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Sample records for beta 2-microglobulin

  1. Neutrophil beta-2 microglobulin: an inflammatory mediator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, O W; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Borregaard, N

    1990-01-01

    Beta-2 microglobulin (beta 2m) constitutes the light invariant chain of HLA class I antigen, and is a constituent of mobilizable compartments of neutrophils. Two forms of beta 2m exist: native beta 2m and proteolytically modified beta 2m (Des-Lys58-beta 2m), which shows alpha mobility in crossed ...

  2. Beta-2 Microglobulin Levels in Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Asim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the level of β2-microglobulin (β2-m in hemodialysis (HD patients and the factors affecting it. This cross sectional, hospital based study was conducted between September and December 2008 at the Hemodialysis unit of Shalamar Hospital, Lahore. All patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD who were on main-tenance HD for more than three months were included in the study. Patients with acute renal failure and on dialysis for less than three months were excluded. Demographic data were collec-ted and details of dialysis (type of dialyzers, dialysate bath, membrane used were recorded. Blood samples of the patients were drawn for hematological (hemoglobin, hematocrit, bioche-mical (urea, creatinine, uric acid, albumin and β2-m level measurement. The total number of patients studied was 50. The major causes of ESRD included diabetes mellitus and hypertension seen in 37 (74% and 10 patients (20%, respectively. The β2-m levels were significantly elevated in the study patients; 92.6 ± 17.1 mg/L with a range of 54 to 130 mg/L as compared to 2.0 ± 1.29 mg/L in the control group. The patients′ age had a statistically significant relationship with the β2-m level. The major reason for increased β2-m level was use of low-flux dialyzers. Synthetic polysulphone membrane, bicarbonate, ultra pure dialysate and duration on HD were not asso-ciated with high β2-m levels. Also, we found an inverse relationship between β2-m levels and serum albumin of the study patients. Our study suggests that the β2-m levels are significantly high in dialysis patients. Use of low-flux dialyzer seems to be the major reason for the high β2-m levels. Age and albumin have statistically significant relationship with β2-m levels.

  3. Amino acid sequences and structures of chicken and turkey beta 2-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welinder, K G; Jespersen, H M; Walther-Rasmussen, J

    1991-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequences of chicken and turkey beta 2-microglobulins have been determined by analyses of tryptic, V8-proteolytic and cyanogen bromide fragments, and by N-terminal sequencing. Mass spectrometric analysis of chicken beta 2-microglobulin supports the sequence-derived Mr of 11...

  4. Kinetically controlled thermal response of beta2-microglobulin amyloid fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasahara, Kenji; Naiki, Hironobu; Goto, Yuji

    2005-09-23

    Calorimetric measurements were carried out using a differential scanning calorimeter in the temperature range from 10 to 120 degrees C for characterizing the thermal response of beta2-microglobulin amyloid fibrils. The thermograms of amyloid fibril solution showed a remarkably large decrease in heat capacity that was essentially released upon the thermal unfolding of the fibrils, in which the magnitude of negative heat capacity change was not explicable in terms of the current accessible surface area model of protein structural thermodynamics. The heat capacity-temperature curve of amyloid fibrils prior to the fibril unfolding exhibited an unusual dependence on the fibril concentration and the heating rate. Particularly, the heat needed to induce the thermal response was found to be linearly dependent on the heating rate, indicating that its thermal response is under a kinetic control and precluding the interpretation in terms of equilibrium thermodynamics. Furthermore, amyloid fibrils of amyloid beta peptides also exhibited a heating rate-dependent exothermic process before the fibril unfolding, indicating that the kinetically controlled thermal response may be a common phenomenon to amyloid fibrils. We suggest that the heating rate-dependent negative change in heat capacity is coupled to the association of amyloid fibrils with characteristic hydration pattern.

  5. Increased expression of beta 2-microglobulin and histocompatibility antigens on human lymphoid cells induced by interferon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, M; Heron, I; Berg, K

    1982-01-01

    Normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes were incubated in the presence of different concentrations of interferon for various incubation periods. Subsequently, the amount of beta 2-Microglobulin and HLA-A, B and C surface antigens was estimated by means of quantitative immunofluorescence (flow...... cytofluorometry) and by a radioimmunoassay for beta 2-Microglobulin. It was found that the amounts of these MHC antigens increased in a dose and time-dependent way after interferon treatment. Furthermore, the influence of different temperatures on this IFN-induced increase in beta 2-Microglobulin was gradually...

  6. Urinary Beta-2Microglobulin: An Indicator of Renal Tubular Damage after Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseh, Hamidreza; Abdi, Sepideh; Roshani, Ali; Kazemnezhad, Ehsan

    2016-12-08

    This study aims to determine extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL)-induced renal tubular damageand the affecting factors by measuring urinary beta2microglobulin (β2M) excretion. This is a cross-sectional study conducted on 91 patients with renal stones who underwentESWL during 2012. Urinary beta2microglobulin was measured immediately before and after the procedure foreach patient and analyzed based on different variables to evaluate factors affecting ESWL-induced renal tubularinjury. Mean ± SD urinary beta2-microglobulin values, before and after ESWL were 0.08 ± 0.07 and 0.22 ± 0.71mg/dL respectively, the average difference between which was equal to 0.14 ± 0.07 mg/dL. These figures exhibiteda 166.66% rise in the urinary β2M concentration after ESWL which was statistically significant (P ESWL (P = .02) were predictive factors ofhigher post-ESWL urinary beta2-microglobulin excretion. Urinary excretion of beta2-microglobulin increased significantly immediately after ESWL. Thesechanges could indicate that ESWL is a contributing factor to renal tubular damage. It also seems that in patientswith hypertension and a previous history of ESWL the likelihood of this injury is higher than others.

  7. Rapidly reversible albumin and beta 2-microglobulin hyperexcretion in recent severe essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer

    1983-01-01

    Seven young patients with newly diagnosed severe hypertension were studied for one week. The mean age was 34.9 years (range 28-44). The mean initial values +/- s.d. for systolic and diastolic pressures were 223 +/- 27 and 141 +/- 8 mmHg, respectively. Secondary hypertension was excluded...... with ensuing fall in blood pressure was rapidly and almost completely reversible in all but one patient during conventional treatment and the increased beta 2-microglobulin excretion was totally reversible in all but one patient. Both albumin and beta 2-microglobulin excretion rate were positively correlated...... to arterial pressures in all patients. Thus glomerular and to some extent tubular protein handling were both affected in untreated patients, but rapidly reversible during initial antihypertensive treatment. The data indicate that the beta 2-microglobulin hyperexcretion is secondary to enhanced filtration...

  8. Radioimmunoassay of changes in the level of. beta. -2-microglobulin in neoplasms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubovskij, L G; Polevaya, E B; Kirsanov, A G; Shiryaev, S V [Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Onkologicheskij Nauchnyj Tsentr

    1982-08-01

    A study was made of 17 practically healthy persons, 12 patients with benign tumors, 8 with chronic pyelonephritis, 70 with renal carcinoma, 51 with breast carcinoma, 11 with pulmonary cancer, 7 with prostatic cancer, 23 with gastric cancer and 8 with colonic cancer at different stages of disease and therapy. The concentration of ..beta..-2-microglobulin was measured using the Pharmacia commercial kit of reagents (Sweden). It has been established that in spite of the elevated mean level of ..beta..-2-microglobulin, almost half of the patients have normal concentration of this protein. Altogether the number of coincidences of the elevated level of ..beta..-2-microglobulin with the presence of malignancy for the above sites was 48.7%.

  9. Cleaved beta 2-microglobulin partially attains a conformation that has amyloidogenic features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Niels H H; Roepstorff, Peter; Melberg, Steen G

    2002-01-01

    )) that as a trimmed form (Lys(58) is removed) can be demonstrated in the circulation in patients with chronic disease. An unexpected electrophoretic heterogeneity of these two cleaved variants was demonstrated by capillary electrophoresis under physiological conditions. Each separated into a fast and a slow component...... with analysis of the differences in circular dichroism, the results suggest that beta(2)-microglobulin cleaved after Lys(58) readily adopts two equilibrium conformations under native conditions. In the cleaved and trimmed beta(2)-microglobulin that appears in vivo, the less populated conformation...

  10. Urinary albumin and beta 2-microglobulin excretion rates in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Sørensen, S F; Mogensen, C E

    1980-01-01

    The daily urinary albumin and beta 2-microglobulin excretion rates were measured with sensitive radioimmunoassays in 14 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The duration of SLE ranged from 0.5 to 18 years, mean 10 years. The mean age was 37 years. All patients except 5 received...... prednisone, 5-20 mg/day. None of the patients had proteinuria as judged by the "Albustix" test, and all had normal serum creatinine. The daily urinary albumin and beta 2-microglobulin excretion rates were nearly the same as those previously found by us in 27 adult control subjects with a mean age of 44 years...

  11. Structural and conformational variants of human beta2-microglobulin characterized by capillary electrophoresis and complementary separation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Niels H H; Rovatti, Luca; Nissen, Mogens H

    2003-01-01

    The small (Mr = 11729) serum protein beta2-microglobulin is prone to precipitate as amyloid in a protein conformational disorder (PCD) that occurs in a significant number of patients on chronic hemodialysis. Analyses by capillary electrophoresis (CE) were undertaken to study beta2-microglobulin...

  12. Urinary albumin and beta 2-microglobulin excretion rates in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Sørensen, S F; Mogensen, C E

    1980-01-01

    The daily urinary albumin and beta 2-microglobulin excretion rates were measured with sensitive radioimmunoassays in 14 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The duration of SLE ranged from 0.5 to 18 years, mean 10 years. The mean age was 37 years. All patients except 5 received...

  13. Conformational intermediate of the amyloidogenic protein beta 2-microglobulin at neutral pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, N H; Sen, J W; Kaarsholm, N C

    2001-01-01

    electrophoresis that two conformers spontaneously exist in aqueous buffers at neutral pH. Upon treatment of wild-type beta(2)-microglobulin with acetonitrile or trifluoroethanol, two conformations were also observed. These conformations were in equilibrium dependent on the sample temperature and the percentage...

  14. Isolation and characterization of chicken and turkey beta 2-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, K; Welinder, K G; Crone, M

    1986-01-01

    Chicken and turkey beta 2-m were isolated from citrated plasma in sequential use of three chromatographic steps: affinity chromatography, gel filtration chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified protein was identified as beta 2-m by reaction with a beta 2-m specific monoclonal...... (turkey migrates in the alpha and chicken migrates in the beta region). The mol. wt of both chicken and turkey beta 2-m was 14,500 estimated by SDS-PAGE whereas calculations based on the amino acid compositions gave mol. wts of 11,000. EM280 was 15.9 for chicken beta 2-m and 16.4 for turkey beta 2-m......, and is incompatible with a previously published sequence also thought to be from turkey beta 2-m. Reasons for our opinion that the molecules isolated and sequenced in this paper are the correct ones are given. Udgivelsesdato: 1986-Dec...

  15. Levels of Beta-2 Microglobulin and Cystatin C in Beta Thalassemia Major Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Kacar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Thalassemia is accepted to be the most common genetic disease in the world. This study was performed to establish whether there was a glomerular renal damage, which was usually a less mentioned subject in patients with Beta Thalassemia Major, and to compare urea, creatinine and creatinine clearance with early indicators of kidney damage as Cystatin-C and %u03B2-2 microglobulin as on determining the glomerular damage. Material and Method: This study was prospectively performed in patients, who were regularly followed in the children hematology outpatient clinic with a diagnosis of Beta Thalassemia Major. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between urea and levels of creatinine clearance and Cystatin-C. There was a statistically negative relationship between creatinine and creatinine clearance at an advanced level as 53.7% (p: 0.002, p

  16. Serum beta-2 microglobulin levels for predicting acute kidney injury complicating aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleska-Kociecka, Marta; Skrobisz, Anna; Wojtkowska, Izabela; Grabowski, Maciej; Dabrowski, Maciej; Kusmierski, Krzysztof; Piotrowska, Katarzyna; Imiela, Jacek; Stepinska, Janina

    2017-10-01

    Acute kidney injury complicating both transcatheter and surgical aortic valve replacement is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of serum beta 2 (β2) microglobulin, cystatin C and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels in detecting periprocedural acute kidney injury. Eighty consecutive patients who were 70 years of age or older and who were having surgical (n = 40) or transcatheter (n = 40) aortic valve replacement were recruited in a prospective study. The biomarkers were tested before the procedure, 6 times afterwards, at discharge and at a 6-month follow-up visit. The baseline β2-microglobulin level was the strongest predictor of acute kidney injury as a complication of transcatheter aortic valve replacement [odds ratio (OR) 5.277, P = 0.009]. Its level 24 h after the procedure reached the largest area under the curve (AUC) of 0.880 (P regression analysis, the levels of β2-microglobulin and cystatin C 24 h after the procedure were significantly associated with acute kidney injury after transcatheter valve replacement (OR 38.15, P = 0.044; OR 1782, P = 0.019, respectively). In the surgical aortic valve replacement group, the highest AUCs belonged to β2-microglobulin and cystatin C at 24 h (AUC = 0.808, P = 0.003 and AUC = 0.854, P = 0.001, respectively). Their higher values were also associated with acute kidney injury (OR 17.2, P = 0.018; OR 965.6, P = 0.02, respectively). A persistent increase in the postoperative levels of β2-microglobulin following acute kidney injury was associated with the progression of chronic kidney disease for 6 months after both transcatheter (OR 6.56, P = 0.030) and surgical (OR 7.67, P = 0.03) aortic valve replacements. Serum β2-microglobulin had the potential to predict acute kidney injury complicating transcatheter valve replacement and to diagnose it as early as 24 h after both the

  17. T cell precursor migration towards beta 2-microglobulin is involved in thymus colonization of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunon, D; Kaufman, J; Salomonsen, J

    1990-01-01

    beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) attracts hemopoietic precursors from chicken bone marrow cells in vitro. The cell population responding to beta 2m increases during the second period of thymus colonization, which takes place at days 12-14 of incubation. The precursors from 13.5 day old embryos were...... isolated after migration towards beta 2m in vitro and shown to be able to colonize a 13 day old thymus in ovo, where they subsequently acquire thymocyte markers. In contrast these beta 2m responsive precursors did not colonize embryonic bursa, i.e. differentiate into B lymphocytes. During chicken...... embryogenesis, peaks of beta 2m transcripts and of free beta 2m synthesis can only be detected in the thymus. The peak of free beta 2m synthesis in the thymus and the increase of beta 2m responding bone marrow cells both occur concomitantly with the second wave of thymus colonization in chicken embryo, facts...

  18. Proteolytically modified human beta 2-microglobulin augments the specific cytotoxic activity in murine mixed lymphocyte culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Holst; Claësson, M H

    1987-01-01

    the endogenous production of interleukin 2 in the MLC culture; monoclonal antibody which reacts with both the native beta 2-m and M-beta 2-m molecule blocks the augmentation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte production induced by M-beta 2-m; murine as well as human MLC responder cells can proteolytically modify native......A proteolytically modified form of beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-m) present in the serum of patients suffering from autoimmune, immunodeficient diseases and cancer has been reported in the literature. In the present study we show that human beta 2-m as well as the proteolytically modified human form...... (M-beta 2-m) bind to murine lymphocytes expressing H-2 class I antigens; M-beta 2-m, when added at day 0 and 1 of culture in nanomolar concentrations to a one-way murine allogeneic mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) augments the generation of specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes; M-beta 2-m increases...

  19. A beta2-microglobulin cleavage variant fibrillates at near-physiological pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corlin, Dorthe B; Johnsen, Christina K; Nissen, Mogens H

    2009-01-01

    Beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) deposits as amyloid in dialysis-related amyloidosis (DRA), predominantly in joints. The molecular mechanisms underlying the amyloidogenicity of beta2m are still largely unknown. In vitro, acidic conditions, pH ... several days. Here, we show that amyloid fibrils are generated in less than an hour when a cleavage variant of beta2m--found in the circulation of many dialysis patients--is exposed to pH levels (pH 6.6) occurring in joints during inflammation. Aggregation and fibrillation, including seeding effects...... with intact, native beta2m were studied by Thioflavin T fluorescence spectroscopy, turbidimetry, capillary electrophoresis, and electron microscopy. We conclude that a biologically relevant variant of beta2m is amyloidogenic at slightly acidic pH. Also, only a very small amount of preformed fibrils...

  20. Selective elution of HLA antigens and beta 2-microglobulin from human platelets by chloroquine diphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, K.J.

    1988-01-01

    To determine whether chloroquine can specifically elute HLA antigens and beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-M) from the platelet surface, quantitative immunofluorescence flow cytometry and monoclonal antibodies were used to show that HLA antigens and beta 2-M were proportionally eluted from the platelet surface without affecting the membrane glycoproteins IIb and IIIa. Second, an autoradiogram of electrophoresed I-125-labeled platelets showed that only beta 2-M but not other I-125-labeled membrane proteins could be eluted. Although HLA antigens were poorly labeled by I-125 and could not be detected on the autoradiogram, the eluted HLA antigens could be detected by anti-HLA monoclonal antibody and immunoblotting techniques. No loss of plasma membrane integrity was observed by transmission electron microscopy after chloroquine treatment of platelets. The results indicate that chloroquine selectively elutes HLA antigens and their noncovalently associated beta 2-M without affecting other integral platelet membrane proteins

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid beta-2-microglobulin in adult patients with acute leukemia or lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Kjeldsen, L; Dalhoff, K

    1992-01-01

    Beta-2-microglobulin (B2m) was measured in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum from 18 adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloblastic leukemia or lymphoma in order to detect early central nervous system (CNS) involvement or relapse. Six had CNS-involvement documented by neurologic...... determination of CSF-B2m alone may be a useful and sensitive marker of CNS-dissemination in acute leukemia and malignant lymphoma. Using the criteria of CSF-B2m greater than 160 nmol/l as a positive diagnostic test the sensitivity of the test was 100%, the specificity was 76%. The same values for the CSF...

  2. Urinary beta 2-microglobulin and retinol binding protein: individual fluctuations in cadmium-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormos, G.; Cseh, J.; Groszmann, M.; Timar, M.

    1985-09-01

    Urinary retinol binding protein (RBP) and beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-m) were compared in apparently healthy population groups with and without occupational exposure to cadmium (Cd). The relationship observed in neutral urine was: RBP (micrograms/mmol creatinine) = 0.786 + 0.814 beta 2-m (micrograms/mmol creatinine). This relationship was similar to that reported for patients with various renal diseases. Analysis of urine samples collected weekly from workers exposed occupationally to Cd revealed marked fluctuations, not only in the concentration of the acid-labile beta 2-m but also in the level of the pre-analytically more stable RBP. Therefore, repeated sampling and urine analyses are suggested as means to obtain more reliable data when monitoring Cd-exposed personnel.

  3. Role of residual kidney function and convective volume on change in beta2-microglobulin levels in hemodiafiltration patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penne, E. Lars; van der Weerd, Neelke C.; Blankestijn, Peter J.; van den Dorpel, Marinus A.; Grooteman, Muriel P. C.; Nubé, Menso J.; ter Wee, Piet M.; Lévesque, Renée; Bots, Michiel L.

    2010-01-01

    Removal of beta2-microglobulin (beta2M) can be increased by adding convective transport to hemodialysis (HD). The aim of this study was to investigate the change in beta2M levels after 6-mo treatment with hemodiafiltration (HDF) and to evaluate the role of residual kidney function (RKF) and the

  4. Temporary increase in serum beta 2-microglobulin during treatment with interferon-alpha for AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, R.; Bakker, P. J.; Reiss, P.; Hoek, F. J.; Lange, J. M.; Goudsmit, J.; Veenhof, K. H.

    1990-01-01

    Beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-M) levels were determined in the serum of 24 patients treated with high-dose human recombinant interferon-alpha (IFN alpha) for AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. There was a significant increase in serum beta 2-M levels, irrespective of the response to treatment.

  5. Fractional excretion of beta-2-microglobulin in the urine of patients with normal or reduced renal function and hepatic coma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Dalhoff, K; Joffe, P

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate beta-2-microglobulin (beta 2m) as a differential diagnostic indicator between hepatic nephropathy (HN) and acute tubulointerstitial nephropathy (ATIN) in patients with reduced renal function and hepatic coma, and to determine whether beta 2m e...

  6. Creatine kinase BB and beta-2-microglobulin as markers of CNS metastases in patients with small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A G; Bach, F W; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    1985-01-01

    Creatine kinase (CK) and its BB isoenzyme (CK-BB) were measured in CSF in 65 evaluable patients suspected of CNS metastases secondary to small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). In addition, CSF and plasma levels of beta-2-microglobulin (beta-2-m) were measured in a group of 73 evaluable patients. Of the 65...

  7. [Effect of sulfonation of polyethersulfone sheets on the adsorption of beta2-microglobulin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liping; Sun, Shudong; Yue, Yilun; Huang, Jia; Mao, Huayi; Liang, Bo

    2005-06-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the adsorption of beta2-microglobulin(beta2 M) by blood dialysis membrane materials which are polyethersulfone (PES), sulfonated polyethersulfones, (PES-SO3Na-I and PES-SO3Na-I ) in vitro incubated in human serum and radiolabeled beta2M (125I-beta2 M) solution respectively. In these experiments, the materials were incubated in 125I-beta2 M solution and human serum at the appointed time ranging from 15 minutes to four hours at 37 degrees C, and then the amounts of 125I-beta2M and serum beta2M adsorbed by materials were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). In the 125I-beta2 M system, amounts of 125I-beta2M adsorbed by the materials decreased in sequence of PES-SO3 Na-II > PES-SO3Na-I > PES. In the serum system, amounts of beta2M adsorbed reached maximums at 30 minutes and the final adsorptions decreased in sequence of PES-SO3Na-II > PES-SO3Na-I > PES. Sulfonated PES removes beta2M more than PES does and the adsorption of beta2M increases with the increase in the degree of sulfonation. Its ability to remove significant amount of beta2M may result in less beta2M available for incorporation into amyloid. The use of PES-SO3Na membranes lessens the likelihood of dialysis-related amyloidosis (DRA) development, which remains a major source of morbidity for patients treated with long-term hemodialysis.

  8. PET/CT and beta-2-microglobulin in staging and therapeutic control after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassileva, D.; Garcheva, M.; Kostadinova, I.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: The transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells is used in lymphomas refractory to standard treatment. An exact re-staging is critical and the use of hybrid imaging methods has increased. The determined serum levels of beta-2 - microglobulin levels are also related to the progress of the disease and may be involved in determining the therapeutic effect. Materials and Methods: PET / CT studies were performed before and after transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells in patients with Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas according to a the standard protocol, 60 minutes after injection of 18F-FDG using the apparatus Discovery 600. At the same time, the serum levels of beta-2 - microglobulin were determined. Results: Prior to transplantation nodal and extra nodal tumor infiltrates were visualized in the lungs and bones. In some of the patients a residual tumor was observed after the stem cell transplantation, which shows a partial response to the therapy. The serum levels of beta-2 - microglobulin were increased in the active phase of the disease and were normalized at remission. In the patients with partial response the values of the beta -2- microglobulin remain elevated. Conclusion: The use of PET / CT allows an accurate staging in patients with refractory lymphomas directed for transplantation and allows to register the effect of the therapy. The scintigraphic data show a good correlation with the beta-2 – microglobulin values in the serum

  9. Kinetics of beta2-microglobulin and phosphate during hemodialysis: effects of treatment frequency and duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leypoldt, John K

    2005-01-01

    Current understanding of beta2-microglobulin (beta2M) and phosphate (or inorganic phosphorus) kinetics during hemodialysis is reviewed. The postdialysis:predialysis concentration ratio for beta2M is determined by dialyzer clearance for beta2M, treatment time, patient body size (specifically, extracellular fluid volume), and total ultrafiltration volume during the treatment. Evaluation of these treatment parameters can be used to calculate dialyzer clearance for beta2M; however, such calculated values are only approximations, since they neglect intradialytic generation, nonrenal (nondialyzer) clearance, and postdialysis rebound of beta2M. The detailed kinetics of beta2M during hemodialysis are best described using a two-compartment model. Theoretical predictions from such two-compartment models suggest that the product of dialyzer clearance for beta2M and weekly treatment duration, independent of treatment frequency, is the main determinant of plasma beta2M concentrations. The kinetics of phosphate removal during hemodialysis are incompletely understood. Phosphate is removed from both extracellular and intracellular compartments during hemodialysis; the plasma phosphate concentration levels off after the first 1 or 2 hours of treatment and plasma concentrations can rebound even before therapy is complete. Increases in dialyzer clearance of phosphate have been previously achieved only by increasing dialysis membrane surface area or by the use of hemodiafiltration. A four-compartment model of phosphate kinetics proposed recently by Spalding et al. suggests that the major barrier to phosphate removal is limited transfer of phosphate between the intracellular and extracellular compartments, although other complex factors also play important roles. Theoretical predictions using the model of Spalding et al. suggest that increasing either treatment frequency or treatment duration can increase phosphate removal. The kinetics of beta2M are representative of middle molecules

  10. Association of Beta-2 Microglobulin with Inflammation and Dislipidemia in High-Flux Membrane Hemodialysis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçiu–Shufta, Valdete; Miftari, Ramë; Haxhibeqiri, Valdete; Haxhibeqiri, Shpend

    2016-01-01

    Background: Higher than expected cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients, has been attributed to dyslipidemia as well as inflammation. Beta2-Microglobulin (β2M) is an independent predictor of outcome for hemodialysis patients and a representative substance of middle molecules. Results: In 40 patients in high-flux membrane hemodialysis, we found negative correlation of β2M with high density lipoprotein (r=-0.73, p<0.001) and albumin (r= -0.53, p<0.001) and positive correlation with triglycerides (r=0.69, p<0.001), parathyroid hormone (r=0.58, p < 0.05) and phosphorus (r= 0.53, p<0.001). There was no correlation of β2M with C- reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). During the follow-up period of three years, 6 out of 40 patients have died from cardiovascular events. Conclusion: In high-flux membrane hemodialysis patients, we observed a significant relationship of β2M with dyslipidemia and mineral bone disorders, but there was no correlation with inflammation. PMID:27994294

  11. Association of Beta-2 Microglobulin with Inflammation and Dislipidemia in High-Flux Membrane Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçiu-Shufta, Valdete; Miftari, Ramë; Haxhibeqiri, Valdete; Haxhibeqiri, Shpend

    2016-10-01

    Higher than expected cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients, has been attributed to dyslipidemia as well as inflammation. Beta2-Microglobulin (β2M) is an independent predictor of outcome for hemodialysis patients and a representative substance of middle molecules. In 40 patients in high-flux membrane hemodialysis, we found negative correlation of β2M with high density lipoprotein (r=-0.73, p<0.001) and albumin (r= -0.53, p<0.001) and positive correlation with triglycerides (r=0.69, p<0.001), parathyroid hormone (r=0.58, p < 0.05) and phosphorus (r= 0.53, p<0.001). There was no correlation of β2M with C- reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). During the follow-up period of three years, 6 out of 40 patients have died from cardiovascular events. In high-flux membrane hemodialysis patients, we observed a significant relationship of β2M with dyslipidemia and mineral bone disorders, but there was no correlation with inflammation.

  12. Rediscovering Beta-2 Microglobulin As a Biomarker across the Spectrum of Kidney Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos P. Argyropoulos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There is currently an unmet need for better biomarkers across the spectrum of renal diseases. In this paper, we revisit the role of beta-2 microglobulin (β2M as a biomarker in patients with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. Prior to reviewing the numerous clinical studies in the area, we describe the basic biology of β2M, focusing in particular on its role in maintaining the serum albumin levels and reclaiming the albumin in tubular fluid through the actions of the neonatal Fc receptor. Disorders of abnormal β2M function arise as a result of altered binding of β2M to its protein cofactors and the clinical manifestations are exemplified by rare human genetic conditions and mice knockouts. We highlight the utility of β2M as a predictor of renal function and clinical outcomes in recent large database studies against predictions made by recently developed whole body population kinetic models. Furthermore, we discuss recent animal data suggesting that contrary to textbook dogma urinary β2M may be a marker for glomerular rather than tubular pathology. We review the existing literature about β2M as a biomarker in patients receiving renal replacement therapy, with particular emphasis on large outcome trials. We note emerging proteomic data suggesting that β2M is a promising marker of chronic allograft nephropathy. Finally, we present data about the role of β2M as a biomarker in a number of non-renal diseases. The goal of this comprehensive review is to direct attention to the multifaceted role of β2M as a biomarker, and its exciting biology in order to propose the next steps required to bring this recently rediscovered biomarker into the twenty-first century.

  13. Complement activation by the amyloid proteins A beta peptide and beta 2-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Nielsen, E H; Svehag, S E

    1999-01-01

    component nor heparan sulfate did significantly alter the A beta-induced CA. The results indicate that not only fibrillar A beta but also oligomers of, in particular, beta 2M from patients with dialysis-associated amyloidosis are capable of inducing CA at supra-physiological concentrations....

  14. The Significance of Serum beta2-Microglobulin Measurement in Various Renal Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koong, Sung Soo; Oh, Ha Yong; Han, Jin Suk; Lee, Jung Sang [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-03-15

    To evaluate change of serum beta{sub 2}-microglobulin concentration (sbeta{sub 2}-MG) and the usefulness of sbeta{sub 2}-MG and sbeta{sub 2}-MG/serum creatinine concentration (sCr) ratio in various renal diseases, sbeta{sub 2}-MG and sCr were measured in 25 normal controls and 90 patients of various renal diseases (16 cases of glomerulonephritis, 12 cases of acute renal failure, 8 cases of chronic renal failure, 24 cases of nephrotic syndrome, 15 cases of tubulointerstitial diseases and 15 cases of lupus nephritis) using Phadebas beta{sub 2}-Micro Test kits. The results were as follows; 1) In normal control, the mean value of sbeta{sub 2}-MG was 1.65+-0.41 mg/l and the mean value of sbeta{sub 2}-MG/sCr ratio was 0.14+-0.05. 2) In various renal diseases, the mean value of sbeta{sub 2}-MG was 6.74+-5.47 mg/l. The mean value of sbeta{sub 2}-MG/sCr ratio was 0.24+-0.11 and significantly elevated than that of normal contro1. (P<0.05). 3) The correlation between sbeta-2-MG and sCr in glomerular and tubulointerstitial disease was log sbeta{sub 2}-MG=0.90 log sCr-0.48 and its correlation coefficient was 0.78 (P<0.05). 4) In glomerular disease, the correlation between sbeta{sub 2}-MG and sCr was log sbeta{sub 2}-MG=0.89 log sCr-0.46 (r-0.76) and in tubulointerstitial disease, it was log sbeta{sub 2}-MG=0.95 1og sCr-0.59 (r-0.87). There was no significant difference between the two groups (p<0.05). 5) Among 32 cases of glomerular and tubulointerstitial disease patients, whose sCr was within normal range, 17 cases showed elevated sbeta{sub 2}-MG. The mean values of sbeta{sub 2}-MG/sCr ratio in these patients was 0.30+-0.14 and significantly elevated than that of normal control (p<0.05). 6) In 15 cases of lupus nephritis, 12 cases showed elevated sbeta{sub 2}-MG with normal sCr and 12 cases showed elevated sbeta{sub 2}-MG/sCr ratio. With above results, It was found that the sbeta{sub 2}-MG can be used as an index of glomerular filtration rate as in the case of sCr and thats

  15. Characterization of arrangement and expression of the beta-2 microglobulin locus in the sandbar and nurse shark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Kshirsagar, Sarika; Jensen, Ingvill; Lau, Kevin; Simonson, Caitlin; Schluter, Samuel F

    2010-02-01

    Beta 2 microglobulin (beta2m) is an essential subunit of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) type I molecules. In this report, beta2m cDNAs were identified and sequenced from sandbar shark spleen cDNA library. Sandbar shark beta2m gene encodes one amino acid less than most teleost beta2m genes, and 3 amino acids less than mammal beta2m genes. Although sandbar shark beta2m protein contains one beta sheet less than that of human in the predicted protein structure, the overall structure of beta2m proteins is conserved during evolution. Germline gene for the beta2m in sandbar and nurse shark is present as a single locus. It contains three exons and two introns. CpG sites are evenly distributed in the shark beta2m loci. Several DNA repeat elements were also identified in the shark beta2m loci. Sequence analysis suggests that the beta2m locus is not linked to the MHC I loci in the shark genome.

  16. Interconverting conformations of variants of the human amyloidogenic protein beta2-microglobulin quantitatively characterized by dynamic capillary electrophoresis and computer simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Niels H H; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Cheng, Lei

    2006-01-01

    Capillary electrophoretic separation profiles of cleaved variants of beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) reflect the conformational equilibria existing in solutions of these proteins. The characterization of these equilibria is of interest since beta2m is responsible for amyloid formation in dialysis-re...

  17. The Clinical Significance of Serum Beta{sub 2}-microglobulin Levels in Patients with Various Liver Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Suk Won; Cho, Tae Bong; Choe, Jung Ho; Kim, So Yon; Cho, Min Koo; Lee, Gwon Jun [National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-09-15

    To evaluate the significance of serum beta{sub 2}-microglobulin in patients with various liver diseases, serum {sub 2} m levels were measured in 44 cases of normal controls, 32 cases of asymptomatic HBsAg carriers and 134 patients with various liver diseases, by radioimmunoassay using Phadebas Beta{sub 2}-micro test kits. The following results were obtained: I) The mean level of serum beta{sub 2} m was 1 39+-0.25 mg/l(Mean+-S.D.) in normal controls (1.39+-0.23 mg/l in 24 males, 1.38+-0,27 mg/l in 20 females). 2) The serum levels of beta{sub 2} in patients with various liver diseases and asymptomatic HBsAg carriers were as follows; 1.40+-0.27 mg/l in asymptomatic HBsAg carriers, 2.42+-0.377 mg/l in 45 patients with acute viral hepatitis, 2.10+-0.26 mg/l in 46 patients with chronic persistent hepatitis, 2.60+-0.34 mg/l in 23 patients with chronic active hepatitis, and 2.60+-0.49 mg/l in 20 patients with liver cirrhosis. Serum beta{sub 2}m levels of each disease group were significantly higher than that of normal controls(p<0.001). 3) There was significant correlation between the levels of serum beta{sub 2}m and the degrees of lymphocytic infiltration in patients with chronic active hepatitis(p<0.001). 4) Significant correlations were observed between the levels of serum beta{sub 2}-microglobulin and serum alanine aminotransferase(r=0.68, p<0.05) and bilirubin(r=0.63, p<0.05) in 15 patients with acute viral hepatitis. In conclusion, the serum beta{sub 2}-microglobulin levels were increased in patients with various liver diseases, and it may serve as a new index of liver disease activity.

  18. Neopterin and Beta-2 Microglobulin Relations to Immunity and Inflammatory Status in Nonischemic Dilated Cardiomyopathy Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Wojciechowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to assess the relationships among serum neopterin (NPT, β2-microglobulin (β2-M levels, clinical status, and endomyocardial biopsy results of dilated cardiomyopathy patients (DCM. Methods. Serum NPT and β-2 M were determined in 172 nonischaemic DCM patients who underwent right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy and 30 healthy subjects (ELISA test. The cryostat biopsy specimens were assessed using histology, immunohistology, and immunochemistry methods (HLA ABC, HLA DR expression, CD3 + lymphocytes, and macrophages counts. Results. The strong increase of HLA ABC or HLA DR expression was detected in 27.2% patients—group A—being low in 72.8% patients—group B. Neopterin level was increased in patients in group A compared to healthy controls 8.11 (4.50–12.57 versus 4.99 (2.66–8.28 nmol/L (P<0.05. β-2 microglobulin level was higher in DCM groups A (2.60 (1.71–3.58 and B (2.52 (1.51–3.72 than in the control group 1.75 (1.28–1.96 mg/L, P<0.001. Neopterin correlated positively with the number of macrophages in biopsy specimens (P<0.05 acute phase proteins: C-reactive proteins (P<0.05; fibrinogen (P<0.01; and NYHA functional class (P<0.05 and negatively with left ventricular ejection fraction (P<0.05. Conclusions. Neopterin but not β-2 microglobulin concentration reflected immune response in biopsy specimens. Neopterin correlated with acute phase proteins and stage of heart failure and may indicate a general immune and inflammatory activation in heart failure.

  19. Fractional excretion of beta-2-microglobulin in the urine of patients with normal or reduced renal function and hepatic coma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Dalhoff, K; Joffe, P

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate beta-2-microglobulin (beta 2m) as a differential diagnostic indicator between hepatic nephropathy (HN) and acute tubulointerstitial nephropathy (ATIN) in patients with reduced renal function and hepatic coma, and to determine whether beta 2m...... excretion could be used as a marker of renal impairment before increased serum creatinine (S-Cr) concentration or decreased creatinine clearance (Cr-Cl). Finally, the use of beta 2m as a prognostic indicator was investigated. Eighteen patients in hepatic coma grade III-IV were entered in the study and were...... to the small number of patients. FE-beta 2m could not predict the development of renal failure earlier than the increase in S-Cr or decrease in Cr-Cl. However, a few patients who survived paracetamol intoxication had increased FE-beta 2M in the beginning of the coma and normal S-Cr and Cr-Cl. Patients who died...

  20. Formation of a stable oligomer of beta-2 microglobulin requires only transient encounter with Cu(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Matthew F; Miranker, Andrew D

    2007-03-16

    Beta-2 Microglobulin (beta2m) is a small, globular protein, with high solubility under conditions comparable to human serum. A complication of hemodialysis in renal failure patients is the deposition of unmodified beta2m as amyloid fibers. In vitro, exposure of beta2m to equimolar Cu(2+) under near-physiological conditions can result in self-association leading to amyloid fiber formation. Previously, we have shown that the early steps in this process involve a catalyzed structural rearrangement followed by formation of discrete oligomers. These oligomers, however, have a continued requirement for Cu(2+) while mature fibers are resistant to addition of metal chelate. Here, we report that the transition from Cu(2+) dependent to chelate resistant states occurs in the context of small oligomers, dimeric to hexameric in size. These species require Cu(2+) to form, but once generated, do not need metal cation for stability. Importantly, this transition occurs gradually over several days and the resulting oligomers are isolatable and kinetically stable on timescales exceeding weeks. In addition, formation is enhanced by levels of urea similar to those found in hemodialysis patients. Our results are consistent with our hypothesis that transient encounter of full-length wild-type beta2m with transition metal cation at the dialysis membrane interface is causal to dialysis related amyloidosis.

  1. Expression and characterization of recombinant single-chain salmon class I MHC fused with beta2-microglobulin with biological activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Heng; Stet, René J M; Skjødt, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    Heterodimeric class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules consist of a putative 45-kDa heavy chain and a 12-kDa beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) light chain. The knowledge about MHC genes in Atlantic salmon accumulated during the last decade has allowed us to generate soluble and stable ...... MHC class I molecules with biological activity. We report here the use of a bacterial expression system to produce the recombinant single-chain MHC molecules based on a specific allele Sasa-UBA*0301. This particular allele was selected because previous work has shown its association...... antibodies were successfully produced against both the MHC class I heavy chain and beta(2)m, and showed binding to the recombinant molecule. The recombinant complex Sasabeta2mUBA*0301 was expressed and isolated; the production was scaled up by adjusting to its optimal conditions. Subsequently......, the recombinant proteins were purified by affinity chromatography using mAb against beta2m and alpha3. Eluates were analyzed by Western blot and refolded by the removal of denaturant. The correct folding was confirmed by measuring its binding capacity against mAb produced to recognize the native form of MHC...

  2. Unfolding, aggregation, and seeded amyloid formation of lysine-58-cleaved beta(2)-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, N.H.H.; Jørgensen, T.J.D.; Rozlosnik, N.

    2005-01-01

    . Using amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange monitored by mass spectrometry, we show that Delta K58-beta(2)m has increased unfolding rates compared to wt-beta(2)m and that unfolding is highly temperature dependent. The unfolding rate is I order of magnitude faster in Delta K58-beta(2)M than in wt-beta(2)m...... in the circulation of dialysis patients. This beta(2)M variant, Delta K58-beta(2)m, is a disulfide-linked two-chain molecule consisting of amino acid residues 1-57 and 59-99 of intact beta(2)m, and we here demonstrate and characterize its decreased conformational stability as compared to wild-type (wt) beta(2)M...

  3. MHC class I phenotype and function of human beta 2-microglobulin transgenic murine lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerager, L; Pedersen, L O; Bregenholt, S

    1996-01-01

    . Based on data from cellular binding studies, Scatchard analyses and flow cytometry, it is concluded that exogenous h beta 2m does not bind to hybrid MHC class I (MHC-I) molecules composed of mouse heavy chain/h beta 2m molecules expressed on lymphocytes of transgenic mice. Immunoprecipitation and SDS......-PAGE analysis of metabolically labelled normal C57BL/6 lymph node cells showed binding of exogenous h beta 2m to MHC-I, in particular, to the H-2Db molecule through an exchange with endogenous mouse beta 2m. In contrast to normal H-2Db molecules, hybrid H-2Db expressed on the surface of transgenic lymphocytes...... binds radiolabelled peptide in the absence of exogenous added h beta 2m suggesting that a stable fraction of hybrid H-2Db molecules is empty or contain peptides with very low affinity. In a one-way allogenic mixed lymphocyte culture, transgenic splenocytes were found to be far less stimulatory than...

  4. The chicken beta 2-microglobulin gene is located on a non-major histocompatibility complex microchromosome: a small, G+C-rich gene with X and Y boxes in the promoter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riegert, P; Andersen, R; Bumstead, N

    1996-01-01

    a similar genomic organization but smaller introns and higher G+C content than mammalian beta 2-microglobulin genes. The promoter region is particularly G+C-rich and contains, in addition to interferon regulatory elements, potential S/W, X, and Y boxes that were originally described for mammalian class II...... but not class I alpha or beta 2-microglobulin genes. There is a single chicken beta 2-microglobulin gene that has little polymorphism in the coding region. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms from Mhc homozygous lines, Mhc congenic lines, and backcross families, as well as in situ hybridization, show...

  5. Usefulness of Beta2-Microglobulin as a Predictor of All-Cause and Nonculprit Lesion-Related Cardiovascular Events in Acute Coronary Syndromes (from the PROSPECT Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möckel, Martin; Muller, Reinhold; Searle, Julia; Slagman, Anna; De Bruyne, Bernard; Serruys, Patrick; Weisz, Giora; Xu, Ke; Holert, Fabian; Müller, Christian; Maehara, Akiko; Stone, Gregg W

    2015-10-01

    In the Providing Regional Observations to Study Predictors of Events in the Coronary Tree (PROSPECT) study, plaque burden, plaque composition, and minimal luminal area were associated with an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events arising from untreated atherosclerotic lesions (vulnerable plaques) in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We sought to evaluate the utility of biomarker profiling and clinical risk factors to predict 3-year all-cause and nonculprit lesion-related major adverse cardiac events (MACEs). Of 697 patients who underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ACS, an array of 28 baseline biomarkers was analyzed. Median follow-up was 3.4 years. Beta2-microglobulin displayed the strongest predictive power of all variables assessed for all-cause and nonculprit lesion-related MACE. In a classification and regression tree analysis, patients with beta2-microglobulin >1.92 mg/L had an estimated 28.7% 3-year incidence of all-cause MACE; C-peptide 1.92 mg/L identified a cohort with a 3-year rate of 18.5%, and C-peptide PROSPECT study, beta2-microglobulin strongly predicted all-cause and nonculprit lesion-related MACE within 3 years after PCI in ACS. C-peptide and HDL provided further risk stratification to identify angiographically mild nonculprit lesions prone to future MACE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Novel Anti-Beta2-Microglobulin Antibody Inhibition of Androgen Receptor Expression, Survival, and Progression in Prostate Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    mineral density in men with genetic hemochromatosis and HFE gene mutation. Osteoporos Int 2005; 16:1809–14. b2-Microglobulin Confers EMT and Cancer...In this project, we evaluate the molecular mechanism of AR gene expression at the transcriptional level regulated by β2M during prostate cancer...SREBP-1 targeted gene and has been shown to be a metabolic oncogene, cytoplasm), NADH oxidase 5 (Nox5, a SREBP-1 targeted gene and is a key enzyme for

  7. The interaction between beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) and purified class-I major histocompatibility (MHC) antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L O; Hansen, A S; Olsen, A C

    1994-01-01

    been generated recently and this paper reports on a similar assay for the interaction between beta 2m and class I. As a model system human beta 2m binding to mouse class I was used. The assay is strictly biochemical using purified reagents which interact in solution and complex formation is determined...... by size separation. It is specific and highly sensitive. The observed affinity of the interaction, KD, is close to 0.4 nM. The rate of association at 37 degrees C is very fast (the ka is around 5 x 10(4)/M/s) whereas the dissociation is slow (the kd is around 8 x 10(-6)/s); the ratio of dissociation...

  8. Modified human beta 2-microglobulin (desLys(58)) displays decreased affinity for the heavy chain of MHC class I and induces nitric oxide production and apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, M; Harhaji, L; Lamberth, K

    2009-01-01

    Beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) is the light chain of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules, and is a prerequisite for the binding of peptides to the heavy chain and their presentation to CD8+ T cells. beta2m can be modified in vivo and in vitro by proteolytic cleavage...... by complement C1 and subsequent carboxypeptidase B-like activity--processes that lead to the generation of desLys(58) beta2m (dbeta2m). This work aims to study the effect of dbeta2m on peptide binding to MHC-I, the influence of dbeta2m on the binding of beta2m to the MHC-I heavy chain and the biological...... activity of dbeta2m. Both beta2m and dbeta2m are able to support the generation of MHC-I/peptide complexes at 18 degrees C, but complexes formed in the presence of dbeta2m destabilize at 37 degrees C. Moreover, a 250 times higher concentration of dbeta2m than of beta2m is needed to displace MHC...

  9. Clinical significance of serum beta2-microglobulin and carcinoembryonic antigen in patients with cervical cancer treated with irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshiaki; Tottori, Kosei; Higuchi, Akira; Takeuchi, Shoshichi

    1979-01-01

    β 2 -microglobulin (β 2 -m) is a small polypeptide present in all body fluids. In recent years much attention has been paid to the high prevalence of elevated serum β 2 -m levels in malignancy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of β 2 -m in patients with cervical cancer treated with irradiation therapy. For comparison, as an established tumor marker, CEA was assayed in the same samples. The results were as follows: 1. Both β 2 -m and CEA values seemed to relate to the clinical stage of tumor growth. 2. The patients who ended in a poor prognosis retrospectively had the significantly elevated CEA and β 2 -m values compared to those of the patients with good prognosis. 3. CEA or β 2 -m assay by themselves had not so large value in the diagnosis of cervical cancer, but an increase in number of positive cases was obtained when the two markers were jointly considered. Because when the CEA was negative, the β 2 -m assay was capable of compensating for this deficiency. (author)

  10. The interaction of beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) with mouse class I major histocompatibility antigens and its ability to support peptide binding. A comparison of human and mouse beta 2m

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L O; Stryhn, A; Holter, T L

    1995-01-01

    of class I molecules are involved in peptide binding, whereas most of class I molecules are involved in beta 2m binding. We propose that mouse beta 2m interacts with the minor peptide binding (i.e. the "empty") fraction with a lower affinity than human beta 2m does, whereas mouse and human beta 2m interact......The function of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules is to sample peptides derived from intracellular proteins and to present these peptides to CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In this paper, biochemical assays addressing MHC class I binding of both peptide and beta 2-microglobulin...... (beta 2m) have been used to examine the assembly of the trimolecular MHC class I/beta 2m/peptide complex. Recombinant human beta 2m and mouse beta 2ma have been generated to compare the binding of the two beta 2m to mouse class I. It is frequently assumed that human beta 2m binds to mouse class I heavy...

  11. An elevated serum beta-2-microglobulin level is an adverse prognostic factor for overall survival in patients with early-stage Hodgkin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronowski, Gregory M; Wilder, Richard B; Tucker, Susan L; Ha, Chul S; Sarris, Andreas H; Hagemeister, Fredrick B; Barista, Ibrahim; Hess, Mark A; Cabanillas, Fernando; Cox, James D

    2002-12-15

    The relative importance of prognostic factors in patients with early-stage Hodgkin disease remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate prognostic factors among patients who received chemotherapy before radiotherapy. From 1987 to 1995, 217 consecutive patients ranging in age from 16 to 88 years (median, 28 years) with Ann Arbor Stage I (n = 55) or II (n = 162) Hodgkin disease underwent chemotherapy before radiotherapy at a single center. Most were treated on prospective studies. Patients received a median of three cycles of induction chemotherapy. Mitoxantrone, vincristine, vinblastine, and prednisone (NOVP), doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD), mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (MOPP), cyclophosphamide, vinblastine, procarbazine, prednisone, doxorubicin, bleomycin, dacarbazine, and CCNU (CVPP/ABDIC), or other chemotherapeutic regimens were given to 160, 18, 15, 10, and 14 patients, respectively. The median radiotherapy dose was 40 Gy. Serum beta-2-microglobulin (beta-2M) levels ranged from 1.0 to 4.1 mg/L (median, 1.7 mg/L; upper limit of normal, 2.0 mg/L). We studied univariate and multivariate associations between survival and the following clinical features: serum beta-2M level above 1.25 times the upper limit of normal (n = 12), male gender (n = 113), hypoalbuminemia (n = 11), and bulky mediastinal disease (n = 94). Follow-up of surviving patients ranged from 0.9 to 13.4 years (median, 6.6 years) and 92% were observed for 3.0 or more years. Nineteen patients have died. Only elevation of the serum beta-2M level was an independent adverse prognostic factor for overall survival (P = 0.0009). The prognostic significance of a simple, widely available, and inexpensive blood test, beta-2M, has not been studied routinely in patients with Hodgkin disease and should be tested prospectively in large, cooperative group trials. Copyright 2002 American Cancer Society.DOI 10.1002/cncr.10998

  12. Sequential changes in luminal microflora and mucosal cytokine expression during developing of colitis in HLA-B27/beta2-microglobulin transgenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, K; Andoh, A; Sato, H; Araki, Y; Tanaka, M; Tsujikawa, T; Fujiyama, Y; Bamba, T

    2001-11-01

    Transgenic rats expressing HLA-B27 and human beta2-microglobulin (HLA-B27 rats) spontaneously develop chronic colitis resembling human inflammatory bowel disease. We investigated the sequential changes in the luminal bacterial flora and mucosal cytokine mRNA expression in this model. HLA-B27 rats were maintained in a specific pathogen-free environment, and luminal microflora was evaluated by standard bacterial culture technique. The expression of mucosal cytokine mRNA was analysed by RT-PCR methods. Clinical symptoms of colitis appeared at 8 weeks of age. The total number of obligate anaerobes was higher than those of facultative anaerobes during the experimental period. At 6 weeks of age, the colonization of Bacteroides spp., Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. was already detectable at high concentrations, whereas Clostridium spp. and Eubacterium spp. were not detected. The expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-Ibeta, IL-8 and TNF-alpha) appeared at 8 weeks of age, and these were detectable until 17 weeks. A similar pattern was observed in the expression of Th1 cytokines (IL-2, IL-12 and IFN-gamma). On the other hand, the expression of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-beta) was weak. IL-4 mRNA expression was weakly detectable only at 6 and 8 weeks of age. The expression of IL-10 and TGF-beta mRNA was scarcely detectable throughout the experimental period. The development of colitis may be mediated by both the predominant expression of Th1 cytokines and the weakness of Th2 cytokine expression in the mucosa. The colonization of anaerobic bacteria, especially Bacteroides spp., may be initiating and promoting these cytokine responses.

  13. Serum levels of beta2-microglobulin and free light chains of immunoglobulins are associated with systemic disease activity in primary Sjögren's syndrome. Data at enrollment in the prospective ASSESS cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques-Eric Gottenberg

    Full Text Available To analyze the clinical and immunological characteristics at enrollment in a large prospective cohort of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS and to investigate the association between serum BAFF, beta2-microglobulin and free light chains of immunoglobulins and systemic disease activity at enrollment.Three hundred and ninety five patients with pSS according to American-European Consensus Criteria were included from fifteen centers of Rheumatology and Internal Medicine in the "Assessment of Systemic Signs and Evolution of Sjögren's Syndrome" (ASSESS 5-year prospective cohort. At enrollment, serum markers were assessed as well as activity of the disease measured with the EULAR Sjögren's Syndrome Disease Activity Index (ESSDAI.Patient median age was 58 (25(th-75(th: 51-67 and median disease duration was 5 (2-9 years. Median ESSDAI at enrollment was 2 (0-7 with 30.9% of patients having features of systemic involvement. Patients with elevated BAFF, beta2-microglobulin and kappa, lambda FLCS had higher ESSDAI scores at enrollment (4 [2]-[11] vs 2 [0-7], P = 0.03; 4 [1]-[11] vs 2 [0-7], P< 0.0001; 4 [2]-[10] vs 2 [0-6.6], P< 0.0001 and 4 [2-8.2] vs 2 [0-7.0], P = 0.02, respectively. In multivariate analysis, increased beta2-microglobulin, kappa and lambda FLCs were associated with a higher ESSDAI score. Median BAFF and beta2-microglobulin were higher in the 16 patients with history of lymphoma (1173.3(873.1-3665.5 vs 898.9 (715.9-1187.2 pg/ml, P = 0.01 and 2.6 (2.2-2.9 vs 2.1 (1.8-2.6 mg/l, P = 0.04, respectively.In pSS, higher levels of beta2-microglobulin and free light chains of immunoglobulins are associated with increased systemic disease activity.

  14. Beta-2 Microglobulin Tumor Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T. J. (© 2011). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 10th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 680-682. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics . Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, Bruns ...

  15. A single-chain fusion molecule consisting of peptide, major histocompatibility gene complex class I heavy chain and beta2-microglobulin can fold partially correctly, but binds peptide inefficiently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylvester-Hvid, C; Buus, S

    1999-01-01

    of a recombinant murine MHC-I molecule, which could be produced in large amounts in bacteria. The recombinant MHC-I protein was expressed as a single molecule (PepSc) consisting of the antigenic peptide linked to the MHC-I heavy chain and further linked to human beta2-microglobulin (hbeta2m). The PepSc molecule...... electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Serological analysis revealed the presence of some, but not all, MHC-I-specific epitopes. Biochemically, PepSc could bind peptide, however, rather ineffectively. We suggest that a partially correctly refolded MHC-I has been obtained....

  16. Deletion of beta-2-microglobulin ameliorates spinal cord lesion load and promotes recovery of brainstem NAA levels in a murine model of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denic, Aleksandar; Pirko, Istvan; Wootla, Bharath; Bieber, Allan; Macura, Slobodan; Rodriguez, Moses

    2012-09-01

    We used genetic deletion of β2-microglobulin to study the influence of CD8(+) T cells on spinal cord demyelination, remyelination, axonal loss and brainstem N-acetyl aspartate levels during the acute and chronic phases of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection. We used β2m(-/-) and β2m(+/+) B10.Q mice (of H-2(q) background) normally susceptible to TMEV-induced demyelination. Over the disease course, β2m(+/+) mice had increasing levels of demyelination and minimal late-onset remyelination. In contrast, β2m(-/-) mice had steady levels of demyelination from 45-390 dpi and remyelination was extensive and more complete. Early in the disease, brainstem NAA levels drop in both strains, but accordingly with remyelination and axonal preservation, NAA recover in β2m(-/-) mice despite equivalent brainstem pathology. At 270 dpi, β2m(+/+) mice had significantly fewer spinal cord axons than β2m(-/-) mice (up to 28% less). In addition, β2m(+/+) mice lost axons of all calibers, whereas β2m(-/-) mice had a modest loss of only medium- and large-caliber axons. This study further supports the hypothesis that CD8(+) T cells are involved in demyelination, and axonal loss following Theiler's virus-induced demyelination. © 2012 The Authors; Brain Pathology © 2012 International Society of Neuropathology.

  17. Enhanced expression in vivo of HLA-ABC antigens and beta 2-microglobulin on human lymphoid cells induced by human interferon-alpha in patients with lung cancer. Enhanced expression of class I major histocompatibility antigens prior to treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Holst; Plesner, T; Larsen, J K

    1985-01-01

    than 0.5, respectively) by day-to-day analysis of an untreated healthy control group. An increased expression of both HLA-ABC (mean 55%, P less than 0.0005) and beta 2m (mean 23%, P less than 0.01) was also observed prior to treatment in the lung cancer patients when compared to a group of age matched......The effect of cloned human interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) on the expression of HLA-ABC antigens (HLA-ABC) and beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) on human peripheral lymphoid cells in vivo was studied by cytofluorometry using monoclonal antibodies and fluorescein-labelled rabbit anti-mouse immunoglobulin....... A significant increase in the mean fluorescence intensity of HLA-ABC (median 59%, P less than 0.001) and beta 2m (median 57%, P less than 0.001) on small lymphoid cells was observed 24 h after initiation of IFN-alpha treatment (50 X 10(6) units IFN-alpha/m2 three times a week). The enhanced expression...

  18. Cellular expression or binding of desLys58-beta2 microglobulin is not dependent on the presence of the tri-molecular MHC class I complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, M; Corlin, D B; Heegaard, N H H

    2008-01-01

    -exposure to dbeta2m. Binding of 332-01 antibody could not be displaced by addition of high concentrations of native beta2m. In conclusion, our data indicate that dbeta2m - in contrast to native beta2m - binds to a hitherto unknown cell surface receptor independent of classical MHC class I molecules. As beta2m has...... previously been shown to display biological activities such as the induction of both growth promotion and apoptosis, C1 complement activity, shown to mediate cleavage of beta2m, could be involved in these processes....

  19. Different features of the MHC class I heterodimer have evolved at different rates. Chicken B-F and beta 2-microglobulin sequences reveal invariant surface residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufman, J; Andersen, R; Avila, D

    1992-01-01

    molecules and the MHC-encoded nonclassical molecules more than CD1 or the class I-like FcR. In contrast, the chicken alpha 3 domain is equally homologous to all alpha 3 domains, to beta 2m and to class II beta 2 domains. For each pair of extracellular domains (alpha 1 vs alpha 2, alpha 3 vs beta 2m...... of small exons in the cytoplasmic region. The cDNA sequences were compared to turkey beta 2m, the apparent allele B-F12 alpha and other vertebrate homologs, using the 2.6 A structure of the human HLA-A2 molecule as a model. Both chicken alpha 1 and alpha 2 domains resemble mammalian classical class I...... the ends of the peptide, two residues that bind CD8, and three residues that are phosphorylated. The positions of the allelic residues are conserved. There are other patches of invariant residues on alpha 1, alpha 2, and beta 2m; these might bind TCR or other molecules involved in class I function...

  20. Serum beta2-microglobulin values among healthy Brazilians using a DPC IMMULITE® assay Valores de beta2-microglobulina em brasileiros saudáveis usando o sistema automatizado DPC IMMULITE®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Branco Filippin

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The present study was designed to determine the normal range of serum beta 2-microglobulin (Sb2M levels among healthy volunteers in Brazil. Levels of Sb2M are elevated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients and have been shown to be the best predictor of HIV infection status and of some malignant disorders, especially multiple myeloma. In order to achieve its optimal use in Brazilian clinical diagnosis, an adequate reference interval study was performed for Sb2M IMMULITE® assay, based on the fact that its reference range limits were evaluated among European populations. METHODS: Ninety-six healthy blood donors were evaluated, and Sb2M levels were measured by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay using the IMMULITE® automated analyzer. RESULTS: A normal range of Sb2M values, established by a nonparametric statistical method, was 1.05 to 3.9 mg/mL, with the upper limit being higher than that reported elsewhere. CONCLUSIONS: This study presented new data indicating that there is a significant difference between the current reference limits for Sb2M IMMULITE® assay and those found in Brazil, providing evidence that significant differences in range of normal values may occur among different populations, and that these new values should be considered for Brazilian individuals.OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar valores de referência de beta2-Microglobulina sérica (Sb2M em voluntários saudáveis. Sabe-se que tal parâmetro apresenta-se elevado em pacientes infectados com o vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV e tem se mostrado melhor marcador da infecção por HIV e de desordens malignas, especialmente mieloma múltiplo. De forma a se obter o melhor diagnóstico clínico, um intervalo de referência adequado de Sb2M para a população brasileira foi determinado empregando-se o ensaio IMMULITE®; já que este tem como parâmetro uma faixa de referência determinada a partir de populações europ

  1. Calcium binding to beta-2-microglobulin at physiological pH drives the occurrence of conformational changes which cause the protein to precipitate into amorphous forms that subsequently transform into amyloid aggregates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhdeep Kumar

    Full Text Available Using spectroscopic, calorimetric and microscopic methods, we demonstrate that calcium binds to beta-2-microglobulin (β2m under physiological conditions of pH and ionic strength, in biological buffers, causing a conformational change associated with the binding of up to four calcium atoms per β2m molecule, with a marked transformation of some random coil structure into beta sheet structure, and culminating in the aggregation of the protein at physiological (serum concentrations of calcium and β2m. We draw attention to the fact that the sequence of β2m contains several potential calcium-binding motifs of the DXD and DXDXD (or DXEXD varieties. We establish (a that the microscopic aggregation seen at physiological concentrations of β2m and calcium turns into actual turbidity and visible precipitation at higher concentrations of protein and β2m, (b that this initial aggregation/precipitation leads to the formation of amorphous aggregates, (c that the formation of the amorphous aggregates can be partially reversed through the addition of the divalent ion chelating agent, EDTA, and (d that upon incubation for a few weeks, the amorphous aggregates appear to support the formation of amyloid aggregates that bind to the dye, thioflavin T (ThT, resulting in increase in the dye's fluorescence. We speculate that β2m exists in the form of microscopic aggregates in vivo and that these don't progress to form larger amyloid aggregates because protein concentrations remain low under normal conditions of kidney function and β2m degradation. However, when kidney function is compromised and especially when dialysis is performed, β2m concentrations probably transiently rise to yield large aggregates that deposit in bone joints and transform into amyloids during dialysis related amyloidosis.

  2. Amniotic Fluid β2- Microglobulin Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Aydın

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine β2-microglobulin levels in amniotic fluid during the course of second trimester. STUDY DESIGN: One hundred patient’s amniotic fluid β2-microglobulin levels had been evaluated retrospectively (March-October 2009. The most common amniocentesis indication was advanced maternal age (33.3%. Others were; high risk result for triple test (18.5%, high risk result for double test (6.48%, ventriculomegaly (5.55%, obstetric history for fetus with down syndrome (4.62%, the presence of soft markers on ultrasound (13.8%, others (17.8%. Patients average gravida was 2.66 (range: 1-6, parity was 0.75 (range: 0-3, abortion was 0.65 (range: 0-3. RESULTS: All patients were at second trimester and the average gestational week was 17.7 (range 15- 22. Patients were divided into four groups (15th, 16th, 17-18th and 19-20th gestational weeks. We have demonstrated that amniotic fluid β2-microglobulin levels are increased progressively throughout the second trimester. We have specified normal β2-microglobulin values of each gestational week/period in order to be used in clinical practice. CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated that amnionic fluid β2-microglobulin levels are increased progressively throughout the second trimester.

  3. Beta-2 Microglobulin Kidney Disease Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diabetes Diarrhea Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) Down Syndrome Ebola Virus Infection Endocrine System and Syndromes Epilepsy Excessive ... is then reabsorbed by the renal proximal tubules , structures that reclaim water, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and other ...

  4. Urine β2 Microglobulin and other Biochemical Indices in β Thalassemia Major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdan Ghandi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available To find if some indices have predictive value for renal complications. We conducted a cross sectional and included 80 patients with the age ranged 5-17 years, all with the proven diagnosis of β-thalassemia major. A urine and 5 ml of blood sample were obtained from all of the cases. Biochemical indices such as serum levels of creatinine, Na, Mg, Hb, and ferritin and also urine levels of Na, Mg, creatinine and β2 microglobulin was measured. All data analysis was performed using SPSS 14.0. P-Spearman test was applied to assess correlation between urine beta-2-microglobulin and other variables. Patients GFR was in normal range. Abnormal level of urine β2 microglobulin was reported in 44 patients (55%. P Spearman test proved correlation only between urine β2 microglobulin and FE-Mg. We concluded that renal proximal tubular dysfunction may oocur in children with β thalassemia major without clinical manifestations of renal dysfunction or decrease in GFR. We warn not to rely only on GFR as a early indicator for renal complications among children with β thalassemia major.

  5. Binding of human beta 2-microglobulin to murine EL4 thymoma cells upregulates MHC class I heavy-chain epitopes, inhibits IL-2 secretion and induces resistance to killing by natural killer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claësson, M H; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    1994-01-01

    line (ABLS-8), X63 B-lymphoma cells and YAC cells did not bind h beta 2m. In two of the T lymphomas, EL4 and BW5147, binding of h beta 2m led to an increase in major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) heavy-chain epitope expression as measured by anti-H-2K/D antibody binding and FACS analysis....... EL4 cells which had bound h beta 2m decreased their rate of constitutive IL-2 secretion and became resistant to activated natural killer (NK) cell killing. The present data suggest the binding of h beta 2m to mouse T cells leads to conformational changes of MHC-I heavy chains which influence both...

  6. Radioimmunoassay of serum β2-microglobulin in donor's blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Shihua; Song Shiyun; Li Kelin; Chen Guanglian; Liu Fengmin

    1993-01-01

    Serum β 2 -microglobulin (β 2 -MG) was tested by radioimmunoassay in 149 donors' and 54 healthy volunteers' blood. The results were 203 +- 33.0 nmol/l and 176 +- 26.2 nmol/l, respectively. There was significant difference statistically between them (P 2 -MG content. In order to increase the quality of donated blood and to keep the health of blood donor, it is suggested that the high content of serum β 2 -MG is the indicator of too frequent blood donating. The results also showed that the content of β 2 -MG in donor's blood is not a normal reference value

  7. β2-microglobulin test in the diagnosis of chronic renal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trusov, V.V.; Filimonov, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    A study was made of the content of low molecular protein B 2 -microglobulin in the blood and urine of 126 patients with chronic renal diseases and 95 healthy persons. As a result of the study it was shown that B 2 -microglobulin concentration in the blood grows with age. The maximum level of B 2 -microglobulin was marked in patients with chronic glomerulonephritis. A high level of the urinary eXcretion of B 2 -microglobUlin with a moderate rise of its concentration in the blood is typical of patients with chronic pyehlonephritis during exacerbation. Indices of the B 2 -microglobulin test are closely related to renal function. The B 2 -microglobulin test is of great diagnostic significance as it proVides an opportunity to establish the nature of protenuria, site and expression of renal pathologic processes

  8. Variants of beta-microglobulin cleaved at lysine-58 retain the main conformational features of the native protein but are more conformationally heterogeneous and unstable at physiological temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mimmi, Maria C; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Pettirossi, Fabio

    2006-01-01

    -58 is removed. We find that the solution stability of both variants, especially of beta2-microglobulin from which lysine-58 is removed, is much reduced compared to wild-type beta2-microglobulin and is strongly dependent on temperature and protein concentration. 1H-NMR spectroscopy and amide hydrogen......Cleavage of the small amyloidogenic protein beta2-microglobulin after lysine-58 renders it more prone to unfolding and aggregation. This is important for dialysis-related beta2-microglobulin amyloidosis, since elevated levels of cleaved beta2-microglobulin may be found in the circulation...

  9. Primordial linkage of β2-microglobulin to the MHC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yuko; Shiina, Takashi; Lohr, Rebecca L; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Pollin, Toni I; Heist, Edward J; Suzuki, Shingo; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Flajnik, Martin F

    2011-03-15

    β2-Microglobulin (β2M) is believed to have arisen in a basal jawed vertebrate (gnathostome) and is the essential L chain that associates with most MHC class I molecules. It contains a distinctive molecular structure called a constant-1 Ig superfamily domain, which is shared with other adaptive immune molecules including MHC class I and class II. Despite its structural similarity to class I and class II and its conserved function, β2M is encoded outside the MHC in all examined species from bony fish to mammals, but it is assumed to have translocated from its original location within the MHC early in gnathostome evolution. We screened a nurse shark bacterial artificial chromosome library and isolated clones containing β2M genes. A gene present in the MHC of all other vertebrates (ring3) was found in the bacterial artificial chromosome clone, and the close linkage of ring3 and β2M to MHC class I and class II genes was determined by single-strand conformational polymorphism and allele-specific PCR. This study satisfies the long-held conjecture that β2M was linked to the primordial MHC (Ur MHC); furthermore, the apparent stability of the shark genome may yield other genes predicted to have had a primordial association with the MHC specifically and with immunity in general.

  10. A temporal study on #betta#2-microglobulin as marker for diagnosis and monitoring of multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neri, B.

    1982-01-01

    The most important objective carried on, in the field of oncology has been the finding of new means to improve diagnosis and monitoring of neoplastic diseases. So we have chronobiologically studied the behaviour of #betta# 2 -microglobulin, in three groups of patients: Group A: 11 healthy subjects; Group B: 11 untreated patients with multiple myeloma and Group C: 11 multiple myeloma patients, after treatment with polychemoterapy. #betta# 2 -microglobulin, was assayed in serum obtained at six consecutive 4-hourly intervals, by radioimmunoassay, the levels and the various rhythm parameters were analyzed by ''Group mean cosinor'' test. The data suggest, that a circadian rhythm for #betta# 2 -microglobulin in the three groups is not detectable; but ''mesor test'' establishes significant differences (p 2 -microglobulin, in diagnosis and monitoring of multiple myeloma, is suggested

  11. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of nurse shark β2-microglobulin

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Shuangshuang; Yao, Shugang; Chen, Rong; Zhang, Nianzhi; Chen, Jianmin; Gao, Feng; Xia, Chun

    2012-01-01

    A crystal of nurse shark β2-microglobulin diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution and belonged to space group P3221, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 88.230, c = 67.146 Å and two molecules per asymmetric unit. The Matthews coefficient V M was calculated to be about 3.28 Å3 Da−1, corresponding to 62.5% solvent content.

  12. Urinary β2 Microglobulin in Workers Exposed to Arc Welding Fumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro Sadeghniiat-Haghighi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Welding is a process in which two or more metals are attached by the use of heat and, in some cases, pressure. Direct exposure and inhalation of welding fumes causes acute and chronic side effects in humans. Kidney damage is one of these important side effects. β2 microglobulin is an 11.8 kilodalton protein and levels increase in the case of some inflammatory and viral diseases, or kidney malfunction and autoimmune diseases. In this study measurements of β2 microglobulin were used as a criterion for assessing effects on the kidneys of workers exposed to welding fumes. The study population were electric arc welders in an industrial plant in Tehran, Iran. For control we selected workers who did not have any exposure to welding fumes. Both groups were selected on the basis of a questionnaire and the consideration of criteria for inclusion and exclusion. In the end 50 cases and 50 controls were chosen. A urine sample was collected from all participants and urinary pH was set to between 6-8 using NaOH (1M. Sample transportation to the laboratory complied with the related standards. The samples were assessed using the ORG 5BM kit. For quantitative assessment of β2 microglobulin we used the Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA method. The ages of the welders ranged from 21 to 48 years (mean=30.5±5.9 yrs and of controls from 23 to 56 years (mean=31.8±5.9 yrs. Mean employment duration was 7.86±5.01years (range 2 to 27 years for welders. Mean β2 microglobulin level was 0.10±0.096 μg/ml in welders and 0.11±0.06 in controls. This difference was not statistically significant (P=0.381. In conclusion we don't find that exposure to electric arc welding fumes cause a significant change in urinary β2 microglobulin compared to the control group.

  13. Interrelationship of βeta-2 microglobulin, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in streptozotocin -induced diabetes mellitus in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Javadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of serum creatinine (Cr and blood urea nitrogen (BUN are used as indicators of glomerular filtration rate. The increased levels of these biomarkers are usually detectable at advanced stages of kidney complications. The aim of this study was to find the interrelationship of beta-2 microglobulin (β2M, BUN and Cr in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes mellitus in rabbits. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal (IP injection of 65 mg kg-1 of STZ in rabbits. The levels of serum insulin, glucose and three above mentioned biomarkers were measured one day before (day -1 and on days 1-3 after injection of STZ and continued weekly to the end of the experiment (12 weeks. A statistically significant increase of serum β2M, BUN, Cr and glucose levels, and a significant decrease of insulin levels were observed in diabetic animals. However, β2M levels increased as early as one day after STZ injection compared to Cr and BUN that elevated at day two, suggesting a probable diagnostic advantage of β2M over currently used biomarkers in diabetic related kidney complications.

  14. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of grass carp β2-microglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Weihong; Chu, Fuliang; Peng, Hao; Zhang, Jianhua; Qi, Jianxun; Jiang, Fan; Xia, Chun; Gao, Feng

    2008-01-01

    Grass carp β 2 -microglobulin was expressed in E. coli, purified to homogeneity and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with PEG 2K as precipitant. The crystals obtained belong to the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 38.72, b = 40.65, c = 71.12 Å. β 2 -Microglobulin (β 2 m) is an essential subunit of MHC I molecules; it stabilizes the structure of MHC I and plays a pivotal role in coreceptor recognition. To date, structures of β 2 m have been solved for three different mammals: human, mouse and cattle. In order to illuminate the molecular evolutionary origin of β2m, an understanding of its structure in lower vertebrates becomes important. Here, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) β 2 m (Ctid-β 2 m) was expressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.5 Å. The crystal belongs to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 38.72, b = 40.65, c = 71.12 Å. The Matthews coefficient and the solvent content were calculated to be 2.56 Å Da −1 and 52.07%, respectively, for one molecule per asymmetric unit. The structure has been solved by molecular replacement using monomeric human β 2 m as a model

  15. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of nurse shark β2-microglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Shuangshuang; Yao, Shugang; Chen, Rong; Zhang, Nianzhi; Chen, Jianmin; Gao, Feng; Xia, Chun

    2012-01-01

    A crystal of nurse shark β 2 -microglobulin diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution and belonged to space group P3 2 21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 88.230, c = 67.146 Å and two molecules per asymmetric unit. The Matthews coefficient V M was calculated to be about 3.28 Å 3 Da −1 , corresponding to 62.5% solvent content. β 2 -Microglobulin (β 2 m) is an essential subunit of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule that helps to stabilize the structure of peptide–MHC I (pMHC I). It is also one of the typical immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) molecules in the adaptive immune system (AIS). Sharks belong to the cartilaginous fish, which are the oldest jawed vertebrate ancestors with an AIS to exist in the world. Thus, the study of cartilaginous fish β 2 m would help in understanding the evolution of IgSF molecules. In order to demonstrate this, β 2 m from a cartilaginous fish, nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum), was expressed, refolded, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.3 Å. The crystal belonged to space group P3 2 21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 88.230, c = 67.146 Å. The crystal structure contained two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The results will provide structural information for study of the evolution of β 2 m and IgSF in the AIS

  16. Quality control of radioimmunoassays and validation of beta-2-microglobulin radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcin-Rambaud, M.-J.

    1980-04-01

    The aim of this work was to devise a quality check procedure for radioimmunological analyses, easily applicable in all laboratories. The parameters most commonly analysed during such a test are: non-specific activity; total binding capacity; reproducibility; sensitivity; accuracy; specificity; specific activity of the labelled substance; affinity constant of the antigen towards its specific antibody. In the method proposed the calibration curve of any series of measurements is established by Rodbard's method. For the reproducibility study the use of Ekins' method, modified by Grillet and Marchand, was preferred. From the results obtained it is possible to plot the error-response relationship (ERR) and to establish the accuracy profile which gives a good idea of the sensitivity of the analysis method. For the specificity study this method matches the usual operational conditions as closely as possible. The determination is made on the following mixture: a half-volume (with respect to the usual volume) of biological liquid studied and previously analysed for cold antigen Ag 0 ; a half-volume of one of the dilutions prepared with the substance X liable to interfere during the Ag 0 determination. Any interferences between the substance X and the antigen are then plotted on a graph representing: as abscisse, the concentration of substance X; as ordinates, the difference between the measured and theoretical Ag 0 concentrations. This very simple representation shows the interference threshold of each substance X; accounting for its physiopathological concentration [fr

  17. β2-Microglobulin participates in development of lung emphysema by inducing lung epithelial cell senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Na; Wang, Ying; Zheng, Chun-Ming; Gao, Yan-Li; Li, Hui; Li, Yan; Fu, Ting-Ting; Xu, Li-Li; Wang, Wei; Ying, Sun; Huang, Kewu

    2017-05-01

    β 2 -Microglobulin (β 2 M), the light chain of the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I), has been identified as a proaging factor and is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders by driving cognitive and regenerative impairments. However, little attention has focused on the effect of β 2 M in the development of lung emphysema. Here, we found that concentrations of β 2 M in plasma were significantly elevated in patients with lung emphysema than those in normal control subjects (1.89 ± 0.12 vs. 1.42 ± 0.06 mg/l, P lung tissue of emphysema (39.90 ± 1.97 vs. 23.94 ± 2.11%, P lung emphysema through induction of lung epithelial cell senescence and inhibition. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Blood and urine β2-microglobulin in pyelonephritic patients with diabetes mellituS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasyukova, E.A.; Turiev, G.S.; Gerasimova, N.P.; Ametov, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    Blood and wine β 2 -microglobulin (B 2 MG) was determined in pyelonephritic patients with diabetes mellitus using the radioimmunoassay method. Different lesions of urogenital system such as pyelonephrit in 27 cases, isolated nephro microangiopathy in 25 cases, Urinary tracks infection in 13 cases Were revealed on the base of a complex examination (radioisotopic renography, dynamic nephroscintigraphy, extretory urography etc). No pathologic changes were discovered in 12 patients. It has been shown that simultaneous determination of blood and wine β 2 -MG allows one to specify a place of primary nephron damage. An increase of β 2 -MG concentration in blood serum is characteristic for violation of glomenular function of kidneys but an increase of its excretion with urine indicates a damage of proximal small channels

  19. Predictive value of plasma β2-microglobulin on human body function and senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X-M; Cai, R; Yang, F; Zhang, Y-Y; Wang, X-G; Fu, S-L; Zhang, J-R

    2016-06-01

    To explore the correlation between plasma β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) as senescence factor with age, heart, liver and kidney function as well as the predictive value of β2-MG in human metabolism function and senescence. 387 cases of healthy people of different ages were selected and the automatic biochemical analyzer was used to test β2-MG in plasma based on immunoturbidimetry and also all biochemical indexes. The correlation between β2-MG and age, gender and all biochemical indexes was analyzed. β2-MG was positively correlated to age, r = 0.373; and the difference was of statistical significance (p human body function and anti-senescence and have significant basic research and clinical guidance values.

  20. Role of residual kidney function and convective volume on change in β2-microglobulin levels in hemodiafiltration patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L. Penne (Lars); N.C. van der Weerd (Neelke); P.J. Blankestijn (Peter); M.A. van den Dorpel (Marinus); M.P.C. Grooteman (Muriel); M.J. Nubé (Menso); P.M. ter Wee (Piet); R. Lévesque (Renée); M.L. Bots (Michiel)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground and objectives: Removal of β2-microglobulin (β2M) can be increased by adding convective transport to hemodialysis (HD). The aim of this study was to investigate the change in β2M levels after 6-mo treatment with hemodiafiltration (HDF) and to evaluate the role of residual

  1. Increased serum ß2-microglobulin is associated with clinical and immunological markers of disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, M-L F; Hummelshøj, L; Lundsgaard, Dorte

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between serum levels of ß2-microglobulin (ß2MG), which some studies suggest reflect disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and various clinical and immunological markers of disease activity in SLE. Twenty-six SLE patients...

  2. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of nurse shark β2-microglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shuangshuang; Yao, Shugang; Chen, Rong; Zhang, Nianzhi; Chen, Jianmin; Gao, Feng; Xia, Chun

    2012-04-01

    β(2)-Microglobulin (β(2)m) is an essential subunit of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule that helps to stabilize the structure of peptide-MHC I (pMHC I). It is also one of the typical immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) molecules in the adaptive immune system (AIS). Sharks belong to the cartilaginous fish, which are the oldest jawed vertebrate ancestors with an AIS to exist in the world. Thus, the study of cartilaginous fish β(2)m would help in understanding the evolution of IgSF molecules. In order to demonstrate this, β(2)m from a cartilaginous fish, nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum), was expressed, refolded, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.3 Å. The crystal belonged to space group P3(2)21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 88.230, c = 67.146 Å. The crystal structure contained two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The results will provide structural information for study of the evolution of β(2)m and IgSF in the AIS. © 2012 International Union of Crystallography. All rights reserved.

  3. A β2-microglobulin cleavage variant fibrillates at near-physiological pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlin, Dorthe B.; Johnsen, Christina K.; Nissen, Mogens H.; Heegaard, Niels H.H.

    2009-01-01

    β 2 -microglobulin (β 2 m) deposits as amyloid in dialysis-related amyloidosis (DRA), predominantly in joints. The molecular mechanisms underlying the amyloidogenicity of β 2 m are still largely unknown. In vitro, acidic conditions, pH 2 m within several days. Here, we show that amyloid fibrils are generated in less than an hour when a cleavage variant of β 2 m-found in the circulation of many dialysis patients-is exposed to pH levels (pH 6.6) occurring in joints during inflammation. Aggregation and fibrillation, including seeding effects with intact, native β 2 m were studied by Thioflavin T fluorescence spectroscopy, turbidimetry, capillary electrophoresis, and electron microscopy. We conclude that a biologically relevant variant of β 2 m is amyloidogenic at slightly acidic pH. Also, only a very small amount of preformed fibrils of this variant is required to induce fibrillation of native β 2 m. This may explain the apparent lack of detectable amounts of the variant β 2 m in extracts of amyloid from DRA patients.

  4. HLA-B27 and human β2-microglobulin affect the gut microbiota of transgenic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phoebe Lin

    Full Text Available The HLA-B27 gene is a major risk factor for clinical diseases including ankylosing spondylitis, acute anterior uveitis, reactive arthritis, and psoriatic arthritis, but its mechanism of risk enhancement is not completely understood. The gut microbiome has recently been shown to influence several HLA-linked diseases. However, the role of HLA-B27 in shaping the gut microbiome has not been previously investigated. In this study, we characterize the differences in the gut microbiota mediated by the presence of the HLA-B27 gene. We identified differences in the cecal microbiota of Lewis rats transgenic for HLA-B27 and human β2-microglobulin (hβ2m, compared with wild-type Lewis rats, using biome representational in situ karyotyping (BRISK and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. 16S sequencing revealed significant differences between transgenic animals and wild type animals by principal coordinates analysis. Further analysis of the data set revealed an increase in Prevotella spp. and a decrease in Rikenellaceae relative abundance in the transgenic animals compared to the wild type animals. By BRISK analysis, species-specific differences included an increase in Bacteroides vulgatus abundance in HLA-B27/hβ2m and hβ2m compared to wild type rats. The finding that HLA-B27 is associated with altered cecal microbiota has not been shown before and can potentially provide a better understanding of the clinical diseases associated with this gene.

  5. Beta-2-mikroglobulin ved medicinske sygdomme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1989-01-01

    Beta-2-microglobulin (beta 2M) is a low-molecular protein which is filtered freely over the glomeruli. Under normal circumstances, more than 99.9% is resorbed in the proximal tubuli of the kidneys and is metabolized there. In renal disease with damage to this segment of the nephron, eg acute tubulo...

  6. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of grass carp β{sub 2}-microglobulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Weihong [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Chu, Fuliang [Center for Molecular Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100080 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Peng, Hao [Center for Molecular Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100080 (China); Zhang, Jianhua [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Qi, Jianxun; Jiang, Fan [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Xia, Chun, E-mail: xiachun@cau.edu.cn [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Gao, Feng, E-mail: xiachun@cau.edu.cn [Center for Molecular Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100080 (China); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2008-03-01

    Grass carp β{sub 2}-microglobulin was expressed in E. coli, purified to homogeneity and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with PEG 2K as precipitant. The crystals obtained belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 38.72, b = 40.65, c = 71.12 Å. β{sub 2}-Microglobulin (β{sub 2}m) is an essential subunit of MHC I molecules; it stabilizes the structure of MHC I and plays a pivotal role in coreceptor recognition. To date, structures of β{sub 2}m have been solved for three different mammals: human, mouse and cattle. In order to illuminate the molecular evolutionary origin of β2m, an understanding of its structure in lower vertebrates becomes important. Here, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) β{sub 2}m (Ctid-β{sub 2}m) was expressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.5 Å. The crystal belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 38.72, b = 40.65, c = 71.12 Å. The Matthews coefficient and the solvent content were calculated to be 2.56 Å Da{sup −1} and 52.07%, respectively, for one molecule per asymmetric unit. The structure has been solved by molecular replacement using monomeric human β{sub 2}m as a model.

  7. A Novel Anti-Beta2-Microglobulin Antibody Inhibition of Androgen Receptor Expression, Survival, and Progression in Prostate Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    marked advertisement in accordance with18 U.S.C. Section1734 solely to indicate this fact. Note: Supplementary data for this article are available at...England BioLabs, Beverly, MA). Forty thousand cpm of the labeled probe and 5 g of nuclear extracts were incubated with EMSA buffer containing 20 mM

  8. Joint detection and clinical analyse of urine β2-microglobulin, albumin and immunoglobulin G in patients with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Liqun; Yang Baojun

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical significance of joint detection of urine β 2 -microglobulin (β 2 MG), albumin (Alb) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) in patients with hyperthyroidism Methods: Urine β 2 -MG, Alb, IgG and serum thyroid hormone free trilute (FT 3 ), free thyroxin (FT 4 ) of 45 healthy volunteers (as control group) and 120 patients with hyperthyroidism were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results: The urine β 2 -MG, Alb and IgG in the hyperthyroidism group (including the primary group (group A) and uncured group (group B)) were distinctly higher than those in control group and hyperthyroidism cured group (group C) (t=6.682, P 2 -MG, Alb and IgG with serum FT 3 and FT 4 (the related coefficients were 0.98, 0.88, 0.93, 0.87, 0.94, and 0.85 respectively). Conclusion: It is important to measure urine β 2 -MG together with Alb and IgG in early judgment of the location and degree of kidney injury, as well as the severity of disease in patients with hyperthyroidism. (authors)

  9. Expression, refolding and crystallization of murine MHC class I H-2Db in complex with human β2-microglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandalova, Tatyana; Michaëlsson, Jakob; Harris, Robert A.; Ljunggren, Hans-Gustaf; Kärre, Klas; Schneider, Gunter; Achour, Adnane

    2005-01-01

    Mouse MHC class I H-2Db in complex with human β2m and the LCMV-derived peptide gp33 has been produced and crystallized. Resolution of the structure of this complex combined with the structural comparison with the previously solved crystal structure of H-2Db/mβ2m/gp33 should lead to a better understanding of how the β2m subunit affects the overall conformation of MHC complexes as well as the stability of the presented peptides. β 2 -Microglobulin (β 2 m) is non-covalently linked to the major histocompatibility (MHC) class I heavy chain and interacts with CD8 and Ly49 receptors. Murine MHC class I can bind human β 2 m (hβ 2 m) and such hybrid molecules are often used in structural and functional studies. The replacement of mouse β 2 m (mβ 2 m) by hβ 2 m has important functional consequences for MHC class I complex stability and specificity, but the structural basis for this is unknown. To investigate the impact of species-specific β 2 m subunits on MHC class I conformation, murine MHC class I H-2D b in complex with hβ 2 m and the peptide gp33 derived from lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) has been expressed, refolded in vitro and crystallized. Crystals containing two complexes per asymmetric unit and belonging to the space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 68.1, b = 65.2, c = 101.9 Å, β = 102.4°, were obtained

  10. Characterization of the response of primary cells relevant to dialysis-related amyloidosis to β2-microglobulin monomer and fibrils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morwenna Y Porter

    Full Text Available The formation of insoluble amyloid fibrils is associated with an array of devastating human diseases. Dialysis-related amyloidosis (DRA is a severe complication of hemodialysis that results in the progressive destruction of the bones and joints. Elevated concentrations of β(2-microglobulin (β(2m in the serum of subjects on hemodialysis promote the formation of amyloid fibrils in the osteoarticular tissues, but the cellular basis for the destruction of these tissues in DRA is poorly understood. In this study we performed a systematic analysis of the interaction of monomeric and fibrillar β(2m with primary human cells of the types present in the synovial joints of subjects with DRA. Building upon observations that macrophages infiltrate β(2m amyloid deposits in vivo we demonstrate that monocytes, the precursors of macrophages, cannot degrade β(2m fibrils, and that both monomeric β(2m and fibrillar β(2m are cytotoxic to these cells. β(2m fibrils also impair the formation of bone resorbing osteoclasts from monocytes and reduce the viability of osteoblasts, the cell type that produces bone. As a consequence, we predict that β(2m amyloid will disrupt the remodelling of the bone, which is critical for the maintenance of this tissue. Moreover, we show that β(2m fibrils reduce the viability of chondrocytes, rationalizing the loss of cartilage in DRA. Together, our observations demonstrate that β(2m cytotoxicity has multiple cellular targets in the osteoarticular tissues and is likely to be a key factor in the bone and joint destruction characteristic of DRA.

  11. Substitution of proline32 by α-methylproline preorganizes β2-microglobulin for oligomerization but not for aggregation into amyloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbeev, Vladimir; Ebert, Marc-Olivier; Dolenc, Jozica; Hilvert, Donald

    2015-02-25

    Conversion of soluble folded proteins into insoluble amyloids generally proceeds in three distinct mechanistic stages: (1) initial protein misfolding into aggregation-competent conformers, (2) subsequent formation of oligomeric species and, finally, (3) self-assembly into extended amyloid fibrils. In the work reported herein, we interrogated the amyloidogenesis mechanism of human β2-microglobulin (β2m), which is thought to be triggered by a pivotal cis-trans isomerization of a proline residue at position 32 in the polypeptide, with nonstandard amino acids. Using chemical protein synthesis we prepared a β2m analogue in which Pro32 was replaced by the conformationally constrained amino acid α-methylproline (MePro). The strong propensity of MePro to adopt a trans prolyl bond led to enhanced population of a non-native [trans-MePro32]β2m protein conformer, which readily formed oligomers at neutral pH. In the presence of the antibiotic rifamycin SV, which inhibits amyloid growth of wild-type β2m, [MePro32]β2m was nearly quantitatively converted into different spherical oligomeric species. Self-assembly into amyloid fibrils was not observed in the absence of seeding, however, even at low pH (<3), where wild-type β2m spontaneously forms amyloids. Nevertheless, we found that aggregation-preorganized [MePro32]β2m can act in a prion-like fashion, templating misfolded conformations in a natively folded protein. Overall, these results provide detailed insight into the role of cis-trans isomerization of Pro32 and ensuing structural rearrangements that lead to initial β2m misfolding and aggregation. They corroborate the view that conformational protein dynamics enabled by reversible Pro32 cis-trans interconversion rather than simple population of the trans conformer is critical for both nucleation and subsequent growth of β2m amyloid structures.

  12. Urinary β-2 Microglobulin Levels Sensitively Altered in an Osteomalacia Patient Receiving Add-on Adefovir Dipivoxil Therapy for Hepatitis B Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Junko; Morita, Hiroyuki; Ito, Kiyoaki; Ohashi, Tomohiko; Hirase, Sho; Ito, Tatsuo; Morishima, Takkan; Otake, Kazuo; Yoneda, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) is effective for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection; however, ADV may provoke renal injury resulting in osteomalacia, and this side effect is seldom recognized until bone fractures emerge. We herein present a 66-year-old woman with HBV infection who received ADV for 6 years. Although she exhibited no sign of bone fractures, her urinary β-2 microglobulin (β2MG) level increased to 83,837 μg/L and scintigraphy revealed minimal fractures of the third rib. ADV was subsequently reduced and her urinary β2MG rapidly fell to 3,637 μg/L. Conversely, her urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, and serum phosphate, alkaline phosphatase levels did not respond.

  13. HLA-E: strong association with beta2-microglobulin and surface expression in the absence of HLA class I signal sequence-derived peptides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lo Monaco, E.; Sibilio, L.; Melucci, E.; Tremante, E.; Suchánek, M.; Hořejší, Václav; Martayan, A.; Giacomini, P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 181, č. 8 (2008), s. 5442-5450 ISSN 0022-1767 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : HLA-E * MHC * monoclonal antibodies Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.000, year: 2008

  14. Relationship between inflammation, bone destruction, and osteoproliferation in the HLA-B27/human beta(2)-microglobulin-transgenic rat model of spondylarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duivenvoorde, Leonie M.; Dorris, Martha L.; Satumtira, Nimman; van Tok, Melissa N.; Redlich, Kurt; Tak, Paul P.; Taurog, Joel D.; Baeten, Dominique L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Inhibition of inflammation and destruction, but not of osteoproliferation, in patients with spondylarthritis (SpA) treated with antitumor necrosis factor raises the question of how these three processes are interrelated. This study was undertaken to analyze this relationship in a rat model

  15. Changes of serum and urine β2-microglobulin of leukopenia in hyperthyroidism of Graves' disease before and after 131I therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Chen; Wang Luhua; Li Junxiong; Ouyang Liang; Guan Chuwen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of 131 I therapy and the changes of the serum, urine contents of β 2 -microglobulin(β 2 -MG)in leukopenia in patients with Graves' disease before and after mi therapy. Methods: Serum and urine β 2 -MG contents (with radioimmunoassay), serum free triiodothyronine (FT 3 ) and free tetraiodothyronine (FT 4 ) lever (with chemiluminescence immunoassay) were determined before and after mi therapy. At the same time, measure blood ured nitrogen (BUN) and creatine (Cr) Results: The cure rate, improvement, invalid, hypothyroidiam and total effective rate of 131 I therpy are 76.7%, 13.3%, 3.3%, 6.7%, 96.7% respectively. The serum and urine β 2 -MG contents as well as the serum FT 3 , FT 4 levels in the 30 patients before treatment were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 3 , FT 4 levels lower than before treatment (P 2 -MG levels lower (vs before treatment, P 2 MG, FT 3 , FT 4 levels dropped to approaching normal (rs controls, P>0.05 and vs before treatments, P 3 , FT 4 level was positively correlative to the β 2 -MG (P 131 I therapy is an ideal treatment for Graves' hyperthyroidism, which have many advantages. β 2 -MG could be used as a diagnostic indicator for leukopenia in patients with Graves' disease. (authors)

  16. β2 -microglobulin normalization within 6 months of ibrutinib-based treatment is associated with superior progression-free survival in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Philip A; O'Brien, Susan M; Xiao, Lianchun; Wang, Xuemei; Burger, Jan A; Jain, Nitin; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Estrov, Zeev; Keating, Michael J; Wierda, William G

    2016-02-15

    A high pretreatment β2 -microglobulin (B2M) level is associated with inferior survival outcomes in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. However, to the authors' knowledge, the prognostic and predictive significance of changes in B2M during treatment have not been reported to date. The authors analyzed 83 patients treated with ibrutinib-based regimens (66 with recurrent/refractory disease) and 198 treatment-naive patients who were treated with combined fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR) to characterize changes in B2M and their relationship with clinical outcomes. B2M rapidly decreased during treatment with ibrutinib; on multivariable analysis, patients who received FCR (odds ratio, 0.40; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.18-0.90 [P = .027]) were less likely to have normalized B2M at 6 months than patients treated with ibrutinib. On univariable analysis, normalization of B2M was associated with superior progression-free survival (PFS) from the 6-month landmark in patients treated with ibrutinib-based regimens and FCR. On multivariable analysis, failure to achieve normalized B2M at 6 months of treatment was associated with inferior PFS (hazard ratio, 16.9; 95% CI, 1.3-220.0 [P = .031]) for patients treated with ibrutinib, after adjusting for the effects of baseline B2M, stage of disease, fludarabine-refractory disease, and del(17p). In contrast, in patients treated with FCR, negative minimal residual disease status in the bone marrow was the only variable found to be significantly associated with superior PFS (hazard ratio, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.12-0.67 [P = .004]). Normalization of B2M at 6 months in patients treated with ibrutinib was found to be a useful predictor of subsequent PFS and may assist in clinical decision-making. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  17. Combining Cystatin C and Creatinine Yields a Reliable Glomerular Filtration Rate Estimation in Older Adults in Contrast to β-Trace Protein and β2-Microglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Karin; Pihlsgård, Mats; Elmståhl, Sölve; Legrand, Helen; Nyman, Ulf; Christensson, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the most important measure of kidney function and chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study aims to validate commonly used equations for estimated GFR (eGFR) based on creatinine (cr), cystatin C (cys), β-trace protein (BTP), and β2-microglobulin (B2M) in older adults. We conducted a validation study with 126 participants aged between 72 and 98 with a mean measured GFR (mGFR) by iohexol clearance of 54 mL/min/1.73 m2. The eGFR equations (CKD-Epidemiology collaboration [CKD-EPI], Berlin Initiative Study [BIS], Full Age Spectrum [FAS], Modification of Diet in Renal Disease [MDRD]cr, Caucasian-Asian-Pediatric-Adult [CAPA]cys, Lund-Malmö Revised [LM-REV]cr, and MEAN-LM-CAPAcr-cys), were assessed in terms of bias (median difference: eGFR-mGFR), precision (interquartile range of the differences), and accuracy (P30: percentage of estimates ±30% of mGFR). The equations were compared to a benchmark equation: CKD-EPIcr-cys. All cystatin C-based equations underestimated the GFR compared to mGFR, whereas bias was mixed for the equations based only on creatinine. Accuracy was the highest for CKD-EPIcr-cys (98%) and lowest for MDRD (82%). Below mGFR 45 mL/min/1.73 m2 only equations incorporating cystatin C reached P30 accuracy >90%. CKD-EPIcr-cys was not significantly more accurate than the other cystatin C-based equations. In contrast, CKD-EPIcr-cys was significantly more accurate than all creatinine-based equations except LM-REVcr. This study confirms that it is reasonable to use equations incorporating cystatin C and creatinine in older patients across a wide spectrum of GFR. However, the results call into question the use of creatinine alone below mGFR 45 mL/min/1.73 m2. B2M and BTP do not demonstrate additional value in eGFR determination in older adults. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Urinary β2 microglobulin can predict tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-related renal dysfunction in HIV-1-infected patients who initiate tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-containing antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Takeshi; Kurosawa, Takuma; Tanaka, Noriko; Kawasaki, Yohei; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Oka, Shinichi; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-19

    In nephrotoxicity induced by tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), tubular dysfunction precedes the decline in GFR, suggesting that tubular markers are more sensitive than estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The hypothesis that urinary β2 microglobulin (β2 M), a tubular function marker, can predict TDF-renal dysfunction in HIV-1-infected patients was tested. A single-center observational study. The inclusion criteria were: HIV-1-infected patients who started TDF-containing antiretroviral therapy from 2004 to 2013, urinary β2 M after and closest to the day of TDF initiation within 180 days (termed 'β2 M after TDF') was measured. The associations between 'β2 M after TDF' and four renal end points (>10 ml/min per 1.73 m decrement in eGFR relative to baseline, >20 decrement, >25% decrement, and eGFR model. The association between 'β2 M after TDF' and longitudinal changes in eGFR after initiation of TDF was estimated with a mixed-model. A total 655 study patients were analyzed (96% men, median age 38, median CD4 238 cells/μl, 63% treatment naïve). The median baseline eGFR was 117 ml/min per 1.73 m (IQR 110-125), and the median duration of TDF use was 3.32 years (IQR 2.02-5.31). 'β2 M after TDF' was significantly associated with more than 20 decrement in eGFR (P = 0.024) and more than 25% decrement (P = 0.014), and was marginally associated with eGFR less than 60 (P = 0.076). It was also significantly associated with the longitudinal eGFR after initiation of TDF (P < 0.0001). 'β2 M after TDF' of 1700 μg/l was identified as the optimal cutoff value for the prediction of longitudinal eGFR. Urinary β2 M measured within 180 days after initiation of TDF predicts renal dysfunction related to long-term TDF use.

  19. Is the staple diet eaten in Medawachchiya, Sri Lanka, a predisposing factor in the development of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology? - A comparison based on urinary β2-microglobulin measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardhana, E A Ranga I E; Perera, Ponnumperuma A J; Sivakanesan, Ramiah; Abeysekara, Thilak; Nugegoda, Danaseela B; Weerakoon, Kosala G A D

    2014-07-02

    Exact mechanism of causation of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka is not described to date, despite the identification of possible multiple risk factors. Questions have been raised as to why only some are affected while others remain intact, though they are inhabitants of the same locality. Comparative studies were carried out, assessing urinary β2 microglobulin (β2m) and the dietary patterns of CKDu patients and age sex matched non-CKDu subjects. Urinary β2m levels of spot urine samples were analyzed using the Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and dietary patterns were studied using twenty four hour dietary recalls and frequency consumption of foods of animal origin performed on three occasions at six months intervals within a period of one and half years. The mean urinary β2m level of CKDu patients from Medawachchiya was significantly (pCKDu subjects. The mean urinary β2m level of the non-CKDu subjects was within the reference limits for spot urine samples (0 - 0.3 μg/mL). White raw rice was the staple diet of both CKDu patients and non-CKDu subjects and the level of consumption was almost the same. The consumption of fresh water fish products of CKDu patients under high (14, 14%), moderate (36, 36%), low (26, 26%) and less (20, 20%) categories did not show significant variations (p>0.05) compared to non-CKDu subjects. Staple food in diet and the consumption pattern of CKDu patients from Medawachchiya were similar to that of non-CKDu subjects from the same area despite their urinary β2m concentration being significantly higher.

  20. Estimation of benchmark dose as the threshold levels of urinary cadmium, based on excretion of total protein, β 2-microglobulin, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase in cadmium nonpolluted regions in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Etsuko; Suwazono, Yasushi; Uetani, Mirei; Inaba, Takeya; Oishi, Mitsuhiro; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nogawa, Koji

    2006-01-01

    Previously, we investigated the association between urinary cadmium (Cd) concentration and indicators of renal dysfunction, including total protein, β 2 -microglobulin (β 2 -MG), and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG). In 2778 inhabitants ≥50 years of age (1114 men, 1664 women) in three different Cd nonpolluted areas in Japan, we showed that a dose-response relationship existed between renal effects and Cd exposure in the general environment without any known Cd pollution. However, we could not estimate the threshold levels of urinary Cd at that time. In the present study, we estimated the threshold levels of urinary Cd as the benchmark dose low (BMDL) using the benchmark dose (BMD) approach. Urinary Cd excretion was divided into 10 categories, and an abnormality rate was calculated for each. Cut-off values for urinary substances were defined as corresponding to the 84% and 95% upper limit values of the target population who have not smoked. Then we calculated the BMD and BMDL using a log-logistic model. The values of BMD and BMDL for all urinary substances could be calculated. The BMDL for the 84% cut-off value of β 2 -MG, setting an abnormal value at 5%, was 2.4 μg/g creatinine (cr) in men and 3.3 μg/g cr in women. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the threshold level of urinary Cd could be estimated in people living in the general environment without any known Cd-pollution in Japan, and the value was inferred to be almost the same as that in Belgium, Sweden, and China

  1. BETA digital beta radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovikov, N.V.; Kosinov, G.A.; Fedorov, Yu.N.

    1989-01-01

    Portable transportable digital beta radiometer providing for measuring beta-decay radionuclide specific activity in the range from 5x10 -9 up to 10 -6 Cu/kg (Cu/l) with error of ±25% is designed and introduced into commercial production for determination of volume and specific water and food radioactivity. The device specifications are given. Experience in the BETA radiometer application under conditions of the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone has shown that it is convenient for measuring specific activity of the order of 10 -8 Cu/kg, and application of a set of different beta detectors gives an opportunity to use it for surface contamination measurement in wide range of the measured value

  2. Coagulation Factors Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Testing Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) Tumor Marker AMAS Aminoglycoside Antibiotics Ammonia Amniocentesis Amylase ANCA/MPO/ ... Beta-2 Microglobulin Kidney Disease Beta-2 Microglobulin Tumor Marker Bicarbonate (Total CO2) Bilirubin Blood Culture Blood Gases ...

  3. Speculative Betas

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison Hong; David Sraer

    2012-01-01

    We provide a model for why high beta assets are more prone to speculative overpricing than low beta ones. When investors disagree about the common factor of cash-flows, high beta assets are more sensitive to this macro-disagreement and experience a greater divergence-of-opinion about their payoffs. Short-sales constraints for some investors such as retail mutual funds result in high beta assets being over-priced. When aggregate disagreement is low, expected return increases with beta due to r...

  4. Systemic lupus erythematosus activity and beta two microglobulin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Larocca Skare

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease with a cyclical clinical course. Evaluation of the clinical activity of this disease is important for choosing the correct treatment. The objective of this study was to analyze the value of beta-2 microglobulin (β2M serum levels in determining SLE clinical activity.DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional analytical study conducted at the rheumatology outpatient clinic of a private university hospital.METHODS: 129 SLE patients were studied regarding disease activity using SLEDAI (SLE Disease Activity Index and cumulative damage using SLICC ACR (SLE International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index for SLE. At the same time, the β2M serum level, ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, anti-dsDNA (anti-double-stranded DNA and C3 and C4 complement fractions were determined.RESULTS: β2M levels correlated positively with SLEDAI (P = 0.02 and ESR (P = 0.0009 and negatively with C3 (P = 0.007. Patients who were positive for anti-dsDNA had higher β2M serum levels (P = 0.009.CONCLUSION: β2M levels are elevated in SLE patients with active disease.

  5. Beta spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryak, P.; Zderadicka, J.; Plch, J.; Kokta, L.; Novotna, P.

    1977-01-01

    For the purpose of beta spectrometry, a semiconductor spectrometer with one Si(Li) detector cooled with liquid nitrogen was designed. Geometrical detection efficiency is about 10% 4 sr. The achieved resolution for 624 keV conversion electrons of sup(137m)Ba is 2.6 keV (FWHM). A program was written in the FORTRAN language for the correction of the deformation of the measured spectra by backscattering in the analysis of continuous beta spectra. The method permits the determination of the maximum energy of the beta spectrum with an accuracy of +-5 keV. (author)

  6. Beta Blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may not work as effectively for people of African heritage and older people, especially when taken without ... conditions/high-blood-pressure/in-depth/beta-blockers/ART-20044522 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  7. Increased urinary cadmium excretion and its relationship to urinary N-acetyl-[beta]-D-glucosaminidase activity in smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Hiroshi; Satoh, Hiroshi (Tohoku Univ. School of Medicine, Dept. of Environmental Health Sciences, Sendai (Japan)); Suzuki, Shosuke (Gunma Univ. School of Medicine, Dept. of Public Health, Maebashi (Japan)); Tohyama, Chiharu (National Institute of Environmental Studies, Environmental Health Sciences Div., Tsukuba (Japan))

    1992-10-01

    To assess the renal effects of low-level exposure to cadmium due to smoking we examined blood and urinary levels of cadmium and urinary excretions of N-acetyl-[beta]-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), [beta][sub 2]-microglobulin (BMG) and metallothionein in 94 male workers aged 18-55 years. Both blood and urinary cadmium levels indicated excess exposure to cadmium caused by smoking. The urinary cadmium concentration ranged between 0.1 and 5.0 [mu]g/g creatinine and increased significantly with age in the smokers. Neither urinary NAG nor BMG was increased in the smokers compared from non-smokers. A positive relationship between urinary cadmium and metallothionein was obtained not only in the smokers but also in the non-smokers. Furthermore, in the smokers urinary cadmium and metallothionein was positively related with urinary NAG. Since NAG in urine mostly originates from tubular cells by lysosomal exocytosis, the results may reflect an early cadmium effect on the lysosomal functions. Inhibitory effect of cadmium on the lysosomal degradation activities was discussed as a possible explanation of the positive relationship of urinary cadmium and metallothionein to urinary NAG. (orig.).

  8. Beta Emission and Bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-13

    Bremsstrahlung is continuous radiation produced by beta particles decelerating in matter; different beta emitters have different endpoint energies; high-energy betas interacting with high-Z materials will more likely produce bremsstrahlung; depending on the data, sometimes all you can say is that a beta emitter is present.

  9. Urinary excretion of beta 2-glycoprotein-1 (apolipoprotein H) and other markers of tubular malfunction in "non-tubular" renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, F V; Lapsley, M; Sansom, P A; Cohen, S L

    1992-07-01

    To determine whether urinary beta 2-glycoprotein-1 assays can provide improved discrimination between chronic renal diseases which are primarily of tubular or glomerular origin. Urinary beta 2-glycoprotein-1, retinol-binding protein, alpha 1-microglobulin, beta 2-microglobulin, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosa-minidase and albumin were measured in 51 patients with primary glomerular disease, 23 with obstructive nephropathy, and 15 with polycystic kidney disease, and expressed per mmol of creatinine. Plasma beta 2-glycoprotein-1 was assayed in 52 patients and plasma creatinine in all 89. The findings were compared between the diagnostic groups and with previously published data relating to primary tubular disorders. All 31 patients with plasma creatinine greater than 200 mumol/l excreted increased amounts of beta 2-glycoprotein-1, retinol-binding protein, and alpha 1-microglobulin, and 29 had increased N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase; the quantities were generally similar to those found in comparable patients with primary tubular pathology. Among 58 with plasma creatinine concentrations under 200 mumol/l, increases in beta 2-glycoprotein-1, retinol-binding protein, and alpha 1-microglobulin excretion were less common and much smaller, especially in those with obstructive nephropathy and polycystic disease. The ratios of the excretion of albumin to the other proteins provided the clearest discrimination between the patients with glomerular or tubular malfunction, but an area of overlap was present which embraced those with obstructive nephropathy and polycystic disease. Increased excretion of beta 2-glycoprotein-1 due to a raised plasma concentration or diminution of tubular reabsorption, or both, is common in all the forms of renal disease investigated, and both plasma creatinine and urinary albumin must be taken into account when interpreting results. Ratios of urinary albumin: beta 2-glycoprotein-1 greater than 1000 are highly suggestive of primary glomerular disease and

  10. Levered and unlevered Beta

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2003-01-01

    We prove that in a world without leverage cost the relationship between the levered beta ( L) and the unlevered beta ( u) is the No-costs-of-leverage formula: L = u + ( u - d) D (1 - T) / E. We also analyze 6 alternative valuation theories proposed in the literature to estimate the relationship between the levered beta and the unlevered beta (Harris and Pringle (1985), Modigliani and Miller (1963), Damodaran (1994), Myers (1974), Miles and Ezzell (1980), and practitioners) and prove that all ...

  11. Beta Thalassemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Beta Thalassemia KidsHealth / For Parents / Beta Thalassemia What's in this ... Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Print en español Beta talasemia Thalassemias Thalassemias are a group of blood disorders that ...

  12. Forward-Looking Betas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Vainberg, Gregory

    Few issues are more important for finance practice than the computation of market betas. Existing approaches compute market betas using historical data. While these approaches differ in terms of statistical sophistication and the modeling of the time-variation in the betas, they are all backward......-looking. This paper introduces a radically different approach to estimating market betas. Using the tools in Bakshi and Madan (2000) and Bakshi, Kapadia and Madan (2003) we employ the information embedded in the prices of individual stock options and index options to compute our forward-looking market beta...

  13. Betting Against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model’s five central predictions: (1) Since constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for U...... of the BAB factor is low; (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one; (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets........S. equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures; (2) A betting-against-beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns; (3) When funding constraints tighten, the return...

  14. Roughing up Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Li, Sophia Zhengzi; Todorov, Viktor

    -section. An investment strategy that goes long stocks with high jump betas and short stocks with low jump betas produces significant average excess returns. These higher risk premiums for the discontinuous and overnight market betas remain significant after controlling for a long list of other firm characteristics......Motivated by the implications from a stylized equilibrium pricing framework, we investigate empirically how individual equity prices respond to continuous, or \\smooth," and jumpy, or \\rough," market price moves, and how these different market price risks, or betas, are priced in the cross......-section of expected returns. Based on a novel highfrequency dataset of almost one-thousand individual stocks over two decades, we find that the two rough betas associated with intraday discontinuous and overnight returns entail significant risk premiums, while the intraday continuous beta is not priced in the cross...

  15. Beta limits for ETF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, F.J.; Miller, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    ETF (Engineering Test Facility) one-dimensional transport simulations indicate that a volume-average beta of 4% is required for ignition. It is therefore important that theoretical beta limits, determined by requiring equilibria to be stable to all ideal modes, exceed 4%. This paper documents an ideal MHD analysis wherein it is shown that, with appropriate plasma cross-sectional shape and current profile optimization, operation near 5% is possible. The critical beta value, however, depends on the functional form used for ff', which suggests that higher critical betas could be achieved by directly optimizing the safety factor profile. (author)

  16. Beta-energy averaging and beta spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamatelatos, M.G.; England, T.R.

    1976-07-01

    A simple yet highly accurate method for approximately calculating spectrum-averaged beta energies and beta spectra for radioactive nuclei is presented. This method should prove useful for users who wish to obtain accurate answers without complicated calculations of Fermi functions, complex gamma functions, and time-consuming numerical integrations as required by the more exact theoretical expressions. Therefore, this method should be a good time-saving alternative for investigators who need to make calculations involving large numbers of nuclei (e.g., fission products) as well as for occasional users interested in restricted number of nuclides. The average beta-energy values calculated by this method differ from those calculated by ''exact'' methods by no more than 1 percent for nuclides with atomic numbers in the 20 to 100 range and which emit betas of energies up to approximately 8 MeV. These include all fission products and the actinides. The beta-energy spectra calculated by the present method are also of the same quality

  17. High beta tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dory, R.A.; Berger, D.P.; Charlton, L.A.; Hogan, J.T.; Munro, J.K.; Nelson, D.B.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Sigmar, D.J.; Strickler, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    MHD equilibrium, stability, and transport calculations are made to study the accessibility and behavior of ''high beta'' tokamak plasmas in the range β approximately 5 to 15 percent. For next generation devices, beta values of at least 8 percent appear to be accessible and stable if there is a conducting surface nearby

  18. Sorting out Downside Beta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.T. Post (Thierry); P. van Vliet (Pim); S.D. Lansdorp (Simon)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractDownside risk, when properly defined and estimated, helps to explain the cross-section of US stock returns. Sorting stocks by a proper estimate of downside market beta leads to a substantially larger cross-sectional spread in average returns than sorting on regular market beta. This

  19. Betting against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model's five central predictions: (1) Because constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: beta thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Beta thalassemia Beta thalassemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Beta thalassemia is a blood disorder that reduces the production ...

  1. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  2. Beta particle measurement fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The necessary concepts for understanding beta particle behavior are stopping power, range, and scattering. Dose as a consequence of beta particle interaction with tissue can be derived and explained by these concepts. Any calculations of dose, however, assume or require detailed knowledge of the beta spectrum at the tissue depth of calculation. A rudimentary knowledge of the incident spectrum can be of use in estimating dose, interpretating dose measuring devices and designing protection. The stopping power and range based on the csda will give a conservative estimate in cases of protection design, as scattering will reduce the range. Estimates of dose may be low because scattering effects were neglected

  3. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-06

    Oct 6, 2012 ... Anyhow, the 'multi-isotope' ansatz is needed to compensate for matrix element ... The neccessary half-life requirement to touch this ... site energy depositions (like double beta decay) and multiple site interactions (most of.

  4. Beta-Carotene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease (COPD). It is also used to improve memory and muscle strength. Some people use beta-carotene ... to reduce the chance of death and night blindness during pregnancy, as well as diarrhea and fever ...

  5. Double beta decay: experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorini, Ettore

    2006-01-01

    The results obtained so far and those of the running experiments on neutrinoless double beta decay are reviewed. The plans for second generation experiments, the techniques to be adopted and the expected sensitivities are compared and discussed

  6. {beta} - amyloid imaging probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Imaging distribution of {beta} - amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease is very important for early and accurate diagnosis. Early trial of the {beta} -amyloid plaques includes using radiolabeled peptides which can be only applied for peripheral {beta} - amyloid plaques due to limited penetration through the blood brain barrier (BBB). Congo red or Chrysamine G derivatives were labeled with Tc-99m for imaging {beta} - amyloid plaques of Alzheimer patient's brain without success due to problem with BBB penetration. Thioflavin T derivatives gave breakthrough for {beta} - amyloid imaging in vivo, and a benzothiazole derivative [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 brought a great success. Many other benzothiazole, benzoxazole, benzofuran, imidazopyridine, and styrylbenzene derivatives have been labeled with F-18 and I-123 to improve the imaging quality. However, [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 still remains as the best. However, short half-life of C-11 is a limitation of wide distribution of this agent. So, it is still required to develop an Tc-99m, F-18 or I-123 labeled agent for {beta} - amyloid imaging agent.

  7. Boosted beta regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schmid

    Full Text Available Regression analysis with a bounded outcome is a common problem in applied statistics. Typical examples include regression models for percentage outcomes and the analysis of ratings that are measured on a bounded scale. In this paper, we consider beta regression, which is a generalization of logit models to situations where the response is continuous on the interval (0,1. Consequently, beta regression is a convenient tool for analyzing percentage responses. The classical approach to fit a beta regression model is to use maximum likelihood estimation with subsequent AIC-based variable selection. As an alternative to this established - yet unstable - approach, we propose a new estimation technique called boosted beta regression. With boosted beta regression estimation and variable selection can be carried out simultaneously in a highly efficient way. Additionally, both the mean and the variance of a percentage response can be modeled using flexible nonlinear covariate effects. As a consequence, the new method accounts for common problems such as overdispersion and non-binomial variance structures.

  8. Labelling of. beta. -endorphin (. beta. -END) and. beta. -lipotropin (. beta. -LPH) by /sup 125/I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deby-Dupont, G.; Joris, J.; Franchimont, P. (Universite de Liege (Belgique)); Reuter, A.M.; Vrindts-Gevaert, Y. (Institut des Radioelements, Fleurus (Belgique))

    1983-01-01

    5 ..mu..g of human ..beta..-endorphin were labelled with 2 mCi /sup 125/I by the chloramine T technique. After two gel filtrations on Sephadex G-15 and on Sephadex G-50 in phosphate buffer with EDTA, Trasylol and mercapto-ethanol, a pure tracer was obtained with a specific activity about 150 ..mu..Ci/..mu..g.Kept at + 4/sup 0/C, the tracer remained utilizable for 30 days without loss of immunoreactivity. The labelling with lactoperoxydase and the use of another gel filtration method (filtration on Aca 202) gave a /sup 125/I ..beta..-END tracer with the same immunoreactivity. The binding of this tracer to the antibody of an anti-..beta..-END antiserum diluted at 1/8000 was 32% with a non specific binding of 2%. 5 ..mu..g of human ..beta..-lipotropin were labelled with 0.5 mCi /sup 125/I by the lactoperoxydase method. After two gel filtrations on Sephadex G-25 and on Sephadex G-75 in phosphate buffer with EDTA, Trasylol and mercapto-ethanol, a pure tracer with a specific activity of 140 ..mu..Ci/..mu..g was obtained. It remained utilizable for 30 days when kept at + 4/sup 0/C. Gel filtration on Aca 202 did not give good purification, while gel filtration on Aca 54 was good but slower than on Sephadex G-75. The binding to antibody in absence of unlabelled ..beta..-LPH was 32% for an anti-..beta..-LPH antiserum diluted at 1/4000. The non specific binding was 2.5%.

  9. Plasma beta HCG determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, L.B.D.; Pinto, J.C.M.; Linhares, E.; Linhares, Estevao

    1981-01-01

    There are three important indications for the early diagnosis of pregnancy through the determination of the beta sub-unit of chorionic gonadotrophin using radioimmunoassay: 1) some patient's or doctor's anxiety to discover the problem; 2) when it will be necessary to employ diagnostic or treatment procedures susceptible to affect the ovum; and 3) in the differential diagnosis of amenorrhoea, uterine hemorrhage and abdominal tumors. Other user's are the diagnosis of missed absortion, and the diagnosis and follow-up of chrorioncarcinoma. The AA. studied 200 determinations of plasma beta-HCG, considering the main difficulties occuring in the clinical use of this relevant laboratory tool in actual Obstetrics. (author) [pt

  10. Relation between the 2{nu}{beta}{beta} and 0{nu}{beta}{beta} nuclear matrix elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Petr [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Simkovic, Fedor [Department of Nuclear Physics and Biophysics, Comenius University, Mlynska dolina F1, SK-84248 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2011-12-16

    A formal relation between the GT part of the nuclear matrix elements M{sub GT}{sup 0{nu}} of 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay and the closure matrix elements M{sub cl}{sup 2{nu}} of 2{nu}{beta}{beta} decay is established. This relation is based on the integral representation of these quantities in terms of their dependence on the distance r between the two nucleons undergoing transformation. We also discuss the difficulties in determining the correct values of the closure 2{nu}{beta}{beta} decay matrix elements.

  11. Comparison of monoclonal antibodies and rabbit antisera in B2 microglobulin (B2m) radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, C.

    1981-01-01

    Human B2m is a globular protein devoid of carbohydrates and is composed of 100 aminoacids with an intrachain disulfide bridge in position 25-81. Its aminoacid sequence and three dimensional structure shows a partial homology with the constant domains of immunoglobulins. B2m has been detected at the surface of nearly all cell types with the exception of erythrocytes and trophoblastic cells and also in all biological fluids. On the cell surface B2m is found non-covalently associated with HLA molecules, and in serum and urine only a small part of the B2m is associated with HLA heavy chain, the remaining is found as free B2m. The aim of this paper is firstly to try to demonstrate the presence of two types of epitopes one of them specific of free B2m and secondly to compare monoclonal antibodies with rabbit antisera for B2m radioimmunoassay. (Auth.)

  12. Identification of β2-microglobulin as a urinary biomarker for chronic allograft nephropathy using proteomic methods.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Johnston, Olwyn

    2011-08-01

    Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) remains the leading cause of renal graft loss after the first year following renal transplantation. This study aimed to identify novel urinary proteomic profiles, which could distinguish and predict CAN in susceptible individuals.

  13. Induced nuclear beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    Certain nuclear beta decay transitions normally inhibited by angular momentum or parity considerations can be induced to occur by the application of an electromagnetic field. Such decays can be useful in the controlled production of power, and in fission waste disposal

  14. Trichoderma .beta.-glucosidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2006-01-03

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl3, and the corresponding BGL3 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL3, recombinant BGL3 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  15. Applied Beta Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of beta and/or nonpenetrating exposure results is complicated and past techniques and capabilities have resulted in significant inaccuracies in recorded results. Current developments have resulted in increased capabilities which make the results more accurate and should result in less total exposure to the work force. Continued development of works in progress should provide equivalent future improvements

  16. Beta thalassemia - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Jha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia is a globin gene disorder that results in a diminished rate of synthesis of one or more of the globin chains. About 1.5% of the global population (80 to 90 million people are carriers of beta Thalassemia. More than 200 mutations are described in beta thalassemia. However not all mutations are common in different ethnic groups. The only effective way to reduce burden of thalassemia is to prevent birth of homozygotes. Diagnosis of beta thalassemia can be done by fetal DNA analysis for molecular defects of beta thalassemia or by fetal blood analysis. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only available curative approach for Thalassemia. Many patients with thalassemia in underdeveloped nations die in childhood or adolescence. Programs that provide acceptable care, including transfusion of safe blood and supportive therapy including chelation must be established.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v4i8.11609 Journal of Pathology of Nepal; Vol.4,No. 8 (2014 663-671

  17. Double Beta Decay Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepke, A.

    2005-01-01

    The experimental observation of neutrino oscillations and thus neutrino mass and mixing gives a first hint at new particle physics. The absolute values of the neutrino mass and the properties of neutrinos under CP-conjugation remain unknown. The experimental investigation of the nuclear double beta decay is one of the key techniques for solving these open problems

  18. Beta cell adaptation in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with a compensatory increase in beta cell mass. It is well established that somatolactogenic hormones contribute to the expansion both indirectly by their insulin antagonistic effects and directly by their mitogenic effects on the beta cells via receptors for prolactin...... and growth hormone expressed in rodent beta cells. However, the beta cell expansion in human pregnancy seems to occur by neogenesis of beta cells from putative progenitor cells rather than by proliferation of existing beta cells. Claes Hellerström has pioneered the research on beta cell growth for decades...... in the expansion of the beta cell mass in human pregnancy, and the relative roles of endocrine factors and nutrients....

  19. Misleading Betas: An Educational Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, James; Halcoussis, Dennis; Phillips, G. Michael

    2012-01-01

    The dual-beta model is a generalization of the CAPM model. In the dual-beta model, separate beta estimates are provided for up-market and down-market days. This paper uses the historical "Anscombe quartet" results which illustrated how very different datasets can produce the same regression coefficients to motivate a discussion of the…

  20. Interaction with beta-arrestin determines the difference in internalization behavor between beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, T; Kawasaki, A; Nagao, T; Kurose, H

    2000-09-15

    The beta(1)-adrenergic receptor (beta(1)AR) shows the resistance to agonist-induced internalization. As beta-arrestin is important for internalization, we examine the interaction of beta-arrestin with beta(1)AR with three different methods: intracellular trafficking of beta-arrestin, binding of in vitro translated beta-arrestin to intracellular domains of beta(1)- and beta(2)ARs, and inhibition of betaAR-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activities by beta-arrestin. The green fluorescent protein-tagged beta-arrestin 2 translocates to and stays at the plasma membrane by beta(2)AR stimulation. Although green fluorescent protein-tagged beta-arrestin 2 also translocates to the plasma membrane, it returns to the cytoplasm 10-30 min after beta(1)AR stimulation. The binding of in vitro translated beta-arrestin 1 and beta-arrestin 2 to the third intracellular loop and the carboxyl tail of beta(1)AR is lower than that of beta(2)AR. The fusion protein of beta-arrestin 1 with glutathione S-transferase inhibits the beta(1)- and beta(2)AR-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activities, although inhibition of the beta(1)AR-stimulated activity requires a higher concentration of the fusion protein than that of the beta(2)AR-stimulated activity. These results suggest that weak interaction of beta(1)AR with beta-arrestins explains the resistance to agonist-induced internalization. This is further supported by the finding that beta-arrestin can induce internalization of beta(1)AR when beta-arrestin 1 does not dissociate from beta(1)AR by fusing to the carboxyl tail of beta(1)AR.

  1. Low-beta investment strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Korn, Olaf; Kuntz, Laura-Chloé

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates investment strategies that exploit the low-beta anomaly. Although the notion of buying low-beta stocks and selling high-beta stocks is natural, a choice is necessary with respect to the relative weighting of high-beta stocks and low-beta stocks in the investment portfolio. Our empirical results for US large-cap stocks show that this choice is very important for the risk-return characteristics of the resulting portfolios and their sensitivities to common risk factors. W...

  2. Beta and muon decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo, A.; Pascual, P.

    1967-01-01

    These notes represent a series of lectures delivered by the authors in the Junta de Energia Nuclear, during the Spring term of 1965. They were devoted to graduate students interested in the Theory of Elementary Particles. Special emphasis was focussed into the computational problems. Chapter I is a review of basic principles (Dirac equation, transition probabilities, final state interactions.) which will be needed later. In Chapter II the four-fermion punctual Interaction is discussed, Chapter III is devoted to the study of beta-decay; the main emphasis is given to the deduction of the formulae corresponding to electron-antineutrino correlation, electron energy spectrum, lifetimes, asymmetry of electrons emitted from polarized nuclei, electron and neutrino polarization and time reversal invariance in beta decay. In Chapter IV we deal with the decay of polarized muons with radiative corrections. Chapter V is devoted to an introduction to C.V.C. theory. (Author)

  3. Beta-thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Origa Raffaella

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands, dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes, gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely

  4. Beta and Gamma Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Gaffney, C. F.; Clark, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and/or theoretical estimates are presented concerning, (i) attenuation within the sample of beta and gamma radiation from the soil, (ii) the gamma dose within the sample due to its own radioactivity, and (iii) the soil gamma dose in the proximity of boundaries between regions...... of differing radioactivity. It is confirmed that removal of the outer 2 mm of sample is adequate to remove influence from soil beta dose and estimates are made of the error introduced by non-removal. Other evaluations include variation of the soil gamma dose near the ground surface and it appears...... that the present practice of avoiding samples above a depth of 0.3 m may be over-cautious...

  5. Beta and muon decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, A; Pascual, P

    1967-07-01

    These notes represent a series of lectures delivered by the authors in the Junta de Energia Nuclear, during the Spring term of 1965. They were devoted to graduate students interested in the Theory of Elementary Particles. Special emphasis was focussed into the computational problems. Chapter I is a review of basic principles (Dirac equation, transition probabilities, final state interactions.) which will be needed later. In Chapter II the four-fermion punctual Interaction is discussed, Chapter III is devoted to the study of beta-decay; the main emphasis is given to the deduction of the formulae corresponding to electron-antineutrino correlation, electron energy spectrum, lifetimes, asymmetry of electrons emitted from polarized nuclei, electron and neutrino polarization and time reversal invariance in beta decay. In Chapter IV we deal with the decay of polarized muons with radiative corrections. Chapter V is devoted to an introduction to C.V.C. theory. (Author)

  6. Regulation of beta cell replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Ying C; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2008-01-01

    Beta cell mass, at any given time, is governed by cell differentiation, neogenesis, increased or decreased cell size (cell hypertrophy or atrophy), cell death (apoptosis), and beta cell proliferation. Nutrients, hormones and growth factors coupled with their signalling intermediates have been...... suggested to play a role in beta cell mass regulation. In addition, genetic mouse model studies have indicated that cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases that determine cell cycle progression are involved in beta cell replication, and more recently, menin in association with cyclin-dependent kinase...... inhibitors has been demonstrated to be important in beta cell growth. In this review, we consider and highlight some aspects of cell cycle regulation in relation to beta cell replication. The role of cell cycle regulation in beta cell replication is mostly from studies in rodent models, but whether...

  7. High beta experiments in CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Nishimura, K.

    1994-09-01

    High beta experiments were performed in the low-aspect-ratio helical device CHS with the volume-averaged equilibrium beta up to 2.1 %. These values (highest for helical systems) are obtained for high density plasmas in low magnetic field heated with two tangential neutral beams. Confinement improvement given by means of turning off gas puffing helped significantly to make high betas. Magnetic fluctuations increased with increasing beta, but finally stopped to increase in the beta range > 1 %. The coherent modes appearing in the magnetic hill region showed strong dependence on the beta values. The dynamic poloidal field control was applied to suppress the outward plasma movement with the plasma pressure. Such an operation gave fixed boundary operations of high beta plasmas in helical systems. (author)

  8. Beta rays and neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.F.

    1992-01-01

    It was over 30 years between the first observation of the enigmatic process of beta decay and the first postulation of the neutrino. It took a further 26 years until the first neutrino was detected and yet another 27 until the electroweak theory was confirmed by the discovery of W and Z particles. This article traces some of the puzzles and paradoxes associated with the history of the neutrino. (author)

  9. Coroutine Sequencing in BETA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    In object-oriented programming, a program execution is viewed as a physical model of some real or imaginary part of the world. A language supporting object-oriented programming must therefore contain comprehensive facilities for modeling phenomena and concepts form the application domain. Many...... applications in the real world consist of objects carrying out sequential processes. Coroutines may be used for modeling objects that alternate between a number of sequential processes. The authors describe coroutines in BETA...

  10. COM Support in BETA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1999-01-01

    Component technologies based on binary units of independent production are some of the most important contributions to software architecture and reuse during recent years. Especially the COM technologies and the CORBA standard from the Object Management Group have contributed new and interesting...... principles for software architecture, and proven to be useful in parctice. In this paper ongoing work with component support in the BETA language is described....

  11. LHCb: $2\\beta_s$ measurement at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Conti, G

    2009-01-01

    A measurement of $2\\beta_s$, the phase of the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ oscillation amplitude with respect to that of the ${\\rm b} \\rightarrow {\\rm c^{+}}{\\rm W^{-}}$ tree decay amplitude, is one of the key goals of the LHCb experiment with first data. In the Standard Model (SM), $2\\beta_s$ is predicted to be $0.0360^{+0.0020}_{-0.0016} \\rm rad$. The current constraints from the Tevatron are: $2\\beta_{s}\\in[0.32 ; 2.82]$ at 68$\\%$CL from the CDF experiment and $2\\beta_{s}=0.57^{+0.24}_{-0.30}$ from the D$\\oslash$ experiment. Although the statistical uncertainties are large, these results hint at the possible contribution of New Physics in the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ box diagram. After one year of data taking at LHCb at an average luminosity of $\\mathcal{L}\\sim2\\cdot10^{32}\\rm cm^{-2} \\rm s^{-1}$ (integrated luminosity $\\mathcal{L}_{\\rm int}\\sim 2 \\rm fb^{-1}$), the expected statistical uncertainty on the measurement is $\\sigma(2\\beta_s)\\simeq 0.03$. This uncertainty is similar to the $2\\beta_s$ value predicted by the SM.

  12. Suplementação de N-acetilcisteína em pacientes infectados pelo HIV submetidos ao primeiro tratamento anti-retroviral: Avaliação do efeito sobre a carga viral, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, β2-microglobulina, IgA, IgG e IgM, haptoglobina e α1-glicoproteína ácida N-acetylcysteine supplementation of HIV-infected patients under the first anti-retroviral treatment: Evaluation of the effect on viral load, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, β2-microglobulin, IgA, IgG, IgM, haptoglobin and α1-acid glycoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aricio Treitinger

    2002-03-01

    alterations are characterized by elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin 8 (IL-8, β2-microglobulin, IgA, IgG, IgM, haptoglobin and a1-acid glycoprotein. The goal of this double blind placebo-controlled study was to evaluate the effect of N-acetylcysteine supplementation on virological, immunological and inflammatory markers in 24 HIVinfected individuals who were taking their first anti-retroviral therapy. Eleven individuals were treated with anti-retroviral therapy plus placebo supplementation and thirteen were treated with anti-retroviral therapy plus 600 mg/day of Nacetylcysteine. The levels of the studied markers were evaluated at the day before and after 60, 120 and 180 days of treatment. In both groups a significant decrease in serum levels of TNF-α (p=0.0001, IL-6 (p>0.05, IL-8 (p=0.0001, b2 microglobulin (p=0.0005, IgA (p=0.007, IgG (p=0.001, IgM (p=0.0001, haptoglobin (p=0.0001 e α1-acid glycoprotein (p=0.012 was found due to anti-retroviral therapy. N-acetylcysteine supplementation had no additive or synergistic effects on the studied parameters. In conclusion, N-acetylcysteine had no additional beneficial effects, at least at the dose used in this study, on the treatment of HIV-infected patients under anti-retroviral therapy.

  13. Enantioselective synthesis of alpha,beta-disubstituted-beta-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, Mukund P; Prabagaran, Narayanasamy; Ghorpade, Sandeep G; Jasperse, Craig P

    2003-10-01

    Highly diastereoselective and enantioselective addition of N-benzylhydroxylamine to imides 17 and 20-30 produces alpha,beta-trans-disubstituted N-benzylisoxazolidinones 19 and 31-41. These reactions proceed in 60-96% ee with 93-99% de's using 5 mol % of Mg(NTf2)2 and ligand 18. The product isoxazolidinones can be hydrogenolyzed directly to provide alpha,beta-disubstituted-beta-amino acids.

  14. Beta measurement evaluation and upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Rathbun, L.A.; Roberson, P.L.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1986-01-01

    This program focuses on the resolution of problems associated with the field measurement of the beta dose component at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The change in DOE programs, including increased efforts in improved waste management and decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of facilities, coupled with beta measurement problems identified at Three Mile Island has increased the need to improve beta measurements. In FY 1982, work was initiated to provide a continuing effort to identify problems associated with beta dose assessment at DOE facilities. The problems identified resulted in the development of this program. The investigation includes (1) an assessment of measurement systems now in use, (2) development of improved calibration systems and procedures, (3) application of innovative beta dosimetry concepts, (4) investigation of new instruments or concepts for monitoring and spectroscopy, and (5) development of recommendations to assure an adequate beta measurement program within DOE facilities

  15. Conditional Betas and Investor Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando D. Chague

    2013-01-01

    We derive theoretical expressions for market betas from a rational expectation equilibrium model where the representative investor does not observe if the economy is in a recession or an expansion. Market betas in this economy are time-varying and related to investor uncertainty about the state of the economy. The dynamics of betas will also vary across assets according to the assets' cash-flow structure. In a calibration exercise, we show that value and growth firms have cash-flow structures...

  16. Dynamic returns of beta arbitrage

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Mafalda

    2017-01-01

    This thesis studies the patterns of the abnormal returns of the beta strategy. The topic can be helpful for professional investors, who intend to achieve a better performance in their portfolios. Following the methodology of Lou, Polk, & Huang (2016), the COBAR measure is computed in order to determine the levels of beta arbitrage in the market in each point in time. It is argued that beta arbitrage activity can have impact on the returns of the beta strategy. In fact, it is demonstrated that...

  17. Integration of BETA with Eclipse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Enevoldsen, Mads Brøgger

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents language interoperability issues appearing in order to implement support for the BETA language in the Java-based Eclipse integrated development environment. One of the challenges is to implement plug-ins in BETA and be able to load them in Eclipse. In order to do this, some fo...... it is possible to implement plug-ins in BETA and even inherit from Java classes. In the paper the two approaches are described together with part of the mapping from BETA to Java class files. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/15710661...

  18. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.

    2010-03-23

    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  19. Identification of active anti-inflammatory principles of beta- beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chromatography. Components of the extracts were identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC) scanner and UV-visible spectroscopy, using scopoletin as standard. Results: ... basic coumarin skeleton ring structure reduce ... Figure 2: Thin-layer chromatogram: (1) Ethanol extract; (2) Dichloromethane fraction; (3) Beta-beta.

  20. Improved limits on beta(-) and beta(-) decays of Ca-48

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakalyarov, A.; Balysh, A.; Barabash, AS.; Beneš, P.; Briancon, C.; Brudanin, V. B.; Čermák, P.; Egorov, V.; Hubert, F.; Hubert, P.; Korolev, NA.; Kosjakov, VN.; Kovalík, Alojz; Lebedev, NA.; Novgorodov, A. F.; Rukhadze, NI.; Štekl, NI.; Timkin, VV.; Veleshko, IE.; Vylov, T.; Umatov, VI.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 9 (2002), s. 545-547 ISSN 0021-3640 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : beta decay * double beta decay * Ca-48 Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.483, year: 2002

  1. Conversion of beta-methylbutyric acid to beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyric acid by Galactomyces reessii.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, I Y; Nissen, S L; Rosazza, J P

    1997-01-01

    beta-Hydroxy-beta-methylbutyric acid (HMB) has been shown to increase strength and lean mass gains in humans undergoing resistance-exercise training. HMB is currently marketed as a calcium salt of HMB, and thus, environmentally sound and inexpensive methods of manufacture are being sought. This study investigates the microbial conversion of beta-methylbutyric acid (MBA) to HMB by cultures of Galactomyces reessii. Optimal concentrations of MBA were in the range of 5 to 20 g/liter for HMB produ...

  2. The best-beta CAPM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, L.

    2006-01-01

    The issue of 'best-beta' arises as soon as potential errors in the Sharpe-Lintner-Black capital asset pricing model (CAPM) are acknowledged. By incorporating a target variable into the investor preferences, this study derives a best-beta CAPM (BCAPM) that maintains the CAPM's theoretical appeal and

  3. Beta decay of Cu-56

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borcea, R; Aysto, J; Caurier, E; Dendooven, P; Doring, J; Gierlik, M; Gorska, M; Grawe, H; Hellstrom, M; Janas, Z; Jokinen, A; Karny, M; Kirchner, R; La Commara, M; Langanke, K; Martinez-Pinedo, G; Mayet, P; Nieminen, A; Nowacki, F; Penttila, H; Plochocki, A; Rejmund, M; Roeckl, E; Schlegel, C; Schmidt, K; Schwengner, R; Sawicka, M

    2001-01-01

    The proton-rich isotope Cu-56 was produced at the GSI On-Line Mass Separator by means of the Si-28(S-32, p3n) fusion-evaporation reaction. Its beta -decay properties were studied by detecting beta -delayed gamma rays and protons. A half-Life of 93 +/- 3 ms was determined for Cu-56. Compared to the

  4. BETA SPECTRA. I. Negatrons spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Malonda, A.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    1978-01-01

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 62 negatrons emitters have been computed introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. These spectra are plotted vs. energy, once normal i sed, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (Author)

  5. Review of the beta situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, J.

    1982-01-01

    This note lists some of the possible causes of beta limitation in tokamak and discusses what is known and what is involved in investigating them. The motivation for preparing this note is the observed degradation of confinement with increasing beta poloidal β/sub p/ and beam power P/sub b/ in ISX-B

  6. RAVEN Beta Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabiti, Cristian; Alfonsi, Andrea; Cogliati, Joshua Joseph; Mandelli, Diego; Kinoshita, Robert Arthur; Wang, Congjian; Maljovec, Daniel Patrick; Talbot, Paul William

    2016-01-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  7. RAVEN Beta Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert Arthur [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Congjian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maljovec, Daniel Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Talbot, Paul William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  8. Interactions between two beta-sheets. Energetics of beta/beta packing in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, K C; Némethy, G; Rumsey, S; Tuttle, R W; Scheraga, H A

    1986-04-20

    The analysis of the interactions between regularly folded segments of the polypeptide chain contributes to an understanding of the energetics of protein folding. Conformational energy-minimization calculations have been carried out to determine the favorable ways of packing two right-twisted beta-sheets. The packing of two five-stranded beta-sheets was investigated, with the strands having the composition CH3CO-(L-Ile)6-NHCH3 in one beta-sheet and CH3CO-(L-Val)6-NHCH3 in the other. Two distinct classes of low-energy packing arrangements were found. In the class with lowest energies, the strands of the two beta-sheets are aligned nearly parallel (or antiparallel) with each other, with a preference for a negative orientation angle, because this arrangement corresponds to the best complementary packing of the two twisted saddle-shaped beta-sheets. In the second class, with higher interaction energies, the strands of the two beta-sheets are oriented nearly perpendicular to each other. While the surfaces of the two beta-sheets are not complementary in this arrangement, there is good packing between the corner of one beta-sheet and the interior part of the surface of the other, resulting in a favorable energy of packing. Both classes correspond to frequently observed orientations of beta-sheets in proteins. In proteins, the second class of packing is usually observed when the two beta-sheets are covalently linked, i.e. when a polypeptide strand passes from one beta-sheet to the other, but we have shown here that a large contribution to the stabilization of this packing arrangement arises from noncovalent interactions.

  9. Derivatives of the Incomplete Beta Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Boik

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The incomplete beta function is defined as where Beta(p, q is the beta function. Dutka (1981 gave a history of the development and numerical evaluation of this function. In this article, an algorithm for computing first and second derivatives of Ix,p,q with respect to p and q is described. The algorithm is useful, for example, when fitting parameters to a censored beta, truncated beta, or a truncated beta-binomial model.

  10. Kidney injury molecule-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin as prognostic markers in idiopathic membranous nephropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, Rutger J. H.; van den Brand, Jan A. J. G.; Waanders, Femke; Meijer, Esther; van Goor, Harry; Peters, Hilde P.; Hofstra, Julia M.; Wetzels, Jack F. M.

    Background: Urinary excretion of alpha-1-microglobulin and beta-2-microglobulin reflects tubular damage and predicts outcome in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy with reasonable accuracy. Urinary kidney injury molecule-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin are novel

  11. Rapid and sustained CD4(+) T-cell-independent immunity from adenovirus-encoded vaccine antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter J; Bartholdy, Christina; Buus, Anette Stryhn

    2007-01-01

    -linked lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)-derived epitopes was long-lived and protective. Notably, in contrast to full-length protein, the response elicited with the beta(2)-microglobulin-linked LCMV-derived epitope was CD4(+) T-cell independent. Furthermore, virus-specific CD8(+) T cells primed...... in the absence of CD4(+) T-cell help were sustained in the long term and able to expand and control a secondary challenge with LCMV. Our results demonstrate that modifications to the antigen used in adenovirus vaccines may be used to improve the induced T-cell response. Such a strategy for CD4(+) T-cell...... to that elicited with an adenovirus-encoded minimal epitope covalently linked to beta(2)-microglobulin. We demonstrate that the beta(2)-microglobulin-linked epitope induced an accelerated and augmented CD8(+) T-cell response. Furthermore, the immunity conferred by vaccination with beta(2)-microglobulin...

  12. Development of beta reference radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Zhaoyong; Cai Shanyu; Li Yanbo; Yin Wei; Feng Jiamin; Sun Yuhua; Li Yongqiang

    1997-09-01

    A system of beta reference radiation has been developed, that is composed of 740 MBq 147 Pm beta source, 74 MBq and 740 MBq 90 Sr + 90 Y β sources, compensation filters, a source handling tool, a source jig, spacing bars, a shutter, a control unit and a beta dose meter calibration stand. For 740 MBq 147 Pm and 74 MBq 90 Sr + 90 Y beta reference radiations with compensation filters and 740 MBq 90 Sr + 90 Y beta reference radiation without compensation filter, at 20 cm, 30 cm and 30 cm distance separately; the residual energy of maximum is 0.14 MeV, 1.98 MeV and 2.18 MeV separately; the absorbed dose to tissue D (0.07) is 1.547 mGy/h (1996-05-20), 5.037 mGy/h (1996-05-10) and 93.57 mGy/h (1996-05-15) separately; the total uncertainty is 3.0%, 1.7% and 1.7% separately. For the first and the second beta reference radiation, the dose rate variability in the area of 18 cm diameter in the plane perpendicular to the beta-ray beam axis is within +-6% and +-3% separately. (3 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.)

  13. A semiconductor beta ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bom, V.R.

    1987-01-01

    Measurement of energy spectra of beta particles emitted from nuclei in beta-decay processes provides information concerning the mass difference of these nuclei between initial and final state. Moreover, experimental beta spectra yield information on the feeding of the levels in the daughter nucleus. Such data are valuable in the construction and checking of the level schemes. This thesis describes the design, construction, testing and usage of a detector for the accurate measurement of the mentioned spectra. In ch. 2 the design and construction of the beta spectrometer, which uses a hyper-pure germanium crystal for energy determination, is described. A simple wire chamber is used to discriminate beta particles from gamma radiation. Disadvantages arise from the large amounts of scattered beta particles deforming the continua. A method is described to minimize the scattering. In ch. 3 some theoretical aspects of data analysis are described and the results of Monte-Carlo simulations of the summation of annihilation radiation are compared with experiments. Ch. 4 comprises the results of the measurements of the beta decay energies of 103-108 In. 87 refs.; 34 figs.; 7 tabs

  14. BETA (Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Evan M.; Birmingham, William J.; Rivera, William F.; Romero-Talamas, Carlos A.

    2017-10-01

    The Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus (BETA) is a 1-Tesla (T) prototype of the 10-T Adjustable Long Pulse High-Field Apparatus (ALPHA). These water-cooled resistive magnets use high DC currents to produce strong uniform magnetic fields. Presented here is the successful completion of the BETA project and experimental results validating analytical magnet designing methods developed at the Dusty Plasma Laboratory (DPL). BETA's final design specifications will be highlighted which include electromagnetic, thermal and stress analyses. The magnet core design will be explained which include: Bitter Arcs, helix starters, and clamping annuli. The final version of the magnet's vessel and cooling system are also presented, as well as the electrical system of BETA, which is composed of a unique solid-state breaker circuit. Experimental results presented will show the operation of BETA at 1 T. The results are compared to both analytical design methods and finite element analysis calculations. We also explore the steady state maximums and theoretical limits of BETA's design. The completion of BETA validates the design and manufacturing techniques that will be used in the succeeding magnet, ALPHA.

  15. Experiments on double beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busto, J [Neuchatel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique

    1996-11-01

    The Double Beta Decay, and especially ({beta}{beta}){sub 0{nu}} mode, is an excellent test of Standard Model as well as of neutrino physics. From experimental point of view, a very large number of different techniques are or have been used increasing the sensitivity of this experiments quite a lot (the factor of 10{sup 4} in the last 20 years). In future, in spite of several difficulties, the sensitivity would be increased further, keeping the interest of this very important process. (author) 4 figs., 5 tabs., 21 refs.

  16. Preventive Effects of Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methyl Butyrate

    OpenAIRE

    N. Ravanbakhsh; N. Torabi; M. Foadoddini

    2016-01-01

    Aims: One of the major factors in sudden cardiac arrest is the initiation and continuation of deadly arrhythmias during ischemia. It is known that beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) has useful effects such as anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis effects in the skeletal muscles. The aim of this study was to investigate the preventive effects of HMB on the ventricular arrhythmias due to the ischemia. Materials & Methods: In the experimental study, 30 Wistar male rats were randomly div...

  17. Dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources; Dosimetria de fuentes {beta} extensas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Lallena R, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    In this work, we have been studied, making use of the Penelope Monte Carlo simulation code, the dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources in situations of spherical geometry including interfaces. These configurations are of interest in the treatment of the called cranealfaringyomes of some synovia leisure of knee and other problems of interest in medical physics. Therefore, its application can be extended toward problems of another areas with similar geometric situation and beta sources. (Author)

  18. Sigma beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, D.E.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment to measure beta decays of the sigma particle. Sigmas produced by stopping a K - beam in a liquid hydrogen target decayed in the following reactions: Kp → Σπ; Σ → Neν. The electron and pion were detected by wire spark chambers in a magnetic spectrometer and by plastic scintillators, and were differentiated by a threshold gas Cherenkov counter. The neutron was detected by liquid scintillation counters. The data (n = 3) shell electrons or the highly excited electrons decay first. Instead, it is suggested that when there are two to five electrons in highly excited states immediately after a heavy ion--atom collision the first transitions to occur will be among highly excited Rydberg states in a cascade down to the 4s, 4p, and 3d-subshells. If one of the long lived states becomes occupied by electrons promoted during the collision or by electrons falling from higher levels, it will not decay until after the valence shell decays. LMM rates calculated to test the methods used are compared to previous works. The mixing coefficients are given in terms of the states 4s4p, 45sp+-, and 5s5p. The applicability of Cooper, Fano, and Prats' discussion of the energies and transition rates of doubly excited states is considered

  19. Double Beta Decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorini, Ettore

    2008-01-01

    The importance of neutrinoless Double Beta Decay (DBD) is stressed in view of the recent results of experiments on neutrino oscillations which indicate that the difference between the squared masses of two neutrinos of different flavours is finite [For a recent review including neutrino properties and recent results see: Review of Particle Physics, J. of Phys. G: Nuclear and Particle Physics 33, 1]. As a consequence the mass of at least one neutrino has to be different from zero and it becomes imperative to determine its absolute value. The various experimental techniques to search for DBD are discussed together with the difficult problems of the evaluation of the corresponding nuclear matrix elements. The upper limits on neutrino mass coming from the results of the various experiments are reported together with the indication for a non zero value by one of them not confirmed so far. The two presently running experiments on neutrinoless DBD are briefly described together with the already approved or designed second generation searches aiming to reach the values on the absolute neutrino mass indicated by the results on neutrino oscillations

  20. (beta-HC CG) in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    Urothelial tumour samples were obtained from all the 86 patients requiring surgical ..... and/or urine beta HCG appears to be an efficient diagnostic marker for the ..... collected all urothelial tumour specimens for storage, cutting and staining.

  1. Beta-glucans and cholesterol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šíma, Petr; Vannucci, Luca; Větvička, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 4 (2017), s. 1799-1808 ISSN 1107-3756 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : cholesterol * beta-glucans * diet Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.341, year: 2016

  2. Radioisotope indicator, type BETA 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duszanski, M.; Pankow, A.; Skwarczynski, B.

    1975-01-01

    The authors describe a radioisotope indicator, type BETA 2, constructed in the ZKMPW Works to be employed in mines for counting, checking, signalling the presence and positioning of cars, as well as monitoring the state of some other equipment. (author)

  3. Tables of double beta decay data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tretyak, V.I. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine)]|[Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Zdesenko, Y.G. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1995-12-31

    A compilation of experimental data on double beta decay is presented. The tables contain the most stringent known experimental limits or positive results of 2{beta} transitions of 69 natural nuclides to ground and excited states of daughter nuclei for different channels (2{beta}{sup -}; 2{beta}{sup +}; {epsilon}{beta}{sup +}; 2{epsilon}) and modes (0{nu}; 2{nu}; 0{nu}M) of decay. (authors). 189 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Beta Instability and Stochastic Market Weights

    OpenAIRE

    David H. Goldenberg

    1985-01-01

    An argument is given for individual firm beta instability based upon the stochastic character of the market weights defining the market portfolio and the constancy of its beta. This argument is generalized to market weighted portfolios and the form of the stochastic process generating betas is linked to that of the market return process. The implications of this analysis for adequacy of models of beta nonstationarity and estimation of betas are considered in light of the available empirical e...

  5. In-trap decay spectroscopy for {beta}{beta} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Thomas

    2011-01-18

    The presented work describes the implementation of a new technique to measure electron-capture (EC) branching ratios (BRs) of intermediate nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. This technique has been developed at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. It facilitates one of TRIUMF's Ion Traps for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN), the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) that is used as a spectroscopy Penning trap. Radioactive ions, produced at the radioactive isotope facility ISAC, are injected and stored in the spectroscopy Penning trap while their decays are observed. A key feature of this technique is the use of a strong magnetic field, required for trapping. It radially confines electrons from {beta} decays along the trap axis while X-rays, following an EC, are emitted isotropically. This provides spatial separation of X-ray and {beta} detection with almost no {beta}-induced background at the X-ray detector, allowing weak EC branches to be measured. Furthermore, the combination of several traps allows one to isobarically clean the sample prior to the in-trap decay spectroscopy measurement. This technique has been developed to measure ECBRs of transition nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. Detailed knowledge of these electron capture branches is crucial for a better understanding of the underlying nuclear physics in {beta}{beta} decays. These branches are typically of the order of 10{sup -5} and therefore difficult to measure. Conventional measurements suffer from isobaric contamination and a dominating {beta} background at theX-ray detector. Additionally, X-rays are attenuated by the material where the radioactive sample is implanted. To overcome these limitations, the technique of in-trap decay spectroscopy has been developed. In this work, the EBIT was connected to the TITAN beam line and has been commissioned. Using the developed beam diagnostics, ions were injected into the Penning trap and systematic studies on injection and storage optimization were performed. Furthermore, Ge

  6. Smart Beta or Smart Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kenneth Lillelund; Steenstrup, Søren Resen

    2016-01-01

    that smart beta investing probably will do better than passive market capitalization investing over time, we believe many are coming to a conclusion too quickly regarding active managers. Institutional investors are able to guide managers through benchmarks and risk frameworks toward the same well......Smart beta has become the flavor of the decade in the investment world with its low fees, easy access to rewarded risk premiums, and appearance of providing good investment results relative to both traditional passive benchmarks and actively managed funds. Although we consider it well documented......-documented smart beta risk premiums and still motivate active managers to avoid value traps, too highly priced small caps, defensives, etc. By constructing the equity portfolios of active managers that resemble the most widely used risk premiums, we show that the returns and risk-adjusted returns measures...

  7. Beta decay of 22O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, F.; Dufour, J.P.; Moral, R. del; Fleury, A.; Jean, D.; Pravikoff, M.S.; Delagrange, H.; Geissel, H.; Schmidt, K.H.; Hanelt, E.

    1989-01-01

    The beta-gamma spectroscopic study of 22 O is presented. This nucleus, produced as a projectile-like fragment from the interaction of a 60 MeV/n 40 Ar beam with a Be target, has been separated by the LISE spectrometer. Several gamma rays from 22 O decay have been observed, from which a half-life of (2.25±0.15) s has been determined. Accurate excitation energies have been deduced for several states in 22 F. A partial beta decay scheme of 22 O has been established. Experimental results have been compared with shell model calculations. (orig.)

  8. Beta-hemolytic Streptococcal Bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Kolmos, Hans Jørn; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2002-01-01

    Bacteremia with beta-hemolytic Streptococci groups A, B, C and G has a mortality rate of approximately 20%. In this study we analyzed the association of various patient risk factors with mortality. Records from 241 patients with beta-hemolytic streptococcal bacteremia were reviewed with particular...... attention to which predisposing factors were predictors of death. A logistic regression model found age, burns, immunosuppressive treatment and iatrogenic procedures prior to the infection to be significant predictors of death, with odds ratios of 1.7 (per decade), 19.7, 3.6 and 6.8, respectively...

  9. The Beta Transmuted Weibull Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Pal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a beta transmuted Weibull distribution, which contains a number ofdistributions as special cases. The properties of the distribution are discussed and explicit expressions are derived for the mean deviations, Bonferroni and Lorenz curves, and reliability. The distribution and moments of order statistics are also studied. Estimation of the model parameters by the method of maximum likelihood is discussed. The log beta transmuted Weibull model is introduced to analyze censored data. Finally, the usefulness of the new distribution in analyzing positive data is illustrated.

  10. Beta activity of enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambiar, P.P.V.J.; Ramachandran, V.

    1975-01-01

    Use of enriched uranium as reactor fuel necessitates its handling in various forms. For purposes of planning and organising radiation protection measures in enriched uranium handling facilities, it is necessary to have a basic knowledge of the radiation status of enriched uranium systems. The theoretical variations in beta activity and energy with U 235 enrichment are presented. Depletion is considered separately. Beta activity build up is also studied for two specific enrichments, in respect of which experimental values for specific alpha activity are available. (author)

  11. A {beta} - {gamma} coincidence; Metodo de coincidencias {beta} - {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agullo, F

    1960-07-01

    A {beta} - {gamma} coincidence method for absolute counting is given. The fundamental principles are revised and the experimental part is detailed. The results from {sup 1}98 Au irradiated in the JEN 1 Swimming pool reactor are given. The maximal accuracy is 1 per cent. (Author) 11 refs.

  12. N-Benzylhydroxylamine addition to beta-aryl enoates. Enantioselective synthesis of beta-aryl-beta-amino acid precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi; Liu

    2000-10-19

    Chiral Lewis acid catalyzed N-benzylhydroxylamine addition to pyrrolidinone-derived enoates afforded beta-aryl-beta-amino acid derivatives in high enantiomeric purity with moderate to very good chemical efficiency.

  13. Electret dosemeter for beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, L.L.; Caldas, L.V.E.; Mascarenhas, S.

    The response characteristics of an electret dosemeter for beta radiation are studied. Experiments were performed using different geometries and walls, and it was verified for which geometry the dosemeter sensitivity is greater. Sources of 90 Sr - 90 Y, 204 Tl and 85 Kr were used in the experiments. (I.C.R.) [pt

  14. Personnel monitoring for beta rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piesch, E.; Johns, T.F.

    1983-01-01

    The practical considerations which have to be taken into account in the design of personnel monitors intended to measure doses resulting from exposure to beta rays are discussed. These include the measurement of doses in situations involving either fairly uniform or non-uniform irradiation and of doses to the male gonads. (UK)

  15. Constraining neutrinoless double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorame, L.; Meloni, D.; Morisi, S.; Peinado, E.; Valle, J.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    A class of discrete flavor-symmetry-based models predicts constrained neutrino mass matrix schemes that lead to specific neutrino mass sum-rules (MSR). We show how these theories may constrain the absolute scale of neutrino mass, leading in most of the cases to a lower bound on the neutrinoless double beta decay effective amplitude.

  16. Beta Cell Workshop 2013 Kyoto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, R Scott; Madsen, Ole D; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2013-01-01

    The very modern Kyoto International Conference Center provided the site for the 8th workshop on Beta cells on April 23-26, 2013. The preceding workshops were held in Boston, USA (1991); Kyoto, Japan (1994); Helsingør, Denmark (1997); Helsinki, Finland (2003); El Perello, Spain (2006); Peebles...

  17. Beta calibration and dosimetry at IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, L.V.E.

    1983-01-01

    A commercial extrapolation chamber (PTW, Germany) was tested in different beta radiation fields and its properties investigated. Its usefullness for beta radiation calibration and dosimetry was demonstrated. (Author) [pt

  18. On Fuzzy {beta}-I-open sets and Fuzzy {beta}-I-continuous functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, Aynur [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Arts, Selcuk University, Campus, 42075 Konya (Turkey)], E-mail: akeskin@selcuk.edu.tr

    2009-11-15

    In this paper, first of all we obtain some properties and characterizations of fuzzy {beta}-I-open sets. After that, we also define the notion of {beta}-I-closed sets and obtain some properties. Lastly, we introduce the notions of fuzzy {beta}-I-continuity with the help of fuzzy {beta}-I-open sets to obtain decomposition of fuzzy continuity.

  19. Beta-Catenin Stability in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baswaran, Vijay

    1999-01-01

    .... beta-catenin also binds the adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC). The tumor suppressor function of APC is suggested to depend in part on its ability to bind beta-catenin and to facilitate beta-catenin degradation by an unknown mechanism...

  20. Beta-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierikx, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to cephalosprins due to the production of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) or plasmid mediated AmpC beta-lactamases is increasingly found in infections in humans outside the hospital. The genes encoding for these beta-lactamases are located on mobile DNA (plasmids), which can be

  1. Development and applications of beta and near beta titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemura, A.; Ohyama, H.; Nishimura, T.; Abumiya, T.

    1993-01-01

    In this report the authors introduced application of beta and near beta titanium alloys also development and processing of these alloys at Kobe Steel LTD. Ti-15Mo-5Zr-3Al is an alloy developed by Kobe Steel which has been applied for variety of sporting goods, also used as an erosion shield of steam turbine blades. Ti-15Mo-5Zr-3Al high strength wire for valve springs is under development. New beta alloys(Ti-V-Nb-Sn-Al) are under development which have lower flow stress at room temperature than Ti 15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al, expected to improve productivity of cold forging. NNS forging and thermo mechanical treatment of Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al were studied. Ti-10V-2Fe3Al steam turbine blades and structural parts for aircraft were developed. Fine grain cold strips of Ti 15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al are produced by annealing and pickling process. These cold strips are used for parts of a fishing rod

  2. Clinical significance of determination of serum and urine β2-microglobulin (β2-m) in patients with Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Luhua; Mai Mang; Ouyang Xiaoqing; Wang Shuhua; Lin Cen; Fang Linli

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between the serum, urine contents of β 2 -m and serum thyroid hormones levels in patients with Graves' disease. Methods: Serum, urine β 2 -m contents (with RIA), serum FT 3 , FT 4 levels (with CLIA), TGA, TMA positive rates (with RIA) were determined in 82 patients with Graves' disease both before and after treatment as well as in 40 controls. Results: The serum and urine β 2 -m contents as well as the serum FT 3 , FT 4 levels in the 82 hyperthyroid patients before treatment were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 2 -m, FT 3 , FT 4 levels dropped to approaching normal (vs controls, P>0.05). In the 13 treatment failures, the levels remained significantly higher than those in controls (P 2 -m contents after treatment paralleled those of FT 3 , FT 4 levels. β 2 -m could be used as a diagnostic indicator for hyperthyroidism. (authors)

  3. Glycosaminoglycans enhance the fibrillation propensity of the ß2-microglobulin cleavage variant--¿K58-ß2m

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corlin, Dorthe B; Johnsen, Christina K; Nissen, Mogens H

    2010-01-01

    when heparan sulfate is present have increased length and diameter, and possess enhanced stability and seeding properties. However, when copper ions are present the fibrils are short, thin and less stable, and form at a slower rate. We suggest that heparan sulfate stabilizes the cleaved monomers...... in the early aggregates, hereby promoting the assembly of these into fibrils, whereas the copper ions appear to have a destabilizing effect on the monomers. This keeps them in a structure forming amorphous aggregates for a longer period of time, leading to the formation of spherical bodies followed...... by the assembly of fibrils. Hence, the in vivo formation of amyloid fibrils in DRA could be initiated by the generation of ¿K58-ß2m which spontaneously aggregate and form fibrils. The fibrillogenesis is enhanced by the involvement of GAGs and/or metal ions, and results in amyloid-like fibrils able to promote...

  4. Beta genus papillomaviruses and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Peter M; Pfister, Herbert J

    2015-05-01

    A role for the beta genus HPVs in keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) remains to be established. In this article we examine the potential role of the beta HPVs in cancer revealed by the epidemiology associating these viruses with KC and supported by oncogenic properties of the beta HPV proteins. Unlike the cancer associated alpha genus HPVs, in which transcriptionally active viral genomes are invariably found associated with the cancers, that is not the case for the beta genus HPVs and keratinocyte carcinomas. Thus a role for the beta HPVs in KC would necessarily be in the carcinogenesis initiation and not in the maintenance of the tumor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Alpha and beta detection and spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saro, S.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of alpha and beta radioactive decay, the interaction of alpha and beta particles with matter, and their detection and spectrometry are dealt with in seven chapters: 1. Alpha transformation of atomic nuclei; 2. Basic properties of detectors and statistics of detection; 3. Alpha detectors and spectrometers; 4. Applications of alpha detection and spectrometry; 5. Beta transformation of atomic nuclei; 6. Beta particle detectors and spectrometers; 7. Detection of low energy beta particles. Chapter 8 is devoted to sampling and preparation of samples for radiometry. (E.F.)

  6. Antibodies against chromosomal beta-lactamase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giwercman, B; Rasmussen, J W; Ciofu, Oana

    1994-01-01

    A murine monoclonal anti-chromosomal beta-lactamase antibody was developed and an immunoblotting technique was used to study the presence of serum and sputum antibodies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa chromosomal group 1 beta-lactamase in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The serum antibody...... 1 cephalosporinase. We found a wide range of chromosomal beta-lactamase activity in the sputum samples, with no correlation with basal or induced activity of beta-lactamase expression. The presence of anti-beta-lactamase antibodies in endobronchial sputum could be an important factor in the defense...

  7. DMPD: Immunoreceptor-like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17913496 Immunoreceptor-like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. Jakus Z, Fod...) Show Immunoreceptor-like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. PubmedID 17913496 Title Immunoreceptor-...like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. Authors Jakus Z, Fodor S, Abram CL

  8. Metalo-beta-lactamases Metallo-beta-lactamases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Elisandro Mendes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos tem sido observada maior incidência de bacilos Gram-negativos resistentes a cefalosporinas de espectro ampliado no ambiente hospitalar, ocasionando, assim, maior uso de betalactâmicos mais potentes, como os carbapenens. A utilização de carbapenens exerce maior pressão seletiva sobre a microbiota hospitalar, o que pode ocasionar aumento da resistência a esses agentes. Entre os mecanismos de resistência a carbapenens mais comumente identificados estão a produção de betalactamases, como, por exemplo, as pertencentes à classe D de Ambler e as que pertencem à classe B de Ambler, ou metalo-beta-lactamases (MbetaL. Essas últimas hidrolisam todos betalactâmicos comercialmente disponíveis, sendo a única exceção o monobactam aztreonam. Desde o início da década de 1990, novos genes que codificam MbetaLs têm sido descritos em microrganismos clinicamente importantes, como Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter spp. e membros da família Enterobacteriaceae. O encontro desses microrganismos não-sensíveis a carbapenens pode ser submetido a metodologias fenotípicas para detecção da produção de MbetaL com o intuito de auxiliar a Comissão de Controle de Infecção Hospitalar (CCIH e prevenir a disseminação desses determinantes de resistência, uma vez que genes que codificam MbetaLs estão contidos em estruturas genéticas que propiciam sua mobilidade de forma muito efetiva, sendo então facilmente disseminados.Increase isolation of Gram-negative bacilli resistant to broad-spectrum cephalosporin has been observed during the last few years, thus determining the use of more potent beta-lactams, such as carbapenems. The use of these antimicrobial agents may lead to the emergence of carbapenem resistant Gram-negative bacilli in the nosocomial environment. Carbapenem resistance may be due to the production of Ambler class D beta-lactamase or Ambler class B beta-lactamase, also called metallo-beta-lactamase (MbetaL. Apart from

  9. Resistance training & beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation on hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOIntroduction:In recent years, there was an increased interest on the effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB supplementation on skeletal muscle due to its anti-catabolic effects.Objectives:To investigate the effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, muscular strength and anabolic-catabolic hormones after resistance training.Methods:Twenty amateur male athletes were randomly assigned to supplement and control groups in a double-blind crossover design and participated in four weeks resistance training. Before and after the test period fasting blood samples were obtained to determine anabolic (the growth hormone and testosterone and catabolic (cortisol hormones, and fat mass, lean body mass (LBM and muscular strength were measured. Dependent and independent t-tests were used to analyze data.Results:After the training period, there were no significant differen-ces between the groups with respect to fat mass, LBM and anabolic-catabolic hormones. HMB supplementation resulted in a significantly greater strength gain (p≤0.05.Conclusion:Greater increase in strength for HMB group was not accompanied by body composition and basal circulating anabolic-catabolic hormonal changes. It seems that HMB supplementation may have beneficial effects on neurological adaptations of strength gain.

  10. Electrets for beta radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, L.L.; Caldas, L.V.E.; Mascarenhas, S.

    1983-01-01

    Electret dosimetry has been reviewed by Gross. A cylindrical electret ionization-chamber type dosimeter has been studied for X and gamma rays and neutrons. The principle of the dosimeter is electret charge compensation due to ionization in the chamber volume. Electret ionization chambers can be designed with one or more electrets and in various shapes. This study is concerned with a simple system, similar to a cylindrical ionization chamber (sensitive volume: 3,5 cm 3 ) using teflon electrets. Aluminum and lucite were used as wall-materials. Other experiences were performed using chambers without wall, i.e., without defined sensitive volume. The teflon electrets were obtained by Corona discharge in the gas surrounding them. The measurement of the electret charge was made by induction using a co-axial insulated metal chamber connected to an electrometer Keithley 610C. By measuring the charge before and after irradiation it is possible to obtain a calibration curve: charge (Q) versus absorbed dose (D) for the dosimeter. The irradiation setup used was the Beta Secondary Standard System of IPEN calibration laboratory with four beta sources: 90 Sr 90 Y (74 and 1850 MBq), 204 Tl (18,5 MBq) and 147 Pm (518 MBq). In some cases a 85 Kr source was also used. The electrets were tested in different radiation field geometries: electret axis parallel and perpendicular to the field. In conclusion, depending on the wall material and radiation field geometry, the teflon electret detector can be used for different dose interval determinations, using beta radiation

  11. Abstraction Mechanisms in the BETA Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    1983-01-01

    . It is then necessary that the abstraction mechanisms are powerful in order to define more specialized constructs. BETA is an object oriented language like SIMULA 67 ([SIMULA]) and SMALLTALK ([SMALLTALK]). By this is meant that a construct like the SIMULA class/subclass mechanism is fundamental in BETA. In contrast......]) --- covering both data, procedural and control abstractions, substituting constructs like class, procedure, function and type. Correspondingly objects, procedure activation records and variables are all regarded as special cases of the basic building block of program executions: the entity. A pattern thus......The BETA programming language is developed as part of the BETA project. The purpose of this project is to develop concepts, constructs and tools in the field of programming and programming languages. BETA has been developed from 1975 on and the various stages of the language are documented in [BETA...

  12. High-beta linac structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriber, S.O.

    1979-01-01

    Accelerating structures for high-beta linacs that have been and are in use are reviewed in terms of their performance. Particular emphasis is given to room-temperature structures and the disk-and-washer structure. The disk-and-washer structure has many attractive features that are discussed for pulsed high-gradient linacs, for 100% duty-cycle medium-gradient linacs and for high-current linacs requiring maximal amounts of stored energy in the electric fields available to the beam

  13. Theoretical aspects of double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    Considerable effort has been expended recently in theoretical studies of double beta decay. Much of this work has focussed on the constraints this process places on gauge theories of the weak interaction, in general, and on the neutrino mass matrix, in particular. In addition, interesting nuclear structure questions have arisen in studies of double beta decay matrix elements. After briefly reviewing the theory of double beta decay, some of the progress that has been made in these areas is summarized. 25 references

  14. Origins of Beta Tantalum in Sputtered Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mulligan, C

    2001-01-01

    .... Some of the most recent work has attempted to relate the energetics (i.e., atom/ion energy) of the plasma to the alpha right arrow beta transition. It has been shown that the energetics of the plasma can relate to the most crucial sputtering parameters. The most significant feature of the use of plasma energy to explain the alpha right arrow beta transition is that it relates the formation of beta-tantalum to a quantifiable measure.

  15. High beta plasmas in the PBX tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol, K.; Buchenauer, D.; Chance, M.

    1986-04-01

    Bean-shaped configurations favorable for high β discharges have been investigated in the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) tokamak. Strongly indented bean-shaped plasmas have been successfully formed, and beta values of over 5% have been obtained with 5 MW of injected neutral beam power. These high beta discharges still lie in the first stability regime for ballooning modes, and MHD stability analysis implicates the external kink as responsible for the present β limit

  16. C1-esterase inhibitor blocks T lymphocyte proliferation and cytotoxic T lymphocyte generation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Holst; Bregenholt, S; Nording, J A

    1998-01-01

    We have previously shown that activated C1s complement and activated T cells cleave beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) in vitro leading to the formation of desLys58 beta2m. This process can specifically be inhibited by C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-inh). Furthermore we showed that exogenously added desLys58...

  17. Monitor for alpha beta contamination of hands; Moniteur de contamination alpha beta des mains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guitton, J

    1958-07-01

    The following specifications of hands alpha beta contamination monitor are presented: the position of the hands, the detection and separation of alpha and beta, the information processing, the programming, the results presentation and general characteristics. (A.L.B.)

  18. Sawtooth crashes at high beta on JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alper, B; Huysmans, G T.A.; Sips, A C.C. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Nave, M F.F. [Universidade Tecnica, Lisbon (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico

    1994-07-01

    The sawtooth crashes on JET display features which depend on beta. The main observation is a transient bulging of flux surfaces (duration inferior to 30 microsec.), which is predominantly on the low field side and extends to larger radii as beta increases. This phenomenon reaches the plasma boundary when beta{sub N} exceeds 0.5 and in these cases is followed by an ELM within 50 microsec. These sawtooth/ELM events limit plasma performance. Modelling of mode coupling shows qualitative agreement between observations of the structure of the sawtooth precursor and the calculated internal kink mode at high beta. (authors). 6 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen

    2015-08-31

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows' milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows' milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows' milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  20. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebely Pal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows’ milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows’ milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows’ milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  1. MOPITT Beta Level 1 Radiances V107

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOPITT Beta Level 1 data product consists of the geolocated, calibrated earth scene radiances, associated instrument engineering data summaries, and inflight...

  2. Fabrication of beta particles detector for RMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W. G.; Kim, Y. G.; Kim, J. B.; Jeong, J. E.; Hong, S. B.

    2003-01-01

    The beta particles detector for RMS (radiation monitoring system) was fabricated to detect charged beta particles. The plastic scintillator was cutted, shaped, polished to make plastic disk for beta particles. The diameter of completed plastic scintillator disk is 40 mm and thickness is 1.5 mm. The mylar film and aluminium foil were used the front of plastic scintillator to intercept light and moisture. The completed plastic detector for RMS consist of the discriminator and counter were made by ULS (Co.). The absolute efficiency of plastic detector was 45.51% for beta particles (Sr/Y - 90)

  3. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garfagnini, A.

    2014-08-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is the only process known so far able to test the neutrino intrinsic nature: its experimental observation would imply that the lepton number is violated by two units and prove that neutrinos have a Majorana mass components, being their own anti-particle. While several experiments searching for such a rare decay have been per- formed in the past, a new generation of experiments using different isotopes and techniques have recently released their results or are taking data and will provide new limits, should no signal be observed, in the next few years to come. The present contribution reviews the latest public results on double beta decay searches and gives an overview on the expected sensitivities of the experiments in construction which will be able to set stronger limits in the near future. EXO and KamLAND-Zen experiments are based on the decay of Xe 136 , GERDA and MAJORANA experiments are based on the decay of Ge 76 , and the CUORE experiment is based on the decay of Te 130

  4. Beta attenuation transmission system (BATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, R.C.; Fullbright, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm/sup 2/, of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A /sup 90/Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (..mu..P) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined.

  5. Beta attenuation transmission system (BATS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, R.C.; Fullbright, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm 2 , of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A 90 Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (μP) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined

  6. Challenges in Double Beta Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliviero Cremonesi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past ten years, neutrino oscillation experiments have provided the incontrovertible evidence that neutrinos mix and have finite masses. These results represent the strongest demonstration that the electroweak Standard Model is incomplete and that new Physics beyond it must exist. In this scenario, a unique role is played by the Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay searches which can probe lepton number conservation and investigate the Dirac/Majorana nature of the neutrinos and their absolute mass scale (hierarchy problem with unprecedented sensitivity. Today Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay faces a new era where large-scale experiments with a sensitivity approaching the so-called degenerate-hierarchy region are nearly ready to start and where the challenge for the next future is the construction of detectors characterized by a tonne-scale size and an incredibly low background. A number of new proposed projects took up this challenge. These are based either on large expansions of the present experiments or on new ideas to improve the technical performance and/or reduce the background contributions. In this paper, a review of the most relevant ongoing experiments is given. The most relevant parameters contributing to the experimental sensitivity are discussed and a critical comparison of the future projects is proposed.

  7. Natural polypeptide scaffolds: beta-sheets, beta-turns, and beta-hairpins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondi, Kenneth S; Gierasch, Lila M

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to fundamental conformational states of polypeptides in the beta-region of phi,psi space, in which the backbone is extended near to its maximal length, and to more complex architectures in which extended segments are linked by turns and loops. There are several variants on these conformations, and they comprise versatile scaffolds for presentation of side chains and backbone amides for molecular recognition and designed catalysts. In addition, the geometry of these fundamental folds can be readily mimicked in peptidomimetics. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Cloning and characterization of human liver cytosolic beta-glycosidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Graaf, M; Van Veen, IC; Van Der Meulen-Muileman, IH; Gerritsen, WR; Pinedo, HM; Haisma, HJ

    2001-01-01

    Cytosolic beta -glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21) from mammalian liver is a member of the family 1 glycoside hydrolases and is known for its ability to hydrolyse a range of beta -D-glycosides. including beta -D-glucoside acid beta -D-galactoside. We therefore refer to this enzyme as cytosolic beta

  9. Beta-glucosidase variants and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogulis, Mark; Harris, Paul; Osborn, David

    2017-06-27

    The present invention relates to beta-glucosidase variants, e.g. beta-glucosidase variants of a parent Family GH3A beta-glucosidase from Aspergillus fumigatus. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the beta-glucosidase variants; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the beta-glucosidase variants.

  10. {beta} {gamma} porch detector; Detecteur portique {beta} {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roulet, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    This device is to be placed at the outside of reactors, hot laboratories and others where radioactive products are treated; it is intended to give the alarm when someone, passing through the porch is greatly contaminated, or carries, without his knowing, a radioactive substance. Being to be used in places where there might be an important ground noise, this device is provided with an automatic offset of this noise; an adjusting system of sensitivity allows to obtain a 15 {mu}Ci in {gamma} and 10 {mu}Ci in {beta} radioactive source, passing through the porch at the normal speed at which man is walking. A battery, set in buffer, allows working of the device, even when current is off. (author) [French] Cet appareil est destine a etre place a la sortie des reacteurs, laboratoires chauds ou autres laboratoires travaillant sur des produits radioactifs; son but est de donner une alarme lorsque quelqu'un, passant sous le portique, presente une forte contamination, ou surtout transporte par inadvertance un corps radioactif. Cet appareil devant etre utilise dans les lieux ou peut regner un bruit de fond important, possede une compensation automatique de ce bruit de fond; un reglage de la sensibilite permet d'obtenir au mieux un declenchement pour une source. de 15 {mu}Ci en {gamma} et 10 {mu}Ci en {beta} passant sous le portique a la vitesse normale d'un homme qui marche. Une batterie montee en tampon permet a l'appareil de fonctionner meme en cas de coupure de courant. (auteur)

  11. Preventive Effects of Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methyl Butyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ravanbakhsh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: One of the major factors in sudden cardiac arrest is the initiation and continuation of deadly arrhythmias during ischemia. It is known that beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB has useful effects such as anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis effects in the skeletal muscles. The aim of this study was to investigate the preventive effects of HMB on the ventricular arrhythmias due to the ischemia. Materials & Methods: In the experimental study, 30 Wistar male rats were randomly divided into three groups including control, HMB320, and HMB700. As control group received normal saline, HMB320 and HMB700 groups orally received 320 and 700 mg/Kg HMB as gavage for 2 weeks, respectively. The rats, having been anesthetized, underwent 30-minute ischemia. Then, the numbers of premature ventricular contractions (PVC, the appearance duration of ventricular tachycardia (VT, and the ventricular fibrillation (VF were assessed. Data was analyzed by SPSS 16 software using Kruskal-Walis, one-way ANOVA, Tukey’s post-hoc, and Chi-square tests. Findings: There was a significant reduction in the mean PVC number in HMB320 and HMB700 groups than control group (p=0.001. In addition, there was such a significant difference between the groups received the doses (p=0.008. There was a reduction in the mean appearance duration of VT in HMB320 and HMB700 groups than control group (p=0.001. There was a significant reduction in the mean appearance duration of VF in HMB700 group compared to control group, only (p=0.003. Conclusion: Through arrhythmias reduction, 2-week preventive consumption of HMB might considerably reduce the severe side effects of ischemia.

  12. Expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) receptors and expression of TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1993-01-01

    A panel of 21 small cell lung cancer cell (SCLC) lines were examined for the presence of Transforming growth factor beta receptors (TGF beta-r) and the expression of TGF beta mRNAs. By the radioreceptor assay we found high affinity receptors to be expressed in six cell lines. scatchard analysis......(r) = 65,000 and 90,000 and the betaglycan (type III) with M(r) = 280,000. Northern blotting showed expression of TGF beta 1 mRNA in ten, TGF beta 2 mRNA in two and TGF beta 3 mRNA in seven cell lines. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence that a large proportion of a broad panel of SCLC cell...... lines express TGF beta-receptors and also produce TGF beta mRNAs....

  13. Beta-agonists and animal welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of beta-agonists in animal feed is a high profile topic within the U.S. as consumers and activist groups continue to question its safety. The only beta-agonist currently available for use in swine is ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC). This is available as Paylean™ (Elanco Animal Health – FDA a...

  14. Topical beta-blockers and mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müskens, Rogier P. H. M.; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Stricker, Bruno H. C.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2008-01-01

    To study the associations between long-term and short-term use of topical beta-blockers and mortality. Prospective population-based cohort study. To examine long-term effects, 3842 participants aged 55 years and older were recruited. To examine short-term effects, 484 incident beta-blocker users and

  15. The beta subunit of casein kinase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Piontek, K; Schmidt-Spaniol, I

    1991-01-01

    cDNAs encoding the beta subunit of pig and mouse CKII were isolated. The porcine cDNA was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used for the production of anti-CKII-beta subunit specific antibodies....

  16. Exotic nuclear beta transitions astrophysical examples

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, K

    1981-01-01

    A theoretical study of nuclear beta -transitions under various astrophysical circumstances is reviewed by illustrative examples: 1) continuum-state electron captures in a matter in the nuclear statistical equiplibrium, and ii) bound-state beta -decays in stars in connection with a cosmochronometer and with the s-process branchings. (45 refs).

  17. Beta spectra. II-Positron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, A.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    1981-01-01

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 30 positron emitters have been computed, introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. The spectra are ploted vs. energy, once normalised, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (author)

  18. Beta delayed particle emission in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riisager, K.; Gabelmann, H.

    1991-01-01

    A short discussion of theoretical treatments of beta delayed particle emission is followed by a presentation of data on the newly found beta delayed deuteron decay of 6 He. This decay cannot be described properly with existing theories. (author) 8 refs.; 3 figs

  19. MINIMUM VARIANCE BETA ESTIMATION WITH DYNAMIC CONSTRAINTS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    developed (at AFETR ) and is being used to isolate the primary error sources in the beta estimation task. This computer program is additionally used to...determine what success in beta estimation can be achieved with foreseeable instrumentation accuracies. Results are included that illustrate the effects on

  20. Purification of beta-acetylglucosaminase and beta-galactosidase from ram testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caygill, J C; Roston, C P; Jevons, F R

    1966-02-01

    1. The presence of beta-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23) in an acetic acid extract of ram testis is reported. Some properties of the crude enzyme preparation were studied. 2. The purification of beta-acetylglucosaminase (EC 3.2.1.30) and of beta-galactosidase from the ram-testis extract by ammonium sulphate precipitation and chromatography on a CM-cellulose column is described. 3. The final purifications of the separated enzymes achieved were for the beta-acetylglucosaminase 35 times and for the beta-galactosidase 99 times. 4. The possibility of using DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-200 to purify the enzymes was investigated.

  1. Clusters of conserved beta cell marker genes for assessment of beta cell phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Geert A; Jiang, Lei; Hellemans, Karine H

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a gene expression blueprint of pancreatic beta cells conserved from rodents to humans and to evaluate its applicability to assess shifts in the beta cell differentiated state. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of isolated beta cells were compared to those...... of a large panel of other tissue and cell types, and transcripts with beta cell-abundant and -selective expression were identified. Iteration of this analysis in mouse, rat and human tissues generated a panel of conserved beta cell biomarkers. This panel was then used to compare isolated versus laser capture...

  2. Endovascular Irradiations with beta sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scmidt, W F.O.; Hawliczek, R [Inst of Radiooncology IRO, Donauspital, Vienna (Austria); Mueck, K [Austrian Research Centre, Siebersdorf ARCS (Austria); Lehmann, D [Inst of Radiotherapy, Univ. Dresden (Germany); Pichler, L [Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Endovascular Radiotherapy, Donauspital, Vienna (Austria)

    1999-12-31

    For treatment of restenoses tubes (inner/outer diameter 1 and 2 mm; length 3 or 5 mm) with Y-90 foils, shielded by Ti-layers on all sides have been developed (activity 0.5 - 2 GBq). Quality checks with plastic scintillators have been developed and are correlated to absolute dose measurements performed with TLDs (1x1 mm2; 40 mg/cm2). TLD-handling and calibration for beta-dosimetry are described. Additional measurements for depth-dose and dose distribution around the tubes were done with GAFCHROMIC- films and compared to Monte-Carlo calculations with the MCNP4-code, yielding a half-value depth of 0.8 mm from the tube-surface. Manufacturing and delivery of the sources including leakage tests has been standardized, treatments (irradiation times <5min; irradiation length <30mm) are planned to start in spring `98. (authors) 1 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Beta decay of 22O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, F.; Dufour, J.P.; Del Moral, R.; Fleury, A.; Jean, D.; Pravikoff, M.S.; Geissel, H.; Schmidt, K.H.; Hanelt, E.

    1989-01-01

    The study of light nuclei far from stability has been recently renewed by the possibility of production through the projectile fragmentation of intermediate energy heavy ion beams at GANIL. The results presented here have been obtained with the Projectile Fragments Isotopic Separation method developed at the LISE spectrometer. 22 O is a Tz = 3 nucleus and is the first in a series of seven such nuclei in the sd shell extending from 22 O to 24 Mg. Although the half life of 22 O was previously measured by Murphy et al., the present study is the first beta-gamma spectroscopy on this neutron rich nucleus. Five gamma lines have been attributed to the β decay of 22 O with a measured half life of T = (2.25±0.15)s and a partial decay scheme has been established

  4. $\\beta$ decay of $^{47}$Ar

    CERN Document Server

    Weissman, L; Bergmann, U C; Brown, B A; Catherall, R; Cederkäll, J; Dillmann, I; Hallmann, O; Fraile-Prieto, L M; Franchoo, S; Gaudefroy, L; Köster, U; Kratz, K L; Pfeiffer, B; Sorlin, O; 10.1103/PhysRevC.70.024304

    2004-01-01

    Information on beta -decay properties of neutron-rich /sup 47/Ar was obtained at the ISOLDE facility at CERN using isobaric selectivity. This was achieved by a combination of a plasma-ion source with a cooled transfer line and subsequent mass separation. A doubly charged beam was used in order to improve the signal-to-background ratio associated with multi-charged noble gas fission products. The identification of the /sup 47/Ar gamma -ray transitions was performed by comparing the spectra obtained from direct proton bombardment of the target and of the neutron converter. New excited levels in the daughter /sup 47/K nucleus corresponding to the negative-parity states were observed. The obtained data are compared to the result of large-scale shell model calculations and quasiparticle random-phase approximation predictions. (29 refs).

  5. PBX: the Princeton beta experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol, K.; Chance, M.; Dewar, R.

    1983-09-01

    A rearrangement of the divertor coils in PDX will enable a test in 1984 of the MHD stability properties of deeply indented bean-shaped plasmas. The goal is a beta of 10%. Indentation is expected to counter the deterioration of MHD stability against pressure driven modes that is occasioned by the larger aspect ratios typical of anticipated reactor oriented devices. Indeed, as shown by M. Chance et al., indentation may offer direct access to the second region of stability for ballooning modes, and numerical analyses with PEST show the internal kink to be stabilized completely with even relatively modest indentation. The internal kink is implicated in the loss of beam ions in PDX. In this report the theoretical basis for the forthcoming experiment, and the design considerations underlying the modification from PDX to PBX, are described in detail. Additional theoretical material, including an analysis of particle orbits in an indented tokamak plasma, is appended

  6. Localization of thymosin beta-4 in tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, L. -I.; Holck, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    in colorectal carcinomas. The degree of staining of breast cancer cells for thymosin beta-4 correlated neither to histological grade nor to endothelial cell staining. However, there was a tendency toward correlation (P = 0.07) between staining of endothelial cells and histological grade. Treatment of cultured......Overexpression of thymosin beta-4 has been linked to malignant progression but the localization of this polypeptide within tumors is incompletely known. We therefore examined breast cancers for thymosin beta-4 using immunofluorescence. Reactive cells were identified with monoclonal cell marker...... breast cancer cells (SK-BR-3) with 1-4 microg thymosin beta-4/mL significantly increased cell numbers, as determined by MTT-assays. These data reveal an unexpected cellular heterogeneity of thymosin beta-4 expression in breast and colonic carcinomas and suggest that local release of this polypeptide...

  7. Ranking beta sheet topologies of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Rasmus; Helles, Glennie; Winter, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    One of the challenges of protein structure prediction is to identify long-range interactions between amino acids. To reliably predict such interactions, we enumerate, score and rank all beta-topologies (partitions of beta-strands into sheets, orderings of strands within sheets and orientations...... of paired strands) of a given protein. We show that the beta-topology corresponding to the native structure is, with high probability, among the top-ranked. Since full enumeration is very time-consuming, we also suggest a method to deal with proteins with many beta-strands. The results reported...... in this paper are highly relevant for ab initio protein structure prediction methods based on decoy generation. The top-ranked beta-topologies can be used to find initial conformations from which conformational searches can be started. They can also be used to filter decoys by removing those with poorly...

  8. Maternal plasma concentrations of beta-lipotrophin, beta-endorphin and gamma-lipotrophin throughout pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, A J; Butt, W R; Lynch, S S; Shakespear, R A

    1983-12-01

    Plasma beta-LPH, beta-EP and gamma-LPH concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay in 10 pregnant women from 12 weeks gestation until term and in nine women in the early follicular phase of the cycle. There was a progressive and significant rise in the concentration of all three peptides throughout pregnancy and by 32 weeks the concentrations of beta-LPH and beta-EP were greater than the corresponding concentrations in the follicular phase: gamma-LPH was greater than in the follicular phase by the end of pregnancy in those women who were delivered after 40 weeks. The ratio of beta-LPH to gamma-LPH did not change significantly throughout pregnancy, but there was a progressive fall in the beta-LPH/beta-EP ratio. The possible presence of a 'big LPH' to explain this finding is discussed.

  9. Clusters of conserved beta cell marker genes for assessment of beta cell phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Geert A; Jiang, Lei; Hellemans, Karine H

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a gene expression blueprint of pancreatic beta cells conserved from rodents to humans and to evaluate its applicability to assess shifts in the beta cell differentiated state. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of isolated beta cells were compared to those...... of a large panel of other tissue and cell types, and transcripts with beta cell-abundant and -selective expression were identified. Iteration of this analysis in mouse, rat and human tissues generated a panel of conserved beta cell biomarkers. This panel was then used to compare isolated versus laser capture...... microdissected beta cells, monitor adaptations of the beta cell phenotype to fasting, and retrieve possible conserved transcriptional regulators....

  10. Dimers of beta 2-glycoprotein I mimic the in vitro effects of beta 2-glycoprotein I-anti-beta 2-glycoprotein I antibody complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutters, B. C.; Meijers, J. C.; Derksen, R. H.; Arnout, J.; de Groot, P. G.

    2001-01-01

    Anti-beta(2)-glycoprotein I antibodies are thought to cause lupus anticoagulant activity by forming bivalent complexes with beta(2)-glycoprotein I (beta(2)GPI). To test this hypothesis, chimeric fusion proteins were constructed of the dimerization domain (apple 4) of factor XI and beta(2)GPI. Both a

  11. Sequence swapping does not result in conformation swapping for the beta4/beta5 and beta8/beta9 beta-hairpin turns in human acidic fibroblast growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaewon; Lee, Jihun; Brych, Stephen R; Logan, Timothy M; Blaber, Michael

    2005-02-01

    The beta-turn is the most common type of nonrepetitive structure in globular proteins, comprising ~25% of all residues; however, a detailed understanding of effects of specific residues upon beta-turn stability and conformation is lacking. Human acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1) is a member of the beta-trefoil superfold and contains a total of five beta-hairpin structures (antiparallel beta-sheets connected by a reverse turn). beta-Turns related by the characteristic threefold structural symmetry of this superfold exhibit different primary structures, and in some cases, different secondary structures. As such, they represent a useful system with which to study the role that turn sequences play in determining structure, stability, and folding of the protein. Two turns related by the threefold structural symmetry, the beta4/beta5 and beta8/beta9 turns, were subjected to both sequence-swapping and poly-glycine substitution mutations, and the effects upon stability, folding, and structure were investigated. In the wild-type protein these turns are of identical length, but exhibit different conformations. These conformations were observed to be retained during sequence-swapping and glycine substitution mutagenesis. The results indicate that the beta-turn structure at these positions is not determined by the turn sequence. Structural analysis suggests that residues flanking the turn are a primary structural determinant of the conformation within the turn.

  12. Biological indicators of cadmium exposure and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, Z A; Smith, L M

    1986-01-01

    The increasing environmental and occupational exposure of populations to cadmium creates the need for biological indicators of cadmium exposure and toxicity. The advantages and disadvantages of monitoring blood cadmium, urinary, fecal, hair, and tissue cadmium, serum creatine, beta 2-microglobulin, alpha 1-anti-trypsin and other proteins, and urinary amino acids, enzymes, total proteins, glucose, beta 2-microglobulin, retinol-binding protein, lysozyme, and metallothionein are discussed. It is concluded that urinary cadmium, metallothionein and beta 2-microglubulin may be used together to assess cadmium exposure and toxicity. 66 references.

  13. Assessment of affinities of beta-CIT, beta-CIT-FE, and beta-CIT-FP for monoamine transporters permanently expressed in cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Tomoya; Fujita, Masahiro; Shimada, Shoichi; Sato, Kohji; Schloss, Patrick; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Itoh, Yasushi; Tohyama, Masaya; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the effects of three cocaine analogs, beta-CIT (2-beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl)-tropane), beta-CIT-FE (2-beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(2-fluoroethyl)-nortropane), and beta-CIT-FP (2-beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)-nortropane), on the uptake of [ 3 H]dopamine(DA), serotonin(5-HT), and 1-norepinephrine (NE) using cell lines permanently expressing DA, 5-HT, and NE transporters, respectively, to determine their affinities for these three transporters. We generated cell lines stably expressing DA, 5-HT, and NE transporters, respectively, by the Chen-Okayama method, and then tested the abilities of (-)cocaine, beta-CIT, beta-CIT-FE, beta-CIT-FP, and clomipramine to inhibit the uptake of [ 3 H]DA, 5-HT, and 1-NE. Ki values of beta-CIT, beta-CIT-FE, and beta-CIT-FP for [ 3 H]DA, 5-HT, 1-NE uptake were 6, 29, and 33 nM, 91, 133, and 130 nM, and 28, 113 and 70 nM, respectively, whereas those of cocaine and clomipramine were 316, 581, and 176 nM and > 10,000, 437, and 851 nM, respectively. Beta-CIT, beta-CIT-FE, and beta-CIT-FP were shown to be potent DA, 5-HT, and NE uptake inhibitors. Beta-CIT and beta-CIT-FP were highly potent and selective dopamine uptake inhibitors, and therefore might be useful for imaging of DA transporter with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET)

  14. Ellagic acid promotes A{beta}42 fibrillization and inhibits A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Ying [Department of Histology and Embryology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Yang, Shi-gao; Du, Xue-ting; Zhang, Xi; Sun, Xiao-xia; Zhao, Min [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Sun, Gui-yuan, E-mail: sungy2004@sohu.com [Department of Histology and Embryology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Liu, Rui-tian, E-mail: rtliu@tsinghua.edu.cn [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-12-25

    Smaller, soluble oligomers of {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Selective inhibition of A{beta} oligomer formation provides an optimum target for AD therapy. Some polyphenols have potent anti-amyloidogenic activities and protect against A{beta} neurotoxicity. Here, we tested the effects of ellagic acid (EA), a polyphenolic compound, on A{beta}42 aggregation and neurotoxicity in vitro. EA promoted A{beta} fibril formation and significant oligomer loss, contrary to previous results that polyphenols inhibited A{beta} aggregation. The results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western blot displayed more fibrils in A{beta}42 samples co-incubated with EA in earlier phases of aggregation. Consistent with the hypothesis that plaque formation may represent a protective mechanism in which the body sequesters toxic A{beta} aggregates to render them harmless, our MTT results showed that EA could significantly reduce A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity toward SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, our results suggest that EA, an active ingredient in many fruits and nuts, may have therapeutic potential in AD.

  15. Determinants of RNA polymerase alpha subunit for interaction with beta, beta', and sigma subunits: hydroxyl-radical protein footprinting.

    OpenAIRE

    Heyduk, T; Heyduk, E; Severinov, K; Tang, H; Ebright, R H

    1996-01-01

    Escherichia coli RNA polymerase (RNAP) alpha subunit serves as the initiator for RNAP assembly, which proceeds according to the pathway 2 alpha-->alpha 2-->alpha 2 beta-->alpha 2 beta beta'-->alpha 2 beta beta' sigma. In this work, we have used hydroxyl-radical protein footprinting to define determinants of alpha for interaction with beta, beta', and sigma. Our results indicate that amino acids 30-75 of alpha are protected from hydroxyl-radical-mediated proteolysis upon interaction with beta ...

  16. Review of modern double beta decay experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabash, A. S.

    2015-10-01

    The review of modern experiments on search and studying of double beta decay processes is done. Results of the most sensitive current experiments are discussed. The main attention is paid to EXO-200, KamLAND-Zen, GERDA-I and CUORE-0 experiments. Modern values of T1/2(2ν) and best present limits on neutrinoless double beta decay and double beta decay with Majoron emission are presented. Conservative limits on effective mass of a Majorana neutrino ( at the level of ˜ 0.01-0.1 eV are discussed.

  17. Silent ischemia and beta-blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egstrup, K

    1991-01-01

    and should also be directed at the other coronary artery risk factors of the patients. The effects of beta-blockers, which reduce the duration and frequency of silent ischemic episodes, is well described. The effect is most pronounced in the morning, when the frequency of ischemia is highest......, and the mechanism of action seems mainly mediated through a reduction in myocardial oxygen demand. beta-Blockers have shown effectiveness in both effort-induced angina and mixed angina, and increased anti-ischemic potency may be achieved by combination therapy with a calcium antagonist. Abrupt withdrawal of beta-blockers...

  18. Venus gravity - Analysis of Beta Regio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, P. B.; Sjogren, W. L.; Mottinger, N. A.; Bills, B. G.; Abbott, E.

    1982-01-01

    Radio tracking data acquired over Beta Regio were analyzed to obtain a surface mass distribution from which a detailed vertical gravity field was derived. In addition, a corresponding vertical gravity field was evaluated solely from the topography of the Beta region. A comparison of these two maps confirms the strong correlation between gravity and topography which was previously seen in line-of-sight gravity maps. It also demonstrates that the observed gravity is a significant fraction of that predicted from the topography alone. The effective depth of complete isostatic compensation for the Beta region is estimated to be 330 km, which is somewhat deeper than that found for other areas of Venus.

  19. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senard Jean-Michel

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DβH deficiency is a very rare form of primary autonomic failure characterized by a complete absence of noradrenaline and adrenaline in plasma together with increased dopamine plasma levels. The prevalence of DβH deficiency is unknown. Only a limited number of cases with this disease have been reported. DβH deficiency is mainly characterized by cardiovascular disorders and severe orthostatic hypotension. First symptoms often start during a complicated perinatal period with hypotension, muscle hypotonia, hypothermia and hypoglycemia. Children with DβH deficiency exhibit reduced ability to exercise because of blood pressure inadaptation with exertion and syncope. Symptoms usually worsen progressively during late adolescence and early adulthood with severe orthostatic hypotension, eyelid ptosis, nasal stuffiness and sexual disorders. Limitation in standing tolerance, limited ability to exercise and traumatic morbidity related to falls and syncope may represent later evolution. The syndrome is caused by heterogeneous molecular alterations of the DBH gene and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Restoration of plasma noradrenaline to the normal range can be achieved by therapy with the synthetic precursor of noradrenaline, L-threo-dihydroxyphenylserine (DOPS. Oral administration of 100 to 500 mg DOPS, twice or three times daily, increases blood pressure and reverses the orthostatic intolerance.

  20. Systematic Risk on Istanbul Stock Exchange: Traditional Beta Coefficient Versus Downside Beta Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülfen TUNA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to test the validity of Downside Capital Asset Pricing Model (D-CAPM on the ISE. At the same time, the explanatory power of CAPM's traditional beta and D-CAPM's downside beta on the changes in the average return values are examined comparatively. In this context, the monthly data for seventy three stocks that are continuously traded on the ISE for the period 1991-2009 is used. Regression analysis is applied in this study. The research results have shown that D-CAPM is valid on the ISE. In addition, it is obtained that the power of downside beta coefficient is higher than traditional beta coefficient on explaining the return changes. Therefore, it can be said that the downside beta is superior to traditional beta in the ISE for chosen period.

  1. How Do Beta Blocker Drugs Affect Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in lieu of exercise. Exercise has many other benefits and is important to maintain your health. Read how physical activity improves the quality of life . Concerns About Exercising While on Beta Blockers “It’s important to remember ...

  2. Review of modern double beta decay experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabash, A. S., E-mail: barabash@itep.ru [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (NRC ”Kurchatov Institute”), B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-28

    The review of modern experiments on search and studying of double beta decay processes is done. Results of the most sensitive current experiments are discussed. The main attention is paid to EXO-200, KamLAND-Zen, GERDA-I and CUORE-0 experiments. Modern values of T{sub 1/2}(2ν) and best present limits on neutrinoless double beta decay and double beta decay with Majoron emission are presented. Conservative limits on effective mass of a Majorana neutrino (〈m{sub ν}〉 < 0.46 eV) and a coupling constant of Majoron to neutrino (〈g{sub ee}〉 < 1.3 · 10{sup −5}) are obtained. Prospects of search for neutrinoless double beta decay in new experiments with sensitivity to 〈m{sub ν}〉 at the level of ∼ 0.01-0.1 eV are discussed.

  3. Split Beta-Lactamase Complementation Assay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    A Search for the Molecular Better Half! Vaishali Verma ... These assays comprise of a protein molecule, ... ciferase, beta-galactosidase, GFP, g3p of M13 filamentous ph- .... sensors of protein–protein interactions, Nature Biotechnology, Vol.20,.

  4. Nuclear beta decay and the weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kean, D.C.

    1975-11-01

    Short notes are presented on various aspects of nuclear beta decay and weak interactions including: super-allowed transitions, parity violation, interaction strengths, coupling constants, and the current-current formalism of weak interaction. (R.L.)

  5. Beta cell proliferation and growth factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis; Svensson, C; Møldrup, Annette

    1999-01-01

    Formation of new beta cells can take place by two pathways: replication of already differentiated beta cells or neogenesis from putative islet stem cells. Under physiological conditions both processes are most pronounced during the fetal and neonatal development of the pancreas. In adulthood little...... increase in the beta cell number seems to occur. In pregnancy, however, a marked hyperplasia of the beta cells is observed both in rodents and man. Increased mitotic activity has been seen both in vivo and in vitro in islets exposed to placental lactogen (PL), prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH...... and activation of the tyrosine kinase JAK2 and the transcription factors STAT1 and 3. The activation of the insulin gene however also requires the distal part of the receptor and activation of calcium uptake and STAT5. In order to identify putative autocrine growth factors or targets for growth factors we have...

  6. Beta-binomial regression and bimodal utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan-Fen; Burgess, James F; Manning, Willard G; Maciejewski, Matthew L

    2013-10-01

    To illustrate how the analysis of bimodal U-shaped distributed utilization can be modeled with beta-binomial regression, which is rarely used in health services research. Veterans Affairs (VA) administrative data and Medicare claims in 2001-2004 for 11,123 Medicare-eligible VA primary care users in 2000. We compared means and distributions of VA reliance (the proportion of all VA/Medicare primary care visits occurring in VA) predicted from beta-binomial, binomial, and ordinary least-squares (OLS) models. Beta-binomial model fits the bimodal distribution of VA reliance better than binomial and OLS models due to the nondependence on normality and the greater flexibility in shape parameters. Increased awareness of beta-binomial regression may help analysts apply appropriate methods to outcomes with bimodal or U-shaped distributions. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  7. Encoded Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Produced

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    26.1 % Klebsiella spp were positive for extended spectrum beta-lactamases ... issue, and TEM, OXA and SHV type ESBL were the most common genotypes. ... mechanism of action. ..... and Multiplex PCR Screening of AmpC Genes from.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: beta-mannosidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enzyme beta-mannosidase. This enzyme works in the lysosomes , which are compartments that digest and recycle materials in the cell. Within lysosomes, the enzyme helps break down complexes of sugar ...

  9. Literature in Focus Beta Beams: Neutrino Beams

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    By Mats Lindroos (CERN) and Mauro Mezzetto (INFN Padova, Italy) Imperial Press, 2009 The beta-beam concept for the generation of electron neutrino beams was first proposed by Piero Zucchelli in 2002. The idea created quite a stir, challenging the idea that intense neutrino beams only could be produced from the decay of pions or muons in classical neutrino beams facilities or in future neutrino factories. The concept initially struggled to make an impact but the hard work by many machine physicists, phenomenologists and theoreticians over the last five years has won the beta-beam a well-earned position as one of the frontrunners for a possible future world laboratory for high intensity neutrino oscillation physics. This is the first complete monograph on the beta-beam concept. The book describes both technical aspects and experimental aspects of the beta-beam, providing students and scientists with an insight into the possibilities o...

  10. Micro-battery Development using beta radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, H. K.; Cheong, Y. M.; Lee, N. H.; Choi, Y. S.; Joo, Y. S.; Lee, J. S.; Jeon, B. H.

    2007-06-01

    Nuclear battery which use the beta radiation sources emitting the low penetration radiation energy from radioisotope can be applied as the long term (more than 10 years) micro power source in MEMS and nano components. This report describes the basic concept and principles of nuclear micro-battery and its fabrication in space and military field. In particular direct conversion method is described by investigating the electron-hole generation and recombination in p-n junction of silicon betavoltaics with beta radiation

  11. Beta/alpha continuous air monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, G.K.; Martz, D.E.

    1988-06-27

    A single deep layer silicon detector in combination with a microcomputer, recording both alpha and beta activity and the energy of each pulse, distinquishing energy peaks using a novel curve fitting technique to reduce the natural alpha counts in the energy region where plutonium and other transuranic alpha emitters are present, and using a novel algorithm to strip out radon daughter contribution to actual beta counts. 7 figs.

  12. Turbulence of high-beta plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvesyuk, V.I.; Chirkov, A.Y.

    1999-01-01

    Principals of numerical modelling of turbulence in high-beta plasma (β > 0.1) are discussed. Creation of transport model for axial symmetric nonuniform confining magnetic field is considered. Numerical model of plasma turbulence in FRC is presented. The physical and mathematical models are formulated from nonuniform axial symmetric high-beta plasma. It is shown that influence of waves arise under this plasma conditions lead to chaotic motion of charged particles across magnetic field. (author)

  13. Double beta decay of 82Se

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, S.R.; Hahn, A.A.; Moe, M.K.; Nelson, M.A.; Vient, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    The two-neutrino double beta decay of 82 Se has been measured during a 20 244 h run resulting in a half-life of 1.08 -0.06 +0.26 x10 20 years (68% C.L.). No candidate events for the zero-neutrino double beta decay during 21 924 h results in a half-life limit of 2.7x10 22 years at the 68% confidence level

  14. Isotope Effects in the Bonds of beta-CrOOH and beta-CrOOD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørlund Christensen, A.; Hansen, P.; Lehmann, M. S.

    1976-01-01

    Samples of orthorhombic chromium oxide hydroxide, beta -CrOOH, and the deuterated compound, beta -CrOOD, were prepared hydrothermally. The crystal structures were determined by powder profile refinement technique using neutron diffraction data. Unit cells are: beta -CrOOH: a equals 4. 862(2) A, b...... equals 4. 298(a) A, c equals 2. 995(1) A; beta -CrOOD: a equals 4. 873(5) A, b equals 4. 332(7) A, c equals 2. 963(2) A, with Z equals 2. The space group is P2//1nm or Pnnm....

  15. Production of beta-xylanase and beta-xylosidase by the extremely halophilic archaeon Halorhabdus utahensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wainø, M.; Ingvorsen, K.

    2003-01-01

    -xylosidase stabilities, approximately 55% and 83% of the initial beta-xylanase and beta-xylosidase activities, respectively, remained after 24 h incubation at 20% NaCl. The enzymes were also shown to be slightly thermophilic: P-xylanase activity exhibiting two optima at 55degrees and 70degreesC, while beta......The extremely halophilic archaeon, Halorhabdus utahensis, isolated from the Great Salt Lake, Utah, produced beta-xylanase and beta-xylosidase activities. Both enzymes were active over a broad NaCl range from near zero to 30% NaCl when tested with culture broth. A broad NaCl optimum was observed...... for beta-xylanase activity between 5% and 15% NaCl, while beta-xylosidase activity was highest at 5% NaCl. Almost half of the maximum activities remained at 27%-30% NaCl for both enzyme activities. When dialyzed culture supernatant and culture broth were employed for determination of beta-xylanase and beta...

  16. Evaluation of partial beta-adrenoceptor agonist activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipworth, B J; Grove, A

    1997-01-01

    A partial beta-adrenoceptor (beta-AR) agonist will exhibit opposite agonist and antagonist activity depending on the prevailing degree of adrenergic tone or the presence of a beta-AR agonist with higher intrinsic activity. In vivo partial beta-AR agonist activity will be evident at rest with low endogenous adrenergic tone, as for example with chronotropicity (beta 1/beta 2), inotropicity (beta 1) or peripheral vasodilatation and finger tremor (beta 2). beta-AR blocking drugs which have partial agonist activity may exhibit a better therapeutic profile when used for hypertension because of maintained cardiac output without increased systemic vascular resistance, along with an improved lipid profile. In the presence of raised endogenous adrenergic tone such as exercise or an exogenous full agonist, beta-AR subtype antagonist activity will become evident in terms of effects on exercise induced heart rate (beta 1) and potassium (beta 2) responses. Reduction of exercise heart rate will occur to a lesser degree in the case of a beta-adrenoceptor blocker with partial beta 1-AR agonist activity compared with a beta-adrenoceptor blocker devoid of partial agonist activity. This may result in reduced therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of angina on effort when using beta-AR blocking drugs with partial beta 1-AR agonist activity. Effects on exercise hyperkalaemia are determined by the balance between beta 2-AR partial agonist activity and endogenous adrenergic activity. For predominantly beta 2-AR agonist such as salmeterol and salbutamol, potentiation of exercise hyperkalaemia occurs. For predominantly beta 2-AR antagonists such as carteolol, either potentiation or attenuation of exercise hyperkalaemia occurs at low and high doses respectively. beta 2-AR partial agonist activity may also be expressed as antagonism in the presence of an exogenous full agonist, as for example attenuation of fenoterol induced responses by salmeterol. Studies are required to investigate whether

  17. Beta adrenergic receptors in human cavernous tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhabuwala, C.B.; Ramakrishna, C.V.; Anderson, G.F.

    1985-04-01

    Beta adrenergic receptor binding was performed with /sup 125/I iodocyanopindolol on human cavernous tissue membrane fractions from normal tissue and transsexual procedures obtained postoperatively, as well as from postmortem sources. Isotherm binding studies on normal fresh tissues indicated that the receptor density was 9.1 fmoles/mg. with a KD of 23 pM. Tissue stored at room temperature for 4 to 6 hours, then at 4C in saline solution for 19 to 20 hours before freezing showed no significant changes in receptor density or affinity, and provided evidence for the stability of postmortem tissue obtained within the same time period. Beta receptor density of 2 cavernous preparations from transsexual procedures was not significantly different from normal control tissues, and showed that high concentrations of estrogen received by these patients had no effect on beta adrenergic receptor density. Displacement of /sup 125/iodocyanopindolol by 5 beta adrenergic agents demonstrated that 1-propranolol had the greatest affinity followed by ICI 118,551, zinterol, metoprolol and practolol. When the results of these displacement studies were subjected to Scatfit, non- linear regression line analysis, a single binding site was described. Based on the relative potency of the selective beta adrenergic agents it appears that these receptors were of the beta 2 subtype.

  18. Other characterizations of $\\beta$-$\\theta$-R0 topological spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Caldas Cueva

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we give other characterizations of $\\beta$-$\\theta$-$%R_0$ and also introduce a new separation axiom called$\\beta$-$\\theta$-$R_1$. It turns out that $\\beta$-$\\theta$-$R_1$ isstronger that $\\beta$-$\\theta$-$R_0$

  19. Estimating Security Betas Using Prior Information Based on Firm Fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cosemans, Mathijs; Frehen, Rik; Schotman, Peter; Bauer, Rob

    2016-01-01

    We propose a hybrid approach for estimating beta that shrinks rolling window estimates toward firm-specific priors motivated by economic theory. Our method yields superior forecasts of beta that have important practical implications. First, unlike standard rolling window betas, hybrid betas carry a

  20. Beta decay and rhenium cosmochronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashktorab, K.

    1992-01-01

    Among the problems which limit the use of the 187 Re/ 187 Os isobaric pair as a cosmochronometer for the age of the galaxy and the universe are the uncertainties in the partial half-lives of the continuum and bound state decays of 187 Re. While the total half-life of the decay is well established, the partial half-life for the continuum decay is uncertain, and several measurements are not compatible. A high temperature quartz proportional counter was used in this work to remeasure the continuum β - decay of 187 Re. The β endpoint energy for the decay of neutral 187 Re to singly ionized 187 Os of 2.75 ± 0.06 keV agrees with the earlier results. The corresponding half-life of (45 ± 3) x 10 9 years improves and agrees with the earlier measurement of Payne and Drever and refutes other measurements. Based on the new half-life for the continuum decay and a total half-life of (43.5 ± 1.3) x 10 9 years reported by Linder et al., the branching ratio for the bound state decay into discrete atomic states is estimated to be (3 ± 6)% in agreement with the most recent calculated theoretical branching ratio of approximately 1%. Anomalies in beta spectra reported by J.J. Simpson and others have been attributed to a 17 keV heavy-neutrino admixture. If confirmed, the implications from the existence of such a neutrino for particle and astrophysics would be significant. A multiwire open-quotes wall-lessclose quotes stainless steel proportional counter has been used in the present work to investigate the spectral shape of the β decay of 63 Ni. No anomalies in the spectral shape were observed which could be attributed to the presence of 17 keV heavy neutrino

  1. Beta2- and beta3-adrenoceptors activate glucose uptake in chick astrocytes by distinct mechanisms: a mechanism for memory enhancement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Dana S; Summers, Roger J; Gibbs, Marie E

    2007-11-01

    Isoprenaline, acting at beta-adrenoceptors (ARs), enhances memory formation in single trial discriminated avoidance learning in day-old chicks by mechanisms involving alterations in glucose and glycogen metabolism. Earlier studies of memory consolidation in chicks indicated that beta3-ARs enhanced memory by increasing glucose uptake, whereas beta2-ARs enhance memory by increasing glycogenolysis. This study examines the ability of beta-ARs to increase glucose uptake in chick forebrain astrocytes. The beta-AR agonist isoprenaline increased glucose uptake in a concentration-dependent manner, as did insulin. Glucose uptake was increased by the beta2-AR agonist zinterol and the beta3-AR agonist CL316243, but not by the beta1-AR agonist RO363. In chick astrocytes, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction studies showed that beta1-, beta2-, and beta3-AR mRNA were present, whereas radioligand-binding studies showed the presence of only beta2- and beta3-ARs. beta-AR or insulin-mediated glucose uptake was inhibited by phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase and protein kinase C inhibitors, suggesting a possible interaction between the beta-AR and insulin pathways. However beta2- and beta3-ARs increase glucose uptake by two different mechanisms: beta2-ARs via a Gs-cAMP-protein kinase A-dependent pathway, while beta3-ARs via interactions with Gi. These results indicate that activation of beta2- and beta3-ARs causes glucose uptake in chick astrocytes by distinct mechanisms, which may be relevant for memory enhancement.

  2. Antibodies directed against monomorphic and evolutionary conserved self epitopes may be generated in 'knock-out' mice. Development of monoclonal antibodies directed against monomorphic MHC class I determinants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claesson, M H; Endel, B; Ulrik, J

    1994-01-01

    Beta-2 microglobulin (beta 2m) gene 'knock-out' mice (C1D) were primed with purified H-2Kb and H-2Db molecules and spleen cells from immunized mice were used to generate monoclonal antibody secreting B-cell hybridomas. Approximately 0.2% of the Ig-secreting primary microcultures contained H-2b...

  3. Exercise- and cold-induced changes in plasma beta-endorphin and beta-lipotropin in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, M; Van Dijk, J P; Graham, T E; Bonen, A; George, J C

    1987-02-01

    The plasma beta-endorphin (beta-EP) and beta-lipotropin (beta-LPH) response of men, eumenorrheic women, and amenorrheic women (n = 6) to 1 h of rest or to a bicycle ergometer test [20 min at 30% maximum O2 uptake (VO2max), 20 min at 60% VO2max, and at 90% VO2max to exhaustion] was studied in both normal (22 degrees C) and cold (5 degrees C) environments. beta-EP and beta-LPH was measured by radioimmunoassay in venous samples collected every 20 min during rest or after each exercise bout. Exhaustive exercise at ambient temperature (Ta) 22 degrees C induced significant increases in plasma beta-EP and beta-LPH in all subjects as did work at 60% VO2max in amenorrheic and eumenorrheic women. During work at Ta 5 degrees C, the relative increase in beta-EP and beta-LPH was suppressed in eumenorrheic women and completely prevented in amenorrheic women. Although significant lowering of beta-EP and beta-LPH was observed in men and eumenorrheic women during rest at 5 degrees C, amenorrheic women maintained precold exposure levels. These findings suggest that plasma beta-EP and beta-LPH may reflect a thermoregulatory response to heat load. There appears to be a sexual dimorphism in exercise- and cold-induced release of beta-EP and beta-LPH and amenorrhea may be accompanied by alterations in these responses.

  4. Beta-1-Selective Beta-Blockers and Cognitive Functions in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkauskas, Julius; Noreikaite, Aurelija; Bunevicius, Adomas; Brozaitiene, Julija; Neverauskas, Julius; Mickuviene, Narseta; Bunevicius, Robertas

    2016-01-01

    The association between current beta-1-selective beta-blocker use and cognitive function was evaluated in 722 patients with coronary artery disease without dementia. Beta-1-selective beta-blocker use was associated with worse incidental learning independently of sociodemographic characteristics, clinical coronary artery disease severity, and depression/anxiety.

  5. Overview of total beta activity index and beta rest in surface waters of the Spanish rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol, L.; Payeras, J.; Pablo, M. A. de

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to give an overview of the index of total beta activity and the activity index beta rest in surface waters of the main Spanish rivers. These indices are a parameter over water quality that CEDEX comes determined by order of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment, in water policy. (Author)

  6. BetaTPred: prediction of beta-TURNS in a protein using statistical algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harpreet; Raghava, G P S

    2002-03-01

    beta-turns play an important role from a structural and functional point of view. beta-turns are the most common type of non-repetitive structures in proteins and comprise on average, 25% of the residues. In the past numerous methods have been developed to predict beta-turns in a protein. Most of these prediction methods are based on statistical approaches. In order to utilize the full potential of these methods, there is a need to develop a web server. This paper describes a web server called BetaTPred, developed for predicting beta-TURNS in a protein from its amino acid sequence. BetaTPred allows the user to predict turns in a protein using existing statistical algorithms. It also allows to predict different types of beta-TURNS e.g. type I, I', II, II', VI, VIII and non-specific. This server assists the users in predicting the consensus beta-TURNS in a protein. The server is accessible from http://imtech.res.in/raghava/betatpred/

  7. Automation of electrostatic and magnetic beta-spectrometers; Avtomatizatsiya ehlektrostaticheskogo i magnitnogo {beta}-spektrometra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorov, V T; Petev, P A

    1996-12-31

    Paper describes control units of voltage and current NM respectively, for electrostatic and magnetic beta-spectrometers. These units may be designed on the basis of either SPELMAN company voltage devider ensuring 0.5 accuracy or using a computer modification of feedback. Software for automated electrostatic beta-spectrometer made according to CAMAC standards is considered. 5 figs.

  8. Superconducting tests of beta = 0.1 and beta = 0.2 resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, D.W.; Amsbaugh, J.F.; Corcoran, D.T.; Howe, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Several low beta (0.10) and two high beta (0.21) lead plated copper quarter wave resonators were cooled down, multipactor conditioned, tested, helium conditioned, and retested. The choice of the quarter wave resonator and of the lead plated copper technology is discussed. The fabrication is described and techniques for conditioning the resonators are presented. Performances are presented. 5 refs., 4 figs

  9. Integrins beta 5, beta 3 and alpha v are apically distributed in endometrial epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, J D; Spanswick, C; Behzad, F; Kimber, S J; Vićovac, L

    1996-07-01

    Several adhesion molecules have been shown to occur at the surface of endometrial cells. One of these is the integrin alpha v subunit which associates with various beta chains including beta 5. We demonstrate the presence of integrin beta 5 polypeptide in human endometrial epithelial cells throughout the menstrual cycle using immunocytochemistry with monospecific antibodies, and at the mRNA level by thermal amplification from endometrial cDNA. Integrin beta 5 is also found in a population of bone marrow-derived cells. A notable feature of the distribution of the beta 5 subunit in the glandular and luminal epithelium is its apical localization, which may suggest an involvement in implantation. However, no evidence was found for regulated expression of epithelial beta 5. In mouse, the beta 5 subunit is found at both the apical and basal surface of epithelial cells and expression is essentially oestrous cycle-independent. Comparisons are made in both species with the distribution of the alpha v and beta 3 subunits which also localize to the apical epithelium.

  10. BETA SPECTRA. I. Negatrons spectra; ESPECTROS BETA. I. Espectros simples de negatrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Malonda, A; Garcia-Torano, E

    1978-07-01

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 62 negatrons emitters have been computed introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. These spectra are plotted vs. energy, once normal i sed, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (Author)

  11. Kinematic shifts of beta -delayed particles as a probe of beta - nu angular correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Clifford, E T H; Evans, H C; Fästermann, T; Hagberg, E; Hardy, J C; Jackson, K P; Koslowsky, V T; Schmeing, H; Schrewe, U J

    1981-01-01

    Beta-delayed particles undergo a kinematic shift in energy due to recoil motion of the daughter nucleus following beta decay. A careful measurement of this energy shift can be used to establish the ratio of vector to axial vector components in beta transitions. Alpha-beta coincidence data for the beta-delayed alpha decay of /sup 20/Na have been obtained. Component ratios for 6 transitions including the superallowed branch are found. Limits on charge dependent mixing with the analogue state are deduced for 5 states in /sup 20/Ne*. For the superallowed branch the axial vector component is found; the polar vector component is deduced and establishes a value for the vector weak coupling constant of G/sub V/=(1.355+or-0.036)*10/sup -49/ erg cm /sup 3/. (13 refs).

  12. Regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) after ionizing radiation; Regulation der Glykogen Synthase Kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) nach ionisierender Strahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehme, K.A.

    2006-12-15

    Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) phosphorylates the Mdm2 protein in the central domain. This phosphorylation is absolutely required for p53 degradation. Ionizing radiation inactivates GSK-3{beta} by phosphorylation at serine 9 and in consequence prevents Mdm2 mediated p53 degradation. During the work for my PhD I identified Akt/PKB as the kinase that phosphorylates GSK-3{beta} at serine 9 after ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation leads to phosphorylation of Akt/PKB at threonine 308 and serine 473. The PI3 Kinase inhibitor LY294002 completely abolished Akt/PKB serine 473 phosphorylation and prevented the induction of GSK-3{beta} serine 9 phosphorylation after ionizing radiation. Interestingly, the most significant activation of Akt/PKB after ionizing radiation occurred in the nucleus while cytoplasmic Akt/PKB was only weakly activated after radiation. By using siRNA, I showed that Akt1/PKBa, but not Akt2/PKB{beta}, is required for phosphorylation of GSK- 3{beta} at serine 9 after ionizing radiation. Phosphorylation and activation of Akt/PKB after ionizing radiation depends on the DNA dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), a member of the PI3 Kinase family, that is activated by free DNA ends. Both, in cells from SCID mice and after knockdown of the catalytic subunit of DNA-PK by siRNA in osteosarcoma cells, phosphorylation of Akt/PKB at serine 473 and of GSK-3{beta} at serine 9 was completely abolished. Consistent with the principle that phosphorylation of GSK-3 at serine 9 contributes to p53 stabilization after radiation, the accumulation of p53 in response to ionizing radiation was largely prevented by downregulation of DNA-PK. From these results I conclude, that ionizing radiation induces a signaling cascade that leads to Akt1/PKBa activation mediated by DNA-PK dependent phosphorylation of serine 473. After activation Akt1/PKBa phosphorylates and inhibits GSK-3{beta} in the nucleus. The resulting hypophosphorylated form of Mdm2 protein is no longer

  13. Pengaruh Downside Beta, Upside Beta, Dan Beta Terhadap Expected Return (Studi Pada Saham Yang Termasuk Dalam 50 Leading Market Capitalization Di Bursa Efek Indonesia Periode 2012-2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaga, Maria Goretty; Sulasmiyati, Sri

    2017-01-01

    Return or return on an investment is required by the investor. Most investors currently prefer shares in emerging markets. Return in the emerging market is not always symmetrical, it shows return in the emerging market is not normally distributed. The purposive of this research want to learn, compare, and explain about some model of stock risk. On this research downside risk expressed with beta downside. The models used in this research among others, dowside beta, upside beta, and beta. The k...

  14. Beta-structures in fibrous proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajava, Andrey V; Squire, John M; Parry, David A D

    2006-01-01

    The beta-form of protein folding, one of the earliest protein structures to be defined, was originally observed in studies of silks. It was then seen in early studies of synthetic polypeptides and, of course, is now known to be present in a variety of guises as an essential component of globular protein structures. However, in the last decade or so it has become clear that the beta-conformation of chains is present not only in many of the amyloid structures associated with, for example, Alzheimer's Disease, but also in the prion structures associated with the spongiform encephalopathies. Furthermore, X-ray crystallography studies have revealed the high incidence of the beta-fibrous proteins among virulence factors of pathogenic bacteria and viruses. Here we describe the basic forms of the beta-fold, summarize the many different new forms of beta-structural fibrous arrangements that have been discovered, and review advances in structural studies of amyloid and prion fibrils. These and other issues are described in detail in later chapters.

  15. Towards Alzheimer's beta-amyloid vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, D; Solomon, B

    2001-01-01

    Beta-amyloid pathology, the main hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), has been linked to its conformational status and aggregation. We recently showed that site-directed monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) towards the N-terminal region of the human beta-amyloid peptide bind to preformed beta-amyloid fibrils (Abeta), leading to disaggregation and inhibition of their neurotoxic effect. Here we report the development of a novel immunization procedure to raise effective anti-aggregating amyloid beta-protein (AbetaP) antibodies, using as antigen filamentous phages displaying the only EFRH peptide found to be the epitope of these antibodies. Due to the high antigenicity of the phage no adjuvant is required to obtain high affinity anti-aggregating IgG antibodies in animals model, that exhibit identity to human AbetaP. Such antibodies are able to sequester peripheral AbetaP, thus avoiding passage through the blood brain barrier (BBB) and, as recently shown in a transgenic mouse model, to cross the BBB and dissolve already formed beta-amyloid plaques. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to use as a vaccine a self-anti-aggregating epitope displayed on a phage, and this may pave the way to treat abnormal accumulation-peptide diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease or other amyloidogenic diseases. Copyright 2001 The International Association for Biologicals.

  16. Proton microprobe analysis of pancreatic. beta. cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindh, U [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Gustaf Werner Inst.; Juntti-Berggren, L; Berggren, P O; Hellman, B [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    1985-01-01

    Freeze-dried pancreas sections from obese hyperglycemic mice were subjected to proton bombardment and the elemental contents in the ..beta.. cells and the exocrine part were obtained from the characteristic X-rays emitted. Quantitative data were provided for 18 different elements. The mole ratio between K and Na exceeded 10, implying that neither the sample preparation nor the irradiation had induced significant diffuse changes. With the demonstration of this high K/Na ratio it seems likely that also the ..beta.. cells are equipped with an efficient Na/sup +//K/sup +/ pump. The ..beta.. cells contained about 70 mmoles Cl per litre cell water. Observed amounts of Ca and Mg were equivalent to those previously recorded by electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy. The significant role of Zn for the storage of insulin was emphasized by the demonstration of 3 times as much of this element in the ..beta.. cells as compared with the exocrine pancreas. In addition, the sensitivity of the proton microprobe enabled measurements of various trace elements such as Rb, Cr, Cu, Al and Pb not previously demonstrated in the pancreatic ..beta.. cells.

  17. Amyloidosis associated with dialysis. Dialyseassoziierte Amyloidosteopathie - radiologische Aspekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schadmand, S.; Klose, K.J. (Mainz Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Klinische Strahlenkunde); Wandel, E. (Mainz Univ. (Germany, F.R.). 1. Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik)

    1991-06-01

    Amongst the complications of dialysis, amyloid osteopathy is getting increasingly significant. It is due to deposition of {beta}2-microglobulin. To determine the incidence and time of development of this complication, the skeletal radiographs of 185 patients undergoing dialysis, some for up to ten years, were analysed retrospectively. In about 10% of patients, the presence of {beta}2-microglobulin osteopathy may be expected. The radiological features, sites of predilection and differential diagnosis of amyloid osteopathy and of other skeletal changes due to dialysis are discussed. (orig.).

  18. The effect of short-term glucagon infusion on kidney function in normal man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Noer, J; Kehlet, H

    1977-01-01

    Kidney function was studied in six normal males before and during a 2 h glucagon (10 ng/kg/min) infusion. The following variables were determined during each 20 min clearance period; glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal plasma-flow (RPF) , filtration fraction (FF), urinary albumin and beta2......-microglobulin-excretion rates. Glucagon infusion resulted in a fourfold increase in plasma glucagon concentration. The infusion induced a significant increase in GFR (+9%), FF (+9%) and urinary beta2-microglobulin excretion rate (+32%), (p less than 0.01). RPF and urinary albumin excretion rates were...

  19. Tevatron B0 low beta tuning report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed study of the low beta insertion for the B0 experimental area has been carried out and is described below. This insertion is similar to the Type C low beta previously report, anti p Note 169, although some changes have been made to the quadrupole lengths and positions. This insertion is designated Type E. The purpose of the study was to see if it is possible to turn the insertion on in a smooth and continuous manner and tune the insertion to a value of β* of less than one meter while maintaining the overall tune of the j Tevatron to a constant value. This was found to be possible. An examination of chromaticity corrections for the Tevatron with the low beta insertion on in various configurations was also undertaken

  20. beta. -Amyloid gene dosage in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdoch, G H; Manuelidis, L; Kim, J H; Manuelidis, E E

    1988-01-11

    The 4-5 kd amyloid ..beta..-peptide is a major constituent of the characteristic amyloid plaque of Alzheimer's disease. It has been reported that some cases of sporatic Alzheimer's disease are associated with at least a partial duplication of chromosome 21 containing the gene corresponding to the 695 residue precursor of this peptide. To contribute to an understanding of the frequency to such a duplication event in the overall Alzheimer's population, the authors have determined the gene dosage of the ..beta..-amyloid gene in this collection of cases. All cases had a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's confirmed neuropathologically. Each Alzheimer's case had an apparent normal diploid ..beta..-amyloid gene dosage, while control Down's cases had the expected triploid dosage. Thus partial duplication of chromosome 21 may be a rare finding in Alzheimer's disease. Similar conclusions were just reported in several studies of the Harvard Alzheimer collection.

  1. Beta ray backscattering studies for thickness measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M; Sharma, K K [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Nuclear Science Labs.

    1979-01-01

    Back-scattering of beta rays from /sup 204/Tl (Esub(..beta..)max = 740 keV) and /sup 90/Sr-/sup 90/Y (Esub(..beta..)max =550 and 2250 keV) has been studied in an improved reflection geometry, using annular sources, from a number of elemental targets with Z values ranging from 13 to 82. Source to target and target to detector geometry factors are 0.0225 and 0.0282 respectively. Values of saturation back scattering thickness obtained in the two cases are 72 +- 10 and 190 +- 40 mg/cm/sup 2/ respectively. It is observed that the intensity of back scattered radiation varies linearly with thickness upto a value of 12 +- 2 mg/cm/sup 2/ in /sup 204/Tl and 17 +- 3 mg/cm/sup 2/ in /sup 90/Sr-/sup 90/Y.

  2. Simultaneous determination of F-beta-alanine and beta-alanine in plasma and urine with dual-column reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kuilenburg, A. B.; Stroomer, A. E.; Peters, G. J.; van Gennip, A. H.

    2001-01-01

    F-beta-Alanine and beta-alanine were detected in plasma and urine samples with fluorescence detection of orthophthaldialdehyde derivatives of F-beta-alanine and beta-alanine after separation with dual-column reversed-phase HPLC. The detection limits of F-beta-alanine and beta-alanine in the HPLC

  3. BETASCAN: probable beta-amyloids identified by pairwise probabilistic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen W Bryan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Amyloids and prion proteins are clinically and biologically important beta-structures, whose supersecondary structures are difficult to determine by standard experimental or computational means. In addition, significant conformational heterogeneity is known or suspected to exist in many amyloid fibrils. Recent work has indicated the utility of pairwise probabilistic statistics in beta-structure prediction. We develop here a new strategy for beta-structure prediction, emphasizing the determination of beta-strands and pairs of beta-strands as fundamental units of beta-structure. Our program, BETASCAN, calculates likelihood scores for potential beta-strands and strand-pairs based on correlations observed in parallel beta-sheets. The program then determines the strands and pairs with the greatest local likelihood for all of the sequence's potential beta-structures. BETASCAN suggests multiple alternate folding patterns and assigns relative a priori probabilities based solely on amino acid sequence, probability tables, and pre-chosen parameters. The algorithm compares favorably with the results of previous algorithms (BETAPRO, PASTA, SALSA, TANGO, and Zyggregator in beta-structure prediction and amyloid propensity prediction. Accurate prediction is demonstrated for experimentally determined amyloid beta-structures, for a set of known beta-aggregates, and for the parallel beta-strands of beta-helices, amyloid-like globular proteins. BETASCAN is able both to detect beta-strands with higher sensitivity and to detect the edges of beta-strands in a richly beta-like sequence. For two proteins (Abeta and Het-s, there exist multiple sets of experimental data implying contradictory structures; BETASCAN is able to detect each competing structure as a potential structure variant. The ability to correlate multiple alternate beta-structures to experiment opens the possibility of computational investigation of prion strains and structural heterogeneity of amyloid

  4. Ballooning stable high beta tokamak equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuda, Takashi; Azumi, Masafumi; Kurita, Gen-ichi; Takizuka, Tomonori; Takeda, Tatsuoki

    1981-04-01

    The second stable regime of ballooning modes is numerically studied by using the two-dimensional tokamak transport code with the ballooning stability code. Using the simple FCT heating scheme, we find that the plasma can locally enter this second stable regime. And we obtained equilibria with fairly high beta (β -- 23%) stable against ballooning modes in a whole plasma region, by taking into account of finite thermal diffusion due to unstable ballooning modes. These results show that a tokamak fusion reactor can operate in a high beta state, which is economically favourable. (author)

  5. Construction of a high beta plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naraghi, M.; Torabi-Fard, A.

    1976-02-01

    A high beta plasma source has been designed and constructed. This source will serve as a means of developing and exercising different diagnostic techniques as required for ALVAND I, linear theta pinch experiment. Also, it will serve to acquaint the technicians with some of the techniques and safety rules of high voltage and capacitor discharge experiments. The operating parameters of the theta pinch and Z-pinch preionization is presented and the program of diagnostic measurements on the high beta plasma source is discussed

  6. Critical beta for analytical spheromak equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire, E.M.; Clemente, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Mercier criterion is applied to two analytical spheromak equilibria, one with a spherical separatrix and the other with a cylindrical one of variable elongation. The maximum beta, defined as the ratio between the plasma pressure and the magnetic pressure averaged over the plasma volume, for which the criterion is satisfied on every magnetic surface, has been obtained. In the spherical model the critical beta is 0.003, while in the cylindrical case it is a function of the elongation of the separatrix with a maximum of 0.083. (author)

  7. Measuring Systematic Risk Using Implicit Beta

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew F. Siegel

    1995-01-01

    A new technology is proposed for estimating the systematic (beta) risk of a firm's stock. Just as the implicit volatility of an asset is revealed by an ordinary call option, the "implicit beta" of a stock would be revealed by the price of an option to exchange shares of stock for shares of a market index. Considerable benefits would accrue to those involved with the theory and practice of finance, if and when these exchange options begin trading, due to the availability of instantaneous, up-t...

  8. Beta/gamma test problems for ITS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, G.T.

    1993-01-01

    The Integrated Tiger Series of Coupled Electron/Photon Monte Carlo Transport Codes (ITS 3.0, PC Version) was used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to compare with and extend the experimental findings of the beta/gamma response of selected health physics instruments. In order to assure that ITS gives correct results, several beta/gamma problems have been tested. ITS was used to simulate these problems numerically, and results for each were compared to the problem's experimental or analytical results. ITS successfully predicted the experimental or analytical results of all tested problems within the statistical uncertainty inherent in the Monte Carlo method

  9. Why search for double beta decay?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayser, B.

    1988-01-01

    Searching for neutrinoless double beta decay is the only known practical method for trying to determine whether neutrinos are their own antiparticles. The theoretical motivation for supposing that they may indeed be their own antiparticles is described. The reason that it is so difficult to ascertain experimentally whether they are or are not is explained, as is the special sensitivity of neutrinoless double beta decay. The potential implications of the observation of this reaction for neutrino mass and for the physics of neutrinos is discussed

  10. Majorana neutrinos and double beta-decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchepkin, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    Problem, related to neutrino mass and lepton charge L conservation is briefly discussed. A possibility to experimentally test L conservation in different processes and to produce limitations for neutrino mass in double beta-decay processes is considered. Planned experiments on studying the double neutrinoless (2β) beta-decays and searching 2β(2ν)-decays, permitted by the conservation laws, are discussed. It is stressed, that comparison of the existing theoretical predictions of 2β(2ν)-decay probability with experimental results will make it possible to choose the most adequate approach to the calculation of double β-transition nuclear amplitudes

  11. Beta-decay of {sup 56}Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramdhane, M.; Baumann, P.; Knipper, A.; Walter, G. [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Janas, Z.; Plochocki, A. [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Experimental Physics; Aeystoe, J.; Dendooven, P.; Jokinen, A.; Oinonen, M.; Pentilae, H. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland); Liu, W.; Grawe, H.; Hu, Z.; Kirchner, R.; Klepper, O.; Roeckl, E. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Gorska, M. [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Experimental Physics]|[Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Fujita, Y. [Osaka Univ. (Japan); Brown, B.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1998-02-01

    By measuring positrons and {beta}-delayed {gamma}-rays emitted from mass-separated sources, the decay of {sup 56}Cu(4{sup +},T{sub z}=-1,T=1) to states in the doubly-magic nucleus {sup 56}Ni was studied for the first time. The half-life of {sup 56}Cu was measured to be 78(15) ms, and four {beta}-delayed {gamma}-rays were assigned to its decay. The resulting experimental data on Fermi and Gamow-Teller strength are compared with shell-model predictions. (orig.)

  12. Card controlled beta backscatter thickness measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, J.

    1978-01-01

    An improved beta backscatter instrument for the nondestructive measurement of the thickness of thin coatings on a substrate is described. Included therein is the utilization of a bank of memory stored data representative of isotope, substrate, coating material and thickness range characteristics in association with a control card having predetermined indicia thereon selectively representative of a particular isotope, substrate material, coating material and thickness range for conditioning electronic circuit means by memory stored data selected in accord with the predetermined indicia on a control card for converting backscattered beta particle counts into indicia of coating thickness

  13. Search for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay

    OpenAIRE

    Tornow, Werner

    2014-01-01

    After the pioneering work of the Heidelberg-Moscow (HDM) and International Germanium Experiment (IGEX) groups, the second round of neutrinoless double-$\\beta$ decay searches currently underway has or will improve the life-time limits of double-$\\beta$ decay candidates by a factor of two to three, reaching in the near future the $T_{1/2} = 3 \\times 10^{25}$ yr level. This talk will focus on the large-scale experiments GERDA, EXO-200, and KamLAND-Zen, which have reported already lower half-life...

  14. Simulated progress in double-beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, H.S.; Arthur, R.J.; Avignone, F.T.

    1993-09-01

    A Monte Carlo code has been developed to accurately simulate double-beta decay measurements. Coincident gamma rays, beta spectra, and angular correlations have been added to adequately simulate a complete 100 Mo nuclear decay and provide corrections to experimentally determined detector efficiencies. This code has been used to strip certain low-background spectra obtained in the Homestake gold mine in Lead, SD, for the purpose of extremely sensitive materials assay for the construction of new, large, enriched germanium detectors. Assays as low as 9 μBq/g of 210 Pb in lead shielding were obtained

  15. Precision measurements in nuclear beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naviliat-Cuncic, Oscar, E-mail: naviliat@nscl.msu.edu [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Precision measurements in nuclear beta decay provide sensitive means to determine the fundamental coupling of charged fermions to weak bosons and to test discrete symmetries in the weak interaction. The main motivation of such measurements is to find deviations from Standard Model predictions as possible indications of new physics. I focus here on two topics related to precision measurements in beta decay, namely: (i) the determination of the V{sub ud} element of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark mixing matrix from nuclear mirror transitions and (ii) selected measurements of time reversal violating correlations in nuclear and neutron decays. These topics complement those presented in other contributions to this conference.

  16. Increase in beta limit in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Yutaka

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews recent studies of tokamak MHD stability towards the achievement of a high beta steady-state, where the profile control of current, pressure, and rotation, and the optimization of the plasma shape play fundamental roles. The key instabilities include the neoclassical tearing mode, the resistive wall mode, the edge localized mode, etc. In order to demonstrate an economically attractive tokamak reactor, it is necessary to increase the beta value simultaneously with a sufficiently high integrated plasma performance. Towards this goal, studies of stability control in self-regulating plasma systems are essential. (author)

  17. Nuclear Matrix Elements for the $\\beta\\beta$ Decay of the $^{76}$Ge

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, B A; Horoi, M

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear matrix elements for two-neutrino double-beta (2 n$\\beta\\beta$ ) and zero-neutrino double-beta (0 n$\\beta\\beta$) decay of 76 Ge are evaluated in terms of the configuration interaction (CI), quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA) and interacting boson model (IBM) methods. We show that the decomposition of the matrix elements in terms of interemediate states in 74 Ge is dominated by ground state of this nucleus. We consider corrections to the CI results that arise from configurations admixtures involving orbitals out-side of the CI configuration space by using results from QRPA, many-body-perturbation theory, and the connections to related observables. The CI two-neutrino matrix element is reduced due to the inclusion of spin-orbit partners, and to many-body correlations connected with Gamow-Teller beta decay. The CI zero-neutrino matrix element for the heavy neutrino is enhanced due to particle-particle correlations that are connected with the odd-even oscillations in the nuclear masse...

  18. A comparison of heart function and arrhythmia in clinically asymptomatic patients with beta thalassemia intermedia and beta thalassemia major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoozgar, Hamid; Zeighami, Samaneh; Haghpanah, Sezaneh; Karimi, Mehran

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare heart function and arrhythmia in clinically asymptomatic patients with beta thalassemia intermedia and beta thalassemia major. In this cross-sectional study, 60 patients with beta thalassemia major and 60 patients with beta thalassemia intermedia who had clinically no symptoms of arrhythmia and clinically normal heart function were evaluated using 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring and echocardiography. For data analysis SPSS ver.20 software was used. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The mean age of the beta thalassemia intermedia patients was 24.18 ± 7.9 years and the mean age in beta thalassemia major was 24.38 ± 7.7 years (P>0.05). Premature atrial contractions (PACs) were observed in 14 (23.3%) patients with beta thalassemia intermedia and in 22 (36.6%) beta thalassemia major patients. Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) were detected in 8 (13.3%) patients in the beta thalassemia intermediate group and 16 (26.6) patients in the beta thalassemia major group, respectively. The left ventricular diastolic dimension, end-diastolic volume, and stroke volume were significantly higher in beta thalassemia intermedia group (Pintermedia group. Both atrial and ventricular arrhythmias were more common in the beta thalassemia major group. Higher end-diastolic volume and stroke volume were detected in the beta thalassemia intermedia group. Pulmonary acceleration time was lower in the beta thalassemia intermedia group, which can be an indicator of higher pulmonary pressure.

  19. Active-site-directed inactivation of Aspergillus oryzae beta-galactosidase with beta-D-galactopyranosylmethyl-p-nitrophenyltriazene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mega, T; Nishijima, T; Ikenaka, T

    1990-04-01

    beta-D-Galactopyranosylmethyl-p-nitrophenyltriazene (beta-GalMNT), a specific inhibitor of beta-galactosidase, was isolated as crystals by HPLC and its chemical and physicochemical characteristics were examined. Aspergillus oryzae beta-galactosidase was inactivated by the compound. We studied the inhibition mechanism in detail. The inhibitor was hydrolyzed by the enzyme to p-nitroaniline and an active intermediate (beta-galactopyranosylmethyl carbonium or beta-galactopyranosylmethyldiazonium), which inactivated the enzyme. The efficiency of inactivation of the enzyme (the ratio of moles of inactivated enzyme to moles of beta-GalMNT hydrolyzed by the enzyme) was 3%; the efficiency of Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase was 49%. In spite of the low efficiency, the rate of inactivation of A. oryzae enzyme was not very different from that of the E. coli enzyme, because the former hydrolyzed beta-GalMNT faster than the latter did. A. oryzae beta-galactosidase was also inactivated by p-chlorophenyl, p-tolyl, and m-nitrophenyl derivatives of beta-galactopyranosylmethyltriazene. However, E. coli beta-galactosidase was not inactivated by these triazene derivatives. The results showed that the inactivation of A. oryzae and E. coli beta-galactosidases by beta-GalMNT was an enzyme-activated and active-site-directed irreversible inactivation. The possibility of inactivation by intermediates produced nonenzymatically was ruled out for E. coli, but not for the A. oryzae enzyme.

  20. Plasma beta-endorphin, beta-lipotropin and corticotropin in polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laatikainen, T; Salminen, K; Virtanen, T; Apter, D

    1987-04-01

    In 9 women with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) and in 11 control subjects at the follicular phase of the normal cycle, blood samples were collected at 15-min intervals during a 2 h period of bed rest for the assay of beta-endorphin, beta-lipotropin, corticotropin, cortisol and prolactin. During the study period, the plasma levels of these hormones decreased more significantly in the PCOD than in the control group, suggesting that the PCOD patients had a more significant stress response to the puncture of the vein than the control subjects. The second hour of the study period was considered to represent resting levels of hormones. The mean resting levels (+/- S.E.) of the hormones between the PCOD and control groups, respectively, were as follows: beta-E, 2.0 +/- 0.4 vs. 1.1 +/- 0.1 pmol/l, p less than 0.05; beta-LPH, 3.4 +/- 0.6 vs. 2.1 +/- 0.5 pmol/l, N.S.; corticotropin, 2.0 +/- 0.3 vs. 1.1 +/- 0.5 pmol/l, p less than 0.05; cortisol, 176 +/- 24 vs. 128 +/- 16, N.S.; and prolactin; 3.9 +/- 0.6 vs. 5.6 +/- 1.2 ng/ml, N.S. These results confirm the previous findings on increased circulating levels of beta-E in PCOD. A concomitant increase of the plasma level of corticotropin suggests that the basal secretion of both beta-E and corticotropin from the anterior pituitary gland is increased in women with PCOD.

  1. Development of a gas-ionization {beta}-spectrometer; Etude et realisation d'un spectrometre {beta} a ionisation gazeuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Du, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1968-05-15

    We intend to develop in our laboratory a {beta}-spectrometer. This apparatus will have two main objectives: 1 - the determination of the nature and the degree of purity of certain {beta}-emitting radioactive substances; 2 - the study of an activity calibration process for {beta}-emitting radioactive sources. (author) [French] Nous nous proposons d'etudier et de realiser dans notre laboratoire un spectrometre {beta}. Cet appareil aura deux buts principaux: 1 - determiner la nature et le degre de purete de certains corps radioactifs emetteurs {beta}; 2 - permettre l'etude d'un procede d'etalonnage en activite de sources radioactives emetteurs {beta}. (auteur)

  2. Weak interaction studies from nuclear beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, M.

    1981-01-01

    The studies performed at the theoretical nuclear physics division of the Laboratory of Nuclear Studies, Osaka University, are reported. Electron spin density and internal conversion process, nuclear excitation by electron transition, beta decay, weak charged current, and beta-ray angular distributions in oriented nuclei have been studied. The relative intensity of internal conversion electrons for the case in which the radial wave functions of orbital electrons are different for electron spin up and down was calculated. The calculated value was in good agreement with the experimental one. The nuclear excitation following the transition of orbital electrons was studied. The calculated probability of the nuclear excitation of Os 189 was 1.4 x 10 - 7 in conformity with the experimental value 1.7 x 10 - 7 . The second class current and other problems on beta-decay have been extensively studied, and described elsewhere. Concerning weak charged current, the effects of all induced terms, the time component of main axial vector, all partial waves of leptons, Coulomb correction for the electrons in finite size nuclei, and radiative correction were studied. The beta-ray angular distribution for the 1 + -- 0 + transition in oriented B 12 and N 12 was investigated. In this connection, investigation on the weak magnetism to include all higher order corrections for the evaluation of the spectral shape factors was performed. Other works carried out by the author and his collaborators are also explained. (Kato, T.)

  3. IKK and (Beta) - Catenin in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    TOPFLASIt + + + + . + + + + - - - - IKK( (SS/AA) +- -. - - IKKII(SS/AA) -+ + Nl’- k3 reporwr - + + + + B) 180 160 140 120 100 - U 80 60 401...2001 Vitamin D(3) promotes the differentiation of colon carcinoma cells by the induction of E-cadherin and the inhibition of beta-catenin signaling. J

  4. Average beta measurement in EXTRAP T1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, E.R.

    1988-12-01

    Beginning with the ideal MHD pressure balance equation, an expression for the average poloidal beta, Β Θ , is derived. A method for unobtrusively measuring the quantities used to evaluate Β Θ in Extrap T1 is described. The results if a series of measurements yielding Β Θ as a function of externally applied toroidal field are presented. (author)

  5. Redox Homeostasis in Pancreatic beta Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Petr; Dlasková, Andrea; Plecitá-Hlavatá, Lydie

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2012, č. 2012 (2012), s. 932838 ISSN 1942-0900 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/10/0346; GA ČR(CZ) GPP304/10/P204 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : beta cells * reactive oxygen species homeostasis * mitochondria Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.393, year: 2012

  6. On the absolute measure of Beta activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez del Rio, C.; Jimenez Reynaldo, O.; Rodriguez Mayquez, E.

    1956-01-01

    A new method for absolute beta counting of solid samples is given. The mea surements is made with an inside Geiger-Muller tube of new construction. The backscattering correction when using an infinite thick mounting is discussed and results for different materials given. (Author)

  7. Double beta decay: recent developments and projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avignone, F.T. III; Brodzinski, R.L.; Brown, D.P.; Evans, J.C. Jr.; Hensley, W.K.; Reeves, J.H.; Wogman, N.A.

    1983-08-01

    A report of recent events in both theoretical and experimental aspects of double beta decay is given. General theoretical considerations, recent developments in nuclear structure theory, geochronological determinations of half lives and ratios as well as laboratory experiments are discussed with emphasis on the past three years. Some projections are given. 28 references

  8. Topical beta-Blockers and Mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muskens, Rogier P. H. M.; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; Wittenian, Jacqueline C. M.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Stricker, Bruno H. C.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    Purpose: To study the associations between long-term and short-term use of topical beta-blockers and mortality. Design: Prospective population-based cohort study. Participants: To examine long-term effects, 3842 participants aged 55 years and older were recruited. To examine short-term effects, 484

  9. Poster: The EURISOL Beta-beam facility

    CERN Document Server

    The beta-beam concept for the generation of an electron (anti-)neutrino beam was proposed by Piero Zucchelli (CERN) in 2002. A first study of the possibility of using the existing CERN machines for the acceleration for radioactive ions to a relativistic gamma of roughly 100, for later storage in a new decay ring of approximately the size of SPS, was made in 2002. The results from this very first short study were very encouraging.In 2004 it was decided to incorporate a design study for the beta-beam within the EURISOL DS proposal. EURISOL is a project name for a next-generation radioactive beam facility based on the ISOL method for the production of intense radioactive beams for nuclear physics, astrophysics and other applications. The proposal was accepted with the beta-beam task as an integral part. The design study officially started 1 February 2005 and will run for 4 years resulting in a conceptual design report for a beta-beam facility.

  10. Study of detectors in beta radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, M. da P.P.; Xavier, M.; Caldas, L.V.E.

    1987-01-01

    Several commercial detectors used with gamma or X radiation are studied. Their sensibility and energetic dependence are analysed in exposures of beta radiation fields. A comparative evaluation with the reference detector (the extrapolation chamber) is presented. (M.A.C.) [pt

  11. Characterization of a Commercial Silicon Beta Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foxe, Michael P.; Hayes, James C.; Mayer, Michael F.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Sivels, Ciara B.; Suarez, Rey

    2016-01-01

    Silicon detectors are of interest for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) due to their enhanced energy resolution compared to plastic scintillators beta cells. Previous work developing a figure-of-merit (FOM) for comparison of beta cells suggests that the minimum detectable activity (MDA) could be reduced by a factor of two to three with the use of silicon detectors. Silicon beta cells have been developed by CEA (France) and Lares Ltd. (Russia), with the PIPSBox developed by CEA being commercially available from Canberra for approximately $35k, but there is still uncertainty about the reproducibility of the capabilities in the field. PNNL is developing a high-resolution beta-gamma detector system in the shallow underground laboratory, which will utilize and characterize the operation of the PIPSBox detector. Throughout this report, we examine the capabilities of the PIPSBox as developed by CEA. The lessons learned through the testing and use of the PIPSBox will allow PNNL to strategically develop a silicon detector optimized to better suit the communities needs in the future.

  12. Beta decay of highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinov, Yuri A; Bosch, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    Beta decay of highly charged ions has attracted much attention in recent years. An obvious motivation for this research is that stellar nucleosynthesis proceeds at high temperatures where the involved atoms are highly ionized. Another important reason is addressing decays of well-defined quantum-mechanical systems, such as one-electron ions where all interactions with other electrons are excluded. The largest modifications of nuclear half-lives with respect to neutral atoms have been observed in beta decay of highly charged ions. These studies can be performed solely at ion storage rings and ion traps, because there high atomic charge states can be preserved for extended periods of time (up to several hours). Currently, all experimental results available in this field originate from experiments at the heavy-ion complex GSI in Darmstadt. There, the fragment separator facility FRS allows the production and separation of exotic, highly charged nuclides, which can then be stored and investigated in the storage ring facility ESR. In this review, we present and discuss in particular two-body beta decays, namely bound-state beta decay and orbital electron capture. Although we focus on experiments conducted at GSI, we will also attempt to provide general requirements common to any other experiment in this context. Finally, we address challenging but not yet performed experiments and we give prospects for the new radioactive beam facilities, such as FAIR in Darmstadt, IMP in Lanzhou and RIKEN in Wako.

  13. Additive Manufacturing of Metastable Beta Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannetta, Christopher J.

    Additive manufacturing processes of many alloys are known to develop texture during the deposition process due to the rapid reheating and the directionality of the dissipation of heat. Titanium alloys and with respect to this study beta titanium alloys are especially susceptible to these effects. This work examines Ti-20wt%V and Ti-12wt%Mo deposited under normal additive manufacturing process parameters to examine the texture of these beta-stabilized alloys. Both microstructures contained columnar prior beta grains 1-2 mm in length beginning at the substrate with no visible equiaxed grains. This microstructure remained constant in the vanadium system throughout the build. The microstructure of the alloy containing molybdenum changed from a columnar to an equiaxed structure as the build height increased. Eighteen additional samples of the Ti-Mo system were created under different processing parameters to identify what role laser power and travel speed have on the microstructure. There appears to be a correlation in alpha lath size and power density. The two binary alloys were again deposited under the same conditions with the addition of 0.5wt% boron to investigate the effects an insoluble interstitial alloying element would have on the microstructure. The size of the prior beta grains in these two alloys were reduced with the addition of boron by approximately 50 (V) and 100 (Mo) times.

  14. [High beta tokamak research and plasma theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Our activities on High Beta Tokamak Research during the past 12 months of the present budget period can be divided into four areas: completion of kink mode studies in HBT; completion of carbon impurity transport studies in HBT; design of HBT-EP; and construction of HBT-EP. Each of these is described briefly in the sections of this progress report

  15. Nuclear structure and double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, P.

    1988-01-01

    Double beta decay is a rare transition between two nuclei of the same mass number A involving a change of the nuclear charge Z by two units. It has long been recognized that the Oν mode of double beta decay, where two electrons and no neutrinos are emitted, is a powerful tool for the study of neutrino properties. Its observation would constitute a convincing proof that there exists a massive Majorana neutrino which couples to electrons. Double beta decay is a process involving an intricate mixture of particle physics and physics of the nucleus. The principal nuclear physics issues have to do with the evaluation of the nuclear matrix elements responsible for the decay. If the authors wish to arrive at quantitative answers for the neutrino properties the authors have no choice but to learn first how to understand the nuclear mechanisms. The authors describe first the calculation of the decay rate of the 2ν mode of double beta decay, in which two electrons and two antineutrinos are emitted

  16. Association behavior of native beta-lactoglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verheul, M.; Pedersen, J.S.; Roefs, S.P.F.M.

    1999-01-01

    The association behavior of beta-lactoglobulin has been studied by small-angle neutron scattering as a function of protein concentration, temperature, pH, and NaCl concentration of the solution. By indirect Fourier transformation of the spectra, pair-distance distribution functions for the variou...

  17. The photodiodes response in beta dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, Helen; Amaral, Ademir; Hazin, Clovis; Melo, Francisco

    1996-01-01

    The response of the photodiodes BPY-12, BPW-34 and SFH-206 is tested for use as beta dosimeters. The results obtained show a dose-response relationships as well as less than 1% of coefficient of variation for the reproducibility of their responses. The photodiode BPY-12 has presented a better response in comparison with the others

  18. Can Beta Blockers Cause Weight Gain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause weight gain? Can beta blockers cause weight gain? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes. Weight gain can occur as a side effect of some ... and metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol-XL). The average weight gain is about 2.6 pounds (about 1.2 ...

  19. Double beta decay: A theoretical overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, S.P.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the theoretical possibility of double beta decay. The titles of the main sections of this paper are: Nuclear physics setting; Particle physics requirements; Kinematical features of the decay modes; Nuclear matrix elements; the Shell model and two-neutrino decay; Quasi-particle random phase approximation; and Future considerations. 18 refs., 7 tabs

  20. Structure modeling and mutational analysis of gap junction beta 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-03

    Apr 3, 2012 ... Three dimensional (3 D) structure is very useful for understanding biological functions. Gap junction beta 2 (GJB2), human gene encoding for gap junction beta 2 protein is involved in ... Research in deafness became real.

  1. International beta-dosimetry symposium. Program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    Abstracts of the presentations at the symposium are contained in this volume. Problems associated with beta dosimetry, beta detectors and dosemeters, and current development programs are described. Each abstract has been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  2. Estimation error algorithm at analysis of beta-spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakovets, N.V.; Zhukovskij, A.I.; Zubarev, V.N.; Khadzhinov, E.M.

    2005-01-01

    This work describes the estimation error algorithm at the operations with beta-spectrums, as well as compares the theoretical and experimental errors by the processing of beta-channel's data. (authors)

  3. BetaShape: A new code for improved analytical calculations of beta spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mougeot Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The new code BetaShape has been developed in order to improve the nuclear data related to beta decays. An analytical model was considered, except for the relativistic electron wave functions, for ensuring fast calculations. Output quantities are mean energies, log ft values and beta and neutrino spectra for single and multiple transitions. The uncertainties from the input parameters, read from an ENSDF file, are propagated. A database of experimental shape factors is included. A comparison over the entire ENSDF database with the standard code currently used in nuclear data evaluations shows consistent results for the vast majority of the transitions and highlights the improvements that can be expected with the use of BetaShape.

  4. RESEARCH OF BETA AS ADEQUATE RISK MEASURE-IS BETA STILL ALIVE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Perković

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The capital asset pricing model (CAPM is one of the most important models in financial economics and it has a long history of theoretical and empirical investigations. The main underlying concept of the CAPM model is that assets with a high risk (high beta should earn a higher return than assets with a low risk (low beta and vice versa. The implication which can be drawn out of this is that all assets with a beta above zero bear some risk and therefore their expected return is above the return of the risk-free rate. In this research observation on monthly stock prices on Croatian stock market from January 1st 2005 until December 31st 2009 is used to form our sample. CROBEX index is used as proxy of the market portfolio. The results demonstrate that beta can not be trusted in making investment decisions and rejects the validity of the whole CAPM model on Croatian stock market.

  5. Natural triple beta-stranded fibrous folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitraki, Anna; Papanikolopoulou, Katerina; Van Raaij, Mark J

    2006-01-01

    A distinctive family of beta-structured folds has recently been described for fibrous proteins from viruses. Virus fibers are usually involved in specific host-cell recognition. They are asymmetric homotrimeric proteins consisting of an N-terminal virus-binding tail, a central shaft or stalk domain, and a C-terminal globular receptor-binding domain. Often they are entirely or nearly entirely composed of beta-structure. Apart from their biological relevance and possible gene therapy applications, their shape, stability, and rigidity suggest they may be useful as blueprints for biomechanical design. Folding and unfolding studies suggest their globular C-terminal domain may fold first, followed by a "zipping-up" of the shaft domains. The C-terminal domains appear to be important for registration because peptides corresponding to shaft domains alone aggregate into nonnative fibers and/or amyloid structures. C-terminal domains can be exchanged between different fibers and the resulting chimeric proteins are useful as a way to solve structures of unknown parts of the shaft domains. The following natural triple beta-stranded fibrous folds have been discovered by X-ray crystallography: the triple beta-spiral, triple beta-helix, and T4 short tail fiber fold. All have a central longitudinal hydrophobic core and extensive intermonomer polar and nonpolar interactions. Now that a reasonable body of structural and folding knowledge has been assembled about these fibrous proteins, the next challenge and opportunity is to start using this information in medical and industrial applications such as gene therapy and nanotechnology.

  6. Beta Bremsstrahlung dose in concrete shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjunatha, H.C., E-mail: manjunatha@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Government college for women, Kolar 563101, Karnataka (India); Chandrika, B.M. [Shravana, 592, Ist Cross, Behind St.Anne s School, PC Extension, Kolar 563101, Karnataka (India); Rudraswamy, B. [Department of Physics, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560056, Karnataka (India); Sankarshan, B.M. [Shravana, 592, Ist Cross, Behind St.Anne s School, PC Extension, Kolar 563101, Karnataka (India)

    2012-05-11

    In a nuclear reactor, beta nuclides are released during nuclear reactions. These betas interact with shielding concrete and produces external Bremsstrahlung (EB) radiation. To estimate Bremsstrahlung dose and shield efficiency in concrete, it is essential to know Bremsstrahlung distribution or spectra. The present work formulated a new method to evaluate the EB spectrum and hence Bremsstrahlung dose of beta nuclides ({sup 32}P, {sup 89}Sr, {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y, {sup 90}Y, {sup 91}Y, {sup 208}Tl, {sup 210}Bi, {sup 234}Pa and {sup 40}K) in concrete. The Bremsstrahlung yield of these beta nuclides in concrete is also estimated. The Bremsstrahlung yield in concrete due to {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y is higher than those of other given nuclides. This estimated spectrum is accurate because it is based on more accurate modified atomic number (Z{sub mod}) and Seltzer's data, where an electron-electron interaction is also included. Presented data in concrete provide a quick and convenient reference for radiation protection. The present methodology can be used to calculate the Bremsstrahlung dose in nuclear shielding materials. It can be quickly employed to give a first pass dose estimate prior to a more detailed experimental study. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Betas released in a nuclear reactor interact with shielding concrete and produces Bremsstrahlung. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The present work formulated a new method to evaluate the Bremsstrahlung spectrum and dose in concrete. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presented data in concrete provide a quick and convenient reference for radiation protection.

  7. Beta?hydroxy?beta?methylbutyrate supplementation and skeletal muscle in healthy and muscle?wasting conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hole?ek, Milan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Beta?hydroxy?beta?methylbutyrate (HMB) is a metabolite of the essential amino acid leucine that has been reported to have anabolic effects on protein metabolism. The aims of this article were to summarize the results of studies of the effects of HMB on skeletal muscle and to examine the evidence for the rationale to use HMB as a nutritional supplement to exert beneficial effects on muscle mass and function in various conditions of health and disease. The data presented here indicate ...

  8. International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Jacob M; Fitschen, Peter J; Campbell, Bill; Wilson, Gabriel J; Zanchi, Nelo; Taylor, Lem; Wilborn, Colin; Kalman, Douglas S; Stout, Jeffrey R; Hoffman, Jay R; Ziegenfuss, Tim N; Lopez, Hector L; Kreider, Richard B; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Antonio, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature on the use of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) as a nutritional supplement. The ISSN has concluded the following. 1. HMB can be used to enhance recovery by attenuating exercise induced skeletal muscle damage in trained and untrained populations. 2. If consuming HMB, an athlete will benefit from consuming the supplement in close pro...

  9. Conformation, molecular packing and field effect mobility of regioregular beta,beta'-dihexylsexithiophiophene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiriy, N.; Kiriy, A.; Bocharova, V.

    2004-01-01

    by the pulse-radiolysis time-resolved microwave conductivity (PR-TRMC) technique was found to be Sigmamu(min) = 3.9 x 10(-3) cm(2) V-1 s(-1), which is comparable with the PR-TRMC mobility found for alpha,omega-DH6T. The field-effect mobility (FEM) of beta,beta'-DH6T was found to be on the order of 10(-5) cm(2......) V-1 s(-1), which is considerably less than the FEM of alpha,omega-DH6T. To understand the reason for such poor macroscopic electrical properties, the conformation and the molecular packing of beta,beta'-DH6T were systematically studied by means of UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy...... less dense crystalline packing than alpha,omega-DH6T. In contrast to the almost upright orientation of alpha,omega-DH6T molecules against the substrate (tilt angle about 68), the long axis of beta,beta'-DH6T molecules and the surface plane form an angle of similar to20degrees. Thus, the crystalline...

  10. 17Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD) in scleractinian corals and zooxanthellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Charles H; Lima, P H; Tarrant, A M; Atkinson, M J; Atkinson, S

    2006-04-01

    Steroid metabolism studies have yielded evidence of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD) activity in corals. This project was undertaken to clarify whether there are multiple isoforms of 17beta-HSD, whether activity levels vary seasonally, and if zooxanthellae contribute to activity. 17Beta-HSD activity was characterized in zooxanthellate and azooxanthellate coral fragments collected in summer and winter and in zooxanthellae cultured from Montipora capitata. More specifically, 17beta-HSD activity was characterized with regard to steroid substrate and inhibitor specificity, coenzyme specificity, and Michaelis constants for estradiol (E2) and NADP+. Six samples each of M. capitata and Tubastrea coccinea (three summers, three winters) were assayed with E2 and NADP+. Specific activity levels (pmol/mg protein) varied 10-fold among M. capitata samples and 6-fold among T. coccinea samples. There was overlap of activity levels between summer and winter samples. NADP+/NAD+ activity ratios varied from 1.6 to 22.2 for M. capatita, 2.3 to 3.8 for T. coccinea and 0.7 to 1.1 for zooxanthellae. Coumestrol was the most inhibitory of the steroids and phytoestrogens tested. Our data confirm that corals and zooxanthellae contain 17beta-HSD and are consistent with the presence of more than one isoform of the enzyme.

  11. A Bayesian Panel Data Approach to Explaining Market Beta Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Bauer (Rob); M.M.J.E. Cosemans (Mathijs); R. Frehen (Rik); P.C. Schotman (Peter)

    2008-01-01

    markdownabstractWe characterize the process that drives the market betas of individual stocks by setting up a hierarchical Bayesian panel data model that allows a flexible specification for beta. We show that combining the parametric relationship between betas and conditioning variables specified by

  12. Natalizumab plus interferon beta-1a for relapsing multiple sclerosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudick, R.A.; Stuart, W.H.; Calabresi, P.A.; Confavreux, C.; Galetta, S.L.; Radue, E.W.; Lublin, F.D.; Weinstock-Guttman, B.; Wynn, D.R.; Lynn, F.; Panzara, M.A.; Sandrock, A.W.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interferon beta is used to modify the course of relapsing multiple sclerosis. Despite interferon beta therapy, many patients have relapses. Natalizumab, an alpha4 integrin antagonist, appeared to be safe and effective alone and when added to interferon beta-1a in preliminary studies.

  13. Rare and unexpected beta thalassemic mutations in Qazvin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About 13 beta-globin mutations encompass 70 - 90% of mutation spectrum in Iran. These mutations are called common beta-globin mutations. The rest are rare or unknown mutations. The objective of this study was to identify and describe rare or unknown beta-globin mutations in Qazvin province. EDTAcontaining venous ...

  14. Method for conversion of .beta.-hydroxy carbonyl compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilga, Michael A.; White, James F.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Zacher, Alan H.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; Orth, Rick J.

    2010-03-30

    A process is disclosed for conversion of salts of .beta.-hydroxy carbonyl compounds forming useful conversion products including, e.g., .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carbonyl compounds and/or salts of .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. Conversion products find use, e.g., as feedstock and/or end-use chemicals.

  15. Beta Risk in the Cross-section of Equities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boloorforoosh, Ali; Christoffersen, Peter; Fournier, Mathieu

    on returns and options for a large number of firms we find that allowing for beta risk helps explain the expected returns on low and high beta stocks that are challenging for standard factor models. Overall, we find strong evidence that accounting for beta risk results in better model fit....

  16. Why Downside Beta Is Better: An Educational Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, James T.; Jennings, William P.; Phillips, G. Michael

    2013-01-01

    An educational example is presented that is an effective teaching illustration to help students understand the difference between traditional CAPM beta and downside (or down-market) beta and why downside beta is a superior measure for use in personal financial planning investment policy statements.

  17. The BETA ® nursing measure: Calibrating construct validity with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The BETA nursing measure has been introduced as a tool to routinely measure and monitor the outcomes of patients' activities of daily living in a restorative nursing care context. Objectives: To investigate the BETA's construct validity using the Rasch model with specific reference to the BETA's potential to be ...

  18. Rare and unexpected beta thalassemic mutations in Qazvin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-01-04

    Jan 4, 2010 ... About 13 beta-globin mutations encompass 70 - 90% of mutation spectrum in Iran. These mutations are called common beta-globin mutations. The rest are rare or unknown mutations. The objective of this study was to identify and describe rare or unknown beta-globin mutations in Qazvin province. EDTA-.

  19. Estimating security betas using prior information based on firm fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cosemans, Mathijs; Frehen, Rik; Schotman, Peter; Bauer, Rob

    We propose a hybrid approach for estimating beta that shrinks rolling window estimates towards firm-specific priors motivated by economic theory. Our method yields superior forecasts of beta that have important practical implications. First, hybrid betas carry a significant price of risk in the

  20. Specific radioimmunoassay of human. beta. -endorphin in unextracted plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, E. (Univ. of California, Berkeley); Saito, T.; Linfoot, J.A.; Li, C.H.

    1979-09-01

    With an antiserum against human ..beta..-endorphin (..beta..-EP) crossreacting <2% with human ..beta..-lipotropin (..beta..-LPH) by weight we have developed a radioimmunoassay that can detect 1 pg ..beta..-EP in diluted raw plasma. In a.m. fasting plasma of 14 normal subjects ..beta..-EP ranged from <5 to 45 pg/ml. ..beta..-EP was elevated in untreated, but normal in successfully treated Cushing's disease; undetectable in a patient with adrenal adenoma; extremely high in Nelson's syndrome; and elevated in a patient with bronchogenic carcinoma before, but undetectable after tumor resection. In subjects with intact hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, ..beta..-EP was undectectable after dexamethasone and increased after metyrapone administration and insulin-induced hypoglycemia. ..beta..-EP concentration was considerably lower in serum than in simultaneously collected plasma, but increased in serum left unfrozen for several hours after clot removal. Thus, ..beta..-EP behaves like a hormone responding to the same stimuli as ACTH and ..beta..-LPH and blood appears to contain enzymes both generating and destroying immunoreactive ..beta..-EP.

  1. Selectivity of beta-adrenergic stimulating and blocking agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfdahl, C G; Svedmyr, N

    1984-01-01

    Studies have been performed to answer two questions: whether there are subgroups of beta 2-receptors separating effects in bronchial and skeletal muscle and whether beta 1-receptors in asthmatic airways mediate bronchoconstriction. Asthmatic patients have been studied in randomised cross-over trials. Effects on FEV1, heart rate and skeletal muscle tremor have been monitored. In some experimental studies, two new compounds, D2343 and QH-25, have shown a selectivity for beta 2-receptors in bronchial muscle compared to skeletal muscle. Studies in asthmatics did not confirm this. Thus, the beta 2-receptors in the two organs appear to be identical. The clinical effect of beta 1-receptors in the the airways was studied by giving selective beta 1-receptor blocking agents. It was shown that pafenolol , a beta-blocker more beta 1-selective than metoprolol, had less effect on FEV1 than metoprolol given in equipotent beta 1-blocking doses. Beta 1-receptor stimulation with a new selective beta 1-stimulating agent, prenalterol, did not give bronchodilation in doses which gave a significant increase of heart rate. Thus, beta 1-receptors do not contribute to bronchodilation in asthmatic patients.

  2. Determination of alternative conditions for instruments calibration with beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, F.D.G.; Caldas, L.V.E.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of homogenization filter in the determination of chamber calibration factors and transmission factors of beta radiation in air, for obtaining different alternative conditions for beta-gamma portable monitors calibration was studied, using an extrapolation chamber and the beta secondary system at IPEN-CNEN-Brazil. (C.G.C.)

  3. Induction of beta-lactamase production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giwercman, B; Jensen, E T; Høiby, N

    1991-01-01

    Imipenem induced high levels of beta-lactamase production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Piperacillin also induced beta-lactamase production in these biofilms but to a lesser degree. The combination of beta-lactamase production with other protective properties of the biofilm mode of growth c...... could be a major reason for the persistence of this sessile bacterium in chronic infections....

  4. Study of the kinetics of beta-alpha transformation in uranium; Doprinos proucavanju kinetike beta-alfa transformacije u uranijumu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drobnjak, Dj; Mihajlovic, A [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1965-11-15

    The objective of this task was to study the influence of cooling rate, heating temperature and the time of spent in beta state on the kinetics of the beta {yields} alpha transformation. The experimental results are presented in this report.

  5. Human APC sequesters beta-catenin even in the absence of GSK-3beta in a Drosophila model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P R; Makhijani, K; Shashidhara, L S

    2008-04-10

    There have been conflicting reports on the requirement of GSK-3beta-mediated phosphorylation of the tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) vis-à-vis its ability to bind and degrade beta-catenin. Using a unique combination of loss of function for Shaggy/GSK-3beta and a gain of function for human APC in Drosophila, we show that misexpressed human APC (hAPC) can still sequester Armadillo/beta-catenin. In addition, human APC could suppress gain of Wnt/Wingless phenotypes associated with loss of Shaggy/GSK-3beta activity, suggesting that sequestered Armadillo/beta-catenin is non-functional. Based on these studies, we propose that binding per se of beta-catenin by APC does not require phosphorylation by GSK-3beta.

  6. Synthesis of the {beta}-phenethyl-mercaptan ({sup 35}S); Synthese du {beta}-phenethylmercaptan ({sup 35}S)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    {beta}-phenethyl-mercaptan ({sup 35}S) has been synthesized by action of elementary radioactive sulphur ({sup 35}S) on {beta}-phenethyl-magnesium-bromide, with a 90 per cent yield. (author) [French] Le {beta}-phenethylmercaptan ({sup 35}S) a ete synthetise par action du soufre radioactif elementaire ({sup 35}S) sur le bromure de {beta}-phenethylmagnesium, avec un rendement de 90 pour cent. (auteur)

  7. Strain-dependent differences in sensitivity of rat beta-cells to interleukin 1 beta in vitro and in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, J I; Andersen, H U; Mauricio, D

    1996-01-01

    /kg) or vehicle for 5 days. All the strains investigated were susceptible to IL-1 beta-induced changes in body weight, food intake, temperature, and plasma glucagon and corticosterone. However, IL-1 beta induced hyperglycemia and impairment of beta-cell glucose responsiveness in WK/Mol and LS/Mol rats...

  8. Optimized formation of detergent micelles of beta-carotene and retinal production using recombinant human beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Hee; Kim, Yeong-Su; Kim, Hye-Jung; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2008-01-01

    The formation of beta-carotene detergent micelles and their conversion into retinal by recombinant human beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase was optimized under aqueous conditions. Toluene was the most hydrophobic among the organic solvents tested; thus, it was used to dissolve beta-carotene, which is a hydrophobic compound. Tween 80 was selected as the detergent because it supported the highest level of retinal production among all of the detergents tested. The maximum production of retinal was achieved in detergent micelles containing 200 mg/L of beta-carotene and 2.4% (w/v) Tween 80. Under these conditions, the recombinant enzyme produced 97 mg/L of retinal after 16 h with a conversion yield of 48.5% (w/w). The amount of retinal produced, which is the highest ever reported, is a result of the ability of our system to dissolve large amounts of beta-carotene.

  9. Beta-lactamases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium kansasii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, C; Salvadó, M

    1997-09-01

    Re-emergence of infectious diseases caused by mycobacteria as well as the emergence of multiresistant strains of Mycobacterium has promoted the research on the use of beta-lactames in the treatment of such diseases. Mycobacteria produce beta-lactamases: M. tuberculosis produces a wide-spectrum beta-lactamase whose behaviour mimicks those of Gram-negative bacteria. M. kansasii produces also beta-lactamase which can be inhibited by clavulanic acid. An overview on beta-lactamases from both species is reported.

  10. Source preparations for alpha and beta measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    Regarding alpha particle emitters subject for environmental studies, electrodeposition or co-precipitation as fluorides are the most common methods. For electro deposition stainless steel is generally used as cathode material but also other metals such as Ni, Ag, and Cu showed promising results. The use of other anode material than platinum, such as graphite should be investigated. For other purposes such as optimal resolution other more sophisticated methods are used but often resulting in poorer recovery. For beta particle emitters the type of detection system will decide the source preparation. Similar methods as for alpha particle emitters, electrodeposition or precipitation techniques can be used. Due to the continuous energy distribution of the beta pulse height distribution a high resolution is not required. Thicker sources from the precipitates or a stable isotopic carrier can be accepted but correction for absorption in the source must be done. (au)

  11. Primate beta oscillations and rhythmic behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Hugo; Bartolo, Ramón

    2018-03-01

    The study of non-human primates in complex behaviors such as rhythm perception and entrainment is critical to understand the neurophysiological basis of human cognition. Next to reviewing the role of beta oscillations in human beat perception, here we discuss the role of primate putaminal oscillatory activity in the control of rhythmic movements that are guided by a sensory metronome or internally gated. The analysis of the local field potentials of the behaving macaques showed that gamma-oscillations reflect local computations associated with stimulus processing of the metronome, whereas beta-activity involves the entrainment of large putaminal circuits, probably in conjunction with other elements of cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit, during internally driven rhythmic tapping. Thus, this review emphasizes the need of parametric neurophysiological observations in non-human primates that display a well-controlled behavior during high-level cognitive processes.

  12. Numerical models for high beta magnetohydrodynamic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackbill, J.U.

    1987-01-01

    The fundamentals of numerical magnetohydrodynamics for highly conducting, high-beta plasmas are outlined. The discussions emphasize the physical properties of the flow, and how elementary concepts in numerical analysis can be applied to the construction of finite difference approximations that capture these features. The linear and nonlinear stability of explicit and implicit differencing in time is examined, the origin and effect of numerical diffusion in the calculation of convective transport is described, and a technique for maintaining solenoidality in the magnetic field is developed. Many of the points are illustrated by numerical examples. The techniques described are applicable to the time-dependent, high-beta flows normally encountered in magnetically confined plasmas, plasma switches, and space and astrophysical plasmas. 40 refs

  13. Genetic counselling in the beta-thalassaemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adonis S. Ioannides

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The beta-thalassaemias are very important genetic disorders of haemoglobin synthesis and are amongst the commonest monogenic disorders. In view of the severity of beta-thalassaemia major, a number of screening programmes have been developed aimed at reducing the number of individuals born with the condition. Genetic counsellingplays a vital role in this process supporting the successful implementation of screening and delineating available options to at risk individuals. This review assesses the contribution of genetic counsellingat each stage of this process in the context of new diagnostic techniques and therapeutic options and discusses some of the more challenging aspects such as genotype/ phenotype correlation and coinheritance of other genetic conditions or genetic modifiers.

  14. Resveratrol and Amyloid-Beta: Mechanistic Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongming Jia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The amyloid-beta (Aβ hypothesis that dyshomeostasis between Aβ production and clearance is a very early, key molecular factor in the etiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD has been proposed and examined in the AD research field. Scientists have focused on seeking natural products or drugs to influence the dynamic equilibrium of Aβ, targeting production and clearance of Aβ. There is emerging evidence that resveratrol (Res, a naturally occurring polyphenol mainly found in grapes and red wine, acts on AD in numerous in vivo and in vitro models. Res decreases the amyloidogenic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP, enhances clearance of amyloid beta-peptides, and reduces Aβ aggregation. Moreover, Res also protects neuronal functions through its antioxidant properties. This review discusses the action of Res on Aβ production, clearance and aggregation and multiple potential mechanisms, providing evidence of the useful of Res for AD treatment.

  15. Beta-delayed proton emitter $^{113}Xe$

    CERN Document Server

    Hagberg, E; Jonson, B; Jørgensen, B; Kugler, E; Mowinckel, T

    1973-01-01

    The ISOLDE facility at the CERN synchrocyclotron has been used for extending the series of beta -delayed proton emitters in xenon to masses lighter than those previously observed (/sup 115,117/Xe). Owing to the rapid decrease of the yields, experiments with solid-state counters were inconclusive, and instead a new and much more sensitive method based on nuclear emulsions was developed. The mass range 111-114 showed one new activity, /sup 113/Xe, with a half-life of 2.8+or-0.2 sec. From measurements of the track lengths for a total of 1130 protons from /sup 113/Xe it was possible to determine the energy spectrum. The results extend the systematics of beta -strength functions in the light xenon isotopes. (19 refs).

  16. Nuclear aspects of double-beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoica, S.; Paun, V.

    2002-01-01

    Calculations of the neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ) matrix elements are performed with the second quasi random phase approximation (SQRPA) method for several nuclei. The results display a weak dependence on the single particle basis used and the Ikeda sum rule is fulfilled with good accuracy. Comparing our calculations with similar ones performed with other QRPA-based methods we estimate the accuracy of these methods in the prediction of the (0νββ) decay matrix elements and neutrino mass parameter, which is settled to about 50% from their calculated values. Taking the most recent experimental limits for the neutrinoless double beta decay half-lives, we also deduced new limits for the neutrino mass parameter. (authors)

  17. Adrenocorticotropin, beta-endorphin, and beta-lipotropin in normal thyroid and lung: possible implications for ectopic hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, J A; Funder, J W; Tracy, K; Morgan, F J; Campbell, D J; Lewis, P; Hearn, M T

    1982-12-01

    The expression of the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene by normal lung and thyroid was examined by measurement of the content of ACTH, beta-lipotropin (beta LPH), and beta-endorphin (beta EP) in porcine lung and thyroid tissue. Acid extracts of normal porcine lung and thyroid tissue each contained appreciable amounts of immunoreactive (ir) ACTH, ir-beta LPH, and ir-beta EP. The content of ir-beta LPH in both tissues exceeded by severalfold, on a molar basis, the content of ir-ACTH and ir-beta EP, suggesting that the common precursor POMC was processed predominantly to peptides other than ir-ACTH and ir-beta EP. A porcine thyroid extract (Calcitare, porcine calcitonin, Armour) showed equivalent levels of beta EP-like immunoreactivity and bioactivity, measured by opiate radioreceptor assay; in contrast, ACTH-like bioactivity, measured by rat zona fasciculata steroidogenesis, was only 4% of ACTH-like immunoreactivity. On reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography, Calcitare showed multiple peaks of ACTH-like immunoreactivity, one of which coeluted with porcine ACTH-(1-39), and two much smaller peaks of beta EP-like immunoreactivity, of which the smaller coeluted with porcine beta EP. These data suggest that both lung and thyroid gland synthesize POMC, which in normal tissue is usually predominantly processed to species other than ACTH and beta EP. Ectopic secretion of ACTH and beta EP by lung and thyroid neoplasms may thus represent the loss of a system(s) normally responsible for processing the precursor beyond ACTH and beta EP.

  18. The effects of lower than conventional doses of oral nadolol on relative beta 1/beta 2-adrenoceptor blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeldon, N M; McDevitt, D G; Lipworth, B J

    1994-08-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relative beta 1/beta 2 antagonist selectivity of the beta-adrenoceptor blocker nadolol, in lower than conventional clinical doses. 2. Eight normal volunteers received single oral doses of either placebo (PL), nadolol 5 mg (N5), 20 mg (N20) or 80 mg (N80) in a single-blind, randomised crossover design. beta 1-adrenoceptor antagonism was assessed by attenuation of exercise tachycardia, and beta 2-adrenoceptor blockade by effects on salbutamol-induced chronotropic, hypokalaemic and finger tremor responses. The relative percentage attenuation of beta 2 and beta 1-mediated responses was calculated and expressed as beta 2:beta 1 selectivity ratios. 3. Nadolol produced dose-related reductions in exercise tachycardia in keeping with increasing beta 1-adrenoceptor blockade; mean % reduction (95% CI) compared with placebo: N5 10.7 (6.6 to 14.8), N20 21.4 (17.3 to 25.4), N80 38.9 (34.8 to 42.9). However, even the lowest dose of nadolol (5 mg) produced almost complete blunting of beta 2-mediated effects and significantly increase exercise hyperkalaemia; peak exercise hyperkalaemia (mmol l-1) (means and 95% CI): PL 4.88 (4.68 to 5.07), N5 5.36 (5.17 to 5.55), N20 5.48 (5.28 to 5.67), N80 5.42 (5.22 to 5.61). beta 2:beta 1 selectivity ratios significantly increased as the dose of nadolol was reduced. 4. These data suggest that whereas in the clinical dose range nadolol behaves as a non-selective beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, as the dose is reduced this drug demonstrates an increasing degree of selectivity for the beta 2-adrenoceptor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Beta Beams for Precision Measurements of Neutrino Oscillation Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Wildner, E; Hansen, C; De Melo Mendonca, T; Stora, T; Damjanovic, S; Payet, J; Chancé, A; Zorin, V; Izotov, I; Rasin, S; Sidorov, A; Skalyga, V; De Angelis, G; Prete, G; Cinausero, M; Kravchuk, V; Gramegna, F; Marchi, T; Collazuol, G; Mezzetto, M; Delbar, T; Loiselet, M; Keutgen, T; Mitrofanov, S; Burt, G; Dexter, A; Lamy, T; Latrasse, L; Marie-Jeanne, M; Sortais, P; Thuillier, T; Debray, F; Trophime, C; Hass, M; Hirsh, T; Berkovits, D; Stahl, A; Vardaci, E; Di Nitto, A; Brondi, A; La Rana, G; Moro, R; De Rosa, G; Palladino, V

    2012-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations have implications for the Standard Model of particle physics. The CERN Beta Beam has outstanding capabilities to contribute to precision measurements of the parameters governing neutrino oscillations. The FP7 collaboration EUROnu (2008-2012) is a design study that will review three facilities (Super-Beams, Beta Beams and Neutrino Factories) and perform a cost assessment that, coupled with the physics performance, will give means to the European research authorities to make decisions on future European neutrino oscillation facilities. ”Beta Beams” produce collimated pure electron (anti)neutrinos by accelerating beta active ions to high energies and having them decay in a storage ring. Using existing machines and infrastructure is an advantage for the cost evaluation; however, this choice is also constraining the Beta Beams. Recent work to make the Beta Beam facility a solid option will be described: production of Beta Beam isotopes, the 60 GHz pulsed ECR source development, integratio...

  20. Double beta decays and neutrino masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejiri, Hiro

    2006-01-01

    Neutrino-less double beta decays(0νββ) are of great interest for studying the Majorana nature of ν's and the absolute ν-mass scale. The present report is a brief review of the 0νββ studies with emphasis on future experiments with the mass sensitivity of an order of 25∼100 meV and on experimental probes for investigating 0νββ nuclear matrix elements

  1. Tables of double beta decay data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tretyak, V.I.

    1995-01-01

    A compilation of experimental data on double beta decay is presented. The tables contain the most stringent known experimental limits or positive results of 2β transitions of 69 natural nuclides to ground and excited states of daughter nuclei for different channels (2β - ; 2β + ; εβ + ; 2ε) and modes (0ν; 2ν; 0νM) of decay. (authors). 189 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Tensile creep of beta phase zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, B.; Reynolds, G.L.; Barnes, J.P.

    1977-08-01

    The tensile creep and creep rupture properties of beta-phase zircaloy-2 are studied under vacuum in the temperature and stress range 1300-1550 K and 0.5-2 MN/m 2 . The new results are compared with previously reported uniaxial and biaxial data. A small but systematic difference is noted between the uniaxial and biaxial creep data and reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. (author)

  3. Clinical studies of beta-thromboglobulin

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Robert C.

    1983-01-01

    Beta-thromboglobulin is a platelet specific protein of molecular weight 35,000, stored in the alpha granules and released during aggregation. Its precise function is unknown but it may act as a 'packing protein' in the alpha granules. Radioimmuno¬ assays to measure it in plasma and urine have been developed. Meticulous techniques of processing and sampling are necessary to prevent artefactual release. In healthy subjects the upper limit of the normal range is 80 ng/ml in ...

  4. Structure of .beta.-galactosidase complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dohnálek, Jan; Skálová, Tereza; Dušková, Jarmila; Petroková, Hana; Hašek, Jindřich; Lipovová, P.; Spiwok, V.; Strnad, Hynek; Králová, B.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2006), s. 137-138 ISSN 1211-5894. [Czech and Slovak Crystallographic Colloquium. 22.06.2006-24.06.2006, Grenoble] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB500500512 Keywords : .beta.-galactosidase * X-ray diffraction * cold-active enzyme Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology http://www. xray .cz/ms/default.htm

  5. High beta and confinement studies on TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, G.A.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Iacono, R.; Mauel, M.E.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Kesner, J.

    1992-01-01

    A new regime of high poloidal beta operation in TFTR was developed in the course of the first two years of this project (9/25/89 to 9/24/91). Our proposal to continue this successful collaboration between Columbia University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory for a three year period (9/25/91 to 9/24/94) to continue to investigate improved confinement and tokamak performance in high poloidal beta plasmas in TFTR through the DT phase of operation was approved by the DOE and this is a report of our progress during the first 9 month budget period of the three year grant (9/25/91 to 6/24/92). During the approved three year project period we plan to (1) extend and apply the low current, high QDD discharges to the operation of TFTR using Deuterium and Tritium plasma; (2) continue the analysis and plan experiments on high poloidal beta phenomena in TFTR including: stability properties, enhanced global confinement, local transport, bootstrap current, and divertor formation; (3) plan and carry out experiments on TFTR which attempt to elevate the central q to values > 2 where entry to the second stability regime is predicted to occur; and (4) collaborate on high beta experiments using bean-shaped plasmas with a stabilizing conducting shell in PBX-M. In the seven month period covered by this report we have made progress in each of these four areas through the submission of 4 TFTR Experimental Proposals and the partial execution of 3 of these using a total of 4.5 run days during the August 1991 to February 1992 run

  6. SPL and Beta Beams to the Frejus

    CERN Document Server

    Mezzetto, M

    2005-01-01

    Physics potential of a conventional neutrino beam generated by the 2.2 GeV, 4MW, Superconducting Proton Linac and of a Beta Beam fired to a gigantic water Ccaronerenkov detector hosted below Frejus, 130 km away from CERN, are briefly summarized. theta/sub 13/ sensitivity could be improved by up to 3 orders of magnitude with respect to the present experimental limit and a first sensitive search for leptonic CP violation could be performed.

  7. Beta-amyloid and cholinergic neurons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Vladimír; Kašparová, Jana

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 28, 3-4 (2003), s. 499-506 ISSN 0364-3190 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/01/0283; GA AV ČR IAA5011206 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : cholinergic neurons * AlzheimerŽs disease * beta-amyloid Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.511, year: 2003

  8. beta-Thalassemia present in cis to a new beta-chain structural variant, Hb Vicksburg [beta 75 (E19)Leu leads to 0].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J G; Steinberg, M H; Newman, M V; Morrison, W T; Benz, E J; Iyer, R

    1981-01-01

    Hemoglobin Vicksburg was discovered in a 6-year-old Black boy who had been anemic since infancy. Examination of his hemolysate revealed 87.5% Hb F, 2.4% Hb A2, and 7.6% Hb Vicksburg, which had the electrophoretic and chromatographic properties of Hb A. Structural analysis of Hb Vicksburg demonstrated a deletion of leucine at beta 75(E19), a new variant. Hb Vicksburg was neither unstable nor subject to posttranslational degradation. The alpha/non-alpha biosynthetic ratio was 2.6. Because the proband appeared to be a mixed heterozygote for Hb Vicksburg and beta 0-thalassemia, Hb Vicksburg should have comprised the major portion of the hemolysate. Thus, Hb Vicksburg was synthesized at a rate considerably lower than would be expected on the basis of gene dosage. There was no reason to suspect abnormal translation of beta Vicksburg mRNA; in individuals with Hb St. Antoine (beta 74 and beta 75 deleted), the abnormal hemoglobin comprised 25% of the hemolysate in the simple heterozygote yet was unstable. Deletion of beta 75, therefore, would not in itself appear to lead to diminished synthesis. There was a profound deficit of beta Vicksburg mRNA when measured by liquid hybridization analysis with beta cDNA. The most plausible explanation for the low output of Hb Vicksburg is that a mutation for beta +-thalassemia is present in cis to the structural mutation.

  9. The Aggregation Potential of the 1-15-and 1-16-Fragments of the Amyloid beta Peptide and Their Influence on the Aggregation of A beta 40

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shabestari, M.; Plug, T.; Motazacker, M. M.; Meeuwenoord, N. J.; Filippov, D. V.; Meijers, J. C. M.; Huber, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aggregation of amyloid beta (A beta) peptide is important in Alzheimer's disease. Shorter A beta fragments may reduce A beta's cytotoxicity and are used in diagnostics. The aggregation of A beta 16 is controversial; Liu et al. (J. Neurosci. Res. 75:162-171, 2004) and Liao et al. (FEBS Lett.

  10. [Clinical management of beta-thalassaemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuret, Isabelle

    2014-10-01

    Beta-thalassemia syndromes are autosomal recessive disorders related to the inability to produce beta-globin chains. Thalassemia major is by definition a transfusion dependent anemia and iron overload is the leading cause of death and morbidity. Beta-thalassemia is rarely encountered in France where patients mainly originated from Mediterranean countries and South East Asia. Recently, two major advances have substantially improved the disease management: oral iron chelation therapy and the introduction of cardiac MRI for monitoring cardiac iron. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation remains, in clinical practice, the only curative approach and is proposed to children having an HLA-identical sibling. Diagnosis of thalassemia trait is important in order to propose genetic counseling to couples at risk. Thalassemia intermedia is a clinical entity where anemia is mild or moderate, requiring no or occasional transfusion. Clinical severity increases with age with a more severe anemia, thrombotic complications and extra-medullary hematopoiesis. Iron overload, optimally monitored with liver MRI, occurs in adult patients and is related to increased iron hyper-absorption.

  11. Metastable beta limit in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Haye, R.J.; Callen, J.D.; Gianakon, T.A.

    1997-06-01

    The long-pulse, slowly evolving single-null divertor (SND) discharges in DIII-D with H-mode, ELMs, and sawteeth are found to be limited significantly below (factor of 2) the predicted ideal limit β N = 4l i by the onset of tearing modes. The tearing modes are metastable in that they are explained by the neoclassical bootstrap current (high β θ ) destabilization of a seed island which occurs even if Δ' θ , there is a region of the modified Rutherford equation such that dw/dt > 0 for w larger than a threshold value; the plasma is metastable, awaiting the critical perturbation which is then amplified to the much larger saturated island. Experimental results from a large number of tokamaks indicate that the high beta operational envelope of the tokamak is well defined by ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. The highest beta values achieved have historically been obtained in fairly short pulse discharges, often <1-2 sawteeth periods and < 1-2 energy replacement times. The maximum operational beta in single-null divertor (SND), long-pulse discharges in DIII-D with a cross-sectional shape similar to the proposed ITER tokamak is found to be limited significantly below the threshold for ideal instabilities by the onset of resistive MHD instabilities

  12. The continuous monitoring of the artificial beta aerosol activity by measuring the alpha and beta activity in aerosol simultaneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Hironobu; Oonishi, Masaki; Matsuura, Hiroyuki

    1990-01-01

    We have constructed the system to monitor the artificial beta aerosol activity around the nuclear power plants continuously in real time. The smaller releases of artificial radionuclides from the nuclear power plants can be lost in the fluctuations of the natural background of the beta aerosol activity, when only the beta activity of the aerosol is measured. This method to discriminate the artificial and the natural beta activity of the aerosol is based on the fact that the ratio of the natural alpha and beta activities of the aerosol is almost constant. The detection limit of this system is below 3 Bq/m 3 . (author)

  13. MetroBeta: Beta Spectrometry with Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters in the Framework of the European Program of Ionizing Radiation Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loidl, M.; Beyer, J.; Bockhorn, L.; Enss, C.; Györi, D.; Kempf, S.; Kossert, K.; Mariam, R.; Nähle, O.; Paulsen, M.; Rodrigues, M.; Schmidt, M.

    2018-05-01

    MetroBeta is a European project aiming at the improvement of the knowledge of the shapes of beta spectra, both in terms of theoretical calculations and measurements. It is part of a common European program of ionizing radiation metrology. Metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs) with the beta emitter embedded in the absorber have in the past proven to be among the best beta spectrometers, in particular for low-energy beta transitions. Within this project, new designs of MMCs optimized for five different beta energy ranges were developed. A new detector module with thermal decoupling of MMC and SQUID chips was designed. An important aspect of the research and development concerns the source/absorber preparation techniques. Four beta spectra with maximum energies ranging from 76 to 709 keV will be measured. Improved theoretical calculation methods and complementary measurement techniques complete the project.

  14. Standardization of low energy beta and beta-gamma complex emitters by the tracer and the efficiency extrapolation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahagia, M.

    1978-01-01

    The absolute standardization of radioactive solutions of low energy beta emitters and beta-gamma emitters with a high probability of disintegration to the ground state is described; the tracer and the efficiency extrapolation methods were used. Both types of radionuclides were mathematically and physically treated in an unified manner. The theoretical relations between different beta spectra were calculated according to Williams' model and experimentally verified for: 35 S + 60 Co, 35 S + 95 Nb, 147 Pm + 60 Co, 14 C + 95 Nb and two beta branches of 99 Mo. The optimum range of beta efficiency variation was indicated. The basic supposition that all beta efficieny tend to unity in the same time was experimentally verified, using two 192 Ir beta branches. Four computer programs, written in the FORTRAN IV language, were elaborated, for the adequate processing of the experimental data. Good precision coefficients according to international standards were obtained in the absolute standardization of 35 S, 147 Pm, 99 Mo solutions. (author)

  15. beta-Carotene in breast milk and serum is increased after a single beta-carotene dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, L M; Giuliano, A R; Neilson, E M; Yap, H H; Graver, E J; Cui, H A; Blashill, B M

    1997-07-01

    Normal lactating mothers were administered a single dose of 60 or 210 mg beta-carotene and changes in serum and milk retinol, alpha-tocopherol, and carotenoids were monitored for 8 d. Average serum beta-carotene concentrations increased 4.1- and 4.0-fold after the 60- and 210-mg doses, respectively. Milk beta-carotene concentrations increased 4.1- and 3.0-fold after the 60- and 210-mg doses, respectively. Maximum serum concentrations were reached 24 h after both supplements, although concentrations of milk beta-carotene continued to rise for 2-3 d. After 8 d, both serum and milk beta-carotene continued to rise for 2-3 d. After 8 d, both serum and milk beta-carotene concentrations remained about twofold higher than baseline concentrations. Increases in serum or milk beta-carotene concentrations were not dose-dependent. Initial serum and milk concentrations of beta-carotene predicted increases after supplementation, and increases in serum beta-carotene concentrations predicted those in milk. Concentrations of milk carotenoids were less than one-tenth their respective concentrations in serum. Lutein, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, alpha-carotene, retinol, and alpha-tocopherol concentrations in serum or milk did not change significantly after beta-carotene supplementation. Retinol esters account for most of the retinol equivalents in the milk of well-nourished mothers. Initial and maximum concentrations of beta-carotene in serum and milk were strongly correlated for individual mothers. Collectively, the data showed that a single 60-mg supplement of beta-carotene sustained elevated beta-carotene concentrations in serum and milk for > 1 wk in normal mothers but did not affect concentrations of other major carotenoids, retinol, or alpha-tocopherol.

  16. Interactions between beta subunits of the KCNMB family and Slo3: beta4 selectively modulates Slo3 expression and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Tao Yang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The pH and voltage-regulated Slo3 K(+ channel, a homologue of the Ca(2+- and voltage-regulated Slo1 K(+ channel, is thought to be primarily expressed in sperm, but the properties of Slo3 studied in heterologous systems differ somewhat from the native sperm KSper pH-regulated current. There is the possibility that critical partners that regulate Slo3 function remain unidentified. The extensive amino acid identity between Slo3 and Slo1 suggests that auxiliary beta subunits regulating Slo1 channels might coassemble with and modulate Slo3 channels. Four distinct beta subunits composing the KCNMB family are known to regulate the function and expression of Slo1 Channels.To examine the ability of the KCNMB family of auxiliary beta subunits to regulate Slo3 function, we co-expressed Slo3 and each beta subunit in heterologous expression systems and investigated the functional consequences by electrophysiological and biochemical analyses. The beta4 subunit produced an 8-10 fold enhancement of Slo3 current expression in Xenopus oocytes and a similar enhancement of Slo3 surface expression as monitored by YFP-tagged Slo3 or biotin labeled Slo3. Neither beta1, beta2, nor beta3 mimicked the ability of beta4 to increase surface expression, although biochemical tests suggested that all four beta subunits are competent to coassemble with Slo3. Fluorescence microscopy from beta4 KO mice, in which an eGFP tag replaced the deleted exon, revealed that beta4 gene promoter is active in spermatocytes. Furthermore, quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that beta4 and Slo3 exhibit comparable mRNA abundance in both testes and sperm.These results argue that, for native mouse Slo3 channels, the beta4 subunit must be considered as a potential interaction partner and, furthermore, that KCNMB subunits may have functions unrelated to regulation of the Slo1 alpha subunit.

  17. A Novel Dimeric Inhibitor Targeting Beta2GPI in Beta2GPI/Antibody Complexes Implicated in Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A Kolyada; C Lee; A De Biasio; N Beglova

    2011-12-31

    {beta}2GPI is a major antigen for autoantibodies associated with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), an autoimmune disease characterized by thrombosis and recurrent pregnancy loss. Only the dimeric form of {beta}2GPI generated by anti-{beta}2GPI antibodies is pathologically important, in contrast to monomeric {beta}2GPI which is abundant in plasma. We created a dimeric inhibitor, A1-A1, to selectively target {beta}2GPI in {beta}2GPI/antibody complexes. To make this inhibitor, we isolated the first ligand-binding module from ApoER2 (A1) and connected two A1 modules with a flexible linker. A1-A1 interferes with two pathologically important interactions in APS, the binding of {beta}2GPI/antibody complexes with anionic phospholipids and ApoER2. We compared the efficiency of A1-A1 to monomeric A1 for inhibition of the binding of {beta}2GPI/antibody complexes to anionic phospholipids. We tested the inhibition of {beta}2GPI present in human serum, {beta}2GPI purified from human plasma and the individual domain V of {beta}2GPI. We demonstrated that when {beta}2GPI/antibody complexes are formed, A1-A1 is much more effective than A1 in inhibition of the binding of {beta}2GPI to cardiolipin, regardless of the source of {beta}2GPI. Similarly, A1-A1 strongly inhibits the binding of dimerized domain V of {beta}2GPI to cardiolipin compared to the monomeric A1 inhibitor. In the absence of anti-{beta}2GPI antibodies, both A1-A1 and A1 only weakly inhibit the binding of pathologically inactive monomeric {beta}2GPI to cardiolipin. Our results suggest that the approach of using a dimeric inhibitor to block {beta}2GPI in the pathological multivalent {beta}2GPI/antibody complexes holds significant promise. The novel inhibitor A1-A1 may be a starting point in the development of an effective therapeutic for antiphospholipid syndrome.

  18. Beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability of improved gross theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koura, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    A theoretical study has been carried out on beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability. The gross theory of the beta decay is based on an idea of the sum rule of the beta-decay strength function, and has succeeded in describing beta-decay half-lives of nuclei overall nuclear mass region. The gross theory includes not only the allowed transition as the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller, but also the first-forbidden transition. In this work, some improvements are introduced as the nuclear shell correction on nuclear level densities and the nuclear deformation for nuclear strength functions, those effects were not included in the original gross theory. The shell energy and the nuclear deformation for unmeasured nuclei are adopted from the KTUY nuclear mass formula, which is based on the spherical-basis method. Considering the properties of the integrated Fermi function, we can roughly categorized energy region of excited-state of a daughter nucleus into three regions: a highly-excited energy region, which fully affect a delayed neutron probability, a middle energy region, which is estimated to contribute the decay heat, and a region neighboring the ground-state, which determines the beta-decay rate. Some results will be given in the presentation. A theoretical study has been carried out on beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability. The gross theory of the beta decay is based on an idea of the sum rule of the beta-decay strength function, and has succeeded in describing beta-decay half-lives of nuclei overall nuclear mass region. The gross theory includes not only the allowed transition as the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller, but also the first-forbidden transition. In this work, some improvements are introduced as the nuclear shell correction on nuclear level densities and the nuclear deformation for nuclear strength functions, those effects were not included in the original gross theory. The shell energy and the nuclear deformation for

  19. Dampak Guncangan Variabel Makroekonomi terhadap Beta Indeks Sektoral di BEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernawati Alena

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in macro Economic factors will increase or decrease systematic risk potentially. Systematic risk is measured using beta (β of a security to the market risk. Beta value can be used as a tool to predict the level of risk of certain conditions on the market as a result of changes in Economic conditions. This study aims to determine the impact of shocks in macroEconomic variables against beta sectoral indices in Indonesia Stock Exchange. MacroEconomic variables used were fed rate, Dow Jones Indexes, inflation, industrial production Index (IPI, exchange rate (Rate, oil price and interest rate (SBI. The method used is the analysis of VAR / VECM using impulse response (IRF and forecast Error variance decomposition (FEVD in the period of 2001–2015. The results showed that stock Index of agriculture and mining sector has an aggressive stock because it has an average beta value >1, Property and Real Estate were sector with defensive stock characteristics because it has an average beta < 1. MacroEconomic variables which has the most influence on beta of sectoral Indexes are inflation, interest rates and oil price. Beta of sectoral agricultural, various industry, consumer goods and finance were the most affected by macroEconomic shock variables. Keywords: beta, sectoral stock Indexes, macroeconomic variables, impulse response function, FEVDAbstrak: Perubahan-perubahan yang terjadi pada faktor makroekonomi berpotensi untuk meningkatkan atau menurunkan risiko sistematis. Risiko sistematis diukur dengan menggunakan beta (β pasar, yaitu beta dari suatu sekuritas terhadap risiko pasar. Nilai beta dapat digunakan sebagai alat untuk memprediksi tingkat risiko terhadap kondisi tertentu pada pasar akibat dari perubahan kondisi ekonomi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dampak guncangan variabel makroekonomi terhadap beta indeks sektoral di Bursa Efek Indonesia. Variabel makroekonomi yang digunakan adalah fed rate, dow jones, inflasi, indeks

  20. In vitro proliferation of adult human beta-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Rutti

    Full Text Available A decrease in functional beta-cell mass is a key feature of type 2 diabetes. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 analogues induce proliferation of rodent beta-cells. However, the proliferative capacity of human beta-cells and its modulation by GLP-1 analogues remain to be fully investigated. We therefore sought to quantify adult human beta-cell proliferation in vitro and whether this is affected by the GLP-1 analogue liraglutide.Human islets from 7 adult cadaveric organ donors were dispersed into single cells. Beta-cells were purified by FACS. Non-sorted cells and the beta-cell enriched ("beta-cells" population were plated on extracellular matrix from rat (804G and human bladder carcinoma cells (HTB9 or bovine corneal endothelial ECM (BCEC. Cells were maintained in culture+/-liraglutide for 4 days in the presence of BrdU.Rare human beta-cell proliferation could be observed either in the purified beta-cell population (0.051±0.020%; 22 beta-cells proliferating out of 84'283 beta-cells counted or in the non-sorted cell population (0.055±0.011%; 104 proliferating beta-cells out of 232'826 beta-cells counted, independently of the matrix or the culture conditions. Liraglutide increased human beta-cell proliferation on BCEC in the non-sorted cell population (0.082±0.034% proliferating beta-cells vs. 0.017±0.008% in control, p<0.05.These results indicate that adult human beta-cell proliferation can occur in vitro but remains an extremely rare event with these donors and particular culture conditions. Liraglutide increases beta-cell proliferation only in the non-sorted cell population and only on BCEC. However, it cannot be excluded that human beta-cells may proliferate to a greater extent in situ in response to natural stimuli.

  1. Thymosin beta 4 and thymosin beta 10 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Theunissen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4 and thymosin beta 10 (Tβ10 are two members of the beta-thymosin family involved in many cellular processes such as cellular motility, angiogenesis, inflammation, cell survival and wound healing. Recently, a role for beta-thymosins has been proposed in the process of carcinogenesis as both peptides were detected in several types of cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression pattern of Tβ4 and Tβ10 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. To this end, the expression pattern of both peptides was analyzed in liver samples obtained from 23 subjects diagnosed with HCC. Routinely formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded liver samples were immunostained by indirect immunohistochemistry with polyclonal antibodies to Tβ4 and Tβ10. Immunoreactivity for Tβ4 and Tβ10 was detected in the liver parenchyma of the surrounding tumor area. Both peptides showed an increase in granular reactivity from the periportal to the periterminal hepatocytes. Regarding HCC, Tβ4 reactivity was detected in 7/23 cases (30% and Tβ10 reactivity in 22/23 (97% cases analyzed, adding HCC to human cancers that express these beta-thymosins. Intriguing finding was seen looking at the reactivity of both peptides in tumor cells infiltrating the surrounding liver. Where Tβ10 showed a strong homogeneous expression, was Tβ4 completely absent in cells undergoing stromal invasion. The current study shows expression of both beta-thymosins in HCC with marked differences in their degree of expression and frequency of immunoreactivity. The higher incidence of Tβ10 expression and its higher reactivity in tumor cells involved in stromal invasion indicate a possible major role for Tβ10 in HCC progression.

  2. Partitioning diversity into independent alpha and beta components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Lou

    2007-10-01

    Existing general definitions of beta diversity often produce a beta with a hidden dependence on alpha. Such a beta cannot be used to compare regions that differ in alpha diversity. To avoid misinterpretation, existing definitions of alpha and beta must be replaced by a definition that partitions diversity into independent alpha and beta components. Such a unique definition is derived here. When these new alpha and beta components are transformed into their numbers equivalents (effective numbers of elements), Whittaker's multiplicative law (alpha x beta = gamma) is necessarily true for all indices. The new beta gives the effective number of distinct communities. The most popular similarity and overlap measures of ecology (Jaccard, Sorensen, Horn, and Morisita-Horn indices) are monotonic transformations of the new beta diversity. Shannon measures follow deductively from this formalism and do not need to be borrowed from information theory; they are shown to be the only standard diversity measures which can be decomposed into meaningful independent alpha and beta components when community weights are unequal.

  3. Sizeable beta-strength in 31Ar (beta 3p) decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Koldste, G.; Blank, B.; J. G. Borge, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present for the first time precise spectroscopic information on the recently discovered decay mode beta-delayed 3p-emission. The detection of the 3p events gives an increased sensitivity to the high energy part of the Gamow-Teller strength distribution from the decay of 31Ar revealing that as ...... that as much as 30% of the strength resides in the beta-3p decay mode. A simplified description of how the main decay modes evolve as the excitation energy increases in 31Cl is provided....

  4. Curve-of-growth analysis of M-type giants. beta. and. beta. Peg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanni, L.; Kipper, M.

    1975-01-01

    The curve-of-growth analysis is carried out with high-dispersion spectrograms of the region lambda lambda 5050--6150 for two M-type stars ..beta.. And (MOIII) and ..beta.. Peg (M2II-III) by using the newest oscillator strengths available. It has been found that the form of our empirical curve of growth is consistent with that of the theoretical curve by Wrubel. By making use of the data derived from the curve-of-growth analyses, atmospheric parameters such as THETA/sub ex/, rho/sub e/, ..nu../sub t/ and the abundances of the elements have been determined.

  5. Alpha and beta-adrenoceptors in hypertension. I. Cardiac and renal alpha 1-, beta 1-, and beta 2-adrenoceptors in rat models of acquired hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Kanczik, R.; Khamssi, M.; Knorr, A.; Siegl, H.; Beckeringh, J. J.; Brodde, O. E.

    1989-01-01

    To determine whether adrenoceptor changes in genetic hypertension occur primary or secondary to blood pressure elevation, we measured cardiac and renal alpha 1- (by [125I]Be 2254 binding) and beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors (by (-)-[125I]iodocyanopindolol binding) densities in various rat models of

  6. Effect of cromolyn sodium eye drop on the β2-microglobulin (β2-m) content in lachrymal fluid of patients with vernal conjunctivitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guohua; Huo Guoqing; Huang Hong; Rong Tianying; Zhang Xiaoping

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of cromolyn sodium eye drop on the β 2 -m content in lachrymal fluid of patients with acute vernal conjunctivitis. Methods: β 2 -m contents in the lachrymal fluid were measured with RIA in 72 eyes with conjunctivitis treated with cromolyn sodium eye drop for 7-10 days as well as in 50 eyes with conjunctivitis but without cromolyn sodium treatment. Results: The contents of β 2 -m in the lachrymal fluid of patients treated with cromolyn sodium eye drop for 7-10 day (10.68 ± 2. 53mg/L) were significantly lower than those in lachrymal fluid of patients without cromolyn treatment (17.70 ± 13.53mg/L, P 0.05 ). Conclusion: Cromolyn sodium eye drop treatment can lower the lachrymal fluid content of β 2 -m to normal in patients with acute vernal conjunctivitis. (authors)

  7. Molecular analysis of the beta-thalassemia phenotype associated with inheritance of hemoglobin E (alpha 2 beta2(26)Glu leads to Lys).

    OpenAIRE

    Benz, E J; Berman, B W; Tonkonow, B L; Coupal, E; Coates, T; Boxer, L A; Altman, A; Adams, J G

    1981-01-01

    Inheritance of the gene for betaE-globin is associated with hypochromia and microcytosis, reminiscent of typical heterozygous beta-thalassemia. Patients with hemoglobin (Hb)E-beta-thalassemia exhibit clinical phenotypes of severe beta-thalassemia, a circumstance not encountered in other compound heterozygous states for structural beta-chain mutations and beta-thalassemia. We have analyzed the kinetics of globin synthesis and the levels of globin messenger (m) RNA accumulation in patients with...

  8. Immunological predictors of survival in HIV type 2-infected rural villagers in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaffar, Shabbar; Van der Loeff, Maarten Schim; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the association between beta2-microglobulin, neopterin, serum levels of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), CD4 count, and plasma viremia with survival in 133 HIV-2-infected villagers and 160 controls living in rural Guinea-Bissau. Subjects were recruite...

  9. Renal effects of acute exposure to toluene. A controlled clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H K; Krusell, Lars Romer; Bælum, Jesper

    1985-01-01

    Urinary excretion rates of beta 2-microglobulin and albumin were measured in 43 male printing trade workers and 43 age-matched male controls before and during exposure to toluene, 382 mg/m3, for 6 1/2 hours in a climate chamber. There were no significant changes in renal excretion rates of albumin...

  10. Alterations in the peritoneal transport of water and solutes during peritonitis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krediet, R. T.; Zuyderhoudt, F. M.; Boeschoten, E. W.; Arisz, L.

    1987-01-01

    The in situ intraperitoneal volume and the mass transfer area coefficients (MTC) of urea, lactate, creatinine, glucose, kanamycin, inulin, beta 2-microglobulin, albumin and IgG were studied in eight continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. All patients were studied during a 4-h

  11. Changes in glomerular filtration rate, lithium clearance and plasma protein clearances in the early phase after unilateral nephrectomy in living healthy renal transplant donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandgaard, S; Kamper, A; Skaarup, P

    1988-01-01

    1. Glomerular and tubular function was studied before and 2 months after unilateral nephrectomy in 14 healthy kidney donors by measurement of the clearances of 51Cr-labelled ethylenediaminetetra-acetate, lithium, beta 2-microglobulin, albumin and immunoglobulin G. 2. The glomerular filtration rat...

  12. A novel proteomic biomarker panel as a diagnostic tool for patients with ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgdall, Claus; Fung, Eric T; Christensen, Ib J

    2011-01-01

    Previous reports have shown that the proteomic markers apolipoprotein A1, hepcidin, transferrin, inter-alpha trypsin IV internal fragment, transthyretin, connective-tissue activating protein 3 and beta-2 microglobulin may discriminate between a benign pelvic mass and ovarian cancer (OC). The aim...

  13. Prevalence of Co-Inheritance of Alpha-Thalassemia with Beta-Thalassemia and Beta-Hemoglobinopathy in Ahvaz City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmaddin Saki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Co-inheritance of hemoglobin gene defects is a rare important status that can lead to double heterozygote or homozygote with significant clinical manifestations. Such conditions can be observed in co-inheritance of alpha-thalassemia with beta-thalassemia or hemoglobinopathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of alpha-thalassemia with beta-thalassemia and hemoglobinopathy co-inheritance in a considerable number of Iranian.   Methods: This descriptive study was performed on patients with abnormal hematological findings in favor of alpha-thalassemia, beta-thalassemia or beta-hemoglobinopathies. Patients with low MCV and MCH levels and high HbA2 (>3.5 and those with low MCV and MCH and normal or low HbA2 were candidate for molecular analysis for beta and alpha thalassemia respectively. Abnormal Hb electrophoresis was diagnostic criteria for molecular analysis of beta-hemoglobinopathies.   Results: Study revealed that more than half of the patients with alpha-thalassemia affected simultaneously by beta-thalassemia and about thirty percent inherited beta-hemoglobinopathies. Among patients with beta-thalassemia, HbSCd6 (A-T was the most common mutation and in alpha-thalassemic patients α 3.7 was the commonest mutation.   Conclusion: Relatively high prevalence of co-inheritance of alfa-thalassemia with beta-thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies reflect the necessity of genetic consulting and molecular analysis in diagnosis of such conditions.

  14. The changes in beta-adrenoceptor-mediated cardiac function in experimental hypothyroidism: the possible contribution of cardiac beta3-adrenoceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arioglu, E; Guner, S; Ozakca, I; Altan, V M; Ozcelikay, A T

    2010-02-01

    Thyroid hormone deficiency has been reported to decrease expression and function of both beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenoceptor in different tissues including heart. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible contribution of beta(3)-adrenoceptors to cardiac dysfunction in hypothyroidism. In addition, effect of this pathology on beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenoceptor was investigated. Hypothyroidism was induced by adding methimazole (300 mg/l) to drinking water of rats for 8 weeks. Cardiac hemodynamic parameters were measured in anesthetised rats in vivo. Responses to beta-adrenoceptor agonists were examined in rat papillary muscle in vitro. We also studied the effect of hypotyroidism on mRNA expression of beta-adrenoceptors, Gialpha, GRK, and eNOS in rat heart. All of the hemodynamic parameters (systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure, left ventricular pressure, heart rate, +dp/dt, and -dp/dt) were significantly reduced by the methimazole treatment. The negative inotropic effect elicited by BRL 37344 (a beta(3)-adrenoceptor preferential agonist) and positive inotropic effects produced by isoprenaline and noradrenaline, respectively, were significantly decreased in papillary muscle of hypothyroid rats as compared to those of controls. On the other hand, hypothyroidism resulted in increased cardiac beta(2)- and beta(3)-adrenoceptor, Gialpha(2), Gialpha(3), GRK3, and eNOS mRNA expressions. However, beta(1)-adrenoceptor and GRK2 mRNA expressions were not changed significantly in this pathology. These results show that mRNA expression of beta(3)-adrenoceptors as well as the signalling pathway components mediated through beta(3)-adrenoceptors are significantly increased in hypothyroid rat heart. Since we could not correlate these alternates with the decreased negative inotropic response mediated by this receptor subtype, it is not clear whether these changes are important for hypothyroid induced reduction in cardiac function.

  15. The effects of beta-carotene and vitamin E on erythrocytes lipid peroxidation in beta-thalassemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleiman Mahjoub

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thalassemia is the most common hereditary disease in the world. Thalassemic erythrocytes are exposed to higher oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of beta-carotene and vitamin E on erythrocytes lipid peroxidation in beta-thalassemia patients.
    METHODS: A prospective double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effect of beta-carotene and vitamin E on lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes membranes was performed on 120 beta-thalassemia major patients in four groups. The patients were supplemented for 4 weeks as follows: group 1 with beta-carotene (13 mg/day, group 2 with vitamin E (550 mg/day, group 3 with beta-carotene plus vitamin E and group 4 with placebo. We prepared all capsules for 4 roups in the same shape and color. Measurements of serum beta-carotene and vitamin E were performed by high performance
    liquid chromatography. After preparation of ghost cells from blood specimens, malondialdehyde (MDA was determined as index of lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes membranes before and after treatment. RESULTS: The levels of serum beta-carotene and vitamin E were significantly lower and MDA concentrations in erythrocytes membranes were significantly higher in beta-thalassemia patients compared to controls (P<0.001. In groups that treated with vitamin supplements for 4-weeks, lipid peroxidation rates were significantly reduced after treatment (P<0.001, but in placebo group there was not significant difference (P>0.05.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence that an oral treatment with beta-carotene and vitamin E can significantly reduce lipid peroxidation of erythrocytes membranes and could be useful in management of beta-thalassemia major patients. KEYWORDS: Beta-thalassemia major, beta-carotene, vitamin E, malondialdehyde, lipid peroxidation.

  16. Role of beta-adrenoceptors in memory consolidation: beta3-adrenoceptors act on glucose uptake and beta2-adrenoceptors on glycogenolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Marie E; Hutchinson, Dana S; Summers, Roger J

    2008-09-01

    Noradrenaline, acting via beta(2)- and beta(3)-adrenoceptors (AR), enhances memory formation in single trial-discriminated avoidance learning in day-old chicks by mechanisms involving changes in metabolism of glucose and/or glycogen. Earlier studies of memory consolidation in chicks implicated beta(3)- rather than beta(2)-ARs in enhancement of memory consolidation by glucose, but did not elucidate whether stimulation of glucose uptake or of glycolysis was responsible. This study examines the role of glucose transport in memory formation using central injection of the nonselective facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT) inhibitor cytochalasin B, the endothelial/astrocytic GLUT-1 inhibitor phloretin and the Na(+)/energy-dependent endothelial glucose transporter (SGLT) inhibitor phlorizin. Cytochalasin B inhibited memory when injected into the mesopallium (avian cortex) either close to or between 25 and 45 min after training, whereas phloretin and phlorizin only inhibited memory at 30 min. This suggested that astrocytic/endothelial (GLUT-1) transport is critical at the time of consolidation, whereas a different transporter, probably the neuronal glucose transporter (GLUT-3), is important at the time of training. Inhibition of glucose transport by cytochalasin B, phloretin, or phlorizin also interfered with beta(3)-AR-mediated memory enhancement 20 min posttraining, whereas inhibition of glycogenolysis interfered with beta(2)-AR agonist enhancement of memory. We conclude that in astrocytes (1) activities of both GLUT-1 and SGLT are essential for memory consolidation 30 min posttraining; (2) neuronal GLUT-3 is essential at the time of training; and (3) beta(2)- and beta(3)-ARs consolidate memory by different mechanisms; beta(3)-ARs stimulate central glucose transport, whereas beta(2)-ARs stimulate central glycogenolysis.

  17. Coexistence of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in the rabbit heart: quantitative analysis of the regional distribution by (-)-/sup 3/H-dihydroalprenolol binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodde, O.E.; Leifert, F.J.; Krehl, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    We determined the amount of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in right and left atria and ventricles of rabbits. For this purpose inhibition of specific (-)-/sup 3/H-dihydroalprenolol ((-)-/sup 3/H-DHA) binding (5 nM) by beta 1-selective (practolol, metoprolol) and beta 2-selective (zinterol, IPS 339) adrenergic drugs was determined and analyzed by pseudo-Scatchard (Hofstee) plots. For both atria, inhibition of binding by the four selective beta-adrenergic drugs resulted in non-linear Hofstee plots, suggesting the coexistence of both beta-adrenoceptor subtypes. From these plots we calculated a beta 1:beta 2-adrenoceptor ratio of 72:28 for the right atrium and of 82:18 for the left. In contrast, only a very small amount of beta 2-adrenoceptors (approximately 5-7% of the total beta-adrenoceptor population) could be detected in the ventricles. For comparison we analyzed the inhibition of specific (-)-/sup 3/H-DHA binding in tissues with homogeneous population of beta-adrenoceptors (beta 1:guinea pig left ventricle; beta 2: cerebellum of mature rats). For both tissues the four selective beta-adrenergic drugs showed linear Hofstee plots, demonstrating that in tissues with homogeneous beta-receptor population interaction of each drug with the receptor followed simple mass-action kinetics. We conclude that beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors coexist in rabbit atria while the ventricles are predominantly endowed the beta 1-adrenoceptors.

  18. Prediction of beta-turns with learning machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yu-Dong; Liu, Xiao-Jun; Li, Yi-Xue; Xu, Xue-biao; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2003-05-01

    The support vector machine approach was introduced to predict the beta-turns in proteins. The overall self-consistency rate by the re-substitution test for the training or learning dataset reached 100%. Both the training dataset and independent testing dataset were taken from Chou [J. Pept. Res. 49 (1997) 120]. The success prediction rates by the jackknife test for the beta-turn subset of 455 tetrapeptides and non-beta-turn subset of 3807 tetrapeptides in the training dataset were 58.1 and 98.4%, respectively. The success rates with the independent dataset test for the beta-turn subset of 110 tetrapeptides and non-beta-turn subset of 30,231 tetrapeptides were 69.1 and 97.3%, respectively. The results obtained from this study support the conclusion that the residue-coupled effect along a tetrapeptide is important for the formation of a beta-turn.

  19. Purification and properties of beta-galactosidase from Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, M; Pedregosa, A M; de Lucas, J R; Torralba, S; Monistrol, I F; Laborda, F

    1996-12-01

    Beta-Galactosidase from mycelial extract of Aspergillus nidulans has been purified by substrate affinity chromatography and used to obtain anti-beta-galactosidase polyclonal antibodies. A. nidulans growing in lactose as carbon source synthesizes one active form of beta-galactosidase which seems to be a multimeric enzyme of 450 kDa composed of monomers with 120 and 97 kDa. Although the enzyme was not released to the culture medium, some enzymatic activity was detected in a cell-wall extract, thus suggesting that it can be an extracellular enzyme. Beta-Galactosidase of A. nidulans is a very unstable enzyme with an optimum pH value of 7.5 and an optimum temperature of 30 degrees C. It was only active against beta-galactoside substrates like lactose and p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside (PNPG).

  20. Fracture risk in perimenopausal women treated with beta-blockers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rejnmark, Lars; Vestergaard, Peter; Kassem, M.

    2004-01-01

    beta2-Adrenergic receptors have been identified on human osteoblastic and osteoclastic cells, raising the question of a sympathetic regulation of bone metabolism. We investigated effects of treatment with beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists (beta-blockers) on bone turnover, bone mineral density...... (BMD), and fracture risk. Within the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study (DOPS) a population based, comprehensive cohort study of 2016 perimenopausal women, associations between treatment with beta-blockers and bone turnover and BMD were assessed in a cross-sectional design at the start of study....... Moreover, in a nested case-control design, fracture risk during the subsequent 5 years was assessed in relation to treatment with beta-blockers at baseline. Multiple regression- and logistic regression-analyses were performed. Treatment with beta-blockers was associated with a threefold increased fracture...

  1. Dopaminergic and beta-adrenergic effects on gastric antral motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, K; Hovendal, C P; Gottrup, F

    1984-01-01

    of bethanechol or pentagastrin inducing motor activity patterns as in the phase III of the MMC and the digestive state respectively. The stimulated antral motility was dose-dependently inhibited by dopamine. The effect was significantly blocked by specifically acting dopaminergic blockers, while alpha- and beta......-adrenergic blockers were without any significant effects. Dose-response experiments with bethanechol and dopamine showed inhibition of a non-competitive type. Isoprenaline was used alone and in conjunction with selective blockade of beta 1- and beta 2-receptors during infusion of bethanechol which induces a pattern...... similar to phase III in the migrating myoelectric complex. The stimulated antral motility was dose-dependently inhibited by isoprenaline. The effect could be significantly blocked by propranolol (beta 1 + beta 2-adrenoceptor blocker) and by using in conjunction the beta 1-adrenoceptor blocker practolol...

  2. Determination of beta attenuation coefficients by means of timing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermis, E.E.; Celiktas, C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Beta attenuation coefficients of absorber materials were found in this study. ► For this process, a new method (timing method) was suggested. ► The obtained beta attenuation coefficients were compatible with the results from the traditional one. ► The timing method can be used to determine beta attenuation coefficient. - Abstract: Using a counting system with plastic scintillation detector, beta linear and mass attenuation coefficients were determined for bakelite, Al, Fe and plexiglass absorbers by means of timing method. To show the accuracy and reliability of the obtained results through this method, the coefficients were also found via conventional energy method. Obtained beta attenuation coefficients from both methods were compared with each other and the literature values. Beta attenuation coefficients obtained through timing method were found to be compatible with the values obtained from conventional energy method and the literature.

  3. The BetaCage: Ultrasensitive Screener for Radioactive Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; BetaCage Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Rare event searches, such as dark matter detection and neutrinoless double beta decay, require screening of materials for backgrounds such as beta emission and alpha decaying isotopes. The BetaCage is a proposed ultra-sensitive time-projection chamber to screen for alpha-emitting and low energy beta-emitting (10-200 keV) contaminants. The expected sensitivity is 0.1 beta particles (perkeV -m2 - day) and 0.1 alpha particles (perm2 - day) , where the former will be limited by Compton scattering of external photons in the screening samples and the latter is expected to be signal-limited. The prototype BetaCage under commissioning at South Dakota School of Mines & Technology is filled with P10 gas (10% methane, 90% argon) in place of neon and is 40×40×20 cm in size. Details on design, construction and characterization will be presented.

  4. Study of collagen metabolism and regulation after {beta} radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yinghui, Zhou; Lan, Xu; Shiliang, Wu; Hao, Qiu; Zhi, Jiang; Youbin, Tu; Xueguang, Zhang [Suzhou Medical College (China)

    2001-04-01

    The animal model of {beta} radiation injury was established by the {beta} radiation produced by the linear accelerator; and irradiated NIH 3T3 cells were studied. In the experiment the contents of total collagen, collagen type I and type III were measured. The activity of MMPs-1 were tested. The contents of TGF-{beta}{sub 1}, IL-6 were also detected. The results showed that after exposure to {beta} radiation, little change was found in the content of total collagen, but the content of collagen I decreased and the content of collagen III, MMPs-1 activity increased; the expression of TGF-{beta}{sub 1}, IL-6 increased. The results suggest that changes in the metabolism of collagen play an important role in the irradiated injury of the skin; TGF-{beta}{sub 1}, IL-6 may be essential in the regulation of the collagen metabolism.

  5. Exchange effects in double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, G.J. Jr.; Goldman, T.; Maltman, K.R.; Schmidt, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    The motivation underlying the resurgence of interest in double beta decay is the hope that the observation of or limits on the 0-neutrino mode will provide information about the nature of the neutrino. This clearly requires confidence in the nuclear matrix elements involved in the transition. The shell model calculations do not agree well with the geochemical values for 130 Te, which has lead to a spate of papers offering specific fixes for the problem. In this contribution we shall not comment on any of the specific nuclear calculations, rather we make some remarks which should be relevant to any model calculation

  6. Intracranial Extramedullary Hematopoiesis in Beta-Thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karki, Bivek; Xu, Yi Kai; Wu, Yuan Kui; Tamrakar, Karuna

    2012-01-01

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) represents tumor-like proliferation of hemopoietic tissue which complicates chronic hemoglobinopathy. Intracranial EMH is an extremely rare occurrence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a precise diagnosis. It is essential to distinguish EMH from other extradural central nervous system tumors, because treatment and prognosis are totally different. Herein, we report the imaging findings of beta-thalassemia in a 13-year-old boy complaining of weakness of left side of the body and gait disturbance; CT and MRI revealed an extradural mass in the right temporoparietal region.

  7. Intracranial extramedullary hematopoiesis in beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Bivek; Xu, Yi-Kai; Tamrakar, Karuna; Wu, Yuan-Kui

    2012-01-01

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) represents tumor-like proliferation of hemopoietic tissue which complicates chronic hemoglobinopathy. Intracranial EMH is an extremely rare occurrence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a precise diagnosis. It is essential to distinguish EMH from other extradural central nervous system tumors, because treatment and prognosis are totally different. Herein, we report the imaging findings of beta-thalassemia in a 13-year-old boy complaining of weakness of left side of the body and gait disturbance; CT and MRI revealed an extradural mass in the right temporoparietal region.

  8. NEUTRINOLESS DOUBLE BETA DECAY: AN EXTREME CHALLENGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ferroni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Neutrino-less Double Beta Decay is the only known way to possibly resolve the nature of neutrino mass. The chances to cover the mass region predicted by the inverted hierarchy require a step forward in detector capability. A possibility is to make use of scintillating bolometers. These devices shall have a great power in distinguishing signals from alfa particles from those induced by electrons. This feature might lead to an almost background-free experiment. Here the Lucifer concept will be introduced and the prospects related to this project will be discussed.

  9. MHD analysis of LHD high beta plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiguchi, K.; Nakajima, N.; Carreras, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    The nonlinear behavior of the interchange mode in the LHD plasma depends on the overlap of the vortices with different helicity. If the vortices are separated in the radial direction, each mode saturates mildly with generating the local flat regions in the pressure profile. In the case of the significant overlap of the vortices, the convection is enhanced and the sudden global reduction of the pressure occurs. Succession of the saturated pressure profile in the increase of beta can suppress the overlap. Self-organization of the pressure profile to suppress the overlap of the vortices can be the stabilizing mechanism in the LHD plasma. (orig.)

  10. Intracranial Extramedullary Hematopoiesis in Beta-Thalassemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karki, Bivek; Xu, Yi Kai; Wu, Yuan Kui [Nan fang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Tamrakar, Karuna [Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-03-15

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) represents tumor-like proliferation of hemopoietic tissue which complicates chronic hemoglobinopathy. Intracranial EMH is an extremely rare occurrence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a precise diagnosis. It is essential to distinguish EMH from other extradural central nervous system tumors, because treatment and prognosis are totally different. Herein, we report the imaging findings of beta-thalassemia in a 13-year-old boy complaining of weakness of left side of the body and gait disturbance; CT and MRI revealed an extradural mass in the right temporoparietal region.

  11. La Beta 2 Microglobulina como Marcador Tumoral.

    OpenAIRE

    Saúco Márquez, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    En el presente trabajo hemos efectuado un estudio acerca del valor que tiene la Beta 2 Microglobulina para ser empleada como marcador tumoral. Esta sustancia es una microproteína que es producida por casi todas las células del organismos excepto los eritrocitos y las células trofoblásticas, es liberada a la circulación y es filtrada a nivel glomerular siendo reabsorbida por los túbulos renales en cuyas células es catabolizada y degradada ha...

  12. Perioperative Beta Blockade - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunitha K. Zachariah

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Continuation of antihypertensives preoperatively and their influence on intraoperative hemodynamics is a big concern among anesthesiologists. The Peri Operative Ischaemia Study Evaluation (POISE trial showed a significant reduction of myocardial infarction, need for coronary revascularization and the incidence of atrial fibrillation with metoprolol started 2-4 hours prior to surgery but a significant increase in total mortality and clinically significant hypotension and bradycardia. This is a case report of intraoperative severe bradycardia in a young patient on recently started beta blocker.

  13. Biosynthesis of beta-glucosidase by Aspergillus niger a-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atev, A.; Panayotov, C.; Bubareva, L.; Benadova, R.; Kolev, E.

    1984-01-01

    Aspergillus niger A-5 produced beta-glucosidase, exocellobihydrolase (C1 enzyme) and endo-1, 4-beta-glucanase (Cx enzyme) in a culture medium containing farm residues of plant origin: wheat straw, ground maize stalks, wheat bran, and micricell as substrates. Maize stalk and wheat bran were the best inducers of the cellulase complex. Intensive aeration stimulated growth and enzyme synthesis. The highest beta-glucosidase activity (54 units/mL) was observed after 96 h of cultivation.

  14. [Study of beta-turns in globular proteins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirova, S R; Milchevskiĭ, Iu V; Filatov, I V; Esipova, N G; Tumanian, V G

    2005-01-01

    The formation of beta-turns in globular proteins has been studied by the method of molecular mechanics. Statistical method of discriminant analysis was applied to calculate energy components and sequences of oligopeptide segments, and after this prediction of I type beta-turns has been drawn. The accuracy of true positive prediction is 65%. Components of conformational energy considerably affecting beta-turn formation were delineated. There are torsional energy, energy of hydrogen bonds, and van der Waals energy.

  15. Proceedings of the Department of Energy workshop on beta measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Vallario, E.J.

    1987-09-01

    Participants discussed current practices, efforts to upgrade the quality of beta measurements, and initiatives necessary to improve the measurement and control of beta doses. This proceedings includes papers presented at the workshop, transcripts of panel and open discussions, and documentation of question and answer sessions. The information exchange resulting from this meeting is expected to provide a clearer focus on the problems of beta measurements

  16. Isospin and quarks in nuclear beta-decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, D.H.

    1991-04-01

    This paper exposes in some detail the technical problems relating to the extraction of the vector coupling constant from the beta decay of complex nuclei. It also considers the extraction of the axial coupling constant from the beta-decay of the neutron. The internal consistency of all data relating to beta-decay, including that of the muon, is also examined, within the standard model, with a view to the possible intervention of W R . (Author) 52 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Marginal versus Average Beta of Equity under Corporate Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Diderik

    2009-01-01

    Even for fully equity-financed firms there may be substantial effects of taxation on the after-tax cost of capital. Among the few studies of these effects, even fewer identify all effects correctly. When marginal investment is taxed together with inframarginal, marginal beta differs from average if there are investment-related deductions like depreciation. To calculate asset betas, one should not only 'unlever observed equity betas, but 'untax' and 'unaverage' them. Risky tax claims are value...

  18. Proceedings of the Department of Energy workshop on beta measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinth, K.L.; Vallario, E.J.

    1987-09-01

    Participants discussed current practices, efforts to upgrade the quality of beta measurements, and initiatives necessary to improve the measurement and control of beta doses. This proceedings includes papers presented at the workshop, transcripts of panel and open discussions, and documentation of question and answer sessions. The information exchange resulting from this meeting is expected to provide a clearer focus on the problems of beta measurements.

  19. Alpha/beta separation in liquid scintillation gel samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1994-01-01

    The pulse shape analysis commonly used in liquid scintillation alpha/beta separations is satisfactory for moderate quench levels. However, for gel samples, the alpha particle counting efficiency is never greater than 10%, and an optimum separation of the alpha component cannot be achieved when beta to alpha counting rate ratios are greater than 100. In such cases, it is better to use a spectrum analysis method for alpha/beta separation. ((orig.))

  20. Neuroinflammation and Complexes of 17 beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase type 10-Amyloid beta in Alzheimer's Disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištofíková, Z.; Řípová, D.; Bartoš, A.; Bocková, Markéta; Hegnerová, Kateřina; Říčný, J.; Čechová, L.; Vrajová, M.; Homola, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2013), s. 165-173 ISSN 1567-2050 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT11225 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Amyloid beta * mitochondrial enzyme * Alzheimer 's disease Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 3.796, year: 2013

  1. On the absolute measure of Beta activities; Sobre la medida absoluta de actividades Beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, C; Jimenez Reynaldo, O; Rodriguez Mayquez, E

    1956-07-01

    A new method for absolute beta counting of solid samples is given. The measurements is made with an inside Geiger-Muller tube of new construction. The backscattering correction when using an infinite thick mounting is discussed and results for different materials given. (Author)

  2. Ionization profile of beta radiation from radioactive cloud; Jonizacioni profil beta zracenja radioaktivnog oblaka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vujovic, M [Boris Kidric Institute of nuclear sciences, Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Vojvodic, V [VTI Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1978-07-01

    A method for calculation of the ionization profile induced by beta radiation from a radioactive cloud is given. The procedure can be applied for high altitudes of the could (H 75 km) as well as for lower ones, when the thickness of the cloud must be taken into account. The final result is given in the analytical form. (author)

  3. Beta-endorphin in genetically hypoprolactinemic rat: IPL nude rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, H.; Sabbagh, I.; Abou-Samra, A.B.; Bertrand, J.

    1986-01-20

    Beta-endorphin has been reported to regulate not only stress- and suckling-induced but also basal prolactin secretion. In the aim to better evaluate the endogenous beta-endorphin-prolactin interrelation, the authors measured beta-endorphin levels in a new rat strain, genetically hypoprolactinemic and characterized by a total lack of lactation: IPL nude rat. Beta-endorphin was measured using a specific anti-h-..beta.. endorphin in plasma and extracts of anterior and neurointermediate lobes of the pituitary, hypothalamus and brain. Pituitary extracts were also chromatographed on Sephadex G50 column. Results obtained showed that in IPL nude females on diestrus and males, the beta-endorphin contents of the neurointermediate lobe was significantly lower than in normal rats, while the values found in the other organs and plasma were similar. However, elution pattern of the anterior pituitary extracts from male rats showed greater immunoactivity eluting as I/sup 125/ h-beta-endorphin than in normal rat; this was not the case for the female rat. These results are consistent with a differential regulation of beta-endorphin levels of anterior and neurointermediate lobe by catecholamines. Moreover they suggest that PRL secretion was more related to neurointermediate beta-endorphin. 40 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  4. Interleukin-1beta gene polymorphisms in Taiwanese patients with gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Man-Ling; Huang, Chung-Ming; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) promoter and exon 5 gene polymorphisms are markers of susceptibility or clinical manifestations in Taiwanese patients with gout. The study included 196 patients in addition to 103 unrelated healthy control subjects living in central Taiwan. From genomic DNA, polymorphisms of the gene for IL-1beta promoter and IL-1beta exon 5 were typed. Allelic frequencies were compared between the two groups, and the relationship between allelic frequencies and clinical manifestations of gout was evaluated. No significant differences were observed in the allelic frequencies of the IL-1beta promoter between patients with gout and healthy control subjects. Additionally, we did not detect any association of the IL-1beta promoter genotype with the clinical and laboratory profiles of gout patients. However, there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of hypertriglyceridemia (P=0.0004, chi(2)=12.52, OR 7.14, 95%CI 0.012-0.22). There was also a significant difference in the genotype of IL-1beta exon 5 polymorphism between patients with and without hypertriglyceridemia. Results of the present study suggest that polymorphisms of the IL-1beta promoter and IL-1beta exon 5 are not related to gout patients in central Taiwan.

  5. Predicting Bond Betas using Macro-Finance Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Christiansen, Charlotte; Cipollini, Andrea

    We conduct in-sample and out-of-sample forecasting using the new approach of combining explanatory variables through complete subset regressions (CSR). We predict bond CAPM betas and bond returns conditioning on various macro-fi…nance variables. We explore differences across long-term government ...... bonds, investment grade corporate bonds, and high-yield corporate bonds. The CSR method performs well in predicting bond betas, especially in-sample, and, mainly high-yield bond betas when the focus is out-of-sample. Bond returns are less predictable than bond betas....

  6. Is neutrinoless double beta decay suppressed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomoda, T.

    1989-01-01

    Much effort has been devoted to the study of nuclear double beta decay, since the observation of a neutrinoless double beta (OνΒΒ) decay would be clear evidence that the electron neutrino is a Majorana particle. The OνΒΒ decay is caused by a finite Majorana neutrino mass and/or an admixture of right-handed leptonic currents. In order to relate these quantities to OνΒΒ decay rates, we need nuclear matrix elements, which are model dependent. One of the possibilities of testing nuclear models employed in such analysis is to calculate the experimentally known rates of ΒΒ decay with emission of two neutrinos (2νΒΒ decay) which occurs independently of the nature of the neutrino. There was a long-standing difficulty in such attempts that the calculated 2νΒΒ decay rates turned out to be always too large by one to two orders of magnitude. Trying to overcome such difficulty, Klapdor and Grotz as well as Vogel and Zirnbauer showed in their calculation using schematic effective interactions such that 2νΒΒ decay rates can get reduced considerably due to the nuclear ground state correlations. This paper reports that the suppression is ascribed to that of the virtual Gamow-Teller transitions from the excited 1 + states of the intermediate odd-odd -even nucleus

  7. Preparation of phenyl, p-fluorophenyl, 2-thienyl {beta} alanines {beta} -{sup 14}C; Preparation de phenyl, p-fluorophenyl, thienyl-2 {beta} alanines {beta} - {sup 14}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichat, L; Carbonnier, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Description of the synthesis of the amino acids given in the title, labelled with {sup 14}C in the beta position. Benzoic, fluorobenzoic and thenoic acids carboxyl {sup 14}C prepared from {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from converted respectively to benzyl chloride, p-fluorobenzyl chloride and 2-chloromethyl thiophene, which were condensed in dimethyl-formamide solution with sodium ethyl acetamido malonate. After hydrobromic hydrolysis the desired products were obtained with respective overall yields of 64, 49 and 57 per cent. (author) [French] Description de la synthese des acides amines du titre, marques au {sup 14}C en position beta. Les acides benzoique, fluorobenzoique, thenoique carboxyl {sup 19}C prepares a partir de {sup 14}CO{sub 2} ont ete transformes respectivement en chlorure de benzyle, chlorure de p-fluorobenzyle, chloromethyl-2 thiophene lesquels ont ete condenses dans le dimethyl-formamide sur l'acetamidomalonate d'ethyle sode. Apres hydrolyse bromhydrique, on a obtenu les produits cherches avec les rendements globaux respectifs de 64, 39 et 57 pour cent. (auteur)

  8. Neutrinoless double beta decay search with SNO+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozza V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The SNO+ experiment is the follow up of SNO. The detector is located 2 km underground in the Vale Canada Ltd.’s Creighton Mine near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The active volume of the detector consists of 780 tonnes of Linear Alkyl Benzene (LAB in an acrylic vessel of 12 m diameter, surrounded by about 9500 PMTs. The main goal of the SNO+ experiment is the search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 130Te. With an initial loading of 0.3% of natural tellurium (nearly 800 kg of 130Te, it is expected to reach a sensitivity on the effective Majorana neutrino mass of about 100 meV after several years of data taking. Designed as a general purpose neutrino experiment, other exciting physical goals can be explored, like the measurement of reactor neutrino oscillations and geo-neutrinos in a geologically-interesting location, watch of supernova neutrinos and studies of solar neutrinos. A first commissioning phase with water filled detector will start at the end of 2013, while the double beta decay phase will start in 2015.

  9. Beta-thalassaemia trait: haematological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousafzai, Y.M.; Khan, S.; Raziq, F.

    2010-01-01

    Thalassaemia syndromes are a group of hereditary disorders characterised by a genetic deficiency in the synthesis of --globin genes. The objective of this study was to determine the haematological features -thalassaemia trait (BTT), and to determine the sensitivity of Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH) and -thalassaemia trait. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted in Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar from May 2009 to May 2010 with 203 subjects having BTT. Blood samples were collected in EDTA anti-coagulated tubes. RBC indices were taken as part of complete blood count (CBC) by haematology analyser, and Haemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis was done to determine the HbA2 percentage. The data was collected and analyzed on statistical software for demographic details, RBC indices and HBA2 levels. Results: Out of 203 patients, 92 (45%) were males and 111 (55%) were females. Most patients tested were in the 15-45 year age group. One-hundred-sixty (79%) patients had anaemia. MCV was lower than 76 fl in all the cases. Mean MCV was 59.1 fl. MCH was low, the mean MCH being 19.3 g/dl. MCH <26 gave sensitivity of 99% in detecting BTT. We calculated MI for these cases and found out that it was <12 in 75% of cases and <15 in 197 (97%). Conclusion: Beta-thalassaemia traits present with a microcytic hypochromic blood picture, detected on simple haematology analysers as low MCV and MCH and MI which provide a beta- thalassaemia trait. (author)

  10. A background free double beta decay experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giomataris, I

    2011-01-01

    We present a new detection scheme for rejecting backgrounds in neutrino-less double beta decay experiments. It relies on the detection of Cherenkov light emitted by electrons in the MeV region. The momentum threshold is tuned to reach a good discrimination between background and good events. We consider many detector concepts and a range of target materials. The most promising is the high-pressure 136 Xe emitter where the required energy threshold is easily adjusted. Combination of this concept and a high pressure Time Projection Chamber could provide an optimal solution. A simple and low cost effective solution is the use of the Spherical Proportional Counter that provides, using a single read-out channel, two delayed signals from ionization and Cherenkov light. In solid-state double beta decay emitters, because of its higher density, the considered process is out of energy range. An escape will be the fabrication of double decay emitters having lower density by using for instance the aerogel technique. It is surprising that a technology used for particle identification in high-energy physics becomes a powerful tool for rejecting backgrounds in such low-energy experiments.

  11. Double beta decay in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergados, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is a very important process both from the particle and nuclear physics point of view. From the elementary particle point of view it pops up in almost every model, giving rise among others to the following mechanisms: a) The traditional contributions like the light neutrino mass mechanism as well as the j L - j R leptonic interference (λ and η terms). b) The exotic R-parity violating supersymmetric (SUSY) contributions. From the nuclear physics point of view it is challenging, because: 1) The nuclei, which can undergo double beta decay, have complicated nuclear structure. 2) The energetically allowed transitions are suppressed (exhaust a small part of all the strength). 3) Since in some mechanisms the intermediate particles are very heavy one must cope with the short distance behavior of the transition operators. 4) The intermediate momenta involved are quite high and one has to consider momentum dependent terms of the nucleon current. Taking the above effects into account from the experimental limits on the interesting nuclei A=76, 82, 96, 100, 116, 128, 130, 136 and 150, we have extracted new limits on the various lepton violating parameters. In particular we get a stringent limit on the R-parity violating parameter λ' 111 -4 . (author)

  12. Silencing of beta-carotene hydroxylase increases total carotenoid and beta-carotene levels in potato tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizzichini Daniele

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beta-carotene is the main dietary precursor of vitamin A. Potato tubers contain low levels of carotenoids, composed mainly of the xanthophylls lutein (in the beta-epsilon branch and violaxanthin (in the beta-beta branch. None of these carotenoids have provitamin A activity. We have previously shown that tuber-specific silencing of the first step in the epsilon-beta branch, LCY-e, redirects metabolic flux towards beta-beta carotenoids, increases total carotenoids up to 2.5-fold and beta-carotene up to 14-fold. Results In this work, we silenced the non-heme beta-carotene hydroxylases CHY1 and CHY2 in the tuber. Real Time RT-PCR measurements confirmed the tuber-specific silencing of both genes . CHY silenced tubers showed more dramatic changes in carotenoid content than LCY-e silenced tubers, with beta-carotene increasing up to 38-fold and total carotenoids up to 4.5-fold. These changes were accompanied by a decrease in the immediate product of beta-carotene hydroxylation, zeaxanthin, but not of the downstream xanthophylls, viola- and neoxanthin. Changes in endogenous gene expression were extensive and partially overlapping with those of LCY-e silenced tubers: CrtISO, LCY-b and ZEP were induced in both cases, indicating that they may respond to the balance between individual carotenoid species. Conclusion Together with epsilon-cyclization of lycopene, beta-carotene hydroxylation is another regulatory step in potato tuber carotenogenesis. The data are consistent with a prevalent role of CHY2, which is highly expressed in tubers, in the control of this step. Combination of different engineering strategies holds good promise for the manipulation of tuber carotenoid content.

  13. Primary structure of the hemoglobin beta-chain of rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, A; Persson, B; Zaidi, Z H; Jörnvall, H

    1989-08-01

    The primary structure of Rose-ringed Parakeet hemoglobin beta-chain was established, completing the analysis of this hemoglobin. Comparison with other avian beta-chains show variations smaller than those for the corresponding alpha-chains. There are 11 amino acid exchanges in relationship to the only other characterized psittaciform beta-chain, and a total of 35 positions are affected by differences among all avian beta-chains analyzed (versus 61 for the alpha-chains). At three positions, the Psittacula beta-chain has residues unique to this species. Three alpha 1 beta 1 contacts are modified, by substitutions at positions beta 51, beta 116, and beta 125.

  14. Peginterferon beta-1a – nowa postać interferonu beta-1a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Maciejek

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available W 2014 roku, po zakończeniu próby klinicznej III fazy ADVANCE, do leczenia postaci rzutowo-remisyjnej stwardnienia rozsianego wprowadzono nową pegylowaną postać interferonu beta-1a o wydłużonym czasie działania. Do badania zakwalifikowano 1512 chorych ze 183 ośrodków z 26 krajów (500 uczestników przyjmowało placebo, 512 – peginterferon beta-1a w dawce 125 µg podawany podskórnie co 2 tygodnie, 500 – peginterferon beta-1a w dawce 125 µg podawany podskórnie co 4 tygodnie. Grupy były zbliżone pod względem wieku, płci, czasu trwania choroby i niepełnosprawności ocenianej w Expanded Disability Status Scale. Cel badania stanowiła ocena skuteczności i bezpieczeństwa pegylowanego interferonu beta-1a po 2 latach terapii w porównaniu z grupą placebo, która w drugim roku również otrzymywała ten lek. Skuteczność peginterferonu beta-1a podawanego co 2 tygodnie w porównaniu z placebo przejawiała się redukcją rocznego wskaźnika rzutów (o 37%, liczby nowych lub powiększonych ognisk T2-zależnych (o 67%, ryzyka wystąpienia rzutu (o 39% i ryzyka utrwalonej 12-tygodniowej progresji niepełnosprawności (o 33%. Najczęstsze działania niepożądane towarzyszące kuracji (94% chorych to odczyn w miejscu wkłucia, objawy grypopodobne, gorączka i bóle głowy. U 16% osób przyjmujących lek co 2 tygodnie i 22% otrzymujących go co 4 tygodnie odnotowano poważne objawy niepożądane (rzuty, zapalenie płuc, infekcje dróg moczowych. Reasumując: leczenie peginterferonem beta-1a cechowały skuteczność, dobra tolerancja i bezpieczeństwo.

  15. Kidney injury molecule-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin as prognostic markers in idiopathic membranous nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Rutger Jh; van den Brand, Jan Ajg; Waanders, Femke; Meijer, Esther; Goor van, Harry; Peters, Hilde P; Hofstra, Julia M; Wetzels, Jack Fm

    2016-01-01

    Urinary excretion of alpha-1-microglobulin and beta-2-microglobulin reflects tubular damage and predicts outcome in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy with reasonable accuracy. Urinary kidney injury molecule-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin are novel biomarkers of tubular damage. We investigated if these markers could improve prediction of outcome in idiopathic membranous nephropathy. We measured kidney injury molecule-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in urine samples from patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy, who had nephrotic proteinuria and normal renal function. Excretion of alpha-1-microglobulin and beta-2-microglobulin had been measured previously. Progression was defined as a serum creatinine rise >30%, a rise in serum creatinine to an absolute value of ≥135 µmol/L, or a clinical decision to start immunosuppressive therapy. Remission was defined as proteinuria 50% reduction from baseline. Sixty-nine patients were included. Median follow-up was 35 months (interquartile range 18-63 months). Progression occurred in 30 patients (44%), and spontaneous remission in 36 (52%). Kidney injury molecule-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin excretion rates were significantly correlated with each other, and with alpha-1-microglobulin and beta-2-microglobulin. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for progression were 0.75 (0.62-0.87) for kidney injury molecule-1 and 0.74 (0.62-0.87) for neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin. In multivariate analysis with either alpha-1-microglobulin and beta-2-microglobulin, kidney injury molecule-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin did not independently predict outcome. Kidney injury molecule-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin excretion rates correlated with excretion rates of other tubular damage markers and predicted outcome in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy. They did not add prognostic value

  16. TGF-{beta}-stimulated aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin via the ERK signaling pathway in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eun Jee [Department of Ophthalmology, National Health Insurance Corporation Ilsan Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Ji Na; Jung, Sun-Ah [Konyang University Myunggok Medical Research Institute, Kim' s Eye Hospital, Konyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jin Won [Department of Biology, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joon H., E-mail: joonhlee@konyang.ac.kr [Konyang University Myunggok Medical Research Institute, Kim' s Eye Hospital, Konyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF-{beta} induces aberrant expression of {beta}III in RPE cells via the ERK pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF-{beta} increases O-GlcNAc modification of {beta}III in RPE cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mature RPE cells have the capacity to express a neuron-associated gene by TGF-{beta}. -- Abstract: The class III {beta}-tubulin isotype ({beta}{sub III}) is expressed exclusively by neurons within the normal human retina and is not present in normal retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in situ or in the early phase of primary cultures. However, aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin has been observed in passaged RPE cells and RPE cells with dedifferentiated morphology in pathologic epiretinal membranes from idiopathic macular pucker, proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) has been implicated in dedifferentiation of RPE cells and has a critical role in the development of proliferative vitreoretinal diseases. Here, we investigated the potential effects of TGF-{beta} on the aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin and the intracellular signaling pathway mediating these changes. TGF-{beta}-induced aberrant expression and O-linked-{beta}-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNac) modification of class III {beta}-tubulin in cultured RPE cells as determined using Western blotting, RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. TGF-{beta} also stimulated phosphorylation of ERK. TGF-{beta}-induced aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin was significantly reduced by pretreatment with U0126, an inhibitor of ERK phosphorylation. Our findings indicate that TGF-{beta} stimulated aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin via activation of the ERK signaling pathway. These data demonstrate that mature RPE cells have the capacity to express a neuron-associated gene in response to TGF-{beta} stimulation and provide useful information

  17. Defining beta adrenoreceptors in the living heart with iodocyanopindolol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisson, J.C.; Wieland, D.M.; Koeppe, R.A.; Frey, K.A.; Normolle, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    Beta adrenoreceptors in the heart are integral to the regulation of myocardial function by the sympathetic nervous system and are important in adaptations to physiologic stress and disease. However, these adrenoreceptors have not been defined throughout the living heart. Iodocyanopindolol (ICYP), a nonselective beta antagonist, binds with high affinity to beta adrenoreceptors and, when radiolabeled, offers a method for portraying the receptors quantitatively. When administered intravenously to rats, [ 125 I]ICYP in the heart was fitted with a mathematical model. The T 1/2 of offset of binding from the heart was several hours, and metabolism of ICYP in blood and heart was modest. ICYP in the heart fulfilled the following criteria for binding to beta adrenoreceptors: Patterns of inhibition produced by a beta agonist and beta antagonists were according to dose and potency; binding of (-)ICYP and (±)ICYP were stereospecific; and binding was saturable. When administered intravenously to dogs at 3-5 mCi, [ 123 I]ICYP distributed diffusely in the myocardium, as seen in scintigraphic tomographs of the heart. A small quantity of another beta antagonist selectively reduced lung binding to improve image quality. Thus, [ 123 I]ICYP portrays beta adrenoreceptors in the living heart. With newer detection instruments, dynamic data of [ 123 I]ICYP can be acquired to quantify the adrenoreceptors

  18. Beta-endorphin in genetically hypoprolactinemic rat: IPL nude rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, H.; Sabbagh, I.; Abou-Samra, A.B.; Bertrand, J.

    1986-01-01

    Beta-endorphin has been reported to regulate not only stress- and suckling-induced but also basal prolactin secretion. In the aim to better evaluate the endogenous beta-endorphin-prolactin interrelation, the authors measured beta-endorphin levels in a new rat strain, genetically hypoprolactinemic and characterized by a total lack of lactation: IPL nude rat. Beta-endorphin was measured using a specific anti-h-β endorphin in plasma and extracts of anterior and neurointermediate lobes of the pituitary, hypothalamus and brain. Pituitary extracts were also chromatographed on Sephadex G50 column. Results obtained showed that in IPL nude females on diestrus and males, the beta-endorphin contents of the neurointermediate lobe was significantly lower than in normal rats, while the values found in the other organs and plasma were similar. However, elution pattern of the anterior pituitary extracts from male rats showed greater immunoactivity eluting as I 125 h-beta-endorphin than in normal rat; this was not the case for the female rat. These results are consistent with a differential regulation of beta-endorphin levels of anterior and neurointermediate lobe by catecholamines. Moreover they suggest that PRL secretion was more related to neurointermediate beta-endorphin. 40 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  19. Beta blockers and their combinations in the management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review Article: Beta blockers and their combinations in the management of hypertension. 409. Vol 54 No 5. S Afr Fam Pract 2012. Introduction. Beta blockers have been prescribed for the treatment of primary hypertension for a very long time. Currently, it is doubtful whether this is still a good idea. In fact, many are of the ...

  20. Beta : The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, Joost; van Zundert, J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper decomposes aggregate and individual stock returns into cash flow news, interest rate news, and risk premium news. We then extend the “good beta, bad beta” approach of Campbell and Vuolteenaho (2004) by allowing for a third beta: exposure to interest rate news. Using various stock

  1. The effects of Beta-Endorphin: state change modification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veening, J.G.; Barendregt, H.P.

    2015-01-01

    Beta-endorphin (beta-END) is an opioid neuropeptide which has an important role in the development of hypotheses concerning the non-synaptic or paracrine communication of brain messages. This kind of communication between neurons has been designated volume transmission (VT) to differentiate it

  2. Antibiotic resistance profile and phenotypic detection of beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Cockroaches are carriers of numerous microorganisms. However, there is paucity of information on their role as potential reservoir for beta-lactamase producers. Objectives: This research determined the antibiotics susceptibility profile of Beta-lactamase producing Gram-negative bacteria isolated from ...

  3. Synthesis of conformationally restricted beta-turn mimics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJsselstijn, M.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis aims at developing methods for introducing conformational restriction in Beta-turns, the turn elements present in Beta-sheets. A conformationally restricted peptide might either be formed via incorporation of a bridging diamino acids in a growing peptide chain, or via covalent bond

  4. The Beta Israel: Return to the source? | Zegeye | Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even after more than two decades, over 70 000 Ethiopian Jews - the Beta Israel - have still not been fully accepted in Israel, in danger of becoming an ethnically defined 'under-class'. The potential of Beta Israel contributions to both Israeli and Ethiopian society should be recognised. Africa Insight Vol.34(1) 2004: 69-75 ...

  5. Perioperative beta blockers in patients having non-cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangalore, Sripal; Wetterslev, Jørn; Pranesh, Shruthi

    2008-01-01

    American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines on perioperative assessment recommend perioperative beta blockers for non-cardiac surgery, although results of some clinical trials seem not to support this recommendation. We aimed to critically review the evidence...... to assess the use of perioperative beta blockers in patients having non-cardiac surgery....

  6. Factors influencing beta-amylase activity in sorghum malt

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taylor, JRN

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available isozyme of pI approximately 4.4-4.5, unlike the many isozymes all of higher pI in barley. However, like barley, sorghum beta-amylase was more temperature-labile than its alpha-amylase. Beta-amylase activity in sorghum malt was increased by germination time...

  7. A toxic approach to beta2-toxigenic Clostridium perfringens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allaart, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is one of the most important causes of intestinal disease in animals and humans. Its virulence is attributed to the several toxins it can produce, including the beta2 toxin encoded by cpb2. In this thesis we studied the role of the beta2 toxin produced by C. perfringens in

  8. Overview of total beta activity index and beta rest in surface waters of the Spanish rivers; Vision general del indice de actividad beta total y beta resto en las aguas superficiales de los rios espanoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujol, L.; Payeras, J.; Pablo, M. A. de

    2013-07-01

    This work aims to give an overview of the index of total beta activity and the activity index beta rest in surface waters of the main Spanish rivers. These indices are a parameter over water quality that CEDEX comes determined by order of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment, in water policy. (Author)

  9. Limiting beta of stellarators with no net current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, H.R.; Monticello, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Using reduced nonlinear MHD equations, we find finite beta, resistive, l = 2 stellarator equilibria with no net current. We then investigate stability to low mode number internal MHD modes, and find beta limits comparable to tokamaks. Low shear equilibria appear to be substantially more stable than high shear

  10. Plasma TGF beta level in rats after hemithoracic irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujaskovic, Z; Down, JD; vanWaarde, MAWH; vanAssen, AJ; Szabo, BG; Konings, AWT

    Changes in TGF-beta plasma levels were observed 18 weeks after hemithoracic irradiation in rats. This coincides with an increase in the breathing frequency, being most pronounced between 22 and 28 weeks after irradiation. The correlation suggests a potential role of the circulating TGF-beta in the

  11. Pathogenesis of A-beta+ ketosis-prone diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A-beta+ ketosis-prone diabetes (KPD) is an emerging syndrome of obesity, unprovoked ketoacidosis, reversible beta-cell dysfunction, and near-normoglycemic remission. We combined metabolomics with targeted kinetic measurements to investigate its pathophysiology. Fasting plasma fatty acids, acylcarnit...

  12. Determination of the kalium-subtracted total beta in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guofan

    1985-01-01

    A procedure for measuring the kalium-subtracted total beta in food can be applied to estimating the contamination of beta nuclides except 40 K. The procedure, calculating formula, and some experiences in practice are described in this paper. The method is simple, rapid, and very useful to food contamination monitoring

  13. AGS vertical beta function measurements for Run 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ahrens, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Huang, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-10-07

    One key parameter for running the AGS efficiently is by maintaining a low emittance. To measure emittance, one needs to measure the beta function throughout the cycle. This can be done by measuring the beta function at the ionization profile monitors (IPM) in the AGS. This tech note delves into the motivation, the measurement, and some strides that were made throughout Run15.

  14. Estimating security betas using prior information based on firm fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cosemans, M.; Frehen, R.; Schotman, P.C.; Bauer, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach for estimating time-varying betas of individual stocks that incorporates prior information based on fundamentals. We shrink the rolling window estimate of beta towards a firm-specific prior that is motivated by asset pricing theory. The prior captures structural

  15. Plasma transforming growth factor beta levels in breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sminia, P; Barten, AD; Van Waarde, MAWH; Vujaskovic, Z; Van Tienhoven, G

    1998-01-01

    We investigated whether the concentration of circulating transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) yields diagnostic value in breast cancer. Blood was collected from twenty stage I and II breast cancer patients both prior to treatment and after surgical excision of the tumour. Both latent and

  16. Role of IL-1beta in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinarello, Charles A; Donath, Marc Y; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    To understand the role of inflammation as the fundamental cause of type 2 diabetes and specifically to examine the contribution of IL-1beta.......To understand the role of inflammation as the fundamental cause of type 2 diabetes and specifically to examine the contribution of IL-1beta....

  17. Portal vein thrombosis after splenectomy for beta-thalassemia major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hawsawi, Zakaria M.; Tarawah, Ahmed M.; Hassan, Ruhul Amin A.; Haouimi, Ammar S.

    2004-01-01

    Portal vein thrombosis is a recognized complication after splenectomy for beta-thalassemia major due to the chronic hypercoagulable state which has been recognized to exist in childhood thalassemia and contribute to thromboembolic events. We reporting one patient with beta-thalassemia major developed portal vein thrombosis following splenectomy. (author)

  18. Scintigraphic evaluation of bone involvement in beta thalassemia major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armijo, Soledad; Hidalgo, Pablo

    2000-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a 19 year old man with beta-thalassemia major and back pain, who was studied with a Tc99m Metilendiphosphonate (Tc99m MDP) bone scan. This case shows many of the complications of beta-thalassemia major in the skeletal system. Also we can see some indirect signs of endocrinopathies associated (Au)

  19. Gastrointestinal hyperplasia with altered expression of DNA polymerase beta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiko Yoshizawa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Altered expression of DNA polymerase beta (Pol beta has been documented in a large percentage of human tumors. However, tumor prevalence or predisposition resulting from Pol beta over-expression has not yet been evaluated in a mouse model.We have recently developed a novel transgenic mouse model that over-expresses Pol beta. These mice present with an elevated incidence of spontaneous histologic lesions, including cataracts, hyperplasia of Brunner's gland and mucosal hyperplasia in the duodenum. In addition, osteogenic tumors in mice tails, such as osteoma and osteosarcoma were detected. This is the first report of elevated tumor incidence in a mouse model of Pol beta over-expression. These findings prompted an evaluation of human gastrointestinal tumors with regard to Pol beta expression. We observed elevated expression of Pol beta in stomach adenomas and thyroid follicular carcinomas, but reduced Pol beta expression in esophageal adenocarcinomas and squamous carcinomas.These data support the hypothesis that balanced and proficient base excision repair protein expression and base excision repair capacity is required for genome stability and protection from hyperplasia and tumor formation.

  20. Nonionic emulsion-mediated synthesis of zeolite beta

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zeolite beta synthesis was first carried out in a newly developed emulsion system containing nonionic polyoxyethylated alkylphenol surfactant, which showed interesting non-conventional features. Compared to the conventional hydrothermal synthesis of zeolite beta, the reported nonionic emulsion system showed a faster ...

  1. Postoperative beta irradiation in the treatment of pterygium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.M.; Chung, C.K.; Constable, W.C.

    1979-01-01

    High recurrence rates are reported after surgical treatment of ptergyia. With the use of beta irradiation, the recurrence rate drops dramatically. This paper describes technic and dosage used in a group of patients receiving postoperative beta irradiation. Two thirds of these patients, however, had at least two surgical procedures. A recurrence rate of 3.5% was observed, with no apparent morbidity

  2. Imaging the Beta-cell mass: why and how

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saudek, Frantisek; Brogren, Carl-Henrik; Manohar, Srirang

    2008-01-01

    is called dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ), antibodies to zinc transporter (ZnT-8) and the monoclonal antibody IC2. While DTBZ and antibodies to ZnT-8 showed binding activities to more than beta-cells, the anti-IC2 monoclonal antibody showed binding properties exclusively to insulin-producing beta...

  3. Augmented Beta rectangular regression models: A Bayesian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jue; Luo, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Mixed effects Beta regression models based on Beta distributions have been widely used to analyze longitudinal percentage or proportional data ranging between zero and one. However, Beta distributions are not flexible to extreme outliers or excessive events around tail areas, and they do not account for the presence of the boundary values zeros and ones because these values are not in the support of the Beta distributions. To address these issues, we propose a mixed effects model using Beta rectangular distribution and augment it with the probabilities of zero and one. We conduct extensive simulation studies to assess the performance of mixed effects models based on both the Beta and Beta rectangular distributions under various scenarios. The simulation studies suggest that the regression models based on Beta rectangular distributions improve the accuracy of parameter estimates in the presence of outliers and heavy tails. The proposed models are applied to the motivating Neuroprotection Exploratory Trials in Parkinson's Disease (PD) Long-term Study-1 (LS-1 study, n = 1741), developed by The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Exploratory Trials in Parkinson's Disease (NINDS NET-PD) network. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Design, synthesis and bioactivity evaluation of tribactam beta lactamase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copar, Anton; Prevec, Tadeja; Anzic, Borut; Mesar, Tomaz; Selic, Lovro; Vilar, Mateja; Solmajer, Tom

    2002-03-25

    Known carbapenem compounds with inhibitory effect towards beta-lactamase enzymes are formed from bicyclical beta lactam structural scaffolds. On the basis of results from theoretical computational methods and molecular modelling we have designed and developed a synthetic route towards novel, biologically active tricyclic derivatives of carbapenems.

  5. Anaesthesia for a patient with beta thalassaemia major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Presented here is a case report of a 32-year-old gentleman with beta thalassaemia major presenting for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy and splenectomy, followed by a discussion of the literature. Keywords: anaemia, anaesthesia, beta thalassaemia, iron overload, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, splenectomy ...

  6. Adverse CNS-effects of beta-adrenoceptor blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiter, C H; Deckert, J

    1996-11-01

    In 1962 propranolol, the first beta adrenoceptor antagonist (beta blocker), was brought on to the market. There is now a host of different beta blockers available, and these compounds are among the most commonly prescribed groups of drugs. The efficacy of beta blockers has been proven predominantly for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Beta blockers are also used for certain types of CNS disorders, such as anxiety disorders, essential tremor and migraine. While low toxicity means that they have a favorable risk-benefit ratio, given the high intensity of use, it is essential to have a comprehensive knowledge of adverse events. Adverse events of beta blockers that can be related to the CNS are quite often neglected, even in textbooks of clinical pharmacology or review articles, and thus often misdiagnosed. The following article, therefore, after summarizing the use of beta blockers for CNS indications, critically reviews the literature on centrally mediated adverse events. General pharmacological features of beta blockers and their molecular basis of action will briefly be addressed to the extent that they are or may become relevant for central nervous pharmacotherapy and side-effects.

  7. Beta 1 integrin is essential for teratoma growth and angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, W; Forsberg, E; Lentini, S

    1997-01-01

    Teratomas are benign tumors that form after ectopic injection of embryonic stem (ES) cells into mice and contain derivatives of all primitive germ layers. To study the role of beta 1 integrin during teratoma formation, we compared teratomas induced by normal and beta1-null ES cells. Injection of ...

  8. Genetic analysis of beta1 integrin "activation motifs" in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czuchra, Aleksandra; Meyer, Hannelore; Legate, Kyle R

    2006-01-01

    -null phenotype in vivo. Surprisingly, neither the substitution of the tyrosines with phenylalanine nor the aspartic acid with alanine resulted in an obvious defect. These data suggest that the NPXY motifs of the beta1 integrin tail are essential for beta1 integrin function, whereas tyrosine phosphorylation...

  9. Status of beta measurement evaluation and upgrade program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.

    1986-01-01

    In 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a program to evaluate and upgrade beta dosimetry capabilities at DOE and DOE-contractor facilities. The program has several elements which structure the development of improvements in beta measurement practices. In addition to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), universities, private corporations, and other DOE facilities are involved in the research efforts

  10. Proliferation of sorted human and rat beta cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnaud, G; Bosco, D; Berney, T

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether purified beta cells can replicate in vitro and whether this is enhanced by extracellular matrix (ECM) and growth factors.......The aim of the study was to determine whether purified beta cells can replicate in vitro and whether this is enhanced by extracellular matrix (ECM) and growth factors....

  11. Development of new microencapsulated beta emitters for internal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdrisot, R.; Monteil, J.; Le Jeune, J.J.; Pouliquen, D.; Jallet, P.; Beau, P.; Lepape, A.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed new microencapsulated beta emitter radiotracers which could be used in nuclear medicine for selective internal radiotherapy. Their efficacy was evaluated on B16 melanoma tumor model in mice, using phosphorus 31 spectroscopy. This kind of tracer would allow a precise targetting of beta irradiation

  12. The prion protein as a receptor for amyloid-beta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, Helmut W.; Nguyen, Louis N.; Nabavi, Sadegh; Malinow, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Increased levels of brain amyloid-beta, a secreted peptide cleavage product of amyloid precursor protein (APP), is believed to be critical in the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease. Increased amyloid-beta can cause synaptic depression, reduce the number of spine protrusions (that is, sites of synaptic

  13. Interactions between an alpha-helix and a beta-sheet. Energetics of alpha/beta packing in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, K C; Némethy, G; Rumsey, S; Tuttle, R W; Scheraga, H A

    1985-12-05

    Conformational energy computations have been carried out to determine the favorable ways of packing a right-handed alpha-helix on a right-twisted antiparallel or parallel beta-sheet. Co-ordinate transformations have been developed to relate the position and orientation of the alpha-helix to the beta-sheet. The packing was investigated for a CH3CO-(L-Ala)16-NHCH3 alpha-helix interacting with five-stranded beta-sheets composed of CH3CO-(L-Val)6-NHCH3 chains. All internal and external variables for both the alpha-helix and the beta-sheet were allowed to change during energy minimization. Four distinct classes of low-energy packing arrangements were found for the alpha-helix interacting with both the parallel and the anti-parallel beta-sheet. The classes differ in the orientation of the axis of the alpha-helix relative to the direction of the strands of the right-twisted beta-sheet. In the class with the most favorable arrangement, the alpha-helix is oriented along the strands of the beta-sheet, as a result of attractive non-bonded side-chain-side-chain interactions along the entire length of the alpha-helix. A class with nearly perpendicular orientation of the helix axis to the strands is also of low energy, because it allows similarly extensive attractive interactions. In the other two classes, the helix is oriented diagonally relative to the strands of the beta-sheet. In one of them, it interacts with the convex surface near the middle of the saddle-shaped twisted beta-sheet. In the other, it is oriented along the concave diagonal of the beta-sheet and, therefore, it interacts only with the corner regions of the sheet, so that this packing is energetically less favorable. The packing arrangements involving an antiparallel and a parallel beta-sheet are generally similar, although the antiparallel beta-sheet has been found to be more flexible. The major features of 163 observed alpha/beta packing arrangements in 37 proteins are accounted for in terms of the computed

  14. Regulation of the friction coefficient of articular cartilage by TGF-beta1 and IL-1beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuRaine, Grayson; Neu, Corey P; Chan, Stephanie M T; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos; June, Ronald K; Reddi, A Hari

    2009-02-01

    Articular cartilage functions to provide a low-friction surface for joint movement for many decades of life. Superficial zone protein (SZP) is a glycoprotein secreted by chondrocytes in the superficial layer of articular cartilage that contributes to effective boundary lubrication. In both cell and explant cultures, TGF-beta1 and IL-1beta have been demonstrated to, respectively, upregulate and downregulate SZP protein levels. It was hypothesized that the friction coefficient of articular cartilage could also be modulated by these cytokines through SZP regulation. The friction coefficient between cartilage explants (both untreated and treated with TGF-beta1 or IL-1beta) and a smooth glass surface due to sliding in the boundary lubrication regime was measured with a pin-on-disk tribometer. SZP was quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay and localized by immunohistochemistry. Both TGF-beta1 and IL-1beta treatments resulted in the decrease of the friction coefficient of articular cartilage in a location- and time-dependent manner. Changes in the friction coefficient due to the TGF-beta1 treatment corresponded to increased depth of SZP staining within the superficial zone, while friction coefficient changes due to the IL-1beta treatment were independent of SZP depth of staining. However, the changes induced by the IL-1beta treatment corresponded to changes in surface roughness, determined from the analysis of surface images obtained with an atomic force microscope. These findings demonstrate that the low friction of articular cartilage can be modified by TGF-beta1 and IL-1beta treatment and that the friction coefficient depends on multiple factors, including SZP localization and surface roughness.

  15. Interleukin-1 beta Attenuates Myofibroblast Formation and Extracellular Matrix Production in Dermal and Lung Fibroblasts Exposed to Transforming Growth Factor-beta 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mia, Masum M.; Boersema, Miriam; Bank, Ruud A.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most potent pro-fibrotic cytokines is transforming growth factor (TGF beta). TGF beta is involved in the activation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, resulting in the hallmark of fibrosis: the pathological accumulation of collagen. Interleukin-1 beta (IL1 beta) can influence the

  16. The potential role of SOCS-3 in the interleukin-1beta-induced desensitization of insulin signaling in pancreatic beta-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emanuelli, Brice; Glondu, Murielle; Filloux, Chantal

    2004-01-01

    insulin signaling is required for the optimal beta-cell function, we assessed the effect of IL-1beta on the insulin pathway in a rat pancreatic beta-cell line. We show that IL-1beta decreases insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (IR) and insulin receptor substrate (IRS...

  17. Desensitization in patients with beta-lactam drug allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusin, J S; Klaustermeyer, W; Simmons, C W; Baum, M

    2013-01-01

    Patients with a history of beta-lactam antibiotic allergy are often admitted to the hospital with severe or life-threatening infections requiring beta-lactam antibiotics. Strict avoidance of beta lactams to such patients may prevent them from getting adequate coverage and can lead to an increase in the use of alternative antibiotics, which can predispose to antibiotic resistance. Past studies revealed a lower incidence of pen allergy then patients' histories suggest. Fortunately today, there are three options for patients presenting with a history of beta-lactam allergy. Penicillin skin testing, beta-lactam challenge or beta-lactam desensitization. Recently Pre Pen has been FDA re-approved and when combined with Pen G is a valid way to determine if patients are able to tolerate beta-lactam antibiotic. When these agents are not available one must decide about desensitization or challenge. When a patient has a positive penicillin skin test, desensitization or beta-lactam avoidance are the only options. This paper reviews the safety of beta-lactam desensitization. To perform a chart review on patients desensitised with beta lactam to determine if desensitizations can be performed safely without minimal complications. A retrospective chart review was performed on allergy and immunology inpatient consultations for beta-lactam desensitization between September 2003 and August 2006 at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Centre in Los Angeles. Patient data and outcomes of desensitization were analysed. A total of 13 intravenous desensitizations were performed on 12 patients. The patients consisted of eight females and four males with an average age of 65 years. Age range was 36-92 years old. All 13 intravenous desensitizations were completed without complications. No patient required a slower rate of desensitization or discontinuance of the desensitization. Patients were able to tolerate the initial therapeutic dose of their beta-lactam antibiotic and were then able to complete full

  18. International Standardization of Pure Beta Emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Arcos, Jose Maria; Rodriguez, Leonor

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the traditional methods of standardization of Pure Beta Emitters, their principal characteristics, advantage and drawbacks. It does comparisons between two metrological LSC methods: Triple to double coincidence ratio (TDCR) method and the CIEMAT/NIST method and presents the result obtained with several Key Comparisons serving as practical test of both methods. Both of them represent the siferrit of methods of standardization of pure (and mixed decay) radionuclides. ESIR WG of CCRI(II) is to implement a reference exchange system for the permanent equivalence of β, α and electron capture nuclides, similar to traditional SIR gamma. ESIR project is currently testing a new XAN scintillator and operational tests of the whole system at BIPM are expected by the end of 2006 (test restricted to ESIR NMI members)

  19. ABCD of Beta Ensembles and Topological Strings

    CERN Document Server

    Krefl, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We study beta-ensembles with Bn, Cn, and Dn eigenvalue measure and their relation with refined topological strings. Our results generalize the familiar connections between local topological strings and matrix models leading to An measure, and illustrate that all those classical eigenvalue ensembles, and their topological string counterparts, are related one to another via various deformations and specializations, quantum shifts and discrete quotients. We review the solution of the Gaussian models via Macdonald identities, and interpret them as conifold theories. The interpolation between the various models is plainly apparent in this case. For general polynomial potential, we calculate the partition function in the multi-cut phase in a perturbative fashion, beyond tree-level in the large-N limit. The relation to refined topological string orientifolds on the corresponding local geometry is discussed along the way.

  20. CPS Transformation of Beta-Redexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Nielsen, Lasse

    2005-01-01

    The extra compaction of the most compacting CPS transformation in existence, which is due to Sabry and Felleisen, is generally attributed to (1) making continuations occur first in CPS terms and (2) classifying more redexes as administrative. We show that this extra compaction is actually...... independent of the relative positions of values and continuations and furthermore that it is solely due to a context-sensitive transformation of beta-redexes. We stage the more compact CPS transformation into a first-order uncurrying phase and a context-insensitive CPS transformation. We also define a context......-insensitive CPS transformation that provides the extra compaction. This CPS transformation operates in one pass and is dependently typed....