Sample records for beta globin gene

  1. High-level transfer and long-term expression of the human beta-globin gene in a mouse transplant model. (United States)

    Raftopoulos, H; Ward, M; Bank, A


    Insertion of a normally functioning human beta-globin gene into the hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) of patients with beta-thalassemia may be an effective approach to the therapy of this disorder. Safe, efficient gene transfer and long-term, high-level expression of the transferred human beta-globin gene in animal models are prerequisites for HSC somatic gene therapy. We have recently shown for the first time that, using a modified beta-globin retroviral vector in a mouse transplant model, long-term, high-level expression of a transferred human beta-globin gene is possible. The human beta-globin gene continues to be detected up to eight months post-transplantation of beta-globin-transduced hematopoietic cells into lethally irradiated mice. The transferred human beta-globin gene is detected in three of five mice surviving long-term (> 4 months) transplanted with bone marrow cells transduced with high-titer virus. The unrearranged 5.1 kb human beta-globin gene-containing provirus is seen by Southern blotting in two of these mice. More importantly, long-term expression of the transferred gene is seen in two mice at levels of 5% and 20% that of endogenous murine beta-globin. We document stem cell transduction by showing continued high-level expression of the human beta-globin gene in secondarily transplanted recipient mice. These results provide evidence of HSC transduction with a human beta-globin gene in animals and demonstrate that retroviral-mediated unrearranged human beta-globin gene transfer leads to a high level of human beta-globin gene expression in the long term for the first time. A gene therapy strategy may be a feasible therapeutic approach to the beta-thalassemias if consistent human beta-globin gene transfer and expression into HSC can be achieved.

  2. Long-term transfer and expression of the human beta-globin gene in a mouse transplant model. (United States)

    Raftopoulos, H; Ward, M; Leboulch, P; Bank, A


    Somatic gene therapy of hemoglobinopathies depends initially on the demonstration of safe, efficient gene transfer and long-term, high-level expression of the transferred human beta-globin gene in animal models. We have used a beta-globin gene/beta-locus control region retroviral vector containing several modifications to optimize gene transfer and expression in a mouse transplant model. In this report we show that transplantation of beta-globin-transduced hematopoietic cells into lethally irradiated mice leads to the continued presence of the gene up to 8 months posttransplantation. The transferred human beta-globin gene is detected in 3 of 5 mice surviving long term (>4 months) transplanted with bone marrow cells transduced with high-titer virus. Southern blotting confirms the presence of the unrearranged 5.1-kb human beta-globin gene-containing provirus in 2 of these mice. In addition, long-term expression of the transferred gene is seen in 2 mice at levels of 5% and 20% that of endogenous murine beta-globin at 6 and 8 months posttransplantation. We further document stem cell transduction by the successful transfer and high-level expression of the human beta-globin gene from mice transduced 9 months earlier into irradiated secondary recipient mice. These results demonstrate high-level, long-term somatic human beta-globin gene transfer into the hematopoietic stem cells of an animal for the first time, and suggest the potential feasibility of a retroviral gene therapy approach to sickle cell disease and the beta thalassemias.

  3. the characterization of exon-1 mutation(s) of beta globin gene in beta thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abass, M.M.E.


    β-thalassemia constitutes one of the most serious health problems worldwide, it is the most common chronic hemolytic anemia in egypt. the aim of this work is to study the mutations of exon-1 of β-globin gene in β-thalassaemic children in sharkia governorate. the present study was included 25 healthy children and 50 patients diagnosed as β-thalassemia. this work showed that the thalassaemic patients had significantly decrease in Hb conc . than the control group (p 2 showed a significant increase as compared with the control group

  4. Characterization of a large deletion in the {beta}-globin gene cluster in a newborn with hemoglobin FE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, E.; Dietz, L.; Shafer, F. [Children`s Hosptial, Oakland, CA (United States)] [and others


    A sample on a newborn with hemoglobin FE screen results was obtained to investigate whether E/E or B/{beta}{degrees} thalassemia was present using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodology. The newborn appeared homozygous for the hemoglobin E mutation in our initial study, but the parents` genotypes did not support this diagnosis. The father is homozygous for the absence of the hemoglobin E mutation (non E/non E) and the mother is heterozygous (E/non E) for this mutation. The limitation of PCR analysis is an assumption that the amplification of the two {beta}-globin alleles is equivalent. A large deletion on one {beta}-globin gene, which would produce E/{beta}{degrees} thalassemia, would be missed if it included part or the entire region subjected to amplification. The family results were consistent with either non-paternity, sample mix-up or such a deletion of the {beta}-globin gene in the father and child. To rule out the possibility of non-paternity, two polymorphic loci (HLA on chromosome 6 and a VNTR system of chromosome 17) that are outside of the {beta}-globin gene were analyzed and show that inheritance is consistent and the likelihood of a sample mix-up is then reduced. We therefore believe there is a gene deletion in this family. At the present time, analyses of the RFLPs that are 5{prime} of the {beta}-globin gene cluster show that the polymorphisms most distal from the 5{prime} {beta}-globin gene are not being inherited as expected. These results support our interpretation that a deletion exists in the father and was inherited by the child. The father`s clinical picture of possible HPFH (the father has 12% hemoglobin F) also supports the interpretation of a deletion in this family. Deletions of the {beta}-globin gene within this ethnic group are rare. Currently, Southern blots on the family are being probed to determine the extent of the putative deletion.

  5. Correction of a splice-site mutation in the beta-globin gene stimulated by triplex-forming peptide nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chin, Joanna Y; Kuan, Jean Y; Lonkar, Pallavi S


    Splice-site mutations in the beta-globin gene can lead to aberrant transcripts and decreased functional beta-globin, causing beta-thalassemia. Triplex-forming DNA oligonucleotides (TFOs) and peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) have been shown to stimulate recombination in reporter gene loci in mammalian...... DNA fragments, can promote single base-pair modification at the start of the second intron of the beta-globin gene, the site of a common thalassemia-associated mutation. This single base pair change was detected by the restoration of proper splicing of transcripts produced from a green fluorescent...

  6. Beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes of Amerindian populations from the Brazilian Amazon region. (United States)

    Guerreiro, J F; Figueiredo, M S; Zago, M A


    We have determined the beta-globin cluster haplotypes for 80 Indians from four Brazilian Amazon tribes: Kayapó, Wayampí, Wayana-Apalaí, and Arára. The results are analyzed together with 20 Yanomámi previously studied. From 2 to 4 different haplotypes were identified for each tribe, and 7 of the possible 32 haplotypes were found in a sample of 172 chromosomes for which the beta haplotypes were directly determined or derived from family studies. The haplotype distribution does not differ significantly among the five populations. The two most common haplotypes in all tribes were haplotypes 2 and 6, with average frequencies of 0.843 and 0.122, respectively. The genetic affinities between Brazilian Indians and other human populations were evaluated by estimates of genetic distance based on haplotype data. The lowest values were observed in relation to Asians, especially Chinese, Polynesians, and Micronesians.

  7. Nuclear topography of beta-like globin gene cluster in IL-3-stimulated human leukemic K-562 cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Galiová-Šustáčková, Gabriela; Bártová, Eva; Kozubek, Stanislav


    Roč. 33, č. 1 (2004), s. 4-14 ISSN 1079-9796 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/01/0186; GA AV ČR KSK5052113; GA AV ČR IAA5004306; GA ČR GA202/04/0907; GA MŠk ME 565 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : beta-like globin gene cluster * K-562 cells * nuclear topography Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.549, year: 2004

  8. Genetic relationships among native americans based on beta-globin gene cluster haplotype frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cassia Mousinho-Ribeiro


    Full Text Available The distribution of b-globin gene haplotypes was studied in 209 Amerindians from eight tribes of the Brazilian Amazon: Asurini from Xingú, Awá-Guajá, Parakanã, Urubú-Kaapór, Zoé, Kayapó (Xikrin from the Bacajá village, Katuena, and Tiriyó. Nine different haplotypes were found, two of which (n. 11 and 13 had not been previously identified in Brazilian indigenous populations. Haplotype 2 (+ - - - - was the most common in all groups studied, with frequencies varying from 70% to 100%, followed by haplotype 6 (- + + - +, with frequencies between 7% and 18%. The frequency distribution of the b-globin gene haplotypes in the eighteen Brazilian Amerindian populations studied to date is characterized by a reduced number of haplotypes (average of 3.5 and low levels of heterozygosity and intrapopulational differentiation, with a single clearly predominant haplotype in most tribes (haplotype 2. The Parakanã, Urubú-Kaapór, Tiriyó and Xavante tribes constitute exceptions, presenting at least four haplotypes with relatively high frequencies. The closest genetic relationships were observed between the Brazilian and the Colombian Amerindians (Wayuu, Kamsa and Inga, and, to a lesser extent, with the Huichol of Mexico. North-American Amerindians are more differentiated and clearly separated from all other tribes, except the Xavante, from Brazil, and the Mapuche, from Argentina. A restricted pool of ancestral haplotypes may explain the low diversity observed among most present-day Brazilian and Colombian Amerindian groups, while interethnic admixture could be the most important factor to explain the high number of haplotypes and high levels of diversity observed in some South-American and most North-American tribes.

  9. Effect ALPHA Globalin Gene Deletion and GAMMA Globin Gene -158 (C/T) Polymorphism in BETA- Thalassaemic Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL Serafi, T.I.; Ismail, E.F.; Mahmoud, M.A.; Mohamed, M.A.; Ghattas, M.H.; Badran, D.I.; El Serafi, I.T.; Mohamed, H.S.


    The beta-thalassemias (β- thalassemias) are among the most common autosomal recessive disorders. They have a remarkably high frequency in the Mediterranean region and represent one of the most common genetic diseases in Egypt. In this study, the spectrum of P- thalassemia mutations and genotype-to-phenotype correlations were defined in 32 β- thalassaemic patients (β- thalassemias major and intermedia) with varying disease severity in two cities of the Suez Canal region. Ten different mutations were identified and the most frequent ones were: Isi-6 (T-C) (37.5%), IVSI-110 (G-A) (34.4%) and both IVSI-1 (G-A), IVSII-745 (C-G) and -102 (C-G) (12.5% each). There was a wide spectrum of phenotypic severity in all patients. We studied the Xmnl polymorphism (C/T) in γ- globin gene position -158 of P- thalassemia as a modulating factor of the disease severity. Presence of the polymorphism was found in two patients and this was not sufficient to explain the diversity of the phenotype encountered. Co-inheritance of alpha thalassaemia as a modulating factor was not evident in our patients. In conclusion, we have been unable to find a molecular basis for the benign clinical course in all our patients. Other genetic or acquired factors must be hypothesized which ameliorate the clinical condition.

  10. Human γ-globin genes silenced independently of other genes in the β-globin locus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.O. Dillon (Niall); F.G. Grosveld (Frank)


    textabstractErythropoiesis during human development is characterized by switches in expression of beta-like globin genes during the transition from the embryonic through fetal to adult stages. Activation and high-level expression of the genes is directed by the locus control region (LCR), located 5'

  11. Determination of the spectrum of beta-thalassemia genes in Spain by use of dot-blot analysis of amplified beta-globin DNA.


    Amselem, S; Nunes, V; Vidaud, M; Estivill, X; Wong, C; d'Auriol, L; Vidaud, D; Galibert, F; Baiget, M; Goossens, M


    We have delineated the molecular lesions causing beta-thalassemia in Spain, a country that has witnessed the passage of different Mediterranean populations over the centuries, in order to evaluate the extent of heterogeneity of these mutations and to make possible simplified prenatal diagnosis of the disorder in that country. The use of the polymerase chain-reaction (PCR) technique to preferentially amplify beta-globin DNA sequences that contain the most frequent beta-thalassemia mutations in...

  12. Application of Single Strand Conformational Polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) in Identification of Some Beta-Globin Gene Mutations in A Group of Egyptian Beta-Thalassemia Patients and Carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somaya, E.T.; Soliman, M.D


    The present study investigated whether the single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) method could be employed to identify (rather than simply detect) four of the most common beta-globin gene mutations in the Egyptian population: IVS-I-110, IVS-I-6, the IVS-I-1, and Codon 39. Using DNA from 90 beta-thalassemia patients and carriers, by PCR the appropriate 238-bp region of the human beta-globin gene was amplified, the reaction products (Single-stranded DNA) were analyzed by none denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the bands visualized by silver staining. Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) fragments showed reproducible pattern of bands that were characteristic of the mutations present. With the use of control samples containing six of the 10 possible combinations of the four beta-globin gene mutations under study, we were able to predict the mutations present in 23 out of 90 (26.4%) of the patients studied. These predictions were confirmed independently by the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) method. It is concluded that this non-radioactive PCR-SSCP method can be used to reliably identify mutations in beta-thalassemia patients, provided that suitable controls are available. However, usefulness of this method for determining the genotype of beta-thalassaemic individuals is obviously limited by the great number of controls required. Moreover, the ability to detect mutations by SSCP is in general lower compared to other methods, ARMS, DGGE or DHPLC, which are reported to detect 49.5% to 73% of the mutations present. The SSCP method is nevertheless much easier to employ than other methods and is especially successful for beta-thalassemia carriers. This method would thus be particularly useful for an initial screening of target groups (prenatal diagnosis)

  13. Position-independent high level expression of the human β-globin gene in transgenic mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.G. Grosveld (Frank); G. Blom van Assendelft (Greet); D.R. Greaves (David); G. Kollias (George)


    textabstractWe have constructed a "minilocus" that contains the 5' and 3' flanking regions of the human beta-globin locus and the beta-globin gene. These regions are characterized by erythroid-specific DNAase I-superhypersensitive sites and are normally located approximately 50 kb 5' and 20 kb 3' of

  14. A comprehensive review of the prevalence of beta globin gene variations and the co-inheritance of related gene variants in Saudi Arabians with beta-thalassemia (United States)

    Alaithan, Mousa A.; AbdulAzeez, Sayed; Borgio, J. Francis


    Beta-thalassemia is a genetic disorder that is caused by variations in the beta-hemoglobin (HBB) gene. Saudi Arabia is among the countries most affected by beta-thalassemia, and this is particularly problematic in the Eastern regions. This review article is an attempt to compile all the reported mutations to facilitate further national-level studies to prepare a Saudi repository of HBB gene variations. In Saudi Arabians, IVSI-5 (G>C) and Cd 39 (C>T) are the most prevalent HBB gene variations out of 42 variations. The coinheritance of HBB gene variations with ATRX, HBA1, HBA2, HBA12, AHSP, and KLF1 gene variations were observed to be common in the Saudi population. National surveys on the molecular nature of hemoglobinopathies should be set up through collaborations between research centers from various regions to create a well-documented molecular data bank. This data bank can be used to develop a premarital screening program and lead to the best treatment and prevention strategies for beta-thalassemia. PMID:29619482

  15. The entire β-globin gene cluster is deleted in a form of τδβ-thalassemia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.R. Fearon; H.H.Jr. Kazazian; P.G. Waber (Pamela); J.I. Lee (Joseph); S.E. Antonarakis; S.H. Orkin (Stuart); E.F. Vanin; P.S. Henthorn; F.G. Grosveld (Frank); A.F. Scott; G.R. Buchanan


    textabstractWe have used restriction endonuclease mapping to study a deletion involving the beta-globin gene cluster in a Mexican-American family with gamma delta beta-thalassemia. Analysis of DNA polymorphisms demonstrated deletion of the beta-globin gene from the affected chromosome. Using a DNA

  16. Long-term high-level expression of human beta-globin occurs following transplantation of transgenic marrow into irradiated mice. (United States)

    Himelstein, A; Ward, M; Podda, S; de la Flor Weiss, E; Costantini, F; Bank, A


    When the human beta-globin gene is transferred into the bone marrow cells of live mice, its expression is very low. To investigate the reason for this, we transferred the bone marrow of transgenic mice containing and expressing the human beta-globin into irradiated recipients. We demonstrate that long-term high level expression of the human beta-globin gene can be maintained in the marrow and blood of irradiated recipients following transplantation. Although expression decreased over time in most animals because of host marrow reconstitution, the ratio of human beta-globin transgene expression to endogenous mouse beta-globin gene expression in donor-derived erythroid cells remained constant over time. We conclude that there is no inherent limitation to efficient expression of an exogenous human beta-globin gene in mouse bone marrow cells following marrow transplantation.

  17. Diversity of [beta]-globin mutations in Israeli ethnic groups reflects recent historic events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filon, D.; Oron, V.; Krichevski, S.; Shaag, A.; Goldfarb, A.; Aker, M.; Rachmilewitz, E.A.; Rund, D.; Oppenheim, A. (Hebrew Univ. Hadassah-Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel)) (and others)


    The authors characterized nearly 500 [beta]-thalassemia genes from the Israeli population representing a variety of ethnic subgroups. They found 28 different mutations in the [beta]-globin gene, including three mutations ([beta][sup S], [beta][sup C], and [beta][sup O-Arab]) causing hemoglobinopathies. Marked genetic heterogeneity was observed in both the Arab (20 mutations) and Jewish (17 mutations) populations. On the other hand, two ethnic isolates - Druze and Samaritans - had a single mutation each. Fifteen of the [beta]-thalassemia alleles are Mediterranean in type, 5 originated in Kurdistan, 2 are of Indian origin, and 2 sporadic alleles came from Europe. Only one mutant allele-nonsense codon 37-appears to be indigenous to Israel. While human habitation in Israel dates back to early prehistory, the present-day spectrum of [beta]-globin mutations can be largely explained by migration events that occurred in the past millennium. 26 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Genetic recombination as a major cause of mutagenesis in the human globin gene clusters. (United States)

    Borg, Joseph; Georgitsi, Marianthi; Aleporou-Marinou, Vassiliki; Kollia, Panagoula; Patrinos, George P


    Homologous recombination is a frequent phenomenon in multigene families and as such it occurs several times in both the alpha- and beta-like globin gene families. In numerous occasions, genetic recombination has been previously implicated as a major mechanism that drives mutagenesis in the human globin gene clusters, either in the form of unequal crossover or gene conversion. Unequal crossover results in the increase or decrease of the human globin gene copies, accompanied in the majority of cases with minor phenotypic consequences, while gene conversion contributes either to maintaining sequence homogeneity or generating sequence diversity. The role of genetic recombination, particularly gene conversion in the evolution of the human globin gene families has been discussed elsewhere. Here, we summarize our current knowledge and review existing experimental evidence outlining the role of genetic recombination in the mutagenic process in the human globin gene families.

  19. Deletion of a region that is a candidate for the difference between the deletion forms of hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin and deltabeta-thalassemia affects beta- but not gamma-globin gene expression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Calzolari (Roberta); T. McMorrow (Tara); N. Yannoutsos (Nikos); A. Langeveld (An); F.G. Grosveld (Frank)


    textabstractThe analysis of a number of cases of beta-globin thalassemia and hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) due to large deletions in the beta-globin locus has led to the identification of several DNA elements that have been implicated in the switch

  20. Expression of human gamma-globin genes in human erythroleukemia (K562) cells. (United States)

    Donovan-Peluso, M; Acuto, S; Swanson, M; Dobkin, C; Bank, A


    K562 cells express embryonic (epsilon) and fetal (gamma) globins and hemoglobins but not adult (beta) globin. To define the cis acting regulatory elements involved in the discrimination between gamma and beta genes, we have constructed chimeric genes composed of portions of gamma and beta and evaluated their expression in stable K562 transfectants. A gamma beta fusion gene containing gamma 5' sequences to the EcoRI site in exon 3 and beta sequences 3' is expressed at 10-40% that of the endogenous gamma level. In 50% of the lines, this fusion gene appropriately increases its expression in response to hemin, an inducer of endogenous globin gene expression in K562 cells. In contrast, a beta gamma fusion gene, containing beta sequences 5' to the EcoRI site in exon 3 and gamma sequences 3', is neither expressed nor correctly initiated. A beta gene containing gamma-intervening sequence (IVS) 2 accumulates an mRNA transcript when analyzed with a 3' beta probe. However, no correctly initiated beta mRNA is observed. A gamma gene with beta-IVS 2 is only inducible in one of six expressing clones. All the results are consistent with the presence of stage-specific trans acting factors in K562 cells that stimulate expression of gamma genes and suggest a significant role for gamma-IVS 2 in gamma gene expression.

  1. Análise dos haplótipos do gene da betaS-globina no Ceará Analysis of betaS-globin gene haplotypes in Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentil Claudino de Galiza Neto


    Full Text Available No presente trabalho abordam-se vários aspectos relacionados à natureza molecular da anemia falciforme (AF, desordem hematológica de caráter hereditário. A descoberta do polimorfismo do DNA no grupamento do gene betaS, originando diferentes haplótipos da doença, permitiu ampliar o conhecimento em torno da heterogeneidade clínica observada nos pacientes falcêmicos nas mais diversas regiões do mundo. Analisaram-se os diferentes haplótipos e seus parâmetros hematológicos, presentes em um grupo de 22 pacientes naturais e procedentes do estado do Ceará. A distribuição das freqüências dos haplótipos encontrados foi de 55,9% para Benin; 41,2% para República Centro-Africana (CAR; e de 2,9% para o haplótipo Senegal. Esses dados, em comparação com os demais estudos realizados no Brasil, mostram associação entre os seus valores para um alfa de 5% (p The present work deals with numerous aspects related to the molecular nature of sickle cell anemia. The discovery of the DNA polymorphism in the betas-globin gene cluster, gave origin to different haplotypes of the disease, making possible to enlarge the knowledge about the clinical heterogenity observed on the patients with sickle cell disease, in the various regions of the world. The different haplotypes and its hematological parameters were analysed in a group of 22 patients born in the State of Ceará, northeast of Brazil. The distribution found in the haplotypes frequency was of 55.9% for the Benin, of 41.2% for the CAR, and of 2.9% for Senegal haplotype. The data, compared to the others works done in Brazil, show relations among their values to alpha of 5% (p < 0,05. The results make possible a full understanding of the pathophisiology of the illness and of its clinical complexity in our State, as well as it allows a better knowledge of the sickle cell disease in our country.

  2. High resolution melting curve analysis targeting the HBB gene mutational hot-spot offers a reliable screening approach for all common as well as most of the rare beta-globin gene mutations in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Islam, Md Tarikul; Sarkar, Suprovath Kumar; Sultana, Nusrat; Begum, Mst Noorjahan; Bhuyan, Golam Sarower; Talukder, Shezote; Muraduzzaman, A K M; Alauddin, Md; Islam, Mohammad Sazzadul; Biswas, Pritha Promita; Biswas, Aparna; Qadri, Syeda Kashfi; Shirin, Tahmina; Banu, Bilquis; Sadya, Salma; Hussain, Manzoor; Sarwardi, Golam; Khan, Waqar Ahmed; Mannan, Mohammad Abdul; Shekhar, Hossain Uddin; Chowdhury, Emran Kabir; Sajib, Abu Ashfaqur; Akhteruzzaman, Sharif; Qadri, Syed Saleheen; Qadri, Firdausi; Mannoor, Kaiissar


    Bangladesh lies in the global thalassemia belt, which has a defined mutational hot-spot in the beta-globin gene. The high carrier frequencies of beta-thalassemia trait and hemoglobin E-trait in Bangladesh necessitate a reliable DNA-based carrier screening approach that could supplement the use of hematological and electrophoretic indices to overcome the barriers of carrier screening. With this view in mind, the study aimed to establish a high resolution melting (HRM) curve-based rapid and reliable mutation screening method targeting the mutational hot-spot of South Asian and Southeast Asian countries that encompasses exon-1 (c.1 - c.92), intron-1 (c.92 + 1 - c.92 + 130) and a portion of exon-2 (c.93 - c.217) of the HBB gene which harbors more than 95% of mutant alleles responsible for beta-thalassemia in Bangladesh. Our HRM approach could successfully differentiate ten beta-globin gene mutations, namely c.79G > A, c.92 + 5G > C, c.126_129delCTTT, c.27_28insG, c.46delT, c.47G > A, c.92G > C, c.92 + 130G > C, c.126delC and c.135delC in heterozygous states from the wild type alleles, implying the significance of the approach for carrier screening as the first three of these mutations account for ~85% of total mutant alleles in Bangladesh. Moreover, different combinations of compound heterozygous mutations were found to generate melt curves that were distinct from the wild type alleles and from one another. Based on the findings, sixteen reference samples were run in parallel to 41 unknown specimens to perform direct genotyping of the beta-thalassemia specimens using HRM. The HRM-based genotyping of the unknown specimens showed 100% consistency with the sequencing result. Targeting the mutational hot-spot, the HRM approach could be successfully applied for screening of beta-thalassemia carriers in Bangladesh as well as in other countries of South Asia and Southeast Asia. The approach could be a useful supplement of hematological and

  3. Targeted correction of a thalassemia-associated beta-globin mutation induced by pseudo-complementary peptide nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lonkar, Pallavi; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kuan, Jean Y


    Beta-thalassemia is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in the beta-globin gene. Triplex-forming oligonucleotides and triplex-forming peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) have been shown to stimulate recombination in mammalian cells via site-specific binding and creation of altered helical structures...

  4. Axolotl hemoglobin: cDNA-derived amino acid sequences of two alpha globins and a beta globin from an adult Ambystoma mexicanum. (United States)

    Shishikura, Fumio; Takeuchi, Hiro-aki; Nagai, Takatoshi


    Erythrocytes of the adult axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum, have multiple hemoglobins. We separated and purified two kinds of hemoglobin, termed major hemoglobin (Hb M) and minor hemoglobin (Hb m), from a five-year-old male by hydrophobic interaction column chromatography on Alkyl Superose. The hemoglobins have two distinct alpha type globin polypeptides (alphaM and alpham) and a common beta globin polypeptide, all of which were purified in FPLC on a reversed-phase column after S-pyridylethylation. The complete amino acid sequences of the three globin chains were determined separately using nucleotide sequencing with the assistance of protein sequencing. The mature globin molecules were composed of 141 amino acid residues for alphaM globin, 143 for alpham globin and 146 for beta globin. Comparing primary structures of the five kinds of axolotl globins, including two previously established alpha type globins from the same species, with other known globins of amphibians and representatives of other vertebrates, we constructed phylogenetic trees for amphibian hemoglobins and tetrapod hemoglobins. The molecular trees indicated that alphaM, alpham, beta and the previously known alpha major globin were adult types of globins and the other known alpha globin was a larval type. The existence of two to four more globins in the axolotl erythrocyte is predicted.

  5. Hemolytic disease of the newborn caused by a new deletion of the entire beta-globin cluster.


    Pirastu, M; Kan, Y W; Lin, C C; Baine, R M; Holbrook, C T


    We describe a new type of gamma delta beta-thalassemia in four generations of a family of Scotch-Irish descent. The proposita presented with hemolytic disease of the newborn, which was characterized by a microcytic anemia. Initial restriction endonuclease analysis of the DNA showed no grossly abnormal patterns, but studies of polymorphic restriction sites and gene dosage revealed an extensive deletion that removed all the beta- and beta-like globin genes from the affected chromosome. In situ ...

  6. Importance of globin gene order for correct developmental expression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Hanscombe (Olivia); D. Whyatt (David); P.J. Fraser (Peter); N. Yannoutsos (Nikos); D.R. Greaves (David); N.O. Dillon (Niall); F.G. Grosveld (Frank)


    textabstractWe have used transgenic mice to study the influence of position of the human globin genes relative to the locus control region (LCR) on their expression pattern during development. The LCR, which is located 5' of the globin gene cluster, is normally required for the activation of all the

  7. Molecular Characterization and Expression of α-Globin and β-Globin Genes in the Euryhaline Flounder (Platichthys flesus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqun Lu


    Full Text Available In order to understand the possible role of globin genes in fish salinity adaptation, we report the molecular characterization and expression of all four subunits of haemoglobin, and their response to salinity challenge in flounder. The entire open reading frames of α1-globin and α2-globin genes were 432 and 435 bp long, respectively, whereas the β1-globin and β2-globin genes were both 447 bp. Although the head kidney (pronephros is the predicted major site of haematopoiesis, real-time PCR revealed that expression of α-globin and β-globin in kidney (mesonephros was 1.5 times higher than in head kidney. Notably, the α1-globin and β1-globin mRNA expression was higher than α2-globin and β2-globin in kidney. Expression levels of all four globin subunits were higher in freshwater- (FW- than in seawater- (SW-adapted fish kidney. If globins do play a role in salinity adaptation, this is likely to be more important in combating the hemodilution faced by fish in FW than the dehydration and salt loading which occur in SW.

  8. Studies of globin gene expression in differentiating erythroid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.D.


    The author has addressed questions concerning globin gene expression and the loss of protein synthesis in the terminal stages of erythroid development. (1) The hypothesis that the rate of cell division affects the relative synthesis of γ and β globin in erythroid cells was investigated. The effect of hydroxyurea, aminopterin, or low culture temperature on the in vitro growth of erythroid progenitor cells and on the relative synthesis of γ and β globin was measured. No consistent change in γ globin synthesis was detected. (2) The hypothesis that the ratio of γ and β globin synthesis decreases during erythroid maturation because of differential mRNA stability was investigated. The half-lives of γ and β globin mRNAs and γ and β globin protein synthesis were measured in cultured reticulocytes. γ and β globin mRNAs were assayed by solution hybridization and by in vitro translation. Globin synthesis was determined by 3 H-leucine incorporation into the γ and β globin chains. γ and β globin mRNAs decay with similar half-lives in cultured reticulocytes. Therefore, the change in the ratio of γ and β globin synthesis during erythroid maturation cannot be explained by differences in mRNA stability and is likely to result from asynchronous transcription of the genes. These data suggest that protein synthesis in maturing reticulocytes is not limited by the quantity of mRNA but by the availability of translation factors. (3) The hypothesis was tested that the initiation factor GEF becomes limiting for protein synthesis during reticulocyte maturation

  9. Frequency and origin of haplotypes associated with the beta-globin gene cluster in individuals with trait and sickle cell anemia in the Atlantic and Pacific coastal regions of Colombia. (United States)

    Fong, Cristian; Lizarralde-Iragorri, María Alejandra; Rojas-Gallardo, Diana; Barreto, Guillermo


    Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease with high prevalence in people of African descent. There are five typical haplotypes associated with this disease and the haplotypes associated with the beta-globin gene cluster have been used to establish the origin of African-descendant people in America. In this work, we determined the frequency and the origin of haplotypes associated with hemoglobin S in a sample of individuals with sickle cell anemia (HbSS) and sickle cell hemoglobin trait (HbAS) in coastal regions of Colombia. Blood samples from 71 HbAS and 79 HbSS individuals were obtained. Haplotypes were determined based on the presence of variable restriction sites within the β-globin gene cluster. On the Pacific coast of Colombia the most frequent haplotype was Benin, while on the Atlantic coast Bantu was marginally higher than Benin. Eight atypical haplotypes were observed on both coasts, being more diverse in the Atlantic than in the Pacific region. These results suggest a differential settlement of the coasts, dependent on where slaves were brought from, either from the Gulf of Guinea or from Angola, where the haplotype distributions are similar. Atypical haplotypes probably originated from point mutations that lost or gained a restriction site and/or by recombination events.

  10. Generation of a high-titer retroviral vector capable of expressing high levels of the human β-globin gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Sadelain (Michel); C.H.J. Wang (Jason); M. Antoniou (Michael); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); R.C. Mulligan


    textabstractRetrovirus-mediated gene transfer into hematopoietic cells may provide a means of treating both inherited and acquired diseases involving hematopoietic cells. Implementation of this approach for disorders resulting from mutations affecting the beta-globin gene (e.g., beta-thalassemia and

  11. alpha-thalassemia, HbS, and beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes in two Afro-Uruguayan sub-populations from northern and southern Uruguay

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    Julio A. da Luz


    Full Text Available Hemoglobinopathies are the most common monogenic disorders worldwide; however, they have never been systematically studied from a genetic perspective in Uruguay. In this study, we determined the frequencies of hemoglobin variants in Afro-Uruguayans. A sample of 52 healthy unrelated Afro-Uruguayans from the northern (N = 28 and southern (N = 24 regions of the country was analyzed. Eight individuals (15.4% were heterozygous for -alpha3,7thalassemia; seven of them (29.2% were originally from the southern region, whereas one of them (3.6% was from the northern region; the differences between both regions were statistically significant (p = 0.016 +/-0.003. The only structural mutation detected was betaS, which is typical of African populations. Four individuals (10% were heterozygous for betaS, three of them (13.6% from the South, and one (5.6% from the North. The betaS haplotypes were analyzed in eight individuals: two were homozygous betaS/betaS, two were heterozygous betaS/betathal, and four were heterozygous betaS/betaª. This haplotype distribution (60% Bantu, 20% Benin, and 20% Bantu A2 is in agreement with historical records reporting a predominantly Bantu origin for the enslaved Africans brought to Uruguay. Even though this is a preliminary study, due to the small sample size, our results are suggestive of a relatively high incidence of hemoglobinopathies in the Afro-Uruguayan population.

  12. Inactivation of human α-globin gene expression by a de novo deletion located upstream of the α-globin gene cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebhaber, S.A.; Weiss, I.; Cash, F.E.; Griese, E.U.; Horst, J.; Ayyub, H.; Higgs, D.R.


    Synthesis of normal human hemoglobin A, α 2 β 2 , is based upon balanced expression of genes in the α-globin gene cluster on chromosome 15 and the β-globin gene cluster on chromosome 11. Full levels of erythroid-specific activation of the β-globin cluster depend on sequences located at a considerable distance 5' to the β-globin gene, referred to as the locus-activating or dominant control region. The existence of an analogous element(s) upstream of the α-globin cluster has been suggested from observations on naturally occurring deletions and experimental studies. The authors have identified an individual with α-thalassemia in whom structurally normal α-globin genes have been inactivated in cis by a discrete de novo 35-kilobase deletion located ∼30 kilobases 5' from the α-globin gene cluster. They conclude that this deletion inactivates expression of the α-globin genes by removing one or more of the previously identified upstream regulatory sequences that are critical to expression of the α-globin genes

  13. Brain alpha- and beta-globin expression after intracerebral hemorrhage


    He, Yangdong; Hua, Ya; Lee, Jin-Yul; Liu, Wenquan; Keep, Richard F; Wang, Michael M.; Xi, Guohua


    Our recent study has demonstrated that hemoglobin (Hb) is present in cerebral neurons and neuronal Hb is inducible after cerebral ischemia. In the present study, we examined the effects of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) on the mRNA levels of the α-globin (HbA) and the β-globin (HbB) components of Hb and Hb protein in the brain in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, male Sprague-Dawley rats received either a needle insertion (sham) or an infusion of autologous whole blood into the basal ganglia and we...

  14. Search for antisense copies of beta-globin mRNA in anemic mouse spleen

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    Taylor John M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies by Volloch and coworkers have reported that during the expression of high levels of β-globin mRNA in the spleen of anemic mice, they could also detect small but significant levels of an antisense (AS globin RNA species, which they postulated might have somehow arisen by RNA-directed RNA synthesis. For two reasons we undertook to confirm and possibly extend these studies. First, previous studies in our lab have focussed on what is an unequivocal example of host RNA-directed RNA polymerase activity on the RNA genome of human hepatitis delta virus. Second, if AS globin species do exist they could in turn form double-stranded RNA species which might induce post-transcriptional gene silencing, a phenomenon somehow provoked in eukaryotic cells by AS RNA sequences. Results We reexamined critical aspects of the previous globin studies. We used intraperitoneal injections of phenylhydrazine to induce anemia in mice, as demonstrated by the appearance and ultimate disappearance of splenomegaly. While a 30-fold increase in globin mRNA was detected in the spleen, the relative amount of putative AS RNA could be no more than 0.004%. Conclusions Contrary to earlier reports, induction of a major increase in globin transcripts in the mouse spleen was not associated with a detectable level of antisense RNA to globin mRNA.

  15. Interaction between Hb E and Hb Yala (HBB:c.129delT); a novel frameshift beta globin gene mutation, resulting in Hemoglobin E/β0 thalassemia. (United States)

    Ekwattanakit, Supachai; Riolueang, Suchada; Viprakasit, Vip


    There are more than 200 known mutations found in patients with β-thalassemia, a possibility to identify an unknown or novel mutation becomes less possible. Here, we report a novel mutation in a patient from Thailand who presented with chronic hemolytic anemia. A comprehensive hematology and DNA analysis was applied in the index patient and her mother. Hematological and hemoglobin analyses were consistent with the clinical diagnosis of Hb E/β 0 -thalassemia. However, we could find only Hb E heterozygous mutation using our common polymerase chain reaction-based mutation detection of the β-globin genes. Furthermore, the molecular analysis demonstrated a novel T-deletion at codon 42 of the second exon of the β-globin gene which we named 'Hb Yala' according to the origin of this index family. This mutation was assumed to generate a truncated β-globin chain terminating at codon 60 with possible unstable variant leading to a 'null' or β 0 -thalassemia. However, the clinical phenotype was surprisingly mild and no other ameliorating genetic factors, including co-inheritance of α-thalassemia and high propensity of Hb F by Xmn I polymorphism, were found. This report has provided evidence that genotype-phenotype correlation in thalassemia syndromes is highly complex and a correct clinical severity classification of thalassemia should be mainly based on clinical evaluation.

  16. Cross-Sectional Study for the Detection of Mutations in the Beta-Globin Gene Among Patients with Hemoglobinopathies in the Bengali Population. (United States)

    Panja, Amrita; Chowdhury, Prosanto; Chakraborty, Sharmistha; Ghosh, Tapan Kumar; Basu, Anupam


    Thalassemia is a common autosomal recessive blood disorder, which is most prevalent in South East Asian and Mediterranean populations. It is considered as a major health burden in the Indian population. The aims of the present study were to investigate the common, as well as uncommon, mutations responsible for thalassemia in the Bengali population. The Bengali state was divided into four sampling zones. Mutation detection was done using Sanger sequencing of the HBB gene. A total of 14 different mutations were observed, including rare mutations IVS1-130(G>C), IVS1-129(A>C), -90(T>C), CD16(-C), -30(T>C), CD15(-T), and a novel mutation CD53(C>T). The frequencies of IVS1-5(G>C) and CD26(G>A) mutations were higher than other mutations. There were also some silent polymorphisms found in the studied group, CD3(T>C), CD10(C>A), IVSII-16(G>C), IVSII-74(T>G), -42(C>G). The present study is the first attempt to screen for β-thalassemia-causing mutations by direct sequencing in different districts of West Bengal. The information obtained from the present study may be helpful for thalassemia management and prenatal mutation detection.

  17. Regulated expression of genes inserted at the human chromosomal β-globin locus by homologous recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, A.K.; Roginski, R.S.; Gregg, R.G.; Smithies, O.; Skoultchi, A.I.


    The authors have examined the effect of the site of integration on the expression of cloned genes introduced into cultured erythroid cells. Smithies et al. reported the targeted integration of DNA into the human β-globin locus on chromosome 11 in a mouse erythroleukemia-human cell hybrid. These hybrid cells can undergo erythroid differentiation leading to greatly increased mouse and human β-globin synthesis. By transfection of these hybrid cells with a plasmid carrying a modified human β-globin gene and a foreign gene composed of the coding sequence of the bacterial neomycin-resistance gene linked to simian virus 40 transcription signals (SVneo), cells were obtained in which the two genes are integrated at the β-globin locus on human chromosome 11 or at random sites. When they examined the response of the integrated genes to cell differentation, they found that the genes inserted at the β-globin locus were induced during differentiation, whereas randomly positioned copies were not induced. Even the foreign SVneo gene was inducible when it had been integrated at the β-globin locus. The results show that genes introduced at the β-globin locus acquire some of the regulatory properties of globin genes during erythroid differentiation

  18. Molecular nature of alpha-globin genes in the Saudi population

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    J. Francis Borgio


    Full Text Available Alpha-thalassemia (α-thal is a disorder caused by the deletion of single or double α-globin genes, and/or point mutations in the α-globin genes. There are 2 common types of α-globin genes; HBA2 and HBA1. Recently, it has been discovered that the HBA2 gene is replaced by a unique HBA12 gene convert in 5.7% of the Saudi population. The α-globin genes have been emerging as a molecular target for the treatment of β-thalassemia (β-thal. Hence, it is essential to understand the molecular nature of α-globin genes to treat the most prevalent hemoglobin disorders, such as sickle cell disease, α-thal, and β-thal prevalent in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Thirty-two different α-globin genotypes have been observed in the Saudi population. This review outlines the classification of the α-globin genes on the basis of their molecular nature and complex combinations of α-globin genes, and their variants predominant in Saudis.

  19. Fate of a redundant gamma-globin gene in the atelid clade of New World monkeys: implications concerning fetal globin gene expression. (United States)

    Meireles, C M; Schneider, M P; Sampaio, M I; Schneider, H; Slightom, J L; Chiu, C H; Neiswanger, K; Gumucio, D L; Czelusniak, J; Goodman, M


    Conclusive evidence was provided that gamma 1, the upstream of the two linked simian gamma-globin loci (5'-gamma 1-gamma 2-3'), is a pseudogene in a major group of New World monkeys. Sequence analysis of PCR-amplified genomic fragments of predicted sizes revealed that all extant genera of the platyrrhine family Atelidae [Lagothrix (woolly monkeys), Brachyteles (woolly spider monkeys), Ateles (spider monkeys), and Alouatta (howler monkeys)] share a large deletion that removed most of exon 2, all of intron 2 and exon 3, and much of the 3' flanking sequence of gamma 1. The fact that two functional gamma-globin genes were not present in early ancestors of the Atelidae (and that gamma 1 was the dispensible gene) suggests that for much or even all of their evolution, platyrrhines have had gamma 2 as the primary fetally expressed gamma-globin gene, in contrast to catarrhines (e.g., humans and chimpanzees) that have gamma 1 as the primary fetally expressed gamma-globin gene. Results from promoter sequences further suggest that all three platyrrhine families (Atelidae, Cebidae, and Pitheciidae) have gamma 2 rather than gamma 1 as their primary fetally expressed gamma-globin gene. The implications of this suggestion were explored in terms of how gene redundancy, regulatory mutations, and distance of each gamma-globin gene from the locus control region were possibly involved in the acquisition and maintenance of fetal, rather than embryonic, expression. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7535927

  20. Genome scan identifies a locus affecting gamma-globin expression in human beta-cluster YAC transgenic mice

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    Lin, S.D.; Cooper, P.; Fung, J.; Weier, H.U.G.; Rubin, E.M.


    Genetic factors affecting post-natal g-globin expression - a major modifier of the severity of both b-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia, have been difficult to study. This is especially so in mice, an organism lacking a globin gene with an expression pattern equivalent to that of human g-globin. To model the human b-cluster in mice, with the goal of screening for loci affecting human g-globin expression in vivo, we introduced a human b-globin cluster YAC transgene into the genome of FVB mice . The b-cluster contained a Greek hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) g allele resulting in postnatal expression of human g-globin in transgenic mice. The level of human g-globin for various F1 hybrids derived from crosses between the FVB transgenics and other inbred mouse strains was assessed. The g-globin level of the C3HeB/FVB transgenic mice was noted to be significantly elevated. To map genes affecting postnatal g-globin expression, a 20 centiMorgan (cM) genome scan of a C3HeB/F VB transgenics [prime] FVB backcross was performed, followed by high-resolution marker analysis of promising loci. From this analysis we mapped a locus within a 2.2 cM interval of mouse chromosome 1 at a LOD score of 4.2 that contributes 10.4% of variation in g-globin expression level. Combining transgenic modeling of the human b-globin gene cluster with quantitative trait analysis, we have identified and mapped a murine locus that impacts on human g-globin expression in vivo.

  1. Mutation spectrum of β-globin gene in thalassemia patients at Hasan Sadikin Hospital - West Java Indonesia. (United States)

    Maskoen, Ani Melani; Rahayu, Nurul S; Reniarti, Lelani; Susanah, Susi; Laksono, Bremmy; Fauziah, Prima Nanda; Zada, Almira; Hidayat, Dadang S


    Thalassemia is the most common hereditary haemolytic anemia in Southeast Asia, in which Indonesia is among countries that are at a high risk for thalassemia. It has been reported that mutation in the beta-globin gene is responsible in severe Thalassemia. However, the spectrum of beta-globin gene mutations in Indonesian population varies in different regions . Thus, this study aimed to identify the most prevalent mutation of Thalassemia patients from the Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, using this as a reference hospital for Thalassemia in West Java. The three most prevalent mutations of beta globin (IVS1nt5, Cd26 (HbE), and IVS1nt1), were conducted in the beginning of this study. Mutations of 291 samples were detected by PCR-RFLP in the Molecular Genetic Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung. The prevalence of the beta globin gene mutation types were 47.4% IVS1nt5 homozygote, 9.9% compound heterozygote IVS1nt5/HbE, 5.4% compound heterozygote IVS1nt5/IVS1nt1, 1.4% compound heterozygote HbE/IVS1nt1, 1% HbE homozygote, 14.4% Compound heterzygote IVS1nt5/… (no paired mutation), 2.06% compound heterozygote HbE/… (no paired mutation), 1.3% compound heterozygote IVS1nt1/… (no paired mutation), and 7 samples were unidentified. The thalassemia mutation IVS1nt5 homozygote is the most common mutation found in Thalassemia patients at Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung. The samples with unidentified results might carry mutations other than the three that are observed in the present study.

  2. Rapid and Sensitive Assessment of Globin Chains for Gene and Cell Therapy of Hemoglobinopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loucari, C.C. (Constantinos C.); Patsali, P. (Petros); T.B. van Dijk (Thamar); Stephanou, C. (Coralea); Papasavva, P. (Panayiota); Zanti, M. (Maria); Kurita, R. (Ryo); Nakamura, Y. (Yukio); S. Christou (Soteroula); Sitarou, M. (Maria); J.N.J. Philipsen (Sjaak); C.W. Lederer (Carsten); M. Kleanthous (Marina)


    textabstractThe β-hemoglobinopathies sickle cell anemia and β-thalassemia are the focus of many gene-therapy studies. A key disease parameter is the abundance of globin chains because it indicates the level of anemia, likely toxicity of excess or aberrant globins, and therapeutic potential of

  3. Geographical distribution of β-globin gene mutations in Syria. (United States)

    Murad, Hossam; Moasses, Faten; Dabboul, Amir; Mukhalalaty, Yasser; Bakoor, Ahmad Omar; Al-Achkar, Walid; Jarjour, Rami A


    Objectives β-Thalassemia disease is caused by mutations in the β-globin gene. This is considered as one of the common genetic disorders in Syria. The aim of this study was to identify the geographical distribution of the β-thalassemia mutations in Syria. Methods β-Globin gene mutations were characterized in 636 affected patients and 94 unrelated carriers using the amplification refractory mutations system-polymerase chain reaction technique and DNA sequencing. Results The study has revealed the presence of 38 β-globin gene mutations responsible for β-thalassemia in Syria. Important differences in regional distribution were observed. IVS-I.110 [G > A] (22.2%), IVS-I.1 [G > A] (17.8%), Cd 39 [C > T] (8.2%), IVS-II.1 [G > A] (7.6%), IVS-I.6 [T > C] (7.1%), Cd 8 [-AA] (6%), Cd 5 [-CT] (5.6%) and IVS-I.5 [G > C] (4.1%) were the eight predominant mutations found in our study. The coastal region had higher relative frequencies (37.9 and 22%) than other regions. A clear drift in the distribution of the third common Cd 39 [C > T] mutation in the northeast region (34.8%) to the northwest region (2.5%) was noted, while the IVS-I.5 [G > C] mutation has the highest prevalence in north regions. The IVS-I.6 [T > C] mutation had a distinct frequency in the middle region. Ten mutations -86 [C > G], -31 [A > G], -29 [A > G], 5'UTR; +22 [G > A], CAP + 1 [A > C], Codon 5/6 [-TG], IVS-I (-3) or codon 29 [C > T], IVS-I.2 [T > A], IVS-I.128 [T > G] and IVS-II.705 [T > G] were found in Syria for the first time. Conclusions These data will significantly facilitate the population screening, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis in Syrian population.

  4. Rapid and Sensitive Assessment of Globin Chains for Gene and Cell Therapy of Hemoglobinopathies (United States)

    Loucari, Constantinos C.; Patsali, Petros; van Dijk, Thamar B.; Stephanou, Coralea; Papasavva, Panayiota; Zanti, Maria; Kurita, Ryo; Nakamura, Yukio; Christou, Soteroulla; Sitarou, Maria; Philipsen, Sjaak; Lederer, Carsten W.; Kleanthous, Marina


    The β-hemoglobinopathies sickle cell anemia and β-thalassemia are the focus of many gene-therapy studies. A key disease parameter is the abundance of globin chains because it indicates the level of anemia, likely toxicity of excess or aberrant globins, and therapeutic potential of induced or exogenous β-like globins. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) allows versatile and inexpensive globin quantification, but commonly applied protocols suffer from long run times, high sample requirements, or inability to separate murine from human β-globin chains. The latter point is problematic for in vivo studies with gene-addition vectors in murine disease models and mouse/human chimeras. This study demonstrates HPLC-based measurements of globin expression (1) after differentiation of the commonly applied human umbilical cord blood–derived erythroid progenitor-2 cell line, (2) in erythroid progeny of CD34+ cells for the analysis of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9-mediated disruption of the globin regulator BCL11A, and (3) of transgenic mice holding the human β-globin locus. At run times of 8 min for separation of murine and human β-globin chains as well as of human γ-globin chains, and with routine measurement of globin-chain ratios for 12 nL of blood (tested for down to 0.75 nL) or of 300,000 in vitro differentiated cells, the methods presented here and any variant-specific adaptations thereof will greatly facilitate evaluation of novel therapy applications for β-hemoglobinopathies. PMID:29325430

  5. Gamma-interferon alters globin gene expression in neonatal and adult erythroid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, B.A.; Perrine, S.P.; Antognetti, G.; Perlmutter, D.H.; Emerson, S.G.; Sieff, C.; Faller, D.V.


    The effect of gamma-interferon on fetal hemoglobin synthesis by purified cord blood, fetal liver, and adult bone marrow erythroid progenitors was studied with a radioligand assay to measure hemoglobin production by BFU-E-derived erythroblasts. Coculture with recombinant gamma-interferon resulted in a significant and dose-dependent decrease in fetal hemoglobin production by neonatal and adult, but not fetal, BFU-E-derived erythroblasts. Accumulation of fetal hemoglobin by cord blood BFU-E-derived erythroblasts decreased up to 38.1% of control cultures (erythropoietin only). Synthesis of both G gamma/A gamma globin was decreased, since the G gamma/A gamma ratio was unchanged. Picograms fetal hemoglobin per cell was decreased by gamma-interferon addition, but picograms total hemoglobin was unchanged, demonstrating that a reciprocal increase in beta-globin production occurred in cultures treated with gamma-interferon. No toxic effect of gamma-interferon on colony growth was noted. The addition of gamma-interferon to cultures resulted in a decrease in the percentage of HbF produced by adult BFU-E-derived cells to 45.6% of control. Fetal hemoglobin production by cord blood, fetal liver, and adult bone marrow erythroid progenitors, was not significantly affected by the addition of recombinant GM-CSF, recombinant interleukin 1 (IL-1), recombinant IL-2, or recombinant alpha-interferon. Although fetal progenitor cells appear unable to alter their fetal hemoglobin program in response to any of the growth factors added here, the interaction of neonatal and adult erythroid progenitors with gamma-interferon results in an altered expression of globin genes

  6. A novel alpha-thalassemia nonsense mutation in HBA2: C.382 A > T globin gene. (United States)

    Hamid, Mohammad; Bokharaei Merci, Hanieh; Galehdari, Hamid; Saberi, Ali Hossein; Kaikhaei, Bijan; Mohammadi-Anaei, Marziye; Ahmadzadeh, Ahmad; Shariati, Gholamreza


    In this study, a new alpha globin gene mutation on the α2-globin gene is reported. This mutation resulted in a Lys > stop codon substitution at position 127 which was detected in four individuals (three males and one female). DNA sequencing revealed this mutation in unrelated persons in Khuzestan province, Southwestern Iran of Lor ethnicity. This mutation caused no severe hematological abnormalities in the carriers. From the nature of substituted residues in α2-globin, it is widely expected that this mutation leads to unstable and truncated protein and should be detected in couples at risk for α-thalassemia.

  7. Asynchronous DNA replication within the human β-globin gene locus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epner, E.; Forrester, W.C.; Groudine, M.


    The timing of DNA replication of the human β-globin gene locus has been studied by blot hybridization of newly synthesized BrdUrd-substituted DNA from cells in different stages of the S phase. Using probes that span >120 kilobases across the human β-globin gene locus, the authors show that the majority of this domain replicates in early S phase in the human erythroleukemia cell line K562 and in middle-to-late S phase in the lymphoid cell line Manca. However, in K562 cells three small regions display a strikingly different replication pattern than adjacent sequences. These islands, located in the inter-γ-globin gene region and approximately 20 kilobases 5' to the ε-globin gene and 20 kilobases 3' to the β-globin gene, replicate later and throughout S phase. A similar area is also present in the α-globin gene region in K562 cells. They suggest that these regions may represent sites of termination of replication forks

  8. Compensatory increase in alpha 1-globin gene expression in individuals heterozygous for the alpha-thalassemia-2 deletion.


    Liebhaber, S A; Cash, F E; Main, D M


    alpha-Globin is encoded by the two adjacent genes, alpha 1 and alpha 2. Although it is clearly established that both alpha-globin genes are expressed, their relative contributions to alpha-globin messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein synthesis are not fully defined. Furthermore, changes that may occur in alpha-globin gene activity secondarily to the loss of function of one or more of these genes (alpha-thalassemia [Thal]) have not been directly investigated. This study further defines the expressi...

  9. Erythroid Kruppel-like factor (EKLF) is recruited to the γ-globin gene promoter as a co-activator and is required for γ-globin gene induction by short-chain fatty acid derivatives (United States)

    Perrine, Susan P.; Mankidy, Rishikesh; Boosalis, Michael S.; Bieker, James J.; Faller, Douglas V.


    Objectives The erythroid Kruppel-like factor (EKLF) is an essential transcription factor for β-type globin gene switching, and specifically activates transcription of the adult β-globin gene promoter. We sought to determine if EKLF is also required for activation of the γ-globin gene by short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) derivatives, which are now entering clinical trials. Methods The functional and physical interaction of EKLF and co-regulatory molecules with the endogenous human globin gene promoters was studied in primary human erythroid progenitors and cell lines, using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays and genetic manipulation of the levels of EKLF and co-regulators. Results and conclusions Knockdown of EKLF prevents SCFA-induced expression of the γ-globin promoter in a stably expressed μLCRβprRlucAγprFluc cassette, and prevents induction of the endogenous γ-globin gene in primary human erythroid progenitors. EKLF is actively recruited to endogenous γ-globin gene promoters after exposure of primary human erythroid progenitors, and murine hematopoietic cell lines, to SCFA derivatives. The core ATPase BRG1 subunit of the human SWI/WNF complex, a ubiquitous multimeric complex that regulates gene expression by remodeling nucleosomal structure, is also required for γ-globin gene induction by SCFA derivatives. BRG1 is actively recruited to the endogenous γ-globin promoter of primary human erythroid progenitors by exposure to SCFA derivatives, and this recruitment is dependent upon the presence of EKLF. These findings demonstrate that EKLF, and the co-activator BRG1, previously demonstrated to be required for definitive or adult erythropoietic patterns of globin gene expression, are co-opted by SCFA derivatives to activate the fetal globin genes. PMID:19220418

  10. Chicken globin gene transcription is cell lineage specific during the time of the switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lois, R.; Martinson, H.G.


    Posttranscriptional silencing of embryonic globin gene expression occurs during hemoglobin switching in chickens. Here the authors use Percoll density gradients to fractionate the red blood cells of 5-9 day embryos in order to determine the cellular source and the timing of this posttranscriptional process. By means of nuclear run-on transcription in vitro they show that it is within mature primitive cells that production of embryonic globin mRNA is terminated posttranscriptionally. In contrast, young definitive cells produce little (or no) embryonic globin mRNA because of regulation at the transcriptional level. Thus the lineage specificity of embryonic and adult globin gene expression is determined transcriptionally, and the posttranscriptional process described by Landes et al. is a property of the senescing primitive cells, not a mechanism operative in the hemoglobin switch. This conclusion is supported by [ 3 H]leucine incorporation experiments on Percoll-fractionated cells which reveal no posttranscriptional silencing of the embryonic genes during the early stages of the switch. In the course of these studies they have noticed a strong transcriptional pause near the second exon of the globin genes which is induced by 5,6-dichloro-1-β-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB) and which resembles a natural pause near that position

  11. Cellular promoters incorporated into the adenovirus genome: effects of viral regulatory elements on transcription rates and cell specificity of albumin and beta-globin promoters.


    Babiss, L E; Friedman, J M; Darnell, J E


    In the accompanying paper (Friedman et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 6:3791-3797, 1986), hepatoma-specific expression of the rat albumin promoter within the adenovirus genome was demonstrated. However, the rate of transcription was very low compared with that of the endogenous chromosomal albumin gene. Here we show that in hepatoma cells the adenovirus E1A enhancer, especially in the presence of E1A protein, greatly stimulates transcription from the albumin promoter but not the mouse beta-globin prom...

  12. Distinctive patterns of evolution of the δ-globin gene (HBD in primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Moleirinho

    Full Text Available In most vertebrates, hemoglobin (Hb is a heterotetramer composed of two dissimilar globin chains, which change during development according to the patterns of expression of α- and β-globin family members. In placental mammals, the β-globin cluster includes three early-expressed genes, ε(HBE-γ(HBG-ψβ(HBBP1, and the late expressed genes, δ (HBD and β (HBB. While HBB encodes the major adult β-globin chain, HBD is weakly expressed or totally silent. Paradoxically, in human populations HBD shows high levels of conservation typical of genes under strong evolutionary constraints, possibly due to a regulatory role in the fetal-to-adult switch unique of Anthropoid primates. In this study, we have performed a comprehensive phylogenetic and comparative analysis of the two adult β-like globin genes in a set of diverse mammalian taxa, focusing on the evolution and functional divergence of HBD in primates. Our analysis revealed that anthropoids are an exception to a general pattern of concerted evolution in placental mammals, showing a high level of sequence conservation at HBD, less frequent and shorter gene conversion events. Moreover, this lineage is unique in the retention of a functional GATA-1 motif, known to be involved in the control of the developmental expression of the β-like globin genes. We further show that not only the mode but also the rate of evolution of the δ-globin gene in higher primates are strictly associated with the fetal/adult β-cluster developmental switch. To gain further insight into the possible functional constraints that have been shaping the evolutionary history of HBD in primates, we calculated dN/dS (ω ratios under alternative models of gene evolution. Although our results indicate that HBD might have experienced different selective pressures throughout primate evolution, as shown by different ω values between apes and Old World Monkeys + New World Monkeys (0.06 versus 0.43, respectively, these estimates

  13. Dominant control region of the human β- like globin gene cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom van Assendelft, Margaretha van


    The structure and regulation of the human β -like globin gene cluster has been studied extensively. Genetic disorders connected with this gene cluster are responsible for human diseases associated with high levels of morbidity and mortality, such as β-thalassaemia and sickle cell anaemia. The work

  14. In silico analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs in human β-globin gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Alanazi

    Full Text Available Single amino acid substitutions in the globin chain are the most common forms of genetic variations that produce hemoglobinopathies--the most widespread inherited disorders worldwide. Several hemoglobinopathies result from homozygosity or compound heterozygosity to beta-globin (HBB gene mutations, such as that producing sickle cell hemoglobin (HbS, HbC, HbD and HbE. Several of these mutations are deleterious and result in moderate to severe hemolytic anemia, with associated complications, requiring lifelong care and management. Even though many hemoglobinopathies result from single amino acid changes producing similar structural abnormalities, there are functional differences in the generated variants. Using in silico methods, we examined the genetic variations that can alter the expression and function of the HBB gene. Using a sequence homology-based Sorting Intolerant from Tolerant (SIFT server we have searched for the SNPs, which showed that 200 (80% non-synonymous polymorphism were found to be deleterious. The structure-based method via PolyPhen server indicated that 135 (40% non-synonymous polymorphism may modify protein function and structure. The Pupa Suite software showed that the SNPs will have a phenotypic consequence on the structure and function of the altered protein. Structure analysis was performed on the key mutations that occur in the native protein coded by the HBB gene that causes hemoglobinopathies such as: HbC (E→K, HbD (E→Q, HbE (E→K and HbS (E→V. Atomic Non-Local Environment Assessment (ANOLEA, Yet Another Scientific Artificial Reality Application (YASARA, CHARMM-GUI webserver for macromolecular dynamics and mechanics, and Normal Mode Analysis, Deformation and Refinement (NOMAD-Ref of Gromacs server were used to perform molecular dynamics simulations and energy minimization calculations on β-Chain residue of the HBB gene before and after mutation. Furthermore, in the native and altered protein models, amino acid

  15. Retroviral-mediated transfer and expression of human β-globin genes in cultured murine and human erythroid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber-Benarous, A.; Cone, R.D.; London, I.M.; Mulligan, R.C.


    The authors cloned human β-globin DNA sequences from a genomic library prepared from DNA isolated from the human leukemia cell line K562 and have used the retroviral vector pZip-NeoSV(X)1 to introduce a 3.0-kilobase segment encompassing the globin gene into mouse erythroleukemia cells. Whereas the endogenous K562 β-globin gene is repressed in K562 cells, when introduced into mouse erythroleukemia cells by retroviral-mediated gene transfer, the β-globin gene from K562 cells was transcribed and induced 5-20-fold after treatment of the cells with dimethyl sulfoxide. The transcripts were correctly initiated, and expression and regulation of the K562 gene were identical to the expression of a normal human β-globin gene transferred into mouse erythroleukemia cells in the same way. They have also introduced the normal human β-globin gene into K562 cells using the same retrovirus vector. SP6 analysis of the RNA isolated from the transduced cells showed that the normal β-globin gene was transcribed at a moderately high level, before or after treatment with hemin. Based on these data, they suggest that the lack of expression of the endogenous β-globin gene in K562 cells does not result from an alteration in the gene itself and may not result from a lack of factor(s) necessary for β-lobin gene transcription. Retroviral-mediated transfer of the human β-globin gene may, however, uniquely influence expression of the gene K562 cells

  16. A phylogenomic profile of globins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewilde Sylvia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globins occur in all three kingdoms of life: they can be classified into single-domain globins and chimeric globins. The latter comprise the flavohemoglobins with a C-terminal FAD-binding domain and the gene-regulating globin coupled sensors, with variable C-terminal domains. The single-domain globins encompass sequences related to chimeric globins and «truncated» hemoglobins with a 2-over-2 instead of the canonical 3-over-3 α-helical fold. Results A census of globins in 26 archaeal, 245 bacterial and 49 eukaryote genomes was carried out. Only ~25% of archaea have globins, including globin coupled sensors, related single domain globins and 2-over-2 globins. From one to seven globins per genome were found in ~65% of the bacterial genomes: the presence and number of globins are positively correlated with genome size. Globins appear to be mostly absent in Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi, Chlamydia, Lactobacillales, Mollicutes, Rickettsiales, Pastorellales and Spirochaetes. Single domain globins occur in metazoans and flavohemoglobins are found in fungi, diplomonads and mycetozoans. Although red algae have single domain globins, including 2-over-2 globins, the green algae and ciliates have only 2-over-2 globins. Plants have symbiotic and nonsymbiotic single domain hemoglobins and 2-over-2 hemoglobins. Over 90% of eukaryotes have globins: the nematode Caenorhabditis has the most putative globins, ~33. No globins occur in the parasitic, unicellular eukaryotes such as Encephalitozoon, Entamoeba, Plasmodium and Trypanosoma. Conclusion Although Bacteria have all three types of globins, Archaeado not have flavohemoglobins and Eukaryotes lack globin coupled sensors. Since the hemoglobins in organisms other than animals are enzymes or sensors, it is likely that the evolution of an oxygen transport function accompanied the emergence of multicellular animals.

  17. In vivo protein-DNA interactions at the β-globin gene locus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohru Ikuta; Yuet Wai Kan


    The authors have investigated in vivo protein-DNA interactions in the β-globin gene locus by dimethyl sulfate (DMS) footprinting in K562 cells, which express var-epsilon- and γ-globin but not β-globin. In the locus control region, hypersensitive site 2 (HS-2) exhibited footprints in several putative protein binding motifs. HS-3 was not footprinted. The β promoter was also not footprinted, while extensive footprints were observed in the promoter of the active γ-globin gene. No footprints were seen in the A γ and β3' enhancers. With several motifs, additional protein interactions and alterations in binding patterns occurred with hemin induction. In HeLa cells, some footprints were observed in some of the motifs in HS-2, compatible with the finding that HS-2 has some enhancer function in HeLa cells, albeit much weaker than its activity in K562 cells. No footprint was seen in B lymphocytes. In vivo footprinting is a useful method for studying relevant protein-DNA interactions in erythroid cells

  18. Nonsense mutations in the human β-globin gene affect mRNA metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baserga, S.J.; Benz, E.J. Jr.


    A number of premature translation termination mutations (nonsense mutations) have been described in the human α- and β-globin genes. Studies on mRNA isolated from patients with β 0 -thalassemia have shown that for both the β-17 and the β-39 mutations less than normal levels of β-globin mRNA accumulate in peripheral blood cells. (The codon at which the mutation occurs designates the name of the mutation; there are 146 codons in human β-globin mRNA). In vitro studies using the cloned β-39 gene have reproduced this effect in a heterologous transfection system and have suggested that the defect resides in intranuclear metabolism. The authors have asked if this phenomenon of decreased mRNA accumulation is a general property of nonsense mutations and if the effect depends on the location or the type of mutation. Toward this end, they have studied the effect of five nonsense mutations and two missense mutations on the expression of human β-globin mRNA in a heterologous transfection system. In all cases studied, the presence of a translation termination codon correlates with a decrease in the steady-state level of mRNA. The data suggest that the metabolism of a mammalian mRNA is affected by the presence of a mutation that affects translation

  19. Activation of the alpha-globin gene expression correlates with dramatic upregulation of nearby non-globin genes and changes in local and large-scale chromatin spatial structure. (United States)

    Ulianov, Sergey V; Galitsyna, Aleksandra A; Flyamer, Ilya M; Golov, Arkadiy K; Khrameeva, Ekaterina E; Imakaev, Maxim V; Abdennur, Nezar A; Gelfand, Mikhail S; Gavrilov, Alexey A; Razin, Sergey V


    In homeotherms, the alpha-globin gene clusters are located within permanently open genome regions enriched in housekeeping genes. Terminal erythroid differentiation results in dramatic upregulation of alpha-globin genes making their expression comparable to the rRNA transcriptional output. Little is known about the influence of the erythroid-specific alpha-globin gene transcription outburst on adjacent, widely expressed genes and large-scale chromatin organization. Here, we have analyzed the total transcription output, the overall chromatin contact profile, and CTCF binding within the 2.7 Mb segment of chicken chromosome 14 harboring the alpha-globin gene cluster in cultured lymphoid cells and cultured erythroid cells before and after induction of terminal erythroid differentiation. We found that, similarly to mammalian genome, the chicken genomes is organized in TADs and compartments. Full activation of the alpha-globin gene transcription in differentiated erythroid cells is correlated with upregulation of several adjacent housekeeping genes and the emergence of abundant intergenic transcription. An extended chromosome region encompassing the alpha-globin cluster becomes significantly decompacted in differentiated erythroid cells, and depleted in CTCF binding and CTCF-anchored chromatin loops, while the sub-TAD harboring alpha-globin gene cluster and the upstream major regulatory element (MRE) becomes highly enriched with chromatin interactions as compared to lymphoid and proliferating erythroid cells. The alpha-globin gene domain and the neighboring loci reside within the A-like chromatin compartment in both lymphoid and erythroid cells and become further segregated from the upstream gene desert upon terminal erythroid differentiation. Our findings demonstrate that the effects of tissue-specific transcription activation are not restricted to the host genomic locus but affect the overall chromatin structure and transcriptional output of the encompassing

  20. Association of Xmn I Polymorphism and Hemoglobin E Haplotypes on Postnatal Gamma Globin Gene Expression in Homozygous Hemoglobin E

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    Supachai Ekwattanakit


    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. To explore the role of cis-regulatory sequences within the β globin gene cluster at chromosome 11 on human γ globin gene expression related to Hb E allele, we analyze baseline hematological data and Hb F values together with β globin haplotypes in homozygous Hb E. Patients and Methods. 80 individuals with molecularly confirmed homozygous Hb E were analyzed for the β globin haplotypes and Xmn I polymorphism using PCR-RFLPs. 74 individuals with complete laboratory data were further studied for association analyses. Results. Eight different β globin haplotypes were found linked to Hb E alleles; three major haplotypes were (a (III, (b (V, and (c (IV accounting for 94% of Hb E chromosomes. A new haplotype (Th-1 was identified and most likely converted from the major ones. The majority of individuals had Hb F < 5%; only 10.8% of homozygous Hb E had high Hb F (average 10.5%, range 5.8–14.3%. No association was found on a specific haplotype or Xmn I in these individuals with high Hb F, measured by alkaline denaturation. Conclusion. The cis-regulation of γ globin gene expression might not be apparent under a milder condition with lesser globin imbalance such as homozygous Hb E.

  1. Increased expression of alpha- and beta-globin mRNAs at the pituitary following exposure to estrogen during the critical period of neonatal sex differentiation in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffers, H; Navarro, V M; Nielsen, John E


    Deterioration of reproductive health in human and wildlife species during the past decades has drawn considerable attention to the potential adverse effects of exposure to xenosteroids during sensitive periods of sex development. The hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) unit is a key element in the neuroe......Deterioration of reproductive health in human and wildlife species during the past decades has drawn considerable attention to the potential adverse effects of exposure to xenosteroids during sensitive periods of sex development. The hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) unit is a key element......, we screened for differentially expressed genes at the pituitary and hypothalamus of rats after neonatal exposure to estradiol benzoate. Our analyses identified persistent up-regulation of alpha- and beta-globin mRNAs at the pituitary following neonatal estrogenization. This finding was confirmed...... by combination of RT-PCR analyses and in situ hybridization. Induction of alpha- and beta-globin mRNA expression at the pituitary by neonatal exposure to estrogen was demonstrated as dose-dependent and it was persistently detected up to puberty. In contrast, durable up-regulation of alpha- and beta-globin genes...

  2. Molecular analysis of the beta-thalassemia phenotype associated with inheritance of hemoglobin E (alpha 2 beta2(26)Glu leads to Lys).


    Benz, E J; Berman, B W; Tonkonow, B L; Coupal, E; Coates, T; Boxer, L A; Altman, A; Adams, J G


    Inheritance of the gene for betaE-globin is associated with hypochromia and microcytosis, reminiscent of typical heterozygous beta-thalassemia. Patients with hemoglobin (Hb)E-beta-thalassemia exhibit clinical phenotypes of severe beta-thalassemia, a circumstance not encountered in other compound heterozygous states for structural beta-chain mutations and beta-thalassemia. We have analyzed the kinetics of globin synthesis and the levels of globin messenger (m) RNA accumulation in patients with...

  3. Genetic relationships among native americans based on b-globin gene cluster haplotype frequencies


    Mousinho-Ribeiro Rita de Cassia; Pante-de-Sousa Gabriella; Santos Eduardo José Melo dos; Guerreiro João Farias


    The distribution of b-globin gene haplotypes was studied in 209 Amerindians from eight tribes of the Brazilian Amazon: Asurini from Xingú, Awá-Guajá, Parakanã, Urubú-Kaapór, Zoé, Kayapó (Xikrin from the Bacajá village), Katuena, and Tiriyó. Nine different haplotypes were found, two of which (n. 11 and 13) had not been previously identified in Brazilian indigenous populations. Haplotype 2 (+ - - - -) was the most common in all groups studied, with frequencies varying from 70% to 100%, followed...

  4. S1 nuclease analysis of α-globin gene expression in preleukemic patients with acquired hemoglobin H disease after transfer to mouse erythroleukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helder, J.; Deisseroth, A.


    The loss of α-globin gene transcriptional activity rarely occurs as an acquired abnormality during the evolution of myeloproliferative disease or preleukemia. To test whether the mutation responsible for the loss of α-globin gene expression (hemoglobin H disease) in these patients is linked with the α-globin genes on chromosome 16, the authors transferred chromosome 16 from preleukemic patients with acquired hemoglobin H disease to mouse erythroleukemia cells and measured the transcriptional activity of the human α-globin genes. After transfer to mouse erythroleukemia cells, the expression of human α-globin genes from the peripheral blood or marrow cells of preleukemic patients with acquired hemoglobin H disease was similar to that of human α-globin genes transferred to mouse erythroleukemia cells from normal donors. These data showed that factor(s) in the mouse erythroleukemia cell can genetically complement the α-globin gene defect in these preleukemia patients with acquired hemoglobin H disease and suggest that altered expression of a gene in trans to the α-globin gene may be responsible for the acquisition of hemoglobin H disease in these patients

  5. Same β-globin gene mutation is present on nine different β-thalassemia chromosomes in a Sardinian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirastu, M.; Galanello, R.; Doherty, M.A.; Tuveri, T.; Cao, A.; Kan, Y.W.


    The predominant β-thalassemia in Sardinia is the β 0 type in which no β-globin chains are synthesized in the homozygous state. The authors determined the β-thalassemia mutations in this population by the oligonucleotide-probe method and defined the chromosome haplotypes on which the mutation resides. The same β/sup 39(CAG→TAG)/ nonsense mutation was found on nine different chromosome haplotypes. Although this mutation may have arisen more than once, the multiple haplotypes could also be generated by crossing over and gene conversion events. These findings underscore the frequency of mutational events in the β-globin gene region

  6. An erythrocyte-specific DNA-binding factor recognizes a regulatory sequence common to all chicken globin genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.; Reitman, M.; Felsenfeld, G.


    The authors have identified a protein present only in erythroid cells that binds to two adjacent sites within an enhancer region of the chicken β-globin locus. Mutation of the sites, so that binding by the factor can no longer be detected in vitro, leads to a loss of enhancing ability, assayed by transient expression in primary erythrocytes. Binding sites for the erythroid-specific factor (Eryf1) are found within regulatory regions for all chicken globin genes. A strong Eryf1 binding site is also present within the enhancer of at least one human globin gene, and proteins from human erythroid cells (but not HeLa cells) bind to both the chicken and the human sites

  7. Screening for mutations in human alpha-globin genes by nonradioactive single-strand conformation polymorphism

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    Jorge S.B.


    Full Text Available Point mutations and small insertions or deletions in the human alpha-globin genes may produce alpha-chain structural variants and alpha-thalassemia. Mutations can be detected either by direct DNA sequencing or by screening methods, which select the mutated exon for sequencing. Although small (about 1 kb, 3 exons and 2 introns, the alpha-globin genes are duplicate (alpha2 and alpha1 and highy G-C rich, which makes them difficult to denature, reducing sequencing efficiency and causing frequent artifacts. We modified some conditions for PCR and electrophoresis in order to detect mutations in these genes employing nonradioactive single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP. Primers previously described by other authors for radioactive SSCP and phast-SSCP plus denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were here combined and the resultant fragments (6 new besides 6 original per alpha-gene submitted to silver staining SSCP. Nine structural and one thalassemic mutations were tested, under different conditions including two electrophoretic apparatus (PhastSystem(TM and GenePhor(TM, Amersham Biosciences, different polyacrylamide gel concentrations, run temperatures and denaturing agents, and entire and restriction enzyme cut fragments. One hundred percent of sensitivity was achieved with four of the new fragments formed, using the PhastSystem(TM and 20% gels at 15ºC, without the need of restriction enzymes. This nonradioactive PCR-SSCP approach showed to be simple, rapid and sensitive, reducing the costs involved in frequent sequencing repetitions and increasing the reliability of the results. It can be especially useful for laboratories which do not have an automated sequencer.

  8. Role of the duplicated CCAAT box region in γ-globin gene regulation and hereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ronchi (Antonella); M. Berry (Meera); S. Raguz (Selina); A.M.A. Imam (Ali); N. Yannoutsos (Nikos); S. Ottolenghi (Sergio); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); N.O. Dillon (Niall)


    textabstractHereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin (HPFH) is a clinically important condition in which a change in the developmental specificity of the gamma-globin genes results in varying levels of expression of fetal haemoglobin in the adult. The condition is benign and can significantly

  9. The First Report of a 290-bp Deletion in β-Globin Gene in the South of Iran (United States)

    Hamid, Mohammad; Nejad, Ladan Dawoody; Shariati, Gholamreza; Galehdari, Hamid; Saberi, Alihossein; Mohammadi-Anaei, Marziye


    Background: β-thalassemia is one of the most widespread diseases in the world, including Iran. In this study, we reported, for the first time, a 290-bp β-globin gene deletion in the south of Iran. Methods: Four individuals from three unrelated families with Arabic ethnic background were studied in Khuzestan Province. Red blood cell indices and hemoglobin analysis were carried out according to the standard methods. Genomic DNA was obtained from peripheral blood cells by salting out procedures. β-globin gene amplification, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), and DNA sequencing were performed. Results: The PCR followed by sequencing and MLPA test of the β-globin gene confirmed the presence of a 290-bp deletion in the heterozygous form, along with -88C>A mutation. All the individuals had elevated hemoglobin A2 and normal fetal hemoglobin levels. Conclusions: This mutation causes β0-thalassemia and can be highly useful for prenatal diagnosis in compound heterozygous condition with different β-globin gene mutations. PMID:26948378

  10. Genetic disruption of the KLF1 gene to overexpress the γ-globin gene using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. (United States)

    Shariati, Laleh; Khanahmad, Hossein; Salehi, Mansoor; Hejazi, Zahra; Rahimmanesh, Ilnaz; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein


    β-thalassemia comprises a major group of human genetic disorders involving a decrease in or an end to the normal synthesis of the β-globin chains of hemoglobin. KLF1 is a key regulatory molecule involved in the γ- to β-globin gene switching process directly inducing the expression of the β-globin gene and indirectly repressing γ-globin. The present study aimed to investigate the ability of an engineered CRISPR/Cas9 system with respect to disrupting the KLF1 gene to inhibit the γ- to β-hemoglobin switching process in K562 cells. We targeted three sites on the KLF1 gene, two of which are upstream of codon 288 in exon 2 and the other site being in exon 3. The average indel percentage in the cells transfected with CRISPR a, b and c was approximately 24%. Relative quantification was performed for the assessment of γ-globin expression. The levels of γ-globin mRNA on day 5 of differentiation were 8.1-, 7.7- and 1.8-fold in the cells treated with CRISPR/Cas9 a, b and c, respectively,compared to untreated cells. The measurement of HbF expression levels confirmed the same results. The findings obtained in the present study support the induction of an indel mutation in the KLF1 gene leading to a null allele. As a result, the effect of KLF1 on the expression of BCL11A is decreased and its inhibitory effect on γ-globin gene expression is removed. Application of CRISPR technology to induce an indel in the KLF1 gene in adult erythroid progenitors may provide a method for activating fetal hemoglobin expression in individuals with β-thalassemia or sickle cell disease. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. β-Globin gene sequencing of hemoglobin Austin revises the historically reported electrophoretic migration pattern. (United States)

    Racsa, Lori D; Luu, Hung S; Park, Jason Y; Mitui, Midori; Timmons, Charles F


    Hemoglobin (Hb) Austin was defined in 1977, using amino acid sequencing of samples from 3 unrelated Mexican-Americans, as a substitution of serine for arginine at position 40 of the β-globin chain (Arg40Ser). Its electrophoretic migration on both cellulose acetate (pH 8.4) and citrate agar (pH 6.2) was reported between Hb F and Hb A, and this description persists in reference literature. OBJECTIVES.-To review the clinical features and redefine the diagnostic characteristics of Hb Austin. Eight samples from 6 unrelated individuals and 2 siblings, all with Hispanic surnames, were submitted for abnormal Hb identification between June 2010 and September 2011. High-performance liquid chromatography, isoelectric focusing (IEF), citrate agar electrophoresis, and bidirectional DNA sequencing of the entire β-globin gene were performed. DNA sequencing confirmed all 8 individuals to be heterozygous for Hb Austin (Arg40Ser). Retention time on high-performance liquid chromatography and migration on citrate agar electrophoresis were consistent with that identification. Migration on IEF, however, was not between Hb F and Hb A, as predicted from the report of cellulose acetate electrophoresis. By IEF, Hb Austin migrated anodal to ("faster than") Hb A. Hemoglobin Austin (Arg40Ser) appears on IEF as a "fast," anodally migrating, Hb variant, just as would be expected from its amino acid substitution. The cited historic report is, at best, not applicable to IEF and is probably erroneous. Our observation of 8 cases in 16 months suggests that this variant may be relatively common in some Hispanic populations, making its recognition important. Furthermore, gene sequencing is proving itself a powerful and reliable tool for definitive identification of Hb variants.

  12. Generation and Characterization of a Transgenic Mouse Carrying a Functional Human β-Globin Gene with the IVSI-6 Thalassemia Mutation

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    Giulia Breveglieri


    Full Text Available Mouse models that carry mutations causing thalassemia represent a suitable tool to test in vivo new mutation-specific therapeutic approaches. Transgenic mice carrying the β-globin IVSI-6 mutation (the most frequent in Middle-Eastern regions and recurrent in Italy and Greece are, at present, not available. We report the production and characterization of a transgenic mouse line (TG-β-IVSI-6 carrying the IVSI-6 thalassemia point mutation within the human β-globin gene. In the TG-β-IVSI-6 mouse (a the transgenic integration region is located in mouse chromosome 7; (b the expression of the transgene is tissue specific; (c as expected, normally spliced human β-globin mRNA is produced, giving rise to β-globin production and formation of a human-mouse tetrameric chimeric hemoglobin αmu-globin2/βhu-globin2 and, more importantly, (d the aberrant β-globin-IVSI-6 RNAs are present in blood cells. The TG-β-IVSI-6 mouse reproduces the molecular features of IVSI-6 β-thalassemia and might be used as an in vivo model to characterize the effects of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides targeting the cryptic sites responsible for the generation of aberrantly spliced β-globin RNA sequences, caused by the IVSI-6 mutation. These experiments are expected to be crucial for the development of a personalized therapy for β-thalassemia.

  13. Generation and Characterization of a Transgenic Mouse Carrying a Functional Human β-Globin Gene with the IVSI-6 Thalassemia Mutation (United States)

    Mancini, Irene; Lampronti, Ilaria; Salvatori, Francesca; Fabbri, Enrica; Zuccato, Cristina; Cosenza, Lucia C.; Montagner, Giulia; Borgatti, Monica; Altruda, Fiorella; Fagoonee, Sharmila; Carandina, Gianni; Aiello, Vincenzo; Breda, Laura; Rivella, Stefano; Gambari, Roberto


    Mouse models that carry mutations causing thalassemia represent a suitable tool to test in vivo new mutation-specific therapeutic approaches. Transgenic mice carrying the β-globin IVSI-6 mutation (the most frequent in Middle-Eastern regions and recurrent in Italy and Greece) are, at present, not available. We report the production and characterization of a transgenic mouse line (TG-β-IVSI-6) carrying the IVSI-6 thalassemia point mutation within the human β-globin gene. In the TG-β-IVSI-6 mouse (a) the transgenic integration region is located in mouse chromosome 7; (b) the expression of the transgene is tissue specific; (c) as expected, normally spliced human β-globin mRNA is produced, giving rise to β-globin production and formation of a human-mouse tetrameric chimeric hemoglobin mu α-globin2/hu β-globin2 and, more importantly, (d) the aberrant β-globin-IVSI-6 RNAs are present in blood cells. The TG-β-IVSI-6 mouse reproduces the molecular features of IVSI-6 β-thalassemia and might be used as an in vivo model to characterize the effects of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides targeting the cryptic sites responsible for the generation of aberrantly spliced β-globin RNA sequences, caused by the IVSI-6 mutation. These experiments are expected to be crucial for the development of a personalized therapy for β-thalassemia. PMID:26097845

  14. Activation of Fetal γ-globin Gene Expression via Direct Protein Delivery of Synthetic Zinc-finger DNA-Binding Domains

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    Mir A Hossain


    Full Text Available Reactivation of γ-globin expression has been shown to ameliorate disease phenotypes associated with mutations in the adult β-globin gene, including sickle cell disease. Specific mutations in the promoter of the γ-globin genes are known to prevent repression of the genes in the adult and thus lead to hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin. One such hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin is associated with a sequence located 567 bp upstream of the Gγ-globin gene which assembles a GATA-containing repressor complex. We generated two synthetic zinc-finger DNA-binding domains (ZF-DBDs targeting this sequence. The -567Gγ ZF-DBDs associated with high affinity and specificity with the target site in the γ-globin gene promoter. We delivered the -567Gγ ZF-DBDs directly to primary erythroid cells. Exposure of these cells to the recombinant -567Gγ ZF-DBDs led to increased expression of the γ-globin gene. Direct protein delivery of ZF-DBDs that compete with transcription regulatory proteins will have broad implications for modulating gene expression in analytical or therapeutic settings.

  15. Two α1-Globin Gene Point Mutations Causing Severe Hb H Disease. (United States)

    Jiang, Hua; Huang, Lv-Yin; Zhen, Li; Jiang, Fan; Li, Dong-Zhi

    Hb H disease is generally a moderate form of α-thalassemia (α-thal) that rarely requires regular blood transfusions. In this study, two Chinese families with members carrying transfusion-dependent Hb H disease were investigated for rare mutations on the α-globin genes (HBA1, HBA2). In one family, Hb Zürich-Albisrieden [α59(E8)Gly→Arg; HBA1: c.178G>C] in combination with the Southeast Asian (- - SEA ) deletion was the defect responsible for the severe phenotype. In another family, a novel hemoglobin (Hb) variant named Hb Sichuan (HBA1: c.393_394insT), causes α-thal and a severe phenotype when associated with the - - SEA deletion. As these two HBA1 mutations can present as continuous blood transfusion-dependent α-thal, it is important to take this point into account for detecting the carriers, especially in couples in which one partner is already a known α 0 -thal carrier.

  16. Effect of ATRX and G-Quadruplex Formation by the VNTR Sequence on α-Globin Gene Expression. (United States)

    Li, Yue; Syed, Junetha; Suzuki, Yuki; Asamitsu, Sefan; Shioda, Norifumi; Wada, Takahito; Sugiyama, Hiroshi


    ATR-X (α-thalassemia/mental retardation X-linked) syndrome is caused by mutations in chromatin remodeler ATRX. ATRX can bind the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) sequence in the promoter region of the α-globin gene cluster. The VNTR sequence, which contains the potential G-quadruplex-forming sequence CGC(GGGGCGGGG)n , is involved in the downregulation of α-globin expression. We investigated G-quadruplex and i-motif formation in single-stranded DNA and long double-stranded DNA. The promoter region without the VNTR sequence showed approximately twofold higher luciferase activity than the promoter region harboring the VNTR sequence. G-quadruplex stabilizers hemin and TMPyP4 reduced the luciferase activity, whereas expression of ATRX led to a recovery in reporter activity. Our results demonstrate that stable G-quadruplex formation by the VNTR sequence downregulates the expression of α-globin genes and that ATRX might bind to and resolve the G-quadruplex. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Role of novel and rare nucleotide substitutions of the β-globin gene

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    Margherita Vinciguerra


    Full Text Available The Laboratory for Molecular Prenatal Diagnosis of Hemoglobinopathies at the Villa Sofia-Cervello Hospital in Palermo, Italy, carries out an intensive screening program aimed at identifying the healthy carriers of thalassemia and, consequently, the couples at risk of bearing an affected fetus. The diagnostic process is basically divided into two phases: i hematologic and hemoglobin data; ii molecular analysis of globin genes and, when possible, a genetic study of the family. Since 2003, we have been performing DNA sequence analysis on those cases in which classical molecular methods failed to give a complete diagnostic response, particularly in phenotypes with borderline values of HbA2 with mild or absent microcytosis. During ten years of screening activities (from 2003 to 2012, twenty- seven unknown or rare nucleotide changes of the β-globin gene have been identified; hematologic and hemoglobin data have been carefully evaluated and, wherever possible, we have conducted a family study to evaluate whether a phenotypic expression could be associated to these nucleotide changes. Because of the limited numbers of cases for each mutation, the significance of these nucleotide substitutions has still not been fully clarified, and this raises a number of questions that need to be answered when carrying out appropriate genetic counseling for couples presumed to be at risk. 意大利巴勒莫Villa Sofia-Cervello医院血红蛋白病分子产前诊断实验室进行密集的筛选程序,旨在识别健康的地中海贫血携带者和有怀上地中海贫血胎儿风险的夫妇。 诊断过程基本上分为两个阶段:1)血液及血红蛋白数据;2)珠蛋白基因分子分析以及家族遗传研究(如有可能)。 自2003年以来,我们已对这类病例进行DNA序列分析:传统的分子方法无法给出完整的诊断响应,尤其是有轻微小红细胞症或缺乏小红细胞症的HbA2临界值表型。

  18. Frequency of Gγ-globin promoter -158 (C>T) XmnI polymorphism in patients with homozygous/compound heterozygous beta thalassaemia. (United States)

    Ali, Nadir; Ayyub, Muhammad; Khan, Saleem Ahmed; Ahmed, Suhaib; Abbas, Kazim; Malik, Hamid Saeed; Tashfeen, Sunila


    Response to hydroxyurea therapy in homozygous or compound heterozygous beta thalassaemia (BT) has been reported as more favourable in the presence of XmnI polymorphism. The prevalence of XmnI polymorphism may vary with BT phenotypes and genotypes, and differs geographically in distribution. Prevalence of XmnI polymorphism is not known in northern Pakistan. To determine the frequency of Gγ-globin promoter -158 (C>T) XmnI polymorphism (XmnI polymorphism) in patients with homozygous or compound heterozygous beta thalassaemia. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for common beta thalassaemia mutations and Gγ-globin promoter -158 (C>T) XmnI polymorphism was performed on 107 blood samples of transfusion dependent beta thalassaemia (BT) patients in Pakistan. One hundred samples of unrelated BT traits and 94 samples of healthy subjects as controls were also analysed for BT mutations and XmnI polymorphism. Out of 301 DNA samples, XmnI polymorphism was detected in 71(24%); in normal controls, XmnI polymorphism was detected in 34/94 (36%) subjects; while in homozygous/compound heterozygous BT, it was detected in 14/107(13%) patients (Fisher's exact test, p=.0002). In heterozygous BT group, XmnI polymorphism was detected in 23/100 subjects (Fisher's exact test, p=.03 with normal controls, and p=.049 with homozygous/compound heterozygous BT). The most common BT genotype was Frame Shift (Fr) 8-9/Fr 8-9, and none of the patients with this genotype had XmnI polymorphism. The second most common genotype was IVSI-5/IVSI-5; 4/26 (15%). Cases with this genotype had XmnI polymorphism. XmnI polymorphism in homozygous/compound heterozygous BT group is 13%. The most common genotype associated with XmnI polymorphism was IVSI-5/IVSI-5. Copyright © 2015 King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A new gene deletion in the alpha-like globin gene cluster as the molecular basis for the rare alpha-thalassemia-1(--/alpha alpha) in blacks: HbH disease in sickle cell trait. (United States)

    Steinberg, M H; Coleman, M B; Adams, J G; Hartmann, R C; Saba, H; Anagnou, N P


    A novel deletion of at least 26 kilobase of DNA, including both alpha-globin genes, the psi alpha- and psi zeta-globin genes, but sparing the functional zeta-gene was found in a 10-year-old black boy with HbH disease and sickle cell trait. This particular deletion has not previously been described in blacks. Its existence makes it likely that the absence of Hb Barts hydrops fetalis in blacks is due to the rarity of the chromosome lacking two alpha-globin genes rather than a result of early embryonic death due to the failure to synthesize embryonic hemoglobins because of deletion of functional zeta-globin genes.

  20. The frequency of β-globin gene haplotypes, α-thalassemia and genetic polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, factor V Leiden and prothrombin genes in children with sickle cell disease in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Frequência dos haplótipos da globina beta, da talassemia alfa e dos polimorfismos genéticos dos genes da metilenotetrahidrofolato redutase, do fator V Leiden e da protrombina em crianças com doença falciforme no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

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    Isaac L. Silva Filho


    Full Text Available A freqüência dos haplótipos beta S e beta C do gene da globina e a prevalência de talassemia alfa e de mutações nos genes da metilenotetrahidrofolato redutase (MTHFR-C677T, do fator V de Leiden e da protrombina (G20210A foi estudada em crianças com doença falciforme do Rio de Janeiro. O haplótipo Bantu foi o mais freqüente (65,9%, 21,2% das crianças (18% heterozigotas e 3% homozigotas apresentam talassemia com mutação alfa 3.7kb, ao contrário da mutação alfa 4.2kb que não foi encontrada. Os alelos 677CT e 677TT da MTHFR foram observados em 20,2% e 4,8%, respectivamente. Os haplótipos Camarões, Árabe-Indiano e Senegal não foram detectados na amostra estudada, bem como mutações no gene do fator V de Leiden e da protrombina. Somente o haplótipo beta C CI foi observado. Esse é o primeiro estudo realizado em uma amostra proveniente do Programa de Triagem Neonatal para Hemoglobinopatias do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Apesar do Rio de Janeiro ser a segunda maior cidade brasileira e seus habitantes expressarem o elevado grau de miscigenação ocorrida no país, nossos resultados ainda coincidem com os registros históricos dos fluxos migratórios do gene beta S para o Brasil, bem como refletem a forte influência de indivíduos de origem africana na população do Rio de Janeiro.

  1. alpha-Globin genes: thalassemic and structural alterations in a Brazilian population

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    M.R.S.C. Wenning


    Full Text Available Seven unrelated patients with hemoglobin (Hb H disease and 27 individuals with alpha-chain structural alterations were studied to identify the alpha-globin gene mutations present in the population of Southeast Brazil. The -alpha3.7, --MED and -(alpha20.5 deletions were investigated by PCR, whereas non-deletional alpha-thalassemia (alphaHphalpha, alphaNcoIalpha, aaNcoI, alphaIcalpha and alphaTSaudialpha was screened with restriction enzymes and by nested PCR. Structural alterations were identified by direct DNA sequencing. Of the seven patients with Hb H disease, all of Italian descent, two had the -(alpha20.5/-alpha3.7 genotype, one had the --MED/-alpha3.7 genotype, one had the --MED/alphaHphalpha genotype and three showed interaction of the -alpha3.7 deletion with an unusual, unidentified form of non-deletional alpha-thalassemia [-alpha3.7/(aaT]. Among the 27 patients with structural alterations, 15 (of Italian descent had Hb Hasharon (alpha47Asp->His associated with the -alpha3.7 deletion, 4 (of Italian descent were heterozygous for Hb J-Rovigo (alpha53Ala->Asp, 4 (3 Blacks and 1 Caucasian were heterozygous for Hb Stanleyville-II (alpha78Asn->Lys associated with the alpha+-thalassemia, 1 (Black was heterozygous for Hb G-Pest (alpha74Asp->Asn, 1 (Caucasian was heterozygous for Hb Kurosaki (alpha7Lys->Glu, 1 (Caucasian was heterozygous for Hb Westmead (alpha122His->Gln, and 1 (Caucasian was the carrier of a novel silent variant (Hb Campinas, alpha26Ala->Val. Most of the mutations found reflected the Mediterranean and African origins of the population. Hbs G-Pest and Kurosaki, very rare, and Hb Westmead, common in southern China, were initially described in individuals of ethnic origin differing from those of the carriers reported in the present study and are the first cases to be reported in the Brazilian population.

  2. A Dual Reporter Mouse Model of the Human β-Globin Locus: Applications and Limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Papadopoulos (Petros); L. Gutiérrez (Laura); R. van der Linden (Reinier); J. Kong-a-San (John); A. Maas (Alex); D.D. Drabek (Dubravka); G.P. Patrinos (George); J.N.J. Philipsen (Sjaak); F.G. Grosveld (Frank)


    textabstractThe human β-globin locus contains the β-like globin genes (i.e. fetal γ-globin and adult β-globin), which heterotetramerize with α-globin subunits to form fetal or adult hemoglobin. Thalassemia is one of the commonest inherited disorders in the world, which results in quantitative

  3. NF-Y recruits both transcription activator and repressor to modulate tissue- and developmental stage-specific expression of human γ-globin gene.

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    Xingguo Zhu

    Full Text Available The human embryonic, fetal and adult β-like globin genes provide a paradigm for tissue- and developmental stage-specific gene regulation. The fetal γ-globin gene is expressed in fetal erythroid cells but is repressed in adult erythroid cells. The molecular mechanism underlying this transcriptional switch during erythroid development is not completely understood. Here, we used a combination of in vitro and in vivo assays to dissect the molecular assemblies of the active and the repressed proximal γ-globin promoter complexes in K562 human erythroleukemia cell line and primary human fetal and adult erythroid cells. We found that the proximal γ-globin promoter complex is assembled by a developmentally regulated, general transcription activator NF-Y bound strongly at the tandem CCAAT motifs near the TATA box. NF-Y recruits to neighboring DNA motifs the developmentally regulated, erythroid transcription activator GATA-2 and general repressor BCL11A, which in turn recruit erythroid repressor GATA-1 and general repressor COUP-TFII to form respectively the NF-Y/GATA-2 transcription activator hub and the BCL11A/COUP-TFII/GATA-1 transcription repressor hub. Both the activator and the repressor hubs are present in both the active and the repressed γ-globin promoter complexes in fetal and adult erythroid cells. Through changes in their levels and respective interactions with the co-activators and co-repressors during erythroid development, the activator and the repressor hubs modulate erythroid- and developmental stage-specific transcription of γ-globin gene.

  4. Heme-dependent up-regulation of the α-globin gene expression by transcriptional repressor Bach1 in erythroid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahara, Tsuyoshi; Sun Jiying; Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Taketani, Shigeru


    The transcriptional factor Bach1 forms a heterodimer with small Maf family, and functions as a repressor of the Maf recognition element (MARE) in vivo. To investigate the involvement of Bach1 in the heme-dependent regulation of the expression of the α-globin gene, human erythroleukemia K562 cells were cultured with succinylacetone (SA), a heme biosynthetic inhibitor, and the level of α-globin mRNA was examined. A decrease of α-globin mRNA was observed in SA-treated cells, which was restored by the addition of hemin. The heme-dependent expression of α-globin occurred at the transcriptional level since the expression of human α-globin gene promoter-reporter gene containing hypersensitive site-40 (HS-40) was decreased when K562 cells were cultured with SA. Hemin treatment restored the decrease of the promoter activity by SA. The regulation of the HS-40 activity by heme was dependent on the NF-E2/AP-1 (NA) site, which is similar to MARE. The NA site-binding activity of Bach1 in K562 increased upon SA-treatment, and the increase was diminished by the addition of hemin. The transient expression of Bach1 and mutated Bach1 lacking CP motifs suppressed the HS-40 activity, and cancellation of the repressor activity by hemin was observed when wild-type Bach1 was expressed. The expression of NF-E2 strengthened the restoration of the Bach1-effect by hemin. Interestingly, nuclear localization of Bach1 increased when cells were treated with SA, while hemin induced the nuclear export of Bach1. These results indicated that heme plays an important role in the induction of α-globin gene expression through disrupting the interaction of Bach1 and the NA site in HS-40 enhancer in erythroid cells

  5. Detecting deletions, insertions, and single nucleotide substitutions in cloned β-globin genes and new polymorphic nucleotide substitutions in β-globin genes in a Japanese population using ribonuclease cleavage at mismatches in RNA: DNA duplexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiyama, Keiko; Kodaira, Mieko; Satoh, Chiyoko.


    The applicability of ribonuclease (RNase) cleavage at mismatches in RNA:DNA duplexes (the RNase cleavage method) for determining nucleotide variant rates was examined in a Japanese population. DNA segments of various lengths obtained from four different regions of one normal and three thalassemic cloned human β-globin genes were inserted into transcription vectors. Sense and antisense RNA probes uniformly labeled with 32 P were prepared. When RNA probes of 771 nucleotides (nt) or less were hybridized with cloned DNAs and the resulting duplexes were treated with a mixture of RNases A and T1, the length of products agreed with theoretical values. Twelve possible mismatches were examined. Since both sense and antisense probes were used, uncleavable mismatches such as G:T and G:G which were made from one combination of RNA and DNA strands could be converted to the cleavable C:A and C:C mismatches, respectively, by using the opposite combination. Deletions and insertions of one (G), four(TTCT), five (ATTTT), and 10 (ATTTTATTTT) nt were easily detected. A polymorphic substitution of T to C at position 666 of the second intervening sequence (IVS2-666) of the β-globin gene was detected using genomic DNAs from cell lines established from the peripheral B lymphocytes of 59 unrelated Japanese from Hiroshima or those amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The frequency of the gene with C at the IVS2-666 (allele C) was 0.48 and that of the gene with T (allene T) was 0.52. Two new polymorphic substitutions of C to A and A to T were detected at nucleotide positions 1789 and 1945 from the capping site, respectively, using genomic DNAs amplified by PCR. We conclude that it would be feasible to use the RNase cleavage method combined with PCR for large-scale screening of variation in chromosomal DNA. (J.P.N.)


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    Anita Nadkarni


    Full Text Available The clinical presentation of   b-thalassemia intermedia phenotypes are influenced by many factors .The persistence of fetal hemoglobin and  several polymorphisms located in the promoters of  g- and b-globin genes are some of them .The aim of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of  the -158Gg (CàT polymorphism and of the (ATx(Ty configuration, as well as their eventual association with elevated levels of HbF  in  b-thalassemia carriers, b-thalassemia Intermedia , b-thalassemia major and normal controls of Indian origin. The -158 Gg T allele was found to be associated with increased levels of HbF in b-thalassemia carriers, and not in wild-type subjects. In the homozygous group the -158 Gg T allele was significantly higher in the thalassemia intermedia group (66% as against the thalassemia major group (21%. The (AT9(T5 allele did not show any association with raised HbF levels. However 24% of milder cases showed presence of this allele. This study suggests that two regions of the b globin cluster, whether in cis or in trans to each other, can interact to enhance HbF expression when a b thalassemic determinant is present in heterozigosity and help in amelioration of the severity of the disease in homozygotes.

  7. Possible interaction between B1 retrotransposon-containing sequences and β(major) globin gene transcriptional activation during MEL cell erythroid differentiation. (United States)

    Vizirianakis, Ioannis S; Tezias, Sotirios S; Amanatiadou, Elsa P; Tsiftsoglou, Asterios S


    Repetitive sequences consist of >50% of mammalian genomic DNAs and among these SINEs (short interspersed nuclear elements), e.g. B1 elements, account for 8% of the mouse genome. In an effort to delineate the molecular mechanism(s) involved in the blockade of the in vitro differentiation program of MEL (murine erythroleukaemia) cells by treatment with methylation inhibitors, we detected a DNA region of 559 bp in chromosome 7 located downstream of the 3'-end of the β(major) globin gene (designated B1-559) with unique characteristics. We have fully characterized this B1-559 region that includes a B1 element, several repeats of ATG initiation codons and consensus DNA-binding sites for erythroid-specific transcription factors NF-E2 (nuclear factor-erythroid-derived 2), GATA-1 and EKLF (erythroid Krüppel-like factor). Fragments derived from B1-559 incubated with nuclear extracts form protein complexes in both undifferentiated and differentiated MEL cells. Transient reporter-gene experiments in MEL and human erythroleukaemia K-562 cells with recombinant constructs containing B1-559 fragments linked to HS-2 (hypersensitive site-2) sequences of human β-globin gene LCR (locus control region) indicated potential cooperation upon erythropoiesis and globin gene expression. The possible interaction between the B1-559 region and β(major) globin gene transcriptional activation upon execution of erythroid MEL cell differentiation programme is discussed. © The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2012 Portland Press Limited

  8. Chromosome 11-linked determinant controls fetal globin expression and the fetal-to-adult globin switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melis, M.; Demopulos, G.; Najfeld, V.; Zhang, J.W.; Brice, M.; Papayannopoulou, T.; Stamatoyannopoulos, G.


    Hybrids formed by fusing mouse erythroleukemia (MEL) cells with human fetal erythroid cells produce human fetal globin, but they switch to adult globin production as culture time advances. To obtain information on the chromosomal assignment of the elements that control γ-to-β switching, the authors analyzed the chromosomal composition of hybrids producing exclusively or predominantly human fetal globin and hybrids producing only adult human globin. No human chromosome was consistently present in hybrids expressing fetal globin and consistently absent in hybrids expressing adult globin. Subcloning experiments demonstrated identical chromosomal compositions in subclones displaying the fetal globin program and those that had switched to expression of the adult globin program. These data indicate that retention of only one human chromosome -- i.e., chromosome 11 -- is sufficient for expression of human fetal globin and the subsequent γ-to-β switch. The results suggest that the γ-to-β switch is controlled either cis to the β-globin locus of by a trans-acting mechanism, the genes of which reside on human chromosome 11

  9. The human ankyrin 1 promoter insulator sustains gene expression in a β-globin lentiviral vector in hematopoietic stem cells

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    Zulema Romero

    Full Text Available Lentiviral vectors designed for the treatment of the hemoglobinopathies require the inclusion of regulatory and strong enhancer elements to achieve sufficient expression of the β-globin transgene. Despite the inclusion of these elements, the efficacy of these vectors may be limited by transgene silencing due to the genomic environment surrounding the integration site. Barrier insulators can be used to give more consistent expression and resist silencing even with lower vector copies. Here, the barrier activity of an insulator element from the human ankyrin-1 gene was analyzed in a lentiviral vector carrying an antisickling human β-globin gene. Inclusion of a single copy of the Ankyrin insulator did not affect viral titer, and improved the consistency of expression from the vector in murine erythroleukemia cells. The presence of the Ankyrin insulator element did not change transgene expression in human hematopoietic cells in short-term erythroid culture or in vivo in primary murine transplants. However, analysis in secondary recipients showed that the lentiviral vector with the Ankyrin element preserved transgene expression, whereas expression from the vector lacking the Ankyrin insulator decreased in secondary recipients. These studies demonstrate that the Ankyrin insulator may improve long-term β-globin expression in hematopoietic stem cells for gene therapy of hemoglobinopathies.

  10. Phenotypic variability of Filipino beta(o)-thalassemia/HbE patients in Indonesia. (United States)

    Setianingsih, I; Williamson, R; Daud, D; Harahap, A; Marzuki, S; Forrest, S


    Three Indonesian patients with identical genotypes, each compound heterozygotes for Filipino beta(o)-thalassemia/HbE, expressed different clinical severities. One patient has mild disease and is transfusion independent, while the other two are severely affected and transfusion dependent. The size of the Filipino beta(o)-globin gene deletion was confirmed to be 45 kb, resolving conflicting values given in the literature. Neither ameliorating genetic factors such as alpha-globin gene deletions or the XmnI restriction site polymorphism at position -158 upstream of the (G)gamma-globin gene, nor differences in beta-globin gene haplotype, explain the phenotypic variation. These observations have implications for the development of antenatal diagnosis in Indonesia, as at present it is not possible to give an accurate prediction of severity of phenotype for this common genotype. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. beta. -Amyloid gene dosage in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdoch, G H; Manuelidis, L; Kim, J H; Manuelidis, E E


    The 4-5 kd amyloid ..beta..-peptide is a major constituent of the characteristic amyloid plaque of Alzheimer's disease. It has been reported that some cases of sporatic Alzheimer's disease are associated with at least a partial duplication of chromosome 21 containing the gene corresponding to the 695 residue precursor of this peptide. To contribute to an understanding of the frequency to such a duplication event in the overall Alzheimer's population, the authors have determined the gene dosage of the ..beta..-amyloid gene in this collection of cases. All cases had a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's confirmed neuropathologically. Each Alzheimer's case had an apparent normal diploid ..beta..-amyloid gene dosage, while control Down's cases had the expected triploid dosage. Thus partial duplication of chromosome 21 may be a rare finding in Alzheimer's disease. Similar conclusions were just reported in several studies of the Harvard Alzheimer collection.

  12. molecular analysis of intron-1 mutation in β-Globin gene of β-Thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, S.A.L.M.


    β-thalassemia is considered the most common genetic disorder worldwide, it occurs in a particularly high frequency in abroad belt extending from the mediterranean basin through the middle east, and abundance in egypt. the thalassemias are a group of genetic (inherited) blood disorders that share in common one feature, the defective production of hemoglobin. there are many different disorders with defective hemoglobin synthesis and, hence, many types of thalassemia. about 3% of the world's population (180 million people) carry β-thalassemia genes.the present study was carried out in the biological application department of nuclear research center, atomic energy authority and microbiology department and hematology unit of pediatrics department, faculty of medicine, Zagazig University

  13. Differential structural status of the RNA counterpart of an undecamer quasi-palindromic DNA sequence present in LCR of human β-globin gene cluster. (United States)

    Kaushik, Mahima; Kukreti, Shrikant


    Our previous work on structural polymorphism shown at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (A → G) site located on HS4 region of locus control region (LCR) of β-globin gene has established a hairpin → duplex equilibrium corresponding to A → B like DNA transition (Kaushik M, Kukreti, R., Grover, D., Brahmachari, S.K. and Kukreti S. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003; Kaushik M, Kukreti S. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006). The G-allele of A → G SNP has been shown to be significantly associated with the occurrence of β-thalassemia. Considering the significance of this 11-nt long quasi-palindromic sequence [5'-TGGGG(G/A)CCCCA; HP(G/A)11] of β-globin gene LCR, we further explored the differential behavior of the same DNA sequence with its RNA counterpart, using various biophysical and biochemical techniques. In contrast to its DNA counterpart exhibiting a A → B structural transition and an equilibrium between duplex and hairpin forms, the studied RNA oligonucleotide sequence [5'-UGGGG(G/A)CCCCA; RHP(G/A)11] existed only in duplex form (A-conformation) and did not form hairpin. The single residue difference from A to G led to the unusual thermal stability of the RNA structure formed by the studied sequence. Since, naturally occurring mutations and various SNP sites may stabilize or destabilize the local DNA/RNA secondary structures, these structural transitions may affect the gene expression by a change in the protein-DNA recognition patterns.

  14. CD34+ cells from dental pulp stem cells with a ZFN-mediated and homology-driven repair-mediated locus-specific knock-in of an artificial β-globin gene. (United States)

    Chattong, S; Ruangwattanasuk, O; Yindeedej, W; Setpakdee, A; Manotham, K


    In humans, mutations in the β-globin gene (HBB) have two important clinical manifestations: β-thalassemia and sickle cell disease. The progress in genome editing and stem cell research may be relevant to the treatment of β-globin-related diseases. In this work, we employed zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN)-mediated gene integration of synthetic β-globin cDNA into HBB loci, thus correcting almost all β-globin mutations. The integration was achieved in both HEK 293 cells and isolated dental pulp stem cell (DPSCs). We also showed that DPSCs with an artificial gene knock-in were capable of generating stable six-cell clones and were expandable at least 10 8 -fold; therefore, they may serve as a personalized stem cell factory. In addition, transfection with non-integrated pCAG-hOct4 and culturing in a conditioned medium converted the genome-edited DPSCs to CD34 + HSC-like cells. We believe that this approach may be useful for the treatment of β-globin-related diseases, especially the severe form of β-thalassemia.

  15. Characterisation and confirmation of rare beta-thalassaemia mutations in the Malay, Chinese and Indian ethnic groups in Malaysia. (United States)

    Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne; Chin, Pui See; Wong, Yean Ching; Tan, Kim Lian; Chan, Lee Lee; George, Elizabeth


    In Malaysia, about 4.5% of the Malay and Chinese populations are heterozygous carriers of beta-thalassaemia. The initial identification of rare beta-globin gene mutations by genomic sequencing will allow the development of simpler and cost-effective PCR-based techniques to complement the existing amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) and gap-PCR used for the identification of beta-thalassaemia mutations. DNA from 173 beta-thalassaemia carriers and five beta-thalassaemia major patients from the Malay, Chinese and Indian ethnic groups were first analysed by ARMS and gap-PCR. Ninety-five per cent (174/183) of the 183 beta-globin genes studied were characterised using these two techiques. The remaining nine uncharacterised beta-globin genes (4.9%) were analysed using genomic sequencing of a 904 bp amplified PCR product consisting of the promoter region, exon 1, intervening sequence (IVS) 1, exon 2 and the 5' IVS2 regions of the beta-globin gene. The rare beta-globin mutations detected in the Chinese patients were CD27/28 (+C) and CD43 (GAG-TAG), and -88 (C-T) in an Indian patient. Beta-globin mutations at CD16 (-C), IVS1-1 (G-A), IVS2-1 (G-A), -86 (C-G) and Haemoglobin South Florida (CD1, GTG-ATG) were confirmed in the Malay patients. The seven rare beta-globin mutations and a rare haemoglobin variant confirmed in this study have been described in other populations but have not been previously described in Malaysian beta-thalassemia patients.

  16. Allele specific hybridization using oligonucleotide probes of very high specific activity: Discrimination of the human β/sup A/ and β/sup S/-globin genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studencki, A.B.; Wallace, R.B.


    The repair activity of E. coli DNA polymerase I (Klenow fragment) was used to prepare nonadecanucleotide hybridization probes which were complementary either to the normal human β-globin (β/sup A/) or to the sickle cell human β-globin (β/sup S/) gene. Template directed polymerization of highly radiolabeled α-/sup 32/P-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (3200, 5000 and/or 7800 Ci/mmol) onto nonamer and decamer primers produced probes with specific activities ranging from 1.0 - 2.0 x 10/sup 10/ dpm/μg. The extremely high specific activities of these probes made it possible to detect the β/sup A/ and β/sup S/ single copy gene sequences in as little as 1 μg of total human genomic DNA as well as to discriminate between the homozygous and heterozygous states. This means that it was possible to detect 0.5 - 1.0 x 10/sup -18/ moles of a given single copy sequence

  17. Hb Dartmouth (HBA2: c.200T>C): An α2-Globin Gene Associated with Hb H Disease in One Homozygous Patient. (United States)

    Farashi, Samaneh; Faramarzi Garous, Negin; Ashki, Mehri; Vakili, Shadi; Zeinali, Fatemah; Imanian, Hashem; Azarkeivan, Azita; Najmabadi, Hossein


    Hb H (β4) disease is caused by deletion or inactivation of three out of four α-globin genes. A high incidence of Hb H disease has been reported all over the world. There is a wide spectrum of phenotypic presentations, from clinically asymptomatic to having significant hepatosplenomegaly and requiring occasional or even regular blood transfusions, even more severe anemia, Hb Bart's (γ4) hydrops fetalis syndrome that can cause death in the affected fetuses late in gestation. We here present a case who was diagnosed with Hb H disease that represents a new genotype for this hereditary disorder. Hb Dartmouth is a variant caused by a missense mutation at codon 66 of the α2-globin gene (HBA2: c.200T>C), resulting in the substitution of leucine by proline. We here emphasize the importance of this point mutation involving Hb H disease and also the necessity for prenatal diagnosis (PND) for those who carry this point mutation in the heterozygous state.

  18. Co-inheritance of the rare β hemoglobin variants Hb Yaounde, Hb Görwihl and Hb City of Hope with other alterations in globin genes: impact in genetic counseling. (United States)

    Vinciguerra, Margherita; Passarello, Cristina; Leto, Filippo; Cassarà, Filippo; Cannata, Monica; Maggio, Aurelio; Giambona, Antonino


    Nearly 1183 different molecular defects of the globin genes leading to hemoglobin variants have been identified ( over the past decades. The purpose of this study was to report three cases, never described in the literature, of co-inheritance of three β hemoglobin variants with other alterations in globin genes and to evaluate the clinical significance to conduct an appropriate genetic counseling. We report the molecular study performed in three probands and their families, sampling during the screening program conducted at the Laboratory for Molecular Prenatal Diagnosis of Hemoglobinopathies at Villa Sofia-Cervello Hospital in Palermo, Italy. This work allowed us to describe the co-inheritance of three rare β hemoglobin variants with other alterations in globin genes: the β hemoglobin variant Hb Yaounde [β134(H12)Val>Ala], found for the first time in combination with ααα(anti3.7) arrangement, and the β hemoglobin variants Hb Görwihl [β5(A2)Pro>Ala] and Hb City of Hope [β69(E13)Gly>Ser], found both in association with β(0) -thalassemia. The present work emphasizes the importance of a careful evaluation of the hematological data, especially in cases of atypical hematological parameters, to carry out an adequate and complete molecular study and to formulate an appropriate genetic counseling for couples at risk. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Clusters of conserved beta cell marker genes for assessment of beta cell phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Geert A; Jiang, Lei; Hellemans, Karine H


    The aim of this study was to establish a gene expression blueprint of pancreatic beta cells conserved from rodents to humans and to evaluate its applicability to assess shifts in the beta cell differentiated state. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of isolated beta cells were compared to those...... of a large panel of other tissue and cell types, and transcripts with beta cell-abundant and -selective expression were identified. Iteration of this analysis in mouse, rat and human tissues generated a panel of conserved beta cell biomarkers. This panel was then used to compare isolated versus laser capture...

  20. Rare and unexpected beta thalassemic mutations in Qazvin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About 13 beta-globin mutations encompass 70 - 90% of mutation spectrum in Iran. These mutations are called common beta-globin mutations. The rest are rare or unknown mutations. The objective of this study was to identify and describe rare or unknown beta-globin mutations in Qazvin province. EDTAcontaining venous ...

  1. Rare and unexpected beta thalassemic mutations in Qazvin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 4, 2010 ... About 13 beta-globin mutations encompass 70 - 90% of mutation spectrum in Iran. These mutations are called common beta-globin mutations. The rest are rare or unknown mutations. The objective of this study was to identify and describe rare or unknown beta-globin mutations in Qazvin province. EDTA-.

  2. Chromatin loops, gene positioning, and gene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, S.; de Laat, W.


    Technological developments and intense research over the last years have led to a better understanding of the 3D structure of the genome and its influence on genome function inside the cell nucleus. We will summarize topological studies performed on four model gene loci: the alpha- and beta-globin

  3. Detection in a Japanese population of a length polymorphism in the 5' flanking region of the human β-globin gene with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Noria; Hiyama, Keiko; Kodaira, Mieko; Satoh, Chiyoko


    An analysis of the ATTTT repeat polymorphism located approximately 1,400 base pairs upstream from the β-globin structural gene was carried out by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of RNA:DNA duplexes. Genomic or cloned DNAs were digested with restriction enzymes and hybridized with 32 P-labeled RNA probes, and resulting RNA:DNA duplexes were examined by DGGE. A difference in the number of repeat units was recognized by differences in duplex mobility on the DGGE gel. In this study of 81 unrelated Japanese from Hiroshima, a sequence heteromorphism was observed at this site. Alleles with 5 and 6 repeats of the ATTTT unit, which had already been reported, were found in polymorphic proportions. In addition, two unreported alleles, one having 7 repeats and the other having an A-to-G nucleotide substitution in the 5th repeat, were detected. Family study data showed that the segregation of these four types of variants is consistent with an autosomal codominant mode of inheritance. This study also demonstrated that DGGE of RNA:DNA duplexes is a sensitive tool for detecting variations in DNA. (author)

  4. Clusters of conserved beta cell marker genes for assessment of beta cell phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Geert A; Jiang, Lei; Hellemans, Karine H


    The aim of this study was to establish a gene expression blueprint of pancreatic beta cells conserved from rodents to humans and to evaluate its applicability to assess shifts in the beta cell differentiated state. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of isolated beta cells were compared to those...... of a large panel of other tissue and cell types, and transcripts with beta cell-abundant and -selective expression were identified. Iteration of this analysis in mouse, rat and human tissues generated a panel of conserved beta cell biomarkers. This panel was then used to compare isolated versus laser capture...... microdissected beta cells, monitor adaptations of the beta cell phenotype to fasting, and retrieve possible conserved transcriptional regulators....

  5. Hemoglobin alpha 2 gene +861 G>A polymorphism in Turkish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder which is divided into two groups: alpha and beta. HBA1 and HBA2 are the two genes associated with alpha thalassemia. The aim of this study is to investigate abnormal hemoglobin variants of alpha globin gene in healthy abnormal hemoglobin carrying individuals with intact beta ...

  6. Investigating alpha-globin structural variants: a retrospective review of 135,000 Brazilian individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Miyuki Kimura


    Full Text Available Background: Brazil has a multiethnic population with a high diversity of hemoglobinopathies. While screenings for beta-globin mutations are far more common, alterations affecting alpha-globin genes are usually more silent and less well known. The aim of this study was to describe the results of a screening program for alpha-globin gene mutations in a representative sample of the Southeastern Brazilian population. Methods: A total of 135,000 individuals, including patients with clinical suspicion of hemoglobinopathies and their family members, randomly chosen individuals submitted to blood tests and blood donors who were abnormal hemoglobin carriers were analyzed. The variants were screened by alkaline and acid electrophoreses, isoelectric focusing and cation-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and the abnormal chains were investigated by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. Mutations were identified by molecular analyses, and the oxygen affinity, heme-heme cooperativity and Bohr effect of the variants were evaluated by functional tests. Results: Four new and 22 rare variants were detected in 98 families. Some of these variants were found in co-inheritance with other hemoglobinopathies. Of the rare hemoglobins, Hasharon, Stanleyville II and J-Rovigo were the most common, the first two being S-like and associated with alpha-thalassemia. Conclusion: The variability of alpha-globin alterations reflects the high degree of racial miscegenation and an intense internal migratory flow between different Brazilian regions. This diversity highlights the importance of programs for diagnosing hemoglobinopathies and preventing combinations that may lead to important clinical manifestations in multiethnic populations.

  7. A dominant control region from the human β-globin locus conferring integration site-independent gene expression.


    Talbot, D.; Collis, P.; Antoniou, Michael; Vidal, M.; Grosveld, Frank; Greaves, David


    textabstractThe regulatory elements that determine the expression pattern of a number of eukaryotic genes expressed specifically in certain tissues have been defined and studied in detail. In general, however, the expression conferred by these elements on genes reintroduced into the genomes of cell lines and transgenic animals has turned out to be at a low level relative to that of endogenous genes, and influenced by the chromosomal site of insertion of the exogenous construct. We have previo...

  8. A dominant control region from the human β-globin locus conferring integration site-independent gene expression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Talbot; P. Collis; M. Antoniou (Michael); M. Vidal; F.G. Grosveld (Frank); D.R. Greaves (David)


    textabstractThe regulatory elements that determine the expression pattern of a number of eukaryotic genes expressed specifically in certain tissues have been defined and studied in detail. In general, however, the expression conferred by these elements on genes reintroduced into the genomes of cell

  9. Interleukin-1beta gene polymorphisms in Taiwanese patients with gout. (United States)

    Chen, Man-Ling; Huang, Chung-Ming; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Tsai, Fuu-Jen


    The purpose of this study was to examine whether interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) promoter and exon 5 gene polymorphisms are markers of susceptibility or clinical manifestations in Taiwanese patients with gout. The study included 196 patients in addition to 103 unrelated healthy control subjects living in central Taiwan. From genomic DNA, polymorphisms of the gene for IL-1beta promoter and IL-1beta exon 5 were typed. Allelic frequencies were compared between the two groups, and the relationship between allelic frequencies and clinical manifestations of gout was evaluated. No significant differences were observed in the allelic frequencies of the IL-1beta promoter between patients with gout and healthy control subjects. Additionally, we did not detect any association of the IL-1beta promoter genotype with the clinical and laboratory profiles of gout patients. However, there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of hypertriglyceridemia (P=0.0004, chi(2)=12.52, OR 7.14, 95%CI 0.012-0.22). There was also a significant difference in the genotype of IL-1beta exon 5 polymorphism between patients with and without hypertriglyceridemia. Results of the present study suggest that polymorphisms of the IL-1beta promoter and IL-1beta exon 5 are not related to gout patients in central Taiwan.

  10. Gene Therapy Approaches to Hemoglobinopathies. (United States)

    Ferrari, Giuliana; Cavazzana, Marina; Mavilio, Fulvio


    Gene therapy for hemoglobinopathies is currently based on transplantation of autologous hematopoietic stem cells genetically modified with a lentiviral vector expressing a globin gene under the control of globin transcriptional regulatory elements. Preclinical and early clinical studies showed the safety and potential efficacy of this therapeutic approach as well as the hurdles still limiting its general application. In addition, for both beta-thalassemia and sickle cell disease, an altered bone marrow microenvironment reduces the efficiency of stem cell harvesting as well as engraftment. These hurdles need be addressed for gene therapy for hemoglobinopathies to become a clinical reality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Double heterozygocity for hemoglobin C and beta thalassemia dominant: A rare case of thalassemia intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Agapidou


    Full Text Available Beta thalassemia dominant results from mutations in the β globin chain gene resulting in the production of elongated, highly unstable beta globin chains. Several such mutations have been described and in a heterozygous state they may confer a phenotype more severe than that of β thalassemia trait and lead to a clinical syndrome of thalassemia intermedia and its associated complications such as extramedullary hemopoiesis, bone disease, endocrinopathies and iron overload even in the absence of transfusion. In this report we present a case of double heterozygocity for HbC and β thalassemia dominant leading to a series of complications that were treated successfully once the correct diagnosis was made.

  12. Crosstalk between histone modifications maintains the developmental pattern of gene expression on a tissue-specific locus. (United States)

    Hosey, Alison M; Chaturvedi, Chandra-Prakash; Brand, Marjorie


    Genome wide studies have provided a wealth of information related to histone modifications. Particular modifications, which can encompass both broad and discrete regions, are associated with certain genomic elements and gene expression status. Here we focus on how studies on the beta-globin gene cluster can complement the genome wide effort through the thorough dissection of histone modifying protein crosstalk. The beta-globin locus serves as a model system to study both regulation of gene expression driven at a distance by enhancers and mechanisms of developmental switching of clustered genes. We investigate recent studies, which uncover that histone methyltransferases, recruited at the beta-globin enhancer, control gene expression by long range propagation on chromatin. Specifically, we focus on how seemingly antagonistic complexes, such as those including MLL2, G9a and UTX, can cooperate to functionally regulate developmentally controlled gene expression. Finally, we speculate on the mechanisms of chromatin modifying complex propagation on genomic domains.

  13. Beta-Glucan Synthase Gene Expression in Pleurotus sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar Mohamad; Nie, H.J.


    Pleurotus sp. is a popular edible mushroom, containing various functional component, in particular, Beta-glucan. Beta-glucans is a part of glucan family of polysaccharides and supposedly contribute to medicinal and nutritional value of Pleurotus.sp. In order to understand the distribution of Beta-glucan in Pleurotus.sp, the Beta-glucan synthase gene expression was determined and compared in different part of Pleurotus, namely mycelium, stripe and cap. The Pleurotus.sp RNA was extracted using commercial kit, employing Tissuelyser ll (Qiagen, USA) to disrupt the cell walls. Then the RNA was quantified by Nano drop (Thermo Fisher, USA) and visualized using denaturing agarose gel. RNA with good OD 260.280 reading (∼2.0) was chosen and converted to cDNA. Using Laccase synthase gene as home keeping gene, Beta-glucan synthase gene expression was quantified using CFX 96 Real Time PCR detection system (Biorad, USA). Preliminary result shows that Beta-glucan synthase was relatively expressed the most in stripe, followed by mycelium and barely in cap. (author)

  14. The role of fetal adrenal hormones in the switch from fetal to adult globin synthesis in the sheep. (United States)

    Wintour, E M; Smith, M B; Bell, R J; McDougall, J G; Cauchi, M N


    The switch from gamma (fetal) to beta (adult) globin production was studied by the analysis of globin synthesis in chronically cannulated ovine fetuses and newborn lambs. The gamma/alpha globin synthesis ratio decreased from 0.98 +/- 0.11 (S.D.) (n = 4 samples) at 100-120 days of gestation to 0.15 +/- 0.07 (n = 4) in lambs of 150-156 days post-conception, and the beta/alpha synthesis ratio increased from 0.04 +/- 0.06 (n = 4) to 1.13 +/- 0.21 (n = 4) over the same period. In bilaterally adrenalectomized fetuses, which survived in utero until 151-156 days, the gamma/alpha and beta/alpha synthesis ratios were 0.64 +/- 0.14 (n = 3) and 0.25 +/- 0.07 (n = 3) respectively in the 150- to 156-day period. Bilateral adrenalectomy did not affect the time of onset of beta globin synthesis, but significantly decreased the rate. In one bilaterally adrenalectomized fetus the infusion of increasing concentrations of cortisol restored the rate of beta globin synthesis to normal. Treatment of three intact fetuses with 100 micrograms cortisol/h for 3 weeks, from 100 to 121 days, did not affect the timing or rate of switch from gamma to beta globin synthesis. Thus fetal adrenal secretions, probably cortisol, affected the rate of change of gamma to beta globin synthesis but other factors must have been involved in the initiation of the switch.

  15. Structural analysis of the 5' flanking region of the β-globin gene in African sickle cell anemia patients: Further evidence for three origins of the sickle cell mutation in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebloune, Y.; Pagnier, J.; Trabuchet, G.; Faure, C.; Verdier, G.; Labie, D.; Nigon, V.


    Haplotype analysis of the β-globin gene cluster shows two regions of DNA characterized by nonrandom association of restriction site polymorphisms. These regions are separated by a variable segment containing the repeated sequences (ATTTT) n and (AT) x T y , which might be involved in recombinational events. Studies of haplotypes linked to the sickle cell gene in Africa provide strong argument for three origins of the mutation: Benin, Senegal, and the Central African Republic. The structure of the variable segment in the three African populations was studied by S1 nuclease mapping of genomic DNA, which allows a comparison of several samples. A 1080-base-pair DNA segment was sequenced for one sample from each population. S1 nuclease mapping confirmed the homogeneity of each population with regard to both (ATTTT) n and (AT) x T y repeats. The authors found three additional structures for (AT) x T y correlating with the geographic origin of the patients. Ten other nucleotide positions, 5' and 3' to the (AT) x T y copies, were found to be variable when compared to homologous sequences from human and monkey DNAs. These results allow us to propose an evolutionary scheme for the polymorphisms in the 5' flanking region of the β-globin gene. The results strongly support the hypothesis of three origins for the sickle mutation in Africa

  16. Beta thalassemia - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Jha


    Full Text Available Thalassemia is a globin gene disorder that results in a diminished rate of synthesis of one or more of the globin chains. About 1.5% of the global population (80 to 90 million people are carriers of beta Thalassemia. More than 200 mutations are described in beta thalassemia. However not all mutations are common in different ethnic groups. The only effective way to reduce burden of thalassemia is to prevent birth of homozygotes. Diagnosis of beta thalassemia can be done by fetal DNA analysis for molecular defects of beta thalassemia or by fetal blood analysis. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only available curative approach for Thalassemia. Many patients with thalassemia in underdeveloped nations die in childhood or adolescence. Programs that provide acceptable care, including transfusion of safe blood and supportive therapy including chelation must be established.DOI: Journal of Pathology of Nepal; Vol.4,No. 8 (2014 663-671

  17. Molecular phylogeny of ateline new world monkeys (Platyrrhini, atelinae) based on gamma-globin gene sequences: evidence that brachyteles is the sister group of lagothrix. (United States)

    Meireles, C M; Czelusniak, J; Schneider, M P; Muniz, J A; Brigido, M C; Ferreira, H S; Goodman, M


    Nucleotide sequences, each spanning approximately 7 kb of the contiguous gamma1 and gamma2 globin genomic loci, were determined for seven species representing all extant genera (Ateles, Lagothrix, Brachyteles, and Alouatta) of the New World monkey subfamily Atelinae. After aligning these seven ateline sequences with outgroup sequences from several other primate (non-ateline) genera, they were analyzed by maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and neighbor-joining algorithms. All three analyzes estimated the same phylogenetic relationships: [Alouatta [Ateles (Brachyteles, Lagothrix)

  18. RFLP for the human retinoic acid receptor gene RAR-. beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datson, N A; Oostra, B A [Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands); van der Saag, P T [Netherlands Institute for Developmental Biology, Utrecht (Netherlands)


    1.4 kb Mae I fragment containing the entire RAR-{beta} ORF was cloned into the Sma I site of pTZ18U, yielding the plasmid pCOD20. Msp I digestion of genomic DNA and hybridization with the pCOD20 probe detects a two allele polymorphism with allelic fragments of 8.1 and 7.7 kb. The human RAR-{beta} gene has been localized to the p24 band of chromosome 3. Co-dominant segregation of the alleles was observed in 4 Caucasian families.

  19. Gene expression analysis of interferon-beta treatment in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellebjerg, F.; Datta, P.; Larsen, J.


    by treatment with IFN-beta. We use DNA microarrays to study gene expression in 10 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients who began de novo treatment with IFN-beta. After the first injection of IFN-beta, the expression of 74 out of 3428 genes changed at least two-fold and statistically significantly (after Bonferroni......Treatment with interferon-beta (IFN-beta) induces the expression of hundreds of genes in blood mononuclear cells, and the expression of several genes has been proposed as a marker of the effect of treatment with IFN-beta. However, to date no molecules have been identified that are stably induced...

  20. Hemoglobin alpha 2 gene +861 G>A polymorphism in Turkish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dilay Ciglidag Dungul

    carrying individuals with intact beta globin gene. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood sam- ples of seven healthy carrier individuals who have abnormal hemoglobin variants and 16 control individuals from Turkey. Complete coding and intronic sequences of HBA1 and HBA2 genes were amplified by polymerase chain ...

  1. Characterization of histone H3K27 modifications in the β-globin locus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yea Woon; Kim, AeRi


    Research highlights: → The β-globin locus control region is hyperacetylated and monomethylated at histone H3K27. → Highly transcribed globin genes are marked by H3K27ac, but H3K27me2 is remarkable at silent globin genes in erythroid K562 cells. → Association of PRC2 subunits is comparable with H3K27me3 pattern. → Modifications of histone H3K27 are established in an enhancer-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Histone H3K27 is acetylated or methylated in the environment of nuclear chromatin. Here, to characterize the modification pattern of H3K27 in locus control region (LCR) and to understand the correlation of various H3K27 modifications with transcriptional activity of genes, we analyzed the human β-globin locus using the ChIP assay. The LCR of the human β-globin locus was enriched by H3K27ac and H3K27me1 in erythroid K562 cells. The highly transcribed globin genes were hyperacetylated at H3K27, but the repressed globin genes were highly dimethylated at this lysine in these cells. However, in non-erythroid 293FT cells, the β-globin locus was marked by a high level of H3K27me3. EZH2 and SUZ12, subunits of polycomb repressive complex 2, were comparably detected with the H3K27me3 pattern in K562 and 293FT cells. In addition, H3K27ac, H3K27me1 and H3K27me3 were established in an enhancer-dependent manner in a model minichromosomal locus containing an enhancer and its target gene. Taken together, these results show that H3K27 modifications have distinctive correlations with the chromatin state or transcription level of genes and are influenced by an enhancer.

  2. Human amyloid beta protein gene locus: HaeIII RFLP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J E; Gonzalez-DeWhitt, P A; Fuller, F; Cordell, B; Frossard, P M [California Biotechnology Inc., Mountain View (USA); Tinklenberg, J R; Davies, H D; Eng, L F; Yesavage, J A [Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA (USA)


    A 2.2 kb EcoRI-EcoRI fragment from the 5{prime} end of the human amyloid beta protein cDNA was isolated from a human fibroblast cDNA library and subcloned into pGEM3. HaeIII (GGCC) detects 6 invariant bands at 0.5 kb, 1.0 kb, 1.1 kb, 1.3 kb, 1.4 kb and 1.6 kb and a two-allele polymorphism with bands at either 1.9 kb or 2.1 kb. Its frequency was studied in 50 North Americans. Human amyloid beta protein gene mapped to the long arm of chromosome 21 (21q11.2-21q21) by Southern blot analysis of human-rodent somatic cell hybrids. Co-dominant segregation was observed in two families (15 individuals).

  3. Regulation of laminin beta2 chain gene expression in human cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durkin, M E; Nielsen, F C; Loechel, F


    of the human laminin beta2 chain gene generates two isoforms of the 5' untranslated region of the beta2 chain mRNA. The translational efficiencies of the two laminin beta2 chain leaders did not differ significantly, when assayed by polysome profile analysis of endogenous clone A cell beta2 chain m......RNA, transient transfection of chimeric beta2 chain leader/luciferase expression plasmids in clone A cells, and translation of in vitro synthesized RNAs in rabbit reticulocyte lysates....

  4. Ins1 Cre knock-in mice for beta cell-specific gene recombination


    Thorens Bernard; Tarussio David; Maestro Miguel Angel; Maestro Miguel Angel; Rovira Meritxell; Rovira Meritxell; Heikkilä Eija; Ferrer Jorge; Ferrer Jorge; Ferrer Jorge


    Aims/hypothesis Pancreatic beta cells play a central role in the control of glucose homeostasis by secreting insulin to stimulate glucose uptake by peripheral tissues. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that control beta cell function and plasticity has critical implications for the pathophysiology and therapy of major forms of diabetes. Selective gene inactivation in pancreatic beta cells, using the Cre-lox system, is a powerful approach to assess the role of particular genes in beta cel...

  5. Differentiation of the mRNA transcripts originating from the alpha 1- and alpha 2-globin loci in normals and alpha-thalassemics.


    Liebhaber, S A; Kan, Y W


    The alpha-globin polypeptide is encoded by two adjacent genes, alpha 1 and alpha 2. In the normal diploid state (alpha alpha/alpha alpha) all four alpha-globin genes are expressed. Loss or dysfunction of one or more of these genes leads to deficient alpha-globin production and results in alpha-thalassemia. We present a technique to differentially assess the steady-state levels of the alpha 1- and alpha-2-globin messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts and thus delineate the relative level of expressi...

  6. Therapeutic γ-globin inducers reduce transcriptional repression in hemoglobinopathy erythroid progenitors through distinct mechanisms (United States)

    Dai, Yan; Sangerman, Jose; Hong, Yuan Luo; Fuchareon, Suthat; Chui, David H.K.; Faller, Douglas V.; Perrine, Susan P.


    Pharmacologic augmentation of γ-globin expression sufficient to reduce anemia and clinical severity in patients with diverse hemoglobinopathies has been challenging. In studies here, representative molecules from four chemical classes, representing several distinct primary mechanisms of action, were investigated for effects on γ-globin transcriptional repressors, including components of the NuRD complex (LSD1 and HDACs 2-3), and the downstream repressor BCL11A, in erythroid progenitors from hemoglobinopathy patients. Two HDAC inhibitors (MS-275 and SB939), a short-chain fatty acid derivative (sodium dimethylbutyrate [SDMB]), and an agent identified in high-throughput screening, Benserazide, were studied. These therapeutics induced γ globin mRNA in progenitors above same subject controls up to 20-fold, and increased F-reticulocytes up to 20%. Cellular protein levels of BCL11A, LSD-1, and KLF1 were suppressed by the compounds. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated a 3.6-fold reduction in LSD1 and HDAC3 occupancy in the γ-globin gene promoter with Benserazide exposure, 3-fold reduction in LSD-1 and HDAC2 occupancy in the γ-globin gene promoter with SDMB exposure, while markers of gene activation (histone H3K9 acetylation and H3K4 demethylation), were enriched 5.7-fold. These findings identify clinical-stage oral therapeutics which inhibit or displace major co-repressors of γ-globin gene transcription and may suggest a rationale for combination therapy to produce enhanced efficacy. PMID:26603726

  7. Variation in RNA-Seq transcriptome profiles of peripheral whole blood from healthy individuals with and without globin depletion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heesun Shin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The molecular profile of circulating blood can reflect physiological and pathological events occurring in other tissues and organs of the body and delivers a comprehensive view of the status of the immune system. Blood has been useful in studying the pathobiology of many diseases. It is accessible and easily collected making it ideally suited to the development of diagnostic biomarker tests. The blood transcriptome has a high complement of globin RNA that could potentially saturate next-generation sequencing platforms, masking lower abundance transcripts. Methods to deplete globin mRNA are available, but their effect has not been comprehensively studied in peripheral whole blood RNA-Seq data. In this study we aimed to assess technical variability associated with globin depletion in addition to assessing general technical variability in RNA-Seq from whole blood derived samples. RESULTS: We compared technical and biological replicates having undergone globin depletion or not and found that the experimental globin depletion protocol employed removed approximately 80% of globin transcripts, improved the correlation of technical replicates, allowed for reliable detection of thousands of additional transcripts and generally increased transcript abundance measures. Differential expression analysis revealed thousands of genes significantly up-regulated as a result of globin depletion. In addition, globin depletion resulted in the down-regulation of genes involved in both iron and zinc metal ion bonding. CONCLUSIONS: Globin depletion appears to meaningfully improve the quality of peripheral whole blood RNA-Seq data, and may improve our ability to detect true biological variation. Some concerns remain, however. Key amongst them the significant reduction in RNA yields following globin depletion. More generally, our investigation of technical and biological variation with and without globin depletion finds that high-throughput sequencing by RNA

  8. A membrane-bound vertebrate globin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Blank

    Full Text Available The family of vertebrate globins includes hemoglobin, myoglobin, and other O(2-binding proteins of yet unclear functions. Among these, globin X is restricted to fish and amphibians. Zebrafish (Danio rerio globin X is expressed at low levels in neurons of the central nervous system and appears to be associated with the sensory system. The protein harbors a unique N-terminal extension with putative N-myristoylation and S-palmitoylation sites, suggesting membrane-association. Intracellular localization and transport of globin X was studied in 3T3 cells employing green fluorescence protein fusion constructs. Both myristoylation and palmitoylation sites are required for correct targeting and membrane localization of globin X. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a vertebrate globin has been identified as component of the cell membrane. Globin X has a hexacoordinate binding scheme and displays cooperative O(2 binding with a variable affinity (P(50∼1.3-12.5 torr, depending on buffer conditions. A respiratory function of globin X is unlikely, but analogous to some prokaryotic membrane-globins it may either protect the lipids in cell membrane from oxidation or may act as a redox-sensing or signaling protein.

  9. Beta-cell lines derived from transgenic mice expressing a hybrid insulin gene-oncogene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efrat, S; Linde, S; Kofod, Hans


    Three pancreatic beta-cell lines have been established from insulinomas derived from transgenic mice carrying a hybrid insulin-promoted simian virus 40 tumor antigen gene. The beta tumor cell (beta TC) lines maintain the features of differentiated beta cells for about 50 passages in culture. The ...... both to immortalize a rare cell type and to provide a selection for the maintenance of its differentiated phenotype....

  10. Current and future alternative therapies for beta-thalassemia major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edouard de Dreuzy


    Full Text Available Beta-thalassemia is a group of frequent genetic disorders resulting in the synthesis of little or no β-globin chains. Novel approaches are being developed to correct the resulting α/β-globin chain imbalance, in an effort to move beyond the palliative management of this disease and the complications of its treatment (e.g. life-long red blood cell transfusion, iron chelation, splenectomy, which impose high costs on healthcare systems. Three approaches are envisaged: fetal globin gene reactivation by pharmacological compounds injected into patients throughout their lives, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT, and gene therapy. HSCT is currently the only treatment shown to provide an effective, definitive cure for β-thalassemia. However, this procedure remains risky and histocompatible donors are identified for only a small fraction of patients. New pharmacological compounds are being tested, but none has yet made it into common clinical practice for the treatment of beta-thalassemia major. Gene therapy is in the experimental phase. It is emerging as a powerful approach without the immunological complications of HSCT, but with other possible drawbacks. Rapid progress is being made in this field, and long-term efficacy and safety studies are underway.

  11. Understanding the mechanisms of ATPase beta family genes for cellular thermotolerance in crossbred bulls. (United States)

    Deb, Rajib; Sajjanar, Basavaraj; Singh, Umesh; Alex, Rani; Raja, T V; Alyethodi, Rafeeque R; Kumar, Sushil; Sengar, Gyanendra; Sharma, Sheetal; Singh, Rani; Prakash, B


    Na+/K+-ATPase is an integral membrane protein composed of a large catalytic subunit (alpha), a smaller glycoprotein subunit (beta), and gamma subunit. The beta subunit is essential for ion recognition as well as maintenance of the membrane integrity. Present study was aimed to analyze the expression pattern of ATPase beta subunit genes (ATPase B1, ATPase B2, and ATPase B3) among the crossbred bulls under different ambient temperatures (20-44 °C). The present study was also aimed to look into the relationship of HSP70 with the ATPase beta family genes. Our results demonstrated that among beta family genes, transcript abundance of ATPase B1 and ATPase B2 is significantly (P ATPase Β1, ATPase B2, and ATPase B3 is highly correlated (P ATPase beta family genes for cellular thermotolerance in cattle.

  12. Improved hematopoietic differentiation efficiency of gene-corrected beta-thalassemia induced pluripotent stem cells by CRISPR/Cas9 system. (United States)

    Song, Bing; Fan, Yong; He, Wenyin; Zhu, Detu; Niu, Xiaohua; Wang, Ding; Ou, Zhanhui; Luo, Min; Sun, Xiaofang


    The generation of beta-thalassemia (β-Thal) patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), subsequent homologous recombination-based gene correction of disease-causing mutations/deletions in the β-globin gene (HBB), and their derived hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation offers an ideal therapeutic solution for treating this disease. However, the hematopoietic differentiation efficiency of gene-corrected β-Thal iPSCs has not been well evaluated in the previous studies. In this study, we used the latest gene-editing tool, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9), to correct β-Thal iPSCs; gene-corrected cells exhibit normal karyotypes and full pluripotency as human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) showed no off-targeting effects. Then, we evaluated the differentiation efficiency of the gene-corrected β-Thal iPSCs. We found that during hematopoietic differentiation, gene-corrected β-Thal iPSCs showed an increased embryoid body ratio and various hematopoietic progenitor cell percentages. More importantly, the gene-corrected β-Thal iPSC lines restored HBB expression and reduced reactive oxygen species production compared with the uncorrected group. Our study suggested that hematopoietic differentiation efficiency of β-Thal iPSCs was greatly improved once corrected by the CRISPR/Cas9 system, and the information gained from our study would greatly promote the clinical application of β-Thal iPSC-derived HSCs in transplantation.

  13. Expression profiling of genes regulated by TGF-beta: Differential regulation in normal and tumour cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi Takashi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background TGF-beta is one of the key cytokines implicated in various disease processes including cancer. TGF-beta inhibits growth and promotes apoptosis in normal epithelial cells and in contrast, acts as a pro-tumour cytokine by promoting tumour angiogenesis, immune-escape and metastasis. It is not clear if various actions of TGF-beta on normal and tumour cells are due to differential gene regulations. Hence we studied the regulation of gene expression by TGF-beta in normal and cancer cells. Results Using human 19 K cDNA microarrays, we show that 1757 genes are exclusively regulated by TGF-beta in A549 cells in contrast to 733 genes exclusively regulated in HPL1D cells. In addition, 267 genes are commonly regulated in both the cell-lines. Semi-quantitative and real-time qRT-PCR analysis of some genes agrees with the microarray data. In order to identify the signalling pathways that influence TGF-beta mediated gene regulation, we used specific inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase, ERK kinase, JNK kinase and integrin signalling pathways. The data suggest that regulation of majority of the selected genes is dependent on at least one of these pathways and this dependence is cell-type specific. Interestingly, an integrin pathway inhibitor, RGD peptide, significantly affected TGF-beta regulation of Thrombospondin 1 in A549 cells. Conclusion These data suggest major differences with respect to TGF-beta mediated gene regulation in normal and transformed cells and significant role of non-canonical TGF-beta pathways in the regulation of many genes by TGF-beta.

  14. The effect of globin scaffold on osteoblast adhesion and phenotype expression in vitro. (United States)

    Hamdan, Ahmad A; Loty, Sabine; Isaac, Juliane; Tayot, Jean-Louis; Bouchard, Philippe; Khraisat, Ameen; Bedral, Ariane; Sautier, Jean-Michel


    Different synthetic and natural biomaterials have been used in bone tissue regeneration. However, several limitations are associated with the use of synthetic as well as allogenous or xenogenous natural materials. This study evaluated, in an in vitro model, the behavior of rat osteoblastic cells cultured on a human globin scaffold. Rat osteoblastic cells were isolated from the calvaria of 21-day-old fetal Sprague-Dawley rats. They were then grown in the presence of globin. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to study the expression of cyclin D1, integrin Β1, Msx2, Dlx5, Runx2, and osteocalcin on days 1, 5, and 9. Moreover, alkaline phosphatase activity was measured on days 1, 3, 5, and 7. Alizarin red staining was performed on day 9 to observe calcium deposition. Cells were able to adhere, proliferate, and differentiate on globin scaffolds. Moreover, RT-PCR showed that globin may stimulate some key genes of osteoblastic differentiation (Runx2, osteocalcin, Dlx5). Globin had an inhibitory effect on alkaline phosphatase activity. Calcium deposits were seen after 9 days of culture. These results indicate that purified human globin might be a suitable scaffold for bone tissue regeneration.

  15. A randomized Phase I/II Trial of HQK-1001, an oral fetal globin gene inducer, in β–thalassaemia intermedia and HbE/β–thalassaemia (United States)

    Fucharoen, Suthat; Inati, Adlette; Siritanaratku, Noppadol; Thein, Swee Lay; Wargin, William C.; Koussa, Suzanne; Taher, Ali; Chaneim, Nattawara; Boosalis, Michael; Berenson, Ronald; Perrine, Susan P.


    β–thalassemia intermedia syndromes (BTI) cause hemolytic anemia, ineffective erythropoiesis, and widespread complications. Higher fetal globin expression within genotypes reduces globin imbalance and ameliorates anemia. Sodium 2,2 dimethylbutyrate (HQK-1001), an orally bioavailable short-chain fatty acid derivative, induces γ-globin expression experimentally and is well-tolerated in normal subjects. Accordingly, a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled, Phase I/II trial was performed in 21 adult BTI patients (14 with HbE/β0 thalassemia and 7 with β+/β0 thalassemia intermedia, to determine effective doses for fetal globin induction, safety, and tolerability. HQK-1001 or placebo were administered once daily for 8 weeks at four dose levels (10, 20, 30, or 40 mg/kg/day), and subjects were monitored for laboratory and clinical events. Pharmacokinetic profiles demonstrated a t1/2 of 10–12 hours. Adverse events with HQK-1001 treatment were not significantly different from placebo treatment. Median HbF increased with the 20 mg/kg treatment doses above baseline levels by 6.6% and 0.44 g/dL (p <0.01) in 8/9 subjects; total hemoglobin (Hgb) increased by a mean of 1.1 gm/dL in 4/9 subjects. These findings identify a safe oral therapeutic which induces fetal globin in BTI. Further investigation of HQK-1001 with longer dosing to definitively evaluate its hematologic potential appears warranted. PMID:23530969

  16. Sox6 directly silences epsilon globin expression in definitive erythropoiesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Sox6 is a member of the Sox transcription factor family that is defined by the conserved high mobility group (HMG DNA binding domain, first described in the testis determining gene, Sry. Previous studies have suggested that Sox6 plays a role in the development of the central nervous system, cartilage, and muscle. In the Sox6-deficient mouse, p100H, epsilony globin is persistently expressed, and increased numbers of nucleated red cells are present in the fetal circulation. Transfection assays in GM979 (erythroleukemic cells define a 36-base pair region of the epsilony proximal promoter that is critical for Sox6 mediated repression. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays demonstrate that Sox6 acts as a repressor by directly binding to the epsilony promoter. The normal expression of Sox6 in wild-type fetal liver and the ectopic expression of epsilony in p100H homozygous fetal liver demonstrate that Sox6 functions in definitive erythropoiesis. The present study shows that Sox6 is required for silencing of epsilony globin in definitive erythropoiesis and suggests a role for Sox6 in erythroid cell maturation. Thus, Sox6 regulation of epsilony globin might provide a novel therapeutical target in the treatment of hemoglobinopathies such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia.

  17. Activation of the human beta interferon gene by the adenovirus type 12 E1B gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiroki, K.; Toth, M.


    The transcription of endogenous beta interferon mRNA was activated in human embryo kidney (HEK) cells infected with adenovirus 12 (Ad12) but was activated only inefficiently or not at all in HEK cells infected with Ad5 and rc-1 (Ad5 dl312 containing the Ad12 E1A region). The analysis with Ad12 mutants showed that Ad12 E1B products, especially the 19K protein, were important for the expression of the endogenous beta interferon gene and Ad12 E1A products were not involved in the expression. The expression of exogeneously transfected pIFN-CAT (a hybrid plasmid having the human beta interferon promoter fused with the CAT gene) was activated in HEK and chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells infected with either Ad12 or Ad5. The analysis of cotransfection of CEF cells with pIFN-CAT and plasmids containing fragments of Ad12 or Ad5 DNA showed that Ad12 or Ad5 E1B (possibly the 19K protein) was and E1A was not involved in the expression of the exogenous pIFN-CAT

  18. Tumor-produced, active Interleukin-1 {beta} regulates gene expression in carcinoma-associated fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudas, Jozsef, E-mail: [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Fullar, Alexandra, E-mail: [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); 1st Institute of Pathology and Experimental Cancer Research, Semmelweis University, Ulloei ut 26, H-1085 Budapest (Hungary); Bitsche, Mario, E-mail: [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Schartinger, Volker, E-mail: [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Kovalszky, Ilona, E-mail: [1st Institute of Pathology and Experimental Cancer Research, Semmelweis University, Ulloei ut 26, H-1085 Budapest (Hungary); Sprinzl, Georg Mathias, E-mail: [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Riechelmann, Herbert, E-mail: [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)


    Recently we described a co-culture model of periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts and SCC-25 lingual squamous carcinoma cells, which resulted in conversion of normal fibroblasts into carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), and in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of SCC-25 cells. We have found a constitutive high interleukin-1{beta} (IL1-{beta}) expression in SCC-25 cells in normal and in co-cultured conditions. In our hypothesis a constitutive IL1-{beta} expression in SCC-25 regulates gene expression in fibroblasts during co-culture. Co-cultures were performed between PDL fibroblasts and SCC-25 cells with and without dexamethasone (DEX) treatment; IL1-{beta} processing was investigated in SCC-25 cells, tumor cells and PDL fibroblasts were treated with IL1-{beta}. IL1-{beta} signaling was investigated by western blot and immunocytochemistry. IL1-{beta}-regulated genes were analyzed by real-time qPCR. SCC-25 cells produced 16 kD active IL1-{beta}, its receptor was upregulated in PDL fibroblasts during co-culture, which induced phosphorylation of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 (IRAK-1), and nuclear translocalization of NF{kappa}B{alpha}. Several genes, including interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) interleukin-6 (IL-6) and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (COX-2) were induced in CAFs during co-culture. The most enhanced induction was found for IL-6 and COX-2. Treatment of PDL fibroblasts with IL1-{beta} reproduced a time- and dose-dependent upregulation of IL1-receptor, IL-6 and COX-2. A further proof was achieved by DEX inhibition for IL1-{beta}-stimulated IL-6 and COX-2 gene expression. Constitutive expression of IL1-{beta} in the tumor cells leads to IL1-{beta}-stimulated gene expression changes in tumor-associated fibroblasts, which are involved in tumor progression. -- Graphical abstract: SCC-25 cells produce active, processed IL1-{beta}. PDL fibroblasts possess receptor for IL1-{beta}, and its expression is increased 4.56-times in the

  19. High-resolution melting analysis for prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassemia in northern Thailand. (United States)

    Charoenkwan, Pimlak; Sirichotiyakul, Supatra; Phusua, Arunee; Suanta, Sudjai; Fanhchaksai, Kanda; Sae-Tung, Rattika; Sanguansermsri, Torpong


    High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis is a rapid mutation analysis which assesses the pattern of reduction of fluorescence signal after subjecting the amplified PCR product with saturated fluorescence dye to an increasing temperature. We used HRM analysis for prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassemia disease in northern Thailand. Five PCR-HRM protocols were used to detect point mutations in five different segments of the beta-globin gene, and one protocol to detect the 3.4 kb beta-globin deletion. We sought to characterize the mutations in carriers and to enable prenatal diagnosis in 126 couples at risk of having a fetus with beta-thalassemia disease. The protocols identified 18 common mutations causing beta-thalassemia, including the rare codon 132 (A-T) mutation. Each mutation showed a specific HRM pattern and all results were in concordance with those from direct DNA sequencing or gap-PCR methods. In cases of beta-thalassemia disease resulting from homozygosity for a mutation or compound heterozygosity for two mutations on the same amplified segment, the HRM patterns were different to those of a single mutation and were specific for each combination. HRM analysis is a simple and useful method for mutation identification in beta-thalassemia carriers and prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassemia in northern Thailand.

  20. Gamma reactivation using the spongy effect of KLF1-binding site sequence: an approach in gene therapy for beta-thalassemia (United States)

    Heydari, Nasrin; Shariati, Laleh; Khanahmad, Hossein; Hejazi, Zahra; Shahbazi, Mansoureh; Salehi, Mansoor


    Objective(s): β-thalassemia is one of the most common genetic disorders in the world. As one of the promising treatment strategies, fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) can be induced. The present study was an attempt to reactivate the γ-globin gene by introducing a gene construct containing KLF1 binding sites to the K562 cell line. Materials and Methods: A plasmid containing a 192 bp sequence with two repeats of KLF1 binding sites on β-globin and BCL11A promoters was constructed and used to transfect the K562 cell line. Positive selection was performed under treatment with 150 μg/ml hygromycin B. The remaining cells were expanded and harvested on day 28, and genomic DNA was extracted. The PCR was carried out to verify insertion of DNA fragment to the genome of K562 cells. The cells were differentiated with 15 μg/ml cisplatin. Flowcytometry was performed to identify erythroid differentiation by detection of CD235a+ cells. Real-time RT-PCR was performed to evaluate γ-globin expression in the transfected cells. Results: A 1700 bp fragment was observed on agarose gel as expected and insertion of DNA fragment to the genome of K562 cells was verified. Totally, 84% of cells were differentiated. The transfected cells significantly increased γ-globin expression after differentiation compared to untransfected ones. Conclusion: The findings demonstrate that the spongy effect of KLF1-binding site on BCL11A and β-globin promoters can induce γ-globin expression in K562 cells. This novel strategy can be promising for the treatment of β-thalassemia and sickle cell disease. PMID:27872702

  1. Molecular identification of TEM-116 beta-lactamase gene in isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Purpose: To determine TEM-116 beta-lactamase gene prevalence in drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from Pakistan. Methods: Sequence analysis of TEM beta-lactamase isolates and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns were carried out. Quantitative bacteriostatic concentrations for commonly ...

  2. Regional and temporal differences in gene expression of LH(BETA)T(AG) retinoblastoma tumors. (United States)

    Houston, Samuel K; Pina, Yolanda; Clarke, Jennifer; Koru-Sengul, Tulay; Scott, William K; Nathanson, Lubov; Schefler, Amy C; Murray, Timothy G


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate by microarray the hypothesis that LH(BETA)T(AG) retinoblastoma tumors exhibit regional and temporal variations in gene expression. LH(BETA)T(AG) mice aged 12, 16, and 20 weeks were euthanatized (n = 9). Specimens were taken from five tumor areas (apex, anterior lateral, center, base, and posterior lateral). Samples were hybridized to gene microarrays. The data were preprocessed and analyzed, and genes with a P 2.5 were considered to be differentially expressed. Differentially expressed genes were analyzed for overlap with known networks by using pathway analysis tools. There were significant temporal (P regional differences in gene expression for LH(BETA)T(AG) retinoblastoma tumors. At P 2.5, there were significant changes in gene expression of 190 genes apically, 84 genes anterolaterally, 126 genes posteriorly, 56 genes centrally, and 134 genes at the base. Differentially expressed genes overlapped with known networks, with significant involvement in regulation of cellular proliferation and growth, response to oxygen levels and hypoxia, regulation of cellular processes, cellular signaling cascades, and angiogenesis. There are significant temporal and regional variations in the LH(BETA)T(AG) retinoblastoma model. Differentially expressed genes overlap with key pathways that may play pivotal roles in murine retinoblastoma development. These findings suggest the mechanisms involved in tumor growth and progression in murine retinoblastoma tumors and identify pathways for analysis at a functional level, to determine significance in human retinoblastoma. Microarray analysis of LH(BETA)T(AG) retinal tumors showed significant regional and temporal variations in gene expression, including dysregulation of genes involved in hypoxic responses and angiogenesis.

  3. Molecular analysis of abnormal hemoglobins in beta chain in Aegean region of Turkey and first reports of hemoglobin Andrew-Minneapolis and Hb Hinsdale from Turkey. (United States)

    Aykut, Ayça; Onay, Hüseyin; Durmaz, Asude; Karaca, Emin; Vergin, Canan; Aydınok, Yeşim; Özkınay, Ferda


    The Agean is one of the regions in Turkey where thalassemias and abnormal hemoglobins (Hbs) are prevalent. Combined heterozygosity of thalassemia mutations with a variety of structural Hb variants lead to an extremely wide spectrum of clinical and hematological phenotypes which is of importance for prenatal diagnosis. One hundred and seventeen patients and carriers diagnosed by hemoglobin electrophoresis (HPLC), at risk for abnormal hemoglobinopathies were screened for mutational analysis of the beta-globin gene. The full coding the 5' UTR, and the 3' UTR sequences of beta-globin gene (GenBank accession no. U01317) were amplified and sequenced. In this study, a total of 118 (12.24%) structural Hb variant alleles were identified in 1341 mutated beta-chain alleles in Medical Genetics Department of Ege University between January 2006 and November 2013. Here, we report the mutation spectrum of abnormal Hbs associated with the beta-globin gene in Aegean region of Turkey. In the present study, the Hb Hinsdale and Hb Andrew-Minneapolis variants are demonstrated for the first time in the Turkish population.

  4. Effects of ultrasound on Transforming Growth Factor-beta genes in bone cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Harle


    Full Text Available Therapeutic ultrasound (US is a widely used form of biophysical stimulation that is increasingly applied to promote fracture healing. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta, which is encoded by three related but different genes, is known to play a major part in bone growth and repair. However, the effects of US on the expression of the TGF-beta genes and the physical acoustic mechanisms involved in initiating changes in gene expression in vitro, are not yet known. The present study demonstrates that US had a differential effect on these TGF-beta isoforms in a human osteoblast cell line, with the highest dose eliciting the most pronounced up-regulation of both TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3 at 1 hour after treatment and thereafter declining. In contrast, US had no effect on TGF-beta2 expression. Fluid streaming rather than thermal effects or cavitation was found to be the most likely explanation for the gene responses observed in vitro.

  5. Relationship of the Interaction Between Two Quantitative Trait Loci with γ-Globin Expression in β-Thalassemia Intermedia Patients. (United States)

    NickAria, Shiva; Haghpanah, Sezaneh; Ramzi, Mani; Karimi, Mehran


    Globin switching is a significant factor on blood hemoglobin (Hb) level but its molecular mechanisms have not yet been identified, however, several quantitative trait loci (QTL) and polymorphisms involved regions on chromosomes 2p, 6q, 8q and X account for variation in the γ-globin expression level. We studied the effect of interaction between a region on intron six of the TOX gene, chromosome 8q (chr8q) and XmnI locus on the γ-globin promoter, chr11p on γ-globin expression in 150 β-thalassemia intermedia (β-TI) patients, evaluated by statistical interaction analysis. Our results showed a significant interaction between one QTL on intron six of the TOX gene (rs9693712) and XmnI locus that effect γ-globin expression. Interchromosomal interaction mediates through transcriptional machanisms to preserve true genome architectural features, chromosomes localization and DNA bending. This interaction can be a part of the unknown molecular mechanism of globin switching and regulation of gene expression.

  6. Bradykinin stimulation of nitric oxide production is not sufficient for gamma-globin induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čokić Vladan P.


    Full Text Available Introduction. Hydroxycarbamide, used in therapy of hemoglobinopathies, enhances nitric oxide (NO production both in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and human bone marrow endothelial cell line (TrHBMEC. Moreover, NO increases γ-globin and fetal hemoglobin levels in human erythroid progenitors. Objective. In order to find out whether simple physiologic stimulation of NO production by components of hematopoietic microenvironment can increase γ-globin gene expression, the effects of NO-inducer bradykinin were examined in endothelial cells. Methods. The study was performed in co-cultures of human erythroid progenitors, TrHBMEC and HUVECs by ozone-based chemiluminescent determination of NO and real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Results. In accordance with previous reports, the endogenous factor bradykinin increased endothelial cell production of NO in a dose- and time-dependent manner (0.1-0.6 μM up to 30 minutes. This induction of NO in HUVECs and TrHBMEC by bradykinin was blocked by competitive inhibitors of NO synthase (NOS, demonstrating NOS-dependence. It has been shown that bradykinin significantly reduced endothelial NOS (eNOS mRNA level and eNOS/Я-actin ratio in HUVEC (by twofold. In addition, bradykinin failed to increase γ-globin mRNA expression in erythroid progenitors only, as well as in co-culture studies of erythroid progenitors with TrHBMEC and HUVEC after 24 hours of treatment. Furthermore, bradykinin did not induce γ/β globin ratio in erythroid progenitors in co-cultures with HUVEC. Conclusion. Bradykinin mediated eNOS activation leads to short time and low NO production in endothelial cells, insufficient to induce γ-globin gene expression. These results emphasized the significance of elevated and extended NO production in augmentation of γ-globin gene expression. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175053

  7. Evaluation of the BeTha gene 1 kit for the qualitative detection of the eight most common Mediterranean beta-thalassemia mutations. (United States)

    Ugozzoli, L A; Lowery, J D; Reyes, A A; Lin, C I; Re, A; Locati, F; Galanello, R; Macioni, L; Maggio, A; Giambona, A; Loutradi, A; Boussiou, M; Wallace, R B


    We describe the evaluation of the Bio-Rad BeTha Gene 1 kit (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA), a DNA-probe assay designed for the qualitative determination of the eight most common Mediterranean beta-thalassemia mutations. The kit utilizes the principle of allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) hybridization. Following sample preparation and in vitro DNA amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), an allele-specific detection of the amplified products by a nonradioactive enzymatic assay is performed. Genomic DNA is prepared from an individual's whole blood with a DNA purification matrix. In a second step, the beta-globin gene is amplified in a multiplex PCR reaction containing four 5' biotinylated oligonucleotide primers. In a final step, an aliquot of the PCR reaction is first chemically denatured and then captured in two eight-well strips of a 96-well enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) plate by hybridization to an immobilized ASO probe. Each DNA sequence at each of the eight mutation sites is represented by one normal and one mutant ASO. During this capture/hybridization step, which is performed at 37 degrees C, only perfectly matched PCR products will be captured by an ASO. Subsequently, the allele-specific captured biotin-labeled PCR products are detected by a colorimetric enzymatic reaction. The system permits the detection of 16 beta-thalassemia alleles using a high-throughput format that can be automated easily. A clinical feasibility study was performed to evaluate the functionality (method comparison study, assay validity using samples previously collected and stored at various temperatures for different periods of time, interference on kit performance, and assay validity for prenatal diagnosis) and the usability (ease of use, sample throughput) of the kit. The analysis of 110 samples previously studied with reference methods showed 100% clinical sensitivity and specificity. We demonstrate here that the procedure not only increases the

  8. Inhibition of estrogen-responsive gene activation by the retinoid X receptor beta: evidence for multiple inhibitory pathways.


    Segars, J H; Marks, M S; Hirschfeld, S; Driggers, P H; Martinez, E; Grippo, J F; Brown, M; Wahli, W; Ozato, K


    The retinoid X receptor beta (RXR beta; H-2RIIBP) forms heterodimers with various nuclear hormone receptors and binds multiple hormone response elements, including the estrogen response element (ERE). In this report, we show that endogenous RXR beta contributes to ERE binding activity in nuclear extracts of the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. To define a possible regulatory role of RXR beta regarding estrogen-responsive transcription in breast cancer cells, RXR beta and a reporter gene d...

  9. HS5 of the human β-globin Locus Control Region: a developmental stage-specific border in erythroid cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Wai (Albert); N. Gillemans (Nynke); S. Raguz-Bolognesi (Selina); S. Pruzina (Sara); G. Zafarana (Gaetano); D.N. Meijer (Dies); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); J.N.J. Philipsen (Sjaak)


    textabstractElements with insulator/border activity have been characterized most extensively in Drosophila melanogaster. In vertebrates, the first example of such an element was provided by a hypersensitive site of the chicken beta-globin locus, cHS4. It has been proposed that the homologous site in

  10. Highly efficient expression of interleukin-2 under the control of rabbit β-globin intron II gene enhances protective immune responses of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS DNA vaccine in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Du

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV had caused catastrophic losses in swine industry in China. The current inactivated vaccine provided only limited protection, and the attenuated live vaccine could protect piglets against the HP-PRRSV but there was a possibility that the attenuated virus returned to high virulence. In this study, the eukaryotic expression vector pVAX1© was modified under the control of rabbit β-globin intron II gene and the modified vector pMVAX1© was constructed. Porcine interleukin-2 (IL-2 and GP3-GP5 fusion protein of HP-PRRSV strain SD-JN were highly expressed by pMVAX1©. Mice inoculated with pMVAX1©-GP35 developed significantly higher PRRSV-specific antibody responses and T cell proliferation than those vaccinated with pVAX1©-GP35. pMVAX1©-GP35 was selected as PRRS DNA vaccine candidate and co-administrated with pVAX1©-IL-2 or pMVAX1©-IL-2 in pigs. pMVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35 could provide enhanced PRRSV-specific antibody responses, T cell proliferation, Th1-type and Th2-type cytokine responses and CTL responses than pMVAX1©-GP35 and pVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35. Following homologous challenge with HP-PRRSV strain SD-JN, similar with attenuated PRRS vaccine group, pigs inoculated with pMVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35 showed no clinical signs, almost no lung lesions and no viremia, as compared to those in pMVAX1©-GP35 and pVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35 groups. It indicated that pMVAX1©-IL-2 effectively increases humoral and cell mediated immune responses of pMVAX1©-GP35. Co-administration of pMVAX1©-IL-2 and pMVAX1©-GP35 might be attractive candidate vaccines for preventing HP-PRRSV infections.

  11. Isolation and characterization of BetaM protein encoded by ATP1B4 - a unique member of the Na,K-ATPase {beta}-subunit gene family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestov, Nikolay B. [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Toledo College of Medicine, 3000 Arlington Ave., Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Zhao, Hao [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Toledo College of Medicine, 3000 Arlington Ave., Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Basrur, Venkatesha [Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Modyanov, Nikolai N., E-mail: [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Toledo College of Medicine, 3000 Arlington Ave., Toledo, OH 43614 (United States)


    Highlights: {yields} Structural properties of BetaM and Na,K-ATPase {beta}-subunits are sharply different. {yields} BetaM protein is concentrated in nuclear membrane of skeletal myocytes. {yields} BetaM does not associate with a Na,K-ATPase {alpha}-subunit in skeletal muscle. {yields} Polypeptide chain of the native BetaM is highly sensitive to endogenous proteases. {yields} BetaM in neonatal muscle is a product of alternative splice mRNA variant B. -- Abstract: ATP1B4 genes represent a rare instance of the orthologous gene co-option that radically changed functions of encoded BetaM proteins during vertebrate evolution. In lower vertebrates, this protein is a {beta}-subunit of Na,K-ATPase located in the cell membrane. In placental mammals, BetaM completely lost its ancestral role and through acquisition of two extended Glu-rich clusters into the N-terminal domain gained entirely new properties as a muscle-specific protein of the inner nuclear membrane possessing the ability to regulate gene expression. Strict temporal regulation of BetaM expression, which is the highest in late fetal and early postnatal myocytes, indicates that it plays an essential role in perinatal development. Here we report the first structural characterization of the native eutherian BetaM protein. It should be noted that, in contrast to structurally related Na,K-ATPase {beta}-subunits, the polypeptide chain of BetaM is highly sensitive to endogenous proteases that greatly complicated its isolation. Nevertheless, using a complex of protease inhibitors, a sample of authentic BetaM was isolated from pig neonatal skeletal muscle by a combination of ion-exchange and lectin-affinity chromatography followed by SDS-PAGE. Results of the analysis of the BetaM tryptic digest using MALDI-TOF and ESI-MS/MS mass spectrometry have demonstrated that native BetaM in neonatal skeletal muscle is a product of alternative splice mRNA variant B and comprised of 351 amino acid residues. Isolated BetaM protein was

  12. A New Intergenic α-Globin Deletion (α-αΔ125) Found in a Kabyle Population. (United States)

    Singh, Amrathlal Rabbind; Lacan, Philippe; Cadet, Estelle; Bignet, Patricia; Dumesnil, Cécile; Vannier, Jean-Pierre; Joly, Philippe; Rochette, Jacques


    We have identified a deletion of 125 bp (α-α(Δ125)) (NG_000006.1: g.37040_37164del) in the α-globin gene cluster in a Kabyle population. A combination of singlex and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays have been used to identify the molecular defect. Sequencing of the abnormal PCR amplification product revealed a novel α1-globin promoter deletion. The endpoints of the deletion were characterized by sequencing the deletion junctions of the mutated allele. The observed deletion was located 378 bp upstream of the α1-globin gene transcription initiation site and leaves the α2 gene intact. In some patients, the α-α(Δ125) deletion was shown to segregate with Hb S (HBB: c.20A>T) and/or Hb C (HBB: c.19G>A) or a β-thalassemic allele. The α-α(Δ125) deletion has no discernible effect on red cell indices when inherited with no other abnormal globin genes. The family study demonstrated that the deletion is heritable. This is the only example of an intergenic α2-α1 non coding DNA deletion, leaving the α2-globin gene and the α1 coding part intact.

  13. Molecular analysis of the human β-globin locus activation region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, W.C.; Novak, U.; Gelinas, R.; Groudine, M.


    Recently, DNA sequences containing four erythroid-specific DNase I hypersensitive sites within 20 kilobases 5' of the human ε-globin gene have been identified as an important cis-acting regulatory element, the locus activation region (LAR). Subfragments of the LAR, containing either all or only the two 5' or two 3' hypersensitive sites were linked to the human β-globin gene and analyzed for their effect on globin gene expression in stably transformed mouse erythroleukemia (MEL) cells. Constructs containing all four of the hypersensitive sites increase β-gobin mRNA levels 8- to 13-fold, while constructs with only the 5' or 3' sites increase globin expression to a lesser extent. No effect was seen when the constructs were assayed in 3T3 fibroblasts. All of the LAR derivatives form hypersensitive sites at the corresponding sequence position in MEL cells prior to and after induction of MEL cell differentiation. However, in 3T3 fibroblasts only the hypersensitive site corresponding to the previously described erythroid-specific -10.9 site was formed

  14. Uterine leiomyoma is associated with a polymorphism in the interleukin 1-beta gene. (United States)

    Pietrowski, Detlef; Thewes, Roberta; Sator, Michael; Denschlag, Dominik; Keck, Christoph; Tempfer, Clemens


    To investigate whether polymorphisms in the interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) gene are associated with uterine leiomyoma. Case-control study in a collective of 131 patients and 280 controls. Genotyping of the IL-1beta-511 and IL-1beta-3954 polymorphism was performed by PCR amplification and subsequent RFLP analysis. A significant difference in the allele frequencies of the IL-1beta-511 Cbeta-511 Cbeta-3954 polymorphism. The IL-1beta-511 promoter polymorphism is related to an increased susceptibility to uterine leiomyoma, suggesting that this polymorphism does contribute to the development of this disease.

  15. Oxidative Metabolism Genes Are Not Responsive to Oxidative Stress in Rodent Beta Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faer Morrison


    Full Text Available Altered expression of oxidative metabolism genes has been described in the skeletal muscle of individuals with type 2 diabetes. Pancreatic beta cells contain low levels of antioxidant enzymes and are particularly susceptible to oxidative stress. In this study, we explored the effect of hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress on a panel of oxidative metabolism genes in a rodent beta cell line. We exposed INS-1 rodent beta cells to low (5.6 mmol/L, ambient (11 mmol/L, and high (28 mmol/L glucose conditions for 48 hours. Increases in oxidative stress were measured using the fluorescent probe dihydrorhodamine 123. We then measured the expression levels of a panel of 90 oxidative metabolism genes by real-time PCR. Elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS production was evident in INS-1 cells after 48 hours (P<0.05. TLDA analysis revealed a significant (P<0.05 upregulation of 16 of the 90 genes under hyperglycemic conditions, although these expression differences did not reflect differences in ROS. We conclude that although altered glycemia may influence the expression of some oxidative metabolism genes, this effect is probably not mediated by increased ROS production. The alterations to the expression of oxidative metabolism genes previously observed in human diabetic skeletal muscle do not appear to be mirrored in rodent pancreatic beta cells.

  16. Elucidation of IL-1/TGF-beta interactions in mouse chondrocyte cell line by genome-wide gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takahashi, N; Rieneck, K; van der Kraan, P M


    To elucidate the antagonism between interleukin-1 (IL-1) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) at the gene expression level, as IL-1 and TGF-beta are postulated to be critical mediators of cartilage degeneration/protection in rheumatic diseases....

  17. [Analysis of resistant genes of beta-lactam antibiotics from Pseudomonas aeruginosa in pediatric patients]. (United States)

    Dong, Fang; Xu, Xi-wei; Song, Wen-qi; Lü, Ping; Yang, Yong-hong; Shen, Xu-zhuang


    To analyze the antibiotic resistance of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) isolated from pediatric patients and the resistant genes of beta-lactam antibiotics thereof. 146 PA strains were isolated from pediatric patients. Agar dilution method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute was used to examine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 12 antimicrobial agents, including the penicillins, third and fourth genet ration cephalosporins, carbapenemase, Aztreonam, beta-lactamase inhibitors, quinolones, and aminoglycosides. PCR was used to detect the expression of the genes TEM, SHV, OXA, PER, GES, CTX-M, IMP, VIM, DHA, MIR, FOX, and oprD2. The multi-drug resistance rates against different antibiotic were high among the 146 PA strains. The rates of imipenem and meropenem resistance were 41.1% and 35.6% respectively. Among the 146 PA strains, 46 (31.5%) were positive for the MBL genotype; 38 (82.6%) carried the blaIMP gene, 8 (17.4%) carried the blaVIM gene, and 114 (78.1%) were oprD2 negative. The genes TEM, SHV, OXA, CTX-M, PER, VEB, GES, FOX, MIR, and DHA were not found in all strains. Many PA isolated from pediatric patients carry the genes IMP or VIM and losses oprD2 gene related to the expression of the outer membrane porin OprD2. The loss of the gene oprD2 is essential mechanism of beta-lactam antibiotics resistance in PA.

  18. Are genetic variants in the platelet-derived growth factor [beta] gene associated with chronic pancreatitis? (United States)

    Muddana, Venkata; Park, James; Lamb, Janette; Yadav, Dhiraj; Papachristou, Georgios I; Hawes, Robert H; Brand, Randall; Slivka, Adam; Whitcomb, David C


    Platelet-derived growth factor [beta] (PDGF-[beta]) is a major signal in proliferation and matrix synthesis through activated pancreatic stellate cells, leading to fibrosis of the pancreas. Recurrent acute pancreatitis (RAP) seems to predispose to chronic pancreatitis (CP) in some patients but not others. We tested the hypothesis that 2 known PDGF-[beta] polymorphisms are associated with progression from RAP to CP. We also tested the hypothesis that PDGF-[beta] polymorphisms in combination with environmental risk factors such as alcohol and smoking are associated with CP. Three hundred eighty-two patients with CP (n = 176) and RAP (n = 206) and 251 controls were evaluated. Platelet-derived growth factor [beta] polymorphisms +286 A/G (rs#1800818) seen in 5'-UTR and +1135 A/C (rs#1800817) in first intron were genotyped using single-nucleotide polymorphism polymerase chain reaction approach and confirmed by DNA sequencing. The genotypic frequencies for PDGF-[beta] polymorphisms in positions +286 and +1135 were found to be similar in controls and patients with RAP and CP. There was no difference in genotypic frequencies among RAP, CP, and controls in subjects in the alcohol and smoking subgroups. Known variations in the PDGF-[beta] gene do not have a significant effect on promoting or preventing fibrogenesis in pancreatitis. Further evaluation of this important pathway is warranted.

  19. The roles of TGF-beta1 gene transfer on collagen formation during Achilles tendon healing. (United States)

    Hou, Yu; Mao, ZeBing; Wei, XueLei; Lin, Lin; Chen, LianXu; Wang, HaiJun; Fu, Xin; Zhang, JiYing; Yu, ChangLong


    Collagen content and cross-linking are believed to be major determinants of tendon structural integrity and function. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 on the collagen content and cross-linking of Achilles tendons, and on the histological and biomechanical changes occurring during Achilles tendon healing in rabbits. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transfected with the TGF-beta1 gene were surgically implanted into experimentally injured Achilles tendons. Collagen proteins were identified by immunohistochemical staining and fiber bundle accumulation was revealed by Sirius red staining. Achilles tendons treated with TGF-beta1-transfected BMSCs showed higher concentrations of collagen I protein, more rapid matrix remodeling, and larger fiber bundles. Thus TGF-beta1 can promote mechanical strength in healing Achilles tendons by regulating collagen synthesis, cross-link formation, and matrix remodeling.

  20. In silico identification of NF-kappaB-regulated genes in pancreatic beta-cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eizirik Decio L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreatic beta-cells are the target of an autoimmune attack in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. This is mediated in part by cytokines, such as interleukin (IL-1β and interferon (IFN-γ. These cytokines modify the expression of hundreds of genes, leading to beta-cell dysfunction and death by apoptosis. Several of these cytokine-induced genes are potentially regulated by the IL-1β-activated transcription factor (TF nuclear factor (NF-κB, and previous studies by our group have shown that cytokine-induced NF-κB activation is pro-apoptotic in beta-cells. To identify NF-κB-regulated gene networks in beta-cells we presently used a discriminant analysis-based approach to predict NF-κB responding genes on the basis of putative regulatory elements. Results The performance of linear and quadratic discriminant analysis (LDA, QDA in identifying NF-κB-responding genes was examined on a dataset of 240 positive and negative examples of NF-κB regulation, using stratified cross-validation with an internal leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV loop for automated feature selection and noise reduction. LDA performed slightly better than QDA, achieving 61% sensitivity, 91% specificity and 87% positive predictive value, and allowing the identification of 231, 251 and 580 NF-κB putative target genes in insulin-producing INS-1E cells, primary rat beta-cells and human pancreatic islets, respectively. Predicted NF-κB targets had a significant enrichment in genes regulated by cytokines (IL-1β or IL-1β + IFN-γ and double stranded RNA (dsRNA, as compared to genes not regulated by these NF-κB-dependent stimuli. We increased the confidence of the predictions by selecting only evolutionary stable genes, i.e. genes with homologs predicted as NF-κB targets in rat, mouse, human and chimpanzee. Conclusion The present in silico analysis allowed us to identify novel regulatory targets of NF-κB using a supervised classification method based on

  1. Mapping of the Mouse Actin Capping Protein Beta Subunit Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper John A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Capping protein (CP, a heterodimer of α and β subunits, is found in all eukaryotes. CP binds to the barbed ends of actin filaments in vitro and controls actin assembly and cell motility in vivo. Vertebrates have three isoforms of CPβ produced by alternatively splicing from one gene; lower organisms have one gene and one isoform. Results We isolated genomic clones corresponding to the β subunit of mouse CP and identified its chromosomal location by interspecies backcross mapping. Conclusions The CPβ gene (Cappb1 mapped to Chromosome 4 between Cdc42 and D4Mit312. Three mouse mutations, snubnose, curly tail, and cribriform degeneration, map in the vicinity of the β gene.

  2. Conservation of the primary structure, organization, and function of the human and mouse β-globin locus-activating regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, A.M.; Ley, T.J.


    DNA sequences located in a region 6-18 kilobases (kb) upstream from the human ε-globin gene are known as the locus-activating region (LAR) or dominant control region. This region is thought to play a key role in chromatin organization of the β-like globin gene cluster during erythroid development. Since the human β-globin LAR is functional in mice, the authors reasoned that critical LAR sequence elements might be conserved between mice and humans. They therefore cloned murine genomic sequences homologous to one portion of the human LAR. They found that this murine DNA fragment (mouse LAR site II) and sequences homologous to human LAR sites I and III are located upstream from the mouse β-like globin gene cluster and determined that their locations relative to the cluster are similar to that of their human counterparts. The homologous site II sequences are 70% identical between mice and humans over a stretch of ∼800 base pairs. These results suggest that primary structural elements endash and the spatial organization of these elements endash are important for function of the β-globin LAR

  3. Genomic organization of the mouse peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Leif K; Amri, Ez-Zoubir; Mandrup, Susanne


    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) beta/delta is ubiquitously expressed, but the level of expression differs markedly between different cell types. In order to determine the molecular mechanisms governing PPARbeta/delta gene expression, we have isolated and characterized the mouse...

  4. Using the NCBI Genome Databases to Compare the Genes for Human & Chimpanzee Beta Hemoglobin (United States)

    Offner, Susan


    The beta hemoglobin protein is identical in humans and chimpanzees. In this tutorial, students see that even though the proteins are identical, the genes that code for them are not. There are many more differences in the introns than in the exons, which indicates that coding regions of DNA are more highly conserved than non-coding regions.

  5. Successful application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis for beta-thalassaemia and sickle cell anaemia in Italy. (United States)

    Chamayou, S; Alecci, C; Ragolia, C; Giambona, A; Siciliano, S; Maggio, A; Fichera, M; Guglielmino, A


    In Italy, the autosomal recessive diseases beta-thalassaemia and sickle cell anaemia are so widespread that in some regions they can be defined as 'social diseases'. In this study, nine clinical applications of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) were performed for beta-thalassaemia and sickle cell anaemia on seven Sicilian couples and carriers of beta-globin gene mutations. The studied mutations were: Cd39, HbS, IVS1 nt1, IVS1 nt6 and IVS1 nt110. ICSI was performed with partner's sperm on 131 out of 147 retrieved oocytes, and this resulted in 72 zygotes; 32 embryos were successfully biopsied on day 3. The biopsied blastomeres were lysed and the beta-globin alleles amplified by nested PCR. The mutation diagnosis was performed by restriction enzyme digestion and reverse dot-blot. The amplification efficacy was 97.2%. The genotype study of non-transferred and surplus embryos showed that the allele drop-out rate was 8.6%. Seventeen embryos were transferred in utero on day 4. All couples received an embryo transfer; of the four pregnancies obtained, three resulted in live births and one miscarried at 11 weeks. Prenatal diagnosis at the 11th week and miscarriage material analysis confirmed the PGD results. These studies represent the first successful application of PGD for beta-thalassaemia and sickle cell anaemia in Italy.

  6. Beta-Adrenergic gene therapy for cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch Walter J


    Full Text Available Abstract Gene therapy using in vivo recombinant adenovirus-mediated gene transfer is an effective technique that offers great potential to improve existing drug treatments for the complex cardiovascular diseases of heart failure and vascular smooth muscle intimal hyperplasia. Cardiac-specific adenovirus-mediated transfer of the carboxyl-terminus of the β-adrenergic receptor kinase (βARKct, acting as a Gβγ-β-adrenergic receptor kinase (βARK1 inhibitor, improves basal and agonist-induced cardiac performance in both normal and failing rabbit hearts. In addition, βARKct adenovirus infection of vascular smooth muscle is capable of significantly diminishing neointimal proliferation after angioplasty. Therefore, further investigation is warranted to determine whether inhibition of βARK1 activity and sequestration of Gβγ via an adenovirus that encodes the βARKct transgene might be a useful clinical tool for the treatment of cardiovascular pathologies.

  7. Rapid evolution of Beta-keratin genes contribute to phenotypic differences that distinguish turtles and birds from other reptiles. (United States)

    Li, Yang I; Kong, Lesheng; Ponting, Chris P; Haerty, Wilfried


    Sequencing of vertebrate genomes permits changes in distinct protein families, including gene gains and losses, to be ascribed to lineage-specific phenotypes. A prominent example of this is the large-scale duplication of beta-keratin genes in the ancestors of birds, which was crucial to the subsequent evolution of their beaks, claws, and feathers. Evidence suggests that the shell of Pseudomys nelsoni contains at least 16 beta-keratins proteins, but it is unknown whether this is a complete set and whether their corresponding genes are orthologous to avian beak, claw, or feather beta-keratin genes. To address these issues and to better understand the evolution of the turtle shell at a molecular level, we surveyed the diversity of beta-keratin genes from the genome assemblies of three turtles, Chrysemys picta, Pelodiscus sinensis, and Chelonia mydas, which together represent over 160 Myr of chelonian evolution. For these three turtles, we found 200 beta-keratins, which indicate that, as for birds, a large expansion of beta-keratin genes in turtles occurred concomitantly with the evolution of a unique phenotype, namely, their plastron and carapace. Phylogenetic reconstruction of beta-keratin gene evolution suggests that separate waves of gene duplication within a single genomic location gave rise to scales, claws, and feathers in birds, and independently the scutes of the shell in turtles.

  8. Inducing indel mutation in the SOX6 gene by zinc finger nuclease for gamma reactivation: An approach towards gene therapy of beta thalassemia. (United States)

    Modares Sadeghi, Mehran; Shariati, Laleh; Hejazi, Zahra; Shahbazi, Mansoureh; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin; Khanahmad, Hossein


    β-thalassemia is a common autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a deficiency in the synthesis of β-chains. Evidences show that increased HbF levels improve the symptoms in patients with β-thalassemia or sickle cell anemia. In this study, ZFN technology was applied to induce a mutation in the binding domain region of SOX6 to reactivate γ-globin expression. The sequences coding for ZFP arrays were designed and sub cloned in TDH plus as a transfer vector. The ZFN expression was confirmed using Western blot analysis. In the next step, using the site-directed mutagenesis strategy through the overlap PCR, a missense mutation (D64V) was induced in the catalytic domain of the integrase gene in the packaging plasmid and verified using DNA sequencing. Then, the integrase minus lentivirus containing ZFN cassette was packaged. Transduction of K562 cells with this virus was performed. Mutation detection assay was performed. The indel percentage of the cells transducted with lenti virus containing ZFN was 31%. After 5 days of erythroid differentiation with 15 μg/mL cisplatin, the levels of γ-globin mRNA were sixfold in the cells treated with ZFN compared to untreated cells. In the meantime, the measurement of HbF expression levels was carried out using hemoglobin electrophoresis and showed the same results. Integrase minus lentivirus can provide a useful tool for efficient transient gene expression and helps avoid disadvantages of gene targeting using the native virus. The ZFN strategy applied here to induce indel on SOX6 gene in adult erythroid progenitors may provide a method to activate fetal hemoglobin expression in individuals with β-thalassemia. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Tissue-specific methylation of human insulin gene and PCR assay for monitoring beta cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed I Husseiny

    Full Text Available The onset of metabolic dysregulation in type 1 diabetes (T1D occurs after autoimmune destruction of the majority of pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells. We previously demonstrated that the DNA encoding the insulin gene is uniquely unmethylated in these cells and then developed a methylation-specific PCR (MSP assay to identify circulating beta cell DNA in streptozotocin-treated mice prior to the rise in blood glucose. The current study extends to autoimmune non-obese diabetic (NOD mice and humans, showing in NOD mice that beta cell death occurs six weeks before the rise in blood sugar and coincides with the onset of islet infiltration by immune cells, demonstrating the utility of MSP for monitoring T1D. We previously reported unique patterns of methylation of the human insulin gene, and now extend this to other human tissues. The methylation patterns of the human insulin promoter, intron 1, exon 2, and intron 2 were determined in several normal human tissues. Similar to our previous report, the human insulin promoter was unmethylated in beta cells, but methylated in all other tissues tested. In contrast, intron 1, exon 2 and intron 2 did not exhibit any tissue-specific DNA methylation pattern. Subsequently, a human MSP assay was developed based on the methylation pattern of the insulin promoter and human islet DNA was successfully detected in circulation of T1D patients after islet transplantation therapy. Signal levels of normal controls and pre-transplant samples were shown to be similar, but increased dramatically after islet transplantation. In plasma the signal declines with time but in whole blood remains elevated for at least two weeks, indicating that association of beta cell DNA with blood cells prolongs the signal. This assay provides an effective method to monitor beta cell destruction in early T1D and in islet transplantation therapy.

  10. Localisation of Neuregulin 1-{beta}3 to different sub-nuclear structures alters gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ming; Trim, Carol M.; Gullick, William J., E-mail:


    Neuregulins are growth factors that signal via the ErbB3 and ErbB4 receptors. Here we show using immunohistochemistry that they are often expressed in the nucleus of a range of tumour types including soft tissue and breast. The Neuregulin 1 type I-{beta}3 (NRG1-{beta}3) isoform localises to two sub-nuclear compartments in animal cells, nucleoli and spliceosomes. We used NRG1-{beta}3 tagged with photoactivatable GFP and demonstrated that this re-localised from nucleoli to spliceosomes over 90 min. Tyrosine kinase activity was not required for retaining the NRG1-{beta}3 within the nucleus. Mutation of the lysines 14 and 16 or 15 and 16 together prevented nucleolar uptake while four positively charged residues were identified which were required for spliceosome uptake. Molecular modelling suggests that three of these may form a binding site. We showed using a kinome array that NRG1-{beta}3 and a mutant exclusively localising to spliceosomes increased phosphorylation and/or expression of the HER4 and HER2 receptors. Using a transcriptomic analysis the same two constructs induced expression of several messenger RNAs and we confirmed the increased expression at the protein level of the most highly induced, Heat Shock Protein 70B'. These results suggest that Neuregulin activates receptor signalling in spliceosomes leading to altered gene expression.

  11. [Application of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the diagnosis of Hb S-beta(+)-thalassemia]. (United States)

    Harano, K; Harano, T; Kushida, Y; Ueda, S


    Isoelectric focusing of the hemolysate prepared from a two-year-old American black boy with microcytic hypochromia showed the presence of a high percentage (63.3%) of such Hb variant as Hb S, while the levels of Hb A, Hb F and Hb A2 were 20.0%, 12.7%, and 4.0%, respectively. The ratio of the non-alpha-chain to the alpha-chain of the biosynthesized globin chains was 0.49. The variant was identified as Hb S by amino acid analysis of the abnormal peptide (beta T-1) and digestion of DNA amplified by the polymerase chain reaction with enzyme Eco 81 I. This was further confirmed by DNA sequencing. DNA sequencing of a beta-gene without the beta s-mutation revealed a nucleotide change of T to C in the polyadenylation signal sequence AATAAA 3' to the beta-gene, resulting in beta(+)-thalassemia. These results are consistent with the existence of a beta s-gene and a beta(+)-thalassemia gene in trans.

  12. Asporin and transforming growth factor-beta gene expression in osteoblasts from subchondral bone and osteophytes in osteoarthritis. (United States)

    Sakao, Kei; Takahashi, Kenji A; Arai, Yuji; Saito, Masazumi; Honjyo, Kuniaki; Hiraoka, Nobuyuki; Kishida, Tsunao; Mazda, Osam; Imanishi, Jiro; Kubo, Toshikazu


    To clarify the significance of subchondral bone and osteophytes in the pathology of osteoarthritis (OA), we investigated the expression of asporin (ASPN), transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3, and runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2) genes involved in bone metabolism. Osteoblasts were isolated from 19 patients diagnosed with knee OA and from 4 patients diagnosed with femoral neck fracture. Osteoblast expression of mRNA encoding ASPN, TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3, and Runx2 was analyzed using real-time RT-PCR. Expression of ASPN, TGF-beta1, and TGF-beta3 mRNA in the subchondral bone and osteophytes of OA patients increased compared with that of non-OA patients. The ratio of ASPN to TGF-beta1 mRNA in patients with severe cartilage damage was higher than that in patients with mild cartilage damage. The increased ratio of ASPN mRNA to TGF-beta1 mRNA in patients with severe relative to mild cartilage damage indicates that increased ASPN mRNA expression was significantly associated with the severity of cartilage degeneration. This finding suggests that ASPN may regulate TGF-beta1-mediated factors in the development of OA, which may provide clues as to the underlying pathology of OA.

  13. Electron transfer function versus oxygen delivery: a comparative study for several hexacoordinated globins across the animal kingdom. (United States)

    Kiger, Laurent; Tilleman, Lesley; Geuens, Eva; Hoogewijs, David; Lechauve, Christophe; Moens, Luc; Dewilde, Sylvia; Marden, Michael C


    Caenorhabditis elegans globin GLB-26 (expressed from gene T22C1.2) has been studied in comparison with human neuroglobin (Ngb) and cytoglobin (Cygb) for its electron transfer properties. GLB-26 exhibits no reversible binding for O(2) and a relatively low CO affinity compared to myoglobin-like globins. These differences arise from its mechanism of gaseous ligand binding since the heme iron of GLB-26 is strongly hexacoordinated in the absence of external ligands; the replacement of this internal ligand, probably the E7 distal histidine, is required before binding of CO or O(2) as for Ngb and Cygb. Interestingly the ferrous bis-histidyl GLB-26 and Ngb, another strongly hexacoordinated globin, can transfer an electron to cytochrome c (Cyt-c) at a high bimolecular rate, comparable to those of inter-protein electron transfer in mitochondria. In addition, GLB-26 displays an unexpectedly rapid oxidation of the ferrous His-Fe-His complex without O(2) actually binding to the iron atom, since the heme is oxidized by O(2) faster than the time for distal histidine dissociation. These efficient mechanisms for electron transfer could indicate a family of hexacoordinated globin which are functionally different from that of pentacoordinated globins.

  14. Evolutionary and functional properties of a two-locus β-globin polymorphism in Indian house mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runck, Amy M; Weber, Roy E.; Fago, Angela


    exceeded neutral expectations, and reconstructed haplotype networks for both β-globin paralogs revealed extensive allele sharing with several other closely related species of Mus. However, despite this suggestive evidence for balancing selection, O2-equilibrium curves revealed no discernible functional......Electrophoretic surveys of hemoglobin (Hb) polymorphism in house mice from South Asia and the Middle East have revealed that two alternative β-globin haplotypes, Hbbd and Hbbp, are often present at intermediate frequencies in geographically disparate populations. Both haplotypes harbor two......) are distinguished by two amino acid substitutions. To investigate the possible adaptive significance of the Hbbd/Hbbp polymorphism we conducted a population genetic analysis of the duplicated β-globin genes of Indian house mice (Mus castaneus) in conjunction with experimental studies of Hb function in inbred...

  15. TGF-Beta Gene Polymorphisms in Food Allergic versus Non-Food Allergic Eosinophilic Esophagitis (United States)


    esophageal dysfunction (i.e. dysphagia, anorexia, early satiety, failure to thrive) in whom gastro - esophageal reflux disease has been ruled out by...W81XWH-11-1-0741 TITLE: TGF-Beta Gene Polymorphisms in Food Allergic versus Non-Food Allergic Eosinophilic Esophagitis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...versus Non-Food Allergic Eosinophilic Esophagitis 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0741 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) David Broide MB

  16. Production of β-globin and adult hemoglobin following G418 treatment of erythroid precursor cells from homozygous β039 thalassemia patients (United States)

    Salvatori, Francesca; Breveglieri, Giulia; Zuccato, Cristina; Finotti, Alessia; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Borgatti, Monica; Feriotto, Giordana; Destro, Federica; Canella, Alessandro; Brognara, Eleonora; Lampronti, Ilaria; Breda, Laura; Rivella, Stefano; Gambari, Roberto


    In several types of thalassemia (including β039-thalassemia), stop codon mutations lead to premature translation termination and to mRNA destabilization through nonsense-mediated decay. Drugs (for instance aminoglycosides) can be designed to suppress premature termination, inducing a ribosomal readthrough. These findings have introduced new hopes for the development of a pharmacologic approach to the cure of this disease. However, the effects of aminoglycosides on globin mRNA carrying β-thalassemia stop mutations have not yet been investigated. In this study, we have used a lentiviral construct containing the β039- thalassemia globin gene under control of the β-globin promoter and a LCR cassette. We demonstrated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis the production of β-globin by K562 cell clones expressing the β039-thalassemia globin gene and treated with G418. More importantly, after FACS and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses, erythroid precursor cells from β039-thalassemia patients were demonstrated to be able to produce β-globin and adult hemoglobin after treatment with G418. This study strongly suggests that ribosomal readthrough should be considered a strategy for developing experimental strategies for the treatment of β0-thalassemia caused by stop codon mutations. PMID:19810011

  17. Spectrin interactions with globin chains in the presence of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    chains, respectively. The fluorescence-binding data, on the other hand, revealed a larger number of about 80 globin chains binding to spectrin. Cross-linked aggregates of haemoglobin/globin and spectrin have been found under different pathophysiological conditions, e.g. in senescent red blood cells, under oxidative.

  18. Nuclear orphan receptor TLX affects gene expression, proliferation and cell apoptosis in beta cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xiaoli; Xiong, Xiaokan; Dai, Zhe; Deng, Haohua; Sun, Li; Hu, Xuemei; Zhou, Feng; Xu, Yancheng, E-mail:


    Nuclear orphan receptor TLX is an essential regulator of the growth of neural stem cells. However, its exact function in pancreatic islet cells is still unknown. In the present study, gene expression profiling analysis revealed that overexpression of TLX in beta cell line MIN6 causes suppression of 176 genes and upregulation of 49 genes, including a cadre of cell cycle, cell proliferation and cell death control genes, such as Btg2, Ddit3 and Gadd45a. We next examined the effects of TLX overexpression on proliferation, apoptosis and insulin secretion in MIN6 cells. Proliferation analysis using EdU assay showed that overexpression of TLX increased percentage of EdU-positive cells. Cell cycle and apoptosis analysis revealed that overexpression of TLX in MIN6 cells resulted in higher percentage of cells exiting G1 into S-phase, and a 58.8% decrease of cell apoptosis induced by 0.5 mM palmitate. Moreover, TLX overexpression did not cause impairment of insulin secretion. Together, we conclude that TLX is among factors capable of controlling beta cell proliferation and survival, which may serve as a target for the development of novel therapies for diabetes. - Highlights: • TLX overexpression in MIN6 cell causes significant expression changes of 225 genes. • TLX overexpression promotes MIN6 cell proliferation and decreases cell apoptosis. • TLX overexpression does not cause impairment of insulin secretion.

  19. Nuclear orphan receptor TLX affects gene expression, proliferation and cell apoptosis in beta cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xiaoli; Xiong, Xiaokan; Dai, Zhe; Deng, Haohua; Sun, Li; Hu, Xuemei; Zhou, Feng; Xu, Yancheng


    Nuclear orphan receptor TLX is an essential regulator of the growth of neural stem cells. However, its exact function in pancreatic islet cells is still unknown. In the present study, gene expression profiling analysis revealed that overexpression of TLX in beta cell line MIN6 causes suppression of 176 genes and upregulation of 49 genes, including a cadre of cell cycle, cell proliferation and cell death control genes, such as Btg2, Ddit3 and Gadd45a. We next examined the effects of TLX overexpression on proliferation, apoptosis and insulin secretion in MIN6 cells. Proliferation analysis using EdU assay showed that overexpression of TLX increased percentage of EdU-positive cells. Cell cycle and apoptosis analysis revealed that overexpression of TLX in MIN6 cells resulted in higher percentage of cells exiting G1 into S-phase, and a 58.8% decrease of cell apoptosis induced by 0.5 mM palmitate. Moreover, TLX overexpression did not cause impairment of insulin secretion. Together, we conclude that TLX is among factors capable of controlling beta cell proliferation and survival, which may serve as a target for the development of novel therapies for diabetes. - Highlights: • TLX overexpression in MIN6 cell causes significant expression changes of 225 genes. • TLX overexpression promotes MIN6 cell proliferation and decreases cell apoptosis. • TLX overexpression does not cause impairment of insulin secretion.

  20. Analysis of bone marrow stromal cell transferred bacterial {beta}-galactosidase gene by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumakawa, Toshiro [Tokyo Metropolitan Geriatric Hospital, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Blood Transfusion and Hematology; Hibino, Hitoshi; Tani, Kenzaburo; Asano, Shigetaka; Futatugawa, Shouji; Sera, Kouichiro


    PIXE, Particle Induced X-ray Emission, is a powerful, multi-elemental analysis method which has many distinguishing features and has been used in varies research fields. Recently the method of applying baby cyclotrons for nuclear medicine to PIXE has been developed. This enables us to study biomedical phenomena from the physical point of view. Mouse bone marrow stromal cells were transferred bacterial {beta}-galactosidase gene (LacZ gene) by murine retroviral vectors. Analysis of the bone marrow stromal cells with the LacZ gene by PIXE revealed remarkable changes of intracellular trace elements compared with the normal control cells. These results indicate that gene transfer by retroviral vectors may bring about a dynamic change of intracellular circumstances of the target cell. (author)

  1. Studies of the variability of the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta (HNF-1beta / TCF2) and the dimerization cofactor of HNF-1 (DcoH / PCBD) genes in relation to type 2 diabetes mellitus and beta-cell function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, J; Grarup, N; Urhammer, S A


    Mutations in the homeodomain-containing transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta (HNF-1beta) are known to cause a rare subtype of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY5), which is associated with early-onset progressive non-diabetic renal dysfunction. To investigate whether...... mutations in HNF-1 are implicated in the pathogenesis of MODY or late-onset diabetes with and without nephropathy in Danish Caucasians we examined the HNF-1beta (TCF2) and the dimerization cofactor of HNF-1 (DCoH, PCBD) genes for mutations in 11 MODY probands, 28 type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy...... comprising the DCoH gene revealed a previously described A-->G polymorphism located in the 3' untranslated region, which was not investigated further. In conclusion, mutations in HNF-1beta and DCoH are not a major cause of MODY or late onset type 2 diabetes in Danish Caucasian subjects....

  2. Cytoskeletal actin genes function downstream of HNF-3beta in ascidian notochord development. (United States)

    Jeffery, W R; Ewing, N; Machula, J; Olsen, C L; Swalla, B J


    We have examined the expression and regulation of cytoskeletal actin genes in ascidians with tailed (Molgula oculata) and tailless larvae (Molgula occulta). Four cDNA clones were isolated representing two pairs of orthologous cytoskeletal actin genes (CA1 and CA2), which encode proteins differing by five amino acids in the tailed and tailless species. The CA1 and CA2 genes are present in one or two copies, although several related genes may also be present in both species. Maternal CA1 and CA2 mRNA is present in small oocytes but transcript levels later decline, suggesting a role in early oogenesis. In the tailed species, embryonic CA1 and CA2 mRNAs first appear in the presumptive mesenchyme and muscle cells during gastrulation, subsequently accumulate in the presumptive notochord cells, and can be detected in these tissues through the tadpole stage. CA1 mRNAs accumulate initially in the same tissues in the tailless species but subsequently disappear, in concert with the arrest of notochord and tail development. In contrast, CA2 mRNAs were not detected in embryos of the tailless species. Fertilization of eggs of the tailless species with sperm of the tailed species, which restores the notochord and the tail, also results in the upregulation of CA1 and CA2 gene expression in hybrid embryos. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide experiments suggest that CA1 and CA2 expression in the notochord, but not in the muscle cells, is dependent on prior expression of Mocc FHI, an ascidian HNF-3beta-like gene. The expression of the CA1 and CA2 genes in the notochord in the tailed species, downregulation in the tailless species, upregulation in interspecific hybrids, and dependence on HNF-3beta activity is consistent with a role of these genes in development of the ascidian notochord.

  3. A five' splice-region G → C mutation in exon 1 of the human β-globin gene inhibits pre-mRNA splicing: A mechanism for β+-thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidaud, M.; Vidaud, D.; Amselem, S.; Rosa, J.; Goossens, M.; Gattoni, R.; Stevenin, J.; Chibani, J.


    The authors have characterized a Mediterranean β-thalassemia allele containing a sequence change at codon 30 that alters both β-globin pre-mRNA splicing and the structure of the homoglobin product. Presumably, this G → C transversion at position -1 of intron 1 reduces severely the utilization of the normal 5' splice site since the level of the Arg → Thr mutant hemoglobin (designated hemoglobin Kairouan) found in the erythrocytes of the patient is very low (2% of total hemoglobin). Since no natural mutations of the guanine located at position -1 of the CAG/GTAAGT consensus sequence had been isolated previously. They investigated the role of this nucleotide in the constitution of an active 5' splice site by studying the splicing of the pre-mRNA in cell-free extracts. They demonstrate that correct splicing of the mutant pre-mRNA is 98% inhibited. Their results provide further insights into the mechanisms of pre-mRNA maturation by revealing that the last residue of the exon plays a role at least equivalent to that of the intron residue at position +5

  4. Human β-globin locus control region: Analysis of the 5' DNase I hypersensitive site HS 2 in transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caterina, J.J.; Ryan, T.M.; Pawlik, K.M.; Townes, T.M.; Brinster, R.L.; Behringer, R.R.; Palmiter, R.D.


    The human β-globin locus control region (LCR) is essential for high-level expression of human var-epsilon-, γ-, and β-globin genes. Developmentally stable DNase I hypersensitive sites (designated HS) mark sequences within this region that are important for LCR activity. A 1.9-kilobase (kb) fragment containing the 5' HS 2 site enhances human β-globin gene expression 100-fold in transgenic mice and also confers position-independent expression. To further define important sequences within this region, deletion mutations of the 1.9-kb fragment were introduced upstream of the human β-globin gene, and the constructs were tested for activity in transgenic mice. Although enhancer activity was gradually lost with deletion of both 5' and 3' sequences, a 373-base-pair (BP) fragment retained the ability to confer relative position-independent expression. Three prominent DNase I footprints were observed in this region with extracts from the human erythroleukemia cell line K-562, one of which contained duplicated binding sites for transcription factor AP-1 (activator protein 1). When the 1.9-kb fragment containing an 19-bp deletion of the AP-1 binding sites was tested in transgenic mice, enhancer activity decreased 20-fold but position-independent expression was retained

  5. Nuclear orphan receptor TLX affects gene expression, proliferation and cell apoptosis in beta cells. (United States)

    Shi, Xiaoli; Xiong, Xiaokan; Dai, Zhe; Deng, Haohua; Sun, Li; Hu, Xuemei; Zhou, Feng; Xu, Yancheng

    Nuclear orphan receptor TLX is an essential regulator of the growth of neural stem cells. However, its exact function in pancreatic islet cells is still unknown. In the present study, gene expression profiling analysis revealed that overexpression of TLX in beta cell line MIN6 causes suppression of 176 genes and upregulation of 49 genes, including a cadre of cell cycle, cell proliferation and cell death control genes, such as Btg2, Ddit3 and Gadd45a. We next examined the effects of TLX overexpression on proliferation, apoptosis and insulin secretion in MIN6 cells. Proliferation analysis using EdU assay showed that overexpression of TLX increased percentage of EdU-positive cells. Cell cycle and apoptosis analysis revealed that overexpression of TLX in MIN6 cells resulted in higher percentage of cells exiting G1 into S-phase, and a 58.8% decrease of cell apoptosis induced by 0.5 mM palmitate. Moreover, TLX overexpression did not cause impairment of insulin secretion. Together, we conclude that TLX is among factors capable of controlling beta cell proliferation and survival, which may serve as a target for the development of novel therapies for diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of transforming growth factor-beta1 and vascular endothelial growth factor 165 gene transfer on Achilles tendon healing. (United States)

    Hou, Yu; Mao, ZeBin; Wei, XueLei; Lin, Lin; Chen, LianXu; Wang, HaiJun; Fu, Xin; Zhang, JiYing; Yu, Changlong


    Repaired Achilles tendons typically take weeks before they are strong enough to handle physiological loads. Gene therapy is a promising treatment for Achilles tendon defects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the histological/biomechanical effects of Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF(165)) gene transfer on Achilles tendon healing in rabbits. Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (BMSCs) were transduced with adenovirus carrying human TGF-beta1 cDNA (Ad-TGF-beta1), human VEGF(165) cDNA (Ad-VEGF(165)), or both (PIRES-TGF-beta1/VEGF(165)) Viruses, no cDNA (Ad-GFP), and the BMSCs without gene transfer and the intact tendon were used as control. BMSCs were surgically implanted into the experimentally injured Achilles tendons. TGF-beta1 distribution, cellularity, nuclear aspect ratio, nuclear orientation angle, vascular number, collagen synthesis, and biomechanical features were measured at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after surgery. The TGF-beta1 and TGF beta 1/VEGF(165) co-expression groups exhibited improved parameters compared with other groups, while the VEGF(165) expression group had a negative impact. In the co-expression group, the angiogenesis effects of VEGF(165) were diminished by TGF-beta1, while the collagen synthesis effects of TGF-beta1 were unaltered by VEGF(165). Thus treatment with TGF-beta1 cDNA-transduced BMSCs grafts is a promising therapy for acceleration and improvement of tendon healing, leading to quicker recovery and improved biomechanical properties of Achilles tendons.

  7. Inhibition of estrogen-responsive gene activation by the retinoid X receptor beta: evidence for multiple inhibitory pathways. (United States)

    Segars, J H; Marks, M S; Hirschfeld, S; Driggers, P H; Martinez, E; Grippo, J F; Brown, M; Wahli, W; Ozato, K


    The retinoid X receptor beta (RXR beta; H-2RIIBP) forms heterodimers with various nuclear hormone receptors and binds multiple hormone response elements, including the estrogen response element (ERE). In this report, we show that endogenous RXR beta contributes to ERE binding activity in nuclear extracts of the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. To define a possible regulatory role of RXR beta regarding estrogen-responsive transcription in breast cancer cells, RXR beta and a reporter gene driven by the vitellogenin A2 ERE were transfected into estrogen-treated MCF-7 cells. RXR beta inhibited ERE-driven reporter activity in a dose-dependent and element-specific fashion. This inhibition occurred in the absence of the RXR ligand 9-cis retinoic acid. The RXR beta-induced inhibition was specific for estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated ERE activation because inhibition was observed in ER-negative MDA-MB-231 cells only following transfection of the estrogen-activated ER. No inhibition of the basal reporter activity was observed. The inhibition was not caused by simple competition of RXR beta with the ER for ERE binding, since deletion mutants retaining DNA binding activity but lacking the N-terminal or C-terminal domain failed to inhibit reporter activity. In addition, cross-linking studies indicated the presence of an auxiliary nuclear factor present in MCF-7 cells that contributed to RXR beta binding of the ERE. Studies using known heterodimerization partners of RXR beta confirmed that RXR beta/triiodothyronine receptor alpha heterodimers avidly bind the ERE but revealed the existence of another triiodothyronine-independent pathway of ERE inhibition. These results indicate that estrogen-responsive genes may be negatively regulated by RXR beta through two distinct pathways.

  8. [Prevalence survey and molecular characterization of alpha and beta thalassemia in Liuzhou city of Guangxi]. (United States)

    Cai, Ren; Li, Liyan; Liang, Xin; Liu, Zhongying; Su, Liu; Li, Wenjun; Zhu, Qiangui; Mo, Qiuhua; Pan, Lizhen; Ouyang, Hong; Huang, Lihua; Xu, Xiangmin


    To investigate the gene frequencies and mutation patterns of alpha thalassemia (alpha-thal) and beta thalassemia (beta-thal) in Liuzhou city of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Cluster sampling was used. A total of 1 028 of umbilical blood samples were collected for a prevalence study of alpha-thal and a total of 1 312 healthy young people when receiving pre-marriage consultation were recruited for a beta-thal prevalence survey. Individuals live in city or town area of Liuzhou. A complete blood count as well as hemoglobin electrophoresis analysis were done in all of samples for phenotyping of alpha and beta-thals. Those with Hb Bart's for alpha-thal indicator and those with both microcytosis (MCV /=4.0%) for beta-thal were further studied by DNA analysis. PCR-based methodologies were used to characterize the mutation contributions of alpha and beta-thals. All the subjects were tested for the state of carrying beta-thala alleles for evaluating the situation of the compound heterozygotes of alpha-thal with beta-thal. Of 1 028 random samples of umbilical blood screened, 112 of subjects were defined to be the gene carriers of alpha-thal. The alpha-thal carrier rate was as high as 11.19% including 3 compound heterozygotes. Five well-known types of alpha-thal alleles were detected with gene contributions of 37.4% (--(SEA) deletion), 31.3% (-alpha(3.7) deletion), 17.4% (-alpha(4.2) deletion), 12.1% (alpha(CS)alpha mutation), and 0.9% (alpha(QS)alpha mutation), successively. Of the 1 312 adult specimens studied, 89 with beta-thal including 14 of the compound higher Hb F subjects were detected. All of the 89 phenotypic beta-thal carriers had the mutations in the beta-globin gene, making the overall prevalence 6.78%. The commonly seen three mutations, beta CD41 - 42 (-CTTT) frameshift, beta CD17 (T-A) nonsense mutation and beta-28 (A-G) promoter variation were accounted for 90% of the beta-thal alleles in Liuzhou. Of these beta-thal subjects, 16 (accounting for 18%) were

  9. A polymorphism of the interleukin-1 beta gene is associated with sperm pathology in humans. (United States)

    Bentz, Eva-Katrin; Hefler, Lukas A; Denschlag, Dominik; Pietrowski, Detlef; Buerkle, Bernd; Tempfer, Clemens B


    In a prospective case-control study of 127 normozoospermic and 435 non-normozoospermic Caucasian men, the genotype frequencies of a polymorphism of the interleukin-1 beta gene (IL-1beta Taq C-->T) were statistically significantly different between groups (homozygous wild-type C/C [57%], heterozygous C/T [42%], and homozygous mutant T/T [1%] vs. C/C [57%], C/T [36%], T/T [7%] for normozoospermic and non-normozoospermic men, respectively; odds ratio, 4.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.13 to 20.28). This association was restricted to men with the oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) syndrome. We conclude that the investigated polymorphism is associated with sperm pathology in Caucasians.

  10. Comprehensive identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with beta-lactam resistance within pneumococcal mosaic genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Chewapreecha


    Full Text Available Traditional genetic association studies are very difficult in bacteria, as the generally limited recombination leads to large linked haplotype blocks, confounding the identification of causative variants. Beta-lactam antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae arises readily as the bacteria can quickly incorporate DNA fragments encompassing variants that make the transformed strains resistant. However, the causative mutations themselves are embedded within larger recombined blocks, and previous studies have only analysed a limited number of isolates, leading to the description of "mosaic genes" as being responsible for resistance. By comparing a large number of genomes of beta-lactam susceptible and non-susceptible strains, the high frequency of recombination should break up these haplotype blocks and allow the use of genetic association approaches to identify individual causative variants. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and indels that could confer beta-lactam non-susceptibility using 3,085 Thai and 616 USA pneumococcal isolates as independent datasets for the variant discovery. The large sample sizes allowed us to narrow the source of beta-lactam non-susceptibility from long recombinant fragments down to much smaller loci comprised of discrete or linked SNPs. While some loci appear to be universal resistance determinants, contributing equally to non-susceptibility for at least two classes of beta-lactam antibiotics, some play a larger role in resistance to particular antibiotics. All of the identified loci have a highly non-uniform distribution in the populations. They are enriched not only in vaccine-targeted, but also non-vaccine-targeted lineages, which may raise clinical concerns. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms underlying resistance will be essential for future use of genome sequencing to predict antibiotic sensitivity in clinical microbiology.

  11. Positive selection within the Schizophrenia-associated GABA(A receptor beta(2 gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing-Sze Lo

    Full Text Available The gamma-aminobutyric acid type-A (GABA(A receptor plays a major role in inhibitory neurotransmissions. Intronic SNPs and haplotypes in GABRB2, the gene for GABA(A receptor beta(2 subunit, are associated with schizophrenia and correlated with the expression of two alternatively spliced beta(2 isoforms. In the present study, using chimpanzee as an ancestral reference, high frequencies were observed for the derived (D alleles of the four SNPs rs6556547, rs187269, rs1816071 and rs1816072 in GABRB2, suggesting the occurrence of positive selection for these derived alleles. Coalescence-based simulation showed that the population frequency spectra and the frequencies of H56, the haplotype having all four D alleles, significantly deviated from neutral-evolution expectation in various demographic models. Haplotypes containing the derived allele of rs1816072 displayed significantly less diversity compared to haplotypes containing its ancestral allele, further supporting positive selection. The variations in DD-genotype frequencies in five human populations provided a snapshot of the evolutionary history, which suggested that the positive selections of the D alleles are recent and likely ongoing. The divergence between the DD-genotype profiles of schizophrenic and control samples pointed to the schizophrenia-relevance of positive selections, with the schizophrenic samples showing weakened selections compared to the controls. These DD-genotypes were previously found to increase the expression of beta(2, especially its long isoform. Electrophysiological analysis showed that this long beta(2 isoform favored by the positive selections is more sensitive than the short isoform to the inhibition of GABA(A receptor function by energy depletion. These findings represent the first demonstration of positive selection in a schizophrenia-associated gene.

  12. Cloning and sequence of the gene encoding a cefotaxime-hydrolyzing class A beta-lactamase isolated from Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Ishii, Y; Ohno, A; Taguchi, H; Imajo, S; Ishiguro, M; Matsuzawa, H


    Escherichia coli TUH12191, which is resistant to piperacillin, cefazolin, cefotiam, ceftizoxime, cefuzonam, and aztreonam but is susceptible to cefoxitin, latamoxef, flomoxef, and imipenem, was isolated from the urine of a patient treated with beta-lactam antibiotics. The beta-lactamase (Toho-1) purified from the bacteria had a pI of 7.8, had a molecular weight of about 29,000, and hydrolyzed beta-lactam antibiotics such as penicillin G, ampicillin, oxacillin, carbenicillin, piperacillin, cephalothin, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and aztreonam. Toho-1 was markedly inhibited by beta-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanic acid and tazobactam. Resistance to beta-lactams, streptomycin, spectinomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim was transferred by conjugational transfer from E. coli TUH12191 to E. coli ML4903, and the transferred plasmid was about 58 kbp, belonging to incompatibility group M. The cefotaxime resistance gene for Toho-1 was subcloned from the 58-kbp plasmid by transformation of E. coli MV1184. The sequence of the gene for Toho-1 was determined, and the open reading frame of the gene consisted of 873 or 876 bases (initial sequence, ATGATG). The nucleotide sequence of the gene (DDBJ accession number D37830) was found to be about 73% homologous to the sequence of the gene encoding a class A beta-lactamase produced by Klebsiella oxytoca E23004. According to the amino acid sequence deduced from the DNA sequence, the precursor consisted of 290 or 291 amino acid residues, which contained amino acid motifs common to class A beta-lactamases (70SXXK, 130SDN, and 234KTG). Toho-1 was about 83% homologous to the beta-lactamase mediated by the chromosome of K. oxytoca D488 and the beta-lactamase mediated by the plasmid of E. coli MEN-1. Therefore, the newly isolated beta-lactamase Toho-1 produced by E. coli TUH12191 is similar to beta-lactamases produced by K. oxytoca D488, K. oxytoca E23004, and E. coli MEN-1 rather than to mutants of TEM or SHV enzymes

  13. Molecular cloning and analysis of zebrafish voltage-gated sodium channel beta subunit genes: implications for the evolution of electrical signaling in vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Tao P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Action potential generation in excitable cells such as myocytes and neurons critically depends on voltage-gated sodium channels. In mammals, sodium channels exist as macromolecular complexes that include a pore-forming alpha subunit and 1 or more modulatory beta subunits. Although alpha subunit genes have been cloned from diverse metazoans including flies, jellyfish, and humans, beta subunits have not previously been identified in any non-mammalian species. To gain further insight into the evolution of electrical signaling in vertebrates, we investigated beta subunit genes in the teleost Danio rerio (zebrafish. Results We identified and cloned single zebrafish gene homologs for beta1-beta3 (zbeta1-zbeta3 and duplicate genes for beta4 (zbeta4.1, zbeta4.2. Sodium channel beta subunit loci are similarly organized in fish and mammalian genomes. Unlike their mammalian counterparts, zbeta1 and zbeta2 subunit genes display extensive alternative splicing. Zebrafish beta subunit genes and their splice variants are differentially-expressed in excitable tissues, indicating tissue-specific regulation of zbeta1-4 expression and splicing. Co-expression of the genes encoding zbeta1 and the zebrafish sodium channel alpha subunit Nav1.5 in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells increased sodium current and altered channel gating, demonstrating functional interactions between zebrafish alpha and beta subunits. Analysis of the synteny and phylogeny of mammalian, teleost, amphibian, and avian beta subunit and related genes indicated that all extant vertebrate beta subunits are orthologous, that beta2/beta4 and beta1/beta3 share common ancestry, and that beta subunits are closely related to other proteins sharing the V-type immunoglobulin domain structure. Vertebrate sodium channel beta subunit genes were not identified in the genomes of invertebrate chordates and are unrelated to known subunits of the para sodium channel in Drosophila. Conclusion The

  14. Coexistence of Southeast Asian ovalocytosis and beta-thalassemia: a molecular and hematological analysis. (United States)

    Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Fucharoen, Supan; Singsanan, Sanita; Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan


    We describe hematological and molecular characterization of a Thai female who had Southeast Asian ovalocytosis (SAO) associated with beta+-thalassemia trait. The proband had mild microcytosis with Hb 12.9 g/dl, Hct 35.8%, MCV 74.4 fl, MCH 26.8 pg, MCHC 36.0 g/dl, and elevated Hb A2 (5.6%), characteristics of beta-thalassemia trait. Peripheral blood film examination revealed prominent ovalocytosis. However, a one-tube osmotic fragility (OF) test commonly used for thalassemia screening was negative and a normal OF curve was observed. Further polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses identified the beta(-28A-G) mutation in the beta-globin gene and a 27 bp deletion in erythrocyte band 3 protein gene, indicating a genetically compound heterozygote. Hematological data of the proband was comparatively presented with those of eight female and 15 male carriers of pure beta-thalassemia with the same mutation. The finding demonstrates that although the association of the SAO and beta-thalassemia does not produce a more severe clinical picture, this could lead to a mis-screening of beta-thalassemia using an OF test as a primary screening test. Additional blood film examination followed by PCR could help in the detection of this unusual genetic interaction in the region. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. The structure of the human interferon alpha/beta receptor gene. (United States)

    Lutfalla, G; Gardiner, K; Proudhon, D; Vielh, E; Uzé, G


    Using the cDNA coding for the human interferon alpha/beta receptor (IFNAR), the IFNAR gene has been physically mapped relative to the other loci of the chromosome 21q22.1 region. 32,906 base pairs covering the IFNAR gene have been cloned and sequenced. Primer extension and solution hybridization-ribonuclease protection have been used to determine that the transcription of the gene is initiated in a broad region of 20 base pairs. Some aspects of the polymorphism of the gene, including noncoding sequences, have been analyzed; some are allelic differences in the coding sequence that induce amino acid variations in the resulting protein. The exon structure of the IFNAR gene and of that of the available genes for the receptors of the cytokine/growth hormone/prolactin/interferon receptor family have been compared with the predictions for the secondary structure of those receptors. From this analysis, we postulate a common origin and propose an hypothesis for the divergence from the immunoglobulin superfamily.

  16. CK2(beta)tes gene encodes a testis-specific isoform of the regulatory subunit of casein kinase 2 in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalmykova, Alla I; Shevelyov, Yuri Y; Polesskaya, Oksana O


    An earlier described CK2(beta)tes gene of Drosophila melanogaster is shown to encode a male germline specific isoform of regulatory beta subunit of casein kinase 2. Western-analysis using anti-CK2(beta)tes Ig revealed CK2(beta)tes protein in Drosophila testes extract. Expression of a CK2(beta...... and coimmunoprecipitation analysis of protein extract from Drosophila testes, we demonstrated an association between CK2(beta)tes and CK2alpha. Northern-analysis has shown that another regulatory (beta') subunit found recently in D. melanogaster genome is also testis-specific. Thus, we describe the first example of two...

  17. CTCF-mediated transcriptional regulation through cell type-specific chromosome organization in the β-globin locus


    Junier, Ivan; Dale, Ryan K.; Hou, Chunhui; Képès, François; Dean, Ann


    International audience; The principles underlying the architectural landscape of chromatin beyond the nucleosome level in living cells remains largely unknown despite its potential to play a role in mammalian gene regulation. We investigated the three-dimensional folding of a 1 Mbp region of human chromosome 11 containing the β-globin genes by integrating looping interactions of the CCCTC-binding insulator protein CTCF determined comprehensively by chromosome conformation capture (3C) into a ...

  18. Tolerance induction to cytoplasmic beta-galactosidase by hepatic AAV gene transfer: implications for antigen presentation and immunotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley T Martino


    Full Text Available Hepatic gene transfer, in particular using adeno-associated viral (AAV vectors, has been shown to induce immune tolerance to several protein antigens. This approach has been exploited in animal models of inherited protein deficiency for systemic delivery of therapeutic proteins. Adequate levels of transgene expression in hepatocytes induce a suppressive T cell response, thereby promoting immune tolerance. This study addresses the question of whether AAV gene transfer can induce tolerance to a cytoplasmic protein.AAV-2 vector-mediated hepatic gene transfer for expression of cytoplasmic beta-galactosidase (beta-gal was performed in immune competent mice, followed by a secondary beta-gal gene transfer with E1/E3-deleted adenoviral Ad-LacZ vector to provoke a severe immunotoxic response. Transgene expression from the AAV-2 vector in approximately 2% of hepatocytes almost completely protected from inflammatory T cell responses against beta-gal, eliminated antibody formation, and significantly reduced adenovirus-induced hepatotoxicity. Consequently, approximately 10% of hepatocytes continued to express beta-gal 45 days after secondary Ad-LacZ gene transfer, a time point when control mice had lost all Ad-LacZ derived expression. Suppression of inflammatory T cell infiltration in the liver and liver damage was linked to specific transgene expression and was not seen for secondary gene transfer with Ad-GFP. A combination of adoptive transfer studies and flow cytometric analyses demonstrated induction of Treg that actively suppressed CD8(+ T cell responses to beta-gal and that was amplified in liver and spleen upon secondary Ad-LacZ gene transfer.These data demonstrate that tolerance induction by hepatic AAV gene transfer does not require systemic delivery of the transgene product and that expression of a cytoplasmic neo-antigen in few hepatocytes can induce Treg and provide long-term suppression of inflammatory responses and immunotoxicity.

  19. Investigation of benzo(a)pyrene-globin adducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallin, H; Jeffre, A M; Santella, R M


    The nature of the adducts formed between benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and globin were investigated in animals treated with (/sup 3/H)BP. Modification levels on globin were determined by radioactivity measurements. Since BP tetraols can be released from benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide modified protein and DNA by acid treatment, globin samples were treated with acid, released tetraols separated by HPLC and quantitated by scintillation counting. In addition, acid released material was measured in competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using antibodies which recognize BP tetraols. Both measurements indicate that only 2% of bound radioactivity could be released as free BP tetraols. These studies indicate that benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide may not be the major metabolite of BP involved in globin binding. (author). 14 refs.

  20. A gene duplication led to specialized gamma-aminobutyrate and beta-alanine aminotransferase in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gorm; Andersen, Birgit; Dobritzsch, D.


    and related yeasts have two different genes/enzymes to apparently 'distinguish' between the two reactions in a single cell. It is likely that upon duplication similar to 200 million years ago, a specialized Uga1p evolved into a 'novel' transaminase enzyme with broader substrate specificity.......In humans, beta-alanine (BAL) and the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) are transaminated by a single aminotransferase enzyme. Apparently, yeast originally also had a single enzyme, but the corresponding gene was duplicated in the Saccharomyces kluyveri lineage. SkUGA1 encodes a homologue...... to characterize the substrate specificity and kinetic parameters of the four enzymes. It was found that the cofactor pyridoxal 5'-phosphate is needed for enzymatic activity and alpha-ketoglutarate, and not pyruvate, as the amino group acceptor. SkPyd4p preferentially uses BAL as the amino group donor (V...

  1. Detection of Amp C genes encoding for beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shanthi


    Full Text Available Purpose : Amp C beta-lactamase are Ambler class C enzymes that confer resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins and are not inhibited by beta-lactamase inhibitors. Their detection is crucial, since the phenotypic tests are not standardised leading to ambiguity in interpretation of results. This study was done to detect the types of Amp C prevalent in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Materials and Methods : Seventy-seven consecutive cefoxitin resistant clinical isolates of E. coli (n = 25 and K. pneumoniae (n = 52 were included in the study. Antibiotic susceptibility testing to various classes of antibiotics was performed by disc diffusion using Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC to cefoxitin, imipenem and meropenem were determined by broth microdilution method. Isolates were screened for production of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL. Multiplex PCR was performed for the detection of Amp C genes after phenotypic testing (Hodge test and inhibitor based test. Results : Cefoxitin Hodge test was positive in 40 isolates which included 20 E. coli and 20 K. pneumoniae. There was zone enhancement with boronic acid in 55 isolates, of which 36 were K. pneumoniae and 19 were E. coli. Multiplex PCR detected Amp C in 11/25 E. coli and 12/52 K. pneumoniae isolates. The Amp C genes detected were CIT (Amp C origin - Citrobacter freundii, DHA (Dhahran Hospital, Saudi Arabia, ACC (Ambler class C, EBC (Amp C origin - Enterobacter cloacae groups. ESBL was co-produced in 54 isolates. Conclusions : Amp C was detected in 29.87% of the study isolates. Majority of them co-produced ESBL. The most common Amp C was the CIT family. Screen tests for cefoxitin resistance may be falsely positive due to production of carbapenamases.

  2. Purification, characterization and gene cloning of thermostable O-acetyl-L-serine sulfhydrylase forming {beta}-cyano-L-alanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omura, Hironori; Yoshida, Toyokazu; Nagasawa, Toru [Gifu Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Biomolecular Science; Kuroda, Masako [Ikeda Food Research Co., Ltd., Fukuyama, Hiroshima (Japan); Kobayashi, Michihiko; Shimizu, Sakayu [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Agricultural Sciences


    A thermophilic and cyanide ion-tolerant bacterium, Bacillus stearothermophilus CN3 isolated from a hot spring in Japan, was found to produce thermostable {beta}-cyano-L-alanine synthase. The enzyme catalyzes the synthesis of {beta}-cyano-L-alanine from O-acetyl-L-serine and cyanide ions. The purified enzyme has a molecular mass of approximately 70 kDa and consists of two identical sub-units. It was stable in the pH range of 6.0 to 10.0 and up to 70degC. The enzyme also catalyzes the synthesis of various {beta}-substituted-L-alanine derivatives from O-acetyl-L-serine and nucleophilic reagents. The gene encoding the {beta}-cyano-L-alanine synthase was isolated from B. stearothermophilus CN3. Sequence homology analysis revealed that the {beta}-cyano-L-alanine synthase of the bacterium is O-acetyl-L-serine sulfhydrylase. A recombinant plasmid, constructed by ligation of the cloned gene and an expression vector, pKK223-3, was introduced into E. coli JM109. The transformed E. coli cells overexpressed {beta}-cyano-L-alanine synthase. Heat stable {beta}-cyano-L-alanine synthase can be applied to the synthesis of [4-{sup 11}C]L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid as a tracer for positron emission tomography. (author)

  3. [Influence of interleukin-1 beta gene polymorphism and childhood maltreatment on antidepressant treatment]. (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Zhang, Zhijun; Xu, Zhi; Pu, Mengjia; Geng, Leiyu


    To explore the influence of interleukin-1 beta (IL1B) gene polymorphism and childhood maltreatment on antidepressant treatment. Two hundred and four patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have received treatment with single antidepressant drugs and were followed up for 8 weeks. Hamilton depression scale-17 (HAMD-17) was used to evaluate the severity of depressive symptoms and therapeutic effect. Childhood maltreatment was assessed using Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, a 28-item Short Form (CTQ-SF). Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the IL1B gene was determined using a SNaPshot method. Correlation of rs16944 gene polymorphism with response to treatment was analyzed using Unphased 3.0.13 software. The main and interactive effects of SNP and childhood maltreatment on the antidepressant treatment were analyzed using Logistic regression analysis. No significant difference of gender, age, year of education, family history, episode time, and antidepressant agents was detected between the remitters and non-remitters. Association analysis has found that the SNP rs16944 in the IL1B AA genotype carriers antidepressant response was poorer (χ2=3.931, P=0.047). No significant difference was detected in the CTQ scores between the two groups. Genetic and environmental interaction analysis has demonstrated a significant correlation between rs16944 AA genotype and childhood maltreatment and poorer response to antidepressant treatment. The SNP rs16944 in the IL1B gene and its interaction with childhood maltreatment may influence the effect of antidepressant treatment for patients with MDD.

  4. Characterization of the distal promoter of the human pyruvate carboxylase gene in pancreatic beta cells.

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    Ansaya Thonpho

    Full Text Available Pyruvate carboxylase (PC is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in many biosynthetic pathways in various tissues including glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In the present study, we identify promoter usage of the human PC gene in pancreatic beta cells. The data show that in the human, two alternative promoters, proximal and distal, are responsible for the production of multiple mRNA isoforms as in the rat and mouse. RT-PCR analysis performed with cDNA prepared from human liver and islets showed that the distal promoter, but not the proximal promoter, of the human PC gene is active in pancreatic beta cells. A 1108 bp fragment of the human PC distal promoter was cloned and analyzed. It contains no TATA box but possesses two CCAAT boxes, and other putative transcription factor binding sites, similar to those of the distal promoter of rat PC gene. To localize the positive regulatory region in the human PC distal promoter, 5'-truncated and the 25-bp and 15-bp internal deletion mutants of the human PC distal promoter were generated and used in transient transfections in INS-1 832/13 insulinoma and HEK293T (kidney cell lines. The results indicated that positions -340 to -315 of the human PC distal promoter serve as (an activator element(s for cell-specific transcription factor, while the CCAAT box at -71/-67, a binding site for nuclear factor Y (NF-Y, as well as a GC box at -54/-39 of the human PC distal promoter act as activator sequences for basal transcription.

  5. Candidate Gene Study of TRAIL and TRAIL Receptors: Association with Response to Interferon Beta Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis Patients (United States)

    Órpez-Zafra, Teresa; Pinto-Medel, María Jesús; Oliver-Martos, Begoña; Ortega-Pinazo, Jesús; Arnáiz, Carlos; Guijarro-Castro, Cristina; Varadé, Jezabel; Álvarez-Lafuente, Roberto; Urcelay, Elena; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca


    TRAIL and TRAIL Receptor genes have been implicated in Multiple Sclerosis pathology as well as in the response to IFN beta therapy. The objective of our study was to evaluate the association of these genes in relation to the age at disease onset (AAO) and to the clinical response upon IFN beta treatment in Spanish MS patients. We carried out a candidate gene study of TRAIL, TRAILR-1, TRAILR-2, TRAILR-3 and TRAILR-4 genes. A total of 54 SNPs were analysed in 509 MS patients under IFN beta treatment, and an additional cohort of 226 MS patients was used to validate the results. Associations of rs1047275 in TRAILR-2 and rs7011559 in TRAILR-4 genes with AAO under an additive model did not withstand Bonferroni correction. In contrast, patients with the TRAILR-1 rs20576-CC genotype showed a better clinical response to IFN beta therapy compared with patients carrying the A-allele (recessive model: p = 8.88×10−4, pc = 0.048, OR = 0.30). This SNP resulted in a non synonymous substitution of Glutamic acid to Alanine in position 228 (E228A), a change previously associated with susceptibility to different cancer types and risk of metastases, suggesting a lack of functionality of TRAILR-1. In order to unravel how this amino acid change in TRAILR-1 would affect to death signal, we performed a molecular modelling with both alleles. Neither TRAIL binding sites in the receptor nor the expression levels of TRAILR-1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cell subsets (monocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells) were modified, suggesting that this SNP may be altering the death signal by some other mechanism. These findings show a role for TRAILR-1 gene variations in the clinical outcome of IFN beta therapy that might have relevance as a biomarker to predict the response to IFN beta in MS. PMID:23658636

  6. Candidate gene study of TRAIL and TRAIL receptors: association with response to interferon beta therapy in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos López-Gómez

    Full Text Available TRAIL and TRAIL Receptor genes have been implicated in Multiple Sclerosis pathology as well as in the response to IFN beta therapy. The objective of our study was to evaluate the association of these genes in relation to the age at disease onset (AAO and to the clinical response upon IFN beta treatment in Spanish MS patients. We carried out a candidate gene study of TRAIL, TRAILR-1, TRAILR-2, TRAILR-3 and TRAILR-4 genes. A total of 54 SNPs were analysed in 509 MS patients under IFN beta treatment, and an additional cohort of 226 MS patients was used to validate the results. Associations of rs1047275 in TRAILR-2 and rs7011559 in TRAILR-4 genes with AAO under an additive model did not withstand Bonferroni correction. In contrast, patients with the TRAILR-1 rs20576-CC genotype showed a better clinical response to IFN beta therapy compared with patients carrying the A-allele (recessive model: p = 8.88×10(-4, pc = 0.048, OR = 0.30. This SNP resulted in a non synonymous substitution of Glutamic acid to Alanine in position 228 (E228A, a change previously associated with susceptibility to different cancer types and risk of metastases, suggesting a lack of functionality of TRAILR-1. In order to unravel how this amino acid change in TRAILR-1 would affect to death signal, we performed a molecular modelling with both alleles. Neither TRAIL binding sites in the receptor nor the expression levels of TRAILR-1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cell subsets (monocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were modified, suggesting that this SNP may be altering the death signal by some other mechanism. These findings show a role for TRAILR-1 gene variations in the clinical outcome of IFN beta therapy that might have relevance as a biomarker to predict the response to IFN beta in MS.

  7. Pancreatic beta-cell overexpression of the glucagon receptor gene results in enhanced beta-cell function and mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelling, Richard W; Vuguin, Patricia M; Du, Xiu Quan


    in vivo, we generated mice overexpressing the Gcgr specifically on pancreatic beta-cells (RIP-Gcgr). In vivo and in vitro insulin secretion in response to glucagon and glucose was increased 1.7- to 3.9-fold in RIP-Gcgr mice compared with controls. Consistent with the observed increase in insulin release...

  8. Infusion of Autologous Retrodifferentiated Stem Cells into Patients with Beta-Thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilham Saleh Abuljadayel


    Full Text Available Beta-thalassemia is a genetic, red blood cell disorder affecting the beta-globin chain of the adult hemoglobin gene. This results in excess accumulation of unpaired alpha-chain gene products leading to reduced red blood cell life span and the development of severe anemia. Current treatment of this disease involves regular blood transfusion and adjunct chelation therapy to lower blood transfusion–induced iron overload. Fetal hemoglobin switching agents have been proposed to treat genetic blood disorders, such as sickle cell anemia and beta-thalassemia, in an effort to compensate for the dysfunctional form of the beta-globin chain in adult hemoglobin. The rationale behind this approach is to pair the excess normal alpha-globin chain with the alternative fetal gamma-chain to promote red blood cell survival and ameliorate the anemia. Reprogramming of differentiation in intact, mature, adult white blood cells in response to inclusion of monoclonal antibody CR3/43 has been described. This form of retrograde development has been termed “retrodifferentiation”, with the ability to re-express a variety of stem cell markers in a heterogeneous population of white blood cells. This form of reprogramming, or reontogeny, to a more pluripotent stem cell state ought to recapitulate early hematopoiesis and facilitate expression of a fetal and/or adult program of hemoglobin synthesis or regeneration on infusion and subsequent redifferentiation. Herein, the outcome of infusion of autologous retrodifferentiated stem cells (RSC into 21 patients with beta-thalassemia is described. Over 6 months, Infusion of 3-h autologous RSC subjected to hematopoietic-conducive conditions into patients with beta-thalassemia reduced mean blood transfusion requirement, increased mean fetal hemoglobin synthesis, and significantly lowered mean serum ferritin. This was always accompanied by an increase in mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, and mean

  9. Genus beta human papillomavirus E6 proteins vary in their effects on the transactivation of p53 target genes. (United States)

    White, Elizabeth A; Walther, Johanna; Javanbakht, Hassan; Howley, Peter M


    The genus beta human papillomaviruses (beta HPVs) cause cutaneous lesions and are thought to be involved in the initiation of some nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), particularly in patients with the genetic disorder epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV). We have previously reported that at least two of the genus beta HPV E6 proteins bind to and/or increase the steady-state levels of p53 in squamous epithelial cells. This is in contrast to a well-characterized ability of the E6 proteins of cancer-associated HPVs of genus alpha HPV, which inactivate p53 by targeting its ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. In this study, we have investigated the ability of genus beta E6 proteins from eight different HPV types to block the transactivation of p53 target genes following DNA damage. We find that the E6 proteins from diverse beta HPV species and types vary in their capacity to block the induction of MDM2, p21, and proapoptotic genes after genotoxic stress. We conclude that some genus beta HPV E6 proteins inhibit at least some p53 target genes, although perhaps not by the same mechanism or to the same degree as the high-risk genus alpha HPV E6 proteins. This study addresses the ability of various human papillomavirus E6 proteins to block the activation of p53-responsive cellular genes following DNA damage in human keratinocytes, the normal host cell for HPVs. The E6 proteins encoded by the high-risk, cancer-associated HPV types of genus alpha HPV have a well-established activity to target p53 degradation and thereby inhibit the response to DNA damage. In this study, we have investigated the ability of genus beta HPV E6 proteins from eight different HPV types to block the ability of p53 to transactivate downstream genes following DNA damage. We find that some, but not all, genus beta HPV E6 proteins can block the transactivation of some p53 target genes. This differential response to DNA damage furthers the understanding of cutaneous HPV biology and may help to explain the

  10. Beta-thalassemia

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    Origa Raffaella


    , deletions in the beta globin gene on chromosome 11, leading to reduced (beta+ or absent (beta0 synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin (Hb. Transmission is autosomal recessive; however, dominant mutations have also been reported. Diagnosis of thalassemia is based on hematologic and molecular genetic testing. Differential diagnosis is usually straightforward but may include genetic sideroblastic anemias, congenital dyserythropoietic anemias, and other conditions with high levels of HbF (such as juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and aplastic anemia. Genetic counseling is recommended and prenatal diagnosis may be offered. Treatment of thalassemia major includes regular RBC transfusions, iron chelation and management of secondary complications of iron overload. In some circumstances, spleen removal may be required. Bone marrow transplantation remains the only definitive cure currently available. Individuals with thalassemia intermedia may require splenectomy, folic acid supplementation, treatment of extramedullary erythropoietic masses and leg ulcers, prevention and therapy of thromboembolic events. Prognosis for individuals with beta-thalassemia has improved substantially in the last 20 years following recent medical advances in transfusion, iron chelation and bone marrow transplantation therapy. However, cardiac disease remains the main cause of death in patients with iron overload.

  11. A gene encoding the major beta tubulin of the mitotic spindle in Physarum polycephalum plasmodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burland, T.G.; Paul, E.C.A.; Oetliker, M.; Dove, W.F.


    The multinucleate plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is unusual among eucaryotic cells in that it uses tubulins only in mitotic-spindle microtubules; cytoskeletal, flagellar, and centriolar microtubules are absent in this cell type. The authors identified a ..beta..-tubulin cDNA clone, ..beta..105, which is shown to correspond to the transcript of the betC ..beta..-tubulin locus and to encode ..beta..2 tubulin, the ..beta.. tubulin expressed specifically in the plasmodium and used exclusively in the mitotic spindle. Physarum amoebae utilize tubulins in the cytoskeleton, centrioles, and flagella, in addition to the mitotic spindle. Sequence analysis shows that ..beta..2 tubulin is only 83% identical to the two ..beta.. tubulins expressed in amoebae. This compares with 70 to 83% identity between Physarum ..beta..2 tubulin and the ..beta.. tubulins of yeasts, fungi, alga, trypanosome, fruit fly, chicken, and mouse. On the other hand, Physarum ..beta..2 tubulin is no more similar to, for example, Aspergillus ..beta.. tubulins than it is to those of Drosophila melanogaster or mammals. Several eucaryotes express at least one widely diverged ..beta.. tubulin as well as one or more ..beta.. tubulins that conform more closely to a consensus ..beta..-tubulin sequence. The authors suggest that ..beta..-tubulins diverge more when their expression pattern is restricted, especially when this restriction results in their use in fewer functions. This divergence among ..beta.. tubulins could have resulted through neutral drift. For example, exclusive use of Physarum ..beta..2 tubulin in the spindle may have allowed more amino acid substitutions than would be functionally tolerable in the ..beta.. tubulins that are utilized in multiple microtubular organelles. Alternatively, restricted use of ..beta.. tubulins may allow positive selection to operate more freely to refine ..beta..-tubulin function.

  12. Identification of Leptospira serovars by RFLP of the RNA polymerase beta subunit gene (rpoB). (United States)

    Jung, Lenice Roteia Cardoso; Bomfim, Maria Rosa Quaresma; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Nunes, Álvaro Cantini


    Leptospires are usually classified by methods based on DNA-DNA hybridization and the conventional cross-agglutination absorption test, which uses polyclonal antibodies against lipopolysaccharides. In this study, the amplification of the rpoB gene, which encodes the beta-subunit of RNA polymerase, was used as an alternative tool to identify Leptospira. DNA extracts from sixty-eight serovars were obtained, and the hypervariable region located between 1990 and 2500-bp in the rpoB gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The 600-bp amplicons of the rpoB gene were digested with the restriction endonucleases TaqI, Tru1I, Sau3AI and MslI, and the restriction fragments were separated by 6% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Thirty-five fragment patters were obtained from the combined data of restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis and used to infer the phylogenetic relationships among the Leptospira species and serovars. The species assignments obtained were in full agreement with the established taxonomic classifications. Twenty-two serovars were effectively identified based on differences in their molecular profiles. However, the other 46 serovars remained clustered in groups that included more than one serovar of different species. This study demonstrates the value of RFLP analysis of PCR-amplified rpoB as an initial method for identifying Leptospira species and serovars.

  13. Identification of Leptospira serovars by RFLP of the RNA polymerase beta subunit gene (rpoB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenice Roteia Cardoso Jung


    Full Text Available Leptospires are usually classified by methods based on DNA-DNA hybridization and the conventional cross-agglutination absorption test, which uses polyclonal antibodies against lipopolysaccharides. In this study, the amplification of the rpoB gene, which encodes the beta-subunit of RNA polymerase, was used as an alternative tool to identify Leptospira. DNA extracts from sixty-eight serovars were obtained, and the hypervariable region located between 1990 and 2500-bp in the rpoB gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The 600-bp amplicons of the rpoB gene were digested with the restriction endonucleases TaqI, Tru1I, Sau3AI and MslI, and the restriction fragments were separated by 6% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Thirty-five fragment patters were obtained from the combined data of restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis and used to infer the phylogenetic relationships among the Leptospira species and serovars. The species assignments obtained were in full agreement with the established taxonomic classifications. Twenty-two serovars were effectively identified based on differences in their molecular profiles. However, the other 46 serovars remained clustered in groups that included more than one serovar of different species. This study demonstrates the value of RFLP analysis of PCR-amplified rpoB as an initial method for identifying Leptospira species and serovars.

  14. Tissue-specific and pathogen-induced regulation of a Nicotiana plumbaginifolia beta-1,3-glucanase gene. (United States)

    Castresana, C; de Carvalho, F; Gheysen, G; Habets, M; Inzé, D; Van Montagu, M


    The Nicotiana plumbaginifolia gn1 gene encoding a beta-1,3-glucanase isoform has been characterized. The gn1 product represents an isoform distinct from the previously identified tobacco beta-1,3-glucanases. By expressing gn1 in Escherichia coli, we have determined directly that the encoded protein does, indeed, correspond to a beta-1,3-glucanase. In N. plumbaginifolia, gn1 was found to be expressed in roots and older leaves. Transgenic tobacco plants containing the 5'-noncoding region of gn1 fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene also showed maximum levels of GUS activity in roots and older leaves. No detectable activity was present in the upper part of the transgenic plants with the exception of stem cells at the bases of emerging shoots. The expression conferred by the gn1 promoter was differentially induced in response to specific plant stress treatments. Studies of three plant-bacteria interactions showed high levels of GUS activity when infection resulted in a hypersensitive reaction. Increased gene expression was confined to cells surrounding the necrotic lesions. The observed expression pattern suggests that the characterized beta-1,3-glucanase plays a role both in plant development and in the defense response against pathogen infection. PMID:2152158

  15. Regeneration of hyaline cartilage by cell-mediated gene therapy using transforming growth factor beta 1-producing fibroblasts. (United States)

    Lee, K H; Song, S U; Hwang, T S; Yi, Y; Oh, I S; Lee, J Y; Choi, K B; Choi, M S; Kim, S J


    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) has been considered as a candidate for gene therapy of orthopedic diseases. The possible application of cell-mediated TGF-beta gene therapy as a new treatment regimen for degenerative arthritis was investigated. In this study, fibroblasts expressing active TGF-beta 1 were injected into the knee joints of rabbits with artificially made cartilage defects to evaluate the feasibility of this therapy for orthopedic diseases. Two to 3 weeks after the injection there was evidence of cartilage regeneration, and at 4 to 6 weeks the cartilage defect was completely filled with newly grown hyaline cartilage. Histological analyses of the regenerated cartilage suggested that it was well integrated with the adjacent normal cartilage at the sides of the defect and that the newly formed tissue was indeed hyaline cartilage. Our findings suggest that cell-mediated TGF-beta 1 gene therapy may be a novel treatment for orthopedic diseases in which hyaline cartilage damage has occurred.

  16. Clinical and hematological response to hydroxyurea in a patient with Hb Lepore/beta-thalassemia. (United States)

    Rigano, P; Manfré, L; La Galla, R; Renda, D; Renda, M C; Calabrese, A; Calzolari, R; Maggio, A


    The possibility of increasing Hb F in vivo using drugs like 5-azacytidine, hydroxyurea, and butyrate has been established. However, in many cases this does not entail an increase in total hemoglobin. We report on a patient with Hb Lepore/beta-thalassemia being treated with hydroxyurea (30 mg/Kg/day) because of the presence of erythroid extramedullary masses with severe neurological abnormalities. During therapy the patient showed a remarkable improvement in neurological signs due to the reduction in extra-medullary masses, a significant increase in both total hemoglobin (from 5.8 to 9.7 g/dl) and Hb F (from 4.9 g/dl to 9.1 g/dl). The marked improvement in hemoglobin level in our patient with Hb Lepore/beta-thalassemia suggests gamma-globin gene activation due to the DNA structure determined by the crossover event.

  17. Early peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma regulated genes involved in expansion of pancreatic beta cell mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivas Yurena


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progression towards type 2 diabetes depends on the allostatic response of pancreatic beta cells to synthesise and secrete enough insulin to compensate for insulin resistance. The endocrine pancreas is a plastic tissue able to expand or regress in response to the requirements imposed by physiological and pathophysiological states associated to insulin resistance such as pregnancy, obesity or ageing, but the mechanisms mediating beta cell mass expansion in these scenarios are not well defined. We have recently shown that ob/ob mice with genetic ablation of PPARγ2, a mouse model known as the POKO mouse failed to expand its beta cell mass. This phenotype contrasted with the appropriate expansion of the beta cell mass observed in their obese littermate ob/ob mice. Thus, comparison of these models islets particularly at early ages could provide some new insights on early PPARγ dependent transcriptional responses involved in the process of beta cell mass expansion Results Here we have investigated PPARγ dependent transcriptional responses occurring during the early stages of beta cell adaptation to insulin resistance in wild type, ob/ob, PPARγ2 KO and POKO mice. We have identified genes known to regulate both the rate of proliferation and the survival signals of beta cells. Moreover we have also identified new pathways induced in ob/ob islets that remained unchanged in POKO islets, suggesting an important role for PPARγ in maintenance/activation of mechanisms essential for the continued function of the beta cell. Conclusions Our data suggest that the expansion of beta cell mass observed in ob/ob islets is associated with the activation of an immune response that fails to occur in POKO islets. We have also indentified other PPARγ dependent differentially regulated pathways including cholesterol biosynthesis, apoptosis through TGF-β signaling and decreased oxidative phosphorylation.

  18. Differential fate of erythromycin and beta-lactam resistance genes from swine lagoon waste under different aquatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Charles W., E-mail: [David Livingstone Centre for Sustainability, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Strathclyde, 50 Richmond Street, Glasgow, G1 1XN (United Kingdom); School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Zhang, Wen; Sturm, Belinda S.M. [Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Graham, David W. [School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States)


    The attenuation and fate of erythromycin-resistance-methylase (erm) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamse (bla) genes were quantified over time in aquatic systems by adding 20-L swine waste to 11,300-L outdoor mesocosms that simulated receiving water conditions below intensive agricultural operations. The units were prepared with two different light-exposure scenarios and included artificial substrates to assess gene movement into biofilms. Of eleven genes tested, only erm(B), erm(F), bla{sub SHV} and bla{sub TEM} were found in sufficient quantity for monitoring. The genes disappeared rapidly from the water column and first-order water-column disappearance coefficients were calculated. However, detected gene levels became elevated in the biofilms within 2 days, but then disappeared over time. Differences were observed between sunlight and dark treatments and among individual genes, suggesting that ecological and gene-specific factors play roles in the fate of these genes after release into the environment. Ultimately, this information will aid in generating better predictive models for gene fate. - The disappearance and fate of erythromycin-resistance-methylase and beta-lactamase genes were monitored in outdoor mesocosms under different light conditions.

  19. The diversity and abundance of phytase genes (beta-propeller phytases) in bacterial communities of the maize rhizosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cotta, S.R.; Cavalcante Franco Dias, A.; Seldin, L.; Andreote, F. D.; van Elsas, J. D.

    The ecology of microbial communities associated with organic phosphorus (P) mineralization in soils is still understudied. Here, we assessed the abundance and diversity of bacteria harbouring genes encoding beta-propeller phytases (BPP) in the rhizosphere of traditional and transgenic maize

  20. The dnaN gene codes for the beta subunit of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme of escherichia coli. (United States)

    Burgers, P M; Kornberg, A; Sakakibara, Y


    An Escherichia coli mutant, dnaN59, stops DNA synthesis promptly upon a shift to a high temperature; the wild-type dnaN gene carried in a transducing phage encodes a polypeptide of about 41,000 daltons [Sakakibara, Y. & Mizukami, T. (1980) Mol. Gen. Genet. 178, 541-553; Yuasa, S. & Sakakibara, Y. (1980) Mol. Gen. Genet. 180, 267-273]. We now find that the product of dnaN gene is the beta subunit of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, the principal DNA synthetic multipolypeptide complex in E. coli. The conclusion is based on the following observations: (i) Extracts from dnaN59 cells were defective in phage phi X174 and G4 DNA synthesis after the mutant cells had been exposed to the increased temperature. (ii) The enzymatic defect was overcome by addition of purified beta subunit but not by other subunits of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme or by other replication proteins required for phi X174 DNA synthesis. (iii) Partially purified beta subunit from the dnaN mutant, unlike that from the wild type, was inactive in reconstituting the holoenzyme when mixed with the other purified subunits. (iv) Increased dosage of the dnaN gene provided by a plasmid carrying the gene raised cellular levels of the beta subunit 5- to 6-fold.

  1. Understanding the links among neuromedin U gene, beta2-adrenoceptor gene and bone health: an observational study in European children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Gianfagna

    Full Text Available Neuromedin U, encoded by the NMU gene, is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that regulates both energy metabolism and bone mass. The beta-2 adrenergic receptor, encoded by the ADRB2 gene, mediates several effects of catecholamine hormones and neurotransmitters in bone. We investigated whether NMU single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and haplotypes, as well as functional ADRB2 SNPs, are associated with bone stiffness in children from the IDEFICS cohort, also evaluating whether NMU and ADRB2 interact to affect this trait. A sample of 2,274 subjects (52.5% boys, age 6.2 ± 1.8 years from eight European countries, having data on calcaneus bone stiffness index (SI, mean of both feet and genotyping (NMU gene: rs6827359, rs12500837, rs9999653; ADRB2 gene: rs1042713, rs1042714, was studied. After false discovery rate adjustment, SI was significantly associated with all NMU SNPs. rs6827359 CC homozygotes showed the strongest association (recessive model, Δ= -1.8, p=0.006. Among the five retrieved haplotypes with frequencies higher than 1% (range 2.0-43.9%, the CCT haplotype (frequency=39.7% was associated with lower SI values (dominant model, Δ= -1.0, p=0.04 as compared to the most prevalent haplotype. A non-significant decrease in SI was observed in in ADRB2 rs1042713 GG homozygotes, while subjects carrying SI-lowering genotypes at both SNPs (frequency = 8.4% showed much lower SI than non-carriers (Δ= -3.9, p<0.0001; p for interaction=0.025. The association was more evident in preschool girls, in whom SI showed a curvilinear trend across ages. In subgroup analyses, rs9999653 CC NMU or both GG ADRB2 genotypes were associated with either lower serum calcium or β-CrossLaps levels (p=0.01. This study in European children shows, for the first time in humans, a role for NMU gene through interaction with ADRB2 gene in bone strength regulation, more evident in preschool girls.

  2. Possible association between Interleukin-1beta gene and schizophrenia in a Japanese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasayama Daimei


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several lines of evidence have implicated the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1β in the etiology of schizophrenia. Although a number of genetic association studies have been reported, very few have systematically examined gene-wide tagging polymorphisms. Methods A total of 533 patients with schizophrenia (302 males: mean age ± standard deviation 43.4 ± 13.0 years; 233 females; mean age 44.8 ± 15.3 years and 1136 healthy controls (388 males: mean age 44.6 ± 17.3 years; 748 females; 46.3 ± 15.6 years were recruited for this study. All subjects were biologically unrelated Japanese individuals. Five tagging polymorphisms of IL-1β gene (rs2853550, rs1143634, rs1143633, rs1143630, rs16944 were examined for association with schizophrenia. Results Significant difference in allele distribution was found between patients with schizophrenia and controls for rs1143633 (P = 0.0089. When the analysis was performed separately in each gender, significant difference between patients and controls in allele distribution of rs1143633 was observed in females (P = 0.0073. A trend towards association was also found between rs16944 and female patients with schizophrenia (P = 0.032. Conclusions The present study shows the first evidence that the IL-1β gene polymorphism rs1143633 is associated with schizophrenia susceptibility in a Japanese population. The results suggest the possibility that the influence of IL-1β gene variations on susceptibility to schizophrenia may be greater in females than in males. Findings of the present study provide further support for the role of IL-1β in the etiology of schizophrenia.

  3. Possible association between Interleukin-1beta gene and schizophrenia in a Japanese population (United States)


    Background Several lines of evidence have implicated the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) in the etiology of schizophrenia. Although a number of genetic association studies have been reported, very few have systematically examined gene-wide tagging polymorphisms. Methods A total of 533 patients with schizophrenia (302 males: mean age ± standard deviation 43.4 ± 13.0 years; 233 females; mean age 44.8 ± 15.3 years) and 1136 healthy controls (388 males: mean age 44.6 ± 17.3 years; 748 females; 46.3 ± 15.6 years) were recruited for this study. All subjects were biologically unrelated Japanese individuals. Five tagging polymorphisms of IL-1β gene (rs2853550, rs1143634, rs1143633, rs1143630, rs16944) were examined for association with schizophrenia. Results Significant difference in allele distribution was found between patients with schizophrenia and controls for rs1143633 (P = 0.0089). When the analysis was performed separately in each gender, significant difference between patients and controls in allele distribution of rs1143633 was observed in females (P = 0.0073). A trend towards association was also found between rs16944 and female patients with schizophrenia (P = 0.032). Conclusions The present study shows the first evidence that the IL-1β gene polymorphism rs1143633 is associated with schizophrenia susceptibility in a Japanese population. The results suggest the possibility that the influence of IL-1β gene variations on susceptibility to schizophrenia may be greater in females than in males. Findings of the present study provide further support for the role of IL-1β in the etiology of schizophrenia. PMID:21843369

  4. Factor IX gene haplotypes in Amerindians. (United States)

    Franco, R F; Araújo, A G; Zago, M A; Guerreiro, J F; Figueiredo, M S


    We have determined the haplotypes of the factor IX gene for 95 Indians from 5 Brazilian Amazon tribes: Wayampí, Wayana-Apalaí, Kayapó, Arára, and Yanomámi. Eight polymorphisms linked to the factor IX gene were investigated: MseI (at 5', nt -698), BamHI (at 5', nt -561), DdeI (intron 1), BamHI (intron 2), XmnI (intron 3), TaqI (intron 4), MspI (intron 4), and HhaI (at 3', approximately 8 kb). The results of the haplotype distribution and the allele frequencies for each of the factor IX gene polymorphisms in Amerindians were similar to the results reported for Asian populations but differed from results for other ethnic groups. Only five haplotypes were identified within the entire Amerindian study population, and the haplotype distribution was significantly different among the five tribes, with one (Arára) to four (Wayampí) haplotypes being found per tribe. These findings indicate a significant heterogeneity among the Indian tribes and contrast with the homogeneous distribution of the beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes but agree with our recent findings on the distribution of alpha-globin gene cluster haplotypes and the allele frequencies for six VNTRs in the same Amerindian tribes. Our data represent the first study of factor IX-associated polymorphisms in Amerindian populations and emphasizes the applicability of these genetic markers for population and human evolution studies.

  5. EPConDB: a web resource for gene expression related to pancreatic development, beta-cell function and diabetes. (United States)

    Mazzarelli, Joan M; Brestelli, John; Gorski, Regina K; Liu, Junmin; Manduchi, Elisabetta; Pinney, Deborah F; Schug, Jonathan; White, Peter; Kaestner, Klaus H; Stoeckert, Christian J


    EPConDB ( is a public web site that supports research in diabetes, pancreatic development and beta-cell function by providing information about genes expressed in cells of the pancreas. EPConDB displays expression profiles for individual genes and information about transcripts, promoter elements and transcription factor binding sites. Gene expression results are obtained from studies examining tissue expression, pancreatic development and growth, differentiation of insulin-producing cells, islet or beta-cell injury, and genetic models of impaired beta-cell function. The expression datasets are derived using different microarray platforms, including the BCBC PancChips and Affymetrix gene expression arrays. Other datasets include semi-quantitative RT-PCR and MPSS expression studies. For selected microarray studies, lists of differentially expressed genes, derived from PaGE analysis, are displayed on the site. EPConDB provides database queries and tools to examine the relationship between a gene, its transcriptional regulation, protein function and expression in pancreatic tissues.

  6. Molecular identification of TEM-116 beta-lactamase gene in isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: P. aeruginosa, Clinical isolates, Sequencing, TEM-116, Antibiotic susceptibility. Tropical Journal of ... organisms produce a wide range of beta ... TEM-1 is the most commonly encountered beta-lactamase in Gram-negative bacteria.

  7. Assessment of AmpC Beta-Lactamase Genes among Clinical Escherichia coli Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HedrooshaMolla Agha-Mirzaeie


    Full Text Available Background: AmpC bta lactamases play a significant role in creating resistance to third generation cephalosporins worldwide. They mostly express on chromosome of Enterobacteriaceae especially Escherichia coli and cause consequential problem inclinical treatment and lead to failure in diagnosis and phenotypic test recommended byClinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.Methods:Totally 200 E. coli isolates from different hospitals of Tehran were collected. The isolates were screened by disk diffusion method according to the CLSI guidelines. The profiles and prevalence surveys of AmpC (Dha, CITM, Mox and FOX-type β-lactamase genes in clinical isolates of E. coli by phenotypic and molecular methods.  Results:Out of 200 Ecoli isolated, 115 (89.8% and 13 (10.2% isolates were identified as ESBL- and AmpC- beta-lactamase producers, respectively. Among mpC producers, 13 (100% and 5 (38.5% isolates was reported by PCR assay as bla-CITM and Dha respectively. Mox and FOX genes were not detected in any sample.Conclusions:Our results highlight the importance of using molecular detection methods to identify β-lactamase-producer that have resistance to antibiotics. 

  8. Beta-thalassaemia trait: haematological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousafzai, Y.M.; Khan, S.; Raziq, F.


    Thalassaemia syndromes are a group of hereditary disorders characterised by a genetic deficiency in the synthesis of --globin genes. The objective of this study was to determine the haematological features -thalassaemia trait (BTT), and to determine the sensitivity of Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH) and -thalassaemia trait. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted in Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar from May 2009 to May 2010 with 203 subjects having BTT. Blood samples were collected in EDTA anti-coagulated tubes. RBC indices were taken as part of complete blood count (CBC) by haematology analyser, and Haemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis was done to determine the HbA2 percentage. The data was collected and analyzed on statistical software for demographic details, RBC indices and HBA2 levels. Results: Out of 203 patients, 92 (45%) were males and 111 (55%) were females. Most patients tested were in the 15-45 year age group. One-hundred-sixty (79%) patients had anaemia. MCV was lower than 76 fl in all the cases. Mean MCV was 59.1 fl. MCH was low, the mean MCH being 19.3 g/dl. MCH <26 gave sensitivity of 99% in detecting BTT. We calculated MI for these cases and found out that it was <12 in 75% of cases and <15 in 197 (97%). Conclusion: Beta-thalassaemia traits present with a microcytic hypochromic blood picture, detected on simple haematology analysers as low MCV and MCH and MI which provide a beta- thalassaemia trait. (author)

  9. Pest protection conferred by a Beta vulgaris serine proteinase inhibitor gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann C Smigocki

    Full Text Available Proteinase inhibitors provide a means of engineering plant resistance to insect pests. A Beta vulgaris serine proteinase inhibitor gene (BvSTI was fused to the constitutive CaMV35S promoter for over-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana plants to study its effect on lepidopteran insect pests. Independently derived BvSTI transgenic tobacco T2 homozygous progeny were shown to have relatively high BvSTI gene transcript levels. BvSTI-specific polyclonal antibodies cross-reacted with the expected 30 kDA recombinant BvSTI protein on Western blots. In gel trypsin inhibitor activity assays revealed a major clear zone that corresponded to the BvSTI proteinase inhibitor that was not detected in the untransformed control plants. BvSTI-transgenic plants were bioassayed for resistance to five lepidopteran insect pests. Spodoptera frugiperda, S. exigua and Manduca sexta larvae fed BvSTI leaves had significant reductions in larval weights as compared to larvae fed on untransformed leaves. In contrast, larval weights increased relative to the controls when Heliothis virescens and Agrotis ipsilon larvae were fed on BvSTI leaves. As the larvae entered the pupal stage, pupal sizes reflected the overall larval weights. Some developmental abnormalities of the pupae and emerging moths were noted. These findings suggest that the sugar beet BvSTI gene may prove useful for effective control of several different lepidopteran insect pests in genetically modified tobacco and other plants. The sugar beet serine proteinase inhibitor may be more effective for insect control because sugar beet is cropped in restricted geographical areas thus limiting the exposure of the insects to sugar beet proteinase inhibitors and build up of non-sensitive midgut proteases.

  10. Association of the interleukin 1 beta gene and brain spontaneous activity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Liying


    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The inflammatory response has been associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the rs1143627 polymorphism of the interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β gene moderates functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI-measured brain regional activity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. Methods Eighty older participants (47 with aMCI and 33 healthy controls were recruited for this study. All of the participants were genotyped for variant rs1143627 in the IL1B gene and were scanned using resting-state fMRI. Brain activity was assessed by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF. Results aMCI patients had abnormal ALFF in many brain regions, including decreases in the inferior frontal gyrus, the superior temporal lobe and the middle temporal lobe, and increases in the occipital cortex (calcarine, parietal cortex (Pcu and cerebellar cortex. The regions associated with an interaction of group X genotypes of rs1143627 C/T were the parietal cortex (left Pcu, frontal cortex (left superior, middle, and medial gyrus, right anterior cingulum, occipital cortex (left middle lobe, left cuneus and the bilateral posterior lobes of the cerebellum. Regarding the behavioral significance, there were significant correlations between ALFF in different regions of the brain and with the cognitive scores of each genotype group. Conclusions The present study provided evidence that aMCI patients had abnormal ALFF in many brain regions. Specifically, the rs1143627 C/T polymorphism of the IL1B gene may modulate regional spontaneous brain activity in aMCI patients.

  11. [The isolation and characterization of beta-glucosidase gene and beta-glucosidase of Trichoderma viride]: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stafford, D.W.


    Our project was to isolate and characterize the enzyme β-glucosidase and to clone and characterize the β-glucosidase gene; our goal is to clone and characterize each of the cellulase genes from Trichoderma. The induction of the Trichoderma reesei cellulase complex by cellulose and by the soluble inducer, sophorose, has been demonstrated. Although the induction of the cellulase complex has previously been well documented, the induction of β-glucosidase had been questioned. 49 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  12. A single gene directs synthesis of a precursor protein with beta- and alpha-amylase activities in Bacillus polymyxa.


    Uozumi, N; Sakurai, K; Sasaki, T; Takekawa, S; Yamagata, H; Tsukagoshi, N; Udaka, S


    The Bacillus polymyxa amylase gene comprises 3,588 nucleotides. The mature amylase comprises 1,161 amino acids with a molecular weight of 127,314. The gene appeared to be divided into two portions by the direct-repeat sequence located at almost the middle of the gene. The 5' region upstream of the direct-repeat sequence was shown to be responsible for the synthesis of beta-amylase. The 3' region downstream of the direct-repeat sequence contained four sequences homologous with those in other a...

  13. The search for mutations in the gene for the beta subunit of the cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDEB) in patients with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riess, O; Noerremoelle, A; Weber, B


    The finding of a mutation in the beta subunit of the cyclic GMP (cGMP) phosphodiesterase gene causing retinal degeneration in mice (the Pdeb gene) prompted a search for disease-causing mutations in the human phosphodiesterase gene (PDEB gene) in patients with retinitis pigmentosa. All 22 exons...

  14. Clonal expansion of T-cell receptor beta gene segment in the retrocochlear lesions of EAE mice. (United States)

    Cheng, K C; Lee, K M; Yoo, T J


    It has been reported that the T cell receptor V beta 8.2 (TcrbV8.2) gene segment is predominantly expressed in encephalomyelitic T cells responding to myelin basic protein (MBP) in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice. We have demonstrated retrocochlear hearing loss in EAE mice in previous studies. Administration of a monoclonal antibody specific to the T cell receptor V beta 8 (TcrbV8) subfamily prevented both this type of hearing loss and the central nerve disease. In this study, we examined the role of the TcrbV8.2 gene segment in the retrocochlear lesions of EAE mice. A clonal expression of T cell receptor beta chain gene segment (TcrbV8.2-TcrbD2-TcrbJ2.7) was identified in the retrocochlear lesions. The TcrbV8.2 gene segment appears to recombine only with TcrbJ2.1 (32.1%) and TcrbJ2.7 (67.9%) gene segments. The TcrbJ2.7 gene segment has also been previously identified as the dominant TcrbJ gene in the lymph nodes of EAE mice. Only TcrbD2, with a length of 4 amino acids, was observed recombining with these TcrbV8.2 sequences. G and C nucleotides are predominantly expressed at the N regions between the V-D and D-J junctions. This dominant TcrbV gene segment (TcrbV8.2-TcrbD2-TcrbJ2.7) observed in the retrocochlear lesions has been identified in the MBP-specific T cells from the lymph nodes of EAE mice. These results suggest that a small subset of antigen-specific T cells migrate to, and expand at, the retrocochlear lesions, which leads to hearing loss.

  15. Identification of morphological and molecular Aspergillus species isolated from patients based on beta-tubulin gene sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Kheirkhah


    Full Text Available Background: Aspergillus species are opportunistic pathogens among immunocompromised patients. In terms of pathogenesis and mycotoxin production, they are in great value. The aim of the this study was to evaluate of beta-tubulin gene for identification of clinical Aspergillus species by PCR-sequencing method compared to morphological features of clinical isolates (such as conidial shape in direct microscopic examination, colony shape in culture, and physiological tests. Materials and Methods: In this study, 465 patients referred to the Shefa laboratory of Isfahan were evaluated. Morphological and molecular identification of clinical samples were performed using culture on sabouraud agar, malt extract agar, czapekdox agar, direct microscopy, and PCR-sequencing of beta tubulin gene, respectively. Sequences were analyzed in comparison with gene bank data. Results: Thirty nine out of 465 suspected cases (8.4% had aspergillosis. The most prevalent species were Aspergillus flavus (56.4%, A. oryzae (20.5%, and A. fumigatus (10.2%, respectively. Fifty nine percent of patients were females and 49% were males. Conclusion: In comparison with phenotypic tests, sequencing of beta-tubulin gene for identification of Aspergillus species is at great value. Replacement of molecular techniques with conventional tests is recommended for precise identification of microorganism for better management of infection.

  16. Oxygen Association-Dissociation and Stability Analysis on Mouse Hemoglobins with Mutant α- and β-Globins (United States)

    D'Surney, S. J.; Popp, R. A.


    Oxygen association-dissociation and hemoglobin stability analysis were performed on mouse hemoglobins with amino acid substitutions in an α-globin (α89, His to Leu) and a β-globin (β59, Lys to Ile). The variant α-globin, designated chain 5(m) in the Hba(g2) haplotype, had a high oxygen affinity and was stable. The variant β-globin, (β(s2)) of the Hbb(s2) haplotype, also had an elevated oxygen affinity and in addition was moderately unstable in 19% isopropanol. Hemoglobins from the expected nine (Hba(g2)/Hba(g2);Hbb(s)/Hbb(s) X Hba(a)/Hba(a);Hbb(s2)/Hbb(s2)) F(2) genotypes can be grouped into five classes of P(50) values characterized by strict additivity and dependency on mutant globin gene dosage; physiologically, both globin variants gave indistinguishable effects on oxygen affinity. The hemoglobin of normal mice (Hba(a)/Hba(a);Hbb(s)/Hbb(s)) had a P(50) = 40 mm Hg and the hemoglobin of Hba(g2)/Hba(g2);Hbb(s2)/Hbb(s2) F(2) mice had a P(50) = 25 mm Hg (human P(50) = 26 mm Hg). Peripheral blood from Hba(g2)/Hba(g2);Hbb(s)/Hbb(s), Hba(a)/Hba(a);Hbb(s2)/Hbb(s2) and Hba(g2)/Hba(g2);Hbb(s2)/Hbb(s2) mice exhibited normal hematological values except for a slightly higher hematocrit for Hba(g2)/Hba(g2);Hbb(s)/Hbb(s) and Hba(g2)/Hba(g2);Hbb(s2)/Hbb(s2) mice, slightly elevated red cell counts for mice of the three mutant genotypes, and significantly lower values for the mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin for Hba(g2)/Hba(g2);Hbb(s2)/Hbb(s2) mice. PMID:1427042

  17. Systematic study of association of four GABAergic genes: glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 gene, glutamic acid decarboxylase 2 gene, GABA(B) receptor 1 gene and GABA(A) receptor subunit beta2 gene, with schizophrenia using a universal DNA microarray. (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Qin, Shengying; Shi, Yongyong; Zhang, Aiping; Zhang, Jing; Bian, Li; Wan, Chunling; Feng, Guoyin; Gu, Niufan; Zhang, Guangqi; He, Guang; He, Lin


    Several studies have suggested the dysfunction of the GABAergic system as a risk factor in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. In the present study, case-control association analysis was conducted in four GABAergic genes: two glutamic acid decarboxylase genes (GAD1 and GAD2), a GABA(A) receptor subunit beta2 gene (GABRB2) and a GABA(B) receptor 1 gene (GABBR1). Using a universal DNA microarray procedure we genotyped a total of 20 SNPs on the above four genes in a study involving 292 patients and 286 controls of Chinese descent. Statistically significant differences were observed in the allelic frequencies of the rs187269C/T polymorphism in the GABRB2 gene (P=0.0450, chi(2)=12.40, OR=1.65) and the -292A/C polymorphism in the GAD1 gene (P=0.0450, chi(2)=14.64 OR=1.77). In addition, using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), we discovered differences in the U251 nuclear protein binding to oligonucleotides representing the -292 SNP on the GAD1 gene, which suggests that the -292C allele has reduced transcription factor binding efficiency compared with the 292A allele. Using the multifactor-dimensionality reduction method (MDR), we found that the interactions among the rs187269C/T polymorphism in the GABRB2 gene, the -243A/G polymorphism in the GAD2 gene and the 27379C/T and 661C/T polymorphisms in the GAD1 gene revealed a significant association with schizophrenia (Pschizophrenia in the Chinese population.

  18. Electron paramagnetic resonance of globin proteins - a successful match between spectroscopic development and protein research (United States)

    Van Doorslaer, Sabine; Cuypers, Bert


    At the start of the twenty-first century, the research into the haem-containing globins got a considerable impetus with the discovery of three new mammalian globins: neuroglobin, cytoglobin and androglobin. Globins are by now found in all kingdoms of life and, in many cases, their functions are still under debate. This revival in globin research increased the demand for adequate physico-chemical research tools to determine the structure-function relationships of these proteins. From early days onwards, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been used in globin research. In recent decades, the field of EPR has been revolutionised with the introduction of many new pulsed and high-field EPR techniques. In this review, we highlight how EPR has become an essential tool in globin research, and how globins equally provide ideal model systems to push technical developments in EPR.

  19. Alzheimer’s Disease Risk Gene CD33 Inhibits Microglial Uptake of Amyloid Beta (United States)

    Griciuc, Ana; Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Parrado, Antonio R.; Lesinski, Andrea N.; Asselin, Caroline N.; Mullin, Kristina; Hooli, Basavaraj; Choi, Se Hoon; Hyman, Bradley T.; Tanzi, Rudolph E.


    SUMMARY The transmembrane protein CD33 is a sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin that regulates innate immunity but has no known functions in the brain. We have previously shown that the CD33 gene is a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here, we observed increased expression of CD33 in microglial cells in AD brain. The minor allele of the CD33 SNP rs3865444, which confers protection against AD, was associated with reductions in both CD33 expression and insoluble amyloid beta 42 (Aβ42) levels in AD brain. Furthermore, the numbers of CD33-immunoreactive microglia were positively correlated with insoluble Aβ42 levels and plaque burden in AD brain. CD33 inhibited uptake and clearance of Aβ42 in microglial cell cultures. Finally, brain levels of insoluble Aβ42 as well as amyloid plaque burden were markedly reduced in APPSwe/PS1ΔE9/CD33−/− mice. Therefore, CD33 inactivation mitigates Aβ pathology and CD33 inhibition could represent a novel therapy for AD. PMID:23623698

  20. Alzheimer's disease risk gene CD33 inhibits microglial uptake of amyloid beta. (United States)

    Griciuc, Ana; Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Parrado, Antonio R; Lesinski, Andrea N; Asselin, Caroline N; Mullin, Kristina; Hooli, Basavaraj; Choi, Se Hoon; Hyman, Bradley T; Tanzi, Rudolph E


    The transmembrane protein CD33 is a sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin that regulates innate immunity but has no known functions in the brain. We have previously shown that the CD33 gene is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we observed increased expression of CD33 in microglial cells in AD brain. The minor allele of the CD33 SNP rs3865444, which confers protection against AD, was associated with reductions in both CD33 expression and insoluble amyloid beta 42 (Aβ42) levels in AD brain. Furthermore, the numbers of CD33-immunoreactive microglia were positively correlated with insoluble Aβ42 levels and plaque burden in AD brain. CD33 inhibited uptake and clearance of Aβ42 in microglial cell cultures. Finally, brain levels of insoluble Aβ42 as well as amyloid plaque burden were markedly reduced in APP(Swe)/PS1(ΔE9)/CD33(-/-) mice. Therefore, CD33 inactivation mitigates Aβ pathology and CD33 inhibition could represent a novel therapy for AD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Associations between a polymorphism in the hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 1 gene, neuroticism and postpartum depression. (United States)

    Iliadis, S I; Comasco, E; Hellgren, C; Kollia, N; Sundström Poromaa, I; Skalkidou, A


    This study examined the association between a single nucleotide polymorphism in the hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 1 gene and neuroticism, as well as the possible mediatory role of neuroticism in the association between the polymorphism and postpartum depressive symptoms. 769 women received questionnaires containing the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at six weeks postpartum and demographic data at pregnancy week 17 and 32 and at six weeks postpartum, as well as the Swedish universities Scales of Personality at pregnancy week 32. Linear regression models showed an association between the GG genotype and depressive symptoms. When neuroticism was introduced in the model, it was associated with EPDS score, whereas the association between the GG genotype and EPDS became borderline significant. A path analysis showed that neuroticism had a mediatory role in the association between the polymorphism and EPDS score. The use of the EPDS, which is a self-reporting instrument. Neuroticism was associated with the polymorphism and had a mediatory role in the association between the polymorphism and postpartum depression. This finding elucidates the genetic background of neuroticism and postpartum depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Embryonic expression of the transforming growth factor beta ligand and receptor genes in chicken. (United States)

    Cooley, James R; Yatskievych, Tatiana A; Antin, Parker B


    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) signaling regulates a myriad of biological processes during embryogenesis, in the adult, and during the manifestation of disease. TGFβ signaling is propagated through one of three TGFβ ligands interacting with Type I and Type II receptors, and Type III co-receptors. Although TGFβ signaling is regulated partly by the combinatorial expression patterns of TGFβ receptors and ligands, a comprehensive gene expression analysis has not been published. Here we report the embryonic mRNA expression patterns in chicken embryos of the canonical TGFβ ligands (TGFB1, TGFB2, and TGFB3) and receptors (TGFBR1, TGFBR2, TGFBR3), plus the Activin A receptor, type 1 (ACVR1) and co receptor Endoglin (ENG) that also transduce TGFβ signaling. TGFB ligands and receptors show dynamic and frequently overlapping expression patterns in numerous embryonic cell layers and structures. Integrating expression information identifies combinations of ligands and receptors that are involved in specific developmental processes including somitogenesis, cardiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Molecular characterization of four beta-tubulin genes from dinitroaniline susceptible and resistant biotypes of Eleusine indica. (United States)

    Yamamoto, E; Baird, W V


    Dinitroaniline herbicides are antimicrotubule drugs that bind to tubulins and inhibit polymerization. As a result of repeated application of dinitroaniline herbicides, resistant biotypes of goosegrass (Eleusine indica) developed in previously susceptible wild-type populations. We have previously reported that alpha-tubulin missense mutations correlate with dinitroaniline response phenotypes (Drp) (Plant Cell 10: 297-308, 1998). In order to ascertain associations of other tubulins with dinitroaniline resistance, four beta-tubulin cDNA classes (designated TUB1, TUB2, TUB3, and TUB4) were isolated from dinitroaniline-susceptible and -resistant biotypes. Sequence analysis of the four beta-tubulin cDNA classes identified no missense mutations. Identified nucleotide substitutions did not result in amino acid replacements. These results suggest that the molecular basis of dinitroaniline resistance in goosegrass differs from those of colchicine/dinitroaniline cross-resistant Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and benzimidazole-resistant fungi and yeast. Expression of the four beta-tubulins was highest in inflorescences. This is in contrast to alpha-tubulin TUA1 that is expressed predominantly in roots. Collectively, these results imply that beta-tubulin genes are not associated with dinitroaniline resistance in goosegrass. Phylogenetic analysis of the four beta-tubulins, together with three alpha-tubulins, suggests that the resistant biotype developed independently in multiple locations rather than spreading from one location.

  4. Transforming growth factor. beta. sub 1 is present at sites of extracellular matrix gene expression in human pulmonary fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broekelmann, T.J.; Limper, A.H.; McDonald, J.A. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)); Colby, T.V. (Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States))


    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is an inexorably fatal disorder characterized by connective tissue deposition within the terminal air spaces resulting in loss of lung function and eventual respiratory failure. Previously, the authors demonstrated that foci of activated fibroblasts expressing high levels of fibronectin, procollagen, and smooth muscle actin and thus resembling those found in healing wounds are responsible for the connective tissue deposition and scarring in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, they now demonstrate the presence of transforming growth factor {beta}{sub 1} (TGF-{beta}{sub 1}), a potent profibrotic cytokine, in the foci containing these activated fibroblasts. These results suggest that matrix-associated TGF-{beta}{sub 1} may serve as a stimulus for the persistent expression of connective tissue genes. One potential source of the TGF-{beta}{sub 1} is the alveolar macrophage, and they demonstrate the expression of abundant TGF-{beta}{sub 1} mRNA in alveolar macrophages in lung tissue from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  5. Neurotensin receptor 1 gene activation by the Tcf/beta-catenin pathway is an early event in human colonic adenomas. (United States)

    Souazé, Frédérique; Viardot-Foucault, Véronique; Roullet, Nicolas; Toy-Miou-Leong, Mireille; Gompel, Anne; Bruyneel, Erik; Comperat, Eva; Faux, Maree C; Mareel, Marc; Rostène, William; Fléjou, Jean-François; Gespach, Christian; Forgez, Patricia


    Alterations in the Wnt/APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) signalling pathway, resulting in beta-catenin/T cell factor (Tcf)-dependent transcriptional gene activation, are frequently detected in familial and sporadic colon cancers. The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) is widely distributed in the gastrointestinal tract. Its proliferative and survival effects are mediated by a G-protein coupled receptor, the NT1 receptor. NT1 receptor is not expressed in normal colon epithelial cells, but is over expressed in a number of cancer cells and tissues suggesting a link to the outgrowth of human colon cancer. Our results demonstrate that the upregulation of NT1 receptor occurring in colon cancer is the result of Wnt/APC signalling pathway activation. We first established the functionality of the Tcf response element within the NT1 receptor promoter. Consequently, we observed the activation of NT1 receptor gene by agents causing beta-catenin cytosolic accumulation, as well as a strong decline of endogenous receptor when wt-APC was restored. At the cellular level, the re-establishment of wt-APC phenotype resulted in the impaired functionality of NT1 receptor, like the breakdown in NT-induced intracellular calcium mobilization and the loss of NT pro-invasive effect. We corroborated the Wnt/APC signalling pathway on the NT1 receptor promoter activation with human colon carcinogenesis, and showed that NT1 receptor gene activation was perfectly correlated with nuclear or cytoplasmic beta-catenin localization while NT1 receptor was absent when beta-catenin was localized at the cell-cell junction in early adenomas of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis, hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer and loss of heterozygosity tumours. In this report we establish a novel link in vitro between the Tcf/beta-catenin pathway and NT1 receptor promoter activation.

  6. Survey of HFE Gene C282Y Mutation in Turkish Beta-Thalassemia Patients and Healthy Population: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Ünal


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study was planned in order to determine the effect of C282Y mutation in development of secondary hemochromatosis in beta-thalassemia patients and to determine the prevalence and allele frequency of this mutation in a healthy control group. METHODS: Eighty-seven children and young adults (46 males and 41 females; mean age: 15.6±6.1 years, range: 3-30 years with beta-thalassemia major (BTM and 13 beta-thalassemia intermedia (BTI patients (6 males and 7 females; mean age: 19.6±3.5 years, range: 13-26 years were included in the study. The control group comprised 100 healthy blood donors. RESULTS: Neither heterozygous nor homozygous HFE gene C282Y mutation was detected in patients with BTM or BTI, or in control group. CONCLUSION: The C282Y mutation, which is supposed to be responsible for the majority of hereditary hemochromatosis, was not found to have a role in the development of hemochromatosis in beta-thalassemia patients and was not detected in a healthy Turkish population. However, research on larger cohorts of individuals is required in order to determine the exact prevalence of the HFE gene mutation in Turkish populations from diverse ethnic origins and whether it would have an impact on iron loading in thalassemic populations.

  7. Use of an activated beta-catenin to identify Wnt pathway target genes in caenorhabditis elegans, including a subset of collagen genes expressed in late larval development. (United States)

    Jackson, Belinda M; Abete-Luzi, Patricia; Krause, Michael W; Eisenmann, David M


    The Wnt signaling pathway plays a fundamental role during metazoan development, where it regulates diverse processes, including cell fate specification, cell migration, and stem cell renewal. Activation of the beta-catenin-dependent/canonical Wnt pathway up-regulates expression of Wnt target genes to mediate a cellular response. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a canonical Wnt signaling pathway regulates several processes during larval development; however, few target genes of this pathway have been identified. To address this deficit, we used a novel approach of conditionally activated Wnt signaling during a defined stage of larval life by overexpressing an activated beta-catenin protein, then used microarray analysis to identify genes showing altered expression compared with control animals. We identified 166 differentially expressed genes, of which 104 were up-regulated. A subset of the up-regulated genes was shown to have altered expression in mutants with decreased or increased Wnt signaling; we consider these genes to be bona fide C. elegans Wnt pathway targets. Among these was a group of six genes, including the cuticular collagen genes, bli-1 col-38, col-49, and col-71. These genes show a peak of expression in the mid L4 stage during normal development, suggesting a role in adult cuticle formation. Consistent with this finding, reduction of function for several of the genes causes phenotypes suggestive of defects in cuticle function or integrity. Therefore, this work has identified a large number of putative Wnt pathway target genes during larval life, including a small subset of Wnt-regulated collagen genes that may function in synthesis of the adult cuticle.

  8. Mapping of the gene encoding the. beta. -amyloid precursor protein and its relationship to the Down syndrome region of chromosome 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, D.; Gardiner, K.; Kao, F.T.; Tanzi, R.; Watkins, P.; Gusella, J.F. (Eleanor Roosevelt Institute for Cancer Research, Denver, CO (USA))


    The gene encoding the {beta}-amyloid precursor protein has been assigned to human chromosome 21, as has a gene responsible for at least some cases of familial Alzheimer disease. Linkage studies strongly suggest that the {beta}-amyloid precursor protein and the product corresponding to familial Alzheimer disease are from two genes, or at least that several million base pairs of DNA separate the markers. The precise location of the {beta}-amyloid precursor protein gene on chromosome 21 has not yet been determined. Here the authors show, by using a somatic-cell/hybrid-cell mapping panel, in situ hybridization, and transverse-alternating-field electrophoresis, that the {beta}-amyloid precursor protein gene is located on chromosome 21 very near the 21q21/21q/22 border and probably within the region of chromosome 21 that, when trisomic, results in Down syndrome.

  9. Localization of pig Na[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase [alpha] and [beta] subunit genes to chromosome 4 by radioactive in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahbib-Mansais, Y.; Yerle, M.; Dalens, M.; Chevalet, C.; Gellin, J. (Centre de Recherches de Toulouse (France))


    Two genes coding for Na[sup +],K[sup +] -ATPase [alpha] and [beta] subunits are localized on pig chromosome 4, to the q1.6[yields]q2.3 and 1.3[yields]q2.1 regions, respectively, by radioactive in situ hybridization. According to nucleotide and amino acid sequence comparisons with different human isoforms of Na[sup +] ,K[sup +]-ATPase, these pig [alpha] and [beta] ATPase genes show strong homologies with human [alpha]1 and [beta] subunit ATPase genes, respectively. These results are discussed with respect to comparative mapping data of conserved genes in mammalian species. We showed that the pig cDNA probes encoding ATPase [alpha] and, [beta] genes reveal DNA polymorphism in Meishan an Large White pigs. 35 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Human-specific SNP in obesity genes, adrenergic receptor beta2 (ADRB2, Beta3 (ADRB3, and PPAR γ2 (PPARG, during primate evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Takenaka

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Adrenergic-receptor beta2 (ADRB2 and beta3 (ADRB3 are obesity genes that play a key role in the regulation of energy balance by increasing lipolysis and thermogenesis. The Glu27 allele in ADRB2 and the Arg64 allele in ADRB3 are associated with abdominal obesity and early onset of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM in many ethnic groups. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG is required for adipocyte differentiation. Pro12Ala mutation decreases PPARG activity and resistance to NIDDM. In humans, energy-expense alleles, Gln27 in ADRB2 and Trp64 in ADRB3, are at higher frequencies than Glu27 and Arg64, respectively, but Ala12 in PPARG is at lower frequency than Pro12. Adaptation of humans for lipolysis, thermogenesis, and reduction of fat accumulation could be considered by examining which alleles in these genes are dominant in non-human primates (NHP. All NHP (P. troglodytes, G. gorilla, P. pygmaeus, H. agilis and macaques had energy-thrifty alleles, Gly16 and Glu27 in ADRB2, and Arg64 in ADRB3, but did not have energy-expense alleles, Arg16, Gln27 and Trp64 alleles. In PPARG gene, all NHP had large adipocyte accumulating type, the Pro12 allele. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that a tendency to produce much more heat through the energy-expense alleles developed only in humans, who left tropical rainforests for savanna and developed new features in their heat-regulation systems, such as reduction of body hair and increased evaporation of water, and might have helped the protection of entrails from cold at night, especially in glacial periods.

  11. [Influence of physiologic 17 beta-estradiol concentrations on gene E6 expression in HVP type 18 in vitro]. (United States)

    Dziubińska-Parol, Izabella; Gasowska, Urszula; Rzymowska, Jolanta; Kwaśniewska, Anna


    Many recent studies indicate that long term use of contraceptives is a strong risk factor in the development of cervical cancer. Steroid hormones, in persistent papilloma virus infection act on various levels, one of them is enhancing transforming activity of the virus. The aim of the study was to estimate if physiological concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol could influence expression of viral transforming genes. HeLa cell lines were incubated with three different physiological concentrations and and on the third day of incubation the level of E6 gene expression was determined. Results show no differences in expression between the control culter, and cultures incubated with physiological concentrations. It indicates that normal levels of 17 beta-estradiol don't play role in transforming process but it also shows need to analyse higher levels of hormones by quantitative analyses in prospective studies.

  12. 164Ile allele in the beta2-Adrenergic receptor gene is associated with risk of elevated blood pressure in women. The Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sethi, AA; Tybjærg-Hansen, A; Jensen, Gorm Boje


    Since beta2-adrenergic receptors are important regulators of blood pressure, genetic variation in this receptor could explain risk of elevated blood pressure in selected individuals. We tested the hypothesis that Gly16Arg, Gln27Glu, and Thr164Ile in the beta2-adrenergic receptor gene associated w...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Molochkov


    Full Text Available Aim: To study an association between acrochordon and human papilloma virus (HPV using quantitative analysis of viral desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA; to detect different phenotypes of beta-HPV. Materials and methods: We examined 52  patients (22 immuno-suppressed patients and 30 immunocompetent subjects in the Dermatovenereology and Dermato-Oncology Department and Chronic Dialysis and Kidney Transplantation Department of the Moscow Regional Research and Clinical Institute (MONIKI. Control group included 49 healthy donors. Burr biopsy samples (micro-samples of acrochordon and intact skin (apper arm were collected in sterile conditions. After sample procession and DNA isolation using DNK-sorb-C kit (Central Research Institute for Epidemiology – CRIE, polymerase chain reaction for HPV was performed with real-time fluorescent hybridization detection. For DNA amplification and detection we used RotorGene 3000 analyzer (Corbett Research, Australia. In the beta-HPV assay, recombinant plasmids were used as positive controls and control human beta-globin gene fragments (CRIE. 4 oligo-nucleotide systems (group-specific primers and probes were used for the detection of beta-HPV DNA. Results: Preliminary data indicated that acrochordons of open and covered skin regions were common in renal transplant recipients. Beta-HPV DNA was more frequent in acrochordons and intact skin (64% and 54% of renal transplant recipients compared to healthy donors (47%. 57% of renal transplant recipients demonstrated mixed infection in acrochordons. Conclusion: HPV DNA was frequently detected in acrochordons and intact skin of renal transplant recipients. In immunocompetent patients prevalence of HPV DNA in acrochordons was significantly higher compared to intact skin.

  14. PARP-1 and YY1 are important novel regulators of CXCL12 gene transcription in rat pancreatic beta cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Marković

    Full Text Available Despite significant progress, the molecular mechanisms responsible for pancreatic beta cell depletion and development of diabetes remain poorly defined. At present, there is no preventive measure against diabetes. The positive impact of CXCL12 expression on the pancreatic beta cell prosurvival phenotype initiated this study. Our aim was to provide novel insight into the regulation of rat CXCL12 gene (Cxcl12 transcription. The roles of poly(ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1 and transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1 in Cxcl12 transcription were studied by examining their in vitro and in vivo binding affinities for the Cxcl12 promoter in a pancreatic beta cell line by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation. The regulatory activities of PARP-1 and YY1 were assessed in transfection experiments using a reporter vector with a Cxcl12 promoter sequence driving luciferase gene expression. Experimental evidence for PARP-1 and YY1 revealed their trans-acting potential, wherein PARP-1 displayed an inhibitory, and YY1 a strong activating effect on Cxcl12 transcription. Streptozotocin (STZ-induced general toxicity in pancreatic beta cells was followed by changes in Cxcl12 promoter regulation. PARP-1 binding to the Cxcl12 promoter during basal and in STZ-compromised conditions led us to conclude that PARP-1 regulates constitutive Cxcl12 expression. During the early stage of oxidative stress, YY1 exhibited less affinity toward the Cxcl12 promoter while PARP-1 displayed strong binding. These interactions were accompanied by Cxcl12 downregulation. In the later stages of oxidative stress and intensive pancreatic beta cell injury, YY1 was highly expressed and firmly bound to Cxcl12 promoter in contrast to PARP-1. These interactions resulted in higher Cxcl12 expression. The observed ability of PARP-1 to downregulate, and of YY1 to upregulate Cxcl12 promoter activity anticipates corresponding effects in the natural context where the

  15. Serotonin Transporter (5-HTT) and gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Receptor Subunit beta3 (GABRB3) Gene Polymorphisms are not Associated with Autism in the IMGSA Families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maestrini, E.; Lai, C.; Marlow, A.


    Previous studies have suggested that the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene and the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta3 (GABRB3) gene, or other genes in the 15q11-q13 region, are possibly involved in susceptibility to autism. To test this hypothesis we performed an association study on...

  16. A 31 bp VNTR in the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) gene is associated with reduced CBS activity and elevated post-load homocysteine levels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lievers, K.J.; Kluijtmans, L.A.J.; Heil, S.G.; Boers, G.H.J.; Verhoef, P.; Oppenraaij-Emmerzaal, D. van; Heijer, M. den; Trijbels, J.M.F.; Blom, H.J.


    Molecular defects in genes encoding enzymes involved in homocysteine metabolism may account for mild hyperhomocysteinaemia, an independent and graded risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although heterozygosity for cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) deficiency has been excluded as a major

  17. Association of IL-1beta gene polymorphism with cachexia from locally advanced gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dianliang; Zheng, Hongmei; Zhou, Yanbing [Department of General Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University Medical College, Qingdao 266003 (China); Tang, Xingming; Yu, Baojun; Li, Jieshou [Research Institute of General Surgery, Jinlin Hospital, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)


    IL-1beta has been implicated in inflammatory episode. In view of the inflammatory nature of cancer cachexia, we determined the predictive value of IL-1B-31 T/C, -511 C/T, +3954 C/T and IL-1RN VNTR gene polymorphisms on the occurrence of cachexia associated with locally advanced gastric cancer. The study included 214 patients and 230 healthy volunteers. Genomic DNA was prepared from peripheral blood leukocytes. Genotypes and allele frequencies were determined in patients and healthy controls using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction products. The overall frequencies of IL-1B-31 T, -511 T, +3954 T and IL-1RN VNTR alleles in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer were all comparable with those in controls. No significant differences were found in the distribution of IL-1B-31 T, -511 T and IL-1RN VNTR between patients with cachexia and without. Patients with cachexia showed a significantly higher prevalence of IL-1B+3954 T allele than those without (P = 0.018). In a logistic regression analysis adjusted for actual weight, carcinoma location and stage, the IL-1B+3954 CT genotype was associated with an odds ratio of 2.512 (95% CI, 1.180 – 5.347) for cachexia. The IL-1B+3954 T allele is a major risk for cachexia from locally gastric cancer. Genetic factors studied are not likely to play an important role in the determination of susceptibility to locally advanced gastric cancer.

  18. Association of IL-1beta gene polymorphism with cachexia from locally advanced gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dianliang; Zheng, Hongmei; Zhou, Yanbing; Tang, Xingming; Yu, Baojun; Li, Jieshou


    IL-1beta has been implicated in inflammatory episode. In view of the inflammatory nature of cancer cachexia, we determined the predictive value of IL-1B-31 T/C, -511 C/T, +3954 C/T and IL-1RN VNTR gene polymorphisms on the occurrence of cachexia associated with locally advanced gastric cancer. The study included 214 patients and 230 healthy volunteers. Genomic DNA was prepared from peripheral blood leukocytes. Genotypes and allele frequencies were determined in patients and healthy controls using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction products. The overall frequencies of IL-1B-31 T, -511 T, +3954 T and IL-1RN VNTR alleles in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer were all comparable with those in controls. No significant differences were found in the distribution of IL-1B-31 T, -511 T and IL-1RN VNTR between patients with cachexia and without. Patients with cachexia showed a significantly higher prevalence of IL-1B+3954 T allele than those without (P = 0.018). In a logistic regression analysis adjusted for actual weight, carcinoma location and stage, the IL-1B+3954 CT genotype was associated with an odds ratio of 2.512 (95% CI, 1.180 – 5.347) for cachexia. The IL-1B+3954 T allele is a major risk for cachexia from locally gastric cancer. Genetic factors studied are not likely to play an important role in the determination of susceptibility to locally advanced gastric cancer

  19. Anaesthesia for a patient with beta thalassaemia major

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Creative Commons License [CC BY-NC-ND 4.0] ... monitoring and management instituted. The first arterial blood ... thalassaemia is a defect of the beta globin chains of the ... Decreased supply due to anaemia, chronic infections and frequent ...

  20. SNP analyses of growth factor genes EGF, TGF{beta}-1, and HGF reveal haplotypic association of EGF with autism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoda, Takao; Thanseem, Ismail; Kawai, Masayoshi; Sekine, Yoshimoto [Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Anitha, Ayyappan; Suda, Shiro [Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Yamada, Kazuo [Laboratory of Molecular Psychiatry, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Saitama (Japan); Tsujii, Masatsugu [Faculty of Sociology, Chukyo University, Toyota, Aichi (Japan); [The Osaka-Hamamatsu Joint Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu (Japan); Iwayama, Yoshimi; Hattori, Eiji; Toyota, Tomoko; Yoshikawa, Takeo [Laboratory of Molecular Psychiatry, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Saitama (Japan); Miyachi, Taishi; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Sugihara, Gen-ichi; Matsuzaki, Hideo [The Osaka-Hamamatsu Joint Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu (Japan); Iwata, Yasuhide; Suzuki, Katsuaki [Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Mori, Norio [Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); [The Osaka-Hamamatsu Joint Research Center for Child Mental Development, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University (Japan); Ouchi, Yasuomi [The Osaka-Hamamatsu Joint Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu (Japan); [The Positron Medical Center, Hamamatsu Medical Center, Hamamatsu (Japan); Sugiyama, Toshiro [Aichi Children' s Health and Medical Center, Obu, Aichi (Japan); Takei, Nori [The Osaka-Hamamatsu Joint Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu (Japan)


    Autism is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed in early childhood. Growth factors have been found to play a key role in the cellular differentiation and proliferation of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is detected in several regions of the developing and adult brain, where, it enhances the differentiation, maturation, and survival of a variety of neurons. Transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF{beta}) isoforms play an important role in neuronal survival, and the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has been shown to exhibit neurotrophic activity. We examined the association of EGF, TGF{beta}1, and HGF genes with autism, in a trio association study, using DNA samples from families recruited to the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange; 252 trios with a male offspring scored for autism were selected for the study. Transmission disequilibrium test revealed significant haplotypic association of EGF with autism. No significant SNP or haplotypic associations were observed for TGF{beta}1 or HGF. Given the role of EGF in brain and neuronal development, we suggest a possible role of EGF in the pathogenesis of autism.

  1. Interleukin-1 beta gene deregulation associated with chromosomal rearrangement: A candidate initiating event for murine radiation-myeloid leukemogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, A.; Boultwood, J.; Breckon, G.; Masson, W.; Adam, J.; Shaw, A.R.; Cox, R.


    The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in CBA/H mice following exposure to single acute doses of ionizing radiation has previously been determined. A high proportion of these AMLs are characterized by rearrangement of murine chromosome 2 in the C2 and/or E5-F regions, and there is evidence that these events are a direct consequence of radiation damage to multipotential hemopoietic cells. Using a combination of in situ chromosome hybridization and mRNA analyses, we show that the cytokine gene interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) is encoded in the chromosome 2 F region and is translocated in a chromosome 2---2 rearrangement in an x-ray-induced AML (N36). Also, IL-1 beta is specifically deregulated in N36 and in two other chromosome 2-rearranged AMLs but not in a fourth, which has two cytogenetically normal chromosome 2 copies. We suggest that radiation-induced specific chromosome 2 rearrangement associated with IL-1 beta deregulation may initiate murine leukemogenesis through the uncoupling of normal proliferative control mechanisms in multipotential hemopoietic cells

  2. Monomethylfumarate induces γ-globin expression and fetal hemoglobin production in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) and erythroid cells, and in intact retina. (United States)

    Promsote, Wanwisa; Makala, Levi; Li, Biaoru; Smith, Sylvia B; Singh, Nagendra; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Pace, Betty S; Martin, Pamela M


    Sickle retinopathy (SR) is a major cause of vision loss in sickle cell disease (SCD). There are no strategies to prevent SR and treatments are extremely limited. The present study evaluated (1) the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell as a hemoglobin producer and novel cellular target for fetal hemoglobin (HbF) induction, and (2) monomethylfumarate (MMF) as an HbF-inducing therapy and abrogator of oxidative stress and inflammation in SCD retina. Human globin gene expression was evaluated by RT-quantitative (q)PCR in the human RPE cell line ARPE-19 and in primary RPE cells isolated from Townes humanized SCD mice. γ-Globin promoter activity was monitored in KU812 stable dual luciferase reporter expressing cells treated with 0 to 1000 μM dimethylfumarate, MMF, or hydroxyurea (HU; positive control) by dual luciferase assay. Reverse transcriptase-qPCR, fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), immunofluorescence, and Western blot techniques were used to evaluate γ-globin expression and HbF production in primary human erythroid progenitors, ARPE-19, and normal hemoglobin producing (HbAA) and homozygous β(s) mutation (HbSS) RPE that were treated similarly, and in MMF-injected (1000 μM) HbAA and HbSS retinas. Dihydroethidium labeling and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), IL-1β, and VEGF expression were also analyzed. Retinal pigment epithelial cells express globin genes and synthesize adult and fetal hemoglobin MMF stimulated γ-globin expression and HbF production in cultured RPE and erythroid cells, and in HbSS mouse retina where it also reduced oxidative stress and inflammation. The production of hemoglobin by RPE suggests the potential involvement of this cell type in the etiology of SR. Monomethylfumarate influences multiple parameters consistent with improved retinal health in SCD and may therefore be of therapeutic potential in SR treatment. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  3. Oxygen binding properties of non-mammalian nerve globins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundahl, Christian; Fago, Angela; Dewilde, Sylvia


    Oxygen-binding globins occur in the nervous systems of both invertebrates and vertebrates. While the function of invertebrate nerve haemoglobins as oxygen stores that extend neural excitability under hypoxia has been convincingly demonstrated, the physiological role of vertebrate neuroglobins...... is less well understood. Here we provide a detailed analysis of the oxygenation characteristics of nerve haemoglobins from an annelid (Aphrodite aculeata), a nemertean (Cerebratulus lacteus) and a bivalve (Spisula solidissima) and of neuroglobin from zebrafish (Danio rerio). The functional differences...... have been related to haem coordination: the haem is pentacoordinate (as in human haemoglobin and myoglobin) in A. aculeata and C. lacteus nerve haemoglobins and hexacoordinate in S. solidissima nerve haemoglobin and D. rerio neuroglobin. Whereas pentacoordinate nerve globins lacked Bohr effects at all...

  4. Structural organization of the human and mouse laminin beta2 chain genes, and alternative splicing at the 5' end of the human transcript

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durkin, M E; Gautam, M; Loechel, F


    We have determined the structural organization of the human and mouse genes that encode the laminin beta2 chain (s-laminin), an essential component of the basement membranes of the neuromuscular synapse and the kidney glomerulus. The human and mouse genes have a nearly identical exon-intron organ......We have determined the structural organization of the human and mouse genes that encode the laminin beta2 chain (s-laminin), an essential component of the basement membranes of the neuromuscular synapse and the kidney glomerulus. The human and mouse genes have a nearly identical exon...

  5. Stabilization of mismatch repair gene PMS2 by glycogen synthase kinase 3beta is implicated in the treatment of cervical carcinoma. (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Shu, Yi Min; Wang, Shu Fang; Da, Bang Hong; Wang, Ze Hua; Li, Hua Bin


    PMS2 expression loss was reported in a variety of human. However, its importance has not been fully understood in cervical carcinoma. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of PMS2 in cervical carcinoma and evaluate the significance of mismatch repair gene PMS2 regulated by glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta) in chemosensitivity. We examined PMS2 and phosphorylated GSK-3beta(s9) expression in cervical carcinoma tissues using immunohistochemical staining. Furthermore, we detected PMS2 expression in HeLa cells and evaluate the interaction with GSK-3beta after transfection with GSK-3beta by small interference RNA (siRNA), co-immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting. We also evaluated the effect of PMS2 transfection on HeLa cells' chemosensitivity to cisplatin treatment. We found significant downregulation of PMS2 in cervical carcinoma, which was negatively associated with phosphorylated GSK-3beta (s9). Furthermore, we demonstrated GSK-3beta transfection was able to interact with PMS2 and enhance PMS2 production in HeLa cells, and increased PMS2 production was responsible for enhanced chemosensitivity. Our results provide the evidence that stabilization of PMS2 production by GSK-3beta was important to improve chemosensitization, indicating the significance of GSK-3beta-related PMS2 downregulation in the development of cervical carcinoma and in developing a potential strategy for chemotherapy.

  6. Isolation and characterization of BetaM protein encoded by ATP1B4 - a unique member of the Na,K-ATPase β-subunit gene family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestov, Nikolay B.; Zhao, Hao; Basrur, Venkatesha; Modyanov, Nikolai N.


    Highlights: → Structural properties of BetaM and Na,K-ATPase β-subunits are sharply different. → BetaM protein is concentrated in nuclear membrane of skeletal myocytes. → BetaM does not associate with a Na,K-ATPase α-subunit in skeletal muscle. → Polypeptide chain of the native BetaM is highly sensitive to endogenous proteases. → BetaM in neonatal muscle is a product of alternative splice mRNA variant B. -- Abstract: ATP1B4 genes represent a rare instance of the orthologous gene co-option that radically changed functions of encoded BetaM proteins during vertebrate evolution. In lower vertebrates, this protein is a β-subunit of Na,K-ATPase located in the cell membrane. In placental mammals, BetaM completely lost its ancestral role and through acquisition of two extended Glu-rich clusters into the N-terminal domain gained entirely new properties as a muscle-specific protein of the inner nuclear membrane possessing the ability to regulate gene expression. Strict temporal regulation of BetaM expression, which is the highest in late fetal and early postnatal myocytes, indicates that it plays an essential role in perinatal development. Here we report the first structural characterization of the native eutherian BetaM protein. It should be noted that, in contrast to structurally related Na,K-ATPase β-subunits, the polypeptide chain of BetaM is highly sensitive to endogenous proteases that greatly complicated its isolation. Nevertheless, using a complex of protease inhibitors, a sample of authentic BetaM was isolated from pig neonatal skeletal muscle by a combination of ion-exchange and lectin-affinity chromatography followed by SDS-PAGE. Results of the analysis of the BetaM tryptic digest using MALDI-TOF and ESI-MS/MS mass spectrometry have demonstrated that native BetaM in neonatal skeletal muscle is a product of alternative splice mRNA variant B and comprised of 351 amino acid residues. Isolated BetaM protein was also characterized by SELDI-TOF mass

  7. Candidate gene association study in type 2 diabetes indicates a role for genes involved in beta-cell function as well as insulin action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Barroso


    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is an increasingly common, serious metabolic disorder with a substantial inherited component. It is characterised by defects in both insulin secretion and action. Progress in identification of specific genetic variants predisposing to the disease has been limited. To complement ongoing positional cloning efforts, we have undertaken a large-scale candidate gene association study. We examined 152 SNPs in 71 candidate genes for association with diabetes status and related phenotypes in 2,134 Caucasians in a case-control study and an independent quantitative trait (QT cohort in the United Kingdom. Polymorphisms in five of 15 genes (33% encoding molecules known to primarily influence pancreatic beta-cell function-ABCC8 (sulphonylurea receptor, KCNJ11 (KIR6.2, SLC2A2 (GLUT2, HNF4A (HNF4alpha, and INS (insulin-significantly altered disease risk, and in three genes, the risk allele, haplotype, or both had a biologically consistent effect on a relevant physiological trait in the QT study. We examined 35 genes predicted to have their major influence on insulin action, and three (9%-INSR, PIK3R1, and SOS1-showed significant associations with diabetes. These results confirm the genetic complexity of Type 2 diabetes and provide evidence that common variants in genes influencing pancreatic beta-cell function may make a significant contribution to the inherited component of this disease. This study additionally demonstrates that the systematic examination of panels of biological candidate genes in large, well-characterised populations can be an effective complement to positional cloning approaches. The absence of large single-gene effects and the detection of multiple small effects accentuate the need for the study of larger populations in order to reliably identify the size of effect we now expect for complex diseases.

  8. The chicken beta 2-microglobulin gene is located on a non-major histocompatibility complex microchromosome: a small, G+C-rich gene with X and Y boxes in the promoter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riegert, P; Andersen, R; Bumstead, N


    a similar genomic organization but smaller introns and higher G+C content than mammalian beta 2-microglobulin genes. The promoter region is particularly G+C-rich and contains, in addition to interferon regulatory elements, potential S/W, X, and Y boxes that were originally described for mammalian class II...... but not class I alpha or beta 2-microglobulin genes. There is a single chicken beta 2-microglobulin gene that has little polymorphism in the coding region. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms from Mhc homozygous lines, Mhc congenic lines, and backcross families, as well as in situ hybridization, show...

  9. Identification and characterization of NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 reductase gene and cytochrome b₅ gene from Plutella xylostella: possible involvement in resistance to beta-cypermethrin. (United States)

    Chen, Xi'en; Zhang, Yalin


    NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) and cytochrome b5 (b5) are essential for cytochrome P450 mediated biological reactions. CPR and b5 in several insects have been found to be associated with insecticide resistance. However, CPR and b5 in the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, are not characterized and their roles remain undefined. A full-length cDNA of CPR encoding 678 amino acids and a full-length cDNA of b5 encoding 127 amino acids were cloned from DBM. Their deduced amino acid sequences shared high identities with those of other insects and showed characteristics of classical CPRs and b5s, respectively. The mRNAs of both genes were detectable in all developmental stages with the highest expression levels occurring in the 4th instar larvae. Tissue-specific expression analysis showed that their transcripts were most abundant in gut. Transcripts of CPR and b5 in the beta-cypermethrin resistant DBM strain were 13.2- and 2.84-fold higher than those in the beta-cypermethrin susceptible strain, respectively. The expression levels of CPR and b5 were enhanced by beta-cypermethrin at the concentration of 12 mg L(-1) (~LC10). The results indicate that CPR and b5 may play essential roles in the P450 mediated resistance of DBM to beta-cypermethrin or even other insecticides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of transcription factor KLF11 and its diabetes-associated gene variants in pancreatic beta cell function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neve, Bernadette; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E; Ashkenazi-Katalan, Vered


    in beta cells. Genetic analysis of the KLF11 gene revealed two rare variants (Ala347Ser and Thr220Met) that segregate with diabetes in families with early-onset type 2 diabetes, and significantly impair its transcriptional activity. In addition, analysis of 1,696 type 2 diabetes mellitus and 1......,776 normoglycemic subjects show a frequent polymorphic Gln62Arg variant that significantly associates with type 2 diabetes mellitus in North European populations (OR = 1.29, P = 0.00033). Moreover, this variant alters the corepressor mSin3A-binding activity of KLF11, impairs the activation of the insulin promoter...... and shows lower levels of insulin expression in pancreatic beta cells. In addition, subjects carrying the Gln62Arg allele show decreased plasma insulin after an oral glucose challenge. Interestingly, all three nonsynonymous KLF11 variants show increased repression of the catalase 1 promoter, suggesting...

  11. Phenotypic and gene expression changes between low (glucose-responsive) and High (glucose non-responsive) MIN-6 beta cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O´Driscoll, L.; Gammell, p.; McKierman, E.


    The long-term potential to routinely use replacement beta cells/islets as cell therapy for type 1 diabetes relies on our ability to culture such cells/islets, in vitro, while maintaining their functional status. Previous beta cell studies, by ourselves and other researchers, have indicated...... that the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) phenotype is relatively unstable, in long-term culture. This study aimed to investigate phenotypic and gene expression changes associated with this loss of GSIS, using the MIN-6 cell line as model. Phenotypic differences between MIN-6(L, low passage) and MIN-6(H......, high passage) were determined by ELISA (assessing GSIS and cellular (pro)insulin content), proliferation assays, phase contrast light microscopy and analysis of alkaline phosphatase expression. Differential mRNA expression was investigated using microarray, bioinformatics and real-time PCR technologies...

  12. Role of transcription factor KLF11 and its diabetes-associated gene variants in pancreatic beta cell function (United States)

    Neve, Bernadette; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E.; Ashkenazi-Katalan, Vered; Dina, Christian; Hamid, Yasmin H.; Joly, Erik; Vaillant, Emmanuel; Benmezroua, Yamina; Durand, Emmanuelle; Bakaher, Nicolas; Delannoy, Valerie; Vaxillaire, Martine; Cook, Tiffany; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Jansen, Hans; Charles, Marie-Aline; Clément, Karine; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Helbecque, Nicole; Charpentier, Guillaume; Prentki, Marc; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Urrutia, Raul; Melloul, Danielle; Froguel, Philippe


    KLF11 (TIEG2) is a pancreas-enriched transcription factor that has elicited significant attention because of its role as negative regulator of exocrine cell growth in vitro and in vivo. However, its functional role in the endocrine pancreas remains to be established. Here, we report, for the first time, to our knowledge, the characterization of KLF11 as a glucose-inducible regulator of the insulin gene. A combination of random oligonucleotide binding, EMSA, luciferase reporter, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays shows that KLF11 binds to the insulin promoter and regulates its activity in beta cells. Genetic analysis of the KLF11 gene revealed two rare variants (Ala347Ser and Thr220Met) that segregate with diabetes in families with early-onset type 2 diabetes, and significantly impair its transcriptional activity. In addition, analysis of 1,696 type 2 diabetes mellitus and 1,776 normoglycemic subjects show a frequent polymorphic Gln62Arg variant that significantly associates with type 2 diabetes mellitus in North European populations (OR = 1.29, P = 0.00033). Moreover, this variant alters the corepressor mSin3A-binding activity of KLF11, impairs the activation of the insulin promoter and shows lower levels of insulin expression in pancreatic beta cells. In addition, subjects carrying the Gln62Arg allele show decreased plasma insulin after an oral glucose challenge. Interestingly, all three nonsynonymous KLF11 variants show increased repression of the catalase 1 promoter, suggesting a role in free radical clearance that may render beta cells more sensitive to oxidative stress. Thus, both functional and genetic analyses reveal that KLF11 plays a role in the regulation of pancreatic beta cell physiology, and its variants may contribute to the development of diabetes. PMID:15774581

  13. Geographical variation in the presence of genes encoding superantigenic exotoxins and beta-hemolysin among Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in Europe and USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, H. D.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, N. E.


    The object was to examine the geographical variation in the presence of superantigenic exotoxins and beta-hemolysin among epidemiologically independent Staphyirrcoccus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis. A total of 462 S. aureus isolates from nine European countries and USA were examined...... for the individual exotoxins. The genes encoding enterotoxin C, TSST-1, and enterotoxin D were the most common superantigens. The present and earlier studies demonstrate that the superantigenic exotoxins that were investigated in this study, do not play a role in the pathogenesis of bovine S. aureus mastitis...... regions in the beta-hemolysin encoding gene of the Norwegian isolates is suggested, and should be investigated further. The consistent presence of beta-hemolysin suggests that this factor, or a co-existing gene correlated to beta-hemolysin, may be an active virulence factor in the pathogenesis of bovine S...

  14. An active role for endogenous beta-1,3-glucanase genes in transgene-mediated co-suppression in tobacco. (United States)

    Sanders, Matthew; Maddelein, Wendy; Depicker, Anna; Van Montagu, Marc; Cornelissen, Marc; Jacobs, John


    Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is characterized by the accumulation of short interfering RNAs that are proposed to mediate sequence-specific degradation of cognate and secondary target mRNAs. In plants, it is unclear to what extent endogenous genes contribute to this process. Here, we address the role of the endogenous target genes in transgene-mediated PTGS of beta-1,3-glucanases in tobacco. We found that mRNA sequences of the endogenous glucanase glb gene with varying degrees of homology to the Nicotiana plumbaginifolia gn1 transgene are targeted by the silencing machinery, although less efficiently than corresponding transgene regions. Importantly, we show that endogene-specific nucleotides in the glb sequence provide specificity to the silencing process. Consistent with this finding, small sense and antisense 21- to 23-nucleotide RNAs homologous to the endogenous glb gene were detected. Combined, these data demonstrate that a co-suppressed endogenous glucan ase gene is involved in signal amplification and selection of homologous targets, and show that endogenous genes can actively participate in PTGS in plants. The findings are introduced as a further sophistication of the post-transciptional silencing model.

  15. TGF-beta induces connexin43 gene expression in normal murine mammary gland epithelial cells via activation of p38 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. (United States)

    Tacheau, Charlotte; Fontaine, Juliette; Loy, Jennifer; Mauviel, Alain; Verrecchia, Franck


    One of the shared physiological roles between TGF-beta and connexin family members is to inhibit epithelial cell cycle progression and consequently, to provide protection against malignant transformation. Herein, we demonstrated that TGF-beta1 induces the expression of connexin43 (Cx43) in normal murine mammary gland (NMuMG) cell lines at the protein and mRNA levels, and transcriptionally. Using overexpression of a truncated dominant-negative form of Cx43, we determined that the modulation of gap junctional communication by TGF-beta1 plays a key role in the control of NMuMG cells proliferation by TGF-beta1. In addition, using overexpression of truncated dominant-negative forms of either Smad2 or Smad3, and MDA-MB-468 human breast carcinoma cells deficient for Smad4, we determined that the Smad cascade is not implicated in TGF-beta1 effect on Cx43 expression. Using specific pharmacologic inhibitors for JNK, ERK, p38, and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, we demonstrated the cooperative role of p38 and PI3K/AKT signaling in TGF-beta1-induced Cx43 expression and gap junctional communication. Furthermore, transfection of a c-jun antisense expression vector significantly prevented TGF-beta1-induced Cx43 gene expression demonstrating the involvement of c-Jun/AP-1 pathway together with p38 and PI3K/AKT pathways in mediating TGF-beta1-induced Cx43 gene expression.

  16. Homologous expression of a mutated beta-tubulin gene does not confer benomyl resistance on Trichoderma virens. (United States)

    Mukherjee, M; Hadar, R; Mukherjee, P K; Horwitz, B A


    To clone the beta-tubulins and to induce resistance to benzimidazoles in the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma virens through site-directed mutagenesis. Two beta-tubulin genes have been cloned using PCR amplification followed by the screening of a T. virens cDNA library. The full-length cDNA clones, coding for 445 and 446 amino acids, have been designated as T. virens tub1 and T. virens tub2. A sequence alignment of these two tubulins with tubulins from other filamentous fungi has shown the presence of some unique amino acid sequences not found in those positions in other beta-tubulins. Constitutive expression of the tub2 gene with a histidine to tyrosine substitution at position 6 (known to impart benomyl/methyl benzimadazol-2-yl carbamate resistance in other fungi), under the Pgpd promoter of Aspergillus nidulans, did not impart resistance to benomyl. The homologous expression of tub2 gene with a histidine to tyrosine mutation at position +6, which is known to impart benomyl tolerance in other fungi, does not impart resistance in T. virens. Unlike other Trichoderma spp., T. virens, has been difficult to mutate for benomyl tolerance. The present study, through site-directed mutagenesis, shows that a mutation known to impart benomyl tolerance in T. viride and other fungi does not impart resistance in this fungus. Understanding the mechanisms of this phenomenon will have a profound impact in plant-disease management, as many plant pathogenic fungi develop resistance to this group of fungicides forcing its withdrawal after a short period of use.


    Bayraktaroglu, Taner; Noel, Janet; Mukaddes, Nahit Motavalli; Refetoff, Samuel


    Two members of a Turkish family, a mother and son, had thyroid function tests suggestive of resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH). The clinical presentation was, however, different. The mother (proposita) had palpitation, weakness, tiredness, nervousness, dry mouth and was misdiagnosed as having multinodular toxic goiter which was treated with antithyroid drugs and partial thyroidectomy. Her younger son had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and primary encopresis, but normal intellectual quotient. Both had elevated serum iodothyronine levels with nonsuppressed thyrotropin. A mutation in one allele of the thyroid hormone receptor beta gene (P453A) was identified, providing a genetic confirmation for the diagnosis of RTH. PMID:18561095

  18. Antimetastatic gene expression profiles mediated by retinoic acid receptor beta 2 in MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallden, Brett; Emond, Mary; Swift, Mari E; Disis, Mary L; Swisshelm, Karen


    The retinoic acid receptor beta 2 (RARβ2) gene modulates proliferation and survival of cultured human breast cancer cells. Previously we showed that ectopic expression of RARβ2 in a mouse xenograft model prevented metastasis, even in the absence of the ligand, all-trans retinoic acid. We investigated both cultured cells and xenograft tumors in order to delineate the gene expression profiles responsible for an antimetastatic phenotype. RNA from MDA-MB-435 human breast cancer cells transduced with RARβ2 or empty retroviral vector (LXSN) was analyzed using Agilent Human 1A Oligo microarrays. The one hundred probes with the greatest differential intensity (p < 0.004, jointly) were determined by selecting the top median log ratios from eight-paired microarrays. Validation of differences in expression was done using Northern blot analysis and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). We determined expression of selected genes in xenograft tumors. RARβ2 cells exhibit gene profiles with overrepresentation of genes from Xq28 (p = 2 × 10 -8 ), a cytogenetic region that contains a large portion of the cancer/testis antigen gene family. Other functions or factors impacted by the presence of exogenous RARβ2 include mediators of the immune response and transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. Thirteen of fifteen (87%) of the genes evaluated in xenograft tumors were consistent with differences we found in the cell cultures (p = 0.007). Antimetastatic RARβ2 signalling, direct or indirect, results in an elevation of expression for genes such as tumor-cell antigens (CTAG1 and CTAG2), those involved in innate immune response (e.g., RIG-I/DDX58), and tumor suppressor functions (e.g., TYRP1). Genes whose expression is diminished by RARβ2 signalling include cell adhesion functions (e.g, CD164) nutritional or metabolic processes (e.g., FABP6), and the transcription factor, JUN

  19. Astrocytic beta 2 Adrenergic Receptor Gene Deletion Affects Memory in Aged Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, Cathy Joanna; Demol, Frauke; Bauwens, Romy; Kooijman, Ron; Massie, Ann; Villers, Agnes; Ris, Laurence; De Keyser, Jacques


    In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that the astrocytic adrenergic signalling enhances glycogenolysis which provides energy to be transported to nearby cells and in the form of lactate. This energy source is important for motor and cognitive functioning. While it is suspected that the beta

  20. Molecular analysis of the TGF-beta controlled gene expression program in chicken embryo dermal myofibroblasts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kosla, Jan; Dvořák, Michal; Čermák, Vladimír


    Roč. 513, č. 1 (2013), s. 90-100 ISSN 0378-1119 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200520801 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : microarray * myofibroblastic phenotype * inhibition of TGF-beta signaling Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.082, year: 2013

  1. Estrogen-related receptor beta interacts with Oct4 to positively regulate Nanog gene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.L.C. van den Berg (Debbie); W. Zhang (Wensheng); A. Yates (Adam); M.P. Engelen (Erik); K. Takacs (Katalin); K. Bezstarosti (Karel); J.A.A. Demmers (Jeroen); I. Chambers (Ian); R.A. Poor (Raymond)


    textabstractEmbryonic stem (ES) cell self-renewal is regulated by transcription factors, including Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog. A number of additional transcriptional regulators of ES cell self-renewal have recently been identified, including the orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor beta

  2. Type 1 Diabetes Candidate Genes Linked to Pancreatic Islet Cell Inflammation and Beta-Cell Apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Størling, Joachim; Pociot, Flemming


    (GWAS) have identified more than 50 genetic regions that affect the risk of developing T1D. Most of these susceptibility loci, however, harbor several genes, and the causal variant(s) and gene(s) for most of the loci remain to be established. A significant part of the genes located in the T1D...... susceptibility loci are expressed in human islets and β cells and mounting evidence suggests that some of these genes modulate the β-cell response to the immune system and viral infection and regulate apoptotic β-cell death. Here, we discuss the current status of T1D susceptibility loci and candidate genes...

  3. Effect of beta2-adrenoceptor agonists and other cAMP-elevating agents on inflammatory gene expression in human ASM cells: a role for protein kinase A. (United States)

    Kaur, Manminder; Holden, Neil S; Wilson, Sylvia M; Sukkar, Maria B; Chung, Kian Fan; Barnes, Peter J; Newton, Robert; Giembycz, Mark A


    In diseases such as asthma, airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells play a synthetic role by secreting inflammatory mediators such as granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-6, or IL-8 and by expressing surface adhesion molecules, including ICAM-1. In the present study, PGE(2), forskolin, and short-acting (salbutamol) and long-acting (salmeterol and formoterol) beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonists reduced the expression of ICAM-1 and the release of GM-CSF evoked by IL-1beta in ASM cells. IL-1beta-induced IL-8 release was also repressed by PGE(2) and forskolin, whereas the beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonists were ineffective. In each case, repression of these inflammatory indexes was prevented by adenoviral overexpression of PKIalpha, a highly selective PKA inhibitor. These data indicate a PKA-dependent mechanism of repression and suggest that agents that elevate intracellular cAMP, and thereby activate PKA, may have a widespread anti-inflammatory effect in ASM cells. Since ICAM-1 and GM-CSF are highly NF-kappaB-dependent genes, we used an adenoviral-delivered NF-kappaB-dependent luciferase reporter to examine the effects of forskolin and the beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonists on NF-kappaB activation. There was no effect on luciferase activity measured in the presence of forskolin or beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonists. This finding is consistent with the observation that IL-1beta-induced expression of IL-6, a known NF-kappaB-dependent gene in ASM, was also unaffected by beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonists, forskolin, PGE(2), 8-bromo-cAMP, or rolipram. Collectively, these results indicate that repression of IL-1beta-induced ICAM-1 expression and GM-CSF release by cAMP-elevating agents, including beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonists, may not occur through a generic effect on NF-kappaB.

  4. Hyperactivity and learning deficits in transgenic mice bearing a human mutant thyroid hormone beta1 receptor gene. (United States)

    McDonald, M P; Wong, R; Goldstein, G; Weintraub, B; Cheng, S Y; Crawley, J N


    Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a human syndrome mapped to the thyroid receptor beta (TRbeta) gene on chromosome 3, representing a mutation of the ligand-binding domain of the TRbeta gene. The syndrome is characterized by reduced tissue responsiveness to thyroid hormone and elevated serum levels of thyroid hormones. A common behavioral phenotype associated with RTH is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To test the hypothesis that RTH produces attention deficits and/or hyperactivity, transgenic mice expressing a mutant TRbeta gene were generated. The present experiment tested RTH transgenic mice from the PV kindred on behavioral tasks relevant to the primary features of ADHD: hyperactivity, sustained attention (vigilance), learning, and impulsivity. Male transgenic mice showed elevated locomotor activity in an open field compared to male wild-type littermate controls. Both male and female transgenic mice exhibited impaired learning of an autoshaping task, compared to wild-type controls. On a vigilance task in an operant chamber, there were no differences between transgenics and controls on the proportion of hits, response latency, or duration of stimulus tolerated. On an operant go/no-go task measuring sustained attention and impulsivity, there were no differences between controls and transgenics. These results indicate that transgenic mice bearing a mutant human TRbeta gene demonstrate several behavioral characteristics of ADHD and may serve a valuable heuristic role in elucidating possible candidate genes in converging pathways for other causes of ADHD.

  5. Polymorphism in beta fibrinogen -455 g/a gene was associated with diabetic in severe ischemic stroke patients (United States)

    Ritarwan, Kiking; Kadri, Alfansuri; Juwita Sembiring, Rosita


    There is a association of polymorphism in the promoter region of the beta fibrinogen gene -455 G/A with enhancement plasma fibrinogen level. Diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for early neurologic deterioration in acute ischemic stroke. The prothrombotic fibrinogen protein is frequently elevated in patients with diabetes and may be association with poorer prognosis. This study evaluated the association of beta fibrinogen gene -455 G/A promoter polymorphism on modified Ranking Scale of Ischemic Stroke patients treated with diabetic and nondiabetic group. In a Cohort study design comprises 200 consecutive patients diabetic and a nondiabetic who, three months using completed a detailed outcome stroke. Of 200 samples genotype distribution were 27.1% for GG+GA and 0% for AA with diabetic and than 4.4% for GG+GA and 0.05% diabetic patients. Fibrinogen levels were higher in diabetic than nondiabetic group patients (307.7 + 106.3 vs 278 + 84 gr/dl, p=0.002). Fibrinogen level was found to be an independent predictor for diabetic patients. On Genotype GG+GA were associated wth diabetic and nondiabetic group patients. Modified Rankin Scale on day 90 were found associated with diabetic and nondiabetic patients. Conclusion: Elevated fibrinogen level is dose-dependently associated with 90 days outcome severity stroke with diabetic following ischemic stroke

  6. Frequency of Hereditary Hemochromatosis (HFE) Gene Mutations in Egyptian Beta Thalassemia Patients and its Relation to Iron Overload. (United States)

    Enein, Azza Aboul; El Dessouky, Nermine A; Mohamed, Khalda S; Botros, Shahira K A; Abd El Gawad, Mona F; Hamdy, Mona; Dyaa, Nehal


    This study aimed to detect the most common HFE gene mutations (C282Y, H63D, and S56C) in Egyptian beta thalassemia major patients and its relation to their iron status. The study included 50 beta thalassemia major patients and 30 age and sex matched healthy persons as a control group. Serum ferritin, serum iron and TIBC level were measured. Detection of the three HFE gene mutations (C282Y, H63D and S65C) was done by PCR-RFLP analysis. Confirmation of positive cases for the mutations was done by sequencing. Neither homozygote nor carrier status for the C282Y or S65C alleles was found. The H63D heterozygous state was detected in 5/50 (10%) thalassemic patients and in 1/30 (3.3%) controls with no statistically significant difference between patients and control groups (p = 0.22). Significantly higher levels of the serum ferritin and serum iron in patients with this mutation (p = 001). Our results suggest that there is an association between H63D mutation and the severity of iron overload in thalassemic patients.

  7. Gene silencing of beta-catenin in melanoma cells retards their growth but promotes the formation of pulmonary metastasis in mice. (United States)

    Takahashi, Yuki; Nishikawa, Makiya; Suehara, Tetsuya; Takiguchi, Naomi; Takakura, Yoshinobu


    Altered expression of beta-catenin, a key component of the Wnt signaling pathway, is involved in a variety of cancers because increased levels of beta-catenin protein are frequently associated with enhanced cellular proliferation. Although our previous study demonstrated that gene silencing of beta-catenin in melanoma B16-BL6 cells by plasmid DNA (pDNA) expressing short-hairpin RNA targeting the gene (pshbeta-catenin) markedly suppressed their growth in vivo, gene silencing of beta-catenin could promote tumor metastasis by the rearranging cell adhesion complex. In this study, we investigated how silencing of beta-catenin affects metastatic aspects of melanoma cells. Transfection of B16-BL6 cells with pshbeta-catenin significantly reduced the amount of cadherin protein, a cell adhesion molecule binding to beta-catenin, with little change in its mRNA level. Cadherin-derived fragments were detected in culture media of B16-BL6 cells transfected with pshbeta-catenin, suggesting that cadherin is shed from the cell surface when the expression of beta-catenin is reduced. The mobility of B16-BL6 cells transfected with pshbeta-catenin was greater than that of cells transfected with any of the control pDNAs. B16-BL6 cells stably transfected with pshbeta-catenin (B16/pshbeta-catenin) formed less or an equal number of tumor nodules in the lung than cells stably transfected with other plasmids when injected into mice via the tail vein. However, when subcutaneously inoculated, B16/pshbeta-catenin cells formed more nodules in the lung than the other stably transfected cells. These results raise concerns about the gene silencing of beta-catenin for inhibiting tumor growth, because it promotes tumor metastasis by reducing the amount of cadherin in tumor cells. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Transforming growth factor-beta stimulates wound healing and modulates extracellular matrix gene expression in pig skin. I. Excisional wound model. (United States)

    Quaglino, D; Nanney, L B; Kennedy, R; Davidson, J M


    The effect of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) on matrix gene expression has been investigated during the process of wound repair, where the formation of new connective tissue represents a critical step in restoring tissue integrity. Split-thickness excisional wounds in the pig were studied by in situ hybridization in order to obtain subjective findings on the activity and location of cells involved in matrix gene expression after the administration of recombinant TGF-beta 1. Data focus on the stimulatory role of this growth factor in granulation tissue formation, on the enhanced mRNA content of collagen types I and III, fibronectin, TGF-beta 1 itself, and on the reduction in stromelysin mRNA, suggesting that increased matrix formation measured after treatment with TGF-beta 1 is due to fibroplasia regulated by the abundance of mRNAs for several different structural, matrix proteins as well as inhibition of proteolytic phenomena elicited by metalloproteinases. These studies reveal elastin mRNA early in the repair process, and elastin mRNA expression is enhanced by administration of TGF-beta 1. Moreover, we show that TGF-beta 1 was auto-stimulating in wounds, accounting, at least in part, for the persistent effects of single doses of this multipotential cytokine.

  9. Upregulation of B7 molecules (CD80 and CD86) and exacerbated eosinophilic pulmonary inflammatory response in mice lacking the IFN-beta gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matheu, Victor; Treschow, Alexandra; Navikas, Vaidrius


    . OBJECTIVE: We sought to define the differential role of endogenous IFN-beta in controlling the development of allergic inflammation. METHODS: We assessed whether deletion of the gene encoding IFN-beta (IFNB) with knockout mice participated in the development of allergic response in ovalbumin (OVA......BACKGROUND: IFN-beta has been shown to be effective as therapy for multiple sclerosis. Some reports attributed its beneficial effects to the capacity to induce a T(H)2 response. However, other studies have suggested that endogenous type I IFN might downregulate the allergic response in mice...

  10. Functional isotypes are not encoded by the constant region genes of the beta subunit of the T cell receptor for antigen/major histocompatibility complex



    Human T cell clones and a cDNA probe specific for constant regions of the beta subunit of the antigen/major histocompatibility complex (MHC) receptor, TiC beta 1 and TiC beta 2, were employed to determine whether these genes were differentially used by functional classes of T lymphocytes. DNA from 10 interleukin-2-dependent T cell clones including class I and class II MHC-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (n = 6), T4+ inducer T lymphocytes (n = 2), and T8+ suppressor T lymphocytes (n = 2) show...

  11. An X11alpha/FSBP complex represses transcription of the GSK3beta gene promoter.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lau, Kwok-Fai


    X11alpha is a neuronal adaptor protein that interacts with the amyloid precursor protein (APP) through a centrally located phosphotyrosine binding domain to inhibit the production of Abeta peptide that is deposited in Alzheimer\\'s disease brains. X11alpha also contains two C-terminal postsynaptic density-95, large discs, zona occludens 1 (PDZ) domains, and we show here that through its PDZ domains, X11alpha interacts with a novel transcription factor, fibrinogen silencer binding protein. Moreover, we show that an X11alpha\\/fibrinogen silencer binding protein complex signals to the nucleus to repress glycogen synthase kinase-3beta promoter activity. Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta is a favoured candidate kinase for phosphorylating tau in Alzheimer\\'s disease. Our findings show a new function for X11alpha that may impact on Alzheimer\\'s disease pathogenesis.

  12. VNTR internal structure mapping at the {alpha}-globin 3{prime}HVR locus reveals a hierachy of related lineages in oceania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinson, J.J.; Clegg, J.B.; Boyce, A.J. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)


    Analysis of the {alpha}-globin gene complex in Oceania has revealed many different rearrangements which remove one of the adult globin genes. Frequencies of these deletion chromosomes are elevated by malarial resistance conferred by the resulting {alpha}-thalassaemia. One particular deletion chromosome, designated -{alpha}{sup 3.7}III, is found at high levels in Melanesia and Polynesia: RFLP haplotype analysis shows that this deletion is always found on chromosomes bearing the IIIa haplotype and is likely to be the product of one single rearrangement event. A subset of the -{alpha}{sup 3.7}III chromosomes carries a more recent mutation which generates the haemoglobin variant HbJ{sup Tongariki}. We have characterized the allelic variation at the 3{prime}HVR VNTR locus located 6 kb from the globin genes in each of these groups of chromosomes. We have determined the internal structure of these alleles by RFLP mapping of PCR-amplified DNA: within each group, the allelic diversity results from the insertion and/or deletion of small {open_quotes}motifs{close_quotes} of up to 6 adjacent repeats. Mapping of 3{prime}HVR alleles associated with other haplotypes reveals that these are composed of repeat arrays that are substantially different to those derived from IIIa chromosomes, indicating that interchromosomal recombination between heterologous haplotypes does not account for any of the diversity seen to date. We have recently shown that allelic size variation at the two VNTR loci flanking the {alpha}-globin complex is very closely linked to the haplotypes known to be present at this locus. Here we show that, within a haplotype, VNTR alleles are very closely related to each other on the basis of internal structure and demonstrate that intrachromosomal mutation processes involving small numbers of tandem repeats are the main cause of variation at this locus.

  13. Gene amplification as a cause of inherited thyroxine-binding globulin excess in two Japanese families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Yuichi; Miura, Yoshitaka; Saito, Hidehiko [Toyota Memorial Hospital (Japan)] [and others


    T{sub 4}-binding globulin (TBG) is the major thyroid hormone transport protein in man. Inherited abnormalities in the level of serum TBG have been classified as partial deficiency, complete deficiency, and excess. Sequencing analysis of the TBG gene, located on Xq21-22, has uncovered the molecular defects causing partial and complete deficiency. However, the mechanism leading to inherited TBG excess remains unknown. In this study, two Japanese families, F-A and F-T, with inherited TBG excess were analyzed. Serum TBG levels in hemizygous males were 58 and 44 {mu}g/mL, 3- and 2-fold the normal value, respectively. The molecule had normal properties in terms of heat stability and isoelectric focussing pattern. The sequence of the coding region and the promoter activity of the TBG gene were also indistinguishable between hemizygotes and normal subjects. The gene dosage of TBG relative to that of {beta}-globin, which is located on chromosome 11, and Duchenne muscular dystropy, which is located on Xp, was evaluated by coamplification of these target genes using polymerase chain reaction and subsequent quantitation by HPLC. The TBG/{beta}-globin ratios of the affected male and female of F-A were 3.13 and 4.13 times, respectively, that in the normal males. The TBG/Duchenne muscular dystrophy ratios were 2.92 and 2.09 times the normal value, respectively. These results are compatible with three copies of TBG gene on the affected X-chromosome. Similarly, a 2-fold increase in gene dosage was demonstrated in the affected hemizygote of F-T. A 3-fold tandem amplification of the TBG gene was shown by in situ hybridization of prometaphase and interphase chromosomes from the affected male with a biotinylated genomic TBG probe, confirming the gene dosage results. Gene amplification of TBG is the cause of inherited TBG excess in these two families. 35 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Haplotypes in the gene encoding protein kinase c-beta (PRKCB1) on chromosome 16 are associated with autism. (United States)

    Philippi, A; Roschmann, E; Tores, F; Lindenbaum, P; Benajou, A; Germain-Leclerc, L; Marcaillou, C; Fontaine, K; Vanpeene, M; Roy, S; Maillard, S; Decaulne, V; Saraiva, J P; Brooks, P; Rousseau, F; Hager, J


    Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication associated with repetitive patterns of interest or behavior. Autism is highly influenced by genetic factors. Genome-wide linkage and candidate gene association approaches have been used to try and identify autism genes. A few loci have repeatedly been reported linked to autism. Several groups reported evidence for linkage to a region on chromosome 16p. We have applied a direct physical identity-by-descent (IBD) mapping approach to perform a high-density (0.85 megabases) genome-wide linkage scan in 116 families from the AGRE collection. Our results confirm linkage to a region on chromosome 16p with autism. High-resolution single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping and analysis of this region show that haplotypes in the protein kinase c-beta gene are strongly associated with autism. An independent replication of the association in a second set of 167 trio families with autism confirmed our initial findings. Overall, our data provide evidence that the PRKCB1 gene on chromosome 16p may be involved in the etiology of autism.

  15. Short- and long-term changes in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L. gene expression due to postharvest jasmonic acid treatment - Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilene Silva de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Jasmonic acid is a natural plant hormone that induces native defense responses in plants. Sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L. root unigenes that were differentially expressed 2 and 60 days after a postharvest jasmonic acid treatment are presented. Data include changes in unigene expression relative to water-treated controls, unigene annotations against nonredundant (Nr, Swiss-Prot, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG protein databases, and unigene annotations with Gene Ontology (GO terms. Putative defense unigenes are compiled and annotated against the sugarbeet genome. Differential gene expression data were generated by RNA sequencing. Interpretation of the data is available in the research article, “Jasmonic acid causes short- and long-term alterations to the transcriptome and the expression of defense genes in sugarbeet roots” (K.K. Fugate, L.S. Oliveira, J.P. Ferrareze, M.D. Bolton, E.L. Deckard, F.L. Finger, 2017 [1]. Public dissemination of this dataset will allow further analyses of the data.

  16. Hemoglobina C em homozigose e interação com talassemia beta Homozygous hemoglobin C and its interaction with beta thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan L. Angulo


    Full Text Available A hemoglobina C (Hb C é originária do oeste da África e é detectada por migração lenta na eletroforese alcalina em acetato de celulose. Consiste na mutação do gene da globina beta no códon 6 (GAG-AAG, resultando na substituição do sexto aminoácido da cadeia beta da hemoglobina humana, o ácido glutâmico, pelo aminoácido lisina. A cromatografia de alto desempenho (HPLC separa completamente as frações C e A2, permitindo caracterizar a presença da interação com talassemia beta. Esta entidade (Hb CC, em homozigoze é considerada benigna em relação à doença falciforme, já que a falcização não faz parte de sua fisiopatologia. A raridade do diagnóstico C homozigoto e C talassemia beta nos pacientes portadores de hemoglobinopatias nos alertou para a necessidade de se conhecer melhor e estudar aspectos clínicos e hematológicos dos casos dessa mutação em homozigose e na interação com a talassemia beta no ambulatório de anemias do Centro Regional de Hematologia e Hemoterapia de Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil.Hemoglobin C (Hb C originated in the west of Africa and is detected by alkaline electrophoresis by slow migration in cellulose acetate. It consists of a mutation of the beta globin gene in codon 6 (GAG-AAG, resulting in a substitution of glutamic acid, the sixth amino acid of the beta string of the human hemoglobin, for lysine. High performance chromatography (HPLC separates the C and A2 fractions completely, allowing the characterization of the presence of interactions with thalassemia beta. This entity (Hb CC is considered benign in respect to sickle cell disease, as sickle cells are not part of its physiopathology. The rarity of the diagnosis of homozygous C and beta thalassemia in patients with hemoglobinopathies showed the necessity of studying clinical and hematologic aspects of the cases of this mutation in homozygosis carriers and the interaction with beta thalassemia in the anemias clinic of the Regional Blood

  17. The distribution of beta lactamase genes in Escherichia coli phylotypes isolated from diarrhea and UTI cases in northwest Iran. (United States)

    Hemati, Zahra; Ghanbarpour, Reza; Alizade, Hesam


    Pathogenic Escherichia coli strains are a common cause of intestinal and extra-intestinal infections, especially in developing countries. Extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLS), a heterogeneous group of plasmid-encoded beta-lactamases, are common throughout the world. The aim of the present study was to determine the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of ESBLS produced by E. coli isolates taken from patients with diarrhea and urinary tract infections (UTI) in northwest Iran. A total of 132 E. coli isolates (92 isolates from UTI and 40 isolates from diarrheic cases) were recovered and confirmed by biochemical tests. The isolates were examined for blaTEM and blaSHV genes and phylogenetic background by two multiplex PCR assays. The isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility against nine antibiotic agents by the disk diffusion method. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the UTI isolates mostly fell into phylo-group B2, followed by D, while the diarrheic isolates belonged to phylo-groups D and A. Out of 92 UTI isolates, 29.3% and 17.4% possessed blaTEM and blaSHV genes, respectively. Ten diarrheic isolates were positive for blaTEM, two isolates possessed the blaSHV gene, and one isolate was positive for both genes. The UTI isolates that were positive for blaTEM and blaSHV genes mostly belonged to phylo-groups D and B2, whereas the diarrhea isolates were in phylo-groups D and A. Phylogenetic group D isolates have an accumulation of ESBLS genes in the diarrheic and UTI isolates. In both the UTI and diarrhea isolates, the maximum rate of resistance was against cefazolin, and the minimum rate of resistance was against nitrofurantoin. Twenty-four antibiotic resistance patterns were observed among the isolates. The amikacin, ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, cefuroxime, cefazolin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance pattern was the most prevalent in the isolates that belonged to phylo-group D. The correct choice of effective

  18. Repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects by cultured mesenchymal stem cells transfected with the transforming growth factor {beta}{sub 1} gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Xiaodong [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Zheng Qixin [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Yang Shuhua [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Shao Zengwu [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Yuan Quan [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Pan Zhengqi [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Tang Shuo [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Liu Kai [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Quan Daping [Institute of Polymer Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)


    Articular cartilage repair remains a clinical and scientific challenge with increasing interest focused on the combined techniques of gene transfer and tissue engineering. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-{beta}{sub 1}) is a multifunctional molecule that plays a central role in promotion of cartilage repair, and inhibition of inflammatory and alloreactive immune response. Cell mediated gene therapy can allow a sustained expression of TGF-{beta}{sub 1} that may circumvent difficulties associated with growth factor delivery. The objective of this study was to investigate whether TGF-{beta}{sub 1} gene modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could enhance the repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects in allogeneic rabbits. The pcDNA{sub 3}-TGF-{beta}{sub 1} gene transfected MSCs were seeded onto biodegradable poly-L-lysine coated polylactide (PLA) biomimetic scaffolds in vitro and allografted into full-thickness articular cartilage defects in 18 New Zealand rabbits. The pcDNA{sub 3} gene transfected MSCs/biomimetic scaffold composites and the cell-free scaffolds were taken as control groups I and II, respectively. The follow-up times were 2, 4, 12 and 24 weeks. Macroscopical, histological and ultrastructural studies were performed. In vitro SEM studies found that abundant cartilaginous matrices were generated and completely covered the interconnected pores of the scaffolds two weeks post-seeding in the experimental groups. In vivo, the quality of regenerated tissue improved over time with hyaline cartilage filling the chondral region and a mixture of trabecular and compact bone filling the subchondral region at 24 weeks post-implantation. Joint repair in the experimental groups was better than that of either control group I or II, with respect to: (1) synthesis of hyaline cartilage specific extracellular matrix at the upper portion of the defect; (2) reconstitution of the subchondral bone at the lower portion of the defect and (3) inhibition of

  19. PDGF-receptor beta-targeted adenovirus redirects gene transfer from hepatocytes to activated stellate cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, Marieke H.; Rots, Marianne G.; Beljaars, Leonie; Ypma, Arjen Y.; Jansen, Peter L. M.; Poelstra, Klaas; Moshage, Albert; Haisma, Hidde J.


    Chronic liver damage may lead to liver fibrosis. In this process, hepatic activated stellate cells are the key players. Thus, activated stellate cells are attractive targets for antifibrotic gene therapy. Recombinant, adenovirus is a promising vehicle for delivering therapeutic genes to liver cells.

  20. Cationic polymeric gene delivery of beta-glucuronidase for doxorubicin prodrug therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fonseca, MJ; Storm, G; Hennink, WE; Gerritsen, WR; Haisma, HJ


    Background An approach to improve current chemotherapy is the selective transduction of tumor cells with suicide genes to sensitize these cells to prodrugs of cytostatic agents; Methods In this study, gene transfer was accomplished with the cationic polymer poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)

  1. Molecular Cloning and Sequencing of Hemoglobin-Beta Gene of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus Punctatus Rafinesque (United States)

    : Hemoglobin-y gene of channel catfish , lctalurus punctatus, was cloned and sequenced . Total RNA from head kidneys was isolated, reverse transcribed and amplified . The sequence of the channel catfish hemoglobin-y gene consists of 600 nucleotides . Analysis of the nucleotide sequence reveals one o...

  2. Thymosin beta 4 protects cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress by targeting anti-oxidative enzymes and anti-apoptotic genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanyu Wei

    Full Text Available Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4 is a ubiquitous protein with many properties relating to cell proliferation and differentiation that promotes wound healing and modulates inflammatory mediators. The mechanism by which Tβ4 modulates cardiac protection under oxidative stress is not known. The purpose of this study is to dissect the cardioprotective mechanism of Tβ4 on H(2O(2 induced cardiac damage.Rat neonatal cardiomyocytes with or without Tβ4 pretreatment were exposed to H(2O(2 and expression of antioxidant, apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory genes was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting. ROS levels were estimated by DCF-DA using fluorescent microscopy and fluorimetry. Selected antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic genes were silenced by siRNA transfections in neonatal cardiomyocytes and effect of Tβ4 on H(2O(2-induced cardiac damage was evaluated.Pre-treatment of Tβ4 resulted in reduction of the intracellular ROS levels induced by H(2O(2 in cardiomyocytes. Tβ4 pretreatment also resulted in an increase in the expression of antiapoptotic proteins and reduction of Bax/BCl(2 ratio in the cardiomyocytes. Pretreatment with Tβ4 resulted in stimulating the expression of antioxidant enzymes copper/zinc SOD and catalase in cardiomyocytes at both transcription and translation levels. Tβ4 treatment resulted in the increased expression of anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory genes. Silencing of Cu/Zn SOD and catalase gene resulted in apoptotic cell death in the cardiomyocytes which was prevented by treatment with Tβ4.This is the first report that demonstrates the effect of Tβ4 on cardiomyocytes and its capability to selectively upregulate anti-oxidative enzymes, anti-inflammatory genes, and antiapoptotic enzymes in the neonatal cardiomyocytes thus preventing cell death thereby protecting the myocardium. Tβ4 treatment resulted in decreased oxidative stress and inflammation in the myocardium under oxidative stress.

  3. Ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae carrying multiple metallo-beta-lactamase genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwivedi Mayank


    Full Text Available Context: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP is a leading nosocomial infection in the intensive care unit (ICU. Members of Enterobacteriaceae are the most common causative agents and carbapenems are the most commonly used antibiotics. Metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL production leading to treatment failure may go unnoticed by routine disc diffusion susceptibility testing. Moreover, there is not much information on association of MBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae with ICU-acquired VAP. Therefore, a study was undertaken to find out the association of MBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae with VAP. Settings: This study was conducted in a large tertiary care hospital of North India with an eight-bed critical care unit. Materials and Methods: The respiratory samples (bronchoalveolar lavage, protected brush catheter specimens and endotracheal or transtracheal aspirates obtained from VAP patients (during January 2005-December 2006 were processed, isolated bacteria identified and their antibiotic susceptibilities tested as per standard protocols. The isolates of Enterobacteriaceae resistant to carbapenem were subjected to phenotypic and genotypic tests for the detection of MBLs. Results: Twelve of 64 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae were detected as MBL producers, bla IMP being the most prevalent gene. Additionally, in three strains, simultaneous coexistence of multiple MBL genes was detected. Conclusion: The coexistence of multiple MBL genes in Enterobacteriaceae is an alarming situation. As MBL genes are associated with integrons that can be embedded in transposons, which in turn can be accommodated on plasmids thereby resulting in a highly mobile genetic apparatus, the further spread of these genes in different pathogens is likely to occur.

  4. Hydrocephalus caused by conditional ablation of the Pten or beta-catenin gene

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    Ohtoshi Akihira


    Full Text Available Abstract To investigate the roles of Pten and β-Catenin in the midbrain, either the Pten gene or the β-catenin gene was conditionally ablated, using Dmbx1 (diencephalon/mesencephalon-expressed brain homeobox gene 1-Cre mice. Homozygous disruption of the Pten or β-catenin gene in Dmbx1-expressing cells caused severe hydrocephalus and mortality during the postnatal period. Conditional deletion of Pten resulted in enlargement of midbrain structures. β-catenin conditional mutant mice showed malformation of the superior and inferior colliculi and stenosis of the midbrain aqueduct. These results demonstrate that both Pten and β-Catenin are essential for proper midbrain development, and provide the direct evidence that mutations of both Pten and β-catenin lead to hydrocephalus.

  5. Correlation of phenotypic tests with the presence of the blaZ gene for detection of beta-lactamase. (United States)

    Ferreira, Adriano Martison; Martins, Katheryne Benini; Silva, Vanessa Rocha da; Mondelli, Alessandro Lia; Cunha, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da

    Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus are the most common and most important staphylococcal species associated with urinary tract infections. The objective of the present study was to compare and to evaluate the accuracy of four phenotypic methods for the detection of beta-lactamase production in Staphylococcus spp. Seventy-three strains produced a halo with a diameter ≤28mm (penicillin resistant) and all of them were positive for the blaZ gene. Among the 28 susceptible strain (halo ≥29mm), 23 carried the blaZ gene and five did not. The zone edge test was the most sensitive (90.3%), followed by MIC determination (85.5%), but the specificity of the former was low (40.0%). The nitrocefin test was the least sensitive (28.9%). However, the nitrocefin test together with the disk diffusion method showed the highest specificity (100%). The present results demonstrated that the zone edge test was the most sensitive phenotypic test for detection of beta-lactamase, although it is still not an ideal test to detect this type of resistance since its specificity was low. However, the inhibition halo diameter of the penicillin disk can be used together with the zone edge test since the same disk is employed in the two tests. Combined analysis of the two tests shows a sensitivity of 90.3% and specificity of 100%, proving better sensitivity, especially for S. saprophyticus. This is a low-cost test of easy application and interpretation that can be used in small and medium-sized laboratories where susceptibility testing is usually performed by the disk diffusion method. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Correlation of phenotypic tests with the presence of the blaZ gene for detection of beta-lactamase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Martison Ferreira

    Full Text Available Abstract Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus are the most common and most important staphylococcal species associated with urinary tract infections. The objective of the present study was to compare and to evaluate the accuracy of four phenotypic methods for the detection of beta-lactamase production in Staphylococcus spp. Seventy-three strains produced a halo with a diameter ≤28 mm (penicillin resistant and all of them were positive for the blaZ gene. Among the 28 susceptible strain (halo ≥29 mm, 23 carried the blaZ gene and five did not. The zone edge test was the most sensitive (90.3%, followed by MIC determination (85.5%, but the specificity of the former was low (40.0%. The nitrocefin test was the least sensitive (28.9%. However, the nitrocefin test together with the disk diffusion method showed the highest specificity (100%. The present results demonstrated that the zone edge test was the most sensitive phenotypic test for detection of beta-lactamase, although it is still not an ideal test to detect this type of resistance since its specificity was low. However, the inhibition halo diameter of the penicillin disk can be used together with the zone edge test since the same disk is employed in the two tests. Combined analysis of the two tests shows a sensitivity of 90.3% and specificity of 100%, proving better sensitivity, especially for S. saprophyticus. This is a low-cost test of easy application and interpretation that can be used in small and medium-sized laboratories where susceptibility testing is usually performed by the disk diffusion method.

  7. Appendix: a solution hybridization assay to detect radioactive globin messenger RNA nucleotide sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J


    In view of the sensitivity and specificity of the solution hybridization assay for unlabeled globin mRNA a similar technique has been devised to detect radioactive globin mRNA sequences with unlabeled globin cDNA. Several properties of the hybridization reaction are presented since RNA kinetic experiments reported recently depend on the validity of this assay. Data on hybridization analysis of (/sup 3/H)RNA from mouse fetal liver or erythroleukemia cell cytoplasm are presented. These data indicate that the excess cDNA solution assay for radioactive globin mRNA detection is specific for globin mRNA sequences. It can be performed rapidly and is highly reproducible from experiment. It is at least 500-fold less sensitive than the assay for unlabeled globin mRNA, due to the RNAase backgrounds of 0.05 to 0.15 %. However, this limitation has not affected kinetic experiments with non-dividing fetal liver erythroid cells, which synthesize relatively large quantities of globin mRNA.

  8. Opposite responses of rabbit and human globin mRNAs to translational inhibition by cap analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakin, S.H.; Liebhaber, S.A.


    The translational efficiency of an mRNA may be determined at the step of translational initiation by the efficiency of its interaction with the cap binding protein complex. To further investigate the role of these interactions in translational control, the authors compare in vitro the relative sensitivities of rabbit and human α- and β-globin mRNAs to translational inhibition by cap analogues. They find that rabbit β-globin mRNA is more resistant to translational inhibition by cap analogues than rabbit α-globin mRNA, while in contrast, human β-globin mRNA is more sensitive to cap analogue inhibition than human α- and β-globin mRNAs is unexpected as direct in vivo and in vitro comparisons of polysome profiles reveal parallel translational handling of the α- and β-globin mRNAs from these two species. This discordance between the relative translational sensitivities of these mRNAs to cap analogues and their relative ribosome loading activities suggests that cap-dependent events may not be rate limiting in steady-state globin translation

  9. Intron-exon organization of the active human protein S gene PS. alpha. and its pseudogene PS. beta. : Duplication and silencing during primate evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploos van Amstel, H.; Reitsma, P.H.; van der Logt, C.P.; Bertina, R.M. (University Hospital, Leiden (Netherlands))


    The human protein S locus on chromosome 3 consists of two protein S genes, PS{alpha} and PS{beta}. Here the authors report the cloning and characterization of both genes. Fifteen exons of the PS{alpha} gene were identified that together code for protein S mRNA as derived from the reported protein S cDNAs. Analysis by primer extension of liver protein S mRNA, however, reveals the presence of two mRNA forms that differ in the length of their 5{prime}-noncoding region. Both transcripts contain a 5{prime}-noncoding region longer than found in the protein S cDNAs. The two products may arise from alternative splicing of an additional intron in this region or from the usage of two start sites for transcription. The intron-exon organization of the PS{alpha} gene fully supports the hypothesis that the protein S gene is the product of an evolutional assembling process in which gene modules coding for structural/functional protein units also found in other coagulation proteins have been put upstream of the ancestral gene of a steroid hormone binding protein. The PS{beta} gene is identified as a pseudogene. It contains a large variety of detrimental aberrations, viz., the absence of exon I, a splice site mutation, three stop codons, and a frame shift mutation. Overall the two genes PS{alpha} and PS{beta} show between their exonic sequences 96.5% homology. Southern analysis of primate DNA showed that the duplication of the ancestral protein S gene has occurred after the branching of the orangutan from the African apes. A nonsense mutation that is present in the pseudogene of man also could be identified in one of the two protein S genes of both chimpanzee and gorilla. This implicates that silencing of one of the two protein S genes must have taken place before the divergence of the three African apes.

  10. Genes, Gender, Environment, and Novel Functions of Estrogen Receptor Beta in the Susceptibility to Neurodevelopmental Disorders

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    Mukesh Varshney


    Full Text Available Many neurological disorders affect men and women differently regarding prevalence, progression, and severity. It is clear that many of these disorders may originate from defective signaling during fetal or perinatal brain development, which may affect males and females differently. Such sex-specific differences may originate from chromosomal or sex-hormone specific effects. This short review will focus on the estrogen receptor beta (ERβ signaling during perinatal brain development and put it in the context of sex-specific differences in neurodevelopmental disorders. We will discuss ERβ’s recent discovery in directing DNA de-methylation to specific sites, of which one such site may bear consequences for the susceptibility to the neurological reading disorder dyslexia. We will also discuss how dysregulations in sex-hormone signaling, like those evoked by endocrine disruptive chemicals, may affect this and other neurodevelopmental disorders in a sex-specific manner through ERβ.

  11. Near infrared spectra indicate specific mutant endosperm genes and reveal a new mechanism for substituting starch with (1-->3,1-->4)-[beta]-glucan in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, L.; Møller, B.; Jacobsen, Susanne


    -->3,1-->4)-[beta]-glucan (up to 15-20%), thus, maintaining a constant production of polysaccharides at 50-55%, within the range of normal barley.The spectral tool was tested by an independent data set with six mutants with unknown polysaccharide composition. Spectral data from four of these were classified within...... the high (1-->3,1-->4)-[beta]-glucan BG lys5 cluster in a PCA. Their high (1-->3,1-->4)-[beta]-glucan and low starch content was verified. It is concluded that genetic diversity such as from gene regulated polysaccharide and storage protein pathways in the endosperm tissue can be discovered directly from...... the phenotype by chemometric classification of a spectral library, representing the digitised phenome from a barley gene bank....

  12. Characterization of beta-thalassemia mutations in patients from the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

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    Zama Messala Luna da Silveira


    Full Text Available 35 unrelated individuals were studied for characterization as either heterozygous or homozygous for beta-thalassemia. Molecular analysis was done by PCR/RFLP to detect the mutations most commonly associated with beta-thalassemia (β0IVS-I-1, β+IVS-I-6, and β039. In the patients who showed none of these mutations, the beta-globin genes were sequenced. Of the 31 heterozygous patients, 13 (41.9% had the β+IVS-I-6 mutation, 15 (48.4% the β0IVS-I-1 mutation, 2 (6.5% the β+IVS-I-110 mutation and 1 (3.2% the β+IVS-I-5 mutation. IVS-I-6 was detected in the four homozygotes. The mutation in codon 39, often found in previous studies in Brazil, was not detected in the present case. This is the first study aiming at identifying mutations that determine beta-thalassemia in the state of Rio Grande do Norte.

  13. Detection of Beta-lactamase gene in the culturable bacteria isolated from agricultural, pasture and mining soils around mines in Hamedan, Iran

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    Nayereh Younessi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Growing evidence exists that agriculture affects antibiotic resistance in human pathogens. Beta-lactam antibiotics are the most commonly used antimicrobial agents in many countries. The abundance of beta-lactamase encoding genes can be used as an indicator of antibiotic resistance in the environment. So, to determine the beta-lactamase resistance genes, the abundance of culturable bacteria having bla-TEM genesin the soils under different land uses wasexamined. Materials and methods: 44 Gram-positive and 34 Gram-negative bacteria plated on nutrient agar were isolated from agricultural, pasture and mining soils and selected to study the presence of TEM-class gene using PCR amplification. Antibiotic sensitivity test of bla-TEM+isolateswas done adopting the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and antibiotic discs used were: ampicillin, amoxicillin, vancomicin, streptomycin, tetracycline and gentamicin. Finally, five multi-drug resistant and bla-TEM+ isolates were identified using universal primers. Results: The highest level of beta-lactamase genes was observed in the Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates from the pasture soils. In the agricultural and mining soils, a high abundance of bla-TEM+ isolateswasfound which also showed resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. The identified multi-drug resistant and bla-TEM+ isolates were from these genera: Achromobacter, Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Aminobacter and Brevundimonas. Discussion and conclusion: The high number of bla-TEM+ bacteria in all the soils may be attributed to the other important feature of bla genes which is their capability to extrude toxic compounds like heavy metals in contaminated environments. Sensitivity of some bla-TEM+ bacteria to beta-lactam antibiotics was interesting. This result shows that bla-TEM genes confer resistance to beta-lactamase inhibitors in a different degree. Some of the identified isolates were pathogen. These pathogens in soils can transfer to plants

  14. Opposite Smad and chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor inputs in the regulation of the collagen VII gene promoter by transforming growth factor-beta. (United States)

    Calonge, María Julia; Seoane, Joan; Massagué, Joan


    A critical component of the epidermal basement membrane, collagen type VII, is produced by keratinocytes and fibroblasts, and its production is stimulated by the cytokine transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). The gene, COL7A1, is activated by TGF-beta via Smad transcription factors in cooperation with AP1. Here we report a previously unsuspected level of complexity in this regulatory process. We provide evidence that TGF-beta may activate the COL7A1 promoter by two distinct inputs operating through a common region of the promoter. One input is provided by TGF-beta-induced Smad complexes via two Smad binding elements that function redundantly depending on the cell type. The second input is provided by relieving the COL7A1 promoter from chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor (COUP-TF)-mediated transcriptional repression. We identified COUP-TFI and -TFII as factors that bind to the TGF-beta-responsive region of the COL7A1 promoter in an expression library screening. COUP-TFs bind to a site between the two Smad binding elements independently of Smad or AP1 and repress the basal and TGF-beta-stimulated activities of this promoter. We provide evidence that endogenous COUP-TF activity represses the COL7A1 promoter. Furthermore, we show that TGF-beta addition causes a rapid and profound down-regulation of COUP-TF expression in keratinocytes and fibroblasts. The results suggest that TGF-beta signaling may exert tight control over COL7A1 by offsetting the balance between opposing Smad and COUP-TFs.

  15. Alternative-splicing in the exon-10 region of GABA(A receptor beta(2 subunit gene: relationships between novel isoforms and psychotic disorders.

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    Cunyou Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in GABRB2, the gene for beta(2-subunit of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A receptor, have been associated with schizophrenia (SCZ and quantitatively correlated to mRNA expression and alternative splicing. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Expression of the Exon 10 region of GABRB2 from minigene constructs revealed this region to be an "alternative splicing hotspot" that readily gave rise to differently spliced isoforms depending on intron sequences. This led to a search in human brain cDNA libraries, and the discovery of two novel isoforms, beta(2S1 and beta(2S2, bearing variations in the neighborhood of Exon-10. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of postmortem brain samples showed increased beta(2S1 expression and decreased beta(2S2 expression in both SCZ and bipolar disorder (BPD compared to controls. Disease-control differences were significantly correlated with SNP rs187269 in BPD males for both beta(2S1 and beta(2S2 expressions, and significantly correlated with SNPs rs2546620 and rs187269 in SCZ males for beta(2S2 expression. Moreover, site-directed mutagenesis indicated that Thr(365, a potential phosphorylation site in Exon-10, played a key role in determining the time profile of the ATP-dependent electrophysiological current run-down. CONCLUSION: This study therefore provided experimental evidence for the importance of non-coding sequences in the Exon-10 region in GABRB2 with respect to beta(2-subunit splicing diversity and the etiologies of SCZ and BPD.

  16. Characterization of differential gene expression in adrenocortical tumors harboring beta-catenin (CTNNB1) mutations. (United States)

    Durand, Julien; Lampron, Antoine; Mazzuco, Tania L; Chapman, Audrey; Bourdeau, Isabelle


    Mutations of β-catenin gene (CTNNB1) are frequent in adrenocortical adenomas (AA) and adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC). However, the target genes of β-catenin have not yet been identified in adrenocortical tumors. Our objective was to identify genes deregulated in adrenocortical tumors harboring CTNNB1 genetic alterations and nuclear accumulation of β-catenin. Microarray analysis identified a dataset of genes that were differently expressed between AA with CTNNB1 mutations and wild-type (WT) tumors. Within this dataset, the expression profiles of five genes were validated by real time-PCR (RT-PCR) in a cohort of 34 adrenocortical tissues (six AA and one ACC with CTNNB1 mutations, 13 AA and four ACC with WT CTNNB1, and 10 normal adrenal glands) and two human ACC cell lines. We then studied the effects of suppressing β-catenin transcriptional activity with the T-cell factor/β-catenin inhibitors PKF115-584 and PNU74654 on gene expression in H295R and SW13 cells. RT-PCR analysis confirmed the overexpression of ISM1, RALBP1, and PDE2A and the down-regulation of PHYHIP in five of six AA harboring CTNNB1 mutations compared with WT AA (n = 13) and normal adrenal glands (n = 10). RALBP1 and PDE2A overexpression was also confirmed at the protein level by Western blotting analysis in mutated tumors. ENC1 was specifically overexpressed in three of three AA harboring CTNNB1 point mutations. mRNA expression and protein levels of RALBP1, PDE2A, and ENC1 were decreased in a dose-dependent manner in H295R cells after treatment with PKF115-584 or PNU74654. This study identified candidate genes deregulated in CTNNB1-mutated adrenocortical tumors that may lead to a better understanding of the role of the Wnt-β-catenin pathway in adrenocortical tumorigenesis.

  17. Association Analysis of Arg16Gly Polymorphism of the Beta2-adreneric Receptor Gene in Offspring from Hypertensive and Normotensive Families

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jindra, A.; Horký, K.; Peleška, Jan; Jáchymová, M.; Bultas, J.; Umnerová, V.; Heller, S.; Hlubocká, Z.


    Roč. 11, č. 4 (2002), s. 213-217 ISSN 0803-7051 R&D Projects: GA MZd NA5615 Keywords : Arg16Gly polymorphism of the beta2-adrenergic receptor gene * normotensive offspring * essential hypertension Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.344, year: 2002

  18. [Association of the tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms in transforming growth factor beta-1 gene with hypertension in the Han nationality population in Xinjiang]. (United States)

    Yang, Jian-feng; Shi, Xiao-peng; Zhao, Dan; Deng, Feng-mei; Zhong, Hua; Wang, Gang; Wang, Zhen-huan; Chen, Xiong-ying; He, Fang


    Essential hypertension (EH) was a complex disease resulted from the interaction of cumulative effect of multiple genetic and environment factors. The relationship between the genetic polymorphisms in the transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), the blood levels and EH have been investigated, but the conclusions were different. Therefore, we investigate the relationship between the tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) (rs1800469, rs2241716, rs11466345, rs2241715, rs4803455) in TGF-beta1 gene, blood levels and EH in the Han nationality population in Xinjiang, to clarity the pattern of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and the feature of the structure of haplotype. Based on the case-control study,we selected 732 (365 EH patients,367 controls) Han Chinese population from the Boertonggu countryside of Shawan region in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China by random cluster sampling. After questionnaire and physical examination, we collected blood samples, and the blood levels of TGF-beta1 were quantified using sandwich ELISA. The polymorphisms of TGF-beta1 gene in the study groups were detected with SNaPshot system. The case-control study in a large group was carried out separately for each of the tSNP and followed up by haplotypes analyses to determine the relation between tSNPs of TGF-beta1 gene and EH in the Han population. (1) The frequencies of alleles A, G of rs11466345 of TGF-beta1 gene in EH group and control group were as follows: 69.7%, 30.3%, 74.4%, 25.6%, respectively. It was demonstrated that the G allele of the rs11466345 polymorphism occurred at a significantly higher frequency in EH patients than in healthy controls (30.3% vs. 25.6%, P 0.05). (2)Except the site of rs11466345, the other tSNPs were in strong LD, and no statistical differences were observed in haplotypes distribution in the followup study between case-control groups (P > 0.05). (3) There were no difference of TGF-beta1 levels between the different genotypes and alleles in

  19. Molecular Characterization and Expression Analysis of Adrenergic Receptor Beta 2 ( Gene before and after Exercise in the Horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Woo Cho


    Full Text Available The adrenergic receptor beta 2 (ADRB2 plays a role in various physiological responses of the muscle to exercise, such as contraction and relaxation. Given its important role in muscle function, we investigated the structure of the horse ADRB2 gene and its expression pattern after exercise to determine if it can serve as a putative biomarker for recovery. Evolutionary analyses using synonymous and non-synonymous mutation ratios, were compared with other species (human, chimpanzee, mouse, rat, cow, pig, chicken, dog, and cat, and revealed the occurrence of positive selection in the horse ADRB2 gene. In addition, expression analyses by quantitative polymerase chain reaction exhibited ubiquitous distribution of horse ADRB2 in various tissues including lung, skeletal muscle, kidney, thyroid, appendix, colon, spinal cord and heart, with the highest expression observed in the lung. The expression of ADRB2 in skeletal muscle was significantly up-regulated about four folds 30 minutes post-exercise compared to pre-exercise. The expression level of ADRB2 in leukocytes, which could be collected with convenience compared with other tissues in horse, increased until 60 min after exercise but decreased afterward until 120 min, suggesting the ADRB2 expression levels in leukocytes could be a useful biomarker to check the early recovery status of horse after exercise. In conclusion, we identified horse ADRB2 gene and analyzed expression profiles in various tissues. Additionally, analysis of ADBR2 gene expression in leukocytes could be a useful biomarker useful for evaluation of early recovery status after exercise in racing horses.

  20. The 3D chromatin structure of the mouse β-haemoglobin gene cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P.C. van de Corput (Mariëtte); T.A. Knoch (Tobias); E. de Boer (Ernie); W.A. van Cappellen (Gert); M. Lesnussa (Michael); H.J.F.M.M. Eussen (Bert)


    textabstractHere we show a 3D DNA-FISH method to visualizes the 3D structure of the β-globin locus. Geometric size and shape measurements of the 3D rendered signals (128Kb) show that the volume of the β-globin locus decreases almost two fold upon gene activation. A decrease in length and a

  1. CHD8, A Novel Beta-Catenin Associated Chromatin Remodeling Enzyme, Regulates Androgen Receptor Mediated Gene Transcription

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bochar, Daniel A


    .... To better understand the function of beta-catenin in AR mediated transcription, we have identified a novel chromatin remodeling enzyme, CHD8, that can associate with beta-catenin and functions in AR...

  2. Characterization of a Beta vulgaris PGIP defense gene promoter in transgenic plants (United States)

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (BvPGIP) genes were cloned from a sugar beet breeding line F1016 with increased tolerance to the sugar beet root maggot. Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins are cell wall leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins with crucial roles in development, pathogen defense an...

  3. Prevalence of qnr, intI, and intII genes in extendedspectrum beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the prevalence of qnr, intI, and intII genes in extended spectrum betalactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolated from clinical samples in Kerman, Iran. Methods: A total of 127 E. coli were collected from clinical samples in Kerman hospitals. The antibiotic susceptibility test was performed ...

  4. Characterization of the human laminin beta2 chain locus (LAMB2): linkage to a gene containing a nonprocessed, transcribed LAMB2-like pseudogene (LAMB2L) and to the gene encoding glutaminyl tRNA synthetase (QARS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durkin, M E; Jäger, A C; Khurana, T S


    The laminin beta2 chain is an important constituent of certain kidney and muscle basement membranes. We have generated a detailed physical map of a 110-kb genomic DNA segment surrounding the human laminin beta2 chain gene (LAMB2) on chromosome 3p21.3-->p21.2, a region paralogous with the chromosome...... 7q22-->q31 region that contains the laminin beta1 chain gene locus (LAMB1). Several CpG islands and a novel polymorphic microsatellite marker (D3S4594) were identified. The 3' end of LAMB2 lies 16 kb from the 5' end of the glutaminyl tRNA synthetase gene (QARS). About 20 kb upstream of LAMB2 we...... found a gene encoding a transcribed, non-processed LAMB2-like pseudogene (LAMB2L). The sequence of 1.75 kb of genomic DNA at the 3' end of LAMB2L was similar to exons 8-12 of the laminin beta2 chain gene. The LAMB2L-LAMB2-QARS cluster lies telomeric to the gene encoding the laminin-binding protein...

  5. Roles of beta2-adrenergic receptor gene polymorphisms in a Turkish population with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome or obesity. (United States)

    Gök, I; Celebi, I; Hüseyinoğlu, N; Ozic, C


    We determined the distribution of the Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu polymorphisms of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome as well as a control group in Northeastern Turkey. A total of 52 patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea in a sleep laboratory and 78 control subjects were examined. Peripheral blood samples were taken from patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea by polysomnography. DNA was extracted from blood samples and amplified using polymerase chain reaction. Amplification products were digested with restriction enzymes to investigate gene polymorphisms. Restriction products were extracted from agarose gel electrophoresis and polymorphisms were analyzed using gel images. The Arg16Gly polymorphism was observed in 18 of 52 patients and in 23 of 78 controls. The Gln27Glu polymorphism was observed in 21 of 52 patients and in 28 of 78 controls. In conclusion, there was no correlation among polymorphic frequencies between patient and control groups. Based on the results, these polymorphisms do not contribute to the clinical diagnosis of this syndrome. However, the distribution of Arg16Gly vs Gln27Glu polymorphisms may contribute to obesity in patients with a body mass index greater than 30 (P sleep apnea disease are changed.

  6. Renal tubular dysfunction nephrocalcinosis in a patient with BetaThalassemia Minor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabahar, M.R.; Jain, M.; Chandrasekaran, V.; Indumathi, E.; Soundrarajan, P.


    Thalassemia is a hereditary anemia resulting from defect in hemoglobinproduction. Beta thalassemia is due to impaired production. Beta thalassemiais due to impaired production of beta globin chains, leading to a relativeexcess of alpha globin chains. The term beta thalassemia minor is used todescribe heterozygotes, who carry one normal beta globin and one betathalassemic allele. The vast majority of these patients are asymptomatic.However, a variety of renal tubular abnormalities including hypercaliuria,hypomagnesemia with renal magnesium wasting, decreased tubular absorption ofphosphorous, hypouricemia with renal uric acid wasting, renal glycosuria andtubular proteinuria have been described even in patients with betathalassemia minor. We here in report a 24-year old patient who was found tohave thalassemia minor and nephrocalcinosis with evidence of renal tubulardysfunction. Investigations revealed normal renal function, hypercalciuria,reduced tubular reabsorption of phosphorous, hypomagnesemia and renalmagnesium wasting. Screening for aminoaciduria was found to be negative. Anacid loading test revealed normal urinary acidification. Ultrasonogram of theabdomen revealed nephrocalcinosis and splenomegaly. Detailed work up foranemia showed normal white cell and platelet count while peripheral smearshowed microcytic hypochromic anemia with few target cells. Hemoglobinelectrophoresis revealed hemoglobin A of 92%, hemoglobin A2 of 6.2% andhemoglobin F of 1.8% consistent with beta thalassemia minor. Her parentalscreening was normal. A diagnosis of beta thalassemia minor with renaltubular dysfunction was made and the patient was started on thiazidediuretics to reduce hypercalciuria and advised regular follow-up. (author)

  7. Thalassemia (United States)

    Mediterranean anemia; Cooley anemia; Beta thalassemia; Alpha thalassemia ... alpha globin protein are missing or changed (mutated). Beta thalassemia occurs when similar gene defects affect production of ...

  8. Requirement of a novel splicing variant of human histone deacetylase 6 for TGF-{beta}1-mediated gene activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Yan [Department of Medicine, Tulane School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Nguyen, Hong T. [Graduate Program in Biomedical Sciences, Tulane School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Lasky, Joseph A. [Department of Medicine, Tulane School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Cao, Subing [Graduate Program in Biomedical Sciences, Tulane School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Li, Cui [Department of Medicine, Tulane School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Hunan 41008 (China); Hu, Jiyao; Guo, Xinyue; Burow, Matthew E. [Department of Medicine, Tulane School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Shan, Bin, E-mail: [Department of Medicine, Tulane School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States)


    Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) belongs to the family of class IIb HDACs and predominantly deacetylates non-histone proteins in the cytoplasm via the C-terminal deacetylase domain of its two tandem deacetylase domains. HDAC6 modulates fundamental cellular processes via deacetylation of {alpha}-tubulin, cortactin, molecular chaperones, and other peptides. Our previous study indicates that HDAC6 mediates TGF-{beta}1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in A549 cells. In the current study, we identify a novel splicing variant of human HDAC6, hHDAC6p114. The hHDAC6p114 mRNA arises from incomplete splicing and encodes a truncated isoform of the hHDAC6p114 protein of 114 kDa when compared to the major isoform hHDAC6p131. The hHDAC6p114 protein lacks the first 152 amino acids from N-terminus in the hHDAC6p131 protein, which harbors a nuclear export signal peptide and 76 amino acids of the N-terminal deacetylase domain. hHDAC6p114 is intact in its deacetylase activity against {alpha}-tubulin. The expression hHDAC6p114 is elevated in a MCF-7 derivative that exhibits an EMT-like phenotype. Moreover, hHDAC6p114 is required for TGF-{beta}1-activated gene expression associated with EMT in A549 cells. Taken together, our results implicate that expression and function of hHDAC6p114 is differentially regulated when compared to hHDAC6p131.

  9. Imputing Variants in HLA-DR Beta Genes Reveals That HLA-DRB1 Is Solely Associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangwoo Kim

    Full Text Available The genetic association of HLA-DRB1 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is well documented, but association with other HLA-DR beta genes (HLA-DRB3, HLA-DRB4 and HLA-DRB5 has not been thoroughly studied, despite their similar functions and chromosomal positions. We examined variants in all functional HLA-DR beta genes in RA and SLE patients and controls, down to the amino-acid level, to better understand disease association with the HLA-DR locus. To this end, we improved an existing HLA reference panel to impute variants in all protein-coding HLA-DR beta genes. Using the reference panel, HLA variants were inferred from high-density SNP data of 9,271 RA-control subjects and 5,342 SLE-control subjects. Disease association tests were performed by logistic regression and log-likelihood ratio tests. After imputation using the newly constructed HLA reference panel and statistical analysis, we observed that HLA-DRB1 variants better accounted for the association between MHC and susceptibility to RA and SLE than did the other three HLA-DRB variants. Moreover, there were no secondary effects in HLA-DRB3, HLA-DRB4, or HLA-DRB5 in RA or SLE. Of all the HLA-DR beta chain paralogs, those encoded by HLA-DRB1 solely or dominantly influence susceptibility to RA and SLE.

  10. Functional analysis of multiple carotenogenic genes from Lycium barbarum and Gentiana lutea L. for their effects on beta-carotene production in transgenic tobacco. (United States)

    Ji, Jing; Wang, Gang; Wang, Jiehua; Wang, Ping


    Carotenoids are red, yellow and orange pigments, which are widely distributed in nature and are especially abundant in yellow-orange fruits and vegetables and dark green leafy vegetables. Carotenoids are essential for photosynthesis and photoprotection in plant life and also have different beneficial effects in humans and animals (van den Berg et al. 2000). For example, beta-carotene plays an essential role as the main dietary source of vitamin A. To obtain further insight into beta-carotene biosynthesis in two important economic plant species, Lycium barbarum and Gentiana lutea L., and to investigate and prioritize potential genetic engineering targets in the pathway, the effects of five carotenogenic genes from these two species, encoding proteins including geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase, phytoene synthase and delta-carotene desaturase gene, lycopene beta-cyclase, lycopene epsilon-cyclase were functionally analyzed in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. All transgenic tobacco plants constitutively expressing these genes showed enhanced beta-carotene contents in their leaves and flowers to different extents. The addictive effects of co-ordinate expression of double transgenes have also been investigated.

  11. Interaction of polymorphisms in the genes encoding interleukin-6 and estrogen receptor beta on the susceptibility to Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Håkansson, Anna; Westberg, Lars; Nilsson, Staffan; Buervenich, Silvia; Carmine, Andrea; Holmberg, Björn; Sydow, Olof; Olson, Lars; Johnels, Bo; Eriksson, Elias; Nissbrandt, Hans


    The multifunctional cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) is involved in inflammatory processes in the central nervous system and increased levels of IL-6 have been found in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). It is known that estrogen inhibits the production of IL-6, via action on estrogen receptors, thereby pointing to an important influence of estrogen on IL-6. In a previous study, we reported an association between a G/A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at position 1730 in the gene coding for estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) and age of onset of PD. To investigate the influence of a G/C SNP at position 174 in the promoter of the IL-6 gene, and the possible interaction of this SNP and the ERbeta G-1730A SNP on the risk for PD, the G-174C SNP was genotyped, by pyrosequencing, in 258 patients with PD and 308 controls. A significantly elevated frequency of the GG genotype of the IL-6 SNP was found in the patient group and this was most obvious among patients with an early age of onset (gene. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. TGF-beta-induced early gene-1 overexpression promotes oxidative stress protection and actin cytoskeleton rearrangement in human skin fibroblasts. (United States)

    Leduc, Chloe; Sobilo, Lauren; Toumi, Hechmi; Mondon, Philippe; Lespessailles, Eric; Ossant, Fédéric; Kurfurst, Robin; Pichon, Chantal


    Transforming growth factor beta inducible early gene-1 (TIEG-1), a member of the Krüppel-like factor, was identified as a primary response gene for TGF-β. The role of TIEG-1 in skin repair has been mainly addressed in vivo on TIEG-1 null mice model and the mechanism remains unexplored. We investigated the modulation of TIEG-1 expression in normal human skin fibroblasts by either down-expressing or overexpressing the gene. We evaluated reactive oxygen species production and the cell viability of treated cells. The effect of TIEG-1 overexpression was monitored by wound healing assay and immunofluorescence staining of actin fibers organization and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Western blots were carried out to identify the level of expression or phosphorylation of key proteins such as cofilin, Rho GTPases, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK). TIEG-1 down-regulation had a deleterious effect on the cell viability. It was significantly reduced (65±5%) and exposure to ultraviolet further increased this effect (47±3%). By contrast, cells overexpressing TIEG-1 had a reduced reactive oxygen species production (75%) compared to control and mock-transfected cells. This overexpression also resulted in formation of actin stress fibers and increased α-SMA expression and an enhanced wound healing feature. RhoB GTPase was upregulated and phosphorylation of cofilin and p38 MAPK was observed. TIEG-1 overexpression in normal human skin fibroblasts results in improved resistance to oxidative stress, myofibroblast-like conversion that involved RhoB signaling pathway with cofilin and p38 MAPK proteins activation. This study enlightens the role of TIEG-1 role in skin biology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantitative gene-expression of the tumor angiogenesis markers vascular endothelial growth factor, integrin alphaV and integrin beta3 in human neuroendocrine tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxboel, Jytte; Binderup, Tina; Knigge, Ulrich


    , in neuroendocrine tumors. We used quantitative real-time PCR for measuring mRNA gene-expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), integrin alphaV, and integrin beta3, and CD34 for a group of patients with neuroendocrine tumors (n=13). Tissue from patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases (n=14...... compared to both colorectal liver metastases (p=0.10) and normal liver tissue (p=0.06). In neuroendocrine tumors, gene-expression was highly variable of VEGF (530-fold), integrin alphaV (23-fold) and integrin beta3 (106-fold). Quantitative gene-expression levels of the key angiogenesis molecules VEGF......Anti-angiogenesis treatment is a promising new therapy for cancer that recently has also been suggested for patients with neuroendocrine tumors. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the level of tumor angiogenesis, and thereby the molecular basis for anti-angiogenesis treatment...

  14. A Survey of ABO, Rhesus (D) Antigen and Haemoglobin Genes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    transporting the bound oxygen throughout the body where it is used in ... the globin genes that alter the protein composition but not necessarily ... oxygen carrying capacity and hence the rate of aerobic metabolic ... to participate in the exercise.

  15. Transforming growth factor beta stimulation of biglycan gene expression is potentially mediated by sp1 binding factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Anne-Marie; Xie, Zhongjian; Young, Marian Frances


    . In this study, we have investigated the mechanism by which TGF-beta(1), TGF-beta(2) and TGF-beta(3) stimulate biglycan mRNA expression in the osteoblastic cell line MG-63. The cells were transfected with a series of deletional human biglycan promoter constructs and a region in the biglycan 5' DNA was found...... to respond to TGF-beta(1) with increased transcriptional activity in a dose-dependent manner. Also TGF-beta(2) and TGF-beta(3), two structurally highly related TGF-beta isoforms stimulated biglycan transcription. A TGF-beta responsive region was identified within the first 218 bp of the human biglycan...... was abrogated by mithramycin, an inhibitor of Sp1 binding to GC-rich DNA sequences. A mutation in the Sp1 site at -216 to -208 within the -218 biglycan promoter construct substantially diminished the transcriptional up-regulation by TGF-beta(1). Taken together this data shows for the first time that TGF-beta(1...

  16. In vitro and in vivo gene therapy with CMV vector-mediated presumed dog beta-nerve growth factor in pyridoxine-induced neuropathy dogs. (United States)

    Chung, Jin Young; Choi, Jung Hoon; Shin, Il Seob; Choi, Eun Wha; Hwang, Cheol Yong; Lee, Sang Koo; Youn, Hwa Young


    Due to the therapeutic potential of gene therapy for neuronal injury, many studies of neurotrophic factors, vectors, and animal models have been performed. The presumed dog beta-nerve growth factor (pdbeta-NGF) was generated and cloned and its expression was confirmed in CHO cells. The recombinant pdbeta-NGF protein reacted with a human beta-NGF antibody and showed bioactivity in PC12 cells. The pdbeta-NGF was shown to have similar bioactivity to the dog beta-NGF. The recombinant pdbeta-NGF plasmid was administrated into the intrathecal space in the gene therapy group. Twenty-four hours after the vector inoculation, the gene therapy group and the positive control group were intoxicated with excess pyridoxine for seven days. Each morning throughout the test period, the dogs' body weight was taken and postural reaction assessments were made. Electrophysiological recordings were performed twice, once before the experiment and once after the test period. After the experimental period, histological analysis was performed. Dogs in the gene therapy group had no weight change and were normal in postural reaction assessments. Electrophysiological recordings were also normal for the gene therapy group. Histological analysis showed that neither the axons nor the myelin of the dorsal funiculus of L4 were severely damaged in the gene therapy group. In addition, the dorsal root ganglia of L4 and the peripheral nerves (sciatic nerve) did not experience severe degenerative changes in the gene therapy group. This study is the first to show the protective effect of NGF gene therapy in a dog model.

  17. A practical platform for blood biomarker study by using global gene expression profiling of peripheral whole blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze Tian

    Full Text Available Although microarray technology has become the most common method for studying global gene expression, a plethora of technical factors across the experiment contribute to the variable of genome gene expression profiling using peripheral whole blood. A practical platform needs to be established in order to obtain reliable and reproducible data to meet clinical requirements for biomarker study.We applied peripheral whole blood samples with globin reduction and performed genome-wide transcriptome analysis using Illumina BeadChips. Real-time PCR was subsequently used to evaluate the quality of array data and elucidate the mode in which hemoglobin interferes in gene expression profiling. We demonstrated that, when applied in the context of standard microarray processing procedures, globin reduction results in a consistent and significant increase in the quality of beadarray data. When compared to their pre-globin reduction counterparts, post-globin reduction samples show improved detection statistics, lowered variance and increased sensitivity. More importantly, gender gene separation is remarkably clearer in post-globin reduction samples than in pre-globin reduction samples. Our study suggests that the poor data obtained from pre-globin reduction samples is the result of the high concentration of hemoglobin derived from red blood cells either interfering with target mRNA binding or giving the pseudo binding background signal.We therefore recommend the combination of performing globin mRNA reduction in peripheral whole blood samples and hybridizing on Illumina BeadChips as the practical approach for biomarker study.

  18. Novel neuroprotective function of apical-basal polarity gene crumbs in amyloid beta 42 (aβ42 mediated neurodegeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Steffensmeier

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD, OMIM: 104300, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with no cure to date, is caused by the generation of amyloid-beta-42 (Aβ42 aggregates that trigger neuronal cell death by unknown mechanism(s. We have developed a transgenic Drosophila eye model where misexpression of human Aβ42 results in AD-like neuropathology in the neural retina. We have identified an apical-basal polarity gene crumbs (crb as a genetic modifier of Aβ42-mediated-neuropathology. Misexpression of Aβ42 caused upregulation of Crb expression, whereas downregulation of Crb either by RNAi or null allele approach rescued the Aβ42-mediated-neurodegeneration. Co-expression of full length Crb with Aβ42 increased severity of Aβ42-mediated-neurodegeneration, due to three fold induction of cell death in comparison to the wild type. Higher Crb levels affect axonal targeting from the retina to the brain. The structure function analysis identified intracellular domain of Crb to be required for Aβ42-mediated-neurodegeneration. We demonstrate a novel neuroprotective role of Crb in Aβ42-mediated-neurodegeneration.

  19. Analysis of the Beta-Tubulin Gene and morphological changes of the Microsporidium Anncaliia algerae both Suggest Albendazole Sensitivity* (United States)

    Santiana, Marianita; Pau, Cyrilla; Takvorian, Peter M.; Cali, Ann


    The Microsporidium, Anncaliia algerae, an obligate intracellular parasite, has been identified as an opportunistic human pathogen but treatment has not been evaluated for infections with this organism. Albendazole, an anti-tubulin polymerization drug used against parasitic worm infections, has been the medication of choice used to treat some microsporidial infections affecting humans, with varying results ranging from clearing infection (Encephalitozoon) to resistance (Enterocytozoon). This study illustrates the effect of albendazole treatment on A. algerae infection in Rabbit Kidney (RK13) cells and Human Fetal Lung (HFL-1) fibroblasts. Albendazole appears to have an attenuating effect on A. algerae infection and albendazole’s IC50 in RK13 cells is 0.1μg/ml. Long-term treatment inhibits up to 98% of spore production, but interrupting treatment re-establishes the infection without new exposure to the parasite as supported by microscopic observations. The parasite’s Beta-Tubulin gene was purified, cloned, and sequenced. Five of the six specific amino acids, associated with benzimidazole sensitivity, are conserved in A. algerae. These findings suggest that A. algerae is sensitive to albendazole; however, the organism is not completely cleared from cultures. PMID:25105446

  20. A common polymorphic allele of the LH beta-subunit gene is associated with higher exogenous FSH consumption during controlled ovarian stimulation for assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alviggi, Carlo; Pettersson, Kim; Longobardi, Salvatore


    BACKGROUND: V-betaLH is a common genetic variant of LH caused by two polymorphic base changes in the beta subunit gene, altering the amino acid sequence (Trp8Arg and Ile15Thr). In a previous-preliminary trial performed in women undergoing IVF, it was demonstrated that carriers of v-betaLH show sub......-optimal ovarian response to a standard long GnRH-agonist down -regulation protocol when stimulated with pure recombinant FSH (r-hFSH). The aim of this study was to confirm the hypothesis that women with v-betaLH display hypo-sensitivity to exogenous FSH in a larger IVF population and to explore the frequency...... of this variant in a Danish female population. METHODS: In the present study, the effect of v-betaLH was retrospectively investigated in a larger series of women undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) and, for the first time, in a Danish IVF population. A total of 220 normogonadotrophic women following...

  1. Identification of clonally rearranged T-cell receptor beta chain genes in HTLV-I carriers as a potential instrument for early detection of neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Sales


    Full Text Available We analyzed the genetic recombination pattern of the T-cell receptor beta-chain gene (TCR-beta in order to identify clonal expansion of T-lymphocytes in 17 human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I-positive healthy carriers, 7 of them with abnormal features in the peripheral blood lymphocytes. Monoclonal or oligoclonal expansion of T-cells was detected in 5 of 7 HTLV-I-positive patients with abnormal lymphocytes and unconfirmed diagnosis by using PCR amplification of segments of TCR-beta gene, in a set of reactions that target 102 different variable (V segments, covering all members of the 24 V families available in the gene bank, including the more recently identified segments of the Vbeta-5 and Vbeta-8 family and the two diversity beta segments. Southern blots, the gold standard method to detect T-lymphocyte clonality, were negative for all of these 7 patients, what highlights the low sensitivity of this method that requires a large amount of very high quality DNA. To evaluate the performance of PCR in the detection of clonality we also analyzed 18 leukemia patients, all of whom tested positive. Clonal expansion was not detected in any of the negative controls or healthy carriers without abnormal lymphocytes. In conclusion, PCR amplification of segments of rearranged TCR-beta is reliable and highly suitable for the detection of small populations of clonal T-cells in asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers who present abnormal peripheral blood lymphocytes providing an additional instrument for following up these patients with potentially higher risk of leukemia.

  2. Evidence for the association of the S100beta gene with low cognitive performance and dementia in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, J-C; Ferreira, S; Gussekloo, J


    independent populations. Moreover, we detected a significant association of this SNP with increased risk of developing dementia or Alzheimer's disease (AD) in six independent populations, especially in women and in the oldest. Furthermore, we characterised a new primate-specific exon within intron 2 (the...... corresponding mRNA isoform was called S100beta2). S100beta2 expression was increased in AD brain compared with controls, and the rs2300403 SNP was associated with elevated levels of S100beta2 mRNA in AD brains, especially in women. Therefore, this genetic variant in S100beta increases the risk of low cognitive...

  3. Food-grade host/vector expression system for Lactobacillus casei based on complementation of plasmid-associated phospho-beta-galactosidase gene lacG. (United States)

    Takala, T M; Saris, P E J; Tynkkynen, S S H


    A new food-grade host/vector system for Lactobacillus casei based on lactose selection was constructed. The wild-type non-starter host Lb. casei strain E utilizes lactose via a plasmid-encoded phosphotransferase system. For food-grade cloning, a stable lactose-deficient mutant was constructed by deleting a 141-bp fragment from the phospho-beta-galactosidase gene lacG via gene replacement. The deletion resulted in an inactive phospho-beta-galactosidase enzyme with an internal in-frame deletion of 47 amino acids. A complementation plasmid was constructed containing a replicon from Lactococcus lactis, the lacG gene from Lb. casei, and the constitutive promoter of pepR for lacG expression from Lb. rhamnosus. The expression of the lacG gene from the resulting food-grade plasmid pLEB600 restored the ability of the lactose-negative mutant strain to grow on lactose to the wild-type level. The vector pLEB600 was used for expression of the proline iminopeptidase gene pepI from Lb. helveticus in Lb. casei. The results show that the food-grade expression system reported in this paper can be used for expression of foreign genes in Lb. casei.

  4. A bimetallic nanocomposite modified genosensor for recognition and determination of thalassemia gene. (United States)

    Hamidi-Asl, Ezat; Raoof, Jahan Bakhsh; Naghizadeh, Nahid; Akhavan-Niaki, Haleh; Ojani, Reza; Banihashemi, Ali


    The main roles of DNA in the cells are to maintain and properly express genetic information. It is important to have analytical methods capable of fast and sensitive detection of DNA damage. DNA hybridization sensors are well suited for diagnostics and other purposes, including determination of bacteria and viruses. Beta thalassemias (βth) are due to mutations in the β-globin gene. In this study, an electrochemical biosensor which detects the sequences related to the β-globin gene issued from real samples amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is described for the first time. The biosensor relies on the immobilization of 20-mer single stranded oligonucleotide (probe) related to βth sequence on the carbon paste electrode (CPE) modified by 15% silver (Ag) and platinum (Pt) nanoparticles to prepare the bimetallic nanocomposite electrode and hybridization of this oligonucleotide with its complementary sequence (target). The extent of hybridization between the probe and target sequences was shown by using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) with methylene blue (MB) as hybridization indicator. The selectivity of sensor was investigated using PCR samples containing non-complementary oligonucleotides. The detection limit of biosensor was calculated about 470.0pg/μL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Roles of genes and Alu repeats in nonlinear correlations of HUMHBB DNA sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Yi; Huang Yanzhao


    DNA sequences of different species and different portion of the DNA of the same species may have completely different correlation properties, but the origin of these correlations is still not very clear and is currently being investigated, especially in different particular cases. We report here a study of the DNA sequence of human beta globin region (HUMHBB) which has strong linear and nonlinear correlations. We studied the roles of two of the typical elements of DNA sequence, genes and Alu repeats, in the nonlinear correlations of HUMHBB. We find that there exist strong nonlinear correlations between the exons or introns in different genes and between the Alu repeats. They may be one of the major sources of the nonlinear correlations in HUMBHB

  6. Development of real-time PCR method for the detection and the quantification of a new endogenous reference gene in sugar beet "Beta vulgaris L.": GMO application. (United States)

    Chaouachi, Maher; Alaya, Akram; Ali, Imen Ben Haj; Hafsa, Ahmed Ben; Nabi, Nesrine; Bérard, Aurélie; Romaniuk, Marcel; Skhiri, Fethia; Saïd, Khaled


    KEY MESSAGE : Here, we describe a new developed quantitative real-time PCR method for the detection and quantification of a new specific endogenous reference gene used in GMO analysis. The key requirement of this study was the identification of a new reference gene used for the differentiation of the four genomic sections of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) (Beta, Corrollinae, Nanae and Procumbentes) suitable for quantification of genetically modified sugar beet. A specific qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was designed to detect the sugar beet amplifying a region of the adenylate transporter (ant) gene only from the species of the genomic section I of the genus Beta (cultivated and wild relatives) and showing negative PCR results for 7 species of the 3 other sections, 8 related species and 20 non-sugar beet plants. The sensitivity of the assay was 15 haploid genome copies (HGC). A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) assay was also performed, having high linearity (R (2) > 0.994) over sugar beet standard concentrations ranging from 20,000 to 10 HGC of the sugar beet DNA per PCR. The QRT-PCR assay described in this study was specific and more sensitive for sugar beet quantification compared to the validated test previously reported in the European Reference Laboratory. This assay is suitable for GMO quantification in routine analysis from a wide variety of matrices.

  7. BETA digital beta radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovikov, N.V.; Kosinov, G.A.; Fedorov, Yu.N.


    Portable transportable digital beta radiometer providing for measuring beta-decay radionuclide specific activity in the range from 5x10 -9 up to 10 -6 Cu/kg (Cu/l) with error of ±25% is designed and introduced into commercial production for determination of volume and specific water and food radioactivity. The device specifications are given. Experience in the BETA radiometer application under conditions of the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone has shown that it is convenient for measuring specific activity of the order of 10 -8 Cu/kg, and application of a set of different beta detectors gives an opportunity to use it for surface contamination measurement in wide range of the measured value

  8. Elevated Hb A₂ Levels in a Patient with a Compound Heterozygosity for the (β⁺) -31 (A > G) and (β⁰) Codon 17 (A > T) Mutations Together with a Single α-Globin Gene. (United States)

    Panyasai, Sitthichai; Jaiping, Kanokwan; Pornprasert, Sakorn


    We report the molecular and hematological feature of a Thai woman who had clinical diagnosis of β-thalassemia intermedia (β-TI). Hemoglobin (Hb) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis identified Hb A (64.4%), Hb F (12.3%) and Hb A2/E (15.9%) with small peaks of Hb Bart's (γ4) and Hb H (β4). She was initially diagnosed as EA Bart's disease, which occurs from combination of Hb H disease and Hb E (HBB: c.79G > A) trait. However, the Hb analysis using capillary electrophoresis (CE) demonstrated no Hb E, 68.5% Hb A, 15.5% Hb F and 16.0% Hb A2. DNA analysis showed a compound heterozygosity for (β(+)) -31 (A > G) (HBB: c.-81A > G) and (β(0)) codon 17 (A > T) (HBB: c.52A > T) mutations and deletional Hb H (- -(SEA)/-α(3.7)). Thus, she was finally diagnosed with a combination of Hb H disease and compound heterozygosity of β(+)/β(0)-thalassemia (β(+)/β(0)-thal). The β-globin mutations could affect not only hematological parameters but also elevate the Hb A2 levels. These effects could not be ameliorated by the coinheritance of Hb H disease. Therefore, a better understanding of the effects of this combination on hematological analysis data will be useful for providing accurate diagnosis, genetic counseling, prevention and control programs of β-thalassemia major (β-TM).

  9. Detection of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Resistance Genes among Bacteria Isolated from Selected Drinking Water Distribution Channels in Southwestern Nigeria. (United States)

    Adesoji, Ayodele T; Ogunjobi, Adeniyi A


    Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) provide high level resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics among bacteria. In this study, previously described multidrug resistant bacteria from raw, treated, and municipal taps of DWDS from selected dams in southwestern Nigeria were assessed for the presence of ESBL resistance genes which include bla TEM, bla SHV, and bla CTX by PCR amplification. A total of 164 bacteria spread across treated (33), raw (66), and municipal taps (68), belonging to α-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria, Flavobacteriia, Bacilli, and Actinobacteria group, were selected for this study. Among these bacteria, the most commonly observed resistance was for ampicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (61 isolates). Sixty-one isolates carried at least one of the targeted ESBL genes with bla TEM being the most abundant (50/61) and bla CTX being detected least (3/61). Klebsiella was the most frequently identified genus (18.03%) to harbour ESBL gene followed by Proteus (14.75%). Moreover, combinations of two ESBL genes, bla SHV + bla TEM or bla CTX + bla TEM, were observed in 11 and 1 isolate, respectively. In conclusion, classic bla TEM ESBL gene was present in multiple bacterial strains that were isolated from DWDS sources in Nigeria. These environments may serve as foci exchange of genetic traits in a diversity of Gram-negative bacteria.

  10. Testes and brain gene expression in precocious male and adult maturing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houeix Benoit


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The male Atlantic salmon generally matures in fresh water upon returning after one or several years at sea. Some fast-growing male parr develop an alternative life strategy where they sexually mature before migrating to the oceans. These so called 'precocious' parr or 'sneakers' can successfully fertilise adult female eggs and so perpetuate their line. We have used a custom-built cDNA microarray to investigate gene expression changes occurring in the salmon gonad and brain associated with precocious maturation. The microarray has been populated with genes selected specifically for involvement in sexual maturation (precocious and adult and in the parr-smolt transformation. Results Immature and mature parr collected from a hatchery-reared stock in January were significantly different in weight, length and condition factor. Changes in brain expression were small - never more than 2-fold on the microarray, and down-regulation of genes was much more pronounced than up-regulation. Significantly changing genes included isotocin, vasotocin, cathepsin D, anamorsin and apolipoprotein E. Much greater changes in expression were seen in the testes. Among those genes in the testis with the most significant changes in expression were anti-Mullerian hormone, collagen 1A, and zinc finger protein (Zic1, which were down-regulated in precocity and apolipoproteins E and C-1, lipoprotein lipase and anti-leukoproteinase precursor which were up-regulated in precocity. Expression changes of several genes were confirmed in individual fish by quantitative PCR and several genes (anti-Mullerian hormone, collagen 1A, beta-globin and guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein beta polypeptide 2-like 1 (GNB2L1 were also examined in adult maturing testes. Down-regulation of anti-Mullerian hormone was judged to be greater than 160-fold for precocious males and greater than 230-fold for November adult testes in comparison to July testes by this method. For

  11. Beta fibrinogen gene polymorphisms are associated with plasma fibrinogen and coronary artery disease in patients with myocardial infarction. The ECTIM Study. Etude Cas-Temoins sur l'Infarctus du Myocarde. (United States)

    Behague, I; Poirier, O; Nicaud, V; Evans, A; Arveiler, D; Luc, G; Cambou, J P; Scarabin, P Y; Bara, L; Green, F; Cambien, F


    Polymorphisms of the beta fibrinogen gene have been shown to affect plasma fibrinogen levels and the risk of peripheral arterial disease. We now present the results of a detailed analysis of the beta fibrinogen gene in relation to plasma fibrinogen and to the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) in the ECTIM Study. Ten polymorphisms of the beta fibrinogen gene, including five new polymorphisms identified by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis, and one polymorphism in the 3' flanking region of the alpha fibrinogen gene were investigated in 565 patients with MI and 668 control subjects. The polymorphisms were in tight linkage disequilibrium and the genotype frequencies were similar in patients with MI and control subjects. In the multivariate analysis, only two polymorphisms, beta Hae III (P 50% stenosis was estimated by angiography and used as a criterion for severity of CAD. Presence of the less frequent allele of the beta Bcl I (P < .0003) and of other polymorphisms was positively associated with the severity of CAD. Genetic variants of the beta fibrinogen gene are associated with an increased plasma level of fibrinogen, especially in smokers. The association with CAD appears to be the consequence of an increased risk of MI in subjects with severe CAD who carry the predisposing beta fibrinogen genotypes.

  12. Common variants in the G protein beta3 subunit gene and thyroid disorders in a formerly iodine-deficient population. (United States)

    Völzke, Henry; Bornhorst, Alexa; Rimmbach, Christian; Petersenn, Holger; Geissler, Ingrid; Nauck, Matthias; Wallaschofski, Henri; Kroemer, Heyo K; Rosskopf, Dieter


    Heterotrimeric G proteins are key mediators of signals from membrane receptors-including the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor-to cellular effectors. Gain-of-function mutations in the TSH receptor and the Galpha(S) subunit occur frequently in hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid carcinomas, whereby the T allele of a common polymorphism (825C>T, rs5443) in the G protein beta3 subunit gene (GNB3) is associated with increased G protein-mediated signal transduction and a complex phenotype. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this common polymorphism affects key parameters of thyroid function and morphology and influences the pathogenesis of thyroid diseases in the general population. The population-based cross-sectional Study of Health in Pomerania is a general health survey with focus on thyroid diseases in northeast Germany, a formerly iodine-deficient area. Data from 3428 subjects (1800 men and 1628 women) were analyzed for an association of the GNB3 genotype with TSH, free triiodothyronine and thyroxine levels, urine iodine and thiocyanate excretion, and thyroid ultrasound morphology including thyroid volume, presence of goiter, and thyroid nodules. There was no association between GNB3 genotype status and the functional or morphological thyroid parameters investigated, neither in crude analyses nor upon multivariable analyses including known confounders of thyroid disorders. Based on the data from this large population-based survey, we conclude that the GNB3 825C>T polymorphism does not affect key parameters of thyroid function and morphology in the general population of a formerly iodine-deficient area.

  13. VNTR alleles associated with the {alpha}-globin locus are haplotype and population related

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinson, J.J.; Clegg, J.B.; Boyce, A.J. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)


    The human {alpha}-globin complex contains several polymorphic restriction-enzyme sites (i.e., RFLPs) linked to form haplotypes and is flanked by two hypervariable VNTR loci, the 5{prime} hypervariable region (HVR) and the more highly polymorphic 3{prime}HVR. Using a combination of RFLP analysis and PCR, the authors have characterized the 5{prime}HVR and 3{prime}HVR alleles associated with the {alpha}-globin haplotypes of 133 chromosomes, and they here show that specific {alpha}-globin haplotypes are each associated with discrete subsets of the alleles observed at these two VNTR loci. This statistically highly significant association is observed over a region spanning {approximately} 100 kb. With the exception of closely related haplotypes, different haplotypes do not share identically sized 3{prime}HVR alleles. Earlier studies have shown that {alpha}-globin haplotype distributions differ between populations; the current findings also reveal extensive population substructure in the repertoire of {alpha}-globin VNTRs. If similar features are characteristic of other VNTR loci, this will have important implications for forensic and anthropological studies. 42 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Immunopurification of the suppressor tRNA dependent rabbit β-globin readthrough protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatfield, D.; Thorgeirsson, S.S.; Copeland, T.D.; Oroszlan, S.; Bustin, M.


    In mammalian cells, the rabbit β-globin readthrough protein is the only known example of a naturally occurring readthrough protein which does not involve a viral system. To provide an efficient means for its isolation, detection, and study, the authors elicited specific antibodies against this unique protein. The 22 amino acid peptide corresponding to the readthrough portion of this protein was synthesized, coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin, and injected into sheep. Specific antibodies to the peptide were produced as demonstrated by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique and by immunoblotting. The antibodies did not react with globin. The rabbit β-globin readthrough protein was separated from globin and other reticulocyte proteins by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and visualized by silver staining or by labeling with [ 35 S] methionine. Incorporation of [ 35 S] methionine into the readthrough protein was significantly enhanced upon addition of an opal suppressor tRNA to reticulocyte lysates. Immunoblotting revealed that the readthrough protein also occurs in lysates without added suppressor tRNA. The antibodies were purified on an affi-gel column which had been coupled with the peptide antigen. The readthrough protein was then purified from reticulocytes by immunoaffinity chromatography and by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results provide conclusive evidence that the β-globin readthrough protein is naturally occurring in rabbit reticulocytes

  15. Survey of HFE Gene C282Y Mutation in Turkish Beta-Thalassemia Patients and Healthy Population: A Preliminary Study


    Selma Ünal; Günay Balta; Fatma Gümrük


    Objective: This study was planned in order to determine the effect of C282Y mutation in development of secondary hemochromatosis in beta-thalassemia patients and to determine the prevalence and allele frequency of this mutation in a healthy control group. Materials and Methods: Eighty-seven children and young adults (46 males and 41 females; mean age: 15.6?6.1 years, range: 3-30 years) with beta-thalassemia major (BTM) and 13 beta-thalassemia intermedia (BTI) patients (6 males and 7 females; ...

  16. A novel nonsteroidal antifibrotic oligo decoy containing the TGF-beta element found in the COL1A1 gene which regulates murine schistosomiasis liver fibrosis. (United States)

    Boros, D L; Singh, K P; Gerard, H C; Hudson, A P; White, S L; Cutroneo, K R


    Schistosomiasis mansoni disseminated worm eggs in mice and humans induce granulomatous inflammations and cumulative fibrosis causing morbidity and possibly mortality. In this study, intrahepatic and I.V. injections of a double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide decoy containing the TGF-beta regulatory element found in the distal promoter of the COL1A1 gene into worm-infected mice suppressed TGF-beta1, COL1A1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, and decreased COL3A1 mRNAs to a lesser extent. Sequence comparisons within the mouse genome found homologous sequences within the COL3A1, TGF-beta1, and TIMP-1 5' flanking regions. Cold competition gel mobility shift assays using these homologous sequences with 5' and 3' flanking regions found in the natural COL1A1 gene showed competition. Competitive gel mobility assays in a separate experiment showed no competition using a 5-base mutated or scrambled sequence. Explanted liver granulomas from saline-injected mice incorporated 10.45 +/- 1.7% (3)H-proline into newly synthesized collagen, whereas decoy-treated mice showed no collagen synthesis. Compared with the saline control schistosomiasis mice phosphorothioate double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide treatment decreased total liver collagen content (i.e. hydroxy-4-proline) by 34%. This novel molecular approach has the potential to be employed as a novel antifibrotic treatment modality. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Some mutations of exon-7 in cytochrome P450 gene 3A4 and their effect on 6beta-hydroxylation of cortisol. (United States)

    Shchepotina, E G; Vavilin, V A; Goreva, O B; Lyakhovich, V V


    Analysis of variants of exon 7 sequences in cytochrome P450 gene 3A4 in a sample of Caucasoid persons was carried out. The effect of these variants on activity of CYP3A was assessed by the level of cortisol 6beta-hydroxylation. Alleles CYP3A4*5 and *17 were not detected: probably, these mutations are rare and consequently they have little effect on the character of polymorphic distribution of CYP3A4 activity in this population. The incidence of CYP3A4*2 was 5.26%. The 6betaOH-cortisol/cortisol ratio in an individual with CYP3A4*2/*2 genotype was 7.408, which corresponded to "slow metabolizer" phenotype in this sample.

  18. Impact of rs361072 in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase p110beta gene on whole-body glucose metabolism and subunit protein expression in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Poulsen, Pernille; Holmkvist, Johan


    OBJECTIVE: Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) is a major effector in insulin signaling. rs361072, located in the promoter of the gene (PIK3CB) for the p110beta subunit, has previously been found to be associated with homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in obese subjects...... infusion. rs361072 did not associate with insulin-stimulated peripheral glucose disposal despite a decreased muscle p85alpha:p110beta protein ratio (P(add) = 0.03) in G allele carriers. No association with HOMA-IR or type 2 diabetes (odds ratio 1.07, P = 0.5) was identified, and obesity did not interact...

  19. Biomonitoring of carcinogenic substances: enzymatic digestion of globin for detecting alkylated amino acids (United States)

    Bader, Michael; Rauscher, Dankwart; Geibel, Kurt; Angerer, Juergen


    We report the application of proteases for the total hydrolysis of globin with subsequent determination of amino acids. Optimization of the proteolysis was made with respect to enzyme concentration, time of incubation and type of protease. Ethylene oxide modified globin was used to compare the results of the analysis of the N-terminal amino acid valine after enzymatic cleavage to those obtained from the widely used modified Edman procedure. It is shown that the cleavage is of good reproducibility and yields more alkylated amino acid than the Edman procedure.

  20. Transforming growth factor beta-1 and interleukin-17 gene transcription in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the human response to infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    White, Mary


    INTRODUCTION: The occurrence of severe sepsis may be associated with deficient pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFbeta-1) predominantly inhibits inflammation and may simultaneously promote IL-17 production. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a recently described pro-inflammatory cytokine, which may be important in auto-immunity and infection. We investigated the hypothesis that the onset of sepsis is related to differential TGFbeta-1 and IL-17 gene expression. METHODS: A prospective observational study in a mixed intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital wards in a university hospital. Patients (59) with severe sepsis; 15 patients with gram-negative bacteraemia but without critical illness and 10 healthy controls were assayed for TGFbeta-1, IL-17a, IL-17f, IL-6 and IL-1beta mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by quantitative real-time PCR and serum protein levels by ELISA. RESULTS: TGFbeta-1 mRNA levels are reduced in patients with bacteraemia and sepsis compared with controls (p=0.02). IL-6 mRNA levels were reduced in bacteraemic patients compared with septic patients and controls (p=0.008). IL-1beta mRNA levels were similar in all groups, IL-17a and IL-17f mRNA levels are not detectable in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. IL-6 protein levels were greater in patients with sepsis than bacteraemic and control patients (p<0.0001). Activated TGFbeta-1 and IL-17 protein levels were similar in all groups. IL-1beta protein was not detectable in the majority of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Down regulation of TGFbeta-1 gene transcription was related to the occurrence of infection but not the onset of sepsis. Interleukin-17 production in PBMC may not be significant in the human host response to infection.

  1. Influence of the IL-1Ra gene polymorphism on in vivo synthesis of IL-1Ra and IL-1beta after live yellow fever vaccination. (United States)

    Hacker, U T; Erhardt, S; Tschöp, K; Jelinek, T; Endres, S


    The inflammatory response in infectious and autoimmune diseases is regulated by the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The IL-1 complex contains polymorphic genes coding for IL-1alpha, IL-1beta and IL-1Ra. The IL-1Ra (variable number of tanden repeat) VNTR polymorphism has been shown to influence the capacity to produce IL-1beta and IL-1Ra after in vitro stimulation. Allele 2 of this polymorphism is associated with a number of inflammatory diseases. To determine the impact of the IL-1Ra polymorphism on in vivo human cytokine synthesis, we used a yellow fever vaccination model for the induction of cytokine synthesis in healthy volunteers. Two different yellow fever vaccines were used. After administration of the RKI vaccine (34 volunteers), plasma TNF-alpha concentration increased from 13.4 +/- 0.9 pg/ml to 23.3 +/- 1.1 pg/ml (P < 0.001), and plasma IL-1Ra concentration increased from 308 +/- 25 pg/ml to 1019 +/- 111 pg/ml (P < 0.001), on day 2. Using Stamaril vaccine, no increase in the plasma concentrations of either TNF-alpha or IL-1Ra could be detected (n = 17). Only the RKI vaccine induced TNF-alpha synthesis after in vitro stimulation of MNC. Carriers of allele 2 of the IL-1Ra polymorphism had increased baseline concentrations of IL-1Ra (350 +/- 32 pg/ml) compared with non-carriers (222 +/- 18 pg/ml, P < 0.001), and decreased concentrations of IL-1beta (0.9 +/- 0.2 pg/ml for carriers versus 2.8 +/- 0.7 pg/ml for non-carriers, P = 0.017). After yellow fever vaccination (RKI vaccine), no significant differences in the increase of IL-1Ra plasma levels were detected between carriers and non-carriers of allele 2 of the IL-1Ra gene polymorphism. This is the first study to examine the influence of this genetic polymorphism on in vivo-induced human IL-1beta and IL-1Ra synthesis. Baseline concentrations of IL-1Ra and IL-1beta were significantly influenced by the IL-1Ra polymorphism. No influence of the IL-1Ra polymorphism on the in vivo

  2. Attenuation of the beta-catenin/TCF4 complex in colorectal cancer cells induces several growth-suppressive microRNAs that target cancer promoting genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schepeler, Troels; Holm, Anja; Halvey, P


    Aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is causally involved in the formation of most colorectal cancers (CRCs). Although detailed knowledge exists regarding Wnt-regulated protein-coding genes, much less is known about the possible involvement of non-coding RNAs. Here we used TaqMan Array......RNAs are upregulated as a consequence of forced attenuation of Wnt signaling in CRC cells, and some of these miRNAs inhibit cell growth with concomitant suppression of several growth-stimulatory cancer-related genes....... MicroRNA Cards, capable of detecting 664 unique human microRNAs (miRNAs), to describe changes of the miRNA transcriptome following disruption of beta-catenin/TCF4 activity in DLD1 CRC cells. Most miRNAs appeared to respond independent of host gene regulation and proximal TCF4 chromatin occupancy...

  3. Eukaryotic elongation factor 1-beta interacts with the 5' untranslated region of the M gene of Nipah virus to promote mRNA translation. (United States)

    Uchida, Shotaro; Sato, Hiroki; Yoneda, Misako; Kai, Chieko


    Nipah virus belongs to the genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae, and its RNA genome is larger than those of other paramyxoviruses because it has long untranslated regions (UTRs) in each gene. However, the functions of these UTRs are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the functions of the 5' UTRs and found that the 5' UTR of the M gene upregulated the translation of a reporter gene. Using an RNA pull-down assay, we showed that eukaryotic elongation factor 1-beta (EEF1B2) interacts with nucleotides 81-100 of the M 5' UTR and specifically enhances its translation efficiency. Our results suggest that the M 5' UTR promotes the production of M protein and viral budding by recruiting EEF1B2.

  4. β-globin haplotypes in normal and hemoglobinopathic individuals from Reconcavo Baiano, State of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington dos Santos Silva


    Full Text Available Five restriction site polymorphisms in the β-globin gene cluster (HincII-5'ε, HindIII-Gγ, HindIII-ªγ, HincII-'ψβ1 and HincII-3''ψβ1 were analyzed in three populations (n = 114 from Reconcavo Baiano, State of Bahia, Brazil. The groups included two urban populations from the towns of Cachoeira and Maragojipe and one rural Afro-descendant population, known as the "quilombo community", from Cachoeira municipality. The number of haplotypes found in the populations ranged from 10 to 13, which indicated higher diversity than in the parental populations. The haplotypes 2 (+----,3(----+,4(-+--+and6(-++-+onthe βA chromosomes were the most common, and two haplotypes, 9 (-++++and 14 (++--+, were found exclusively in the Maragojipe population. The other haplotypes (1, 5, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 16 had lower frequencies. Restriction site analysis and the derived haplotypes indicated homogeneity among the populations. Thirty-two individuals with hemoglobinopathies (17 sickle cell disease, 12 HbSC disease and 3 HbCC disease were also analyzed. The haplotype frequencies of these patients differed significantly from those of the general population. In the sickle cell disease subgroup, the predominant haplotypes were BEN (Benin and CAR (Central African Republic, with frequencies of 52.9% and 32.4%, respectively. The high frequency of the BEN haplotype agreed with the historical origin of the afro-descendant population in the state of Bahia. However, this frequency differed from that of Salvador, the state capital, where the CAR and BEN haplotypes have similar frequencies, probably as a consequence of domestic slave trade and subsequent internal migrations to other regions of Brazil.

  5. Globin haplotypes of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I-infected individuals in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, suggest a post-Columbian African origin of this virus. (United States)

    Alcantara, Luiz Carlos; Van Dooren, Sonia; Gonçalves, Marilda Souza; Kashima, Simone; Costa, Maria Cristina Ramos; Santos, Fred Luciano Neves; Bittencourt, Achilea Lisboa; Dourado, Inês; Filho, Antonio Andrade; Covas, Dimas Tadeu; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo


    The city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, has sociodemographic characteristics similar to some African cities. Up to now, it has had the highest prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) infection (1.74%) in the country. To investigate which strains of HTLV-I are circulating in Salvador, we studied isolates from 82 patients infected with HTLV-I: 19 from the general population, 21 from pregnant women, 16 from intravenous drug users, and 26 from patients and their family attending a neurologic clinic. Phylogenetic analysis from part of the LTR fragments showed that most of these isolates belonged to the Transcontinental subgroup of the Cosmopolitan subtype (HTLV-Ia). Only one sample from a pregnant woman was closely related to the Japanese subgroup, suggesting recent introduction of a Japanese HTLV-I lineage into Salvador. betaA-Globin haplotypes were examined in 34 infected individuals and found to be atypical, confirming the racial heterogeneity of this population. A total of 20 chromosomes were characterized as Central African Republic (CAR) haplotype (29.4%), 31 (45.6%) were characterized as Benin (BEN) haplotype, and 17 (25%) were characterized as Senegal (SEN) haplotype. Five patients' genotypes (14.7%) were CAR/CAR; 10 (29,4%), BEN/BEN; 9 (26.5%), CAR/BEN; 2 (5.9%), BEN/SEN; and 7 (20.6%), SEN/SEN. One patient's genotype (2.9%) was CAR/SEN. The betaA-globin haplotype distribution in Salvador is unusual compared with other Brazilian states. Our data support the hypothesis of multiple post-Columbian introductions of African HTLV-Ia strains in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

  6. Growth arrest- and DNA-damage-inducible 45beta gene inhibits c-Jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase and decreases IL-1beta-induced apoptosis in insulin-producing INS-1E cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Claus Morten; Døssing, M G; Papa, S


    IL-1beta is a candidate mediator of apoptotic beta cell destruction, a process that leads to type 1 diabetes and progression of type 2 diabetes. IL-1beta activates beta cell c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38, all of which are members of the mitogen...

  7. Hb H disease resulting from the association of an αº-thalassemia allele [-(α20.5] with an unstable α-globin variant [Hb Icaria]: first report on the occurrence in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza M. Kimura


    Full Text Available Hb H Disease is caused by the loss or inactivation of three of the four functional a-globin genes. Patients present chronic hemolytic anemia and splenomegaly. In some cases, occasional blood transfusions are required. Deletions are the main cause of this type of thalassemia (α-thalassemia. We describe here an unusual case of Hb H disease caused by the combination of a common αº deletion [-(α20.5] with a rare point mutation (c.427T > A, thus resulting in an elongated and unstable α-globin variant, Hb Icaria, (X142K, with 31 additional amino-acid residues. Very high levels of Hb H and Hb Bart's were detected in the patient's red blood cells (14.7 and 19.0%, respectively. This is the first description of this infrequent association in the Brazilian population.

  8. Abundances of tetracycline, sulphonamide and beta-lactam antibiotic resistance genes in conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs with different waste load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mailis Laht

    Full Text Available Antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria enter wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs, an environment where resistance genes can potentially spread and exchange between microbes. Several antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs were quantified using qPCR in three WWTPs of decreasing capacity located in Helsinki, Tallinn, and Tartu, respectively: sulphonamide resistance genes (sul1 and sul2, tetracycline resistance genes (tetM and tetC, and resistance genes for extended spectrum beta-lactams (blaoxa-58, blashv-34, and blactx-m-32. To avoid inconsistencies among qPCR assays we normalised the ARG abundances with 16S rRNA gene abundances while assessing if the respective genes increased or decreased during treatment. ARGs were detected in most samples; sul1, sul2, and tetM were detected in all samples. Statistically significant differences (adjusted p<0.01 between the inflow and effluent were detected in only four cases. Effluent values for blaoxa-58 and tetC decreased in the two larger plants while tetM decreased in the medium-sized plant. Only blashv-34 increased in the effluent from the medium-sized plant. In all other cases the purification process caused no significant change in the relative abundance of resistance genes, while the raw abundances fell by several orders of magnitude. Standard water quality variables (biological oxygen demand, total phosphorus and nitrogen, etc. were weakly related or unrelated to the relative abundance of resistance genes. Based on our results we conclude that there is neither considerable enrichment nor purification of antibiotic resistance genes in studied conventional WWTPs.

  9. Effect of beta-adrenoceptor blockers on human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Delphine S; Klaerke, Dan A; Olesen, Søren-Peter


    Patients with congenital long QT syndrome may develop arrhythmias under conditions of increased sympathetic tone. We have addressed whether some of the beta-adrenoceptor blockers commonly used to prevent the development of these arrhythmias could per se block the cardiac HERG (Human Ether....... These data showed that HERG blockade by beta-adrenoceptor blockers occurred only at high micromolar concentrations, which are significantly above the recently established safe margin of 100 (Redfern et al., 2003).......-1H-inden-4-yl)oxy]-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-2-butanol hydrochloride) blocked the HERG channel with similar affinity, whereas the beta1-receptor antagonists metoprolol and atenolol showed weak effects. Further, the four compounds blocked HERG channels expressed in a mammalian HEK293 cell line...

  10. A nonsense mutation in the beta-carotene oxygenase 2 (BCO2 gene is tightly associated with accumulation of carotenoids in adipose tissue in sheep (Ovis aries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boman Inger A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sheep carcasses with yellow fat are sporadically observed at Norwegian slaughter houses. This phenomenon is known to be inherited as a recessive trait, and is caused by accumulation of carotenoids in adipose tissue. Two enzymes are known to be important in carotenoid degradation in mammals, and are therefore potential candidate genes for this trait. These are beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 (BCMO1 and the beta-carotene oxygenase 2 (BCO2. Results In the present study the coding region of the BCMO1 and the BCO2 gene were sequenced in yellow fat individuals and compared to the corresponding sequences from control animals with white fat. In the yellow fat individuals a nonsense mutation was found in BCO2 nucleotide position 196 (c.196C>T, introducing a stop codon in amino acid position 66. The full length protein consists of 575 amino acids. In spite of a very low frequency of this mutation in the Norwegian AI-ram population, 16 out of 18 yellow fat lambs were found to be homozygous for this mutation. Conclusion In the present study a nonsense mutation (c.196C>T in the beta-carotene oxygenase 2 (BCO2 gene is found to strongly associate with the yellow fat phenotype in sheep. The existence of individuals lacking this mutation, but still demonstrating yellow fat, suggests that additional mutations may cause a similar phenotype in this population. The results demonstrate a quantitatively important role for BCO2 in carotenoid degradation, which might indicate a broad enzyme specificity for carotenoids. Animals homozygous for the mutation are not reported to suffer from any negative health or development traits, pointing towards a minor role of BCO2 in vitamin A formation. Genotyping AI rams for c.196C>T can now be actively used in selection against the yellow fat trait.

  11. Water deficit modulates gene expression in growing zones of soybean seedlings. Analysis of differentially expressed cDNAs, a new beta-tubulin gene, and expression of genes encoding cell wall proteins. (United States)

    Creelman, R A; Mullet, J E


    Transfer of soybean seedlings to low-water-potential vermiculite (psi w = -0.3 MPa) results in a reversible decrease in hypocotyl growth and modulation of several polysomal mRNAs (Plant Physiol 92: 205-214). We report here the isolation of two cDNA clones (pGE16 and pGE95) which correspond to genes whose mRNA levels are increased, and one cDNA clone (pGE23) which corresponds to a gene whose mRNA level is decreased in the hypocotyl zone of cell elongation by water deficit. In well-watered seedlings mRNAs hybridizing to pGE16 and pGE95 are most abundant in mature regions of the seedling, but in water-deficient seedlings mRNA levels are reduced in mature regions and enhanced in elongating regions. RNA corresponding to soybean proline-rich protein 1 (sbPRP1) shows a similar tissue distribution and response to water deficit. In contrast, in well-watered seedlings, the gene corresponding to pGE23 was highly expressed in the hypocotyl and root growing zones. Transfer of seedlings to low-water-potential vermiculite caused a rapid decrease in mRNA hybridizing to pGE23. Sequence analysis revealed that pGE23 has high homology with beta-tubulin. Water deficit also reduced the level of mRNA hybridizing to JCW1, an auxin-modulated gene, although with different kinetics. Furthermore, mRNA encoding actin, glycine-rich proteins (GRPs), and hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) were down-regulated in the hypocotyl zone of elongation of seedlings exposed to water deficit. No effect of water deficit was observed on the expression of chalcone synthase. Decreased expression of beta-tubulin, actin, JCW1, HRGP and GRP and increased expression of sbPRP1, pGE95 and pGE16 in the hypocotyl zone of cell elongation could participate in the reversible growth inhibition observed in water-deficient soybean seedlings.

  12. Genotyping of the 19-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in the 5' flank of beta-hydroxylase gene by dissociation analysis of allele-specific PCR products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Berg; Werge, Thomas


    The 19-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in the 5' flank of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene has been associated with psychiatric disorders. We have developed a simple, reliable and inexpensive closed-tube assay for genotyping of this polymorphism based upon T(m) determination of amplified...... and a conventional approach based upon agarose gel electrophoresis of amplified fragments revealed complete concordance between the two procedures. The insights obtained in this study may be utilized to develop assays based upon dissociation analysis of PCR products for genotyping of other insertion...

  13. Detection of clonal T-cell receptor beta and gamma chain gene rearrangement by polymerase chain reaction and capillary gel electrophoresis. (United States)

    Fan, Hongxin; Robetorye, Ryan S


    Although established diagnostic criteria exist for mature T-cell neoplasms, a definitive diagnosis of a T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder cannot always be obtained using more conventional techniques such as flow cytometric immunophenotyping, conventional cytogenetics, fluorescence in situ hybridization, or immunohistochemistry. However, because T-cell malignancies contain identically rearranged T-cell receptor gamma (TCRG) and/or beta (TCRB) genes, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be a fast, convenient, and dependable option to identify clonal T-cell processes. This chapter describes the use of PCR and capillary electrophoresis to identify clonal TCRB and TCRG gene rearrangements (TCRB and TCRG PCR) using a commercially available method employing multiple multiplex PCR tubes that was originally developed as the result of a large European BIOMED-2 collaborative study (Invivoscribe Technologies). The core protocol for the TCRB assay involves the use of three separate multiplex master mix tubes. Tubes A and B target the framework regions within the variable and joining regions of the TCRB gene, and Tube C targets the diversity and joining regions of the TCRB gene. The core protocol for the TCRG assay utilizes two multiplex master mix tubes (Tubes A and B) that target the variable and joining regions of the TCRG gene. Use of the five BIOMED-2 TCRB and TCRG PCR multiplex tubes in parallel can detect approximately 94% of clonal TCR gene rearrangements.

  14. Diverse pattern of gap junction beta-2 and gap junction beta-4 genes mutations and lack of contribution of DFNB21, DFNB24, DFNB29, and DFNB42 loci in autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss patients in Hormozgan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Akbarzadeh Laleh


    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to determine the contribution of four DFNB loci and mutation analysis of gap junction beta-2 (GJB2 and GJB4 genes in autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL in South of Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 large ARNSHL pedigrees with at least two affected subjects were enrolled in the current study. The GJB2 and GJB4 genes mutations were screened using direct sequencing method. The GJB2 and GJB4 negative families were analyzed for the linkage to DFNB21, DFNB24, DFNB29, and DFNB42 loci by genotyping the corresponding STR markers using polymerase chain reaction-PAGE method. Results: We found a homozygous nonsense mutation W77X and a homozygous missense mutation C169W in 5.55% of studied families in GJB2 and GJB4 genes, respectively. Five heterozygous mutations including V63G, A78T, and R127H in GJB2 gene, and R103C and R227W in GJB4 gene were detected. We identified two novel variations V63G in GJB2 and R227W in GJB4. In silico analysis predicted that both novel variations are deleterious mutations. We did not unveil any linkage between DFNB21, DFNB24, DFNB29, and DFNB42 loci and ARNSHL among studied families. Conclusion: This is the first report of GJB2 and GJB4 mutations from Hormozgan population. According to the previous publications regarding GJB2 and GJB4 mutations, the distribution of the mutations is different from other parts of Iran that should be considered in primary health-care programs. Further investigations are needed to evaluate the contribution of other loci in ARNSHL subjects in South of Iran.

  15. Towards a "Golden Standard" for computing globin stability: Stability and structure sensitivity of myoglobin mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta


    Fast and accurate computation of protein stability is increasingly important for e.g. protein engineering and protein misfolding diseases, but no consensus methods exist for important proteins such as globins, and performance may depend on the type of structural input given. This paper reports be...

  16. Bone regeneration with active angiogenesis by basic fibroblast growth factor gene transfected mesenchymal stem cells seeded on porous beta-TCP ceramic scaffolds. (United States)

    Guo, Xiaodong; Zheng, Qixin; Kulbatski, Iris; Yuan, Quan; Yang, Shuhua; Shao, Zengwu; Wang, Hong; Xiao, Baojun; Pan, Zhengqi; Tang, Shuo


    Large segmental bone defect repair remains a clinical and scientific challenge with increasing interest focused on combining gene transfer with tissue engineering techniques. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is one of the most prominent osteogenic growth factors that has the potential to accelerate bone healing by promoting the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and the regeneration of capillary vasculature. However, the short biological half-lives of growth factors may impose severe restraints on their clinical usefulness. Gene-based delivery systems provide a better way of achieving a sustained high concentration of growth factors locally in the defect and delivering a more biologically active product than that achieved by exogenous application of recombinant proteins. The objective of this experimental study was to investigate whether the bFGF gene modified MSCs could enhance the repair of large segmental bone defects. The pcDNA3-bFGF gene transfected MSCs were seeded on biodegradable porous beta tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) ceramics and allografted into the 15 mm critical-sized segmental bone defects in the radius of 18 New Zealand White rabbits. The pcDNA3 vector gene transfected MSCs were taken as the control. The follow-up times were 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks. Scanning electron microscopic, roentgenographic, histologic and immunohistological studies were used to assess angiogenesis and bone regeneration. In vitro, the proliferation and differentiation of bFGF gene transfected MSCs were more active than that of the control groups. In vivo, significantly more new bone formation accompanied by abundant active capillary regeneration was observed in pores of the ceramics loaded with bFGF gene transfected MSCs, compared with control groups. Transfer of gene encoding bFGF to MSCs increases their osteogenic properties by enhancing capillary regeneration, thus providing a rich blood supply for new bone formation. This new b

  17. Bone regeneration with active angiogenesis by basic fibroblast growth factor gene transfected mesenchymal stem cells seeded on porous {beta}-TCP ceramic scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Xiaodong [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1277 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan 430022 (China); Zheng Qixin [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1277 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan 430022 (China); Kulbatski, Iris [Division of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Toronto Western Research Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2S8 (Canada); Yuan Quan [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1277 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan 430022 (China); Yang Shuhua [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1277 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan 430022 (China); Shao Zengwu [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1277 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan 430022 (China); Wang Hong [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1277 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan 430022 (China); Xiao Baojun [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1277 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan 430022 (China); Pan Zhengqi [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1277 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan 430022 (China); Tang Shuo [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1277 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan 430022 (China)


    Large segmental bone defect repair remains a clinical and scientific challenge with increasing interest focused on combining gene transfer with tissue engineering techniques. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is one of the most prominent osteogenic growth factors that has the potential to accelerate bone healing by promoting the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and the regeneration of capillary vasculature. However, the short biological half-lives of growth factors may impose severe restraints on their clinical usefulness. Gene-based delivery systems provide a better way of achieving a sustained high concentration of growth factors locally in the defect and delivering a more biologically active product than that achieved by exogenous application of recombinant proteins. The objective of this experimental study was to investigate whether the bFGF gene modified MSCs could enhance the repair of large segmental bone defects. The pcDNA3-bFGF gene transfected MSCs were seeded on biodegradable porous {beta} tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) ceramics and allografted into the 15 mm critical-sized segmental bone defects in the radius of 18 New Zealand White rabbits. The pcDNA3 vector gene transfected MSCs were taken as the control. The follow-up times were 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks. Scanning electron microscopic, roentgenographic, histologic and immunohistological studies were used to assess angiogenesis and bone regeneration. In vitro, the proliferation and differentiation of bFGF gene transfected MSCs were more active than that of the control groups. In vivo, significantly more new bone formation accompanied by abundant active capillary regeneration was observed in pores of the ceramics loaded with bFGF gene transfected MSCs, compared with control groups. Transfer of gene encoding bFGF to MSCs increases their osteogenic properties by enhancing capillary regeneration, thus providing a rich blood supply for new bone formation. This new

  18. Effects of transgenic expression of dopamine beta hydroxylase (Dbh) gene on blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravenec, Michal; Landa, Vladimír; Zídek, Václav; Mlejnek, Petr; Šilhavý, Jan; Mir, S.A.; Vaingankar, S. M.; Wang, J.; Kurtz, T. W.


    Roč. 65, č. 6 (2016), s. 1039-1044 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/12/0696; GA TA ČR(CZ) TA02010013 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : spontaneously hypertensive rat * transgenic * dopamine beta hydroxylase * catecholamines * blood pressure * left ventricular mass Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016

  19. Seasonal variation and distribution of total and active microbial community of beta-glucosidase encoding genes in coniferous forest soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pathan, S.I.; Žifčáková, Lucia; Ceccherini, M.T.; Pantani, O.L.; Větrovský, Tomáš; Baldrian, Petr


    Roč. 105, February (2017), s. 71-80 ISSN 0038-0717 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-08916S Grant - others:Transbiodiverse(CZ) 7. RP Marie Curie ITN FP7/2007e2013 project 289949 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Beta-Glucosidases * Forest soil * Bacteria Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.857, year: 2016

  20. Polymorphisms of the transforming growth factor-beta 1 gene in relation to myocardial infarction and blood pressure. The Etude Cas-Témoin de l'Infarctus du Myocarde (ECTIM) Study. (United States)

    Cambien, F; Ricard, S; Troesch, A; Mallet, C; Générénaz, L; Evans, A; Arveiler, D; Luc, G; Ruidavets, J B; Poirier, O


    Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) plays an important role in the modulation of cellular growth and differentiation and the production and degradation of the extracellular matrix. A number of experimental results suggest that TGF-beta 1 may be involved in cardiovascular physiopathology. In the present study, we assessed whether the TGF-beta 1 gene is a candidate gene for coronary heart disease or hypertension. We screened the coding region and 2181 bp upstream of the TGF-beta gene for polymorphisms and identified seven polymorphisms: 3 in the upstream region of the gene at positions -988, -800, and -509 from the first transcribed nucleotide; 1 in a nontranslated region at position +72; 2 in the signal peptide sequence Leu10-->Pro, Arg25-->Pro; and 1 in the region of the gene coding for the precursor part of the protein not present in the active form, Thr263-->Ile. We analyzed these TGF-beta 1 polymorphisms in 563 patients with myocardial infarction and 629 control subjects from four regions in Northern Ireland and France. The Pro25 allele was more frequent in patients than in control subjects in Belfast (P < .01) and Strasbourg (P < .05). The TGF-beta 1 polymorphisms were not associated with the degree of angiographically assessed coronary artery disease in patients. The presence of a Pro25 allele was associated with a lower systolic pressure in the four control groups (P < .002), and a history of hypertension was significantly less frequent in homozygotes or heterozygotes for Pro25 than in hormozygotes for Arg25 (odds ratio, 0.43, 95% confidence interval, 0.19 to 0.92; P < .03). Since the Pro25 allele was associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction and a reduced risk of hypertension, we favor a cautious interpretation of these apparently inconsistent results. Other studies will need to verify whether these associations are real.

  1. Chromatin Dynamics of the mouse β-globin locus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P.C. van de Corput (Mariëtte); E. de Boer (Ernie); T.A. Knoch (Tobias); W.A. van Cappellen (Gert); M. Lesnussa (Michael); H.J.F.M.M. Eussen (Bert)


    textabstractLately it has become more clear that (subtle) changes in 3D organization of chromatin can either trigger transcription or silence genes or gene clusters. It has also been postulated that due to changes in chromatin structure, a change in chromatin accessibility of transcription factors

  2. A Novel High-Content Immunofluorescence Assay as a Tool to Identify at the Single Cell Level γ-Globin Inducing Compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Durlak

    Full Text Available The identification of drugs capable of reactivating γ-globin to ameliorate β-thalassemia and Sickle Cell anemia is still a challenge, as available γ-globin inducers still have limited clinical indications. High-throughput screenings (HTS aimed to identify new potentially therapeutic drugs require suitable first-step-screening methods combining the possibility to detect variation in the γ/β globin ratio with the robustness of a cell line. We took advantage of a K562 cell line variant expressing β-globin (β-K562 to set up a new multiplexed high-content immunofluorescence assay for the quantification of γ- and β-globin content at single-cell level. The assay was validated by using the known globin inducers hemin, hydroxyurea and butyric acid and further tested in a pilot screening that confirmed HDACs as targets for γ-globin induction (as proved by siRNA-mediated HDAC3 knockdown and by treatment with HDACs inhibitors entinostat and dacinostat and identified Heme-oxygenases as novel candidate targets for γ-globin induction. Indeed, Heme-oxygenase2 siRNA knockdown as well as its inhibition by Tin protoporphyrin-IX (TinPPIX greatly increased γ-globin expression. This result is particularly interesting as several metalloporphyrins have already been developed for clinical uses and could be tested (alone or in combination with other drugs to improve pharmacological γ-globin reactivation for the treatment of β-hemoglobinopathies.

  3. Ginger extract mitigates ethanol-induced changes of alpha and beta - myosin heavy chain isoforms gene expression and oxidative stress in the heart of male wistar rats. (United States)

    Shirpoor, Alireza; Zerehpoosh, Mitra; Ansari, Mohammad Hasan Khadem; Kheradmand, Fatemeh; Rasmi, Yousef


    The association between ethanol consumption and heart abnormalities, such as chamber dilation, myocyte damage, ventricular hypertrophy, and hypertension is well known. However, underlying molecular mediators involved in ethanol-induced heart abnormalities remain elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic ethanol exposure on alpha and beta - myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms gene expression transition and oxidative stress in rats' heart. It was also planned to find out whether ginger extract mitigated the abnormalities induced by ethanol in rats' heart. Male wistar rats were divided into three groups of eight animals as follows: Control, ethanol, and ginger extract treated ethanolic (GETE) groups. After six weeks of treatment, the results revealed a significant increase in the β-MHC gene expression, 8- OHdG amount, and NADPH oxidase level. Furthermore, a significant decrease in the ratio of α-MHC/β-MHC gene expression to the amount of paraoxonase enzyme in the ethanol group compared to the control group was found. The consumption of Ginger extract along with ethanol ameliorated the changes in MHC isoforms gene expression and reduced the elevated amount of 8-OHdG and NADPH oxidase. Moreover, compared to the consumption of ethanol alone, it increased the paraoxonase level significantly. These findings indicate that ethanol-induced heart abnormalities may in part be associated with MHC isoforms changes mediated by oxidative stress, and that these effects can be alleviated by using ginger extract as an antioxidant molecule. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Transcriptional Alterations of Virulence-Associated Genes in Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL-Producing Uropathogenic Escherichia coli during Morphologic Transitions Induced by Ineffective Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isak Demirel


    Full Text Available It is known that an ineffective antibiotic treatment can induce morphological shifts in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC but the virulence properties during these shifts remain to be studied. The present study examines changes in global gene expression patterns and in virulence factor-associated genes in an extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing UPEC (ESBL019 during the morphologic transitions induced by an ineffective antibiotic and in the presence of human primary bladder epithelial cells. Microarray results showed that the different morphological states of ESBL019 had significant transcriptional alterations of a large number of genes (Transition; 7%, Filamentation; 32%, and Reverted 19% of the entities on the array. All three morphological states of ESBL019 were associated with a decreased energy metabolism, altered iron acquisition systems and altered adhesion expression. In addition, genes associated with LPS synthesis and bacterial motility was also altered in all the morphological states. Furthermore, the transition state induced a significantly higher release of TNF-α from bladder epithelial cells compared to all other morphologies, while the reverted state was unable to induce TNF-α release. Our findings show that the morphological shifts induced by ineffective antibiotics are associated with significant transcriptional virulence alterations in ESBL-producing UPEC, which may affect survival and persistence in the urinary tract.

  5. The DUB/USP17 deubiquitinating enzymes: A gene family within a tandemly repeated sequence, is also embedded within the copy number variable Beta-defensin cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Christopher J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The DUB/USP17 subfamily of deubiquitinating enzymes were originally identified as immediate early genes induced in response to cytokine stimulation in mice (DUB-1, DUB-1A, DUB-2, DUB-2A. Subsequently we have identified a number of human family members and shown that one of these (DUB-3 is also cytokine inducible. We originally showed that constitutive expression of DUB-3 can block cell proliferation and more recently we have demonstrated that this is due to its regulation of the ubiquitination and activity of the 'CAAX' box protease RCE1. Results Here we demonstrate that the human DUB/USP17 family members are found on both chromosome 4p16.1, within a block of tandem repeats, and on chromosome 8p23.1, embedded within the copy number variable beta-defensin cluster. In addition, we show that the multiple genes observed in humans and other distantly related mammals have arisen due to the independent expansion of an ancestral sequence within each species. However, it is also apparent when sequences from humans and the more closely related chimpanzee are compared, that duplication events have taken place prior to these species separating. Conclusions The observation that the DUB/USP17 genes, which can influence cell growth and survival, have evolved from an unstable ancestral sequence which has undergone multiple and varied duplications in the species examined marks this as a unique family. In addition, their presence within the beta-defensin repeat raises the question whether they may contribute to the influence of this repeat on immune related conditions.

  6. Speculative Betas


    Harrison Hong; David Sraer


    We provide a model for why high beta assets are more prone to speculative overpricing than low beta ones. When investors disagree about the common factor of cash-flows, high beta assets are more sensitive to this macro-disagreement and experience a greater divergence-of-opinion about their payoffs. Short-sales constraints for some investors such as retail mutual funds result in high beta assets being over-priced. When aggregate disagreement is low, expected return increases with beta due to r...

  7. Sustained enhancement of OCTN1 transporter expression in association with hydroxyurea induced gamma-globin expression in erythroid progenitors


    Walker, Aisha L.; Ofori-Acquah, Solomon


    The clinical benefits of hydroxyurea treatment in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are due largely to increased gamma-globin expression. However, mechanisms that control gamma-globin expression by hydroxyurea in erythroid progenitors are incompletely understood. Here, we investigated the role of two hydroxyurea transporters, urea transporter B (UTB) and organic cation/carnitine transporter 1 (OCTN1), in this process. Endogenous expression of both transporters peaked towards the end of ...

  8. DNA demethylation by 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment abrogates 17 beta-estradiol-induced cell growth and restores expression of DNA repair genes in human breast cancer cells. (United States)

    Singh, Kamaleshwar P; Treas, Justin; Tyagi, Tulika; Gao, Weimin


    Prolonged exposure to elevated levels of estrogen is a risk factor for breast cancer. Though increased cell growth and loss of DNA repair capacity is one of the proposed mechanisms for estrogen-induced cancers, the mechanism through which estrogen induces cell growth and decreases DNA repair capacity is not clear. DNA hypermethylation is known to inactivate DNA repair genes and apoptotic response in cancer cells. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the role of DNA hypermethylation in estrogen-induced cell growth and regulation of DNA repair genes expression in breast cancer cells. To achieve this objective, the estrogen-responsive MCF-7 cells either pretreated with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) or untreated (as control) were exposed to 17 beta-estradiol (E2), and its effect on cell growth and expression of DNA repair genes were measured. The result revealed that 5-aza-dC abrogates the E2-induced growth in MCF-7 cells. An increased expression of OGG1, MSH4, and MLH1 by 5-aza-dC treatment alone, suggest the DNA hypermethylation as a potential cause for decreased expression of these genes in MCF-7 cells. The decreased expression of ERCC1, XPC, OGG1, and MLH1 by E2 alone and its restoration by co-treatment with 5-aza-dC further suggest that E2 reduces the expression of these DNA repair genes potentially through promoter hypermethylation. Reactivation of mismatch repair (MMR) gene MLH1 and abrogation of E2-induced cell growth by 5-aza-dC treatment suggest that estrogen causes increased growth in breast cancer cells potentially through the inhibition of MMR-mediated apoptotic response. In summary, this study suggests that estrogen increases cell growth and decreases the DNA repair capacity in breast cancer cells, at least in part, through epigenetic mechanism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Human CRF{sub 2} {alpha} and {beta} splice variants: pharmacological characterization using radioligand binding and a luciferase gene expression assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardati, A. [Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Cardiovascular Biology, NW4, 500 Arcola Road, Collegeville, PA (United States); Goetschy, V.; Gottowick, J.; Henriot, S.; Deuschle, U.; Kilpatrick, G.J. [Central Nervous System, Pharma Division, F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG, CH-4070 Basel (Switzerland); Valdenaire, O. [Cardiovascular Research, Pharma Division, F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG, CH-4070 Basel (Switzerland)


    Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptors belong to the super-family of G protein-coupled receptors. These receptors are classified into two subtypes (CRF{sub 1} and CRF{sub 2}). Both receptors are positively coupled to adenylyl cyclase but they have a distinct pharmacology and distribution in brain. Two isoforms belonging to the CRF{sub 2} subtype receptors, CRF{sub 2{alpha}} and CRF{sub 2{beta}}, have been identified in rat and man. The neuropeptides CRF and urocortin mediate their actions through this CRF G protein-coupled receptor family. In this report, we describe the pharmacological characterization of the recently identified hCRF{sub 2{beta}} receptor. We have used radioligand binding with [{sup 125}I]-tyr{sup 0}-sauvagine and a gene expression assay in which the firefly luciferase gene expression is under the control of cAMP responsive elements. Association kinetics of [{sup 125}I]-tyr{sup 0}-sauvagine binding to the hCRF{sub 2{beta}} receptor were monophasic while dissociation kinetics were biphasic, in agreement with the kinetics results obtained with the hCRF{sub 2{alpha}} receptor. Saturation binding analysis revealed two affinity states in HEK 293 cells with binding parameters in accord with those determined kinetically and with parameters obtained with the hCRF{sub 2{alpha}} receptor. A non-hydrolysable GTP analog, Gpp(NH)p, reduced the high affinity binding of [{sup 125}I]-tyr{sup 0}-sauvagine to both hCRF{sub 2} receptor isoforms in a similar manner. The rank order of potency of CRF agonist peptides in competition experiments was identical for both hCRF{sub 2}{alpha}-helical CRF{sub (9-41)}oCRF). Similarly, agonist potency was similar for the two isoforms when studied using the luciferase gene reporter system. The peptide antagonist {alpha}-helical CRF{sub (9-41)} exhibited a non-competitive antagonism of urocortin-stimulated luciferase expression with both hCRF{sub 2} receptor isoforms. Taken together, these results indicate that the

  10. SNPs within the beta myosin heavy chain (MYH7 and the pyruvate kinase muscle (PKM2 genes in horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Russo


    Full Text Available Two highly expressed skeletal muscle genes (the MYH7 gene encoding the myosin heavy chain slow/β-cardiac isoform and the PKM2 gene encoding the pyruvate kinase muscle isoforms were investigated with the objective to identify DNA markers in horses. A panel of DNA samples from different horse breeds was analysed using a PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP approach. Four and two alleles were identified for the MYH7 and PKM2 loci, respectively. Mendelian inheritance of alleles of the two investigated genes was confirmed analysing horse families. Sequencing of PCR products obtained from the MYH7 and PKM2 genes made it possible to characterise two SSCP alleles for each gene. The polymorphisms found in the MYH7 and PKM2 genes were further studied in 61 and 68 horses of three (Italian Heavy Draught Horse, Italian Saddler and Murgese and five (Franches-Montagnes, Haflinger, Italian Heavy Draught Horse, Murgese and Standardbred breeds, respectively. Allele frequencies of the two loci varied among the considered breeds. The SNPs discovery in MYH7 and PKM2 genes makes it possible to locate new molecular markers to ECA1. The identified markers could be used in association analysis with performance traits in horses.

  11. An N-myristoylated globin with a redox-sensing function that regulates the defecation cycle in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Tilleman

    Full Text Available Globins occur in all kingdoms of life where they fulfill a wide variety of functions. In the past they used to be primarily characterized as oxygen transport/storage proteins, but since the discovery of new members of the globin family like neuroglobin and cytoglobin, more diverse and complex functions have been assigned to this heterogeneous family. Here we propose a function for a membrane-bound globin of C. elegans, GLB-26. This globin was predicted to be myristoylated at its N-terminus, a post-translational modification only recently described in the globin family. In vivo, this globin is found in the membrane of the head mesodermal cell and in the tail stomato-intestinal and anal depressor muscle cells. Since GLB-26 is almost directly oxidized when exposed to oxygen, we postulate a possible function as electron transfer protein. Phenotypical studies show that GLB-26 takes part in regulating the length of the defecation cycle in C. elegans under oxidative stress conditions.

  12. Rapid detection of pathological mutations and deletions of the haemoglobin beta gene (HBB) by High Resolution Melting (HRM) analysis and Gene Ratio Analysis Copy Enumeration PCR (GRACE-PCR). (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Sasse, Jurgen; Varadi, Aniko


    Inherited disorders of haemoglobin are the world's most common genetic diseases, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. The large number of mutations associated with the haemoglobin beta gene (HBB) makes gene scanning by High Resolution Melting (HRM) PCR an attractive diagnostic approach. However, existing HRM-PCR assays are not able to detect all common point mutations and have only a very limited ability to detect larger gene rearrangements. The aim of the current study was to develop a HBB assay, which can be used as a screening test in highly heterogeneous populations, for detection of both point mutations and larger gene rearrangements. The assay is based on a combination of conventional HRM-PCR and a novel Gene Ratio Analysis Copy Enumeration (GRACE) PCR method. HRM-PCR was extensively optimised, which included the use of an unlabelled probe and incorporation of universal bases into primers to prevent interference from common non-pathological polymorphisms. GRACE-PCR was employed to determine HBB gene copy numbers relative to a reference gene using melt curve analysis to detect rearrangements in the HBB gene. The performance of the assay was evaluated by analysing 410 samples. A total of 44 distinct pathological genotypes were detected. In comparison with reference methods, the assay has a sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity of 98 %. We have developed an assay that detects both point mutations and larger rearrangements of the HBB gene. This assay is quick, sensitive, specific and cost effective making it suitable as an initial screening test that can be used for highly heterogeneous cohorts.

  13. Gene-based association identifies SPATA13-AS1 as a pharmacogenomic predictor of inhaled short-acting beta-agonist response in multiple population groups. (United States)

    Padhukasahasram, B; Yang, J J; Levin, A M; Yang, M; Burchard, E G; Kumar, R; Kwok, P-Y; Seibold, M A; Lanfear, D E; Williams, L K


    Inhaled short-acting beta-agonist (SABA) medication is commonly used in asthma patients to rapidly reverse airway obstruction and improve acute symptoms. We performed a genome-wide association study of SABA medication response using gene-based association tests. A linear mixed model approach was first used for single-nucleotide polymorphism associations, and the results were later combined using GATES to generate gene-based associations. Our results identified SPATA13-AS1 as being significantly associated with SABA bronchodilator response in 328 healthy African Americans. In replication, this gene was associated with SABA response among the two separate groups of African Americans with asthma (n=1073, P=0.011 and n=1968, P=0.014), 149 healthy African Americans (P=0.003) and 556 European Americans with asthma (P=0.041). SPATA13-AS1 was also associated with longitudinal SABA medication usage in the two separate groups of African Americans with asthma (n=658, P=0.047 and n=1968, P=0.025). Future studies are needed to delineate the precise mechanism by which SPATA13-AS1 may influence SABA response.

  14. Development and validation of cell-based luciferase reporter gene assays for measuring neutralizing anti-drug antibodies against interferon beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermanrud, Christina; Ryner, Malin; Luft, Thomas


    a normal distribution for the majority of runs, allowing a parametric approach for cut-point calculation to be used, where NAb positive samples could be identified with 95% confidence. An analysis of means and variances indicated that a floating cut-point should be used for all assays. The assays......Neutralizing anti-drug antibodies (NAbs) against therapeutic interferon beta (IFNβ) in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) are measured with cell-based bioassays. The aim of this study was to redevelop and validate two luciferase reporter-gene bioassays, LUC and iLite, using a cut-point approach...... to identify NAb positive samples. Such an approach is favored by the pharmaceutical industry and governmental regulatory agencies as it has a clear statistical basis and overcomes the limitations of the current assays based on the Kawade principle. The work was conducted following the latest assay guidelines...

  15. MspI and PvuII polymorphisms in the Na,K-ATPase. beta. subunit gene ATP1B1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, M.M.; Pugh, D.G.; Lane, L.K.; Lingrel, J.B. (Univ. of Cincinnati College of Medicine, OH (USA))


    ATP1B HH1.2 is a 1.2 kb HindIII fragment from the 3{prime} portion of the human Na,K-ATPase {beta} subunit gene, ATP1B1. MspI identifies a two allele polymorphism (M1: 6.7 kb, M2: 5.3 kb). PvuII also detects a two-allele polymorphism (P1: 5.1 kb, P2: 4.7 kb). ATP1B1 has been assigned to chromosome 1q by somatic cell hybrid analysis. Codominant segregation of the MspI RFLP was observed in one two-generation family (5 individuals). Codominant segregation of the PvuII RFLP was observed in a two-generation (8 individuals) and a three-generation (12 individuals) family.

  16. Phylogenetic relations of humans and African apes from DNA sequences in the Psi eta-globin region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, M.M.; Slightom, J.L.; Goodman, M.


    Sequences from the upstream and downstream flanking DNA regions of the Psi eta-globin locus in Pan troglodytes (common chimpanzee), Gorilla gorilla (gorilla), and Pongo pygmaeus (orangutan, the closest living relative to Homo, Pan, and Gorilla) provided further data for evaluating the phylogenetic relations of humans and African apes. These newly sequenced orthologs (an additional 4.9 kilobase pairs (kbp) for each species) were combined with published Psi eta-gene sequences and then compared to the same orthologous stretch (a continuous 7.1-kbp region) available for humans. Phylogenetic analysis of these nucleotide sequences by the parsimony method indicated (i) that human and chimpanzee are more closely related to each other than either is to gorilla and (ii) that the slowdown in the rate of sequence evolution evident in higher primates is especially pronounced in humans. These results indicate that features unique to African apes (but not to humans) are primitive and that even local molecular clocks should be applied with caution.

  17. Modulation of cortisol responses to the DEX/CRH test by polymorphisms of the interleukin-1beta gene in healthy adults. (United States)

    Sasayama, Daimei; Hori, Hiroaki; Iijima, Yoshimi; Teraishi, Toshiya; Hattori, Kotaro; Ota, Miho; Fujii, Takashi; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Amano, Naoji; Kunugi, Hiroshi


    Recently, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function assessed with the combined dexamethasone (DEX)/corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) test has been shown to be associated with response to antidepressant treatment. A polymorphism (rs16944) in the interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) gene has also been reported to be associated with the medication response in depression. These findings prompted us to examine the possible association between IL-1β gene polymorphisms and HPA axis function assessed with the DEX/CRH test. DEX/CRH test was performed in 179 healthy volunteers (45 males: mean age 40.5 ± 15.8 years; 134 females: mean age 47.1 ± 13.2 years). Five tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL-1β gene (rs2853550, rs1143634, rs1143633, rs1143630, rs16944) were selected at an r2 threshold of 0.80 with a minor allele frequency > 0.1. Genotyping was performed by the TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. A two-way factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed with the DEX/CRH test results as the dependent variable and genotype and gender as independent variables. To account for multiple testing, P values rs16944 (P = 0.00049) and rs1143633 (P = 0.0060), with no significant gender effect or genotype × gender interaction. On the other hand, cortisol levels after CRH administration (DEX/CRH-Cortisol) were affected by gender but were not significantly influenced by the genotype of the examined SNPs, with no significant genotype × gender interaction. Our results suggest that genetic variations in the IL-1β gene contribute to the HPA axis alteration assessed by DST-Cortisol in healthy subjects. On the other hand, no significant associations of the IL-1β gene polymorphisms with the DEX/CRH-Cortisol were observed. Confirmation of our findings in futures studies may add new insight into the communication between the immune system and the HPA axis.

  18. Coordinate expression of heme and globin is essential for effective erythropoiesis. (United States)

    Doty, Raymond T; Phelps, Susan R; Shadle, Christina; Sanchez-Bonilla, Marilyn; Keel, Siobán B; Abkowitz, Janis L


    Erythropoiesis requires rapid and extensive hemoglobin production. Heme activates globin transcription and translation; therefore, heme synthesis must precede globin synthesis. As free heme is a potent inducer of oxidative damage, its levels within cellular compartments require stringent regulation. Mice lacking the heme exporter FLVCR1 have a severe macrocytic anemia; however, the mechanisms that underlie erythropoiesis dysfunction in these animals are unclear. Here, we determined that erythropoiesis failure occurs in these animals at the CFU-E/proerythroblast stage, a point at which the transferrin receptor (CD71) is upregulated, iron is imported, and heme is synthesized--before ample globin is produced. From the CFU-E/proerythroblast (CD71(+) Ter119(-) cells) stage onward, erythroid progenitors exhibited excess heme content, increased cytoplasmic ROS, and increased apoptosis. Reducing heme synthesis in FLVCR1-defient animals via genetic and biochemical approaches improved the anemia, implying that heme excess causes, and is not just associated with, the erythroid marrow failure. Expression of the cell surface FLVCR1 isoform, but not the mitochondrial FLVCR1 isoform, restored normal rbc production, demonstrating that cellular heme export is essential. Together, these studies provide insight into how heme is regulated to allow effective erythropoiesis, show that erythropoiesis fails when heme is excessive, and emphasize the importance of evaluating Ter119(-) erythroid cells when studying erythroid marrow failure in murine models.

  19. Prevalence of AmpC type extended spectrum beta lactamases genes in clinical Samples of E.coli Isolated from Poultry and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Farrokhnazar


    Full Text Available Emergence of antibiotic resistance among pathogens, particularly in health centers and hospitals, has become a major public health problem. This study identified AmpC-type beta-lactamase against the antibiotic ceftazidime, cefotaxime and cefpodoxime in E.coli isolated from human and poultry and types of producing genes were studied by PCR. In this study, 500 clinical human samples of urine from hospitals of Tehran during 5 months as well as 300 poultry samples were collected and transferred to the microbiology laboratory. Biochemical tests such as TSI, Urea and IMViC were performed on suspected colonies with E.coli. To identify ESBL producing strains, beta-lactamase samples were cultured on Mueller-Hinton agar through antimicrobial susceptibility test by disk agar diffusion based on the standard CLSI for initial screening. PCR reactions were done using specific primers CITM, EBCM, DHAM and MOXM to identify the beta-lactamase AmpC. A number of 200 human and 55 poultry E.coli samples were screened. In human samples, 105 (52.5% were resistant and potential producers of ESBL and AmpC; out of those, 102 (51% produced ESBL and 3 (1.5% potentially produced AmpC. In the study on 55 E.coli isolates from poultry samples based on the results of disk agar diffusion test, 4 (7.2% samples were resistant and potential producers of ESBL. None of the samples were AmpC producers. Through PCR, 2 human samples (1% were CITM positive and one sample (0.5% was DHAM positive. Through the PCR carried out on poultry samples, there were no bands with 4 primers. There was AmpC in human samples; while further studies are required for poultry samples, because poultry significantly contribute in production of food for humans and can be an important source for dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Given the significance of Ampc in providing high levels of beta-lactam antibiotic resistance, particularly third generation cephalosporins which are very common treatments, more

  20. PCR based diagnostic assay targeting the beta tubulin gene for the detection of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in vaginal swab samples of symptomatic and asymptomatic women in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Prakash Dwivedi


    Full Text Available Objective: To develop an in-house PCR based diagnostic assay for identification of strains isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects of India, targeting the 毬 -tubulin gene using specific primers. Methods: In the present study a primer set is designed to target a well-conserved region in the beta-tubulin gene of Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis. All strains of T. vaginalis were tested and successfully detected by PCR yielding a single predicted product of 198 bp in gel electrophoresis, while there was negative response with DNA from Giardia lamblia, Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania donovani and Entamoeba histolytica. The sensitivity and specificity for a single T. vaginalis cell per PCR was achieved. Axenic Culture, performed with long term axenized T. vaginalis culture system, was routinely examined to identify T. vaginalis. Results: The PCR based investigations with 498 vaginal swab samples from women attending OPD clinics of Halberg Hospital Moradabad and Queen Mary ’s Hospital, Lucknow, India and 17 long term axenic cultures maintained at PGIMER, Chandigarh, India using primer set BTUB 1 & BTUB 2 showed sensitivity and specificity response of 98% and 100%, respectively, while wet preparation in clinically isolated samples responded up to 62.5%. The PCR product sequencing result of symptomatic strains (SS1 of T. vaginalis (744 bp long was submitted to NCBI (Accession No: JF513200. It shows maximum identity 98 % with XM_001284521 Trichomonas vaginalis G-3 beta-tubulin (btub putative partial mRNA. Conclusions: The data gathered in the present study entail that the diagnosis of T. vaginalis infection by PCR may be established as a sensitive and specific protocol, to be incorporated into a joint strategy for the screening of multiple STDs by employing molecular amplification technique. The merits and precautions of the protocol have been discussed.

  1. Identification of novel microsatellite markers preimplantation genetic diagnosis of beta-thalassemia. (United States)

    Chen, Min; Tan, Arnold S C; Cheah, Felicia S H; Saw, Eugene E L; Chong, Samuel S


    Beta (β)-thalassemia is one of the most common monogenic diseases worldwide. Affected pregnancies can be avoided through preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), which commonly involves customized assays to detect the different combinations of β-globin (HBB) gene mutations present in couples, in conjunction with linkage analysis of flanking microsatellite markers. Currently, the limited number of reported closely linked markers hampers their utility in indirect linkage-based PGD for this disorder. To increase the available markers closely flanking the HBB gene, an in silico search was performed to identify all markers within 1 Mb flanking the HBB gene. Fifteen markers with potentially high polymorphism information content (PIC) and heterozygosity values were selected and optimized into a single-tube pentadecaplex PCR panel. Allele frequencies and polymorphism and heterozygosity indices of each marker were assessed in five populations. A total of 238 alleles were observed from the 15 markers. PIC was >0.7 for all markers, with expected heterozygosity and observed heterozygosity values ranging from 0.74 to 0.90 and 0.72 to 0.88, respectively. Greater than 99% of individuals were heterozygous for at least seven markers, with at least two heterozygous markers on either side of the HBB gene. The pentadecaplex marker assay also performed reliably on single cells either directly or after whole genome amplification, thus validating its use in standalone linkage-based β-thalassemia PGD or in conjunction with HBB mutation detection. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Gene expression profiling in the stress control brain region hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus reveals a novel gene network including Amyloid beta Precursor Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deussing Jan M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pivotal role of stress in the precipitation of psychiatric diseases such as depression is generally accepted. This study aims at the identification of genes that are directly or indirectly responding to stress. Inbred mouse strains that had been evidenced to differ in their stress response as well as in their response to antidepressant treatment were chosen for RNA profiling after stress exposure. Gene expression and regulation was determined by microarray analyses and further evaluated by bioinformatics tools including pathway and cluster analyses. Results Forced swimming as acute stressor was applied to C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice and resulted in sets of regulated genes in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN, 4 h or 8 h after stress. Although the expression changes between the mouse strains were quite different, they unfolded in phases over time in both strains. Our search for connections between the regulated genes resulted in potential novel signalling pathways in stress. In particular, Guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha inhibiting 2 (GNAi2 and Amyloid β (A4 precursor protein (APP were detected as stress-regulated genes, and together with other genes, seem to be integrated into stress-responsive pathways and gene networks in the PVN. Conclusions This search for stress-regulated genes in the PVN revealed its impact on interesting genes (GNAi2 and APP and a novel gene network. In particular the expression of APP in the PVN that is governing stress hormone balance, is of great interest. The reported neuroprotective role of this molecule in the CNS supports the idea that a short acute stress can elicit positive adaptational effects in the brain.

  3. Caracterização dos Genes de metalo-beta-lactamase blaNDM, blaSPM e blaIMP em Pseudomonas aeruginosa Resistentes a Carbapenens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Jahn


    Full Text Available Justificativa e objetivo: P. aeruginosa é responsável por causar grande variedade de infecções agudas e crônicas. A resistência aos carbapenêmicos está se tornando um problema terapêutico mundial e a produção de metalo-beta-lactamases (MBL tem surgido como um dos mecanismos responsáveis por esta resistência. Objetivou-se identificar as cepas produtoras de MBL e verificar a presença dos genes codificador blaNDM, blaSPM e blaIMP em isolados de P. aeruginosa resistentes aos carbapenens. Métodos: Foram analisadas 16 cepas de P. aeruginosa, isoladas de diferentes sítios de indivíduos atendidos pelo Hospital do Vale do Rio Pardo-RS, no período de março 2014 a fevereiro de 2015. A identificação bioquímica foi realizada segundo protocolo da ANVISA e o antibiograma pelo método de ágar difusão em disco. A triagem fenotípica foi feita pelo teste modificado de aproximação de discos utilizando o EDTA como inibidor e a presença dos genes através da técnica de reação em cadeia da polimerase. Resultados: O setor clínico com maior prevalência de isolamento de P. aeruginosa resistente aos carbapenens é a unidade de terapia intensiva (50%. Em relação aos espécimes clínicos, 62,5% dos isolados foram identificados no trato respiratório inferior. Através do teste fenotípico, 50% das amostras analisadas mostraram ser produtora da enzima MBL. Através da técnica de reação em cadeia da polimerase foi possível identificar a presença de um dos três genes propostos, sendo eles blaSPM. Conclusão: Os isolados de P. aeruginosa mostraram serem produtores de MBL e apresentaram o gene de resistência blaSPM nesta espécie no interior do Rio Grande do Sul. Palavras Chaves: Pseudomonas aeruginosa; metalo-beta-lactamases; blaNDM, blaIMP, e blaSPM .

  4. Hemoglobin genetics: recent contributions of GWAS and gene editing (United States)

    Smith, Elenoe C.; Orkin, Stuart H.


    The β-hemoglobinopathies are inherited disorders resulting from altered coding potential or expression of the adult β-globin gene. Impaired expression of β-globin reduces adult hemoglobin (α2β2) production, the hallmark of β-thalassemia. A single-base mutation at codon 6 leads to formation of HbS (α2βS2) and sickle cell disease. While the basis of these diseases is known, therapy remains largely supportive. Bone marrow transplantation is the only curative therapy. Patients with elevated levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF, α2γ2) as adults exhibit reduced symptoms and enhanced survival. The β-globin gene locus is a paradigm of cell- and developmental stage-specific regulation. Although the principal erythroid cell transcription factors are known, mechanisms responsible for silencing of the γ-globin gene were obscure until application of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Here, we review findings in the field. GWAS identified BCL11A as a candidate negative regulator of γ-globin expression. Subsequent studies have established BCL11A as a quantitative repressor. GWAS-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms lie within an essential erythroid enhancer of the BCL11A gene. Disruption of a discrete region within the enhancer reduces BCL11A expression and induces HbF expression, providing the basis for gene therapy using gene editing tools. A recently identified, second silencing factor, leukemia/lymphoma-related factor/Pokemon, shares features with BCL11A, including interaction with the nucleosome remodeling deacetylase repressive complex. These findings suggest involvement of a common pathway for HbF silencing. In addition, we discuss other factors that may be involved in γ-globin gene silencing and their potential manipulation for therapeutic benefit in treating the β-hemoglobinopathies. PMID:27340226

  5. Functional inhibition of NF-kappa B signal transduction in alpha v alpha beta 3 integrin expressing endothelial cells by using RGD-PEG-modified adenovirus with a mutant I kappa B gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogawara, K; Kuldo, JM; Oosterhuis, K; Kroesen, BJ; Rots, MG; Trautwein, C; Kimura, T; Haisma, HJ; Molema, G


    In order to selectively block nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B)-dependent signal transduction in angiogenic endothelial cells, we constructed an alpha v beta 3 integrin specific adenovirus encoding dominant negative I kappa B (dnI kappa B) as a therapeutic gene. By virtue of RGD modification of

  6. Studies of the Ala/Val98 polymorphism of the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha gene and the relationship to beta-cell function during an OGTT in glucose-tolerant women with and without previous gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauenborg, J; Damm, P; Ek, J


    In pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) an increased demand for insulin is not met due to beta-cell dysfunction. An Ala/Val polymorphism at codon 98 of the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha (HNF-1alpha) gene has been associated with decreased serum insulin and C-peptide r...

  7. Role in pathogenesis of two endo-beta-1,4-xylanase genes from the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum. (United States)

    Gómez-Gómez, E; Ruíz-Roldán, M C; Di Pietro, A; Roncero, M I G; Hera, C


    A gene, xyl4, whose predicted amino acid sequence shows significant homology with family 11 xylanases, was identified from the tomato vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Expression of xyl4 is induced on oat spelt xylan as the carbon source, subject to carbon catabolite repression and preferentially expressed at alkaline ambient pH. Transcript levels of xyl4 on an inducing carbon source are differentially regulated by the nature and concentration of the nitrogen source. As shown by RT-PCR, xyl4 is expressed by F. oxysporum during the entire cycle of infection on tomato plants. Targeted inactivation of xyl4 and of xyl3, a previously identified gene of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici encoding a family 10 xylanase, had no detectable effect on virulence on tomato plants, demonstrating that both genes are not essential for pathogenicity.

  8. Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern and Their Beta-Lactamase Encoding Genes among Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains Isolated from Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai M. Zafer


    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of metallo-β-lactamases (MBL and extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL in P. aeruginosa isolates collected from two different hospitals in Cairo, Egypt. Antibiotic susceptibility testing and phenotypic screening for ESBLs and MBLs were performed on 122 P. aeruginosa isolates collected in the period from January 2011 to March 2012. MICs were determined. ESBLs and MBLs genes were sought by PCR. The resistant rate to imipenem was 39.34%. The resistance rates for P. aeruginosa to cefuroxime, cefoperazone, ceftazidime, aztreonam, and piperacillin/tazobactam were 87.7%, 80.3%, 60.6%, 45.1%, and 25.4%, respectively. Out of 122 P. aeruginosa, 27% and 7.4% were MBL and ESBL, respectively. The prevalence of blaVIM-2, blaOXA-10-, blaVEB-1, blaNDM-, and blaIMP-1-like genes were found in 58.3%, 41.7%, 10.4%, 4.2%, and 2.1%, respectively. GIM-, SPM-, SIM-, and OXA-2-like genes were not detected in this study. OXA-10-like gene was concomitant with VIM-2 and/or VEB. Twelve isolates harbored both OXA-10 and VIM-2; two isolates carried both OXA-10 and VEB. Only one strain contained OXA-10, VIM-2, and VEB. In conclusion, blaVIM-2- and blaOXA-10-like genes were the most prevalent genes in P. aeruginosa in Egypt. To our knowledge, this is the first report of blaVIM-2, blaIMP-1, blaNDM, and blaOXA-10 in P. aeruginosa in Egypt.

  9. Epigenetic alteration of p16 and retinoic acid receptor beta genes in the development of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. (United States)

    Bhagat, Rahul; Kumar, Sandeep Sriram; Vaderhobli, Shilpa; Premalata, Chennagiri S; Pallavi, Venkateshaiah Reddihalli; Ramesh, Gawari; Krishnamoorthy, Lakshmi


    Silencing of tumor suppressor and tumor-related genes by promoter hypermethylation is one of the major events in ovarian carcinogenesis. In this study, we analyzed aberrant promoter methylation of p16 and RAR-β genes in 134 epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOCs), 23 low malignant potential (LMP) tumors, 26 benign cystadenomas, and 15 normal ovarian tissues. Methylation was investigated by methylation-specific PCR (MSP), and the results were confirmed by bisulfite DNA sequencing. Relative gene expression of p16 and RAR-β was done using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) on 51 EOC cases, 9 LMP tumors, and 7 benign cystadenomas with 5 normal ovarian tissues. Aberrant methylation for p16 and RAR-β was present in 43 % (58/134) and 31 % (41/134) in carcinoma cases, 22 % (05/23) and 52 % (12/23) in LMP tumors, and 42 % (11/26) and 69 % (18/26) in benign cystadenomas. No methylation was observed in any of the normal ovarian tissues. The mRNA expression level of p16 and RAR-β was significantly downregulated in EOC and LMP tumors than the corresponding normal tissues whereas the expression level was normal in benign cystadenomas for p16 and slightly reduced for RAR-β. A significant correlation of p16 promoter methylation was observed with reduced gene expression in EOC. For RAR-β, no significant correlation was observed between promoter methylation and gene expression. Our results suggest that epigenetic alterations of p16 and RAR-β have an important role in ovarian carcinogenesis and that mechanism along with methylation plays a significant role in downregulation of RAR-β gene in ovarian cancer.

  10. GABA-A receptor beta3 and alpha5 subunit gene cluster on chromosome 15q11-q13 and bipolar disorder: a genetic association study. (United States)

    Papadimitriou, G N; Dikeos, D G; Karadima, G; Avramopoulos, D; Daskalopoulou, E G; Stefanis, C N


    There is accumulated evidence that the genes coding for the receptor of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), the most important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS, may be involved in the pathogenesis of affective disorders. In a previous study, we have found a genetic association between the GABA-A receptor alpha5 subunit gene locus (GABRA5) on chromosome 15q11-of 13 and bipolar affective disorder. The aim of the present study was to examine the same subjects to see if there exists a genetic association between bipolar affective disorder and the GABA receptor beta3 subunit gene (GABRB3), which is located within 100 kb from GABRA5. The sample consisted of 48 bipolar patients compared to 44 controls (blood donors). All subjects were Greek, unrelated, and personally interviewed. Diagnosis was based on DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. The marker used was a dinucleotide (CA) repeat polymorphism with 12 alleles 179 to 201 bp long; genotyping was successful in all patients and 43 controls. The distribution of GABRB3 genotypes among the controls did not deviate significantly from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. No differences in allelic frequencies between bipolar patients and controls were found for GABRB3, while this locus and GABRA5 did not seem to be in significant linkage disequilibrium. In conclusion, the GABRB3 CA-repeat polymorphism we investigated does not present the observed association between bipolar affective illness and GABRA5. This could be due to higher mutation rate in the GABRB3 CA-repeat polymorphism, but it might also signify that GABRA5 is the gene actually associated with the disease. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Role of Flightless-I (Drosophila) homolog in the transcription activation of type I collagen gene mediated by transforming growth factor beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Mi-Sun; Jeong, Kwang Won, E-mail:


    Highlights: • FLII activates TGFβ-mediated expression of COL1A2 gene. • TGFβ induces the association of FLII with SMAD3 and BRG1 in A549 cells. • FLII is required for the recruitment of SWI/SNF complex and chromatin accessibility to COL1A2 promoter. - Abstract: Flightless-I (Drosophila) homolog (FLII) is a nuclear receptor coactivator that is known to interact with other transcriptional regulators such as the SWI/SNF complex, an ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complex, at the promoter or enhancer region of estrogen receptor (ER)-α target genes. However, little is known about the role of FLII during transcription initiation in the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ)/SMAD-dependent signaling pathway. Here, we demonstrate that FLII functions as a coactivator in the expression of type I collagen gene induced by TGFβ in A549 cells. FLII activates the reporter gene driven by COL1A2 promoter in a dose-dependent manner. Co-expression of GRIP1, CARM1, or p300 did not show any synergistic activation of transcription. Furthermore, the level of COL1A2 expression correlated with the endogenous level of FLII mRNA level. Depletion of FLII resulted in a reduction of TGFβ-induced expression of COL1A2 gene. In contrast, over-expression of FLII caused an increase in the endogenous expression of COL1A2. We also showed that FLII is associated with Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1) as well as SMAD in A549 cells. Notably, the recruitment of BRG1 to the COL1A2 promoter region was decreased in FLII-depleted A549 cells, suggesting that FLII is required for TGFβ-induced chromatin remodeling, which is carried out by the SWI/SNF complex. Furthermore, formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements (FAIRE)-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) experiments revealed that depletion of FLII caused a reduction in chromatin accessibility at the COL1A2 promoter. These results suggest that FLII plays a critical role in TGFβ/SMAD-mediated transcription of the COL1A2 gene

  12. Complete deficiency of mitochondrial trifunctional protein due to a novel mutation within the beta-subunit of the mitochondrial trifunctional protein gene leads to failure of long-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation with fatal outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwab, Karl Otfried; Ensenauer, Regina; Matern, Dietrich; Uyanik, Gökhan; Schnieders, Birgit; Wanders, Ronald A.; Lehnert, Willy


    The mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP) is a multienzyme complex which catalyses three of the four chain-shortening reactions in the beta-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids. Clinically, failure of long-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation leads to hypoketotic hypoglycaemia associated with coma,

  13. Drug and cell type-specific regulation of genes with different classes of estrogen receptor beta-selective agonists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivasan Paruthiyil


    Full Text Available Estrogens produce biological effects by interacting with two estrogen receptors, ERalpha and ERbeta. Drugs that selectively target ERalpha or ERbeta might be safer for conditions that have been traditionally treated with non-selective estrogens. Several synthetic and natural ERbeta-selective compounds have been identified. One class of ERbeta-selective agonists is represented by ERB-041 (WAY-202041 which binds to ERbeta much greater than ERalpha. A second class of ERbeta-selective agonists derived from plants include MF101, nyasol and liquiritigenin that bind similarly to both ERs, but only activate transcription with ERbeta. Diarylpropionitrile represents a third class of ERbeta-selective compounds because its selectivity is due to a combination of greater binding to ERbeta and transcriptional activity. However, it is unclear if these three classes of ERbeta-selective compounds produce similar biological activities. The goals of these studies were to determine the relative ERbeta selectivity and pattern of gene expression of these three classes of ERbeta-selective compounds compared to estradiol (E(2, which is a non-selective ER agonist. U2OS cells stably transfected with ERalpha or ERbeta were treated with E(2 or the ERbeta-selective compounds for 6 h. Microarray data demonstrated that ERB-041, MF101 and liquiritigenin were the most ERbeta-selective agonists compared to estradiol, followed by nyasol and then diarylpropionitrile. FRET analysis showed that all compounds induced a similar conformation of ERbeta, which is consistent with the finding that most genes regulated by the ERbeta-selective compounds were similar to each other and E(2. However, there were some classes of genes differentially regulated by the ERbeta agonists and E(2. Two ERbeta-selective compounds, MF101 and liquiritigenin had cell type-specific effects as they regulated different genes in HeLa, Caco-2 and Ishikawa cell lines expressing ERbeta. Our gene profiling studies

  14. Improving enrichment of circulating fetal DNA for genetic testing: size fractionation followed by whole gene amplification. (United States)

    Jorgez, Carolina J; Bischoff, Farideh Z


    Among the pitfalls of using cell-free fetal DNA in plasma for prenatal diagnosis is quality of the recovered DNA fragments and concomitant presence of maternal DNA (>95%). Our objective is to provide alternative methods for achieving enrichment and high-quality fetal DNA from plasma. Cell-free DNA from 31 pregnant women and 18 controls (10 males and 8 females) were size separated using agarose gel electrophoresis. DNA fragments of 100-300, 500-700 and 1,500-2,000 bp were excised and extracted, followed by whole genome amplification (WGA) of recovered fragments. Levels of beta-globin and DYS1 were measured. Distribution of beta-globin size fragments was similar among pregnant women and controls. Among control male cases, distribution of size fragments was the same for both beta-globin and DYS1. Among maternal cases confirmed to be male, the smallest size fragment (100-300 bp) accounted for nearly 50% (39.76 +/- 17.55%) of the recovered DYS1-DNA (fetal) and only 10% (10.40 +/- 6.49%) of beta-globin (total) DNA. After WGA of plasma fragments from pregnant women, DYS1 sequence amplification was best observed when using the 100-300 bp fragments as template. Combination of electrophoresis for size separation and WGA led to enriched fetal DNA from plasma. This novel combination of strategies is more likely to permit universal clinical applications of cell-free fetal DNA. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Study of the effect of HFE gene mutations on iron overload in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manal Michel Wilson


    Mar 4, 2015 ... The Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics ... RDB, a panel of probes (n = 22) using the beta globin strip assay was used ... (20 pmol) of primer R and 5 ll (100 ng) of genomic extracted. DNA.

  16. Beta-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierikx, C.M.


    Resistance to cephalosprins due to the production of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) or plasmid mediated AmpC beta-lactamases is increasingly found in infections in humans outside the hospital. The genes encoding for these beta-lactamases are located on mobile DNA (plasmids), which can be

  17. Correction of acid beta-galactosidase deficiency in GM1 gangliosidosis human fibroblasts by retrovirus vector-mediated gene transfer: higher efficiency of release and cross-correction by the murine enzyme. (United States)

    Sena-Esteves, M; Camp, S M; Alroy, J; Breakefield, X O; Kaye, E M


    Mutations in the lysosomal acid beta-galactosidase (EC underlie two different disorders: GM1 gangliosidosis, which involves the nervous system and visceral organs to varying extents, and Morquio's syndrome type B (Morquio B disease), which is a skeletal-connective tissue disease without any CNS symptoms. This article shows that transduction of human GM1 gangliosidosis fibroblasts with retrovirus vectors encoding the human acid beta-galactosidase cDNA leads to complete correction of the enzymatic deficiency. The newly synthesized enzyme is correctly processed and targeted to the lysosomes in transduced cells. Cross-correction experiments using retrovirus-modified cells as enzyme donors showed, however, that the human enzyme is transferred at low efficiencies. Experiments using a different retrovirus vector carrying the human cDNA confirmed this observation. Transduction of human GM1 fibroblasts and mouse NIH 3T3 cells with a retrovirus vector encoding the mouse beta-galactosidase cDNA resulted in high levels of enzymatic activity. Furthermore, the mouse enzyme was found to be transferred to human cells at high efficiency. Enzyme activity measurements in medium conditioned by genetically modified cells suggest that the human beta-galactosidase enzyme is less efficiently released to the extracellular space than its mouse counterpart. This study suggests that lysosomal enzymes, contrary to the generalized perception in the field of gene therapy, may differ significantly in their properties and provides insights for design of future gene therapy interventions in acid beta-galactosidase deficiency.

  18. Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO to nalidixic acid and low levels of beta-lactam antibiotics: mapping of chromosomal genes. (United States)

    Rella, M; Haas, D


    Resistance to high concentrations of nalidixic acid in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO was due to mutations in one locus designated nalA, which was mapped by transduction between hex-9001 and leu-10. The nalA mutants were cross-resistant to pipemidic acid, a nalidixic acid analog, at relatively low concentrations. Replicative DNA synthesis was resistant to both drugs in permeabilized cells of nalA mutants. A locus coding for low-level resistance to nalidixic acid, nalB, was cotransducible with pyrB, proC, and met-28. The nalB mutants were also resistant to low levels of pipemidic acid, novobiocin, and beta-lactam antibiotics (e.g., carbenicillin, azlocillin, and cefsulodin), but not to other drugs, such as gentamicin, rifampin, kanamycin, or tetracycline. In nalB mutants, DNA replication showed wild-type sensitivity to nalidixic acid, whereas carbenicillin-induced filamentation required higher drug levels than in the wild-type strain. Thus, nalB mutations appear to decrease cell permeability to some antibiotics. The sensitivity of replicative DNA synthesis to nalidixic acid and novobiocin was very similar in P. aeruginosa and Escherichia coli; by contrast, the concentrations of these drugs needed to inhibit growth of P. aeruginosa were higher than those reported for E. coli by one or two orders of magnitude. PMID:6821455

  19. Genetic polymorphism of beta-casein gene and its associations with milk traits in Holstein-Friesian cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Bugeac


    Full Text Available In animal breeding finding and using effective genetic markers for improving important traits it is a continuous challenge. In this respect, several genetic markers were associated in cattle with increased milk production or a better milk quality. This proved to be a useful tool for improving certain traits by selecting individuals carriers of allelic variants that have an effect on a desirable trait. In particular, positive associations between certain alleles found at the milk protein loci with some milk production traits convincingly demonstrated in several cattle breeds. Although, in some cases the results obtained in various studies were not in agreement and varied between breeds or populations. Therefore the objective of this study was to establish associations (if any between alleles found at the beta-casein (CSN2 locus and some milk production traits (milk yield and fat, protein, casein and lactose content in a Holstein-Friesian population reared in Romania. Genetic variants at CSN2 locus were identified by isoelectric focusing (IEF of milk samples. In order to determine milk composition the samples were analysed with MilkoScan FT 6000. For the statistical analysis of data SPSS v.19 for Windows was used. At the CSN2 locus four alleles and seven genotypes were identified in the analyzed cattle population. The cows carriers of CSN2 A2 allele produced the highest milk yield and the highest milk protein content, this result being in agreement with other previous studies.

  20. [Perissodactyla: the primary structure of hemoglobins from the lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris): glutamic acid in position 2 of the beta chains]. (United States)

    Mazur, G; Braunitzer, G


    The hemoglobins from a lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) were analysed and the complete primary structure is described. The globin chains were separated on CM cellulose column in 8M urea and the amino-acid sequences were determined in the liquid phase sequenator. The results show that globin consists of two alpha chains (alpha I and alpha II) and beta major and beta minor components. The alpha chains differ only at one position: alpha I contains aspartic acid and alpha II glycine. The beta chains are heterogeneous: aspartic and glutamic acid were found at position beta 21 and beta 73 of the beta major components and asparagine and serine at position beta 139. In the beta minor components four positions were found with more than one amino acid, namely beta 2, beta 4, beta 6 and beta 56. The sequences are compared with those of man, horse and rhinoceros. Four residues of horse methemoglobin, which are involved in the alpha 1 beta 1 contacts are substituted in tapir hemoglobins. In the alpha chains: alpha 107(G14)Ser----Val, alpha 111-(G18) Val----Leu, alpha 115(GH3) Asn----Asp or Gly; in the beta chains: beta 116(G18) Arg----Gln. The amino acid at beta 2 of the major components is glutamic acid while glutamine and histidine are found in the minor components. Although glutamic acid, a binding site for ATP, does not interact with 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate, glutamine and histidine in the minor components are responsible for the slight effect of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate on tapir hemoglobin.

  1. The crtS gene of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous encodes a novel cytochrome-P450 hydroxylase involved in the conversion of beta-carotene into astaxanthin and other xanthophylls. (United States)

    Alvarez, Vanessa; Rodríguez-Sáiz, Marta; de la Fuente, Juan Luis; Gudiña, Eduardo J; Godio, Ramiro P; Martín, Juan F; Barredo, José Luis


    The conversion of beta-carotene into xanthophylls is a subject of great scientific and industrial interest. We cloned the crtS gene involved in astaxanthin biosynthesis from two astaxanthin producing strains of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous: VKPM Y2410, an astaxanthin overproducing strain, and the wild type ATCC 24203. In both cases, the ORF has a length of 3166 bp, including 17 introns, and codes for a protein of 62.6 kDa with similarity to cytochrome-P450 hydroxylases. crtS gene sequences from strains VKPM Y2410, ATCC 24203, ATCC 96594, and ATCC 96815 show several nucleotide changes, but none of them causes any amino acid substitution, except a G2268 insertion in the 13th exon of ATCC 96815 which causes a change in the reading frame. A G1470 --> A change in the 5' splicing region of intron 8 was also found in ATCC 96815. Both point mutations explain astaxanthin idiotrophy and beta-carotene accumulation in ATCC 96815. Mutants accumulating precursors of the astaxanthin biosynthetic pathway were selected from the parental strain VKPM Y2410 (red) showing different colors depending on the compound accumulated. Two of them were blocked in the biosynthesis of astaxanthin, M6 (orange; 1% astaxanthin, 71 times more beta-carotene) and M7 (orange; 1% astaxanthin, 58 times more beta-carotene, 135% canthaxanthin), whereas the rest produced lower levels of astaxanthin (5-66%) than the parental strain. When the crtS gene was expressed in M7, canthaxanthin accumulation disappeared and astaxanthin production was partially restored. Moreover, astaxanthin biosynthesis was restored when X. dendrorhous ATCC 96815 was transformed with the crtS gene. The crtS gene was heterologously expressed in Mucor circinelloides conferring to this fungus an improved capacity to synthesize beta-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin, two hydroxylated compounds from beta-carotene. These results show that the crtS gene is involved in the conversion of beta-carotene into xanthophylls, being potentially useful to

  2. Integration of ATAC-seq and RNA-seq identifies human alpha cell and beta cell signature genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M. Ackermann


    Conclusions: We have determined the genetic landscape of human α- and β-cells based on chromatin accessibility and transcript levels, which allowed for detection of novel α- and β-cell signature genes not previously known to be expressed in islets. Using fine-mapping of open chromatin, we have identified thousands of potential cis-regulatory elements that operate in an endocrine cell type-specific fashion.

  3. Variants in the interleukin-1 alpha and beta genes, and the risk for periodontal disease in dogs. (United States)

    Albuquerque, C; Morinha, F; Magalhães, J; Requicha, J; Dias, I; Guedes-Pinto, H; Bastos, E; Viegas, C


    Elevated levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1) have been shown to amplify the inflammatory response against periodontopathogenic bacteria.In humans,polymorphisms in the IL1A and IL1B genes are the most well-studied genetic polymorphisms associated with periodontal disease (PD). In contrast to human, there is a lack of knowledge on the genetic basis of canine PD. A case-control study was conducted in which a molecular analysis of dog IL1A and IL1B genes was performed. Of the eight genetic variants identified, seven in IL1A gene and one in IL1B gene, IL1A/1_g.388A>C and IL1A /1_g.521T>A showed statistically significant differences between groups (adjusted OR (95% CI): 0.15 (0.03-0.76),P=0.022; 5.76 (1.03-32.1),P=0.046, respectively). It suggests that in the studied population the IL1A/1_g.388C allele is associated with a decreased PD risk, whereas the IL1A/1_g.521A allele can confer an increased risk. Additionally, the IL1A/2_g.515G>T variation resulted in a change of amino acid, i.e. glycine to valine. In silico analysis suggests that this change can alter protein structure and function, predicting it to be deleterious or damaging. This work suggests that IL1 genetic variants may be important in PD susceptibility in canines.

  4. No Effect of the Transforming Growth Factor {beta}1 Promoter Polymorphism C-509T on TGFB1 Gene Expression, Protein Secretion, or Cellular Radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuther, Sebastian; Metzke, Elisabeth [Laboratory of Radiobiology and Experimental Radiooncology, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Bonin, Michael [Department of Medical Genetics, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Petersen, Cordula [Clinic of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Dikomey, Ekkehard, E-mail: [Laboratory of Radiobiology and Experimental Radiooncology, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Raabe, Annette [Laboratory of Radiobiology and Experimental Radiooncology, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany)


    Purpose: To study whether the promoter polymorphism (C-509T) affects transforming growth factor {beta}1 gene (TGFB1) expression, protein secretion, and/or cellular radiosensitivity for both human lymphocytes and fibroblasts. Methods and Materials: Experiments were performed with lymphocytes taken either from 124 breast cancer patients or 59 pairs of normal monozygotic twins. We used 15 normal human primary fibroblast strains as controls. The C-509T genotype was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism or TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping assay. The cellular radiosensitivity of lymphocytes was measured by G0/1 assay and that of fibroblasts by colony assay. The amount of extracellular TGFB1 protein was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and TGFB1 expression was assessed via microarray analysis or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results: The C-509T genotype was found not to be associated with cellular radiosensitivity, neither for lymphocytes (breast cancer patients, P=.811; healthy donors, P=.181) nor for fibroblasts (P=.589). Both TGFB1 expression and TGFB1 protein secretion showed considerable variation, which, however, did not depend on the C-509T genotype (protein secretion: P=.879; gene expression: lymphocytes, P=.134, fibroblasts, P=.605). There was also no general correlation between TGFB1 expression and cellular radiosensitivity (lymphocytes, P=.632; fibroblasts, P=.573). Conclusion: Our data indicate that any association between the SNP C-509T of TGFB1 and risk of normal tissue toxicity cannot be ascribed to a functional consequence of this SNP, either on the level of gene expression, protein secretion, or cellular radiosensitivity.

  5. Characterization of the beta amyloid precursor protein-like gene in the central nervous system of the crab Chasmagnathus. Expression during memory consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fustiñana Maria


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human β-amyloid, the main component in the neuritic plaques found in patients with Alzheimer's disease, is generated by cleavage of the β-amyloid precursor protein. Beyond the role in pathology, members of this protein family are synaptic proteins and have been associated with synaptogenesis, neuronal plasticity and memory, both in vertebrates and in invertebrates. Consolidation is necessary to convert a short-term labile memory to a long-term and stable form. During consolidation, gene expression and de novo protein synthesis are regulated in order to produce key proteins for the maintenance of plastic changes produced during the acquisition of new information. Results Here we partially cloned and sequenced the beta-amyloid precursor protein like gene homologue in the crab Chasmagnathus (cappl, showing a 37% of identity with the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster homologue and 23% with Homo sapiens but with much higher degree of sequence similarity in certain regions. We observed a wide distribution of cappl mRNA in the nervous system as well as in muscle and gills. The protein localized in all tissues analyzed with the exception of muscle. Immunofluorescence revealed localization of cAPPL in associative and sensory brain areas. We studied gene and protein expression during long-term memory consolidation using a well characterized memory model: the context-signal associative memory in this crab species. mRNA levels varied at different time points during long-term memory consolidation and correlated with cAPPL protein levels Conclusions cAPPL mRNA and protein is widely distributed in the central nervous system of the crab and the time course of expression suggests a role of cAPPL during long-term memory formation.

  6. Review Paper: Association of Transforming Growth Factor Beta-1 -509C/T Gene Polymorphism with Ischemic Stroke: A Meta Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar


    Full Text Available Introduction: Transforming Growth Factor-Beta 1 (TGF-β1 is a pleiotropic cytokine with potent anti-inflammatory property, which has been considered as an essential risk factor in the inflammatory process of Ischemic Stroke (IS, by involving in the pathophysiological progression of hypertension, atherosclerosis, and lipid metabolisms. -509C/T TGF-β1 gene polymorphism has been found to be associated with the risk of IS. The aim of this meta-analysis was to provide a relatively comprehensive account of the relation between -509C/T gene polymorphisms of TGF-β1 and susceptibility to IS. Methods: A review of literature for eligible genetic association Studies published before October 20, 2014 was conducted in the PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar and Trip database. The strength of association was calculated by pooled odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals using RevMan 5.3 software. Heterogeneity was examined using Higgins I-squared, Tau-squared, and Chi-squared tests. Results: A total of 2 studies involving 614 cases and 617 controls were found. The overall estimates did not show any significant relation between TGF-β1-509C/T polymorphism and risk of IS under dominant (CC+CT vs. TT: OR=1.01, 95%CI=0.31 to 3.26; P=0.99, recessive (CC vs. CT+TT: OR=0.94, 95%CI=0.47 to 1.90; P=0.87, and allelic models (T vs. C: OR=1.06, 95%CI=0.55 to 2.04; P=0.86. Conclusion: This meta-analysis showed that TGF-β1-509C/T gene polymorphism has no significant association with the susceptibility of IS. Further well-designed prospective studies with larger sample size are needed to confirm these findings.

  7. The interleukin 1 beta (IL1B) gene is associated with failure to achieve remission and impaired emotion processing in major depression. (United States)

    Baune, Bernhard T; Dannlowski, Udo; Domschke, Katharina; Janssen, Debbie G A; Jordan, Margaret A; Ohrmann, Patricia; Bauer, Jochen; Biros, Erik; Arolt, Volker; Kugel, Harald; Baxter, Alan G; Suslow, Thomas


    Accumulating evidence suggests the involvement of inflammatory processes and cytokines in particular in the pathophysiology of major depression (MDD) and resistance to antidepressant treatment. Furthermore, amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) responsiveness to emotional stimuli has been suggested as a predictor of treatment response. This study investigated the association between genetic variants of the interleukin 1 beta (IL1B) gene and amygdala and ACC responsiveness to emotional stimuli and response to antidepressant treatment. In this analysis, 256 Caucasian patients with MDD (145 women, 111 men) were genotyped for variants rs16944, rs1143643, and rs1143634 in the IL1B gene (2q14). Response to antidepressant treatment over 6 weeks was defined as remission (50% decrease on Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-21-question). Brain activity under visual presentation of emotional faces was assessed in a subsample of 32 depressed patients by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T. Pharmacogenetic analyses show significant associations of the GG genotypes of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs16944 (odds ratio = 1.74; 95% confidence interval 1.2-4.3) and rs1143643 (odds ratio = 3.1; 95% confidence interval 1.3-7.8) (compared with the AA genotype) with nonremission after 6 weeks. The imaging analyses show that the number of G-alleles in both SNPs (rs16944 and rs1143643) was associated with reduced responsiveness of the amygdala and ACC to emotional stimulation. The present study suggests a negative effect of the IL1B gene on pharmacological response and amygdala and ACC function involving the same genotypes of two SNPs (rs16944, rs116343), which taken together increase the risk of nonremission over 6 weeks of antidepressant treatment in MDD. Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of the beta amyloid precursor protein-like gene in the central nervous system of the crab Chasmagnathus. Expression during memory consolidation. (United States)

    Fustiñana, Maria Sol; Ariel, Pablo; Federman, Noel; Freudenthal, Ramiro; Romano, Arturo


    Human β-amyloid, the main component in the neuritic plaques found in patients with Alzheimer's disease, is generated by cleavage of the β-amyloid precursor protein. Beyond the role in pathology, members of this protein family are synaptic proteins and have been associated with synaptogenesis, neuronal plasticity and memory, both in vertebrates and in invertebrates. Consolidation is necessary to convert a short-term labile memory to a long-term and stable form. During consolidation, gene expression and de novo protein synthesis are regulated in order to produce key proteins for the maintenance of plastic changes produced during the acquisition of new information. Here we partially cloned and sequenced the beta-amyloid precursor protein like gene homologue in the crab Chasmagnathus (cappl), showing a 37% of identity with the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster homologue and 23% with Homo sapiens but with much higher degree of sequence similarity in certain regions. We observed a wide distribution of cappl mRNA in the nervous system as well as in muscle and gills. The protein localized in all tissues analyzed with the exception of muscle. Immunofluorescence revealed localization of cAPPL in associative and sensory brain areas. We studied gene and protein expression during long-term memory consolidation using a well characterized memory model: the context-signal associative memory in this crab species. mRNA levels varied at different time points during long-term memory consolidation and correlated with cAPPL protein levels cAPPL mRNA and protein is widely distributed in the central nervous system of the crab and the time course of expression suggests a role of cAPPL during long-term memory formation.

  9. Enrichment of human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells facilitates transduction for stem cell gene therapy. (United States)

    Baldwin, Kismet; Urbinati, Fabrizia; Romero, Zulema; Campo-Fernandez, Beatriz; Kaufman, Michael L; Cooper, Aaron R; Masiuk, Katelyn; Hollis, Roger P; Kohn, Donald B


    Autologous hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy for sickle cell disease has the potential to treat this illness without the major immunological complications associated with allogeneic transplantation. However, transduction efficiency by β-globin lentiviral vectors using CD34-enriched cell populations is suboptimal and large vector production batches may be needed for clinical trials. Transducing a cell population more enriched for HSC could greatly reduce vector needs and, potentially, increase transduction efficiency. CD34(+) /CD38(-) cells, comprising ∼1%-3% of all CD34(+) cells, were isolated from healthy cord blood CD34(+) cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and transduced with a lentiviral vector expressing an antisickling form of beta-globin (CCL-β(AS3) -FB). Isolated CD34(+) /CD38(-) cells were able to generate progeny over an extended period of long-term culture (LTC) compared to the CD34(+) cells and required up to 40-fold less vector for transduction compared to bulk CD34(+) preparations containing an equivalent number of CD34(+) /CD38(-) cells. Transduction of isolated CD34(+) /CD38(-) cells was comparable to CD34(+) cells measured by quantitative PCR at day 14 with reduced vector needs, and average vector copy/cell remained higher over time for LTC initiated from CD34(+) /38(-) cells. Following in vitro erythroid differentiation, HBBAS3 mRNA expression was similar in cultures derived from CD34(+) /CD38(-) cells or unfractionated CD34(+) cells. In vivo studies showed equivalent engraftment of transduced CD34(+) /CD38(-) cells when transplanted in competition with 100-fold more CD34(+) /CD38(+) cells. This work provides initial evidence for the beneficial effects from isolating human CD34(+) /CD38(-) cells to use significantly less vector and potentially improve transduction for HSC gene therapy. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  10. Beta spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryak, P.; Zderadicka, J.; Plch, J.; Kokta, L.; Novotna, P.


    For the purpose of beta spectrometry, a semiconductor spectrometer with one Si(Li) detector cooled with liquid nitrogen was designed. Geometrical detection efficiency is about 10% 4 sr. The achieved resolution for 624 keV conversion electrons of sup(137m)Ba is 2.6 keV (FWHM). A program was written in the FORTRAN language for the correction of the deformation of the measured spectra by backscattering in the analysis of continuous beta spectra. The method permits the determination of the maximum energy of the beta spectrum with an accuracy of +-5 keV. (author)

  11. [Clinical management of beta-thalassaemia]. (United States)

    Thuret, Isabelle


    Beta-thalassemia syndromes are autosomal recessive disorders related to the inability to produce beta-globin chains. Thalassemia major is by definition a transfusion dependent anemia and iron overload is the leading cause of death and morbidity. Beta-thalassemia is rarely encountered in France where patients mainly originated from Mediterranean countries and South East Asia. Recently, two major advances have substantially improved the disease management: oral iron chelation therapy and the introduction of cardiac MRI for monitoring cardiac iron. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation remains, in clinical practice, the only curative approach and is proposed to children having an HLA-identical sibling. Diagnosis of thalassemia trait is important in order to propose genetic counseling to couples at risk. Thalassemia intermedia is a clinical entity where anemia is mild or moderate, requiring no or occasional transfusion. Clinical severity increases with age with a more severe anemia, thrombotic complications and extra-medullary hematopoiesis. Iron overload, optimally monitored with liver MRI, occurs in adult patients and is related to increased iron hyper-absorption.

  12. Prebiotic and Synbiotic Modifications of Beta Oxidation and Lipogenic Gene Expression after Experimental Hypercholesterolemia in Rat Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia C. Alves


    Full Text Available Background and aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is characterized by the presence of fat in hepatocytes because of decreased β-oxidation and increased lipogenesis. Prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotic have modulatory effects on intestinal microbiota and may influence the gut-liver axis. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of prebiotic, probiotics, and synbiotic on liver histopathology and gene expression related to β-oxidation and lipogenesis after hypercholesterolemia.Methods: Wistar male adult rats (n = 40 were submitted to hypercholesterolemic conditions (HPC (60 days. On Day 30 of HPC, rats were subdivided in 5 groups: negative control (NC: without HPC + Gv (distilled water; positive control (PC: with HPC + Gv (distilled water; prebiotic (PRE: HPC + Gv with prebiotic (Fiber FOS®; probiotic (PRO: HPC + Gv with probiotic strains Gv (Probiatop®; and synbiotic (SYN: HPC + Gv with synbiotic (Simbioflora®. All rats were sacrificed on Day 30 post-treatment. Blood was collected to verify total serum cholesterol, and liver tissue was sampled to verify histopathological changes and gene expression. Gene expression related to ß-oxidation (PPAR-α and CPT-1 and lipogenesis (SREBP-1c, FAS and ME was evaluated in liver tissue using RT-qPCR.Results: PC had higher cholesterol levels when compared to NC. PRE and SYN rats had lower cholesterol levels than PC. PC rats showed more histopathological changes than NC rats; PRE and SYN rats showed fewer alterations than PC rats. PPAR-α was expressed at higher levels in SYN and PC rats compared with PRE and PRO rats. CPT-1 expression was similar in all groups. SREBP-1c was expressed at higher levels in PC rats compared with NC rats; levels were lower in SYN rats compared with PRO rats; levels were lower in PRE rats compared with PC and PRO rats. FAS was expressed at lower levels in PRE rats compared with SYN rats. ME expression was lower in PC rats compared with NC rats.Conclusion: Prebiotic and

  13. Integration of ATAC-seq and RNA-seq identifies human alpha cell and beta cell signature genes. (United States)

    Ackermann, Amanda M; Wang, Zhiping; Schug, Jonathan; Naji, Ali; Kaestner, Klaus H


    Although glucagon-secreting α-cells and insulin-secreting β-cells have opposing functions in regulating plasma glucose levels, the two cell types share a common developmental origin and exhibit overlapping transcriptomes and epigenomes. Notably, destruction of β-cells can stimulate repopulation via transdifferentiation of α-cells, at least in mice, suggesting plasticity between these cell fates. Furthermore, dysfunction of both α- and β-cells contributes to the pathophysiology of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and β-cell de-differentiation has been proposed to contribute to type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to delineate the molecular properties that maintain islet cell type specification yet allow for cellular plasticity. We hypothesized that correlating cell type-specific transcriptomes with an atlas of open chromatin will identify novel genes and transcriptional regulatory elements such as enhancers involved in α- and β-cell specification and plasticity. We sorted human α- and β-cells and performed the "Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin with high throughput sequencing" (ATAC-seq) and mRNA-seq, followed by integrative analysis to identify cell type-selective gene regulatory regions. We identified numerous transcripts with either α-cell- or β-cell-selective expression and discovered the cell type-selective open chromatin regions that correlate with these gene activation patterns. We confirmed cell type-selective expression on the protein level for two of the top hits from our screen. The "group specific protein" (GC; or vitamin D binding protein) was restricted to α-cells, while CHODL (chondrolectin) immunoreactivity was only present in β-cells. Furthermore, α-cell- and β-cell-selective ATAC-seq peaks were identified to overlap with known binding sites for islet transcription factors, as well as with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously identified as risk loci for type 2 diabetes. We have determined the genetic landscape of

  14. Modulation of cortisol responses to the DEX/CRH test by polymorphisms of the interleukin-1beta gene in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ota Miho


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis function assessed with the combined dexamethasone (DEX/corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH test has been shown to be associated with response to antidepressant treatment. A polymorphism (rs16944 in the interleukin-1beta (IL-1β gene has also been reported to be associated with the medication response in depression. These findings prompted us to examine the possible association between IL-1β gene polymorphisms and HPA axis function assessed with the DEX/CRH test. Methods DEX/CRH test was performed in 179 healthy volunteers (45 males: mean age 40.5 ± 15.8 years; 134 females: mean age 47.1 ± 13.2 years. Five tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of IL-1β gene (rs2853550, rs1143634, rs1143633, rs1143630, rs16944 were selected at an r2 threshold of 0.80 with a minor allele frequency > 0.1. Genotyping was performed by the TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. A two-way factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed with the DEX/CRH test results as the dependent variable and genotype and gender as independent variables. To account for multiple testing, P values Results The cortisol levels after DEX administration (DST-Cortisol showed significant associations with the genotypes of rs16944 (P = 0.00049 and rs1143633 (P = 0.0060, with no significant gender effect or genotype × gender interaction. On the other hand, cortisol levels after CRH administration (DEX/CRH-Cortisol were affected by gender but were not significantly influenced by the genotype of the examined SNPs, with no significant genotype × gender interaction. Conclusions Our results suggest that genetic variations in the IL-1β gene contribute to the HPA axis alteration assessed by DST-Cortisol in healthy subjects. On the other hand, no significant associations of the IL-1β gene polymorphisms with the DEX/CRH-Cortisol were observed. Confirmation of our findings in futures studies may add new insight into

  15. Análise de polimorfismos do gene da beta-lactoglobulina em vacas da raça Nelore e efeitos sobre o peso à desmama de suas progênies Polimorphism analisys of beta-lactoglobulin gene on Nellore cows and effects on weaning weight of the calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J.C. Faria


    Full Text Available Informações sobre peso à desmama de bezerros Nelore foram utilizadas após ajuste para idade padrão aos 205 dias, sexo, idade da mãe, touro e mês de desmama, para separar as reprodutrizes em dois grupos, segundo o peso de suas crias. As médias de peso dos bezerros ajustadas pelo método dos quadrados mínimos e erros-padrão (LSM± SE foram para os grupos pesados (P e leves (L 163,21± 2,18kg e 134,44± 2,18kg, respectivamente, com 41 animais em cada grupo. Essas reprodutrizes foram submetidas a coleta de sangue para estudo de polimorfismos do gene da beta-lactoglobulina, por meio da técnica de PCR-RFLP. A amplificação e a digestão de um fragmento do gene da beta-lactoglobulina entre o éxon II e III identificou os genótipos 1AA, 24AB e 56BB, com as freqüências de 0,16 e 0,84 para os alelos A e B, respectivamente. Os 24 animais com genótipo AB apresentaram LSM± SE de peso de seus produtos de 149,50± 4,17kg, e os 56 animais de genótipo BB tiveram média de 148,44± 2,73kg. O teste do qui-quadrado não apresentou significância (P>0,05, isto é, os grupos P e L não diferiram entre si quanto às freqüências alélicas apresentadas para esse gene. O genótipo das reprodutrizes não afetou o peso à desmama de suas crias, o que sugere haver outros fatores genéticos e não genéticos de maior magnitude que afetam o peso à desmama.Weaning weights from a Nelore herd were used after adjustment of means for 205 days of age, sex, age of dam, sire and weaning month, and resulted into two groups of cows that differed by the weaning weight of their calves. The least square means (LSM and standard error (SE were for heavy group 163.21± 2.18kg and for light group 134.44± 2.18kg, with 41 animals in each group. These animals were genotyped by DNA polymorphisms of beta -lactoglobulin gene, using PCR-RFLP. After amplification and digestion of a beta-lactoglobulin gene fragment between II and III exon, genotypes 1AA, 24AB and 56BB were

  16. A cluster of coregulated genes determines TGF-beta-induced regulatory T-cell (Treg) dysfunction in NOD mice. (United States)

    D'Alise, Anna Morena; Ergun, Ayla; Hill, Jonathan A; Mathis, Diane; Benoist, Christophe


    Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) originate in the thymus, but the Treg phenotype can also be induced in peripheral lymphoid organs or in vitro by stimulation of conventional CD4(+) T cells with IL-2 and TGF-β. There have been divergent reports on the suppressive capacity of these TGF-Treg cells. We find that TGF-Tregs derived from diabetes-prone NOD mice, although expressing normal Foxp3 levels, are uniquely defective in suppressive activity, whereas TGF-Tregs from control strains (B6g7) or ex vivo Tregs from NOD mice all function normally. Most Treg-typical transcripts were shared by NOD or B6g7 TGF-Tregs, except for a small group of differentially expressed genes, including genes relevant for suppressive activity (Lrrc32, Ctla4, and Cd73). Many of these transcripts form a coregulated cluster in a broader analysis of T-cell differentiation. The defect does not map to idd3 or idd5 regions. Whereas Treg cells from NOD mice are normal in spleen and lymph nodes, the NOD defect is observed in locations that have been tied to pathogenesis of diabetes (small intestine lamina propria and pancreatic lymph node). Thus, a genetic defect uniquely affects a specific Treg subpopulation in NOD mice, in a manner consistent with a role in determining diabetes susceptibility.

  17. Semisynthetic hemoglobin A: Reconstitution of functional tetramer from semisynthetic α-globin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahni, G.; Cho, Y.J.; Iyer, K.S.; Khan, S.A.; Seetharam, R.; Acharya, A.S.


    The optimal conditions for the semisynthesis of α-globin through Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease condensation of a synthetic fragment (α 1-30 ) with the complementary apo fragment (α 31-141 ) in the presence of structure-inducing organic cosolvents and the reconstitution of the functional tetramer from semisynthetic α-globin have been investigated. The protease-catalyzed ligation of the complementary apo fragments α 1-30 and α 31-141 proceeds with very high selectivity at pH 6.0 and 4 degree C in the presence of 1-propanol as the organic cosolvent. A 30% 1-propanol solution was optimal for the semisynthetic reaction, and the synthetic reaction attained an equilibrium (approximately 50%) in 72 h. The synthetic reaction proceeds smoothly over a wide pH range (pH 5-8). Besides, the semisynthetic system is flexible, and it also proceeded well if trifluoroethanol or 2-propanol was used instead of 1-propanol. However, glycerol, a versatile organic cosolvent used in all other proteosynthetic reactions reported in the literature, was not very efficient as an organic cosolvent in the present synthetic reaction. The semisynthetic α-globin prepared with 1-propanol as the organic cosolvent has been reconstituted into HbA. The semisynthetic HbA was then purified by CM-cellulose chromatography. The semisynthetic HbA is indistinguishable from native HbA, in terms of its structural and functional properties. The semisynthetic approach provides the flexibility in protein engineering studies for the incorporation of spectroscopic labels ( 13 C- and/or 15 N-labeled amino acids), noncoded amino acids, or unnatural bond functionalities, which at present is not possible with genetic approaches

  18. Recent trends in the gene therapy of β-thalassemia (United States)

    Finotti, Alessia; Breda, Laura; Lederer, Carsten W; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Zuccato, Cristina; Kleanthous, Marina; Rivella, Stefano; Gambari, Roberto


    The β-thalassemias are a group of hereditary hematological diseases caused by over 300 mutations of the adult β-globin gene. Together with sickle cell anemia, thalassemia syndromes are among the most impactful diseases in developing countries, in which the lack of genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis have contributed to the maintenance of a very high frequency of these genetic diseases in the population. Gene therapy for β-thalassemia has recently seen steadily accelerating progress and has reached a crossroads in its development. Presently, data from past and ongoing clinical trials guide the design of further clinical and preclinical studies based on gene augmentation, while fundamental insights into globin switching and new technology developments have inspired the investigation of novel gene-therapy approaches. Moreover, human erythropoietic stem cells from β-thalassemia patients have been the cellular targets of choice to date whereas future gene-therapy studies might increasingly draw on induced pluripotent stem cells. Herein, we summarize the most significant developments in β-thalassemia gene therapy over the last decade, with a strong emphasis on the most recent findings, for β-thalassemia model systems; for β-, γ-, and anti-sickling β-globin gene addition and combinatorial approaches including the latest results of clinical trials; and for novel approaches, such as transgene-mediated activation of γ-globin and genome editing using designer nucleases. PMID:25737641

  19. Beta Blockers (United States)

    ... may not work as effectively for people of African heritage and older people, especially when taken without ... conditions/high-blood-pressure/in-depth/beta-blockers/ART-20044522 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  20. Comparison of MicroRNAs Mediated in Reactivation of the γ-Globin in β-Thalassemia Patients, Responders and Non-Responders to Hydroxyurea. (United States)

    Hojjati, Mohammad T; Azarkeivan, Azita; Pourfathollah, Ali A; Amirizadeh, Naser


    Drug induction of Hb F seems to be an ideal therapy for patients with hemoglobin (Hb) disorders, and many efforts have been made to reveal the mechanism behind it. Thus, we examined in vivo expression of some microRNAs (miRNAs) that are thought to be involved in this process. Among β-thalassemia (β-thal) patients who were undergoing hydroxyurea (HU) therapy in the past 3 months and five healthy individuals, five responders and five non-responders, were also included in the study. Erythroid progenitors were isolated by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) and miRNA expression analyzed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We showed that γ-globin, miR-210 and miR-486-3p had higher levels in the responders than the non-responders group. Moreover, miR-150 and miR-320 had higher levels in the healthy group than both non-responders and responders groups, but the expression of miR-96 did not show any significant difference between the study groups. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study proposing that 'induction of cellular hypoxic condition by Hb F inducing agents' could be the milestone of possible mechanisms that explain why responders are able to reactivate γ-globin genes and subsequently, more production of Hb F, in response to these agents in comparison to non-responders. However, further investigations need to be performed to verify this hypothesis.

  1. Rapid determination of human globin chains using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Wan, Jun-Hui; Tian, Pei-Ling; Luo, Wei-Hao; Wu, Bing-Yi; Xiong, Fu; Zhou, Wan-Jun; Wei, Xiang-Cai; Xu, Xiang-Min


    Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) of human globin chains is an important tool for detecting thalassemias and hemoglobin variants. The challenges of this method that limit its clinical application are a long analytical time and complex sample preparation. The aim of this study was to establish a simple, rapid and high-resolution RP-HPLC method for the separation of globin chains in human blood. Red blood cells from newborns and adults were diluted in deionized water and injected directly onto a micro-jupiter C18 reversed-phase column (250 mm × 4.6 mm) with UV detection at 280 nm. Under the conditions of varying pH or the HPLC gradient, the globin chains (pre-β, β, δ, α, (G)γ and (A)γ) were denatured and separated from the heme groups in 12 min with a retention time coefficient of variation (CV) ranging from 0.11 to 1.29% and a peak area CV between 0.32% and 4.86%. Significant differences (P<0.05) among three groups (normal, Hb H and β thalassemia) were found in the area ratio of α/pre-β+β applying the rapid elution procedure, while P≥0.05 was obtained between the normal and α thalassemia silent/trait group. Based on the ANOVA results, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of the δ/β and α/pre-β+β area ratios showed a sensitivity of 100.0%, and a specificity of 100.0% for indicating β thalassemia carriers, and a sensitivity of 96.6% and a specificity of 89.6% for the prediction of hemoglobin H (Hb H) disease. The proposed cut-off was 0.026 of δ/β for β thalassemia carriers and 0.626 of α/pre-β+β for Hb H disease. In addition, abnormal hemoglobin hemoglobin E (Hb E) and Hb Westmead (Hb WS) were successfully identified using this RP-HPLC method. Our experience in developing this RP-HPLC method for the rapid separation of human globin chains could be of use for similar work. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular Properties of Globin Channels and Pores: Role of Cholesterol in Ligand Binding and Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene A Morrill


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Globins contain one or more cavities that control or affect such functions as ligand movement and ligand binding. Here we report that the extended globin family [cytoglobin (Cygb; neuroglobin (Ngb; myoglobin (Mb; hemoglobin (Hb subunits Hba(α and Hbb(β] contain either a transmembrane (TM helix or pore-lining region as well as internal cavities. Protein motif/domain analyses indicate that Ngb and Hbb each contain 5 cholesterol-binding (CRAC/CARC domains and 1 caveolin binding motif, whereas the Cygb dimer has 6 cholesterol-binding domains but lacks caveolin-binding motifs. Mb and Hba each exhibit 2 cholesterol-binding domains and also lack caveolin-binding motifs. The Hb αβ-tetramer contains 14 cholesterol-binding domains. Computer algorithms indicate that Cygb and Ngb cavities display multiple partitions and C-terminal pore-lining regions, whereas Mb has three major cavities plus a C-terminal pore-lining region. The Hb tetramer exhibits a large internal cavity but the subunits differ in that they contain a C-terminal TM helix (Hba and pore-lining region (Hbb. The cavities include 43 of 190 Cygb residues, 38 of 151 of Ngb residues, 55 of 154 Mb residues and 137 of 688 residues in the Hb tetramer. Each cavity complex includes 6 to 8 residues of the TM helix or pore-lining region and CRAC/CARC domains exist within all cavities. Erythrocyte Hb αβ-tetramers are largely cytosolic but also bind to a membrane anion exchange protein, band 3, which contains a large internal cavity and 12 TM helices (5 being pore-lining regions. The Hba TM helix may be the erythrocyte membrane band 3 attachment site. Band 3 contributes 4 caveolin binding motifs and 10 CRAC/CARC domains. Cholesterol binding may create lipid-disordered phases that alter globin cavities and facilitate ligand movement, permitting ion channel formation and conformational changes that orchestrate anion and ligand (O2, CO2, NO movement within the large internal cavities and


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar


    Full Text Available Bright red hemoglobins, the most well-known paradigm in protein science, seem to be ubiquitous in nature. With advances in modern tools and techniques, discovery of new globins at a rapid pace has expanded this family. With every discovery, new insights emerged regarding their novel structure, function and several other characteristics previously not observed for hemoglobins. Even the classical function unanimously assigned to hemoglobins – oxygen transport and storage – needed re-evaluation. The ability of this class of proteins to show responses against various gaseous ligands, even the poisonous ones, indicate that it is obviously as ancient as life. As organisms evolved, hemoglobins also evolved, and accumulated a great degree of diversity in all aspects. The classical globin fold is very unique with 3-on-3 alpha helical bundle as observed in the traditional oxygen-transport hemoglobins like myoglobin, human blood hemoglobin and leghemoglobins in plants. However, a class of the newly discovered hemoglobins, which dominate the superfamily and appears ancient in origin mostly have 2-on-2 fold, commonly termed as “truncated” hemoglobins. These hemoglobins are phylogenetically distinct from their classical counterparts and are often shorter in their polypeptide length by 20-40 residues mainly due to a lack of short A helix, D helix and F helix. However, hemoglobins with 2-on-2 fold were also later found to have polypeptide chain lengths similar in size to classical globins. Disordered pre-F helix region, conserved glycine motifs and other key residues and apolar tunnels through their protein matrix for migration of ligands are some unique characteristics features of these truncated hemoglobins. Some of these are also hexacoordinated at heme iron where an amino acid from within the protein coordinates heme iron in absence of a ligand. These hemoglobins are well known for their high affinity towards ligand and have a diverse mechanism of

  4. Cephem Potentiation by Inactivation of Nonessential Genes Involved in Cell Wall Biogenesis of beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Kristin R.; Sigurdardottir, Helga Høeg; Jana, Bimal


    Reversal of antimicrobial resistance is an appealing and largely unexplored strategy in drug discovery. The objective of this study was to identify potential targets for “helper” drugs reversing cephem resistance in Escherichia coli strains producing β-lactamases. A CMY-2-encoding plasmid...... was transferred by conjugation to seven isogenic deletion mutants exhibiting cephem hypersusceptibility. The effect of each mutation was evaluated by comparing the MICs in the wild type and the mutant harboring the same plasmid. Mutation of two genes encoding proteins involved in cell wall biosynthesis, dap...... for all three drugs. Individual deletion of dapF and mrcB in a clinical isolate of CTX-M-15-producing E. coli sequence type 131 (ST131) resulted in partial reversal of ceftazidime and cefepime resistance but did not reduce MICs below susceptibility breakpoints. Growth curve analysis indicated no fitness...

  5. Loss of Major DNase I Hypersensitive Sites in Duplicatedglobin Gene Cluster Incompletely Silences HBB Gene Expression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reading, N. S.; Shooter, C.; Song, J.; Miller, R.; Agarwal, A.; Láníková, Lucie; Clark, B.; Thein, S.L.; Divoký, V.; Prchal, J.T.


    Roč. 37, č. 11 (2016), s. 1153-1156 ISSN 1059-7794 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH15223 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : globin genes * regulation * sickle cell disease * HBB duplication Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.601, year: 2016

  6. Polygenic inheritance of Tourette syndrome, stuttering, attention deficit hyperactivity, conduct, and oppositional defiant disorder: The additive and subtractive effect of the three dopaminergic genes - DRD2, D{beta}H, and DAT1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comings, D.E.; Wu, S.; Chiu, C.; Ring, R.H.; Gade, R.; Ahn, C.; Dietz, G.; Muhleman, D. [Hope Medical Center, Duarte, CA (United States)] [and others


    Polymorphisms of three different dopaminergic genes, dopamine D{sub 2} receptor (DRD2), dopamine {beta}-hydroxylase (D{beta}H), and dopamine transporter (DAT1), were examined in Tourette syndrome (TS) probands, their relatives, and controls. Each gene individually showed a significant correlation with various behavioral variables in these subjects. The additive and subtractive effects of the three genes were examined by genotyping all three genes in the same set of subjects. For 9 of 20 TS associated comorbid behaviors there was a significant linear association between the degree of loading for markers of three genes and the mean behavior scores. The behavior variables showing the significant associations were, in order, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), stuttering, oppositional defiant, tics, conduct, obsessive-compulsive, mania, alcohol abuse, and general anxiety - behaviors that constitute the most overt clinical aspects of TS. For 16 of the 20 behavior scores there was a linear progressive decrease in the mean score with progressively lesser loading for the three gene markers. These results suggest that TS, ADHD, stuttering, oppositional defiant and conduct disorder, and other behaviors associated with TS, are polygenic, due in part to these three dopaminergic genes, and that the genetics of other polygenic psychiatric disorders may be deciphered using this technique. 144 refs., 2 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. Size Polymorphism in Alleles of the Myoglobin Gene from Biomphalaria Mollusks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo M. Santoro


    Full Text Available Introns are common among all eukaryotes, while only a limited number of introns are found in prokaryotes. Globin and globin-like proteins are widely distributed in nature, being found even in prokaryotes and a wide range of patterns of intron-exon have been reported in several eukaryotic globin genes. Globin genes in invertebrates show considerable variation in the positions of introns; globins can be found without introns, with only one intron or with three introns in different positions. In this work we analyzed the introns in the myoglobin gene from Biomphalaria glabrata, B. straminea and B. tenagophila. In the Biomphalaria genus, the myoglobin gene has three introns; these were amplified by PCR and analyzed by PCR-RFLP. Results showed that the size (number or nucleotides and the nucleotide sequence of the coding gene of the myoglobin are variable in the three species. We observed the presence of size polymorphisms in intron 2 and 3; this characterizes a homozygous/heterozygous profile and it indicates the existence of two alleles which are different in size in each species of Biomphalaria. This polymorphism could be explored for specific identification of Biomphalaria individuals.

  8. Closely linked polymorphic marker: successful application in preimplantation genetic diagnosis for beta-thalassemia%紧密连锁的多态性位点在β地中海贫血植入前遗传学诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓捷; 庄广伦; 彭文林; 周灿权; 李洁; 方丛; 李穗萍; 陈勇; 童大跃


    目的探讨与β珠蛋白基因紧密连锁的多态性位点 HumTH01在β地中海贫血(β地贫)植入前遗传学诊断(preimplantation genetic diagnosis,PGD)中的作用.方法对4例已出生重型β地贫患儿的、双方均为β地贫基因携带者的夫妇进行了6个周期的PGD治疗,应用多重巢式PCR同时检测β珠蛋白基因及 HumTH01基因,选择健康的胚胎移植入子宫.结果 6个周期共活检44个胚胎,获得44个卵裂球,其中41个卵裂球扩增成功,35个胚胎经PCR分析后获得明确诊断,移植了14个胚胎,获得1例临床妊娠.孕17周时经脐带血穿刺,证实为完全正常胚胎,现已出生一正常女婴.单个卵裂球平均扩增效率为89.7%,等位基因脱扣(allele drop-out, ADO)率为14.4%. HumTH01基因可以帮助检测出ADO及污染的发生.结论本研究为国内首次报道应用多重巢式PCR同时检测β珠蛋白基因及 HumTH01基因对β地贫进行植入前遗传学诊断并成功获得临床妊娠.在PGD中同时检测与β珠蛋白基因紧密连锁的多态性位点可以降低PGD中由于ADO及污染造成的误诊的风险.%Objective To evaluate the applicability of the polymorphic marker closely linked with beta-globin gene for the preimplantati on genetic diagnosis (PGD) in couples at risk of having child with beta-thalassemia. Methods Single cell multiplex nested PCR which coamplifies the beta-globin gene and the closely linked polymorphic marker, HumTHO1 gene, was applied in six clinical PGD cycles for four couples with beta-thalassemia. Results In six clinical PGD cycles, a total of 44 embryos were biopsied and 44 blastomeres were obtained. Forty-one blastomeres were amplified and thirty-five embryos were given definite diagnoses. Fourteen embryos were transferred back to the uterus of the patients and one pregnancy went on well and ended with one live healthy birth, which confirmed the results of PGD. The average amplification efficiency of single blastomere was 89.7% and

  9. Molecular epidemiology of outbreak-related pseudomonas aeruginosa strains carrying the novel variant blaVIM-17 metallo-beta-lactamase gene. (United States)

    Siarkou, Victoria I; Vitti, Danai; Protonotariou, Efthimia; Ikonomidis, Alexandros; Sofianou, Danai


    A study was designed to investigate the molecular epidemiological characteristics of multidrug-resistant outbreak-related Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates collected in a university hospital in northern Greece. Of 29 nonreplicate P. aeruginosa isolates resistant to carbapenems and ceftazidime, 14 were positive for metallo-beta-lactamase production. PCR analyses with primers specific for bla(VIM) and bla(IMP) revealed that 13 isolates carried a novel bla(VIM-2) gene variant, designated bla(VIM-17), and only 1 isolate carried bla(VIM-2), a gene predominant among P. aeruginosa strains in Greek hospitals. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of XbaI-digested genomic DNAs showed a close genetic relationship for 12 of 13 bla(VIM-17)-carrying outbreak-related isolates, which were of the O11 serotype; the clonally unrelated isolate carrying bla(VIM-17) was of the O12 serotype. PCR mapping strategies for the detection of class 1 integrons and sequencing approaches revealed the presence of integrons containing one bla(VIM) cassette flanked by two aacA29 cassettes. These integrons were similar but not identical to In59 (GenBank accession number AF263519) initially described in France. All isolates carrying bla(VIM-17), regardless of their genetic profile, had an identical integron, named In59.3, indicating that although the hospital outbreak was mainly due to clonal dissemination, the horizontal transmission of the bla(VIM-17)-containing integron among P. aeruginosa isolates should also have occurred. An outbreak-related isolate and a control strain, both of which carried the bla(VIM-2) gene but which were clonally distinct, had an identical integron, named In59.2, which differed only at the level of the bla(VIM) gene from In59.3 integrons, suggesting a common ancestry. The spread of the bla(VIM-17)-containing integron in clonally unrelated P. aeruginosa isolates without any evidence of plasmid carriage is probably associated with a transposon.

  10. Global analysis of estrogen receptor beta binding to breast cancer cell genome reveals an extensive interplay with estrogen receptor alpha for target gene regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papa Maria


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogen receptors alpha (ERα and beta (ERβ are transcription factors (TFs that mediate estrogen signaling and define the hormone-responsive phenotype of breast cancer (BC. The two receptors can be found co-expressed and play specific, often opposite, roles, with ERβ being able to modulate the effects of ERα on gene transcription and cell proliferation. ERβ is frequently lost in BC, where its presence generally correlates with a better prognosis of the disease. The identification of the genomic targets of ERβ in hormone-responsive BC cells is thus a critical step to elucidate the roles of this receptor in estrogen signaling and tumor cell biology. Results Expression of full-length ERβ in hormone-responsive, ERα-positive MCF-7 cells resulted in a marked reduction in cell proliferation in response to estrogen and marked effects on the cell transcriptome. By ChIP-Seq we identified 9702 ERβ and 6024 ERα binding sites in estrogen-stimulated cells, comprising sites occupied by either ERβ, ERα or both ER subtypes. A search for TF binding matrices revealed that the majority of the binding sites identified comprise one or more Estrogen Response Element and the remaining show binding matrixes for other TFs known to mediate ER interaction with chromatin by tethering, including AP2, E2F and SP1. Of 921 genes differentially regulated by estrogen in ERβ+ vs ERβ- cells, 424 showed one or more ERβ site within 10 kb. These putative primary ERβ target genes control cell proliferation, death, differentiation, motility and adhesion, signal transduction and transcription, key cellular processes that might explain the biological and clinical phenotype of tumors expressing this ER subtype. ERβ binding in close proximity of several miRNA genes and in the mitochondrial genome, suggests the possible involvement of this receptor in small non-coding RNA biogenesis and mitochondrial genome functions. Conclusions Results indicate that the

  11. Divergent expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 11beta-hydroxylase genes between male morphs in the central nervous system, sonic muscle and testis of a vocal fish. (United States)

    Arterbery, Adam S; Deitcher, David L; Bass, Andrew H


    The vocalizing midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, has two male morphs that exhibit alternative mating tactics. Only territorial males acoustically court females with long duration (minutes to >1h) calls, whereas sneaker males attempt to steal fertilizations. During the breeding season, morph-specific tactics are paralleled by a divergence in relative testis and vocal muscle size, plasma levels of the androgen 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) and the glucocorticoid cortisol, and mRNA expression levels in the central nervous system (CNS) of the steroid-synthesizing enzyme aromatase (estrogen synthase). Here, we tested the hypothesis that the midshipman's two male morphs would further differ in the CNS, as well as in the testis and vocal muscle, in mRNA abundance for the enzymes 11beta-hydroxylase (11betaH) and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11betaHSD) that directly regulate both 11KT and cortisol synthesis. Quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated male morph-specific profiles for both enzymes. Territorial males had higher 11betaH and 11betaHSD mRNA levels in testis and vocal muscle. By contrast, sneaker males had the higher CNS expression, especially for 11betaHSD, in the region containing an expansive vocal pacemaker circuit that directly determines the temporal attributes of natural calls. We propose for territorial males that higher enzyme expression in testis underlies its greater plasma 11KT levels, which in vocal muscle provides both gluconeogenic and androgenic support for its long duration calling. We further propose for sneaker males that higher enzyme expression in the vocal CNS contributes to known cortisol-specific effects on its vocal physiology. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of interleukin-1 beta gene polymorphisms on the risk of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke at young age in vivo and in vitro. (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Zhao, Hua; X, Bin; Wang, Ya-Bin; Zhang, Jian; Cao, Yu-Kang; Wu, Qing; Cao, Feng


    In this study, by using vivo and vitro model, we assessed whether interleukin (IL)-1beta gene polymorphisms influence on the risk of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke at young age. 147 patients (age stroke were deeded as control group and greed to give blood samples for DNA analysis and biochemical measurements by written informed consent. IL-1β-511 wild type (WT, CC) and SNP (TT) were established and transfected into Rat myocardial H9c2 cell and Mouse brain endothelial bEND.3 cells. In Young Age MI or stroke patients, the IL-1β levels of patients with 511CC are higher than that of patients with 511TT. In our study, NF-κB miRNA, iNOS activity, NF-κB, iNOS and Bax protein expressions of MI-induced H9c2 cell or stroke-induced bEND.3 cells in IL-1β-511TT group were lower than those of IL-1β-511CC. Additionally, the protein expression of MMP-2 of MI-induced H9c2 cell or stroke-induced bEND.3 cells in IL-1β-511TT group were higher than that of IL-1β 511CC group. In conclusion, our data indicate that IL-1β-511TT/CC influence on the risk of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke at young age through NF-κB, iNOS, MMP-2 and Bax.

  13. Interleukin 1 beta gene and risk of schizophrenia: detailed case-control and family-based studies and an updated meta-analysis. (United States)

    Shibuya, Masako; Watanabe, Yuichiro; Nunokawa, Ayako; Egawa, Jun; Kaneko, Naoshi; Igeta, Hirofumi; Someya, Toshiyuki


    Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. To assess whether the IL1B gene confers increased susceptibility to schizophrenia, we conducted case-control and family-based studies and an updated meta-analysis. We tested the association between IL1B and schizophrenia in 1229 case-control and 112 trio samples using 12 markers, including common tagging single nucleotide variations (SNVs) and a rare non-synonymous variation detected by resequencing the coding regions. We also performed a meta-analysis of rs16944 using a total of 8724 case-control and 201 trio samples from 16 independent populations. We found no significant associations between any of the 12 SNVs examined and schizophrenia in either case-control or trio samples. Moreover, our meta-analysis results showed no significant association between the common SNV, rs16944, and schizophrenia. The present study does not support a role for IL1B in schizophrenia susceptibility.

  14. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B-beta (eIF2Bβ), a new class of plant virus resistance gene. (United States)

    Shopan, Jannat; Mou, Haipeng; Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Changtong; Ma, Weiwei; Walsh, John A; Hu, Zhongyuan; Yang, Jinghua; Zhang, Mingfang


    Recessive resistances to plant viruses in the Potyvirus genus have been found to be based on mutations in the plant eukaryotic translation initiation factors, eIF4E and eIF4G or their isoforms. Here we report that natural, monogenic recessive resistance to the Potyvirus Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) has been found in a number of mustard (Brassica juncea) accessions. Bulked segregant analysis and sequencing of resistant and susceptible plant lines indicated the resistance is controlled by a single recessive gene, recessive TuMV resistance 03 (retr03), an allele of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B-beta (eIF2Bβ). Silencing of eIF2Bβ in a TuMV-susceptible mustard plant line and expression of eIF2Bβ from a TuMV-susceptible line in a TuMV-resistant mustard plant line confirmed the new resistance mechanism. A functional copy of a specific allele of eIF2Bβ is required for efficient TuMV infection. eIF2Bβ represents a new class of virus resistance gene conferring resistance to any pathogen. eIF2B acts as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for its GTP-binding protein partner eIF2 via interaction with eIF2·GTP at an early step in translation initiation. Further genotyping indicated that a single non-synonymous substitution (A120G) in the N-terminal region of eIF2Bβ was responsible for the TuMV resistance. A reproducible marker has been developed, facilitating marker-assisted selection for TuMV resistance in B. juncea. Our findings provide a new target for seeking natural resistance to potyviruses and new opportunities for the control of potyviruses using genome editing techniques targeted on eIF2Bβ. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The Correlation of Cardiac and Hepatic Hemosiderosis as Measured by T2*MRI Technique with Ferritin Levels and Hemochromatosis Gene Mutations in Iranian Patients with Beta Thalassemia Major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Soleiman Soltanpour


    Full Text Available Objectives: Organ-specific hemosiderosis and iron overload complications are more serious and more frequent in some patients with beta thalassemia major (BTM compared with others. We investigated whether coinheritance of HFE H63D or C282Y gene mutations in patients with BTM contributes to the phenotypic variation of iron overload complications and assessed the correlation of cardiac and hepatic hemosiderosis with plasma ferritin levels. Methods: We studied 60 patients with BTM with a mean age of 17.5±9.1 years from the Northwest of Iran. HFE gene mutations were analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Cardiac and hepatic hemosiderosis was assessed using T2*magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Ferritin levels were measured using the enzyme immunoassay method. Results: Ferritin levels showed a strong inverse correlation with hepatic T2*MRI values (r = -0.631, p = 0.001 but a poor correlation with cardiac T2*MRI values (r = -0.297, p = 0.044. The correlation between cardiac T2*MRI values and hepatic T2*MRI values was poor and insignificant (r = 0.287, p = 0.058. Genotype and allele distribution of HFE H63D and C282Y mutation did not differ significantly between patients with and without hepatic or cardiac hemosiderosis (p > 0.050. However, carriers of HFE 63D allele had significantly higher ferritin levels compared with non-carriers (1 903±993 vs. 992±683, p < 0.001. Conclusions: Cardiac T2*MRI values showed a poor correlation with hepatic T2*MRI values and ferritin levels. Accurate assessment of cardiac iron overload in patients with BTM can only be done using the T2*MRI technique. Additionally, HFE H63D is a significant determinant factor for elevated ferritin levels in BTM patients.

  16. Beta-Defensin 2 and 3 Promote Bacterial Clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Inhibiting Macrophage Autophagy through Downregulation of Early Growth Response Gene-1 and c-FOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjian Wu


    Full Text Available Beta-defensins 2 and 3 (BD2 and BD3 are inducible peptides present at the sites of infection, and they are well characterized for their antimicrobial activities and immune-regulatory functions. However, no study has thoroughly investigated their immunomodulatory effects on macrophage-mediated immune responses against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA. Here, we use THP-1 and RAW264.7 cell lines and demonstrate that BD2 and BD3 suppressed macrophage autophagy but enhanced the engulfment of PA and Zymosan bioparticles as well as the formation of phagolysosomes, using immunofluorescence staining and confocal microscopy. Plate count assay showed that macrophage-mediated phagocytosis and intracellular killing of PA were promoted by BD2 and BD3. Furthermore, microarray and real-time PCR showed that the expression of two genes, early growth response gene-1 (EGR1 and c-FOS, was attenuated by BD2 and BD3. Western blot revealed that BD2 and BD3 inhibited the expression and nuclear translocation of EGR1 and c-FOS. Knockdown of EGR1 and c-FOS by siRNA transfection suppressed macrophage autophagy before and after PA infection; while overexpression of these two transcription factors enhanced autophagy but reversed the role of BD2 and BD3 on macrophage-mediated PA eradication. Together, these results demonstrate a novel immune defense activity of BD2 and BD3, which promotes clearance of PA by inhibiting macrophage autophagy through downregulation of EGR1 and c-FOS.

  17. A single nucleotide polymorphism within the acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase beta gene is associated with proteinuria in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Maeda


    Full Text Available It has been suggested that genetic susceptibility plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. A large-scale genotyping analysis of gene-based single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes identified the gene encoding acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase beta (ACACB as a candidate for a susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy; the landmark SNP was found in the intron 18 of ACACB (rs2268388: intron 18 +4139 C > T, p = 1.4x10(-6, odds ratio = 1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33-1.96. The association of this SNP with diabetic nephropathy was examined in 9 independent studies (4 from Japan including the original study, one Singaporean, one Korean, and two European with type 2 diabetes. One case-control study involving European patients with type 1 diabetes was included. The frequency of the T allele for SNP rs2268388 was consistently higher among patients with type 2 diabetes and proteinuria. A meta-analysis revealed that rs2268388 was significantly associated with proteinuria in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes (p = 5.35 x 10(-8, odds ratio = 1.61, 95% Cl: 1.35-1.91. Rs2268388 was also associated with type 2 diabetes-associated end-stage renal disease (ESRD in European Americans (p = 6 x 10(-4, odds ratio = 1.61, 95% Cl: 1.22-2.13. Significant association was not detected between this SNP and nephropathy in those with type 1 diabetes. A subsequent in vitro functional analysis revealed that a 29-bp DNA fragment, including rs2268388, had significant enhancer activity in cultured human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. Fragments corresponding to the disease susceptibility allele (T had higher enhancer activity than those of the major allele. These results suggest that ACACB is a strong candidate for conferring susceptibility for proteinuria in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  18. Multiplex PCR Study of Plasmid-Mediated AmpC Beta-Lactamases Genes in Clinical Isolates of Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Dehghani


    Full Text Available Background:   AmpC β-lactamases are important cephalosporinases chromosomally encoded in many of Enterobacteriaceae and a few other organisms where they mediate resistance to cephalothin, cefazolin, cefoxitin and penicillins. The six different families of plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases have been described, but no phenotypic test can discriminate among them. AmpC multiplex PCR has been successfully used to discriminate plasmid-mediated ampC specific families in organisms such as Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to indicate the prevalence of AmpC β-lactamase genes by specifically designed primers through PCR test.Methods:   243 total clinical urine samples were collected, and 227 isolates were identified as Escherichia coli based on standard biochemical tests. Subsequently, the isolates were screened by disc diffusion and combined disc test for β-lactamase production. Resistant isolates were evaluated by PCR for ampC family determination. Results:  Antibiotic resistance pattern were observed as follows: cefepime (%25, ceftazidime (%31, ceftriaxone (%37, cefotaxime (%38. The ratio of isolates was detected as ESBLs and AmpC producers were 34% and 5.2%, respectively. PCR performed on 12 selected isolates via phenotypic tests and the results revealed that among 12 isolates, 11 contained blaCMY-42. Conclusion:  Unfortunately, antibiotic resistance has become an increasingly critical problem in many countries like Iran and occurrence of isolates co-expressing AmpC-β-lactamases and ESBLs can create serious problems in the future. As antibiotic options in the treatment of AmpC β-lactamases and ESBLs producing organisms are extremely limited, molecular screening by laboratories is suggested to reduce the risk of therapeutic defeat.

  19. Wolfram syndrome 1 gene (WFS1) product localizes to secretory granules and determines granule acidification in pancreatic beta-cells. (United States)

    Hatanaka, Masayuki; Tanabe, Katsuya; Yanai, Akie; Ohta, Yasuharu; Kondo, Manabu; Akiyama, Masaru; Shinoda, Koh; Oka, Yoshitomo; Tanizawa, Yukio


    Wolfram syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by juvenile-onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy. The gene responsible for the syndrome (WFS1) encodes an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident transmembrane protein. The Wfs1-null mouse exhibits progressive insulin deficiency causing diabetes. Previous work suggested that the function of the WFS1 protein is connected to unfolded protein response and to intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. However, its precise molecular function in pancreatic β-cells remains elusive. In our present study, immunofluorescent and electron-microscopic analyses revealed that WFS1 localizes not only to ER but also to secretory granules in pancreatic β-cells. Intragranular acidification was assessed by measuring intracellular fluorescence intensity raised by the acidotrophic agent, 3-[2,4-dinitroanilino]-3'-amino-N-methyldipropyramine. Compared with wild-type β-cells, there was a 32% reduction in the intensity in WFS1-deficient β-cells, indicating the impairment of granular acidification. This phenotype may, at least partly, account for the evidence that Wfs1-null islets have impaired proinsulin processing, resulting in an increased circulating proinsulin level. Morphometric analysis using electron microscopy evidenced that the density of secretory granules attached to the plasma membrane was significantly reduced in Wfs1-null β-cells relative to that in wild-type β-cells. This may be relevant to the recent finding that granular acidification is required for the priming of secretory granules preceding exocytosis and may partly explain the fact that glucose-induced insulin secretion is profoundly impaired in young prediabetic Wfs1-null mice. These results thus provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of β-cell dysfunction in patients with Wolfram syndrome.

  20. Induction of gene expression in sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) treated with 17beta-estradiol, diethylstilbestrol, or ethinylestradiol: the use of mRNA fingerprints as an indicator of gene regulation. (United States)

    Denslow, N D; Bowman, C J; Ferguson, R J; Lee, H S; Hemmer, M J; Folmar, L C


    The recent interest in hormonally active environmental contaminants has sparked a drive to find sensitive methods to measure their effects on wildlife. A molecular-based assay has been developed to measure the induction of gene expression in sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) exposed in vivo to the natural and pharmaceutical estrogens 17beta-estradiol, ethinylestradiol, and diethylstilbestrol. This method used differential display reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assays to compare the expression of individual mRNAs from control and estrogen-exposed fish. Forty-eight differentially expressed cDNAs were isolated by this method, including cDNAs for vitelline envelope proteins and vitellogenin. The mRNA expression patterns for fish injected with a pharmacological dose of estradiol (5 mg/kg) were identical to those obtained in fish receiving constant aqueous exposure to 212 ng estradiol/liter. Further, the cDNA "fingerprint" pattern observed in the estradiol-treated fish also matched that obtained in fish receiving continuous-flow aqueous exposures to 192 ng ethinyl estradiol/liter and a nominal concentration of 200 ng diethylstilbestrol/liter. The results demonstrate a characteristic expression pattern for genes upregulated by exposure to a variety of natural and anthropogenic estrogens and suggest this approach may be valuable to examine the potential effects of environmental contaminants on other endocrine-mediated pathways of reproduction, growth, and development. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  1. Hemochromatosis C282Y gene mutation as a potential susceptibility factor for iron-overload in Egyptian beta-thalassemia patients

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    G.M. Mokhtar


    Full Text Available Background: Hereditary hemochromatosis is the most frequent cause of primary iron overload that is associated with HFE gene’s mutation especially the C282Y mutation. The interaction between hemoglobin chain synthesis’ disorders and the C282Y mutation may worsen the clinical picture of beta-thalassemia major (β-TM. Aim: To establish the prevalence of the C282Y mutations in Egyptian β-TM patients and to address its adverse effects. Methods: Two-hundred and five β-TM patients were recruited and divided into two groups based on their serum ferritin (SF; group I (N = 125 (SF ≤ 2500 ng/dl and group II (N = 80 (SF > 2500 ng/dl. All patients were subjected to clinical and laboratory assessment with special emphasis on iron overload complications. Genotyping was assessed by polymerase chain reaction for detection of C282Y mutation in HFE gene. Results: The C282Y mutation was not detected in the studied β-TM neither in homozygous nor heterozygous state. There were several iron overload complications including cardiac complication (9.1%, liver disease (36.6%, delayed puberty (56.6%, primary (35.71% and secondary amenorrhea (21.42%, short stature (27.3%, diabetes (3.4%, neutropenia (9.7%, arthralgia (10.2%, gastrointestinal (21.1%, depression (2.9% and others (12.05%. Group I showed a statistically significant lower rate of taking iron-rich diet when compared to group II. Group II showed significant longer mean duration of disease, higher total transfusion rate per life, lower mean HbF% level, higher mean HbA% level, and higher rate of elevated liver enzymes than patients with SF ≤ 2500 ng/dl. Conclusion: The C282Y mutation was not detected in the studied cohort of Egyptian β-TM patients neither in homozygous nor heterozygous state in spite of manifestations of iron overload complications. Keywords: Beta-thalassemia major, Hereditary hemochromatosis, The C282Y mutation, Iron overload complications, Egyptian


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Kumar


    Full Text Available There are an estimated 45 million carriers of β-thalassemia trait and about 12,000-15,000 infants with β-thalassemia major are born every year in India. The consanguinity rates are higher in India, and thalassemia major constitutes a significant burden on the health care system. In present study, β-thalassemia mutations were characterized in 300 thalassemia cases from 2007 to 2010 using ARMS-PCR and DNA sequencing. The five most common mutations accounted 79.3% of the studied chromosomes that includes IVS1-5(G>C, Cod 41-42(-TCTT, Cod8-9(+G, Cod16(-C and 619bp del. Though IVS1-5(G>C is most common mutation when all the communities were included, the percentage prevalence were calculated on sub caste basis and found that IVS1-5(G>C percentage prevalence varied from 25 to 60 in Aroras & Khatris and Thakur respectively. Interestingly Cod41-42(-TCTT mutation which is the second commonest among the mutations reported was totally absent in Kayasthas and Muslim community. These findings have implications for providing molecular diagnosis, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis to high risk couples of β-thalassemia.

  3. Variations in the β-Globin genes of Sickle Cell Anaemia Patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 28, 2016 ... Context: Sickle Cell Anaemia (SCA) is a genetic disorder with a life-long disability .... also cause diagnostic difficulties with routine diagnostic facilities.[10] ..... doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0005005. Available at [Last.

  4. Rapid screening of β-Globin gene mutations by Real-Time PCR in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction of the real time PCR has made a revolution in the time taken for the PCR reactions. We present a method for the diagnosis of the common mutations of the B-thalassemia in Egyptian children & families. The procedure depends on the real-time PCR using specific fluorescently labeled hybridization probes.

  5. Tissue- and stage-specific Wnt target gene expression is controlled subsequent to beta-catenin recruitment to cis-regulatory modules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakamura, Y.; de Paiva Alves, E.; Veenstra, G.J.C.; Hoppler, S.


    Key signalling pathways, such as canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signalling, operate repeatedly to regulate tissue- and stage-specific transcriptional responses during development. Although recruitment of nuclear beta-catenin to target genomic loci serves as the hallmark of canonical Wnt signalling,

  6. Disulfiram generates a stable N,N-diethylcarbamoyl adduct on Cys-125 of rat hemoglobin beta-chains in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erve, J C; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard; Valentine, H S


    residues each. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of two new globin species from DSF-treated rats collected by HPLC revealed increments of 99 Da above the mass of the unmodified chains (beta-2 and beta-3). In a separate experiment, the globin mixture was digested for 2 h with Glu-C and reanalyzed by MALDI-TOF MS....... Results showed a peptide at m/z 2716.3 having a mass 99 Da higher than a known Cys-containing peptide. Subsequently, the Glu-C digest was analyzed using Q-TOF tandem MS, enabling observation of the +4 charge state of the peptide with m/z 2716.3. This peptide was fragmented to produce y-sequence ions...

  7. Analysis of gene expression in gecko digital adhesive pads indicates significant production of cysteine- and glycine-rich beta-keratins. (United States)

    Hallahan, David L; Keiper-Hrynko, Natalie M; Shang, Tanya Q; Ganzke, Thaya S; Toni, Mattia; Dalla Valle, Luisa; Alibardi, Lorenzo


    Microscopic bristles (setae) present on digital pads permit the adhesion and climbing of geckos. Keratins of setae of the lizard Gekko gecko (Tokay gecko) were analyzed by the isolation of expressed mRNAs and by the generation of an EST library. Of the 510 sequences determined, 268 (52.9%) were unique. Of these, 14 appeared to encode alpha- and 111 beta-keratins. Within the beta-keratins, we identified five groups based on nucleotide sequence comparisons. Of these, one contained the bulk of beta-keratins, with 103 EST members. The mRNAs within this major group, together with two singlets, encoded cysteine-proline-serine-rich proteins of 10-14 kDa (Ge-cprp). One of the smaller groups of transcripts encoded slightly larger glycine-proline-serine-rich proteins, of 14-19 kDa (Ge-gprp). The remaining group consisted of smaller (9 kDa) serine-tyrosine-rich beta-keratins (Ge-strp). Thus three classes could be distinguished by amino acid sequence alignment. Exact matches for some of the peptide sequences obtained from setal proteins by ms/ms sequencing occur within several of these clones. Most of the beta-keratins were basic and contained a core-box region of two beta-strand sequences, with high homology to core-boxes present in avian scale and feather beta-keratins. Core-boxes are beta-folded regions that are likely responsible for polymerization into the beta-keratin filaments. The two deduced alpha-keratins of 52.7 kDa are both acidic, and contain the typical central rod region with some homology to mammalian and avian alpha-keratins, with variable N- and C-terminal regions. Basic beta-ker