WorldWideScience

Sample records for beta dicarbonyl compounds

  1. Polyfunctional beta-Dicarbonyl Compounds by Michael Addition Reactions of Ester Enolates to alpha-Benzylidene and alpha-Alkylidene-beta-dicarbonyl Compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holan, Martin; Pohl, Radek; Císařová, I.; Jahn, Ullrich

    -, č. 18 (2012), s. 3459-3475 ISSN 1434-193X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1936 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Michael addition * diastereoselectivity * regioselectivity * enols * dicarbonyl compounds Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.344, year: 2012

  2. 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds in commonly consumed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degen, Julia; Hellwig, Michael; Henle, Thomas

    2012-07-18

    1,2-Dicarbonyl compounds, formed from carbohydrates during thermal processing in the course of caramelization and Maillard reactions, are intensively discussed as precursors for advanced glycation endproducts in foods and in vivo. To obtain information about the uptake of individual compounds with commonly consumed foods, a comprehensive analysis of the content of 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG), 3-deoxygalactosone (3-DGal), and methylglyoxal (MGO) together with 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in 173 food items like bakery products, pasta, nonalcoholic and alcoholic beverages, sweet spreads, and condiments was performed. Following suitable cleanup procedures, 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds were quantitated after derivatization with o-phenylenediamine via RP-HPLC with UV detection. 3-DG proved to be the predominant 1,2-dicarbonyl compound with concentrations up to 410 mg/L in fruit juices, 2622 mg/L in balsamic vinegars, and 385 mg/kg in cookies, thus exceeding the corresponding concentrations of HMF. 3-DGal was found to be of relevance in many foods even in the absence of galactose. MGO was only of minor quantitative importance in all foods studied, except for manuka honey. Dietary intake was estimated to range between 20 and 160 mg/day for 3-DG and 5 and 20 mg/day for MGO, respectively.

  3. Extending the spectrum of α-dicarbonyl compounds in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Christian; Liehr, Kristin; Girndt, Matthias; Ulrich, Christof; Glomb, Marcus A

    2014-10-10

    Maillard α-dicarbonyl compounds are known as central intermediates in advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation. Glucose is the primary source of energy for the human body, whereas l-threo-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is an essential nutrient, involved in a variety of enzymatic reactions. Thus, the Maillard degradation of glucose and ascorbic acid is of major importance in vivo. To understand the complex mechanistic pathways of AGE formation, it is crucial to extend the knowledge on plasma concentrations of reactive key α-dicarbonyl compounds (e.g. 1-deoxyglucosone). With the present work, we introduce a highly sensitive LC-MS/MS multimethod for human blood plasma based on derivatization with o-phenylenediamine under acidic conditions. The impact of workup and reaction conditions, particularly of pH, was thoroughly evaluated. A comprehensive validation provided the limit of detection, limit of quantitation, coefficients of variation, and recovery rates. The method includes the α-dicarbonyls 1-deoxyglucosone, 3-deoxyglucosone, glucosone, Lederer's glucosone, dehydroascorbic acid, 2,3-diketogulonic acid, 1-deoxypentosone, 3-deoxypentosone, 3,4-dideoxypentosone, pentosone, 1-deoxythreosone, 3-deoxythreosone, threosone, methylglyoxal, glyoxal; the α-keto-carboxylic acids pyruvic acid and glyoxylic acid; and the dicarboxylic acid oxalic acid. The method was then applied to the analyses of 15 healthy subjects and 24 uremic patients undergoing hemodialysis. The comparison of the results revealed a clear shift in the product spectrum. In most cases, the plasma levels of target analytes were significantly higher. Thus, this is the first time that a complete spectrum of α-dicarbonyl compounds relevant in vivo has been established. The results provide further insights into the chemistry of AGE formation and will be helpful to find specific markers to differentiate between the various precursors of glycation. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and

  4. Dicarbonyl compounds and sugar contents of Thai commercial beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monthana Weerawatanakorn

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Glyoxal (GO and methylglyoxal (MGO, two -dicarbonyl compounds (RCS found in humans, cause carbonyl stress following the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs. Both are linked to many chronic diseases. Foods, the extrinsic source, could cause the increase of RCS levels in physiological conditions. Previous data showed that high fructose corn syrup is the major source of RCS in beverages. Because of increasing consumption of syrup-sweetened beverages in Thailand, we aimed to find the GO, MGO, sugar contents, and their quantity relationship. We discovered that 70 different types of beverages contained extremely high levels of GO and MGO at maximum level of 333 and 1,208 μg/ml, respectively. All commercial syrup tested contained dicarbonyl contents, and statistics tests showed strong significant correlation between monosaccharide sugar and RCS. The total sugar contents of more than 20 tested was higher than the current daily recommendation for sugar intake to maintain health.

  5. alpha-Dicarbonyl compounds formed by nonenzymatic browning during the dry heating of caseinate and lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Pan, Geoffrey; Oliver, Christine M; Melton, Laurence D

    2006-09-06

    A method using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry detection was developed for monitoring the alpha-dicarbonyl compound profiles generated from nonenzymatic browning using o-phenylenediamine (OPD) as a trapping agent. The alpha-dicarbonyl compounds were generated by the "dry" reaction of sodium caseinate and lactose heated at various relative humidities (RHs). The proportions of alpha-dicarbonyls formed were different for samples heated at low, intermediate, and high RHs. This study shows that relatively large amounts of 3-deoxypentosulose and galactosyl 2-pentosulose are produced under high RHs, while galactosyl hexosulose and 1,4-dideoxyhexosulose are elevated under low RH conditions. Both caramelization and Maillard reaction pathways contributed to the generation of alpha-dicarbonyls.

  6. The use of 2-(1-alkoxyalkylidene)-1,3-dicarbonyl compounds in organic synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudyakova, Yu S; Bazhin, D N; Goryaeva, M V; Burgart, Ya V; Saloutin, V I

    2014-01-01

    The review focuses on the methods of synthesis of 2-(1-alkoxyalkylidene)-1,3-dicarbonyl compounds and their chemical transformations. The reactivity of such compounds toward various mono- and dinucleophilic reagents is considered. The potential of these compounds for synthesis of different acyclic, carbo- and heterocyclic molecules is demonstrated. Special attention is paid to the practical use of 2-(1-alkoxyalkylidene)-1,3-dicarbonyl compounds and their derivatives, which are of interest in medicine and for design of new materials. The bibliography includes 226 references

  7. N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed Michael additions of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddaert, Thomas; Coquerel, Yoann; Rodriguez, Jean

    2011-02-11

    A study of the organocatalytic activity of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) in the Michael addition of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds has allowed us to identify 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene (IPr) as an excellent catalyst for this transformation (up to 99 % yield with a 2.5 mol % catalyst loading), and the reaction was found to be of broad scope. Two early applications of this unprecedented catalytic activity of NHCs are described, that is, the domino carbocyclization reactions of simple cyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl and malonic acid derivatives, which allow stereoselective access to bridged bicyclic compounds, and the stereoselective synthesis of cyclohexanols (or cyclohexene). Early mechanistic investigations are also reported. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. 3-deoxypentosulose: an alpha-dicarbonyl compound predominating in nonenzymatic browning of oligosaccharides in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollnagel, Anke; Kroh, Lothar W

    2002-03-13

    The thermal degradation of D-glucose, maltose, and maltotriose in aqueous solution was investigated under caramelization (no glycine) and Maillard (with glycine) conditions. Degradation of the sugar and alpha-dicarbonyls product was monitored. Under both caramelization and Maillard reaction conditions, 3-deoxypentosulose was the predominating alpha-dicarbonyl compound formed from maltose and maltotriose. In the absence of an amino compound, however, 3-deoxypentosulose is formed in much lower concentration. It was concluded that 3-deoxypentosulose is formed by a pathway specific for oligo- and polysaccharides since this alpha-dicarbonyl is formed from the alpha-1-->4 glucans such as maltose and maltotriose but not from glucose. For its formation, a retro Claisen reaction of an enolization product of 1-amino-1,4-dideoxyhexosulose is proposed as the route to its formation. 1-Amino-1,4-dideoxyhexosulose could be formed by vinylogous alpha-elimination from the 2,3-enediol structure after Amadori rearrangement, favored by planar alignment of the bonds between C1 and C4. Subsequent rearrangement by keto-enoltautomerization leads to a 1-imino-3-keto structure. In this structure, attack of a hydroxyl anion, provided by water at neutral pH, could cause a splitting off of the C1. This reaction gives rise to formic acid or formamide and a pentose derivative, which reacts further to give 3-deoxypentosulose.

  9. 3-deoxygalactosone, a "new" 1,2-dicarbonyl compound in milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, Michael; Degen, Julia; Henle, Thomas

    2010-10-13

    1,2-Dicarbonyl compounds are formed in food during Maillard and caramelization reactions. 3-Deoxy-D-threo-hexos-2-ulose (3-deoxygalactosone, 3-DGal) and galactosone, two 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds originating from the degradation of galactose, were synthesized and converted to the respective quinoxalines, which were characterized by NMR spectroscopy. Analytical separation of the quinoxalines from the epimeric glucose-derived quinoxalines of 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) and glucosone was achieved by RP-HPLC on an RP-phenyl column. This method was used to study the relevance of galactose-derived 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds in a variety of foods. 3-DG and 3-DGal were quantified besides 3-deoxypentosone, methylglyoxal, and glyoxal after derivatization with o-phenylenediamine in lactose-hydrolyzed UHT milk, ranging from 2.5 to 18 mg/L and from 2.0 to 11 mg/L, respectively. The concentrations of both compounds tended to be higher in other lactose-hydrolyzed food items as well. During storage of lactose-hydrolyzed milk, the concentrations of the 3-deoxyhexosones first increased, but especially the concentration of 3-DGal tended to decrease on prolonged storage, pointing to lower stability of the compound. 3-DGal was also detected in galactose-free food items such as apple juice and beer. The possible formation of 3-DGal from 3-DG by 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene as an intermediate is discussed. Compared to the relatively high concentrations of 3-DG and 3-DGal, 3-deoxypentosone, methylglyoxal, and glyoxal were of only minor quantitative importance in all foods studied.

  10. Degradation of oligosaccharides in nonenzymatic browning by formation of alpha-dicarbonyl compounds via a "peeling off" mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollnagel, A; Kroh, L W

    2000-12-01

    The formation of alpha-dicarbonyl-containing substances and Amadori rearrangement products was studied in the glycine-catalyzed (Maillard reaction) and uncatalyzed thermal degradation of glucose, maltose, and maltotriose using o-phenylenediamine as trapping agent. Various degradation products, especially alpha-dicarbonyl compounds, are formed from carbohydrates with differing degrees of polymerization during nonenzymatic browning. The different Amadori rearrangement products, isomerization products, and alpha-dicarbonyls produced by the used carbohydrates were quantified throughout the observed reaction time, and the relevance of the different degradation pathways is discussed. In the Maillard reaction (MR) the amino-catalyzed rearrangement with subsequent elimination of water predominated, giving rise to hexosuloses with alpha-dicarbonyl structure, whereas under caramelization conditions more sugar fragments with an alpha-dicarbonyl moiety were formed. For the MR of oligosaccharides a mechanism is proposed in which 1,4-dideoxyosone is formed as the predominating alpha-dicarbonyl in the quasi-water-free thermolysis of di- and trisaccharides in the presence of glycine.

  11. Double Conjugate Addition of Dithiols to Propargylic Carbonyl Systems To Generate Protected 1,3-Dicarbonyl Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneddon, Helen F.; Heuvel, Alexandra van den; Hirsch, Anna K.H.; Booth, Richard A.; Shaw, David M.; Gaunt, Matthew J.; Ley, Steven V.

    2006-01-01

    The work describes the efficient double conjugate addition of ethane and propane dithiols in the presence of sodium methoxide to a wide variety of propargylic carbonyl containing compounds. The products of these reactions are differentiated, 1,3-dicarbonyl systems useful for various synthesis

  12. Synthesis of Pyrroloquinones via a CAN Mediated Oxidative Free Radical Reaction of 1,3-Dicarbonyl Compounds with Aminoquinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thao Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrroloquinone ring systems are important structural units present in many biologically active molecules including a number of marine alkaloids. For example, they are found in a series of marine metabolites, such as tsitsikammamines, zyzzyanones, wakayin, and terreusinone. Several of these alkaloids have exhibited antimicrobial, antimalarial, antifungal, antitumor, and photoprotecting activities. Synthesis of pyrroloquinone unit is the key step in the synthesis of many of these important organic molecules. Here, we present a ceric (IV ammonium nitrate (CAN mediated oxidative free radical cyclization reaction of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds with aminoquinones as a facile methodology for making various substituted pyrroloquinones. 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds used in this study are ethyl acetoacetate, acetylacetone, benzoyl acetone, and N,N-dimethyl acetoacetamide. The aminoquinones used in this study are 2-(benzylaminonaphthalene-1,4-dione and 6-(benzylamino-1-tosyl-1H-indole-4,7-dione. The yields of the synthesized pyrroloquinones ranged from 23–91%.

  13. Formation of alpha-dicarbonyl compounds in beer during storage of Pilsner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Adriana; Herrera, Julio C; Scherer, Erika; Ju-Nam, Yon; Rübsam, Heinrich; Madrid, Jorge; Zufall, Carsten; Rangel-Aldao, Rafael

    2008-06-11

    With the aim of determining the formation of alpha-dicarbonyl intermediates during beer aging on the shelf, alpha-dicarbonyls were identified and quantified after derivatization with 1,2-diaminobenze to generate quinoxalines. The sensory effects of alpha-dicarbonyls were evaluated by the quantification of key Strecker aldehydes and by GC-olfactometry (GCO)analysis of beer headspace using solid phase microextraction. Four alpha-dicarbonyls, reported here for the first time, were detected in fresh and aged beers, three were derived from the 2,3-enolization pathway of mono- and disaccharides, and the fourth was derived from the epimerization of 3-deoxy-2-hexosulose. Ten alpha-dicarbonyls were quantified during beer processing and during different periods of beer aging at 28 degrees C. The aging periods were from 15 to 105 days. During beer aging, 1-deoxydiuloses were produced and degraded, while 1,4-dideoxydiuloses were produced at the highest rates. The GCO analysis indicated that forced beer aging increased the amounts of furaneol, trans-2-nonenal, and phenylacetaldehyde. The blockage of alpha-dicarbonyls inhibited the accumulation of sensory-active aldehydes in the beer headspace.

  14. Cross-linking mechanisms of arginine and lysine with α,β-dicarbonyl compounds in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Rasoul; Field, Martin J; Zahedi, Mansour; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2011-11-24

    Cross-linking in proteins by α,β-dicarbonyl compounds is one of the most damaging consequences of reactive carbonyl species in vivo and in foodstuffs. In this article we investigate computationally the cross-linking of glyoxal and methylglyoxal with lysine and arginine residues using density functional theory and the wB97XD dispersion-corrected functional. Five pathways, A-E, have been characterized. In pathways A and B, the reaction proceeds via formation of the Schiff base, aldimine, followed by addition of arginine. In contrast, in pathways C-E, direct addition of arginine to the dicarbonyl compounds occurs first, leading to a dihydroxyimidazolidine intermediate, which then reacts with lysine after dehydration and proton transfer reactions. The results reveal that pathways A, C, and E are competitive whereas reactions via pathways B and D are much less favorable. Inclusion of up to five explicit water molecules in the proton transfer and dehydration steps is found to lower the energy barriers in the feasible pathways by about 5-20 kcal/mol. Comparison of the mechanisms of methylglyoxal-derived imidazolium cross-linking (MODIC) and glyoxal-derived imidazolium cross-linking (GODIC) shows that the activation barriers are lower for GODIC than MODIC, in agreement with experimental observations.

  15. Et3B-mediated and palladium-catalyzed direct allylation of β-dicarbonyl compounds with Morita–Baylis–Hillman alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlem Abidi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A practical and efficient palladium-catalyzed direct allylation of β-dicarbonyl compounds with both cyclic and acyclic Morita–Baylis–Hillman (MBH alcohols, using Et3B as a Lewis acid promoter, is described herein. A wide range of the corresponding functionalized allylated derivatives have been obtained in good yields and with high selectivity.

  16. Et3B-mediated and palladium-catalyzed direct allylation of β-dicarbonyl compounds with Morita-Baylis-Hillman alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Ahlem; Oueslati, Yosra; Rezgui, Farhat

    2016-01-01

    A practical and efficient palladium-catalyzed direct allylation of β-dicarbonyl compounds with both cyclic and acyclic Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) alcohols, using Et 3 B as a Lewis acid promoter, is described herein. A wide range of the corresponding functionalized allylated derivatives have been obtained in good yields and with high selectivity.

  17. Effect of Different Flours on the Formation of Hydroxymethylfurfural, Furfural, and Dicarbonyl Compounds in Heated Glucose/Flour Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesías, Marta; Morales, Francisco J

    2017-02-16

    Traditional cereal-based foods usually include wheat flour in their formulations; however, the search for new products with new ingredients providing different properties to foods is widely pursued by food companies. Replacement of wheat by other flours can modify both nutritional properties and organoleptic characteristics of the final baked food, but can also impact the formation of potentially harmful compounds. The effect of the type of flour on the formation of furfurals and dicarbonyl compounds was studied in a dough model system during baking that contains water or glucose in order to promote the Maillard reaction and caramelization. The formation of methylglyoxal and glyoxal was significantly reduced in spelt and teff formulations compared to wheat flour formulations, respectively. In contrast, samples formulated with oat, teff, and rye showed a significant increase in the levels of 3-deoxyglucosone. Similarly, spelt and teff formulations presented significantly higher concentrations of hydroxymethylfurfural, and spelt, teff, and rye presented higher concentrations of furfural. Therefore, the formation of process contaminants and undesirable compounds in new food products formulated with different flours replacing the traditional wheat flour should be considered carefully in terms of food safety.

  18. Organic matrix effects on the formation of light-absorbing compounds from α-dicarbonyls in aqueous salt solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Greg T; McNeill, V Faye

    2014-04-01

    Aqueous-phase reactions of organic compounds are of general importance in environmental systems. Reactions of α-dicarbonyl compounds in the aqueous phase of atmospheric aerosols can impact their climate-relevant physical properties including hygroscopicity and absorption of light. Less-reactive water-soluble organic compounds may contribute an organic matrix component to the aqueous environment, potentially impacting the reaction kinetics. In this work we demonstrate the effects of organic matrices on the self-reactions of glyoxal (Gly) and methylglyoxal (mGly) in aqueous solutions containing ammonium sulfate. At an organic-to-sulfate mass ratio of 2 : 1, carbohydrate-like matrices resembling oxidized organic aerosol material reduce the rate of formation of light-absorbing products by up to an order of magnitude. The greatest decreases in the reaction rates were observed for organic matrices with smaller, more linear molecular structures. Initial UV-Vis spectra, product studies, relative rate data, acidity changes, and viscosity measurements suggest that shifts in carbonyl equilibria, due in part to (hemi)acetal formation with the matrix, reduce the rate of formation of light-absorbing imidazole and oligomer species.

  19. Effect of Different Flours on the Formation of Hydroxymethylfurfural, Furfural, and Dicarbonyl Compounds in Heated Glucose/Flour Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Mesías

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional cereal-based foods usually include wheat flour in their formulations; however, the search for new products with new ingredients providing different properties to foods is widely pursued by food companies. Replacement of wheat by other flours can modify both nutritional properties and organoleptic characteristics of the final baked food, but can also impact the formation of potentially harmful compounds. The effect of the type of flour on the formation of furfurals and dicarbonyl compounds was studied in a dough model system during baking that contains water or glucose in order to promote the Maillard reaction and caramelization. The formation of methylglyoxal and glyoxal was significantly reduced in spelt and teff formulations compared to wheat flour formulations, respectively. In contrast, samples formulated with oat, teff, and rye showed a significant increase in the levels of 3-deoxyglucosone. Similarly, spelt and teff formulations presented significantly higher concentrations of hydroxymethylfurfural, and spelt, teff, and rye presented higher concentrations of furfural. Therefore, the formation of process contaminants and undesirable compounds in new food products formulated with different flours replacing the traditional wheat flour should be considered carefully in terms of food safety.

  20. Quantum Chemical and Experimental Studies on the Mechanism of Alkylation of β-Dicarbonyl Compounds. The Synthesis of Five and Six Membered Heterocyclic Spiro Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hüseyinli

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The alkylation of β-dicarbonyl compounds in a K2CO3/DMSO system wasfound to afford O- and C-alkylated derivatives, depending on the type of the β-dicarbonylcompound involved. The alkyl derivatives obtained were used in the synthesis of some newspiro barbituric acid derivatives. Quantum chemical calculations were carried out toelucidate the reaction mechanisms for some typical synthesis.

  1. Determination of toxic α-dicarbonyl compounds, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and diacetyl, released to the headspace of lipid commodities upon heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yaping; Hengel, Matt; Pan, Canping; Seiber, James N; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2013-02-06

    Toxic α-dicarbonyl compounds, glyoxal, 2-methylglyoxal, and diacetyl, released from the headspace from butter, margarine, safflower oil, beef fat, and cheese heated at 100 and 200 °C were analyzed by gas chromatography as quinoxaline derivatives. Total amounts of α-dicarbonyl compounds ranged from 40.5 ng/g (butter) to 331.2 ng/g (beef fat) at 100 °C and from 302.4 ng/g (safflower oil) to 4521.5 ng/g (margarine) at 200 °C. The total amount of α-dicarbonyl compounds increased approximately 55- and 15-fold in the headspace of heated butter and margarine, respectively, when the temperature was increased from 100 to 200 °C. However, only slight differences associated with temperature variation were observed in the cases of safflower oil and beef fat (1.3- and 1.1-fold, respectively). Diacetyl was found in the highest amounts among all samples, ranging from 13.9 ± 0.3 ng/g (butter) to 2835.7 ng/g (cheese) at 100 °C and from 112.5 ± 102 ng/g (safflower oil) to 2274.5 ± 442.6 ng/g (margarine) at 200 °C, followed by methylglyoxal, ranging from 13.0 ± 0.5 to 112.7 ± 10.1 ng/g (cheese) at 100 °C and from 34.7 ± 5.0 ng/g (safflower oil) to 1790 ± 372.3 ng/g (margarine) at 200 °C. Much less glyoxal formed, in amounts ranging from 13.6 ± 0.7 ng/g (butter) to 53.4 ± 11.2 ng/g (beef fat) at both temperatures. The amounts of α-dicarbonyl compounds released into the vapor phase from lipid commodities during heating were satisfactorily analyzed.

  2. Voltammetric detection of the {alpha}-dicarbonyl compound: Methylglyoxal as a flavoring agent in wine and beer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Sanghamitra [Department of Chemistry, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1 (Canada); Chen Aicheng, E-mail: achen@lakeheadu.ca [Department of Chemistry, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1 (Canada)

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synergistic electrocatalytic effect of Pt nanoparticles and single-wall carbon nanotubes on the reduction of methylglyoxal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel electrochemical Pt/SWNT/GCE sensor designed for the determination of methylglyoxal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Excellent analytical performance with low detection limit and high sensitivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The developed methylglyoxal sensor shows promising process control, clinical and, biomedical applications. - Abstract: A simple, rapid and highly selective method for the determination of the most abundant {alpha}-dicarbonyl compound in wine and beer has been developed for the first time by employing square wave voltammetry. A novel electrochemical sensor, based on the electrodeposition of platinum nanoparticles onto single wall carbon nanotubes that were cast on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) substrate, is presented in this paper. This modified electrode exhibited excellent catalytic activity in the electroreduction of methylglyoxal, showing much higher peak currents than those measured on an unmodified GCE. The effects of different experimental and instrumental parameters, such as solution pH and square wave frequency, were examined. The reduction peak current showed a linear range of from 0.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} to 100 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M with a 0.9979 correlation coefficient; and a low detection limit of 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} M was also obtained. The proposed methodology was successfully applied to the quantitative analysis of methylglyoxal in wine and beer samples. The developed sensor possesses advantageous properties such as a high active surface area, stability, and rapid electron transfer rate, which cumulatively demonstrate high performance toward the electrocatalytic reduction and detection of methylglyoxal.

  3. Synthesis of 1,4-Dicarbonyl Compounds from Silyl Enol Ethers and Bromocarbonyls, Catalyzed by an Organic Dye under Visible-Light Irradiation with Perfect Selectivity for the Halide Moiety over the Carbonyl Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esumi, Naoto; Suzuki, Kensuke; Nishimoto, Yoshihiro; Yasuda, Makoto

    2016-11-04

    We report the visible-light-induced radical coupling reaction of silyl enol ethers with α-bromocarbonyl compounds to give 1,4-dicarbonyls. The reaction was effectively accelerated using an inexpensive organic dye (eosin Y) as a photoredox catalyst. 1,4-Dicarbonyl compounds alone were afforded, without the generation of carbonyl adducts of the α-halocarbonyls, which are usually generated in the presence of fluoride anions or Lewis acids. A variety of silyl enol ethers, α-bromoketones, α-bromoesters, and α-bromoamides were applied to this system to produce the coupling compounds.

  4. Effect of Sodium Chloride on α-Dicarbonyl Compound and 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furfural Formations from Glucose under Caramelization Conditions: A Multiresponse Kinetic Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocadağlı, Tolgahan; Gökmen, Vural

    2016-08-17

    This study aimed to investigate the kinetics of α-dicarbonyl compound formation in glucose and glucose-sodium chloride mixture during heating under caramelization conditions. Changes in the concentrations of glucose, fructose, glucosone, 1-deoxyglucosone, 3-deoxyglucosone, 3,4-dideoxyglucosone, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF), glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and diacetyl were determined. A comprehensive reaction network was built, and the multiresponse model was compared to the experimentally observed data. Interconversion between glucose and fructose became 2.5 times faster in the presence of NaCl at 180 and 200 °C. The effect of NaCl on the rate constants of α-dicarbonyl compound formation varied across the precursor and the compound itself and temperature. A decrease in rate constants of 3-deoxyglucosone and 1-deoxyglucosone formations by the presence of NaCl was observed. HMF formation was revealed to be mainly via isomerization to fructose and dehydration over cyclic intermediates, and the rate constants increase 4-fold in the presence of NaCl.

  5. Benzothiazolylazo derivatives of some β-dicarbonyl compounds and their Cu(II, Ni(II and Zn(II complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KRISHNANNAIR KRISHNANKUTTY

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The coupling of diazotized 2-aminobenzothiazole with 1,3-dicar-bonyl compounds (benzoylacetone, methyl acetoacetate and acetoacetanilide yielded a new series of tridentate ligand systems (HL. Analytical, IR, 1H--NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectral data indicated that the compounds exist in the intramolecularly hydrogen bonded azo-enol tautomeric form in which one of the carbonyl groups of the dicarbonyl moiety had enolised and hydrogen bonded to one of the azo nitrogen atoms. The compounds formed stable complexes with Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II ions. The Cu(II complexes conform to [CuL(OAc] stoichiometry while the Ni(II and Zn(II complexes are in agreement with [ML2] stoichiometry. Analytical, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectral data of the complexes are consistent with the replacement of the chelated enol proton of the ligand with a metal ion, thus leading to a stable six-membered chelate ring involving a cyclic nitrogen, one of the azo nitrogens and the enolate oxygen. The Zn(II chelates are diamagnetic while Cu(II and Ni(II complexes showed a normal paramagnetic moment.

  6. Effects of Sodium Chloride, Potassium Chloride and Calcium Chloride on the Formation of α-Dicarbonyl Compounds, Furfurals and Development of Browning in Cookies during Baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocadağlı, Tolgahan; Gökmen, Vural

    2016-10-02

    Effect of NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, NaHCO3, and NH4HCO3 on the formation of glucosone, 1-deoxyglucosone, 3-deoxyglucosone, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, diacetyl, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural, 2-furfural and browning were investigated in cookies. Presence of 1.5% NaCl, 1% KCl, and 1% CaCl2 on flour basis had no effect on α-dicarbonyl compounds, except 1-deoxyglucosone increased in the presence of KCl and CaCl2. The increase in 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural formation in the presence of NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 did not relate to 3-deoxyglucosone formation and pH changes. NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 increased browning in cookies. Model reaction systems indicated that NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 enhance browning by increasing furfurals in caramelization. NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 decreased browning intensity in heated glucose-glycine system. Usage of CaCl2 in cookies may considerably increase furfurals but not α-dicarbonyl compounds. Sodium reduction can be obtained by replacement with potassium without sacrificing the desired consequences of caramelization in sugar rich bakeries.

  7. Non-enzymatic browning reaction of glucosamine at mild conditions: Relationship between colour formation, radical scavenging activity and α-dicarbonyl compounds production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Pui Khoon; Betti, Mirko

    2016-12-01

    Glucosamine (GlcN, 5% w/v) was incubated in either phosphate buffer or ammonium hydroxide solutions at 40 and 60°C for up to 48h in order to yield caramel solutions. Non-enzymatic browning was monitored via changes in absorption at 280, 320 and 420nm and the physico-chemical properties as well as the generation of short chain α-dicarbonyl compounds were evaluated. Accumulation of GlcN autocondensation products (280nm) proceeded in parallel with the development of pre-melanoidins (320nm) and melanoidins (420nm). The reactive α-dicarbonyls were detected at temperature as low as 40°C within 3h with a maximum level of diacetyl recorded at 6h. The caramel solutions showed a high efficacy in scavenging DPPH and ABTS radicals in accordance with the increasing browning intensity. The results suggest that GlcN browning can be modulated according to the specific desired properties to produce a multi-functional food ingredient that has health-promoting effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 1-Naphthylazo derivatives of some 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds and their Cu(II, Ni(II and Zn(II complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. KRISHNANKUTTY

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The coupling of diazotized 1-aminonaphthalene with 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds (acetylacetone, methylacetoacetate and acetoacetanilide yielded a new series of bidentate ligand systems (HL. Analytical, IR, 1H-NMR and mass spectral data indicate that the compounds exist in the intramolecularly hydrogen bonded keto-hydrazone form. With Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II, these potential monobasic bidentate ligands formed [ML2] type complexes. The IR, 1H-NMR and mass spectral data of the complexes are consistent with the replacement of the chelated hydrazone proton of the ligand by a metal ion, thus leading to a stable six-membered chelate ring involving the hydrazone nitrogen and the hydrogen bonded carbonyl oxygen. The Ni(II and Zn(II chelates are diamagnetic, while the Cu(II complexes are paramagnetic. In the metal complexes of the naphthylazo derivatives of acetylacetone and methylacetoacetate, the acetyl carbonyl is involved in coordination, whereas in the chelates of the naphthylazo derivative of acetoacetanilide, the anilide carbonyl is bonded with the metal ion.

  9. Evaluation of liquid chromatographic behavior of lumazinic derivatives, from α-dicarbonyl compounds, in different C18 columns: application to wine samples using a fused-core column and fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Sánchez, María del Carmen; Espinosa-Mansilla, Anunciación; Rodríguez-Cáceres, María Isabel; Durán-Merás, Isabel

    2014-01-08

    Several C18 columns, packed with totally porous particles of different sizes and shell thicknesses, have been compared for simultaneous determination of α-dicarbonyl compounds, previous derivatization to lumazinic derivatives. Chromatographic conditions for the separation have been optimized for each column, and chromatographic parameters have been calculated and exhaustively compared. A core-shell C18 column provided the best results, and a HPLC method with fluorimetric detection has been proposed. The developed method has been validated in terms of linearity, precision, and sensitivity. Detection and quantification limits obtained were comprised between 0.02 and 0.30 and 0.07 and 1.0 ng mL(-1), respectively, while RSD values obtained were lower than 6% and 5% in intraday and interday repeatability studies, respectively. The method has been applied to analysis of the α-dicarbonyl compounds in different types of wines. The higher levels of the total α-dicarbonyl compounds were found in sweet wines and the lower levels in white wines.

  10. Method for conversion of .beta.-hydroxy carbonyl compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilga, Michael A.; White, James F.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Zacher, Alan H.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; Orth, Rick J.

    2010-03-30

    A process is disclosed for conversion of salts of .beta.-hydroxy carbonyl compounds forming useful conversion products including, e.g., .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carbonyl compounds and/or salts of .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. Conversion products find use, e.g., as feedstock and/or end-use chemicals.

  11. Molecular distribution and compound-specific stable carbon isotopic composition of dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in PM2.5 from Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wanyu; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Yue, Siyao; Wei, Lianfang; Ren, Hong; Yan, Yu; Kang, Mingjie; Li, Linjie; Ren, Lujie; Lai, Senchao; Li, Jie; Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa; Fu, Pingqing

    2018-02-01

    This study investigates the seasonal variation, molecular distribution and stable carbon isotopic composition of diacids, oxocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls to better understand the sources and formation processes of fine aerosols (PM2.5) in Beijing. The concentrations of total dicarboxylic acids varied from 110 to 2580 ng m-3, whereas oxoacids (9.50-353 ng m-3) and dicarbonyls (1.50-85.9 ng m-3) were less abundant. Oxalic acid was found to be the most abundant individual species, followed by succinic acid or occasionally by terephthalic acid (tPh), a plastic waste burning tracer. Ambient concentrations of phthalic acid (37.9 ± 27.3 ng m-3) and tPh (48.7 ± 51.1 ng m-3) were larger in winter than in other seasons, illustrating that fossil fuel combustion and plastic waste incineration contribute more to wintertime aerosols. The year-round mass concentration ratios of malonic acid to succinic acid (C3 / C4) were relatively low by comparison with those in other urban aerosols and remote marine aerosols. The values were less than or equal to unity in Beijing, implying that the degree of photochemical formation of diacids in Beijing is insignificant. Moreover, strong correlation coefficients of major oxocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls with nss-K+ suggest that biomass burning contributes significantly to these organic acids and related precursors. The mean δ13C value of succinic acid is the highest among all species, with values of -17.1 ± 3.9 ‰ (winter) and -17.1 ± 2.0 ‰ (spring), while malonic acid is more enriched in 13C than others in autumn (-17.6 ± 4.6 ‰) and summer (-18.7 ± 4.0 ‰). The δ13C values of major species in Beijing aerosols are generally lower than those in the western North Pacific atmosphere, the downwind region, which indicates that stable carbon isotopic compositions of diacids depend on their precursor sources in Beijing. Therefore, our study demonstrates that in addition to photochemical oxidation, high abundances of diacids

  12. Molecular distribution and compound-specific stable carbon isotopic composition of dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in PM2.5 from Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the seasonal variation, molecular distribution and stable carbon isotopic composition of diacids, oxocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls to better understand the sources and formation processes of fine aerosols (PM2.5 in Beijing. The concentrations of total dicarboxylic acids varied from 110 to 2580 ng m−3, whereas oxoacids (9.50–353 ng m−3 and dicarbonyls (1.50–85.9 ng m−3 were less abundant. Oxalic acid was found to be the most abundant individual species, followed by succinic acid or occasionally by terephthalic acid (tPh, a plastic waste burning tracer. Ambient concentrations of phthalic acid (37.9 ± 27.3 ng m−3 and tPh (48.7 ± 51.1 ng m−3 were larger in winter than in other seasons, illustrating that fossil fuel combustion and plastic waste incineration contribute more to wintertime aerosols. The year-round mass concentration ratios of malonic acid to succinic acid (C3 ∕ C4 were relatively low by comparison with those in other urban aerosols and remote marine aerosols. The values were less than or equal to unity in Beijing, implying that the degree of photochemical formation of diacids in Beijing is insignificant. Moreover, strong correlation coefficients of major oxocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls with nss-K+ suggest that biomass burning contributes significantly to these organic acids and related precursors. The mean δ13C value of succinic acid is the highest among all species, with values of −17.1 ± 3.9 ‰ (winter and −17.1 ± 2.0 ‰ (spring, while malonic acid is more enriched in 13C than others in autumn (−17.6 ± 4.6 ‰ and summer (−18.7 ± 4.0 ‰. The δ13C values of major species in Beijing aerosols are generally lower than those in the western North Pacific atmosphere, the downwind region, which indicates that stable carbon isotopic compositions of diacids depend on their precursor sources in Beijing. Therefore, our

  13. Cleavage of beta,beta-carotene to flavor compounds by fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorn, H; Langhoff, S; Scheibner, M; Berger, R G

    2003-09-01

    More than 50 filamentous fungi and yeasts, known for de novo synthesis or biotransformation of mono-, sesqui-, tri-, or tetraterpenes, were screened for their ability to cleave beta,beta-carotene to flavor compounds. Ten strains discolored a beta,beta-carotene-containing growth agar, indicating efficient degradation of beta,beta-carotene. Dihydroactinidiolide was formed as the sole conversion product of beta,beta-carotene in submerged cultures of Ganoderma applanatum, Hypomyces odoratus, Kuehneromyces mutabilis, and Trametes suaveolens. When mycelium-free culture supernatants from five species were applied for the conversions, nearly complete degradation of beta,beta-carotene was observed after 12 h. Carotenoid-derived volatile products were detected in the media of Ischnoderma benzoinum, Marasmius scorodonius, and Trametes versicolor. beta-Ionone proved to be the main metabolite in each case, whereas beta-cyclocitral, dihydroactinidiolide, and 2-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexanone were formed in minor quantities. Using a photometric bleaching test, the beta,beta-carotene cleaving enzyme activities of M. scorodonius were partially characterized.

  14. Role of α-Dicarbonyl Compounds in the Inhibition Effect of Reducing Sugars on the Formation of 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhonghui; Liu, Bing; Niu, Zhiyan; Zhang, Yan; Gao, Jianxin; Shi, Lei; Wang, Shujun; Wang, Shuo

    2017-11-22

    The effect of reducing sugars on formation of PhIP in fried pork was investigated, and the underlying mechanisms were revealed by studying the reaction pathways between α-dicarbonyl compounds (α-DCs) and PhIP. The addition of reducing sugars (such as glucose) greatly reduced the amount of PhIP in fried pork from 15.5 ng/g to less than 1.0 ng/g. The amount of PhIP decreased significantly with an increasing level of added α-DCs in model systems. Similarly, the addition of methylglyoxal (MGO) decreased significantly the levels of phenylalanine (Phe) and creatinine (Crn) but increased significantly the level of phenylacetaldehyde (PEA). 2-Amino-1-methyl-5-(2-oxopropylidene)-imidazol-4-one and N-(1-methyl-4-oxoimidazolidin-2-ylidene) amino propionic acids were identified in MGO/Crn and MGO/Crn/Phe model systems and fried pork with glucose. These results revealed that the degradation products of reducing sugars-α-DCs-play an important role in inhibiting formation of PhIP by reacting with key precursors of PhIP and itself.

  15. Energy restriction and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass reduce postprandial α-dicarbonyl stress in obese women with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maessen, Dionne E; Hanssen, Nordin M; Lips, Mirjam A; Scheijen, Jean L; Willems van Dijk, Ko; Pijl, Hanno; Stehouwer, Coen D; Schalkwijk, Casper G

    2016-09-01

    Dicarbonyl compounds are formed as byproducts of glycolysis and are key mediators of diabetic complications. However, evidence of postprandial α-dicarbonyl formation in humans is lacking, and interventions to reduce α-dicarbonyls have not yet been investigated. Therefore, we investigated postprandial α-dicarbonyl levels in obese women without and with type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we evaluated whether a diet very low in energy (very low calorie diet [VLCD]) or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) reduces α-dicarbonyl stress in obese women with type 2 diabetes. In lean (n = 12) and obese women without (n = 27) or with type 2 diabetes (n = 27), we measured the α-dicarbonyls, methylglyoxal (MGO), glyoxal (GO) and 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG), and glucose in fasting and postprandial plasma samples obtained during a mixed meal test. Obese women with type 2 diabetes underwent either a VLCD or RYGB. Three weeks after the intervention, individuals underwent a second mixed meal test. Obese women with type 2 diabetes had higher fasting and particularly higher postprandial plasma α-dicarbonyl levels, compared with those without diabetes. After three weeks of a VLCD, postprandial α-dicarbonyl levels in diabetic women were significantly reduced (AUC MGO -14%, GO -16%, 3-DG -25%), mainly through reduction of fasting plasma α-dicarbonyls (MGO -13%, GO -13%, 3-DG -33%). Similar results were found after RYGB. This study shows that type 2 diabetes is characterised by increased fasting and postprandial plasma α-dicarbonyl stress, which can be reduced by improving glucose metabolism through a VLCD or RYGB. These data highlight the potential to reduce reactive α-dicarbonyls in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01167959.

  16. Skin protection against dicarbonyl stress by the glyoxalase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabrina, Radjei; Emmanuelle, Leblanc; Sylvianne, Schnebert; Carine, Nizard; Bertrand, Friguet; Isabelle, Petropoulos

    2014-10-01

    Skin ageing is the result of intrinsic and photo-ageing, due to UV exposure, that both share important molecular features including alterations of proteins. Indeed, proteins can be modified by many molecular processes such as glycation. Glycation occurs when glucose or its derivates the dicarbonyl compounds glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal (MG) react with amines of proteins leading to the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE). The aim of this work is to better understand the role of glyoxalases in the detoxification of glyoxal and methylglyoxal and in the protection of keratinocyte's proteins during skin ageing. In order to understand how glyoxalases are regulated in human skin during intrinsic and photo-ageing, skin sections from 10 young and 10 old donors from photoexposed and photoprotected zones were analysed by immunohistochemistry. The glyoxalase system, glyoxalase 1 (Glo1) and glyoxalase 2 (Glo2), and AGE were localized and analysed in the skin samples. To understand the role of glyoxalases in response to dicarbonyl stress in keratinocytes, HaCaT cells were subjected to a 24h GO or MG stress and glyoxalases expression and activities were determined. Finally, proteomic studies were performed on cellular clones overexpressing Glo2 or inhibiting for Glo1 and we are currently identifying target proteins preferentially glycated by dicarbonyl compounds.Our results show that glyoxalase system is present in skin especially in the basal cells and is able to protect cellular proteins against oxidative damages. We expect that our study may contribute to decipher the role of glyoxalases in protein maintenance, which is a key element of cellular homeostasis during ageing, and to determine whether these enzymes could be targets for future anti-ageing skin strategies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Dicarbonyls and glyoxalase in disease mechanisms and clinical therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Naila; Xue, Mingzhan; Thornalley, Paul J

    2016-08-01

    The reactive dicarbonyl metabolite methylglyoxal (MG) is the precursor of the major quantitative advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) in physiological systems - arginine-derived hydroimidazolones and deoxyguanosine-derived imidazopurinones. The glyoxalase system in the cytoplasm of cells provides the primary defence against dicarbonyl glycation by catalysing the metabolism of MG and related reactive dicarbonyls. Dicarbonyl stress is the abnormal accumulation of dicarbonyl metabolites leading to increased protein and DNA modification contributing to cell and tissue dysfunction in ageing and disease. It is produced endogenously by increased formation and/or decreased metabolism of dicarbonyl metabolites. Dicarbonyl stress contributes to ageing, disease and activity of cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents. It contributes to ageing through age-related decline in glyoxalase 1 (Glo-1) activity. Glo-1 has a dual role in cancer as a tumour suppressor protein prior to tumour development and mediator of multi-drug resistance in cancer treatment, implicating dicarbonyl glycation of DNA in carcinogenesis and dicarbonyl-driven cytotoxicity in mechanism of action of anticancer drugs. Glo-1 is a driver of cardiovascular disease, likely through dicarbonyl stress-driven dyslipidemia and vascular cell dysfunction. Dicarbonyl stress is also a contributing mediator of obesity and vascular complications of diabetes. There are also emerging roles in neurological disorders. Glo-1 responds to dicarbonyl stress to enhance cytoprotection at the transcriptional level through stress-responsive increase of Glo-1 expression. Small molecule Glo-1 inducers are in clinical development for improved metabolic, vascular and renal health and Glo-1 inhibitors in preclinical development for multidrug resistant cancer chemotherapy.

  18. Modification of β-Defensin-2 by Dicarbonyls Methylglyoxal and Glyoxal Inhibits Antibacterial and Chemotactic Function In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna G Kiselar

    Full Text Available Beta-defensins (hBDs provide antimicrobial and chemotactic defense against bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Human β-defensin-2 (hBD-2 acts against gram-negative bacteria and chemoattracts immature dendritic cells, thus regulating innate and adaptive immunity. Immunosuppression due to hyperglycemia underlies chronic infection in Type 2 diabetes. Hyperglycemia also elevates production of dicarbonyls methylgloxal (MGO and glyoxal (GO.The effect of dicarbonyl on defensin peptide structure was tested by exposing recombinant hBD-2 (rhBD-2 to MGO or GO with subsequent analysis by MALDI-TOF MS and LC/MS/MS. Antimicrobial function of untreated rhBD-2 vs. rhBD-2 exposed to dicarbonyl against strains of both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in culture was determined by radial diffusion assay. The effect of dicarbonyl on rhBD-2 chemotactic function was determined by chemotaxis assay in CEM-SS cells.MGO or GO in vitro irreversibly adducts to the rhBD-2 peptide, and significantly reduces antimicrobial and chemotactic functions. Adducts derive from two arginine residues, Arg22 and Arg23 near the C-terminus, and the N-terminal glycine (Gly1. We show by radial diffusion testing on gram-negative E. coli and P. aeruginosa, and gram-positive S. aureus, and a chemotaxis assay for CEM-SS cells, that antimicrobial activity and chemotactic function of rhBD-2 are significantly reduced by MGO.Dicarbonyl modification of cationic antimicrobial peptides represents a potential link between hyperglycemia and the clinical manifestation of increased susceptibility to infection, protracted wound healing, and chronic inflammation in undiagnosed and uncontrolled Type 2 diabetes.

  19. Analysis of sugar degradation products with α-dicarbonyl structure in carbonated soft drinks by UHPLC-DAD-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensberger, Sabrina; Glomb, Marcus A; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2013-10-30

    Sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drinks (CSDs) are broadly consumed worldwide. The added sugar, particularly high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), can be an important source of sugar degradation products, such as α-dicarbonyl compounds. This study recorded the α-dicarbonyl profile in CSDs by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with hyphenated diode array-tandem mass spectrometry after derivatization with o-phenylenediamine. Thus, 3-deoxy-D-erythro-hexos-2-ulose (3-DG), D-lyxo-hexos-2-ulose (glucosone), 3-deoxy-D-threo-hexos-2-ulose (3-DGal), 1-deoxy-D-erythro-hexos-2,3-diulose (1-DG), 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene (3,4-DGE), methylglyoxal, and glyoxal were identified as major α-dicarbonyls and, with the exception of glyoxal, quantified (recovery rates, 85.6-103.1%; RSD, 0.8-3.6%). Total α-dicarbonyl concentration in 25 tested commercial products ranged between 0.3 and 116 μg/mL and was significantly higher in HFCS-sweetened CSDs compared to CSDs sweetened with HFCS and sucrose or with sucrose alone. Predominant was 3-DG (≤87 μg/mL) followed by glucosone (≤21 μg/mL), 3-DGal (≤7.7 μg/mL), 1-DG (≤2.8 μg/mL), methylglyoxal (≤0.62 μg/mL), and 3,4-DGE (≤0.45 μg/mL).

  20. Compound hierarchical correlated beta mixture with an application to cluster mouse transcription factor DNA binding data

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Hongying; Charnigo, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Modeling correlation structures is a challenge in bioinformatics, especially when dealing with high throughput genomic data. A compound hierarchical correlated beta mixture (CBM) with an exchangeable correlation structure is proposed to cluster genetic vectors into mixture components. The correlation coefficient, \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\u...

  1. Preparation of association compound between rhodium(II) citrate and {beta}-cyclodextrin; Preparacao do composto de associacao entre citrato de rodio(II) e {beta}-ciclodextrina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Ana E.; Okio, Coco K.Y.A., E-mail: aeburgosc@unal.edu.co [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Sinisterra, Ruben D. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte - MG (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Inclusion compound of rhodium(II) citrate with{beta}-cyclodextrin in a 1:1 molar ratio was prepared using freeze-drying method. X-ray diffractometry, thermal analysis (TG/DTG/DSC), infrared and {sup 1}H-NMR with {sup 1}H spin lattice relaxation ({sup 1}H T{sub 1}) measurements and {sup 13}C techniques were used to characterize the system prepared. The results indicated the formation of inclusion or association compounds between rhodium(II) citrate and {beta}-cyclodextrin. (author)

  2. Increased Dicarbonyl Stress as a Novel Mechanism of Multi-Organ Failure in Critical Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bussel, Bas C. T.; van de Poll, Marcel C. G.; Schalkwijk, Casper G.; Bergmans, Dennis C. J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Molecular pathological pathways leading to multi-organ failure in critical illness are progressively being unravelled. However, attempts to modulate these pathways have not yet improved the clinical outcome. Therefore, new targetable mechanisms should be investigated. We hypothesize that increased dicarbonyl stress is such a mechanism. Dicarbonyl stress is the accumulation of dicarbonyl metabolites (i.e., methylglyoxal, glyoxal, and 3-deoxyglucosone) that damages intracellular proteins, modifies extracellular matrix proteins, and alters plasma proteins. Increased dicarbonyl stress has been shown to impair the renal, cardiovascular, and central nervous system function, and possibly also the hepatic and respiratory function. In addition to hyperglycaemia, hypoxia and inflammation can cause increased dicarbonyl stress, and these conditions are prevalent in critical illness. Hypoxia and inflammation have been shown to drive the rapid intracellular accumulation of reactive dicarbonyls, i.e., through reduced glyoxalase-1 activity, which is the key enzyme in the dicarbonyl detoxification enzyme system. In critical illness, hypoxia and inflammation, with or without hyperglycaemia, could thus increase dicarbonyl stress in a way that might contribute to multi-organ failure. Thus, we hypothesize that increased dicarbonyl stress in critical illness, such as sepsis and major trauma, contributes to the development of multi-organ failure. This mechanism has the potential for new therapeutic intervention in critical care. PMID:28178202

  3. A new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3{beta}-HSD gene causes salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L.; Sakkal-Alkaddour, S.; Chang, Ying T.; Yang, Xiaojiang; Songya Pang [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-01-01

    We report a new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{Beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3{beta}-HSD) gene in a Pakistanian female child with the salt-wasting form of 3{Beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The etiology for her congenital adrenal hyperplasia was not defined. Although the family history suggested possible 3{beta}-HSd deficiency disorder, suppressed adrenal function caused by excess glucocorticoid therapy in this child at 7 yr of age did not allow hormonal diagnosis. To confirm 3{beta}-HSD deficiency, we sequenced the type II 3{beta}-HSD gene in the patient, her family, and the parents of her deceased paternal cousins. The type II 3{beta}-HSD gene region of a putative promotor, exons I, II, III, and IV, and exon-intron boundaries were amplified by PCR and sequenced in all subjects. The DNA sequence of the child revealed a single nucleotide deletion at codon 318 [ACA(Thr){r_arrow}AA] in exon IV in one allele, and two nucleotide deletions at codon 273 [AAA(Lys){r_arrow}A] in exon IV in the other allele. The remaining gene sequences were normal. The codon 318 mutation was found in one allele from the father, brother, and parents of the deceased paternal cousins. The codon 273 mutation was found in one allele of the mother and a sister. These findings confirmed inherited 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the child caused by the compound heterozygous type II 3{beta}-HSD gene mutation. Both codons at codons 279 and 367, respectively, are predicted to result in an altered and truncated type II 3{beta}-HSD protein, thereby causing salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the patient. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. A comparison of dicarbonyl stress and advanced glycation endproducts in lifelong endurance athletes vs. sedentary controls.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maessen, M.F.H.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Verheggen, R.J.H.M.; Aengevaeren, V.L.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Dicarbonyl stress and high concentrations of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) relate to an elevated risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Exercise training lowers the risk for future CVD. We tested the hypothesis that lifelong endurance athletes have lower dicarbonyl stress and

  5. Studies of. gamma. -ray irradiation effects on tris(. beta. -diketonato)iron(III) and cobalt(III) coordination compounds by means of Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Y.; Endo, K.; Sano, H. (Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1981-06-01

    Both absorption Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurements on tris(..beta..-diketonato)iron(III) and cobalt(III) compounds indicate that ligands which have phenyl group as a substituent are more stable to ..gamma..-ray radiolysis, in accordance with previous results of emission Moessbauer spectroscopic studies of /sup 57/Co-labelled tris (..beta..-diketonato)cobalt(III) compounds.

  6. Platinum catalysed 3,4- and 1,4-diboration of alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds using bis-pinacolatodiboron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Nathan J; Cox, Andrew J; Cameron, Neil R; Evans, John S O; Marder, Todd B; Duin, Marcel A; Elsevier, Cornelis J; Baucherel, Xavier; Tulloch, Arran A D; Tooze, Robert P

    2004-08-21

    Bis-pinacolatodiboron reacts with [small alpha],[small beta]-unsaturated carbonyl compounds to give 1,4- and unprecedented 3,4-additions in the presence of a second generation Pt(0) catalyst at ambient temperature.

  7. Chiral squaramide-catalyzed asymmetric synthesis of pyranones and pyranonaphthoquinones via cascade reactions of 1,3-dicarbonyls with Morita-Baylis-Hillman acetates of nitroalkenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Divya K; Menna-Barreto, Rubem F S; da Silva Júnior, Eufrânio N; Mobin, Shaikh M; Namboothiri, Irishi N N

    2014-07-07

    Cascade reactions of 1,3-dicarbonyls with Morita-Baylis-Hillman acetates of nitroalkenes using a quinine derived chiral squaramide organocatalyst led to the formation of pyranones and pyranonaphthoquinones in good to excellent yields and high diastereo- and enantioselectivities. Representative examples of the reaction scale-up with a much lower catalyst loading without an appreciable loss of selectivities and synthetic transformations of the products are also reported here. The compounds described herein for the first time were evaluated against the infective bloodstream form of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, since the structures are related to bioactive α-lapachones.

  8. Atmospheric photochemical degradation of 1,4-unsaturated dicarbonyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.; Jeffries, H.E.; Sexton, K.G.

    1999-12-01

    To better understand fates of aromatics hydrocarbon species in the atmosphere, the authors have investigated the transformation chemistry of butenedial (CHOCH{double{underscore}bond}CHCHO), 4-oxo-2-pentenal (CH{sub 3}COCH{double{underscore}bond}CHCHO), and 3-hexene-2, 5-dione (CH{sub 3}COCH{double{underscore}bond}CHCOCH{sub 3}). These 1,4-unsaturated dicarbonyls are known to be products of aromatic photochemical oxidation. Both hydroxyl radical (OH) and ozone (O{sub 3}) initiated smog chamber experiments under atmospheric conditions were conducted in the University of North Carolina outdoor smog chamber. Carbonyl intermediates and products were measured using the O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine derivatization method followed by gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry analysis. Carbonyl products detected and identified by comparison with standards in the OH-initiated photooxidation of butenedial include formaldehyde, acrolein, glycolaldehyde, glyoxal, and malonaldehyde (CHOCH{sub 2}CHO). For 4-oxo-2-pentenal, the carbonyl products were formaldehyde, methyl vinyl ketone, glycolaldehyde, hydroxyacetone, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and malonaldehyde. for 3-hexene-2,5-dione the products were formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, hydroxyacetone, and methylglyoxal. Carbonyl products detected in the P{sub 3}-initiated experiments with cyclohexane as the OH scavenger were formaldehyde and glyoxal in butenedial; formaldehyde, glyoxal, methyl-glyoxal, and malonaldehyde in 4-oxo-2-pentenal; and formaldehyde and methylglyoxal in 3-hexene-2,5-dione.

  9. Interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme. Synthesis of hydroxyethyl dipeptide surrogate-containing compounds as potential ICE inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, L A; Martin, J J

    1993-05-01

    A series of compounds containing a hydroxyethyl-based dipeptide surrogate have been prepared as probes to evaluate the possibility of ICE being an aspartic protease. The aldehyde t-BocAsp(beta-t-butyl)H reacted with the organochromium species derived from phenethyl bromide and CrCl2 to give the expected addition product. Lactonization, reprotection of the amine and oxidation with RuCl3 gave the two protected dipeptide surrogates 7a and 7b. These were incorporated into tetra-, penta- and hexapeptide-like molecules and evaluated as inhibitors of the enzyme. The failure of these compounds to inhibit ICE indicated that this enzyme was very unlikely to be an aspartic protease.

  10. Modulation of 17{beta}-estradiol-induced responses in fish by cytochrome P4501A1 inducing compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.J.; Hinton, D.E. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Some compounds which induce cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) are antiestrogenic in mammalian bioassay, and this effect is linked to aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor. Liver of fish synthesizes estrogen-inducible egg yolk precursor protein vitellogenin (Vg) which is critical for oocyte maturation and ovarian development. To determine if Ah receptor-linked endocrine modulation could occur in fish liver, primary cultures of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver cells were co-administered 17{beta}-estradiol and CYP1A1 inducing compounds. Vitellogenin and albumin, estimated by ELISA measurement of concentration in the media 48 hrs after treatment, formed the basis for the test. Cellular CYP1A1 protein content and catalytic activity was estimated by ELISA and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity assays respectively. Equivalent viability (mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity) and secretary functional capacity (albumin synthesis) were estimated and correlated with other results. In descending order, 2,3,4,7,8 pentachlorodibenzofuran (10{sup {minus}12} to 10{sup {minus}8} M) > 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin {approx_equal} 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzofuran (10{sup {minus}11} to 10{sup {minus}8} M) > {beta}-naphthoflavone (10{sup {minus}7} to 10{sup {minus}6} M) inhibited Vg synthesis in 17{beta}-estradiol treated liver cells. Potency of inhibition directly related to strength as an inducer of CYP1A1 protein. At 10-8 M, PCB congeners 77, 126, and 156 did not inhibit Vg synthesis and induced no or only moderate CYP1A1 protein. At 10-8 M, PCB congener 114, a weak CYP1A1 inducer, potentiated Vg synthesis relative to cells treated with 17{beta}-estradiol alone. This study increases their understanding of the consequences of hepatic CYP1A1 induction, forewarns of reproductive impairment of sexually maturing fishes exposed to CYP1A1 inducing compounds and argues for further, more detailed in vivo investigation.

  11. Degradative pro-vitamin A active compounds of all- trans -&beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    b-carotene undergoing isomerization and oxidation to produce cis isomers and monoepoxides of b-carotene, which are pro-vitamin A active, and some volatile compounds. The isomerization process results in the reduction of the relative ...

  12. A fungal metallo-beta-lactamase necessary for biotransformation of maize phytoprotectant compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenobiotic compounds such as phytochemicals, microbial metabolites, and agrochemicals can impact the diversity and frequency of fungal species occurring in agricultural environments. Resistance to xenobiotics may allow plant pathogenic fungi to dominate the overall fungal community, with potential ...

  13. Molecular composition of dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls and fatty acids in atmospheric aerosols from Tanzania, East Africa during wet and dry seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkoma, S. L.; Kawamura, K.

    2013-02-01

    Atmospheric aerosol samples of PM2.5 and PM10 were collected during the wet and dry seasons in 2011 from a rural site in Tanzania and analysed for water-soluble dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids using a gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) and GC/mass spectrometry. Here we report the molecular composition and sources of diacids and related compounds for wet and dry seasons. Oxalic acid (C2) was found as the most abundant diacid species followed by succinic and/or malonic acids whereas glyoxylic acid and glyoxal were the dominant ketoacid and α-dicarbonyl, respectively in both seasons in PM2.5 and PM10. Mean concentration of C2 in PM2.5 (121 ± 47 ng m-3) was lower in wet season than dry season (258 ± 69 ng m-3). Similarly, PM10 samples showed lower concentration of C2 (169 ± 42 ng m-3) in wet season than dry season (292 ± 165 ng m-3). Relative abundances of C2 in total diacids were 65% and 67% in PM2.5 and 65% and 64% in PM10 in the wet and dry seasons, respectively. Total concentrations of diacids (289-362 ng m-3), ketoacids (37.8-53.7 ng m-3), and α-dicarbonyls (5.7-7.8 ng m-3) in Tanzania are higher than those reported at a rural background site in Nylsvley (South Africa) but comparable or lower than those reported from sites in Asia and Europe. Diacids and ketoacids were found to be present mainly in PM2.5 in both seasons (total α-dicarbonyls in the dry season), suggesting a production of organic acids from pyrogenic sources and photochemical oxidations. Averaged contributions of total diacids to aerosol total carbon were 1.4% in PM2.5 and 2.1% in PM10 during wet season and 3.3% in PM2.5 and 3.9% in PM10 during dry season whereas those to water-soluble organic carbon were 2.2% and 4.7% in PM2.5 during wet season and 3.1% and 5.8% in PM10 during dry season. The higher ratios in dry season suggest an enhanced photochemical oxidation of organic precursors probably via heterogeneous reactions on

  14. Three-component coupling of acylphosphonates and two carbonyl compounds promoted by low-valent samariums: one-Pot synthesis of beta-hydroxyphosphonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki; Itono; Nagafuji; Naito; Shishido; Takehira; Makioka; Taniguchi; Fujiwara

    2000-01-28

    Three-component coupling of acylphosphonates and two carbonyl compounds leading to beta-hydroxyphosphonates has been achieved with low-valent samariums. Thus, acylphosphonates reacted with aldehydes in the presence of semicatalytic amounts of samarium metal or SmI(2) to give acyloxyphosphonates in good yields. The second coupling reaction of the acyloxyphosphonates with aldehydes or ketones promoted by SmI(2) afforded beta-hydroxyphosphonates instead of olefins. Moreover, these two reactions could be carried out in one pot.

  15. Super agonist actions of clothianidin and related compounds on the SAD beta 2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Makoto; Matsuda, Kazuhiko; Shimomura, Masaru; Sattelle, David B; Komai, Koichiro

    2004-03-01

    To compare the actions of clothianidin, a neonicotinoid acting on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and related compounds with that of imidacloprid, the compounds were tested on the Drosophila SAD-chicken beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes using two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology. The maximum response of the SAD beta 2 nicotinic receptor to clothianidin was larger than that observed for acetylcholine. Ring breakage of the imidazolidine ring of imidacloprid resulting in the generation of a guanidine group was critical for this super agonist action.

  16. Self assembled rotaxane and pseudo-rotaxanes based on {beta}-cyclodextrin inclusion compounds with trans-1,4-bis[(4-pyridyl)ethenyl]benzene-pentacyanoferrate(II) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toma, Sergio H.; Toma, Henrique E. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: henetoma@iq.usp.br

    2007-03-15

    Inclusion compounds of trans-1,4-bis[(4-pyridyl)ethenyl]benzene (BPEB) and their corresponding pentacyanoferrate(II) complexes with {beta}-cyclodextrin have been studied in aqueous solution by {sup 1}H NMR and UV-Visible spectroscopy. All the inclusion compounds exhibit 1:1 stoichiometry is aqueous solution. In the presence of {beta}-cyclodextrin, the binuclear {l_brace}[Fe(CN){sub 5}]{sub 2}(BPEB)]{sup 6-} complex is gradually converted into rotaxane species bearing [Fe(CN){sub 5}]{sup 3-} end groups, by a self assembly inclusion mechanism, as confirmed by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. (author)

  17. Effects of bioactive compounds from carrots (Daucus carota L.), polyacetylenes, beta-carotene and lutein on human lymphoid leukaemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, Rana G; Brandt, Kirsten; Clench, Malcolm R; Le Maitre, Christine L

    2012-07-01

    New therapies for leukaemia are urgently needed. Carrots have been suggested as a potential treatment for leukaemia in traditional medicine and have previously been studied in other contexts as potential sources of anticancer agents. Indicating that carrots may contain bioactive compounds, which may show potential in leukaemia therapies. This study investigated the effects of five fractions from carrot juice extract (CJE) on human lymphoid leukaemia cell lines, together with five purified bioactive compounds found in Daucus carota L, including: three polyacetylenes (falcarinol, falcarindiol and falcarindiol-3-acetate) and two carotenoids (beta-carotene and lutein). Their effects on induction of apoptosis using Annexin V/PI and Caspase 3 activity assays analysed via flow cytometry and inhibition of cellular proliferation using Cell Titer Glo assay and cell cycle analysis were investigated. Treatment of all three lymphoid leukaemia cell lines with the fraction from carrot extracts which contained polyacetylenes and carotenoids was significantly more cytotoxic than the 4 other fractions. Treatments with purified polyacetylenes also induced apoptosis in a dose and time responsive manner. Moreover, falcarinol and falcarindiol-3-acetate isolated from Daucus carota L were more cytotoxic than falcarindiol. In contrast, the carotenoids showed no significant effect on either apoptosis or cell proliferation in any of the cells investigated. This suggests that polyacetylenes rather than beta-carotene or lutein are the bioactive components found in Daucus carota L and could be useful in the development of new leukemic therapies. Here, for the first time, the cytotoxic effects of polyacetylenes have been shown to be exerted via induction of apoptosis and arrest of cell cycle.

  18. Degradative pro-vitamin A active compounds of all- trans -&beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV) are rich source of pro-vitamin A carotenoids, with all-trans-b-carotene as the main compound contributing over 90% of the vitamin A content. The other pro-vitamin A carotenoids present in DGLV are the cis isomers of b-carotene; the 9-cis and the 13-cis, and a-carotene in some ...

  19. Polymerizations of beta-substituted allylic arsonium ylides with catalytic amounts of organoboron compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondiere, R.

    2004-01-01

    My Ph.D. work consisted in the generalization and optimization of a new polymerization reaction involving allylic arsonium ylides and catalytic amounts of various boron compounds. Thus, various β-substituted allylic arsonium salts were produced according to synthetic strategies that depended on the nature of the functional group born by the salt. These salts were converted in situ to the corresponding arsonium ylides which were then treated with boron compounds to yield polymers. Our new method of polymerization afforded either non conjugated polyenes that are functionalized every three atoms of carbon, or statistic copolymers, depending on the nature of the group R born on the β position of the ylide. These new polymers cannot be synthesized by usual methods of polymerization. Initial molar ratios of reactants were found to give molar mass control of the synthesized polymers. This controlled polymerization allowed us to produce several bloc copolymers. All the polymers were characterized by NMR techniques, by size exclusion chromatography and, for some of them, by mass spectrometry. Investigation of their physicochemical properties will need additional experiments. (author)

  20. SYNTHESIS AND IDENTIFICATION OF 12 A-RING REDUCED 6-ALPHA-HYDROXYLATED AND 6-BETA-HYDROXYLATED COMPOUNDS DERIVED FROM 11-DEOXYCORTISOL, CORTICOSTERONE AND 11-DEHYDROCORTICOSTERONE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KRAAN, GPB; HARTSTRA, J; WOLTHERS, BG; VANDERMOLEN, JC; NAGEL, GT; DRAYER, NM; ZIJLSTRA, RWJ; KRUIZINGA, WH

    The synthesis and identification of 12 A-ring reduced 6 alpha-(and 6 beta-)hydroxylated compounds derived from 11-deoxycortisol (S), corticosterone (B) and 11-dehydrocorticosterone (A) are reported here. These steroids were prepared in two steps from the corresponding 6 6 alpha-(and 6

  1. Passivation characteristics of beta-FeAl intermetallic compound in sulphate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frangini, S.; De Cristofaro, N.; Lascovich, J.C.; Mignone, A. [ENEA, Casaccia (Italy). Dipt. Tecnologie Intersettoriali di Base

    1992-12-31

    The corrosion and passivation behaviour of a Fe-24 wt% Al intermetallic compound was studied in sulphate solutions using cyclic voltammetry and potentiodynamic curves, combined with x-ray photoelectron spectrocopy (XPS). The voltagrams performed in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} 0.5M show the peak characteristics of the oxidation/reduction process of iron. The comparison of the anodic polarization curve of FeAI in acid solution with those of the pure elements shows the beneficial effect of Al when added to Fe in terms of both passive range and current. At higher pH (6.0 and 13.6), the FeAI passivates spontaneously. Preliminary studies of the passive film grown in air and anodically performed by XPS revealed the co-existence of iron and aluminium oxide, thus explaining the superior corrosion resistance of iron aluminides as compared with iron.

  2. Molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in biomass burning aerosols: implications for photochemical production and degradation in smoke layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hoffer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols in the size class <2.5 μm (6 daytime and 9 nighttime samples were collected at a pasture site in Rondônia, Brazil, during the intensive biomass burning period of 16–26 September 2002 as part of the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia – Smoke, Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall and Climate (LBA-SMOCC. Homologous series of dicarboxylic acids (C2–C11 and related compounds (ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls were identified using gas chromatography (GC and GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Among the species detected, oxalic acid was found to be the most abundant, followed by succinic, malonic and glyoxylic acids. Average concentrations of total dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in the aerosol samples were 2180, 167 and 56 ng m−3, respectively. These are 2–8, 3–11 and 2–16 times higher, respectively, than those reported in urban aerosols, such as in 14 Chinese megacities. Higher ratios of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds to biomass burning tracers (levoglucosan and K+ were found in the daytime than in the nighttime, suggesting the importance of photochemical production. On the other hand, higher ratios of oxalic acid to other dicarboxylic acids and related compounds normalized to biomass burning tracers (levoglucosan and K+ in the daytime provide evidence for the possible degradation of dicarboxylic acids (≥C3 in this smoke-polluted environment. Assuming that these and related compounds are photo-chemically oxidized to oxalic acid in the daytime, and given their linear relationship, they could account for, on average, 77% of the formation of oxalic acid. The remaining portion of oxalic acid may have been directly emitted from biomass burning as suggested by a good correlation with the biomass burning tracers (K+, CO and ECa and organic carbon (OC. However, photochemical production from other precursors could not be excluded.

  3. Extract of Cassiae Semen and its major compound inhibit S100b-induced TGF-beta1 and fibronectin expression in mouse glomerular mesangial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dong Ho; Kim, Young Sook; Kim, Nan Hee; Lee, Jun; Jang, Dae Sik; Kim, Jin Sook

    2010-09-01

    Non-enzymatic glycation reactions between reducing sugar and free reactive amino groups of protein lead to the formation of advanced glycation end products, which increase under conditions of aging or diabetes. A previous study showed that extracts of Cassiae Semen (CS), the seed of Cassia tora, had inhibitory activity on advanced glycation end products formation in vitro. To examine the pharmacological effects of a butanol-soluble extract of CS under conditions of diabetic nephropathy, we evaluated the expression of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and fibronectin, key mediators of diabetic nephropathy, in mouse glomerular mesangial cells cultured in the presence of S100b (a specific ligand for receptor of advanced glycation end products). CS inhibited S100b-induced TGF-beta1 and fibronectin expression in mouse mesangial cells by suppressing activation of Smad2/3, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and oxidative stress. Moreover, CS suppressed nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation in S100b-stimulated mouse mesangial cells. To identify the active compounds of CS, three major compounds, rubrofusarin-6-O-beta-d-gentiobioside (CS-A), toralactone-9-O-beta-d-gentiobioside (CS-B), and cassiaside (CS-C), were tested in cells. Of these compounds, CS-A significantly decreased the expression of TGF-beta1 and fibronectin and NF-kappaB DNA binding activity. These findings suggest that CS, especially CS-A, has potential as a preventive agent for advanced glycation end products-related diabetic complications. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Spectroscopic study of Tb{sup 3+}({beta}-diketonate){sub 3}: {alpha}-cyclodextrin inclusion compounds in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Anderson O.; Serra, Osvaldo A. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: anderson.ribeiro@ufabc.edu.br

    2007-03-15

    In this work we describe how the inclusion of Tb{sup 3+} {beta}-diketonate chelates into the hydrophobic cavity of {alpha}-cyclodextrin enhances the solubility of the complexes in aqueous medium and leads to changes in their photophysical properties. To this end, the complexes [Tb(ppa){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] and [Tb(ppa){sub 3}(phen)] (ppa=3-phenyl-2,4-pentanedione; phen = phenanthroline) were synthesized and characterized, and they were then included into {alpha}-cyclodextrin pockets. This inclusion was confirmed by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy and the stoichiometry was determined by means of the Job method. In the excitation spectra, the maximum intensity wavelength of the inclusion compounds [Tb(ppa){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]: {alpha}-CD and [Tb(ppa){sub 3}(phen)]:{alpha}-CD were displaced 15 and 60 nm respectively when compared with the non-CD starting complexes. The typical Tb{sup 3+} emission bands were maintained after inclusion of the complexes into {alpha}-CD and their subsequent solubilization in aqueous medium. (author)

  5. Frequency of Gγ-globin promoter -158 (C>T) XmnI polymorphism in patients with homozygous/compound heterozygous beta thalassaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nadir; Ayyub, Muhammad; Khan, Saleem Ahmed; Ahmed, Suhaib; Abbas, Kazim; Malik, Hamid Saeed; Tashfeen, Sunila

    2015-03-01

    Response to hydroxyurea therapy in homozygous or compound heterozygous beta thalassaemia (BT) has been reported as more favourable in the presence of XmnI polymorphism. The prevalence of XmnI polymorphism may vary with BT phenotypes and genotypes, and differs geographically in distribution. Prevalence of XmnI polymorphism is not known in northern Pakistan. To determine the frequency of Gγ-globin promoter -158 (C>T) XmnI polymorphism (XmnI polymorphism) in patients with homozygous or compound heterozygous beta thalassaemia. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for common beta thalassaemia mutations and Gγ-globin promoter -158 (C>T) XmnI polymorphism was performed on 107 blood samples of transfusion dependent beta thalassaemia (BT) patients in Pakistan. One hundred samples of unrelated BT traits and 94 samples of healthy subjects as controls were also analysed for BT mutations and XmnI polymorphism. Out of 301 DNA samples, XmnI polymorphism was detected in 71(24%); in normal controls, XmnI polymorphism was detected in 34/94 (36%) subjects; while in homozygous/compound heterozygous BT, it was detected in 14/107(13%) patients (Fisher's exact test, p=.0002). In heterozygous BT group, XmnI polymorphism was detected in 23/100 subjects (Fisher's exact test, p=.03 with normal controls, and p=.049 with homozygous/compound heterozygous BT). The most common BT genotype was Frame Shift (Fr) 8-9/Fr 8-9, and none of the patients with this genotype had XmnI polymorphism. The second most common genotype was IVSI-5/IVSI-5; 4/26 (15%). Cases with this genotype had XmnI polymorphism. XmnI polymorphism in homozygous/compound heterozygous BT group is 13%. The most common genotype associated with XmnI polymorphism was IVSI-5/IVSI-5. Copyright © 2015 King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Lending a helping hand, screening chemical libraries for compounds that enhance beta-hexosaminidase A activity in GM2 gangliosidosis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropak, Michael B; Mahuran, Don

    2007-10-01

    Enzyme enhancement therapy is an emerging therapeutic approach that has the potential to treat many genetic diseases. Candidate diseases are those associated with a mutant protein that has difficulty folding and/or assembling into active oligomers in the endoplasmic reticulum. Many lysosomal storage diseases are candidates for enzyme enhancement therapy and have the additional advantage of requiring only 5-10% of normal enzyme levels to reduce and/or prevent substrate accumulation. Our long experience in working with the beta-hexosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.52) isozymes system and its associated deficiencies (Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff disease) lead us to search for possible enzyme enhancement therapy-agents that could treat the chronic forms of these diseases which express 2-5% residual activity. Pharmacological chaperones are enzyme enhancement therapy-agents that are competitive inhibitors of the target enzyme. Each of the known beta-hexosaminidase inhibitors (low microm IC50) increased mutant enzyme levels to >or= 10% in chronic Tay-Sachs fibroblasts and also attenuated the thermo-denaturation of beta-hexosaminidase. To expand the repertoire of pharmacological chaperones to more 'drug-like' compounds, we screened the Maybridge library of 50,000 compounds using a real-time assay for noncarbohydrate-based beta-hexosaminidase inhibitors and identified several that functioned as pharmacological chaperones in patient cells. Two of these inhibitors had derivatives that had been tested in humans for other purposes. These observations lead us to screen the NINDS library of 1040 Food and Drug Administration approved compounds for pharmacological chaperones. Pyrimethamine, an antimalarial drug with well documented pharmacokinetics, was confirmed as a beta-hexosaminidase pharmacological chaperone and compared favorably with our best carbohydrate-based pharmacological chaperone in patient cells with various mutant genotypes.

  7. Thermodynamics and structure of inclusion compounds of tauro- and glyco-conjugated bile salts and beta-cyclodextrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Rene; Shi, Wei; Andersen Hartvig, Rune

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between natural beta-cyclodextrin and bile salts common in rat, dog and man, taurocholate, tauro-beta-muricholate, taurodeoxycholate, taurochenodeoxycholate, glycocholate, glycodeoxycholate and glycochenodeoxycholate, was studied using isothermal titration calorimetry, and the str......The interaction between natural beta-cyclodextrin and bile salts common in rat, dog and man, taurocholate, tauro-beta-muricholate, taurodeoxycholate, taurochenodeoxycholate, glycocholate, glycodeoxycholate and glycochenodeoxycholate, was studied using isothermal titration calorimetry......, and the structural differences in the interaction were investigated by H-1-ROESY NMR and molecular modeling. The beta-cyclodextrin was selected based upon its frequent use in preformulation and drug formulation as oral excipients for the solubilization of drug substances with low aqueous solubility. All...

  8. Dicarbonyl Induced Structural Perturbations Make Histone H1 Highly Immunogenic and Generate an Auto-Immune Response in Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rouf Mir

    Full Text Available Increased oxidative stress under hyperglycemic conditions, through the interaction of AGEs with RAGE receptors and via activation of interleukin mediated transcription signalling, has been reported in cancer. Proteins modifications are being explored for their roles in the development and progression of cancer and autoantibody response against them is gaining interest as a probe for early detection of the disease. This study has analysed the changes in histone H1 upon modification by methylglyoxal (MG and its implications in auto-immunopathogenesis of cancer. Modified histone showed modifications in the aromatic residues, changed tyrosine microenvironment, intermolecular cross linking and generation of AGEs. It showed masking of hydrophobic patches and a hypsochromic shift in the in ANS specific fluorescence. MG aggressively oxidized histone H1 leading to the accumulation of reactive carbonyls. Far UV CD measurements showed di-carbonyl induced enhancement of the alpha structure and the induction of beta sheet conformation; and thermal denaturation (Tm studies confirmed the thermal stability of the modified histone. FTIR analysis showed amide I band shift, generation of a carboxyethyl group and N-Cα vibrations in the modified histone. LCMS analysis confirmed the formation of Nε-(carboxyethyllysine and electron microscopic studies revealed the amorphous aggregate formation. The modified histone showed altered cooperative binding with DNA. Modified H1 induced high titre antibodies in rabbits and the IgG isolated form sera of rabbits immunized with modified H1 exhibited specific binding with its immunogen in Western Blot analysis. IgG isolated from the sera of patients with lung cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer and cancer of head and neck region showed better recognition for neo-epitopes on the modified histone, reflecting the presence of circulating autoantibodies in cancer. Since reports suggest a link between AGE-RAGE axis and

  9. Molecular composition of dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls and fatty acids in atmospheric aerosols from Tanzania, East Africa during wet and dry seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Mkoma

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosol samples of PM2.5 and PM10 were collected during the wet and dry seasons in 2011 from a rural site in Tanzania and analysed for water-soluble dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids using a gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID and GC/mass spectrometry. Here we report the molecular composition and sources of diacids and related compounds for wet and dry seasons. Oxalic acid (C2 was found as the most abundant diacid species followed by succinic and/or malonic acids whereas glyoxylic acid and glyoxal were the dominant ketoacid and α-dicarbonyl, respectively in both seasons in PM2.5 and PM10. Mean concentration of C2 in PM2.5 (121 ± 47 ng m−3 was lower in wet season than dry season (258 ± 69 ng m−3. Similarly, PM10 samples showed lower concentration of C2 (169 ± 42 ng m−3 in wet season than dry season (292 ± 165 ng m−3. Relative abundances of C2 in total diacids were 65% and 67% in PM2.5 and 65% and 64% in PM10 in the wet and dry seasons, respectively. Total concentrations of diacids (289–362 ng m−3, ketoacids (37.8–53.7 ng m−3, and α-dicarbonyls (5.7–7.8 ng m−3 in Tanzania are higher than those reported at a rural background site in Nylsvley (South Africa but comparable or lower than those reported from sites in Asia and Europe. Diacids and ketoacids were found to be present mainly in PM2.5 in both seasons (total α-dicarbonyls in the dry season, suggesting a production of organic acids from pyrogenic sources and photochemical oxidations. Averaged contributions of total diacids to aerosol total carbon were 1.4% in PM2.5 and 2.1% in PM10 during wet season and 3.3% in PM2.5 and 3.9% in PM10 during

  10. Size distributions of dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls and fatty acids in atmospheric aerosols from Tanzania, East Africa during wet and dry seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkoma, S. L.; Kawamura, K.

    2012-09-01

    Atmospheric aerosol samples of PM2.5 and PM10 were collected during the wet and dry seasons in 2011 from a rural site in Tanzania and analysed for water-soluble dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls and fatty acids using a gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry. Here we report the size distribution and sources of diacids and related compounds for wet and dry seasons. Oxalic acid (C2) was found as the most abundant diacid species followed by succinic and/or malonic acids whereas glyoxylic acid and glyoxal were the dominant ketoacids and α-dicarbonyls, respectively in both seasons in PM2.5 and PM10. Mean concentration of C2 in PM2.5 (121.5± 46.6 ng m-3) was lower in wet season than dry season (258.1± 69.5 ng m-3). Similarly, PM10 samples showed lower concentration of C2 (168.6 ± 42.4 ng m-3) in wet season than dry season (292.4± 164.8 ng m-3). Relative abundances of C2 in total diacids were 65.4% and 67.1% in PM2.5 and 64.6% and 63.9% in PM10 in the wet and dry seasons, respectively. Total concentrations of diacids (289-362 m-3), ketoacids (37.8-53.7ng m-3), and α-dicarbonyls (5.7-7.8 ng m-3) in Tanzania are higher to those reported at a rural background site in Nylsvley (South Africa) but comparable or lower to those reported from sites in Asia and Europe. Diacids and ketoacids were found to be present mainly in the fine fraction in both seasons (total α-dicarbonyls in the dry season), suggesting a production of organic aerosols from pyrogenic sources and photochemical oxidations. The averaged contributions of total diacid carbon to aerosol total carbon were 1.4% in PM2.5 and 2.1% in PM10 in wet season and 3.3% in PM2.5 and 3.9% in PM10 in dry season whereas those to water-soluble organic carbon were 2.2% and 4.7% inPM2.5 and 3.1% and 5.8% in PM10 during the wet and dry seasons, respectively. These ratios suggest an enhanced photochemical oxidation of organic precursors and heterogeneous reactions on aerosols under strong solar

  11. Vitreous advanced glycation endproducts and alpha-dicarbonyls in retinal detachment patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-diabetic controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkens, Bernardina T.; Mulder, Douwe J.; Schalkwijk, Casper G.; Scheijen, Jean L.; Smit, Andries J.; Los, Leonoor I.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and their precursors alpha-dicarbonyls are implicated in the progression of diabetic retinopathy. The purpose of this study was to assess AGEs and a-dicarbonyls in the vitreous of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with early stages or absence

  12. Chiral separation of synthetic vicinal diol compounds by capillary zone electrophoresis with borate buffer and beta-cyclodextrin as buffer additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Yang, Xingbin; Jiang, Ru; Sun, Xiaoli; Liu, Wenmin; Zhang, Shengyong

    2006-05-01

    The investigation on capillary electrophoretic enantioseparation of six synthetic compounds containing vicinal diol groups has been undertaken to acquire the optimum conditions using native beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) as chiral selector and borate as a background electrolyte. The separation was carried out in an uncoated capillary (58.5 cm x 75 microm i.d., effective length 48.5 cm) and the effects of several important factors were investigated in detail. The results showed that beta-CD as a chiral selector exhibited good enantioselectivity and that the enantioseparation was greatly influenced by the structure of the diols, the borate concentration and the buffer pH. The optimum performance was obtained for the chiral vicinal diols under the conditions of 200 mM borate buffer of pH 9.8 containing 1.7% beta-CD at an applied voltage of 15 kV and a capillary temperature of 20 degrees C. Under the conditions, four diols were baseline separated with fast analysis time and the good theoretical plate numbers (above 10 x 10(4)) and favorable migration-time reproducibilities (RSDs below 3.0%) were obtained. The separation results were satisfactory.

  13. Gas chromatographic analysis of reactive carbonyl compounds formed from lipids upon UV-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, K.J.; Shibamoto, T.

    1990-01-01

    Peroxidation of lipids produces carbonyl compounds; some of these, e.g., malonaldehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal, are genotoxic because of their reactivity with biological nucleophiles. Analysis of the reactive carbonyl compounds is often difficult. The methylhydrazine method developed for malonaldehyde analysis was applied to simultaneously measure the products formed from linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, and squalene upon ultraviolet-irradiation (UV-irradiation). The photoreaction products, saturated monocarbonyl, alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyls, and beta-dicarbonyls, were derivatized with methylhydrazine to give hydrazones, pyrazolines, and pyrazoles, respectively. The derivatives were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Lipid peroxidation products identified included formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, malonaldehyde, n-hexanal, and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. Malonaldehyde levels formed upon 4 hr of irradiation were 0.06 micrograms/mg from squalene, 2.4 micrograms/mg from linolenic acid, and 5.7 micrograms/mg from arachidonic acid. Significant levels of acrolein (2.5 micrograms/mg) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (0.17 micrograms/mg) were also produced from arachidonic acid upon 4 hr irradiation

  14. Direct determination of the estrogenic compounds 8-prenylnaringenin, zearalenone, alpha- and beta-zearalenol in beer by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragou, Niki C; Rosenberg, Erwin; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Koupparis, Michael A

    2008-08-15

    A novel LC-ESI-MS method for the simultaneous determination of four of the most significant estrogenic compounds naturally occurring in beer, 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN), zearalenone (ZON), alpha-zearalenol (alpha-ZOL) and beta-zearalenol (beta-ZOL) which requires minimal sample preparation was developed using a chemometric approach. Experimental design was applied to assess the effects of the LC-ESI-MS parameters (mobile phase flow rate, drying gas flow, nebuliser pressure and capillary potential) on the obtained signal and to optimize the values in order to provide maximum sensitivity and detectability. The proposed method is simple, consisting only of degassing the beer and diluting with water (1:1, v/v) before injection. Comparison between the two internal standards used, zearalanone (ZAN) and 4,2'-dihydroxychalcone (4,2'-DHC), showed that ZAN performs better as internal standard not only for the mycotoxins but for 8-PN as well, giving lower % RSDs. Under inter-day conditions mean recoveries were 107% for ZON, 87.8% for alpha-ZOL, 72.8% for beta-ZOL, and 77.5% for 8-PN. The corresponding % RSDs ranged between 5.0 and 8.0. The method limits of detection were 1.3, 1.4, 1.0 and 0.8 ng mL(-1) for ZON, alpha-ZOL, beta-ZOL and 8-PN, respectively. The method was applied to 15 beer samples obtained from local supermarkets and the concentration of the phytoestrogen 8-PN in beer ranged between <0.8 and 38.6 ng mL(-1), while neither ZON nor its metabolites, alpha-ZOL and beta-ZOL, were detected.

  15. Characterization of human DHRS4: an inducible short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase enzyme with 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Endo, Satoshi; Maeda, Satoshi; Ishikura, Shuhei; Tajima, Kazuo; Tanaka, Nobutada; Nakamura, Kazuo T; Imamura, Yorishige; Hara, Akira

    2008-09-15

    Human DHRS4 is a peroxisomal member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily, but its enzymatic properties, except for displaying NADP(H)-dependent retinol dehydrogenase/reductase activity, are unknown. We show that the human enzyme, a tetramer composed of 27kDa subunits, is inactivated at low temperature without dissociation into subunits. The cold inactivation was prevented by a mutation of Thr177 with the corresponding residue, Asn, in cold-stable pig DHRS4, where this residue is hydrogen-bonded to Asn165 in a substrate-binding loop of other subunit. Human DHRS4 reduced various aromatic ketones and alpha-dicarbonyl compounds including cytotoxic 9,10-phenanthrenequinone. The overexpression of the peroxisomal enzyme in cultured cells did not increase the cytotoxicity of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone. While its activity towards all-trans-retinal was low, human DHRS4 efficiently reduced 3-keto-C(19)/C(21)-steroids into 3beta-hydroxysteroids. The stereospecific conversion to 3beta-hydroxysteroids was observed in endothelial cells transfected with vectors expressing the enzyme. The mRNA for the enzyme was ubiquitously expressed in human tissues and several cancer cells, and the enzyme in HepG2 cells was induced by peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor alpha ligands. The results suggest a novel mechanism of cold inactivation and role of the inducible human DHRS4 in 3beta-hydroxysteroid synthesis and xenobiotic carbonyl metabolism.

  16. Displacement of Dinitrogen by Oxygen: A Methodology for the Catalytic Conversion of Diazocarbonyl Compounds to Ketocarbonyl Compounds by 2,6-Dichloropyridine-N-oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Sha, Qiang; Cui, Hui; Chandler, Kory S; Doyle, Michael P

    2018-02-02

    Dirhodium(II) catalyzed dinitrogen extrusion from diazocarbonyl compounds by 2,6-dichloropyridine-N-oxide forms ketocarbonyl compounds in near-quantitative yields. Reactions occur at room temperature, and the pyridine product does not coordinate with dirhodium(II) to inhibit catalysis. Anhydrous tricarbonyl compounds, as well as dicarbonyl compounds, are conveniently prepared by this methodology, and they have been used in situ for catalytic ene and aldol transformations.

  17. Organic and inorganic aerosol compositions in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, during the cold winter of 2007 to 2008: Dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, and α-dicarbonyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jinsang; Tsatsral, Batmunkh; Kim, Young J.; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the distributions and sources of water-soluble organic acids in the Mongolian atmosphere, aerosol samples (PM2.5, n = 34) were collected at an urban site (47.92°N, 106.90°E, ˜1300 m above sea level) in Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia, during the cold winter. The samples were analyzed for water-soluble dicarboxylic acids (C2-C12) and related compounds (ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls), as well as organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon, water-soluble OC, and inorganic ions. Distributions of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds were characterized by a predominance of terephthalic acid (tPh; 130 ± 51 ng m-3, 19% of total detected organic acids) followed by oxalic (107 ± 28 ng m-3, 15%), succinic (63 ± 20 ng m-3, 9%), glyoxylic (55 ± 18 ng m-3, 8%), and phthalic (54 ± 27 ng m-3, 8%) acids. Predominance of terephthalic acid, which has not been reported previously in atmospheric aerosols, was mainly due to uncontrolled burning of plastic bottles and bags in home stoves for heating and waste incineration during the cold winter. This study demonstrated that most of the air pollutants were directly emitted from local sources such as heat and power plants, home stoves, and automobiles. Development of an inversion layer (level) over the basin of Ulaanbaatar accelerated the accumulation of pollutants, causing severe haze episodes during the winter season.

  18. Novel anti-ulcer alpha,beta-unsaturated lactones inhibit compound 48/80-induced mast cell degranulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penissi, Alicia B; Vera, Mariano E; Mariani, María L; Rudolph, María I; Ceñal, Juan P; de Rosas, Juan C; Fogal, Teresa H; Tonn, Carlos E; Favier, Laura S; Giordano, Oscar S; Piezzi, Ramón S

    2009-06-10

    The present study was designed to examine the effects of a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Artemisia douglasiana Besser (dehydroleucodine), a xanthanolide sesquiterpene isolated from Xanthium cavanillesii Schouw (xanthatin) and a semisynthetic butenolide (3-benzyloxymethyl-5H-furan-2-one) on mast cell degranulation induced by compound 48/80. Peritoneal mast cells from male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were purified in Percoll, preincubated in the presence of test lactones (dehydroleucodine, xanthatin or 3-benzyloxymethyl-5H-furan-2-one) and then challenged with the mast cell activator compound 48/80 (10 microg/ml). Concentration-response and kinetic studies of mast cell serotonin release evoked by compound 48/80, evaluation of mast cell viability and morphology by light and electron microscopy, and comparative studies using ketotifen and sodium chromoglycate were carried out. Serotonin release studies, carried out together with morphological studies, showed the effectiveness of the above lactones to stabilize mast cells. The comparative study with ketotifen and sodium chromoglycate, well known mast cell stabilizers, showed the following order of potency dehydroleucodine=xanthatin>3-benzyloxymethyl-5H-furan-2-one> or =ketotifen/sodium chromoglycate to inhibit mast cell serotonin release induced by compound 48/80. The present study provides the first strong evidence in favour of the hypothesis that dehydroleucodine, xanthatin and 3-benzyloxymethyl-5H-furan-2-one inhibit compound 48/80-induced serotonin release from peritoneal mast cells, acting thus as mast cell stabilizers. Our findings may provide an insight into the design of novel pharmacological agents which may be used to regulate the mast cell response.

  19. Total bremsstrahlung spectra of thick lead compounds produced by {sup 90}Sr beta emitter in photon energy region of 10–100 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Suhansar Jit [Department of Physics, B.B.S.B Polytechnic, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab (India); Singh, Tajinder, E-mail: tajindersingh2k9@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Mata Gujri College, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab (India); Singh, Doordarshi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.B.S.B Engineering College, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab (India); Singh, Amrit [Department of Physics, Baba Ajay Singh Khalsa College, Gurdas Nangal, Gurdaspur, Punjab (India); Dhaliwal, A.S. [Department of Physics, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Longowal (Sangrur), Punjab (India)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Total bremsstrahlung spectra in thick targets of Pb compounds by {sup 90}Sr in energy range 10–100 keV. • Experimental results show better agreement with the model which includes PB in SA up to 30 keV. • At higher photon energy region 30–100 keV the model which describes OB is more accurate. • Experimental results show positive deviations from the entire models at higher energy end spectrum. - Abstract: The total bremsstrahlung spectra in the thick targets of lead acetate trihydrate (Pb(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}·3H{sub 2}O), lead nitrate Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and lead chloride (PbCl{sub 2}) produced by {sup 90}Sr beta particles have been investigated in the photon energy region of 10–100 keV. The experimental bremsstrahlung spectra have been compared with the theoretical models Elwert corrected (non relativistic) Bethe Heitler theory, modified Elwert factor (relativistic) Bethe Heitler theory for ordinary bremsstrahlung and modified Elwert factor (relativistic) Bethe Heitler theory which includes polarization bremsstrahlung in the stripped atom approximation. The experimental results show better agreement with theoretical model that includes polarization bremsstrahlung in stripped approximation in the photon energy region below 30 keV. However, at higher photon energy region 30–100 keV, the theoretical model which describes ordinary bremsstrahlung is more accurate to describe the experimental bremsstrahlung spectra. The experimental results show positive deviations from the entire theoretical models at higher energy end of the spectrum. The results indicate that polarization bremsstrahlung plays important role in the formation of total bremsstrahlung spectra in lead compounds produced by continuous beta particles at low photon energy region of 10–30 keV.

  20. Dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in fine aerosols over central Alaska: Implications for sources and atmospheric processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Dhananjay K.; Mozammel Haque, Md.; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kim, Yongwon

    2018-04-01

    The presence of water-soluble dicarboxylic acids in atmospheric aerosols has a significant influence on the regional radiative forcing through direct aerosol effect and cloud formation process. Fine aerosol (PM2.5) samples collected in central Alaska (Fairbanks: 64.51°N and 147.51°W) during summer of 2009 were measured for water-soluble diacids (C2-C12), oxoacids (C2-C9) and α-dicarbonyls (C2-C3) as well as elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and water-soluble OC (WSOC) to assess their sources and formation processes. We found the predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by malonic (C3) and succinic acid (C4) in Alaskan aerosols. Higher C3/C4 diacid ratios (ave. 1.2) in Alaskan aerosols than those reported for fresh aerosols emitted from fossil fuel combustion (ave. 0.35) and biomass burning (0.51-0.66) suggest that organic aerosols in central Alaska were photochemically processed. The relatively high correlations of major diacids and related compounds with levoglucosan (r = 0.80-0.99) than those with 2-methylglyceric acid (r = 0.59-0.98) suggest that they were significantly produced from biomass burning emission. Strong correlations of C2 with normal-chain saturated diacids (C3-C9: r = 0.80-0.98), glyoxylic acid (ωC2: r = 0.95) and methylglyoxal (MeGly: r = 0.88), together with strong correlations of solar radiation with ratio of C2 to C2-C12 diacids (r = 0.83), ωC2 (r = 0.80) and MeGly (r = 0.82) suggest that oxalic acid in PM2.5 aerosol was produced by the photooxidation of higher homologous diacids, glyoxylic acid and methylglyoxal in the atmosphere of central Alaska. These results reveal that photochemical processing of organic precursors mainly produced from biomass burning control the water-soluble organic chemical composition of fine aerosols in central Alaska.

  1. Effects of Metformin on Tissue Oxidative and Dicarbonyl Stress in Transgenic Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Expressing Human C-Reactive Protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malínská, H.; Oliyarnyk, O.; Škop, V.; Šilhavý, Jan; Landa, Vladimír; Zídek, Václav; Mlejnek, Petr; Šimáková, Miroslava; Strnad, Hynek; Kazdová, L.; Pravenec, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2016), e0150924 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204; GA MZd(CZ) NT14325 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : inflammation * spontaneously hypertensive rat * transgenic * C-reactive protein * dicarbonyl stress * metformin Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  2. Organocatalyzed α-Sulfenylation of carbonyl compounds using N-formly/Acyl Sulfenmides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Hyeon Wan; Lee, Chan; Jang, Hye Young [Dept. of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    α-Sulfenylation of aldehydes and ketones using N-formyl and N-acyl sulfenamides, prepared by Cu-catalyzed aerobic coupling of amides and thiols, was achieved in the presence of cyclic secondary amine⋅HCl catalysts. To obtain various sulfur-functionalized carbonyl compounds, sulfenamides containing aromatic and aliphatic organosulfur were investigated. As carbonyl compounds, cyclic and acyclic ketones, 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, and aldehydes were investigated, affording the desired α-sulfenylation products in good yields.

  3. In Vivo Osteoinduction: Evaluating 2-Beta Coxatene as an Immunoinductive Compound and Novel Ingredient for Joint Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, Katherine; Scaffidi, James J

    2016-10-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease characterized by progressive loss of articular cartilage. Many treatments lack the ability to stimulate the growth of native cartilage tissue while they simultaneously increase joint comfort. For the past few decades, dietary supplements have been investigated for the ability to both address joint inflammation and stimulate cartilage tissue. The present study intended to examine the supplement's in vivo osteoinductive capabilities and clinical efficacy for overall joint health. The research team designed a randomized, double-blind, comparative clinical trial. The study took place via telephone interviews. Participants had self-reported OA of a weight-bearing joint (ie, of the knee, hip, spine, or ankle). Patients were recruited using the Health Science Institute, a consumer supplement newsletter. Participants in the intervention group were blindly given 135 mg of 2-Beta Coxatene (2BCT) orally, which contained (1) a custom blend of low-dose Cyplexinol, an osteoinductive protein complex derived from bovine bone tissue, and (2) Boswellia serrata resin enriched to 65% 3- O -Acetyl-11-keto-β-Boswellic acid. A positive control group was blindly given 1500 mg of glucosamine hydrogen chloride and 1200 mg of chondroitin sulfate. Participants took the supplements for 3 mo. A histological evaluation was performed on an athymic rat to test the supplement's in vivo osteoinductive capabilities. A negative control, commercially purchased, unhydrolyzed type 2 collagen was used for that test. Participants were evaluated for parameters of pain and joint function at baseline (day 0) and at days 7, 30, and 90 using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) OA index and a visual analogue scale (VAS). The histological evaluation of the athymic rat confirmed that the Cyplexinol component of the 2BCT was positive for de novo bone tissue and collagen synthesis, corroborating osteoinduction. In the clinical trial, the

  4. Impact of Atherosclerosis- and Diabetes-Related Dicarbonyls on Vascular Endothelial Permeability: A Comparative Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V. Samsonov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Malondialdehyde (MDA, glyoxal (GO, and methylglyoxal (MGO levels increase in atherosclerosis and diabetes patients. Recent reports demonstrate that GO and MGO cause vascular endothelial barrier dysfunction whereas no evidence is available for MDA. Methods. To compare the effects of MDA, GO, or MGO on endothelial permeability, we used human EA.hy926 endothelial cells as a standard model. To study cortical cytoplasm motility and cytoskeletal organization in endothelial cells, we utilized time-lapse microscopy and fluorescent microscopy. To compare dicarbonyl-modified protein band profiles in these cells, we applied Western blotting with antibodies against MDA- or MGO-labelled proteins. Results. MDA (150–250 μM irreversibly suppressed the endothelial cell barrier, reduced lamellipodial activity, and prevented intercellular contact formation. The motile deficiency of MDA-challenged cells was accompanied by alterations in microtubule and microfilament organization. These detrimental effects were not observed after GO or MGO (250 μM administration regardless of confirmed modification of cellular proteins by MGO. Conclusions. Our comparative study demonstrates that MDA is more damaging to the endothelial barrier than GO or MGO. Considering that MDA endogenous levels exceed those of GO or MGO and tend to increase further during lipoperoxidation, it appears important to reduce oxidative stress and, in particular, MDA levels in order to prevent sustained vascular hyperpermeability in atherosclerosis and diabetes patients.

  5. Outbreak of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Enterobacter cloacae with High MICs of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds in a Hematology Ward Associated with Contaminated Sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapuis, Angélique; Amoureux, Lucie; Bador, Julien; Gavalas, Arthur; Siebor, Eliane; Chrétien, Marie-Lorraine; Caillot, Denis; Janin, Marion; de Curraize, Claire; Neuwirth, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate an outbreak of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacter cloacae that occurred in the Hematology ward (24-bed unit) of the François Mitterrand University Hospital (Dijon, France) between January 2011 and December 2013. The outbreak involved 43 patients (10 infected and 33 colonized). Design: We performed environmental analysis to detect multiresistant E. cloacae for comparison with clinical isolates (genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and MLST as well as ESBL-typing) and determined the MICs of the quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (ADBAC) and didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC). A bleach-based cleaning-disinfection program was implemented in December 2012 after mechanical removal of the biofilm in all sinks. Results: We have detected 17 ESBL-producing E. cloacae in patients sink drains, shower drains and medical sink drains. Sequencing of the bla genes performed on 60 strains recovered from patients and environment (n = 43 clinical and n = 17 environmental) revealed that bla CTX−M15 was predominant (37 isolates) followed by bla CTX−M9 plus bla SHV−12 (20 isolates). We observed a great diversity among the isolates: 14 pulsotypes (11 STs) in clinical isolates and 9 pulsotypes (7 STs) in environmental isolates. Six pulsotypes were identical between clinical and environmental isolates. MICs of the quaternary ammonium compounds widely used for disinfection were very high in clinical and environmental isolates. Immediately after the implementation of the disinfection program we noticed a substantial fall in cases number. Our findings demonstrate the role of drains as important reservoir of ESBL-producing E. cloacae and highlight the necessity to settle drains accessible to achieve correct cleaning as well as to use disinfectant with proved activity against nosocomial pathogens. PMID:27462306

  6. Outbreak of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacter cloacae with high MICs of quaternary ammonium compounds in a Hematology ward associated with contaminated sinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelique Chapuis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate an outbreak of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producing Enterobacter cloacae that occurred in the Hematology ward (24-bed unit of the François Mitterrand University Hospital (Dijon, France between January 2011 and December 2013. The outbreak involved 43 patients (10 infected and 33 colonized. DesignWe performed environmental analysis to detect multiresistant E. cloacae for comparison with clinical isolates (genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and MLST as well as ESBL-typing and determined the MICs of the quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (ADBAC and didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC. A bleach-based cleaning-disinfection program was implemented in December 2012 after mechanical removal of the biofilm in all sinks. ResultsWe have detected 17 ESBL-producing E. cloacae in patients sink drains, shower drains and medical sink drains. Sequencing of the bla genes performed on 60 strains recovered from patients and environment (n=43 clinical and n=17 environmental revealed that bla CTX-M15 was predominant (37 isolates followed by bla CTX-M9 plus bla SHV-12 (20 isolates. We observed a great diversity among the isolates: 14 pulsotypes (11 STs in clinical isolates and 9 pulsotypes (7 STs in environmental isolates. Six pulsotypes were identical between clinical and environmental isolates. MICs of the quaternary ammonium compounds widely used for disinfection were very high in clinical and environmental isolates. Immediately after the implementation of the disinfection program we noticed a substantial fall in cases number. Our findings demonstrate the role of drains as important reservoir of ESBL-producing E. cloacae and highlight the necessity to settle drains accessible to achieve correct cleaning as well as to use disinfectant with proved activity against nosocomial pathogens.

  7. Outbreak of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Enterobacter cloacae with High MICs of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds in a Hematology Ward Associated with Contaminated Sinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapuis, Angélique; Amoureux, Lucie; Bador, Julien; Gavalas, Arthur; Siebor, Eliane; Chrétien, Marie-Lorraine; Caillot, Denis; Janin, Marion; de Curraize, Claire; Neuwirth, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    To investigate an outbreak of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacter cloacae that occurred in the Hematology ward (24-bed unit) of the François Mitterrand University Hospital (Dijon, France) between January 2011 and December 2013. The outbreak involved 43 patients (10 infected and 33 colonized). We performed environmental analysis to detect multiresistant E. cloacae for comparison with clinical isolates (genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and MLST as well as ESBL-typing) and determined the MICs of the quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (ADBAC) and didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC). A bleach-based cleaning-disinfection program was implemented in December 2012 after mechanical removal of the biofilm in all sinks. We have detected 17 ESBL-producing E. cloacae in patients sink drains, shower drains and medical sink drains. Sequencing of the bla genes performed on 60 strains recovered from patients and environment (n = 43 clinical and n = 17 environmental) revealed that bla CTX-M15 was predominant (37 isolates) followed by bla CTX-M9 plus bla SHV-12 (20 isolates). We observed a great diversity among the isolates: 14 pulsotypes (11 STs) in clinical isolates and 9 pulsotypes (7 STs) in environmental isolates. Six pulsotypes were identical between clinical and environmental isolates. MICs of the quaternary ammonium compounds widely used for disinfection were very high in clinical and environmental isolates. Immediately after the implementation of the disinfection program we noticed a substantial fall in cases number. Our findings demonstrate the role of drains as important reservoir of ESBL-producing E. cloacae and highlight the necessity to settle drains accessible to achieve correct cleaning as well as to use disinfectant with proved activity against nosocomial pathogens.

  8. BETA digital beta radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovikov, N.V.; Kosinov, G.A.; Fedorov, Yu.N.

    1989-01-01

    Portable transportable digital beta radiometer providing for measuring beta-decay radionuclide specific activity in the range from 5x10 -9 up to 10 -6 Cu/kg (Cu/l) with error of ±25% is designed and introduced into commercial production for determination of volume and specific water and food radioactivity. The device specifications are given. Experience in the BETA radiometer application under conditions of the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone has shown that it is convenient for measuring specific activity of the order of 10 -8 Cu/kg, and application of a set of different beta detectors gives an opportunity to use it for surface contamination measurement in wide range of the measured value

  9. Latitudinal distributions of atmospheric dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids, and α-dicarbonyls over the western North Pacific: Sources and formation pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikkina, Srinivas; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Miyazaki, Yuzo

    2015-05-01

    The present study aims to assess the molecular distributions of water-soluble dicarboxylic acids (diacids: C2-C12), oxocarboxylic acids (C2-C9), and α-dicarbonyls (glyoxal and methylglyoxal) in aerosols collected over the western North Pacific (WNP) during a summer cruise (August to September 2008). The measured water-soluble organics show pronounced latitudinal distributions with higher concentrations in the region of 30°N-45°N (average 63 ng m-3) than 10°N-30°N (18 ng m-3). Mass fraction of oxalic acid (C2) in total aliphatic diacids (ΣC2-C12) showed higher values (72 ± 10%) in lower latitude (10°N-30°N) than that (56 ± 16%) in higher latitude (30°N-45°N), suggesting a photochemical production of C2 due to an increased insolation over the tropical WNP. A similar trend was found in other diagnostic ratios such as oxalic to succinic (C2/C4) and oxalic to glyoxylic acid (C2/ωC2), which further corroborate an enhanced photochemical aging over the WNP. In addition, relative abundances of oxalic acid in total diacids showed a marked increase as a function of ambient temperature, supporting their photochemical production. Constantly low concentration ratios of adipic and phthalic acids relative to azelaic acid suggest a small contribution of anthropogenic sources and an importance of oceanic sources during the study period. Significant production of C2 through oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds emitted from the sea surface is also noteworthy, as inferred from the strong linear correlations among water-soluble organic carbon, methanesulphonic acid, and oxalic acid. Sea-to-air emission of unsaturated fatty acids also contributes to formation of diacids over the WNP.

  10. Beta2-microglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drüeke, Tilman B; Massy, Ziad A

    2009-01-01

    Among the uremic toxins in the "middle molecule" range, beta2-microglobulin (beta2-M) is certainly one of the most frequently studied compounds. Its serum level increases with the progression of chronic kidney disease, to reach very high concentrations in patients with end-stage kidney disease. It is the major protein component of dialysis-related amyloidosis, a dramatic complication which results from high extracellular concentration and posttranslational modification of beta2-M and a number of other promoters of amyloid fibril formation and deposition in osteo-articular tissues. Effective removal of beta2-M can be achieved with highly effective hemodialysis and hemodiafiltration techniques but predialysis session serum levels cannot be normalized. The prevalence and severity of beta2-M amyloidosis appear to have decreased in the last 20 years, although its occurrence may simply be delayed.

  11. Speculative Betas

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison Hong; David Sraer

    2012-01-01

    We provide a model for why high beta assets are more prone to speculative overpricing than low beta ones. When investors disagree about the common factor of cash-flows, high beta assets are more sensitive to this macro-disagreement and experience a greater divergence-of-opinion about their payoffs. Short-sales constraints for some investors such as retail mutual funds result in high beta assets being over-priced. When aggregate disagreement is low, expected return increases with beta due to r...

  12. (μ-Formato-κ2O:O′bis[dicarbonyl(η5-cyclopentadienyliron(II] tetrafluoridoborate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyprian M. M'thiruaine

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the structure of the title compound [Fe2(C5H52(CHO2(CO4]BF4, each FeII atom is coordinated in a pseudo-octahedral three-legged piano-stool fashion. The cyclopentadienyl ligand occupies three fac coordination sites while the two carbonyl ligands and formate O atom occupy the remaining three sites.

  13. Host compounds for red phosphorescent OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Chuanjun; Cheon, Kwang -Ohk

    2015-08-25

    Novel compounds containing a triphenylene moiety linked to an .alpha..beta. connected binaphthyl ring system are provided. These compounds have surprisingly good solubility in organic solvents and are useful as host compounds in red phosphorescent OLEDs.

  14. A Caenorhabditis elegans Model Elucidates a Conserved Role for TRPA1-Nrf Signaling in Reactive α-Dicarbonyl Detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Jyotiska; Bose, Neelanjan; Gong, Jianke; Hall, David; Rifkind, Alexander; Bhaumik, Dipa; Peiris, T Harshani; Chamoli, Manish; Le, Catherine H; Liu, Jianfeng; Lithgow, Gordon J; Ramanathan, Arvind; Xu, X Z Shawn; Kapahi, Pankaj

    2016-11-21

    Reactive α-dicarbonyls (α-DCs), like methylglyoxal (MGO), accumulate with age and have been implicated in aging and various age-associated pathologies, such as diabetic complications and neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Evolutionarily conserved glyoxalases are responsible for α-DC detoxification; however, their core biochemical regulation has remained unclear. We have established a Caenorhabditis elegans model, based on an impaired glyoxalase (glod-4/GLO1), to broadly study α-DC-related stress. We show that, in comparison to wild-type (N2, Bristol), glod-4 animals rapidly exhibit several pathogenic phenotypes, including hyperesthesia, neuronal damage, reduced motility, and early mortality. We further demonstrate TRPA-1/TRPA1 as a sensor for α-DCs, conserved between worms and mammals. Moreover, TRPA-1 activates SKN-1/Nrf via calcium-modulated kinase signaling, ultimately regulating the glutathione-dependent (GLO1) and co-factor-independent (DJ1) glyoxalases to detoxify α-DCs. Interestingly, this pathway is in stark contrast to the TRPA-1 activation and the ensuing calcium flux implicated in cold sensation in C. elegans, whereby DAF-16/FOXO gets activated via complementary kinase signaling. Finally, a phenotypic drug screen using C. elegans identified podocarpic acid as a novel activator of TRPA1 that rescues α-DC-induced pathologies in C. elegans and mammalian cells. Our work thus identifies TRPA1 as a bona fide drug target for the amelioration of α-DC stress, which represents a viable option to address aging-related pathologies in diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Beta Blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may not work as effectively for people of African heritage and older people, especially when taken without ... conditions/high-blood-pressure/in-depth/beta-blockers/ART-20044522 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  16. Species differences in the biotransformation of an alpha 4 beta 2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist: the effects of distinct glucuronide metabolites on overall compound disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Christopher L; Gunduz, Mithat; Ryder, Tim F; O'Connell, Thomas N

    2010-02-01

    The metabolism and disposition of (1R,5S)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7-(trifluoromethyl)-1,5-methano-1H-3-benzazepine (1), an alpha(4)beta(2) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats and cynomolgus monkeys receiving (1R,5S)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7-(trifluoromethyl)-1,5-methano-1H-4[(14)C]-3- benzazepine hydrochloride ([(14)C]1) orally. Although both species chiefly (>or=62%) cleared 1 metabolically, species-specific dispositional profiles were observed for both 1 and total radioactivity. Radioactivity was excreted equally in the urine and feces of intact rats but largely (72%) in bile in bile duct-cannulated animals. In monkeys, radioactivity recoveries were 50-fold greater in urine than feces and minimal (<5%) in bile. Both species metabolized 1 similarly: four-electron oxidation to one of four amino acids or two lactams (minor) and glucuronide formation (major). In rats, the latter pathway predominantly formed an N-carbamoyl glucuronide (M6), exclusively present in bile (69% of dose), whereas in monkeys it afforded an N-O-glucuronide (M5), a minor biliary component (4%) but the major plasma (62%) and urinary (42%) entity. In rats, first-pass hepatic conversion of 1 to M6, which was confirmed in rat hepatocytes, and its biliary secretion resulted in the indirect enterohepatic cycling of 1 via M6 and manifested in double-humped plasma concentration-time curves and long t(1/2) for both 1 and total radioactivity. In monkeys, in which only M5 was formed, double-humped plasma concentration-time curves were absent, and moderate t(1/2) for both 1 and total radioactivity were observed. A seemingly subtle, yet critical, difference in the chemical structures of these two glucuronide metabolites considerably affected the overall disposition of 1 in rats versus monkeys.

  17. 6beta,19-Bridged androstenedione analogs as aromatase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Sachiko; Yaguchi, Ayaka; Yamashita, Kouwa; Nagaoka, Masao; Numazawa, Mitsuteru

    2009-11-01

    Inhibition of aromatase is an efficient approach for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer. New 6beta,19-bridged steroid analogs of androstenedione, 6beta,19-epithio- and 6beta,19-methano compounds 11 and 17, were synthesized starting from 19-hydroxyandrostenedione (6) and 19-formylandrost-5-ene-3beta,17beta-yl diacetate (12), respectively, as aromatase inhibitors. All of the compounds including known steroids 6beta,19-epoxyandrostenedione (4) and 6beta,19-cycloandrostenedione (5) tested were weak to poor competitive inhibitors of aromatase and, among them, 6beta,19-epoxy steroid 4 provided only moderate inhibition (K(i): 2.2 microM). These results show that the 6beta,19-bridged groups of the inhibitors interfere with binding in active site of aromatase.

  18. Molecular analysis of the beta-thalassemia phenotype associated with inheritance of hemoglobin E (alpha 2 beta2(26)Glu leads to Lys).

    OpenAIRE

    Benz, E J; Berman, B W; Tonkonow, B L; Coupal, E; Coates, T; Boxer, L A; Altman, A; Adams, J G

    1981-01-01

    Inheritance of the gene for betaE-globin is associated with hypochromia and microcytosis, reminiscent of typical heterozygous beta-thalassemia. Patients with hemoglobin (Hb)E-beta-thalassemia exhibit clinical phenotypes of severe beta-thalassemia, a circumstance not encountered in other compound heterozygous states for structural beta-chain mutations and beta-thalassemia. We have analyzed the kinetics of globin synthesis and the levels of globin messenger (m) RNA accumulation in patients with...

  19. Nucleophilic dearomatization of 4-aza-6-nitrobenzofuroxan by CH acids in the synthesis of pharmacology-oriented compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey M. Starosotnikov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available 4-Aza-6-nitrobenzofuroxan (ANBF reacts with 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds and other CH acids to give carbon-bonded 1,4-adducts – 1,4-dihydropyridines fused with furoxan ring. In the case of most acidic β-diketones, which exist mainly in the enol form in polar solvents, the reactions proceed in the absence of any added base emphasizing the highly electrophilic character of ANBF. The resulting compounds combine in one molecule NO-donor furoxan ring along with a pharmacologically important 1,4-dihydropyridine fragment and therefore can be considered as prospective platforms for the design of pharmacology-oriented heterocyclic systems.

  20. Calcium carbonate interaction analysis in polypropylene compounds and their impact on the formation of beta crystalline phase of this polymer; Analise da interacao de diferentes tipos de carbonato de calcio em compositos de polipropileno e suas consequencias na formacao da fase cristalina beta do PP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The insertion of calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) in polypropylene compound is a thoroughly known technique widely studied in the academic area and in the industry. Its wide application is due, mainly, to increase mechanical properties with low manufacturing cost. These improvements in this polymer make it more versatile and competitive compared to other expensive polymers. In this study, the incorporation of four types of CaCO3 from the same manufacturer were compared and the focus was on the size of this mineral filler. Furthermore, it was analyzed the interaction of graphitized polypropylene with maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA) in the same samples. All these samples were analyzed by WAXS and SEM. The physical properties of tensile strength and impact were also analyzed. It was observed from this study that the smallest CaCO3 produced with PP-g-MA resulted in better physical properties with the formation of a crystalline phase beta, as originally studied by other authors using other raw materials. (author)

  1. Development of tartaric acid derived chiral guanidines and their application to catalytic enantioselective α-hydroxylation of β-dicarbonyl compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Liwei; Wang, Baomin; Mu, Hongfang; Zhang, Huanrui; Song, Yuming; Qu, Jingping

    2013-06-21

    A novel library of chiral guanidines featuring a tartaric acid skeleton was developed from diethyl l-tartrate. These guanidines are easily accessed with tunable steric and electronic properties. The utilities of the guanidines were highlighted by their ability to catalyze the α-hydroxylation of β-ketoesters and β-diketones with remarkable efficiency and excellent enantioselectivity.

  2. Sampling and Analytical Method for Alpha-Dicarbonyl Flavoring Compounds via Derivatization with o-Phenylenediamine and Analysis Using GC-NPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergrass, Stephanie M; Cooper, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    A novel methodology is described for the sampling and analysis of diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, 2,3-hexanedione, and 2,3-heptanedione. These analytes were collected on o-phenylenediamine-treated silica gel tubes and quantitatively recovered as the corresponding quinoxaline derivatives. After derivatization, the sorbent was desorbed in 3 mL of ethanol solvent and analyzed using gas chromatography/nitrogen-phosphorous detection (GC/NPD). The limits of detection (LOD) achieved for each analyte were determined to be in the range of 5-10 nanograms/sample. Evaluation of the on-tube derivatization procedure indicated that it is unaffected by humidities ranging from 20% to 80% and that the derivatization procedure was quantitative for analyte concentrations ranging from 0.1 μg to approximately 500 μg per sample. Storage stability studies indicated that the derivatives were stable for 30 days when stored at both ambient and refrigerated temperatures. Additional studies showed that the quinoxaline derivatives were quantitatively recovered when sampling up to a total volume of 72 L at a sampling rate of 50 cc/min. This method will be important to evaluate and monitor worker exposures in the food and flavoring industry. Samples can be collected over an 8-hour shift with up to 288 L total volume collected regardless of time, sampling rate, and/or the effects of humidity.

  3. Sampling and Analytical Method for Alpha-Dicarbonyl Flavoring Compounds via Derivatization with o-Phenylenediamine and Analysis Using GC-NPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Pendergrass

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel methodology is described for the sampling and analysis of diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, 2,3-hexanedione, and 2,3-heptanedione. These analytes were collected on o-phenylenediamine-treated silica gel tubes and quantitatively recovered as the corresponding quinoxaline derivatives. After derivatization, the sorbent was desorbed in 3 mL of ethanol solvent and analyzed using gas chromatography/nitrogen-phosphorous detection (GC/NPD. The limits of detection (LOD achieved for each analyte were determined to be in the range of 5–10 nanograms/sample. Evaluation of the on-tube derivatization procedure indicated that it is unaffected by humidities ranging from 20% to 80% and that the derivatization procedure was quantitative for analyte concentrations ranging from 0.1 μg to approximately 500 μg per sample. Storage stability studies indicated that the derivatives were stable for 30 days when stored at both ambient and refrigerated temperatures. Additional studies showed that the quinoxaline derivatives were quantitatively recovered when sampling up to a total volume of 72 L at a sampling rate of 50 cc/min. This method will be important to evaluate and monitor worker exposures in the food and flavoring industry. Samples can be collected over an 8-hour shift with up to 288 L total volume collected regardless of time, sampling rate, and/or the effects of humidity.

  4. Isotope Effects in the Bonds of beta-CrOOH and beta-CrOOD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørlund Christensen, A.; Hansen, P.; Lehmann, M. S.

    1976-01-01

    Samples of orthorhombic chromium oxide hydroxide, beta -CrOOH, and the deuterated compound, beta -CrOOD, were prepared hydrothermally. The crystal structures were determined by powder profile refinement technique using neutron diffraction data. Unit cells are: beta -CrOOH: a equals 4. 862(2) A, b...... equals 4. 298(a) A, c equals 2. 995(1) A; beta -CrOOD: a equals 4. 873(5) A, b equals 4. 332(7) A, c equals 2. 963(2) A, with Z equals 2. The space group is P2//1nm or Pnnm....

  5. Synthesis of 3 beta,16 beta,19-trihydroxyandrost-5-en-17-one and 16 beta,19-dihydroxyandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione and their 19-oxo derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numazawa, M; Mutsumi, A; Hoshi, K; Ishimura, S; Shoji, S; Sekihara, H

    1990-09-01

    3 beta,16 beta,19-Trihydroxyandrost-5-en-17-one (12) was synthesized from 5 alpha-bromo-3 beta-acetoxy-6 beta,19-epoxyandrostan-17-one (2) through acetoxylation at C-16 beta of the enol acetate 4 with lead tetraacetate and reductive cleavage of the epoxide ring with zinc dust yielding the 3 beta,16 beta-diacetoxy-19-hydroxy steroid 11, followed by hydrolysis of the acetoxy groups with sulfuric acid. Jones oxidation of compound 11 followed by the acid hydrolysis gave the 19-oxo steroid 15. 5 alpha-Bromo-3 beta-hydroxy-16 beta-acetoxy-6 beta,19-epoxyandrostan-17-one (8), obtained by selective hydrolysis of the 3-formate 5 with ammonium hydroxide, was oxidized with Jones reagent to afford the 3-oxo steroid 16, which was converted into the 19-hydroxy derivative 17 by treatment with zinc dust. 16 beta,19-Dihydroxyandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione (18) and its 19-oxo derivative 21 were obtained from compound 17 through a similar reaction sequence.

  6. Beta Thalassemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Beta Thalassemia KidsHealth / For Parents / Beta Thalassemia What's in this ... it results in that type of thalassemia. About Beta Thalassemia Beta thalassemia happens when the gene that controls ...

  7. Beta Emission and Bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-13

    Bremsstrahlung is continuous radiation produced by beta particles decelerating in matter; different beta emitters have different endpoint energies; high-energy betas interacting with high-Z materials will more likely produce bremsstrahlung; depending on the data, sometimes all you can say is that a beta emitter is present.

  8. Ellagic acid promotes A{beta}42 fibrillization and inhibits A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Ying [Department of Histology and Embryology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Yang, Shi-gao; Du, Xue-ting; Zhang, Xi; Sun, Xiao-xia; Zhao, Min [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Sun, Gui-yuan, E-mail: sungy2004@sohu.com [Department of Histology and Embryology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Liu, Rui-tian, E-mail: rtliu@tsinghua.edu.cn [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-12-25

    Smaller, soluble oligomers of {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Selective inhibition of A{beta} oligomer formation provides an optimum target for AD therapy. Some polyphenols have potent anti-amyloidogenic activities and protect against A{beta} neurotoxicity. Here, we tested the effects of ellagic acid (EA), a polyphenolic compound, on A{beta}42 aggregation and neurotoxicity in vitro. EA promoted A{beta} fibril formation and significant oligomer loss, contrary to previous results that polyphenols inhibited A{beta} aggregation. The results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western blot displayed more fibrils in A{beta}42 samples co-incubated with EA in earlier phases of aggregation. Consistent with the hypothesis that plaque formation may represent a protective mechanism in which the body sequesters toxic A{beta} aggregates to render them harmless, our MTT results showed that EA could significantly reduce A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity toward SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, our results suggest that EA, an active ingredient in many fruits and nuts, may have therapeutic potential in AD.

  9. Antiprotozoal compounds from Asparagus africanus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oketch-Rabah, H A; Dossaji, S F; Christensen, S B

    1997-01-01

    Two antiprotozoal compounds have been isolated from the roots of Asparagus africanus Lam. (Liliaceae), a new sapogenin, 2 beta, 12 alpha-dihydroxy-(25R)-spirosta-4,7-dien-3-one (1), which was named muzanzagenin, and the lignan (+)-nyasol (2), (Z)-(+)-4,4'-(3-ethenyl-1-propene-1,3-diyl)-bisphenol.......Two antiprotozoal compounds have been isolated from the roots of Asparagus africanus Lam. (Liliaceae), a new sapogenin, 2 beta, 12 alpha-dihydroxy-(25R)-spirosta-4,7-dien-3-one (1), which was named muzanzagenin, and the lignan (+)-nyasol (2), (Z)-(+)-4,4'-(3-ethenyl-1-propene-1,3-diyl...

  10. Energetic, Structural, and Antimicrobial Analyses of [beta]-Lactam Side Chain Recognition by [beta]-Lactamases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caselli, E.; Powers, R.A.; Blaszczak, L.C.; Wu, C.Y.E.; Prati, F.; Shoichet, B.K. (NWU)

    2010-03-05

    , there is little correlation between the affinity contributed by R1 side chains and their occurrence in {beta}-lactam inhibitors or {beta}-lactam substrates of serine {beta}-lactamases. Nevertheless, presented in acylglycineboronic acids, these side chains can lead to inhibitors with high affinities and specificities. The structures of their complexes with AmpC give a molecular context to their affinities and may guide the design of anti-resistance compounds in this series.

  11. Forward-Looking Betas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Vainberg, Gregory

    Few issues are more important for finance practice than the computation of market betas. Existing approaches compute market betas using historical data. While these approaches differ in terms of statistical sophistication and the modeling of the time-variation in the betas, they are all backward-...

  12. Mesoionic Compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    property has been used to determine whether a compound is aromatic or not. Mesoionic compounds are structurally very different from ben- zenoid compounds, but they fulfill most of the criteria of aroma- ticity and form a part of a variety of aromatic compounds, which can be classified as follows. A) Benzenoid Compounds.

  13. Field Observation of Heterogeneous Formation of Dicarboxylic acids, Keto-carboxylic acids, α-Dicarbonyls and Nitrate in Xi'an, China during Asian dust storm periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G.; Wang, J.; Ren, Y.; Li, J.

    2015-12-01

    To understand the formation mechanism of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) on dust surfaces, this study investigated the concentrations and compositions of dicarboxylic acids (C2-C11), keto-carboxylic acids (C3-C7), α-dicarbonyls and inorganic ions in size-segregated aerosols (9-stages) collected in Xi'an, China during the nondust storm and dust storm periods of 2009 and 2011. During the events the ambient particulate dicarboxylic acids were 932-2240 ng m-3, which are comparable and even higher than those in nondust periods. Molecular compositions of the above SOA are similar to those in nondust periods with oxalic acid being the leading species. In the presence of the dust storms, all the above mentioned SOA species in Xi'an were predominantly enriched on the coarse particles (>2.1μm), and oxalic acid well correlated with NO3- (R2=0.72, pfine particles and a strong correlation of oxalic acid with SO42-. Our results further demonstrate that NO3- in the dust periods in Xi'an was mostly derived from secondary oxidation, whereas SO42- during the events was largely derived from surface soil of Gobi deserts. We propose a formation pathway to explain these observations, in which nitric acid and/or nitrogen oxides react with dust to produce Ca(NO3)2 and form a liquid phase on the surface of dust aerosols via water vapor-absorption of Ca(NO3)2, followed by a partitioning of the gas-phase water-soluble organic precursors (e.g.,glyoxal and methylglyoxal) into the aqueous-phase and a subsequent oxidation into oxalic acid. To the best of our knowledge, we found for the first time the enrichment of glyoxal and methylglyoxal on dust surface. Our data suggest an important role of nitrate in the heterogeneous formation process of SOA on the surface of Asian dust.

  14. NMR study of the preparation of 6 {alpha}, 7 {beta}-dihydroxyvouacapan-17 beta-oic acid mannich base derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Flavio Jose Leite dos; Pilo-Veloso, Dorila [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. Quimica]. E-mail: dorila@zeus.qui.ufmg.br; Ferreira-Alves, Dalton L. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Farmacologia

    2007-07-01

    This work presents four new Mannich base compounds obtained by the Mannich reaction of a {delta}-keto-lactone derivative of 6{alpha}, 7{beta}-dihydroxyvouacapan- 17{beta}-oic acid, a furano diterpene isolated from the hexane extract of Pterodon polygalaeflorus Benth fruits, which shows anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. The use of 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, DEPT-135, HMBC, HMQC) spectroscopy made it possible to characterize the new compounds. (author)

  15. Kinetics of Glycoxidation of Bovine Serum Albumin by Methylglyoxal and Glyoxal and its Prevention by Various Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Sadowska-Bartosz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare several methods for measurement of bovine serum albumin (BSA modification by glycoxidation with reactive dicarbonyl compounds (methylglyoxal ‒ MGO and glyoxal ‒ GO, for studies of the kinetics of this process and to compare the effects of 19 selected compounds on BSA glycation by the aldehydes. The results confirm the higher reactivity of MGO with respect to GO and point to the usefulness of AGE, dityrosine and N′-formylkynurenine fluorescence for monitoring glycation and evaluation of protection against glycation. Different extent of protection against glycation induced by MGO and GO was found for many compounds, probably reflecting effects on various stages of the glycation process. Polyphenols (genistein, naringin and ellagic acid were found to protect against aldehyde-induced glycation; 1-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid was also an effective protector.

  16. PEG 400/Cerium Ammonium Nitrate Combined with Microwave-Assisted Synthesis for Rapid Access to Beta-Amino Ketones. An Easy-to-Use Protocol for Discovering New Hit Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Rossino

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Compound libraries are important requirement in target-based drug discovery. In the present work, a small focused compound library based on β-aminoketone scaffold has been prepared combining microwave-assisted organic synthesis (MAOS with polymer-assisted solution phase synthesis (PASPS and replacing reaction workup standard purification procedures with solid phase extraction (SPE. Specifically, the effects of solvent, such as dioxane, dimethylformamide (DMF, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400, temperature, irradiation time, stoichiometric ratio of reagents, and catalysts (HCl, acetic acid, cerium ammonium nitrate (CAN were investigated to maximize both conversion and yield. The optimized protocol generally afforded the desired products in satisfying yields and purities. The designed library is a part of our current research on sigma 1 receptor modulators, a valuable tool for the identification of novel potential hit compounds.

  17. GTP (gammaS) and GDP (betaS) as electron donors: new wine in old bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D A; Peterson, D C; Reeve, H L; Archer, S L; Weir, E K

    1999-01-01

    G proteins are membrane-bound regulatory proteins which modulate the activity of ion channels and other effector systems. The GTP and GDP analogs GTP (gammaS) and GDP (betaS) have been used to study the role of G proteins in numerous physiologic systems. The prolonged effects of these analogs have been thought to be due to the fact that they are nonhydrolyzable. However, in this paper we show that the GTP (gammaS) and GDP (betaS) analogs are potent reducing agents at physiologic pH. This observation suggests that previous data obtained using these compounds may need to be reinterpreted.

  18. Two newly developed methods for the radioactive labeling of tetanus toxins with substances emitting beta-rays and the usefulness of the compounds thus obtained in radioimmunoassays to determine tetanus antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer-Eppler, T.

    1986-01-01

    Described are two methods to label tetanus toxins using either 14C-formaldehyde or succinimidyl-3H- propionate as radioactive tracers. The question as to whether the labeled compounds thus obtained can be introduced into RIAs for the detection of tetanus antibodies is also discussed. The immunoreactivity of 3H-toxin is not perceptibly changed by the labeling procedure. The compound can be compared to 125I-labeled toxin, although it suffers no adverse effects from long-term due to autoradiolysis. (TRV) [de

  19. Synthesis of 1,2-benzisothiazolyloxypropanolamine derivatives and investigation of their activity at beta-adrenoceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morini, Giovanni; Pozzoli, Cristina; Menozzi, Alessandro; Comini, Mara; Poli, Enzo

    2005-10-01

    The synthesis of 3-methoxy-1,2-benzisothiazole derivatives, substituted in position 5- (compounds 1-7) or 7- (compounds 8-14), with oxypropanolaminic side chains and the pharmacological investigation on their activity at beta-adrenoceptors are described. Compounds were prepared in an attempt to explore the ability of the benzisothiazole ring to interact with the beta-adrenoceptor site and to establish whether oxypropanolaminic derivatives recognise the beta3-adrenoceptor subtype. All the products were tested on rat atria, bladder and small intestine, which preferentially (but not exclusively) express beta1-, beta2- and beta3-adrenoceptors, respectively. When compared with the reference, non-specific, beta-adrenoceptor agonist isoprenaline, the products tested did not show any consistent beta-adrenoceptor agonistic activity in the different models. Most compounds relaxed smooth muscle preparations, but such effect was resistant to the blockade by propranolol (1 micromol/l), ICI 118,551 (1 micromol/l) or bupranolol (1-10 micromol/l), thus excluding that the spasmolytic effect involves any beta-adrenoceptors. When tested as antagonists, some of these products showed a concentration-dependent attenuation of the isoprenaline-induced effects in rat atria, without affecting beta-adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation in smooth muscle. These data confirm the ability of the benzisothiazole ring to interact with beta-adrenoceptors, but the substitution in 5- or 7-positions with oxypropanolaminic groups does not generate compounds endowed with specific activity at beta3-adrenoceptors. Conversely, most of these compounds behave as (specific) antagonists at beta1- (cardiac) adrenoceptors. At the maximum concentrations tested (1-100 micromol/l), these compounds also exert direct spasmolytic and negative chronotropic effects, which could be related to a blockade of Ca2+-dependent mechanisms at an intracellular level and/or an anaesthetic-like activity at plasma membranes.

  20. Betting Against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    .S. equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures; (2) A betting-against-beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns; (3) When funding constraints tighten, the return......We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model’s five central predictions: (1) Since constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for U...... of the BAB factor is low; (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one; (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets....

  1. Roughing up Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Li, Sophia Zhengzi; Todorov, Viktor

    Motivated by the implications from a stylized equilibrium pricing framework, we investigate empirically how individual equity prices respond to continuous, or \\smooth," and jumpy, or \\rough," market price moves, and how these different market price risks, or betas, are priced in the cross......-section. An investment strategy that goes long stocks with high jump betas and short stocks with low jump betas produces significant average excess returns. These higher risk premiums for the discontinuous and overnight market betas remain significant after controlling for a long list of other firm characteristics......-section of expected returns. Based on a novel highfrequency dataset of almost one-thousand individual stocks over two decades, we find that the two rough betas associated with intraday discontinuous and overnight returns entail significant risk premiums, while the intraday continuous beta is not priced in the cross...

  2. Beta-ketophosphonates as beta-lactamase inhibitors: Intramolecular cooperativity between the hydrophobic subsites of a class D beta-lactamase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Senthil K; Adediran, S A; Pratt, R F

    2008-07-15

    A series of aryl and arylmethyl beta-aryl-beta-ketophosphonates have been prepared as potential beta-lactamase inhibitors. These compounds, as fast, reversible, competitive inhibitors, were most effective (micromolar K(i) values) against the class D OXA-1 beta-lactamase but had less activity against the OXA-10 enzyme. They were also quite effective against the class C beta-lactamase of Enterobacter cloacae P99 but less so against the class A TEM-2 enzyme. Reduction of the keto group to form the corresponding beta-hydroxyphosphonates led to reduced inhibitory activity. Molecular modeling, based on the OXA-1 crystal structure, suggested interaction of the aryl groups with the hydrophobic elements of the enzyme's active site and polar interaction of the keto and phosphonate groups with the active site residues Ser 115, Lys 212 and Thr 213 and with the non-conserved Ser 258. Analysis of binding free energies showed that the beta-aryl and phosphonate ester aryl groups interacted cooperatively within the OXA-1 active site. Overall, the results suggest that quite effective inhibitors of class C and some class D beta-lactamases could be designed, based on the beta-ketophosphonate platform.

  3. Betting against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model's five central predictions: (1) Because constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for...

  4. Sorting out Downside Beta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.T. Post (Thierry); P. van Vliet (Pim); S.D. Lansdorp (Simon)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractDownside risk, when properly defined and estimated, helps to explain the cross-section of US stock returns. Sorting stocks by a proper estimate of downside market beta leads to a substantially larger cross-sectional spread in average returns than sorting on regular market beta. This

  5. Genetics Home Reference: beta thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Beta thalassemia Beta thalassemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Beta thalassemia is a blood disorder that reduces the production ...

  6. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  7. New lupane triterpenoids from Solidago canadensis that inhibit the lyase activity of DNA polymerase beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedula, V S Prakash; Zhou, Bing-Nan; Gao, Zhijie; Thomas, Shannon J; Hecht, Sidney M; Kingston, David G I

    2004-12-01

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of a methyl ethyl ketone extract of Solidago canadensis L. (Asteraceae), using an assay to detect the lyase activity of DNA polymerase beta, resulted in the isolation of the four new lupane triterpenoids 1-4 and the seven known compounds lupeol, lupeyl acetate, ursolic acid, cycloartenol, cycloartenyl palmitate, alpha-amyrin acetate, and stigmasterol. The structures of the new compounds were established as 3beta-(3R-acetoxyhexadecanoyloxy)-lup-20(29)-ene (1), 3beta-(3-ketohexadecanoyloxy)-lup-20(29)-ene (2), 3beta-(3R-acetoxyhexadecanoyloxy)-29-nor-lupan-20-one (3), and 3beta-(3-hetohexadecanoyloxy)-29-nor-lupan-20-one (4), respectively, on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic interpretation and chemical modification studies. All 11 compounds were inhibitory to the lyase activity of DNA polymerase beta.

  8. 24-Methylenecycloartanyl ferulate, a major compound of γ-oryzanol, promotes parvin-beta expression through an interaction with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma 2 in human breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heon Woong; Lim, Eun Joung; Jang, Hwan Hee [Department of Agro-Food Resources, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Department Administration, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do 565-851 (Korea, Republic of); Cui, XueLei [Research Institute of Medical Science, KonKuk University, School of Medicine, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Da Rae [Department of Infection & Immunology, School of Medicine, KonKuk University 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung Hyen; Kim, Haeng Ran; Choe, Jeong Sook [Department of Agro-Food Resources, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Department Administration, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do 565-851 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Young Mok [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine and Institute of Biomedical Science and Technology, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Bong, E-mail: jungbkim@korea.kr [Department of Agro-Food Resources, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Department Administration, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do 565-851 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Hwan, E-mail: nihpark@yahoo.com [Research Institute of Medical Science, KonKuk University, School of Medicine, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-25

    Parvin-β is an adaptor protein that binds to integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and is significantly downregulated in breast tumors and breast cancer cell lines. We treated the breast cancer cell line MCF7 with 24-methylenecycloartanyl ferulate (24-MCF), a γ-oryzanol compound. We observed upregulation of parvin-β (GenBank Accession No. (AF237769)) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ2 (GenBank Accession No. (NM-015869)). Among γ-oryzanol compounds, only treatment with 24-MCF led to the formation of reverse transcription-PCR products of parvin-β (650 and 500 bp) and PPAR-γ2 (580 bp) in MCF7 cells, but not in T47D, SK-BR-3, or MDA-MB-231 cells. 24-MCF treatment increased the mRNA and protein levels of parvin-β in MCF7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. We hypothesized that there is a correlation between parvin-β expression and induction of PPAR-γ2. This hypothesis was investigated by using a promoter-reporter assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. 24-MCF treatment induced binding of PPAR-γ2 to a peroxisome proliferator response element-like cis-element (ACTAGGACAAAGGACA) in the parvin-β promoter in MCF7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. 24-MCF treatment significantly decreased anchorage-independent growth and inhibited cell movement in comparison to control treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide. 24-MCF treatment reduced the levels of GTP-bound Rac1 and Cdc42. Evaluation of Akt1 inhibition by 24-MCF revealed that the half maximal effective concentration was 33.3 μM. Docking evaluations revealed that 24-MCF binds to the ATP-binding site of Akt1(PDB ID: (3OCB)) and the compound binding energy is -8.870 kcal/mol. Taken together, our results indicate that 24-MCF treatment increases parvin-β expression, which may inhibit ILK downstream signaling. - Highlights: • Treatment with 24-MCF increases gene expression of parvin-β and PPAR-ϒ2 in MCF7 cells. • PPAR-ϒ2 interacts with the parvin-β gene via

  9. 24-Methylenecycloartanyl ferulate, a major compound of γ-oryzanol, promotes parvin-beta expression through an interaction with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma 2 in human breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heon Woong; Lim, Eun Joung; Jang, Hwan Hee; Cui, XueLei; Kang, Da Rae; Lee, Sung Hyen; Kim, Haeng Ran; Choe, Jeong Sook; Yang, Young Mok; Kim, Jung Bong; Park, Jong Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Parvin-β is an adaptor protein that binds to integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and is significantly downregulated in breast tumors and breast cancer cell lines. We treated the breast cancer cell line MCF7 with 24-methylenecycloartanyl ferulate (24-MCF), a γ-oryzanol compound. We observed upregulation of parvin-β (GenBank Accession No. (AF237769)) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ2 (GenBank Accession No. (NM_015869)). Among γ-oryzanol compounds, only treatment with 24-MCF led to the formation of reverse transcription-PCR products of parvin-β (650 and 500 bp) and PPAR-γ2 (580 bp) in MCF7 cells, but not in T47D, SK-BR-3, or MDA-MB-231 cells. 24-MCF treatment increased the mRNA and protein levels of parvin-β in MCF7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. We hypothesized that there is a correlation between parvin-β expression and induction of PPAR-γ2. This hypothesis was investigated by using a promoter-reporter assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. 24-MCF treatment induced binding of PPAR-γ2 to a peroxisome proliferator response element-like cis-element (ACTAGGACAAAGGACA) in the parvin-β promoter in MCF7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. 24-MCF treatment significantly decreased anchorage-independent growth and inhibited cell movement in comparison to control treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide. 24-MCF treatment reduced the levels of GTP-bound Rac1 and Cdc42. Evaluation of Akt1 inhibition by 24-MCF revealed that the half maximal effective concentration was 33.3 μM. Docking evaluations revealed that 24-MCF binds to the ATP-binding site of Akt1(PDB ID: (3OCB)) and the compound binding energy is -8.870 kcal/mol. Taken together, our results indicate that 24-MCF treatment increases parvin-β expression, which may inhibit ILK downstream signaling. - Highlights: • Treatment with 24-MCF increases gene expression of parvin-β and PPAR-ϒ2 in MCF7 cells. • PPAR-ϒ2 interacts with the parvin-β gene via

  10. Realized Beta GARCH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger; Voev, Valeri Radkov

    2014-01-01

    is particularly useful for modeling financial returns during periods of rapid changes in the underlying covariance structure. When applied to market returns in conjunction with returns on an individual asset, the model yields a dynamic model specification of the conditional regression coefficient that is known...... as the beta. We apply the model to a large set of assets and find the conditional betas to be far more variable than usually found with rolling-window regressions based exclusively on daily returns. In the empirical part of the paper, we examine the cross-sectional as well as the time variation...... of the conditional beta series during the financial crises....

  11. High beta tokamak instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, G.

    1977-01-01

    Theoretical predictions using the ideal MHD model indicable that large-scale ballooning modes should appear when the average beta is raised about 1 to 2% in present-day tokamak geometries or 5 to 10% in more optimized geometries. The onset of instability is predicted to be sudden and the behavior of ballooning modes to be strikingly different from the saw-tooth and Mirnov oscillations experimentally observed at low beta. Conditions close to the predicted onset were achieved in ORMAK with no noticeable change in plasma behavior. Experiments are planned for the ISX tokamak to test the beta limit. 15 references, 3 figures

  12. Synthesis of amides and sulfonamides of {beta}-D- galactopyranosylamine and {beta}-lactosylamine and evaluation of their interactions with the lectins from Erythrina cristagalli and Ricinus communis; Sintese de amidas e sulfonamidas de {beta}-D-galactopiranosilamina e {beta}-lactosilamina e avaliacao de suas interacoes com lectinas de Erythrina cristagalli e de Ricinus communis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butera, Anna Paola; Souza Filho, Jose Dias de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Carvalho, Diogo Teixeira; Figueiredo, Rute Cunha; Faria, Luiz Carlos Alves de; Nunes, Maria Angelica; Prado, Maria Auxiliadora Fontes; Alves, Ricardo Jose [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Dept. de Produtos Farmaceuticos]. E-mail: ricardodylan@farmacia.ufmg.br; Andrade, Milton Hercules Guerra de; Silva, Karina Taciana Santos [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas e Biologicas. Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas

    2007-09-15

    We report herein the synthesis of some {beta}-D-galactopyranosylamine and {beta}-lactosylamine amides and sulfonamides. The interactions of these compounds with lectins from the seeds of Erythrina cristagalli (LEC) and Ricinus communis (RCA120) were evaluated in a hemagglutination inhibitory activity assay. D-Galactose and lactose were used as reference compounds. The {beta}-lactosylamine amides and sulfonamides were nearly as active as lactose in inhibiting LEC mediated hemagglutination and were less active against RCA120 agglutinin. The {beta}-D-galactopyranosylamine amides and sulfonamides were, with one exception, considerably less active than D-galactose in the assay with both lectins. (author)

  13. Beta-blockers overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on how much and what type of this medicine the person took and how quickly they receive treatment. ... Aronson JK. Beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. In: Aronson JK, ed. ... Practice . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 147.

  14. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The physics potential of neutrinoless double beta decay is discussed. Furthermore, experimental considerations as well as the current status of experiments are presented. Finally, an outlook towards the future, work on nuclear matrix elements and alternative processes is given.

  15. Complexos de inclusão de indometacina com hidroxipropil-beta-ciclodextrina: estudos de dissolução e coeficiente de partição Inclusion compounds of indomethacin with hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin: dissolution profile and partition coefficient evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Ribeiro Rama

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A indometacina, antiinflamatório não-esteróide, é praticamente insolúvel em água. A hidroxipropil-beta-ciclodextrina confere aos fármacos nela incluídos melhores características de solubilidade. A formação de complexos com indometacina protege da hidrólise, aumentando a solubilidade. O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar a influência da complexação por liofilização e por spray-dried, na dissolução e coeficiente de partição. Os resultados dos estudos de dissolução dos complexos de inclusão obtidos por liofilização quando comparados com os obtidos por spray-dryer, apresentam quer maior velocidade de dissolução quer melhor eficiência de dissolução. Os resultados da análise do coeficiente de partição, com ambos os métodos de complexação, confirmam a teoria de que são várias as forças intervenientes neste processo e não é só a fração livre de fármaco que condiciona o transporte para a fase orgânica, reforçando a importância do pH do meio. No estudo com o tampão fosfato pH 7,0, as variações no grau de transporte pela adição de ciclodextrina são muito pequenas, não ocorrendo alteração significativa dos valores de Log P*, verificando-se alterações mais significativas quando se utiliza o tampão fosfato pH 5,5. A complexação aumentou a capacidade de solubilização e dissolução da indometacina, a qual tem caráter lipófilo, sem alterar as características que lhe permitem ter boa capacidade de difusão através de membranas biológicas.Indomethacin, a non steroidal anti-inflamatory, is practically water insoluble. Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin grants better solubility characteristics to included drugs. Indomethacin's complexation protects from hydrolysis, enhancing solubility and dissolution. The aim is to study the influence of complexation methods, freeze and spray-dryer, on indomethacin dissolution and partition coefficient. Dissolution results show that freeze-dried inclusion complex

  16. {beta} - amyloid imaging probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Imaging distribution of {beta} - amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease is very important for early and accurate diagnosis. Early trial of the {beta} -amyloid plaques includes using radiolabeled peptides which can be only applied for peripheral {beta} - amyloid plaques due to limited penetration through the blood brain barrier (BBB). Congo red or Chrysamine G derivatives were labeled with Tc-99m for imaging {beta} - amyloid plaques of Alzheimer patient's brain without success due to problem with BBB penetration. Thioflavin T derivatives gave breakthrough for {beta} - amyloid imaging in vivo, and a benzothiazole derivative [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 brought a great success. Many other benzothiazole, benzoxazole, benzofuran, imidazopyridine, and styrylbenzene derivatives have been labeled with F-18 and I-123 to improve the imaging quality. However, [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 still remains as the best. However, short half-life of C-11 is a limitation of wide distribution of this agent. So, it is still required to develop an Tc-99m, F-18 or I-123 labeled agent for {beta} - amyloid imaging agent.

  17. Chemical characterisation of semi-volatile and aerosol compounds from the photooxidation of toluene and NOx

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stephen J.; Jamie, Ian M.; Angove, Dennys E.

    2014-02-01

    The chemical composition of a gas phase and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mixture from toluene photooxidation in NOx was determined. Aerosol from toluene photooxidation was generated in a smog chamber and was collected onto glass fibre filters along with those gas phase compounds which adhered to the filter. The filter bound organic material was extracted, derivatised with O-2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl hydroxylamine (PFBHA) and N,O-bistrimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA), then analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Compound identification was aided by the use of isotopically-labelled toluene. The effect of humidity on product formation was investigated by raising water vapour concentration in one experiment. Sixty compounds were identified, of which twenty had not been identified from toluene photooxidation previously. Small carboxylic acids and dicarbonyls provided the highest proportion of identifiable compounds by relative response. The use of water to extract the filter samples resulted in much higher relative responses for oxocarboxylic acids, such as glyoxylic acid and pyruvic acid, than has been observed in previous studies. The formation of levulinic acid was determined to be due to the reaction of water with aromatic photooxidation products in the gas phase or particle phase of the chamber experiment. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was used to determine the functional groups of water-extracted organic material, which indicated that the water-soluble components were comprised of compounds which contain similar functional groups, primarily alcohols and carboxylic acids.

  18. Structure elucidation of new compounds from acidic treatment of the progestins gestodene and drospirenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Diego; Bombieri, Gabriella; Lenna, Roberto; Marchini, Nicoletta; Modica, Emilia; Scala, Antonio

    2006-08-01

    Gestodene acidic treatment afforded a single rearrangement product, namely 13-beta-ethyl-18,19-dinorpregna-4,14,16-trien-3,20-dione 3, which was originated through HCl-catalyzed Rupe rearrangement. Drospirenone acidic treatment yielded two epimeric lactones by addition of HCl to the 6beta,7beta-cyclopropane ring, namely 7beta-(chloromethyl)-15beta,16beta-methylene-3-oxo-17beta-pregn-4-ene-21,17-carbolactone 4 and 7beta-(chloromethyl)-15beta,16beta-methylene-3-oxo-17alpha-pregn-4-ene-21,17-carbolactone 5. The structure of the compounds was assessed by spectroscopic and crystallographic methods.

  19. Estrogen receptor beta and the progression of prostate cancer: role of 5alpha-androstane-3beta,17beta-diol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondi, Donatella; Piccolella, Margherita; Biserni, Andrea; Della Torre, Sara; Ramachandran, Balaji; Locatelli, Alessia; Rusmini, Paola; Sau, Daniela; Caruso, Donatella; Maggi, Adriana; Ciana, Paolo; Poletti, Angelo

    2010-09-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) develops in response to an abnormal activation of androgen receptor induced by circulating androgens and, in its initial stages, is pharmacologically controlled by androgen blockade. However, androgen ablation therapy often allows androgen-independent PC development, generally characterized by increased invasiveness. We previously reported that 5alpha-androstane-3beta,17beta-diol (3beta-Adiol) inhibits the migration of PC cell lines via the estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) activation. Here, by combining in vitro assays and in vivo imaging approaches, we analyzed the effects of 3beta-Adiol on PC proliferation, migration, invasiveness, and metastasis in cultured cells and in xenografts using luciferase-labeled PC3 (PC3-Luc) cells. We found that 3beta-Adiol not only inhibits PC3-Luc cell migratory properties, but also induces a broader anti-tumor phenotype by decreasing the proliferation rate, increasing cell adhesion, and reducing invasive capabilities in vitro. All these 3beta-Adiol activities are mediated by ERbeta and cannot be reproduced by the physiological estrogen, 17beta-estradiol, suggesting the existence of different pathways activated by the two ERbeta ligands in PC3-Luc cells. In vivo, continuous administration of 3beta-Adiol reduces growth of established tumors and counteracts metastasis formation when PC3-Luc cells are engrafted s.c. in nude mice or are orthotopically injected into the prostate. Since 3beta-Adiol has no androgenic activity, and cannot be converted to androgenic compounds, the effects here described entail a novel potential application of this agent against human PC.

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF RUTIN-CYCLODEXTRIN INCLUSION COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Corciovă

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to examine the potential of beta-cyclodextrin to improve the solubility of rutin and obtain inclusion compounds that were analyzed by different techniques: UV-Vis, IR spectroscopy, thermal analysis. The presence of β-cyclodextrin raises the content of rutin in water. The inclusion compounds were prepared by dry mixing, complexation in semisolid and liquid medium in 1:2 molar ratio rutin - β-cyclodextrin. The UV-Vis and IR analysis demonstrated the obtaining of inclusion compounds and the thermal analysis show that these compounds are more stable than the parent substance.

  1. Labelling of. beta. -endorphin (. beta. -END) and. beta. -lipotropin (. beta. -LPH) by /sup 125/I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deby-Dupont, G.; Joris, J.; Franchimont, P. (Universite de Liege (Belgique)); Reuter, A.M.; Vrindts-Gevaert, Y. (Institut des Radioelements, Fleurus (Belgique))

    1983-01-01

    5 ..mu..g of human ..beta..-endorphin were labelled with 2 mCi /sup 125/I by the chloramine T technique. After two gel filtrations on Sephadex G-15 and on Sephadex G-50 in phosphate buffer with EDTA, Trasylol and mercapto-ethanol, a pure tracer was obtained with a specific activity about 150 ..mu..Ci/..mu..g.Kept at + 4/sup 0/C, the tracer remained utilizable for 30 days without loss of immunoreactivity. The labelling with lactoperoxydase and the use of another gel filtration method (filtration on Aca 202) gave a /sup 125/I ..beta..-END tracer with the same immunoreactivity. The binding of this tracer to the antibody of an anti-..beta..-END antiserum diluted at 1/8000 was 32% with a non specific binding of 2%. 5 ..mu..g of human ..beta..-lipotropin were labelled with 0.5 mCi /sup 125/I by the lactoperoxydase method. After two gel filtrations on Sephadex G-25 and on Sephadex G-75 in phosphate buffer with EDTA, Trasylol and mercapto-ethanol, a pure tracer with a specific activity of 140 ..mu..Ci/..mu..g was obtained. It remained utilizable for 30 days when kept at + 4/sup 0/C. Gel filtration on Aca 202 did not give good purification, while gel filtration on Aca 54 was good but slower than on Sephadex G-75. The binding to antibody in absence of unlabelled ..beta..-LPH was 32% for an anti-..beta..-LPH antiserum diluted at 1/4000. The non specific binding was 2.5%.

  2. Plasma beta HCG determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, L.B.D.; Pinto, J.C.M.; Linhares, E.; Linhares, Estevao

    1981-01-01

    There are three important indications for the early diagnosis of pregnancy through the determination of the beta sub-unit of chorionic gonadotrophin using radioimmunoassay: 1) some patient's or doctor's anxiety to discover the problem; 2) when it will be necessary to employ diagnostic or treatment procedures susceptible to affect the ovum; and 3) in the differential diagnosis of amenorrhoea, uterine hemorrhage and abdominal tumors. Other user's are the diagnosis of missed absortion, and the diagnosis and follow-up of chrorioncarcinoma. The AA. studied 200 determinations of plasma beta-HCG, considering the main difficulties occuring in the clinical use of this relevant laboratory tool in actual Obstetrics. (author) [pt

  3. Beta and Gamma Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Gaffney, C. F.; Clark, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and/or theoretical estimates are presented concerning, (i) attenuation within the sample of beta and gamma radiation from the soil, (ii) the gamma dose within the sample due to its own radioactivity, and (iii) the soil gamma dose in the proximity of boundaries between regions...... of differing radioactivity. It is confirmed that removal of the outer 2 mm of sample is adequate to remove influence from soil beta dose and estimates are made of the error introduced by non-removal. Other evaluations include variation of the soil gamma dose near the ground surface and it appears...

  4. (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin binding in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houghten, R.A.; Johnson, N.; Pasternak, G.W.

    1984-10-01

    The binding of (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin to rat brain homogenates is complex. Although Scatchard analysis of saturation studies yields a straight line, detailed competition studies are multiphasic, suggesting that even at low concentrations of the compound, the /sup 3/H-ligand is binding to more than one class of site. A portion of (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin binding is sensitive to low concentrations of morphine or D-Ala2-Leu5-enkephalin (less than 5 nM). The inhibition observed with each compound alone (5 nM) is the same as that seen with both together (each at 5 nM). Thus, the binding remaining in the presence of both morphine and the enkephalin does not correspond to either mu or delta sites. The portion of (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin binding that is inhibited under these conditions appears to be equally sensitive to both morphine and the enkephalin and may correspond to mu1 sites. Treating membrane homogenates with naloxonazine, a mu1 selective antagonist, lowers (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin binding to the same degree as morphine and D-Ala2-Leu5-enkephalin alone or together. This possible binding of (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin to mu1 sites is consistent with the role of mu1 sites in beta-endorphin analgesia and catalepsy in vivo.

  5. [3H]-beta-endorphin binding in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghten, R.A.; Johnson, N.; Pasternak, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    The binding of [ 3 H]-beta-endorphin to rat brain homogenates is complex. Although Scatchard analysis of saturation studies yields a straight line, detailed competition studies are multiphasic, suggesting that even at low concentrations of the compound, the 3 H-ligand is binding to more than one class of site. A portion of [ 3 H]-beta-endorphin binding is sensitive to low concentrations of morphine or D-Ala2-Leu5-enkephalin (less than 5 nM). The inhibition observed with each compound alone (5 nM) is the same as that seen with both together (each at 5 nM). Thus, the binding remaining in the presence of both morphine and the enkephalin does not correspond to either mu or delta sites. The portion of [ 3 H]-beta-endorphin binding that is inhibited under these conditions appears to be equally sensitive to both morphine and the enkephalin and may correspond to mu1 sites. Treating membrane homogenates with naloxonazine, a mu1 selective antagonist, lowers [ 3 H]-beta-endorphin binding to the same degree as morphine and D-Ala2-Leu5-enkephalin alone or together. This possible binding of [ 3 H]-beta-endorphin to mu1 sites is consistent with the role of mu1 sites in beta-endorphin analgesia and catalepsy in vivo

  6. 24-Methylenelanost-9(11)-en-3beta-ol, new triterpene alcohol from shea butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, T; Tamura, T; Matsumoto, T

    1975-08-01

    A new triterpene alcohol was isolated fron shea butter and its structure was shown to be 24-methylenelanost-9(11)-en-3beta-ol. Gas chromatographic correlations between this triterpene alcohol and other related compounds are discussed.

  7. beta nur pratiwi

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics. BETA NUR PRATIWI. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 88 Issue 2 February 2017 pp 25 Regular. Asymptotic iteration method for the modified Pöschl–Teller potential and trigonometric Scarf II non-central potential in the Dirac equation spin symmetry.

  8. Induced nuclear beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    Certain nuclear beta decay transitions normally inhibited by angular momentum or parity considerations can be induced to occur by the application of an electromagnetic field. Such decays can be useful in the controlled production of power, and in fission waste disposal

  9. Beta-Carotene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to reduce symptoms of breathing disorders such as asthma and exercise-induced asthma, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary ... seem to reduce the risk of esophageal cancer. Asthma attacks triggered by exercise. Taking beta-carotene by mouth seems to prevent ...

  10. Nuclear double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, P.; Mennrath, P.

    1985-01-01

    The processes of double beta decay with and without emission of neutrinos are briefly reviewed. After the definitions of the processes and implications for the neutrino properties, the present status of the experimental results is discussed. We conclude with a description of the Bordeaux-Zaragoza-Strasbourg experimental which will run in the Frejus tunnel

  11. Trichoderma .beta.-glucosidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2006-01-03

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl3, and the corresponding BGL3 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL3, recombinant BGL3 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  12. Beta thalassemia - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Jha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia is a globin gene disorder that results in a diminished rate of synthesis of one or more of the globin chains. About 1.5% of the global population (80 to 90 million people are carriers of beta Thalassemia. More than 200 mutations are described in beta thalassemia. However not all mutations are common in different ethnic groups. The only effective way to reduce burden of thalassemia is to prevent birth of homozygotes. Diagnosis of beta thalassemia can be done by fetal DNA analysis for molecular defects of beta thalassemia or by fetal blood analysis. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only available curative approach for Thalassemia. Many patients with thalassemia in underdeveloped nations die in childhood or adolescence. Programs that provide acceptable care, including transfusion of safe blood and supportive therapy including chelation must be established.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v4i8.11609 Journal of Pathology of Nepal; Vol.4,No. 8 (2014 663-671

  13. Peginterferon Beta-1a Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peginterferon beta-1a injection is used to treat people who have relapsing-remitting forms (course of disease where symptoms ... problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Peginterferon beta-1a injection is in a class of medications ...

  14. Interferon Beta-1b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon beta-1b injection is used to reduce episodes of symptoms in patients with relapsing-remitting (course of disease ... problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1b is in a class of medications called ...

  15. Multipurpose Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  16. Phenolic compounds from Bursera simaruba Sarg. bark: phytochemical investigation and quantitative analysis by tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldini, Mariateresa; Montoro, Paola; Piacente, Sonia; Pizza, Cosimo

    2009-03-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of Bursera simaruba bark led to the isolation of 11 compounds, including lignans yatein, beta-peltatin-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, hinokinin and bursehernin, and three natural compounds namely 3,4-dimetoxyphenyl-1-O-beta-D-(6-sulpho)-glucopyranoside, 3,4,5-trimetoxyphenyl 1-O-beta-D-(6-sulpho)-glucopyranoside and 3,4-diidroxyphenylethanol-1-O-beta-D-(6-sulpho)-glucopyranoside. Their structures were established by NMR and ESI/MS experiments. Additionally, an LC-ESI/MS qualitative study on the phenolic compounds and an LC-ESI/MS/MS quantitative study on the lignans found in the methanolic extract of B. simaruba bark were performed to give value to the plant as source of these biological active compounds. Quantitative analyses results confirmed that compounds yatein, beta-peltatin-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, hinokinin and bursehernin are major compounds in the bark and, in particular, beta-peltatin-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside appears to be the most abundant.

  17. Misleading Betas: An Educational Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, James; Halcoussis, Dennis; Phillips, G. Michael

    2012-01-01

    The dual-beta model is a generalization of the CAPM model. In the dual-beta model, separate beta estimates are provided for up-market and down-market days. This paper uses the historical "Anscombe quartet" results which illustrated how very different datasets can produce the same regression coefficients to motivate a discussion of the…

  18. HPLC Analysis of [Alpha]- and [Beta]-Acids in Hops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danenhower, Travis M.; Force, Leyna J.; Petersen, Kenneth J.; Betts, Thomas A.; Baker, Gary A.

    2008-01-01

    Hops have been used for centuries to impart aroma and bitterness to beer. The cones of the female hop plant contain both essential oils, which include many of the fragrant components of hops, and a collection of compounds known as [alpha]- and [beta]-acids that are the precursors to bittering agents. In order for brewers to predict the ultimate…

  19. Phenolic compounds from Miconia myriantha inhibiting Candida aspartic proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X C; Jacob, M R; Pasco, D S; ElSohly, H N; Nimrod, A C; Walker, L A; Clark, A M

    2001-10-01

    Assay-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract of the twigs and leaves of Miconia myriantha yielded two new compounds, mattucinol-7-O-[4' ',6' '-O-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and mattucinol-7-O-[4' ',6' '-di-O-galloyl]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), along with mattucinol-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), ellagic acid (4), 3,3'-di-O-methyl ellagic acid-4-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside, and gallic acid. Complete (1)H and (13)C NMR assignments of compound 1, which possesses a hexahydroxydiphenoyl unit, were achieved using the HMBC technique optimized for small couplings to enhance the four-bond and two-bond H/C correlations. Compounds 1 and 4 showed inhibitory effects against Candida albicans secreted aspartic proteases, with IC(50) of 8.4 and 10.5 microM, respectively.

  20. Mesoionic Compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sydnone, the representative mesoionic compound has been extensively studied because of its unusual structure, chemi- cal properties and synthetic utility. Sydnone is used as a versatile synthon in heterocyclic synthesis. This article gives a brief account of the comparative studies of the structural features of mesoionic ...

  1. Low-beta investment strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Korn, Olaf; Kuntz, Laura-Chloé

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates investment strategies that exploit the low-beta anomaly. Although the notion of buying low-beta stocks and selling high-beta stocks is natural, a choice is necessary with respect to the relative weighting of high-beta stocks and low-beta stocks in the investment portfolio. Our empirical results for US large-cap stocks show that this choice is very important for the risk-return characteristics of the resulting portfolios and their sensitivities to common risk factors. W...

  2. Non-phenolic antioxidant compounds from Buddleja asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Sayed, Mortada M; Abdel-Hameed, El-Sayed S; Ahmed, Wafaa S; el-Wakil, Eman A

    2008-01-01

    The methanol extract of the leaves of Buddleja asiatica Lour. (Loganiaceae) showed antioxidant activity toward the well known in vitro antioxidant tests such as total antioxidant capacity by the phosphomolybdenum method, free radical scavenging activity by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay (DPPH assay) and hydrogen peroxide scavenging methods. Due to the high scavenging activity of the n-butanol successive fraction toward DPPH and H2O2 (SC50 = 11.99 and 18.54 microg/ml, respectively), this extract was subjected to chromatographic separation and isolation. Four non-phenolic compounds were isolated and identified on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical analyses: 1-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-2-methoxy-3-(2-hydroxy-triaconta-3,12-dienoate)-glycerol (1), 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-beta-D-fucopyranosyl-olean-11,13(18)-diene-3 beta,23,28-triol (2), 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta-D-fucopyranosyl-olean-11,13(18)-diene-3,23,28-triol (3), and 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-acid-olean-11,13(18)-diene-3 beta,23,28-triol (4). The four compounds were evaluated as antioxidant agents using the three antioxidant bioassay tests.

  3. Regulation of beta cell replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Ying C; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2008-01-01

    Beta cell mass, at any given time, is governed by cell differentiation, neogenesis, increased or decreased cell size (cell hypertrophy or atrophy), cell death (apoptosis), and beta cell proliferation. Nutrients, hormones and growth factors coupled with their signalling intermediates have been...... suggested to play a role in beta cell mass regulation. In addition, genetic mouse model studies have indicated that cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases that determine cell cycle progression are involved in beta cell replication, and more recently, menin in association with cyclin-dependent kinase...... inhibitors has been demonstrated to be important in beta cell growth. In this review, we consider and highlight some aspects of cell cycle regulation in relation to beta cell replication. The role of cell cycle regulation in beta cell replication is mostly from studies in rodent models, but whether...

  4. Beta cell adaptation in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with a compensatory increase in beta cell mass. It is well established that somatolactogenic hormones contribute to the expansion both indirectly by their insulin antagonistic effects and directly by their mitogenic effects on the beta cells via receptors for prolactin...... and growth hormone expressed in rodent beta cells. However, the beta cell expansion in human pregnancy seems to occur by neogenesis of beta cells from putative progenitor cells rather than by proliferation of existing beta cells. Claes Hellerström has pioneered the research on beta cell growth for decades......, but the mechanisms involved are still not clarified. In this review the information obtained in previous studies is recapitulated together with some of the current attempts to resolve the controversy in the field: identification of the putative progenitor cells, identification of the factors involved...

  5. Beta-thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Origa Raffaella

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands, dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes, gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely

  6. Beta and muon decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, A.; Pascual, P.

    1967-07-01

    These notes represent a series of lectures delivered by the authors in the Junta de Energia Nuclear, during the Spring term of 1965. They were devoted to graduate students interested in the Theory of Elementary Particles. Special emphasis was focussed into the computational problems. Chapter I is a review of basic principles (Dirac equation, transition probabilities, final state interactions.) which will be needed later. In Chapter II the four-fermion punctual Interaction is discussed, Chapter III is devoted to the study of beta-decay; the main emphasis is given to the deduction of the formulae corresponding to electron-antineutrino correlation, electron energy spectrum, lifetimes, asymmetry of electrons emitted from polarized nuclei, electron and neutrino polarization and time reversal invariance in beta decay. In Chapter IV we deal with the decay of polarized muons with radiative corrections. Chapter V is devoted to an introduction to C.V.C. theory. (Author)

  7. Síntese de amidas e sulfonamidas de beta-D-galactopiranosilamina e beta-lactosilamina e avaliação de suas interações com lectinas de Erythrina cristagalli e de Ricinus communis Synthesis of amides and sulfonamides of beta-D- galactopyranosylamine and beta-lactosylamine and evaluation of their interactions with the lectins from Erythrina cristagalli and Ricinus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Paola Butera

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We report herein the synthesis of some beta-D-galactopyranosylamine and beta-lactosylamine amides and sulfonamides. The interactions of these compounds with lectins from the seeds of Erythrina cristagalli (LEC and Ricinus communis (RCA120 were evaluated in a hemagglutination inhibitory activity assay. D-Galactose and lactose were used as reference compounds. The beta-lactosylamine amides and sulfonamides were nearly as active as lactose in inhibiting LEC mediated hemagglutination and were less active against RCA120 agglutinin. The beta-D-galactopyranosylamine amides and sulfonamides were, with one exception, considerably less active than D-galactose in the assay with both lectins.

  8. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-06

    Oct 6, 2012 ... nuclear decay of neutrinoless double beta decay typically leading to sub-eV values as well. (Z, A) → (Z + 2, A) + 2e .... Here again energy resolution matters, because of the continuous spectrum of the 2νββ- decay mode, its high .... The benefit of using Te is its high natural abundance. This experiment is in ...

  9. COM Support in BETA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1999-01-01

    Component technologies based on binary units of independent production are some of the most important contributions to software architecture and reuse during recent years. Especially the COM technologies and the CORBA standard from the Object Management Group have contributed new and interesting ...... principles for software architecture, and proven to be useful in parctice. In this paper ongoing work with component support in the BETA language is described....

  10. Coroutine Sequencing in BETA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    In object-oriented programming, a program execution is viewed as a physical model of some real or imaginary part of the world. A language supporting object-oriented programming must therefore contain comprehensive facilities for modeling phenomena and concepts form the application domain. Many...... applications in the real world consist of objects carrying out sequential processes. Coroutines may be used for modeling objects that alternate between a number of sequential processes. The authors describe coroutines in BETA...

  11. Compound odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas have been extensively reported in the dental literature, and the term refers to tumors of odontogenic origin. Though the exact etiology is still unknown, the postulated causes include: local trauma, infection, inheritance and genetic mutation. The majority of the lesions are asymptomatic; however, may be accompanied with pain and swelling as secondary complaints in some cases. Here, we report a case of a compound odontome in a 14 year old patient.

  12. LHCb: $2\\beta_s$ measurement at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Conti, G

    2009-01-01

    A measurement of $2\\beta_s$, the phase of the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ oscillation amplitude with respect to that of the ${\\rm b} \\rightarrow {\\rm c^{+}}{\\rm W^{-}}$ tree decay amplitude, is one of the key goals of the LHCb experiment with first data. In the Standard Model (SM), $2\\beta_s$ is predicted to be $0.0360^{+0.0020}_{-0.0016} \\rm rad$. The current constraints from the Tevatron are: $2\\beta_{s}\\in[0.32 ; 2.82]$ at 68$\\%$CL from the CDF experiment and $2\\beta_{s}=0.57^{+0.24}_{-0.30}$ from the D$\\oslash$ experiment. Although the statistical uncertainties are large, these results hint at the possible contribution of New Physics in the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ box diagram. After one year of data taking at LHCb at an average luminosity of $\\mathcal{L}\\sim2\\cdot10^{32}\\rm cm^{-2} \\rm s^{-1}$ (integrated luminosity $\\mathcal{L}_{\\rm int}\\sim 2 \\rm fb^{-1}$), the expected statistical uncertainty on the measurement is $\\sigma(2\\beta_s)\\simeq 0.03$. This uncertainty is similar to the $2\\beta_s$ value predicted by the SM.

  13. Beta* and beta-waist measurement and control at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ptitsyn,V.; Della Penna, A.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Malitsky, N.; Satogata, T.

    2009-05-04

    During the course of last RHIC runs the beta-functions at the collision points ({beta}*) have been reduced gradually to 0.7m. In order to maximize the collision luminosity and ensure the agreement of the actual machine optics with the design one, more precise measurements and control of {beta}* value and {beta}-waist location became necessary. The paper presents the results of the implementation of the technique applied in last two RHIC runs. The technique is based on well-known relation between the tune shift and the beta function and involves precise betatron tune measurements using BBQ system as well as specially developed knobs for {beta}-waist location control.

  14. Infundibular neurons of the human hypothalamus simultaneously reactive with antisera against endorphins, ACTH, MSH and beta-LPH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugnon, C; Bloch, B; Lenys, D; Fellmann, D

    1979-06-27

    In man, discrete neurons of the infundibular (arcuate) nucleus contain compounds that can be stained with anti-endorphin (alpha and beta), anti-ACTH, anti-MSH (alpha and beta) and anti-beta-LPH immune sera (I.S.). In the fetus, certain neurons stain with anti-beta-endorphin or anti((17--39)ACTH starting from the 11th week of fetal life. At the ultrastructural level, these neurons contain elementary granules that are immunoreactive with anti-beta-endorphin. In the adult, neurons immunoreactive with anti-beta-endorphin are found in the infundibular nucleus. Their axonal fibers terminate around blood vessels in the neurovascular zone and in the pituitary stalk, or establish contacts with non-immunoreactive perikarya of the infundibular nucleus. These neurons can be stained with anti(17--39)ACTH and anti-beta-endorphin I.S. The most reactive are also stained moderately with anti-alpha-MSH, anti-beta-MSH, anti-beta-LPH, anti-alpha-endorphin, or anti(1--24)ACTH I.S. These results indicate that, in man, compound(s) identical with or immunologically related to endorphins, beta-LPH, ACTH and MSH are secreted by certain hypothalamic neurons. These agents probably originate from a common precursor molecula similar to the so-called pro-opiocortin.

  15. Novel 3alpha-methoxyserrat-14-en-21beta-ol (PJ-1) and 3beta-methoxyserrat-14-en-21beta-ol (PJ-2)-curcumin, kojic acid, quercetin, and baicalein conjugates as HIV agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Reiko; Tsujii, Hiroko; Yamada, Takeshi; Kajimoto, Tetsuya; Amano, Fumio; Hasegawa, Junya; Hamashima, Yoshio; Node, Manabu; Katoh, Kayoko; Takebe, Yutaka

    2009-07-15

    Sixteen novel compounds; 3alpha-methoxyserrat-14-en-21beta-ol (1) and 3beta-methoxyserrat-14-en-21beta-ol (2) and their curcumin, kojic acid, quercetin, and baicalein conjugates (3)-(18) were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for in vitro anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) activity in infected C8166-CCR5 cells, a human CD4(+) T-lymphocyte cell line. Among them, kojic acid derivatives, 9-12 showed significant biological activity. In particular, the compound 13, the conjugate of two molecules of 3alpha-methoxyserrat-14-en-21beta-ol (1) and one molecule of kojic acid, exerted significant anti-HIV activity with an EC50 value of 0.12microg/mL.

  16. Nanomolar Inhibitors of AmpC [beta]-Lactamase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morandi, Federica; Caselli, Emilia; Morandi, Stefania; Focia, Pamela J.; Blazquez, Jesus; Shoichet, Brian K.; Prati, Fabio (Degali); (NIH); (NWU); (UCSF)

    2010-03-08

    {beta}-lactamases are the most widespread resistance mechanism to {beta}-lactam antibiotics, such as the penicillins and the cephalosporins. In an effort to combat these enzymes, a combination of stereoselective organic synthesis, enzymology, microbiology, and X-ray crystallography was used to design and evaluate new carboxyphenyl-glycylboronic acid transition-state analogue inhibitors of the class C {beta}-lactamase AmpC. The new compounds improve inhibition by over 2 orders of magnitude compared to analogous glycylboronic acids, with K{sub i} values as low as 1 nM. On the basis of the differential binding of different analogues, the introduced carboxylate alone contributes about 2.1 kcal/mol in affinity. This carboxylate corresponds to the ubiquitous C3(4)' carboxylate of {beta}-lactams, and this energy represents the first thermodynamic measurement of the importance of this group in molecular recognition by class C {beta}-lactamases. The structures of AmpC in complex with two of these inhibitors were determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.72 and 1.83 {angstrom} resolution. These structures suggest a structural basis for the high affinity of the new compounds and provide templates for further design. The highest affinity inhibitor was 5 orders of magnitude more selective for AmpC than for characteristic serine proteases, such as chymotrypsin. This inhibitor reversed the resistance of clinical pathogens to the third generation cephalosporin ceftazidime; it may serve as a lead compound for drug discovery to combat bacterial resistance to {beta}-lactam antibiotics.

  17. Beta-galactosidase deficiency: an approach to chaperone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshiyuki

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new molecular therapeutic approach to lysosomal diseases with severe neurological manifestations. Some low-molecular-weight compounds, acting as competitive inhibitors of a lysosomal enzyme in vitro, were found to stabilize and restore catalytic activities of the enzyme molecule as a molecular chaperone. We started this trial first in Fabry disease (generalized vasculopathy) using galactose and 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin, and then in beta-galactosidase deficiency disorders (beta-galactosidosis) with generalized neurosomatic and/or systemic skeletal manifestations (GM(1)-gangliosidosis and Morquio B disease), using a newly developed chemical compound N-octyl-4-epi-beta-valienamine (NOEV). Administration of this chaperone compound resulted in elevation of intracellular enzyme activity in cultured fibroblasts from patients and genetically engineered model mice. In addition, substrate storage was improved after NOEV had been transported into the brain tissue via the blood-brain barrier. We hope this new approach (chemical chaperone therapy) will be useful for certain patients with beta-galactosidosis and potentially other lysosomal storage diseases with central nervous system involvement.

  18. Síntese do monastrol e novos compostos de Biginelli promovida por In(OTf3 Synthesis of monastrol and of new Biginelli compounds promoted by In(OTf3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla N. Godoi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe a practical route for the synthesis of Biginelli compounds using In(OTf3. To study the generality of this catalyst, several examples using aromatic aldehydes, 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, urea, and thiourea were investigated. The present procedure provides an efficient modification of the classical Biginelli reaction, namely short reaction times and simple work-up, that not only preserves the simplicity of the original protocol but also produces excellent yields of 3,4-dihydropyridin-2(1H-ones. Thiourea was used with similar success to provide the corresponding 3,4-dihydropyridin-2(1H-thiones. In this case, the (+/--monastrol, antimitotic agent, was obtained in 92% yield and new thio analogues were synthesized.

  19. Beta measurement evaluation and upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Rathbun, L.A.; Roberson, P.L.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1986-01-01

    This program focuses on the resolution of problems associated with the field measurement of the beta dose component at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The change in DOE programs, including increased efforts in improved waste management and decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of facilities, coupled with beta measurement problems identified at Three Mile Island has increased the need to improve beta measurements. In FY 1982, work was initiated to provide a continuing effort to identify problems associated with beta dose assessment at DOE facilities. The problems identified resulted in the development of this program. The investigation includes (1) an assessment of measurement systems now in use, (2) development of improved calibration systems and procedures, (3) application of innovative beta dosimetry concepts, (4) investigation of new instruments or concepts for monitoring and spectroscopy, and (5) development of recommendations to assure an adequate beta measurement program within DOE facilities

  20. Conditional Betas and Investor Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando D. Chague

    2013-01-01

    We derive theoretical expressions for market betas from a rational expectation equilibrium model where the representative investor does not observe if the economy is in a recession or an expansion. Market betas in this economy are time-varying and related to investor uncertainty about the state of the economy. The dynamics of betas will also vary across assets according to the assets' cash-flow structure. In a calibration exercise, we show that value and growth firms have cash-flow structures...

  1. Murrayafoline A attenuates the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway by promoting the degradation of intracellular {beta}-catenin proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyuk; Gwak, Jungsug; Cho, Munju; Ryu, Min-Jung [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jee-Hyun; Kim, Sang Kyum; Kim, Young Ho [College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gye Won [Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Konyang University, Nonsan 320-711 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Mi-Young [Department of Beauty Health Care, Daejeon University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Cuong, Nguyen Manh [Institute of Natural Products Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Shin, Jae-Gook [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Gyu-Yong, E-mail: gysong@cnu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sangtaek, E-mail: ohsa@inje.ac.kr [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-01

    Molecular lesions in Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling and subsequent up-regulation of {beta}-catenin response transcription (CRT) occur frequently during the development of colon cancer. To identify small molecules that suppress CRT, we screened natural compounds in a cell-based assay for detection of TOPFalsh reporter activity. Murrayafoline A, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from Glycosmis stenocarpa, antagonized CRT that was stimulated by Wnt3a-conditioned medium (Wnt3a-CM) or LiCl, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}), and promoted the degradation of intracellular {beta}-catenin without altering its N-terminal phosphorylation at the Ser33/37 residues, marking it for proteasomal degradation, or the expression of Siah-1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Murrayafoline A repressed the expression of cyclin D1 and c-myc, which is known {beta}-catenin/T cell factor (TCF)-dependent genes and thus inhibited the proliferation of various colon cancer cells. These findings indicate that murrayafoline A may be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for use in the treatment of colon cancer.

  2. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.

    2010-03-23

    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  3. Supersymmetry Inspired QCD Beta Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas; Sannino, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    We propose an all orders beta function for ordinary Yang-Mills theories with or without fermions inspired by the Novikov-Shifman-Vainshtein-Zakharov beta function of N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories. The beta function allows us to bound the conformal window. When restricting to one adjoint Weyl...... fermion we show how the proposed beta function matches the one of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The running of the pure Yang-Mills coupling is computed and the deviation from the two loop result is presented. We then compare the deviation with the one obtained from lattice data also with respect...

  4. Dynamic returns of beta arbitrage

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Mafalda

    2017-01-01

    This thesis studies the patterns of the abnormal returns of the beta strategy. The topic can be helpful for professional investors, who intend to achieve a better performance in their portfolios. Following the methodology of Lou, Polk, & Huang (2016), the COBAR measure is computed in order to determine the levels of beta arbitrage in the market in each point in time. It is argued that beta arbitrage activity can have impact on the returns of the beta strategy. In fact, it is demonstrated that...

  5. The role of EKLF in human beta-globin gene competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijgerde, M; Gribnau, J; Trimborn, T; Nuez, B; Philipsen, S; Grosveld, F; Fraser, P

    1996-11-15

    We have investigated the role of erythroid Kruppel-like factor (EKLF) in expression of the human beta-globin genes in compound EKLF knockout/human beta-locus transgenic mice. EKLF affects only the adult mouse beta-globin genes in homozygous knockout mice; heterozygous mice are unaffected. Here we show that EKLF knockout mice express the human epsilon and gamma-globin genes normally in embryonic red cells. However, fetal liver erythropoiesis, which is marked by a period of gamma- and beta-gene competition in which the genes are alternately transcribed, exhibits an altered ratio of gamma- to beta-gene transcription. EKLF heterozygous fetal livers display a decrease in the number of transcriptionally active beta genes with a reciprocal increase in the number of transcriptionally active gamma genes. beta-Gene transcription is absent in homozygous knockout fetuses with coincident changes in chromatin structure at the beta promoter. There is a further increase in the number of transcriptionally active gamma genes and accompanying gamma gene promoter chromatin alterations. These results indicate that EKLF plays a major role in gamma- and beta-gene competition and suggest that EKLF is important in stabilizing the interaction between the Locus Control Region and the beta-globin gene. In addition, these findings provide further evidence that developmental modulation of globin gene expression within individual cells is accomplished by altering the frequency and/or duration of transcriptional periods of a gene rather than changing the rate of transcription.

  6. Detection and identification of "new" beta-agonists in black-market preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ginkel LA; Stephany RW; van Rossum HJ; Visser T; den Engelsman T; de Jong APJM; Jacquemijns M; Zomer G

    1992-01-01

    In several "black-market" used for growth promotion preparations new compounds were found belonging to the group of N-phenylethanolamines with structures very similar to compounds known to be used for veal calf and cattle production, the so called beta-agonists. The two most important

  7. Bismaleimide compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Johnnie E.; Jamieson, Donald R.

    1986-01-14

    Bismaleimides of the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, C1 or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.

  8. Magnesium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  9. Improved limits on beta(-) and beta(-) decays of Ca-48

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakalyarov, A.; Balysh, A.; Barabash, AS.; Beneš, P.; Briancon, C.; Brudanin, V. B.; Čermák, P.; Egorov, V.; Hubert, F.; Hubert, P.; Korolev, NA.; Kosjakov, VN.; Kovalík, Alojz; Lebedev, NA.; Novgorodov, A. F.; Rukhadze, NI.; Štekl, NI.; Timkin, VV.; Veleshko, IE.; Vylov, T.; Umatov, VI.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 9 (2002), s. 545-547 ISSN 0021-3640 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : beta decay * double beta decay * Ca-48 Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.483, year: 2002

  10. Taxonomic, spatial and adaptive genetic variation of Beta section Beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrello, Marco; Henry, Karine; Devaux, Pierre; Desprez, Bruno; Manel, Stéphanie

    2016-02-01

    The genetic variation of Beta section Beta is structured into four taxonomic and spatial clusters. There are significant associations between molecular markers and environmental variables. We investigated the genetic diversity of Beta section Beta, which includes the wild and cultivated relatives of the sugar beet. The taxa included in the study were: Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima, B. vulgaris subsp. adanensis, B. macrocarpa, B. patula and B. vulgaris subsp. vulgaris (garden beet, leaf beet and swiss chards). We collected 1264 accessions originating from the entire distribution area of these taxa and genotyped them for 4436 DArT markers (DArTs). We showed that the genetic variation of these accessions is structured into four taxonomic and spatial clusters: (1) samples of Beta macrocarpa, (2) samples of Beta vulgaris subsp. adanensis, (3) Mediterranean and Asian samples and (4) Atlantic and Northern European samples. These last two clusters were mainly composed of samples of Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima. We investigated in deeper detail the genetic structure of B. vulgaris subsp. maritima, which constituted the majority (80%) of the wild samples. This subspecies exhibited a clinal genetic variation from South-East to North-West. We detected some markers significantly associated to environmental variables in B. vulgaris subsp. maritima. These associations are interpreted as results of natural selection. The variable most often involved in the associations was annual mean temperature. Therefore, these markers can be useful for the development of frost-tolerant winter beets and drought-tolerant rain-fed beets.

  11. Beta2-adrenoceptors: mechanisms of action of beta2-agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M

    2001-03-01

    The human beta2-adrenoceptor is a member of the 7 transmembrane family of receptors. It is encoded by a gene on chromosome 5 and is widely distributed in the respiratory tract. Following beta2-adrenoceptor activation, intracellular signalling is mainly produced by inducing cyclic AMP. This produces airway relaxation through phosphorylation of muscle regulatory proteins and modification of cellular Ca2+concentrations. Beta2-agonists have been characterised into those which directly activate the receptor (salbutamol/terbutaline), those which are taken up into a membrane depot (formoterol) and those which interact with a receptor-specific, auxiliary binding site (salmeterol). These differences in mechanism of action are reflected in the kinetics of airway smooth muscle relaxation and bronchodilation in asthmatic patients. Beta-adrenoceptor desensitisation is associated with beta2-agonist activation and differs depending on the cell type. It is reflected in the different profiles of clinical tolerance to chronic beta2-agonist therapy. A number of polymorphisms of the beta2-receptor have been described which appear to alter the behaviour of the receptor, including the degree of downregulation and response to beta2-agonists.

  12. Identification of active anti-inflammatory principles of beta- beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chromatography. Components of the extracts were identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC) scanner and UV-visible spectroscopy, using scopoletin as standard. Results: ... basic coumarin skeleton ring structure reduce ... Figure 2: Thin-layer chromatogram: (1) Ethanol extract; (2) Dichloromethane fraction; (3) Beta-beta.

  13. New phenolic compounds from Kokuto, non-centrifuged cane sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Kensaku; Matsui, Daigo; Wada, Koji; Ichiba, Toshio; Chinen, Isao; Nakasone, Yoko

    2003-02-01

    Five new phenolic compounds, 4-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl-propanone (8), 3-[5-[(threo) 2,3-dihydro-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxymethyl-7-methoxybenzofuranyl]-propanoic acid (12), 2-[4-(3-hydroxy-1-propenyl)-2,6-dimethoxyphenoxy]-3-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)propyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (13), 4-[(erythro) 2,3-dihydro-3(hydroxymethyl)-5-(3-hydropropyl)-7-methoxy-2-benzofuranyl]-2,6-dimethoxyphenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (14), 9-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside of icariol A2 (15), and known phenolic compounds were isolated from Kokuto, non-centrifuged cane sugar (Saccharum officinarum L.). Their structures were determined by a spectral investigation.

  14. Consequence of beta 16 and beta 112 replacements on the kinetics of hemoglobin assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, K; Yang, Y; Joshi, A A; Vasudevan, G; Morris, A; McDonald, M J

    2001-11-23

    The rates of alpha/beta monomer combination of four beta(A) variants (beta 112C --> S, beta 112C --> D, beta 112C --> T, and beta 112C --> V) in the presence and absence of beta 16G --> D (beta(J)) were measured in an attempt to assess the consequences of amino acid substitution at both a surface (beta 16) and an alpha(1)beta(1) interface (beta 112) residue on oxyhemoglobin assembly. Rates of alpha/beta monomer combination determined spectrally in 0.1 M Tris-HCl, 0.1 M NaCl, 1 mM EDTA, pH 7.4, at 21.5 degrees C differed by over 40-fold (22 +/- 2.0 to 0.49 +/- 0.1 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1)), and were in the order: HbA beta 112S = HbJ beta 16D, beta 112S > HbA beta 112D = HbJ beta 16D, beta 112D > HbA > Hb J > HbA beta 112T = HbJ beta 16D, beta 112T > HbJ beta 16D, beta 112V > HbA beta 112V. This extensive kinetic investigation of single/double amino acid-substituted recombinant hemoglobin molecules, in conjunction with molecular modeling studies, has allowed examination of an array of unique alpha/beta subunit interactions and assembly processes. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  15. TGF-Beta and Breast Cancer Induction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dabovic, Branka

    2001-01-01

    .... We study the molecule TGF-beta, which blocks cell growth. TGF-beta is produced as latent complex consisting of the TGF-beta homodimer, the TGF-beta propeptide dimmer, and a second gene product, the latent TGF-beta binding protein (LTBP...

  16. Lysine-Derived Protein-Bound Heyns Compounds in Bakery Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treibmann, Stephanie; Hellwig, Anne; Hellwig, Michael; Henle, Thomas

    2017-12-06

    Fructose and dicarbonyl compounds resulting from fructose in heated foods have been linked to pathophysiological pathways of several metabolic disorders. Up to now, very little has been known about the Maillard reaction of fructose in food. Heyns rearrangement compounds (HRCs), the first stable intermediates of the Maillard reaction between amino components and fructose, have not yet been quantitated as protein-bound products in food. Therefore, the HRCs glucosyllysine and mannosyllysine were synthesized and characterized by NMR. Protein-bound HRCs in cookies containing various sugars and in commercial bakery products were quantitated after enzymatic hydrolysis by RP-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring mode through application of the standard addition method. Protein-bound HRCs were quantitated for the first time in model cookies and in commercial bakery products containing honey, banana, and invert sugar syrup. Concentrations of HRCs from 19 to 287 mg/kg were found, which were similar to or exceeded the content of other frequently analyzed Maillard reaction products, such as N-ε-carboxymethyllysine (10-76 mg/kg), N-ε-carboxyethyllysine (2.5-53 mg/kg), and methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone 1 (10-218 mg/kg) in the analyzed cookies. These results show that substantial amounts of HRCs form during food processing. Analysis of protein-bound HRCs in cookies is therefore useful to evaluate the Maillard reaction of fructose.

  17. Ruthenium(II) carbonyl compounds with the 4'-chloro-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatikonda, Rajendhraprasad; Haukka, Matti

    2017-04-01

    Two ruthenium carbonyl complexes with the 4'-chloro-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine ligand (tpy-Cl, C 15 H 10 ClN 3 ), i.e. [RuCl(tpy-Cl)(CO) 2 ][RuCl 3 (CO) 3 ] (I) [systematic name: cis -di-carbonyl-chlorido(4'-chloro-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine-κ 3 N )ruthenium(II) fac -tricarbonyltri-chlorido-ruthenate(II)], and [RuCl 2 (tpy-Cl)(CO) 2 ] (II) [ cis -dicarbonyl- trans -di-chlorido(4'-chloro-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine-κ 2 N 1 , N 1' )ruthenium(II)], were synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The Ru II atoms in both centrosymmetric structures (I) and (II) display similar, slightly distorted octa-hedral coordination spheres. The coordination sphere in the complex cation in compound (I) is defined by three N atoms of the tridentate tpy-Cl ligand, two carbonyl carbon atoms and one chlorido ligand; the charge is balanced by an octa-hedral [Ru(CO) 3 Cl 3 ] - counter-anion. In the neutral compound (II), the tpy-Cl ligand coordinates to the metal only through two of its N atoms. The coordination sphere of the Ru II atom is completed by two carbonyl and two chlorido ligands. In the crystal structures of both (I) and (II), weak C-H⋯Cl inter-actions are observed.

  18. Dicarboxylic acids, oxoacids, benzoic acid, α-dicarbonyls, WSOC, OC, and ions in spring aerosols from Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim: size distributions and formation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, D. K.; Kawamura, K.; Lazaar, M.; Kunwar, B.; Boreddy, S. K. R.

    2015-09-01

    Size-segregated aerosols (9-stages from 11.3 μm in diameter) were collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa in spring 2008 and analyzed for water-soluble diacids (C2-C12), ω-oxoacids (ωC2-ωC9), pyruvic acid, benzoic acid and α-dicarbonyls (C2-C3) as well as water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), organic carbon (OC) and major ions. In all the size-segregated aerosols, oxalic acid (C2) was found as the most abundant species followed by malonic and succinic acids whereas glyoxylic acid (ωC2) was the dominant oxoacid and glyoxal (Gly) was more abundant than methylglyoxal. Diacids (C2-C5), ωC2 and Gly as well as WSOC and OC peaked at 0.65-1.1 μm in fine mode whereas azelaic (C9) and 9-oxononanoic (ωC9) acids peaked at 3.3-4.7 μm in coarse mode. Sulfate and ammonium are enriched in fine mode whereas sodium and chloride are in coarse mode. These results imply that water-soluble species in the marine aerosols could act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) to develop the cloud cover over the western North Pacific Rim. The organic species are likely produced by a combination of gas-phase photooxidation, and aerosol-phase or in-cloud processing during long-range transport. The coarse mode peaks of malonic and succinic acids were obtained in the samples with marine air masses, suggesting that they may be associated with the reaction on sea salt particles. Bimodal size distributions of longer-chain diacid (C9) and oxoacid (ωC9) with a major peak in the coarse mode suggest their production by photooxidation of biogenic unsaturated fatty acids via heterogeneous reactions on sea salt particles.

  19. Review of the beta situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, J.

    1982-01-01

    This note lists some of the possible causes of beta limitation in tokamak and discusses what is known and what is involved in investigating them. The motivation for preparing this note is the observed degradation of confinement with increasing beta poloidal β/sub p/ and beam power P/sub b/ in ISX-B

  20. Amyloid Beta Mediates Memory Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Osta, Ana; Alberini, Cristina M.

    2009-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) undergoes sequential cleavages to generate various polypeptides, including the amyloid [beta] (1-42) peptide (A[beta][1-42]), which is believed to play a major role in amyloid plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we provide evidence that, in contrast with its pathological role when accumulated,…

  1. Beta-hemolytic Streptococcal Bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Kolmos, Hans Jørn; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2002-01-01

    Bacteremia with beta-hemolytic Streptococci groups A, B, C and G has a mortality rate of approximately 20%. In this study we analyzed the association of various patient risk factors with mortality. Records from 241 patients with beta-hemolytic streptococcal bacteremia were reviewed with particula...

  2. Beta decay of Cu-56

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borcea, R; Aysto, J; Caurier, E; Dendooven, P; Doring, J; Gierlik, M; Gorska, M; Grawe, H; Hellstrom, M; Janas, Z; Jokinen, A; Karny, M; Kirchner, R; La Commara, M; Langanke, K; Martinez-Pinedo, G; Mayet, P; Nieminen, A; Nowacki, F; Penttila, H; Plochocki, A; Rejmund, M; Roeckl, E; Schlegel, C; Schmidt, K; Schwengner, R; Sawicka, M

    2001-01-01

    The proton-rich isotope Cu-56 was produced at the GSI On-Line Mass Separator by means of the Si-28(S-32, p3n) fusion-evaporation reaction. Its beta -decay properties were studied by detecting beta -delayed gamma rays and protons. A half-Life of 93 +/- 3 ms was determined for Cu-56. Compared to the

  3. Beta Function and Anomalous Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that it is possible to determine the coefficients of an all-order beta function linear in the anomalous dimensions using as data the two-loop coefficients together with the first one of the anomalous dimensions which are universal. The beta function allows to determine the anomalous...

  4. BETA SPECTRA. I. Negatrons spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Malonda, A.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    1978-01-01

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 62 negatrons emitters have been computed introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. These spectra are plotted vs. energy, once normal i sed, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (Author)

  5. The best-beta CAPM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, L.

    2006-01-01

    The issue of 'best-beta' arises as soon as potential errors in the Sharpe-Lintner-Black capital asset pricing model (CAPM) are acknowledged. By incorporating a target variable into the investor preferences, this study derives a best-beta CAPM (BCAPM) that maintains the CAPM's theoretical appeal and

  6. Integration of BETA with Eclipse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Enevoldsen, Mads Brøgger

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents language interoperability issues appearing in order to implement support for the BETA language in the Java-based Eclipse integrated development environment. One of the challenges is to implement plug-ins in BETA and be able to load them in Eclipse. In order to do this, some form...

  7. Antibacterial activity of 1-methyl-7-methoxy-beta-carboline and its phenacyl and coumarine analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saify, Z S; Farhad, Jawaid; Mushtaq, Nousheen; Noor, Fozia; Akhtar, Shamim; Arif, M; Naqvi, Baqir Shyum; Shoaib, Muhammad Harris

    2005-07-01

    Antibacterial activity of 1-methyl-7-methoxy-beta-carboline (harmaline) and its phenacyl and coumarine analogues 1-(3-nitro-phenyl)-(2-(7-methoxy-1-methyl-1,3,4,9-tetrahydro-beta-carbolin-2-yl)-ethanone (II), 1-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-2-(7-methoxy-1-methyl-1,3,4,9-tetrahydro-beta-carbolin-2-yl)-ethanone (III) 7-(methoxy-beta-carboline),15-24,de-hydro(19,20-dimethoxy)coumarine (IV), 7-(methoxy-beta-carboline)15-24,dehydro(20-methoxy)coumarine (V) were studied by disc diffusion method. All compounds were tested against three gram positive and four gram-negative bacteria. Parent compound showed good activity. All compounds revealed better results against gram positive as compared to gram-negative bacteria. 1-(3,4-Dihydroxy-phenyl)-2-(7-methoxy-1-methyl-1,3,4,9-tetrahydro-beta-carbolin-2-yl)-ethanone (III) was found most potent compound showing broad spectrum activity when compared with all synthesized analogues. Coumarine analogues showed more or less same activity indicating that number and position of methoxy groups are not important regarding antimicrobial activity.

  8. Improved synthesis and molecular modeling of 4beta,19-dihydroxyandrost-5-en-17-one, an excellent inhibitor of aromatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numazawa, Mitsuteru; Yamada, Keiko; Watari, Yoko; Ando, Momoko

    2002-05-01

    4Beta,19-dihydroxyandrost-5-en-17-one (6) is an excellent competitive inhibitor of estrogen synthetase (aromatase). Alternate, improved synthesis of this inhibitor was established. Treatment of 19-(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)androst-4-en-17-one (8) with m-chloroperbenzoic acid gave a 1.4:1 mixture of 4alpha,5alpha-epoxide 9 and its 4beta,5beta-isomer 10. The mixture was reacted with diI. HClO4 in dioxane to produce principally 4beta,5alpha-diol 11 (80%) of which acetylation followed by dehydration with SOCl2 yielded 4beta,19-diacetoxy-5-ene compound 14 in good yield. Alkaline hydrolysis of diacetate 14 gave 4beta,19-diol 6. The minimum energy conformation of the powerfull aromatase inhibitor 6 was obtained with the PM3 method and compared with that of the structurally related diol steroid, 4-ene-5beta,19-diol 3, a weak competitive inhibitor.

  9. The effects of beta acids from hops (Humulus lupulus L.)on mortality of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beta acids from hop plants (Humulus lupulus L.) reduce feeding and oviposition behaviors and increase mortality in certain phytophagous mites. These compounds were tested for their effects on Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman) mortality. The effects of hops beta acids (HBA) on honey bee (Apis ...

  10. Can Beta Blockers Cause Weight Gain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beta blockers: Do they cause weight gain? Can beta blockers cause weight gain? Answers from Sheldon G. ... can occur as a side effect of some beta blockers, especially the older ones, such as atenolol ( ...

  11. Rearrangements of the beta-globin gene cluster in apparently typical betaS haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, M A; Silva, W A; Gualandro, S; Yokomizu, I K; Araujo, A G; Tavela, M H; Gerard, N; Krishnamoorthy, R; Elion, J

    2001-02-01

    The majority of the chromosomes with the betaS gene have one of the five common haplotypes, designated as Benin, Bantu, Senegal, Cameroon, and Arab-Indian haplotypes. However, 5-10% of the chromosomes have less common haplotypes, usually referred to as atypical haplotypes. We have demonstrated that most atypical haplotypes are generated by recombinations. The present study was carried out in order to explore whether recombination also occurs in chromosomes with the common (or typical) haplotypes. We screened the HS-2 region of the beta-globin gene locus control region (LCR) in 244 sickle cell patients who had typical restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-defined haplotypes of the betaS-gene cluster. For 14 cases in which the expected and the observed LCR repeat-sequence sizes were discrepant, the analysis was extended to other unexplored polymorphic markers of the bS-globin gene cluster, i.e.: pre-Ggamma framework, pre-Ggamma 6-bp deletion, HS-2 LCR (AT)xR(AT)y and pre-beta(AT)xTy repeats, and the intragenic beta-globin gene framework. In all 14 cases (15 chromosomes) in which the LCR repeat-sequence sizes were discrepant, a recombination involving a typical 3' segment of the betaS globin gene cluster was demonstrated. In most of the cases, the recombination site was located between the beta-globin gene and the betaLCR. Nine cases involving recombination were detected among 156 Brazilian HbS homozygotes and five among 88 African patients homozygotes for the Benin haplotype. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS. Thus, 3.1% of apparently typical haplotypes linked to the sickle cell gene involve recombinations similar to those that generate the atypical haplotypes, a finding that reinforces the picture of the beta-globin gene cluster as highly dynamic.

  12. RAVEN Beta Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabiti, Cristian; Alfonsi, Andrea; Cogliati, Joshua Joseph; Mandelli, Diego; Kinoshita, Robert Arthur; Wang, Congjian; Maljovec, Daniel Patrick; Talbot, Paul William

    2016-01-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  13. RAVEN Beta Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert Arthur [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Congjian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maljovec, Daniel Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Talbot, Paul William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  14. Derivatives of the Incomplete Beta Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Boik

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The incomplete beta function is defined as where Beta(p, q is the beta function. Dutka (1981 gave a history of the development and numerical evaluation of this function. In this article, an algorithm for computing first and second derivatives of Ix,p,q with respect to p and q is described. The algorithm is useful, for example, when fitting parameters to a censored beta, truncated beta, or a truncated beta-binomial model.

  15. Two betas or not two betas: regulation of asymmetric division by beta-catenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Kota; Sawa, Hitoshi

    2007-10-01

    In various organisms, cells divide asymmetrically to produce distinct daughter cells. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, asymmetric division is controlled by the asymmetric activity of a Wnt signaling pathway (the Wnt/beta-catenin asymmetry pathway). In this process, two specialized beta-catenin homologs have crucial roles in the transmission of Wnt signals to the asymmetric activity of a T-cell factor (TCF)-type transcription factor, POP-1, in the daughter cells. One beta-catenin homolog regulates the distinct nuclear level of POP-1, and the other functions as a coactivator of POP-1. Both beta-catenins localize asymmetrically in the daughter nuclei using different mechanisms. The recent discovery of reiterative nuclear asymmetries of a highly conserved beta-catenin in an annelid suggests that similar molecular mechanisms might regulate asymmetric cell divisions in other organisms.

  16. Hausa verbal compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McIntyre, Joseph Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Verbal compounds abound in Hausa (a Chadic language). A very broad definition of Hausa verbal compounds (henceforth: VC) is “a compound with a verb”. Four types of verbal compound are analysed: V[erb]+X compounds, PAC+V compounds (a PAC is a pronoun complex indicating TAM), VCs with a ma prefix

  17. Fibroblast screening for chaperone therapy in beta-galactosidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Iida, Masami; Ogawa, Seiichiro; Tabe, Miho; Higaki, Katsumi; Nanba, Eiji; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki

    2006-09-01

    We performed screening of beta-galactosidase-deficient fibroblasts for possible chemical chaperone therapy using N-octyl-4-epi-beta-valienamine (NOEV) in patients with GM1-gangliosidosis and Morquio B disease (beta-galactosidosis). Fibroblasts were cultured with NOEV for 4 days and beta-galactosidase activity was measured. Mutation analysis was performed simultaneously. Two separate criteria were set for evaluation of the chaperone effect: a relative increase of enzyme activity (more than 3-fold), and an increase up to more than 10% normal enzyme activity. Among the 50 fibroblast strains tested, more than 3-fold increase was achieved in 17 cell strains (34%), and more than 10% normal activity in 10 (20%). Both criteria were satisfied in 6 (12%), and either of them in 21 (42%). Juvenile GM1-gangliosidosis was most responsive, and then infantile GM1-gangliosidosis. This enhancement was mutation-specific. We estimate that the NOEV chaperone therapy will be effective in 20-40% of the patients, mainly in juvenile and infantile GM1-gangliosidosis patients. A molecular design may produce mutation-specific chaperone compounds for the other disease phenotypes. This cellular screening will be useful for identification of human patients with beta-galactosidase deficiency for chaperone therapy to be started in the near future.

  18. Photochemical fate of beta-blockers in NOM enriched waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ling; Xu, Haomin; Cooper, William J.; Song, Weihua

    2012-01-01

    Beta-blockers, prescribed for the treatment of high blood pressure and for long-term use after a heart attack, have been detected in surface and ground waters. This study examines the photochemical fate of three beta-blockers, atenolol, metoprolol, and nadolol. Hydrolysis accounted for minor losses of these beta-blockers in the pH range 4–10. The rate of direct photolysis at pH 7 in a solar simulator varied from 6.1 to 8.9 h −1 at pH 7. However, the addition of a natural organic matter (NOM) isolate enhanced the photochemical loss of all three compounds. Indirect photochemical fate, generally described by reactions with hydroxyl radical (·OH) and singlet oxygen ( 1 ΔO 2 ), and, the direct reaction with the triplet excited state, 3 NOM ⁎ , also varied but collectively appeared to be the major loss factor. Bimolecular reaction rate constants of the three beta-blockers with 1 ΔO 2 and ·OH were measured and accounted for 0.02–0.04% and 7.2–38.9% of their loss, respectively. These data suggest that the 3 NOM ⁎ contributed 50.6–85.4%. Experiments with various 3 NOM ⁎ quenchers supported the hypothesis that it was singly the most important reaction. Atenolol was chosen for more detailed investigation, with the photoproducts identified by LC–MS analysis. The results suggested that electron-transfer could be an important mechanism in photochemical fate of beta-blockers in the presence of NOM. - Highlights: ► Photochemical degradation of beta-blockers in the simulated natural waters. ► Reactive Oxygen Species play a minor role in the indirect photodegradation. ► The loss of beta-blockers results from direct reaction with 3 DOM ⁎ .

  19. Hydrophobic Nanosized All-Silica Beta Zeolite: Efficient Synthesis and Adsorption Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiguo; Xu, Hao; Jiang, Jingang; Wu, Haihong; Wu, Peng

    2017-08-16

    All-silica beta zeolite, synthesized by conventional hydroxide route, usually possesses small crystal size of a few hundred nanometers but poor hydrophobicity, whereas the fluoride-mediated one exhibits to be highly hydrophobic but microsized. To obtain nanosized all-silica beta zeolite with excellent hydrophobicity, an innovative and efficient hydrothermal route via interzeolite transformation for synthesizing all-silica beta zeolite is proposed in present study. With the assistance of beta seeds and tetraethylammonium hydroxide as the structure-directing agent, siliceous beta zeolite is well-crystallized at a high solid yield via dissolution-recrystallization of all-silica ITQ-1 crystals at an extremely low water content (H 2 O/SiO 2 molar ratio of 1). The obtained all-silica beta crystals are composed of 30-70 nm nanoparticles and highly hydrophobic just next to siliceous beta-F zeolite synthesized by environmentally unfriendly fluoride route, which is derived from relatively small amounts of internal defect sites. Thus, this beta zeolite is superior to other pure silica beta zeolites in the adsorption of large-sized volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which is mainly attributed to its high total pore volume and specific surface area as well as excellent hydrophobicity.

  20. BETA (Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Evan M.; Birmingham, William J.; Rivera, William F.; Romero-Talamas, Carlos A.

    2017-10-01

    The Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus (BETA) is a 1-Tesla (T) prototype of the 10-T Adjustable Long Pulse High-Field Apparatus (ALPHA). These water-cooled resistive magnets use high DC currents to produce strong uniform magnetic fields. Presented here is the successful completion of the BETA project and experimental results validating analytical magnet designing methods developed at the Dusty Plasma Laboratory (DPL). BETA's final design specifications will be highlighted which include electromagnetic, thermal and stress analyses. The magnet core design will be explained which include: Bitter Arcs, helix starters, and clamping annuli. The final version of the magnet's vessel and cooling system are also presented, as well as the electrical system of BETA, which is composed of a unique solid-state breaker circuit. Experimental results presented will show the operation of BETA at 1 T. The results are compared to both analytical design methods and finite element analysis calculations. We also explore the steady state maximums and theoretical limits of BETA's design. The completion of BETA validates the design and manufacturing techniques that will be used in the succeeding magnet, ALPHA.

  1. Neutrophil beta-2 microglobulin: an inflammatory mediator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, O W; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Borregaard, N

    1990-01-01

    Beta-2 microglobulin (beta 2m) constitutes the light invariant chain of HLA class I antigen, and is a constituent of mobilizable compartments of neutrophils. Two forms of beta 2m exist: native beta 2m and proteolytically modified beta 2m (Des-Lys58-beta 2m), which shows alpha mobility in crossed...... radioimmuno-electrophoresis. The modification of native beta 2m can be executed by membrane-associated activity of mononuclear cells, and Des-Lys58-beta 2m augments the production of interleukin 2. In this study we present evidence that human neutrophils contain native beta 2m in specific granules, secretory...... vesicles, and plasma membrane. Beta 2m was released in the native form from neutrophils in response to stimulation with chemotactic stimuli and phorbol ester. The results of experiments designed to study the modification of native beta 2m by neutrophils indicated that neutrophils do not participate...

  2. Experiments on double beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busto, J. [Neuchatel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique

    1996-11-01

    The Double Beta Decay, and especially ({beta}{beta}){sub 0{nu}} mode, is an excellent test of Standard Model as well as of neutrino physics. From experimental point of view, a very large number of different techniques are or have been used increasing the sensitivity of this experiments quite a lot (the factor of 10{sup 4} in the last 20 years). In future, in spite of several difficulties, the sensitivity would be increased further, keeping the interest of this very important process. (author) 4 figs., 5 tabs., 21 refs.

  3. Variants of beta-glucosidases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidantsef, Ana; Lamsa, Michael; Gorre-Clancy, Brian

    2014-10-07

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  4. Variants of beta-glucosidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidantsef, Ana [Davis, CA; Lamsa, Michael [Davis, CA; Gorre-Clancy, Brian [Elk Grove, CA

    2009-12-29

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  5. Dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources; Dosimetria de fuentes {beta} extensas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Lallena R, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    In this work, we have been studied, making use of the Penelope Monte Carlo simulation code, the dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources in situations of spherical geometry including interfaces. These configurations are of interest in the treatment of the called cranealfaringyomes of some synovia leisure of knee and other problems of interest in medical physics. Therefore, its application can be extended toward problems of another areas with similar geometric situation and beta sources. (Author)

  6. [Study on TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2, TGF beta 3 expression in the chick basilar papilla following gentamicin toxicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Wang, J

    1998-10-01

    The beta-type transforming growth factors (TGF beta s) are secreted proteins, which play an important role in regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation in the embryonic inner ear. In order to probe into the effect of TGF beta s on the hair cell regeneration, expression of TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 proteins were examined by using immunohistochemistry in the chicken basilar papilla during hair cell regeneration following gentamicin ototoxicity. Ten-day-old chickens received daily subcutaneous injection of gentamicin sulfate 50 mg/kg of ten consecutive days. The animals were allowed to survive 1,3,7,14,21 and 28 days before sacrifice and preparation for examination of the expression of TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 proteins. Immunostaining results demonstrated that TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 proteins were observed in the damaged region of basilar papilla. TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 proteins positive cells were limited to the lumenal nuclear layer within the damaged region. TGF beta 1 protein positive cell was not found in our study. These results indicated that TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 proteins might play a role in regulating proliferation of the supporting cells immigrated into the lumenal nuclear layer during hair cell regeneration.

  7. Subtype-selective modulation of human beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptor function by beta-adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brodde, O. E.; Daul, A.; Michel, M. C.

    1990-01-01

    In healthy volunteers a 14-day treatment with the selective beta 1-adrenoceptor agonist xamoterol (2 x 200 mg/day) desensitized beta 1-adrenoceptor-mediated physiological effects, but did not affect beta 2-adrenoceptor-mediated effects; in contrast, a 9-day treatment with the selective beta

  8. Selective regulation of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in the human heart by chronic beta-adrenoceptor antagonist treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Pingsmann, A.; Beckeringh, J. J.; Zerkowski, H. R.; Doetsch, N.; Brodde, O. E.

    1988-01-01

    1. In 44 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, the effect of chronic administration of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists sotalol, propranolol, pindolol, metoprolol and atenolol on beta-adrenoceptor density in right atria (containing 70% beta 1- and 30% beta 2-adrenoceptors) and in

  9. Screening of beta-glucan contents in commercially cultivated and wild growing mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Miriam; Prange, Alexander; Lelley, Jan I; Hambitzer, Reinhard

    2017-02-01

    Mushrooms have unique sensory properties and nutritional values as well as health benefits due to their bioactive compounds, especially beta-glucans. Well-known edible and medicinal mushroom species as well as uncommon or unknown species representing interesting sources of bioactive beta-glucans have been widely studied. Commercially cultivated and wild growing mushrooms were analysed for their beta-glucan contents. Enzymatic determinations of all glucans, alpha-glucans and beta-glucans in 39 mushrooms species were performed, leading to very remarkable results. Many wild growing species present high beta-glucan contents, especially Bracket fungi. The well-known cultivated species Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes and Cantharellus cibarius as well as most screened wild growing species show higher glucan contents in their stipes than caps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Structures of mono-unsaturated triacylglycerols. I. The beta1 polymorph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mechelen, Jan B; Peschar, Rene; Schenk, Henk

    2006-12-01

    The crystal structures of the beta1 polymorphs of mono-unsaturated triacylglycerols have been solved from high-resolution laboratory and synchrotron powder diffraction data for five pure compounds, the 1,3-dimyristoyl-2-oleoylglycerol (beta1-MOM), 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoylglycerol (beta1-POP), 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol (beta1-SOS), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearoylglycerol (beta1-POS), 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-3-arachidoylglycerol (beta1-SOA) and three mixtures: the co-crystallized 1:1 molar mixture of SOS and POP [beta1-SOS/POP (1:1)] and two cocoa butters from Bahia and Ivory Coast, both in their beta-VI (=beta1) polymorph. All eight beta1 structures crystallized in the space group (P2(1)/n) and have two short cell axes (5.44-5.46 and 8.18-8.22 A), as well as a very long b axis (112-135 A). The dominant-zone problem in the indexing of the powder patterns was solved with the special brute-force indexing routine LSQDETC from the POWSIM program. Structures were solved using the direct-space parallel-tempering method FOX and refined with GSAS. Along the b axis, alternations of inversion-centre-related ;three-packs' can be discerned. Each ;three-pack' has a central oleic zone, with oleic acyl chains of the molecules being packed together, that is sandwiched between two saturated-chain zones. The conformation of the triacylglycerol molecules is relatively ;flat' because the least-square planes through the saturated chains and those through the saturated parts of the olein chain are parallel. The solution of the beta1 structures is a step forward towards understanding the mechanism of fat-bloom formation in dark chocolate and has led to a reexamination of the beta2 structural model [see van Mechelen et al. (2006). Acta Cryst. B62, 1131-1138].

  11. Location of the sulphonylurea receptor at the cytoplasmic face of the beta-cell membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanstecher, M; Schwanstecher, C; Dickel, C; Chudziak, F; Moshiri, A; Panten, U

    1994-11-01

    1. In insulin-secreting cells the location of the sulphonylurea receptor was examined by use of a sulphonylurea derivative representing the glibenclamide molecule devoid of its cyclohexy moiety (compound III) and a benzenesulphonic acid derivative representing the glibenclamide molecule devoid of its cyclohexylurea moiety (compound IV). At pH 7.4 compound IV is only present in charged form. 2. Lipid solubility declined in the order tolbutamide > compound III > compound IV. 3. The dissociation constant (KD) for binding of compound IV to the sulphonylurea receptor in HIT-cells (pancreatic beta-cell line) was similar to the KD value for tolbutamide and fourfold higher than the KD value for compound III. 4. In mouse pancreatic beta-cells, drug concentrations inhibiting adenosine 5'-triphosphate-sensitive K+ channels (KATP-channels) half-maximally (EC50) were determined by use of the patch-clamp technique. When the drugs were applied to the extracellular side of outside-out or the intracellular side of inside-out membrane patches, the ratio of extracellular to intracellular EC50 values was 281 for compound IV, 25.5 for compound III and 1.2 for tolbutamide. 5. In mouse pancreatic beta-cells, measurement of KATP-channel activity in cell-attached patches and recording of insulin release displayed much higher EC50 values for compound IV than inside-out patch experiments. A corresponding, but less pronounced difference in EC50 values was observed for compound III, whereas the EC50 values for tolbutamide did not differ significantly. 6. It is concluded that the sulphonylurea receptor is located at the cytoplasmic face of the beta-cell plasma membrane. Receptor activation is induced by the anionic forms of sulphonylureas and their analogues.

  12. Chemoenzymatic resolution of {beta}-azidophenylethanols by Candida antarctica and their application for the synthesis of chiral benzotriazoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Lenilson C.; Rosset, Isac G.; Melgar, Gliseida Z.; Porto, Andre L.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQ/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Raminelli, Cristiano [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Diadema, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra; Jeller, Alex H., E-mail: alexjell@uems.br [Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMS), Dourados, MS (Brazil). Coordenacao de Quimica

    2013-09-15

    The kinetic resolutions of ({+-})-{beta}-azidophenylethanols were carried out using lipase from Candida antarctica, and enantiomerically enriched (R)-{beta}-azidophenylethanols and their corresponding (S)-{beta}-azidophenylethyl acetates were obtained in good enantiomeric excesses (up to > 99%). The enantiomerically enriched (R)-{beta}-azidophenylethanols were subjected to cyclization reaction with 2-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl triflate and CsF producing chiral 1,2,3-benzotriazole compounds in good yields (75-86%) by a [3 + 2] cycloaddition, which involves the benzyne formation. (author)

  13. Beta-glucans and cholesterol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šíma, Petr; Vannucci, Luca; Větvička, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 4 (2017), s. 1799-1808 ISSN 1107-3756 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : cholesterol * beta-glucans * diet Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.341, year: 2016

  14. Radioisotope indicator, type BETA 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duszanski, M.; Pankow, A.; Skwarczynski, B.

    1975-01-01

    The authors describe a radioisotope indicator, type BETA 2, constructed in the ZKMPW Works to be employed in mines for counting, checking, signalling the presence and positioning of cars, as well as monitoring the state of some other equipment. (author)

  15. Beta-Testing Agreement | FNLCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beta-Testing Agreements are appropriate forlimited term evaluation and applications development of new software, technology, or equipment platforms by the Frederick National Laboratory in collaboration with an external commercial partner. It ma

  16. LHC $\\beta^*$ reach in 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, R

    2012-01-01

    The available aperture in the LHC imposes a lower limit on the achievable $\\beta^*$ . The aperture must be protected by the collimation system, and the collimator families have to be ordered in a strict hierarchy for optimal performance, with large enough margins so that the hierarchy is not violated by machine imperfections such as closed orbit distortions or $\\beta$-beating. The achievable $\\beta^*$ is thus a function of both the aperture and the collimator settings. An overview of the run in 2011 is presented, as well as a review of the necessary margins between collimator families and the aperture. Finally an outlook towards possible scenarios for $\\beta^*$ in 2012 and at higher energies is given.

  17. Beta-carotene blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003571.htm Beta-carotene blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... skin is broken) Alternative Names Carotene test Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Carotene - serum. In: ...

  18. Neutrinoless double beta decay experiment DCBA using a magnetic momentum-analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, N., E-mail: nobuhiro.ishihara@kek.jp [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, 305-0801 (Japan); Kato, Y.; Inagaki, T.; Ohama, T.; Takeda, S.; Yamada, Y. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, 305-0801 Japan (Japan); Ukishima, N.; Teramoto, Y. [Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi, Osaka, 558-8585 (Japan); Morishima, Y.; Nakano, I. [Okayama University, Okayama, 700-8530 (Japan); Kitamura, S. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Arakawa, Tokyo, 116-8551 (Japan); Sakamoto, Y. [Tohoku Gakuin University, Izumi, Sendai, 981-3193 (Japan); Nagasaka, Y. [Hiroshima Institute of Technology, Saeki, Hiroshima, 731-5193 (Japan); Tamura, N. [Niigata University, Niigata, 950-2181 (Japan); Tanaka, K. [BTE, Minato, Tokyo, 105-0011 (Japan); Ito, R. [ZTJ, Chiyoda, Tokyo, 101-0047 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    A magnetic momentum-analyzer is being developed at KEK for neutrinoless double beta decay experiment called DCBA (Drift Chamber Beta-ray Analyzer, inverted ABCD). A lot of thin plates of {sup 150}Nd compound are installed in tracking detectors located in a uniform magnetic field. The three-dimensional position information is obtained for the helical track of a beta ray. More R and D will be studied using the second test apparatus DCBA-T2, which is now under construction.

  19. Tricyclic pharmacophore-based molecules as novel integrin alpha(v)beta3 antagonists. Part 2: synthesis of potent alpha(v)beta3/alpha(IIb)beta3 dual antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Minoru; Kubota, Dai; Yamamoto, Mikio; Kuroda, Chizuko; Iguchi, Maki; Koyanagi, Akihiro; Murakami, Shoichi; Ajito, Keiichi

    2006-04-01

    We synthesized 4-aminopiperidine derivatives of our prototype integrin alpha(v)beta3 antagonist 1 in an attempt to increase the activity and water solubility. Introduction of one or two hydrophilic moieties into the central aromatic ring and/or the benzene ring at the C-terminus of 1 increased water solubility and enhanced inhibition of cell adhesion. The results of a structure-activity relationships (SAR) study indicated that the torsion angle between the central aromatic ring and the piperidine ring, and the acidity at the sulfonamide moiety, might be important for alpha(v)beta3 receptor binding activity. Some of these compounds are novel and potent alpha(v)beta3/alpha(IIb)beta3 dual antagonists with acceptable water solubility and a satisfactory early absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) profile.

  20. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morant, Marc

    2017-02-07

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  1. Dicarboxylic acids, oxoacids, benzoic acid, α-dicarbonyls, WSOC, OC, and ions in spring aerosols from Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim: size distributions and formation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Deshmukh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Size-segregated aerosols (nine stages from < 0.43 to > 11.3 µm in diameter were collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, in spring 2008 and analyzed for water-soluble diacids (C2–C12, ω-oxoacids (ωC2–ωC9, pyruvic acid, benzoic acid, and α-dicarbonyls (C2–C3 as well as water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC, organic carbon (OC, and major ions (Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl−, NO3−, SO42−, and MSA−. In all the size-segregated aerosols, oxalic acid (C2 was found to be the most abundant species, followed by malonic and succinic acids, whereas glyoxylic acid (ωC2 was the dominant oxoacid and glyoxal (Gly was more abundant than methylglyoxal. Diacids (C2–C5, ωC2, and Gly as well as WSOC and OC peaked at fine mode (0.65–1.1 µm whereas azelaic (C9 and 9-oxononanoic (ωC9 acids peaked at coarse mode (3.3–4.7 µm. Sulfate and ammonium were enriched in fine mode, whereas sodium and chloride were in coarse mode. Strong correlations of C2–C5 diacids, ωC2 and Gly with sulfate were observed in fine mode (r =  0.86–0.99, indicating a commonality in their secondary formation. Their significant correlations with liquid water content in fine mode (r =  0.82–0.95 further suggest an importance of the aqueous-phase production in Okinawa aerosols. They may also have been directly emitted from biomass burning in fine mode as supported by strong correlations with potassium (r =  0.85–0.96, which is a tracer of biomass burning. Bimodal size distributions of longer-chain diacid (C9 and oxoacid (ωC9 with a major peak in the coarse mode suggest that they were emitted from the sea surface microlayers and/or produced by heterogeneous oxidation of biogenic unsaturated fatty acids on sea salt particles.

  2. Neutrophil beta-2 microglobulin: an inflammatory mediator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, O W; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Borregaard, N

    1990-01-01

    vesicles, and plasma membrane. Beta 2m was released in the native form from neutrophils in response to stimulation with chemotactic stimuli and phorbol ester. The results of experiments designed to study the modification of native beta 2m by neutrophils indicated that neutrophils do not participate...... in the proteolysis of beta 2m. However, we demonstrated that native beta 2m following degranulation may be transformed to Des-Lys58-beta 2m by lymphocytes. We suggest that neutrophil beta 2m following exocytosis may be transformed to Des-Lys58-beta 2m, acting as an extracellular messenger between granulocytes...

  3. Are calculated betas good for anything?

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2004-01-01

    We calculate betas of 3,813 companies using 60 monthly returns each day of December 2001 and January 2002. The median (average) of the maximum beta divided by the minimum beta was 3.07 (15.7). The median of the percentage daily change (in absolute value) of the betas was 20%. Industry betas are also unstable. On average, the maximum beta of an industry was 2.7 times its minimum beta in December 2001 and January 2002. The median (average) of the percentage daily change (in absolute value) of t...

  4. Tables of double beta decay data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tretyak, V.I. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine)]|[Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Zdesenko, Y.G. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1995-12-31

    A compilation of experimental data on double beta decay is presented. The tables contain the most stringent known experimental limits or positive results of 2{beta} transitions of 69 natural nuclides to ground and excited states of daughter nuclei for different channels (2{beta}{sup -}; 2{beta}{sup +}; {epsilon}{beta}{sup +}; 2{epsilon}) and modes (0{nu}; 2{nu}; 0{nu}M) of decay. (authors). 189 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Beta Instability and Stochastic Market Weights

    OpenAIRE

    David H. Goldenberg

    1985-01-01

    An argument is given for individual firm beta instability based upon the stochastic character of the market weights defining the market portfolio and the constancy of its beta. This argument is generalized to market weighted portfolios and the form of the stochastic process generating betas is linked to that of the market return process. The implications of this analysis for adequacy of models of beta nonstationarity and estimation of betas are considered in light of the available empirical e...

  6. High beta plasmas in the PBX tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bol, K.; Buchenauer, D.; Chance, M.; Couture, P.; Fishman, H.; Fonck, R.; Gammel, G.; Grek, B.; Ida, K.; Itami, K.

    1986-04-01

    Bean-shaped configurations favorable for high ..beta.. discharges have been investigated in the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) tokamak. Strongly indented bean-shaped plasmas have been successfully formed, and beta values of over 5% have been obtained with 5 MW of injected neutral beam power. These high beta discharges still lie in the first stability regime for ballooning modes, and MHD stability analysis implicates the external kink as responsible for the present ..beta.. limit.

  7. Rubber compounding and processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, MJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This chapter presents an overview on the compounding and processing techniques of natural rubber compounds. The introductory portion deals with different types of rubbers and principles of rubber compounding. The primary and secondary fillers used...

  8. Strategic Design of an Effective beta-Lactamase Inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattanaik, P.; Bethel, C; Hujer, A; Hujer, K; Distler, A; Taracila, M; Anderson, V; Fritsche, T; Jones, R; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to devise strategies for overcoming bacterial beta-lactamases, we studied LN-1-255, a 6-alkylidene-2'-substituted penicillin sulfone inhibitor. By possessing a catecholic functionality that resembles a natural bacterial siderophore, LN-1-255 is unique among beta-lactamase inhibitors. LN-1-255 combined with piperacillin was more potent against Escherichia coli DH10B strains bearing bla(SHV) extended-spectrum and inhibitor-resistant beta-lactamases than an equivalent amount of tazobactam and piperacillin. In addition, LN-1-255 significantly enhanced the activity of ceftazidime and cefpirome against extended-spectrum cephalosporin and Sme-1 containing carbapenem-resistant clinical strains. LN-1-255 inhibited SHV-1 and SHV-2 beta-lactamases with nm affinity (K(I) = 110 +/- 10 and 100 +/- 10 nm, respectively). When LN-1-255 inactivated SHV beta-lactamases, a single intermediate was detected by mass spectrometry. The crystal structure of LN-1-255 in complex with SHV-1 was determined at 1.55A resolution. Interestingly, this novel inhibitor forms a bicyclic aromatic intermediate with its carbonyl oxygen pointing out of the oxyanion hole and forming hydrogen bonds with Lys-234 and Ser-130 in the active site. Electron density for the 'tail' of LN-1-255 is less ordered and modeled in two conformations. Both conformations have the LN-1-255 carboxyl group interacting with Arg-244, yet the remaining tails of the two conformations diverge. The observed presence of the bicyclic aromatic intermediate with its carbonyl oxygen positioned outside of the oxyanion hole provides a rationale for the stability of this inhibitory intermediate. The 2'-substituted penicillin sulfone, LN-1-255, is proving to be an important lead compound for novel beta-lactamase inhibitor design.

  9. Beta contamination monitor energy response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjork, C.W.; Olsher, R.H.

    1998-12-31

    Beta contamination is monitored at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with portable handheld probes and their associated counters, smear counters, air-breathing continuous air monitors (CAM), personnel contamination monitors (PCM), and hand and foot monitors (HFM). The response of these monitors was measured using a set of anodized-aluminum beta sources for the five isotopes: Carbon-14, Technetium-99, Cesium-137, Chlorine-36 and Strontium/Yttrium-90. The surface emission rates of the sources are traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) with a precision of one relative standard deviation equal to 1.7%. All measurements were made in reproducible geometry, mostly using aluminum source holders. All counts, significantly above background, were collected to a precision of 1% or better. The study of the hand-held probes included measurements of six air gaps from 0.76 to 26.2 mm. The energy response of the detectors is well-parameterized as a function of the average beta energy of the isotopes (C14=50 keV, Tc99=85, Cs137=188, C136=246, and Sr/Y90=934). The authors conclude that Chlorine-36 is a suitable beta emitter for routine calibration. They recommend that a pancake Geiger-Mueller (GM) or gas-proportional counter be used for primarily beta contamination surveys with an air gap not to exceed 6 mm. Energy response varies about 30% from Tc99 to Sr/Y90 for the pancake GM detector. Dual alpha/beta probes have poor to negligible efficiency for low-energy betas. The rugged anodized sources represent partially imbedded contamination found in the field and they are provided with precise, NIST-traceable, emission rates for reliable calibration.

  10. Effect of beta-escin sodium on endothelial cells proliferation, migration and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu-Hua; Xu, Bo; Liu, Jing-Tao; Cui, Jing-Rong

    2008-01-01

    beta-Escin, the major active compound in extracts of the horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum seed, has shown clinically significant activity in chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). Our previous studies had shown that beta-escin sodium inhibited angiogenesis in chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and in aortic disk assay. In this study, we explored the direct effect of beta-escin sodium on proliferation, migration and apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and ECV304 cells. Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay showed that beta-escin sodium (10, 20, 40 microg/ml) inhibited endothelial cells (ECs) proliferation dose-dependently. beta-escin sodium also induced ECs apoptosis at 40 microg/ml. Cell migration was evaluated by an improved wound assay: barren spot assay. And the direct effect on cell motility excluding influence of cell proliferation was examined by High Content Screening (HCS, Cellomics) assay. The data indicated that beta-escin sodium suppressed ECs migration and cell motility. Western blot results suggested that beta-escin sodium acts on ECs possibly by increasing expression of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), and decreasing expression of PKC-alpha and activation of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK). Our findings give the evidence that beta-escin sodium might have potential anti-angiogenic activity via its direct effects on ECs.

  11. High-resolution melting analysis for prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassemia in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenkwan, Pimlak; Sirichotiyakul, Supatra; Phusua, Arunee; Suanta, Sudjai; Fanhchaksai, Kanda; Sae-Tung, Rattika; Sanguansermsri, Torpong

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis is a rapid mutation analysis which assesses the pattern of reduction of fluorescence signal after subjecting the amplified PCR product with saturated fluorescence dye to an increasing temperature. We used HRM analysis for prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassemia disease in northern Thailand. Five PCR-HRM protocols were used to detect point mutations in five different segments of the beta-globin gene, and one protocol to detect the 3.4 kb beta-globin deletion. We sought to characterize the mutations in carriers and to enable prenatal diagnosis in 126 couples at risk of having a fetus with beta-thalassemia disease. The protocols identified 18 common mutations causing beta-thalassemia, including the rare codon 132 (A-T) mutation. Each mutation showed a specific HRM pattern and all results were in concordance with those from direct DNA sequencing or gap-PCR methods. In cases of beta-thalassemia disease resulting from homozygosity for a mutation or compound heterozygosity for two mutations on the same amplified segment, the HRM patterns were different to those of a single mutation and were specific for each combination. HRM analysis is a simple and useful method for mutation identification in beta-thalassemia carriers and prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassemia in northern Thailand.

  12. NOX, NOX who is there?, The contribution of NADPH Oxidase to beta cell dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eTaylor-Fishwick

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Predictions of diabetes prevalence over the next decades warrant the aggressive discovery of new approaches to stop or reverse loss of functional beta cell mass. Beta cells are recognized to have a relatively high sensitivity to reactive oxygen species (ROS and become dysfunctional under oxidative stress conditions. New discoveries have identified NADPH oxidases in beta cells as contributors to elevated cellular ROS. Reviewed are recent reports that evidence a role for NADPH oxidase-1 (NOX-1 in beta cell dysfunction. NOX-1 is stimulated by inflammatory cytokines that are elevated in diabetes. First, regulation of cytokine-stimulated NOX-1 expression has been linked to inflammatory lipid mediators derived from 12-lipoxyganase activity. For the first time in beta cells these data integrate distinct pathways associated with beta cell dysfunction. Second, regulation of NOX-1 in beta cells involves feed-forward control linked to elevated ROS and Src-kinase activation. This potentially results in unbridled ROS generation and identifies candidate targets for pharmacologic intervention. Third, consideration is provided of new, first-in-class, selective inhibitors of NOX-1. These compounds could have an important role in assessing a disruption of NOX-1/ROS signaling as a new approach to preserve and protect beta cell mass in diabetes.

  13. NOX, NOX Who is There? The Contribution of NADPH Oxidase One to Beta Cell Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Fishwick, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Predictions of diabetes prevalence over the next decades warrant the aggressive discovery of new approaches to stop or reverse loss of functional beta cell mass. Beta cells are recognized to have a relatively high sensitivity to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and become dysfunctional under oxidative stress conditions. New discoveries have identified NADPH oxidases in beta cells as contributors to elevated cellular ROS. Reviewed are recent reports that evidence a role for NADPH oxidase-1 (NOX-1) in beta cell dysfunction. NOX-1 is stimulated by inflammatory cytokines that are elevated in diabetes. First, regulation of cytokine-stimulated NOX-1 expression has been linked to inflammatory lipid mediators derived from 12-lipoxygenase activity. For the first time in beta cells these data integrate distinct pathways associated with beta cell dysfunction. Second, regulation of NOX-1 in beta cells involves feed-forward control linked to elevated ROS and Src-kinase activation. This potentially results in unbridled ROS generation and identifies candidate targets for pharmacologic intervention. Third, consideration is provided of new, first-in-class, selective inhibitors of NOX-1. These compounds could have an important role in assessing a disruption of NOX-1/ROS signaling as a new approach to preserve and protect beta cell mass in diabetes. PMID:23565109

  14. Analysis of betaS and betaA genes in a Mexican population with African roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña, María Teresa; Ongay, Zoyla; Tagle, Juan; Bentura, Gilberto; Cobián, José G; Perea, F Javier; Casas-Castañeda, Maricela; Sánchez-López, Yoaly J; Ibarra, Bertha

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the origin of the beta(A) and beta(S) genes in a Mexican population with African roots and a high frequency of hemoglobin S, we analyzed 467 individuals (288 unrelated) from different towns in the states of Guerrero and Oaxaca in the Costa Chica region. The frequency of the sickle-cell trait was 12.8%, which may represent a public health problem. The frequencies of the beta-haplotypes were determined from 350 nonrelated chromosomes (313 beta(A) and 37 beta(S)). We observed 15 different beta(A) haplotypes, the most common of which were haplotypes 1 (48.9%), 2 (13.4%), and 3 (13.4%). The calculation of pairwise distributions and Nei's genetic distance analysis using 32 worldwide populations showed that the beta(A) genes are more closely related to those of Mexican Mestizos and North Africans. Bantu and Benin haplotypes and haplotype 9 were related to the beta(S) genes, with frequencies of 78.8, 18.2, and 3.0%, respectively. Comparison of these haplotypes with 17 other populations revealed a high similitude with the population of the Central African Republic. These data suggest distinct origins for the beta(A) and beta(S) genes in Mexican individuals from the Costa Chica region.

  15. Polyphenol compounds of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Marinalva Oliveira; Lima, Mary Anne S.; Silveira, Edilberto R.

    2007-01-01

    Phytochemical analysis of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora led to the isolation of 1-O,2-O-digaloil-6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-trans-p-cumaroil-6-O-cinamoil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, alpha and beta 6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-D-glucopyranoside, 7-methylaromadendrin-4'-O-6 - trans-p-cumaroil-beta-Dglucopyranoside, aromadendrin, aromadendrin-7-methyl-ether, naringenin, sakuranetin, kaempferol-7-methyl-ether and galic acid. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was established on the basis of spectral data, particularly by the use of 1D NMR and several 2D shift correlated NMR pulse sequences ( 1 H, 1 H-COSY, HMQC, HMBC). (author)

  16. In-trap decay spectroscopy for {beta}{beta} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Thomas

    2011-01-18

    The presented work describes the implementation of a new technique to measure electron-capture (EC) branching ratios (BRs) of intermediate nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. This technique has been developed at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. It facilitates one of TRIUMF's Ion Traps for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN), the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) that is used as a spectroscopy Penning trap. Radioactive ions, produced at the radioactive isotope facility ISAC, are injected and stored in the spectroscopy Penning trap while their decays are observed. A key feature of this technique is the use of a strong magnetic field, required for trapping. It radially confines electrons from {beta} decays along the trap axis while X-rays, following an EC, are emitted isotropically. This provides spatial separation of X-ray and {beta} detection with almost no {beta}-induced background at the X-ray detector, allowing weak EC branches to be measured. Furthermore, the combination of several traps allows one to isobarically clean the sample prior to the in-trap decay spectroscopy measurement. This technique has been developed to measure ECBRs of transition nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. Detailed knowledge of these electron capture branches is crucial for a better understanding of the underlying nuclear physics in {beta}{beta} decays. These branches are typically of the order of 10{sup -5} and therefore difficult to measure. Conventional measurements suffer from isobaric contamination and a dominating {beta} background at theX-ray detector. Additionally, X-rays are attenuated by the material where the radioactive sample is implanted. To overcome these limitations, the technique of in-trap decay spectroscopy has been developed. In this work, the EBIT was connected to the TITAN beam line and has been commissioned. Using the developed beam diagnostics, ions were injected into the Penning trap and systematic studies on injection and storage optimization were performed. Furthermore, Ge

  17. Triphenylmethane Dye Activation of Beta-Arrestin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    β-Arrestins regulate G protein-coupled receptor signaling as competitive inhibitors and protein adaptors. Low molecular weight biased ligands that bind receptors and discriminate between the G protein dependent arm and β-arrestin, clathrin-associated arm of receptor signaling are considered therapeutically valuable as a result of this distinctive pharmacological behavior. Other than receptor agonists, compounds that activate β-arrestins are not available. We show that within minutes of exposure to the cationic triphenylmethane dyes malachite green and brilliant green, tissue culture cells recruit β-arrestins to clathrin scaffolds in a receptor-activation independent manner. In the presence of these compounds, G protein signaling is inhibited, ERK and GSK3β signaling are preserved, and the recruitment of the beta2-adaptin, AP2 adaptor complex to clathrin as well as transferrin internalization is reduced. Moreover, malachite green binds β-arrestin2-GFP coated immunotrap beads relative to GFP only coated beads. Triphenylmethane dyes are FDA approved for topical use on newborns as components of triple-dye preparations and are not approved but used effectively as aqueous antibiotics in fish husbandry. As possible carcinogens, their chronic ingestion in food preparations, particularly through farmed fish, is discouraged in the U.S. and Europe. Our results indicate triphenylmethane dyes as a result of novel pharmacology may have additional roles as β-arrestin/clathrin pathway signaling modulators in both pharmacology research and clinical therapy. PMID:23865508

  18. Formation, characterization, and thermal degradation behavior of a novel tricomponent aggregate of beta-cyclodextrin, ferrocene, and polypropylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Le Xin; Du, Fang Yun; Guo, Xue Qing; Pan, Shu Zhen

    2010-02-04

    A tricomponent aggregate PPG-Fc-beta-CD formed by polypropylene glycol (PPG), ferrocene (Fc), and beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) was obtained and characterized by a series of physical methods, such as (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance, flame atomic absorption spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry. First, the tricomponent aggregate exhibited a component ratio of 1:28:32 (PPG/Fc/beta-CD) in the solid state, and showed a completely different order in thermal stability when compared with beta-CD: under a nitrogen atmosphere, beta-CD > PPG-Fc-beta-CD, and in a vacuum, PPG-Fc-beta-CD > beta-CD. Second, the appearance of two peculiar points p and q at the end of TG curve of the aggregate gave a strong impression that the degradation rate further increased after the sharp decomposition of the aggregate reached point p and the amount present in the residual fraction at point q about 780.0 K was lower than 1%, both of which were rather different from those reported previously. This finding implied that the molecular assembly resulting from the binding interaction among Fc, PPG, and beta-CD induced more efficiently the degradation of each of them. Third, an interesting phenomenon was found that the order of thermal release of the three assembled components in PPG-Fc-beta-CD was Fc > beta-CD > PPG. Results of this study provide some insight into an initial attempt to construct a supramolecule among a polymer, a coordination compound, and an organic compound.

  19. [Phenolic compounds in branches of Tamarix rasissima].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Li, Wei-Qi; Zheng, Ping; Wang, Rui; Yu, Jian-Qiang; Yang, Jian-Hong; Yao, Yao

    2014-06-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the branches of Tamarix rasissima, repeated silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and recrystallization were applied for chemical constituents isolation and purification. Ten phenolic compounds were isolated from the n-BuOH fraction and their structures were elucidated by physical properties and spectra analysis such as UV, ESI-MS and NMR as monodecarboxyellagic acid (1), ellagic acid (2), 3, 3'-di-O-methylellagic acid (3), 3, 3'-di-O-methylellagic acid-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), 3, 3'-di-O-methylellagic acid-4'-O-alpha-D-arabinfuranoside (5), ferulic acid (6), isoferulic acid (7), caffeic acid (8), 4-O-acetyl-caffeic acid (9), and 4-methyl-1, 2-benzenediol (10). All compounds except for isoferulic acid were isolated firstly from this plant except for isoferulic acid, and compounds 5, 9 and 10 were obtained from Tamarix genus for the first time.

  20. Radiation synthesis of materials and compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Kharisov, Boris Ildusovich; Ortiz Méndez, Ubaldo

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and engineers working in nuclear laboratories, nuclear electric plants, and elsewhere in the radiochemical industries need a comprehensive handbook describing all possible radiation-chemistry interactions between irradiation and materials, the preparation of materials under distinct radiation types, the possibility of damage of materials under irradiation, and more. Radiation nanotechnology is still practically an undeveloped field, except for some achievements in the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles under ionizing flows. Radiation Synthesis of Materials and Compounds presents the state of the art of the synthesis of materials, composites, and chemical compounds, and describes methods based on the use of ionizing radiation. It is devoted to the preparation of various types of materials (including nanomaterials) and chemical compounds using ionizing radiation (alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, x-rays, and neutron, proton, and ion beams). The book presents contributions from leaders ...

  1. Smart Beta or Smart Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kenneth Lillelund; Steenstrup, Søren Resen

    2016-01-01

    -documented smart beta risk premiums and still motivate active managers to avoid value traps, too highly priced small caps, defensives, etc. By constructing the equity portfolios of active managers that resemble the most widely used risk premiums, we show that the returns and risk-adjusted returns measures......Smart beta has become the flavor of the decade in the investment world with its low fees, easy access to rewarded risk premiums, and appearance of providing good investment results relative to both traditional passive benchmarks and actively managed funds. Although we consider it well documented...... that smart beta investing probably will do better than passive market capitalization investing over time, we believe many are coming to a conclusion too quickly regarding active managers. Institutional investors are able to guide managers through benchmarks and risk frameworks toward the same well...

  2. Beta-hemolytic streptococcal bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Kolmos, Hans Jørn; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2002-01-01

    Bacteremia with beta-hemolytic Streptococci groups A, B, C and G has a mortality rate of approximately 20%. In this study we analyzed the association of various patient risk factors with mortality. Records from 241 patients with beta-hemolytic streptococcal bacteremia were reviewed with particular...... attention to which predisposing factors were predictors of death. A logistic regression model found age, burns, immunosuppressive treatment and iatrogenic procedures prior to the infection to be significant predictors of death, with odds ratios of 1.7 (per decade), 19.7, 3.6 and 6.8, respectively...

  3. A {beta} - {gamma} coincidence; Metodo de coincidencias {beta} - {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agullo, F.

    1960-07-01

    A {beta} - {gamma} coincidence method for absolute counting is given. The fundamental principles are revised and the experimental part is detailed. The results from {sup 1}98 Au irradiated in the JEN 1 Swimming pool reactor are given. The maximal accuracy is 1 per cent. (Author) 11 refs.

  4. Mycophenolate mofetil modulates adhesion receptors of the beta1 integrin family on tumor cells: impact on tumor recurrence and malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engl, Tobias; Makarević, Jasmina; Relja, Borna; Natsheh, Iyad; Müller, Iris; Beecken, Wolf-Dietrich; Jonas, Dietger; Blaheta, Roman A

    2005-01-01

    Tumor development remains one of the major obstacles following organ transplantation. Immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporine and tacrolimus directly contribute to enhanced malignancy, whereas the influence of the novel compound mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) on tumor cell dissemination has not been explored. We therefore investigated the adhesion capacity of colon, pancreas, prostate and kidney carcinoma cell lines to endothelium, as well as their beta1 integrin expression profile before and after MMF treatment. Tumor cell adhesion to endothelial cell monolayers was evaluated in the presence of 0.1 and 1 μM MMF and compared to unstimulated controls. beta1 integrin analysis included alpha1beta1 (CD49a), alpha2beta1 (CD49b), alpha3beta1 (CD49c), alpha4beta1 (CD49d), alpha5beta1 (CD49e), and alpha6beta1 (CD49f) receptors, and was carried out by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Adhesion of the colon carcinoma cell line HT-29 was strongly reduced in the presence of 0.1 μM MMF. This effect was accompanied by down-regulation of alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1 surface expression and of alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1 coding mRNA. Adhesion of the prostate tumor cell line DU-145 was blocked dose-dependently by MMF. In contrast to MMF's effects on HT-29 cells, MMF dose-dependently up-regulated alpha1beta1, alpha2beta1, alpha3beta1, and alpha5beta1 on DU-145 tumor cell membranes. We conclude that MMF possesses distinct anti-tumoral properties, particularly in colon and prostate carcinoma cells. Adhesion blockage of HT-29 cells was due to the loss of alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1 surface expression, which might contribute to a reduced invasive behaviour of this tumor entity. The enhancement of integrin beta1 subtypes observed in DU-145 cells possibly causes re-differentiation towards a low-invasive phenotype

  5. Mycophenolate mofetil modulates adhesion receptors of the beta1 integrin family on tumor cells: impact on tumor recurrence and malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beecken Wolf-Dietrich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor development remains one of the major obstacles following organ transplantation. Immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporine and tacrolimus directly contribute to enhanced malignancy, whereas the influence of the novel compound mycophenolate mofetil (MMF on tumor cell dissemination has not been explored. We therefore investigated the adhesion capacity of colon, pancreas, prostate and kidney carcinoma cell lines to endothelium, as well as their beta1 integrin expression profile before and after MMF treatment. Methods Tumor cell adhesion to endothelial cell monolayers was evaluated in the presence of 0.1 and 1 μM MMF and compared to unstimulated controls. beta1 integrin analysis included alpha1beta1 (CD49a, alpha2beta1 (CD49b, alpha3beta1 (CD49c, alpha4beta1 (CD49d, alpha5beta1 (CD49e, and alpha6beta1 (CD49f receptors, and was carried out by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Results Adhesion of the colon carcinoma cell line HT-29 was strongly reduced in the presence of 0.1 μM MMF. This effect was accompanied by down-regulation of alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1 surface expression and of alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1 coding mRNA. Adhesion of the prostate tumor cell line DU-145 was blocked dose-dependently by MMF. In contrast to MMF's effects on HT-29 cells, MMF dose-dependently up-regulated alpha1beta1, alpha2beta1, alpha3beta1, and alpha5beta1 on DU-145 tumor cell membranes. Conclusion We conclude that MMF possesses distinct anti-tumoral properties, particularly in colon and prostate carcinoma cells. Adhesion blockage of HT-29 cells was due to the loss of alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1 surface expression, which might contribute to a reduced invasive behaviour of this tumor entity. The enhancement of integrin beta1 subtypes observed in DU-145 cells possibly causes re-differentiation towards a low-invasive phenotype.

  6. Sanskrit Compound Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Mittal, Vipul; Kulkarni, Amba

    Sanskrit is very rich in compound formation. Typically a compound does not code the relation between its components explicitly. To understand the meaning of a compound, it is necessary to identify its components, discover the relations between them and finally generate a paraphrase of the compound. In this paper, we discuss the automatic segmentation and type identification of a compound using simple statistics that results from the manually annotated data.

  7. Biotransformation of isoimperatorin and imperatorin by Glomerella cingulata and beta-secretase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marumoto, Shinsuke; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    Biotransformation studies conducted on the furanocoumarins isoimperatorin (1) and imperatorin (3) have revealed that 1 was metabolized by Glomerella cingulata to give the corresponding reduced acid, 6,7-furano-5-prenyloxy hydrocoumaric acid (2), and 3 was transformed by G. cingulata to give the dealkylated metabolite, xanthotoxol (4) in high yields (83% and 81%), respectively. The structures of the new compound 2 have been established on the basis of spectral data. The metabolites 2 and 4 were tested for the beta-secretase (BACE1) inhibitory activity in vitro, and metabolite 2 slightly inhibited the beta-secretase activity with an IC(50) value of 185.6+/-6.8 microM. The metabolite 4 was less potent activity than compounds 1-3. In addition, methyl ester (2Me), methyl ether (2a) and methyl ester and ether (2aMe) of 2 were synthesized, and investigated for the ability to inhibit beta-secretase. Compound 2aMe exhibited the best beta-secretase inhibitory activity at the IC(50) value 16.2+/-1.2 microM and found to be the 2aMe showed competitive mode of inhibition against beta-secretase with K(i) value 11.3+/-2.8 microM. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antioxidative efficiency of novel {beta}-naphthol derivatives in storage assays of cracked naphtha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.S.G. Dantas; T.N. Castro Dantas; A.A. Dantas Neto; C.V. D' Ornellas [Unifacs-Universidade Salvador, Salvador (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Quimica

    2008-11-15

    The types of hydrocarbons found in gasoline have great influence on the formation of gum (nonvolatile, insoluble, adhesive resin that forms sediments within fuel systems of an engine). In this study, the synthetic compound {beta}-naphthol has been used in order to generate novel antioxidative substances: AO2 (6-N-ethyl,N-ethylamino){beta}-naphthol), AO2) (6-N-ethyl,N-diethylamino)-{beta}-naphthol) and AO3 (mixture of amino-{beta}-naphthol and 1,6-di-amino-{beta}-naphthol). The derived compounds were subjected to accelerated oxidative stability assays (potential gum (PG) and induction period (IP)) and to storage assays (washed gum (WG) and ASTM color) during six months with cracked naphtha provided by the petroleum refinery RPBC (Presidente Bernardes Refinery, in Cubatao, Brazil). During the PG and IP assays, the experimental amine mixture AO3 and the commercial product known as PDE were highlighted as good oxidation inhibitors, yielding average values of 39.15 mg/100 ml and 637 min, respectively. After the storage period, a better antioxidant behavior was observed for the experimental compound AO2, which provided an average WG value of 6.1 mg/100 ml. 23 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. The sequence and crystal structure of the alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase from Xanthomonas citri define a new family of beta-lactam antibiotic acylases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barends, Thomas; Polderman - Tijmes, Jolanda; Jekel, PA; Hensgens, CMH; de Vries, Erik; Janssen, DB; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2003-01-01

    alpha-Amino acid ester hydrolases (AEHs) catalyze the hydrolysis and synthesis of esters and amides with an alpha-amino group. As such, they can synthesize beta-lactam antibiotics from acyl compounds and beta-lactam nuclei obtained from the hydrolysis of natural antibiotics. This article describes

  10. Use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing beta-galactosidase to screen for antimycotic agents directed against yeast cell wall biosynthesis and possible application to pathogenic fungi.

    OpenAIRE

    Zaworski, P G; Gill, G S

    1990-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing beta-galactosidase was used to develop a screen for compounds active against formation of the yeast cell wall. The screen detailed here is based on the release of beta-galactosidase from cells which had received an osmotic shock.

  11. Haematological and genetic features of delta beta-thalassaemia in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Anwar, M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the hematological and genetic features of delta beta-thalassaemia in Pakistani patients. Design: Descriptive case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pathology, PNS Shifa, Karachi and Department of Hematology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from January 1994 to April 2004. Patients and Methods: Thirteen individuals from six unrelated Pakistani families with a hematological diagnosis of delta beta-thalassaemia were studied. A brief clinical history, and the results of blood counts, absolute values, Hb-F, Hb-A/sub 2/, and hemoglobin electrophoresis were recorded. The DNA from each subject was first screened for the delta beta-thalassaemia mutations found in the Pakistani population. The samples were then screened for the Invl Del sup G/gamma(sup A/gamma delta beta). Results: The subjects included six heterozygote, six homozygotes and one compound heterozygote of delta beta and delta beta-thalassaemia. All heterozygote and 4/6 homozygotes were asymptomatic. One homo zygote had thalassaemia intermedia while another had transfusion dependent anemia. The mean Hb, TRBC, MCV, MCH, Hb-F and Hb-A/sub 2/ in delta beta-thalassaemia heterozygote were 11.6 g/dl, 5.37 x 1012/L, 70.9 fl, and 21.7 pg, 14% and 2.6% respectively. The same values in the four un transfused homo zygote were 10.6 g/dl, 5.34x1012/L, 69.211, and 20.8pg, 100% and 0% respectively. The mutation analysis revealed that all 13 individuals had the same Invl Del sup G/gamma(sup A/gamma delta beta). Conclusion: delta beta-thalassaemia is a rare disorder in Pakistan. Although the clinical picture is very mild its combination with delta beta-thalassaemia trait can produce a sever transfusion dependent thalassaemia. The DNA based diagnosis is possible in the prenatal as well as the postnatal period. (author)

  12. Novel anthracycline-spacer-beta-glucuronide, -beta-glucoside, and -beta-galactoside prodrugs for application in selective chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, RGG; Damen, EWP; Bijsterveld, EJA; Scheeren, HW; Houba, PHJ; van der Meulen-Muileman, IH; Boven, E; Haisma, HJ

    A series of anthracycline prodrugs containing an immolative spacer was synthesized for application in selective chemotherapy. The prodrugs having the general structure anthracycline-spacer-beta-glycoside were designed to be activated by beta-glucuronidase or beta-galactosidase. Prodrugs with

  13. Urinary and brain beta-carboline-3-carboxylates as potent inhibitors of brain benzodiazepine receptors.

    OpenAIRE

    Braestrup, C; Nielsen, M; Olsen, C E

    1980-01-01

    Benzodiazepines probably exert their anxiolytic, hypnotic, and anticonvulsant effects by interacting with brain-specific high-affinity benzodiazepine receptors. In searching for possible endogenous ligands for these receptors we have purified a compound 10(7)-fold from human urine by extractions, treatment with hot ethanol, and column chromatography. The compound was identified as beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (IIc) by mass spectrometry, NMR spectrometry, and synthesis; IIc was...

  14. Contra omega\\ beta-continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiam H. Aljarrah

    2014-09-01

    sets in topological spaces to present and study a new class of functions called contra omega\\beta-continuous functions. This notion is a weak form of contra-continuity. We also discuss the relationships between this new class and other classes of functions and some examples of applications are shown.

  15. Constraining neutrinoless double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorame, L.; Meloni, D.; Morisi, S.; Peinado, E.; Valle, J.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    A class of discrete flavor-symmetry-based models predicts constrained neutrino mass matrix schemes that lead to specific neutrino mass sum-rules (MSR). We show how these theories may constrain the absolute scale of neutrino mass, leading in most of the cases to a lower bound on the neutrinoless double beta decay effective amplitude.

  16. Beta Cell Workshop 2013 Kyoto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, R Scott; Madsen, Ole D; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2013-01-01

    The very modern Kyoto International Conference Center provided the site for the 8th workshop on Beta cells on April 23-26, 2013. The preceding workshops were held in Boston, USA (1991); Kyoto, Japan (1994); Helsingør, Denmark (1997); Helsinki, Finland (2003); El Perello, Spain (2006); Peebles...

  17. Caliber Schools. Caliber: Beta Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    EDUCAUSE, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Caliber: Beta Academy is reimagining education as we know it, with the belief that the innovations in its model will allow 100% of its students to graduate ready to attend and succeed in a competitive four-year college and beyond. The academic model of the school features personalized learning plans, blended learning for English and math,…

  18. Electret dosemeter for beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, L.L.; Caldas, L.V.E.; Mascarenhas, S.

    The response characteristics of an electret dosemeter for beta radiation are studied. Experiments were performed using different geometries and walls, and it was verified for which geometry the dosemeter sensitivity is greater. Sources of 90 Sr - 90 Y, 204 Tl and 85 Kr were used in the experiments. (I.C.R.) [pt

  19. Beta limits of a completely bootstrapped tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weening, R.H.; Bondeson, A.

    1992-03-01

    A beta limit is given for a completely bootstrapped tokamak. The beta limit is sensitive to the achievable Troyon factor and depends directly upon the strength of the tokamak bootstrap effect. (author) 16 refs

  20. How Do Beta Blocker Drugs Affect Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aneurysm More How do beta blocker drugs affect exercise? Updated:Aug 22,2017 Beta blockers are a ... about them: Do they affect your ability to exercise? The answer can vary a great deal, depending ...

  1. Interferon Beta-1a Subcutaneous Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon beta-1a subcutaneous injection is used to reduce episodes of symptoms and slow the development of disability in ... problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1a is in a class of medications called ...

  2. Interferon Beta-1a Intramuscular Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon beta-1a intramuscular injection is used to reduce the number of episodes of symptoms and slow the development ... problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1a is in a class of medications called ...

  3. Liquid phase in situ hydrodeoxygenation of biomass-derived phenolic compounds to hydrocarbons over bifunctional catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junfeng Feng; Chung-yun Hse; Zhongzhi Yang; Kui Wang; Jianchun Jiang; Junming Xu

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find an effective method for converting renewable biomass-derived phenolic compounds into hydrocarbons bio-fuel via in situ catalytic hydrodeoxygenation. The in situ hydrodeoxygenation of biomass-derived phenolic compounds was carried out in methanol-water solvent over bifunctional catalysts of Raney Ni and HZSM-5 or H-Beta. In the in...

  4. The beta subunit of casein kinase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Piontek, K; Schmidt-Spaniol, I

    1991-01-01

    cDNAs encoding the beta subunit of pig and mouse CKII were isolated. The porcine cDNA was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used for the production of anti-CKII-beta subunit specific antibodies.......cDNAs encoding the beta subunit of pig and mouse CKII were isolated. The porcine cDNA was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used for the production of anti-CKII-beta subunit specific antibodies....

  5. The fragrance chemical beta-caryophyllene-air oxidation and skin sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sköld, Maria; Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Matura, Mihaly; Börje, Anna

    2006-04-01

    Fragrances are common causes of allergic contact dermatitis. beta-Caryophyllene is a sesquiterpene that is used as a fragrance chemical. Analogous to the monoterpenes R-limonene and linalool, it can be expected to autoxidize when air exposed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the autoxidation of beta-caryophyllene and to evaluate the effect on the contact allergenic activity. beta-Caryophyllene started to oxidize immediately when air exposed and after 5 weeks almost 50% of the original compound was consumed. Caryophyllene oxide was found to be the major oxidation product. Hydroperoxides of beta-caryophyllene could not be detected in the oxidation mixture. Caryophyllene oxide was shown to be an allergen of moderate strength and beta-caryophyllene air exposed for 10 weeks showed a weak sensitizing capacity in the local lymph node assay. The study reveals that the allergenic activity of beta-caryophyllene is affected by autoxidation, but to a lesser extent when compared to R-limonene and linalool. The present findings support our results in clinical studies showing oxidized beta-caryophyllene to be a rather rare sensitizer compared to oxidized R-limonene and linalool.

  6. Development of a radioreceptor assay for {beta}{sub 2} adrenergic agonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helbo, V. [Lab. d`analyse des denrees alimentaires d`origine animale, Faculte de Medecine Veterinaire de l`Universite, Liege (Belgium); Vandenbroeck, M. [Lab. d`analyse des denrees alimentaires d`origine animale, Faculte de Medecine Veterinaire de l`Universite, Liege (Belgium); Maghuin-Rogister, G. [Lab. d`analyse des denrees alimentaires d`origine animale, Faculte de Medecine Veterinaire de l`Universite, Liege (Belgium)

    1994-05-01

    Several {beta}{sub 2} adrenergic agonists are illegally used as growth promoters in meat production. We have developed and evaluated a radioreceptor assay for the multianalyte detection of these compounds. The method is based on a competition for binding with receptors (plasma membranes prepared from bovine teat muscles) between a radioactive tracer ({sup 3}H-dihydroalprenolol) and {beta}{sub 2} agonist residues present in the samples. The method has been validated for three {beta}{sub 2} agonists (clenbuterol, mabuterol and cimaterol) in bovine urine samples. The detection limit (mean of ``blank`` values + 3 SEM) in urine was 2.4 ppb clenbuterol. Using this procedure, samples containing at least 5 ppb of clenbuterol, mabuterol or cimaterol could be identified as positive for the presence of {beta}{sub 2} agonists. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mehrere {beta}{sub 2} adrenerge Agonisten werden illegal als Wachstumsfoerderer in der Fleischproduktion eingesetzt. Wir entwickelten und testeten einen RRA (``Radioreceptor Assay``) zur Mehrfachrueckstandsanalyse dieser Zusammensetzungen. Die Methode basiert auf einer Kompetition eines radioaktiven Markers ({sup 3}H-dihydroalpenolol) mit den Rueckstaenden der {beta}{sub 2} Agonisten der Proben um Bindungsstellen der Rezeptoren (Plasmamembranen, welche aus Muskelzellen von Rinderzitzen gewonnen wurden). Die Methode wurde fuer 3 {beta}{sub 2} Agonisten (Clenbuterol, Mabuterol und Cimaterol) in Harnproben anerkannt. Die Nachweisgrenze (Durchschnitt der Leerwerte + 3 Standardabweichungen) bei Harnproben liegt bei 2,4 ppb fuer Clenbuterol. Diese Methode ermoeglicht, Konzentrationen von mindestens 5 ppb an Clenbuterol, Mabuterol und Cimaterol im Probenmaterial nachzuweisen. (orig.)

  7. On Fuzzy {beta}-I-open sets and Fuzzy {beta}-I-continuous functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, Aynur [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Arts, Selcuk University, Campus, 42075 Konya (Turkey)], E-mail: akeskin@selcuk.edu.tr

    2009-11-15

    In this paper, first of all we obtain some properties and characterizations of fuzzy {beta}-I-open sets. After that, we also define the notion of {beta}-I-closed sets and obtain some properties. Lastly, we introduce the notions of fuzzy {beta}-I-continuity with the help of fuzzy {beta}-I-open sets to obtain decomposition of fuzzy continuity.

  8. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morant, Marc Dominique

    2014-05-06

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  9. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morant, Marc Dominique

    2014-04-29

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  10. Drug- and disease-induced changes of human cardiac beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brodde, O. E.; Zerkowski, H. R.; Borst, H. G.; Maier, W.; Michel, M. C.

    1989-01-01

    Cardiac beta-adrenoceptor density and subtype distribution has been determined in different kinds of heart failure. A decrease in cardiac beta-adrenoceptor function appears to be a general phenomenon in all kinds of heart failure. However, cardiac beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors seem to be

  11. Sequence of PSE-2 beta-lactamase.

    OpenAIRE

    Huovinen, P; Huovinen, S; Jacoby, G A

    1988-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of PSE-2 beta-lactamase, an enzyme that readily hydrolyzes both carbenicillin and oxacillin, has been determined. The deduced sequence of 266 amino acids contained 93 residues identical to those of OXA-2 beta-lactamase and the Ser-Thr-Phe-Lys tetrad also found in the active site of TEM-1 beta-lactamase.

  12. THE ALPHA/BETA-HYDROLASE FOLD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OLLIS, DL; CHEAH, E; CYGLER, M; FROLOW, F; FRANKEN, SM; HAREL, M; REMINGTON, SJ; SILMAN, [No Value; SCHRAG, J; SUSSMAN, JL; VERSCHUEREN, KHG; GOLDMAN, A

    We have identified a new protein fold-the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold-that is common to several hydrolytic enzymes of widely differing phylogenetic origin and catalytic function. The core of each enzyme is similar: an alpha/beta-sheet, not barrel, of eight beta-sheets connected by alpha-helices. These

  13. Beta-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierikx, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to cephalosprins due to the production of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) or plasmid mediated AmpC beta-lactamases is increasingly found in infections in humans outside the hospital. The genes encoding for these beta-lactamases are located on mobile DNA (plasmids), which can be

  14. Nonlinear transport in beta-Na0.33V2O5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sirbu, S; Yamauchi, T; Ueda, Y; van Loosdrecht, PHM

    2005-01-01

    The transport properties of the charge ordering compound beta-Na0.33V2O5 are studied in the temperature range from 65 K to 300 K using current driven DC conductivity experiments. Below the metal-insulator transition temperature (T-MI = 136 K) this material shows a typical non-linear charge density

  15. Structural Determinants of the beta-Selectivity of a Bacterial Aminotransferase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wybenga, Gjalt G.; Crismaru, Ciprian G.; Janssen, Dick B.; Dijkstra, Bauke W

    2012-01-01

    Chiral beta-amino acids occur as constituents of various natural and synthetic compounds with potentially useful bioactivities. The pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent S-selective transaminase from Mesorhizobium sp. strain LUK (MesAT) is a fold type I aminotransferase that can be used for the

  16. Identification of a Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3[beta] Inhibitor that Attenuates Hyperactivity in CLOCK Mutant Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozikowski, Alan P.; Gunosewoyo, Hendra; Guo, Songpo; Gaisina, Irina N.; Walter, Richard L.; Ketcherside, Ariel; McClung, Colleen A.; Mesecar, Andrew D.; Caldarone, Barbara (Psychogenics); (Purdue); (UIC); (UTSMC)

    2012-05-02

    Bipolar disorder is characterized by a cycle of mania and depression, which affects approximately 5 million people in the United States. Current treatment regimes include the so-called 'mood-stabilizing drugs', such as lithium and valproate that are relatively dated drugs with various known side effects. Glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) plays a central role in regulating circadian rhythms, and lithium is known to be a direct inhibitor of GSK-3{beta}. We designed a series of second generation benzofuran-3-yl-(indol-3-yl)maleimides containing a piperidine ring that possess IC{sub 50} values in the range of 4 to 680 nM against human GSK-3{beta}. One of these compounds exhibits reasonable kinase selectivity and promising preliminary absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) data. The administration of this compound at doses of 10 to 25 mg kg{sup -1} resulted in the attenuation of hyperactivity in amphetamine/chlordiazepoxide-induced manic-like mice together with enhancement of prepulse inhibition, similar to the effects found for valproate (400 mg kg{sup -1}) and the antipsychotic haloperidol (1 mg kg{sup -1}). We also tested this compound in mice carrying a mutation in the central transcriptional activator of molecular rhythms, the CLOCK gene, and found that the same compound attenuates locomotor hyperactivity in response to novelty. This study further demonstrates the use of inhibitors of GSK-3{beta} in the treatment of manic episodes of bipolar/mood disorders, thus further validating GSK-3{beta} as a relevant therapeutic target in the identification of new therapies for bipolar patients.

  17. Beta* and beta-waist measurement and control at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ptitsyn, V.; Della Penna, A.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Malitsky, N.; Satogata, T.

    2009-01-01

    During the course of last RHIC runs the beta-functions at the collision points (β*) have been reduced gradually to 0.7m. In order to maximize the collision luminosity and ensure the agreement of the actual machine optics with the design one, more precise measurements and control of β* value and β-waist location became necessary. The paper presents the results of the implementation of the technique applied in last two RHIC runs. The technique is based on well-known relation between the tune shift and the beta function and involves precise betatron tune measurements using BBQ system as well as specially developed knobs for β-waist location control

  18. Gene encoding the human. beta. -hexosaminidase. beta. chain: Extensive homology of intron placement in the. alpha. - and. beta. -chain genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proia, R.L. (National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1988-03-01

    Lysosomal {beta}-hexosaminidase is composed of two structurally similar chains, {alpha} and {beta}, that are the products of different genes. Mutations in either gene causing {beta}-hexosaminidase deficiency result in the lysosomal storage disease GM2-gangliosidosis. To enable the investigation of the molecular lesions in this disorder and to study the evolutionary relationship between the {alpha} and {beta} chains, the {beta}-chain gene was isolated, and its organization was characterized. The {beta}-chain coding region is divided into 14 exons distributed over {approx}40 kilobases of DNA. Comparison with the {alpha}-chain gene revealed that 12 of the 13 introns interrupt the coding regions at homologous positions. This extensive sharing of intron placement demonstrates that the {alpha} and {beta} chains evolved by way of the duplication of a common ancestor.

  19. DNA damage: beta zero versus beta plus thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Chandan S; Kumar, Rakesh; Sharma, Dharmesh C; Kishor, Purnima

    2015-01-01

    β thalassemia results in an increase in the α to non-α chain ratio. Iron released from unpaired α chains in RBCs and that ensuing from regular transfusions is the major cause of cellular damage. The use of iron chelators to counter the iron overload is accompanied by side-effects. The extent of iron toxicity could vary from one patient to another and could help in determining the optimal chelator dose for each patient. To observe the pro-oxidant/antioxidant disturbance and the extent of DNA damage in β thalassemia patients with different β globin gene anomalies. The formation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS ) was observed by incubation of cell suspensions with 2',7', dichlorofluorescin-diacetate (DCFH DA) and DNA damage was demonstrated by single cell gel electrophoresis. Heinz bodies were observed by staining blood smears. The study group comprised 50 regularly transfused beta thalassemia patients and 40 non thalassemic controls. While Heinz bodies and nucleated RBCs were seen in all the patients, oxidation of DCFH and DNA damage were seen to be associated with the β globin gene defect. DNA damage was found to be greater in β(0) homozygotes as compared to the β(+) homozygotes, and was maximum in patients presenting with the 619 base pair deletion. In the present study, iron toxicity, as indicated by DNA damage, has been seen to vary in the patients. Thus, monitoring of the dose of iron chelators, according to the type of mutation in the beta globin gene, may help improve the compliance of beta thalassemics to chelation therapy and prevent side-effects in patients with beta plus mutations.

  20. A Beta-Beta Achievability Bound with Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Wei; Collins, Austin; Durisi, Giuseppe; Polyanskiy, Yury; Poor, H. Vincent

    2016-01-01

    A channel coding achievability bound expressed in terms of the ratio between two Neyman-Pearson $\\beta$ functions is proposed. This bound is the dual of a converse bound established earlier by Polyanskiy and Verd\\'{u} (2014). The new bound turns out to simplify considerably the analysis in situations where the channel output distribution is not a product distribution, for example due to a cost constraint or a structural constraint (such as orthogonality or constant composition) on the channel...

  1. Evaluation of induced radioactivity in 10 MeV-Electron irradiated spices, (2); [beta]-ray counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Tadashi; Furuta, Masakazu; Shibata, Setsuko; Matsunami, Tadao; Ito, Norio; Mizohata, Akira; Toratani, Hirokazu (Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan). Research Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology); Takeda, Atsuhiko

    1994-02-01

    In order to check radioactivity of beta-emmitters produced by ([gamma], n) reactions which could occur at energies up to 10 MeV, black pepper, white pepper, red pepper, ginger and turmeric were irradiated with 10 MeV electron from a linear accelerator to a dose of 100 kGy. Beta-rays were counted using a 2[pi] gas flow counter and a liquid scintillation counter. Any induced radioactivity could not be detected in irradiated samples. When inorganic compounds containing the nuclides in the list were artificially added in the samples and were irradiated, the [beta]-activities were detected. From the amount of observed radioactivities of [beta]-emmitters produced in the compounds as photonuclear products, it is concluded that the induced radioactivity in natural samples by 10 MeV-electron irradiation were far smaller than natural radioactivity from [sup 40]K contained in the samples and, hence, its biological effects should be negligible. (author).

  2. Clusters of conserved beta cell marker genes for assessment of beta cell phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Geert A; Jiang, Lei; Hellemans, Karine H

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a gene expression blueprint of pancreatic beta cells conserved from rodents to humans and to evaluate its applicability to assess shifts in the beta cell differentiated state. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of isolated beta cells were compared to those...... microdissected beta cells, monitor adaptations of the beta cell phenotype to fasting, and retrieve possible conserved transcriptional regulators....

  3. Development and applications of beta and near beta titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemura, A.; Ohyama, H.; Nishimura, T.; Abumiya, T.

    1993-01-01

    In this report the authors introduced application of beta and near beta titanium alloys also development and processing of these alloys at Kobe Steel LTD. Ti-15Mo-5Zr-3Al is an alloy developed by Kobe Steel which has been applied for variety of sporting goods, also used as an erosion shield of steam turbine blades. Ti-15Mo-5Zr-3Al high strength wire for valve springs is under development. New beta alloys(Ti-V-Nb-Sn-Al) are under development which have lower flow stress at room temperature than Ti 15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al, expected to improve productivity of cold forging. NNS forging and thermo mechanical treatment of Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al were studied. Ti-10V-2Fe3Al steam turbine blades and structural parts for aircraft were developed. Fine grain cold strips of Ti 15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al are produced by annealing and pickling process. These cold strips are used for parts of a fishing rod

  4. Photochemical fate of beta-blockers in NOM enriched waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ling; Xu, Haomin; Cooper, William J. [Urban Water Research Center, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2175 (United States); Song, Weihua, E-mail: wsong@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2012-06-01

    Beta-blockers, prescribed for the treatment of high blood pressure and for long-term use after a heart attack, have been detected in surface and ground waters. This study examines the photochemical fate of three beta-blockers, atenolol, metoprolol, and nadolol. Hydrolysis accounted for minor losses of these beta-blockers in the pH range 4-10. The rate of direct photolysis at pH 7 in a solar simulator varied from 6.1 to 8.9 h{sup -1} at pH 7. However, the addition of a natural organic matter (NOM) isolate enhanced the photochemical loss of all three compounds. Indirect photochemical fate, generally described by reactions with hydroxyl radical ({center_dot}OH) and singlet oxygen ({sup 1}{Delta}O{sub 2}), and, the direct reaction with the triplet excited state, {sup 3}NOM{sup Low-Asterisk }, also varied but collectively appeared to be the major loss factor. Bimolecular reaction rate constants of the three beta-blockers with {sup 1}{Delta}O{sub 2} and {center_dot}OH were measured and accounted for 0.02-0.04% and 7.2-38.9% of their loss, respectively. These data suggest that the {sup 3}NOM{sup Low-Asterisk} contributed 50.6-85.4%. Experiments with various {sup 3}NOM{sup Low-Asterisk} quenchers supported the hypothesis that it was singly the most important reaction. Atenolol was chosen for more detailed investigation, with the photoproducts identified by LC-MS analysis. The results suggested that electron-transfer could be an important mechanism in photochemical fate of beta-blockers in the presence of NOM. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photochemical degradation of beta-blockers in the simulated natural waters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reactive Oxygen Species play a minor role in the indirect photodegradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The loss of beta-blockers results from direct reaction with {sup 3}DOM{sup Low-Asterisk }.

  5. Specific Triazine Herbicides Induce Amyloid-beta(42) Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portelius, Erik; Durieu, Emilie; Bodin, Marion; Cam, Morgane; Pannee, Josef; Leuxe, Charlotte; Mabondzo, Aloise; Oumata, Nassima; Galons, Herve; Lee, Jung Yeol; Chang, Young-Tae; Stuber, Kathrin; Koch, Philipp; Fontaine, Gaelle; Potier, Marie-Claude; Manousopoulou, Antigoni; Garbis, Spiros D.; Covaci, Adrian; Van Dam, Debby; De Deyn, Peter; Karg, Frank; Flajolet, Marc; Omori, Chiori; Hata, Saori; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Meijer, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid-beta protein precursor (A beta PP) ecretases leads to extracellular release of amyloid-beta (A beta) peptides. Increased production of A beta(42) over A beta(40) and aggregation into oligomers and plaques constitute an Alzheimer's disease (AD) hallmark.

  6. Synthesis of enantiopure (alphaS,betaS)- or (alphaR,betaS)-beta-amino alcohols by complete regioselective opening of aminoepoxides by organolithium reagents LiAlH4 or LiAlD4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concellón, José M; Bernad, Pablo L; del Solar, Virginia; Suárez, José Ramón; García-Granda, Santiago; Díaz, M Rosario

    2006-08-18

    The reaction of chiral (2R,1'S)- or (2S,1'S)-2-(1-aminoalkyl)epoxides, 1 or 2 with a variety of organolithium compounds to obtain the corresponding (alphaS,betaS)- or (alphaR,betaS)- beta-amino alcohols in enantiopure form is reported. In both cases, the opening of the oxirane ring at C-3 proceeded with total regioselectivity. Moreover, the ring opening of aminoepoxides 1 or 2 by hydride (utilizing LiAlH4) to obtain the corresponding (2S,3S)- or (2R,3S)-3-aminoalkan-2-ols is also described. The reaction of 1 or 2 with LiAlD4 in place of LiAlH4 gave the corresponding (2S,3S)- or (2R,3S)-3-amino-1-deuterioalkan-2-ols.

  7. Immunochemical studies on the N-acetyllactosamine beta-(1----6)-linked trisaccharide specificity of Ricinus communis agglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A M; Sugii, S; Gruezo, F G; Kabat, E A

    1988-07-15

    The combining site of Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA1) was studied by quantitative precipitin and precipitin inhibition assays. Of 31 complex carbohydrates tested, all except active and inactive antifreeze glycoproteins, Streptococcus group C polysaccharide, and native rat salivary glycoprotein, reacted strongly, and 22 completely precipitated the lectin, indicating that RCA1 has both a broad range of affinity and a low solubility of its carbohydrate-bound complex. Of the monosaccharides and glycosides tested for inhibition of precipitation, p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside was the best. It was about 6.4 times better than methyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. The beta anomer of glycosides of D-galactose was much more potent than the corresponding alpha anomer. Among the oligosaccharides tested, beta-D-Galp-(1----4)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1----6)-D-Gal was the best inhibitor, which was approximately 2/3 as active as p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. It was approximately 1.4 times as active as beta-D-Gal-(1----4)-D-GlcNAc (N-acetyllactosamine), twice as active as beta-D-Gal-(1----3)-D-GlcNAc, and 4.5 times more active than lacto-N-tetraose. From the results, it can be concluded that; (a) hydrophobic interaction is important for binding; (b) the combining site of this lectin is at least as large as a trisaccharide; and (c) of the compounds studied, the trisaccharide beta-D-Galp-(1----4)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1----6)-D-Gal was the most complementary to the human blood group I Ma determinant beta-D-Galp-(1----4)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1----6)-D-Gal.

  8. Coinheritance of alpha-thalassemia-1 and hemoglobin E/beta zero-thalassemia: practical implications for neonatal screening and genetic counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurti, L; Chui, D H; Dallaire, M; LeRoy, B; Waye, J S; Perentesis, J P

    1998-05-01

    Hemoglobin E (HbE), alpha-thalassemia, and beta-thalassemia are common among Southeast Asians and often occur in compound heterozygous states that complicate neonatal screening. We describe a kindred with alpha-thalassemia-1, HbE, and beta zero-thalassemia. The proband had HbE/beta zero-thalassemia, with severe anemia and failure to thrive. His father also had HbE/beta zero-thalassemia but had coinherited alpha-thalassemia-1 and was free of symptoms.

  9. Beta-diversity of ectoparasites at two spatial scales: nested hierarchy, geography and habitat type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Elizabeth M; van der Mescht, Luther; Stanko, Michal; Vinarski, Maxim V; Korallo-Vinarskaya, Natalia P; Khokhlova, Irina S; Krasnov, Boris R

    2017-06-01

    Beta-diversity of biological communities can be decomposed into (a) dissimilarity of communities among units of finer scale within units of broader scale and (b) dissimilarity of communities among units of broader scale. We investigated compositional, phylogenetic/taxonomic and functional beta-diversity of compound communities of fleas and gamasid mites parasitic on small Palearctic mammals in a nested hierarchy at two spatial scales: (a) continental scale (across the Palearctic) and (b) regional scale (across sites within Slovakia). At each scale, we analyzed beta-diversity among smaller units within larger units and among larger units with partitioning based on either geography or ecology. We asked (a) whether compositional, phylogenetic/taxonomic and functional dissimilarities of flea and mite assemblages are scale dependent; (b) how geographical (partitioning of sites according to geographic position) or ecological (partitioning of sites according to habitat type) characteristics affect phylogenetic/taxonomic and functional components of dissimilarity of ectoparasite assemblages and (c) whether assemblages of fleas and gamasid mites differ in their degree of dissimilarity, all else being equal. We found that compositional, phylogenetic/taxonomic, or functional beta-diversity was greater on a continental rather than a regional scale. Compositional and phylogenetic/taxonomic components of beta-diversity were greater among larger units than among smaller units within larger units, whereas functional beta-diversity did not exhibit any consistent trend regarding site partitioning. Geographic partitioning resulted in higher values of beta-diversity of ectoparasites than ecological partitioning. Compositional and phylogenetic components of beta-diversity were higher in fleas than mites but the opposite was true for functional beta-diversity in some, but not all, traits.

  10. Method for Screening Compounds That Influence Virulence Gene Expression in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, A.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Frees, D.

    2010-01-01

    We present a simple assay to examine effects of compounds on virulence gene expression in the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. The assay employs transcriptional reporter strains carrying lacZ fused to central virulence genes. Compounds affecting virulence gene expression and activity...... of the agr locus are scored based on color change in the presence of a chromogenic beta-galactosidase substrate. The assay can be used to screen for novel antivirulence compounds from many different sources, such as fungi, as demonstrated here....

  11. Several homozygous mutations in the gene for 11{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in patients with apparent mineralocorticoid excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, R.C.; Harbison, M.D.; Hanauske-Abel, H.M.; Licholai, T. [New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Four deleterious mutations are described in the gene for HSD11B2, which encodes the type 2 isoenzyme of 11{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11{beta}HSD2). In seven families with one or more members affected by apparent mineralocortiocoid excess, this disorder is shown to be the result of a deficiency in 11{beta}HSD2. Surprisingly, the patients are all homozygous for their mutation. This results from consanguinity in two families and possibly from endogamy or a founder effect in four of the other five families. The absence of compound heterozygotes remains to be investigated. 25 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. An overview of the pharmacodynamic properties and therapeutic potential of combined alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zwieten, P A

    1993-04-01

    Haemodynamically, the combination of alpha 1- and beta-adrenoceptor antagonists is a logical one. alpha 1-Adrenoceptor blockade causes vasodilatation and hence counteracts elevated peripheral vascular resistance, the most consistent haemodynamic derangement in established essential hypertension. beta-Blockers, which lower elevated blood pressure by a different (not yet clearly understood) mechanism, suppress the reflex tachycardia triggered by vasodilatation. Combined alpha/beta-adrenoceptor blockade can be obtained by the simultaneous administration of both types of adrenoceptor antagonists, but also by giving drugs that possess alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor antagonistic activity in the same molecule. Carvedilol and labetalol are the best known examples of such combined alpha/beta-adrenoceptor antagonists, although their pharmacodynamic profile is a result of different receptor selectivity of their component stereoisomers, rather than combined alpha/beta-blocking activity in a single chemical entity. Both compounds have been investigated clinically in the treatment of essential hypertension in moderate-to-large scale trials. A few newer combined alpha/beta-adrenoceptor antagonists, such as amosulalol, arotinolol and medroxalol have been developed, but clinical data on these compounds are relatively scarce.

  13. Removal of cholesterol from Cheddar cheese by beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, H S; Jung, C S; Shim, S Y; Ahn, J

    2002-12-04

    This study was carried out to determine the cholesterol removal rate and resulting changes in flavor, fatty acid and bitter amino acid production in reduced-cholesterol Cheddar cheese, made by cream separation followed by 10% beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) treatment. The cholesterol removal from the cheese was 92.1%. The production of short-chain free fatty acids (FFAs) increased the ripening time in control and cream-treated cheeses. The quantity of short-chain FFAs released between treatments during ripening was different, while not much difference was found in the production of neutral volatile compounds in the samples. Reduced-cholesterol cheese produced much higher levels of bitter amino acids than the control. In sensory analysis, the texture score of control Cheddar cheese increased significantly with ripening time; however, that of the cream treatment group decreased dramatically with ripening time. On the basis of our results, we conclude that the cheese made from beta-CD-treated cream had a higher rate of cholesterol removal and ripened rapidly.

  14. Metalo-beta-lactamases Metallo-beta-lactamases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Elisandro Mendes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos tem sido observada maior incidência de bacilos Gram-negativos resistentes a cefalosporinas de espectro ampliado no ambiente hospitalar, ocasionando, assim, maior uso de betalactâmicos mais potentes, como os carbapenens. A utilização de carbapenens exerce maior pressão seletiva sobre a microbiota hospitalar, o que pode ocasionar aumento da resistência a esses agentes. Entre os mecanismos de resistência a carbapenens mais comumente identificados estão a produção de betalactamases, como, por exemplo, as pertencentes à classe D de Ambler e as que pertencem à classe B de Ambler, ou metalo-beta-lactamases (MbetaL. Essas últimas hidrolisam todos betalactâmicos comercialmente disponíveis, sendo a única exceção o monobactam aztreonam. Desde o início da década de 1990, novos genes que codificam MbetaLs têm sido descritos em microrganismos clinicamente importantes, como Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter spp. e membros da família Enterobacteriaceae. O encontro desses microrganismos não-sensíveis a carbapenens pode ser submetido a metodologias fenotípicas para detecção da produção de MbetaL com o intuito de auxiliar a Comissão de Controle de Infecção Hospitalar (CCIH e prevenir a disseminação desses determinantes de resistência, uma vez que genes que codificam MbetaLs estão contidos em estruturas genéticas que propiciam sua mobilidade de forma muito efetiva, sendo então facilmente disseminados.Increase isolation of Gram-negative bacilli resistant to broad-spectrum cephalosporin has been observed during the last few years, thus determining the use of more potent beta-lactams, such as carbapenems. The use of these antimicrobial agents may lead to the emergence of carbapenem resistant Gram-negative bacilli in the nosocomial environment. Carbapenem resistance may be due to the production of Ambler class D beta-lactamase or Ambler class B beta-lactamase, also called metallo-beta-lactamase (MbetaL. Apart from

  15. Energy dependence of `molecular rocket reaction` in modified metallocene - cyclodextrin inclusion compound and comparison with those in other systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsue, H. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry; Yamaguchi, I. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry; Sekine, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry; Yoshihara, K. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-11-01

    `Molecular rocket reaction` was confirmed in modified metallocene-{beta}-cyclodextrin(CD) inclusion compound for the first time. Energy dependence of the reaction was examined in the range between 100 eV and several tens keV. The curve revealed at least an order of 0.5% of rocket survival probability below 126 eV and a nearly constant value ({approx}0.2%) above 130 eV. The energy dependence curve was discussed in relation to those in metal {beta}-diketonates, phtalocyanines, metallocenes and normal metallocene-{beta}-CD inclusion compounds. (orig.)

  16. Adult murine hematopoiesis can proceed without beta1 and beta7 integrins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bungartz, Gerd; Stiller, Sebastian; Bauer, Martina

    2006-01-01

    -C) progenitors in the bone marrow and, after phenylhydrazine-induced anemia, a decreased number of splenic erythroid colony-forming units in culture (CFUe's). Array gene expression analysis of CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive (DP) and CD4(-)CD8(-) double-negative (DN) thymocytes and CD19(+) and CD4(+) splenocytes...... with a deletion of the beta1 and the beta7 integrin genes restricted to the hematopoietic system we show here that alpha4beta1 and alpha4beta7 integrins are not essential for differentiation of lymphocytes or myelocytes. However, beta1beta7 mutant mice displayed a transient increase of colony-forming unit (CFU...

  17. Characterization of a beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase and a beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase/beta-glucosidase from Cellulomonas fimi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Christoph; Vocadlo, David J; Mah, Melanie; Rupitz, Karen; Stoll, Dominik; Warren, R A J; Withers, Stephen G

    2006-07-01

    The gram-positive soil bacterium Cellulomonas fimi is shown to produce at least two intracellular beta-N-acetylglucosaminidases, a family 20 beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase (Hex20), and a novel family 3-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase/beta-glucosidase (Nag3), through screening of a genomic expression library, cloning of genes and analysis of their sequences. Nag3 exhibits broad substrate specificity for substituents at the C2 position of the glycone: kcat/Km values at 25 degrees C were 0.066 s(-1) x mM(-1) and 0.076 s(-1) x mM(-1) for 4'-nitrophenyl beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminide and 4'-nitrophenyl beta-D-glucoside, respectively. The first glycosidase with this broad specificity to be described, Nag3, suggests an interesting evolutionary link between beta-N-acetylglucosaminidases and beta-glucosidases of family 3. Reaction by a double-displacement mechanism was confirmed for Nag3 through the identification of a glycosyl-enzyme species trapped with the slow substrate 2',4'-dinitrophenyl 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-glucopyranoside. Hex20 requires the acetamido group at C2 of the substrate, being unable to cleave beta-glucosides, since its mechanism involves an oxazolinium ion intermediate. However, it is broad in its specificity for the D-glucosyl/D-galactosyl configuration of the glycone: Km and kcat values were 53 microM and 482.3 s(-1) for 4'-nitrophenyl beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminide and 66 microM and 129.1 s(-1) for 4'-nitrophenyl beta-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminide.

  18. Beta-escin has potent anti-allergic efficacy and reduces allergic airway inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unger Hermann

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type I hypersensitivity is characterized by the overreaction of the immune system against otherwise innocuous substances. It manifests as allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, allergic asthma or atopic dermatitis if mast cells are activated in the respective organs. In case of systemic mast cell activation, life-threatening anaphylaxis may occur. Currently, type I hypersensitivities are treated either with glucocorticoids, anti-histamines, or mast cell stabilizers. Although these drugs exert a strong anti-allergic effect, their long-term use may be problematic due to their side-effects. Results In the course of a routine in vitro screening process, we identified beta-escin as a potentially anti-allergic compound. Here we tested beta-escin in two mouse models to confirm this anti-allergic effect in vivo. In a model of the early phase of allergic reactions, the murine passive cutaneous anaphylaxis model, beta-escin inhibited the effects of mast cell activation and degranulation in the skin and dose-dependently prevented the extravasation of fluids into the tissue. Beta-escin also significantly inhibited the late response after antigen challenge in a lung allergy model with ovalbumin-sensitized mice. Allergic airway inflammation was suppressed, which was exemplified by the reduction of leucocytes, eosinophils, IL-5 and IL-13 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Histopathological examinations further confirmed the reduced inflammation of the lung tissue. In both models, the inhibitory effect of beta-escin was comparable to the benchmark dexamethasone. Conclusions We demonstrated in two independent murine models of type I hypersensitivity that beta-escin has potent anti-allergic properties. These results and the excellent safety profile of beta-escin suggest a therapeutic potential of this compound for a novel treatment of allergic diseases.

  19. Beta-escin has potent anti-allergic efficacy and reduces allergic airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Ines; Meier, Christiane; Url, Angelika; Unger, Hermann; Grassauer, Andreas; Prieschl-Grassauer, Eva; Doerfler, Petra

    2010-05-21

    Type I hypersensitivity is characterized by the overreaction of the immune system against otherwise innocuous substances. It manifests as allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, allergic asthma or atopic dermatitis if mast cells are activated in the respective organs. In case of systemic mast cell activation, life-threatening anaphylaxis may occur. Currently, type I hypersensitivities are treated either with glucocorticoids, anti-histamines, or mast cell stabilizers. Although these drugs exert a strong anti-allergic effect, their long-term use may be problematic due to their side-effects. In the course of a routine in vitro screening process, we identified beta-escin as a potentially anti-allergic compound. Here we tested beta-escin in two mouse models to confirm this anti-allergic effect in vivo. In a model of the early phase of allergic reactions, the murine passive cutaneous anaphylaxis model, beta-escin inhibited the effects of mast cell activation and degranulation in the skin and dose-dependently prevented the extravasation of fluids into the tissue. Beta-escin also significantly inhibited the late response after antigen challenge in a lung allergy model with ovalbumin-sensitized mice. Allergic airway inflammation was suppressed, which was exemplified by the reduction of leucocytes, eosinophils, IL-5 and IL-13 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Histopathological examinations further confirmed the reduced inflammation of the lung tissue. In both models, the inhibitory effect of beta-escin was comparable to the benchmark dexamethasone. We demonstrated in two independent murine models of type I hypersensitivity that beta-escin has potent anti-allergic properties. These results and the excellent safety profile of beta-escin suggest a therapeutic potential of this compound for a novel treatment of allergic diseases.

  20. The effect of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies on pancreatic beta cell function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woynillowicz, Amanda K.; Raha, Sandeep; Nicholson, Catherine J.; Holloway, Alison C.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of our study was to evaluate whether drugs currently used for smoking cessation (i.e., nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline [a partial agonist at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR)] and bupropion [which acts in part as a nAChR antagonist]) can affect beta cell function and determine the mechanism(s) of this effect. INS-1E cells, a rat beta cell line, were treated with nicotine, varenicline and bupropion to determine their effects on beta cell function, mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activity and cellular/oxidative stress. Treatment of INS-1E cells with equimolar concentrations (1 μM) of three test compounds resulted in an ablation of normal glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by the cells. This disruption of normal beta cell function was associated with mitochondrial dysfunction since all three compounds tested significantly decreased the activity of mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activity. These results raise the possibility that the currently available smoking cessation pharmacotherapies may also have adverse effects on beta cell function and thus glycemic control in vivo. Therefore whether or not the use of nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline and bupropion can cause endocrine changes which are consistent with impaired pancreatic function warrants further investigation. -- Highlights: ► Smoking cessation drugs have the potential to disrupt beta cell function in vitro. ► The effects of nicotine, varenicline and bupropion are similar. ► The impaired beta cell function is mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction. ► If similar effects are seen in vivo, these drugs may increase the risk of diabetes.

  1. The effect of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies on pancreatic beta cell function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woynillowicz, Amanda K. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Raha, Sandeep [Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Nicholson, Catherine J. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Holloway, Alison C., E-mail: hollow@mcmaster.ca [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3Z5 (Canada)

    2012-11-15

    The goal of our study was to evaluate whether drugs currently used for smoking cessation (i.e., nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline [a partial agonist at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR)] and bupropion [which acts in part as a nAChR antagonist]) can affect beta cell function and determine the mechanism(s) of this effect. INS-1E cells, a rat beta cell line, were treated with nicotine, varenicline and bupropion to determine their effects on beta cell function, mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activity and cellular/oxidative stress. Treatment of INS-1E cells with equimolar concentrations (1 μM) of three test compounds resulted in an ablation of normal glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by the cells. This disruption of normal beta cell function was associated with mitochondrial dysfunction since all three compounds tested significantly decreased the activity of mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activity. These results raise the possibility that the currently available smoking cessation pharmacotherapies may also have adverse effects on beta cell function and thus glycemic control in vivo. Therefore whether or not the use of nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline and bupropion can cause endocrine changes which are consistent with impaired pancreatic function warrants further investigation. -- Highlights: ► Smoking cessation drugs have the potential to disrupt beta cell function in vitro. ► The effects of nicotine, varenicline and bupropion are similar. ► The impaired beta cell function is mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction. ► If similar effects are seen in vivo, these drugs may increase the risk of diabetes.

  2. Treating the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia with alpha4beta2 neuronal nicotinic receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radek, Richard J; Kohlhaas, Kathy L; Rueter, Lynne E; Mohler, Eric G

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenic patients exhibit debilitating impairments of intellectual function. Typical and atypical antipsychotic medications are largely ineffective at treating the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia (CDS), and efforts to discover compounds that treat these symptoms are ongoing. Considerable tobacco use in schizophrenic patients, genetic linkage, and receptor binding studies suggest the involvement of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in schizophrenia. Neuronal alpha4beta2 nAChRs are widely distributed in the mammalian brain, and are implicated in normal cognitive functioning in animal models. Ligands of various selectivity and potency have been used to study the role of the alpha4beta2 subtype in schizophrenia. For instance, studies in rodents show that alpha4beta2 agonists improve sensory gating, an information processing function that is deficient in schizophrenia. Pharmacological studies in animals also suggest that alpha4beta2 nAChRs are involved in other cognitive domains that are impaired in schizophrenia, including speed of processing, working memory, visual learning and memory, and social cognition. The non-selective nAChR agonist nicotine has been shown to improve CDS in several human clinical studies, and recent trials have been undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of more alpha4beta2 selective compounds. It remains to be determined whether alpha4beta2 agonists will provide greater efficacy than nicotine for CDS or reducing tobacco use in patients. Pre-clinical evidence to date suggests that agonists of the nicotinic alpha4beta2 subtype could be useful in improving cognitive function in schizophrenic patients.

  3. Fasting mitigates immediate hypersensitivity: a pivotal role of endogenous D-beta-hydroxybutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shigeru; Hisamura, Ryuji; Shimoda, Sachiko; Shibuya, Izumi; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Fasting is a rigorous type of dietary restriction that is associate with a number of health benefits. During fasting, ketone bodies significantly increase in blood and become major body fuels, thereby sparing glucose. In the present study, we investigated effects of fasting on hypersensitivity. In addition, we also investigated the possible role of D-beta-hydroxybutyrate provoked by fasting in the attenuation of immediate hypersensitivity by fasting. Effects of fasting on systemic anaphylaxis were examined using rat model of toluene 2, 4-diisocyanate induced nasal allergy. In addition to food restriction, a ketogenic high-fat and low-carbohydrate diet that accelerates fatty acid oxidation and systemic instillation of D-beta-hydroxybutyrate were employed to elevate internal D-beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration. We assessed relationship between degranulation of rat peritoneal mast cells and internal D-beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration in each treatment. Changes in [Ca(2+)]i responses to compound 48/80 were analyzed in fura 2-loaded rat peritoneal mast cells derived from the ketogenic diet and fasting. Immediate hypersensitivity reaction was significantly suppressed by fasting. A significant reduction in mast cells degranulation, induced by mast cell activator compound 48/80, was observed in rat peritoneal mast cells delivered from the 24 hours fasting treatment. In addition, mast cells delivered from a ketogenic diet and D-beta-hydroxybutyrate infusion treatment also had reduced mast cell degranulation and systemic D-beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were elevated to similar extent as the fasting state. The peak increase in [Ca(2+)]i was significantly lower in the ketogenic diet and fasting group than that in the control diet group. The results of the present study demonstrates that fasting suppress hypersensitivity reaction, and indicate that increased level of D-beta-hydroxybutyrate by fasting plays an important role, via the stabilization of mast cells, in

  4. Thermodynamic Cycle Analysis and Inhibitor Design against Beta-Lactamase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Tomer A.; Minasov, George; Morandi, Stefania; Prati, Fabio; Shoichet, Brian K. (Degali); (UCSF)

    2010-03-08

    {beta}-Lactamases are the most widespread resistance mechanism to {beta}-lactam antibiotics, such as the penicillins and cephalosporins. Transition-state analogues that bind to the enzymes with nanomolar affinities have been introduced in an effort to reverse the resistance conferred by these enzymes. To understand the origins of this affinity, and to guide design of future inhibitors, double-mutant thermodynamic cycle experiments were undertaken. An unexpected hydrogen bond between the nonconserved Asn289 and a key inhibitor carboxylate was observed in the X-ray crystal structure of a 1 nM inhibitor (compound 1) in complex with AmpC {beta}-lactamase. To investigate the energy of this hydrogen bond, the mutant enzyme N289A was made, as was an analogue of 1 that lacked the carboxylate (compound 2). The differential affinity of the four different protein and analogue complexes indicates that the carboxylate-amide hydrogen bond contributes 1.7 kcal/mol to overall binding affinity. Synthesis of an analogue of 1 where the carboxylate was replaced with an aldehyde led to an inhibitor that lost all this hydrogen bond energy, consistent with the importance of the ionic nature of this hydrogen bond. To investigate the structural bases of these energies, X-ray crystal structures of N289A/1 and N289A/2 were determined to 1.49 and 1.39 {angstrom}, respectively. These structures suggest that no significant rearrangement occurs in the mutant versus the wild-type complexes with both compounds. The mutant enzymes L119A and L293A were made to investigate the interaction between a phenyl ring in 1 and these residues. Whereas deletion of the phenyl itself diminishes affinity by 5-fold, the double-mutant cycles suggest that this energy does not come through interaction with the leucines, despite the close contact in the structure. The energies of these interactions provide key information for the design of improved inhibitors against {beta}-lactamases. The high magnitude of the ion

  5. Metabolic consequences of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade for the acutely ischemic dog myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westera, G.; Hollander, W. den; Wall, E.E. van der; Eenige, M.J. van; Scholtalbers, S.; Visser, F.C.; Roos, J.P.

    1984-02-01

    In an experimental study in 50 dogs the myocardial uptake of free fatty acids (FFAs) after beta-blockade was determined using radioiodinated heptadecanoic acid as a metabolic tracer. All 4 beta-blockers used (metoprolol, timolol, propranolol and pindolol) lowered the uptake of FFAs in the normal canine heart. Uptake of FFAs was also diminished after coronary artery occlusion per se, but administration of beta-blockers exerted little additional influence on the uptake of FFAs. This observation was qualitatively parallelled by the uptake of /sup 201/Tl in concomitant experiments. Plasma FFA levels were increased by pindolol (non-selective with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity), not changed by metoprolol (a cardioselective betablocking agent) and lowered by timolol and propranolol (both non-selective compounds). The extent of ischemic tissue, as reflected by uptake of iodoheptadecanoic acid and /sup 201/Tl, was diminished by metoprolol but not by other beta-blockers. Regional distribution of both tracers, as shown in the endo-epicardial uptake ratios, was hardly influenced by beta-blockade, except for a small increase of /sup 201/Tl uptake in non-occluded endocardium. Uptake of /sup 201/Tl as well as of iodoheptadecanoic acid in the ischemic area was increased by metoprolol, timolol and propranolol and decreased by pindolol. We conclude that beta-blocking agents confer different effects on myocardial uptake and metabolism of FFAs which might possibly be related to their different inherent properties.

  6. Inhibitory effect of different product analogues on {beta}-alanine synthase: A thermodynamic and fluorescence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andujar-Sanchez, Montserrat; Martinez-Gomez, Ana Isabel; Martinez-Rodriguez, Sergio; Clemente-Jimenez, Josefa Maria; Heras-Vazquez, Francisco Javier Las; Rodriguez-Vico, Felipe [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Bioquimica y Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Almeria, Carretera de Sacramento s/n, La Canada de San Urbano, Almeria 04120 (Spain); Jara-Perez, Vicente [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Bioquimica y Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Almeria, Carretera de Sacramento s/n, La Canada de San Urbano, Almeria 04120 (Spain)], E-mail: vjara@ual.es

    2009-02-15

    The enzyme N-carbamoyl-{beta}-alanine amidohydrolase catalyse the hydrolysis of N-carbamoyl-{beta}-alanine or N-carbamoyl-{beta}-aminoisobutyric acid to {beta}-alanine or 3-aminoisobutyric acid, under the release of carbon-dioxide and ammonia. This work studies the inhibition of N-carbamoyl-{beta}-alanine amidohydrolase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 (At{beta}car) by different carboxylic acid compounds that differ in number of carbons, and position and size of ramification, while the binding thermodynamics of the inhibitors are studied by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and fluorescence. From the binding constants and inhibition studies, we conclude that propionate is the most efficient inhibitor among those tested. Substitution of the linear alkyl acids in positions 2 and 3 resulted in a drastic decrease of the affinity. The thermodynamic parameters show that a conformational change is triggered upon ligand binding. Binding enthalpy {delta}H{sub b} is negative in all cases for all ligands, and thus, Van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonding are most probably the major sources for this term. The process is entropically favoured at all temperatures and pH studied, most probably due to the liberation of water molecules accompanying the conformational change of the enzyme.

  7. Binding of TEM-1 beta-lactamase to beta-lactam antibiotics by frontal affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiu; Li, Yuhua; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Jianting; Bian, Liujiao

    2017-04-15

    TEM-1 beta-lactamases can accurately catalyze the hydrolysis of the beta-lactam rings in beta-lactam antibiotics, which make beta-lactam antibiotics lose its activity, and the prerequisite for the hydrolysis procedure in the binding interaction of TEM-1 beta-lactamases with beta-lactam antibiotics is the beta-lactam rings in beta-lactam antibiotics. Therefore, the binding of TEM-1 beta-lactamase to three beta-lactam antibiotics including penicillin G, cefalexin as well as cefoxitin was explored here by frontal affinity chromatography in combination with fluorescence spectra, adsorption and thermodynamic data in the temperature range of 278-288K under simulated physiological conditions. The results showed that all the binding of TEM-1 beta-lactamase to the three antibiotics were spontaneously exothermic processes with the binding constants of 8.718×10 3 , 6.624×10 3 and 2.244×10 3 (mol/L), respectively at 288K. All the TEM-1 beta-lactamases were immobilized on the surface of the stationary phase in the mode of monolayer and there existed only one type of binding sites on them. Each TEM-1 beta-lactamase bound with only one beta-lactam antibiotic and hydrogen bond interaction and Van der Waals force were the main forces between them. This work provided an insight into the binding interactions between TEM-1 beta-lactamases and beta-lactam antibiotics, which may be beneficial for the designing and developing of new substrates resistant to TEM-1 beta-lactamases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Removal of beta-pinene and limonene using compost biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, S; Neerackal, G; Buyuksonmez, F

    2013-02-01

    Composting is widely used for the treatment of solid organic wastes; however emissions from composting are becoming a threat to humans due to the release of toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOCs from composting operations are characterized by high flow rates and, normally, low pollutant concentration. Typical VOCs include a large amount of terpenes (-65% of total VOCs). This study was to investigate the efficiency of biofiltration in controlling terpene emissions from composting operations using a laboratory-scale unit. The performance of a biofilter was investigated as a function of inlet flow rate, inlet concentration, and bed length/bed diameter (L/D) ratio of bed. At the lowest total inlet flow rate, removal efficiency of limonene and beta-pinene was more than 90%. With the decrease in inlet concentration and increase in L/D ratio, the removal efficiency was effectively increased. Removal efficiency of more than 85% for Limonene and 45% for beta-Pinene was attained at a loading rate of 55 g/m3-hr. The maximum elimination capacity was found for 109.7 g/m3-hr for limonene and 10.3 g/m3-hr for beta-pinene at a critical loading of 150.1 g/m3-hr Based on this study, the compost bed could function as a biofilter for controlling terpene odors during the composting process. The purpose of this research project is to investigate the efficiency of biofiltration in controlling limonene and beta-pinene emissions from composting operations using a laboratory scale. In addition, the performance of a biofilter as a function of inlet flow rate, inlet concentration, and L/D ratio of bed was evaluated. Establishing a nexus between the operational parameters and efficiency would be useful in design and operation of compost bed as a biofilter for controlling terpene odors during the composting process.

  9. Lipidated alpha-Peptide/beta-Peptoid Hybrids with Potent Antiinflammatory Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbakke, Sarah L.; Larsen, Camilla J.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2015-01-01

    is dependent on the length and position of the lipid element(s). The resulting lead compound, Pam-(Lys-beta NSpe)(6)-NH2, blocks LPS-induced cytokine secretion with a potency comparable to that of polymyxin B. The mode of action of this HDP mimic appears not to involve direct LPS interaction since it......, in contrast to polymyxin B, displayed only minor activity in the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Flow cytometry data showed specific interaction of a fluorophore-labeled lipidated a-peptide/beta-peptoid hybrid with monocytes and granulocytes indicating a cellular target expressed by these leukocyte subsets....

  10. Abstraction Mechanisms in the BETA Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    1983-01-01

    ]) --- covering both data, procedural and control abstractions, substituting constructs like class, procedure, function and type. Correspondingly objects, procedure activation records and variables are all regarded as special cases of the basic building block of program executions: the entity. A pattern thus......The BETA programming language is developed as part of the BETA project. The purpose of this project is to develop concepts, constructs and tools in the field of programming and programming languages. BETA has been developed from 1975 on and the various stages of the language are documented in [BETA...... a]. The application area of BETA is programming of embedded as well as distributed computing systems. For this reason a major goal has been to develop constructs that may be efficiently implemented. Furthermore the BETA language is intended to have a few number of basic but general constructs...

  11. Lipids and immunoinflammatory pathways of beta cell destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Yumi; Dobrian, Anca D.; Morris, Margaret A.; Taylor-Fishwick, David A.; Nadler, Jerry L.

    2016-01-01

    Islet inflammation contributes to beta cell demise in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. 12-Lipoxygenase (12-LO, gene expressed as ALOX12 in human and 12-Lo in rodents in this manuscript) produces proinflammatory metabolites such as 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids through dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. 12-LO was first implicated in diabetes when the increase in 12-Lo expression and 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid was noted in rodent models of diabetes. Subsequently, germline 12-Lo−/− was shown to prevent the development of hyperglycemia in mouse models of type 1 diabetes and in high-fat fed mice. More recently, beta cell-specific 12-Lo−/− was shown to protect mice against hyperglycaemia after streptozotocin and a high-fat diet. In humans, 12-LO expression is increased in pancreatic islets of autoantibody-positive, type 1 diabetic and type 2 diabetic organ donors. Interestingly, the high expression of ALOX12 is associated with the alteration in first-phase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in human type 2 diabetic islets. To further clarify the role of islet 12-LO in diabetes and to validate 12-LO as a therapeutic target of diabetes, we have studied selective pharmacologic inhibitors for 12-LO. The compounds we have identified show promise: they protect beta cell lines and human islets from apoptosis and preserve insulin secretion when challenged by proinflammatory cytokine mixture. Currently studies are underway to test the compounds in mouse models of diabetes. This review summarizes a presentation given at the ‘Islet inflammation in type 2 diabetes’ symposium at the 2015 annual meeting of the EASD. It is accompanied two other mini-reviews on topics from this symposium (by Simone Baltrusch, DOI: XXX and Marc Donath, DOI: XXX) and a commentary by the Session Chair, Piero Marchetti (DOI: XXX). PMID:26868492

  12. [Beta thalassemia major in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Feliu Aurora; Bonduel, Mariana; Sciuccati, Gabriela; del Pozo, Ana; Roldán, Ariel; Ciaccio, Marta; Orazi, Virginia; Fano, Virginia; Ozuna, Blanca; Lejarraga, Horacio; Muriel, Sackmann Federico

    2002-01-01

    An analysis of beta thalassemia major patients seen at Hospital Juan P. Garrahan was carried out in order to determine the characteristics and outcome of the population. From August 1987 to July 2000, 45 patients were admitted (27 males-18 females). The most common beta globin gene defects were C-39 (30.7%); IVS-I nt 110 (20%); IVS-I nt 6 (13.3%); IVS-I nt 1(4%). alpha globin genes were normal in 42 patients, 1 patient had triplicate and cuadriplicate alpha globin genes and 2 patients were not analyzed. Six patients of 5 families were heterozygous for -158G gamma mutation. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation was performed in 7 patients, with an identical sibling. Transfusion-related infections and alloantibodies were detected in 6.7% patients. Growth assessment showed no significant difference in the stature of girls compared to the reference population, but 5 boys had short stature. There is a tendency to short trunk. Growth velocity was normal at prepubertal age. No X-ray lesions related to desferrioxamine were observed. Delayed puberty and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism were found in 35.7% and abnormalities in GH/IGF-I axis in 12.5% of the patients. Impaired glucose tolerance was found in 2 patients. No patient developed diabetes mellitus, thyroid or adrenal insufficiency. One patient had cardiac complications. Forty-two patients are alive and 3 died (cardiac failure 1, central nervous system bleeding 1, sepsis 1). We conclude that beta thalassemia major, originated mainly from Italian immigrants, has a cumbersome treatment and is severely hindered by the lack of adequate economic resources in our patients.

  13. Molecular distribution, seasonal variation, chemical transformation and sources of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds in atmospheric aerosols at remote marine Gosan site, Jeju Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, S.; Kawamura, K.; Lee, M.

    2009-12-01

    : A homologous series of C2-C12 α, ω-dicarboxylic acids, ω-oxocarboxylic acids (C2-C9), pyruvic acid and α-dicarbonyls (C2-C3) were detected in atmospheric aerosols collected between April 2003 and April 2004 from remote marine Gosan site (33°29‧ N, 126°16‧ E) located in Jeju Island, South Korea. They were determined using a GC-FID and GC/MS. Total diacid concentration ranged from 130 to 1911 ng m-3 (av. 642 ng m-3), whereas total oxoacid concentration ranged from 7 to 155 ng m-3 (av. 43 ng m-3), and pyruvic acid and α-dicarbonyls ranged from 0.5 to 15 ng m-3 (av. 5 ng m-3) and 2-108 ng m-3 (av. 17.3 ng m-3), respectively. Oxalic (C2) acid was the most abundant in all seasons followed by malonic (C3) or succinic (C4) acid, and phthalic (Ph) acid. The concentration of diacids decreased with an increase in carbon number except for azelaic (C9) acid, which was more abundant than suberic (C8) acid. Glyoxylic acid was predominant ω-oxoacid contributing to 92% of total ω-oxoacid. Total diacids, oxoacids and dicarbonyls showed maximum concentrations in spring and occasionally in winter, while minimum concentrations were observed in summer. Air mass trajectory analysis suggests that either spring or winter maxima can be explained by strong continental outflow associated with cold front passages, while summer minima are associated with warm southerly flows, which transport clean marine air from low latitudes to Jeju Island. The comparison between total diacid concentration level of this study and other study results of urban and remote sites of East Asia reveals that Gosan site is more heavily influenced by the continental outflow from China. The seasonal variation of malonic/succinic (C3/C4), malic/succinic (hC4/C4), fumaric/maleic (F/M), oxalic/pyruvic (C2/Py) and oxalic/Glyoxal (C2/Gly) ratios showed maxima in summer due to an enhanced photo-production and degradation of diacids and related compounds. Throughout all seasons C3/C4 ratio at Gosan site, located

  14. High-beta linac structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriber, S.O.

    1979-01-01

    Accelerating structures for high-beta linacs that have been and are in use are reviewed in terms of their performance. Particular emphasis is given to room-temperature structures and the disk-and-washer structure. The disk-and-washer structure has many attractive features that are discussed for pulsed high-gradient linacs, for 100% duty-cycle medium-gradient linacs and for high-current linacs requiring maximal amounts of stored energy in the electric fields available to the beam

  15. beta decay of (78)Sr

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Cerdán, Ana Belén; Rubio, Berta; Gelletly, W.; Algora, Alejandro; Agramunt, Jorge; Burkard, K.; Huller W.; Nácher, Enrique; Sarriguren, Pedro; Caballero Ontanaya, Luis; Molina Palacios, Francisco Gabriel; Fraile, Luis M.; Reillo, E.; García Borge, María José; Dessagne, Ph.

    2011-01-01

    The gamma rays and conversion electrons emitted in the beta decay of (78)Sr to levels in (78)Rb have been studied using Ge detectors and a mini-orange spectrometer. A reliable level scheme based on the results of these experiments has been established. The properties of the levels in (78)Rb have been compared with calculations based on deformed Hartree-Fock with Skyrme interactions and pairing correlations in the BCS approximation. This has allowed an interpretation of the nature of the obser...

  16. [Heterocygous beta thalassaemia (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez Aparicio, F

    1978-01-01

    Two girls with an heterocigotic beta-thalassemy are presented in this study. Case 1 has an hypochromic and microtic anaemia with an enormous splenomegaly, increased osmotic resistence of red blood cells in salted solution and increase of A2 hemoglobin. This situation is associated with an increase of the glucolitic intraerythrocitic enzimes. Case 2 showed increase of A2 hemoglobine, but this anomaly was associated with decrease of intraerythrocitic enzimatic rate. First clinical signs of erythrocitic disturbances was an acute hemolytic crisis developed by the supply of the sulphometoxipiridacine. The erythroquinetic study showed a decrease of the average life of the red blood cells in both patients.

  17. Beta cell proliferation and growth factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis; Svensson, C; Møldrup, Annette

    1999-01-01

    cloned a novel GH/PRL stimulated rat islet gene product, Pref-1 (preadipocyte factor-1). This protein contains six EGF-like motifs and may play a role both in embryonic pancreas differentiation and in beta cell growth and function. In summary, the increasing knowledge about the mechanisms involved...... in beta cell differentiation and proliferation may lead to new ways of forming beta cells for treatment of diabetes in man....

  18. Antibodies against chromosomal beta-lactamase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giwercman, B; Rasmussen, J W; Ciofu, Oana

    1994-01-01

    A murine monoclonal anti-chromosomal beta-lactamase antibody was developed and an immunoblotting technique was used to study the presence of serum and sputum antibodies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa chromosomal group 1 beta-lactamase in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The serum antibody resp...... against the infection. On the other hand, immune complexes between the beta-lactamase and corresponding antibodies could play a role in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary injury in CF by mediating hyperimmune reactions....

  19. Origins of Beta Tantalum in Sputtered Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mulligan, C

    2001-01-01

    .... Some of the most recent work has attempted to relate the energetics (i.e., atom/ion energy) of the plasma to the alpha right arrow beta transition. It has been shown that the energetics of the plasma can relate to the most crucial sputtering parameters. The most significant feature of the use of plasma energy to explain the alpha right arrow beta transition is that it relates the formation of beta-tantalum to a quantifiable measure.

  20. High beta plasmas in the PBX tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol, K.; Buchenauer, D.; Chance, M.

    1986-04-01

    Bean-shaped configurations favorable for high β discharges have been investigated in the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) tokamak. Strongly indented bean-shaped plasmas have been successfully formed, and beta values of over 5% have been obtained with 5 MW of injected neutral beam power. These high beta discharges still lie in the first stability regime for ballooning modes, and MHD stability analysis implicates the external kink as responsible for the present β limit

  1. Species used for drug testing reveal different inhibition susceptibility for 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Möller

    Full Text Available Steroid-related cancers can be treated by inhibitors of steroid metabolism. In searching for new inhibitors of human 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17beta-HSD 1 for the treatment of breast cancer or endometriosis, novel substances based on 15-substituted estrone were validated. We checked the specificity for different 17beta-HSD types and species. Compounds were tested for specificity in vitro not only towards recombinant human 17beta-HSD types 1, 2, 4, 5 and 7 but also against 17beta-HSD 1 of several other species including marmoset, pig, mouse, and rat. The latter are used in the processes of pharmacophore screening. We present the quantification of inhibitor preferences between human and animal models. Profound differences in the susceptibility to inhibition of steroid conversion among all 17beta-HSDs analyzed were observed. Especially, the rodent 17beta-HSDs 1 were significantly less sensitive to inhibition compared to the human ortholog, while the most similar inhibition pattern to the human 17beta-HSD 1 was obtained with the marmoset enzyme. Molecular docking experiments predicted estrone as the most potent inhibitor. The best performing compound in enzymatic assays was also highly ranked by docking scoring for the human enzyme. However, species-specific prediction of inhibitor performance by molecular docking was not possible. We show that experiments with good candidate compounds would out-select them in the rodent model during preclinical optimization steps. Potentially active human-relevant drugs, therefore, would no longer be further developed. Activity and efficacy screens in heterologous species systems must be evaluated with caution.

  2. Determination of volatile compounds by gas liquid chromatography in tropical fruit, guava (psidium guajav L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Zeb-un-Nisa; Asi, M. R.; Ahmad, R.; Iqbal, Z.; Maqbool, A. B.

    2002-01-01

    Volatile flavor components from both white and pink guava fruits were collected using Likens-Nickerson concurrent Distillation Extraction method and were analyzed by GC/FID. In the essence collected by using likens-Nickerson concurrent distillation extraction apparatus, 23 compounds were present in white guava fruit, of which 11 compounds (furfural, alpha-pinene, trans-2-hexene-1-ol, 2-heptanone, benzaldehyde, hexyl acetate Beta-ionone, limonene, 2-nonanone, cinamyl acetate and octyl acetate) were identified. Similarly for pink guava fruit, 13 compounds out of 29 compounds were identified by comparing retention times of unknown with that of standard compounds and sniffing at the odour port. These were hexanal, furfural, 2-heptanone, benzaldehyde, methyl furfural hexyl acetate, beta-ionone, alpha-pinene, 2-nonanone, limonene, cinnamyl acetate, ethyl undecanoate and octyl acetate. (author)

  3. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen

    2015-08-31

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows' milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows' milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows' milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  4. Broad resonances and beta-decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, K.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Hyldegaard, S.

    2015-01-01

    Beta-decay into broad resonances gives a distorted lineshape in the observed energy spectrum. Part of the distortion arises from the phase space factor, but we show that the beta-decay matrix element may also contribute. Based on a schematic model for p-wave continuum neutron states it is argued...... that beta-decay directly to the continuum should be considered as a possible contributing mechanism in many decays close to the driplines. The signatures in R-matrix fits for such decays directly to continuum states are discussed and illustrated through an analysis of the beta-decay of $^8$B into $2...

  5. MOPITT Beta Level 1 Radiances V107

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOPITT Beta Level 1 data product consists of the geolocated, calibrated earth scene radiances, associated instrument engineering data summaries, and inflight...

  6. Sawtooth crashes at high beta on JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alper, B.; Huysmans, G.T.A.; Sips, A.C.C. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Nave, M.F.F. [Universidade Tecnica, Lisbon (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico

    1994-07-01

    The sawtooth crashes on JET display features which depend on beta. The main observation is a transient bulging of flux surfaces (duration inferior to 30 microsec.), which is predominantly on the low field side and extends to larger radii as beta increases. This phenomenon reaches the plasma boundary when beta{sub N} exceeds 0.5 and in these cases is followed by an ELM within 50 microsec. These sawtooth/ELM events limit plasma performance. Modelling of mode coupling shows qualitative agreement between observations of the structure of the sawtooth precursor and the calculated internal kink mode at high beta. (authors). 6 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebely Pal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows’ milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows’ milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows’ milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  8. Metabolism of sitosteryl beta-D-glucoside and its nutritional effects in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, N.

    1988-01-01

    (4-14C)Sitosteryl beta-D-glucoside, intragastrically administered to rats, was not absorbed by the intestinal mucosa. At three hr after the application, radioactivity was concentrated almost exclusively in the digesta of stomach, small intestine as well as cecum and colon, whereas only low proportions of radioactively labeled compounds were found in the various tissues of the gastrointestinal tract. Minor proportions of labeled metabolites of (4-14C)sitosteryl beta-D-glucoside, such as sitosterol and sitosteryl esters, were formed in the small intestine in vivo and in slices of small intestine in vitro. In the tissues of cecum and colon as well as the digesta derived from them, high proportions of labeled coprositostanol, i.e. 24 alpha-ethyl-5 beta-cholestan-3 beta-ol, that obviously had been formed by bacterial degradation of the substrate were detected. The feeding of sitosteryl beta-D-glucoside (0.5 g/kg body weight X day) over a period of four weeks did not alter significantly body weights or organ weights of rats. Analyses of steryl lipids of the various organs and tissues confirmed the findings obtained with the radioactive substrate: neither sitosteryl beta-D-glucoside nor sitosterol or sitosteryl esters derived therefrom had been transported in appreciable amounts to organs and tissues outside the alimentary canal during the feeding period. Minor proportions of unmetabolized sitosteryl beta-D-glucoside were detected in the tissues of stomach and intestine, whereas large proportions of the substrate were found in feces of rats that had received the sitosteryl beta-D-glucoside-containing diet; coprositostanol was found in feces of these animals in high proportions as well.

  9. Structural Aspects for Evolution of [beta]-Lactamases from Penicillin-Binding Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meroueh, Samy O.; Minasov, George; Lee, Wenlin; Shoichet, Brian K.; Mobashery, Shahriar (NWU); (UCSF); (Notre)

    2010-03-08

    Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), biosynthetic enzymes of bacterial cell wall assembly, and {beta}-lactamases, resistance enzymes to {beta}-lactam antibiotics, are related to each other from an evolutionary point of view. Massova and Mobashery (Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1998, 42, 1-17) have proposed that for {beta}-lactamases to have become effective at their function as antibiotic resistance enzymes, they would have had to undergo structure alterations such that they would not interact with the peptidoglycan, which is the substrate for PBPs. A cephalosporin analogue, 7{beta}-[N-Acetyl-L-alanyl-{gamma}-D-glutamyl-L-lysine]-3-acetoxymethyl-3-cephem-carboxylic acid (compound 6), was conceived and synthesized to test this notion. The X-ray structure of the complex of this cephalosporin bound to the active site of the deacylation-deficient Q120L/Y150E variant of the class C AmpC {beta}-lactamase from Escherichia coli was solved at 1.71 {angstrom} resolution. This complex revealed that the surface for interaction with the strand of peptidoglycan that acylates the active site, which is present in PBPs, is absent in the {beta}-lactamase active site. Furthermore, insertion of a peptide in the {beta}-lactamase active site at a location where the second strand of peptidoglycan in some PBPs binds has effectively abolished the possibility for such interaction with the {beta}-lactamase. A 2.6 ns dynamics simulation was carried out for the complex, which revealed that the peptidoglycan surrogate (i.e., the active-site-bound ligand) undergoes substantial motion and is not stabilized for binding within the active site. These factors taken together disclose the set of structure modifications in the antibiotic resistance enzyme that prevent it from interacting with the peptidoglycan, en route to achieving catalytic proficiency for their intended function.

  10. beta-Lactamases and beta-lactam resistance in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacoby, G A; Sutton, L

    1985-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains determining 17 different plasmid-determined beta-lactamases were tested for resistance to new broad-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics. Several beta-lactamases demonstrated enhanced resistance to cefamandole but only low-level resistance to other agents. High production of cloned E. coli chromosomal beta-lactamase, however, provided resistance to cefamandole, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and aztreonam but not to BMY-28142 or imipenem.

  11. A TLC bioautographic method for the detection of alpha- and beta-glucosidase inhibitors in plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões-Pires, Claudia A; Hmicha, Bouchra; Marston, Andrew; Hostettmann, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Bioautographic assays using TLC play an important role in the search for active compounds from plants. A TLC assay has previously been established for the detection of beta-glucosidase inhibitors but not for alpha-glucosidase. Nonetheless, alpha-glucosidase inhibition is an important target for therapeutic agents against of type 2 diabetes and anti-viral infections. To develop a TLC bioautographic method to detect alpha- and beta-glucosidase inhibitors in plant extracts. The enzymes alpha- and beta-d-glucosidase were dissolved in sodium acetate buffer. After migration of the samples, the TLC plate was sprayed with enzyme solution and incubated at room temperature for 60 min in the case of alpha-d-glucosidase, and 37 degrees C for 20 min in the case of beta-d-glucosidase. For detection of the active enzyme, solutions of 2-naphthyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside or 2-naphthyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside and Fast Blue Salt were mixed at a ratio of 1 : 1 (for alpha-d-glucosidase) or 1 : 4 (for beta-d-glucosidase) and sprayed onto the plate to give a purple background colouration after 2-5 min. Enzyme inhibitors were visualised as white spots on the TLC plates. Conduritol B epoxide inhibited alpha-d-glucosidase and beta-d-glucosidase down to 0.1 microg. Methanol extracts of Tussilago farfara and Urtica dioica after migration on TLC gave enzymatic inhibition when applied in amounts of 100 microg for alpha-glucosidase and 50 microg for beta-glucosidase. The screening test was able to detect inhibition of alpha- and beta-glucosidases by pure reference substances and by compounds present in complex matrices, such as plant extracts.

  12. The effect of adenyl compounds on the rat heart.

    OpenAIRE

    Burnstock, G.; Meghji, P.

    1983-01-01

    1 The effects of adenyl compounds were examined on the rat atrium and ventricle. 2 Adenosine, adenosine 5'-monophosphate, adenosine 5'-diphosphate, adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and beta, gamma-methylene ATP (APPCP) produced negative inotropic effects on the rat atrium. These inhibitory effects were antagonized by 8-phenyltheophylline (8-PT), a P1-purinoceptor antagonist, and potentiated by erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine (EHNA), an adenosine deaminase inhibitor, but were not affected...

  13. Challenges in Double Beta Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliviero Cremonesi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past ten years, neutrino oscillation experiments have provided the incontrovertible evidence that neutrinos mix and have finite masses. These results represent the strongest demonstration that the electroweak Standard Model is incomplete and that new Physics beyond it must exist. In this scenario, a unique role is played by the Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay searches which can probe lepton number conservation and investigate the Dirac/Majorana nature of the neutrinos and their absolute mass scale (hierarchy problem with unprecedented sensitivity. Today Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay faces a new era where large-scale experiments with a sensitivity approaching the so-called degenerate-hierarchy region are nearly ready to start and where the challenge for the next future is the construction of detectors characterized by a tonne-scale size and an incredibly low background. A number of new proposed projects took up this challenge. These are based either on large expansions of the present experiments or on new ideas to improve the technical performance and/or reduce the background contributions. In this paper, a review of the most relevant ongoing experiments is given. The most relevant parameters contributing to the experimental sensitivity are discussed and a critical comparison of the future projects is proposed.

  14. Beta attenuation transmission system (BATS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, R.C.; Fullbright, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm 2 , of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A 90 Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (μP) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined

  15. [Isolation and identification of compounds from marine mangrove plant Avicennia marina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Ding, Yi; Lin, Wen-han

    2009-04-18

    To investigate the chemical constituents from Avicennia marina. The isolation and purification of the CH2Cl2 and n-BuOH fractions of this plant were performed, and the chemical structures were elucidated by spectral analysis as well as comparison of their spectral data with literature values. Three novel compounds were obtained and identified as erythro-guaiacylglycerol-beta-ferulic acid ether (1), marinnone A (16) and marinnone B (17), along with eighteen known compounds as threo-guaiacylglycerol-beta-ferulic acid ether (2), eleutheroside E2 (3), (+)-lirioresinol A (4), dihydroxymethyl-bis (3, 5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl) tetrahydrofuran-9-O-beta-glucopyranoside (5), (+)-lyoniresinol 3a-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (6), (-)-lyoniresinol 3a-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7), epi-pinoresinol (8), leucoseceptoside A (9), jionoside C (10), salsaside A (11), ilicifolioside A (12), acteoside (13), isoacteoside (14), ethyl ferulate (15), avicennone D (18), avicenone E (19), avicennol C (20), and stenocarpoquinone B (21). Three new compounds (1, 16 and 17) were obtained and thirteen known compounds, 2-12, 14 and 15 were isolated from Avicennia genus for the first time.

  16. Clusters of conserved beta cell marker genes for assessment of beta cell phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Geert A; Jiang, Lei; Hellemans, Karine H

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a gene expression blueprint of pancreatic beta cells conserved from rodents to humans and to evaluate its applicability to assess shifts in the beta cell differentiated state. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of isolated beta cells were compared to those...

  17. Complement activation by the amyloid proteins A beta peptide and beta 2-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Nielsen, E H; Svehag, S E

    1999-01-01

    component nor heparan sulfate did significantly alter the A beta-induced CA. The results indicate that not only fibrillar A beta but also oligomers of, in particular, beta 2M from patients with dialysis-associated amyloidosis are capable of inducing CA at supra-physiological concentrations....

  18. Beta globin messenger RNA content of bone marrow erythroblasts in heterozygous beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, E J; Pritchard, J; Hillman, D; Glass, J; Forget, B G

    1984-01-01

    RNA from bone marrow erythroblasts and peripheral blood reticulocytes of patients with heterozygous beta-thalassemia was analyzed for relative content of alpha and beta globin messenger RNA by molecular hybrization. Erythroblasts from nonthalassemic patients exhibited approximately the same alpha and beta globin mRNA content (beta/alpha mRNA ratio = 0.8-1.0) as circulating reticulocytes (beta/alpha mRNA ratio = 0.74-1.2). The mRNA ratios corresponded well to levels of globin synthesis observed in bone marrow and peripheral blood. Erythroblasts from four patients with heterozygous beta-thalassemia also exhibited approximately the same beta/alpha mRNA ratios in bone marrow erythroblasts (0.34-0.59) as in reticulocytes (0.34-0.4): beta globin mRNA was clearly deficient in bone marrow erythroblasts. Globin biosynthesis by erythroblasts of beta-thalassemia heterozygotes was balanced despite the mRNA deficiency (beta/alpha = 0.9-1.0), suggesting that post-translational phenoma (eg, proteolysis of free globin chains), rather than instability of beta mRNA, accounts for the balanced globin chain synthesis frequently observed in bone marrow erythroblasts of patients with beta-thalassemia trait.

  19. Beta-glucosidase variants and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wogulis, Mark; Harris, Paul; Osborn, David

    2017-06-27

    The present invention relates to beta-glucosidase variants, e.g. beta-glucosidase variants of a parent Family GH3A beta-glucosidase from Aspergillus fumigatus. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the beta-glucosidase variants; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the beta-glucosidase variants.

  20. Cloning and characterization of human liver cytosolic beta-glycosidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Graaf, M; Van Veen, IC; Van Der Meulen-Muileman, IH; Gerritsen, WR; Pinedo, HM; Haisma, HJ

    2001-01-01

    Cytosolic beta -glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21) from mammalian liver is a member of the family 1 glycoside hydrolases and is known for its ability to hydrolyse a range of beta -D-glycosides. including beta -D-glucoside acid beta -D-galactoside. We therefore refer to this enzyme as cytosolic beta

  1. Lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptors mirror precisely beta 2-adrenoceptor, but poorly beta 1-adrenoceptor changes in the human heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Beckeringh, J. J.; Ikezono, K.; Kretsch, R.; Brodde, O. E.

    1986-01-01

    To study the relationship of changes in human lymphocyte beta-adrenoceptors to changes potentially occurring in solid tissues we studied 16 patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting and determined the density of lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptors [by (-)125I-iodocyanopindolol (ICYP)

  2. Coordination Compounds in Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 6. Coordination Compounds in Biology - The Chemistry of Vitamin B12 and Model Compounds. K Hussian Reddy. General Article Volume 4 Issue 6 June 1999 pp 67-77 ...

  3. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  4. Expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) receptors and expression of TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1993-01-01

    A panel of 21 small cell lung cancer cell (SCLC) lines were examined for the presence of Transforming growth factor beta receptors (TGF beta-r) and the expression of TGF beta mRNAs. By the radioreceptor assay we found high affinity receptors to be expressed in six cell lines. scatchard analysis......(r) = 65,000 and 90,000 and the betaglycan (type III) with M(r) = 280,000. Northern blotting showed expression of TGF beta 1 mRNA in ten, TGF beta 2 mRNA in two and TGF beta 3 mRNA in seven cell lines. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence that a large proportion of a broad panel of SCLC cell...... lines express TGF beta-receptors and also produce TGF beta mRNAs....

  5. [Study on the analysis of organogermanium compounds by ion chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q; Mou, S; Hou, X; Ni, Z

    1997-05-01

    A new high performance ion exchange chromatographic method for separation and determination of three organogermanium compounds beta-carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide (I), beta-(alpha-methyl) carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide (II) and di-(beta-carboxyethyl) germanium hydroxide (III) has been developed. A Dionex DX-300 Ion Chromatograph equipped with a Dionex PED-II pulsed electrochemical detector (conductivity mode), a Dionex AMMS-1 anion micromembrane suppressor, and a Dionex ACI advanced computer interface coupled with AI-450 chromatographic software was employed. The separation was achieved by using a Dionex IonPac AS4A-SC column as analytical column, sodium tetraborate solution as eluent, and sulfuric acid solution as regenerant. For reducing run time, a gradient program was chosen. The detection limits (S/N = 3, expressed as germanium) for the three compounds were 0.038mg/L (I), 0.035mg/L (II) and 0.025mg/L (III), respectively. The method has been applied to the analysis of two tonic oral drinks, and the average recoveries for the three compounds ranged from 95%-101%. The results obtained were in agreement with those of hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS).

  6. MTF of compound eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Hamid Reza; Karimzadeh, Ayatollah

    2010-06-07

    Compound eye is a new field of research about miniaturizing imaging systems. We for the first time introduce a dual compound eye that contains three micro lens arrays with aspheric surfaces. The designed dual compound eye in one state is a superposition system in which each channel images all of field of view of the system. With adding a field stop we have decreased the stray light. MTF of ideal superposition compound eye calculated. Also with changing field stop the system is converted to an apposition compound eye in which each channel images only a part of total field of view and so the field of view is larger than that of superposition type.

  7. Thyroid hormone receptor isoform selectivity of thyroid hormone disrupting compounds quantified with an in vitro reporter gene assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schriks, M.; Roessig, J.M.; Murk, A.J.; Furlow, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Some compounds, including brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs), can interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) receptor (TR)-mediated TH-signalling. In this study, the TR isoform selectivity of some TH disrupting compounds was investigated with TR alpha/beta specific reporter gene assays. For this purpose,

  8. Signaling from beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors is defined by differential interactions with PDE4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Wito; Day, Peter; Agrawal, Rani

    2008-01-01

    Beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors (betaARs) are highly homologous, yet they play clearly distinct roles in cardiac physiology and pathology. Myocyte contraction, for instance, is readily stimulated by beta1AR but not beta2AR signaling, and chronic stimulation of the two receptors has opposing...

  9. Synthesis and antitumor activity of 2-beta-D-ribofuranosyloxazole-4-carboxamide (oxazofurin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchetti, P; Cristalli, G; Grifantini, M; Cappellacci, L; Vittori, S; Nocentini, G

    1990-10-01

    Condensation of 3,4,6-tri-O-benzoyl-2,5-anhydro-D-allonyl chloride (4) with ethyl 2-amino-2-cyanoacetate (5) provided 2-[(3',4',6'-tri-O-benzoyl-2',5'-anhydroallonyl)amino]-2-cyanoa cetate (6). Compound 6 was treated with hydrogen chloride gas to give ethyl 5-amino-2-(2',3',5'-tri-O-benzoyl-beta-D- ribofuranosyl)oxazole-4-carboxylate (8). Reductive dediazotization of blocked nucleoside 8 provided ethyl 2-(2',3',5'-tri-O- benzoyl-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)oxazole-4-carboxylate (10), which after deblocking with sodium methoxide and ammonolysis was converted to 2-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-oxazole-4-carboxamide (oxazofurin, 3), an analogue of the antitumor and antiviral C-nucleoside tiazofurin (1). Oxazofurin (3) was found to be cytotoxic toward B16 murine melanoma cells in culture but inactive against murine leukemia P388 and L1210.

  10. Phenotypic variability of Filipino beta(o)-thalassemia/HbE patients in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setianingsih, I; Williamson, R; Daud, D; Harahap, A; Marzuki, S; Forrest, S

    1999-09-01

    Three Indonesian patients with identical genotypes, each compound heterozygotes for Filipino beta(o)-thalassemia/HbE, expressed different clinical severities. One patient has mild disease and is transfusion independent, while the other two are severely affected and transfusion dependent. The size of the Filipino beta(o)-globin gene deletion was confirmed to be 45 kb, resolving conflicting values given in the literature. Neither ameliorating genetic factors such as alpha-globin gene deletions or the XmnI restriction site polymorphism at position -158 upstream of the (G)gamma-globin gene, nor differences in beta-globin gene haplotype, explain the phenotypic variation. These observations have implications for the development of antenatal diagnosis in Indonesia, as at present it is not possible to give an accurate prediction of severity of phenotype for this common genotype. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Beta-agonists and animal welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of beta-agonists in animal feed is a high profile topic within the U.S. as consumers and activist groups continue to question its safety. The only beta-agonist currently available for use in swine is ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC). This is available as Paylean™ (Elanco Animal Health – FDA a...

  12. Nebivolol : third-generation beta-blockade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Rudolf A.; Voors, Adriaan A.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.

    Nebivolol is a third generation beta-blocker. It is highly selective for the beta 1-adrenoceptor, and has additional nitric oxide-mediated vasodilating and antioxidant properties, along with a favourable metabolic profile. Nebivolol is well tolerated by patients with hypertension and heart failure.

  13. Beta-2-mikroglobulin ved medicinske sygdomme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1989-01-01

    Beta-2-microglobulin (beta 2M) is a low-molecular protein which is filtered freely over the glomeruli. Under normal circumstances, more than 99.9% is resorbed in the proximal tubuli of the kidneys and is metabolized there. In renal disease with damage to this segment of the nephron, eg acute tubulo...

  14. Beta delayed particle emission in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riisager, K.; Gabelmann, H.

    1991-01-01

    A short discussion of theoretical treatments of beta delayed particle emission is followed by a presentation of data on the newly found beta delayed deuteron decay of 6 He. This decay cannot be described properly with existing theories. (author) 8 refs.; 3 figs

  15. Silent ischemia and beta-blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egstrup, K

    1991-01-01

    , and the mechanism of action seems mainly mediated through a reduction in myocardial oxygen demand. beta-Blockers have shown effectiveness in both effort-induced angina and mixed angina, and increased anti-ischemic potency may be achieved by combination therapy with a calcium antagonist. Abrupt withdrawal of beta...

  16. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) receptors, TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 production and autocrine growth control in osteosarcoma cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloen, P.; Jennings, C. L.; Gebhardt, M. C.; Springfield, D. S.; Mankin, H. J.

    1994-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a polypeptide with multiple physiological functions. Isoforms of this growth factor have important roles in control of the cell cycle, in regulation of cell-cell interactions and in growth and development. Malignant transformation has been shown to be

  17. Ranking beta sheet topologies of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Rasmus; Helles, Glennie; Winter, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    One of the challenges of protein structure prediction is to identify long-range interactions between amino acids. To reliably predict such interactions, we enumerate, score and rank all beta-topologies (partitions of beta-strands into sheets, orderings of strands within sheets and orientations of...

  18. Higher-Order Beta Matching with Solutions in Long Beta-Eta Normal Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støvring, Kristian

    2006-01-01

    Higher-order matching is a special case of unification of simply-typed lambda-terms: in a matching equation, one of the two sides contains no unification variables. Loader has recently shown that higher-order matching up to beta equivalence is undecidable, but decidability of higher-order matching...... up to beta-eta equivalence is a long-standing open problem.We show that higher-order matching up to beta-eta equivalence is decidable if and only if a restricted form of higher-order matching up to beta equivalence is decidable: the restriction is that solutions must be in long beta-eta normal form....

  19. Purification of beta-acetylglucosaminase and beta-galactosidase from ram testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caygill, J C; Roston, C P; Jevons, F R

    1966-02-01

    1. The presence of beta-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23) in an acetic acid extract of ram testis is reported. Some properties of the crude enzyme preparation were studied. 2. The purification of beta-acetylglucosaminase (EC 3.2.1.30) and of beta-galactosidase from the ram-testis extract by ammonium sulphate precipitation and chromatography on a CM-cellulose column is described. 3. The final purifications of the separated enzymes achieved were for the beta-acetylglucosaminase 35 times and for the beta-galactosidase 99 times. 4. The possibility of using DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-200 to purify the enzymes was investigated.

  20. Utilization of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for diagnosis of {beta}-thalassemia and ascertainment of new mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo, K.Y.; Liu, D.; Lee, J. [Univ. of California, San Diego (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    During the past two years we have tested 2,300 Southeast Asians for alpha- and beta-thaleassemia mutations. We found the incidence of hemoglobin E ({beta}{sup 26}) to be 47% among Laotians and 38% among Cambodians. The incidence of beta thalassemia trait is 9% for Laotians and 6% for Cambodians. Thus, the risk for hemoglobin E/{beta}{sup 26} thalassemia, a transfusion-dependent disorder, is increased in these two population groups. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) has proven to be useful in testing for beta-thalassemia carriers and identifying new mutations in the beta globin gene. DNA was extracted from venous blood obtained from patients with elevated Hgb A2 (>4%). Five DNA fragments, encompassing the beta globin gene cluster, were amplified by PCR and analyzed, along with known beta gene mutations as controls, by DGGE using different denaturing gradient concentrations. Different mutations at the same nucleotide position can be distinguished by migration pattern on the DGGE (e.g., in IVS-I-1, G{r_arrow}A and T). Compound heterozygotes for {beta}-thalassemia can be detected on the same gel (e.g., HbE/mutation codon 17). New mutations are identified by their migration pattern compared with controls and determined by subsequent sequencing. We have identified three new mutations: codon 82 CAA{r_arrow}AAA in one Cambodian patient; IVS-II-667, T{r_arrow}C and IVS-II-672, A{r_arrow}C in two Laotian patients. When the parent`s genotypes are known, prenatal diagnosis can be obtained within 24 hours. Thus, PCR/DGGE combination is a rapid and reliable diagnostic approach to clinically significant {beta}-thalassemia. The most important steps are carefully designed primers and predetermined gradient concentrations for DGGE.

  1. PIN1 gene overexpression and beta-catenin gene mutation/expression in hepatocellular carcinoma and their significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Jinxiang; Feng, Wei; Zhang, Shu; Liang, Huifang; Wang, Yang; Zheng, Qichang; Li, Zhuoya

    2007-02-01

    The evolution of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a compound process which involves many kinds of genes and transductional pathways. The expression of the peptidyl-proplyl-isomerase PIN1 gene, the mutation in exon 3 of beta-catenin and its correspondent abnormal expression and their roles in the hepatocellular carcinogeneisis were investigated. Among 29 pair cases of HCC and non-carcinoma tissues, the expression of PIN1 gene was detected by immunochemical staining. Mutations in exon 3 of beta-catenin gene and differential expression of beta-catenin gene were investigated by the methods of PCR-SSCP, direct sequencing and immunohistochemical technique as well. The results indicated: (1) 44.8% (13/29) cases of HCC presented higher level of PIN1 gene expression than non-cancerous tissues (chi2=32.63, Pexpression in non-cancerous tissues; (2) 58.6% (17/29) HCC tissues showed beta-catenin protein accumulation in cytoplasm and nucleus. 46.2% (6/13) HCC tissues indicated beta-catenin protein accumulation with higher level of PIN1 expression, while 53.8% (7/13) HCC tissues indicated beta-catenin protein accumulation with lower level or trace of PIN1 expression (chi2=0.00, P>0.05); (3) 24.1% (7/29) of primary tumor lesions carried gene mutations in exon 3 of beta-catenin, and accompanied by beta-catenin protein accumulation. There was no mutation in non-cancerous tissues. All the mutation presented in tissues with low level of PIN1 expression. There was no mutation of beta-catenin gene in tissues with high PIN1 expression level (chi2=58.12, Pexpression could promote hepatocellular carcinogenesis via a way different from beta-catenin gene mutation.

  2. Localization of thymosin beta-4 in tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, L. -I.; Holck, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    in colorectal carcinomas. The degree of staining of breast cancer cells for thymosin beta-4 correlated neither to histological grade nor to endothelial cell staining. However, there was a tendency toward correlation (P = 0.07) between staining of endothelial cells and histological grade. Treatment of cultured......Overexpression of thymosin beta-4 has been linked to malignant progression but the localization of this polypeptide within tumors is incompletely known. We therefore examined breast cancers for thymosin beta-4 using immunofluorescence. Reactive cells were identified with monoclonal cell marker...... breast cancer cells (SK-BR-3) with 1-4 microg thymosin beta-4/mL significantly increased cell numbers, as determined by MTT-assays. These data reveal an unexpected cellular heterogeneity of thymosin beta-4 expression in breast and colonic carcinomas and suggest that local release of this polypeptide...

  3. Antibodies against chromosomal beta-lactamase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giwercman, B; Rasmussen, J W; Ciofu, Oana

    1994-01-01

    A murine monoclonal anti-chromosomal beta-lactamase antibody was developed and an immunoblotting technique was used to study the presence of serum and sputum antibodies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa chromosomal group 1 beta-lactamase in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The serum antibody...... response was studied with serum samples collected in 1992 from 56 CF patients in a cross-sectional study and with serum samples from 18 CF patients in a longitudinal study. Anti-beta-lactamase immunoglobulin G antibodies were present in all of the serum samples from the patients with chronic...... bronchopulmonary P. aeruginosa infection (CF + P) but in none of the CF patients with no or intermittent P. aeruginosa infection. Anti-beta-lactamase antibodies were present in serum from CF + P patients after six antipseudomonal courses (median) and correlated with infection with a beta-lactam-resistant strain...

  4. Ranking beta sheet topologies of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Rasmus; Helles, Glennie; Winter, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    One of the challenges of protein structure prediction is to identify long-range interactions between amino acids. To reliably predict such interactions, we enumerate, score and rank all beta-topologies (partitions of beta-strands into sheets, orderings of strands within sheets and orientations...... of paired strands) of a given protein. We show that the beta-topology corresponding to the native structure is, with high probability, among the top-ranked. Since full enumeration is very time-consuming, we also suggest a method to deal with proteins with many beta-strands. The results reported...... in this paper are highly relevant for ab initio protein structure prediction methods based on decoy generation. The top-ranked beta-topologies can be used to find initial conformations from which conformational searches can be started. They can also be used to filter decoys by removing those with poorly...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency Printable PDF Open All Close ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Dopamine beta (β)-hydroxylase deficiency is a condition that ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: methemoglobinemia, beta-globin type

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Methemoglobinemia, beta-globin type Methemoglobinemia, beta-globin type Printable PDF Open All Close All ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Methemoglobinemia, beta-globin type is a condition that affects the ...

  7. PBX: the Princeton beta experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol, K.; Chance, M.; Dewar, R.

    1983-09-01

    A rearrangement of the divertor coils in PDX will enable a test in 1984 of the MHD stability properties of deeply indented bean-shaped plasmas. The goal is a beta of 10%. Indentation is expected to counter the deterioration of MHD stability against pressure driven modes that is occasioned by the larger aspect ratios typical of anticipated reactor oriented devices. Indeed, as shown by M. Chance et al., indentation may offer direct access to the second region of stability for ballooning modes, and numerical analyses with PEST show the internal kink to be stabilized completely with even relatively modest indentation. The internal kink is implicated in the loss of beam ions in PDX. In this report the theoretical basis for the forthcoming experiment, and the design considerations underlying the modification from PDX to PBX, are described in detail. Additional theoretical material, including an analysis of particle orbits in an indented tokamak plasma, is appended

  8. Complement activation by the amyloid proteins A beta peptide and beta 2-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Nielsen, E H; Svehag, S E

    1999-01-01

    Complement activation (CA) has been reported to play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate whether CA may contribute to amyloidogenesis in general, the CA potential of different amyloid fibril proteins was tested. CA induced by A beta preparations containing soluble...... protein, protofilaments and some fibrils or only fibrils in a solid phase system (ELISA) was modest with a slow kinetics compared to the positive delta IgG control. Soluble A beta induced no detectable CA in a liquid phase system (complement consumption assay) while fibrillar A beta caused CA at 200 mg....../ml and higher concentrations. Soluble beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2M) purified from peritoneal dialysates was found to be as potent a complement activator as A beta in both solid and liquid phase systems while beta 2M purified from urine exhibited lower activity, a difference which may be explained...

  9. Clusters of conserved beta cell marker genes for assessment of beta cell phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Geert A; Jiang, Lei; Hellemans, Karine H

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a gene expression blueprint of pancreatic beta cells conserved from rodents to humans and to evaluate its applicability to assess shifts in the beta cell differentiated state. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of isolated beta cells were compared to those...... of a large panel of other tissue and cell types, and transcripts with beta cell-abundant and -selective expression were identified. Iteration of this analysis in mouse, rat and human tissues generated a panel of conserved beta cell biomarkers. This panel was then used to compare isolated versus laser capture...... microdissected beta cells, monitor adaptations of the beta cell phenotype to fasting, and retrieve possible conserved transcriptional regulators....

  10. Dimers of beta 2-glycoprotein I mimic the in vitro effects of beta 2-glycoprotein I-anti-beta 2-glycoprotein I antibody complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutters, B. C.; Meijers, J. C.; Derksen, R. H.; Arnout, J.; de Groot, P. G.

    2001-01-01

    Anti-beta(2)-glycoprotein I antibodies are thought to cause lupus anticoagulant activity by forming bivalent complexes with beta(2)-glycoprotein I (beta(2)GPI). To test this hypothesis, chimeric fusion proteins were constructed of the dimerization domain (apple 4) of factor XI and beta(2)GPI. Both a

  11. Compounding around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Pharmaceutical compounding is universal in its prevalence. Variations in disease patterns, culture, and tradition; the role of government in health care; and the availability of essential equipment and required agents shape a compounding profile unique to each country worldwide. In the following reflections, pharmacists form Argentina, Belgium, Colombia, Germany, Puerto Rico, Spain, and the United States describe their experiences in the compounding setting unique to their practice and their nation. The unifying theme in their comments is the dedication of each contributor to enabling recovery and ensuring the good health of his or her clients.

  12. Continuous and Jump Betas: Implications for Portfolio Diversification

    OpenAIRE

    Vitali Alexeev; Mardi Dungey; Wenying Yao

    2016-01-01

    Using high-frequency data, we decompose the time-varying beta for stocks into beta for continuous systematic risk and beta for discontinuous systematic risk. Estimated discontinuous betas for S&P500 constituents between 2003 and 2011 generally exceed the corresponding continuous betas. We demonstrate how continuous and discontinuous betas decrease with portfolio diversification. Using an equiweighted broad market index, we assess the speed of convergence of continuous and discontinuous be...

  13. High-pressure synthesis and crystal structures of beta- M NX (M = Zr, Hf; X = Cl, Br, I)

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, X; Yamanaka, S

    2002-01-01

    The single crystals of six kinds of metal nitride halide, beta- M NX (M = Zr, Hf; X = Cl, Br, I), were grown in sealed Au (or Pt) tubes by the reaction of M N or M NX powders with NH sub 4 X as fluxes under high-temperature and high-pressure conditions such as 3-5 GPa at 900-1200 sup o C. The x-ray structure analysis revealed that all six kinds of compound crystallize in a rhombohedral space group R3-bar m, Z = 6. beta-ZrNCl, beta-ZrNBr, and beta-HfNCl are isotypic with SmSI, and the others isostructural with YOF.

  14. Isoreserpine promotes {beta}-catenin degradation via Siah-1 up-regulation in HCT116 colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwak, Jungsug; Song, Taeyun [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jie-Young; Yun, Yeon-Sook [Laboratory of Radiation Cancer Science, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Il-Whan [Department of Microbiology, Center for Viral Disease Research, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yongsu [Department of Genetic Engineering, and Graduate School of Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jae-Gook [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sangtaek, E-mail: ohsa@inje.ac.kr [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-25

    Aberrant accumulation of intracellular {beta}-catenin in intestinal epithelial cells is a frequent early event during the development of colon cancer. To identify small molecules that decrease the level of intracellular {beta}-catenin, we performed cell-based chemical screening using genetically engineered HEK293 reporter cells to detect compounds that inhibit TOPFlash reporter activity, which was stimulated by Wnt3a-conditioned medium. We found that isoreserpine promoted the degradation of intracellular {beta}-catenin by up-regulation of Siah-1 in HEK293 and HCT116 colon cancer cells. Moreover, isoreserpine repressed the expression of {beta}-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF)-dependent genes, such as cyclin D1 and c-myc, resulting in the suppression of HCT116 cell proliferation. Our findings suggest that isoreserpine can potentially be used as a chemotherapeutic agent against colon cancer.

  15. Synthesis and chromatographic evaluation of the new phase heptakis (3-O-pentafluoropropionyl-2,6-di-O-pentyl)-{beta}-cyclodextrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallmann, Anderson S.; Ethur, Eduardo M.; Silva, Ubiratan F. da; Dalcol, Ionara I.; Morel, Ademir F., E-mail: afmorel@base.ufsm.b [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (NPPN/UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais

    2010-07-01

    In this work, a new chiral stationary phase heptakis (3-O-pentafluoropropionyl-2,6-di-Opentyl)- {beta}-cyclodextrin was synthesized and evaluated with a wide variety of volatile chiral compounds. As a result, the new cyclodextrin derivative can be applied to the separation of chiral components of essential oils, as hydrocarbons, ketones, aldehydes, alcohols and of various classes of synthetic chiral compounds, as long chain alcohols, halocarbons, nitrogen and sulfur containing compounds. (author)

  16. Analysis of the electrochemical reactivity of natural hemozoin and {beta}-hemozoin in the presence of antimalarial drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban Reyes-Cruz, Victor, E-mail: reyescruz16@yahoo.com [Area Academica de Ciencias de la Tierra y Materiales, Instituto de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo (Mexico); Urbano Reyes, Gustavo, E-mail: gurbano2003@yahoo.com.mx [Area Academica de Ciencias de la Tierra y Materiales, Instituto de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo (Mexico); Veloz Rodriguez, Maria Aurora, E-mail: maveloz70@yahoo.com.mx [Area Academica de Ciencias de la Tierra y Materiales, Instituto de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo (Mexico); Imbert Palafox, Jose Luis, E-mail: imbertox@hotmail.com [Area Academica de Medicina, Instituto de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo (Mexico)

    2011-11-30

    We report an evaluation of the reactivity of hemozoin (HZ) and {beta}-hemozoin ({beta}-HZ) obtained from the Triatoma Meccus longipennis, alone and in combination with quinine and amodiaquine. Using cyclic voltammetry and carbon paste electrodes, the redox processes that these compounds undergo were analysed. The results indicated that the atom Fe presence, the substance concentration, the drugs existence and the nature of the electrolytic medium are important in the redox processes. The strongest reactivity was for {beta}-HZ from Triatoma, which suggests that cellular molecules are embedded in an oxidising environment due to the presence of {beta}-HZ and indicates that like HZ, {beta}-HZ could be associate with phospholipid bilayers and interfere with their physical and chemical integrity, contributing to membrane breakdown and hyper-oxidation of molecules. It was further observed that when measuring the reactivity of HZ and {beta}-HZ with quinine and amodiaquine, a more oxidative stress was generated between the second one and the {beta}-HZ, which could explain the effectiveness of amodiaquine as a better antimalarial drug. Finally, it was concluded that electrochemical evaluation may be a convenient tool in determining the efficiency of antimalarial drugs and the identification of their redox processes.

  17. Effect of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 inhibition on hepatic glucose metabolism in the conscious dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerton, Dale S; Basu, Rita; Ramnanan, Christopher J; Farmer, Tiffany D; Neal, Doss; Scott, Melanie; Jacobson, Peer; Rizza, Robert A; Cherrington, Alan D

    2010-05-01

    Inactive cortisone is converted to active cortisol within the liver by 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (11 beta-HSD1), and impaired regulation of this process may be related to increased hepatic glucose production (HGP) in individuals with type 2 diabetes. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute 11 beta-HSD1 inhibition on HGP and fat metabolism during insulin deficiency. Sixteen conscious, 42-h-fasted, lean, healthy dogs were studied. Somatostatin was infused to create insulin deficiency, and the animals were treated with a specific 11 beta-HSD1 inhibitor (compound 531) or placebo for 5 h. 11 beta-HSD1 inhibition completely suppressed hepatic cortisol production, and this attenuated the increase in HGP that occurred during insulin deficiency. PEPCK and glucose-6-phosphatase expression were decreased when 11 beta-HSD1 was inhibited, but gluconeogenic flux was unchanged, implying an effect on glycogenolysis. Since inhibition of hepatic cortisol production reduces HGP during insulin deficiency, 11 beta-HSD1 is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of excess glucose production that occurs in diabetes.

  18. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Although elemental semiconductors such as silicon and germanium are standard for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by their physical limitations, namely the need for ancillary cooling, their modest stopping powers, and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors, on the other hand, encompass such a wide range of physical and electronic properties that they have become viable competitors in a number of applications. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors is a consolidated source of information on all aspects of the use of compound semiconductors for radiation detection and measurement. Serious Competitors to Germanium and Silicon Radiation Detectors Wide-gap compound semiconductors offer the ability to operate in a range of hostile thermal and radiation environments while still maintaining sub-keV spectral resolution at X-ray wavelengths. Narrow-gap materials offer the potential of exceeding the spectral resolutio...

  19. MEA 86 Compound data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data file contains the full raw parameter data for the 86 compounds tested in the developmental MEA assay, as well as Area Under the Curve (AUC) calculations...

  20. Hexavalent Chromium Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about chromium, exposure to which can increase your risk of lung cancer and cancer of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. Hexavalent chromium compounds have been used as corrosion inhibitors in a wide variety of products and processes.

  1. Compound composite odontoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, G; Bavle, Radhika M; Singh, Manish Kumar; Prasad, Sahana N

    2016-01-01

    The term odontoma has been used as a descriptor for any tumor of odontogenic origin. It is a growth in which both epithelial and mesenchymal cells exhibits complete differentiation. Odontomas are considered as hamartomas rather than true neoplasm. They are usually discovered on routine radiographic examination. Odontomas, according to the World Health Organization, are classified into complex odontoma and compound odontomas. The present paper reports a case of compound composite odontomas.

  2. Endocrine disrupting compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, I B; Christensen, P; Dantzer, V

    2001-01-01

    processes, and exposure during critical periods of prenatal development might affect reproductive performance over several generations. Alkylphenols and their metabolites are lipophilic substances exerting apparent estrogenic action in in vitro and in vivo testing systems. With the widespread industrial use...... or embryo models for the evaluation of possible consequences of human exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds is discussed. Furthermore, possible consequences of exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds for the embryo transfer industry are addressed....

  3. Phenolic compounds in flaxseed

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsson, Pernilla

    2004-01-01

    The dietary lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), present in high concentrations in flaxseed, and its metabolites enterolactone and enterodiol are thought to decrease the risk of hormone dependent cancers, cardiovascular disease and other “welfare” diseases. Flaxseed also contains other biologically active phenolic compounds, such as phenolic acids. The understanding of the nature of these compounds is crucial for their possible exploitation in drugs and functional foods. Until the m...

  4. Effect of beta-adrenoceptor blockers on human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Delphine S; Klaerke, Dan A; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2005-01-01

    -1H-inden-4-yl)oxy]-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-2-butanol hydrochloride) blocked the HERG channel with similar affinity, whereas the beta1-receptor antagonists metoprolol and atenolol showed weak effects. Further, the four compounds blocked HERG channels expressed in a mammalian HEK293 cell line...

  5. An easy and efficient method to produce {gamma}-amino alcohols by reduction of {beta}-enamino ketones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Maria Ines N.C.; Braga, Antonio C.H. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: herrera@iqm.unicamp.br

    2004-12-01

    Reduction of {beta}-enamino ketones 2 with NaBH{sub 4} in glacial acetic acid gave {gamma}-amino alcohols 1 in 70% to 98% yield with diastereomeric excesses, preferentially the syn product, from 44% to 90%. The stereochemistry of these compounds was confirmed by analysis of their tetrahydro-1,3-oxazine derivatives 3. (author)

  6. Bauer-7-en-3{beta}-yl acetate: a major constituent of unusual samples of Brazilian propolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Erica Weinstein [Secretaria da Agricultura e Abastecimento, Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil). Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios; Message, Dejair [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias. Dept. de Biologia Animal; Negri, Giuseppina; Salatino, Antonio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Botanica

    2006-03-15

    The pentacyclic triterpenoid bauer-7-en-3{beta}-yl acetate was obtained from thloroform extract of an unusual sample of propolis from southeast Brazil with the yield of 7%. The compound was identified by comparison of IR, MS and NMR analysis with published data. (author)

  7. Assessment of affinities of beta-CIT, beta-CIT-FE, and beta-CIT-FP for monoamine transporters permanently expressed in cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Tomoya; Fujita, Masahiro; Shimada, Shoichi; Sato, Kohji; Schloss, Patrick; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Itoh, Yasushi; Tohyama, Masaya; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the effects of three cocaine analogs, beta-CIT (2-beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl)-tropane), beta-CIT-FE (2-beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(2-fluoroethyl)-nortropane), and beta-CIT-FP (2-beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)-nortropane), on the uptake of [ 3 H]dopamine(DA), serotonin(5-HT), and 1-norepinephrine (NE) using cell lines permanently expressing DA, 5-HT, and NE transporters, respectively, to determine their affinities for these three transporters. We generated cell lines stably expressing DA, 5-HT, and NE transporters, respectively, by the Chen-Okayama method, and then tested the abilities of (-)cocaine, beta-CIT, beta-CIT-FE, beta-CIT-FP, and clomipramine to inhibit the uptake of [ 3 H]DA, 5-HT, and 1-NE. Ki values of beta-CIT, beta-CIT-FE, and beta-CIT-FP for [ 3 H]DA, 5-HT, 1-NE uptake were 6, 29, and 33 nM, 91, 133, and 130 nM, and 28, 113 and 70 nM, respectively, whereas those of cocaine and clomipramine were 316, 581, and 176 nM and > 10,000, 437, and 851 nM, respectively. Beta-CIT, beta-CIT-FE, and beta-CIT-FP were shown to be potent DA, 5-HT, and NE uptake inhibitors. Beta-CIT and beta-CIT-FP were highly potent and selective dopamine uptake inhibitors, and therefore might be useful for imaging of DA transporter with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET)

  8. Turnover of beta-galactosidase in fibroblasts from patients with genetically different types of beta-galactosidase deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Diggelen, O P; Schram, A W; Sinnott, M L; Smith, P J; Robinson, D; Galjaard, H

    1981-01-01

    The turnover of lysosomal beta-galactosidase was studied in fibroblast cultures from patients with Gm1-gangliosidosis and combined beta-galactosidase and neuraminidase deficiency, which had 5-10% residual beta-galactosidase activity. beta-Galactosidase was specifically inactivated with the suicide substrate beta-D-galactopyranosylmethyl-p-nitro-phenyltriazene (beta-Gal-MNT) and from the subsequent restoration of enzyme activity in cell cultures turnover times were calculated. By using [3H]bet...

  9. Looking for the new preparations for antibacterial therapy. II. Clinical trials; new beta-lactam antibiotics and beta-lactamase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpiuk, Izabela; Tyski, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    To obtain a status of a medicinal product, a compound possessing potential antimicrobial activity and displaying no cytotoxicity, must undergo three phases of clinical trials to prove its therapeutic efficacy, safety and quality. Properties of the compound should be based on the results of studies meeting specific criteria. Studies should be: randomized, double-blind, involving sufficient number of volunteers, concerning the infections localized in strictly defined area and caused by identified microorganisms. After the medicinal product is authorized to be on the market, clinical trials of the fourth phase are carried out to detect adverse effects, overdose symptoms, interactions of the new drug with other medicinal products and to establish characteristic of activity among groups such as children, elderly, women in pregnancy and patients suffering from other diseases, but only if the benefits of receiving treatment outweigh the risks. This article is a second part of the series associated with searching for new antibacterial agents and it relates to performance of clinical trials and the new compounds belonging to the class of beta-lactams. Among the 9 presented compounds, candidates to become medicinal products, two belong to the cephalosporins (CXA-101, S-649266), one to carbapenems (razupenem), three to monobactams (BAL30072, BAL30376, MC-1) and three to beta-lactamase inhibitors (NXL-104, MK-7655, ME1071).

  10. Amyloid-beta binds catalase with high affinity and inhibits hydrogen peroxide breakdown.

    OpenAIRE

    Milton, N G

    1999-01-01

    Amyloid-beta (Abeta) specifically bound purified catalase with high affinity and inhibited catalase breakdown of H(2)O(2). The Abeta-induced catalase inhibition involved formation of the inactive catalase Compound II and was reversible. CatalaseAbeta interactions provide rapid functional assays for the cytotoxic domain of Abeta and suggest a mechanism for some of the observed actions of Abeta plus catalase in vitro.

  11. Hexachlorophene inhibits Wnt/beta-catenin pathway by promoting Siah-mediated beta-catenin degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seoyoung; Gwak, Jungsug; Cho, Munju; Song, Taeyun; Won, Jaejoon; Kim, Dong-Eun; Shin, Jae-Gook; Oh, Sangtaek

    2006-09-01

    Aberrant activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and subsequent up-regulation of beta-catenin response transcription (CRT) is a critical event in the development of human colon cancer. Thus, Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is an attractive target for the development of anticancer therapeutics. In this study, we identified hexachlorophene as an inhibitor of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling from cell-based small-molecule screening. Hexachlorophene antagonized CRT that was stimulated by Wnt3a-conditioned medium by promoting the degradation of beta-catenin. This degradation pathway is Siah-1 and adenomatous polyposis colidependent, but glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and F-box beta-transducin repeat-containing protein-independent. In addition, hexachlorophene represses the expression of cyclin D1, which is a known beta-catenin target gene, and inhibits the growth of colon cancer cells. Our findings suggest that hexachlorophene attenuates Wnt/beta-catenin signaling through the Siah-1-mediated beta-catenin degradation.

  12. In vivo demonstration of cardiac beta 2-adrenoreceptor sensitization by beta 1-antagonist treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J A; Petch, M C; Brown, M J

    1991-10-01

    Treatment with beta 1-selective antagonists causes selective sensitization of isolated strips of human atrial myocardium to the inotropic action of epinephrine and beta 2-agonists but not of norepinephrine. To determine whether beta 1-selective antagonist treatment alters the responsiveness of cardiac beta 2-adrenoreceptors in vivo, we measured the positive chronotropic responses to salbutamol injected into the right coronary artery. Ten patients treated with atenolol (50-100 mg daily) were compared with 10 patients not treated with beta-blockers. The mean dose required to cause an increase in heart rate of 30 beats/min was 2.29 micrograms (log dose 0.36 +/- 0.12 micrograms [mean +/- SEM]) in the atenolol-treated patients. In the non-beta-blocker-treated patients, the dose required to cause an increase in heart rate of 30 beats/min was significantly greater, 8.91 micrograms (log dose 0.95 +/- 0.11 micrograms) (p less than 0.005). We conclude that treatment with beta 1-selective beta-blockers leads to increased cardiac responsiveness to beta 2-adrenoreceptor stimulation. This may be the underlying mechanism of the beta-blocker withdrawal syndrome and may make the heart more susceptible to the adverse effects of epinephrine in situations of stress (e.g., myocardial infarction).

  13. Changes in volatile compounds of carrots (Daucus carota L.) during refrigerated and frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldsen, Frank; Christensen, Lars P; Edelenbos, Merete

    2003-08-27

    Carrots (Daucus carota L.) of cv. Bolero and cv. Carlo were processed into shreds and stored for up to 4 months at -24 degrees C (frozen storage), or the roots were stored for up to 4 months at 1 degrees C (refrigerated storage) followed by processing into shreds. Volatiles from the carrot shreds were collected by dynamic headspace technique and analyzed by GC-FID, GC-MS, GC-MS/MS, and GC-O to determine the volatile composition and aroma active components of carrots stored under different temperature conditions. A total of 52 compounds were quantified, of which mono- and sesquiterpenes accounted for approximately 99% of the total volatile mass. Major volatile compounds were (-)-alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, (-)-limonene, (+)-limonene, (+)-sabinene, gamma-terpinene, p-cymene, terpinolene, beta-caryophyllene, alpha-humulene, and (E)- and (Z)-gamma-bisabolene. A considerable increase in the concentration of mono- and sesquiterpenes was observed during refrigerated storage, whereas the concentration of terpenoids was around the same level during frozen storage. GC-O revealed that the major volatiles together with (+)-alpha-pinene, (-)-beta-pinene, (+)-beta-pinene, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, (-)-beta-bisabolene, beta-ionone, and myristicin had an odor sensation, which included notes of "carrot top", "terpene-like", "green", "earthy", "fruity", "citrus-like", "spicy", "woody", and "sweet".

  14. Venus gravity - Analysis of Beta Regio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, P. B.; Sjogren, W. L.; Mottinger, N. A.; Bills, B. G.; Abbott, E.

    1982-01-01

    Radio tracking data acquired over Beta Regio were analyzed to obtain a surface mass distribution from which a detailed vertical gravity field was derived. In addition, a corresponding vertical gravity field was evaluated solely from the topography of the Beta region. A comparison of these two maps confirms the strong correlation between gravity and topography which was previously seen in line-of-sight gravity maps. It also demonstrates that the observed gravity is a significant fraction of that predicted from the topography alone. The effective depth of complete isostatic compensation for the Beta region is estimated to be 330 km, which is somewhat deeper than that found for other areas of Venus.

  15. Beta cell proliferation and growth factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis; Svensson, C; Møldrup, Annette

    1999-01-01

    cloned a novel GH/PRL stimulated rat islet gene product, Pref-1 (preadipocyte factor-1). This protein contains six EGF-like motifs and may play a role both in embryonic pancreas differentiation and in beta cell growth and function. In summary, the increasing knowledge about the mechanisms involved......Formation of new beta cells can take place by two pathways: replication of already differentiated beta cells or neogenesis from putative islet stem cells. Under physiological conditions both processes are most pronounced during the fetal and neonatal development of the pancreas. In adulthood little...

  16. Dosimetry of Low-Energy Beta Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Jette

    Useful techniques and procedures for derermination of absorbed doses from exposure in a low-energy beta radiation were studied and evaluated. The four techniques included were beta spectrometry, extrapolation chamber dosimetry, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, and exoelectron dosimetry. As a typical...... low-energy beta radiation field a moderated spectrum from a carbon-14 source was used. The measured responce of a Si(Li) detector to photons (bremsstrahlung) showed fine agreemant with the MC calculated photon response, whereas the difference between measured and MC calculated response to electrons...

  17. Beta Cell Count Instead of Beta Cell Mass to Assess and Localize Growth in Beta Cell Population following Pancreatic Duct Ligation in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintinne, Marie; Stangé, Geert; Denys, Bart; Ling, Zhidong; In ‘t Veld, Peter; Pipeleers, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Background Pancreatic-tail duct ligation (PDL) in adult rodents has been reported to induce beta cell generation and increase beta cell mass but increases in beta cell number have not been demonstrated. This study examines whether PDL increases beta cell number and whether this is caused by neogenesis of small clusters and/or their growth to larger aggregates. Methodology Total beta cell number and its distribution over small (100 µm) clusters was determined in pancreatic tails of 10-week-old mice, 2 weeks after PDL or sham. Principal findings PDL increased total beta cell mass but not total beta cell number. It induced neogenesis of small beta cell clusters (2.2-fold higher number) which contained a higher percent proliferating beta cells (1.9% Ki67+cells) than sham tails (beta cell number represented beta cell number and was associated with a similar increase in alpha cell number. It is unknown whether the regenerative process is causally related to the inflammatory infiltration in PDL-tails. Human pancreases with inflammatory infiltration also exhibited activation of proliferation in small beta cell clusters. Conclusions/significance The PDL model illustrates the advantage of direct beta cell counts over beta cell mass measurements when assessing and localizing beta cell regeneration in the pancreas. It demonstrates the ability of the adult mouse pancreas for neogenesis of small beta cell clusters with activated beta cell proliferation. Further studies should investigate conditions under which neoformed small beta cell clusters grow to larger aggregates and hence to higher total beta cell numbers. PMID:22952825

  18. Beta cell count instead of beta cell mass to assess and localize growth in beta cell population following pancreatic duct ligation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Chintinne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pancreatic-tail duct ligation (PDL in adult rodents has been reported to induce beta cell generation and increase beta cell mass but increases in beta cell number have not been demonstrated. This study examines whether PDL increases beta cell number and whether this is caused by neogenesis of small clusters and/or their growth to larger aggregates. METHODOLOGY: Total beta cell number and its distribution over small (100 µm clusters was determined in pancreatic tails of 10-week-old mice, 2 weeks after PDL or sham. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PDL increased total beta cell mass but not total beta cell number. It induced neogenesis of small beta cell clusters (2.2-fold higher number which contained a higher percent proliferating beta cells (1.9% Ki67+cells than sham tails (<0.2%; their higher beta cell number represented <5% of total beta cell number and was associated with a similar increase in alpha cell number. It is unknown whether the regenerative process is causally related to the inflammatory infiltration in PDL-tails. Human pancreases with inflammatory infiltration also exhibited activation of proliferation in small beta cell clusters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The PDL model illustrates the advantage of direct beta cell counts over beta cell mass measurements when assessing and localizing beta cell regeneration in the pancreas. It demonstrates the ability of the adult mouse pancreas for neogenesis of small beta cell clusters with activated beta cell proliferation. Further studies should investigate conditions under which neoformed small beta cell clusters grow to larger aggregates and hence to higher total beta cell numbers.

  19. Alternative splicing of TGF-betas and their high-affinity receptors T beta RI, T beta RII and T beta RIII (betaglycan) reveal new variants in human prostatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Lutz; Scheiber, Jonas A; Völck-Badouin, Elke; Keilani, Marcel M; Laible, Leslie; Brandt, Heidrun; Schmidt, Ansgar; Aumüller, Gerhard; Hofmann, Rainer

    2007-09-11

    The transforming growth factors (TGF)-beta, TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta 3, and their receptors [T beta RI, T beta RII, T beta R III (betaglycan)] elicit pleiotropic functions in the prostate. Although expression of the ligands and receptors have been investigated, the splice variants have never been analyzed. We therefore have analyzed all ligands, the receptors and the splice variants T beta RIB, T beta RIIB and TGF-beta 2B in human prostatic cells. Interestingly, a novel human receptor transcript T beta RIIC was identified, encoding additional 36 amino acids in the extracellular domain, that is expressed in the prostatic cancer cells PC-3, stromal hPCPs, and other human tissues. Furthermore, the receptor variant T beta RIB with four additional amino acids was identified also in human. Expression of the variant T beta RIIB was found in all prostate cell lines studied with a preferential localization in epithelial cells in some human prostatic glands. Similarly, we observed localization of T beta RIIC and TGF-beta 2B mainly in the epithelial cells with a preferential localization of TGF-beta 2B in the apical cell compartment. Whereas in the androgen-independent hPCPs and PC-3 cells all TGF-beta ligands and receptors are expressed, the androgen-dependent LNCaP cells failed to express all ligands. Additionally, stimulation of PC-3 cells with TGF-beta2 resulted in a significant and strong increase in secretion of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) with a major participation of T beta RII. In general, expression of the splice variants was more heterogeneous in contrast to the well-known isoforms. The identification of the splice variants T beta RIB and the novel isoform T beta RIIC in man clearly contributes to the growing complexity of the TGF-beta family.

  20. Disrupting beta-amyloid aggregation for Alzheimer disease treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, L D; Soto, C

    2007-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a devastating degenerative disorder for which there is no cure or effective treatment. Although the etiology of Alzheimer's disease is not fully understood, compelling evidence indicates that deposition of aggregates composed by a misfolded form of the amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) is the central event in the disease pathogenesis. Therefore, an attractive therapeutic strategy is to prevent or reverse Abeta misfolding and aggregation. Diverse strategies have been described to identify inhibitors of this process, including screening of libraries of small molecules chemical compounds, rational design of synthetic peptides, assessment of natural Abeta-binding proteins and stimulation of the immune system by vaccination. In this article we describe these different approaches, their principles and their potential strengths and weaknesses. Overall the available data suggest that the development of drugs to interfere with Abeta misfolding and aggregation is a feasible target that hold great promise for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  1. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senard Jean-Michel

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DβH deficiency is a very rare form of primary autonomic failure characterized by a complete absence of noradrenaline and adrenaline in plasma together with increased dopamine plasma levels. The prevalence of DβH deficiency is unknown. Only a limited number of cases with this disease have been reported. DβH deficiency is mainly characterized by cardiovascular disorders and severe orthostatic hypotension. First symptoms often start during a complicated perinatal period with hypotension, muscle hypotonia, hypothermia and hypoglycemia. Children with DβH deficiency exhibit reduced ability to exercise because of blood pressure inadaptation with exertion and syncope. Symptoms usually worsen progressively during late adolescence and early adulthood with severe orthostatic hypotension, eyelid ptosis, nasal stuffiness and sexual disorders. Limitation in standing tolerance, limited ability to exercise and traumatic morbidity related to falls and syncope may represent later evolution. The syndrome is caused by heterogeneous molecular alterations of the DBH gene and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Restoration of plasma noradrenaline to the normal range can be achieved by therapy with the synthetic precursor of noradrenaline, L-threo-dihydroxyphenylserine (DOPS. Oral administration of 100 to 500 mg DOPS, twice or three times daily, increases blood pressure and reverses the orthostatic intolerance.

  2. Steroidal and phenolic compounds from Sidastrum paniculatum (L.) Fryxell and evaluation of cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Jose Marcilio Sobral; Nogueira, Tiago Bezerra de Sa de Souza; Tomaz, Anna Claudia de Andrade; Antas e Silva, Davi; Agra, Maria de Fatima; Souza, Maria de Fatima Vanderlei de [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Tecnologia Farmaceutica Prof. Delby Fernandes de Medeiros; Carvalho, Paulo Roberto Cavalcanti; Ramos, Silvia Rafaelli; Nascimento, Silene Carneiro do; Goncalves-Silva, Teresinha [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Antibioticos

    2010-07-01

    Sidastrum paniculatum (L.) Fryxell belongs to the family Malvaceae and is popularly known as 'malva roxa' or 'malvavisco'. The phytochemical study of the hexane, CHCl{sub 3} and EtOAc phases from the crude ethanol extract of S. paniculatum led to the isolation of six compounds: a mixture of {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol, 4-methoxy-3-hydroxybenzoic acid, 4-methoxy-3-hydroxybenzaldehyde, N-trans-feruloyltyramine and kaempferol-3-O-{beta}{beta}-D-(6''-E-p-coumaroyl) glucoside. The structural identification of the compounds was made on the basis of spectroscopic methods such as IR, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR with the aid of including two-dimensional techniques, besides comparison with literature data. The {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol mixture showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity. (author)

  3. Systematic Risk on Istanbul Stock Exchange: Traditional Beta Coefficient Versus Downside Beta Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülfen TUNA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to test the validity of Downside Capital Asset Pricing Model (D-CAPM on the ISE. At the same time, the explanatory power of CAPM's traditional beta and D-CAPM's downside beta on the changes in the average return values are examined comparatively. In this context, the monthly data for seventy three stocks that are continuously traded on the ISE for the period 1991-2009 is used. Regression analysis is applied in this study. The research results have shown that D-CAPM is valid on the ISE. In addition, it is obtained that the power of downside beta coefficient is higher than traditional beta coefficient on explaining the return changes. Therefore, it can be said that the downside beta is superior to traditional beta in the ISE for chosen period.

  4. Polyphenol compounds of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora; Compostos polifenolicos do kino de Eucalyptus citriodora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Marinalva Oliveira; Lima, Mary Anne S.; Silveira, Edilberto R. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: edil@ufc.br

    2007-07-01

    Phytochemical analysis of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora led to the isolation of 1-O,2-O-digaloil-6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-trans-p-cumaroil-6-O-cinamoil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, alpha and beta 6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-D-glucopyranoside, 7-methylaromadendrin-4'-O-6{sup -}trans-p-cumaroil-beta-Dglucopyranoside, aromadendrin, aromadendrin-7-methyl-ether, naringenin, sakuranetin, kaempferol-7-methyl-ether and galic acid. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was established on the basis of spectral data, particularly by the use of 1D NMR and several 2D shift correlated NMR pulse sequences ({sup 1}H,{sup 1}H-COSY, HMQC, HMBC). (author)

  5. Investigating the Influence of Mesoporosity in Zeolite Beta on its Catalytic Performance for the Conversion of Methanol to Hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Zhaohui

    2015-08-26

    Hierarchically porous zeolite Beta (Beta-MS) synthesized by a soft-templating method contains remarkable intra-crystalline mesoporosity, which reduces the diffusion length in zeolite channels down to several nanometers and alters the distribution of Al among distinct crystallographic sites. When used as a catalyst for the conversion of methanol to hydrocarbons (MTH) at 330 oC, Beta-MS exhibited a 2.7-fold larger conversion capacity, a 2.0-fold faster reaction rate, and a remarkably longer lifetime than conventional zeolite Beta (Beta-C). The superior catalytic performance of Beta-MS is attributed to its hierarchical structure, which offers full accessibility to all catalytic active sites. In contrast, Beta-C was easily deactivated because a layer of coke quickly deposited on the outer surfaces of the catalyst crystals, impeding access to interior active sites. This difference is clearly demonstrated by using electron microscopy combined with electron energy loss spectroscopy to probe the distribution of coke in the deactivated catalysts. At both low and high conversions, ranging from 20% to 100%, Beta-MS gave higher selectivity towards higher aliphatics (C4-C7) but lower ethene selectivity compared to Beta-C. Therefore, we conclude that a hierarchical structure decreases the residence time of methylbenzenes in zeolite micropores, disfavoring the propagation of the aromatic-based catalytic cycle. This conclusion is consistent with a recent report on ZSM-5 and is also strongly supported by our analysis of soluble coke species residing in the catalysts. Moreover, we identified an oxygen-containing compound, 4-methyl-benzaldehyde, in the coke, which has not been observed in the MTH reaction before.  

  6. Separation of beta-galactosidases and beta-glucosidases from human liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, E; David, A; DeGregorio, R; Nadler, H L

    1976-01-01

    Various fractions obtained from normal human liver homogenates by gel chromatography and selective adsorption and elution from insolubilized concanavalin A were compared as to their beta-galactosidase and beta-glucosidase activities. The high-molecular-weight acidic beta-galactosidase form was converted into the smaller major form by sodium dodecyl sulfate treatment. Electrophoresis and electrofocusing on acrylamide slabs revealed, in addition to the two major isoenzyme forms (acid and neutral), another five minor bands with enzymatic activity.

  7. Nuclear beta decay and the weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kean, D.C.

    1975-11-01

    Short notes are presented on various aspects of nuclear beta decay and weak interactions including: super-allowed transitions, parity violation, interaction strengths, coupling constants, and the current-current formalism of weak interaction. (R.L.)

  8. Beta-binomial regression and bimodal utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan-Fen; Burgess, James F; Manning, Willard G; Maciejewski, Matthew L

    2013-10-01

    To illustrate how the analysis of bimodal U-shaped distributed utilization can be modeled with beta-binomial regression, which is rarely used in health services research. Veterans Affairs (VA) administrative data and Medicare claims in 2001-2004 for 11,123 Medicare-eligible VA primary care users in 2000. We compared means and distributions of VA reliance (the proportion of all VA/Medicare primary care visits occurring in VA) predicted from beta-binomial, binomial, and ordinary least-squares (OLS) models. Beta-binomial model fits the bimodal distribution of VA reliance better than binomial and OLS models due to the nondependence on normality and the greater flexibility in shape parameters. Increased awareness of beta-binomial regression may help analysts apply appropriate methods to outcomes with bimodal or U-shaped distributions. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  9. Literature in Focus Beta Beams: Neutrino Beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    By Mats Lindroos (CERN) and Mauro Mezzetto (INFN Padova, Italy) Imperial Press, 2009 The beta-beam concept for the generation of electron neutrino beams was first proposed by Piero Zucchelli in 2002. The idea created quite a stir, challenging the idea that intense neutrino beams only could be produced from the decay of pions or muons in classical neutrino beams facilities or in future neutrino factories. The concept initially struggled to make an impact but the hard work by many machine physicists, phenomenologists and theoreticians over the last five years has won the beta-beam a well-earned position as one of the frontrunners for a possible future world laboratory for high intensity neutrino oscillation physics. This is the first complete monograph on the beta-beam concept. The book describes both technical aspects and experimental aspects of the beta-beam, providing students and scientists with an insight into the possibilities o...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: beta-mannosidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... M, Kleijer WJ, Friderici KH. Human beta-mannosidase cDNA characterization and first identification of a mutation associated with ... Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical ...

  11. Localization of thymosin beta-4 in tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, L. -I.; Holck, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Overexpression of thymosin beta-4 has been linked to malignant progression but the localization of this polypeptide within tumors is incompletely known. We therefore examined breast cancers for thymosin beta-4 using immunofluorescence. Reactive cells were identified with monoclonal cell marker...... antibodies. A very heterogeneous staining pattern for thymosin beta-4 was observed. Thus, while leukocytes and macrophages showed intense reactivity for this polypeptide, cancer cells, and endothelial cells showed a much more variable reactivity. A similar heterogeneous staining was observed also...... in colorectal carcinomas. The degree of staining of breast cancer cells for thymosin beta-4 correlated neither to histological grade nor to endothelial cell staining. However, there was a tendency toward correlation (P = 0.07) between staining of endothelial cells and histological grade. Treatment of cultured...

  12. Association behavior of native beta-lactoglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verheul, M.; Pedersen, J.S.; Roefs, S.P.F.M.

    1999-01-01

    The association behavior of beta-lactoglobulin has been studied by small-angle neutron scattering as a function of protein concentration, temperature, pH, and NaCl concentration of the solution. By indirect Fourier transformation of the spectra, pair-distance distribution functions for the various...... samples were obtained. These functions provided information on the maximum size, the weight-averaged molecular mass, and the z-averaged radius of gyration oo the the beta-lactoglobulin particles. Al room temperature and pH values below 4 and above IZ the protein consists predominantly of monomers...... and a decrease in ionic strength. beta-Lactoglobulin A associates more strongly than beta-lactoglobulin B. Surprisingly, at pH 6.9 larger structures than dimers seem to be formed at high protein concentrations (>30 mg mL(-1)). (C) 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc....

  13. Fluorine-18 labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleijn, J.P. de

    1978-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis deals with the problems involved in the adaption of reactor-produced fluorine-18 to the synthesis of 18 F-labelled organic fluorine compounds. Several 18 F-labelling reagents were prepared and successfully applied. The limitations to the synthetic possibilities of reactor-produced fluoride- 18 become manifest in the last part of the thesis. An application to the synthesis of labelled aliphatic fluoro amino acids has appeared to be unsuccessful as yet, although some other synthetic approaches can be indicated. Seven journal articles (for which see the availability note) are used to compose the four chapters and three appendices. The connecting text gives a survey of known 18 F-compounds and methods for preparing such compounds. (Auth.)

  14. X-ray study of modulated structures of beta-CuxV2O5

    OpenAIRE

    Nagao, Nobuaki; Nogami, Yoshio; Oshima, Kokichi; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Yutaka

    2003-01-01

    High resolution X-ray study reveals the wave vector change in the modulated structure of the quasi-one dimensional compound beta'-Cu vanadium bronze. Structural modulation of the reduced wave vector q0 = (0, 0.305, 0) emerges below 220 K in beta'-Cu0.29V2O5 . For beta'-Cu0.39V2O5, not the single q modulation but two kinds of modulations were observed. A three-fold superlattice structure with q1 = (0, 0.333, 0) appears below 210 K. An incommensurate modulated structure with q2 = (0, 0.26 ? 0.2...

  15. Interconverting conformations of variants of the human amyloidogenic protein beta2-microglobulin quantitatively characterized by dynamic capillary electrophoresis and computer simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Niels H H; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Cheng, Lei

    2006-01-01

    Capillary electrophoretic separation profiles of cleaved variants of beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) reflect the conformational equilibria existing in solutions of these proteins. The characterization of these equilibria is of interest since beta2m is responsible for amyloid formation in dialysis...... a unified theory for dynamic chromatography and dynamic electrophoresis. The results are correlated with the outcome of independent experiments based on mass spectrometric measurement of H/D exchange. This study illustrates that dynamic capillary electrophoresis is suitable for the investigation...... of the interconversion of protein conformations of amyloidogenic molecules and is not only restricted to ideal model compounds....

  16. Chemistry and Functionality of Bioactive Compounds Present in Persimmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Yaqub

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive research has related the consumption of persimmon with the reduced risk of various diseases and particularly highlighted the presence of bioactive phenolic compounds for their therapeutic properties. Major phenolic compounds present in persimmon are ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and gallic acid. β-Cryptoxanthin, lycopene, β-carotene, zeaxanthin, and lutein are important carotenoids having antioxidant potential. They are important to prevent oxidation of low-density lipoproteins, safeguard beta cells of the pancreas, and reduce cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes mellitus, and damage caused by chronic alcohol consumption. In this paper, the chemistry and health benefits of bioactive compounds present in persimmon are reviewed to encourage impending applications and to facilitate further research activities.

  17. A new flavonol glycoside and activity of compounds from the flower of Nymphaea candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R-N; Wang, W; Ding, Y; Xie, W-D; Ma, C; Du, L-J

    2007-01-01

    A new compound, kaempferol 3-O-(2''-O-galloylrutinoside) (1), was isolated from the white flower of Nymphaea candida, together with nine known flavonol glycosides, kaempferol (2), kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), kaempferol 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside (4), kaempferol 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosylglucopyranoside (5), kaempferol 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside 3-(O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosylglucopyranoside) (6), quercetin (7), quercetin 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside (8), myricetin (9), myricetin 3'-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside (10). The structure of 1 was established on the basis of the analysis of its 1D and 2D NMR spectral data. Compounds 1-7 and 9 exhibited moderate to significant antioxidant activities, which were evaluated by measurement of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in vitro. Compounds 1, 3, 4, 6 and 9 exhibited promising neuroprotective effects on ischemic injury model of cultured rat cortical neurons treated with sodium dithionite in glucose-free medium. Furthermore, compounds 1, 5, and 9 had distinct cytotoxicity to adrenal gland pheochromocytoma, PC12 cells, being treated by the same way.

  18. Caldensinic acid, a benzoic acid derivative and others compounds from Piper carniconnectivum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Harley da Silva; Souza, Maria de Fatima Vanderlei de; Chaves, Maria Celia de Oliveira, E-mail: cchaves@ltf.ufpb.b [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Tecnologia Farmaceutica

    2010-07-01

    A benzoic acid derivative - caldensinic acid, E-phythyl hexadecanoate, {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol mixture and phaeophytin a were isolated from the aerial parts of Piper carniconnectivum. The structures of these compounds were established unambiguously by IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR analysis. (author)

  19. Turbulence of high-beta plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvesyuk, V.I.; Chirkov, A.Y.

    1999-01-01

    Principals of numerical modelling of turbulence in high-beta plasma (β > 0.1) are discussed. Creation of transport model for axial symmetric nonuniform confining magnetic field is considered. Numerical model of plasma turbulence in FRC is presented. The physical and mathematical models are formulated from nonuniform axial symmetric high-beta plasma. It is shown that influence of waves arise under this plasma conditions lead to chaotic motion of charged particles across magnetic field. (author)

  20. Exomethylene pyranonucleosides: efficient synthesis and biological evaluation of 1-(2,3,4-trideoxy-2-methylene-beta-d-glycero-hex-3-enopyranosyl)thymine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agelis, George; Tzioumaki, Niki; Botić, Tanja; Cencic, Avrelija; Komiotis, Dimitri

    2007-08-15

    A new series of unsaturated pyranonucleosides with an exocyclic methylene group and thymine as heterocyclic base have been designed and synthesized. d-Galactose (1) was readily transformed in three steps into the corresponding 1-(beta-d-galactopyranosyl)thymine (2). Selective protection of the primary hydroxyl group of 2 with a t-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) group, followed by specific acetalation, and oxidation gave 1-(6-O-t-butyldimethylsilyl-3,4-O-isopropylidene-beta-d-lyxo-hexopyranosyl-2-ulose)thymine (5). Wittig reaction of the ketonucleoside 5, deprotection and tritylation of the 6'-hydroxyl group gave 1-(2-deoxy-2-methylene-6-O-trityl-beta-d-lyxo-hexopyranosyl)thymine (9). Exomethylene pyranonucleoside 9 was converted to the olefinic derivative 10, which after detritylation afforded the title compound 1-(2,3,4-trideoxy-2-methylene-beta-d-glycero-hex-3-enopyranosyl)thymine (11). These novel synthesized compounds were evaluated for antiviral activity against rotaviral infection and cytotoxicity in colon cancer. As compared to AZT, compounds 1-(2-deoxy-2-methylene-beta-d-lyxo-hexopyranosyl)thymine (7) and 1-(beta-d-lyxo-hexopyranosyl-2-ulose)thymine (8) showed to be more efficient, in rotavirus infections and in treatment of colon cancer.

  1. Characterization of the carrot beta-tubulin gene coding a divergent isotype, beta-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, S; Naito, K; Sonehara, S; Ohkawa, H; Kuramori, S; Tatsuta, M; Minamizono, M; Kataoka, T

    1997-04-01

    Four different beta-tubulin clones were isolated from carrot genomic and cDNA libraries. Their nucleotide sequences were determined 1 and their predicted amino acids were compared with each other. The predicted amino acid composition of the C-terminal region of three of them (beta-1, 3, 4) resembled one another, but that of one isotype (beta-2) was divergent. The beta-2 tubulin included two hydroxyl amino acids, serine and threonine, and consisted of a lower number of negatively charged amino acids than the others in the C-terminal region. The predicted hydrophobicity profile of the beta-2 tubulin around the residue 200 is less hydrophobic than beta-1, but it is still more hydrophobic than those of animal and fungal beta-tubulins. The beta-2 gene was transcribed in cultured cells and flowers, while the beta-1 gene was ubiquitously transcribed in cultured cells, roots, shoots and flowers. When the predicted amino acids of plant tubulin were compared with those of other organisms, substitutions from non-polar amino acids to those with hydroxyl group were conspicuous in the region corresponding to the third exon in the plant genes.

  2. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morant, Marc Dominique

    2014-10-14

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  3. Estimating Security Betas Using Prior Information Based on Firm Fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cosemans, Mathijs; Frehen, Rik; Schotman, Peter; Bauer, Rob

    2016-01-01

    We propose a hybrid approach for estimating beta that shrinks rolling window estimates toward firm-specific priors motivated by economic theory. Our method yields superior forecasts of beta that have important practical implications. First, unlike standard rolling window betas, hybrid betas carry a

  4. Medicinal gold compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parish, R.V.; Cottrill, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    A major use of gold compounds in the pharmaceutical industry is for anti-arthritic agents. The disease itself is not understood and little is known about the way in which the drugs act, but detailed pictures of the distribution of gold in the body are available, and some of the relevant biochemistry is beginning to emerge. The purpose of this article is to give a survey of the types of compounds presently employed in medicine, of the distribution of gold in the body which results from their use, and of some relevant chemistry. Emphasis is placed on results obtained in the last few years

  5. Compound semiconductor device physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Sandip

    2013-01-01

    This book provides one of the most rigorous treatments of compound semiconductor device physics yet published. A complete understanding of modern devices requires a working knowledge of low-dimensional physics, the use of statistical methods, and the use of one-, two-, and three-dimensional analytical and numerical analysis techniques. With its systematic and detailed**discussion of these topics, this book is ideal for both the researcher and the student. Although the emphasis of this text is on compound semiconductor devices, many of the principles discussed will also be useful to those inter

  6. Beta adrenergic receptors in human cavernous tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhabuwala, C.B.; Ramakrishna, C.V.; Anderson, G.F.

    1985-04-01

    Beta adrenergic receptor binding was performed with /sup 125/I iodocyanopindolol on human cavernous tissue membrane fractions from normal tissue and transsexual procedures obtained postoperatively, as well as from postmortem sources. Isotherm binding studies on normal fresh tissues indicated that the receptor density was 9.1 fmoles/mg. with a KD of 23 pM. Tissue stored at room temperature for 4 to 6 hours, then at 4C in saline solution for 19 to 20 hours before freezing showed no significant changes in receptor density or affinity, and provided evidence for the stability of postmortem tissue obtained within the same time period. Beta receptor density of 2 cavernous preparations from transsexual procedures was not significantly different from normal control tissues, and showed that high concentrations of estrogen received by these patients had no effect on beta adrenergic receptor density. Displacement of /sup 125/iodocyanopindolol by 5 beta adrenergic agents demonstrated that 1-propranolol had the greatest affinity followed by ICI 118,551, zinterol, metoprolol and practolol. When the results of these displacement studies were subjected to Scatfit, non- linear regression line analysis, a single binding site was described. Based on the relative potency of the selective beta adrenergic agents it appears that these receptors were of the beta 2 subtype.

  7. Beta measurements in a photon field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    The ability to make a correct dose measurement in a mixed beta-gamma field requires an ideally responding detector or detailed knowledge of the detector's response characteristics and a complete definition of the field. Departures from the ideal are inevitable and the problem becomes that of defining acceptable inaccuracies. The degree of departure can be estimated with knowledge of detector response to beta and gamma. A beta detector is basically material independent because the stopping of emergetic electrons in a material is dependent upon the material density and the velocity of the electron, except for bremsstralung differences. The main requirements for beta dose measurement are that the detector be thin enough to represent the dose to an infinitesimal volume and that the window thickness reflects the depth of the dose estimate. A gamma detector is not material independent because the mass attenuation coefficient becomes important with energy. Window effects may also be large since charge carrier equilibrium is required. A detector having differing response characteristics for beta and gamma makes dose assessment exceedingly difficult, requiring knowledge of both the beta and gamma spectra. Knowledge of over and under response in regions of the spectra may indicate the degree of inaccuracy. If the inaccuracies are not large or represent a small amount of the total dose (spectrum dependent) then detectors may be used with confidence within a range of acceptable inaccuracy

  8. Synthesis and biological properties of new alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactones and alpha,beta-unsaturated delta-lactones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cateni, Francesca; Zilic, Jelena; Zacchigna, Marina; Bonivento, Paolo; Frausin, Fabiana; Scarcia, Vito

    2006-02-01

    The synthesis of a series of alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactones (compounds 4a, 4b, 6-12, 16, 17) and alpha,beta-unsaturated-delta-lactones (compounds 19-23, 25, 26) starting from 4,4-dimethyldihydrofuran-2,3-dione (1) has been described. Their chemical structures were assigned by spectroscopic evidence. These new compounds exhibited significantly different antiproliferative properties against cultured human tumor cell lines with their IC(50) values ranging from 0.88 to>20.00 microM.

  9. Continuous and Jump Betas: Implications for Portfolio Diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitali Alexeev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using high-frequency data, we decompose the time-varying beta for stocks into beta for continuous systematic risk and beta for discontinuous systematic risk. Estimated discontinuous betas for S&P500 constituents between 2003 and 2011 generally exceed the corresponding continuous betas. We demonstrate how continuous and discontinuous betas decrease with portfolio diversification. Using an equiweighted broad market index, we assess the speed of convergence of continuous and discontinuous betas in portfolios of stocks as the number of holdings increase. We show that discontinuous risk dissipates faster with fewer stocks in a portfolio compared to its continuous counterpart.

  10. Coordination Compounds in Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coordination Compounds in Biology equatorial ligand, there are two axial ligands in most B. 12 derivatives. Derivatives of B12. The various derivatives of B. 12 result most commonly from changes in the axial ligands bound to cobalt. Often it is convenient to draw a greatly abbreviated structure for a B. 12 molecule using a ...

  11. Polymeric coordination compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Metal coordination polymers with one- and two-dimensional structures are of current interest due to their possible relevance to material science 1. In continuation of our previous studies 2,3, several new polymeric compounds are reported here. Among the complexes of silver with aminomethyl pyridine (amp) ...

  12. NATURAL POLYACETYLENE COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Nasukhova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the review of the initial stage of researches of natural polyacetylene compounds is resulted. The high reactionary ability leading to fast oxidation and degradation of these compounds, especially at influence of Uf-light, oxygen of air, pH and other factors, has caused the serious difficulties connected with an establishment of structure and studying of their physical and chemical properties. Therefore the greatest quantity of works of this stage is connected with studying of essential oils of plants from families Apiaceae, Araliaceae, Asteraceae, Campanulaceae, Olacaceae, Pittosporaceae and Santalaceae where have been found out, basically, diacetylene compounds. About development of physical and chemical methods of the analysis of possibility of similar researches have considerably extended. More than 2000 polyacetylenes are known today, from them more than 1100 are found out in plants fam. Asteraceae. Revolution in the field of molecular biology has allowed to study processes of biosynthesis of these compounds intensively.

  13. Phosphorus-nitrogen compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 120; Issue 4. Phosphorus-nitrogen compounds: Part 15. Synthesis, anisochronism and the relationship between crystallographic and spectral data of monotopic spiro-crypta phosphazenes. Nuran Asmafi̇li̇z Eli̇f Ece İl Ter Zeynel Kiliç Tuncer Hökelek Ertan Şahin.

  14. Toxicology of perfluorinated compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, Thorsten [Hessian State Laboratory, Wiesbaden (Germany); Mattern, Daniela; Brunn, Hubertus [Hessian State Laboratory, Giessen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Perfluorinated compounds [PFCs] have found a wide use in industrial products and processes and in a vast array of consumer products. PFCs are molecules made up of carbon chains to which fluorine atoms are bound. Due to the strength of the carbon/fluorine bond, the molecules are chemically very stable and are highly resistant to biological degradation; therefore, they belong to a class of compounds that tend to persist in the environment. These compounds can bioaccumulate and also undergo biomagnification. Within the class of PFC chemicals, perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorosulphonic acid are generally considered reference substances. Meanwhile, PFCs can be detected almost ubiquitously, e.g., in water, plants, different kinds of foodstuffs, in animals such as fish, birds, in mammals, as well as in human breast milk and blood. PFCs are proposed as a new class of 'persistent organic pollutants'. Numerous publications allude to the negative effects of PFCs on human health. The following review describes both external and internal exposures to PFCs, the toxicokinetics (uptake, distribution, metabolism, excretion), and the toxicodynamics (acute toxicity, subacute and subchronic toxicities, chronic toxicity including carcinogenesis, genotoxicity and epigenetic effects, reproductive and developmental toxicities, neurotoxicity, effects on the endocrine system, immunotoxicity and potential modes of action, combinational effects, and epidemiological studies on perfluorinated compounds). (orig.)

  15. DMPD: Immunoreceptor-like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17913496 Immunoreceptor-like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. Jakus Z, Fod...or S, Abram CL, Lowell CA, Mocsai A. Trends Cell Biol. 2007 Oct;17(10):493-501. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Immuno...receptor-like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. PubmedID 17913496 Title Immunoreceptor-

  16. beta* leveling with telescopic ATS squeeze (MD 2410)

    CERN Document Server

    Wenninger, Jorg; Hostettler, Michi; Pojer, Mirko; Ponce, Laurette; Tydecks, Tobias; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    Luminosity leveling by beta* is the baseline operational scenario of HL-LHC, and this leveling technique may be used in 2018 or during run~3 depending on the beam parameters and beta* range. During this MD beta*leveling was commissioned successfully for the first time with the telescopic squeeze over the beta* range of 40 cm to 30 cm. A novel beta* leveling controls technique based on a modification of the LSA trim was also tested during the MD.

  17. Toxicity and repellency of compounds from clove (Syzygium aromaticum) to red imported fire ants Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Lekhnath; Shih, Cheng Jen

    2013-02-01

    The toxicity and repellency of the bioactive chemicals of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) powder, eugenol, eugenol acetate, and beta-caryophyllene were evaluated against workers of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren. Clove powder applied at 3 and 12 mg/cm2 provided 100% ant mortality within 6 h, and repelled 99% within 3 h. Eugenol was the fastest acting compound against red imported fire ant compared with eugenol acetate, beta-caryophyllene, and clove oil. The LT50 values inclined exponentially with the increase in the application rate of the chemical compounds tested. However, repellency did not increase with the increase in the application rate of the chemical compounds tested, but did with the increase in exposure time. Eugenol, eugenol acetate, as well as beta-caryophyllene and clove oil may provide another tool for red imported fire ant integrated pest management, particularly in situations where conventional insecticides are inappropriate.

  18. Chemical characteristics of dicarboxylic acids and related organic compounds in PM2.5 during biomass-burning and non-biomass-burning seasons at a rural site of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fang; Zhang, Shi-Chun; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Liu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Chi; Xu, Zufei; Fan, Meiyi; Zhang, Wenqi; Bao, Mengying; Chang, Yunhua; Song, Wenhuai; Liu, Shoudong; Lee, Xuhui; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Zhang, Yan-Lin

    2017-12-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected using a high-volume air sampler and pre-combusted quartz filters during May 2013 to January 2014 at a background rural site (47 ∘ 35 N, 133 ∘ 31 E) in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. A homologous series of dicarboxylic acids (C 2 -C 11 ) and related compounds (oxoacids, α-dicarbonyls and fatty acids) were analyzed by using a gas chromatography (GC) and GC-MS method employing a dibutyl ester derivatization technique. Intensively open biomass-burning (BB) episodes during the harvest season in fall were characterized by high mass concentrations of PM2.5, dicarboxylic acids and levoglucosan. During the BB period, mass concentrations of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds were increased by up to >20 times with different factors for different organic compounds (i.e., succinic (C 4 ) acid > oxalic (C 2 ) acid > malonic (C 3 ) acid). High concentrations were also found for their possible precursors such as glyoxylic acid (ωC 2 ), 4-oxobutanoic acid, pyruvic acid, glyoxal, and methylglyoxal as well as fatty acids. Levoglucosan showed strong correlations with carbonaceous aerosols (OC, EC, WSOC) and dicarboxylic acids although such good correlations were not observed during non-biomass-burning seasons. Our results clearly demonstrate biomass burning emissions are very important contributors to dicarboxylic acids and related compounds. The selected ratios (e.g., C 3 /C 4 , maleic acid/fumaric acid, C 2 /ωC 2 , and C 2 /levoglucosan) were used as tracers for secondary formation of organic aerosols and their aging process. Our results indicate that organic aerosols from biomass burning in this study are fresh without substantial aging or secondary production. The present chemical characteristics of organic compounds in biomass-burning emissions are very important for better understanding the impacts of biomass burning on the atmosphere aerosols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Selenium-75-labelled foliate compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A saturation method to analyze a foliate is presented; it uses competitive reaction of the compound to be measured and of a radioactive-labelled version of this compound with a reagent specific to this compound present in insufficient quantity to combine with the whole of the compound and its labelled version, separation of the bound compound from its non-bound homologue and measurement of the radioactivity concentration in the bound compound, the non-bound compound or both. The radioactive isotope used in the labelled foliate is selenium 75 [fr

  20. Oligomerization and toxicity of A{beta} fusion proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caine, Joanne M., E-mail: Jo.Caine@csiro.au [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering and the Preventive Health Flagship, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Bharadwaj, Prashant R. [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering and the Preventive Health Flagship, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Centre for Excellence for Alzheimer' s Disease Research and Care, School of Exercise, Biomedical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Western Australia (Australia); Sankovich, Sonia E. [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering and the Preventive Health Flagship, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Ciccotosto, Giuseppe D. [The Department of Pathology and Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Streltsov, Victor A.; Varghese, Jose [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering and the Preventive Health Flagship, Parkville, Victoria (Australia)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} We expressed amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}) peptide as a soluble maltose binding protein fusion (MBP-A{beta}42 and MBP-A{beta}16). {yields} The full length A{beta} peptide fusion, MBP-A{beta}42, forms oligomeric species as determined by SDS-PAGE gels, gel filtration and DLS. {yields} The MBP-A{beta}42, but not MBP-A{beta}16 or MBP alone, is toxic to both yeast and mammalian cells as determined by toxicity assays. -- Abstract: This study has found that the Maltose binding protein A{beta}42 fusion protein (MBP-A{beta}42) forms soluble oligomers while the shorter MBP-A{beta}16 fusion and control MBP did not. MBP-A{beta}42, but neither MBP-A{beta}16 nor control MBP, was toxic in a dose-dependent manner in both yeast and primary cortical neuronal cells. This study demonstrates the potential utility of MBP-A{beta}42 as a reagent for drug screening assays in yeast and neuronal cell cultures and as a candidate for further A{beta}42 characterization.

  1. Beta-methyl substitution of cyclohexylalanine in Dmt-Tic-Cha-Phe peptides results in highly potent delta opioid antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Géza; Ioja, Eniko; Tömböly, Csaba; Ballet, Steven; Tourwé, Dirk; Péter, Antal; Martinek, Tamás; Chung, Nga N; Schiller, Peter W; Benyhe, Sándor; Borsodi, Anna

    2007-01-25

    The opioid peptide TIPP (H-Tyr-Tic-Phe-Phe-OH, Tic:1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid) was substituted with Dmt (2',6'-dimethyltyrosine) and a new unnatural amino acid, beta-MeCha (beta-methyl-cyclohexylalanine). This double substitution led to a new series of opioid peptides displaying subnanomolar delta antagonist activity and mu agonist or antagonist properties depending on the configuration of the beta-MeCha residue. The most promising analog, H-Dmt-Tic-(2S,3S)-beta-MeCha-Phe-OH was a very selective delta antagonist both in the mouse vas deferens (MVD) assay (Ke = 0.241 +/- 0.05 nM) and in radioligand binding assay (K i delta = 0.48 +/- 0.05 nM, K i mu/K i delta = 2800). The epimeric peptide H-Dmt-Tic-(2S,3R)-beta-MeCha-Phe-OH and the corresponding peptide amide turned out to be mixed partial mu agonist/delta antagonists in the guinea pig ileum and MVD assays. Our results constitute further examples of the influence of Dmt and beta-methyl substitution as well as C-terminal amidation on the potency, selectivity, and signal transduction properties of TIPP related peptides. Some of these compounds represent valuable pharmacological tools for opioid research.

  2. Toxicity, mutagenicity, and behavioral effects of {beta}-CIT, a ligand for dopamine transporter exploration by SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emond, P.; Farde, L.; Chalon, S.; Belzung, C.; Mauclaire, V.; Chiron, J. P.; Halldin, C.; Besnard, J.C.; Guilloteau, D

    1998-05-01

    The cocaine analog {beta}-CIT is one of the most used compounds for SPET examination of the dopamine transporter in drug abuse and Parkinson's disease. However, the toxicity of this agent has not yet been studied. We report here acute toxicity, mutagenicity, and effect on locomotor activity of {beta}-CIT. Acute toxicity experiments were performed in mice and rats. The LD50 values were about 20 mg and 5 mg for mice and rats, respectively. There was no sex difference. The mutagenicity was evaluated using the Ames' test. No mutagenic effect was observed for {beta}-CIT. Effects on locomotor activity were measured in mice using the open-field test. {beta}-CIT increased locomotion (+65%) when injected at a dose of 0.312 mg/kg; the maximal increase (+205%) was observed at a dose of 1.25 mg/kg; at higher doses, the effect was decreased slightly. These pharmacological findings are in agreement with an inhibitory effect of {beta}-CIT at the dopamine transporter. We conclude that with no mutagenic effects and LD50 more than 6 orders of magnitude higher than the routinely used doses in PET or SPET, it can be assumed that {beta}-CIT can be safely used as a radioligand in humans.

  3. The biology of beta human papillomaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasino, Massimo

    2017-03-02

    The beta genus comprises more than 50 beta human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are suspected to be involved, together with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), the most common form of human cancer. Two members of the genus beta, HPV5 and HPV8, were first identified in patients with a genetic disorder, epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), that confers high susceptibility to beta HPV infection and NMSC development. The fact that organ transplant recipients (OTRs) with an impaired immune system have an elevated risk of NMSC raised the hypothesis that beta HPV types may also be involved in skin carcinogenesis in non-EV patients. Epidemiological studies have shown that serological and viral DNA markers are weakly, but significantly, associated with history of NMSC in OTRs and the general population. Functional studies on mucosal high-risk (HR) HPV types have clearly demonstrated that the products of two early genes, E6 and E7, are the main viral oncoproteins, which are able to deregulate events closely linked to transformation, such as cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Studies on a small number of beta HPV types have shown that their E6 and E7 oncoproteins also have the ability to interfere with the regulation of key pathways/events associated with cellular transformation. However, the initial functional data indicate that the molecular mechanisms leading to cellular transformation are different from those of mucosal HR HPV types. Beta HPV types may act only at early stages of carcinogenesis, by potentiating the deleterious effects of other carcinogens, such as UV radiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Gamow-Teller strength distributions for beta beta-decaying nuclei within continuum QRPA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Igashov, S. Yu.; Rodin, V. A.; Urin, M. H.; Faessler, A.

    A version of the pn continuum QRPA is outlined and applied to describe the Gamow-Teller strength distributions for beta beta-decaying open-shell nuclei. The calculation results obtained for the pairs of nuclei (116)Cd-Sn and (130)Te-Xe are compared with available experimental data.

  5. BETA SPECTRA. I. Negatrons spectra; ESPECTROS BETA. I. Espectros simples de negatrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Malonda, A.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    1978-07-01

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 62 negatrons emitters have been computed introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. These spectra are plotted vs. energy, once normal i sed, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (Author)

  6. Overview of total beta activity index and beta rest in surface waters of the Spanish rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol, L.; Payeras, J.; Pablo, M. A. de

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to give an overview of the index of total beta activity and the activity index beta rest in surface waters of the main Spanish rivers. These indices are a parameter over water quality that CEDEX comes determined by order of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment, in water policy. (Author)

  7. Neutron Scattering Study of the Localized Mode in the beta-Pyrochlore Superconductors AOs2O6

    OpenAIRE

    Sasai, Kenzo; Hirota, Kazuma; Nagao, Yohei; Yonezawa, Shigeki; Hiroi, Zenji

    2007-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering and neutron powder diffraction experiments were carried out to investigate a localized mode, proposed from various bulk measurements, in the beta-pyrochlore AOs2O6 (A=K, Rb, Cs). The localized mode was identified in all the three compounds as well as another beta-pyrochlore CsW2O6. The anharmonicity of the mode is weak in RbOs2O6 and CsOs2O6 but substantial in KOs2O6.

  8. Delayed diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia with salt wasting due to type II 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Trine H; Mallet, Delphine; Dige-Petersen, Harriet

    2005-01-01

    to the diagnosis) and elevated Delta5-/Delta4-steroid ratios. Sequencing of the type II 3beta-HSD gene documented that both girls were compound heterozygotes for T181I and 1105delA mutations. Retrospectively, elevated levels of 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone were found on blood spots from Guthrie's test....... There is no previous report of the combination of SW and premature pubarche due to mutations in the type II 3beta-HSD gene. Because neonatal diagnosis could have prevented life-threatening crises in these girls, this report further supports the benefits for neonatal screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia...

  9. Kinematic shifts of beta -delayed particles as a probe of beta - nu angular correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Clifford, E T H; Evans, H C; Fästermann, T; Hagberg, E; Hardy, J C; Jackson, K P; Koslowsky, V T; Schmeing, H; Schrewe, U J

    1981-01-01

    Beta-delayed particles undergo a kinematic shift in energy due to recoil motion of the daughter nucleus following beta decay. A careful measurement of this energy shift can be used to establish the ratio of vector to axial vector components in beta transitions. Alpha-beta coincidence data for the beta-delayed alpha decay of /sup 20/Na have been obtained. Component ratios for 6 transitions including the superallowed branch are found. Limits on charge dependent mixing with the analogue state are deduced for 5 states in /sup 20/Ne*. For the superallowed branch the axial vector component is found; the polar vector component is deduced and establishes a value for the vector weak coupling constant of G/sub V/=(1.355+or-0.036)*10/sup -49/ erg cm /sup 3/. (13 refs).

  10. Pengaruh Downside Beta, Upside Beta, Dan Beta Terhadap Expected Return (Studi Pada Saham Yang Termasuk Dalam 50 Leading Market Capitalization Di Bursa Efek Indonesia Periode 2012-2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaga, Maria Goretty; Sulasmiyati, Sri

    2017-01-01

    Return or return on an investment is required by the investor. Most investors currently prefer shares in emerging markets. Return in the emerging market is not always symmetrical, it shows return in the emerging market is not normally distributed. The purposive of this research want to learn, compare, and explain about some model of stock risk. On this research downside risk expressed with beta downside. The models used in this research among others, dowside beta, upside beta, and beta. The k...

  11. Regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) after ionizing radiation; Regulation der Glykogen Synthase Kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) nach ionisierender Strahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehme, K.A.

    2006-12-15

    Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) phosphorylates the Mdm2 protein in the central domain. This phosphorylation is absolutely required for p53 degradation. Ionizing radiation inactivates GSK-3{beta} by phosphorylation at serine 9 and in consequence prevents Mdm2 mediated p53 degradation. During the work for my PhD I identified Akt/PKB as the kinase that phosphorylates GSK-3{beta} at serine 9 after ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation leads to phosphorylation of Akt/PKB at threonine 308 and serine 473. The PI3 Kinase inhibitor LY294002 completely abolished Akt/PKB serine 473 phosphorylation and prevented the induction of GSK-3{beta} serine 9 phosphorylation after ionizing radiation. Interestingly, the most significant activation of Akt/PKB after ionizing radiation occurred in the nucleus while cytoplasmic Akt/PKB was only weakly activated after radiation. By using siRNA, I showed that Akt1/PKBa, but not Akt2/PKB{beta}, is required for phosphorylation of GSK- 3{beta} at serine 9 after ionizing radiation. Phosphorylation and activation of Akt/PKB after ionizing radiation depends on the DNA dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), a member of the PI3 Kinase family, that is activated by free DNA ends. Both, in cells from SCID mice and after knockdown of the catalytic subunit of DNA-PK by siRNA in osteosarcoma cells, phosphorylation of Akt/PKB at serine 473 and of GSK-3{beta} at serine 9 was completely abolished. Consistent with the principle that phosphorylation of GSK-3 at serine 9 contributes to p53 stabilization after radiation, the accumulation of p53 in response to ionizing radiation was largely prevented by downregulation of DNA-PK. From these results I conclude, that ionizing radiation induces a signaling cascade that leads to Akt1/PKBa activation mediated by DNA-PK dependent phosphorylation of serine 473. After activation Akt1/PKBa phosphorylates and inhibits GSK-3{beta} in the nucleus. The resulting hypophosphorylated form of Mdm2 protein is no longer

  12. Beta-galactosidase of Propionibacterium shermanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, J C; Vedamuthu, E R

    1975-01-01

    Ten strains of Propionibacterium shermanii were tested for beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) activity. Of these ten strains, five yielded enhanced enzyme activity when cell suspensions were treated with toluene-acetone; on solvent treatment, the remaining five lost a considerable portion of the activity found in whole-cell suspensions. By using a strain yielding decreased activity upon solvent treatment, explanations for the loss in activity were sought through assays for possible alternative beta-galactoside utilization mechanisms. When this strain was assayed for beta-D-phosphogalactoside galactohydrolase by using orthonitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside-6-P04 as a substrate, the activity was wither lower or indiffernt as compared with beta-gal activity determined simultaneously. Cell suspensions of P. shermanii 7 and 22 (strains chosen for further work) grown separately on the individual substrates (lactose, glucose, galactose, and sodium lactate) did not show significant differences in beta-gal activity. Optimal temperature for beta-gal activity in untreated and toluene-acetone-treated cell suspensions of strain 7 was 52 C. With strain 22, of the temperatures tested, maximal activity in untreated cell suspensions was noted at 58 C and with solvent-treated cells at 32 C. In the cell-free extract (CFE) system, both strains exhibited maximal activity at 52 C. Optimal pH for untreated and solvent-treated cell suspensions of both strains was around 7.5. In the P. shermanii 22 CFE system, maximal activity occurred at pH 7.0; pH had very little effect on enzyme activity in P. shermanii 7 CFE. Sodium or potassium phosphate buffers in the assay system yielded the best activity. In the CFE system of these two strains, Mn2+ was definitely stimulatory, but in untreated and solvent-treated cell systems of these strains presence or absence of Mn2+ in the assay system had variable effects on enzyme activity. Maximal beta-gal activity was noted in P. shermanii 7 cells harvested

  13. Compatibility of hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin with algal toxicity bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fai, Patricia Bi; Grant, Alastair [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Reid, Brian J. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: b.reid@uea.ac.uk

    2009-01-15

    Numerous reports have indicated that hydrophobic organic compound bioaccessibility in sediment and soil can be determined by extraction using aqueous hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HPCD) solutions. This study establishes the compatibility of HPCD with Selenastrum capricornutum and assesses whether its presence influences the toxicity of reference toxicants. Algal growth inhibition (72 h) showed no significant (P > 0.05) difference at HPCD concentrations up to and including 20 mM. HPCD presence did not influence the toxicity of the inorganic reference toxicant (ZnSO{sub 4}), with IC50 values of 0.82 {mu}M and 0.85 {mu}M, in the presence and absence of HPCD (20 mM), respectively. However, HPCD presence (20 mM) reduced the toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenol and the herbicides diuron and isoproturon. These reductions were attributed to inclusion complex formation between the toxicants and the HPCD cavity. Liberation of complexed toxicants, by sample manipulation prior to toxicity assessment, is proposed to provide a sensitive, high throughput, bioassay that reflects compound bioaccessibility. - Compatibility of the biomimetic HPCD extraction method with algal cell growth inhibition bioassays to assess toxicity of reference toxicants and environmental relevant herbicides.

  14. Synthetic Aperture Compound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Munk

    Medical ultrasound imaging is used for many purposes, e.g. for localizing and classifying cysts, lesions, and other processes. Almost any mass is first observed using B-mode imaging and later classified using e.g. color flow, strain, or attenuation imaging. It is therefore important that the B......, it is demonstrated through theoretical considerations that the compound effect achieved is close to a theoretical maximum for the amount of compounding attainable and using a -pitch convex array transducer, the first in-vivo images are created. The computational demands for an implementation are massive...... and the limiting factor is the amount of memory IO resources available. An equally high demand for memory throughput is found in the computer gaming industry, where a large part of the processing takes place on the graphics processing unit (GPU). Using the GPU, a framework for synthetic aperture imaging...

  15. Compound semiconductor device modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Compound semiconductor devices form the foundation of solid-state microwave and optoelectronic technologies used in many modern communication systems. In common with their low frequency counterparts, these devices are often represented using equivalent circuit models, but it is often necessary to resort to physical models in order to gain insight into the detailed operation of compound semiconductor devices. Many of the earliest physical models were indeed developed to understand the 'unusual' phenomena which occur at high frequencies. Such was the case with the Gunn and IMPATI diodes, which led to an increased interest in using numerical simulation methods. Contemporary devices often have feature sizes so small that they no longer operate within the familiar traditional framework, and hot electron or even quantum­ mechanical models are required. The need for accurate and efficient models suitable for computer aided design has increased with the demand for a wider range of integrated devices for operation at...

  16. Hydrogen in compound semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, E.E.

    1993-05-01

    Progress in the understanding of hydrogen and its interactions in III/V and II/VI compound semiconductors is reviewed. Donor, acceptor and deep level passivation is well established in III/V compounds based on electrical measurements and on spectroscopic studies. The hydrogen donor levels in GaAs and GaP are estimated to lie near E{sub v}+0.5 eV and E{sub v}+0.3 eV, respectively. Arsenic acceptors have been passivated by hydrogen in CdTe and the very first nitrogen-hydrogen local vibrational model spectra in ZnSe have been reported. This long awaited result may lead to an explanation for the poor activation of nitrogen acceptors in ZnSe grown by techniques which involve high concentrations of hydrogen.

  17. Accessibility of high. beta. tokamak states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, J. T.

    1978-05-01

    Encouraging results with neutral beam heating and adiabatic compression of tokamak plasmas have prompted new experiments which will study the approach to high ..beta.. states. As projected tokamak ..beta.. values become nonnegligible (average ..beta.. of 4% is the goal), the models previously used for transport calculations will become inadequate. These models will be required to account for the evolution of the magnetic geometry, along with the change in plasma parameters. We present an axisymmetric transport model which should be useful for studying the approach to higher ..beta.. values in tokamak experiments. Results from transport calculations with this model allow us to draw a parallel between observed behavior in seemingly unrelated experiments: electron heating by neutral injection in the ORMAK device and adiabatic compression in the ATC experiment. Finally, we find that the nature of cross-field transport may be expected to change as significant ..beta.. values are reached. Enhanced transport from ballooning instabilities is likely to play a role as important as that now played by sawtooth (m = 1) and saturated (m = 2) instabilities. New techniques for describing this transport are required.

  18. Beta secretase activity in peripheral nerve regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Tallon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While the peripheral nervous system has the capacity to regenerate following a nerve injury, it is often at a slow rate and results in unsatisfactory recovery, leaving patients with reduced function. Many regeneration associated genes have been identified over the years, which may shed some insight into how we can manipulate this intrinsic regenerative ability to enhance repair following peripheral nerve injuries. Our lab has identified the membrane bound protease beta-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1, or beta secretase, as a potential negative regulator of peripheral nerve regeneration. When beta secretase activity levels are abolished via a null mutation in mice, peripheral regeneration is enhanced following a sciatic nerve crush injury. Conversely, when activity levels are greatly increased by overexpressing beta secretase in mice, nerve regeneration and functional recovery are impaired after a sciatic nerve crush injury. In addition to our work, many substrates of beta secretase have been found to be involved in regulating neurite outgrowth and some have even been identified as regeneration associated genes. In this review, we set out to discuss BACE1 and its substrates with respect to axonal regeneration and speculate on the possibility of utilizing BACE1 inhibitors to enhance regeneration following acute nerve injury and potential uses in peripheral neuropathies.

  19. Post-process intensification of photographic silver images, using radioactive compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A method of post-process intensification of silver images on a developed and fixed photographic film or plate is described, comprising the steps of (a) converting silver of the developed film or plate to a radioactive compound by contracting the film or plate with an aqueous alkaline solution of an organo-S 35 compound which reacts selectively with silver in a photographic film or plate; (b) placing the film or plate treated in step (a) in direct contact with a receiver film which is sensitive to beta radiation whereby the receiver film is exposed by radiation from the radioactive compound; and (c) developing and fixing the resulting intensified receiver film. (author)

  20. Process for compound transformation

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie

    2016-12-29

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of using a catalytic system to chemically transform a compound (e.g., a hydrocarbon). In an embodiment, the method does not employ grafting the catalyst prior to catalysis. In particular, embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a process of hydrocarbon (e.g., C1 to C20 hydrocarbon) metathesis (e.g., alkane, olefin, or alkyne metathesis) transformation, where the process can be conducted without employing grafting prior to catalysis.

  1. Polymeric coordination compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Ce(dipic)3Sr(dipicH2)(OH2)3·5H2O (4) (dipicH2 – dipicolinic acid) exhibits 1-D polymeric chain structure, built up of alternating nine coordinate Ce and eight coordinate. Sr polyhedra. The analogous Ce–Ba compound (5) exhibits a polymeric chain built up of nine coordinate Ba units only, arranged in a hexagonal lattice.

  2. Bronzes and relative compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehlls, A.

    1987-01-01

    Preparation and the crystal structure of bronzes based on complex oxides of transition (Ti, V, Nb, Ta, Mo, W, Re, Ru and etc.) and alkali metals, as well as oxides of some other elements (Sr, In, La and etc.) are described. Peculiarities of formation of the structure of tetragonal, tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium bronzes and their analogs depending on the chemical composition of these compounds are considered

  3. Antifungal compounds from cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishido, Tânia K; Humisto, Anu; Jokela, Jouni; Liu, Liwei; Wahlsten, Matti; Tamrakar, Anisha; Fewer, David P; Permi, Perttu; Andreote, Ana P D; Fiore, Marli F; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2015-04-13

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes found in a range of environments. They are infamous for the production of toxins, as well as bioactive compounds, which exhibit anticancer, antimicrobial and protease inhibition activities. Cyanobacteria produce a broad range of antifungals belonging to structural classes, such as peptides, polyketides and alkaloids. Here, we tested cyanobacteria from a wide variety of environments for antifungal activity. The potent antifungal macrolide scytophycin was detected in Anabaena sp. HAN21/1, Anabaena cf. cylindrica PH133, Nostoc sp. HAN11/1 and Scytonema sp. HAN3/2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Anabaena strains that produce scytophycins. We detected antifungal glycolipopeptide hassallidin production in Anabaena spp. BIR JV1 and HAN7/1 and in Nostoc spp. 6sf Calc and CENA 219. These strains were isolated from brackish and freshwater samples collected in Brazil, the Czech Republic and Finland. In addition, three cyanobacterial strains, Fischerella sp. CENA 298, Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110 and Nostoc sp. N107.3, produced unidentified antifungal compounds that warrant further characterization. Interestingly, all of the strains shown to produce antifungal compounds in this study belong to Nostocales or Stigonematales cyanobacterial orders.

  4. Reactivity and selectivity in the inhibition of elastase by 3-oxo-beta-sultams and in their hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Wing-Yin; Ahmed, Naveed; Hemming, Karl; Page, Michael I

    2007-12-21

    3-oxo-beta-sultams are both beta-sultams and beta-lactams and are a novel class of time-dependent inhibitors of elastase. The inhibition involves formation of a covalent enzyme-inhibitor adduct with transient stability by acylation of the active-site serine resulting from substitution at the carbonyl centre of the 3-oxo-beta-sultam, C-N fission, and expulsion of the sulfonamide. The lead compound, N-benzyl-4,4-dimethyl-3-oxo-beta-sultam 1 is a reasonably potent inhibitor against porcine pancreatic elastase with a second-order rate constant of 768 M(-1) s(-1) at pH 6, but also possesses high chemical reactivity with a half-life for hydrolysis of only 6 mins at the same pH in water. Interestingly, the hydrolysis of 3-oxo-beta-sultams occurs at the sulfonyl centre with S-N fission and expulsion of the amide leaving group, whereas the enzyme reaction occurs at the acyl centre. Increasing selectivity between these two reactive centres was explored by examining the effect of substituents on the reactivity of 3-oxo-beta-sultam towards hydrolysis and enzyme inhibition. The inhibition activity against porcine pancreatic elastase has a much higher sensitivity to substituent variation than does the rate of alkaline hydrolysis. A difference of 2000-fold is observed in the second-order rate constants, k(i), for inhibition whereas there is only a 100-fold difference in the second-order rate constants, k(OH), for alkaline hydrolysis within the series. The higher sensitivity of enzyme inhibition to substituents than that of simple chemical reactivity indicates a significant degree of molecular recognition of the 3-oxo-beta-sultams by the enzyme.

  5. Simultaneous determination of F-beta-alanine and beta-alanine in plasma and urine with dual-column reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kuilenburg, A. B.; Stroomer, A. E.; Peters, G. J.; van Gennip, A. H.

    2001-01-01

    F-beta-Alanine and beta-alanine were detected in plasma and urine samples with fluorescence detection of orthophthaldialdehyde derivatives of F-beta-alanine and beta-alanine after separation with dual-column reversed-phase HPLC. The detection limits of F-beta-alanine and beta-alanine in the HPLC

  6. Determination of beta-adrenergic receptor blocking pharmaceuticals in united states wastewater effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huggett, D.B.; Khan, I.A.; Foran, C.M.; Schlenk, D

    2003-02-01

    This is the first report of beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist pharmaceuticals in United States wastewater effluent. - Beta adrenergic receptor antagonists ({beta}-Blockers) are frequently prescribed medications in the United States and have been identified in European municipal wastewater effluent, however no studies to date have investigated these compounds in United States wastewater effluent. Municipal wastewater effluent was collected from treatment facilities in Mississippi, Texas, and New York to investigate the occurrence of metoprolol, nadolol, and propranolol. Propranolol was identified in all wastewater samples analyzed (n=34) at concentrations {<=}1.9 {mu}g/l. Metoprolol and nadolol were identified in {>=}71% of the samples with concentrations of metoprolol {<=}1.2 {mu}g/l and nadolol {<=}0.36 {mu}g/l. Time course studies at both Mississippi plants and the Texas plant indicate that concentrations of propranolol, metoprolol, and nadolol remain relatively constant at each sampling period. This study indicates that {beta}-Blockers are present in United States wastewater effluent in the ng/l to {mu}g/l range.

  7. Properties of parameter estimation techniques for a beta-binomial failure model. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shultis, J.K.; Buranapan, W.; Eckhoff, N.D.

    1981-12-01

    Of considerable importance in the safety analysis of nuclear power plants are methods to estimate the probability of failure-on-demand, p, of a plant component that normally is inactive and that may fail when activated or stressed. Properties of five methods for estimating from failure-on-demand data the parameters of the beta prior distribution in a compound beta-binomial probability model are examined. Simulated failure data generated from a known beta-binomial marginal distribution are used to estimate values of the beta parameters by (1) matching moments of the prior distribution to those of the data, (2) the maximum likelihood method based on the prior distribution, (3) a weighted marginal matching moments method, (4) an unweighted marginal matching moments method, and (5) the maximum likelihood method based on the marginal distribution. For small sample sizes (N = or < 10) with data typical of low failure probability components, it was found that the simple prior matching moments method is often superior (e.g. smallest bias and mean squared error) while for larger sample sizes the marginal maximum likelihood estimators appear to be best

  8. Increased injection pain with darbepoetin-alpha compared to epoetin-beta in paediatric dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Claus Peter; Nau, Barbara; Brummer, Christiane; Rosenkranz, Joachim; Schaefer, Franz

    2006-12-01

    Darbepoetin-alpha is applicable at longer injection intervals. Our early experience in children on peritoneal dialysis suggested increased injection pain compared to epoetin-beta, possibly due to technical differences or patient anxiety. To verify a possible difference in the painfulness of the injected fluids per se, we performed a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial in 13 paediatric end-stage renal disease patients. They received three injections of equivalent doses of darbepoetin-alpha or epoetin-beta in 0.6 ml saline, using neutral syringes and 27G needles, at 4 week intervals. Pain perception was recorded immediately and after 30 min on a visual analogue scale (VAS, 0 = no pain, 10 = maximal pain; complemented by 5 faces for young children). The patients perceived more intense immediate injection pain with darbepoetin-alpha than with epoetin-beta (5.4 +/- 1 vs 2.3 +/- 0.6, P or =4 VAS points) with darbepoetin-alpha. After 30 min, the injection site was largely painless with both drugs. No significant local reactions occurred with either medication (0.3 +/- 0.1 vs 0.3 +/- 0.1 on a 5-score scale). Subcutaneous injections of darbepoetin-alpha are more painful than those of epoetin-beta in the majority of paediatric patients. The observed difference in painfulness is related to the nature of the injected compounds and may limit the subcutaneous applicability of darbepoetin-alpha in children.

  9. Separation of drug stereoisomers by the formation of. beta. -cyclodextrin inclusion complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, D.W.; Ward, T.J.; Armstrong, R.D.; Beesley, T.E.

    1986-05-30

    For many drugs, only racemic mixtures are available for clinical use. Because different stereoisomers of drugs often cause different physiological responses, the use of pure isomers could elicit more exact therapeutic effects. Differential complexation of a variety of drug stereoisomers by immobilized ..beta..-cyclodextrin was investigated. Chiral recognition and racemic resolution were observed with a number of compounds from such clinically useful classes as ..beta..-blockers, calcium-channel blockers, sedative hypnotics, antihistamines, anticonvulsants, diuretics, and synthetic opiates. Separation of the diastereomers of the cardioactive and antimalarial cinchona alkaloids and of two antiestrogens was demonstrated as well. Three dimensional projections of ..beta..-cyclodextrin complexes of propanol, which is resolved by this technique, and warfarin, which is not, are compared. These studies have improved the understanding and application of the chiral interactions of ..beta..-cyclodextrin, and they have demonstrated a means to measure optical purity and to isolate or produce pure enantiomers of drugs. In addition, this highly specific technique could also be used in the pharmacological evaluation of enantiometric drugs. 27 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  10. BETASCAN: probable beta-amyloids identified by pairwise probabilistic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen W Bryan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Amyloids and prion proteins are clinically and biologically important beta-structures, whose supersecondary structures are difficult to determine by standard experimental or computational means. In addition, significant conformational heterogeneity is known or suspected to exist in many amyloid fibrils. Recent work has indicated the utility of pairwise probabilistic statistics in beta-structure prediction. We develop here a new strategy for beta-structure prediction, emphasizing the determination of beta-strands and pairs of beta-strands as fundamental units of beta-structure. Our program, BETASCAN, calculates likelihood scores for potential beta-strands and strand-pairs based on correlations observed in parallel beta-sheets. The program then determines the strands and pairs with the greatest local likelihood for all of the sequence's potential beta-structures. BETASCAN suggests multiple alternate folding patterns and assigns relative a priori probabilities based solely on amino acid sequence, probability tables, and pre-chosen parameters. The algorithm compares favorably with the results of previous algorithms (BETAPRO, PASTA, SALSA, TANGO, and Zyggregator in beta-structure prediction and amyloid propensity prediction. Accurate prediction is demonstrated for experimentally determined amyloid beta-structures, for a set of known beta-aggregates, and for the parallel beta-strands of beta-helices, amyloid-like globular proteins. BETASCAN is able both to detect beta-strands with higher sensitivity and to detect the edges of beta-strands in a richly beta-like sequence. For two proteins (Abeta and Het-s, there exist multiple sets of experimental data implying contradictory structures; BETASCAN is able to detect each competing structure as a potential structure variant. The ability to correlate multiple alternate beta-structures to experiment opens the possibility of computational investigation of prion strains and structural heterogeneity of amyloid

  11. [Establishment of beta block matching technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fa-Ming; Lü, Qin-Feng; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Hai-Qin; Fu, Qi-Hua; Yan, Li-Xing

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish beta block matching technique. DNA was extracted from whole blood by salting-out method, beta block matching was performed by PCR and GeneScan technique. The results showed that the length of fragments amplificated in 100 samples was different and the range of them was 91-197 bp. Amplification fragments could be divided into four regions: 91-93, 105-113, 125-139 and 177-197 bp respectively. 91 bp DNA fragments could be found in all of samples. The numbers of DNA fragments with different length have been shown high polymorphism and they focused on the range of seven to twenty four. In conclusion, the beta block matching technique is reliable and applicable to the selection of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation donors.

  12. Elliptical Modons On The Beta-plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizner, Z.; Khvoles, R.; Berson, D.

    Conventional modons are stationary localized solutions to the equation of the quasi- geostrophic PV conservation. The contour separating the interior area, where the streamlines are closed, from the exterior area (open streamlines) is circular, the depen- dences of PV vs. streamfunction (SF) in the interior and exterior regions being linear (but different) in such modons. We consider barotropic modons on the beta-plane, in which the separating contour differs from a circle. While the exterior solution is given analytically, the interior solution is found using a variant of the Newton-Kantorovich procedure. It is shown that any deviation of the modon form from a circle causes nonlinearity of the internal PV vs. SF dependence. Special emphasis has been placed on elliptical modons. The difference of the elliptical modons on the f-plane (Boyd and Ma, 1990) from those on the beta-plane is discussed, and the 'dispersion relationships' of the beta-plane modons are analyzed.

  13. Beta-alumina solid electrolyte separators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, J.H.; Stead, R.J.

    1989-06-14

    A method of making a composite beta-alumina artifact such as a separator tube for an electrochemical cell, comprising two beta-alumina portions which are sealed together in a sealing zone, namely an inner portion and an outer portion which extends peripherally around the inner portion and embraces it in the sealing zone, comprises pressing the inner and outer portions from powders which, when finally sintered, shrink and form integral beta-alumina artifacts. The portions are made so that the outer portion undergoes a greater degree of shrinkage during sintering than the inner portion and the portions are pressed so that the spacing between the portions where the outer portion extends around and embraces the inner portion is such that, upon sintering, the outer portion shrinks on to the inner portion to provide a hermetic peripheral seal between the portions. (author).

  14. Momordica charantia constituents and antidiabetic screening of the isolated major compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harinantenaina, Liva; Tanaka, Michi; Takaoka, Shigeru; Oda, Munehiro; Mogami, Orie; Uchida, Masayuki; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2006-07-01

    Bioguided fractionation of the methanol extract of Momordica charantia dried gourds led to the isolation of three new cucurbitane triterpenoids (1-3), together with eight known compounds (4-11). The aglycone of momordicoside I was isolated from the ether soluble fraction in a high amount. The structures of the metabolites were established on the basis of one and two dimensional NMR spectroscopic evidence, X-ray analysis, and comparison with the reported data in the literature. A number of phytochemicals have been isolated from Momordica charantia but the constituents responsible for the hypoglycaemic/antihyperglycaemic activities have not been determined. Therefore, in order to evaluate the contribution of the cucurbitane triterpenoids of the ether fraction of M. charantia methanol extract to in vivo anti-diabetic effects, the major compounds, 5beta,19-epoxy-3beta,25-dihydroxycucurbita-6,23(E)-diene (4), and 3beta,7beta,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23(E)-dien-19-al (5) have been tested and have shown blood hypoglycaemic effects in the diabetes-induced male ddY mice strain at 400 mg/kg. The two aglycones of charantin did not show any hypoglycaemic effects. Our finding is the first demonstration that major pure cucurbutanoid compounds of M. charantia have in vivo hypoglycaemic effects.

  15. [Clinical analysis of three cases with beta-thalassemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X Y; Liu, M J; Xu, L H; Xu, H G; Chen, H L; Fang, J P

    2018-04-02

    Objective: To study the diagnostic strategy of β-thalassemia through retrospective analysis of 3 cases of β-thalassemia. Methods: Three patients were admitted to the Department of Pediatrics, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from January 2014 to June 2015. The clinical manifestations, hemoglobin electrophoresis and gene detection of these patients and their parents were analyzed, diagnostic ideas and key points were discussed when beta thalassemia gene detection did not explain clinical manifestations or hemoglobin electrophoresis. Results: Case 1, boy, 5 years old, was diagnosed as compound heterozygotes of β41-42 and IVS-Ⅱ-654 with hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin(HPFH) according to the clinical manifestations of mild anemia, normal size of liver and spleen, 92.8% fetal hemoglobin (HbF) and gene analysis. Case 2, girl, 3 years old, was confirmed the diagnosis of thalassemia intermedia with β41-42 heterozygote compound and ααα anti3.7 heterozygote in accordance with the manifestations of severe anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, 8.6% HbF, 4.1% hemoglobin A 2 (HbA 2 ) and gene analysis. Case 3, girl, 3 years old, with severe anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, 51.2% HbF and 3.7% HbA 2 , was diagnosed as thalassemia major with compound heterozygotes of PolyA (T→C) and β17 by DNA sequencing. Conclusion: The diagnosis of β-thalassemia should be confirmed by clinical manifestations of hemolytic anemia, hemoglobin electrophoresis, gene diagnosis and family survey.

  16. Recognition and Resistance in TEM [superscript beta]-Lactamase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaojun; Minasov, George; Blazquez, Jesus; Caselli, Emilia; Prati, Fabio; Shoichet, Brian K. (Degli); (UCSF)

    2010-03-08

    Developing antimicrobials that are less likely to engender resistance has become an important design criterion as more and more drugs fall victim to resistance mutations. One hypothesis is that the more closely an inhibitor resembles a substrate, the more difficult it will be to develop resistant mutations that can at once disfavor the inhibitor and still recognize the substrate. To investigate this hypothesis, 10 transition-state analogues, of greater or lesser similarity to substrates, were tested for inhibition of TEM-1 beta-lactamase, the most widespread resistance enzyme to penicillin antibiotics. The inhibitors were also tested against four characteristic mutant enzymes: TEM-30, TEM-32, TEM-52, and TEM-64. The inhibitor most similar to the substrate, compound 10, was the most potent inhibitor of the WT enzyme, with a K(i) value of 64 nM. Conversely, compound 10 was the most susceptible to the TEM-30 (R244S) mutant, for which inhibition dropped by over 100-fold. The other inhibitors were relatively impervious to the TEM-30 mutant enzyme. To understand recognition and resistance to these transition-state analogues, the structures of four of these inhibitors in complex with TEM-1 were determined by X-ray crystallography. These structures suggest a structural basis for distinguishing inhibitors that mimic the acylation transition state and those that mimic the deacylation transition state; they also suggest how TEM-30 reduces the affinity of compound 10. In cell culture, this inhibitor reversed the resistance of bacteria to ampicillin, reducing minimum inhibitory concentrations of this penicillin by between 4- and 64-fold, depending on the strain of bacteria. Notwithstanding this activity, the resistance of TEM-30, which is already extant in the clinic, suggests that there can be resistance liabilities with substrate-based design.

  17. Survey instrument response to beta radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Sisk, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    Available survey instruments do not have the beta measurement characteristics needed for accurate dose rate assessments. Such instruments have severe angular and energy dependence. In addition, beta measurements often require corrections for the source geometry response of the detector to permit accurate assessments. Studies were performed to characterize present instruments and to determine optimum characteristics for a field instrument. Results of the studies were used to specify and procure an instrument with improved characteristics. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of the studies and the design of the instrument

  18. Beta/gamma test problems for ITS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, G.T.

    1993-01-01

    The Integrated Tiger Series of Coupled Electron/Photon Monte Carlo Transport Codes (ITS 3.0, PC Version) was used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to compare with and extend the experimental findings of the beta/gamma response of selected health physics instruments. In order to assure that ITS gives correct results, several beta/gamma problems have been tested. ITS was used to simulate these problems numerically, and results for each were compared to the problem's experimental or analytical results. ITS successfully predicted the experimental or analytical results of all tested problems within the statistical uncertainty inherent in the Monte Carlo method

  19. Measuring Systematic Risk Using Implicit Beta

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew F. Siegel

    1995-01-01

    A new technology is proposed for estimating the systematic (beta) risk of a firm's stock. Just as the implicit volatility of an asset is revealed by an ordinary call option, the "implicit beta" of a stock would be revealed by the price of an option to exchange shares of stock for shares of a market index. Considerable benefits would accrue to those involved with the theory and practice of finance, if and when these exchange options begin trading, due to the availability of instantaneous, up-t...

  20. Card controlled beta backscatter thickness measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, J.

    1978-01-01

    An improved beta backscatter instrument for the nondestructive measurement of the thickness of thin coatings on a substrate is described. Included therein is the utilization of a bank of memory stored data representative of isotope, substrate, coating material and thickness range characteristics in association with a control card having predetermined indicia thereon selectively representative of a particular isotope, substrate material, coating material and thickness range for conditioning electronic circuit means by memory stored data selected in accord with the predetermined indicia on a control card for converting backscattered beta particle counts into indicia of coating thickness