ordered structure for both block copolymers. The cylindrical structure of these nanocomposites has been confirmed by the two-dimensional Fourier transform power spectrum of the corresponding AFM height images. Affinity between titanium dioxide precursor and PEO-block of SEO allows us to generate hybrid inorganic/organic nanocomposites, which retain the optical properties of TiO 2 , as evaluated by UV-vis spectroscopy

  11. Electrets for beta radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, L.L.; Caldas, L.V.E.; Mascarenhas, S.

    1983-01-01

    Electret dosimetry has been reviewed by Gross. A cylindrical electret ionization-chamber type dosimeter has been studied for X and gamma rays and neutrons. The principle of the dosimeter is electret charge compensation due to ionization in the chamber volume. Electret ionization chambers can be designed with one or more electrets and in various shapes. This study is concerned with a simple system, similar to a cylindrical ionization chamber (sensitive volume: 3,5 cm 3 ) using teflon electrets. Aluminum and lucite were used as wall-materials. Other experiences were performed using chambers without wall, i.e., without defined sensitive volume. The teflon electrets were obtained by Corona discharge in the gas surrounding them. The measurement of the electret charge was made by induction using a co-axial insulated metal chamber connected to an electrometer Keithley 610C. By measuring the charge before and after irradiation it is possible to obtain a calibration curve: charge (Q) versus absorbed dose (D) for the dosimeter. The irradiation setup used was the Beta Secondary Standard System of IPEN calibration laboratory with four beta sources: 90 Sr 90 Y (74 and 1850 MBq), 204 Tl (18,5 MBq) and 147 Pm (518 MBq). In some cases a 85 Kr source was also used. The electrets were tested in different radiation field geometries: electret axis parallel and perpendicular to the field. In conclusion, depending on the wall material and radiation field geometry, the teflon electret detector can be used for different dose interval determinations, using beta radiation

  12. Agent Programming Languages and Logics in Agent-Based Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John

    2018-01-01

    and social behavior, and work on verification. Agent-based simulation is an approach for simulation that also uses the notion of agents. Although agent programming languages and logics are much less used in agent-based simulation, there are successful examples with agents designed according to the BDI...

  13. High-beta linac structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriber, S.O.

    1979-01-01

    Accelerating structures for high-beta linacs that have been and are in use are reviewed in terms of their performance. Particular emphasis is given to room-temperature structures and the disk-and-washer structure. The disk-and-washer structure has many attractive features that are discussed for pulsed high-gradient linacs, for 100% duty-cycle medium-gradient linacs and for high-current linacs requiring maximal amounts of stored energy in the electric fields available to the beam

  14. Emplacement of small and large buffer blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, H.; Nikula, M.; Suikki, M.

    2010-05-01

    The report describes emplacement of a buffer structure encircling a spent fuel canister to be deposited in a vertical hole. The report deals with installability of various size blocks and with an emplacement gear, as well as evaluates the achieved quality of emplacement and the time needed for installing the buffer. Two block assembly of unequal size were chosen for examination. A first option involved small blocks, the use of which resulted in a buffer structure consisting of small sector blocks 200 mm in height. A second option involved large blocks, resulting in a buffer structure which consists of eight blocks. In these tests, the material chosen for both block options was concrete instead of bentonite. The emplacement test was a three-phase process. A first phase included stacking a two meter high buffer structure with small blocks for ensuring the operation of test equipment and blocks. A second phase included installing buffer structures with both block options to a height matching that of a canister-encircling cylindrical component. A third phase included testing also the installability of blocks to be placed above the canister by using small blocks. In emplacement tests, special attention was paid to the installability of blocks as well as to the time required for emplacement. Lifters for both blocks worked well. Due to the mass to be lifted, the lifter for large blocks had a more heavy-duty frame structure (and other lifting gear). The employed lifters were suspended in the tests on a single steel wire rope. Stacking was managed with both block sizes at adequate precision and stacked-up towers were steady. The stacking of large blocks was considerably faster. Therefore it is probably that the overall handling of the large blocks will be more convenient at a final disposal site. From the standpoint of reliability in lifting, the small blocks were safer to install above the canister. In large blocks, there are strict shape-related requirements which are

  15. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  16. Biological warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-01-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

  17. Liposomal Drug Delivery of Anticancer Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Palle Jacob

    and retention (EPR) effect. The liposomes consists of sPLA2 IIA sensitive phospholipids having anticancer drugs covalently attached to the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone in the phospholipids, hence drug leakage is avoided from the carrier system. Various known anticancer agents, like chlorambucil, all......) based strategy using a limited number of reaction types. Upon coupling of unsaturated building blocks ring closing metathesis cascades were used to “reprogram” the molecular scaffold and highly diverse structures were obtained. In total 20 novel compounds with a broad structural diversity were prepared...

  18. Theoretical aspects of double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    Considerable effort has been expended recently in theoretical studies of double beta decay. Much of this work has focussed on the constraints this process places on gauge theories of the weak interaction, in general, and on the neutrino mass matrix, in particular. In addition, interesting nuclear structure questions have arisen in studies of double beta decay matrix elements. After briefly reviewing the theory of double beta decay, some of the progress that has been made in these areas is summarized. 25 references

  19. Origins of Beta Tantalum in Sputtered Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mulligan, C

    2001-01-01

    .... Some of the most recent work has attempted to relate the energetics (i.e., atom/ion energy) of the plasma to the alpha right arrow beta transition. It has been shown that the energetics of the plasma can relate to the most crucial sputtering parameters. The most significant feature of the use of plasma energy to explain the alpha right arrow beta transition is that it relates the formation of beta-tantalum to a quantifiable measure.

  20. High beta plasmas in the PBX tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol, K.; Buchenauer, D.; Chance, M.

    1986-04-01

    Bean-shaped configurations favorable for high β discharges have been investigated in the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) tokamak. Strongly indented bean-shaped plasmas have been successfully formed, and beta values of over 5% have been obtained with 5 MW of injected neutral beam power. These high beta discharges still lie in the first stability regime for ballooning modes, and MHD stability analysis implicates the external kink as responsible for the present β limit