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Sample records for beta dicarbonyl compounds

  1. Polyfunctional beta-Dicarbonyl Compounds by Michael Addition Reactions of Ester Enolates to alpha-Benzylidene and alpha-Alkylidene-beta-dicarbonyl Compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holan, Martin; Pohl, Radek; Císařová, I.; Jahn, Ullrich

    -, č. 18 (2012), s. 3459-3475 ISSN 1434-193X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1936 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Michael addition * diastereoselectivity * regioselectivity * enols * dicarbonyl compounds Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.344, year: 2012

  2. Extending the spectrum of α-dicarbonyl compounds in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Christian; Liehr, Kristin; Girndt, Matthias; Ulrich, Christof; Glomb, Marcus A

    2014-10-10

    Maillard α-dicarbonyl compounds are known as central intermediates in advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation. Glucose is the primary source of energy for the human body, whereas l-threo-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is an essential nutrient, involved in a variety of enzymatic reactions. Thus, the Maillard degradation of glucose and ascorbic acid is of major importance in vivo. To understand the complex mechanistic pathways of AGE formation, it is crucial to extend the knowledge on plasma concentrations of reactive key α-dicarbonyl compounds (e.g. 1-deoxyglucosone). With the present work, we introduce a highly sensitive LC-MS/MS multimethod for human blood plasma based on derivatization with o-phenylenediamine under acidic conditions. The impact of workup and reaction conditions, particularly of pH, was thoroughly evaluated. A comprehensive validation provided the limit of detection, limit of quantitation, coefficients of variation, and recovery rates. The method includes the α-dicarbonyls 1-deoxyglucosone, 3-deoxyglucosone, glucosone, Lederer's glucosone, dehydroascorbic acid, 2,3-diketogulonic acid, 1-deoxypentosone, 3-deoxypentosone, 3,4-dideoxypentosone, pentosone, 1-deoxythreosone, 3-deoxythreosone, threosone, methylglyoxal, glyoxal; the α-keto-carboxylic acids pyruvic acid and glyoxylic acid; and the dicarboxylic acid oxalic acid. The method was then applied to the analyses of 15 healthy subjects and 24 uremic patients undergoing hemodialysis. The comparison of the results revealed a clear shift in the product spectrum. In most cases, the plasma levels of target analytes were significantly higher. Thus, this is the first time that a complete spectrum of α-dicarbonyl compounds relevant in vivo has been established. The results provide further insights into the chemistry of AGE formation and will be helpful to find specific markers to differentiate between the various precursors of glycation. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and

  3. Mn(III)-initiated facile oxygenation of heterocyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds.

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    Rahman, Md Taifur; Haque, Md Aminul; Igarashi, Hikaru; Nishino, Hiroshi

    2011-11-16

    The Mn(III)-initiated aerobic oxidation of heterocyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, such as 4-alkyl-1,2-diphenylpyrazolidine-3,5-diones, 1,3-dialkylpyrrolidine-2,4-diones, 3-alkyl-1,5-dimethylbarbituric acids, and 3-butyl-4-hydroxy-2-quinolinone gave excellent to good yields of the corresponding hydroperoxides, which were gradually degraded by exposure to the metal initiator after the reaction to afford the corresponding alcohols. The synthesis of 30 heterocyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, the corresponding hydroperoxides and the 10 alcohols, their characterization, and the limitations of the procedure are described. In addition, the mechanism of the hydroperoxidation and the redox decomposition of the hydroperoxides are discussed.

  4. Mn(III-Initiated Facile Oxygenation of Heterocyclic 1,3-Dicarbonyl Compounds

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    Md. Aminul Haque

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Mn(III-initiated aerobic oxidation of heterocyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, such as 4-alkyl-1,2-diphenylpyrazolidine-3,5-diones, 1,3-dialkylpyrrolidine-2,4-diones, 3-alkyl-1,5-dimethylbarbituric acids, and 3-butyl-4-hydroxy-2-quinolinone gave excellent to good yields of the corresponding hydroperoxides, which were gradually degraded by exposure to the metal initiator after the reaction to afford the corresponding alcohols. The synthesis of 30 heterocyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, the corresponding hydroperoxides and the 10 alcohols, their characterization, and the limitations of the procedure are described. In addition, the mechanism of the hydroperoxidation and the redox decomposition of the hydroperoxides are discussed.

  5. Catalyst-Dependent Chemoselective Formal Insertion of Diazo Compounds into C-C or C-H Bonds of 1,3-Dicarbonyl Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaohong; Sivaguru, Paramasivam; Zanoni, Giuseppe; Anderson, Edward A; Bi, Xihe

    2018-05-08

    A catalyst-dependent chemoselective one-carbon insertion of diazo compounds into the C-C or C-H bonds of 1,3-dicarbonyl species is reported. In the presence of silver(I) triflate, diazo insertion into the C(=O)-C bond of the 1,3-dicarbonyl substrate leads to a 1,4-dicarbonyl product containing an all-carbon α-quaternary center. This reaction constitutes the first example of an insertion of diazo-derived carbenoids into acyclic C-C bonds. When instead scandium(III) triflate was applied as the catalyst, the reaction pathway switched to formal C-H insertion, affording 2-alkylated 1,3-dicarbonyl products. Different reaction pathways are proposed to account for this powerful catalyst-dependent chemoselectivity. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Synthesis of Pyrroloquinones via a CAN Mediated Oxidative Free Radical Reaction of 1,3-Dicarbonyl Compounds with Aminoquinones

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    Thao Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrroloquinone ring systems are important structural units present in many biologically active molecules including a number of marine alkaloids. For example, they are found in a series of marine metabolites, such as tsitsikammamines, zyzzyanones, wakayin, and terreusinone. Several of these alkaloids have exhibited antimicrobial, antimalarial, antifungal, antitumor, and photoprotecting activities. Synthesis of pyrroloquinone unit is the key step in the synthesis of many of these important organic molecules. Here, we present a ceric (IV ammonium nitrate (CAN mediated oxidative free radical cyclization reaction of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds with aminoquinones as a facile methodology for making various substituted pyrroloquinones. 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds used in this study are ethyl acetoacetate, acetylacetone, benzoyl acetone, and N,N-dimethyl acetoacetamide. The aminoquinones used in this study are 2-(benzylaminonaphthalene-1,4-dione and 6-(benzylamino-1-tosyl-1H-indole-4,7-dione. The yields of the synthesized pyrroloquinones ranged from 23–91%.

  7. Formation of alpha-dicarbonyl compounds in beer during storage of Pilsner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Adriana; Herrera, Julio C; Scherer, Erika; Ju-Nam, Yon; Rübsam, Heinrich; Madrid, Jorge; Zufall, Carsten; Rangel-Aldao, Rafael

    2008-06-11

    With the aim of determining the formation of alpha-dicarbonyl intermediates during beer aging on the shelf, alpha-dicarbonyls were identified and quantified after derivatization with 1,2-diaminobenze to generate quinoxalines. The sensory effects of alpha-dicarbonyls were evaluated by the quantification of key Strecker aldehydes and by GC-olfactometry (GCO)analysis of beer headspace using solid phase microextraction. Four alpha-dicarbonyls, reported here for the first time, were detected in fresh and aged beers, three were derived from the 2,3-enolization pathway of mono- and disaccharides, and the fourth was derived from the epimerization of 3-deoxy-2-hexosulose. Ten alpha-dicarbonyls were quantified during beer processing and during different periods of beer aging at 28 degrees C. The aging periods were from 15 to 105 days. During beer aging, 1-deoxydiuloses were produced and degraded, while 1,4-dideoxydiuloses were produced at the highest rates. The GCO analysis indicated that forced beer aging increased the amounts of furaneol, trans-2-nonenal, and phenylacetaldehyde. The blockage of alpha-dicarbonyls inhibited the accumulation of sensory-active aldehydes in the beer headspace.

  8. Hydrogen-rich water inhibits glucose and α,β -dicarbonyl compound-induced reactive oxygen species production in the SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr rat kidney

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    Katakura Masanori

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS production induced by α,β-dicarbonyl compounds and advanced glycation end products causes renal dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Hydrogen-rich water (HRW increases the H2 level in blood and tissues, thus reducing oxidative stress in animals as well as humans. In this study, we investigated the effects of HRW on glucose- and α,β-dicarbonyl compound-induced ROS generation in vitro and in vivo. Methods Kidney homogenates from Wistar rats were incubated in vitro with glucose and α,β-dicarbonyl compounds containing HRW, following which ROS levels were measured. In vivo animal models of metabolic syndrome, SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr rats, were treated with HRW for 16 weeks, following which renal ROS production and plasma and renal α,β-dicarbonyl compound levels were measured by liquid chromatograph mass spectrometer. Results HRW inhibited glucose- and α,β-dicarbonyl compound-induced ROS production in kidney homogenates from Wistar rats in vitro. Furthermore, SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr rats treated with HRW showed a 34% decrease in ROS production. Moreover, their renal glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and 3-deoxyglucosone levels decreased by 81%, 77%, and 60%, respectively. Positive correlations were found between renal ROS levels and renal glyoxal (r = 0.659, p = 0.008 and methylglyoxal (r = 0.782, p = 0.001 levels. Conclusion These results indicate that HRW inhibits the production of α,β-dicarbonyl compounds and ROS in the kidneys of SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr rats. Therefore, it has therapeutic potential for renal dysfunction in patient with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

  9. Catalyst-free and solvent-free Michael addition of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds to nitroalkenes by a grinding method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zong-Bo; Wu, Ming-Yu; He, Ting; Le, Zhang-Gao

    2012-01-01

    Summary An environmentally benign, fast and convenient protocol has been developed for the Michael addition of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds to β-nitroalkenes in good to excellent yields by a grinding method under catalyst- and solvent-free conditions. PMID:22563352

  10. Synthesis of α-amino-1,3-dicarbonyl compounds via Ugi flow chemistry reaction: access to functionalized 1,2,3-triazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Stanley N S; Fornari, Evelin; Caracelli, Ignez; Stefani, Hélio A

    2017-11-01

    The Ugi multicomponent reaction has been used as an important synthetic route to obtain compounds with potential biological activity. We present the rapid and efficient synthesis of [Formula: see text]-amino-1,3-dicarbonyl compounds in moderate to good yields via Ugi flow chemistry reactions performed with a continuous flow reactor. Such [Formula: see text]-amino-1,3-dicarbonyl compounds can act as precursors for the production of [Formula: see text]-amino acids via hydrolysis of the ethyl ester group as well as building blocks for the synthesis of novel compounds with the 1,2,3-triazole ring. The [Formula: see text]-amino acid derivatives of the Ugi flow chemistry reaction products were then used for dipeptide synthesis.

  11. Effect of Different Flours on the Formation of Hydroxymethylfurfural, Furfural, and Dicarbonyl Compounds in Heated Glucose/Flour Systems

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    Marta Mesías

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional cereal-based foods usually include wheat flour in their formulations; however, the search for new products with new ingredients providing different properties to foods is widely pursued by food companies. Replacement of wheat by other flours can modify both nutritional properties and organoleptic characteristics of the final baked food, but can also impact the formation of potentially harmful compounds. The effect of the type of flour on the formation of furfurals and dicarbonyl compounds was studied in a dough model system during baking that contains water or glucose in order to promote the Maillard reaction and caramelization. The formation of methylglyoxal and glyoxal was significantly reduced in spelt and teff formulations compared to wheat flour formulations, respectively. In contrast, samples formulated with oat, teff, and rye showed a significant increase in the levels of 3-deoxyglucosone. Similarly, spelt and teff formulations presented significantly higher concentrations of hydroxymethylfurfural, and spelt, teff, and rye presented higher concentrations of furfural. Therefore, the formation of process contaminants and undesirable compounds in new food products formulated with different flours replacing the traditional wheat flour should be considered carefully in terms of food safety.

  12. Effect of Different Flours on the Formation of Hydroxymethylfurfural, Furfural, and Dicarbonyl Compounds in Heated Glucose/Flour Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesías, Marta; Morales, Francisco J

    2017-02-16

    Traditional cereal-based foods usually include wheat flour in their formulations; however, the search for new products with new ingredients providing different properties to foods is widely pursued by food companies. Replacement of wheat by other flours can modify both nutritional properties and organoleptic characteristics of the final baked food, but can also impact the formation of potentially harmful compounds. The effect of the type of flour on the formation of furfurals and dicarbonyl compounds was studied in a dough model system during baking that contains water or glucose in order to promote the Maillard reaction and caramelization. The formation of methylglyoxal and glyoxal was significantly reduced in spelt and teff formulations compared to wheat flour formulations, respectively. In contrast, samples formulated with oat, teff, and rye showed a significant increase in the levels of 3-deoxyglucosone. Similarly, spelt and teff formulations presented significantly higher concentrations of hydroxymethylfurfural, and spelt, teff, and rye presented higher concentrations of furfural. Therefore, the formation of process contaminants and undesirable compounds in new food products formulated with different flours replacing the traditional wheat flour should be considered carefully in terms of food safety.

  13. RhII -Catalyzed β-C(sp2 )-H Alkylation of Enol Ethers, Enamides and Enecarbamates with α-Diazo Dicarbonyl Compounds.

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    McLarney, Brett D; Cavitt, Marchello A; Donnell, Theodore M; Musaev, Djamaladdin G; France, Stefan

    2017-01-23

    A Rh II -catalyzed method for intermolecular alkylation of the β-C(sp 2 )-H bond of enol ethers, enamides, and enecarbamates with α-diazo-1,3-dicarbonyl compounds is reported. The products are formed in up to 99 % yield and can be readily derivatized under a variety of conditions. By utilizing a combination of experimental and computational studies, the presumptive addition-elimination reaction mechanism was investigated and found to proceed under thermodynamic control at higher temperature. The acquired fundamental knowledge was translated into a strategic reaction design and yielded the first example of the β-C-H functionalizations of acyclic enol ethers using α-diazo-1,3-dicarbonyl compounds. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Quantum Chemical and Experimental Studies on the Mechanism of Alkylation of β-Dicarbonyl Compounds. The Synthesis of Five and Six Membered Heterocyclic Spiro Derivatives

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    Ali Hüseyinli

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The alkylation of β-dicarbonyl compounds in a K2CO3/DMSO system wasfound to afford O- and C-alkylated derivatives, depending on the type of the β-dicarbonylcompound involved. The alkyl derivatives obtained were used in the synthesis of some newspiro barbituric acid derivatives. Quantum chemical calculations were carried out toelucidate the reaction mechanisms for some typical synthesis.

  15. Free α-dicarbonyl compounds in coffee, barley coffee and soy sauce and effects of in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papetti, Adele; Mascherpa, Dora; Gazzani, Gabriella

    2014-12-01

    α-Dicarbonyl (α-DC) compounds were characterised in roasted (coffee, barley coffee) and in fermented (soy sauce) food matrices. Glyoxal (GO), methylglyoxal (MGO), diacetyl (DA) and 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) were found in all samples, and hydroxypyruvaldehyde and 5-hydroxypentane-2,3-dione in barley and soy. Cis and trans 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene (3,4-DGE) isomers and 4-glucosyl-5,6-dihydroxy-2-oxohexanal (4-G,3-DG) were found only in barley, and 3,4-DGE only in soy sauce with molasses. GO, MGO, and DA were quantified. Findings indicate that i) α-DC profiles depend on the food matrix and any technological treatments applied; ii) α-DC quantitation by HPLC requires matrix-specific, validated methods; iii) GO and MGO were the most abundant α-DCs; and iv) barley coffee was the matrix richest in α-DCs both qualitatively and quantitatively. In vitro simulated digestion reduced (coffee) or strongly increased (barley, soy sauce) free α-DC content. These findings suggest that α-DC bioavailability could actually depend not on food content but rather on reactions occurring during digestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Voltammetric detection of the α-dicarbonyl compound: methylglyoxal as a flavoring agent in wine and beer.

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    Chatterjee, Sanghamitra; Chen, Aicheng

    2012-11-02

    A simple, rapid and highly selective method for the determination of the most abundant α-dicarbonyl compound in wine and beer has been developed for the first time by employing square wave voltammetry. A novel electrochemical sensor, based on the electrodeposition of platinum nanoparticles onto single wall carbon nanotubes that were cast on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) substrate, is presented in this paper. This modified electrode exhibited excellent catalytic activity in the electroreduction of methylglyoxal, showing much higher peak currents than those measured on an unmodified GCE. The effects of different experimental and instrumental parameters, such as solution pH and square wave frequency, were examined. The reduction peak current showed a linear range of from 0.1×10(-6) to 100×10(-6)M with a 0.9979 correlation coefficient; and a low detection limit of 2.8×10(-9)M was also obtained. The proposed methodology was successfully applied to the quantitative analysis of methylglyoxal in wine and beer samples. The developed sensor possesses advantageous properties such as a high active surface area, stability, and rapid electron transfer rate, which cumulatively demonstrate high performance toward the electrocatalytic reduction and detection of methylglyoxal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometric investigations of [alpha]-dicarbonyl compounds--Probing intermediates formed in the course of the nonenzymatic browning reaction of l-ascorbic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Anke; Trage, Claudia; Schwarz, Helmut; Kroh, Lothar W.

    2007-05-01

    A new method is presented which allows the simultaneous detection of various [alpha]-dicarbonyl compounds generated in the course of the nonenzymatic browning reaction initiated by thermal treatment of l-ascorbic acid, namely: glyoxal, methylglyoxal, diacetyl, 3-deoxy-l-pentosone, and l-threosoneE 3-Deoxy-l-threosone was successfully identified as a new C4-[alpha]-dicarbonyl structure for the first time in the degradation of Vitamin C by application of this non-chromatographic mass spectrometric approach. Moreover, a more detailed elucidation of the mechanistic scenario with respect to the oxidative and nonoxidative pathways is presented by using dehydro-l-ascorbic acid and 2,3-diketo-l-gulonic acid instead of l-ascorbic acid as a starting material. Furthermore, the postulated pathways are corroborated with the aid of 13C-isotopic labeling studies. The investigations were extended to baby food, and the successful detection of [alpha]-dicarbonyl compounds characteristic for Vitamin C degradation proved the matrix tolerance of the introduced method.

  18. Voltammetric detection of the α-dicarbonyl compound: Methylglyoxal as a flavoring agent in wine and beer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Sanghamitra; Chen Aicheng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Synergistic electrocatalytic effect of Pt nanoparticles and single-wall carbon nanotubes on the reduction of methylglyoxal. ► Novel electrochemical Pt/SWNT/GCE sensor designed for the determination of methylglyoxal. ► Excellent analytical performance with low detection limit and high sensitivity. ► The developed methylglyoxal sensor shows promising process control, clinical and, biomedical applications. - Abstract: A simple, rapid and highly selective method for the determination of the most abundant α-dicarbonyl compound in wine and beer has been developed for the first time by employing square wave voltammetry. A novel electrochemical sensor, based on the electrodeposition of platinum nanoparticles onto single wall carbon nanotubes that were cast on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) substrate, is presented in this paper. This modified electrode exhibited excellent catalytic activity in the electroreduction of methylglyoxal, showing much higher peak currents than those measured on an unmodified GCE. The effects of different experimental and instrumental parameters, such as solution pH and square wave frequency, were examined. The reduction peak current showed a linear range of from 0.1 × 10 −6 to 100 × 10 −6 M with a 0.9979 correlation coefficient; and a low detection limit of 2.8 × 10 −9 M was also obtained. The proposed methodology was successfully applied to the quantitative analysis of methylglyoxal in wine and beer samples. The developed sensor possesses advantageous properties such as a high active surface area, stability, and rapid electron transfer rate, which cumulatively demonstrate high performance toward the electrocatalytic reduction and detection of methylglyoxal.

  19. Voltammetric detection of the {alpha}-dicarbonyl compound: Methylglyoxal as a flavoring agent in wine and beer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Sanghamitra [Department of Chemistry, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1 (Canada); Chen Aicheng, E-mail: achen@lakeheadu.ca [Department of Chemistry, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1 (Canada)

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synergistic electrocatalytic effect of Pt nanoparticles and single-wall carbon nanotubes on the reduction of methylglyoxal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel electrochemical Pt/SWNT/GCE sensor designed for the determination of methylglyoxal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Excellent analytical performance with low detection limit and high sensitivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The developed methylglyoxal sensor shows promising process control, clinical and, biomedical applications. - Abstract: A simple, rapid and highly selective method for the determination of the most abundant {alpha}-dicarbonyl compound in wine and beer has been developed for the first time by employing square wave voltammetry. A novel electrochemical sensor, based on the electrodeposition of platinum nanoparticles onto single wall carbon nanotubes that were cast on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) substrate, is presented in this paper. This modified electrode exhibited excellent catalytic activity in the electroreduction of methylglyoxal, showing much higher peak currents than those measured on an unmodified GCE. The effects of different experimental and instrumental parameters, such as solution pH and square wave frequency, were examined. The reduction peak current showed a linear range of from 0.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} to 100 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M with a 0.9979 correlation coefficient; and a low detection limit of 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} M was also obtained. The proposed methodology was successfully applied to the quantitative analysis of methylglyoxal in wine and beer samples. The developed sensor possesses advantageous properties such as a high active surface area, stability, and rapid electron transfer rate, which cumulatively demonstrate high performance toward the electrocatalytic reduction and detection of methylglyoxal.

  20. Readily Available Chiral Benzimidazoles-Derived Guanidines as Organocatalysts in the Asymmetric α-Amination of 1,3-Dicarbonyl Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavent, Llorenç; Puccetti, Francesco; Baeza, Alejandro; Gómez-Martínez, Melania

    2017-08-11

    The synthesis and the evaluation as organocatalysts of new chiral guanidines derived from benzimidazoles in the enantioselective α-amination of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds using di- t -butylazodicarboxylate as aminating agent is herein disclosed. The catalysts are readily synthesized through the reaction of 2-chlorobezimidazole and a chiral amine in moderate-to-good yields. Among all of them, those derived from ( R )-1-phenylethan-1-amine ( 1 ) and ( S )-1-(2-naphthyl)ethan-1-amine ( 3 ) turned out to be the most efficient for such asymmetric transformation, rendering good-to-high yields and moderate-to-good enantioselectivities for the amination products.

  1. Effect of Sodium Chloride on α-Dicarbonyl Compound and 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furfural Formations from Glucose under Caramelization Conditions: A Multiresponse Kinetic Modeling Approach.

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    Kocadağlı, Tolgahan; Gökmen, Vural

    2016-08-17

    This study aimed to investigate the kinetics of α-dicarbonyl compound formation in glucose and glucose-sodium chloride mixture during heating under caramelization conditions. Changes in the concentrations of glucose, fructose, glucosone, 1-deoxyglucosone, 3-deoxyglucosone, 3,4-dideoxyglucosone, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF), glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and diacetyl were determined. A comprehensive reaction network was built, and the multiresponse model was compared to the experimentally observed data. Interconversion between glucose and fructose became 2.5 times faster in the presence of NaCl at 180 and 200 °C. The effect of NaCl on the rate constants of α-dicarbonyl compound formation varied across the precursor and the compound itself and temperature. A decrease in rate constants of 3-deoxyglucosone and 1-deoxyglucosone formations by the presence of NaCl was observed. HMF formation was revealed to be mainly via isomerization to fructose and dehydration over cyclic intermediates, and the rate constants increase 4-fold in the presence of NaCl.

  2. Effects of Sodium Chloride, Potassium Chloride and Calcium Chloride on the Formation of α-Dicarbonyl Compounds, Furfurals and Development of Browning in Cookies during Baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocadağlı, Tolgahan; Gökmen, Vural

    2016-10-02

    Effect of NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, NaHCO3, and NH4HCO3 on the formation of glucosone, 1-deoxyglucosone, 3-deoxyglucosone, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, diacetyl, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural, 2-furfural and browning were investigated in cookies. Presence of 1.5% NaCl, 1% KCl, and 1% CaCl2 on flour basis had no effect on α-dicarbonyl compounds, except 1-deoxyglucosone increased in the presence of KCl and CaCl2. The increase in 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural formation in the presence of NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 did not relate to 3-deoxyglucosone formation and pH changes. NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 increased browning in cookies. Model reaction systems indicated that NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 enhance browning by increasing furfurals in caramelization. NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 decreased browning intensity in heated glucose-glycine system. Usage of CaCl2 in cookies may considerably increase furfurals but not α-dicarbonyl compounds. Sodium reduction can be obtained by replacement with potassium without sacrificing the desired consequences of caramelization in sugar rich bakeries.

  3. Method for conversion of .beta.-hydroxy carbonyl compounds

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    Lilga, Michael A.; White, James F.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Zacher, Alan H.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; Orth, Rick J.

    2010-03-30

    A process is disclosed for conversion of salts of .beta.-hydroxy carbonyl compounds forming useful conversion products including, e.g., .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carbonyl compounds and/or salts of .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. Conversion products find use, e.g., as feedstock and/or end-use chemicals.

  4. Molecular distribution and compound-specific stable carbon isotopic composition of dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in PM2.5 from Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the seasonal variation, molecular distribution and stable carbon isotopic composition of diacids, oxocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls to better understand the sources and formation processes of fine aerosols (PM2.5 in Beijing. The concentrations of total dicarboxylic acids varied from 110 to 2580 ng m−3, whereas oxoacids (9.50–353 ng m−3 and dicarbonyls (1.50–85.9 ng m−3 were less abundant. Oxalic acid was found to be the most abundant individual species, followed by succinic acid or occasionally by terephthalic acid (tPh, a plastic waste burning tracer. Ambient concentrations of phthalic acid (37.9 ± 27.3 ng m−3 and tPh (48.7 ± 51.1 ng m−3 were larger in winter than in other seasons, illustrating that fossil fuel combustion and plastic waste incineration contribute more to wintertime aerosols. The year-round mass concentration ratios of malonic acid to succinic acid (C3 ∕ C4 were relatively low by comparison with those in other urban aerosols and remote marine aerosols. The values were less than or equal to unity in Beijing, implying that the degree of photochemical formation of diacids in Beijing is insignificant. Moreover, strong correlation coefficients of major oxocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls with nss-K+ suggest that biomass burning contributes significantly to these organic acids and related precursors. The mean δ13C value of succinic acid is the highest among all species, with values of −17.1 ± 3.9 ‰ (winter and −17.1 ± 2.0 ‰ (spring, while malonic acid is more enriched in 13C than others in autumn (−17.6 ± 4.6 ‰ and summer (−18.7 ± 4.0 ‰. The δ13C values of major species in Beijing aerosols are generally lower than those in the western North Pacific atmosphere, the downwind region, which indicates that stable carbon isotopic compositions of diacids depend on their precursor sources in Beijing. Therefore, our

  5. Molecular distribution and compound-specific stable carbon isotopic composition of dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in PM2.5 from Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wanyu; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Yue, Siyao; Wei, Lianfang; Ren, Hong; Yan, Yu; Kang, Mingjie; Li, Linjie; Ren, Lujie; Lai, Senchao; Li, Jie; Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa; Fu, Pingqing

    2018-02-01

    This study investigates the seasonal variation, molecular distribution and stable carbon isotopic composition of diacids, oxocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls to better understand the sources and formation processes of fine aerosols (PM2.5) in Beijing. The concentrations of total dicarboxylic acids varied from 110 to 2580 ng m-3, whereas oxoacids (9.50-353 ng m-3) and dicarbonyls (1.50-85.9 ng m-3) were less abundant. Oxalic acid was found to be the most abundant individual species, followed by succinic acid or occasionally by terephthalic acid (tPh), a plastic waste burning tracer. Ambient concentrations of phthalic acid (37.9 ± 27.3 ng m-3) and tPh (48.7 ± 51.1 ng m-3) were larger in winter than in other seasons, illustrating that fossil fuel combustion and plastic waste incineration contribute more to wintertime aerosols. The year-round mass concentration ratios of malonic acid to succinic acid (C3 / C4) were relatively low by comparison with those in other urban aerosols and remote marine aerosols. The values were less than or equal to unity in Beijing, implying that the degree of photochemical formation of diacids in Beijing is insignificant. Moreover, strong correlation coefficients of major oxocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls with nss-K+ suggest that biomass burning contributes significantly to these organic acids and related precursors. The mean δ13C value of succinic acid is the highest among all species, with values of -17.1 ± 3.9 ‰ (winter) and -17.1 ± 2.0 ‰ (spring), while malonic acid is more enriched in 13C than others in autumn (-17.6 ± 4.6 ‰) and summer (-18.7 ± 4.0 ‰). The δ13C values of major species in Beijing aerosols are generally lower than those in the western North Pacific atmosphere, the downwind region, which indicates that stable carbon isotopic compositions of diacids depend on their precursor sources in Beijing. Therefore, our study demonstrates that in addition to photochemical oxidation, high abundances of diacids

  6. Role of α-Dicarbonyl Compounds in the Inhibition Effect of Reducing Sugars on the Formation of 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhonghui; Liu, Bing; Niu, Zhiyan; Zhang, Yan; Gao, Jianxin; Shi, Lei; Wang, Shujun; Wang, Shuo

    2017-11-22

    The effect of reducing sugars on formation of PhIP in fried pork was investigated, and the underlying mechanisms were revealed by studying the reaction pathways between α-dicarbonyl compounds (α-DCs) and PhIP. The addition of reducing sugars (such as glucose) greatly reduced the amount of PhIP in fried pork from 15.5 ng/g to less than 1.0 ng/g. The amount of PhIP decreased significantly with an increasing level of added α-DCs in model systems. Similarly, the addition of methylglyoxal (MGO) decreased significantly the levels of phenylalanine (Phe) and creatinine (Crn) but increased significantly the level of phenylacetaldehyde (PEA). 2-Amino-1-methyl-5-(2-oxopropylidene)-imidazol-4-one and N-(1-methyl-4-oxoimidazolidin-2-ylidene) amino propionic acids were identified in MGO/Crn and MGO/Crn/Phe model systems and fried pork with glucose. These results revealed that the degradation products of reducing sugars-α-DCs-play an important role in inhibiting formation of PhIP by reacting with key precursors of PhIP and itself.

  7. Dicarbonyl stress in clinical obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masania, Jinit; Malczewska-Malec, Malgorzata; Razny, Urszula; Goralska, Joanna; Zdzienicka, Anna; Kiec-Wilk, Beata; Gruca, Anna; Stancel-Mozwillo, Julita; Dembinska-Kiec, Aldona; Rabbani, Naila; Thornalley, Paul J

    2016-08-01

    The glyoxalase system in the cytoplasm of cells provides the primary defence against glycation by methylglyoxal catalysing its metabolism to D-lactate. Methylglyoxal is the precursor of the major quantitative advanced glycation endproducts in physiological systems - arginine-derived hydroimidazolones and deoxyguanosine-derived imidazopurinones. Glyoxalase 1 of the glyoxalase system was linked to anthropometric measurements of obesity in human subjects and to body weight in strains of mice. Recent conference reports described increased weight gain on high fat diet-fed mouse with lifelong deficiency of glyoxalase 1 deficiency, compared to wild-type controls, and decreased weight gain in glyoxalase 1-overexpressing transgenic mice, suggesting a functional role of glyoxalase 1 and dicarbonyl stress in obesity. Increased methylglyoxal, dicarbonyl stress, in white adipose tissue and liver may be a mediator of obesity and insulin resistance and thereby a risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Increased methylglyoxal formation from glyceroneogenesis on adipose tissue and liver and decreased glyoxalase 1 activity in obesity likely drives dicarbonyl stress in white adipose tissue increasing the dicarbonyl proteome and related dysfunction. The clinical significance will likely emerge from on-going clinical evaluation of inducers of glyoxalase 1 expression in overweight and obese subjects. Increased transcapillary escape rate of albumin and increased total body interstitial fluid volume in obesity likely makes levels of glycation of plasma protein unreliable indicators of glycation status in obesity as there is a shift of albumin dwell time from plasma to interstitial fluid, which decreases overall glycation for a given glycemic exposure.

  8. Long-chain aliphatic beta-diketones from epicuticular wax of Vanilla bean species. Synthesis of nervonoylacetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaroson-Raonizafinimanana, B; Gaydou, E M; Bombarda, I

    2000-10-01

    Analysis of the neutral lipids from Vanilla fragrans and Vanilla tahitensis (Orchidaceae) without saponification resulted in the isolation and identification of a new product family in this plant: beta-dicarbonyl compounds. The compound structures are composed of a long aliphatic chain with 2,4-dicarbonyl carbons and a cis double bond at the n-9 position. They represent approximately 28% of the neutral lipids, that is, 1.5%, in immature beans, and approximately 10% of the neutral lipids, that is, 0.9%, in mature beans. Using retention indices, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, derivatization reactions, and chemical degradation, five beta-dicarbonyl compounds have been identified including 16-pentacosene-2,4-dione, 18-heptacosene-2,4-dione, 20-nonacosene-2, 4-dione, 22-hentriacontene-2,4-dione, and 24-tritriacontene-2, 4-dione. Among them (Z)-18-heptacosene-2,4-dione, or nervonoylacetone, has been synthesized in two steps starting from nervonic acid. The major constituent, nervonoylacetone, represented 74.5% of the beta-dicarbonyl fraction. The range of these compounds has been studied in relation with bean maturity for V. fragrans and V. tahitensis species. This compound family has not been found in the leaves or stems of any of the three vanilla species studied and is markedly absent in the beans of V. madagascariensis.

  9. Beta-galactosidase catalyzed selective galactosylation of aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridiau, Nicolas; Taboubi, Selma; Marzouki, Nejib; Legoy, Marie Dominique; Maugard, Thierry

    2006-01-01

    A new approach to galacto-oligosaccharides and galacto-conjugates synthesis performed by the beta-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis is reported. The enzymatic galactosylation of eight kinds of adsorbed aromatic primary alcohols, in particular the two drugs guaifenesin and chlorphenesin, gave the corresponding beta-D-galacto-pyranosides in yields ranging between approximately 10% and 96%. For the first time, we have showed that the adsorption of acceptor substrates onto solid supports such as silica gel influences the yield and the selectivity of galacto-conjugates synthesis. In particular, we observed that adsorption of acceptor favored the synthesis of digalactosylated compounds.

  10. Energy restriction and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass reduce postprandial α-dicarbonyl stress in obese women with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maessen, Dionne E; Hanssen, Nordin M; Lips, Mirjam A; Scheijen, Jean L; Willems van Dijk, Ko; Pijl, Hanno; Stehouwer, Coen D; Schalkwijk, Casper G

    2016-09-01

    Dicarbonyl compounds are formed as byproducts of glycolysis and are key mediators of diabetic complications. However, evidence of postprandial α-dicarbonyl formation in humans is lacking, and interventions to reduce α-dicarbonyls have not yet been investigated. Therefore, we investigated postprandial α-dicarbonyl levels in obese women without and with type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we evaluated whether a diet very low in energy (very low calorie diet [VLCD]) or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) reduces α-dicarbonyl stress in obese women with type 2 diabetes. In lean (n = 12) and obese women without (n = 27) or with type 2 diabetes (n = 27), we measured the α-dicarbonyls, methylglyoxal (MGO), glyoxal (GO) and 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG), and glucose in fasting and postprandial plasma samples obtained during a mixed meal test. Obese women with type 2 diabetes underwent either a VLCD or RYGB. Three weeks after the intervention, individuals underwent a second mixed meal test. Obese women with type 2 diabetes had higher fasting and particularly higher postprandial plasma α-dicarbonyl levels, compared with those without diabetes. After three weeks of a VLCD, postprandial α-dicarbonyl levels in diabetic women were significantly reduced (AUC MGO -14%, GO -16%, 3-DG -25%), mainly through reduction of fasting plasma α-dicarbonyls (MGO -13%, GO -13%, 3-DG -33%). Similar results were found after RYGB. This study shows that type 2 diabetes is characterised by increased fasting and postprandial plasma α-dicarbonyl stress, which can be reduced by improving glucose metabolism through a VLCD or RYGB. These data highlight the potential to reduce reactive α-dicarbonyls in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01167959.

  11. Chromatographic analysis of methylglyoxal and other α-dicarbonyls using gas-diffusion microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Christiane M; Valente, Inês M; Gonçalves, Luís M; Rodrigues, José A

    2013-12-07

    Many α-dicarbonyl compounds such as methylglyoxal, diacetyl and pentane-2,3-dione are important quality markers of processed foods. They are produced by enzymatic and chemical processes, the Maillard reaction is the most known chemical route for α-dicarbonyl formation. In the case of methylglyoxal, there are obstacles to be overcome when analysing this compound due to its high reactivity, low volatility and low concentration. The use of extraction techniques based on the volatilization of methylglyoxal (like solid-phase microextraction) showed to be ineffective for the methylglyoxal extraction from aqueous solutions. Therefore, derivatization is typically applied to increase analyte's volatility. In this work a new methodology for the extraction and analysis of methylglyoxal and also diacetyl and pentane-2,3-dione from selected food matrices is presented. It is based on a gas-diffusion microextraction step followed by high performance liquid chromatographic analysis. It was successfully applied to port wines, black tea and soy sauce. Methylglyoxal, diacetyl and pentane-2,3-dione were quantified in the following concentration ranges: 0.24-1.74 mg L(-1), 0.1-1.85 mg L(-1) and 0.023-0.15 mg L(-1), respectively. The main advantages over existing methodologies are its simplicity in terms of sample handling, not requiring any chemical modification of the α-dicarbonyls prior to the extraction, low reagent consumption and short time of analysis.

  12. Heat capacity anomalies associated with structural transformations in. beta. -W and perovskite compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, R [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY; Ho, J C

    1977-01-01

    The similarity of the heat capacity anomalies, often observed with structural transformations driven by soft phonons, in both ..beta..-W and perovskite compounds is discussed referring to our recent work on V/sub 3/Si and RbCaF/sub 3/.

  13. Effect of gamma radiation on the content {beta}-carotene and volatile compounds of cantaloupe melon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Stefania P. de; Cardozo, Monique; Lima, Keila dos S.C.; Lima, Antonio L. dos S., E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br, E-mail: santoslima@ime.eb.br [Departamento de Quimica - IME - Instituto Militar de Engenharia, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Japanese melon or cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) is characterized by fruits with almost 1.0 Kg, pulp usually salmon and musky scent. The fruits when ripe are sensitive to post harvest handling. This low transport resistance and reduced shelf-life makes it necessary to delay the ripening of fruit. In this way the use of irradiation technique is a good choice. Irradiation is the process of exposing food to high doses of gamma rays. The processing of fruits and vegetables with ionizing radiation has as main purpose to ensure its preservation. However, like other forms of food processing, irradiation may cause changes in chemical composition and nutritional value. This study aims to assess possible changes in carotene content and volatile compounds caused by exposure of cantaloupe melon fruit to gamma irradiation. Irradiation of the samples occurred in Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (Guaratiba-RJ), using Gamma irradiator (Cs{sub 137} source, dose rate 1.8 kGy/h), being applied 0.5 and 1.0 kGy doses and separated a control group not irradiated. Carotenoids were extracted with acetone and then suffered partition to petroleum ether, solvent was removed under nitrogen flow and the remainder dissolved in acetone again. The chromatographic analysis was performed using a Shimadzu gas chromatograph, with C30 column. For volatile compounds, we used gas chromatography (GC) associated with mass (MS). As a result, it was verified in analysis of carotenoids that cantaloupe melon is rich in {beta}-carotene. Both total content of carotenoids and specific {beta}-carotene amount wasn't suffer significant reduction in irradiated fruits at two doses, demonstrating that the irradiation process under these conditions implies a small loss of nutrients. The major volatile compounds were: 2-methyl-1-butyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, n-hexyl acetate, benzyl acetate, 6-nonenyl acetate and {alpha} -terpinyl acetate. For all compounds we observed an increase in the volatile content in 0.5 k

  14. Discovery of nonsteroidal 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 inhibitors by pharmacophore-based screening of virtual compound libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Daniela; Nashev, Lyubomir G; Kirchmair, Johannes; Laggner, Christian; Wolber, Gerhard; Langer, Thierry; Odermatt, Alex

    2008-07-24

    17Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17beta-HSD1) plays a pivotal role in the local synthesis of the most potent estrogen estradiol. Its expression is a prognostic marker for the outcome of patients with breast cancer and inhibition of 17beta-HSD1 is currently under consideration for breast cancer prevention and treatment. We aimed to identify nonsteroidal 17beta-HSD1 inhibitor scaffolds by virtual screening with pharmacophore models built from crystal structures containing steroidal compounds. The most promising model was validated by comparing predicted and experimentally determined inhibitory activities of several flavonoids. Subsequently, a virtual library of nonsteroidal compounds was screened against the 3D pharmacophore. Analysis of 14 selected compounds yielded four that inhibited the activity of human 17beta-HSD1 (IC 50 below 50 microM). Specificity assessment of identified 17beta-HSD1 inhibitors emphasized the importance of including related short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) members to analyze off-target effects. Compound 29 displayed at least 10-fold selectivity over the related SDR enzymes tested.

  15. The influence of variety on the content of bioactive compounds in beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Kovarovič

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable are widespread throughout the world and is a major part of the human diet. From the perspective of agricultural crops that belong to the group of Beta vulgaris (beetroot, mangold, sugar beets, fodder beet are first-rate vegetables. Especially popular is used in the food industry for the production of sugar, various vegetable juices, coloring agents, and many other products. Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. is considered one of the ten most important vegetable in the world, thanks to the content of rare natural pigments (betalains, polyphenols, flavonoids, antioxidants, vitamins, minerals and fiber. In this work we evaluated content of bioactive substances, especially the content of total polyphenols, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity in several varieties (Cylindra, Kahira, Chioggia, Crosby Egyptian of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.. Samples of plant material were collected at full maturity stages from areas of Zeleneč (Czech Republic. Zeleneč is area without negative influences and emission sources. Samples of fresh beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. were homogenized and were prepared as an extract: 50 g cut beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. extracted by 100 mL 80% ethanol for sixteen hours. These extracts were used for analyses. The content of the total polyphenols was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR. The absorbance was measured at 765 nm of wavelength against blank. The content of total anthocyanins was measured at 520 nm wavelength of the blank. Antioxidant activity was measured using a compound DPPH˙ (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl at 515.6 nm in the spectrophotometer. In the present experiment it was detected, that total polyphenols content in samples ranges from 218.00 mg.kg-1 to 887.75 mg.kg-1, total anthocyanins content in samples ranges from 14.48 ±0.40 mg.kg-1 to 84.50 ±4.71 mg.kg-1 and values of antioxidant activity were in interval from 8.37 ±0.29% to 21.83 ±0.35%. 

  16. Increased Dicarbonyl Stress as a Novel Mechanism of Multi-Organ Failure in Critical Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas C. T. van Bussel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecular pathological pathways leading to multi-organ failure in critical illness are progressively being unravelled. However, attempts to modulate these pathways have not yet improved the clinical outcome. Therefore, new targetable mechanisms should be investigated. We hypothesize that increased dicarbonyl stress is such a mechanism. Dicarbonyl stress is the accumulation of dicarbonyl metabolites (i.e., methylglyoxal, glyoxal, and 3-deoxyglucosone that damages intracellular proteins, modifies extracellular matrix proteins, and alters plasma proteins. Increased dicarbonyl stress has been shown to impair the renal, cardiovascular, and central nervous system function, and possibly also the hepatic and respiratory function. In addition to hyperglycaemia, hypoxia and inflammation can cause increased dicarbonyl stress, and these conditions are prevalent in critical illness. Hypoxia and inflammation have been shown to drive the rapid intracellular accumulation of reactive dicarbonyls, i.e., through reduced glyoxalase-1 activity, which is the key enzyme in the dicarbonyl detoxification enzyme system. In critical illness, hypoxia and inflammation, with or without hyperglycaemia, could thus increase dicarbonyl stress in a way that might contribute to multi-organ failure. Thus, we hypothesize that increased dicarbonyl stress in critical illness, such as sepsis and major trauma, contributes to the development of multi-organ failure. This mechanism has the potential for new therapeutic intervention in critical care.

  17. Rapid Myoglobin Aggregation through Glucosamine-Induced α-Dicarbonyl Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynets, Yuliya; Ndagijimana, Maurice; Betti, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    The extent of glycation and conformational changes of horse myoglobin (Mb) upon glycation with N-acetyl-glucosamine (GlcNAc), glucose (Glc) and glucosamine (GlcN) were investigated. Among tested sugars, the rate of glycation with GlcN was the most rapid as shown by MALDI and ESI mass spectrometries. Protein oxidation, as evaluated by the amount of carbonyl groups present on Mb, was found to increase exponentially in Mb-Glc conjugates over time, whereas in Mb-GlcN mixtures the carbonyl groups decreased significantly after maximum at 3 days of the reaction. The reaction between GlcN and Mb resulted in a significantly higher amount of α-dicarbonyl compounds, mostly glucosone and 3-deoxyglucosone, ranging from and 27 to 332 mg/L and from 14 to 304 mg/L, respectively. Already at 0.5 days, tertiary structural changes of Mb-GlcN conjugate were observed by altered tryptophan fluorescence. A reduction of metmyoglobin to deoxy-and oxymyoglobin forms was observed on the first day of reaction, coinciding with the greatest amount of glucosone produced. In contrast to native α-helical myoglobin, 41% of the glycated protein sequence was transformed into a β-sheet conformation, as determined by circular dichroism spectropolarimetry. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that Mb glycation with GlcN causes the formation of amorphous or fibrous aggregates, started already at 3 reaction days. These aggregates bind to an amyloid-specific dye thioflavin T. With the aid of α-dicarbonyl compounds and advanced products of reaction, this study suggests that the Mb glycation with GlcN induces the unfolding of an initially globular protein structure into amyloid fibrils comprised of a β-sheet structure.

  18. Profile of blood glucose and ultrastucture of beta cells pancreatic islet in alloxan compound induced rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Suarsana

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is marked by elevated levels of blood glucose, and progressive changes of the structure of pancreatic islet histopathology. The objective of this research was to analyse the glucose level and histophatological feature in pancreatic islet in alloxan compound induced rats. A total of ten male Spraque Dawley rats of 2 months old were used in this study. The rats were divided into two groups: (1 negative control group (K-, and (2 positif induced alloxan group (diabetic group =DM. The rats were induced by a single dose intraperitonial injection of alloxan compound 120 mg/kg of body weight. The treatment was conducted for 28 days. Blood glucose levels of rats were analysed at 0, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days following treatment. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Pancreas was collected for analysis of histopathological study by Immunohistochemical technique, and ultrastructural study using transmission electron microscope (TEM. The result showed that Langerhans islet of diabetic rat (rat of DM group showed a marked reduction of size, number of Langerhans islet of diabetic rat decrease, and characterized by hyperglycemic condition. By using TEM, beta cells of DM group showed the rupture of mitochondrial membrane, the lost of cisternal structure of inner membrane of mitocondria, reduction of insulin secretory granules, linkage between cells acinar with free Langerhans islet, and the caryopicnotic of nucleus.

  19. Studies of. gamma. -ray irradiation effects on tris(. beta. -diketonato)iron(III) and cobalt(III) coordination compounds by means of Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Y.; Endo, K.; Sano, H. (Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1981-06-01

    Both absorption Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurements on tris(..beta..-diketonato)iron(III) and cobalt(III) compounds indicate that ligands which have phenyl group as a substituent are more stable to ..gamma..-ray radiolysis, in accordance with previous results of emission Moessbauer spectroscopic studies of /sup 57/Co-labelled tris (..beta..-diketonato)cobalt(III) compounds.

  20. Compound list: transforming growth factor beta 1 [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available transforming growth factor beta 1 TGFB1 00182 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/op...en-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/transforming_growth_factor_beta_1.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ...

  1. Sorption of agrochemical model compounds by sorbent materials containing beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lee D; Mohamed, Mohamed H; Guo, Rui; Pratt, Dawn Y; Kwon, Jae Hyuck; Mahmud, Sarker T

    2010-04-01

    Polymeric sorbent materials that incorporate beta-cyclodextrin (CD) have been prepared and their sorption behavior toward two model agrochemical contaminant compounds, p-nitrophenol (PNP) and methyl chloride examined. The sorption of PNP was studied in aqueous solution using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, whereas the sorption of methyl chloride from the gas phase was studied using a Langmuir adsorption method. The sorption results for PNP in solution were compared between granular activated carbon (GAC), modified GAC, CD copolymers, and CD-based mesoporous silica hybrid materials. Nitrogen porosimetry at 77 K was used to estimate the surface area and pore structure properties of the sorbent materials. The sorbents displayed variable surface areas as follows: copolymers (36.2-157 m(2)/g), CD-silica materials (307-906 m(2)/g), surface modified GAC (657 m(2)/g), and granular activated carbon (approximately 10(3) m(2)/g). The sorption capacities for PNP and methyl chloride with the different sorbents are listed in descending order as follows: GAC > copolymers > surface modified GAC > CD-silica hybrid materials. In general, the differences in the sorption properties of the sorbents were related to the following: (i) surface area of the sorbent, (ii) CD content and accessibility, (iii) and the chemical nature of the sorbent material.

  2. [Study on two preparation methods for beta-CD inclusion compound of four traditional Chinese medicine volatile oils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hailiang; Cui, Xiaoli; Tong, Yan; Gong, Muxin

    2012-04-01

    To compare inclusion effects and process conditions of two preparation methods-colloid mill and saturated solution-for beta-CD inclusion compound of four traditional Chinese medicine volatile oils and study the relationship between each process condition and volatile oil physical properties and the regularity of selective inclusion of volatile oil components. Volatile oils from Nardostachyos Radix et Rhizoma, Amomi Fructus, Zingiberis Rhizoma and Angelicaesinensis Radix were prepared using two methods in the orthogonal test. These inclusion compounds by optimized processes were assessed and compared by such methods as TLC, IR and scanning electron microscope. Inclusion oils were extracted by steam distillation, and the components found before and after inclusion were analyzed by GC-MS. Analysis showed that new inclusion compounds, but inclusion compounds prepared by the two processes had differences to some extent. The colloid mill method showed a better inclusion effect than the saturated solution method, indicating that their process conditions had relations with volatile oil physical properties. There were differences in the inclusion selectivity of components between each other. The colloid mill method for inclusion preparation is more suitable for industrial requirements. To prepare volatile oil inclusion compounds with heavy gravity and high refractive index, the colloid mill method needs longer time and more water, while the saturated solution method requires higher temperature and more beta-cyclodextrin. The inclusion complex prepared with the colloid mill method contains extended molecular weight chemical composition, but the kinds of components are reduced.

  3. Modulation of 17{beta}-estradiol-induced responses in fish by cytochrome P4501A1 inducing compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.J.; Hinton, D.E. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Some compounds which induce cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) are antiestrogenic in mammalian bioassay, and this effect is linked to aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor. Liver of fish synthesizes estrogen-inducible egg yolk precursor protein vitellogenin (Vg) which is critical for oocyte maturation and ovarian development. To determine if Ah receptor-linked endocrine modulation could occur in fish liver, primary cultures of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver cells were co-administered 17{beta}-estradiol and CYP1A1 inducing compounds. Vitellogenin and albumin, estimated by ELISA measurement of concentration in the media 48 hrs after treatment, formed the basis for the test. Cellular CYP1A1 protein content and catalytic activity was estimated by ELISA and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity assays respectively. Equivalent viability (mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity) and secretary functional capacity (albumin synthesis) were estimated and correlated with other results. In descending order, 2,3,4,7,8 pentachlorodibenzofuran (10{sup {minus}12} to 10{sup {minus}8} M) > 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin {approx_equal} 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzofuran (10{sup {minus}11} to 10{sup {minus}8} M) > {beta}-naphthoflavone (10{sup {minus}7} to 10{sup {minus}6} M) inhibited Vg synthesis in 17{beta}-estradiol treated liver cells. Potency of inhibition directly related to strength as an inducer of CYP1A1 protein. At 10-8 M, PCB congeners 77, 126, and 156 did not inhibit Vg synthesis and induced no or only moderate CYP1A1 protein. At 10-8 M, PCB congener 114, a weak CYP1A1 inducer, potentiated Vg synthesis relative to cells treated with 17{beta}-estradiol alone. This study increases their understanding of the consequences of hepatic CYP1A1 induction, forewarns of reproductive impairment of sexually maturing fishes exposed to CYP1A1 inducing compounds and argues for further, more detailed in vivo investigation.

  4. A fungal metallo-beta-lactamase necessary for biotransformation of maize phytoprotectant compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenobiotic compounds such as phytochemicals, microbial metabolites, and agrochemicals can impact the diversity and frequency of fungal species occurring in agricultural environments. Resistance to xenobiotics may allow plant pathogenic fungi to dominate the overall fungal community, with potential ...

  5. Molecular composition of dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls and fatty acids in atmospheric aerosols from Tanzania, East Africa during wet and dry seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkoma, S. L.; Kawamura, K.

    2013-02-01

    Atmospheric aerosol samples of PM2.5 and PM10 were collected during the wet and dry seasons in 2011 from a rural site in Tanzania and analysed for water-soluble dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids using a gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) and GC/mass spectrometry. Here we report the molecular composition and sources of diacids and related compounds for wet and dry seasons. Oxalic acid (C2) was found as the most abundant diacid species followed by succinic and/or malonic acids whereas glyoxylic acid and glyoxal were the dominant ketoacid and α-dicarbonyl, respectively in both seasons in PM2.5 and PM10. Mean concentration of C2 in PM2.5 (121 ± 47 ng m-3) was lower in wet season than dry season (258 ± 69 ng m-3). Similarly, PM10 samples showed lower concentration of C2 (169 ± 42 ng m-3) in wet season than dry season (292 ± 165 ng m-3). Relative abundances of C2 in total diacids were 65% and 67% in PM2.5 and 65% and 64% in PM10 in the wet and dry seasons, respectively. Total concentrations of diacids (289-362 ng m-3), ketoacids (37.8-53.7 ng m-3), and α-dicarbonyls (5.7-7.8 ng m-3) in Tanzania are higher than those reported at a rural background site in Nylsvley (South Africa) but comparable or lower than those reported from sites in Asia and Europe. Diacids and ketoacids were found to be present mainly in PM2.5 in both seasons (total α-dicarbonyls in the dry season), suggesting a production of organic acids from pyrogenic sources and photochemical oxidations. Averaged contributions of total diacids to aerosol total carbon were 1.4% in PM2.5 and 2.1% in PM10 during wet season and 3.3% in PM2.5 and 3.9% in PM10 during dry season whereas those to water-soluble organic carbon were 2.2% and 4.7% in PM2.5 during wet season and 3.1% and 5.8% in PM10 during dry season. The higher ratios in dry season suggest an enhanced photochemical oxidation of organic precursors probably via heterogeneous reactions on

  6. Super agonist actions of clothianidin and related compounds on the SAD beta 2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Makoto; Matsuda, Kazuhiko; Shimomura, Masaru; Sattelle, David B; Komai, Koichiro

    2004-03-01

    To compare the actions of clothianidin, a neonicotinoid acting on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and related compounds with that of imidacloprid, the compounds were tested on the Drosophila SAD-chicken beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes using two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology. The maximum response of the SAD beta 2 nicotinic receptor to clothianidin was larger than that observed for acetylcholine. Ring breakage of the imidazolidine ring of imidacloprid resulting in the generation of a guanidine group was critical for this super agonist action.

  7. Degradative pro-vitamin A active compounds of all- trans -&beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV) are rich source of pro-vitamin A carotenoids, with all-trans-b-carotene as the main compound contributing over 90% of the vitamin A content. The other pro-vitamin A carotenoids present in DGLV are the cis isomers of b-carotene; the 9-cis and the 13-cis, and a-carotene in some ...

  8. Bioassay-Guided Isolation of Neuroprotective Compounds from Uncaria rhynchophylla against Beta-Amyloid-Induced Neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Yan-Fang; Lin, Zhi-Xiu; Mao, Qing-Qiu; Hu, Zhen; Zhao, Ming; Che, Chun-Tao; Ip, Siu-Po

    2012-01-01

    Uncaria rhynchophylla is a component herb of many Chinese herbal formulae for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Previous study in our laboratory has demonstrated that an ethanol extract of Uncaria rhynchophylla ameliorated cognitive deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease induced by D-galactose. However, the active ingredients of Uncaria rhynchophylla responsible for the anti-Alzheimer's disease activity have not been identified. This study aims to identify the active ingredients of Uncaria rhynchophylla by a bioassay-guided fractionation approach and explore the acting mechanism of these active ingredients by using a well-established cellular model of Alzheimer's disease, beta-amyloid- (Aβ-) induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. The results showed that six alkaloids, namely, corynoxine, corynoxine B, corynoxeine, isorhynchophylline, isocorynoxeine, and rhynchophylline were isolated from the extract of Uncaria rhynchophylla. Among them, rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline significantly decreased Aβ-induced cell death, intracellular calcium overloading, and tau protein hyperphosphorylation in PC12 cells. These results suggest that rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline are the major active ingredients responsible for the protective action of Uncaria rhynchophylla against Aβ-induced neuronal toxicity, and their neuroprotective effect may be mediated, at least in part, by inhibiting intracellular calcium overloading and tau protein hyperphosphorylation.

  9. Bioassay-Guided Isolation of Neuroprotective Compounds from Uncaria rhynchophylla against Beta-Amyloid-Induced Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Fang Xian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncaria rhynchophylla is a component herb of many Chinese herbal formulae for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Previous study in our laboratory has demonstrated that an ethanol extract of Uncaria rhynchophylla ameliorated cognitive deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease induced by D-galactose. However, the active ingredients of Uncaria rhynchophylla responsible for the anti-Alzheimer’s disease activity have not been identified. This study aims to identify the active ingredients of Uncaria rhynchophylla by a bioassay-guided fractionation approach and explore the acting mechanism of these active ingredients by using a well-established cellular model of Alzheimer’s disease, beta-amyloid- (Aβ- induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. The results showed that six alkaloids, namely, corynoxine, corynoxine B, corynoxeine, isorhynchophylline, isocorynoxeine, and rhynchophylline were isolated from the extract of Uncaria rhynchophylla. Among them, rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline significantly decreased Aβ-induced cell death, intracellular calcium overloading, and tau protein hyperphosphorylation in PC12 cells. These results suggest that rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline are the major active ingredients responsible for the protective action of Uncaria rhynchophylla against Aβ-induced neuronal toxicity, and their neuroprotective effect may be mediated, at least in part, by inhibiting intracellular calcium overloading and tau protein hyperphosphorylation.

  10. Polymerizations of beta-substituted allylic arsonium ylides with catalytic amounts of organoboron compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondiere, R.

    2004-01-01

    My Ph.D. work consisted in the generalization and optimization of a new polymerization reaction involving allylic arsonium ylides and catalytic amounts of various boron compounds. Thus, various β-substituted allylic arsonium salts were produced according to synthetic strategies that depended on the nature of the functional group born by the salt. These salts were converted in situ to the corresponding arsonium ylides which were then treated with boron compounds to yield polymers. Our new method of polymerization afforded either non conjugated polyenes that are functionalized every three atoms of carbon, or statistic copolymers, depending on the nature of the group R born on the β position of the ylide. These new polymers cannot be synthesized by usual methods of polymerization. Initial molar ratios of reactants were found to give molar mass control of the synthesized polymers. This controlled polymerization allowed us to produce several bloc copolymers. All the polymers were characterized by NMR techniques, by size exclusion chromatography and, for some of them, by mass spectrometry. Investigation of their physicochemical properties will need additional experiments. (author)

  11. Dicarbonyl stress and glyoxalase enzyme system regulation in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mey, Jacob T; Blackburn, Brian K; Miranda, Edwin R; Chaves, Alec B; Briller, Joan; Bonini, Marcelo G; Haus, Jacob M

    2018-02-01

    Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is a hallmark of Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and may be exacerbated by protein modifications by methylglyoxal (MG), known as dicarbonyl stress. The glyoxalase enzyme system composed of glyoxalase 1/2 (GLO1/GLO2) is the natural defense against dicarbonyl stress, yet its protein expression, activity, and regulation remain largely unexplored in skeletal muscle. Therefore, this study investigated dicarbonyl stress and the glyoxalase enzyme system in the skeletal muscle of subjects with T2DM (age: 56 ± 5 yr.; BMI: 32 ± 2 kg/m 2 ) compared with lean healthy control subjects (LHC; age: 27 ± 1 yr.; BMI: 22 ± 1 kg/m 2 ). Skeletal muscle biopsies obtained from the vastus lateralis at basal and insulin-stimulated states of the hyperinsulinemic (40 mU·m -2 ·min -1 )-euglycemic (5 mM) clamp were analyzed for proteins related to dicarbonyl stress and glyoxalase biology. At baseline, T2DM had increased carbonyl stress and lower GLO1 protein expression (-78.8%), which inversely correlated with BMI, percent body fat, and HOMA-IR, while positively correlating with clamp-derived glucose disposal rates. T2DM also had lower NRF2 protein expression (-31.6%), which is a positive regulator of GLO1, while Keap1 protein expression, a negative regulator of GLO1, was elevated (207%). Additionally, insulin stimulation during the clamp had a differential effect on NRF2, Keap1, and MG-modified protein expression. These data suggest that dicarbonyl stress and the glyoxalase enzyme system are dysregulated in T2DM skeletal muscle and may underlie skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Whether these phenotypic differences contribute to the development of T2DM warrants further investigation.

  12. Adsorption of the compounds encountered in monosaccharide dehydration in zeolite beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Marta; Swift, T Dallas; Nikolakis, Vladimiros; Vlachos, Dionisios G

    2013-06-04

    A comprehensive study of the adsorption of the compounds involved in the reaction of dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) on the zeolite H-BEA with SiO2/Al2O3 = 18 has been carried out. Furthermore, a method for the estimation of the real adsorption loading from the experimentally measured excess adsorption is developed and applied to calculate the adsorption isotherms both in the case of single-solute and multisolute mixtures. It was found that zeolite H-BEA adsorbs HMF and levulinic acid from water mixtures to greater extent than sugars and formic acid, which prefer to partition in the aqueous phase. HMF and levulinic acid adsorption isotherms could be fitted in a Redlich-Peterson isotherm model, while the adsorption of formic acid is better fitted using the Freundlich model and sugars via the Henry model. Adsorption loadings decreased with increasing temperature (0, 25, and 40 °C), which is characteristic of an exothermic process. From the temperature dependence of the isotherms, the limiting heat of adsorption at zero coverage was determined using van't Hoff equation. Given the importance and the complexity of multicomponent systems, several experiments of adsorption of multisolute solutions have been carried out. In most of the cases, the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) has been proven to satisfactorily predict adsorption from multisolute mixtures using as input the single-solute isotherms.

  13. Investigation of six-membered carbocyclic compounds as a molecular switch block of room temperature phosphorescence in nondeoxygenated {beta}-cyclodextrin solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Hairong; Wei Yansheng; Jin Weijun; Liu Changsong

    2003-05-07

    An aerated aqueous solution, intense room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) of nitrogen heterocyclic compounds (NHCs) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be observed when micro amounts of six-membered carbocyclic compounds (6-MCCs) are introduced in {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) solution. In order to find the predominating factors of the enhanced phosphorescence observed with this novel approach, 22 typical phosphors of NHCs and PAHs were carefully screened and served as model compounds. The role of the inner heavy atom, the substituent group and the host-guest molecules space-matching on the RTP of different phosphors were investigated. The results demonstrated that the enhancement effects of cyclohexane, bromocyclohexane and cyclohexanol for the RTP of NHCs and PAHs have precedence over traditional halide alkanes such as 1,2-dibromoethane (DBE), exhibiting an obvious sequence as following: cyclohexane > bromocyclohexane > cyclohexanol. This new approach compared with other RTP methods is simple, convenient and fast.

  14. Calcium carbonate interaction analysis in polypropylene compounds and their impact on the formation of beta crystalline phase of this polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakahara, Rogerio M.; Hui, Wang S.

    2011-01-01

    The insertion of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) in polypropylene compound is a thoroughly known technique widely studied in the academic area and in the industry. Its wide application is due, mainly, to increase mechanical properties with low manufacturing cost. These improvements in this polymer make it more versatile and competitive compared to other expensive polymers. In this study, the incorporation of four types of CaCO3 from the same manufacturer were compared and the focus was on the size of this mineral filler. Furthermore, it was analyzed the interaction of graphitized polypropylene with maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA) in the same samples. All these samples were analyzed by WAXS and SEM. The physical properties of tensile strength and impact were also analyzed. It was observed from this study that the smallest CaCO3 produced with PP-g-MA resulted in better physical properties with the formation of a crystalline phase beta, as originally studied by other authors using other raw materials. (author)

  15. Molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in biomass burning aerosols: implications for photochemical production and degradation in smoke layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hoffer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols in the size class <2.5 μm (6 daytime and 9 nighttime samples were collected at a pasture site in Rondônia, Brazil, during the intensive biomass burning period of 16–26 September 2002 as part of the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia – Smoke, Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall and Climate (LBA-SMOCC. Homologous series of dicarboxylic acids (C2–C11 and related compounds (ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls were identified using gas chromatography (GC and GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Among the species detected, oxalic acid was found to be the most abundant, followed by succinic, malonic and glyoxylic acids. Average concentrations of total dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in the aerosol samples were 2180, 167 and 56 ng m−3, respectively. These are 2–8, 3–11 and 2–16 times higher, respectively, than those reported in urban aerosols, such as in 14 Chinese megacities. Higher ratios of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds to biomass burning tracers (levoglucosan and K+ were found in the daytime than in the nighttime, suggesting the importance of photochemical production. On the other hand, higher ratios of oxalic acid to other dicarboxylic acids and related compounds normalized to biomass burning tracers (levoglucosan and K+ in the daytime provide evidence for the possible degradation of dicarboxylic acids (≥C3 in this smoke-polluted environment. Assuming that these and related compounds are photo-chemically oxidized to oxalic acid in the daytime, and given their linear relationship, they could account for, on average, 77% of the formation of oxalic acid. The remaining portion of oxalic acid may have been directly emitted from biomass burning as suggested by a good correlation with the biomass burning tracers (K+, CO and ECa and organic carbon (OC. However, photochemical production from other precursors could not be excluded.

  16. Frequency of Gγ-globin promoter -158 (C>T) XmnI polymorphism in patients with homozygous/compound heterozygous beta thalassaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nadir; Ayyub, Muhammad; Khan, Saleem Ahmed; Ahmed, Suhaib; Abbas, Kazim; Malik, Hamid Saeed; Tashfeen, Sunila

    2015-03-01

    Response to hydroxyurea therapy in homozygous or compound heterozygous beta thalassaemia (BT) has been reported as more favourable in the presence of XmnI polymorphism. The prevalence of XmnI polymorphism may vary with BT phenotypes and genotypes, and differs geographically in distribution. Prevalence of XmnI polymorphism is not known in northern Pakistan. To determine the frequency of Gγ-globin promoter -158 (C>T) XmnI polymorphism (XmnI polymorphism) in patients with homozygous or compound heterozygous beta thalassaemia. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for common beta thalassaemia mutations and Gγ-globin promoter -158 (C>T) XmnI polymorphism was performed on 107 blood samples of transfusion dependent beta thalassaemia (BT) patients in Pakistan. One hundred samples of unrelated BT traits and 94 samples of healthy subjects as controls were also analysed for BT mutations and XmnI polymorphism. Out of 301 DNA samples, XmnI polymorphism was detected in 71(24%); in normal controls, XmnI polymorphism was detected in 34/94 (36%) subjects; while in homozygous/compound heterozygous BT, it was detected in 14/107(13%) patients (Fisher's exact test, p=.0002). In heterozygous BT group, XmnI polymorphism was detected in 23/100 subjects (Fisher's exact test, p=.03 with normal controls, and p=.049 with homozygous/compound heterozygous BT). The most common BT genotype was Frame Shift (Fr) 8-9/Fr 8-9, and none of the patients with this genotype had XmnI polymorphism. The second most common genotype was IVSI-5/IVSI-5; 4/26 (15%). Cases with this genotype had XmnI polymorphism. XmnI polymorphism in homozygous/compound heterozygous BT group is 13%. The most common genotype associated with XmnI polymorphism was IVSI-5/IVSI-5. Copyright © 2015 King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Inhibition of several enzymes by gold compounds. II. beta-Glucuronidase, acid phosphatase and L-malate dehydrogenase by sodium thiomalatoraurate (I), sodium thiosulfatoaurate (I) and thioglucosoaurate (I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M T; Ahmed, T; Haddad, R; Friedman, M E

    1989-01-01

    Bovine liver beta-D-glucuronide glucuronohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.32), wheat germ acid phosphatase (orthophosphoric monoesterphosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.2) and bovine liver L-malate dehydrogenase (L-malate: NAD oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.37) were inhibited by a series of gold (I) complexes that have been used as anti-inflammatory drugs. Both sodium thiosulfatoaurate (I) (Na AuTs) and sodium thiomalatoraurate (NaAuTM) effectively inhibited all three enzymes, while thioglucosoaurate (I) (AuTG) only inhibited L-malate dehydrogenase. The equilibrium constants (K1) ranged from nearly 4000 microM for the NaAuTM-beta-glucuronidase interaction to 24 microM for the NaAuTS-beta-glucuronidase interaction. The rate of covalent bond formation (kp) ranged from 0.00032 min-1 for NaAuTM-beta-glucuronidase formation to 1.7 min-1 for AuTG-L-malate dehydrogenase formation. The equilibrium data shows that the gold (I) drugs bind by several orders lower than the gold (III) compounds, suggesting a significantly stronger interaction between the more highly charged gold ion and the enzyme. Yet the rate of covalent bond formation depends as much on the structure of the active site as upon the lability of the gold-ligand bond. It was also observed that the more effective the gold inhibition the more toxic the compound.

  18. Thermodynamics and structure of inclusion compounds of tauro- and glyco-conjugated bile salts and beta-cyclodextrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Rene; Shi, Wei; Andersen Hartvig, Rune

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between natural beta-cyclodextrin and bile salts common in rat, dog and man, taurocholate, tauro-beta-muricholate, taurodeoxycholate, taurochenodeoxycholate, glycocholate, glycodeoxycholate and glycochenodeoxycholate, was studied using isothermal titration calorimetry, and the str......The interaction between natural beta-cyclodextrin and bile salts common in rat, dog and man, taurocholate, tauro-beta-muricholate, taurodeoxycholate, taurochenodeoxycholate, glycocholate, glycodeoxycholate and glycochenodeoxycholate, was studied using isothermal titration calorimetry......, and the structural differences in the interaction were investigated by H-1-ROESY NMR and molecular modeling. The beta-cyclodextrin was selected based upon its frequent use in preformulation and drug formulation as oral excipients for the solubilization of drug substances with low aqueous solubility. All...

  19. Dicarbonyl Induced Structural Perturbations Make Histone H1 Highly Immunogenic and Generate an Auto-Immune Response in Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rouf Mir

    Full Text Available Increased oxidative stress under hyperglycemic conditions, through the interaction of AGEs with RAGE receptors and via activation of interleukin mediated transcription signalling, has been reported in cancer. Proteins modifications are being explored for their roles in the development and progression of cancer and autoantibody response against them is gaining interest as a probe for early detection of the disease. This study has analysed the changes in histone H1 upon modification by methylglyoxal (MG and its implications in auto-immunopathogenesis of cancer. Modified histone showed modifications in the aromatic residues, changed tyrosine microenvironment, intermolecular cross linking and generation of AGEs. It showed masking of hydrophobic patches and a hypsochromic shift in the in ANS specific fluorescence. MG aggressively oxidized histone H1 leading to the accumulation of reactive carbonyls. Far UV CD measurements showed di-carbonyl induced enhancement of the alpha structure and the induction of beta sheet conformation; and thermal denaturation (Tm studies confirmed the thermal stability of the modified histone. FTIR analysis showed amide I band shift, generation of a carboxyethyl group and N-Cα vibrations in the modified histone. LCMS analysis confirmed the formation of Nε-(carboxyethyllysine and electron microscopic studies revealed the amorphous aggregate formation. The modified histone showed altered cooperative binding with DNA. Modified H1 induced high titre antibodies in rabbits and the IgG isolated form sera of rabbits immunized with modified H1 exhibited specific binding with its immunogen in Western Blot analysis. IgG isolated from the sera of patients with lung cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer and cancer of head and neck region showed better recognition for neo-epitopes on the modified histone, reflecting the presence of circulating autoantibodies in cancer. Since reports suggest a link between AGE-RAGE axis and

  20. Chiral separation of synthetic vicinal diol compounds by capillary zone electrophoresis with borate buffer and beta-cyclodextrin as buffer additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Yang, Xingbin; Jiang, Ru; Sun, Xiaoli; Liu, Wenmin; Zhang, Shengyong

    2006-05-01

    The investigation on capillary electrophoretic enantioseparation of six synthetic compounds containing vicinal diol groups has been undertaken to acquire the optimum conditions using native beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) as chiral selector and borate as a background electrolyte. The separation was carried out in an uncoated capillary (58.5 cm x 75 microm i.d., effective length 48.5 cm) and the effects of several important factors were investigated in detail. The results showed that beta-CD as a chiral selector exhibited good enantioselectivity and that the enantioseparation was greatly influenced by the structure of the diols, the borate concentration and the buffer pH. The optimum performance was obtained for the chiral vicinal diols under the conditions of 200 mM borate buffer of pH 9.8 containing 1.7% beta-CD at an applied voltage of 15 kV and a capillary temperature of 20 degrees C. Under the conditions, four diols were baseline separated with fast analysis time and the good theoretical plate numbers (above 10 x 10(4)) and favorable migration-time reproducibilities (RSDs below 3.0%) were obtained. The separation results were satisfactory.

  1. Inhibition of hydrolytic enzymes by gold compounds. I. beta-Glucuronidase and acid phosphatase by sodium tetrachloroaurate (III) and potassium tetrabromoaurate (III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M T; Ahmed, T; Friedman, M E

    1989-01-01

    Purified bovine liver beta-glucuronidase (beta-D-glucuronide glucuronohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.32) and wheat germ acid phosphatase (orthophosphoric monoesterphosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.2) were inhibited with freshly dissolved and 24 h aquated tetrahaloaurate (III) compounds. Rate and equilibrium inhibition constants were measured. From this data two acid phosphatases species were observed. Equilibrium inhibition constants ranged from 1 to 12.5 microM for the various gold compounds toward both enzymes. The first order rate constants ranged between 0.005 and 0.04 min.-1 for most reactions with the exception of the fast reacting acid phosphatase which had values as high as 2.6 and 2.8 min.-1. It is observed that the beta-glucuronidase is rapidly inhibited during the equilibrium phase before the more slower reaction covalent bond formation takes place. The acid phosphatases form the covalent bonds more rapidly, especially the faster reacting species suggesting a unique difference in the active site geometry to that of the more slowly reacting species. The tightly bonded gold (III)-enzyme complex is probably the reason for its toxicity and non-anti-inflammatory use as a drug.

  2. Molecular composition of dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls and fatty acids in atmospheric aerosols from Tanzania, East Africa during wet and dry seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Mkoma

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosol samples of PM2.5 and PM10 were collected during the wet and dry seasons in 2011 from a rural site in Tanzania and analysed for water-soluble dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids using a gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID and GC/mass spectrometry. Here we report the molecular composition and sources of diacids and related compounds for wet and dry seasons. Oxalic acid (C2 was found as the most abundant diacid species followed by succinic and/or malonic acids whereas glyoxylic acid and glyoxal were the dominant ketoacid and α-dicarbonyl, respectively in both seasons in PM2.5 and PM10. Mean concentration of C2 in PM2.5 (121 ± 47 ng m−3 was lower in wet season than dry season (258 ± 69 ng m−3. Similarly, PM10 samples showed lower concentration of C2 (169 ± 42 ng m−3 in wet season than dry season (292 ± 165 ng m−3. Relative abundances of C2 in total diacids were 65% and 67% in PM2.5 and 65% and 64% in PM10 in the wet and dry seasons, respectively. Total concentrations of diacids (289–362 ng m−3, ketoacids (37.8–53.7 ng m−3, and α-dicarbonyls (5.7–7.8 ng m−3 in Tanzania are higher than those reported at a rural background site in Nylsvley (South Africa but comparable or lower than those reported from sites in Asia and Europe. Diacids and ketoacids were found to be present mainly in PM2.5 in both seasons (total α-dicarbonyls in the dry season, suggesting a production of organic acids from pyrogenic sources and photochemical oxidations. Averaged contributions of total diacids to aerosol total carbon were 1.4% in PM2.5 and 2.1% in PM10 during wet season and 3.3% in PM2.5 and 3.9% in PM10 during

  3. Size distributions of dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls and fatty acids in atmospheric aerosols from Tanzania, East Africa during wet and dry seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkoma, S. L.; Kawamura, K.

    2012-09-01

    Atmospheric aerosol samples of PM2.5 and PM10 were collected during the wet and dry seasons in 2011 from a rural site in Tanzania and analysed for water-soluble dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls and fatty acids using a gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry. Here we report the size distribution and sources of diacids and related compounds for wet and dry seasons. Oxalic acid (C2) was found as the most abundant diacid species followed by succinic and/or malonic acids whereas glyoxylic acid and glyoxal were the dominant ketoacids and α-dicarbonyls, respectively in both seasons in PM2.5 and PM10. Mean concentration of C2 in PM2.5 (121.5± 46.6 ng m-3) was lower in wet season than dry season (258.1± 69.5 ng m-3). Similarly, PM10 samples showed lower concentration of C2 (168.6 ± 42.4 ng m-3) in wet season than dry season (292.4± 164.8 ng m-3). Relative abundances of C2 in total diacids were 65.4% and 67.1% in PM2.5 and 64.6% and 63.9% in PM10 in the wet and dry seasons, respectively. Total concentrations of diacids (289-362 m-3), ketoacids (37.8-53.7ng m-3), and α-dicarbonyls (5.7-7.8 ng m-3) in Tanzania are higher to those reported at a rural background site in Nylsvley (South Africa) but comparable or lower to those reported from sites in Asia and Europe. Diacids and ketoacids were found to be present mainly in the fine fraction in both seasons (total α-dicarbonyls in the dry season), suggesting a production of organic aerosols from pyrogenic sources and photochemical oxidations. The averaged contributions of total diacid carbon to aerosol total carbon were 1.4% in PM2.5 and 2.1% in PM10 in wet season and 3.3% in PM2.5 and 3.9% in PM10 in dry season whereas those to water-soluble organic carbon were 2.2% and 4.7% inPM2.5 and 3.1% and 5.8% in PM10 during the wet and dry seasons, respectively. These ratios suggest an enhanced photochemical oxidation of organic precursors and heterogeneous reactions on aerosols under strong solar

  4. Vitreous advanced glycation endproducts and alpha-dicarbonyls in retinal detachment patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-diabetic controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkens, Bernardina T.; Mulder, Douwe J.; Schalkwijk, Casper G.; Scheijen, Jean L.; Smit, Andries J.; Los, Leonoor I.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and their precursors alpha-dicarbonyls are implicated in the progression of diabetic retinopathy. The purpose of this study was to assess AGEs and a-dicarbonyls in the vitreous of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with early stages or absence

  5. Gas chromatographic analysis of reactive carbonyl compounds formed from lipids upon UV-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, K.J.; Shibamoto, T.

    1990-01-01

    Peroxidation of lipids produces carbonyl compounds; some of these, e.g., malonaldehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal, are genotoxic because of their reactivity with biological nucleophiles. Analysis of the reactive carbonyl compounds is often difficult. The methylhydrazine method developed for malonaldehyde analysis was applied to simultaneously measure the products formed from linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, and squalene upon ultraviolet-irradiation (UV-irradiation). The photoreaction products, saturated monocarbonyl, alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyls, and beta-dicarbonyls, were derivatized with methylhydrazine to give hydrazones, pyrazolines, and pyrazoles, respectively. The derivatives were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Lipid peroxidation products identified included formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, malonaldehyde, n-hexanal, and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. Malonaldehyde levels formed upon 4 hr of irradiation were 0.06 micrograms/mg from squalene, 2.4 micrograms/mg from linolenic acid, and 5.7 micrograms/mg from arachidonic acid. Significant levels of acrolein (2.5 micrograms/mg) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (0.17 micrograms/mg) were also produced from arachidonic acid upon 4 hr irradiation

  6. A brief review on synthesis & applications of β-enamino carbonyl compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yellajyosula L N Murthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the wide range applications of β-enamino esters (enamines of β–dicarbonyl compounds in pharmaceuticals and as building blocks for the synthesis of a variety of heterocyclic compounds, β-amino esters, β-amino acids, γ-amino alcohols, peptides and alkaloids a number of methods have been developed so far for the synthesis of these compounds. Due to the importance of these compounds as intermediates in organic synthesis, a concised review is presented.

  7. Human recombinant interleukin-1 beta- and tumor necrosis factor alpha-mediated suppression of heparin-like compounds on cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, M.; Shimada, K.; Ozawa, T.

    1990-01-01

    Cytokines are known to tip the balance of the coagulant-anticoagulant molecules on the endothelial cell surface toward intravascular coagulation. Their effects on endothelial cell surface-associated heparin-like compounds have not been examined yet. Incorporation of [35S]sulfate into heparan sulfate on cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells was suppressed by human recombinant interleukin-1 beta (rIL-1 beta) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (rTNF alpha) in a dose- and time-dependent manner with little effect on cell number, protein content, and [3H]leucine incorporation of cells. Maximal inhibition was achieved by incubation of cells with 100 ng/ml of rIL-1 beta or 5 ng/ml of rTNF alpha for 12-24 hours, resulting in a reduction of the synthesis of heparan sulfate on the cell surface by approximately 50%. The dose dependency was consistent with that seen in the stimulation of endothelial cell procoagulant activity by each cytokine. The suppression of heparan sulfate synthesis was sustained for at least 48 hours after pretreatment of cells with cytokines and was unchanged after the addition of indomethacin or polymyxin B. The rate of degradation of prelabeled 35S-heparan sulfate on the cell surface was not altered by cytokine treatments. Neither the size, the net negative charge, nor the proportion of the molecule with high affinity for antithrombin III of endothelial cell heparan sulfate was changed by cytokines. Furthermore, specific binding of 125I-labeled antithrombin III to the endothelial cell surface was reduced to 40-60% of control by cytokines. In parallel with reduction in binding, antithrombin III cofactor activity was partially diminished in cytokine-treated endothelial cells. Thus, cytokine-mediated suppression of heparin-like substance on endothelial cells appears to be another cytokine-inducible endothelial effects affecting coagulation

  8. Identification and quantification of six major α-dicarbonyl process contaminants in high-fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensberger, Sabrina; Mittelmaier, Stefan; Glomb, Marcus A; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2012-07-01

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is a widely used liquid sweetener produced from corn starch by hydrolysis and partial isomerization of glucose to fructose. During these processing steps, sugars can be considerably degraded, leading, for example, to the formation of reactive α-dicarbonyl compounds (α-DCs). The present study performed targeted screening to identify the major α-DCs in HFCS. For this purpose, α-DCs were selectively converted with o-phenylendiamine to the corresponding quinoxaline derivatives, which were analyzed by liquid chromatography with hyphenated diode array-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-MS/MS) detection. 3-Deoxy-D-erythro-hexos-2-ulose (3-deoxyglucosone), D-lyxo-hexos-2-ulose (glucosone), 3-deoxy-D-threo-hexos-2-ulose (3-deoxygalactosone), 1-deoxy-D-erythro-hexos-2,3-diulose (1-deoxyglucosone), 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene, methylglyoxal, and glyoxal were identified by enhanced mass spectra as well as MS/MS product ion spectra using the synthesized standards as reference. Addition of diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid and adjustment of the derivatization conditions ensured complete derivatization without de novo formation for all identified α-DCs in HFCS matrix except for glyoxal. Subsequently, a ultra-high performance LC-DAD-MS/MS method was established to quantify 3-deoxyglucosone, glucosone, 3-deoxygalactosone, 1-deoxyglucosone, 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene, and methylglyoxal in HFCS. Depending on the α-DC compound and concentration, the recovery ranged between 89.2% and 105.8% with a relative standard deviation between 1.9% and 6.5%. Subsequently, the α-DC profiles of 14 commercial HFCS samples were recorded. 3-Deoxyglucosone was identified as the major α-DC with concentrations up to 730 μg/mL HFCS. The total α-DC content ranged from 293 μg/mL to 1,130 μg/mL HFCS. Significantly different α-DC levels were not detected between different HFCS specifications, but between samples of various manufacturers indicating that the

  9. Total bremsstrahlung spectra of thick lead compounds produced by {sup 90}Sr beta emitter in photon energy region of 10–100 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Suhansar Jit [Department of Physics, B.B.S.B Polytechnic, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab (India); Singh, Tajinder, E-mail: tajindersingh2k9@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Mata Gujri College, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab (India); Singh, Doordarshi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.B.S.B Engineering College, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab (India); Singh, Amrit [Department of Physics, Baba Ajay Singh Khalsa College, Gurdas Nangal, Gurdaspur, Punjab (India); Dhaliwal, A.S. [Department of Physics, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Longowal (Sangrur), Punjab (India)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Total bremsstrahlung spectra in thick targets of Pb compounds by {sup 90}Sr in energy range 10–100 keV. • Experimental results show better agreement with the model which includes PB in SA up to 30 keV. • At higher photon energy region 30–100 keV the model which describes OB is more accurate. • Experimental results show positive deviations from the entire models at higher energy end spectrum. - Abstract: The total bremsstrahlung spectra in the thick targets of lead acetate trihydrate (Pb(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}·3H{sub 2}O), lead nitrate Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and lead chloride (PbCl{sub 2}) produced by {sup 90}Sr beta particles have been investigated in the photon energy region of 10–100 keV. The experimental bremsstrahlung spectra have been compared with the theoretical models Elwert corrected (non relativistic) Bethe Heitler theory, modified Elwert factor (relativistic) Bethe Heitler theory for ordinary bremsstrahlung and modified Elwert factor (relativistic) Bethe Heitler theory which includes polarization bremsstrahlung in the stripped atom approximation. The experimental results show better agreement with theoretical model that includes polarization bremsstrahlung in stripped approximation in the photon energy region below 30 keV. However, at higher photon energy region 30–100 keV, the theoretical model which describes ordinary bremsstrahlung is more accurate to describe the experimental bremsstrahlung spectra. The experimental results show positive deviations from the entire theoretical models at higher energy end of the spectrum. The results indicate that polarization bremsstrahlung plays important role in the formation of total bremsstrahlung spectra in lead compounds produced by continuous beta particles at low photon energy region of 10–30 keV.

  10. In vitro activity and stability against novel beta-lactamases of investigational beta-lactams (cefepime, cefpirome, flomoxef, SCE2787 and piperacillin plus tazobactam) in comparison with established compounds (cefotaxime, latamoxef and piperacillin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauernfeind, A; Schweighart, S; Eberlein, E; Jungwirth, R

    1991-01-01

    The therapeutic perspectives of flomoxef, SCE 2787, cefpirome, cefepime, latamoxef, cefotaxime and of piperacillin plus tazobactam were comparatively evaluated by their in vitro activity against 1119 clinical isolates of 83 bacterial species. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. Enterobacter sakazakii, Proteus spp. and Shigella spp. were about equally susceptible to the cephalosporins (MIC90: 0.06 to 0.5 mg/l), while the MIC90 for piperacillin plus tazobactam was between 2 and 16 mg/l. Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes and Serratia spp. were most susceptible to SCE 2787, cefpirome and cefepime (MIC90: 0.06 to 2 mg/l) followed by latamoxef, cefotaxime, flomoxef and piperacillin plus tazobactam. For Citrobacter spp., Providencia spp. and Yersinia enterocolitica MIC90 were between 0.06 and 0.5 mg/l. Flomoxef was between 2 to 4 log2 less active against these species but more active than piperacillin plus tazobactam (MIC90: 2 and 8 mg/l). Morganella morganii and Hafnia alvei were most susceptible to cefepime, cefpirome and latamoxef (MIC90: 0.13 to 0.5 mg/l) while cefotaxime (MIC90: 8 mg/l) and piperacillin plus tazobactam (MIC90: 8 and greater than 64 mg/l) were the least active compounds. SCE 2787, cefepime and cefpirome were the most potent beta-lactams against the majority of the 13 species of non-fermentative bacilli (NFB) investigated (MIC90: 0.5 to 16 mg/l). The oxacephems were the least active compounds against NFB. Cefepime was the most active of the compounds included against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC90: 16 mg/l). Haemophilus spp., Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Bordetella pertussis were most susceptible to cefotaxime (MIC90: 0.03 to 0.06 mg/l). Latamoxef had the lowest activity of all compounds against gram-positive cocci. Flomoxef was the most active compound against penicillinase producing Staphylococcus aureus and about equally active as the other betalactams against methicillin susceptible staphylococci of other staphylococcal species

  11. Effects of Metformin on Tissue Oxidative and Dicarbonyl Stress in Transgenic Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Expressing Human C-Reactive Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Malínská

    Full Text Available Inflammation and oxidative and dicarbonyl stress play important roles in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Metformin is the first-line drug of choice for the treatment of type 2 diabetes because it effectively suppresses gluconeogenesis in the liver. However, its "pleiotropic" effects remain controversial. In the current study, we tested the effects of metformin on inflammation, oxidative and dicarbonyl stress in an animal model of inflammation and metabolic syndrome, using spontaneously hypertensive rats that transgenically express human C-reactive protein (SHR-CRP. We treated 8-month-old male transgenic SHR-CRP rats with metformin (5 mg/kg/day mixed as part of a standard diet for 4 weeks. A corresponding untreated control group of male transgenic SHR-CRP rats were fed a standard diet without metformin. In a similar fashion, we studied a group of nontransgenic SHR treated with metformin and an untreated group of nontransgenic SHR controls. In each group, we studied 6 animals. Parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism and oxidative and dicarbonyl stress were measured using standard methods. Gene expression profiles were determined using Affymetrix GeneChip Arrays. Statistical significance was evaluated by two-way ANOVA. In the SHR-CRP transgenic strain, we found that metformin treatment decreased circulating levels of inflammatory response marker IL-6, TNFα and MCP-1 while levels of human CRP remained unchanged. Metformin significantly reduced oxidative stress (levels of conjugated dienes and TBARS and dicarbonyl stress (levels of methylglyoxal in left ventricles, but not in kidneys. No significant effects of metformin on oxidative and dicarbonyl stress were observed in SHR controls. In addition, metformin treatment reduced adipose tissue lipolysis associated with human CRP. Possible molecular mechanisms of metformin action-studied by gene expression profiling in the liver-revealed deregulated genes from inflammatory and insulin signaling

  12. Organocatalyzed α-Sulfenylation of carbonyl compounds using N-formly/Acyl Sulfenmides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Hyeon Wan; Lee, Chan; Jang, Hye Young

    2017-01-01

    α-Sulfenylation of aldehydes and ketones using N-formyl and N-acyl sulfenamides, prepared by Cu-catalyzed aerobic coupling of amides and thiols, was achieved in the presence of cyclic secondary amine⋅HCl catalysts. To obtain various sulfur-functionalized carbonyl compounds, sulfenamides containing aromatic and aliphatic organosulfur were investigated. As carbonyl compounds, cyclic and acyclic ketones, 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, and aldehydes were investigated, affording the desired α-sulfenylation products in good yields

  13. Organocatalyzed α-Sulfenylation of carbonyl compounds using N-formly/Acyl Sulfenmides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Hyeon Wan; Lee, Chan; Jang, Hye Young [Dept. of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    α-Sulfenylation of aldehydes and ketones using N-formyl and N-acyl sulfenamides, prepared by Cu-catalyzed aerobic coupling of amides and thiols, was achieved in the presence of cyclic secondary amine⋅HCl catalysts. To obtain various sulfur-functionalized carbonyl compounds, sulfenamides containing aromatic and aliphatic organosulfur were investigated. As carbonyl compounds, cyclic and acyclic ketones, 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, and aldehydes were investigated, affording the desired α-sulfenylation products in good yields.

  14. Effects of Metformin on Tissue Oxidative and Dicarbonyl Stress in Transgenic Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Expressing Human C-Reactive Protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malínská, H.; Oliyarnyk, O.; Škop, V.; Šilhavý, Jan; Landa, Vladimír; Zídek, Václav; Mlejnek, Petr; Šimáková, Miroslava; Strnad, Hynek; Kazdová, L.; Pravenec, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2016), e0150924 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204; GA MZd(CZ) NT14325 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : inflammation * spontaneously hypertensive rat * transgenic * C-reactive protein * dicarbonyl stress * metformin Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  15. Degradation of pharmaceutical beta-blockers by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes using a flow plant with a solar compound parabolic collector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isarain-Chávez, Eloy; Rodríguez, Rosa María; Cabot, Pere Lluís; Centellas, Francesc; Arias, Conchita; Garrido, José Antonio; Brillas, Enric

    2011-08-01

    The degradation of the beta-blockers atenolol, metoprolol tartrate and propranolol hydrochloride was studied by electro-Fenton (EF) and solar photoelectro-Fenton (SPEF). Solutions of 10 L of 100 mg L⁻¹ of total organic carbon of each drug in 0.1 M Na₂SO₄ with 0.5 mM Fe²⁺ of pH 3.0 were treated in a recirculation flow plant with an electrochemical reactor coupled with a solar compound parabolic collector. Single Pt/carbon felt (CF) and boron-doped diamond (BDD)/air-diffusion electrode (ADE) cells and combined Pt/ADE-Pt/CF and BDD/ADE-Pt/CF cells were used. SPEF treatments were more potent with the latter cell, yielding 95-97% mineralization with 100% of maximum current efficiency and energy consumptions of about 0.250 kWh g TOC⁻¹. However, the Pt/ADE-Pt/CF cell gave much lower energy consumptions of about 0.080 kWh g TOC⁻¹ with slightly lower mineralization of 88-93%, then being more useful for its possible application at industrial level. The EF method led to a poorer mineralization and was more potent using the combined cells by the additional production of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) from Fenton's reaction from the fast Fe²⁺ regeneration at the CF cathode. Organics were also more rapidly destroyed at BDD than at Pt anode. The decay kinetics of beta-blockers always followed a pseudo first-order reaction, although in SPEF, it was accelerated by the additional production of •OH from the action of UV light of solar irradiation. Aromatic intermediates were also destroyed by hydroxyl radicals. Ultimate carboxylic acids like oxalic and oxamic remained in the treated solutions by EF, but their Fe(III) complexes were photolyzed by solar irradiation in SPEF, thus explaining its higher oxidation power. NO₃⁻ was the predominant inorganic ion lost in EF, whereas the SPEF process favored the production of NH₄⁺ ion and volatile N-derivatives. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. BETA digital beta radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovikov, N.V.; Kosinov, G.A.; Fedorov, Yu.N.

    1989-01-01

    Portable transportable digital beta radiometer providing for measuring beta-decay radionuclide specific activity in the range from 5x10 -9 up to 10 -6 Cu/kg (Cu/l) with error of ±25% is designed and introduced into commercial production for determination of volume and specific water and food radioactivity. The device specifications are given. Experience in the BETA radiometer application under conditions of the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone has shown that it is convenient for measuring specific activity of the order of 10 -8 Cu/kg, and application of a set of different beta detectors gives an opportunity to use it for surface contamination measurement in wide range of the measured value

  17. New methods of arene iodination and functional transformation of multiple bonds in organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filimonov, V.D.; Chajkovskij, V.K.; Krasnokutskaya, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    The review summarizes the latest results of organic chemistry and technology of organic synthesis department of Tomsk polytechnical university concerning iodination of arenes and chemical transformations of unsaturated compounds. Preparative possibilities of the new reactions and reagents for iodination, oxidation of alkenes and alkynes to 1,2- and bis-1,2-dicarbonyl compounds, iodonitration of alkynes, and reaction of oxidative dimerization of the terminal alkynes to unsaturated δ-sultones are discussed [ru

  18. Speculative Betas

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison Hong; David Sraer

    2012-01-01

    We provide a model for why high beta assets are more prone to speculative overpricing than low beta ones. When investors disagree about the common factor of cash-flows, high beta assets are more sensitive to this macro-disagreement and experience a greater divergence-of-opinion about their payoffs. Short-sales constraints for some investors such as retail mutual funds result in high beta assets being over-priced. When aggregate disagreement is low, expected return increases with beta due to r...

  19. Size distributions of dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids, α-dicarbonyls, sugars, WSOC, OC, EC and inorganic ions in atmospheric particles over Northern Japan: implication for long-range transport of Siberian biomass burning and East Asian polluted aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, S.; Aggarwal, S. G.; Okuzawa, K.; Kawamura, K.

    2010-07-01

    To better understand the size-segregated chemical composition of aged organic aerosols in the western North Pacific rim, day- and night-time aerosol samples were collected in Sapporo, Japan during summer 2005 using an Andersen impactor sampler with 5 size bins: Dp7.0 μm. Samples were analyzed for the molecular composition of dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids, α-dicarbonyls, and sugars, together with water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and inorganic ions. Based on the analyses of backward trajectories and chemical tracers, we found that during the campaign, air masses arrived from Siberia (a biomass burning source region) on 8-9 August, from China (an anthropogenic source region) on 9-10 August, and from the East China Sea/Sea of Japan (a mixed source receptor region) on 10-11 August. Most of the diacids, ketoacids, dicarbonyls, levoglucosan, WSOC, and inorganic ions (i.e., SO42-, NH4+ and K+) were enriched in fine particles (PM1.1) whereas Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cl- peaked in coarse sizes (>1.1 μm). Interestingly, OC, most sugar compounds and NO3- showed bimodal distributions in fine and coarse modes. In PM1.1, diacids in biomass burning-influenced aerosols transported from Siberia (mean: 252 ng m-3) were more abundant than those in the aerosols originating from China (209 ng m-3) and ocean (142 ng m-3), whereas SO42- concentrations were highest in the aerosols from China (mean: 3970 ng m-3) followed by marine- (2950 ng m-3) and biomass burning-influenced (1980 ng m-3) aerosols. Higher loadings of WSOC (2430 ng m-3) and OC (4360 ng m-3) were found in the fine mode, where biomass-burning products such as levoglucosan are abundant. This paper presents a case study of long-range transported aerosols illustrating that biomass burning episodes in the Siberian region have a significant influence on the chemical composition of carbonaceous aerosols in the western North Pacific rim.

  20. Historic records of organic compounds from a high Alpine glacier: influences of biomass burning, anthropogenic emissions, and dust transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Müller-Tautges

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Historic records of α-dicarbonyls (glyoxal, methylglyoxal, carboxylic acids (C6–C12 dicarboxylic acids, pinic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, phthalic acid, 4-methylphthalic acid, and ions (oxalate, formate, calcium were determined with annual resolution in an ice core from Grenzgletscher in the southern Swiss Alps, covering the time period from 1942 to 1993. Chemical analysis of the organic compounds was conducted using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC coupled to electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-HRMS for dicarbonyls and long-chain carboxylic acids and ion chromatography for short-chain carboxylates. Long-term records of the carboxylic acids and dicarbonyls, as well as their source apportionment, are reported for western Europe. This is the first study comprising long-term trends of dicarbonyls and long-chain dicarboxylic acids (C6–C12 in Alpine precipitation. Source assignment of the organic species present in the ice core was performed using principal component analysis. Our results suggest biomass burning, anthropogenic emissions, and transport of mineral dust to be the main parameters influencing the concentration of organic compounds. Ice core records of several highly correlated compounds (e.g., p-hydroxybenzoic acid, pinic acid, pimelic, and suberic acids can be related to the forest fire history in southern Switzerland. P-hydroxybenzoic acid was found to be the best organic fire tracer in the study area, revealing the highest correlation with the burned area from fires. Historical records of methylglyoxal, phthalic acid, and dicarboxylic acids adipic acid, sebacic acid, and dodecanedioic acid are comparable with that of anthropogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs. The small organic acids, oxalic acid and formic acid, are both highly correlated with calcium, suggesting their records to be affected by changing mineral dust transport to the drilling site.

  1. Beta spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryak, P.; Zderadicka, J.; Plch, J.; Kokta, L.; Novotna, P.

    1977-01-01

    For the purpose of beta spectrometry, a semiconductor spectrometer with one Si(Li) detector cooled with liquid nitrogen was designed. Geometrical detection efficiency is about 10% 4 sr. The achieved resolution for 624 keV conversion electrons of sup(137m)Ba is 2.6 keV (FWHM). A program was written in the FORTRAN language for the correction of the deformation of the measured spectra by backscattering in the analysis of continuous beta spectra. The method permits the determination of the maximum energy of the beta spectrum with an accuracy of +-5 keV. (author)

  2. Beta Blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may not work as effectively for people of African heritage and older people, especially when taken without ... conditions/high-blood-pressure/in-depth/beta-blockers/ART-20044522 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  3. Species differences in the biotransformation of an alpha 4 beta 2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist: the effects of distinct glucuronide metabolites on overall compound disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Christopher L; Gunduz, Mithat; Ryder, Tim F; O'Connell, Thomas N

    2010-02-01

    The metabolism and disposition of (1R,5S)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7-(trifluoromethyl)-1,5-methano-1H-3-benzazepine (1), an alpha(4)beta(2) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats and cynomolgus monkeys receiving (1R,5S)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7-(trifluoromethyl)-1,5-methano-1H-4[(14)C]-3- benzazepine hydrochloride ([(14)C]1) orally. Although both species chiefly (>or=62%) cleared 1 metabolically, species-specific dispositional profiles were observed for both 1 and total radioactivity. Radioactivity was excreted equally in the urine and feces of intact rats but largely (72%) in bile in bile duct-cannulated animals. In monkeys, radioactivity recoveries were 50-fold greater in urine than feces and minimal (<5%) in bile. Both species metabolized 1 similarly: four-electron oxidation to one of four amino acids or two lactams (minor) and glucuronide formation (major). In rats, the latter pathway predominantly formed an N-carbamoyl glucuronide (M6), exclusively present in bile (69% of dose), whereas in monkeys it afforded an N-O-glucuronide (M5), a minor biliary component (4%) but the major plasma (62%) and urinary (42%) entity. In rats, first-pass hepatic conversion of 1 to M6, which was confirmed in rat hepatocytes, and its biliary secretion resulted in the indirect enterohepatic cycling of 1 via M6 and manifested in double-humped plasma concentration-time curves and long t(1/2) for both 1 and total radioactivity. In monkeys, in which only M5 was formed, double-humped plasma concentration-time curves were absent, and moderate t(1/2) for both 1 and total radioactivity were observed. A seemingly subtle, yet critical, difference in the chemical structures of these two glucuronide metabolites considerably affected the overall disposition of 1 in rats versus monkeys.

  4. Molecular analysis of the beta-thalassemia phenotype associated with inheritance of hemoglobin E (alpha 2 beta2(26)Glu leads to Lys).

    OpenAIRE

    Benz, E J; Berman, B W; Tonkonow, B L; Coupal, E; Coates, T; Boxer, L A; Altman, A; Adams, J G

    1981-01-01

    Inheritance of the gene for betaE-globin is associated with hypochromia and microcytosis, reminiscent of typical heterozygous beta-thalassemia. Patients with hemoglobin (Hb)E-beta-thalassemia exhibit clinical phenotypes of severe beta-thalassemia, a circumstance not encountered in other compound heterozygous states for structural beta-chain mutations and beta-thalassemia. We have analyzed the kinetics of globin synthesis and the levels of globin messenger (m) RNA accumulation in patients with...

  5. Size distributions of dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids, α-dicarbonyls, sugars, WSOC, OC, EC and inorganic ions in atmospheric particles over Northern Japan: implication for long-range transport of Siberian biomass burning and East Asian polluted aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Agarwal

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the size-segregated chemical composition of aged organic aerosols in the western North Pacific rim, day- and night-time aerosol samples were collected in Sapporo, Japan during summer 2005 using an Andersen impactor sampler with 5 size bins: Dp<1.1, 1.1–2.0, 2.0–3.3, 3.3–7.0, >7.0 μm. Samples were analyzed for the molecular composition of dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids, α-dicarbonyls, and sugars, together with water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC, organic carbon (OC, elemental carbon (EC and inorganic ions. Based on the analyses of backward trajectories and chemical tracers, we found that during the campaign, air masses arrived from Siberia (a biomass burning source region on 8–9 August, from China (an anthropogenic source region on 9–10 August, and from the East China Sea/Sea of Japan (a mixed source receptor region on 10–11 August. Most of the diacids, ketoacids, dicarbonyls, levoglucosan, WSOC, and inorganic ions (i.e., SO42−, NH4+ and K+ were enriched in fine particles (PM1.1 whereas Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cl peaked in coarse sizes (>1.1 μm. Interestingly, OC, most sugar compounds and NO3 showed bimodal distributions in fine and coarse modes. In PM1.1, diacids in biomass burning-influenced aerosols transported from Siberia (mean: 252 ng m−3 were more abundant than those in the aerosols originating from China (209 ng m−3 and ocean (142 ng m−3, whereas SO42− concentrations were highest in the aerosols from China (mean: 3970 ng m−3 followed by marine- (2950 ng m−3 and biomass burning-influenced (1980 ng m−3 aerosols. Higher loadings of WSOC (2430 ng m−3 and OC (4360 ng m−3 were found in the fine mode, where biomass-burning products such as

  6. Calcium carbonate interaction analysis in polypropylene compounds and their impact on the formation of beta crystalline phase of this polymer; Analise da interacao de diferentes tipos de carbonato de calcio em compositos de polipropileno e suas consequencias na formacao da fase cristalina beta do PP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The insertion of calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) in polypropylene compound is a thoroughly known technique widely studied in the academic area and in the industry. Its wide application is due, mainly, to increase mechanical properties with low manufacturing cost. These improvements in this polymer make it more versatile and competitive compared to other expensive polymers. In this study, the incorporation of four types of CaCO3 from the same manufacturer were compared and the focus was on the size of this mineral filler. Furthermore, it was analyzed the interaction of graphitized polypropylene with maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA) in the same samples. All these samples were analyzed by WAXS and SEM. The physical properties of tensile strength and impact were also analyzed. It was observed from this study that the smallest CaCO3 produced with PP-g-MA resulted in better physical properties with the formation of a crystalline phase beta, as originally studied by other authors using other raw materials. (author)

  7. Effects of dicarbonyl trapping agents, antioxidants, and reducing agents on the formation of furan and other volatile components in canned-coffee model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li Wei; Chung, Hyun; Kim, Young-Suk

    2015-09-01

    The formation of furan and certain volatiles related to furan formation mechanisms was studied using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with solid-phase micro extraction after adding dicarbonyl trapping agents [epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and catechin], water-soluble antioxidants (Trolox, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and chlorogenic acid), fat-soluble antioxidants (α-tocopherol, BHT, and β-carotene), and reducing agents (glutathione and sodium sulfite) to canned-coffee model systems (CMS). The level of furan formation decreased significantly following the addition of EC (by 65.3%), EGCG (by 60.0%), and catechin (by 44.7%). In addition, the formation of Maillard reaction products, including furan derivatives (furfural and 5-methylfurfural), Strecker aldehyde (2-methylbutanal), pyrazines (2,6-dimethylpyrazine), and lipid oxidation products (including hexanal and 2-pentylfuran) was suppressed when any of the dicarbonyl trapping agents was added. Among the water-soluble antioxidants studied, chlorogenic acid most significantly decreased the furan level, by 67.0%, followed by ferulic acid (57.6%), Trolox (50.1%), and caffeic acid (48.2%) in the CMS. Chlorogenic acid also reduced the formation of furfural and lipid oxidation products. However, the addition of caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and chlorogenic acid decreased the generation of key coffee aroma components, such as Strecker aldehydes (2-methylpropanal and 2-methylbutanal), 5-methylfurfural, and pyrazines (2,6-dimethylpyrazine and 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine). Among the fat-soluble antioxidants, BHT and α-tocopherol decreased the furan level by 49.3% and 39.3%, respectively, while β-carotene increased the furan level by 34.8%. The addition of sodium sulfite and glutathione to CMS also led to considerable reductions in furan, of 64.1% and 44.9%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Isotope Effects in the Bonds of beta-CrOOH and beta-CrOOD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørlund Christensen, A.; Hansen, P.; Lehmann, M. S.

    1976-01-01

    Samples of orthorhombic chromium oxide hydroxide, beta -CrOOH, and the deuterated compound, beta -CrOOD, were prepared hydrothermally. The crystal structures were determined by powder profile refinement technique using neutron diffraction data. Unit cells are: beta -CrOOH: a equals 4. 862(2) A, b...... equals 4. 298(a) A, c equals 2. 995(1) A; beta -CrOOD: a equals 4. 873(5) A, b equals 4. 332(7) A, c equals 2. 963(2) A, with Z equals 2. The space group is P2//1nm or Pnnm....

  9. Sampling and Analytical Method for Alpha-Dicarbonyl Flavoring Compounds via Derivatization with o-Phenylenediamine and Analysis Using GC-NPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Pendergrass

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel methodology is described for the sampling and analysis of diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, 2,3-hexanedione, and 2,3-heptanedione. These analytes were collected on o-phenylenediamine-treated silica gel tubes and quantitatively recovered as the corresponding quinoxaline derivatives. After derivatization, the sorbent was desorbed in 3 mL of ethanol solvent and analyzed using gas chromatography/nitrogen-phosphorous detection (GC/NPD. The limits of detection (LOD achieved for each analyte were determined to be in the range of 5–10 nanograms/sample. Evaluation of the on-tube derivatization procedure indicated that it is unaffected by humidities ranging from 20% to 80% and that the derivatization procedure was quantitative for analyte concentrations ranging from 0.1 μg to approximately 500 μg per sample. Storage stability studies indicated that the derivatives were stable for 30 days when stored at both ambient and refrigerated temperatures. Additional studies showed that the quinoxaline derivatives were quantitatively recovered when sampling up to a total volume of 72 L at a sampling rate of 50 cc/min. This method will be important to evaluate and monitor worker exposures in the food and flavoring industry. Samples can be collected over an 8-hour shift with up to 288 L total volume collected regardless of time, sampling rate, and/or the effects of humidity.

  10. Development of tartaric acid derived chiral guanidines and their application to catalytic enantioselective α-hydroxylation of β-dicarbonyl compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Liwei; Wang, Baomin; Mu, Hongfang; Zhang, Huanrui; Song, Yuming; Qu, Jingping

    2013-06-21

    A novel library of chiral guanidines featuring a tartaric acid skeleton was developed from diethyl l-tartrate. These guanidines are easily accessed with tunable steric and electronic properties. The utilities of the guanidines were highlighted by their ability to catalyze the α-hydroxylation of β-ketoesters and β-diketones with remarkable efficiency and excellent enantioselectivity.

  11. Active-site-directed inactivation of Aspergillus oryzae beta-galactosidase with beta-D-galactopyranosylmethyl-p-nitrophenyltriazene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mega, T; Nishijima, T; Ikenaka, T

    1990-04-01

    beta-D-Galactopyranosylmethyl-p-nitrophenyltriazene (beta-GalMNT), a specific inhibitor of beta-galactosidase, was isolated as crystals by HPLC and its chemical and physicochemical characteristics were examined. Aspergillus oryzae beta-galactosidase was inactivated by the compound. We studied the inhibition mechanism in detail. The inhibitor was hydrolyzed by the enzyme to p-nitroaniline and an active intermediate (beta-galactopyranosylmethyl carbonium or beta-galactopyranosylmethyldiazonium), which inactivated the enzyme. The efficiency of inactivation of the enzyme (the ratio of moles of inactivated enzyme to moles of beta-GalMNT hydrolyzed by the enzyme) was 3%; the efficiency of Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase was 49%. In spite of the low efficiency, the rate of inactivation of A. oryzae enzyme was not very different from that of the E. coli enzyme, because the former hydrolyzed beta-GalMNT faster than the latter did. A. oryzae beta-galactosidase was also inactivated by p-chlorophenyl, p-tolyl, and m-nitrophenyl derivatives of beta-galactopyranosylmethyltriazene. However, E. coli beta-galactosidase was not inactivated by these triazene derivatives. The results showed that the inactivation of A. oryzae and E. coli beta-galactosidases by beta-GalMNT was an enzyme-activated and active-site-directed irreversible inactivation. The possibility of inactivation by intermediates produced nonenzymatically was ruled out for E. coli, but not for the A. oryzae enzyme.

  12. Beta Emission and Bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-13

    Bremsstrahlung is continuous radiation produced by beta particles decelerating in matter; different beta emitters have different endpoint energies; high-energy betas interacting with high-Z materials will more likely produce bremsstrahlung; depending on the data, sometimes all you can say is that a beta emitter is present.

  13. Ellagic acid promotes A{beta}42 fibrillization and inhibits A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Ying [Department of Histology and Embryology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Yang, Shi-gao; Du, Xue-ting; Zhang, Xi; Sun, Xiao-xia; Zhao, Min [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Sun, Gui-yuan, E-mail: sungy2004@sohu.com [Department of Histology and Embryology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Liu, Rui-tian, E-mail: rtliu@tsinghua.edu.cn [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-12-25

    Smaller, soluble oligomers of {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Selective inhibition of A{beta} oligomer formation provides an optimum target for AD therapy. Some polyphenols have potent anti-amyloidogenic activities and protect against A{beta} neurotoxicity. Here, we tested the effects of ellagic acid (EA), a polyphenolic compound, on A{beta}42 aggregation and neurotoxicity in vitro. EA promoted A{beta} fibril formation and significant oligomer loss, contrary to previous results that polyphenols inhibited A{beta} aggregation. The results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western blot displayed more fibrils in A{beta}42 samples co-incubated with EA in earlier phases of aggregation. Consistent with the hypothesis that plaque formation may represent a protective mechanism in which the body sequesters toxic A{beta} aggregates to render them harmless, our MTT results showed that EA could significantly reduce A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity toward SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, our results suggest that EA, an active ingredient in many fruits and nuts, may have therapeutic potential in AD.

  14. Discovery of novel acetanilide derivatives as potent and selective beta3-adrenergic receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Tatsuya; Onda, Kenichi; Hayakawa, Masahiko; Matsui, Tetsuo; Takasu, Toshiyuki; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2009-06-01

    In the search for potent and selective human beta3-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists as potential drugs for the treatment of obesity and noninsulin-dependent (type II) diabetes, a novel series of acetanilide-based analogues were prepared and their biological activities were evaluated at the human beta3-, beta2-, and beta1-ARs. Among these compounds, 2-pyridylacetanilide (2f), pyrimidin-2-ylacetanilide (2u), and pyrazin-2-ylacetanilide (2v) derivatives exhibited potent agonistic activity at the beta3-AR with functional selectivity over the beta1- and beta2-ARs. In particular, compound 2u was found to be the most potent and selective beta3-AR agonist with an EC(50) value of 0.11 microM and no agonistic activity for either the beta1- or beta2-AR. In addition, 2f, 2u, and 2v showed significant hypoglycemic activity in a rodent diabetic model.

  15. Selectivity of beta-adrenergic stimulating and blocking agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfdahl, C G; Svedmyr, N

    1984-01-01

    Studies have been performed to answer two questions: whether there are subgroups of beta 2-receptors separating effects in bronchial and skeletal muscle and whether beta 1-receptors in asthmatic airways mediate bronchoconstriction. Asthmatic patients have been studied in randomised cross-over trials. Effects on FEV1, heart rate and skeletal muscle tremor have been monitored. In some experimental studies, two new compounds, D2343 and QH-25, have shown a selectivity for beta 2-receptors in bronchial muscle compared to skeletal muscle. Studies in asthmatics did not confirm this. Thus, the beta 2-receptors in the two organs appear to be identical. The clinical effect of beta 1-receptors in the the airways was studied by giving selective beta 1-receptor blocking agents. It was shown that pafenolol , a beta-blocker more beta 1-selective than metoprolol, had less effect on FEV1 than metoprolol given in equipotent beta 1-blocking doses. Beta 1-receptor stimulation with a new selective beta 1-stimulating agent, prenalterol, did not give bronchodilation in doses which gave a significant increase of heart rate. Thus, beta 1-receptors do not contribute to bronchodilation in asthmatic patients.

  16. Design, synthesis and bioactivity evaluation of tribactam beta lactamase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copar, Anton; Prevec, Tadeja; Anzic, Borut; Mesar, Tomaz; Selic, Lovro; Vilar, Mateja; Solmajer, Tom

    2002-03-25

    Known carbapenem compounds with inhibitory effect towards beta-lactamase enzymes are formed from bicyclical beta lactam structural scaffolds. On the basis of results from theoretical computational methods and molecular modelling we have designed and developed a synthetic route towards novel, biologically active tricyclic derivatives of carbapenems.

  17. Antiprotozoal compounds from Asparagus africanus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oketch-Rabah, H A; Dossaji, S F; Christensen, S B

    1997-01-01

    Two antiprotozoal compounds have been isolated from the roots of Asparagus africanus Lam. (Liliaceae), a new sapogenin, 2 beta, 12 alpha-dihydroxy-(25R)-spirosta-4,7-dien-3-one (1), which was named muzanzagenin, and the lignan (+)-nyasol (2), (Z)-(+)-4,4'-(3-ethenyl-1-propene-1,3-diyl)-bisphenol.......Two antiprotozoal compounds have been isolated from the roots of Asparagus africanus Lam. (Liliaceae), a new sapogenin, 2 beta, 12 alpha-dihydroxy-(25R)-spirosta-4,7-dien-3-one (1), which was named muzanzagenin, and the lignan (+)-nyasol (2), (Z)-(+)-4,4'-(3-ethenyl-1-propene-1,3-diyl...

  18. Levered and unlevered Beta

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2003-01-01

    We prove that in a world without leverage cost the relationship between the levered beta ( L) and the unlevered beta ( u) is the No-costs-of-leverage formula: L = u + ( u - d) D (1 - T) / E. We also analyze 6 alternative valuation theories proposed in the literature to estimate the relationship between the levered beta and the unlevered beta (Harris and Pringle (1985), Modigliani and Miller (1963), Damodaran (1994), Myers (1974), Miles and Ezzell (1980), and practitioners) and prove that all ...

  19. Beta Thalassemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Beta Thalassemia KidsHealth / For Parents / Beta Thalassemia What's in this ... Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Print en español Beta talasemia Thalassemias Thalassemias are a group of blood disorders that ...

  20. Forward-Looking Betas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Vainberg, Gregory

    Few issues are more important for finance practice than the computation of market betas. Existing approaches compute market betas using historical data. While these approaches differ in terms of statistical sophistication and the modeling of the time-variation in the betas, they are all backward......-looking. This paper introduces a radically different approach to estimating market betas. Using the tools in Bakshi and Madan (2000) and Bakshi, Kapadia and Madan (2003) we employ the information embedded in the prices of individual stock options and index options to compute our forward-looking market beta...

  1. Optimized formation of detergent micelles of beta-carotene and retinal production using recombinant human beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Hee; Kim, Yeong-Su; Kim, Hye-Jung; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2008-01-01

    The formation of beta-carotene detergent micelles and their conversion into retinal by recombinant human beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase was optimized under aqueous conditions. Toluene was the most hydrophobic among the organic solvents tested; thus, it was used to dissolve beta-carotene, which is a hydrophobic compound. Tween 80 was selected as the detergent because it supported the highest level of retinal production among all of the detergents tested. The maximum production of retinal was achieved in detergent micelles containing 200 mg/L of beta-carotene and 2.4% (w/v) Tween 80. Under these conditions, the recombinant enzyme produced 97 mg/L of retinal after 16 h with a conversion yield of 48.5% (w/w). The amount of retinal produced, which is the highest ever reported, is a result of the ability of our system to dissolve large amounts of beta-carotene.

  2. NMR study of the preparation of 6 {alpha}, 7 {beta}-dihydroxyvouacapan-17 beta-oic acid mannich base derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Flavio Jose Leite dos; Pilo-Veloso, Dorila [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. Quimica]. E-mail: dorila@zeus.qui.ufmg.br; Ferreira-Alves, Dalton L. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Farmacologia

    2007-07-01

    This work presents four new Mannich base compounds obtained by the Mannich reaction of a {delta}-keto-lactone derivative of 6{alpha}, 7{beta}-dihydroxyvouacapan- 17{beta}-oic acid, a furano diterpene isolated from the hexane extract of Pterodon polygalaeflorus Benth fruits, which shows anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. The use of 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, DEPT-135, HMBC, HMQC) spectroscopy made it possible to characterize the new compounds. (author)

  3. Distributions of low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids and α-dicarbonyls in the marine aerosols collected over the Arctic Ocean during late summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kawamura

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxalic and other small dicarboxylic acids have been reported as important water-soluble organic constituents of atmospheric aerosols from different environments. Their molecular distributions are generally characterized by the predominance of oxalic acid (C2 followed by malonic (C3 and/or succinic (C4 acids. In this study, we collected marine aerosols from the Arctic Ocean during late summer in 2009 when sea ice was retreating. The marine aerosols were analyzed for the molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids as well as ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls to better understand the source of water-soluble organics and their photochemical processes in the high Arctic marine atmosphere. We found that diacids are more abundant than ketoacids and α-dicarbonyls, but their concentrations are generally low (< 30 ng m−3, except for one sample (up to 70 ng m−3 that was collected near the mouth of Mackenzie River during clear sky condition. Although the molecular compositions of diacids are in general characterized by the predominance of oxalic acid, a depletion of C2 was found in two samples in which C4 became the most abundant. Similar depletion of oxalic acid has previously been reported in the Arctic aerosols collected at Alert after polar sunrise and in the summer aerosols from the coast of Antarctica. Because the marine aerosols that showed a depletion of C2 were collected under the overcast and/or foggy conditions, we suggest that a photochemical decomposition of oxalic acid may have occurred in aqueous phase of aerosols over the Arctic Ocean via the photo dissociation of oxalate-Fe (III complex. We also determined stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C of bulk aerosol carbon and individual diacids. The δ13C of bulk aerosols showed −26.5‰ (range: −29.7 to −24.7‰, suggesting that marine aerosol carbon is derived

  4. Betting Against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model’s five central predictions: (1) Since constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for U...... of the BAB factor is low; (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one; (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets........S. equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures; (2) A betting-against-beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns; (3) When funding constraints tighten, the return...

  5. Roughing up Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Li, Sophia Zhengzi; Todorov, Viktor

    -section. An investment strategy that goes long stocks with high jump betas and short stocks with low jump betas produces significant average excess returns. These higher risk premiums for the discontinuous and overnight market betas remain significant after controlling for a long list of other firm characteristics......Motivated by the implications from a stylized equilibrium pricing framework, we investigate empirically how individual equity prices respond to continuous, or \\smooth," and jumpy, or \\rough," market price moves, and how these different market price risks, or betas, are priced in the cross......-section of expected returns. Based on a novel highfrequency dataset of almost one-thousand individual stocks over two decades, we find that the two rough betas associated with intraday discontinuous and overnight returns entail significant risk premiums, while the intraday continuous beta is not priced in the cross...

  6. Beta limits for ETF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, F.J.; Miller, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    ETF (Engineering Test Facility) one-dimensional transport simulations indicate that a volume-average beta of 4% is required for ignition. It is therefore important that theoretical beta limits, determined by requiring equilibria to be stable to all ideal modes, exceed 4%. This paper documents an ideal MHD analysis wherein it is shown that, with appropriate plasma cross-sectional shape and current profile optimization, operation near 5% is possible. The critical beta value, however, depends on the functional form used for ff', which suggests that higher critical betas could be achieved by directly optimizing the safety factor profile. (author)

  7. Beta-energy averaging and beta spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamatelatos, M.G.; England, T.R.

    1976-07-01

    A simple yet highly accurate method for approximately calculating spectrum-averaged beta energies and beta spectra for radioactive nuclei is presented. This method should prove useful for users who wish to obtain accurate answers without complicated calculations of Fermi functions, complex gamma functions, and time-consuming numerical integrations as required by the more exact theoretical expressions. Therefore, this method should be a good time-saving alternative for investigators who need to make calculations involving large numbers of nuclei (e.g., fission products) as well as for occasional users interested in restricted number of nuclides. The average beta-energy values calculated by this method differ from those calculated by ''exact'' methods by no more than 1 percent for nuclides with atomic numbers in the 20 to 100 range and which emit betas of energies up to approximately 8 MeV. These include all fission products and the actinides. The beta-energy spectra calculated by the present method are also of the same quality

  8. High beta tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dory, R.A.; Berger, D.P.; Charlton, L.A.; Hogan, J.T.; Munro, J.K.; Nelson, D.B.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Sigmar, D.J.; Strickler, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    MHD equilibrium, stability, and transport calculations are made to study the accessibility and behavior of ''high beta'' tokamak plasmas in the range β approximately 5 to 15 percent. For next generation devices, beta values of at least 8 percent appear to be accessible and stable if there is a conducting surface nearby

  9. Sorting out Downside Beta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.T. Post (Thierry); P. van Vliet (Pim); S.D. Lansdorp (Simon)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractDownside risk, when properly defined and estimated, helps to explain the cross-section of US stock returns. Sorting stocks by a proper estimate of downside market beta leads to a substantially larger cross-sectional spread in average returns than sorting on regular market beta. This

  10. Betting against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model's five central predictions: (1) Because constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: beta thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Beta thalassemia Beta thalassemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Beta thalassemia is a blood disorder that reduces the production ...

  12. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  13. New lupane triterpenoids from Solidago canadensis that inhibit the lyase activity of DNA polymerase beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedula, V S Prakash; Zhou, Bing-Nan; Gao, Zhijie; Thomas, Shannon J; Hecht, Sidney M; Kingston, David G I

    2004-12-01

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of a methyl ethyl ketone extract of Solidago canadensis L. (Asteraceae), using an assay to detect the lyase activity of DNA polymerase beta, resulted in the isolation of the four new lupane triterpenoids 1-4 and the seven known compounds lupeol, lupeyl acetate, ursolic acid, cycloartenol, cycloartenyl palmitate, alpha-amyrin acetate, and stigmasterol. The structures of the new compounds were established as 3beta-(3R-acetoxyhexadecanoyloxy)-lup-20(29)-ene (1), 3beta-(3-ketohexadecanoyloxy)-lup-20(29)-ene (2), 3beta-(3R-acetoxyhexadecanoyloxy)-29-nor-lupan-20-one (3), and 3beta-(3-hetohexadecanoyloxy)-29-nor-lupan-20-one (4), respectively, on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic interpretation and chemical modification studies. All 11 compounds were inhibitory to the lyase activity of DNA polymerase beta.

  14. 24-Methylenecycloartanyl ferulate, a major compound of γ-oryzanol, promotes parvin-beta expression through an interaction with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma 2 in human breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heon Woong; Lim, Eun Joung; Jang, Hwan Hee; Cui, XueLei; Kang, Da Rae; Lee, Sung Hyen; Kim, Haeng Ran; Choe, Jeong Sook; Yang, Young Mok; Kim, Jung Bong; Park, Jong Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Parvin-β is an adaptor protein that binds to integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and is significantly downregulated in breast tumors and breast cancer cell lines. We treated the breast cancer cell line MCF7 with 24-methylenecycloartanyl ferulate (24-MCF), a γ-oryzanol compound. We observed upregulation of parvin-β (GenBank Accession No. (AF237769)) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ2 (GenBank Accession No. (NM-015869)). Among γ-oryzanol compounds, only treatment with 24-MCF led to the formation of reverse transcription-PCR products of parvin-β (650 and 500 bp) and PPAR-γ2 (580 bp) in MCF7 cells, but not in T47D, SK-BR-3, or MDA-MB-231 cells. 24-MCF treatment increased the mRNA and protein levels of parvin-β in MCF7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. We hypothesized that there is a correlation between parvin-β expression and induction of PPAR-γ2. This hypothesis was investigated by using a promoter-reporter assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. 24-MCF treatment induced binding of PPAR-γ2 to a peroxisome proliferator response element-like cis-element (ACTAGGACAAAGGACA) in the parvin-β promoter in MCF7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. 24-MCF treatment significantly decreased anchorage-independent growth and inhibited cell movement in comparison to control treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide. 24-MCF treatment reduced the levels of GTP-bound Rac1 and Cdc42. Evaluation of Akt1 inhibition by 24-MCF revealed that the half maximal effective concentration was 33.3 μM. Docking evaluations revealed that 24-MCF binds to the ATP-binding site of Akt1(PDB ID: (3OCB)) and the compound binding energy is -8.870 kcal/mol. Taken together, our results indicate that 24-MCF treatment increases parvin-β expression, which may inhibit ILK downstream signaling. - Highlights: • Treatment with 24-MCF increases gene expression of parvin-β and PPAR-ϒ2 in MCF7 cells. • PPAR-ϒ2 interacts with the parvin-β gene via

  15. 24-Methylenecycloartanyl ferulate, a major compound of γ-oryzanol, promotes parvin-beta expression through an interaction with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma 2 in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heon Woong; Lim, Eun Joung; Jang, Hwan Hee; Cui, XueLei; Kang, Da Rae; Lee, Sung Hyen; Kim, Haeng Ran; Choe, Jeong Sook; Yang, Young Mok; Kim, Jung Bong; Park, Jong Hwan

    2015-12-25

    Parvin-β is an adaptor protein that binds to integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and is significantly downregulated in breast tumors and breast cancer cell lines. We treated the breast cancer cell line MCF7 with 24-methylenecycloartanyl ferulate (24-MCF), a γ-oryzanol compound. We observed upregulation of parvin-β (GenBank Accession No. AF237769) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ2 (GenBank Accession No. NM_015869). Among γ-oryzanol compounds, only treatment with 24-MCF led to the formation of reverse transcription-PCR products of parvin-β (650 and 500 bp) and PPAR-γ2 (580 bp) in MCF7 cells, but not in T47D, SK-BR-3, or MDA-MB-231 cells. 24-MCF treatment increased the mRNA and protein levels of parvin-β in MCF7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. We hypothesized that there is a correlation between parvin-β expression and induction of PPAR-γ2. This hypothesis was investigated by using a promoter-reporter assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. 24-MCF treatment induced binding of PPAR-γ2 to a peroxisome proliferator response element-like cis-element (ACTAGGACAAAGGACA) in the parvin-β promoter in MCF7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. 24-MCF treatment significantly decreased anchorage-independent growth and inhibited cell movement in comparison to control treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide. 24-MCF treatment reduced the levels of GTP-bound Rac1 and Cdc42. Evaluation of Akt1 inhibition by 24-MCF revealed that the half maximal effective concentration was 33.3 μM. Docking evaluations revealed that 24-MCF binds to the ATP-binding site of Akt1(PDB ID: 3OCB) and the compound binding energy is -8.870 kcal/mol. Taken together, our results indicate that 24-MCF treatment increases parvin-β expression, which may inhibit ILK downstream signaling. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 24-Methylenecycloartanyl ferulate, a major compound of γ-oryzanol, promotes parvin-beta expression through an interaction with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma 2 in human breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heon Woong; Lim, Eun Joung; Jang, Hwan Hee [Department of Agro-Food Resources, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Department Administration, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do 565-851 (Korea, Republic of); Cui, XueLei [Research Institute of Medical Science, KonKuk University, School of Medicine, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Da Rae [Department of Infection & Immunology, School of Medicine, KonKuk University 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung Hyen; Kim, Haeng Ran; Choe, Jeong Sook [Department of Agro-Food Resources, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Department Administration, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do 565-851 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Young Mok [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine and Institute of Biomedical Science and Technology, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Bong, E-mail: jungbkim@korea.kr [Department of Agro-Food Resources, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Department Administration, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do 565-851 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Hwan, E-mail: nihpark@yahoo.com [Research Institute of Medical Science, KonKuk University, School of Medicine, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-25

    Parvin-β is an adaptor protein that binds to integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and is significantly downregulated in breast tumors and breast cancer cell lines. We treated the breast cancer cell line MCF7 with 24-methylenecycloartanyl ferulate (24-MCF), a γ-oryzanol compound. We observed upregulation of parvin-β (GenBank Accession No. (AF237769)) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ2 (GenBank Accession No. (NM-015869)). Among γ-oryzanol compounds, only treatment with 24-MCF led to the formation of reverse transcription-PCR products of parvin-β (650 and 500 bp) and PPAR-γ2 (580 bp) in MCF7 cells, but not in T47D, SK-BR-3, or MDA-MB-231 cells. 24-MCF treatment increased the mRNA and protein levels of parvin-β in MCF7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. We hypothesized that there is a correlation between parvin-β expression and induction of PPAR-γ2. This hypothesis was investigated by using a promoter-reporter assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. 24-MCF treatment induced binding of PPAR-γ2 to a peroxisome proliferator response element-like cis-element (ACTAGGACAAAGGACA) in the parvin-β promoter in MCF7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. 24-MCF treatment significantly decreased anchorage-independent growth and inhibited cell movement in comparison to control treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide. 24-MCF treatment reduced the levels of GTP-bound Rac1 and Cdc42. Evaluation of Akt1 inhibition by 24-MCF revealed that the half maximal effective concentration was 33.3 μM. Docking evaluations revealed that 24-MCF binds to the ATP-binding site of Akt1(PDB ID: (3OCB)) and the compound binding energy is -8.870 kcal/mol. Taken together, our results indicate that 24-MCF treatment increases parvin-β expression, which may inhibit ILK downstream signaling. - Highlights: • Treatment with 24-MCF increases gene expression of parvin-β and PPAR-ϒ2 in MCF7 cells. • PPAR-ϒ2 interacts with the parvin-β gene via

  17. Beta particle measurement fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The necessary concepts for understanding beta particle behavior are stopping power, range, and scattering. Dose as a consequence of beta particle interaction with tissue can be derived and explained by these concepts. Any calculations of dose, however, assume or require detailed knowledge of the beta spectrum at the tissue depth of calculation. A rudimentary knowledge of the incident spectrum can be of use in estimating dose, interpretating dose measuring devices and designing protection. The stopping power and range based on the csda will give a conservative estimate in cases of protection design, as scattering will reduce the range. Estimates of dose may be low because scattering effects were neglected

  18. One-pot synthesis of 2H-pyrans by indium(III) chloride-catalyzed reactions. efficient synthesis of pyranocoumarins, pyranophenalenones, and pyranoquinolinones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Rok; Kim, Do Hoon; Shim, Jae Jin; Kim, Seog K.; Park, Jung Hag; Cha, Jin Soon; Lee, Chong Soon [Yeungnam Univ., Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-08-01

    An efficient synthesis of 2H-pyrans is achieved by indium (III) chloride-catalyzed reactions of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds with a variety of {alpha}.{beta}-unsaturated aldehydes in moderates yields. This method has been applied to the synthesis of pyranocoumarins, pyranophenaleneones, and pyranoquinolinone alkaloids.

  19. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-06

    Oct 6, 2012 ... Anyhow, the 'multi-isotope' ansatz is needed to compensate for matrix element ... The neccessary half-life requirement to touch this ... site energy depositions (like double beta decay) and multiple site interactions (most of.

  20. Beta-Carotene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease (COPD). It is also used to improve memory and muscle strength. Some people use beta-carotene ... to reduce the chance of death and night blindness during pregnancy, as well as diarrhea and fever ...

  1. Double beta decay: experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorini, Ettore

    2006-01-01

    The results obtained so far and those of the running experiments on neutrinoless double beta decay are reviewed. The plans for second generation experiments, the techniques to be adopted and the expected sensitivities are compared and discussed

  2. Selective inhibition of sheep kidney 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isoform 2 activity by 5 alpha-reduced (but not 5 beta) derivatives of adrenocorticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, S A; Sheff, M F; Ribeiro, C E; Morris, D J

    1997-02-01

    We have previously reported that 5 alpha and 5 beta pathways of steroid metabolism are controlled in vivo by dietary Na+ and glycyrrhetinic acid, see Gorsline et al. 1988; Latif et al. 1990. The present investigations provide evidence supporting the suggestion that endogenous substances may regulate the glucocorticoid inactivating isoenzymes, 11 beta-HSD (hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) 1 (liver) and 11 beta-HSD2 (kidney). The activity of 11 beta-HSD is impaired in essential hypertension, following licorice ingestion, and in patients with apparent mineralocorticoid excess where 11 beta-HSD2 is particularly affected. In all three conditions, excretion of the less common 5 alpha metabolites is elevated in urine. We now report on the differential abilities of a series of Ring A reduced (5 alpha and 5 beta) adrenocorticosteroid and progesterone metabolites to inhibit these isoenzymes. Using liver microsomes with NADP+ as co-factor (11 beta-HSD1), and sheep kidney microsomes with NAD+ as co-factor (11 beta-HSD2), we have systematically investigated the abilities of a number of adrenocorticosteroids and their derivatives to inhibit the individual isoforms of 11 beta-HSD. A striking feature is the differential sensitivity of the two isoenzymes to inhibition by 5 alpha and 5 beta derivatives. 11 beta-HSD1 is inhibited by both 5 alpha and certain 5 beta derivatives. 11 beta-HSD-2 was selectively inhibited only by 5 alpha derivatives: 5 beta derivatives were without inhibitory activity toward this isoform of 11 beta-HSD. These results indicate the importance of the structural conformation of the A and B Rings in conferring specific inhibitory properties on these compounds. In addition, we discuss the effects of additions or substitutions of other functional groups on the inhibitory potency of these steroid molecules against 11 beta-HSD1 and 11 beta-HSD2.

  3. {beta} - amyloid imaging probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Imaging distribution of {beta} - amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease is very important for early and accurate diagnosis. Early trial of the {beta} -amyloid plaques includes using radiolabeled peptides which can be only applied for peripheral {beta} - amyloid plaques due to limited penetration through the blood brain barrier (BBB). Congo red or Chrysamine G derivatives were labeled with Tc-99m for imaging {beta} - amyloid plaques of Alzheimer patient's brain without success due to problem with BBB penetration. Thioflavin T derivatives gave breakthrough for {beta} - amyloid imaging in vivo, and a benzothiazole derivative [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 brought a great success. Many other benzothiazole, benzoxazole, benzofuran, imidazopyridine, and styrylbenzene derivatives have been labeled with F-18 and I-123 to improve the imaging quality. However, [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 still remains as the best. However, short half-life of C-11 is a limitation of wide distribution of this agent. So, it is still required to develop an Tc-99m, F-18 or I-123 labeled agent for {beta} - amyloid imaging agent.

  4. Maesopsin 4-O-beta-D-glucoside, a natural compound isolated from the leaves of Artocarpus tonkinensis, inhibits proliferation and up-regulates HMOX1, SRXN1 and BCAS3 in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzesi, N; Pierangeli, S; Vacca, C; Falchi, L; Pettorossi, V; Martelli, M P; Thuy, T T; Ninh, P T; Liberati, A M; Riccardi, C; Sung, T V; Delfino, D V

    2011-06-01

    The leaves of Artocarpus tonkinensis are used in Vietnamese traditional medicine for treatment of arthritis, and the compound maesopsin 4-O-β-D-glucoside (TAT-2), isolated from them, inhibits the proliferation of activated T cells. Our goal was to test the anti-proliferative activity of TAT-2 on the T-cell leukemia, Jurkat, and on the acute myeloid leukemia, OCI-AML. TAT-2 inhibited the growth of OCI-AML (and additional acute myeloid leukemia cells) but not Jurkat cells. Growth inhibition was shown to be due to inhibition of proliferation rather than increase in cell death. Analysis of cytokine release showed that TAT-2 stimulated the release of TGF-β, yet TGF-β neutralization did not reverse the maesopsin-dependent effect. Gene expression profiling determined that maesopsin modulated 19 identifiable genes. Transcription factor CP2 was the gene most significantly modulated. Real-time PCR validated that up-regulation of sulphiredoxin 1 homolog (SRXN1), hemeoxygenase 1 (HMOX1), and breast carcinoma amplified sequence 3 (BCAS3) were consistently modulated.

  5. Adverse CNS-effects of beta-adrenoceptor blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiter, C H; Deckert, J

    1996-11-01

    In 1962 propranolol, the first beta adrenoceptor antagonist (beta blocker), was brought on to the market. There is now a host of different beta blockers available, and these compounds are among the most commonly prescribed groups of drugs. The efficacy of beta blockers has been proven predominantly for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Beta blockers are also used for certain types of CNS disorders, such as anxiety disorders, essential tremor and migraine. While low toxicity means that they have a favorable risk-benefit ratio, given the high intensity of use, it is essential to have a comprehensive knowledge of adverse events. Adverse events of beta blockers that can be related to the CNS are quite often neglected, even in textbooks of clinical pharmacology or review articles, and thus often misdiagnosed. The following article, therefore, after summarizing the use of beta blockers for CNS indications, critically reviews the literature on centrally mediated adverse events. General pharmacological features of beta blockers and their molecular basis of action will briefly be addressed to the extent that they are or may become relevant for central nervous pharmacotherapy and side-effects.

  6. Boosted beta regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schmid

    Full Text Available Regression analysis with a bounded outcome is a common problem in applied statistics. Typical examples include regression models for percentage outcomes and the analysis of ratings that are measured on a bounded scale. In this paper, we consider beta regression, which is a generalization of logit models to situations where the response is continuous on the interval (0,1. Consequently, beta regression is a convenient tool for analyzing percentage responses. The classical approach to fit a beta regression model is to use maximum likelihood estimation with subsequent AIC-based variable selection. As an alternative to this established - yet unstable - approach, we propose a new estimation technique called boosted beta regression. With boosted beta regression estimation and variable selection can be carried out simultaneously in a highly efficient way. Additionally, both the mean and the variance of a percentage response can be modeled using flexible nonlinear covariate effects. As a consequence, the new method accounts for common problems such as overdispersion and non-binomial variance structures.

  7. Labelling of. beta. -endorphin (. beta. -END) and. beta. -lipotropin (. beta. -LPH) by /sup 125/I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deby-Dupont, G.; Joris, J.; Franchimont, P. (Universite de Liege (Belgique)); Reuter, A.M.; Vrindts-Gevaert, Y. (Institut des Radioelements, Fleurus (Belgique))

    1983-01-01

    5 ..mu..g of human ..beta..-endorphin were labelled with 2 mCi /sup 125/I by the chloramine T technique. After two gel filtrations on Sephadex G-15 and on Sephadex G-50 in phosphate buffer with EDTA, Trasylol and mercapto-ethanol, a pure tracer was obtained with a specific activity about 150 ..mu..Ci/..mu..g.Kept at + 4/sup 0/C, the tracer remained utilizable for 30 days without loss of immunoreactivity. The labelling with lactoperoxydase and the use of another gel filtration method (filtration on Aca 202) gave a /sup 125/I ..beta..-END tracer with the same immunoreactivity. The binding of this tracer to the antibody of an anti-..beta..-END antiserum diluted at 1/8000 was 32% with a non specific binding of 2%. 5 ..mu..g of human ..beta..-lipotropin were labelled with 0.5 mCi /sup 125/I by the lactoperoxydase method. After two gel filtrations on Sephadex G-25 and on Sephadex G-75 in phosphate buffer with EDTA, Trasylol and mercapto-ethanol, a pure tracer with a specific activity of 140 ..mu..Ci/..mu..g was obtained. It remained utilizable for 30 days when kept at + 4/sup 0/C. Gel filtration on Aca 202 did not give good purification, while gel filtration on Aca 54 was good but slower than on Sephadex G-75. The binding to antibody in absence of unlabelled ..beta..-LPH was 32% for an anti-..beta..-LPH antiserum diluted at 1/4000. The non specific binding was 2.5%.

  8. Plasma beta HCG determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, L.B.D.; Pinto, J.C.M.; Linhares, E.; Linhares, Estevao

    1981-01-01

    There are three important indications for the early diagnosis of pregnancy through the determination of the beta sub-unit of chorionic gonadotrophin using radioimmunoassay: 1) some patient's or doctor's anxiety to discover the problem; 2) when it will be necessary to employ diagnostic or treatment procedures susceptible to affect the ovum; and 3) in the differential diagnosis of amenorrhoea, uterine hemorrhage and abdominal tumors. Other user's are the diagnosis of missed absortion, and the diagnosis and follow-up of chrorioncarcinoma. The AA. studied 200 determinations of plasma beta-HCG, considering the main difficulties occuring in the clinical use of this relevant laboratory tool in actual Obstetrics. (author) [pt

  9. Relation between the 2{nu}{beta}{beta} and 0{nu}{beta}{beta} nuclear matrix elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Petr [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Simkovic, Fedor [Department of Nuclear Physics and Biophysics, Comenius University, Mlynska dolina F1, SK-84248 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2011-12-16

    A formal relation between the GT part of the nuclear matrix elements M{sub GT}{sup 0{nu}} of 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay and the closure matrix elements M{sub cl}{sup 2{nu}} of 2{nu}{beta}{beta} decay is established. This relation is based on the integral representation of these quantities in terms of their dependence on the distance r between the two nucleons undergoing transformation. We also discuss the difficulties in determining the correct values of the closure 2{nu}{beta}{beta} decay matrix elements.

  10. Novel {beta}-Carboline Alkaloid from Peganum Harmala As Antibacterial Agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel Aziz, H G; Abdel Kader, S M; El-Sayed, M M; EL-Malt, E A; Shaker, E S [Chem. Dept., Fac. Agric., Minia Univ., Minia (Egypt)

    2011-07-01

    A novel {beta}-carboline alkaloid isolated from the aerial parts of Peganum harmala L. (Gen: Phyeophylaceae) have been characterized as l-thioformyl-8-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside-bis-2,3-dihydro-isopyridinopyrrol. It is one of {beta}-carboline alkaloids derivatives. The chemical structure was elucidated on the basis of elementary analysis and spectroscopic studies (UV, IR, {sup 1}H-NMR and MS). The isolated compound showed significant antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pyogenus.

  11. Organolanthanoid compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, H.

    1984-01-01

    Up to little more than a decade ago organolanthanoid compounds were still a curiosity. Apart from the description of an isolated number of cyclopentadienyl and indenyl derivatives, very few significant contributions had been made to this interesting sector of organometallic chemistry. However, subsequent systematic studies using modern preparative and analytical techniques, together with X-ray single crystal structure determinations, enabled the isolation and characterization of a large number of very interesting homoleptic and heteroleptic compounds in which the lanthanoid is bound to hydrogen, to substituted or unsubstituted cyclopentadienyl groups, to allyl or alkynyl groups, or even to phosphorus ylides, trimethylsilyl, and carbonylmetal groups. These compounds, which are all extremely sensitive to oxygen and water, open up new possibilities in the field of catalysis and have great potential in organic synthesis - as recent studies with pentamethylcyclopentadienyl derivatives, organolanthanoid(II) compounds, and hexamethyllanthanoid complexes have already shown. (orig.) [de

  12. [Prevalence survey and molecular characterization of alpha and beta thalassemia in Liuzhou city of Guangxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ren; Li, Liyan; Liang, Xin; Liu, Zhongying; Su, Liu; Li, Wenjun; Zhu, Qiangui; Mo, Qiuhua; Pan, Lizhen; Ouyang, Hong; Huang, Lihua; Xu, Xiangmin

    2002-08-01

    To investigate the gene frequencies and mutation patterns of alpha thalassemia (alpha-thal) and beta thalassemia (beta-thal) in Liuzhou city of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Cluster sampling was used. A total of 1 028 of umbilical blood samples were collected for a prevalence study of alpha-thal and a total of 1 312 healthy young people when receiving pre-marriage consultation were recruited for a beta-thal prevalence survey. Individuals live in city or town area of Liuzhou. A complete blood count as well as hemoglobin electrophoresis analysis were done in all of samples for phenotyping of alpha and beta-thals. Those with Hb Bart's for alpha-thal indicator and those with both microcytosis (MCV /=4.0%) for beta-thal were further studied by DNA analysis. PCR-based methodologies were used to characterize the mutation contributions of alpha and beta-thals. All the subjects were tested for the state of carrying beta-thala alleles for evaluating the situation of the compound heterozygotes of alpha-thal with beta-thal. Of 1 028 random samples of umbilical blood screened, 112 of subjects were defined to be the gene carriers of alpha-thal. The alpha-thal carrier rate was as high as 11.19% including 3 compound heterozygotes. Five well-known types of alpha-thal alleles were detected with gene contributions of 37.4% (--(SEA) deletion), 31.3% (-alpha(3.7) deletion), 17.4% (-alpha(4.2) deletion), 12.1% (alpha(CS)alpha mutation), and 0.9% (alpha(QS)alpha mutation), successively. Of the 1 312 adult specimens studied, 89 with beta-thal including 14 of the compound higher Hb F subjects were detected. All of the 89 phenotypic beta-thal carriers had the mutations in the beta-globin gene, making the overall prevalence 6.78%. The commonly seen three mutations, beta CD41 - 42 (-CTTT) frameshift, beta CD17 (T-A) nonsense mutation and beta-28 (A-G) promoter variation were accounted for 90% of the beta-thal alleles in Liuzhou. Of these beta-thal subjects, 16 (accounting for 18%) were

  13. (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin binding in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houghten, R.A.; Johnson, N.; Pasternak, G.W.

    1984-10-01

    The binding of (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin to rat brain homogenates is complex. Although Scatchard analysis of saturation studies yields a straight line, detailed competition studies are multiphasic, suggesting that even at low concentrations of the compound, the /sup 3/H-ligand is binding to more than one class of site. A portion of (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin binding is sensitive to low concentrations of morphine or D-Ala2-Leu5-enkephalin (less than 5 nM). The inhibition observed with each compound alone (5 nM) is the same as that seen with both together (each at 5 nM). Thus, the binding remaining in the presence of both morphine and the enkephalin does not correspond to either mu or delta sites. The portion of (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin binding that is inhibited under these conditions appears to be equally sensitive to both morphine and the enkephalin and may correspond to mu1 sites. Treating membrane homogenates with naloxonazine, a mu1 selective antagonist, lowers (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin binding to the same degree as morphine and D-Ala2-Leu5-enkephalin alone or together. This possible binding of (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin to mu1 sites is consistent with the role of mu1 sites in beta-endorphin analgesia and catalepsy in vivo.

  14. [3H]-beta-endorphin binding in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghten, R.A.; Johnson, N.; Pasternak, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    The binding of [ 3 H]-beta-endorphin to rat brain homogenates is complex. Although Scatchard analysis of saturation studies yields a straight line, detailed competition studies are multiphasic, suggesting that even at low concentrations of the compound, the 3 H-ligand is binding to more than one class of site. A portion of [ 3 H]-beta-endorphin binding is sensitive to low concentrations of morphine or D-Ala2-Leu5-enkephalin (less than 5 nM). The inhibition observed with each compound alone (5 nM) is the same as that seen with both together (each at 5 nM). Thus, the binding remaining in the presence of both morphine and the enkephalin does not correspond to either mu or delta sites. The portion of [ 3 H]-beta-endorphin binding that is inhibited under these conditions appears to be equally sensitive to both morphine and the enkephalin and may correspond to mu1 sites. Treating membrane homogenates with naloxonazine, a mu1 selective antagonist, lowers [ 3 H]-beta-endorphin binding to the same degree as morphine and D-Ala2-Leu5-enkephalin alone or together. This possible binding of [ 3 H]-beta-endorphin to mu1 sites is consistent with the role of mu1 sites in beta-endorphin analgesia and catalepsy in vivo

  15. Induced nuclear beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    Certain nuclear beta decay transitions normally inhibited by angular momentum or parity considerations can be induced to occur by the application of an electromagnetic field. Such decays can be useful in the controlled production of power, and in fission waste disposal

  16. Trichoderma .beta.-glucosidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2006-01-03

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl3, and the corresponding BGL3 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL3, recombinant BGL3 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  17. Applied Beta Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of beta and/or nonpenetrating exposure results is complicated and past techniques and capabilities have resulted in significant inaccuracies in recorded results. Current developments have resulted in increased capabilities which make the results more accurate and should result in less total exposure to the work force. Continued development of works in progress should provide equivalent future improvements

  18. Beta thalassemia - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Jha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia is a globin gene disorder that results in a diminished rate of synthesis of one or more of the globin chains. About 1.5% of the global population (80 to 90 million people are carriers of beta Thalassemia. More than 200 mutations are described in beta thalassemia. However not all mutations are common in different ethnic groups. The only effective way to reduce burden of thalassemia is to prevent birth of homozygotes. Diagnosis of beta thalassemia can be done by fetal DNA analysis for molecular defects of beta thalassemia or by fetal blood analysis. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only available curative approach for Thalassemia. Many patients with thalassemia in underdeveloped nations die in childhood or adolescence. Programs that provide acceptable care, including transfusion of safe blood and supportive therapy including chelation must be established.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v4i8.11609 Journal of Pathology of Nepal; Vol.4,No. 8 (2014 663-671

  19. Double Beta Decay Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepke, A.

    2005-01-01

    The experimental observation of neutrino oscillations and thus neutrino mass and mixing gives a first hint at new particle physics. The absolute values of the neutrino mass and the properties of neutrinos under CP-conjugation remain unknown. The experimental investigation of the nuclear double beta decay is one of the key techniques for solving these open problems

  20. Beta cell adaptation in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with a compensatory increase in beta cell mass. It is well established that somatolactogenic hormones contribute to the expansion both indirectly by their insulin antagonistic effects and directly by their mitogenic effects on the beta cells via receptors for prolactin...... and growth hormone expressed in rodent beta cells. However, the beta cell expansion in human pregnancy seems to occur by neogenesis of beta cells from putative progenitor cells rather than by proliferation of existing beta cells. Claes Hellerström has pioneered the research on beta cell growth for decades...... in the expansion of the beta cell mass in human pregnancy, and the relative roles of endocrine factors and nutrients....

  1. Misleading Betas: An Educational Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, James; Halcoussis, Dennis; Phillips, G. Michael

    2012-01-01

    The dual-beta model is a generalization of the CAPM model. In the dual-beta model, separate beta estimates are provided for up-market and down-market days. This paper uses the historical "Anscombe quartet" results which illustrated how very different datasets can produce the same regression coefficients to motivate a discussion of the…

  2. Synthesis of molecular imprinted beta cyclodextrins oligomers in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Donghong; Nielsen, Anne Louise; Bach, Lone

    2003-01-01

    compounds in aqueous solution and, therefore, molecular imprinting of cyclodextrins polymers in aqueous solution is of great interest. In this paper, molecular imprinting of beta cyclodextrins has been performed in water by use of diiodobenzene as template and epichlorohydrin as a crosslinker. Inclusion...

  3. HPLC Analysis of [Alpha]- and [Beta]-Acids in Hops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danenhower, Travis M.; Force, Leyna J.; Petersen, Kenneth J.; Betts, Thomas A.; Baker, Gary A.

    2008-01-01

    Hops have been used for centuries to impart aroma and bitterness to beer. The cones of the female hop plant contain both essential oils, which include many of the fragrant components of hops, and a collection of compounds known as [alpha]- and [beta]-acids that are the precursors to bittering agents. In order for brewers to predict the ultimate…

  4. Interaction with beta-arrestin determines the difference in internalization behavor between beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, T; Kawasaki, A; Nagao, T; Kurose, H

    2000-09-15

    The beta(1)-adrenergic receptor (beta(1)AR) shows the resistance to agonist-induced internalization. As beta-arrestin is important for internalization, we examine the interaction of beta-arrestin with beta(1)AR with three different methods: intracellular trafficking of beta-arrestin, binding of in vitro translated beta-arrestin to intracellular domains of beta(1)- and beta(2)ARs, and inhibition of betaAR-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activities by beta-arrestin. The green fluorescent protein-tagged beta-arrestin 2 translocates to and stays at the plasma membrane by beta(2)AR stimulation. Although green fluorescent protein-tagged beta-arrestin 2 also translocates to the plasma membrane, it returns to the cytoplasm 10-30 min after beta(1)AR stimulation. The binding of in vitro translated beta-arrestin 1 and beta-arrestin 2 to the third intracellular loop and the carboxyl tail of beta(1)AR is lower than that of beta(2)AR. The fusion protein of beta-arrestin 1 with glutathione S-transferase inhibits the beta(1)- and beta(2)AR-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activities, although inhibition of the beta(1)AR-stimulated activity requires a higher concentration of the fusion protein than that of the beta(2)AR-stimulated activity. These results suggest that weak interaction of beta(1)AR with beta-arrestins explains the resistance to agonist-induced internalization. This is further supported by the finding that beta-arrestin can induce internalization of beta(1)AR when beta-arrestin 1 does not dissociate from beta(1)AR by fusing to the carboxyl tail of beta(1)AR.

  5. Multipurpose Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  6. Low-beta investment strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Korn, Olaf; Kuntz, Laura-Chloé

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates investment strategies that exploit the low-beta anomaly. Although the notion of buying low-beta stocks and selling high-beta stocks is natural, a choice is necessary with respect to the relative weighting of high-beta stocks and low-beta stocks in the investment portfolio. Our empirical results for US large-cap stocks show that this choice is very important for the risk-return characteristics of the resulting portfolios and their sensitivities to common risk factors. W...

  7. Neutrophil beta-2 microglobulin: an inflammatory mediator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, O W; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Borregaard, N

    1990-01-01

    Beta-2 microglobulin (beta 2m) constitutes the light invariant chain of HLA class I antigen, and is a constituent of mobilizable compartments of neutrophils. Two forms of beta 2m exist: native beta 2m and proteolytically modified beta 2m (Des-Lys58-beta 2m), which shows alpha mobility in crossed ...

  8. Beta and muon decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo, A.; Pascual, P.

    1967-01-01

    These notes represent a series of lectures delivered by the authors in the Junta de Energia Nuclear, during the Spring term of 1965. They were devoted to graduate students interested in the Theory of Elementary Particles. Special emphasis was focussed into the computational problems. Chapter I is a review of basic principles (Dirac equation, transition probabilities, final state interactions.) which will be needed later. In Chapter II the four-fermion punctual Interaction is discussed, Chapter III is devoted to the study of beta-decay; the main emphasis is given to the deduction of the formulae corresponding to electron-antineutrino correlation, electron energy spectrum, lifetimes, asymmetry of electrons emitted from polarized nuclei, electron and neutrino polarization and time reversal invariance in beta decay. In Chapter IV we deal with the decay of polarized muons with radiative corrections. Chapter V is devoted to an introduction to C.V.C. theory. (Author)

  9. Beta-thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Origa Raffaella

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands, dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes, gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely

  10. Beta and Gamma Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Gaffney, C. F.; Clark, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and/or theoretical estimates are presented concerning, (i) attenuation within the sample of beta and gamma radiation from the soil, (ii) the gamma dose within the sample due to its own radioactivity, and (iii) the soil gamma dose in the proximity of boundaries between regions...... of differing radioactivity. It is confirmed that removal of the outer 2 mm of sample is adequate to remove influence from soil beta dose and estimates are made of the error introduced by non-removal. Other evaluations include variation of the soil gamma dose near the ground surface and it appears...... that the present practice of avoiding samples above a depth of 0.3 m may be over-cautious...

  11. Beta and muon decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, A; Pascual, P

    1967-07-01

    These notes represent a series of lectures delivered by the authors in the Junta de Energia Nuclear, during the Spring term of 1965. They were devoted to graduate students interested in the Theory of Elementary Particles. Special emphasis was focussed into the computational problems. Chapter I is a review of basic principles (Dirac equation, transition probabilities, final state interactions.) which will be needed later. In Chapter II the four-fermion punctual Interaction is discussed, Chapter III is devoted to the study of beta-decay; the main emphasis is given to the deduction of the formulae corresponding to electron-antineutrino correlation, electron energy spectrum, lifetimes, asymmetry of electrons emitted from polarized nuclei, electron and neutrino polarization and time reversal invariance in beta decay. In Chapter IV we deal with the decay of polarized muons with radiative corrections. Chapter V is devoted to an introduction to C.V.C. theory. (Author)

  12. Regulation of beta cell replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Ying C; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2008-01-01

    Beta cell mass, at any given time, is governed by cell differentiation, neogenesis, increased or decreased cell size (cell hypertrophy or atrophy), cell death (apoptosis), and beta cell proliferation. Nutrients, hormones and growth factors coupled with their signalling intermediates have been...... suggested to play a role in beta cell mass regulation. In addition, genetic mouse model studies have indicated that cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases that determine cell cycle progression are involved in beta cell replication, and more recently, menin in association with cyclin-dependent kinase...... inhibitors has been demonstrated to be important in beta cell growth. In this review, we consider and highlight some aspects of cell cycle regulation in relation to beta cell replication. The role of cell cycle regulation in beta cell replication is mostly from studies in rodent models, but whether...

  13. High beta experiments in CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Nishimura, K.

    1994-09-01

    High beta experiments were performed in the low-aspect-ratio helical device CHS with the volume-averaged equilibrium beta up to 2.1 %. These values (highest for helical systems) are obtained for high density plasmas in low magnetic field heated with two tangential neutral beams. Confinement improvement given by means of turning off gas puffing helped significantly to make high betas. Magnetic fluctuations increased with increasing beta, but finally stopped to increase in the beta range > 1 %. The coherent modes appearing in the magnetic hill region showed strong dependence on the beta values. The dynamic poloidal field control was applied to suppress the outward plasma movement with the plasma pressure. Such an operation gave fixed boundary operations of high beta plasmas in helical systems. (author)

  14. Beta rays and neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.F.

    1992-01-01

    It was over 30 years between the first observation of the enigmatic process of beta decay and the first postulation of the neutrino. It took a further 26 years until the first neutrino was detected and yet another 27 until the electroweak theory was confirmed by the discovery of W and Z particles. This article traces some of the puzzles and paradoxes associated with the history of the neutrino. (author)

  15. Coroutine Sequencing in BETA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    In object-oriented programming, a program execution is viewed as a physical model of some real or imaginary part of the world. A language supporting object-oriented programming must therefore contain comprehensive facilities for modeling phenomena and concepts form the application domain. Many...... applications in the real world consist of objects carrying out sequential processes. Coroutines may be used for modeling objects that alternate between a number of sequential processes. The authors describe coroutines in BETA...

  16. COM Support in BETA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1999-01-01

    Component technologies based on binary units of independent production are some of the most important contributions to software architecture and reuse during recent years. Especially the COM technologies and the CORBA standard from the Object Management Group have contributed new and interesting...... principles for software architecture, and proven to be useful in parctice. In this paper ongoing work with component support in the BETA language is described....

  17. Polymer compound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1995-01-01

    A Polymer compound comprising a polymer (a) that contains cyclic imidesgroups and a polymer (b) that contains monomer groups with a 2,4-diamino-1,3,5-triazine side group. According to the formula (see formula) whereby themole percentage ratio of the cyclic imides groups in the polymer compoundwith

  18. Mesoionic Compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Organic Chemistry. Kamatak University,. Dharwad. Her research interests are synthesis, reactions and synthetic utility of sydnones. She is currently working on electrochemical and insecticidal/antifungal activities for some of these compounds. Keywords. Aromaticity, mesoionic hetero- cycles, sydnones, tandem re- actions.

  19. LHCb: $2\\beta_s$ measurement at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Conti, G

    2009-01-01

    A measurement of $2\\beta_s$, the phase of the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ oscillation amplitude with respect to that of the ${\\rm b} \\rightarrow {\\rm c^{+}}{\\rm W^{-}}$ tree decay amplitude, is one of the key goals of the LHCb experiment with first data. In the Standard Model (SM), $2\\beta_s$ is predicted to be $0.0360^{+0.0020}_{-0.0016} \\rm rad$. The current constraints from the Tevatron are: $2\\beta_{s}\\in[0.32 ; 2.82]$ at 68$\\%$CL from the CDF experiment and $2\\beta_{s}=0.57^{+0.24}_{-0.30}$ from the D$\\oslash$ experiment. Although the statistical uncertainties are large, these results hint at the possible contribution of New Physics in the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ box diagram. After one year of data taking at LHCb at an average luminosity of $\\mathcal{L}\\sim2\\cdot10^{32}\\rm cm^{-2} \\rm s^{-1}$ (integrated luminosity $\\mathcal{L}_{\\rm int}\\sim 2 \\rm fb^{-1}$), the expected statistical uncertainty on the measurement is $\\sigma(2\\beta_s)\\simeq 0.03$. This uncertainty is similar to the $2\\beta_s$ value predicted by the SM.

  20. Non-phenolic antioxidant compounds from Buddleja asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Sayed, Mortada M; Abdel-Hameed, El-Sayed S; Ahmed, Wafaa S; el-Wakil, Eman A

    2008-01-01

    The methanol extract of the leaves of Buddleja asiatica Lour. (Loganiaceae) showed antioxidant activity toward the well known in vitro antioxidant tests such as total antioxidant capacity by the phosphomolybdenum method, free radical scavenging activity by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay (DPPH assay) and hydrogen peroxide scavenging methods. Due to the high scavenging activity of the n-butanol successive fraction toward DPPH and H2O2 (SC50 = 11.99 and 18.54 microg/ml, respectively), this extract was subjected to chromatographic separation and isolation. Four non-phenolic compounds were isolated and identified on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical analyses: 1-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-2-methoxy-3-(2-hydroxy-triaconta-3,12-dienoate)-glycerol (1), 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-beta-D-fucopyranosyl-olean-11,13(18)-diene-3 beta,23,28-triol (2), 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta-D-fucopyranosyl-olean-11,13(18)-diene-3,23,28-triol (3), and 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-acid-olean-11,13(18)-diene-3 beta,23,28-triol (4). The four compounds were evaluated as antioxidant agents using the three antioxidant bioassay tests.

  1. Enantioselective synthesis of alpha,beta-disubstituted-beta-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, Mukund P; Prabagaran, Narayanasamy; Ghorpade, Sandeep G; Jasperse, Craig P

    2003-10-01

    Highly diastereoselective and enantioselective addition of N-benzylhydroxylamine to imides 17 and 20-30 produces alpha,beta-trans-disubstituted N-benzylisoxazolidinones 19 and 31-41. These reactions proceed in 60-96% ee with 93-99% de's using 5 mol % of Mg(NTf2)2 and ligand 18. The product isoxazolidinones can be hydrogenolyzed directly to provide alpha,beta-disubstituted-beta-amino acids.

  2. Generation of shock/discontinuity compound structures through magnetic reconnection in the geomagnetic tail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, C. J. [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Institute of Space Science, National Central University, Jungli 320, Taiwan (China); Lin, C. C. [Chemical Systems Research Division, Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology, Longtan 325, Taiwan (China); Lee, L. C. [Institute of Earth Science, Academia Sinica, Nankang 115, Taiwan (China); Institute of Space Science, National Central University, Jungli 320, Taiwan (China); Chao, J. K. [Institute of Space Science, National Central University, Jungli 320, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-15

    We use 1-D hybrid code to simulate the generation and evolution of MHD discontinuities associated with magnetic reconnection in a current sheet. It is found that the leakage of slow shock (SS) downstream particles to upstream region tends to increase the ion parallel temperature and temperature anisotropy with {beta}{sub i||}/{beta}{sub i Up-Tack } Much-Greater-Than 1, where {beta}{sub i||}({beta}{sub i Up-Tack }) is the ion parallel (perpendicular) beta. As a result, the propagation speed of rotational discontinuity (RD) is highly reduced and RD becomes attached to SS, leading to formation of various compound structures in the reconnection outflow region. Four types of compound structure are found in our simulations: (a) RD-SS compound structure: the RD is attached to the leading part of SS, (b) SS-RD (DD) compound structure: RD is attached to the rear part of SS, (c) SS-RD-SS compound structure: RD is trapped inside SS, and (d) switch-off slow shock (SSS) with a rotational wave train. The type of compound structure generated depends on initial ion beta {beta}{sub i0} and magnetic shear angle {phi}. RD tends to move in front of SS to form an RD-SS compound structure for cases with low {beta}{sub i0}. RD stays behind SS and form an SS-RD (DD) compound structure for large {beta}{sub i0}. The SS-RD-SS compound structure is formed for intermediate values of {beta}{sub i0}. When the shear angle is 180 Degree-Sign , SSS with a wave train is formed.

  3. Compound odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas have been extensively reported in the dental literature, and the term refers to tumors of odontogenic origin. Though the exact etiology is still unknown, the postulated causes include: local trauma, infection, inheritance and genetic mutation. The majority of the lesions are asymptomatic; however, may be accompanied with pain and swelling as secondary complaints in some cases. Here, we report a case of a compound odontome in a 14 year old patient.

  4. Infundibular neurons of the human hypothalamus simultaneously reactive with antisera against endorphins, ACTH, MSH and beta-LPH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugnon, C; Bloch, B; Lenys, D; Fellmann, D

    1979-06-27

    In man, discrete neurons of the infundibular (arcuate) nucleus contain compounds that can be stained with anti-endorphin (alpha and beta), anti-ACTH, anti-MSH (alpha and beta) and anti-beta-LPH immune sera (I.S.). In the fetus, certain neurons stain with anti-beta-endorphin or anti((17--39)ACTH starting from the 11th week of fetal life. At the ultrastructural level, these neurons contain elementary granules that are immunoreactive with anti-beta-endorphin. In the adult, neurons immunoreactive with anti-beta-endorphin are found in the infundibular nucleus. Their axonal fibers terminate around blood vessels in the neurovascular zone and in the pituitary stalk, or establish contacts with non-immunoreactive perikarya of the infundibular nucleus. These neurons can be stained with anti(17--39)ACTH and anti-beta-endorphin I.S. The most reactive are also stained moderately with anti-alpha-MSH, anti-beta-MSH, anti-beta-LPH, anti-alpha-endorphin, or anti(1--24)ACTH I.S. These results indicate that, in man, compound(s) identical with or immunologically related to endorphins, beta-LPH, ACTH and MSH are secreted by certain hypothalamic neurons. These agents probably originate from a common precursor molecula similar to the so-called pro-opiocortin.

  5. Beta measurement evaluation and upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Rathbun, L.A.; Roberson, P.L.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1986-01-01

    This program focuses on the resolution of problems associated with the field measurement of the beta dose component at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The change in DOE programs, including increased efforts in improved waste management and decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of facilities, coupled with beta measurement problems identified at Three Mile Island has increased the need to improve beta measurements. In FY 1982, work was initiated to provide a continuing effort to identify problems associated with beta dose assessment at DOE facilities. The problems identified resulted in the development of this program. The investigation includes (1) an assessment of measurement systems now in use, (2) development of improved calibration systems and procedures, (3) application of innovative beta dosimetry concepts, (4) investigation of new instruments or concepts for monitoring and spectroscopy, and (5) development of recommendations to assure an adequate beta measurement program within DOE facilities

  6. Conditional Betas and Investor Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando D. Chague

    2013-01-01

    We derive theoretical expressions for market betas from a rational expectation equilibrium model where the representative investor does not observe if the economy is in a recession or an expansion. Market betas in this economy are time-varying and related to investor uncertainty about the state of the economy. The dynamics of betas will also vary across assets according to the assets' cash-flow structure. In a calibration exercise, we show that value and growth firms have cash-flow structures...

  7. Valence ionized states of iron pentacarbonyl and eta5-cyclopentadienyl cobalt dicarbonyl studied by symmetry-adapted cluster-configuration interaction calculation and collision-energy resolved Penning ionization electron spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Ryoichi; Ehara, Masahiro; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi; Kishimoto, Naoki; Ohno, Koichi

    2010-02-28

    Valence ionized states of iron pentacarbonyl Fe(CO)(5) and eta(5)-cyclopentadienyl cobalt dicarbonyl Co(eta(5)-C(5)H(5))(CO)(2) have been studied by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, two-dimensional Penning ionization electron spectroscopy (2D-PIES), and symmetry-adapted cluster-configuration interaction calculations. Theory provided reliable assignments for the complex ionization spectra of these molecules, which have metal-carbonyl bonds. Theoretical ionization energies agreed well with experimental observations and the calculated wave functions could explain the relative intensities of PIES spectra. The collision-energy dependence of partial ionization cross sections (CEDPICS) was obtained by 2D-PIES. To interpret these CEDPICS, the interaction potentials between the molecules and a Li atom were examined in several coordinates by calculations. The relation between the slope of the CEDPICS and the electronic structure of the ionized states, such as molecular symmetry and the spatial distribution of ionizing orbitals, was analyzed. In Fe(CO)(5), an attractive interaction was obtained for the equatorial CO, while the interaction for the axial CO direction was repulsive. For Co(eta(5)-C(5)H(5))(CO)(2), the interaction potential in the direction of both Co-C-O and Co-Cp ring was attractive. These anisotropic interactions and ionizing orbital distributions consistently explain the relative slopes of the CEDPICS.

  8. Dynamic returns of beta arbitrage

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Mafalda

    2017-01-01

    This thesis studies the patterns of the abnormal returns of the beta strategy. The topic can be helpful for professional investors, who intend to achieve a better performance in their portfolios. Following the methodology of Lou, Polk, & Huang (2016), the COBAR measure is computed in order to determine the levels of beta arbitrage in the market in each point in time. It is argued that beta arbitrage activity can have impact on the returns of the beta strategy. In fact, it is demonstrated that...

  9. Integration of BETA with Eclipse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Enevoldsen, Mads Brøgger

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents language interoperability issues appearing in order to implement support for the BETA language in the Java-based Eclipse integrated development environment. One of the challenges is to implement plug-ins in BETA and be able to load them in Eclipse. In order to do this, some fo...... it is possible to implement plug-ins in BETA and even inherit from Java classes. In the paper the two approaches are described together with part of the mapping from BETA to Java class files. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/15710661...

  10. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.

    2010-03-23

    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  11. Murrayafoline A attenuates the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway by promoting the degradation of intracellular {beta}-catenin proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyuk; Gwak, Jungsug; Cho, Munju; Ryu, Min-Jung [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jee-Hyun; Kim, Sang Kyum; Kim, Young Ho [College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gye Won [Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Konyang University, Nonsan 320-711 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Mi-Young [Department of Beauty Health Care, Daejeon University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Cuong, Nguyen Manh [Institute of Natural Products Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Shin, Jae-Gook [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Gyu-Yong, E-mail: gysong@cnu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sangtaek, E-mail: ohsa@inje.ac.kr [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-01

    Molecular lesions in Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling and subsequent up-regulation of {beta}-catenin response transcription (CRT) occur frequently during the development of colon cancer. To identify small molecules that suppress CRT, we screened natural compounds in a cell-based assay for detection of TOPFalsh reporter activity. Murrayafoline A, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from Glycosmis stenocarpa, antagonized CRT that was stimulated by Wnt3a-conditioned medium (Wnt3a-CM) or LiCl, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}), and promoted the degradation of intracellular {beta}-catenin without altering its N-terminal phosphorylation at the Ser33/37 residues, marking it for proteasomal degradation, or the expression of Siah-1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Murrayafoline A repressed the expression of cyclin D1 and c-myc, which is known {beta}-catenin/T cell factor (TCF)-dependent genes and thus inhibited the proliferation of various colon cancer cells. These findings indicate that murrayafoline A may be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for use in the treatment of colon cancer.

  12. Identification of active anti-inflammatory principles of beta- beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chromatography. Components of the extracts were identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC) scanner and UV-visible spectroscopy, using scopoletin as standard. Results: ... basic coumarin skeleton ring structure reduce ... Figure 2: Thin-layer chromatogram: (1) Ethanol extract; (2) Dichloromethane fraction; (3) Beta-beta.

  13. Improved limits on beta(-) and beta(-) decays of Ca-48

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakalyarov, A.; Balysh, A.; Barabash, AS.; Beneš, P.; Briancon, C.; Brudanin, V. B.; Čermák, P.; Egorov, V.; Hubert, F.; Hubert, P.; Korolev, NA.; Kosjakov, VN.; Kovalík, Alojz; Lebedev, NA.; Novgorodov, A. F.; Rukhadze, NI.; Štekl, NI.; Timkin, VV.; Veleshko, IE.; Vylov, T.; Umatov, VI.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 9 (2002), s. 545-547 ISSN 0021-3640 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : beta decay * double beta decay * Ca-48 Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.483, year: 2002

  14. Conversion of beta-methylbutyric acid to beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyric acid by Galactomyces reessii.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, I Y; Nissen, S L; Rosazza, J P

    1997-01-01

    beta-Hydroxy-beta-methylbutyric acid (HMB) has been shown to increase strength and lean mass gains in humans undergoing resistance-exercise training. HMB is currently marketed as a calcium salt of HMB, and thus, environmentally sound and inexpensive methods of manufacture are being sought. This study investigates the microbial conversion of beta-methylbutyric acid (MBA) to HMB by cultures of Galactomyces reessii. Optimal concentrations of MBA were in the range of 5 to 20 g/liter for HMB produ...

  15. Detection and identification of "new" beta-agonists in black-market preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ginkel LA; Stephany RW; van Rossum HJ; Visser T; den Engelsman T; de Jong APJM; Jacquemijns M; Zomer G

    1992-01-01

    In several "black-market" used for growth promotion preparations new compounds were found belonging to the group of N-phenylethanolamines with structures very similar to compounds known to be used for veal calf and cattle production, the so called beta-agonists. The two most important

  16. Magnesium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 52 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2006. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from sea-water by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from brucite by Applied Chemical Magnesias in Texas, from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas from their operations mentioned above. About 59 percent of the magnesium compounds consumed in the United States was used for refractories that are used mainly to line steelmaking furnaces. The remaining 41 percent was consumed in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental and industrial applications.

  17. The best-beta CAPM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, L.

    2006-01-01

    The issue of 'best-beta' arises as soon as potential errors in the Sharpe-Lintner-Black capital asset pricing model (CAPM) are acknowledged. By incorporating a target variable into the investor preferences, this study derives a best-beta CAPM (BCAPM) that maintains the CAPM's theoretical appeal and

  18. Beta decay of Cu-56

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borcea, R; Aysto, J; Caurier, E; Dendooven, P; Doring, J; Gierlik, M; Gorska, M; Grawe, H; Hellstrom, M; Janas, Z; Jokinen, A; Karny, M; Kirchner, R; La Commara, M; Langanke, K; Martinez-Pinedo, G; Mayet, P; Nieminen, A; Nowacki, F; Penttila, H; Plochocki, A; Rejmund, M; Roeckl, E; Schlegel, C; Schmidt, K; Schwengner, R; Sawicka, M

    2001-01-01

    The proton-rich isotope Cu-56 was produced at the GSI On-Line Mass Separator by means of the Si-28(S-32, p3n) fusion-evaporation reaction. Its beta -decay properties were studied by detecting beta -delayed gamma rays and protons. A half-Life of 93 +/- 3 ms was determined for Cu-56. Compared to the

  19. BETA SPECTRA. I. Negatrons spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Malonda, A.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    1978-01-01

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 62 negatrons emitters have been computed introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. These spectra are plotted vs. energy, once normal i sed, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (Author)

  20. Review of the beta situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, J.

    1982-01-01

    This note lists some of the possible causes of beta limitation in tokamak and discusses what is known and what is involved in investigating them. The motivation for preparing this note is the observed degradation of confinement with increasing beta poloidal β/sub p/ and beam power P/sub b/ in ISX-B

  1. Compound odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcelo Vargas Pinto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas are the most common types of odontogenic tumors, as they are considered more as a developmental anomaly (hamartoma than as a true neoplasia. The aim of the present study is to describe a clinical case of compound odontoma, analyzing its most commonsigns, its region of location, the decade of life and patient’s gender, disorders that may occur as well as the treatment proposed. In order to attain this objective, the method was description of the present clinical case and bibliographic revision, arriving at the result that the treatment for this type of lesion invariably is surgical removal (enucleation and curettage and the prognosis is excellent. The surgical result was followed up in the post-operative period by radiographic exam, and it was possible to conclude that there was complete cicatrization and tissue repair.

  2. Magnesium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  3. RAVEN Beta Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabiti, Cristian; Alfonsi, Andrea; Cogliati, Joshua Joseph; Mandelli, Diego; Kinoshita, Robert Arthur; Wang, Congjian; Maljovec, Daniel Patrick; Talbot, Paul William

    2016-01-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  4. RAVEN Beta Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert Arthur [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Congjian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maljovec, Daniel Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Talbot, Paul William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  5. Interactions between two beta-sheets. Energetics of beta/beta packing in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, K C; Némethy, G; Rumsey, S; Tuttle, R W; Scheraga, H A

    1986-04-20

    The analysis of the interactions between regularly folded segments of the polypeptide chain contributes to an understanding of the energetics of protein folding. Conformational energy-minimization calculations have been carried out to determine the favorable ways of packing two right-twisted beta-sheets. The packing of two five-stranded beta-sheets was investigated, with the strands having the composition CH3CO-(L-Ile)6-NHCH3 in one beta-sheet and CH3CO-(L-Val)6-NHCH3 in the other. Two distinct classes of low-energy packing arrangements were found. In the class with lowest energies, the strands of the two beta-sheets are aligned nearly parallel (or antiparallel) with each other, with a preference for a negative orientation angle, because this arrangement corresponds to the best complementary packing of the two twisted saddle-shaped beta-sheets. In the second class, with higher interaction energies, the strands of the two beta-sheets are oriented nearly perpendicular to each other. While the surfaces of the two beta-sheets are not complementary in this arrangement, there is good packing between the corner of one beta-sheet and the interior part of the surface of the other, resulting in a favorable energy of packing. Both classes correspond to frequently observed orientations of beta-sheets in proteins. In proteins, the second class of packing is usually observed when the two beta-sheets are covalently linked, i.e. when a polypeptide strand passes from one beta-sheet to the other, but we have shown here that a large contribution to the stabilization of this packing arrangement arises from noncovalent interactions.

  6. Lysine-Derived Protein-Bound Heyns Compounds in Bakery Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treibmann, Stephanie; Hellwig, Anne; Hellwig, Michael; Henle, Thomas

    2017-12-06

    Fructose and dicarbonyl compounds resulting from fructose in heated foods have been linked to pathophysiological pathways of several metabolic disorders. Up to now, very little has been known about the Maillard reaction of fructose in food. Heyns rearrangement compounds (HRCs), the first stable intermediates of the Maillard reaction between amino components and fructose, have not yet been quantitated as protein-bound products in food. Therefore, the HRCs glucosyllysine and mannosyllysine were synthesized and characterized by NMR. Protein-bound HRCs in cookies containing various sugars and in commercial bakery products were quantitated after enzymatic hydrolysis by RP-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring mode through application of the standard addition method. Protein-bound HRCs were quantitated for the first time in model cookies and in commercial bakery products containing honey, banana, and invert sugar syrup. Concentrations of HRCs from 19 to 287 mg/kg were found, which were similar to or exceeded the content of other frequently analyzed Maillard reaction products, such as N-ε-carboxymethyllysine (10-76 mg/kg), N-ε-carboxyethyllysine (2.5-53 mg/kg), and methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone 1 (10-218 mg/kg) in the analyzed cookies. These results show that substantial amounts of HRCs form during food processing. Analysis of protein-bound HRCs in cookies is therefore useful to evaluate the Maillard reaction of fructose.

  7. Ruthenium(II) carbonyl compounds with the 4'-chloro-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatikonda, Rajendhraprasad; Haukka, Matti

    2017-04-01

    Two ruthenium carbonyl complexes with the 4'-chloro-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine ligand (tpy-Cl, C 15 H 10 ClN 3 ), i.e. [RuCl(tpy-Cl)(CO) 2 ][RuCl 3 (CO) 3 ] (I) [systematic name: cis -di-carbonyl-chlorido(4'-chloro-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine-κ 3 N )ruthenium(II) fac -tricarbonyltri-chlorido-ruthenate(II)], and [RuCl 2 (tpy-Cl)(CO) 2 ] (II) [ cis -dicarbonyl- trans -di-chlorido(4'-chloro-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine-κ 2 N 1 , N 1' )ruthenium(II)], were synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The Ru II atoms in both centrosymmetric structures (I) and (II) display similar, slightly distorted octa-hedral coordination spheres. The coordination sphere in the complex cation in compound (I) is defined by three N atoms of the tridentate tpy-Cl ligand, two carbonyl carbon atoms and one chlorido ligand; the charge is balanced by an octa-hedral [Ru(CO) 3 Cl 3 ] - counter-anion. In the neutral compound (II), the tpy-Cl ligand coordinates to the metal only through two of its N atoms. The coordination sphere of the Ru II atom is completed by two carbonyl and two chlorido ligands. In the crystal structures of both (I) and (II), weak C-H⋯Cl inter-actions are observed.

  8. Lack of isoprenoid products raises ex vivo interleukin-1beta secretion in hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and periodic fever syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenkel, Joost; Rijkers, Ger T.; Mandey, Saskia H. L.; Buurman, Sandra W. M.; Houten, Sander M.; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Waterham, Hans R.; Kuis, Wietse

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the increased interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) secretion in hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and periodic fever syndrome is due to the accumulation of mevalonate kinase (MK), the substrate of the deficient enzyme, or the lack of its products, the isoprenoid compounds. METHODS:

  9. Production of Xenon Compounds by the Beta Decay of Iodine in Iodine Compounds; Production de Composes du Xenon par Desintegration Beta de l'Iode dans les Composes Iodes; 041f 0420 041e 0418 0417 0412 041e 0414 0421 0422 0412 041e 0421 041e 0415 0414 0418 041d 0415 041d 0418 0419 041a 0421 0415 041d 041e 041d 0410 041f 041e 0421 0420 0415 0414 0421 0422 0412 041e 041c 0411 0415 0422 0410 - 0420 0410 0421 041f 0410 0414 0410 0419 041e 0414 0410 0412 0419 041e 0414 0418 0421 0422 042b 0425 0421 041e 0415 0414 0418 041d 0415 041d 0418 042f 0425 ; Produccion de Compuestos de Xenon por Desintegracion Beta del Yodo de Compuestos Yodados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlow, G. J.; Perlow, M. R. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1965-04-15

    It is known that most beta decays cause no change in the electron number of the atom containing the decaying nucleus. In the beta decay I{sup 129} -Xe{sup 129} in an iodine compound the electronic structure and geometry are often appropriate for formation of a xenon compound with the same ligands. This process has been discovered and studied by use of the Moessbauer effect in Xe{sup 129}. The first-excited state in Xe{sup 129} has J{sup {pi}} = 3+/2, T{sub Vulgar-Fraction-One-Half} = 10{sup -9} * s, and lies 40 keV above the Vulgar-Fraction-One-Half {sup +} ground state. It is populated by decay from 1,6 x 10{sup 6} y. I{sup 129}. The Moessbauer effect of the 40-keV gamma ray may readily be observed with a variety of sources and absorbers in experiments done at 4.2 Degree-Sign K. The electric quadrupole splitting of the excited state results in two absorption lines when the Doppler shift is used to scan the spectrum. The separation between lines characterizes the electronic configuration on the xenon and often unequivocally identifies the structure. In the first experiments a source of Nal{sup 129} was used with absorbers of hydroquinone clathrate, Na{sub 4}XeO{sub 6}, XeF{sub 4}, and XeF{sub 2}. Single-line spectra were observed for the clathrate and pexenate, and two-line spectra for the fluorides. The single line indicates that in the source I{sup -} -{yields} Xe{sup 0}, its iso-electronic daughter. When Na{sub 3}H{sub 2}IO{sub 6} was used as source, with clathrate absorber, the recoil-less fraction increased by a factor of 3, implying stronger bonding. KIO{sub 4} also gave a single but somewhat less intense line. With NalO{sub 3} as source and clathrate absorber, splitting was observed suggesting that IO{sub 3}{sup -} -{yields} XeO{sub 6}. This was verified by the observation of identical splitting in an XeO{sub 3} absorber used with KIO{sub 4} source. An experiment with KIC1{sub 4} * H{sub 2}O as source and clathrate absorber showed splitting somewhat smaller

  10. Dicarbonyl[2-hydroxy-3,5,7-tris(morpholinomethylcyclohepta-2,4,6-trienonato(1–-κ2O1,O2]rhodium(I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Steyl

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Rh(C22H32N3O5(CO2], the RhI atom is coordinated by two carbonyl ligands and two tropolonate O atoms in a distorted square-planar geometry. It is an example of a new type of tropolone derivative that has not been characterized via solid-state methods. Weak intramolecular C—H...N and intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds, and π–π stacking interactions between the tropolone rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.590 (8 Å] are observed in the crystal structure.

  11. Derivatives of the Incomplete Beta Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Boik

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The incomplete beta function is defined as where Beta(p, q is the beta function. Dutka (1981 gave a history of the development and numerical evaluation of this function. In this article, an algorithm for computing first and second derivatives of Ix,p,q with respect to p and q is described. The algorithm is useful, for example, when fitting parameters to a censored beta, truncated beta, or a truncated beta-binomial model.

  12. Development of beta reference radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Zhaoyong; Cai Shanyu; Li Yanbo; Yin Wei; Feng Jiamin; Sun Yuhua; Li Yongqiang

    1997-09-01

    A system of beta reference radiation has been developed, that is composed of 740 MBq 147 Pm beta source, 74 MBq and 740 MBq 90 Sr + 90 Y β sources, compensation filters, a source handling tool, a source jig, spacing bars, a shutter, a control unit and a beta dose meter calibration stand. For 740 MBq 147 Pm and 74 MBq 90 Sr + 90 Y beta reference radiations with compensation filters and 740 MBq 90 Sr + 90 Y beta reference radiation without compensation filter, at 20 cm, 30 cm and 30 cm distance separately; the residual energy of maximum is 0.14 MeV, 1.98 MeV and 2.18 MeV separately; the absorbed dose to tissue D (0.07) is 1.547 mGy/h (1996-05-20), 5.037 mGy/h (1996-05-10) and 93.57 mGy/h (1996-05-15) separately; the total uncertainty is 3.0%, 1.7% and 1.7% separately. For the first and the second beta reference radiation, the dose rate variability in the area of 18 cm diameter in the plane perpendicular to the beta-ray beam axis is within +-6% and +-3% separately. (3 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.)

  13. A semiconductor beta ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bom, V.R.

    1987-01-01

    Measurement of energy spectra of beta particles emitted from nuclei in beta-decay processes provides information concerning the mass difference of these nuclei between initial and final state. Moreover, experimental beta spectra yield information on the feeding of the levels in the daughter nucleus. Such data are valuable in the construction and checking of the level schemes. This thesis describes the design, construction, testing and usage of a detector for the accurate measurement of the mentioned spectra. In ch. 2 the design and construction of the beta spectrometer, which uses a hyper-pure germanium crystal for energy determination, is described. A simple wire chamber is used to discriminate beta particles from gamma radiation. Disadvantages arise from the large amounts of scattered beta particles deforming the continua. A method is described to minimize the scattering. In ch. 3 some theoretical aspects of data analysis are described and the results of Monte-Carlo simulations of the summation of annihilation radiation are compared with experiments. Ch. 4 comprises the results of the measurements of the beta decay energies of 103-108 In. 87 refs.; 34 figs.; 7 tabs

  14. BETA (Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Evan M.; Birmingham, William J.; Rivera, William F.; Romero-Talamas, Carlos A.

    2017-10-01

    The Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus (BETA) is a 1-Tesla (T) prototype of the 10-T Adjustable Long Pulse High-Field Apparatus (ALPHA). These water-cooled resistive magnets use high DC currents to produce strong uniform magnetic fields. Presented here is the successful completion of the BETA project and experimental results validating analytical magnet designing methods developed at the Dusty Plasma Laboratory (DPL). BETA's final design specifications will be highlighted which include electromagnetic, thermal and stress analyses. The magnet core design will be explained which include: Bitter Arcs, helix starters, and clamping annuli. The final version of the magnet's vessel and cooling system are also presented, as well as the electrical system of BETA, which is composed of a unique solid-state breaker circuit. Experimental results presented will show the operation of BETA at 1 T. The results are compared to both analytical design methods and finite element analysis calculations. We also explore the steady state maximums and theoretical limits of BETA's design. The completion of BETA validates the design and manufacturing techniques that will be used in the succeeding magnet, ALPHA.

  15. Photochemical fate of beta-blockers in NOM enriched waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ling; Xu, Haomin; Cooper, William J.; Song, Weihua

    2012-01-01

    Beta-blockers, prescribed for the treatment of high blood pressure and for long-term use after a heart attack, have been detected in surface and ground waters. This study examines the photochemical fate of three beta-blockers, atenolol, metoprolol, and nadolol. Hydrolysis accounted for minor losses of these beta-blockers in the pH range 4–10. The rate of direct photolysis at pH 7 in a solar simulator varied from 6.1 to 8.9 h −1 at pH 7. However, the addition of a natural organic matter (NOM) isolate enhanced the photochemical loss of all three compounds. Indirect photochemical fate, generally described by reactions with hydroxyl radical (·OH) and singlet oxygen ( 1 ΔO 2 ), and, the direct reaction with the triplet excited state, 3 NOM ⁎ , also varied but collectively appeared to be the major loss factor. Bimolecular reaction rate constants of the three beta-blockers with 1 ΔO 2 and ·OH were measured and accounted for 0.02–0.04% and 7.2–38.9% of their loss, respectively. These data suggest that the 3 NOM ⁎ contributed 50.6–85.4%. Experiments with various 3 NOM ⁎ quenchers supported the hypothesis that it was singly the most important reaction. Atenolol was chosen for more detailed investigation, with the photoproducts identified by LC–MS analysis. The results suggested that electron-transfer could be an important mechanism in photochemical fate of beta-blockers in the presence of NOM. - Highlights: ► Photochemical degradation of beta-blockers in the simulated natural waters. ► Reactive Oxygen Species play a minor role in the indirect photodegradation. ► The loss of beta-blockers results from direct reaction with 3 DOM ⁎ .

  16. Experiments on double beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busto, J [Neuchatel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique

    1996-11-01

    The Double Beta Decay, and especially ({beta}{beta}){sub 0{nu}} mode, is an excellent test of Standard Model as well as of neutrino physics. From experimental point of view, a very large number of different techniques are or have been used increasing the sensitivity of this experiments quite a lot (the factor of 10{sup 4} in the last 20 years). In future, in spite of several difficulties, the sensitivity would be increased further, keeping the interest of this very important process. (author) 4 figs., 5 tabs., 21 refs.

  17. Preventive Effects of Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methyl Butyrate

    OpenAIRE

    N. Ravanbakhsh; N. Torabi; M. Foadoddini

    2016-01-01

    Aims: One of the major factors in sudden cardiac arrest is the initiation and continuation of deadly arrhythmias during ischemia. It is known that beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) has useful effects such as anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis effects in the skeletal muscles. The aim of this study was to investigate the preventive effects of HMB on the ventricular arrhythmias due to the ischemia. Materials & Methods: In the experimental study, 30 Wistar male rats were randomly div...

  18. Dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources; Dosimetria de fuentes {beta} extensas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Lallena R, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    In this work, we have been studied, making use of the Penelope Monte Carlo simulation code, the dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources in situations of spherical geometry including interfaces. These configurations are of interest in the treatment of the called cranealfaringyomes of some synovia leisure of knee and other problems of interest in medical physics. Therefore, its application can be extended toward problems of another areas with similar geometric situation and beta sources. (Author)

  19. Two new compounds from Helichrysum arenarium (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Wei; Sun, Wu-Xing; Li, Xian; Zhao, Chun-Chao; Meng, Da-Li; Li, Ning

    2009-01-01

    Two new compounds were isolated from the whole plant of Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench. By means of spectroscopic data (IR, UV, 1D and 2D NMR, HR-MS, ESI-MS, and NOESY) and chemical evidence, the structures were established as 6,7-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acid (1) and (Z)-5-hydroxy-7-methoxy-4-[3-methyl-4-(O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)but-2-enyl]isobenzofuran-1(3H)-one (2).

  20. Sigma beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, D.E.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment to measure beta decays of the sigma particle. Sigmas produced by stopping a K - beam in a liquid hydrogen target decayed in the following reactions: Kp → Σπ; Σ → Neν. The electron and pion were detected by wire spark chambers in a magnetic spectrometer and by plastic scintillators, and were differentiated by a threshold gas Cherenkov counter. The neutron was detected by liquid scintillation counters. The data (n = 3) shell electrons or the highly excited electrons decay first. Instead, it is suggested that when there are two to five electrons in highly excited states immediately after a heavy ion--atom collision the first transitions to occur will be among highly excited Rydberg states in a cascade down to the 4s, 4p, and 3d-subshells. If one of the long lived states becomes occupied by electrons promoted during the collision or by electrons falling from higher levels, it will not decay until after the valence shell decays. LMM rates calculated to test the methods used are compared to previous works. The mixing coefficients are given in terms of the states 4s4p, 45sp+-, and 5s5p. The applicability of Cooper, Fano, and Prats' discussion of the energies and transition rates of doubly excited states is considered

  1. Double Beta Decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorini, Ettore

    2008-01-01

    The importance of neutrinoless Double Beta Decay (DBD) is stressed in view of the recent results of experiments on neutrino oscillations which indicate that the difference between the squared masses of two neutrinos of different flavours is finite [For a recent review including neutrino properties and recent results see: Review of Particle Physics, J. of Phys. G: Nuclear and Particle Physics 33, 1]. As a consequence the mass of at least one neutrino has to be different from zero and it becomes imperative to determine its absolute value. The various experimental techniques to search for DBD are discussed together with the difficult problems of the evaluation of the corresponding nuclear matrix elements. The upper limits on neutrino mass coming from the results of the various experiments are reported together with the indication for a non zero value by one of them not confirmed so far. The two presently running experiments on neutrinoless DBD are briefly described together with the already approved or designed second generation searches aiming to reach the values on the absolute neutrino mass indicated by the results on neutrino oscillations

  2. Isotopically modified compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter the nomenclature of isotopically modified compounds in Slovak language is described. This chapter consists of following parts: (1) Isotopically substituted compounds; (2) Specifically isotopically labelled compounds; (3) Selectively isotopically labelled compounds; (4) Non-selectively isotopically labelled compounds; (5) Isotopically deficient compounds.

  3. (beta-HC CG) in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    Urothelial tumour samples were obtained from all the 86 patients requiring surgical ..... and/or urine beta HCG appears to be an efficient diagnostic marker for the ..... collected all urothelial tumour specimens for storage, cutting and staining.

  4. Beta-glucans and cholesterol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šíma, Petr; Vannucci, Luca; Větvička, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 4 (2017), s. 1799-1808 ISSN 1107-3756 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : cholesterol * beta-glucans * diet Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.341, year: 2016

  5. Radioisotope indicator, type BETA 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duszanski, M.; Pankow, A.; Skwarczynski, B.

    1975-01-01

    The authors describe a radioisotope indicator, type BETA 2, constructed in the ZKMPW Works to be employed in mines for counting, checking, signalling the presence and positioning of cars, as well as monitoring the state of some other equipment. (author)

  6. Organocatalytic asymmetric michael addition of aldehydes to beta-nitroacroleine dimethyl acetal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Efraim; Vicario, Jose L; Badía, Dolores; Carrillo, Luisa

    2006-12-21

    [Structure: see text] The organocatalytic asymmetric Michael addition of aldehydes to beta-nitroacroleine dimethyl acetal has been studied in detail. The reaction took place with excellent yields and high stereoselectivities when a chiral beta-amino alcohol such as L-prolinol was employed as the catalyst, leaving a formation of highly functionalized enantioenriched compounds containing two differentiated formyl groups together with a nitro moiety.

  7. Anaerobic degradation of veratrylglycerol-beta-guaiacyl ether and guaiacoxyacetic acid by mixed rumen bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, W; Supanwong, K; Ohmiya, K; Shimizu, S; Kawakami, H

    1985-01-01

    Veratrylglycerol-beta-guaiacyl ether (0.2 g/liter), a lignin model compound, was found to be degraded by mixed rumen bacteria in a yeast extract medium under strictly anaerobic conditions to the extent of 19% within 24 h. Guaiacoxyacetic acid, 2-(o-methoxyphenoxy)ethanol, vanillic acid, and vanillin were detected as degradation products of veratrylglycerol-beta-guaiacyl ether by thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Guaiacoxyacetic acid (0.25...

  8. Chemoenzymatic resolution of {beta}-azidophenylethanols by Candida antarctica and their application for the synthesis of chiral benzotriazoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Lenilson C.; Rosset, Isac G.; Melgar, Gliseida Z.; Porto, Andre L.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQ/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Raminelli, Cristiano [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Diadema, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra; Jeller, Alex H., E-mail: alexjell@uems.br [Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMS), Dourados, MS (Brazil). Coordenacao de Quimica

    2013-09-15

    The kinetic resolutions of ({+-})-{beta}-azidophenylethanols were carried out using lipase from Candida antarctica, and enantiomerically enriched (R)-{beta}-azidophenylethanols and their corresponding (S)-{beta}-azidophenylethyl acetates were obtained in good enantiomeric excesses (up to > 99%). The enantiomerically enriched (R)-{beta}-azidophenylethanols were subjected to cyclization reaction with 2-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl triflate and CsF producing chiral 1,2,3-benzotriazole compounds in good yields (75-86%) by a [3 + 2] cycloaddition, which involves the benzyne formation. (author)

  9. Tables of double beta decay data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tretyak, V.I. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine)]|[Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Zdesenko, Y.G. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1995-12-31

    A compilation of experimental data on double beta decay is presented. The tables contain the most stringent known experimental limits or positive results of 2{beta} transitions of 69 natural nuclides to ground and excited states of daughter nuclei for different channels (2{beta}{sup -}; 2{beta}{sup +}; {epsilon}{beta}{sup +}; 2{epsilon}) and modes (0{nu}; 2{nu}; 0{nu}M) of decay. (authors). 189 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Beta Instability and Stochastic Market Weights

    OpenAIRE

    David H. Goldenberg

    1985-01-01

    An argument is given for individual firm beta instability based upon the stochastic character of the market weights defining the market portfolio and the constancy of its beta. This argument is generalized to market weighted portfolios and the form of the stochastic process generating betas is linked to that of the market return process. The implications of this analysis for adequacy of models of beta nonstationarity and estimation of betas are considered in light of the available empirical e...

  11. Strategic Design of an Effective beta-Lactamase Inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattanaik, P.; Bethel, C; Hujer, A; Hujer, K; Distler, A; Taracila, M; Anderson, V; Fritsche, T; Jones, R; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to devise strategies for overcoming bacterial beta-lactamases, we studied LN-1-255, a 6-alkylidene-2'-substituted penicillin sulfone inhibitor. By possessing a catecholic functionality that resembles a natural bacterial siderophore, LN-1-255 is unique among beta-lactamase inhibitors. LN-1-255 combined with piperacillin was more potent against Escherichia coli DH10B strains bearing bla(SHV) extended-spectrum and inhibitor-resistant beta-lactamases than an equivalent amount of tazobactam and piperacillin. In addition, LN-1-255 significantly enhanced the activity of ceftazidime and cefpirome against extended-spectrum cephalosporin and Sme-1 containing carbapenem-resistant clinical strains. LN-1-255 inhibited SHV-1 and SHV-2 beta-lactamases with nm affinity (K(I) = 110 +/- 10 and 100 +/- 10 nm, respectively). When LN-1-255 inactivated SHV beta-lactamases, a single intermediate was detected by mass spectrometry. The crystal structure of LN-1-255 in complex with SHV-1 was determined at 1.55A resolution. Interestingly, this novel inhibitor forms a bicyclic aromatic intermediate with its carbonyl oxygen pointing out of the oxyanion hole and forming hydrogen bonds with Lys-234 and Ser-130 in the active site. Electron density for the 'tail' of LN-1-255 is less ordered and modeled in two conformations. Both conformations have the LN-1-255 carboxyl group interacting with Arg-244, yet the remaining tails of the two conformations diverge. The observed presence of the bicyclic aromatic intermediate with its carbonyl oxygen positioned outside of the oxyanion hole provides a rationale for the stability of this inhibitory intermediate. The 2'-substituted penicillin sulfone, LN-1-255, is proving to be an important lead compound for novel beta-lactamase inhibitor design.

  12. In-trap decay spectroscopy for {beta}{beta} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Thomas

    2011-01-18

    The presented work describes the implementation of a new technique to measure electron-capture (EC) branching ratios (BRs) of intermediate nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. This technique has been developed at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. It facilitates one of TRIUMF's Ion Traps for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN), the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) that is used as a spectroscopy Penning trap. Radioactive ions, produced at the radioactive isotope facility ISAC, are injected and stored in the spectroscopy Penning trap while their decays are observed. A key feature of this technique is the use of a strong magnetic field, required for trapping. It radially confines electrons from {beta} decays along the trap axis while X-rays, following an EC, are emitted isotropically. This provides spatial separation of X-ray and {beta} detection with almost no {beta}-induced background at the X-ray detector, allowing weak EC branches to be measured. Furthermore, the combination of several traps allows one to isobarically clean the sample prior to the in-trap decay spectroscopy measurement. This technique has been developed to measure ECBRs of transition nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. Detailed knowledge of these electron capture branches is crucial for a better understanding of the underlying nuclear physics in {beta}{beta} decays. These branches are typically of the order of 10{sup -5} and therefore difficult to measure. Conventional measurements suffer from isobaric contamination and a dominating {beta} background at theX-ray detector. Additionally, X-rays are attenuated by the material where the radioactive sample is implanted. To overcome these limitations, the technique of in-trap decay spectroscopy has been developed. In this work, the EBIT was connected to the TITAN beam line and has been commissioned. Using the developed beam diagnostics, ions were injected into the Penning trap and systematic studies on injection and storage optimization were performed. Furthermore, Ge

  13. High-resolution melting analysis for prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassemia in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenkwan, Pimlak; Sirichotiyakul, Supatra; Phusua, Arunee; Suanta, Sudjai; Fanhchaksai, Kanda; Sae-Tung, Rattika; Sanguansermsri, Torpong

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis is a rapid mutation analysis which assesses the pattern of reduction of fluorescence signal after subjecting the amplified PCR product with saturated fluorescence dye to an increasing temperature. We used HRM analysis for prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassemia disease in northern Thailand. Five PCR-HRM protocols were used to detect point mutations in five different segments of the beta-globin gene, and one protocol to detect the 3.4 kb beta-globin deletion. We sought to characterize the mutations in carriers and to enable prenatal diagnosis in 126 couples at risk of having a fetus with beta-thalassemia disease. The protocols identified 18 common mutations causing beta-thalassemia, including the rare codon 132 (A-T) mutation. Each mutation showed a specific HRM pattern and all results were in concordance with those from direct DNA sequencing or gap-PCR methods. In cases of beta-thalassemia disease resulting from homozygosity for a mutation or compound heterozygosity for two mutations on the same amplified segment, the HRM patterns were different to those of a single mutation and were specific for each combination. HRM analysis is a simple and useful method for mutation identification in beta-thalassemia carriers and prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassemia in northern Thailand.

  14. Dicarboxylic acids, oxoacids, benzoic acid, α-dicarbonyls, WSOC, OC, and ions in spring aerosols from Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim: size distributions and formation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Dhananjay K.; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Lazaar, Manuel; Kunwar, Bhagawati; Boreddy, Suresh K. R.

    2016-04-01

    Size-segregated aerosols (nine stages from 11.3 µm in diameter) were collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, in spring 2008 and analyzed for water-soluble diacids (C2-C12), ω-oxoacids (ωC2-ωC9), pyruvic acid, benzoic acid, and α-dicarbonyls (C2-C3) as well as water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), organic carbon (OC), and major ions (Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, and MSA-). In all the size-segregated aerosols, oxalic acid (C2) was found to be the most abundant species, followed by malonic and succinic acids, whereas glyoxylic acid (ωC2) was the dominant oxoacid and glyoxal (Gly) was more abundant than methylglyoxal. Diacids (C2-C5), ωC2, and Gly as well as WSOC and OC peaked at fine mode (0.65-1.1 µm) whereas azelaic (C9) and 9-oxononanoic (ωC9) acids peaked at coarse mode (3.3-4.7 µm). Sulfate and ammonium were enriched in fine mode, whereas sodium and chloride were in coarse mode. Strong correlations of C2-C5 diacids, ωC2 and Gly with sulfate were observed in fine mode (r = 0.86-0.99), indicating a commonality in their secondary formation. Their significant correlations with liquid water content in fine mode (r = 0.82-0.95) further suggest an importance of the aqueous-phase production in Okinawa aerosols. They may also have been directly emitted from biomass burning in fine mode as supported by strong correlations with potassium (r = 0.85-0.96), which is a tracer of biomass burning. Bimodal size distributions of longer-chain diacid (C9) and oxoacid (ωC9) with a major peak in the coarse mode suggest that they were emitted from the sea surface microlayers and/or produced by heterogeneous oxidation of biogenic unsaturated fatty acids on sea salt particles.

  15. Dicarboxylic acids, oxoacids, benzoic acid, α-dicarbonyls, WSOC, OC, and ions in spring aerosols from Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim: size distributions and formation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Deshmukh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Size-segregated aerosols (nine stages from < 0.43 to > 11.3 µm in diameter were collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, in spring 2008 and analyzed for water-soluble diacids (C2–C12, ω-oxoacids (ωC2–ωC9, pyruvic acid, benzoic acid, and α-dicarbonyls (C2–C3 as well as water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC, organic carbon (OC, and major ions (Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl−, NO3−, SO42−, and MSA−. In all the size-segregated aerosols, oxalic acid (C2 was found to be the most abundant species, followed by malonic and succinic acids, whereas glyoxylic acid (ωC2 was the dominant oxoacid and glyoxal (Gly was more abundant than methylglyoxal. Diacids (C2–C5, ωC2, and Gly as well as WSOC and OC peaked at fine mode (0.65–1.1 µm whereas azelaic (C9 and 9-oxononanoic (ωC9 acids peaked at coarse mode (3.3–4.7 µm. Sulfate and ammonium were enriched in fine mode, whereas sodium and chloride were in coarse mode. Strong correlations of C2–C5 diacids, ωC2 and Gly with sulfate were observed in fine mode (r =  0.86–0.99, indicating a commonality in their secondary formation. Their significant correlations with liquid water content in fine mode (r =  0.82–0.95 further suggest an importance of the aqueous-phase production in Okinawa aerosols. They may also have been directly emitted from biomass burning in fine mode as supported by strong correlations with potassium (r =  0.85–0.96, which is a tracer of biomass burning. Bimodal size distributions of longer-chain diacid (C9 and oxoacid (ωC9 with a major peak in the coarse mode suggest that they were emitted from the sea surface microlayers and/or produced by heterogeneous oxidation of biogenic unsaturated fatty acids on sea salt particles.

  16. Rubber compounding and processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, MJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This chapter presents an overview on the compounding and processing techniques of natural rubber compounds. The introductory portion deals with different types of rubbers and principles of rubber compounding. The primary and secondary fillers used...

  17. Smart Beta or Smart Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kenneth Lillelund; Steenstrup, Søren Resen

    2016-01-01

    that smart beta investing probably will do better than passive market capitalization investing over time, we believe many are coming to a conclusion too quickly regarding active managers. Institutional investors are able to guide managers through benchmarks and risk frameworks toward the same well......Smart beta has become the flavor of the decade in the investment world with its low fees, easy access to rewarded risk premiums, and appearance of providing good investment results relative to both traditional passive benchmarks and actively managed funds. Although we consider it well documented......-documented smart beta risk premiums and still motivate active managers to avoid value traps, too highly priced small caps, defensives, etc. By constructing the equity portfolios of active managers that resemble the most widely used risk premiums, we show that the returns and risk-adjusted returns measures...

  18. Polyphenol compounds of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Marinalva Oliveira; Lima, Mary Anne S.; Silveira, Edilberto R.

    2007-01-01

    Phytochemical analysis of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora led to the isolation of 1-O,2-O-digaloil-6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-trans-p-cumaroil-6-O-cinamoil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, alpha and beta 6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-D-glucopyranoside, 7-methylaromadendrin-4'-O-6 - trans-p-cumaroil-beta-Dglucopyranoside, aromadendrin, aromadendrin-7-methyl-ether, naringenin, sakuranetin, kaempferol-7-methyl-ether and galic acid. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was established on the basis of spectral data, particularly by the use of 1D NMR and several 2D shift correlated NMR pulse sequences ( 1 H, 1 H-COSY, HMQC, HMBC). (author)

  19. Beta decay of 22O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, F.; Dufour, J.P.; Moral, R. del; Fleury, A.; Jean, D.; Pravikoff, M.S.; Delagrange, H.; Geissel, H.; Schmidt, K.H.; Hanelt, E.

    1989-01-01

    The beta-gamma spectroscopic study of 22 O is presented. This nucleus, produced as a projectile-like fragment from the interaction of a 60 MeV/n 40 Ar beam with a Be target, has been separated by the LISE spectrometer. Several gamma rays from 22 O decay have been observed, from which a half-life of (2.25±0.15) s has been determined. Accurate excitation energies have been deduced for several states in 22 F. A partial beta decay scheme of 22 O has been established. Experimental results have been compared with shell model calculations. (orig.)

  20. Beta-hemolytic Streptococcal Bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Kolmos, Hans Jørn; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2002-01-01

    Bacteremia with beta-hemolytic Streptococci groups A, B, C and G has a mortality rate of approximately 20%. In this study we analyzed the association of various patient risk factors with mortality. Records from 241 patients with beta-hemolytic streptococcal bacteremia were reviewed with particular...... attention to which predisposing factors were predictors of death. A logistic regression model found age, burns, immunosuppressive treatment and iatrogenic procedures prior to the infection to be significant predictors of death, with odds ratios of 1.7 (per decade), 19.7, 3.6 and 6.8, respectively...

  1. The Beta Transmuted Weibull Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Pal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a beta transmuted Weibull distribution, which contains a number ofdistributions as special cases. The properties of the distribution are discussed and explicit expressions are derived for the mean deviations, Bonferroni and Lorenz curves, and reliability. The distribution and moments of order statistics are also studied. Estimation of the model parameters by the method of maximum likelihood is discussed. The log beta transmuted Weibull model is introduced to analyze censored data. Finally, the usefulness of the new distribution in analyzing positive data is illustrated.

  2. Beta activity of enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambiar, P.P.V.J.; Ramachandran, V.

    1975-01-01

    Use of enriched uranium as reactor fuel necessitates its handling in various forms. For purposes of planning and organising radiation protection measures in enriched uranium handling facilities, it is necessary to have a basic knowledge of the radiation status of enriched uranium systems. The theoretical variations in beta activity and energy with U 235 enrichment are presented. Depletion is considered separately. Beta activity build up is also studied for two specific enrichments, in respect of which experimental values for specific alpha activity are available. (author)

  3. A {beta} - {gamma} coincidence; Metodo de coincidencias {beta} - {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agullo, F

    1960-07-01

    A {beta} - {gamma} coincidence method for absolute counting is given. The fundamental principles are revised and the experimental part is detailed. The results from {sup 1}98 Au irradiated in the JEN 1 Swimming pool reactor are given. The maximal accuracy is 1 per cent. (Author) 11 refs.

  4. [Phenolic compounds in branches of Tamarix rasissima].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Li, Wei-Qi; Zheng, Ping; Wang, Rui; Yu, Jian-Qiang; Yang, Jian-Hong; Yao, Yao

    2014-06-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the branches of Tamarix rasissima, repeated silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and recrystallization were applied for chemical constituents isolation and purification. Ten phenolic compounds were isolated from the n-BuOH fraction and their structures were elucidated by physical properties and spectra analysis such as UV, ESI-MS and NMR as monodecarboxyellagic acid (1), ellagic acid (2), 3, 3'-di-O-methylellagic acid (3), 3, 3'-di-O-methylellagic acid-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), 3, 3'-di-O-methylellagic acid-4'-O-alpha-D-arabinfuranoside (5), ferulic acid (6), isoferulic acid (7), caffeic acid (8), 4-O-acetyl-caffeic acid (9), and 4-methyl-1, 2-benzenediol (10). All compounds except for isoferulic acid were isolated firstly from this plant except for isoferulic acid, and compounds 5, 9 and 10 were obtained from Tamarix genus for the first time.

  5. Radiation synthesis of materials and compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Kharisov, Boris Ildusovich; Ortiz Méndez, Ubaldo

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and engineers working in nuclear laboratories, nuclear electric plants, and elsewhere in the radiochemical industries need a comprehensive handbook describing all possible radiation-chemistry interactions between irradiation and materials, the preparation of materials under distinct radiation types, the possibility of damage of materials under irradiation, and more. Radiation nanotechnology is still practically an undeveloped field, except for some achievements in the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles under ionizing flows. Radiation Synthesis of Materials and Compounds presents the state of the art of the synthesis of materials, composites, and chemical compounds, and describes methods based on the use of ionizing radiation. It is devoted to the preparation of various types of materials (including nanomaterials) and chemical compounds using ionizing radiation (alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, x-rays, and neutron, proton, and ion beams). The book presents contributions from leaders ...

  6. N-Benzylhydroxylamine addition to beta-aryl enoates. Enantioselective synthesis of beta-aryl-beta-amino acid precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi; Liu

    2000-10-19

    Chiral Lewis acid catalyzed N-benzylhydroxylamine addition to pyrrolidinone-derived enoates afforded beta-aryl-beta-amino acid derivatives in high enantiomeric purity with moderate to very good chemical efficiency.

  7. Mycophenolate mofetil modulates adhesion receptors of the beta1 integrin family on tumor cells: impact on tumor recurrence and malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engl, Tobias; Makarević, Jasmina; Relja, Borna; Natsheh, Iyad; Müller, Iris; Beecken, Wolf-Dietrich; Jonas, Dietger; Blaheta, Roman A

    2005-01-01

    Tumor development remains one of the major obstacles following organ transplantation. Immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporine and tacrolimus directly contribute to enhanced malignancy, whereas the influence of the novel compound mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) on tumor cell dissemination has not been explored. We therefore investigated the adhesion capacity of colon, pancreas, prostate and kidney carcinoma cell lines to endothelium, as well as their beta1 integrin expression profile before and after MMF treatment. Tumor cell adhesion to endothelial cell monolayers was evaluated in the presence of 0.1 and 1 μM MMF and compared to unstimulated controls. beta1 integrin analysis included alpha1beta1 (CD49a), alpha2beta1 (CD49b), alpha3beta1 (CD49c), alpha4beta1 (CD49d), alpha5beta1 (CD49e), and alpha6beta1 (CD49f) receptors, and was carried out by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Adhesion of the colon carcinoma cell line HT-29 was strongly reduced in the presence of 0.1 μM MMF. This effect was accompanied by down-regulation of alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1 surface expression and of alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1 coding mRNA. Adhesion of the prostate tumor cell line DU-145 was blocked dose-dependently by MMF. In contrast to MMF's effects on HT-29 cells, MMF dose-dependently up-regulated alpha1beta1, alpha2beta1, alpha3beta1, and alpha5beta1 on DU-145 tumor cell membranes. We conclude that MMF possesses distinct anti-tumoral properties, particularly in colon and prostate carcinoma cells. Adhesion blockage of HT-29 cells was due to the loss of alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1 surface expression, which might contribute to a reduced invasive behaviour of this tumor entity. The enhancement of integrin beta1 subtypes observed in DU-145 cells possibly causes re-differentiation towards a low-invasive phenotype

  8. Mycophenolate mofetil modulates adhesion receptors of the beta1 integrin family on tumor cells: impact on tumor recurrence and malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beecken Wolf-Dietrich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor development remains one of the major obstacles following organ transplantation. Immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporine and tacrolimus directly contribute to enhanced malignancy, whereas the influence of the novel compound mycophenolate mofetil (MMF on tumor cell dissemination has not been explored. We therefore investigated the adhesion capacity of colon, pancreas, prostate and kidney carcinoma cell lines to endothelium, as well as their beta1 integrin expression profile before and after MMF treatment. Methods Tumor cell adhesion to endothelial cell monolayers was evaluated in the presence of 0.1 and 1 μM MMF and compared to unstimulated controls. beta1 integrin analysis included alpha1beta1 (CD49a, alpha2beta1 (CD49b, alpha3beta1 (CD49c, alpha4beta1 (CD49d, alpha5beta1 (CD49e, and alpha6beta1 (CD49f receptors, and was carried out by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Results Adhesion of the colon carcinoma cell line HT-29 was strongly reduced in the presence of 0.1 μM MMF. This effect was accompanied by down-regulation of alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1 surface expression and of alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1 coding mRNA. Adhesion of the prostate tumor cell line DU-145 was blocked dose-dependently by MMF. In contrast to MMF's effects on HT-29 cells, MMF dose-dependently up-regulated alpha1beta1, alpha2beta1, alpha3beta1, and alpha5beta1 on DU-145 tumor cell membranes. Conclusion We conclude that MMF possesses distinct anti-tumoral properties, particularly in colon and prostate carcinoma cells. Adhesion blockage of HT-29 cells was due to the loss of alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1 surface expression, which might contribute to a reduced invasive behaviour of this tumor entity. The enhancement of integrin beta1 subtypes observed in DU-145 cells possibly causes re-differentiation towards a low-invasive phenotype.

  9. Radiolytical oxidation of gaseous iodine by beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaerkelae, Teemu; Auvinen, Ari; Kekki, Tommi; Kotiluoto, Petri; Lyyraenen, Jussi; Jokiniemi, Jorma

    2015-01-01

    Iodine is one of the most radiotoxic fission product released from fuel during a severe nuclear power plant accident. Within the containment building, iodine compounds can react e.g. on the painted surfaces and form gaseous organic iodides. In this study, it was found out that gaseous methyl iodide (CH 3 I) is oxidised when exposed to beta radiation in an oxygen containing atmosphere. As a result, nucleation of aerosol particles takes place and the formation of iodine oxide particles is suggested. These particles are highly hygroscopic. They take up water from the air humidity and iodine oxides dissolve within the droplets. In order to mitigate the possible source term, it is of interest to understand the effect of beta radiation on the speciation of iodine.

  10. Radiolytical oxidation of gaseous iodine by beta radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerkelae, Teemu; Auvinen, Ari; Kekki, Tommi; Kotiluoto, Petri; Lyyraenen, Jussi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Jokiniemi, Jorma [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Eastern Finland Univ., Kuopio (Finland)

    2015-07-01

    Iodine is one of the most radiotoxic fission product released from fuel during a severe nuclear power plant accident. Within the containment building, iodine compounds can react e.g. on the painted surfaces and form gaseous organic iodides. In this study, it was found out that gaseous methyl iodide (CH{sub 3}I) is oxidised when exposed to beta radiation in an oxygen containing atmosphere. As a result, nucleation of aerosol particles takes place and the formation of iodine oxide particles is suggested. These particles are highly hygroscopic. They take up water from the air humidity and iodine oxides dissolve within the droplets. In order to mitigate the possible source term, it is of interest to understand the effect of beta radiation on the speciation of iodine.

  11. Electret dosemeter for beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, L.L.; Caldas, L.V.E.; Mascarenhas, S.

    The response characteristics of an electret dosemeter for beta radiation are studied. Experiments were performed using different geometries and walls, and it was verified for which geometry the dosemeter sensitivity is greater. Sources of 90 Sr - 90 Y, 204 Tl and 85 Kr were used in the experiments. (I.C.R.) [pt

  12. Personnel monitoring for beta rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piesch, E.; Johns, T.F.

    1983-01-01

    The practical considerations which have to be taken into account in the design of personnel monitors intended to measure doses resulting from exposure to beta rays are discussed. These include the measurement of doses in situations involving either fairly uniform or non-uniform irradiation and of doses to the male gonads. (UK)

  13. Constraining neutrinoless double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorame, L.; Meloni, D.; Morisi, S.; Peinado, E.; Valle, J.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    A class of discrete flavor-symmetry-based models predicts constrained neutrino mass matrix schemes that lead to specific neutrino mass sum-rules (MSR). We show how these theories may constrain the absolute scale of neutrino mass, leading in most of the cases to a lower bound on the neutrinoless double beta decay effective amplitude.

  14. Beta Cell Workshop 2013 Kyoto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, R Scott; Madsen, Ole D; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2013-01-01

    The very modern Kyoto International Conference Center provided the site for the 8th workshop on Beta cells on April 23-26, 2013. The preceding workshops were held in Boston, USA (1991); Kyoto, Japan (1994); Helsingør, Denmark (1997); Helsinki, Finland (2003); El Perello, Spain (2006); Peebles...

  15. Biotransformation of isoimperatorin and imperatorin by Glomerella cingulata and beta-secretase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marumoto, Shinsuke; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    Biotransformation studies conducted on the furanocoumarins isoimperatorin (1) and imperatorin (3) have revealed that 1 was metabolized by Glomerella cingulata to give the corresponding reduced acid, 6,7-furano-5-prenyloxy hydrocoumaric acid (2), and 3 was transformed by G. cingulata to give the dealkylated metabolite, xanthotoxol (4) in high yields (83% and 81%), respectively. The structures of the new compound 2 have been established on the basis of spectral data. The metabolites 2 and 4 were tested for the beta-secretase (BACE1) inhibitory activity in vitro, and metabolite 2 slightly inhibited the beta-secretase activity with an IC(50) value of 185.6+/-6.8 microM. The metabolite 4 was less potent activity than compounds 1-3. In addition, methyl ester (2Me), methyl ether (2a) and methyl ester and ether (2aMe) of 2 were synthesized, and investigated for the ability to inhibit beta-secretase. Compound 2aMe exhibited the best beta-secretase inhibitory activity at the IC(50) value 16.2+/-1.2 microM and found to be the 2aMe showed competitive mode of inhibition against beta-secretase with K(i) value 11.3+/-2.8 microM. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Beta calibration and dosimetry at IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, L.V.E.

    1983-01-01

    A commercial extrapolation chamber (PTW, Germany) was tested in different beta radiation fields and its properties investigated. Its usefullness for beta radiation calibration and dosimetry was demonstrated. (Author) [pt

  17. Haematological and genetic features of delta beta-thalassaemia in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Anwar, M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the hematological and genetic features of delta beta-thalassaemia in Pakistani patients. Design: Descriptive case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pathology, PNS Shifa, Karachi and Department of Hematology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from January 1994 to April 2004. Patients and Methods: Thirteen individuals from six unrelated Pakistani families with a hematological diagnosis of delta beta-thalassaemia were studied. A brief clinical history, and the results of blood counts, absolute values, Hb-F, Hb-A/sub 2/, and hemoglobin electrophoresis were recorded. The DNA from each subject was first screened for the delta beta-thalassaemia mutations found in the Pakistani population. The samples were then screened for the Invl Del sup G/gamma(sup A/gamma delta beta). Results: The subjects included six heterozygote, six homozygotes and one compound heterozygote of delta beta and delta beta-thalassaemia. All heterozygote and 4/6 homozygotes were asymptomatic. One homo zygote had thalassaemia intermedia while another had transfusion dependent anemia. The mean Hb, TRBC, MCV, MCH, Hb-F and Hb-A/sub 2/ in delta beta-thalassaemia heterozygote were 11.6 g/dl, 5.37 x 1012/L, 70.9 fl, and 21.7 pg, 14% and 2.6% respectively. The same values in the four un transfused homo zygote were 10.6 g/dl, 5.34x1012/L, 69.211, and 20.8pg, 100% and 0% respectively. The mutation analysis revealed that all 13 individuals had the same Invl Del sup G/gamma(sup A/gamma delta beta). Conclusion: delta beta-thalassaemia is a rare disorder in Pakistan. Although the clinical picture is very mild its combination with delta beta-thalassaemia trait can produce a sever transfusion dependent thalassaemia. The DNA based diagnosis is possible in the prenatal as well as the postnatal period. (author)

  18. Structural characterization of inclusion complex of hesperidin methyl chalcone and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Li, F.; Chen, X.; Shen, W.

    2016-01-01

    Hesperidin methyl chalcone (HMC) was a semisynthetic derivative of hesperidin, which owned antiviral and antimicrobial activities. Owing these properties, it can be applied in pharmaceutical industry. However low stability had become a barrier to its application. In order to overcome this problem, an inclusion complex of hesperidin methyl chalcone and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) were prepared by freeze-drying, using some analytical techniques to characterize the inclusion complex, including ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results of these analytical techniques indicated that the hesperidin methyl chalcone has been dispersed completely in the HP-beta-CD without a new compound formed, but entrapped inside the cavity of HP-beta-CD. (author)

  19. Indolopyridoquinazoline alkaloids from Esenbeckia grandiflora mart. (Rutaceae); Alkaloides {beta}-indolopiridoquinazolinicos de Esenbeckia grandiflora mart. (Rutaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Januario, Ana Helena; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Fernandes, Joao Batista [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica], e-mail: anahjanuario@unifran.br; Silva, Jorge Jose de Brito; Conserva, Lucia Maria [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica e Biotecnologia

    2009-07-01

    The chemical composition of two specimens of Esenbeckia grandiflora, collected in the south and northeast regions of Brazil, was investigated. In this study, three b-indolopyridoquinazoline alkaloids from the leaves (rutaecarpine, 1-hydroxyrutaecarpine) and roots (euxylophoricine D) were isolated for the first time in this genus. In addition, the triterpenes {alpha}-amyrin, {beta}-amyrin, {alpha}-amyrenonol, {beta}-amyrenonol, 3{alpha}-hydroxy-ursan-12-one, and 3{alpha}-hydroxy-12,13-epoxy-oleanane, the coumarins auraptene, umbelliferone, pimpinelin, and xanthotoxin, the furoquinoline alkaloids delbine and kokusaginine, and the phytosteroids sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol and 3{beta}-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosylsitosterol were also isolated from the leaves, twigs, roots and stems of this species. Structures of these compounds were established by spectral analysis. (author)

  20. Sanskrit Compound Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Mittal, Vipul; Kulkarni, Amba

    Sanskrit is very rich in compound formation. Typically a compound does not code the relation between its components explicitly. To understand the meaning of a compound, it is necessary to identify its components, discover the relations between them and finally generate a paraphrase of the compound. In this paper, we discuss the automatic segmentation and type identification of a compound using simple statistics that results from the manually annotated data.

  1. On Fuzzy {beta}-I-open sets and Fuzzy {beta}-I-continuous functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, Aynur [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Arts, Selcuk University, Campus, 42075 Konya (Turkey)], E-mail: akeskin@selcuk.edu.tr

    2009-11-15

    In this paper, first of all we obtain some properties and characterizations of fuzzy {beta}-I-open sets. After that, we also define the notion of {beta}-I-closed sets and obtain some properties. Lastly, we introduce the notions of fuzzy {beta}-I-continuity with the help of fuzzy {beta}-I-open sets to obtain decomposition of fuzzy continuity.

  2. Beta-Catenin Stability in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baswaran, Vijay

    1999-01-01

    .... beta-catenin also binds the adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC). The tumor suppressor function of APC is suggested to depend in part on its ability to bind beta-catenin and to facilitate beta-catenin degradation by an unknown mechanism...

  3. Beta-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierikx, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to cephalosprins due to the production of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) or plasmid mediated AmpC beta-lactamases is increasingly found in infections in humans outside the hospital. The genes encoding for these beta-lactamases are located on mobile DNA (plasmids), which can be

  4. Coexistence of Southeast Asian ovalocytosis and beta-thalassemia: a molecular and hematological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Fucharoen, Supan; Singsanan, Sanita; Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan

    2007-05-01

    We describe hematological and molecular characterization of a Thai female who had Southeast Asian ovalocytosis (SAO) associated with beta+-thalassemia trait. The proband had mild microcytosis with Hb 12.9 g/dl, Hct 35.8%, MCV 74.4 fl, MCH 26.8 pg, MCHC 36.0 g/dl, and elevated Hb A2 (5.6%), characteristics of beta-thalassemia trait. Peripheral blood film examination revealed prominent ovalocytosis. However, a one-tube osmotic fragility (OF) test commonly used for thalassemia screening was negative and a normal OF curve was observed. Further polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses identified the beta(-28A-G) mutation in the beta-globin gene and a 27 bp deletion in erythrocyte band 3 protein gene, indicating a genetically compound heterozygote. Hematological data of the proband was comparatively presented with those of eight female and 15 male carriers of pure beta-thalassemia with the same mutation. The finding demonstrates that although the association of the SAO and beta-thalassemia does not produce a more severe clinical picture, this could lead to a mis-screening of beta-thalassemia using an OF test as a primary screening test. Additional blood film examination followed by PCR could help in the detection of this unusual genetic interaction in the region. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. The challenge of analyzing beta-blocker drugs in sludge and wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurer, Marco; Ramil, Maria; Metcalfe, Chris D; Groh, Stefanie; Ternes, Thomas A

    2010-01-01

    In this study, different approaches were used to assess and overcome the severe effects of interference from the sample matrix from different types of sludges and wastewater on the analysis of nine beta-blockers and the beta sympathomimetic clenbuterol. The partitioning of the target compounds into sludge was investigated in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in both Canada and Germany to evaluate whether this is an important mechanism for removal from sewage. Due to ion suppression in the electro spray interface, absolute recoveries were for certain compounds even lower than 20%. By using surrogate standards, acceptable relative recoveries of >75% were achieved for WWTP influents and effluents and for sludges. These matrix effects underline the need to use appropriate surrogate standards to aid in analyte quantitation. Using the developed methods, beta-blockers were detected at concentrations up to 2 microg/L in WWTP effluents, with metoprolol, sotalol, and atenolol present as the dominant compounds. Removal rates within WWTPs were highly inconsistent and ranged from 1-69%. Propranolol showed the greatest degree of partitioning into sludge with solid/water partition coefficients of one order of magnitude higher than those for all other compounds. However, even for propranolol, sorption did not contribute significantly to the overall elimination in WWTPs. It is likely that the removal of beta-blockers during waste water treatment can be attributed primarily to microbial biodegradation.

  6. The influence of hyperthyroidism on beta-adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation of isolated small mesenteric arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaveling, J.; Winkler Prins, E. A.; Pfaffendorf, M.; van Zwieten, P. A.

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the influence of hyperthyroidism on relaxant responses of small mesenteric resistance arteries to beta-adrenoceptor agonists and to compounds stimulating the corresponding second-messenger system. Hyperthyroidism was induced by feeding rats for 28 days with 5 mg/kg L-thyroxine

  7. Liquid phase in situ hydrodeoxygenation of biomass-derived phenolic compounds to hydrocarbons over bifunctional catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junfeng Feng; Chung-yun Hse; Zhongzhi Yang; Kui Wang; Jianchun Jiang; Junming Xu

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find an effective method for converting renewable biomass-derived phenolic compounds into hydrocarbons bio-fuel via in situ catalytic hydrodeoxygenation. The in situ hydrodeoxygenation of biomass-derived phenolic compounds was carried out in methanol-water solvent over bifunctional catalysts of Raney Ni and HZSM-5 or H-Beta. In the in...

  8. Development and applications of beta and near beta titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemura, A.; Ohyama, H.; Nishimura, T.; Abumiya, T.

    1993-01-01

    In this report the authors introduced application of beta and near beta titanium alloys also development and processing of these alloys at Kobe Steel LTD. Ti-15Mo-5Zr-3Al is an alloy developed by Kobe Steel which has been applied for variety of sporting goods, also used as an erosion shield of steam turbine blades. Ti-15Mo-5Zr-3Al high strength wire for valve springs is under development. New beta alloys(Ti-V-Nb-Sn-Al) are under development which have lower flow stress at room temperature than Ti 15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al, expected to improve productivity of cold forging. NNS forging and thermo mechanical treatment of Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al were studied. Ti-10V-2Fe3Al steam turbine blades and structural parts for aircraft were developed. Fine grain cold strips of Ti 15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al are produced by annealing and pickling process. These cold strips are used for parts of a fishing rod

  9. Identification of a Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3[beta] Inhibitor that Attenuates Hyperactivity in CLOCK Mutant Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozikowski, Alan P.; Gunosewoyo, Hendra; Guo, Songpo; Gaisina, Irina N.; Walter, Richard L.; Ketcherside, Ariel; McClung, Colleen A.; Mesecar, Andrew D.; Caldarone, Barbara (Psychogenics); (Purdue); (UIC); (UTSMC)

    2012-05-02

    Bipolar disorder is characterized by a cycle of mania and depression, which affects approximately 5 million people in the United States. Current treatment regimes include the so-called 'mood-stabilizing drugs', such as lithium and valproate that are relatively dated drugs with various known side effects. Glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) plays a central role in regulating circadian rhythms, and lithium is known to be a direct inhibitor of GSK-3{beta}. We designed a series of second generation benzofuran-3-yl-(indol-3-yl)maleimides containing a piperidine ring that possess IC{sub 50} values in the range of 4 to 680 nM against human GSK-3{beta}. One of these compounds exhibits reasonable kinase selectivity and promising preliminary absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) data. The administration of this compound at doses of 10 to 25 mg kg{sup -1} resulted in the attenuation of hyperactivity in amphetamine/chlordiazepoxide-induced manic-like mice together with enhancement of prepulse inhibition, similar to the effects found for valproate (400 mg kg{sup -1}) and the antipsychotic haloperidol (1 mg kg{sup -1}). We also tested this compound in mice carrying a mutation in the central transcriptional activator of molecular rhythms, the CLOCK gene, and found that the same compound attenuates locomotor hyperactivity in response to novelty. This study further demonstrates the use of inhibitors of GSK-3{beta} in the treatment of manic episodes of bipolar/mood disorders, thus further validating GSK-3{beta} as a relevant therapeutic target in the identification of new therapies for bipolar patients.

  10. Anti-Proliferative and Apoptotic Effects of Beta-Ionone in Human Leukemia Cell Line K562

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Faezizadeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Beta-ionone is an aroma compound found in the Rosaceae family. Some evidence supported that beta-ionone has a great potential for cancer prevention. To date, the anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of beta-ionone in human leukemia cell line K562 were not studied. Objectives Hence, we investigated whether beta-ionone could inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in the K562 cells. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, human leukemia cell line K562 was cultured and anti-proliferation effect of beta-ionone with different doses (25 - 400 µm at different times (24 - 96 hours on treated cells was evaluated by the MTT assay. To determine apoptosis rate, the Hoechst 33342 staining and flow cytometry was performed. Results The MTT assay showed that beta-ionone inhibited proliferation of K562 cells in a dose-dependent manner significantly (P = 0.0008. Moreover, the increased apoptotic rate was found after incubation of K562 cells with 200 µm beta-ionone. The Hoechst staining and flow cytometry analysis indicated that beta-ionone could increase apoptosis of K562 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions The results demonstrated that beta-ionone has anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects on K562 cells, and in the future may be used in the treatment of some leukemia sub-types.

  11. Photochemical fate of beta-blockers in NOM enriched waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ling; Xu, Haomin; Cooper, William J. [Urban Water Research Center, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2175 (United States); Song, Weihua, E-mail: wsong@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2012-06-01

    Beta-blockers, prescribed for the treatment of high blood pressure and for long-term use after a heart attack, have been detected in surface and ground waters. This study examines the photochemical fate of three beta-blockers, atenolol, metoprolol, and nadolol. Hydrolysis accounted for minor losses of these beta-blockers in the pH range 4-10. The rate of direct photolysis at pH 7 in a solar simulator varied from 6.1 to 8.9 h{sup -1} at pH 7. However, the addition of a natural organic matter (NOM) isolate enhanced the photochemical loss of all three compounds. Indirect photochemical fate, generally described by reactions with hydroxyl radical ({center_dot}OH) and singlet oxygen ({sup 1}{Delta}O{sub 2}), and, the direct reaction with the triplet excited state, {sup 3}NOM{sup Low-Asterisk }, also varied but collectively appeared to be the major loss factor. Bimolecular reaction rate constants of the three beta-blockers with {sup 1}{Delta}O{sub 2} and {center_dot}OH were measured and accounted for 0.02-0.04% and 7.2-38.9% of their loss, respectively. These data suggest that the {sup 3}NOM{sup Low-Asterisk} contributed 50.6-85.4%. Experiments with various {sup 3}NOM{sup Low-Asterisk} quenchers supported the hypothesis that it was singly the most important reaction. Atenolol was chosen for more detailed investigation, with the photoproducts identified by LC-MS analysis. The results suggested that electron-transfer could be an important mechanism in photochemical fate of beta-blockers in the presence of NOM. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photochemical degradation of beta-blockers in the simulated natural waters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reactive Oxygen Species play a minor role in the indirect photodegradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The loss of beta-blockers results from direct reaction with {sup 3}DOM{sup Low-Asterisk }.

  12. Beta genus papillomaviruses and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Peter M; Pfister, Herbert J

    2015-05-01

    A role for the beta genus HPVs in keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) remains to be established. In this article we examine the potential role of the beta HPVs in cancer revealed by the epidemiology associating these viruses with KC and supported by oncogenic properties of the beta HPV proteins. Unlike the cancer associated alpha genus HPVs, in which transcriptionally active viral genomes are invariably found associated with the cancers, that is not the case for the beta genus HPVs and keratinocyte carcinomas. Thus a role for the beta HPVs in KC would necessarily be in the carcinogenesis initiation and not in the maintenance of the tumor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Alpha and beta detection and spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saro, S.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of alpha and beta radioactive decay, the interaction of alpha and beta particles with matter, and their detection and spectrometry are dealt with in seven chapters: 1. Alpha transformation of atomic nuclei; 2. Basic properties of detectors and statistics of detection; 3. Alpha detectors and spectrometers; 4. Applications of alpha detection and spectrometry; 5. Beta transformation of atomic nuclei; 6. Beta particle detectors and spectrometers; 7. Detection of low energy beta particles. Chapter 8 is devoted to sampling and preparation of samples for radiometry. (E.F.)

  14. Antibodies against chromosomal beta-lactamase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giwercman, B; Rasmussen, J W; Ciofu, Oana

    1994-01-01

    A murine monoclonal anti-chromosomal beta-lactamase antibody was developed and an immunoblotting technique was used to study the presence of serum and sputum antibodies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa chromosomal group 1 beta-lactamase in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The serum antibody...... 1 cephalosporinase. We found a wide range of chromosomal beta-lactamase activity in the sputum samples, with no correlation with basal or induced activity of beta-lactamase expression. The presence of anti-beta-lactamase antibodies in endobronchial sputum could be an important factor in the defense...

  15. Evaluation of induced radioactivity in 10 MeV-Electron irradiated spices, (2); [beta]-ray counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Tadashi; Furuta, Masakazu; Shibata, Setsuko; Matsunami, Tadao; Ito, Norio; Mizohata, Akira; Toratani, Hirokazu (Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan). Research Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology); Takeda, Atsuhiko

    1994-02-01

    In order to check radioactivity of beta-emmitters produced by ([gamma], n) reactions which could occur at energies up to 10 MeV, black pepper, white pepper, red pepper, ginger and turmeric were irradiated with 10 MeV electron from a linear accelerator to a dose of 100 kGy. Beta-rays were counted using a 2[pi] gas flow counter and a liquid scintillation counter. Any induced radioactivity could not be detected in irradiated samples. When inorganic compounds containing the nuclides in the list were artificially added in the samples and were irradiated, the [beta]-activities were detected. From the amount of observed radioactivities of [beta]-emmitters produced in the compounds as photonuclear products, it is concluded that the induced radioactivity in natural samples by 10 MeV-electron irradiation were far smaller than natural radioactivity from [sup 40]K contained in the samples and, hence, its biological effects should be negligible. (author).

  16. Structural insights into the {beta}-xylosidase from Trichoderma reesei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, Adriana L.; Fischer, Hannes; Polikarpov, Igor [Sao Paulo Univ. (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Eneiskaya, Elena V.; Kulminskaya, Anna A.; Shabalin, Konstantin A.; Neustroev, Kirill N.; Golubev, Alexander M. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst., Moskow (Russian Federation); Craievich, Aldo Felix [Sao Paulo Univ. (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2005-07-01

    Xylan is a major structural polysaccharide in plant cells, and is the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature, accounting for approximately one-third of all renewable organic carbon on earth. Xylan together with cellulose (1,4-{beta}-glucan) and lignin (a complex polyphenolic compound) make up the major polymeric constituents of plant cell walls, recently, there was a significant industrial interest in Xylan and its hydrolytic enzymatic complex, as a supplement in animal feed, for the manufacture of bread, food and drinks, textiles, bleaching of cellulose pulp, ethanol and xylitol production. (author)

  17. Immunochemical studies on the N-acetyllactosamine beta-(1----6)-linked trisaccharide specificity of Ricinus communis agglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A M; Sugii, S; Gruezo, F G; Kabat, E A

    1988-07-15

    The combining site of Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA1) was studied by quantitative precipitin and precipitin inhibition assays. Of 31 complex carbohydrates tested, all except active and inactive antifreeze glycoproteins, Streptococcus group C polysaccharide, and native rat salivary glycoprotein, reacted strongly, and 22 completely precipitated the lectin, indicating that RCA1 has both a broad range of affinity and a low solubility of its carbohydrate-bound complex. Of the monosaccharides and glycosides tested for inhibition of precipitation, p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside was the best. It was about 6.4 times better than methyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. The beta anomer of glycosides of D-galactose was much more potent than the corresponding alpha anomer. Among the oligosaccharides tested, beta-D-Galp-(1----4)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1----6)-D-Gal was the best inhibitor, which was approximately 2/3 as active as p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. It was approximately 1.4 times as active as beta-D-Gal-(1----4)-D-GlcNAc (N-acetyllactosamine), twice as active as beta-D-Gal-(1----3)-D-GlcNAc, and 4.5 times more active than lacto-N-tetraose. From the results, it can be concluded that; (a) hydrophobic interaction is important for binding; (b) the combining site of this lectin is at least as large as a trisaccharide; and (c) of the compounds studied, the trisaccharide beta-D-Galp-(1----4)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1----6)-D-Gal was the most complementary to the human blood group I Ma determinant beta-D-Galp-(1----4)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1----6)-D-Gal.

  18. Uranyl tris-beta-diketonate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorenko, G.V.; Adamov, V.M.; Shcherbakova, L.L.; Suglubov, D.N.

    1986-01-01

    Uranyl tris-pivaloyltrifluoroacetonates (M/IOTA/UO 2 L 3 ; M/IOTA/ = Na, K, Cs, 1/2Ba, NR 4 ; R = C 8 H 17 ) and tris-dipivaloylmethanate (M/IOTA/UO 2 L/IOTA/ 3 , M/IOTA/ = K) have been synthesized for the first time. The compounds were characterized by chemical analysis and IR, NMR, and mass spectra. NaUO 2 L 3 , KUO 2 L 3 , CsUO 2 L 3 and Ba(UO 2 ) 2 L 6 sublime in high vacuum with partial decomposition. Specifically, decomposition gives UL 4 , identified by mass spectrometry. All the tris-complexes except those with outer-sphere NR 4 cation are characterized by an asymmetric structure of the uranyl group, recorded by IR spectroscopy using isotopic substitution of 18 O in uranyl. NMR spectra of the tris-complexes indicate the equivalence of all beta-diketonate groups, i.e., a coordination number of six for uranyl

  19. DMPD: Immunoreceptor-like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17913496 Immunoreceptor-like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. Jakus Z, Fod...) Show Immunoreceptor-like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. PubmedID 17913496 Title Immunoreceptor-...like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. Authors Jakus Z, Fodor S, Abram CL

  20. Beta-diversity of ectoparasites at two spatial scales: nested hierarchy, geography and habitat type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Elizabeth M; van der Mescht, Luther; Stanko, Michal; Vinarski, Maxim V; Korallo-Vinarskaya, Natalia P; Khokhlova, Irina S; Krasnov, Boris R

    2017-06-01

    Beta-diversity of biological communities can be decomposed into (a) dissimilarity of communities among units of finer scale within units of broader scale and (b) dissimilarity of communities among units of broader scale. We investigated compositional, phylogenetic/taxonomic and functional beta-diversity of compound communities of fleas and gamasid mites parasitic on small Palearctic mammals in a nested hierarchy at two spatial scales: (a) continental scale (across the Palearctic) and (b) regional scale (across sites within Slovakia). At each scale, we analyzed beta-diversity among smaller units within larger units and among larger units with partitioning based on either geography or ecology. We asked (a) whether compositional, phylogenetic/taxonomic and functional dissimilarities of flea and mite assemblages are scale dependent; (b) how geographical (partitioning of sites according to geographic position) or ecological (partitioning of sites according to habitat type) characteristics affect phylogenetic/taxonomic and functional components of dissimilarity of ectoparasite assemblages and (c) whether assemblages of fleas and gamasid mites differ in their degree of dissimilarity, all else being equal. We found that compositional, phylogenetic/taxonomic, or functional beta-diversity was greater on a continental rather than a regional scale. Compositional and phylogenetic/taxonomic components of beta-diversity were greater among larger units than among smaller units within larger units, whereas functional beta-diversity did not exhibit any consistent trend regarding site partitioning. Geographic partitioning resulted in higher values of beta-diversity of ectoparasites than ecological partitioning. Compositional and phylogenetic components of beta-diversity were higher in fleas than mites but the opposite was true for functional beta-diversity in some, but not all, traits.

  1. Arsenic compounds in a marine food chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goessler, W.; Irgolic, K.J.; Kuehnelt, D.; Schlagenhaufen, C. [Institute for Analytical Chemistry, Karl-Franzens-Universitaet Graz, Universitaetsplatz 1, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Maher, W. [CRC for Freshwater Ecology, University of Canberra, PO Box 1, Belconnen ACT. 2616 (Australia); Kaise, T. [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry, School of Life Science, University of Pharmacy and Life Science, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachijoji, Tokyo 192-03 (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A three-organism food chain within a rock pool at Rosedale, NSW, Australia, was investigated with respect to arsenic compounds by high performance liquid chromatography - hydraulic high pressure nebulization - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-HHPN-ICP-MS). Total arsenic concentration was determined in the seaweed Hormosira banksii (27.2 {mu}g/g dry mass), in the gastropod Austrocochlea constricta (74.4 {mu}g/g dry mass), which consumes the seaweed, and in the gastropod Morula marginalba (233 {mu}g/g dry mass), which eats Austrocochlea constricta. The major arsenic compounds in the seaweed were (2`R)-dimethyl[1-O-(2`,3`-dihydroxypropyl)-5-deoxy-{beta}-d-ribofuranos-5-yl]arsine oxide and an unidentified compound. The herbivorous gastropod Austrocochlea constricta transformed most of the arsenic taken up with the seaweed to arsenobetaine. Traces of arsenite, arsenate, dimethylarsinic acid, arsenocholine, the tetramethylarsonium cation, and several unknown arsenic compounds were detected. Arsenobetaine accounted for 95% of the arsenic in the carnivorous gastropod Morula marginalba. In Morula marginalba the concentration of arsenocholine was higher, and the concentrations of the minor arsenic compounds lower than in the herbivorous gastropod Austrocochlea constricta. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab., 13 refs.

  2. Metalo-beta-lactamases Metallo-beta-lactamases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Elisandro Mendes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos tem sido observada maior incidência de bacilos Gram-negativos resistentes a cefalosporinas de espectro ampliado no ambiente hospitalar, ocasionando, assim, maior uso de betalactâmicos mais potentes, como os carbapenens. A utilização de carbapenens exerce maior pressão seletiva sobre a microbiota hospitalar, o que pode ocasionar aumento da resistência a esses agentes. Entre os mecanismos de resistência a carbapenens mais comumente identificados estão a produção de betalactamases, como, por exemplo, as pertencentes à classe D de Ambler e as que pertencem à classe B de Ambler, ou metalo-beta-lactamases (MbetaL. Essas últimas hidrolisam todos betalactâmicos comercialmente disponíveis, sendo a única exceção o monobactam aztreonam. Desde o início da década de 1990, novos genes que codificam MbetaLs têm sido descritos em microrganismos clinicamente importantes, como Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter spp. e membros da família Enterobacteriaceae. O encontro desses microrganismos não-sensíveis a carbapenens pode ser submetido a metodologias fenotípicas para detecção da produção de MbetaL com o intuito de auxiliar a Comissão de Controle de Infecção Hospitalar (CCIH e prevenir a disseminação desses determinantes de resistência, uma vez que genes que codificam MbetaLs estão contidos em estruturas genéticas que propiciam sua mobilidade de forma muito efetiva, sendo então facilmente disseminados.Increase isolation of Gram-negative bacilli resistant to broad-spectrum cephalosporin has been observed during the last few years, thus determining the use of more potent beta-lactams, such as carbapenems. The use of these antimicrobial agents may lead to the emergence of carbapenem resistant Gram-negative bacilli in the nosocomial environment. Carbapenem resistance may be due to the production of Ambler class D beta-lactamase or Ambler class B beta-lactamase, also called metallo-beta-lactamase (MbetaL. Apart from

  3. Method for Screening Compounds That Influence Virulence Gene Expression in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, A.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Frees, D.

    2010-01-01

    We present a simple assay to examine effects of compounds on virulence gene expression in the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. The assay employs transcriptional reporter strains carrying lacZ fused to central virulence genes. Compounds affecting virulence gene expression and activity...... of the agr locus are scored based on color change in the presence of a chromogenic beta-galactosidase substrate. The assay can be used to screen for novel antivirulence compounds from many different sources, such as fungi, as demonstrated here....

  4. Identification and quantification of major maillard cross-links in human serum albumin and lens protein. Evidence for glucosepane as the dominant compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biemel, Klaus M; Friedl, D Alexander; Lederer, Markus O

    2002-07-12

    Glycation reactions leading to protein modifications (advanced glycation end products) contribute to various pathologies associated with the general aging process and long term complications of diabetes. However, only few relevant compounds have so far been detected in vivo. We now report on the first unequivocal identification of the lysine-arginine cross-links glucosepane 5, DOGDIC 6, MODIC 7, and GODIC 8 in human material. For their accurate quantification by coupled liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, (13)C-labeled reference compounds were synthesized independently. Compounds 5-8 are formed via the alpha-dicarbonyl compounds N(6)-(2,3-dihydroxy-5,6-dioxohexyl)-l-lysinate (1a,b), 3-deoxyglucosone (), methylglyoxal (), and glyoxal (), respectively. The protein-bound dideoxyosone 1a,b seems to be of prime significance for cross-linking because it presumably is not detoxified by mammalian enzymes as readily as 2-4. Hence, the follow-up product glucosepane 5 was found to be the dominant compound. Up to 42.3 pmol of 5/mg of protein was identified in human serum albumin of diabetics; the level of 5 correlates markedly with the glycated hemoglobin HbA(1c). In the water-insoluble fraction of lens proteins from normoglycemics, concentration of 5 ranges between 132.3 and 241.7 pmol/mg. The advanced glycoxidation end product GODIC 8 is elevated significantly in brunescent lenses, indicating enhanced oxidative stress in this material. Compounds 5-8 thus appear predestined as markers for pathophysiological processes.

  5. Curcumin decreases amyloid-beta peptide levels by attenuating the maturation of amyloid-beta precursor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Can; Browne, Andrew; Child, Daniel; Tanzi, Rudolph E

    2010-09-10

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease with no cure. The pathogenesis of AD is believed to be driven primarily by amyloid-beta (Abeta), the principal component of senile plaques. Abeta is an approximately 4-kDa peptide generated via cleavage of the amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP). Curcumin is a compound in the widely used culinary spice, turmeric, which possesses potent and broad biological activities, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, chemopreventative effects, and effects on protein trafficking. Recent in vivo studies indicate that curcumin is able to reduce Abeta-related pathology in transgenic AD mouse models via unknown molecular mechanisms. Here, we investigated the effects of curcumin on Abeta levels and APP processing in various cell lines and mouse primary cortical neurons. We show for the first time that curcumin potently lowers Abeta levels by attenuating the maturation of APP in the secretory pathway. These data provide a mechanism of action for the ability of curcumin to attenuate amyloid-beta pathology.

  6. The effect of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies on pancreatic beta cell function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woynillowicz, Amanda K.; Raha, Sandeep; Nicholson, Catherine J.; Holloway, Alison C.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of our study was to evaluate whether drugs currently used for smoking cessation (i.e., nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline [a partial agonist at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR)] and bupropion [which acts in part as a nAChR antagonist]) can affect beta cell function and determine the mechanism(s) of this effect. INS-1E cells, a rat beta cell line, were treated with nicotine, varenicline and bupropion to determine their effects on beta cell function, mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activity and cellular/oxidative stress. Treatment of INS-1E cells with equimolar concentrations (1 μM) of three test compounds resulted in an ablation of normal glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by the cells. This disruption of normal beta cell function was associated with mitochondrial dysfunction since all three compounds tested significantly decreased the activity of mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activity. These results raise the possibility that the currently available smoking cessation pharmacotherapies may also have adverse effects on beta cell function and thus glycemic control in vivo. Therefore whether or not the use of nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline and bupropion can cause endocrine changes which are consistent with impaired pancreatic function warrants further investigation. -- Highlights: ► Smoking cessation drugs have the potential to disrupt beta cell function in vitro. ► The effects of nicotine, varenicline and bupropion are similar. ► The impaired beta cell function is mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction. ► If similar effects are seen in vivo, these drugs may increase the risk of diabetes.

  7. The effect of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies on pancreatic beta cell function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woynillowicz, Amanda K. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Raha, Sandeep [Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Nicholson, Catherine J. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Holloway, Alison C., E-mail: hollow@mcmaster.ca [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3Z5 (Canada)

    2012-11-15

    The goal of our study was to evaluate whether drugs currently used for smoking cessation (i.e., nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline [a partial agonist at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR)] and bupropion [which acts in part as a nAChR antagonist]) can affect beta cell function and determine the mechanism(s) of this effect. INS-1E cells, a rat beta cell line, were treated with nicotine, varenicline and bupropion to determine their effects on beta cell function, mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activity and cellular/oxidative stress. Treatment of INS-1E cells with equimolar concentrations (1 μM) of three test compounds resulted in an ablation of normal glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by the cells. This disruption of normal beta cell function was associated with mitochondrial dysfunction since all three compounds tested significantly decreased the activity of mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activity. These results raise the possibility that the currently available smoking cessation pharmacotherapies may also have adverse effects on beta cell function and thus glycemic control in vivo. Therefore whether or not the use of nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline and bupropion can cause endocrine changes which are consistent with impaired pancreatic function warrants further investigation. -- Highlights: ► Smoking cessation drugs have the potential to disrupt beta cell function in vitro. ► The effects of nicotine, varenicline and bupropion are similar. ► The impaired beta cell function is mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction. ► If similar effects are seen in vivo, these drugs may increase the risk of diabetes.

  8. Fasting mitigates immediate hypersensitivity: a pivotal role of endogenous D-beta-hydroxybutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shigeru; Hisamura, Ryuji; Shimoda, Sachiko; Shibuya, Izumi; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Fasting is a rigorous type of dietary restriction that is associate with a number of health benefits. During fasting, ketone bodies significantly increase in blood and become major body fuels, thereby sparing glucose. In the present study, we investigated effects of fasting on hypersensitivity. In addition, we also investigated the possible role of D-beta-hydroxybutyrate provoked by fasting in the attenuation of immediate hypersensitivity by fasting. Effects of fasting on systemic anaphylaxis were examined using rat model of toluene 2, 4-diisocyanate induced nasal allergy. In addition to food restriction, a ketogenic high-fat and low-carbohydrate diet that accelerates fatty acid oxidation and systemic instillation of D-beta-hydroxybutyrate were employed to elevate internal D-beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration. We assessed relationship between degranulation of rat peritoneal mast cells and internal D-beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration in each treatment. Changes in [Ca(2+)]i responses to compound 48/80 were analyzed in fura 2-loaded rat peritoneal mast cells derived from the ketogenic diet and fasting. Immediate hypersensitivity reaction was significantly suppressed by fasting. A significant reduction in mast cells degranulation, induced by mast cell activator compound 48/80, was observed in rat peritoneal mast cells delivered from the 24 hours fasting treatment. In addition, mast cells delivered from a ketogenic diet and D-beta-hydroxybutyrate infusion treatment also had reduced mast cell degranulation and systemic D-beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were elevated to similar extent as the fasting state. The peak increase in [Ca(2+)]i was significantly lower in the ketogenic diet and fasting group than that in the control diet group. The results of the present study demonstrates that fasting suppress hypersensitivity reaction, and indicate that increased level of D-beta-hydroxybutyrate by fasting plays an important role, via the stabilization of mast cells, in

  9. Resistance training & beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation on hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOIntroduction:In recent years, there was an increased interest on the effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB supplementation on skeletal muscle due to its anti-catabolic effects.Objectives:To investigate the effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, muscular strength and anabolic-catabolic hormones after resistance training.Methods:Twenty amateur male athletes were randomly assigned to supplement and control groups in a double-blind crossover design and participated in four weeks resistance training. Before and after the test period fasting blood samples were obtained to determine anabolic (the growth hormone and testosterone and catabolic (cortisol hormones, and fat mass, lean body mass (LBM and muscular strength were measured. Dependent and independent t-tests were used to analyze data.Results:After the training period, there were no significant differen-ces between the groups with respect to fat mass, LBM and anabolic-catabolic hormones. HMB supplementation resulted in a significantly greater strength gain (p≤0.05.Conclusion:Greater increase in strength for HMB group was not accompanied by body composition and basal circulating anabolic-catabolic hormonal changes. It seems that HMB supplementation may have beneficial effects on neurological adaptations of strength gain.

  10. Electrets for beta radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, L.L.; Caldas, L.V.E.; Mascarenhas, S.

    1983-01-01

    Electret dosimetry has been reviewed by Gross. A cylindrical electret ionization-chamber type dosimeter has been studied for X and gamma rays and neutrons. The principle of the dosimeter is electret charge compensation due to ionization in the chamber volume. Electret ionization chambers can be designed with one or more electrets and in various shapes. This study is concerned with a simple system, similar to a cylindrical ionization chamber (sensitive volume: 3,5 cm 3 ) using teflon electrets. Aluminum and lucite were used as wall-materials. Other experiences were performed using chambers without wall, i.e., without defined sensitive volume. The teflon electrets were obtained by Corona discharge in the gas surrounding them. The measurement of the electret charge was made by induction using a co-axial insulated metal chamber connected to an electrometer Keithley 610C. By measuring the charge before and after irradiation it is possible to obtain a calibration curve: charge (Q) versus absorbed dose (D) for the dosimeter. The irradiation setup used was the Beta Secondary Standard System of IPEN calibration laboratory with four beta sources: 90 Sr 90 Y (74 and 1850 MBq), 204 Tl (18,5 MBq) and 147 Pm (518 MBq). In some cases a 85 Kr source was also used. The electrets were tested in different radiation field geometries: electret axis parallel and perpendicular to the field. In conclusion, depending on the wall material and radiation field geometry, the teflon electret detector can be used for different dose interval determinations, using beta radiation

  11. Current and future alternative therapies for beta-thalassemia major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edouard de Dreuzy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Beta-thalassemia is a group of frequent genetic disorders resulting in the synthesis of little or no β-globin chains. Novel approaches are being developed to correct the resulting α/β-globin chain imbalance, in an effort to move beyond the palliative management of this disease and the complications of its treatment (e.g. life-long red blood cell transfusion, iron chelation, splenectomy, which impose high costs on healthcare systems. Three approaches are envisaged: fetal globin gene reactivation by pharmacological compounds injected into patients throughout their lives, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT, and gene therapy. HSCT is currently the only treatment shown to provide an effective, definitive cure for β-thalassemia. However, this procedure remains risky and histocompatible donors are identified for only a small fraction of patients. New pharmacological compounds are being tested, but none has yet made it into common clinical practice for the treatment of beta-thalassemia major. Gene therapy is in the experimental phase. It is emerging as a powerful approach without the immunological complications of HSCT, but with other possible drawbacks. Rapid progress is being made in this field, and long-term efficacy and safety studies are underway.

  12. Antioxidative properties of harmane and beta-carboline alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, S Y; Mak, I T; Dickens, B F

    1991-07-15

    beta-Carboline alkaloids are derived as a result of condensation between indoleamine (e.g. tryptamine) and short-chain carboxylic acid (e.g. pyruvic acid) or aldehyde (e.g. acetaldehyde), a reaction that occurs readily at room temperature. These compounds have been found endogenously in human and animal tissues and may be formed as a byproduct of secondary metabolism: their endogenous functions however, are not well understood. Indoles and tryptophan derivatives exhibit antioxidative actions by scavenging free radicals and forming resonance stabilized indolyl radicals. Harmane and related compounds exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of lipid peroxidation (measured as thiobarbiturate reactive products) in a hepatic microsomal preparation incubated with either enzymatic dependent (Fe3+ ADP/NADPH) or non-enzymatic dependent (Fe3+ ADP/dihydroxyfumarate) oxygen radical producing systems. Alkaloids with hydroxyl substitution and a partially desaturated pyridyl ring were found to have the highest antioxidative potencies. Substitution of a hydroxyl group by a methoxyl group at the 6-position resulted in a decrease of greater than 10-fold in the antioxidative activities. Harmane showed high efficacy in an enzymatic system but low efficacy in a non-enzymatic system. The antioxidative effects of harmane in the former system may be attributed to its ability to inhibit oxidative enzymes in the microsomal system. These results suggest that beta-carbolines may also serve as endogenous antioxidants.

  13. Abstraction Mechanisms in the BETA Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    1983-01-01

    . It is then necessary that the abstraction mechanisms are powerful in order to define more specialized constructs. BETA is an object oriented language like SIMULA 67 ([SIMULA]) and SMALLTALK ([SMALLTALK]). By this is meant that a construct like the SIMULA class/subclass mechanism is fundamental in BETA. In contrast......]) --- covering both data, procedural and control abstractions, substituting constructs like class, procedure, function and type. Correspondingly objects, procedure activation records and variables are all regarded as special cases of the basic building block of program executions: the entity. A pattern thus......The BETA programming language is developed as part of the BETA project. The purpose of this project is to develop concepts, constructs and tools in the field of programming and programming languages. BETA has been developed from 1975 on and the various stages of the language are documented in [BETA...

  14. High-beta linac structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriber, S.O.

    1979-01-01

    Accelerating structures for high-beta linacs that have been and are in use are reviewed in terms of their performance. Particular emphasis is given to room-temperature structures and the disk-and-washer structure. The disk-and-washer structure has many attractive features that are discussed for pulsed high-gradient linacs, for 100% duty-cycle medium-gradient linacs and for high-current linacs requiring maximal amounts of stored energy in the electric fields available to the beam

  15. Metabolic consequences of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade for the acutely ischemic dog myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westera, G.; Hollander, W. den; Wall, E.E. van der; Eenige, M.J. van; Scholtalbers, S.; Visser, F.C.; Roos, J.P.

    1984-02-01

    In an experimental study in 50 dogs the myocardial uptake of free fatty acids (FFAs) after beta-blockade was determined using radioiodinated heptadecanoic acid as a metabolic tracer. All 4 beta-blockers used (metoprolol, timolol, propranolol and pindolol) lowered the uptake of FFAs in the normal canine heart. Uptake of FFAs was also diminished after coronary artery occlusion per se, but administration of beta-blockers exerted little additional influence on the uptake of FFAs. This observation was qualitatively parallelled by the uptake of /sup 201/Tl in concomitant experiments. Plasma FFA levels were increased by pindolol (non-selective with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity), not changed by metoprolol (a cardioselective betablocking agent) and lowered by timolol and propranolol (both non-selective compounds). The extent of ischemic tissue, as reflected by uptake of iodoheptadecanoic acid and /sup 201/Tl, was diminished by metoprolol but not by other beta-blockers. Regional distribution of both tracers, as shown in the endo-epicardial uptake ratios, was hardly influenced by beta-blockade, except for a small increase of /sup 201/Tl uptake in non-occluded endocardium. Uptake of /sup 201/Tl as well as of iodoheptadecanoic acid in the ischemic area was increased by metoprolol, timolol and propranolol and decreased by pindolol. We conclude that beta-blocking agents confer different effects on myocardial uptake and metabolism of FFAs which might possibly be related to their different inherent properties.

  16. Metabolic consequences of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade for the acutely ischemic dog myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westera, G.; Hollander, W. den; Wall, E.E. van der; Eenige, M.J. van; Scholtalbers, S.; Visser, F.C.; Roos, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    In an experimental study in 50 dogs the myocardial uptake of free fatty acids (FFAs) after beta-blockade was determined using radioiodinated heptadecanoic acid as a metabolic tracer. All 4 beta-blockers used (metoprolol, timolol, propranolol and pindolol) lowered the uptake of FFAs in the normal canine heart. Uptake of FFAs was also diminished after coronary artery occlusion per se, but administration of beta-blockers exerted little additional influence on the uptake of FFAs. This observation was qualitatively parallelled by the uptake of 201 Tl in concomitant experiments. Plasma FFA levels were increased by pindolol (non-selective with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity), not changed by metoprolol (a cardioselective betablocking agent) and lowered by timolol and propranolol (both non-selective compounds). The extent of ischemic tissue, as reflected by uptake of iodoheptadecanoic acid and 201 Tl, was diminished by metoprolol but not by other beta-blockers. Regional distribution of both tracers, as shown in the endo-epicardial uptake ratios, was hardly influenced by beta-blockade, except for a small increase of 201 Tl uptake in non-occluded endocardium. Uptake of 201 Tl as well as of iodoheptadecanoic acid in the ischemic area was increased by metoprolol, timolol and propranolol and decreased by pindolol. We conclude that beta-blocking agents confer different effects on myocardial uptake and metabolism of FFAs which might possibly be related to their different inherent properties. (orig.) [de

  17. Inhibitory effect of different product analogues on {beta}-alanine synthase: A thermodynamic and fluorescence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andujar-Sanchez, Montserrat; Martinez-Gomez, Ana Isabel; Martinez-Rodriguez, Sergio; Clemente-Jimenez, Josefa Maria; Heras-Vazquez, Francisco Javier Las; Rodriguez-Vico, Felipe [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Bioquimica y Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Almeria, Carretera de Sacramento s/n, La Canada de San Urbano, Almeria 04120 (Spain); Jara-Perez, Vicente [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Bioquimica y Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Almeria, Carretera de Sacramento s/n, La Canada de San Urbano, Almeria 04120 (Spain)], E-mail: vjara@ual.es

    2009-02-15

    The enzyme N-carbamoyl-{beta}-alanine amidohydrolase catalyse the hydrolysis of N-carbamoyl-{beta}-alanine or N-carbamoyl-{beta}-aminoisobutyric acid to {beta}-alanine or 3-aminoisobutyric acid, under the release of carbon-dioxide and ammonia. This work studies the inhibition of N-carbamoyl-{beta}-alanine amidohydrolase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 (At{beta}car) by different carboxylic acid compounds that differ in number of carbons, and position and size of ramification, while the binding thermodynamics of the inhibitors are studied by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and fluorescence. From the binding constants and inhibition studies, we conclude that propionate is the most efficient inhibitor among those tested. Substitution of the linear alkyl acids in positions 2 and 3 resulted in a drastic decrease of the affinity. The thermodynamic parameters show that a conformational change is triggered upon ligand binding. Binding enthalpy {delta}H{sub b} is negative in all cases for all ligands, and thus, Van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonding are most probably the major sources for this term. The process is entropically favoured at all temperatures and pH studied, most probably due to the liberation of water molecules accompanying the conformational change of the enzyme.

  18. Targeting Cellular Calcium Homeostasis to Prevent Cytokine-Mediated Beta Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Amy L; Kanekura, Kohsuke; Lavagnino, Zeno; Spears, Larry D; Abreu, Damien; Mahadevan, Jana; Yagi, Takuya; Semenkovich, Clay F; Piston, David W; Urano, Fumihiko

    2017-07-17

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines are important mediators of islet inflammation, leading to beta cell death in type 1 diabetes. Although alterations in both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and cytosolic free calcium levels are known to play a role in cytokine-mediated beta cell death, there are currently no treatments targeting cellular calcium homeostasis to combat type 1 diabetes. Here we show that modulation of cellular calcium homeostasis can mitigate cytokine- and ER stress-mediated beta cell death. The calcium modulating compounds, dantrolene and sitagliptin, both prevent cytokine and ER stress-induced activation of the pro-apoptotic calcium-dependent enzyme, calpain, and partly suppress beta cell death in INS1E cells and human primary islets. These agents are also able to restore cytokine-mediated suppression of functional ER calcium release. In addition, sitagliptin preserves function of the ER calcium pump, sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase (SERCA), and decreases levels of the pro-apoptotic protein thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP). Supporting the role of TXNIP in cytokine-mediated cell death, knock down of TXNIP in INS1-E cells prevents cytokine-mediated beta cell death. Our findings demonstrate that modulation of dynamic cellular calcium homeostasis and TXNIP suppression present viable pharmacologic targets to prevent cytokine-mediated beta cell loss in diabetes.

  19. Theoretical aspects of double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    Considerable effort has been expended recently in theoretical studies of double beta decay. Much of this work has focussed on the constraints this process places on gauge theories of the weak interaction, in general, and on the neutrino mass matrix, in particular. In addition, interesting nuclear structure questions have arisen in studies of double beta decay matrix elements. After briefly reviewing the theory of double beta decay, some of the progress that has been made in these areas is summarized. 25 references

  20. Origins of Beta Tantalum in Sputtered Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mulligan, C

    2001-01-01

    .... Some of the most recent work has attempted to relate the energetics (i.e., atom/ion energy) of the plasma to the alpha right arrow beta transition. It has been shown that the energetics of the plasma can relate to the most crucial sputtering parameters. The most significant feature of the use of plasma energy to explain the alpha right arrow beta transition is that it relates the formation of beta-tantalum to a quantifiable measure.

  1. High beta plasmas in the PBX tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol, K.; Buchenauer, D.; Chance, M.

    1986-04-01

    Bean-shaped configurations favorable for high β discharges have been investigated in the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) tokamak. Strongly indented bean-shaped plasmas have been successfully formed, and beta values of over 5% have been obtained with 5 MW of injected neutral beam power. These high beta discharges still lie in the first stability regime for ballooning modes, and MHD stability analysis implicates the external kink as responsible for the present β limit

  2. Modification of polyethylene films by radiation grafting of glycidyl methacrylate and immobilization of {beta}-cyclodextrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava-Ortiz, C.A.B. [Departamento de Quimica de Radiaciones y Radioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico DF 04510 (Mexico); Burillo, G. [Departamento de Quimica de Radiaciones y Radioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico DF 04510 (Mexico)], E-mail: burillo@nucleares.unam.mx; Bucio, E. [Departamento de Quimica de Radiaciones y Radioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico DF 04510 (Mexico); Alvarez-Lorenzo, C. [Departamento de Farmacia y Tecnologia Farmaceutica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    Glycidyl methacrylate was grafted onto polyethylene films using a preirradiation method with {gamma} rays. The effect of absorbed dose, monomer concentration, and reaction time on the degree of grafting was determined. The grafted samples were verified by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. {beta}-Cyclodextrin was immobilized onto polypropylene modified with glycidyl methacrylate, and the ability of the cavities of {beta}-cyclodextrin to form inclusion complexes was demonstrated using the typically organic compound approach with m-toluic acid (3-MBA) as a probe.

  3. Lipidated alpha-Peptide/beta-Peptoid Hybrids with Potent Antiinflammatory Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbakke, Sarah L.; Larsen, Camilla J.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2015-01-01

    is dependent on the length and position of the lipid element(s). The resulting lead compound, Pam-(Lys-beta NSpe)(6)-NH2, blocks LPS-induced cytokine secretion with a potency comparable to that of polymyxin B. The mode of action of this HDP mimic appears not to involve direct LPS interaction since it......, in contrast to polymyxin B, displayed only minor activity in the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Flow cytometry data showed specific interaction of a fluorophore-labeled lipidated a-peptide/beta-peptoid hybrid with monocytes and granulocytes indicating a cellular target expressed by these leukocyte subsets....

  4. Monitor for alpha beta contamination of hands; Moniteur de contamination alpha beta des mains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guitton, J

    1958-07-01

    The following specifications of hands alpha beta contamination monitor are presented: the position of the hands, the detection and separation of alpha and beta, the information processing, the programming, the results presentation and general characteristics. (A.L.B.)

  5. Anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effect of a phytoestrogen compound on rat microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, F; Mao, G S; Liu, T; Chui, D H; Lorenzetti, A; Xiao, Y; Marandola, P

    2006-11-01

    Ovariectomized Wistar rats received orally 15 mg/kg of a phytoestrogen compound (genistein, daidzein, glycitein, black cohosh, angelica sin., licorice, vitex agnus) for 2 weeks to test its ability to modulate inflammatory microglia response. Microglial proliferation was tested by trypan blue and by absorbance. Serial supernatant sampling was performed for 24 h to check TNF-alpha, IL-beta, IL-6, and TGF-beta. LPS caused a time course increase of all cytokines, with IL-beta and TNF-alpha peaking at the 12th hour, whereas IL-6 and TGF-beta peaked at the 24 h observation. Rats fed with the phytoestrogen displayed a significantly lower level of proinflammatory cytokines and a higher level of TGF-beta, as shown also by Western blot analysis. This finding may offer promise in the field of nutraceutical intervention.

  6. Sawtooth crashes at high beta on JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alper, B; Huysmans, G T.A.; Sips, A C.C. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Nave, M F.F. [Universidade Tecnica, Lisbon (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico

    1994-07-01

    The sawtooth crashes on JET display features which depend on beta. The main observation is a transient bulging of flux surfaces (duration inferior to 30 microsec.), which is predominantly on the low field side and extends to larger radii as beta increases. This phenomenon reaches the plasma boundary when beta{sub N} exceeds 0.5 and in these cases is followed by an ELM within 50 microsec. These sawtooth/ELM events limit plasma performance. Modelling of mode coupling shows qualitative agreement between observations of the structure of the sawtooth precursor and the calculated internal kink mode at high beta. (authors). 6 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen

    2015-08-31

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows' milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows' milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows' milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  8. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebely Pal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows’ milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows’ milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows’ milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  9. MOPITT Beta Level 1 Radiances V107

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOPITT Beta Level 1 data product consists of the geolocated, calibrated earth scene radiances, associated instrument engineering data summaries, and inflight...

  10. Fabrication of beta particles detector for RMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W. G.; Kim, Y. G.; Kim, J. B.; Jeong, J. E.; Hong, S. B.

    2003-01-01

    The beta particles detector for RMS (radiation monitoring system) was fabricated to detect charged beta particles. The plastic scintillator was cutted, shaped, polished to make plastic disk for beta particles. The diameter of completed plastic scintillator disk is 40 mm and thickness is 1.5 mm. The mylar film and aluminium foil were used the front of plastic scintillator to intercept light and moisture. The completed plastic detector for RMS consist of the discriminator and counter were made by ULS (Co.). The absolute efficiency of plastic detector was 45.51% for beta particles (Sr/Y - 90)

  11. Species used for drug testing reveal different inhibition susceptibility for 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Möller

    Full Text Available Steroid-related cancers can be treated by inhibitors of steroid metabolism. In searching for new inhibitors of human 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17beta-HSD 1 for the treatment of breast cancer or endometriosis, novel substances based on 15-substituted estrone were validated. We checked the specificity for different 17beta-HSD types and species. Compounds were tested for specificity in vitro not only towards recombinant human 17beta-HSD types 1, 2, 4, 5 and 7 but also against 17beta-HSD 1 of several other species including marmoset, pig, mouse, and rat. The latter are used in the processes of pharmacophore screening. We present the quantification of inhibitor preferences between human and animal models. Profound differences in the susceptibility to inhibition of steroid conversion among all 17beta-HSDs analyzed were observed. Especially, the rodent 17beta-HSDs 1 were significantly less sensitive to inhibition compared to the human ortholog, while the most similar inhibition pattern to the human 17beta-HSD 1 was obtained with the marmoset enzyme. Molecular docking experiments predicted estrone as the most potent inhibitor. The best performing compound in enzymatic assays was also highly ranked by docking scoring for the human enzyme. However, species-specific prediction of inhibitor performance by molecular docking was not possible. We show that experiments with good candidate compounds would out-select them in the rodent model during preclinical optimization steps. Potentially active human-relevant drugs, therefore, would no longer be further developed. Activity and efficacy screens in heterologous species systems must be evaluated with caution.

  12. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garfagnini, A.

    2014-08-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is the only process known so far able to test the neutrino intrinsic nature: its experimental observation would imply that the lepton number is violated by two units and prove that neutrinos have a Majorana mass components, being their own anti-particle. While several experiments searching for such a rare decay have been per- formed in the past, a new generation of experiments using different isotopes and techniques have recently released their results or are taking data and will provide new limits, should no signal be observed, in the next few years to come. The present contribution reviews the latest public results on double beta decay searches and gives an overview on the expected sensitivities of the experiments in construction which will be able to set stronger limits in the near future. EXO and KamLAND-Zen experiments are based on the decay of Xe 136 , GERDA and MAJORANA experiments are based on the decay of Ge 76 , and the CUORE experiment is based on the decay of Te 130

  13. Beta attenuation transmission system (BATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, R.C.; Fullbright, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm/sup 2/, of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A /sup 90/Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (..mu..P) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined.

  14. Beta attenuation transmission system (BATS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, R.C.; Fullbright, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm 2 , of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A 90 Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (μP) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined

  15. Challenges in Double Beta Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliviero Cremonesi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past ten years, neutrino oscillation experiments have provided the incontrovertible evidence that neutrinos mix and have finite masses. These results represent the strongest demonstration that the electroweak Standard Model is incomplete and that new Physics beyond it must exist. In this scenario, a unique role is played by the Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay searches which can probe lepton number conservation and investigate the Dirac/Majorana nature of the neutrinos and their absolute mass scale (hierarchy problem with unprecedented sensitivity. Today Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay faces a new era where large-scale experiments with a sensitivity approaching the so-called degenerate-hierarchy region are nearly ready to start and where the challenge for the next future is the construction of detectors characterized by a tonne-scale size and an incredibly low background. A number of new proposed projects took up this challenge. These are based either on large expansions of the present experiments or on new ideas to improve the technical performance and/or reduce the background contributions. In this paper, a review of the most relevant ongoing experiments is given. The most relevant parameters contributing to the experimental sensitivity are discussed and a critical comparison of the future projects is proposed.

  16. Natural polypeptide scaffolds: beta-sheets, beta-turns, and beta-hairpins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondi, Kenneth S; Gierasch, Lila M

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to fundamental conformational states of polypeptides in the beta-region of phi,psi space, in which the backbone is extended near to its maximal length, and to more complex architectures in which extended segments are linked by turns and loops. There are several variants on these conformations, and they comprise versatile scaffolds for presentation of side chains and backbone amides for molecular recognition and designed catalysts. In addition, the geometry of these fundamental folds can be readily mimicked in peptidomimetics. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Complement activation by the amyloid proteins A beta peptide and beta 2-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Nielsen, E H; Svehag, S E

    1999-01-01

    component nor heparan sulfate did significantly alter the A beta-induced CA. The results indicate that not only fibrillar A beta but also oligomers of, in particular, beta 2M from patients with dialysis-associated amyloidosis are capable of inducing CA at supra-physiological concentrations....

  18. Cloning and characterization of human liver cytosolic beta-glycosidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Graaf, M; Van Veen, IC; Van Der Meulen-Muileman, IH; Gerritsen, WR; Pinedo, HM; Haisma, HJ

    2001-01-01

    Cytosolic beta -glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21) from mammalian liver is a member of the family 1 glycoside hydrolases and is known for its ability to hydrolyse a range of beta -D-glycosides. including beta -D-glucoside acid beta -D-galactoside. We therefore refer to this enzyme as cytosolic beta

  19. Beta-glucosidase variants and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogulis, Mark; Harris, Paul; Osborn, David

    2017-06-27

    The present invention relates to beta-glucosidase variants, e.g. beta-glucosidase variants of a parent Family GH3A beta-glucosidase from Aspergillus fumigatus. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the beta-glucosidase variants; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the beta-glucosidase variants.

  20. Molecular distribution, seasonal variation, chemical transformation and sources of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds in atmospheric aerosols at remote marine Gosan site, Jeju Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, S.; Kawamura, K.; Lee, M.

    2009-12-01

    : A homologous series of C2-C12 α, ω-dicarboxylic acids, ω-oxocarboxylic acids (C2-C9), pyruvic acid and α-dicarbonyls (C2-C3) were detected in atmospheric aerosols collected between April 2003 and April 2004 from remote marine Gosan site (33°29‧ N, 126°16‧ E) located in Jeju Island, South Korea. They were determined using a GC-FID and GC/MS. Total diacid concentration ranged from 130 to 1911 ng m-3 (av. 642 ng m-3), whereas total oxoacid concentration ranged from 7 to 155 ng m-3 (av. 43 ng m-3), and pyruvic acid and α-dicarbonyls ranged from 0.5 to 15 ng m-3 (av. 5 ng m-3) and 2-108 ng m-3 (av. 17.3 ng m-3), respectively. Oxalic (C2) acid was the most abundant in all seasons followed by malonic (C3) or succinic (C4) acid, and phthalic (Ph) acid. The concentration of diacids decreased with an increase in carbon number except for azelaic (C9) acid, which was more abundant than suberic (C8) acid. Glyoxylic acid was predominant ω-oxoacid contributing to 92% of total ω-oxoacid. Total diacids, oxoacids and dicarbonyls showed maximum concentrations in spring and occasionally in winter, while minimum concentrations were observed in summer. Air mass trajectory analysis suggests that either spring or winter maxima can be explained by strong continental outflow associated with cold front passages, while summer minima are associated with warm southerly flows, which transport clean marine air from low latitudes to Jeju Island. The comparison between total diacid concentration level of this study and other study results of urban and remote sites of East Asia reveals that Gosan site is more heavily influenced by the continental outflow from China. The seasonal variation of malonic/succinic (C3/C4), malic/succinic (hC4/C4), fumaric/maleic (F/M), oxalic/pyruvic (C2/Py) and oxalic/Glyoxal (C2/Gly) ratios showed maxima in summer due to an enhanced photo-production and degradation of diacids and related compounds. Throughout all seasons C3/C4 ratio at Gosan site, located

  1. {beta} {gamma} porch detector; Detecteur portique {beta} {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roulet, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    This device is to be placed at the outside of reactors, hot laboratories and others where radioactive products are treated; it is intended to give the alarm when someone, passing through the porch is greatly contaminated, or carries, without his knowing, a radioactive substance. Being to be used in places where there might be an important ground noise, this device is provided with an automatic offset of this noise; an adjusting system of sensitivity allows to obtain a 15 {mu}Ci in {gamma} and 10 {mu}Ci in {beta} radioactive source, passing through the porch at the normal speed at which man is walking. A battery, set in buffer, allows working of the device, even when current is off. (author) [French] Cet appareil est destine a etre place a la sortie des reacteurs, laboratoires chauds ou autres laboratoires travaillant sur des produits radioactifs; son but est de donner une alarme lorsque quelqu'un, passant sous le portique, presente une forte contamination, ou surtout transporte par inadvertance un corps radioactif. Cet appareil devant etre utilise dans les lieux ou peut regner un bruit de fond important, possede une compensation automatique de ce bruit de fond; un reglage de la sensibilite permet d'obtenir au mieux un declenchement pour une source. de 15 {mu}Ci en {gamma} et 10 {mu}Ci en {beta} passant sous le portique a la vitesse normale d'un homme qui marche. Une batterie montee en tampon permet a l'appareil de fonctionner meme en cas de coupure de courant. (auteur)

  2. Preventive Effects of Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methyl Butyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ravanbakhsh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: One of the major factors in sudden cardiac arrest is the initiation and continuation of deadly arrhythmias during ischemia. It is known that beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB has useful effects such as anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis effects in the skeletal muscles. The aim of this study was to investigate the preventive effects of HMB on the ventricular arrhythmias due to the ischemia. Materials & Methods: In the experimental study, 30 Wistar male rats were randomly divided into three groups including control, HMB320, and HMB700. As control group received normal saline, HMB320 and HMB700 groups orally received 320 and 700 mg/Kg HMB as gavage for 2 weeks, respectively. The rats, having been anesthetized, underwent 30-minute ischemia. Then, the numbers of premature ventricular contractions (PVC, the appearance duration of ventricular tachycardia (VT, and the ventricular fibrillation (VF were assessed. Data was analyzed by SPSS 16 software using Kruskal-Walis, one-way ANOVA, Tukey’s post-hoc, and Chi-square tests. Findings: There was a significant reduction in the mean PVC number in HMB320 and HMB700 groups than control group (p=0.001. In addition, there was such a significant difference between the groups received the doses (p=0.008. There was a reduction in the mean appearance duration of VT in HMB320 and HMB700 groups than control group (p=0.001. There was a significant reduction in the mean appearance duration of VF in HMB700 group compared to control group, only (p=0.003. Conclusion: Through arrhythmias reduction, 2-week preventive consumption of HMB might considerably reduce the severe side effects of ischemia.

  3. Determination of volatile compounds by gas liquid chromatography in tropical fruit, guava (psidium guajav L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Zeb-un-Nisa; Asi, M. R.; Ahmad, R.; Iqbal, Z.; Maqbool, A. B.

    2002-01-01

    Volatile flavor components from both white and pink guava fruits were collected using Likens-Nickerson concurrent Distillation Extraction method and were analyzed by GC/FID. In the essence collected by using likens-Nickerson concurrent distillation extraction apparatus, 23 compounds were present in white guava fruit, of which 11 compounds (furfural, alpha-pinene, trans-2-hexene-1-ol, 2-heptanone, benzaldehyde, hexyl acetate Beta-ionone, limonene, 2-nonanone, cinamyl acetate and octyl acetate) were identified. Similarly for pink guava fruit, 13 compounds out of 29 compounds were identified by comparing retention times of unknown with that of standard compounds and sniffing at the odour port. These were hexanal, furfural, 2-heptanone, benzaldehyde, methyl furfural hexyl acetate, beta-ionone, alpha-pinene, 2-nonanone, limonene, cinnamyl acetate, ethyl undecanoate and octyl acetate. (author)

  4. Expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) receptors and expression of TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1993-01-01

    A panel of 21 small cell lung cancer cell (SCLC) lines were examined for the presence of Transforming growth factor beta receptors (TGF beta-r) and the expression of TGF beta mRNAs. By the radioreceptor assay we found high affinity receptors to be expressed in six cell lines. scatchard analysis......(r) = 65,000 and 90,000 and the betaglycan (type III) with M(r) = 280,000. Northern blotting showed expression of TGF beta 1 mRNA in ten, TGF beta 2 mRNA in two and TGF beta 3 mRNA in seven cell lines. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence that a large proportion of a broad panel of SCLC cell...... lines express TGF beta-receptors and also produce TGF beta mRNAs....

  5. Beta-agonists and animal welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of beta-agonists in animal feed is a high profile topic within the U.S. as consumers and activist groups continue to question its safety. The only beta-agonist currently available for use in swine is ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC). This is available as Paylean™ (Elanco Animal Health – FDA a...

  6. Beta-2-mikroglobulin ved medicinske sygdomme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1989-01-01

    Beta-2-microglobulin (beta 2M) is a low-molecular protein which is filtered freely over the glomeruli. Under normal circumstances, more than 99.9% is resorbed in the proximal tubuli of the kidneys and is metabolized there. In renal disease with damage to this segment of the nephron, eg acute tubulo...

  7. Topical beta-blockers and mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müskens, Rogier P. H. M.; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Stricker, Bruno H. C.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2008-01-01

    To study the associations between long-term and short-term use of topical beta-blockers and mortality. Prospective population-based cohort study. To examine long-term effects, 3842 participants aged 55 years and older were recruited. To examine short-term effects, 484 incident beta-blocker users and

  8. The beta subunit of casein kinase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Piontek, K; Schmidt-Spaniol, I

    1991-01-01

    cDNAs encoding the beta subunit of pig and mouse CKII were isolated. The porcine cDNA was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used for the production of anti-CKII-beta subunit specific antibodies....

  9. Exotic nuclear beta transitions astrophysical examples

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, K

    1981-01-01

    A theoretical study of nuclear beta -transitions under various astrophysical circumstances is reviewed by illustrative examples: 1) continuum-state electron captures in a matter in the nuclear statistical equiplibrium, and ii) bound-state beta -decays in stars in connection with a cosmochronometer and with the s-process branchings. (45 refs).

  10. Beta spectra. II-Positron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, A.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    1981-01-01

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 30 positron emitters have been computed, introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. The spectra are ploted vs. energy, once normalised, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (author)

  11. Beta delayed particle emission in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riisager, K.; Gabelmann, H.

    1991-01-01

    A short discussion of theoretical treatments of beta delayed particle emission is followed by a presentation of data on the newly found beta delayed deuteron decay of 6 He. This decay cannot be described properly with existing theories. (author) 8 refs.; 3 figs

  12. MINIMUM VARIANCE BETA ESTIMATION WITH DYNAMIC CONSTRAINTS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    developed (at AFETR ) and is being used to isolate the primary error sources in the beta estimation task. This computer program is additionally used to...determine what success in beta estimation can be achieved with foreseeable instrumentation accuracies. Results are included that illustrate the effects on

  13. Purification of beta-acetylglucosaminase and beta-galactosidase from ram testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caygill, J C; Roston, C P; Jevons, F R

    1966-02-01

    1. The presence of beta-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23) in an acetic acid extract of ram testis is reported. Some properties of the crude enzyme preparation were studied. 2. The purification of beta-acetylglucosaminase (EC 3.2.1.30) and of beta-galactosidase from the ram-testis extract by ammonium sulphate precipitation and chromatography on a CM-cellulose column is described. 3. The final purifications of the separated enzymes achieved were for the beta-acetylglucosaminase 35 times and for the beta-galactosidase 99 times. 4. The possibility of using DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-200 to purify the enzymes was investigated.

  14. Clusters of conserved beta cell marker genes for assessment of beta cell phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Geert A; Jiang, Lei; Hellemans, Karine H

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a gene expression blueprint of pancreatic beta cells conserved from rodents to humans and to evaluate its applicability to assess shifts in the beta cell differentiated state. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of isolated beta cells were compared to those...... of a large panel of other tissue and cell types, and transcripts with beta cell-abundant and -selective expression were identified. Iteration of this analysis in mouse, rat and human tissues generated a panel of conserved beta cell biomarkers. This panel was then used to compare isolated versus laser capture...

  15. Endovascular Irradiations with beta sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scmidt, W F.O.; Hawliczek, R [Inst of Radiooncology IRO, Donauspital, Vienna (Austria); Mueck, K [Austrian Research Centre, Siebersdorf ARCS (Austria); Lehmann, D [Inst of Radiotherapy, Univ. Dresden (Germany); Pichler, L [Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Endovascular Radiotherapy, Donauspital, Vienna (Austria)

    1999-12-31

    For treatment of restenoses tubes (inner/outer diameter 1 and 2 mm; length 3 or 5 mm) with Y-90 foils, shielded by Ti-layers on all sides have been developed (activity 0.5 - 2 GBq). Quality checks with plastic scintillators have been developed and are correlated to absolute dose measurements performed with TLDs (1x1 mm2; 40 mg/cm2). TLD-handling and calibration for beta-dosimetry are described. Additional measurements for depth-dose and dose distribution around the tubes were done with GAFCHROMIC- films and compared to Monte-Carlo calculations with the MCNP4-code, yielding a half-value depth of 0.8 mm from the tube-surface. Manufacturing and delivery of the sources including leakage tests has been standardized, treatments (irradiation times <5min; irradiation length <30mm) are planned to start in spring `98. (authors) 1 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Beta decay of 22O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, F.; Dufour, J.P.; Del Moral, R.; Fleury, A.; Jean, D.; Pravikoff, M.S.; Geissel, H.; Schmidt, K.H.; Hanelt, E.

    1989-01-01

    The study of light nuclei far from stability has been recently renewed by the possibility of production through the projectile fragmentation of intermediate energy heavy ion beams at GANIL. The results presented here have been obtained with the Projectile Fragments Isotopic Separation method developed at the LISE spectrometer. 22 O is a Tz = 3 nucleus and is the first in a series of seven such nuclei in the sd shell extending from 22 O to 24 Mg. Although the half life of 22 O was previously measured by Murphy et al., the present study is the first beta-gamma spectroscopy on this neutron rich nucleus. Five gamma lines have been attributed to the β decay of 22 O with a measured half life of T = (2.25±0.15)s and a partial decay scheme has been established

  17. $\\beta$ decay of $^{47}$Ar

    CERN Document Server

    Weissman, L; Bergmann, U C; Brown, B A; Catherall, R; Cederkäll, J; Dillmann, I; Hallmann, O; Fraile-Prieto, L M; Franchoo, S; Gaudefroy, L; Köster, U; Kratz, K L; Pfeiffer, B; Sorlin, O; 10.1103/PhysRevC.70.024304

    2004-01-01

    Information on beta -decay properties of neutron-rich /sup 47/Ar was obtained at the ISOLDE facility at CERN using isobaric selectivity. This was achieved by a combination of a plasma-ion source with a cooled transfer line and subsequent mass separation. A doubly charged beam was used in order to improve the signal-to-background ratio associated with multi-charged noble gas fission products. The identification of the /sup 47/Ar gamma -ray transitions was performed by comparing the spectra obtained from direct proton bombardment of the target and of the neutron converter. New excited levels in the daughter /sup 47/K nucleus corresponding to the negative-parity states were observed. The obtained data are compared to the result of large-scale shell model calculations and quasiparticle random-phase approximation predictions. (29 refs).

  18. PBX: the Princeton beta experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol, K.; Chance, M.; Dewar, R.

    1983-09-01

    A rearrangement of the divertor coils in PDX will enable a test in 1984 of the MHD stability properties of deeply indented bean-shaped plasmas. The goal is a beta of 10%. Indentation is expected to counter the deterioration of MHD stability against pressure driven modes that is occasioned by the larger aspect ratios typical of anticipated reactor oriented devices. Indeed, as shown by M. Chance et al., indentation may offer direct access to the second region of stability for ballooning modes, and numerical analyses with PEST show the internal kink to be stabilized completely with even relatively modest indentation. The internal kink is implicated in the loss of beam ions in PDX. In this report the theoretical basis for the forthcoming experiment, and the design considerations underlying the modification from PDX to PBX, are described in detail. Additional theoretical material, including an analysis of particle orbits in an indented tokamak plasma, is appended

  19. Thermodynamic study on competitive solubilization of cholesterol and beta-sitosterol in bile salt micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Keisuke; Hirosawa, Takashi; Honda, Chikako; Endo, Kazutoyo; Moroi, Yoshikiyo; Shibata, Osamu

    2007-07-01

    Differences in the preferential solubilization of cholesterol and competitive solubilizates (beta-sitosterol and aromatic compounds) in bile salt micelles was systematically studied by changing the molar ratio of cholesterol to competitive solubilizates. The cholesterol solubility in a mixed binary system (cholesterol and beta-sitosterol) was almost half that of the cholesterol alone system, regardless of the excess beta-sitosterol quantity added. On the other hand, the mutual solubilities of cholesterol and pyrene were not inhibited by their presence in binary mixed crystals. Finally, the cholesterol solubility was measured by changing the alkyl chain length of n-alkylbenzenes. When tetradecylbenzene was added to the bile solution, the cholesterol solubility decreased slightly and was below the original cholesterol solubility. Based on Gibbs energy change (DeltaG degrees ) for solubilization, chemicals that inhibit cholesterol solubility in their combined crystal systems showed a larger negative DeltaG degrees value than cholesterol alone.

  20. Phenotypic variability of Filipino beta(o)-thalassemia/HbE patients in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setianingsih, I; Williamson, R; Daud, D; Harahap, A; Marzuki, S; Forrest, S

    1999-09-01

    Three Indonesian patients with identical genotypes, each compound heterozygotes for Filipino beta(o)-thalassemia/HbE, expressed different clinical severities. One patient has mild disease and is transfusion independent, while the other two are severely affected and transfusion dependent. The size of the Filipino beta(o)-globin gene deletion was confirmed to be 45 kb, resolving conflicting values given in the literature. Neither ameliorating genetic factors such as alpha-globin gene deletions or the XmnI restriction site polymorphism at position -158 upstream of the (G)gamma-globin gene, nor differences in beta-globin gene haplotype, explain the phenotypic variation. These observations have implications for the development of antenatal diagnosis in Indonesia, as at present it is not possible to give an accurate prediction of severity of phenotype for this common genotype. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. A short synthesis and biological evaluation of potent and nontoxic antimalarial bridged bicyclic beta-sulfonyl-endoperoxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachi, Mario D; Korshin, Edward E; Hoos, Roland; Szpilman, Alex M; Ploypradith, Poonsakdi; Xie, Suji; Shapiro, Theresa A; Posner, Gary H

    2003-06-05

    The syntheses and in vitro antimalarial screening of 50 bridged, bicyclic endoperoxides of types 9-13 are reported. In contrast to antimalarial trioxanes of the artemisinin family, but like yingzhaosu A and arteflene, the peroxide function of compounds 9-13 is contained in a 2,3-dioxabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane system 6. Peroxides 9 and 10 (R(1) = OH) are readily available through a multicomponent, sequential, free-radical reaction involving thiol-monoterpenes co-oxygenation (a TOCO reaction). beta-Sulfenyl peroxides 9 and 10 (R(1) = OH) are converted into beta-sulfinyl and beta-sulfonyl peroxides of types 11-13 by controlled S-oxidation and manipulation of the tert-hydroxyl group through acylation, alkylation, or dehydration followed by selective hydrogenation. Ten enantiopure beta-sulfonyl peroxides of types 12 and 13 exhibit in vitro antimalarial activity comparable to that of artemisinin (IC(50) = 6-24 nM against Plasmodium falciparum NF54). In vivo testing of a few selected peroxides against Plasmodium berghei N indicates that the antimalarial efficacies of beta-sulfonyl peroxides 39a, 46a, 46b, and 50a are comparable to those of some of the best antimalarial drugs and are higher than artemisinin against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium yoelii ssp. NS. In view of the nontoxicity of beta-sulfonyl peroxides 39a, 46a, and 46b in mice, at high dosing, these compounds are regarded as promising antimalarial drug candidates.

  2. Localization of thymosin beta-4 in tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, L. -I.; Holck, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    in colorectal carcinomas. The degree of staining of breast cancer cells for thymosin beta-4 correlated neither to histological grade nor to endothelial cell staining. However, there was a tendency toward correlation (P = 0.07) between staining of endothelial cells and histological grade. Treatment of cultured......Overexpression of thymosin beta-4 has been linked to malignant progression but the localization of this polypeptide within tumors is incompletely known. We therefore examined breast cancers for thymosin beta-4 using immunofluorescence. Reactive cells were identified with monoclonal cell marker...... breast cancer cells (SK-BR-3) with 1-4 microg thymosin beta-4/mL significantly increased cell numbers, as determined by MTT-assays. These data reveal an unexpected cellular heterogeneity of thymosin beta-4 expression in breast and colonic carcinomas and suggest that local release of this polypeptide...

  3. Ranking beta sheet topologies of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Rasmus; Helles, Glennie; Winter, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    One of the challenges of protein structure prediction is to identify long-range interactions between amino acids. To reliably predict such interactions, we enumerate, score and rank all beta-topologies (partitions of beta-strands into sheets, orderings of strands within sheets and orientations...... of paired strands) of a given protein. We show that the beta-topology corresponding to the native structure is, with high probability, among the top-ranked. Since full enumeration is very time-consuming, we also suggest a method to deal with proteins with many beta-strands. The results reported...... in this paper are highly relevant for ab initio protein structure prediction methods based on decoy generation. The top-ranked beta-topologies can be used to find initial conformations from which conformational searches can be started. They can also be used to filter decoys by removing those with poorly...

  4. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  5. [Study on the analysis of organogermanium compounds by ion chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q; Mou, S; Hou, X; Ni, Z

    1997-05-01

    A new high performance ion exchange chromatographic method for separation and determination of three organogermanium compounds beta-carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide (I), beta-(alpha-methyl) carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide (II) and di-(beta-carboxyethyl) germanium hydroxide (III) has been developed. A Dionex DX-300 Ion Chromatograph equipped with a Dionex PED-II pulsed electrochemical detector (conductivity mode), a Dionex AMMS-1 anion micromembrane suppressor, and a Dionex ACI advanced computer interface coupled with AI-450 chromatographic software was employed. The separation was achieved by using a Dionex IonPac AS4A-SC column as analytical column, sodium tetraborate solution as eluent, and sulfuric acid solution as regenerant. For reducing run time, a gradient program was chosen. The detection limits (S/N = 3, expressed as germanium) for the three compounds were 0.038mg/L (I), 0.035mg/L (II) and 0.025mg/L (III), respectively. The method has been applied to the analysis of two tonic oral drinks, and the average recoveries for the three compounds ranged from 95%-101%. The results obtained were in agreement with those of hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS).

  6. Maternal plasma concentrations of beta-lipotrophin, beta-endorphin and gamma-lipotrophin throughout pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, A J; Butt, W R; Lynch, S S; Shakespear, R A

    1983-12-01

    Plasma beta-LPH, beta-EP and gamma-LPH concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay in 10 pregnant women from 12 weeks gestation until term and in nine women in the early follicular phase of the cycle. There was a progressive and significant rise in the concentration of all three peptides throughout pregnancy and by 32 weeks the concentrations of beta-LPH and beta-EP were greater than the corresponding concentrations in the follicular phase: gamma-LPH was greater than in the follicular phase by the end of pregnancy in those women who were delivered after 40 weeks. The ratio of beta-LPH to gamma-LPH did not change significantly throughout pregnancy, but there was a progressive fall in the beta-LPH/beta-EP ratio. The possible presence of a 'big LPH' to explain this finding is discussed.

  7. Clusters of conserved beta cell marker genes for assessment of beta cell phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Geert A; Jiang, Lei; Hellemans, Karine H

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a gene expression blueprint of pancreatic beta cells conserved from rodents to humans and to evaluate its applicability to assess shifts in the beta cell differentiated state. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of isolated beta cells were compared to those...... of a large panel of other tissue and cell types, and transcripts with beta cell-abundant and -selective expression were identified. Iteration of this analysis in mouse, rat and human tissues generated a panel of conserved beta cell biomarkers. This panel was then used to compare isolated versus laser capture...... microdissected beta cells, monitor adaptations of the beta cell phenotype to fasting, and retrieve possible conserved transcriptional regulators....

  8. High non-specific binding of the {beta}{sub 1}-selective radioligand 2-{sup 125}I-ICI-H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemann, B. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Department of Nuclear Medicine; Law, M.P. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Department of Nuclear Medicine; Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom). MRC Clinical Sciences Centre; Kopka, K. [Muenster Univ. (DE). Department of Nuclear Medicine] [and others

    2003-08-01

    Aim: As results of cardiac biopsies suggest, myocardial {beta}{sub 1}-adrenoceptor density is reduced in patients with chronic heart failure. However, changes in cardiac {beta}{sub 2}-adrenoceptors vary. With suitable radiopharmaceuticals single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) offer the opportunity to assess {beta}-adrenoceptors non-invasively. Among the novel racemic analogues of the established {beta}{sub 1}-selective adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 89.406 the iodinated 2-I-ICI-H showed high affinity and selectivity to {beta}{sub 1}-adrenoceptors in murine ventricular membranes. The aim of this study was its evaluation as a putative subtype selective {beta}{sub 1}-adrenergic radioligand in cardiac imaging. Methods: Competition studies in vitro and in vivo were used to investigate the kinetics of 2-I-ICI-H binding to cardiac {beta}-adrenoceptors in mice and rats. In addition, the radiosynthesis of 2-{sup 125}I-ICI-H from the silylated precursor 2-SiMe{sub 3}-ICI-H was established. The specific activity was 80 GBq/{mu}mol, the radiochemical yield ranged from 70 to 80%. Results: The unlabelled compound 2-I-ICI-H showed high {beta}{sub 1}-selectivity and -affinity in the in vitro competition studies. In vivo biodistribution studies apparently showed low affinity to cardiac {beta}-adrenoceptors. The radiolabelled counterpart 2-{sup 125}I-ICI-H showed a high degree of non-specific binding in vitro and no specific binding to cardiac {beta}{sub 1}-adrenoceptors in vivo. Conclusion: Because of its high non-specific binding 2-{sup 125}I-ICI-H is no suitable radiotracer for imaging in vivo. (orig.)

  9. Dimers of beta 2-glycoprotein I mimic the in vitro effects of beta 2-glycoprotein I-anti-beta 2-glycoprotein I antibody complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutters, B. C.; Meijers, J. C.; Derksen, R. H.; Arnout, J.; de Groot, P. G.

    2001-01-01

    Anti-beta(2)-glycoprotein I antibodies are thought to cause lupus anticoagulant activity by forming bivalent complexes with beta(2)-glycoprotein I (beta(2)GPI). To test this hypothesis, chimeric fusion proteins were constructed of the dimerization domain (apple 4) of factor XI and beta(2)GPI. Both a

  10. Isoreserpine promotes {beta}-catenin degradation via Siah-1 up-regulation in HCT116 colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwak, Jungsug; Song, Taeyun [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jie-Young; Yun, Yeon-Sook [Laboratory of Radiation Cancer Science, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Il-Whan [Department of Microbiology, Center for Viral Disease Research, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yongsu [Department of Genetic Engineering, and Graduate School of Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jae-Gook [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sangtaek, E-mail: ohsa@inje.ac.kr [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-25

    Aberrant accumulation of intracellular {beta}-catenin in intestinal epithelial cells is a frequent early event during the development of colon cancer. To identify small molecules that decrease the level of intracellular {beta}-catenin, we performed cell-based chemical screening using genetically engineered HEK293 reporter cells to detect compounds that inhibit TOPFlash reporter activity, which was stimulated by Wnt3a-conditioned medium. We found that isoreserpine promoted the degradation of intracellular {beta}-catenin by up-regulation of Siah-1 in HEK293 and HCT116 colon cancer cells. Moreover, isoreserpine repressed the expression of {beta}-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF)-dependent genes, such as cyclin D1 and c-myc, resulting in the suppression of HCT116 cell proliferation. Our findings suggest that isoreserpine can potentially be used as a chemotherapeutic agent against colon cancer.

  11. Sequence swapping does not result in conformation swapping for the beta4/beta5 and beta8/beta9 beta-hairpin turns in human acidic fibroblast growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaewon; Lee, Jihun; Brych, Stephen R; Logan, Timothy M; Blaber, Michael

    2005-02-01

    The beta-turn is the most common type of nonrepetitive structure in globular proteins, comprising ~25% of all residues; however, a detailed understanding of effects of specific residues upon beta-turn stability and conformation is lacking. Human acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1) is a member of the beta-trefoil superfold and contains a total of five beta-hairpin structures (antiparallel beta-sheets connected by a reverse turn). beta-Turns related by the characteristic threefold structural symmetry of this superfold exhibit different primary structures, and in some cases, different secondary structures. As such, they represent a useful system with which to study the role that turn sequences play in determining structure, stability, and folding of the protein. Two turns related by the threefold structural symmetry, the beta4/beta5 and beta8/beta9 turns, were subjected to both sequence-swapping and poly-glycine substitution mutations, and the effects upon stability, folding, and structure were investigated. In the wild-type protein these turns are of identical length, but exhibit different conformations. These conformations were observed to be retained during sequence-swapping and glycine substitution mutagenesis. The results indicate that the beta-turn structure at these positions is not determined by the turn sequence. Structural analysis suggests that residues flanking the turn are a primary structural determinant of the conformation within the turn.

  12. Analysis of the electrochemical reactivity of natural hemozoin and {beta}-hemozoin in the presence of antimalarial drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban Reyes-Cruz, Victor, E-mail: reyescruz16@yahoo.com [Area Academica de Ciencias de la Tierra y Materiales, Instituto de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo (Mexico); Urbano Reyes, Gustavo, E-mail: gurbano2003@yahoo.com.mx [Area Academica de Ciencias de la Tierra y Materiales, Instituto de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo (Mexico); Veloz Rodriguez, Maria Aurora, E-mail: maveloz70@yahoo.com.mx [Area Academica de Ciencias de la Tierra y Materiales, Instituto de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo (Mexico); Imbert Palafox, Jose Luis, E-mail: imbertox@hotmail.com [Area Academica de Medicina, Instituto de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo (Mexico)

    2011-11-30

    We report an evaluation of the reactivity of hemozoin (HZ) and {beta}-hemozoin ({beta}-HZ) obtained from the Triatoma Meccus longipennis, alone and in combination with quinine and amodiaquine. Using cyclic voltammetry and carbon paste electrodes, the redox processes that these compounds undergo were analysed. The results indicated that the atom Fe presence, the substance concentration, the drugs existence and the nature of the electrolytic medium are important in the redox processes. The strongest reactivity was for {beta}-HZ from Triatoma, which suggests that cellular molecules are embedded in an oxidising environment due to the presence of {beta}-HZ and indicates that like HZ, {beta}-HZ could be associate with phospholipid bilayers and interfere with their physical and chemical integrity, contributing to membrane breakdown and hyper-oxidation of molecules. It was further observed that when measuring the reactivity of HZ and {beta}-HZ with quinine and amodiaquine, a more oxidative stress was generated between the second one and the {beta}-HZ, which could explain the effectiveness of amodiaquine as a better antimalarial drug. Finally, it was concluded that electrochemical evaluation may be a convenient tool in determining the efficiency of antimalarial drugs and the identification of their redox processes.

  13. Stimulatory effect of harmane and other beta-carbolines on locus coeruleus neurons in anaesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Durántez, E; Ruiz-Ortega JA; Pineda, J; Ugedo, L

    2001-08-10

    Harmane, harmaline and norharmane are beta-carboline related compounds which have been proposed to be endogenous ligands for imidazoline receptors. The effect of these compounds on the activity of locus coeruleus (LC) neurons was studied by extracellular recordings techniques. Intracerebroventricular administration of harmane and harmaline increased the firing rate of LC neurons. Systemic administration of efaroxan, a mixed alpha(2)-adrenoceptor/I(1)-imidazoline antagonist or vagotomy failed to modify the harmane effect. Furthermore, local applications of harmane and harmaline increased the firing rate of LC neurons in a dose-related manner. Finally, intravenous administration of norharmane also increased the activity of LC neurons. Our results demonstrate that beta-carbolines stimulate LC neuron activity and indicate that this stimulation occurs directly in the LC by a mechanism independent of I(1)- and I(2)-imidazoline receptors.

  14. Assessment of affinities of beta-CIT, beta-CIT-FE, and beta-CIT-FP for monoamine transporters permanently expressed in cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Tomoya; Fujita, Masahiro; Shimada, Shoichi; Sato, Kohji; Schloss, Patrick; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Itoh, Yasushi; Tohyama, Masaya; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the effects of three cocaine analogs, beta-CIT (2-beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl)-tropane), beta-CIT-FE (2-beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(2-fluoroethyl)-nortropane), and beta-CIT-FP (2-beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)-nortropane), on the uptake of [ 3 H]dopamine(DA), serotonin(5-HT), and 1-norepinephrine (NE) using cell lines permanently expressing DA, 5-HT, and NE transporters, respectively, to determine their affinities for these three transporters. We generated cell lines stably expressing DA, 5-HT, and NE transporters, respectively, by the Chen-Okayama method, and then tested the abilities of (-)cocaine, beta-CIT, beta-CIT-FE, beta-CIT-FP, and clomipramine to inhibit the uptake of [ 3 H]DA, 5-HT, and 1-NE. Ki values of beta-CIT, beta-CIT-FE, and beta-CIT-FP for [ 3 H]DA, 5-HT, 1-NE uptake were 6, 29, and 33 nM, 91, 133, and 130 nM, and 28, 113 and 70 nM, respectively, whereas those of cocaine and clomipramine were 316, 581, and 176 nM and > 10,000, 437, and 851 nM, respectively. Beta-CIT, beta-CIT-FE, and beta-CIT-FP were shown to be potent DA, 5-HT, and NE uptake inhibitors. Beta-CIT and beta-CIT-FP were highly potent and selective dopamine uptake inhibitors, and therefore might be useful for imaging of DA transporter with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET)

  15. An easy and efficient method to produce {gamma}-amino alcohols by reduction of {beta}-enamino ketones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Maria Ines N.C.; Braga, Antonio C.H. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: herrera@iqm.unicamp.br

    2004-12-01

    Reduction of {beta}-enamino ketones 2 with NaBH{sub 4} in glacial acetic acid gave {gamma}-amino alcohols 1 in 70% to 98% yield with diastereomeric excesses, preferentially the syn product, from 44% to 90%. The stereochemistry of these compounds was confirmed by analysis of their tetrahydro-1,3-oxazine derivatives 3. (author)

  16. Bauer-7-en-3{beta}-yl acetate: a major constituent of unusual samples of Brazilian propolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Erica Weinstein [Secretaria da Agricultura e Abastecimento, Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil). Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios; Message, Dejair [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias. Dept. de Biologia Animal; Negri, Giuseppina; Salatino, Antonio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Botanica

    2006-03-15

    The pentacyclic triterpenoid bauer-7-en-3{beta}-yl acetate was obtained from thloroform extract of an unusual sample of propolis from southeast Brazil with the yield of 7%. The compound was identified by comparison of IR, MS and NMR analysis with published data. (author)

  17. Compounding around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Pharmaceutical compounding is universal in its prevalence. Variations in disease patterns, culture, and tradition; the role of government in health care; and the availability of essential equipment and required agents shape a compounding profile unique to each country worldwide. In the following reflections, pharmacists form Argentina, Belgium, Colombia, Germany, Puerto Rico, Spain, and the United States describe their experiences in the compounding setting unique to their practice and their nation. The unifying theme in their comments is the dedication of each contributor to enabling recovery and ensuring the good health of his or her clients.

  18. Looking for the new preparations for antibacterial therapy. II. Clinical trials; new beta-lactam antibiotics and beta-lactamase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpiuk, Izabela; Tyski, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    To obtain a status of a medicinal product, a compound possessing potential antimicrobial activity and displaying no cytotoxicity, must undergo three phases of clinical trials to prove its therapeutic efficacy, safety and quality. Properties of the compound should be based on the results of studies meeting specific criteria. Studies should be: randomized, double-blind, involving sufficient number of volunteers, concerning the infections localized in strictly defined area and caused by identified microorganisms. After the medicinal product is authorized to be on the market, clinical trials of the fourth phase are carried out to detect adverse effects, overdose symptoms, interactions of the new drug with other medicinal products and to establish characteristic of activity among groups such as children, elderly, women in pregnancy and patients suffering from other diseases, but only if the benefits of receiving treatment outweigh the risks. This article is a second part of the series associated with searching for new antibacterial agents and it relates to performance of clinical trials and the new compounds belonging to the class of beta-lactams. Among the 9 presented compounds, candidates to become medicinal products, two belong to the cephalosporins (CXA-101, S-649266), one to carbapenems (razupenem), three to monobactams (BAL30072, BAL30376, MC-1) and three to beta-lactamase inhibitors (NXL-104, MK-7655, ME1071).

  19. Selective Ring Opening of 1-Methylnaphthalene Over NiW-Supported Catalyst Using Dealuminated Beta Zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Sang; Lee, You-Jin; Kim, Jeong-Rang; Kim, Joo-Wan; Kim, Tae-Wan; Chae, Ho-Jeong; Kim, Chul-Ung; Lee, Chang-Ha; Jeong, Soon-Yong

    2016-02-01

    Nanoporous Beta zeolite was dealuminated by weak acid treatment for reducing the acidity. Bi-functional catalysts were prepared using commercial Beta zeolites and the dealuminated zeolites for acidic function, NiW for metallic function. 1-Methylnaphthalene was selected as a model compound for multi-ring aromatics in heavy oil, and its selective ring opening reaction has been investigated using the prepared bi-functional catalysts with different acidity in fixed bed reaction system. The dealuminated Beta zeolites, which crystal structure and nanoporosity were maintained, showed the higher SiO2/Al2O3 ratio and smaller acidity than their original zeolite. NiW-supported catalyst using the dealuminated Beta zeolite with SiO2/Al203 mole ratio of 55 showed the highest performance for the selective ring opening. The acidity of catalyst seemed to play an important role as active sites for the selective ring opening of 1-methylnaphthalene but there should be some optimum catalyst acidity for the reaction. The acidity of Beta zeolite could be controlled by the acid treatment and the catalyst with the optimum acidity for the selective ring opening could be prepared.

  20. Synthesis of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with beta-cyclodextrin as a supramolecular shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Landong; Sun, Xiaohong; Yang, Yali; Guan, Naijia; Zhang, Fuxiang

    2006-11-20

    We report a novel, green hydrothermal-synthesis route to well-dispersed anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with particle sizes of 9-16 nm in the presence of beta-CD (beta-cyclodextrin). During the synthesis process, the CD-containing synthesis mixture assembled in both longitudinal and latitudinal directions. Driven by the interaction between molecules, the beta-CDs assembled in the longitudinal direction to form long-chain compounds, whereas in the latitudinal direction, they tended to form regular aggregates through coordination with the Ti species from the hydrolysis of tetrabutyl titanate. In view of the effect of the coordination and the steric hindrance of beta-CDs as a supramolecular shell, homogeneous nuclei and slow growth of TiO2 crystals during the synthesis process was observed, which was responsible for the formation of uniform TiO2 nanoparticles. The low beta-CD dosage and the high product yield (>90%) demonstrated well the potential of this synthesis route in the large-scale industrial production of anatase nanoparticles.

  1. Determinants of RNA polymerase alpha subunit for interaction with beta, beta', and sigma subunits: hydroxyl-radical protein footprinting.

    OpenAIRE

    Heyduk, T; Heyduk, E; Severinov, K; Tang, H; Ebright, R H

    1996-01-01

    Escherichia coli RNA polymerase (RNAP) alpha subunit serves as the initiator for RNAP assembly, which proceeds according to the pathway 2 alpha-->alpha 2-->alpha 2 beta-->alpha 2 beta beta'-->alpha 2 beta beta' sigma. In this work, we have used hydroxyl-radical protein footprinting to define determinants of alpha for interaction with beta, beta', and sigma. Our results indicate that amino acids 30-75 of alpha are protected from hydroxyl-radical-mediated proteolysis upon interaction with beta ...

  2. Amyloid-beta binds catalase with high affinity and inhibits hydrogen peroxide breakdown.

    OpenAIRE

    Milton, N G

    1999-01-01

    Amyloid-beta (Abeta) specifically bound purified catalase with high affinity and inhibited catalase breakdown of H(2)O(2). The Abeta-induced catalase inhibition involved formation of the inactive catalase Compound II and was reversible. CatalaseAbeta interactions provide rapid functional assays for the cytotoxic domain of Abeta and suggest a mechanism for some of the observed actions of Abeta plus catalase in vitro.

  3. Review of modern double beta decay experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabash, A. S.

    2015-10-01

    The review of modern experiments on search and studying of double beta decay processes is done. Results of the most sensitive current experiments are discussed. The main attention is paid to EXO-200, KamLAND-Zen, GERDA-I and CUORE-0 experiments. Modern values of T1/2(2ν) and best present limits on neutrinoless double beta decay and double beta decay with Majoron emission are presented. Conservative limits on effective mass of a Majorana neutrino ( at the level of ˜ 0.01-0.1 eV are discussed.

  4. Silent ischemia and beta-blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egstrup, K

    1991-01-01

    and should also be directed at the other coronary artery risk factors of the patients. The effects of beta-blockers, which reduce the duration and frequency of silent ischemic episodes, is well described. The effect is most pronounced in the morning, when the frequency of ischemia is highest......, and the mechanism of action seems mainly mediated through a reduction in myocardial oxygen demand. beta-Blockers have shown effectiveness in both effort-induced angina and mixed angina, and increased anti-ischemic potency may be achieved by combination therapy with a calcium antagonist. Abrupt withdrawal of beta-blockers...

  5. Venus gravity - Analysis of Beta Regio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, P. B.; Sjogren, W. L.; Mottinger, N. A.; Bills, B. G.; Abbott, E.

    1982-01-01

    Radio tracking data acquired over Beta Regio were analyzed to obtain a surface mass distribution from which a detailed vertical gravity field was derived. In addition, a corresponding vertical gravity field was evaluated solely from the topography of the Beta region. A comparison of these two maps confirms the strong correlation between gravity and topography which was previously seen in line-of-sight gravity maps. It also demonstrates that the observed gravity is a significant fraction of that predicted from the topography alone. The effective depth of complete isostatic compensation for the Beta region is estimated to be 330 km, which is somewhat deeper than that found for other areas of Venus.

  6. Labetalol, a new alpha- and beta-adrenoreceptor blocking agent, in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, L; Hänel, B

    1976-08-01

    1Labetalol is a new compound with antagonistic effects at both alpha- and beta-adrenoreceptor sites. 2 When given to 12 hypertensive patients at an average daily dosage of 273 mg for 7 months statistically significant reductions (compared with pretreatment values) in recumbent and standing blood pressure were observed. 3 Treatment has to be withdrawn in one patient because of vivid dreams, and dosage was reduced in one patient because of dizziness. Otherwise no side-effects of importance were noted. 4 It can therefore be concluded that labetalol offers a useful anti-hypertensive effect and that this compound is well tolerated.

  7. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Although elemental semiconductors such as silicon and germanium are standard for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by their physical limitations, namely the need for ancillary cooling, their modest stopping powers, and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors, on the other hand, encompass such a wide range of physical and electronic properties that they have become viable competitors in a number of applications. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors is a consolidated source of information on all aspects of the use of compound semiconductors for radiation detection and measurement. Serious Competitors to Germanium and Silicon Radiation Detectors Wide-gap compound semiconductors offer the ability to operate in a range of hostile thermal and radiation environments while still maintaining sub-keV spectral resolution at X-ray wavelengths. Narrow-gap materials offer the potential of exceeding the spectral resolutio...

  8. Hexavalent Chromium Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about chromium, exposure to which can increase your risk of lung cancer and cancer of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. Hexavalent chromium compounds have been used as corrosion inhibitors in a wide variety of products and processes.

  9. MEA 86 Compound data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data file contains the full raw parameter data for the 86 compounds tested in the developmental MEA assay, as well as Area Under the Curve (AUC) calculations...

  10. Unlock your Compound Management

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen Eller

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutical industry faces the increased demand for innovative medicines against various diseases. In this regard, the compound library in pharmaceutical industry is the most valuable asset. However, the compound distribution from the library into the screening plates is often still done manually and binds highly qualified resources to very time-consuming, tedious and error-prone tasks. To overcome these challenges, Chemspeed launched the first automated true one-to-one gravimetric "pi...

  11. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senard Jean-Michel

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DβH deficiency is a very rare form of primary autonomic failure characterized by a complete absence of noradrenaline and adrenaline in plasma together with increased dopamine plasma levels. The prevalence of DβH deficiency is unknown. Only a limited number of cases with this disease have been reported. DβH deficiency is mainly characterized by cardiovascular disorders and severe orthostatic hypotension. First symptoms often start during a complicated perinatal period with hypotension, muscle hypotonia, hypothermia and hypoglycemia. Children with DβH deficiency exhibit reduced ability to exercise because of blood pressure inadaptation with exertion and syncope. Symptoms usually worsen progressively during late adolescence and early adulthood with severe orthostatic hypotension, eyelid ptosis, nasal stuffiness and sexual disorders. Limitation in standing tolerance, limited ability to exercise and traumatic morbidity related to falls and syncope may represent later evolution. The syndrome is caused by heterogeneous molecular alterations of the DBH gene and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Restoration of plasma noradrenaline to the normal range can be achieved by therapy with the synthetic precursor of noradrenaline, L-threo-dihydroxyphenylserine (DOPS. Oral administration of 100 to 500 mg DOPS, twice or three times daily, increases blood pressure and reverses the orthostatic intolerance.

  12. Synthesis, Molecular Modelling and Biological Evaluation of Novel Heterodimeric, Multiple Ligands Targeting Cholinesterases and Amyloid Beta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalina Hebda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cholinesterases and amyloid beta are one of the major biological targets in the search for a new and efficacious treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. The study describes synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of new compounds designed as dual binding site acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Among the synthesized compounds, two deserve special attention—compounds 42 and 13. The former is a saccharin derivative and the most potent and selective acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (EeAChE IC50 = 70 nM. Isoindoline-1,3-dione derivative 13 displays balanced inhibitory potency against acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE (EeAChE IC50 = 0.76 μM, EqBuChE IC50 = 0.618 μM, and it inhibits amyloid beta aggregation (35.8% at 10 μM. Kinetic studies show that the developed compounds act as mixed or non-competitive acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. According to molecular modelling studies, they are able to interact with both catalytic and peripheral active sites of the acetylcholinesterase. Their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB was confirmed in vitro in the parallel artificial membrane permeability BBB assay. These compounds can be used as a solid starting point for further development of novel multifunctional ligands as potential anti-Alzheimer’s agents.

  13. Phenolic Molding Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Koji; Charles, Ted; de Keyser, Hendrik

    Phenolic Molding Compounds continue to exhibit well balanced properties such as heat resistance, chemical resistance, dimensional stability, and creep resistance. They are widely applied in electrical, appliance, small engine, commutator, and automotive applications. As the focus of the automotive industry is weight reduction for greater fuel efficiency, phenolic molding compounds become appealing alternatives to metals. Current market volumes and trends, formulation components and its impact on properties, and a review of common manufacturing methods are presented. Molding processes as well as unique advanced techniques such as high temperature molding, live sprue, and injection/compression technique provide additional benefits in improving the performance characterisitics of phenolic molding compounds. Of special interest are descriptions of some of the latest innovations in automotive components, such as the phenolic intake manifold and valve block for dual clutch transmissions. The chapter also characterizes the most recent developments in new materials, including long glass phenolic molding compounds and carbon fiber reinforced phenolic molding compounds exhibiting a 10-20-fold increase in Charpy impact strength when compared to short fiber filled materials. The role of fatigue testing and fatigue fracture behavior presents some insight into long-term reliability and durability of glass-filled phenolic molding compounds. A section on new technology outlines the important factors to consider in modeling phenolic parts by finite element analysis and flow simulation.

  14. Synthesis of morpholine derivatives and Bunte's salt as compounds of potential radioprotective activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strzelczyk, M.; Kucharski, A. (Wojskowa Akademia Medyczna, Lodz (Poland))

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to obtain several compounds possessing radioprotective activity. The syntheses yielded seven undescribed compounds i.e.: benzyl ester of the N-morpholinecarbathionothioglicol acid, ester bis S-(morpholine-4-thiocarbonyl)-2-thioethyl, morpholine salt of the N-morpholinecarbothionothiolic acid, sodium and potassium salt of S-morpholine-4-carbonyl, methylthiosulfate, sodium and potassium salt of beta-hydroxyethyl thiosulfate. Moreover, with the aid of other methods following compounds were synthetized: beta-S-(morpholine-4-thiocarbonyl) ethyl thiopropioniane, amide of the S-(morpholine-4-thiocarbonyl)-thioglicol acid, acid S-(morpholine-4-thiocarbonyl)-thioglicol acid, sodium salt of the S-(morpholine-4-thiocarbonyl)-thioglicol acid. The structure of these compounds was confirmed using elementary and spectral analysis.

  15. Systematic Risk on Istanbul Stock Exchange: Traditional Beta Coefficient Versus Downside Beta Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülfen TUNA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to test the validity of Downside Capital Asset Pricing Model (D-CAPM on the ISE. At the same time, the explanatory power of CAPM's traditional beta and D-CAPM's downside beta on the changes in the average return values are examined comparatively. In this context, the monthly data for seventy three stocks that are continuously traded on the ISE for the period 1991-2009 is used. Regression analysis is applied in this study. The research results have shown that D-CAPM is valid on the ISE. In addition, it is obtained that the power of downside beta coefficient is higher than traditional beta coefficient on explaining the return changes. Therefore, it can be said that the downside beta is superior to traditional beta in the ISE for chosen period.

  16. Disrupting beta-amyloid aggregation for Alzheimer disease treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, L D; Soto, C

    2007-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a devastating degenerative disorder for which there is no cure or effective treatment. Although the etiology of Alzheimer's disease is not fully understood, compelling evidence indicates that deposition of aggregates composed by a misfolded form of the amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) is the central event in the disease pathogenesis. Therefore, an attractive therapeutic strategy is to prevent or reverse Abeta misfolding and aggregation. Diverse strategies have been described to identify inhibitors of this process, including screening of libraries of small molecules chemical compounds, rational design of synthetic peptides, assessment of natural Abeta-binding proteins and stimulation of the immune system by vaccination. In this article we describe these different approaches, their principles and their potential strengths and weaknesses. Overall the available data suggest that the development of drugs to interfere with Abeta misfolding and aggregation is a feasible target that hold great promise for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  17. How Do Beta Blocker Drugs Affect Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in lieu of exercise. Exercise has many other benefits and is important to maintain your health. Read how physical activity improves the quality of life . Concerns About Exercising While on Beta Blockers “It’s important to remember ...

  18. Review of modern double beta decay experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabash, A. S., E-mail: barabash@itep.ru [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (NRC ”Kurchatov Institute”), B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-28

    The review of modern experiments on search and studying of double beta decay processes is done. Results of the most sensitive current experiments are discussed. The main attention is paid to EXO-200, KamLAND-Zen, GERDA-I and CUORE-0 experiments. Modern values of T{sub 1/2}(2ν) and best present limits on neutrinoless double beta decay and double beta decay with Majoron emission are presented. Conservative limits on effective mass of a Majorana neutrino (〈m{sub ν}〉 < 0.46 eV) and a coupling constant of Majoron to neutrino (〈g{sub ee}〉 < 1.3 · 10{sup −5}) are obtained. Prospects of search for neutrinoless double beta decay in new experiments with sensitivity to 〈m{sub ν}〉 at the level of ∼ 0.01-0.1 eV are discussed.

  19. Split Beta-Lactamase Complementation Assay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    A Search for the Molecular Better Half! Vaishali Verma ... These assays comprise of a protein molecule, ... ciferase, beta-galactosidase, GFP, g3p of M13 filamentous ph- .... sensors of protein–protein interactions, Nature Biotechnology, Vol.20,.

  20. Nuclear beta decay and the weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kean, D.C.

    1975-11-01

    Short notes are presented on various aspects of nuclear beta decay and weak interactions including: super-allowed transitions, parity violation, interaction strengths, coupling constants, and the current-current formalism of weak interaction. (R.L.)

  1. Beta cell proliferation and growth factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis; Svensson, C; Møldrup, Annette

    1999-01-01

    Formation of new beta cells can take place by two pathways: replication of already differentiated beta cells or neogenesis from putative islet stem cells. Under physiological conditions both processes are most pronounced during the fetal and neonatal development of the pancreas. In adulthood little...... increase in the beta cell number seems to occur. In pregnancy, however, a marked hyperplasia of the beta cells is observed both in rodents and man. Increased mitotic activity has been seen both in vivo and in vitro in islets exposed to placental lactogen (PL), prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH...... and activation of the tyrosine kinase JAK2 and the transcription factors STAT1 and 3. The activation of the insulin gene however also requires the distal part of the receptor and activation of calcium uptake and STAT5. In order to identify putative autocrine growth factors or targets for growth factors we have...

  2. Beta-binomial regression and bimodal utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan-Fen; Burgess, James F; Manning, Willard G; Maciejewski, Matthew L

    2013-10-01

    To illustrate how the analysis of bimodal U-shaped distributed utilization can be modeled with beta-binomial regression, which is rarely used in health services research. Veterans Affairs (VA) administrative data and Medicare claims in 2001-2004 for 11,123 Medicare-eligible VA primary care users in 2000. We compared means and distributions of VA reliance (the proportion of all VA/Medicare primary care visits occurring in VA) predicted from beta-binomial, binomial, and ordinary least-squares (OLS) models. Beta-binomial model fits the bimodal distribution of VA reliance better than binomial and OLS models due to the nondependence on normality and the greater flexibility in shape parameters. Increased awareness of beta-binomial regression may help analysts apply appropriate methods to outcomes with bimodal or U-shaped distributions. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  3. Encoded Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Produced

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    26.1 % Klebsiella spp were positive for extended spectrum beta-lactamases ... issue, and TEM, OXA and SHV type ESBL were the most common genotypes. ... mechanism of action. ..... and Multiplex PCR Screening of AmpC Genes from.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: beta-mannosidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enzyme beta-mannosidase. This enzyme works in the lysosomes , which are compartments that digest and recycle materials in the cell. Within lysosomes, the enzyme helps break down complexes of sugar ...

  5. Literature in Focus Beta Beams: Neutrino Beams

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    By Mats Lindroos (CERN) and Mauro Mezzetto (INFN Padova, Italy) Imperial Press, 2009 The beta-beam concept for the generation of electron neutrino beams was first proposed by Piero Zucchelli in 2002. The idea created quite a stir, challenging the idea that intense neutrino beams only could be produced from the decay of pions or muons in classical neutrino beams facilities or in future neutrino factories. The concept initially struggled to make an impact but the hard work by many machine physicists, phenomenologists and theoreticians over the last five years has won the beta-beam a well-earned position as one of the frontrunners for a possible future world laboratory for high intensity neutrino oscillation physics. This is the first complete monograph on the beta-beam concept. The book describes both technical aspects and experimental aspects of the beta-beam, providing students and scientists with an insight into the possibilities o...

  6. Micro-battery Development using beta radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, H. K.; Cheong, Y. M.; Lee, N. H.; Choi, Y. S.; Joo, Y. S.; Lee, J. S.; Jeon, B. H.

    2007-06-01

    Nuclear battery which use the beta radiation sources emitting the low penetration radiation energy from radioisotope can be applied as the long term (more than 10 years) micro power source in MEMS and nano components. This report describes the basic concept and principles of nuclear micro-battery and its fabrication in space and military field. In particular direct conversion method is described by investigating the electron-hole generation and recombination in p-n junction of silicon betavoltaics with beta radiation

  7. Beta/alpha continuous air monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, G.K.; Martz, D.E.

    1988-06-27

    A single deep layer silicon detector in combination with a microcomputer, recording both alpha and beta activity and the energy of each pulse, distinquishing energy peaks using a novel curve fitting technique to reduce the natural alpha counts in the energy region where plutonium and other transuranic alpha emitters are present, and using a novel algorithm to strip out radon daughter contribution to actual beta counts. 7 figs.

  8. Turbulence of high-beta plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvesyuk, V.I.; Chirkov, A.Y.

    1999-01-01

    Principals of numerical modelling of turbulence in high-beta plasma (β > 0.1) are discussed. Creation of transport model for axial symmetric nonuniform confining magnetic field is considered. Numerical model of plasma turbulence in FRC is presented. The physical and mathematical models are formulated from nonuniform axial symmetric high-beta plasma. It is shown that influence of waves arise under this plasma conditions lead to chaotic motion of charged particles across magnetic field. (author)

  9. Double beta decay of 82Se

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, S.R.; Hahn, A.A.; Moe, M.K.; Nelson, M.A.; Vient, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    The two-neutrino double beta decay of 82 Se has been measured during a 20 244 h run resulting in a half-life of 1.08 -0.06 +0.26 x10 20 years (68% C.L.). No candidate events for the zero-neutrino double beta decay during 21 924 h results in a half-life limit of 2.7x10 22 years at the 68% confidence level

  10. Synthesis of zwitterionic salts of pyridinium-Meldrum acid and barbiturate through unique four-component reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi-Fang; Hui, Li; Hou, Hong; Yan, Chao-Guo

    2010-03-08

    An efficient synthetic procedure for the preparation of the unusual charge-separated pyridinium-Meldrum acid and N,N-dimethylbarbiturate acid zwitterionic salts was developed though a unique one-pot four-component reaction involving pyridine, aromatic aldehyde, Meldrum acid or N,N-dimethylbarbituric acid, and p-nitrobenzyl bromide in acetonitrile. By varying combinations of four components involving nitrogen-containing heterocycles, we conveniently established reactive alpha-halomethylene compounds, aldehydes and beta-dicarbonyl compounds a library of zwitterionic salts.

  11. Investigating the Influence of Mesoporosity in Zeolite Beta on its Catalytic Performance for the Conversion of Methanol to Hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Zhaohui

    2015-08-26

    Hierarchically porous zeolite Beta (Beta-MS) synthesized by a soft-templating method contains remarkable intra-crystalline mesoporosity, which reduces the diffusion length in zeolite channels down to several nanometers and alters the distribution of Al among distinct crystallographic sites. When used as a catalyst for the conversion of methanol to hydrocarbons (MTH) at 330 oC, Beta-MS exhibited a 2.7-fold larger conversion capacity, a 2.0-fold faster reaction rate, and a remarkably longer lifetime than conventional zeolite Beta (Beta-C). The superior catalytic performance of Beta-MS is attributed to its hierarchical structure, which offers full accessibility to all catalytic active sites. In contrast, Beta-C was easily deactivated because a layer of coke quickly deposited on the outer surfaces of the catalyst crystals, impeding access to interior active sites. This difference is clearly demonstrated by using electron microscopy combined with electron energy loss spectroscopy to probe the distribution of coke in the deactivated catalysts. At both low and high conversions, ranging from 20% to 100%, Beta-MS gave higher selectivity towards higher aliphatics (C4-C7) but lower ethene selectivity compared to Beta-C. Therefore, we conclude that a hierarchical structure decreases the residence time of methylbenzenes in zeolite micropores, disfavoring the propagation of the aromatic-based catalytic cycle. This conclusion is consistent with a recent report on ZSM-5 and is also strongly supported by our analysis of soluble coke species residing in the catalysts. Moreover, we identified an oxygen-containing compound, 4-methyl-benzaldehyde, in the coke, which has not been observed in the MTH reaction before.  

  12. Investigating the Influence of Mesoporosity in Zeolite Beta on its Catalytic Performance for the Conversion of Methanol to Hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Zhaohui; Dong, Xinglong; Zhu, Yihan; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Zhang, Daliang; Tian, Qiwei; Han, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchically porous zeolite Beta (Beta-MS) synthesized by a soft-templating method contains remarkable intra-crystalline mesoporosity, which reduces the diffusion length in zeolite channels down to several nanometers and alters the distribution of Al among distinct crystallographic sites. When used as a catalyst for the conversion of methanol to hydrocarbons (MTH) at 330 oC, Beta-MS exhibited a 2.7-fold larger conversion capacity, a 2.0-fold faster reaction rate, and a remarkably longer lifetime than conventional zeolite Beta (Beta-C). The superior catalytic performance of Beta-MS is attributed to its hierarchical structure, which offers full accessibility to all catalytic active sites. In contrast, Beta-C was easily deactivated because a layer of coke quickly deposited on the outer surfaces of the catalyst crystals, impeding access to interior active sites. This difference is clearly demonstrated by using electron microscopy combined with electron energy loss spectroscopy to probe the distribution of coke in the deactivated catalysts. At both low and high conversions, ranging from 20% to 100%, Beta-MS gave higher selectivity towards higher aliphatics (C4-C7) but lower ethene selectivity compared to Beta-C. Therefore, we conclude that a hierarchical structure decreases the residence time of methylbenzenes in zeolite micropores, disfavoring the propagation of the aromatic-based catalytic cycle. This conclusion is consistent with a recent report on ZSM-5 and is also strongly supported by our analysis of soluble coke species residing in the catalysts. Moreover, we identified an oxygen-containing compound, 4-methyl-benzaldehyde, in the coke, which has not been observed in the MTH reaction before.  

  13. Production of beta-xylanase and beta-xylosidase by the extremely halophilic archaeon Halorhabdus utahensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wainø, M.; Ingvorsen, K.

    2003-01-01

    -xylosidase stabilities, approximately 55% and 83% of the initial beta-xylanase and beta-xylosidase activities, respectively, remained after 24 h incubation at 20% NaCl. The enzymes were also shown to be slightly thermophilic: P-xylanase activity exhibiting two optima at 55degrees and 70degreesC, while beta......The extremely halophilic archaeon, Halorhabdus utahensis, isolated from the Great Salt Lake, Utah, produced beta-xylanase and beta-xylosidase activities. Both enzymes were active over a broad NaCl range from near zero to 30% NaCl when tested with culture broth. A broad NaCl optimum was observed...... for beta-xylanase activity between 5% and 15% NaCl, while beta-xylosidase activity was highest at 5% NaCl. Almost half of the maximum activities remained at 27%-30% NaCl for both enzyme activities. When dialyzed culture supernatant and culture broth were employed for determination of beta-xylanase and beta...

  14. Evaluation of partial beta-adrenoceptor agonist activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipworth, B J; Grove, A

    1997-01-01

    A partial beta-adrenoceptor (beta-AR) agonist will exhibit opposite agonist and antagonist activity depending on the prevailing degree of adrenergic tone or the presence of a beta-AR agonist with higher intrinsic activity. In vivo partial beta-AR agonist activity will be evident at rest with low endogenous adrenergic tone, as for example with chronotropicity (beta 1/beta 2), inotropicity (beta 1) or peripheral vasodilatation and finger tremor (beta 2). beta-AR blocking drugs which have partial agonist activity may exhibit a better therapeutic profile when used for hypertension because of maintained cardiac output without increased systemic vascular resistance, along with an improved lipid profile. In the presence of raised endogenous adrenergic tone such as exercise or an exogenous full agonist, beta-AR subtype antagonist activity will become evident in terms of effects on exercise induced heart rate (beta 1) and potassium (beta 2) responses. Reduction of exercise heart rate will occur to a lesser degree in the case of a beta-adrenoceptor blocker with partial beta 1-AR agonist activity compared with a beta-adrenoceptor blocker devoid of partial agonist activity. This may result in reduced therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of angina on effort when using beta-AR blocking drugs with partial beta 1-AR agonist activity. Effects on exercise hyperkalaemia are determined by the balance between beta 2-AR partial agonist activity and endogenous adrenergic activity. For predominantly beta 2-AR agonist such as salmeterol and salbutamol, potentiation of exercise hyperkalaemia occurs. For predominantly beta 2-AR antagonists such as carteolol, either potentiation or attenuation of exercise hyperkalaemia occurs at low and high doses respectively. beta 2-AR partial agonist activity may also be expressed as antagonism in the presence of an exogenous full agonist, as for example attenuation of fenoterol induced responses by salmeterol. Studies are required to investigate whether

  15. Beta adrenergic receptors in human cavernous tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhabuwala, C.B.; Ramakrishna, C.V.; Anderson, G.F.

    1985-04-01

    Beta adrenergic receptor binding was performed with /sup 125/I iodocyanopindolol on human cavernous tissue membrane fractions from normal tissue and transsexual procedures obtained postoperatively, as well as from postmortem sources. Isotherm binding studies on normal fresh tissues indicated that the receptor density was 9.1 fmoles/mg. with a KD of 23 pM. Tissue stored at room temperature for 4 to 6 hours, then at 4C in saline solution for 19 to 20 hours before freezing showed no significant changes in receptor density or affinity, and provided evidence for the stability of postmortem tissue obtained within the same time period. Beta receptor density of 2 cavernous preparations from transsexual procedures was not significantly different from normal control tissues, and showed that high concentrations of estrogen received by these patients had no effect on beta adrenergic receptor density. Displacement of /sup 125/iodocyanopindolol by 5 beta adrenergic agents demonstrated that 1-propranolol had the greatest affinity followed by ICI 118,551, zinterol, metoprolol and practolol. When the results of these displacement studies were subjected to Scatfit, non- linear regression line analysis, a single binding site was described. Based on the relative potency of the selective beta adrenergic agents it appears that these receptors were of the beta 2 subtype.

  16. Other characterizations of $\\beta$-$\\theta$-R0 topological spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Caldas Cueva

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we give other characterizations of $\\beta$-$\\theta$-$%R_0$ and also introduce a new separation axiom called$\\beta$-$\\theta$-$R_1$. It turns out that $\\beta$-$\\theta$-$R_1$ isstronger that $\\beta$-$\\theta$-$R_0$

  17. Estimating Security Betas Using Prior Information Based on Firm Fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cosemans, Mathijs; Frehen, Rik; Schotman, Peter; Bauer, Rob

    2016-01-01

    We propose a hybrid approach for estimating beta that shrinks rolling window estimates toward firm-specific priors motivated by economic theory. Our method yields superior forecasts of beta that have important practical implications. First, unlike standard rolling window betas, hybrid betas carry a

  18. Structure-activity relationships of N-beta-phenylpropionyl-L-tyrosine and its derivatives on the inhibition of an identifiable giant neurone of an African giant snail (Achatina fulica Férussac).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyoshi, Y.; Takeuchi, H.

    1982-01-01

    1 Inhibitory effects of N-beta-phenylpropionyl-L-tyrosine, N-beta-phenylpropionyl-L-tryptophan and their derivatives on an identifiable giant neurone, TAN (tonically autoactive neurone) of an African giant snail (Achatina fulica Férussac) were examined in an attempt to elucidate which structural features are necessary to produce the effect. 2 Of the compounds examined, N-beta-cyclohexylpropionyl-L-tyrosine showed the strongest effect. Its critical concentration (c.c.) was 3 X 10(-8)-10(-7)M, about ten times lower than that of N-beta-phenylpropionyl-L-tyrosine (c.c., 3 X 10(-7)-10(-6)M). N-beta-cyclohexylpropionyl-L-tryptophan (c.c., 10(-6)M) had an effect almost similar to that of N-beta-phenylpropionyl-L-tryptophan (c.c., 10(-6)M). 3 N-beta-Phenylpropionyl-N-methyl-L-tyrosine had no effect at a high concentration. 4 Effects of N-beta-phenylpropionyl-L-tyrosine amide (c.c., 3 X 10(-7)-10(-6)M) and N-beta-phenylpropionyl-L-tryptophan amide (c.c., 10(-6)M) were very similar to those of N-beta-phenylpropionyl-L-tyrosine and N-beta-phenylpropionyl-L-tryptophan respectively. 5 N-beta-Phenylpropionyl-p-amino-L-phenylalanine (c.c., 3 X 10(-5)-10(-4)M) and N-beta-phenylpropionyl-p-chloro-L-phenylalanine (c.c., 10(-4)M) had only a weak effect. 6 It is proposed that the structural features producing the effect are as follows: the active compound has a phenyl or a cyclohexyl group (hydrophobic binding group), after a suitable distance a peptide bond (proton donor and proton acceptor), adjacently a carbonyl group (proton acceptor), and a phenolic hydroxyl or an indolyl imino group (proton donor) in the molecule. PMID:7150871

  19. Beta decay and rhenium cosmochronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashktorab, K.

    1992-01-01

    Among the problems which limit the use of the 187 Re/ 187 Os isobaric pair as a cosmochronometer for the age of the galaxy and the universe are the uncertainties in the partial half-lives of the continuum and bound state decays of 187 Re. While the total half-life of the decay is well established, the partial half-life for the continuum decay is uncertain, and several measurements are not compatible. A high temperature quartz proportional counter was used in this work to remeasure the continuum β - decay of 187 Re. The β endpoint energy for the decay of neutral 187 Re to singly ionized 187 Os of 2.75 ± 0.06 keV agrees with the earlier results. The corresponding half-life of (45 ± 3) x 10 9 years improves and agrees with the earlier measurement of Payne and Drever and refutes other measurements. Based on the new half-life for the continuum decay and a total half-life of (43.5 ± 1.3) x 10 9 years reported by Linder et al., the branching ratio for the bound state decay into discrete atomic states is estimated to be (3 ± 6)% in agreement with the most recent calculated theoretical branching ratio of approximately 1%. Anomalies in beta spectra reported by J.J. Simpson and others have been attributed to a 17 keV heavy-neutrino admixture. If confirmed, the implications from the existence of such a neutrino for particle and astrophysics would be significant. A multiwire open-quotes wall-lessclose quotes stainless steel proportional counter has been used in the present work to investigate the spectral shape of the β decay of 63 Ni. No anomalies in the spectral shape were observed which could be attributed to the presence of 17 keV heavy neutrino

  20. Steroidal and phenolic compounds from Sidastrum paniculatum (L.) Fryxell and evaluation of cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Jose Marcilio Sobral; Nogueira, Tiago Bezerra de Sa de Souza; Tomaz, Anna Claudia de Andrade; Antas e Silva, Davi; Agra, Maria de Fatima; Souza, Maria de Fatima Vanderlei de [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Tecnologia Farmaceutica Prof. Delby Fernandes de Medeiros; Carvalho, Paulo Roberto Cavalcanti; Ramos, Silvia Rafaelli; Nascimento, Silene Carneiro do; Goncalves-Silva, Teresinha [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Antibioticos

    2010-07-01

    Sidastrum paniculatum (L.) Fryxell belongs to the family Malvaceae and is popularly known as 'malva roxa' or 'malvavisco'. The phytochemical study of the hexane, CHCl{sub 3} and EtOAc phases from the crude ethanol extract of S. paniculatum led to the isolation of six compounds: a mixture of {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol, 4-methoxy-3-hydroxybenzoic acid, 4-methoxy-3-hydroxybenzaldehyde, N-trans-feruloyltyramine and kaempferol-3-O-{beta}{beta}-D-(6''-E-p-coumaroyl) glucoside. The structural identification of the compounds was made on the basis of spectroscopic methods such as IR, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR with the aid of including two-dimensional techniques, besides comparison with literature data. The {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol mixture showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity. (author)

  1. Polyphenol compounds of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora; Compostos polifenolicos do kino de Eucalyptus citriodora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Marinalva Oliveira; Lima, Mary Anne S.; Silveira, Edilberto R. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: edil@ufc.br

    2007-07-01

    Phytochemical analysis of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora led to the isolation of 1-O,2-O-digaloil-6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-trans-p-cumaroil-6-O-cinamoil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, alpha and beta 6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-D-glucopyranoside, 7-methylaromadendrin-4'-O-6{sup -}trans-p-cumaroil-beta-Dglucopyranoside, aromadendrin, aromadendrin-7-methyl-ether, naringenin, sakuranetin, kaempferol-7-methyl-ether and galic acid. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was established on the basis of spectral data, particularly by the use of 1D NMR and several 2D shift correlated NMR pulse sequences ({sup 1}H,{sup 1}H-COSY, HMQC, HMBC). (author)

  2. Placental transfer and metabolism of 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol-17 beta and estradiol-17 beta in the rhesus monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slikker, W. Jr.; Bailey, J.R.; Newport, D.; Lipe, G.W.; Hill, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    The synthetic estrogen component of many oral contraceptives, 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol-17 beta (EE2) and the naturally occurring estrogen, estradiol-17 beta (E2) were studied in four pregnant rhesus monkeys (71% term: 108-121 days gestational age). Under ketamine anesthesia, catheters were implanted in the maternal femoral artery and fetal interplacental artery. After simultaneous i.v. administration of [ 3 H]EE2-[ 14 C]E2 to the maternal animal, serial blood samples were drawn from both mother and fetus. The estrogens and metabolites were identified and quantified by the comigration of radioactivity with reference standards in several high-performance liquid chromatography systems and subsequent selective enzyme hydrolysis of the conjugates. Only estrone (E1), E1 sulfate, EE2 and EE2-3 sulfate were observed in the fetal circulation, whereas the major radiolabeled compounds in the maternal circulation consisted of the above plus E2, E1 glucuronide and EE2-3 glucuronide. In order to determine whether the placenta could convert E2 to its metabolite E1, the placentas of three term rhesus monkeys were perfused in situ via the umbilical artery with 120 ml (15 ml/min) of Hanks' balanced salt solution (pH 7.4) containing [ 3 H]E2. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of umbilical vein samples revealed that 96% of the E2 was metabolized to E1. These studies indicate that the placenta can metabolize the potent naturally occurring estrogen E2 to the less potent E1. In contrast, the synthetic estrogen EE2 does not undergo this placental metabolic conversion and thus enters the fetal circulation as the parent compound

  3. Beta2- and beta3-adrenoceptors activate glucose uptake in chick astrocytes by distinct mechanisms: a mechanism for memory enhancement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Dana S; Summers, Roger J; Gibbs, Marie E

    2007-11-01

    Isoprenaline, acting at beta-adrenoceptors (ARs), enhances memory formation in single trial discriminated avoidance learning in day-old chicks by mechanisms involving alterations in glucose and glycogen metabolism. Earlier studies of memory consolidation in chicks indicated that beta3-ARs enhanced memory by increasing glucose uptake, whereas beta2-ARs enhance memory by increasing glycogenolysis. This study examines the ability of beta-ARs to increase glucose uptake in chick forebrain astrocytes. The beta-AR agonist isoprenaline increased glucose uptake in a concentration-dependent manner, as did insulin. Glucose uptake was increased by the beta2-AR agonist zinterol and the beta3-AR agonist CL316243, but not by the beta1-AR agonist RO363. In chick astrocytes, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction studies showed that beta1-, beta2-, and beta3-AR mRNA were present, whereas radioligand-binding studies showed the presence of only beta2- and beta3-ARs. beta-AR or insulin-mediated glucose uptake was inhibited by phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase and protein kinase C inhibitors, suggesting a possible interaction between the beta-AR and insulin pathways. However beta2- and beta3-ARs increase glucose uptake by two different mechanisms: beta2-ARs via a Gs-cAMP-protein kinase A-dependent pathway, while beta3-ARs via interactions with Gi. These results indicate that activation of beta2- and beta3-ARs causes glucose uptake in chick astrocytes by distinct mechanisms, which may be relevant for memory enhancement.

  4. Exercise- and cold-induced changes in plasma beta-endorphin and beta-lipotropin in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, M; Van Dijk, J P; Graham, T E; Bonen, A; George, J C

    1987-02-01

    The plasma beta-endorphin (beta-EP) and beta-lipotropin (beta-LPH) response of men, eumenorrheic women, and amenorrheic women (n = 6) to 1 h of rest or to a bicycle ergometer test [20 min at 30% maximum O2 uptake (VO2max), 20 min at 60% VO2max, and at 90% VO2max to exhaustion] was studied in both normal (22 degrees C) and cold (5 degrees C) environments. beta-EP and beta-LPH was measured by radioimmunoassay in venous samples collected every 20 min during rest or after each exercise bout. Exhaustive exercise at ambient temperature (Ta) 22 degrees C induced significant increases in plasma beta-EP and beta-LPH in all subjects as did work at 60% VO2max in amenorrheic and eumenorrheic women. During work at Ta 5 degrees C, the relative increase in beta-EP and beta-LPH was suppressed in eumenorrheic women and completely prevented in amenorrheic women. Although significant lowering of beta-EP and beta-LPH was observed in men and eumenorrheic women during rest at 5 degrees C, amenorrheic women maintained precold exposure levels. These findings suggest that plasma beta-EP and beta-LPH may reflect a thermoregulatory response to heat load. There appears to be a sexual dimorphism in exercise- and cold-induced release of beta-EP and beta-LPH and amenorrhea may be accompanied by alterations in these responses.

  5. Beta-1-Selective Beta-Blockers and Cognitive Functions in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkauskas, Julius; Noreikaite, Aurelija; Bunevicius, Adomas; Brozaitiene, Julija; Neverauskas, Julius; Mickuviene, Narseta; Bunevicius, Robertas

    2016-01-01

    The association between current beta-1-selective beta-blocker use and cognitive function was evaluated in 722 patients with coronary artery disease without dementia. Beta-1-selective beta-blocker use was associated with worse incidental learning independently of sociodemographic characteristics, clinical coronary artery disease severity, and depression/anxiety.

  6. Fluorine-18 labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleijn, J.P. de

    1978-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis deals with the problems involved in the adaption of reactor-produced fluorine-18 to the synthesis of 18 F-labelled organic fluorine compounds. Several 18 F-labelling reagents were prepared and successfully applied. The limitations to the synthetic possibilities of reactor-produced fluoride- 18 become manifest in the last part of the thesis. An application to the synthesis of labelled aliphatic fluoro amino acids has appeared to be unsuccessful as yet, although some other synthetic approaches can be indicated. Seven journal articles (for which see the availability note) are used to compose the four chapters and three appendices. The connecting text gives a survey of known 18 F-compounds and methods for preparing such compounds. (Auth.)

  7. Caldensinic acid, a benzoic acid derivative and others compounds from Piper carniconnectivum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Harley da Silva; Souza, Maria de Fatima Vanderlei de; Chaves, Maria Celia de Oliveira, E-mail: cchaves@ltf.ufpb.b [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Tecnologia Farmaceutica

    2010-07-01

    A benzoic acid derivative - caldensinic acid, E-phythyl hexadecanoate, {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol mixture and phaeophytin a were isolated from the aerial parts of Piper carniconnectivum. The structures of these compounds were established unambiguously by IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR analysis. (author)

  8. A new flavonol glycoside and activity of compounds from the flower of Nymphaea candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R-N; Wang, W; Ding, Y; Xie, W-D; Ma, C; Du, L-J

    2007-01-01

    A new compound, kaempferol 3-O-(2''-O-galloylrutinoside) (1), was isolated from the white flower of Nymphaea candida, together with nine known flavonol glycosides, kaempferol (2), kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), kaempferol 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside (4), kaempferol 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosylglucopyranoside (5), kaempferol 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside 3-(O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosylglucopyranoside) (6), quercetin (7), quercetin 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside (8), myricetin (9), myricetin 3'-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside (10). The structure of 1 was established on the basis of the analysis of its 1D and 2D NMR spectral data. Compounds 1-7 and 9 exhibited moderate to significant antioxidant activities, which were evaluated by measurement of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in vitro. Compounds 1, 3, 4, 6 and 9 exhibited promising neuroprotective effects on ischemic injury model of cultured rat cortical neurons treated with sodium dithionite in glucose-free medium. Furthermore, compounds 1, 5, and 9 had distinct cytotoxicity to adrenal gland pheochromocytoma, PC12 cells, being treated by the same way.

  9. Chemistry and Functionality of Bioactive Compounds Present in Persimmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Yaqub

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive research has related the consumption of persimmon with the reduced risk of various diseases and particularly highlighted the presence of bioactive phenolic compounds for their therapeutic properties. Major phenolic compounds present in persimmon are ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and gallic acid. β-Cryptoxanthin, lycopene, β-carotene, zeaxanthin, and lutein are important carotenoids having antioxidant potential. They are important to prevent oxidation of low-density lipoproteins, safeguard beta cells of the pancreas, and reduce cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes mellitus, and damage caused by chronic alcohol consumption. In this paper, the chemistry and health benefits of bioactive compounds present in persimmon are reviewed to encourage impending applications and to facilitate further research activities.

  10. Immunosuppressive compounds from a deep water marine sponge, Agelas flabelliformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekera, S P; Cranick, S; Longley, R E

    1989-01-01

    Two immunosuppressive compounds, 4 alpha-methyl-5 alpha-cholest-8-en-3 beta-ol and 4,5-dibromo-2-pyrrolic acid were isolated from a deep water marine sponge, Agelas flabelliformis. Their structures were determined by comparison of their spectral data with those of samples isolated from other organisms. Both compounds were highly active in suppression of the response of murine splenocytes in the two-way mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) with little to no demonstrable cytotoxicity at lower doses. In addition, 4,5-dibromo-2-pyrrolic acid suppressed the proliferative response of splenocytes to suboptimal concentrations of the mitogen, concanavalin A (Con A). These results describe for the first time compounds isolated from the marine sponge A. flabelliformis that possess potent in vitro immunosuppressive activity.

  11. Ionisation detectors as monitors of toxic compounds in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Beta particles cause ionisation in gas mixtures. The ions produced provide information on the concentration and identity of trace compounds in ambient air. Modern ionisation detectors use ion mobilities to monitor toxic compounds. Chemical solvent, phosphororganic compounds, PCB and many other toxins can be detected using ion mobility detectors (IMD) in the ppb range or lower. Ion mobility detectors have large potential in industry and research because of their sensitivity, specificity, fast response and relatively low cost. Portable devices and fixed installations are possible. The paper discusses the following topics: (1) ionisation sources in IMD: 63 Ni, 3 H, photoionization and corona discharge, (2) basic principles of ion production, (3) ion collection in IMD, (4) design, gas supply, automatic identification and quantification of IMD data, and (5) selected applications. Advantages and problems with this new type of nuclear analytical instrument are also discussed. (author). 2 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  12. New coordination compounds of europium (3) with fluorated β-diketones and their use as lanthanide shift reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goryushko, A.G.; Davidenko, N.K.; Kudryavtseva, L.S.; Lozinskij, M.O.; Lugina, L.N.; Fialkov, Yu.A.

    1980-01-01

    Altogether five coordination compounds of europium (3) of the composition EuL 3 , wherein HL is a fluorinated beta-diketone containing in its fluorinated linear or cyclic radical a heteroatom, such as oxygen, have been obtained. The hygroscopicity of the obtained tris-beta-ketones has been tested. Their activity as lanthanide shifting agents for NMR spectroscopy purposes has been analyzed and the stability constants of their monoadducts with ethyl acetate have been determined [ru

  13. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    β-Dicarbonyl derivative constitute an important class of compounds, which serve as a precursor [19] of various pharmaceutically useful heterocyclic compounds, and complexes [20,. 21]. β-Dicarbonyl compounds are very important chemotherapeutic agents [22]. During recent years a number of quinolones with substitution ...

  14. Chloric organic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moalem, F.

    2000-01-01

    Since many years ago, hazardous and toxic refuses which are results of human activities has been carelessly without any Biological and Engineering facts and knowledge discharged into our land and water. The effects of discharging those materials in environment are different. Some of refuse materials shows short and other has long-time adverse effects in our environment, Among hazardous organic chemical materials, chlorine, consider, to be the main element. Organic materials with chlorine is called chlorine hydrocarbon as a hazardous compound. This paper discuss the hazardous materials especially chloric organic compound and their misuse effects in environment and human being

  15. Medicinal gold compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parish, R.V.; Cottrill, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    A major use of gold compounds in the pharmaceutical industry is for anti-arthritic agents. The disease itself is not understood and little is known about the way in which the drugs act, but detailed pictures of the distribution of gold in the body are available, and some of the relevant biochemistry is beginning to emerge. The purpose of this article is to give a survey of the types of compounds presently employed in medicine, of the distribution of gold in the body which results from their use, and of some relevant chemistry. Emphasis is placed on results obtained in the last few years

  16. Compound semiconductor device physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Sandip

    2013-01-01

    This book provides one of the most rigorous treatments of compound semiconductor device physics yet published. A complete understanding of modern devices requires a working knowledge of low-dimensional physics, the use of statistical methods, and the use of one-, two-, and three-dimensional analytical and numerical analysis techniques. With its systematic and detailed**discussion of these topics, this book is ideal for both the researcher and the student. Although the emphasis of this text is on compound semiconductor devices, many of the principles discussed will also be useful to those inter

  17. Prediction of intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhanov, Gennady S; Kiselyova, N N

    2009-01-01

    The problems of predicting not yet synthesized intermetallic compounds are discussed. It is noted that the use of classical physicochemical analysis in the study of multicomponent metallic systems is faced with the complexity of presenting multidimensional phase diagrams. One way of predicting new intermetallics with specified properties is the use of modern processing technology with application of teaching of image recognition by the computer. The algorithms used most often in these methods are briefly considered and the efficiency of their use for predicting new compounds is demonstrated.

  18. Effect of water on self-assembled tubules in {beta}-sitosterol + {gamma}-oryzanol-based organogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adel, Ruud den; Heussen, Patricia C M; Bot, Arjen, E-mail: ruud-den.adel@unilever.co [Unilever Research and Development Vlaardingen, Olivier van Noortlaan 120, NL-3133 AT Vlaardingen (Netherlands)

    2010-10-01

    Mixtures of {beta}-sitosterol and {gamma}-oryzanol form a network in triglyceride oil that may serve as an alternative to the network of small crystallites of triglycerides occurring in regular oil structuring. The present x-ray diffraction study investigates the relation between the crystal forms of the individual compounds and the mixture in oil, water and emulsion. {beta}-Sitosterol and {gamma}-oryzanol form normal crystals in oil, in water, or in emulsions. The crystals are sensitive to the presence of water. The mixture of {beta}-sitosterol + {gamma}-oryzanol forms crystals in water and emulsions that can be traced back to the crystals of the pure compounds. Only in oil, a completely different structure emerges in the mixture of {beta}-sitosterol + {gamma}-oryzanol, which bears no relation to the structures that are formed by both individual compounds, and which can be identified as a self-assembled tubule (diameter 7.2{+-}0.1 nm, wall thickness 0.8{+-}0.2 nm).

  19. Overview of total beta activity index and beta rest in surface waters of the Spanish rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol, L.; Payeras, J.; Pablo, M. A. de

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to give an overview of the index of total beta activity and the activity index beta rest in surface waters of the main Spanish rivers. These indices are a parameter over water quality that CEDEX comes determined by order of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment, in water policy. (Author)

  20. BetaTPred: prediction of beta-TURNS in a protein using statistical algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harpreet; Raghava, G P S

    2002-03-01

    beta-turns play an important role from a structural and functional point of view. beta-turns are the most common type of non-repetitive structures in proteins and comprise on average, 25% of the residues. In the past numerous methods have been developed to predict beta-turns in a protein. Most of these prediction methods are based on statistical approaches. In order to utilize the full potential of these methods, there is a need to develop a web server. This paper describes a web server called BetaTPred, developed for predicting beta-TURNS in a protein from its amino acid sequence. BetaTPred allows the user to predict turns in a protein using existing statistical algorithms. It also allows to predict different types of beta-TURNS e.g. type I, I', II, II', VI, VIII and non-specific. This server assists the users in predicting the consensus beta-TURNS in a protein. The server is accessible from http://imtech.res.in/raghava/betatpred/

  1. Automation of electrostatic and magnetic beta-spectrometers; Avtomatizatsiya ehlektrostaticheskogo i magnitnogo {beta}-spektrometra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorov, V T; Petev, P A

    1996-12-31

    Paper describes control units of voltage and current NM respectively, for electrostatic and magnetic beta-spectrometers. These units may be designed on the basis of either SPELMAN company voltage devider ensuring 0.5 accuracy or using a computer modification of feedback. Software for automated electrostatic beta-spectrometer made according to CAMAC standards is considered. 5 figs.

  2. Superconducting tests of beta = 0.1 and beta = 0.2 resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, D.W.; Amsbaugh, J.F.; Corcoran, D.T.; Howe, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Several low beta (0.10) and two high beta (0.21) lead plated copper quarter wave resonators were cooled down, multipactor conditioned, tested, helium conditioned, and retested. The choice of the quarter wave resonator and of the lead plated copper technology is discussed. The fabrication is described and techniques for conditioning the resonators are presented. Performances are presented. 5 refs., 4 figs

  3. Integrins beta 5, beta 3 and alpha v are apically distributed in endometrial epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, J D; Spanswick, C; Behzad, F; Kimber, S J; Vićovac, L

    1996-07-01

    Several adhesion molecules have been shown to occur at the surface of endometrial cells. One of these is the integrin alpha v subunit which associates with various beta chains including beta 5. We demonstrate the presence of integrin beta 5 polypeptide in human endometrial epithelial cells throughout the menstrual cycle using immunocytochemistry with monospecific antibodies, and at the mRNA level by thermal amplification from endometrial cDNA. Integrin beta 5 is also found in a population of bone marrow-derived cells. A notable feature of the distribution of the beta 5 subunit in the glandular and luminal epithelium is its apical localization, which may suggest an involvement in implantation. However, no evidence was found for regulated expression of epithelial beta 5. In mouse, the beta 5 subunit is found at both the apical and basal surface of epithelial cells and expression is essentially oestrous cycle-independent. Comparisons are made in both species with the distribution of the alpha v and beta 3 subunits which also localize to the apical epithelium.

  4. BETA SPECTRA. I. Negatrons spectra; ESPECTROS BETA. I. Espectros simples de negatrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Malonda, A; Garcia-Torano, E

    1978-07-01

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 62 negatrons emitters have been computed introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. These spectra are plotted vs. energy, once normal i sed, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (Author)

  5. Toxicity, mutagenicity, and behavioral effects of {beta}-CIT, a ligand for dopamine transporter exploration by SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emond, P.; Farde, L.; Chalon, S.; Belzung, C.; Mauclaire, V.; Chiron, J. P.; Halldin, C.; Besnard, J.C.; Guilloteau, D

    1998-05-01

    The cocaine analog {beta}-CIT is one of the most used compounds for SPET examination of the dopamine transporter in drug abuse and Parkinson's disease. However, the toxicity of this agent has not yet been studied. We report here acute toxicity, mutagenicity, and effect on locomotor activity of {beta}-CIT. Acute toxicity experiments were performed in mice and rats. The LD50 values were about 20 mg and 5 mg for mice and rats, respectively. There was no sex difference. The mutagenicity was evaluated using the Ames' test. No mutagenic effect was observed for {beta}-CIT. Effects on locomotor activity were measured in mice using the open-field test. {beta}-CIT increased locomotion (+65%) when injected at a dose of 0.312 mg/kg; the maximal increase (+205%) was observed at a dose of 1.25 mg/kg; at higher doses, the effect was decreased slightly. These pharmacological findings are in agreement with an inhibitory effect of {beta}-CIT at the dopamine transporter. We conclude that with no mutagenic effects and LD50 more than 6 orders of magnitude higher than the routinely used doses in PET or SPET, it can be assumed that {beta}-CIT can be safely used as a radioligand in humans.

  6. Kinematic shifts of beta -delayed particles as a probe of beta - nu angular correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Clifford, E T H; Evans, H C; Fästermann, T; Hagberg, E; Hardy, J C; Jackson, K P; Koslowsky, V T; Schmeing, H; Schrewe, U J

    1981-01-01

    Beta-delayed particles undergo a kinematic shift in energy due to recoil motion of the daughter nucleus following beta decay. A careful measurement of this energy shift can be used to establish the ratio of vector to axial vector components in beta transitions. Alpha-beta coincidence data for the beta-delayed alpha decay of /sup 20/Na have been obtained. Component ratios for 6 transitions including the superallowed branch are found. Limits on charge dependent mixing with the analogue state are deduced for 5 states in /sup 20/Ne*. For the superallowed branch the axial vector component is found; the polar vector component is deduced and establishes a value for the vector weak coupling constant of G/sub V/=(1.355+or-0.036)*10/sup -49/ erg cm /sup 3/. (13 refs).

  7. Compound floating pivot micromechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ernest J.

    2001-04-24

    A new class of tilting micromechanical mechanisms have been developed. These new mechanisms use compound floating pivot structures to attain far greater tilt angles than are practical using other micromechanical techniques. The new mechanisms are also capable of bi-directional tilt about multiple axes.

  8. The Onium Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarevsky, Nicolay V.; Slaveykova, Vera; Manev, Stefan; Lazarov, Dobri

    1997-06-01

    The onium salts are of a big interest for theoretical and structural chemistry, and for organic synthesis. Some representatives of the group (e.g. ammonium salts) were known from the oldest times. Many onium salts are met the nature: ammonium salts (either as inorganic salts, and organic derivatives, e.g. aminoacids, salts of biogenic amines and alkaloids, etc.); oxonium salts (plant pigments as anthocyans are organic oxonium compounds), etc. In 1894 C. Hartmann and V. Meyer prepared the first iodonium salts - 4-iododiphenyliodonium hydrogensulfate and diphenyliodonium salts, and suggested the ending -onium for all compounds with properties similar to those of ammonium salts. Nowadays onium compounds of almost all nonmetals are synthesised and studied. A great variety of physical methods: diffraction (e.g. XRD) and spectral methods (IR-, NMR-, and UV-spectra), as well as the chemical properties and methods of preparation of onium salts have been used in determination of the structure of these compounds. The application of different onium salts is immense. Ammonium, phosphonium and sulfonium salts are used as phase-transfer catalysts; diazonium salts - for the preparation of dyes, metalochromic and pH-indicators. All the onium salts and especially diazonium and iodonium salts are very useful reagents in organic synthesis.

  9. Forecasting of superconducting compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitskii, E.M.; Gribulya, V.G.; Kiseleva, N.N.

    1981-01-01

    In forecasting new superconducting intermetallic compounds of the A15 and Mo 3 Se types most promising from the viewpoint of high critical temperature Tsub(c), high critical magnetic fields Hsub(c), and high critical currents and in estimating their transition temperature it is proposed to apply cybernetic methods of computer learning

  10. NATURAL POLYACETYLENE COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Nasukhova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the review of the initial stage of researches of natural polyacetylene compounds is resulted. The high reactionary ability leading to fast oxidation and degradation of these compounds, especially at influence of Uf-light, oxygen of air, pH and other factors, has caused the serious difficulties connected with an establishment of structure and studying of their physical and chemical properties. Therefore the greatest quantity of works of this stage is connected with studying of essential oils of plants from families Apiaceae, Araliaceae, Asteraceae, Campanulaceae, Olacaceae, Pittosporaceae and Santalaceae where have been found out, basically, diacetylene compounds. About development of physical and chemical methods of the analysis of possibility of similar researches have considerably extended. More than 2000 polyacetylenes are known today, from them more than 1100 are found out in plants fam. Asteraceae. Revolution in the field of molecular biology has allowed to study processes of biosynthesis of these compounds intensively.

  11. Aminopropyl thiophene compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, M.M.; Knapp, F.F.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes radiopharmaceuticals useful in brain imaging comprising radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives. The compounds are 5-halo-thiophene-2-isopropyl amines able to cross the blood-brain barrier and be retained for a sufficient length of time to allow the evaluation of regional blood flow by radioimaging of the brain

  12. Aminopropyl thiophene compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1990-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals useful in brain imaging comprising radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives. The compounds are 5-halo-thiophene-2-isopropyl amines able to cross the blood-brain barrier and be retained for a sufficient length of time to allow the evaluation of regional blood flow by radioimaging of the brain.

  13. Hyperon compound nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Toshimitsu.

    1987-11-01

    The formation of various hypernuclei from K - absorption at rest is discussed from the viewpoints of compound decay of highly excited hypernuclei in contrast to the direct reaction mechanism. Recent (stopped K - , π) experiments at KEK as well as old data of emulsion and bubble chamber experiments are discussed. Some future direction of hypernuclear spectroscopy is suggested. (author)

  14. Toxicology of perfluorinated compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, Thorsten [Hessian State Laboratory, Wiesbaden (Germany); Mattern, Daniela; Brunn, Hubertus [Hessian State Laboratory, Giessen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Perfluorinated compounds [PFCs] have found a wide use in industrial products and processes and in a vast array of consumer products. PFCs are molecules made up of carbon chains to which fluorine atoms are bound. Due to the strength of the carbon/fluorine bond, the molecules are chemically very stable and are highly resistant to biological degradation; therefore, they belong to a class of compounds that tend to persist in the environment. These compounds can bioaccumulate and also undergo biomagnification. Within the class of PFC chemicals, perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorosulphonic acid are generally considered reference substances. Meanwhile, PFCs can be detected almost ubiquitously, e.g., in water, plants, different kinds of foodstuffs, in animals such as fish, birds, in mammals, as well as in human breast milk and blood. PFCs are proposed as a new class of 'persistent organic pollutants'. Numerous publications allude to the negative effects of PFCs on human health. The following review describes both external and internal exposures to PFCs, the toxicokinetics (uptake, distribution, metabolism, excretion), and the toxicodynamics (acute toxicity, subacute and subchronic toxicities, chronic toxicity including carcinogenesis, genotoxicity and epigenetic effects, reproductive and developmental toxicities, neurotoxicity, effects on the endocrine system, immunotoxicity and potential modes of action, combinational effects, and epidemiological studies on perfluorinated compounds). (orig.)

  15. Chemical compounds in teak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Viana da Silva Leonardo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Quinone compounds are largely generated at extractive fraction of the woods in a complex and variable biological system. The literature has indications for many segments from food industry to pharmaceutical industry. Within the field of industrial use of wood, they are less desirable since they are treated only as incidental substances in production strings of pulp, paper, charcoal, and sawmill. In spite of its small amount, compared to other chemical compounds called essential, these substances have received special attention from researchers revealing a diverse range of offerings to market products textiles, pharmaceuticals, colorants, and other polymers, for which are being tested and employed. Quinones are found in fungi, lichens, and mostly in higher plants. Tectona grandis, usually called teak, is able to biosynthesize anthraquinones, which is a quinone compound, byproduct of secondary metabolism. This species provides wood that is much prized in the furniture sector and can also be exploited for metabolites to supply the market in quinone compounds and commercial development of new technologies, adding value to the plantations of this species within our country.

  16. The long-acting GLP-1 derivative NN2211 ameliorates glycemia and increases beta-cell mass in diabetic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolin, Bidda; Larsen, Marianne O; Gotfredsen, Carsten F

    2002-01-01

    in food intake, there were no significant differences between NN2211 and vehicle treatment, and body weight was not affected. Histological examination revealed that beta-cell proliferation and mass were not increased significantly in ob/ob mice with NN2211, although there was a strong tendency...... for increased proliferation. In db/db mice, exendin-4 and NN2211 decreased blood glucose compared with vehicle, but NN2211 had a longer duration of action. Food intake was lowered only on day 1 with both compounds, and body weight was unaffected. beta-Cell proliferation rate and mass were significantly...

  17. Regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) after ionizing radiation; Regulation der Glykogen Synthase Kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) nach ionisierender Strahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehme, K.A.

    2006-12-15

    Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) phosphorylates the Mdm2 protein in the central domain. This phosphorylation is absolutely required for p53 degradation. Ionizing radiation inactivates GSK-3{beta} by phosphorylation at serine 9 and in consequence prevents Mdm2 mediated p53 degradation. During the work for my PhD I identified Akt/PKB as the kinase that phosphorylates GSK-3{beta} at serine 9 after ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation leads to phosphorylation of Akt/PKB at threonine 308 and serine 473. The PI3 Kinase inhibitor LY294002 completely abolished Akt/PKB serine 473 phosphorylation and prevented the induction of GSK-3{beta} serine 9 phosphorylation after ionizing radiation. Interestingly, the most significant activation of Akt/PKB after ionizing radiation occurred in the nucleus while cytoplasmic Akt/PKB was only weakly activated after radiation. By using siRNA, I showed that Akt1/PKBa, but not Akt2/PKB{beta}, is required for phosphorylation of GSK- 3{beta} at serine 9 after ionizing radiation. Phosphorylation and activation of Akt/PKB after ionizing radiation depends on the DNA dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), a member of the PI3 Kinase family, that is activated by free DNA ends. Both, in cells from SCID mice and after knockdown of the catalytic subunit of DNA-PK by siRNA in osteosarcoma cells, phosphorylation of Akt/PKB at serine 473 and of GSK-3{beta} at serine 9 was completely abolished. Consistent with the principle that phosphorylation of GSK-3 at serine 9 contributes to p53 stabilization after radiation, the accumulation of p53 in response to ionizing radiation was largely prevented by downregulation of DNA-PK. From these results I conclude, that ionizing radiation induces a signaling cascade that leads to Akt1/PKBa activation mediated by DNA-PK dependent phosphorylation of serine 473. After activation Akt1/PKBa phosphorylates and inhibits GSK-3{beta} in the nucleus. The resulting hypophosphorylated form of Mdm2 protein is no longer

  18. Pengaruh Downside Beta, Upside Beta, Dan Beta Terhadap Expected Return (Studi Pada Saham Yang Termasuk Dalam 50 Leading Market Capitalization Di Bursa Efek Indonesia Periode 2012-2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaga, Maria Goretty; Sulasmiyati, Sri

    2017-01-01

    Return or return on an investment is required by the investor. Most investors currently prefer shares in emerging markets. Return in the emerging market is not always symmetrical, it shows return in the emerging market is not normally distributed. The purposive of this research want to learn, compare, and explain about some model of stock risk. On this research downside risk expressed with beta downside. The models used in this research among others, dowside beta, upside beta, and beta. The k...

  19. Chemical characteristics of dicarboxylic acids and related organic compounds in PM2.5 during biomass-burning and non-biomass-burning seasons at a rural site of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fang; Zhang, Shi-Chun; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Liu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Chi; Xu, Zufei; Fan, Meiyi; Zhang, Wenqi; Bao, Mengying; Chang, Yunhua; Song, Wenhuai; Liu, Shoudong; Lee, Xuhui; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Zhang, Yan-Lin

    2017-12-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected using a high-volume air sampler and pre-combusted quartz filters during May 2013 to January 2014 at a background rural site (47 ∘ 35 N, 133 ∘ 31 E) in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. A homologous series of dicarboxylic acids (C 2 -C 11 ) and related compounds (oxoacids, α-dicarbonyls and fatty acids) were analyzed by using a gas chromatography (GC) and GC-MS method employing a dibutyl ester derivatization technique. Intensively open biomass-burning (BB) episodes during the harvest season in fall were characterized by high mass concentrations of PM2.5, dicarboxylic acids and levoglucosan. During the BB period, mass concentrations of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds were increased by up to >20 times with different factors for different organic compounds (i.e., succinic (C 4 ) acid > oxalic (C 2 ) acid > malonic (C 3 ) acid). High concentrations were also found for their possible precursors such as glyoxylic acid (ωC 2 ), 4-oxobutanoic acid, pyruvic acid, glyoxal, and methylglyoxal as well as fatty acids. Levoglucosan showed strong correlations with carbonaceous aerosols (OC, EC, WSOC) and dicarboxylic acids although such good correlations were not observed during non-biomass-burning seasons. Our results clearly demonstrate biomass burning emissions are very important contributors to dicarboxylic acids and related compounds. The selected ratios (e.g., C 3 /C 4 , maleic acid/fumaric acid, C 2 /ωC 2 , and C 2 /levoglucosan) were used as tracers for secondary formation of organic aerosols and their aging process. Our results indicate that organic aerosols from biomass burning in this study are fresh without substantial aging or secondary production. The present chemical characteristics of organic compounds in biomass-burning emissions are very important for better understanding the impacts of biomass burning on the atmosphere aerosols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Beta-structures in fibrous proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajava, Andrey V; Squire, John M; Parry, David A D

    2006-01-01

    The beta-form of protein folding, one of the earliest protein structures to be defined, was originally observed in studies of silks. It was then seen in early studies of synthetic polypeptides and, of course, is now known to be present in a variety of guises as an essential component of globular protein structures. However, in the last decade or so it has become clear that the beta-conformation of chains is present not only in many of the amyloid structures associated with, for example, Alzheimer's Disease, but also in the prion structures associated with the spongiform encephalopathies. Furthermore, X-ray crystallography studies have revealed the high incidence of the beta-fibrous proteins among virulence factors of pathogenic bacteria and viruses. Here we describe the basic forms of the beta-fold, summarize the many different new forms of beta-structural fibrous arrangements that have been discovered, and review advances in structural studies of amyloid and prion fibrils. These and other issues are described in detail in later chapters.

  1. Towards Alzheimer's beta-amyloid vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, D; Solomon, B

    2001-01-01

    Beta-amyloid pathology, the main hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), has been linked to its conformational status and aggregation. We recently showed that site-directed monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) towards the N-terminal region of the human beta-amyloid peptide bind to preformed beta-amyloid fibrils (Abeta), leading to disaggregation and inhibition of their neurotoxic effect. Here we report the development of a novel immunization procedure to raise effective anti-aggregating amyloid beta-protein (AbetaP) antibodies, using as antigen filamentous phages displaying the only EFRH peptide found to be the epitope of these antibodies. Due to the high antigenicity of the phage no adjuvant is required to obtain high affinity anti-aggregating IgG antibodies in animals model, that exhibit identity to human AbetaP. Such antibodies are able to sequester peripheral AbetaP, thus avoiding passage through the blood brain barrier (BBB) and, as recently shown in a transgenic mouse model, to cross the BBB and dissolve already formed beta-amyloid plaques. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to use as a vaccine a self-anti-aggregating epitope displayed on a phage, and this may pave the way to treat abnormal accumulation-peptide diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease or other amyloidogenic diseases. Copyright 2001 The International Association for Biologicals.

  2. Proton microprobe analysis of pancreatic. beta. cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindh, U [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Gustaf Werner Inst.; Juntti-Berggren, L; Berggren, P O; Hellman, B [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    1985-01-01

    Freeze-dried pancreas sections from obese hyperglycemic mice were subjected to proton bombardment and the elemental contents in the ..beta.. cells and the exocrine part were obtained from the characteristic X-rays emitted. Quantitative data were provided for 18 different elements. The mole ratio between K and Na exceeded 10, implying that neither the sample preparation nor the irradiation had induced significant diffuse changes. With the demonstration of this high K/Na ratio it seems likely that also the ..beta.. cells are equipped with an efficient Na/sup +//K/sup +/ pump. The ..beta.. cells contained about 70 mmoles Cl per litre cell water. Observed amounts of Ca and Mg were equivalent to those previously recorded by electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy. The significant role of Zn for the storage of insulin was emphasized by the demonstration of 3 times as much of this element in the ..beta.. cells as compared with the exocrine pancreas. In addition, the sensitivity of the proton microprobe enabled measurements of various trace elements such as Rb, Cr, Cu, Al and Pb not previously demonstrated in the pancreatic ..beta.. cells.

  3. Compatibility of hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin with algal toxicity bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fai, Patricia Bi; Grant, Alastair [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Reid, Brian J. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: b.reid@uea.ac.uk

    2009-01-15

    Numerous reports have indicated that hydrophobic organic compound bioaccessibility in sediment and soil can be determined by extraction using aqueous hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HPCD) solutions. This study establishes the compatibility of HPCD with Selenastrum capricornutum and assesses whether its presence influences the toxicity of reference toxicants. Algal growth inhibition (72 h) showed no significant (P > 0.05) difference at HPCD concentrations up to and including 20 mM. HPCD presence did not influence the toxicity of the inorganic reference toxicant (ZnSO{sub 4}), with IC50 values of 0.82 {mu}M and 0.85 {mu}M, in the presence and absence of HPCD (20 mM), respectively. However, HPCD presence (20 mM) reduced the toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenol and the herbicides diuron and isoproturon. These reductions were attributed to inclusion complex formation between the toxicants and the HPCD cavity. Liberation of complexed toxicants, by sample manipulation prior to toxicity assessment, is proposed to provide a sensitive, high throughput, bioassay that reflects compound bioaccessibility. - Compatibility of the biomimetic HPCD extraction method with algal cell growth inhibition bioassays to assess toxicity of reference toxicants and environmental relevant herbicides.

  4. Selenium-75-labelled foliate compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A saturation method to analyze a foliate is presented; it uses competitive reaction of the compound to be measured and of a radioactive-labelled version of this compound with a reagent specific to this compound present in insufficient quantity to combine with the whole of the compound and its labelled version, separation of the bound compound from its non-bound homologue and measurement of the radioactivity concentration in the bound compound, the non-bound compound or both. The radioactive isotope used in the labelled foliate is selenium 75 [fr

  5. A novel beta-glucosidase from the cell wall of maize (Zea mays L.): rapid purification and partial characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematollahi, W. P.; Roux, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    Plants have a variety of glycosidic conjugates of hormones, defense compounds, and other molecules that are hydrolyzed by beta-glucosidases (beta-D-glucoside glucohydrolases, E.C. 3.2.1.21). Workers have reported several beta-glucosidases from maize (Zea mays L.; Poaceae), but have localized them mostly by indirect means. We have purified and partly characterized a 58-Ku beta-glucosidase from maize, which we conclude from a partial sequence analysis, from kinetic data, and from its localization is not identical to any of those already reported. A monoclonal antibody, mWP 19, binds this enzyme, and localizes it in the cell walls of maize coleoptiles. An earlier report showed that mWP19 inhibits peroxidase activity in crude cell wall extracts and can immunoprecipitate peroxidase activity from these extracts, yet purified preparations of the 58 Ku protein had little or no peroxidase activity. The level of sequence similarity between beta-glucosidases and peroxidases makes it unlikely that these enzymes share epitopes in common. Contrary to a previous conclusion, these results suggest that the enzyme recognized by mWP19 is not a peroxidase, but there is a wall peroxidase closely associated with the 58 Ku beta-glucosidase in crude preparations. Other workers also have co-purified distinct proteins with beta-glucosidases. We found no significant charge in the level of immunodetectable beta-glucosidase in mesocotyls or coleoptiles that precedes the red light-induced changes in the growth rate of these tissues.

  6. Tevatron B0 low beta tuning report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed study of the low beta insertion for the B0 experimental area has been carried out and is described below. This insertion is similar to the Type C low beta previously report, anti p Note 169, although some changes have been made to the quadrupole lengths and positions. This insertion is designated Type E. The purpose of the study was to see if it is possible to turn the insertion on in a smooth and continuous manner and tune the insertion to a value of β* of less than one meter while maintaining the overall tune of the j Tevatron to a constant value. This was found to be possible. An examination of chromaticity corrections for the Tevatron with the low beta insertion on in various configurations was also undertaken

  7. beta. -Amyloid gene dosage in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdoch, G H; Manuelidis, L; Kim, J H; Manuelidis, E E

    1988-01-11

    The 4-5 kd amyloid ..beta..-peptide is a major constituent of the characteristic amyloid plaque of Alzheimer's disease. It has been reported that some cases of sporatic Alzheimer's disease are associated with at least a partial duplication of chromosome 21 containing the gene corresponding to the 695 residue precursor of this peptide. To contribute to an understanding of the frequency to such a duplication event in the overall Alzheimer's population, the authors have determined the gene dosage of the ..beta..-amyloid gene in this collection of cases. All cases had a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's confirmed neuropathologically. Each Alzheimer's case had an apparent normal diploid ..beta..-amyloid gene dosage, while control Down's cases had the expected triploid dosage. Thus partial duplication of chromosome 21 may be a rare finding in Alzheimer's disease. Similar conclusions were just reported in several studies of the Harvard Alzheimer collection.

  8. Beta ray backscattering studies for thickness measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M; Sharma, K K [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Nuclear Science Labs.

    1979-01-01

    Back-scattering of beta rays from /sup 204/Tl (Esub(..beta..)max = 740 keV) and /sup 90/Sr-/sup 90/Y (Esub(..beta..)max =550 and 2250 keV) has been studied in an improved reflection geometry, using annular sources, from a number of elemental targets with Z values ranging from 13 to 82. Source to target and target to detector geometry factors are 0.0225 and 0.0282 respectively. Values of saturation back scattering thickness obtained in the two cases are 72 +- 10 and 190 +- 40 mg/cm/sup 2/ respectively. It is observed that the intensity of back scattered radiation varies linearly with thickness upto a value of 12 +- 2 mg/cm/sup 2/ in /sup 204/Tl and 17 +- 3 mg/cm/sup 2/ in /sup 90/Sr-/sup 90/Y.

  9. Simultaneous determination of F-beta-alanine and beta-alanine in plasma and urine with dual-column reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kuilenburg, A. B.; Stroomer, A. E.; Peters, G. J.; van Gennip, A. H.

    2001-01-01

    F-beta-Alanine and beta-alanine were detected in plasma and urine samples with fluorescence detection of orthophthaldialdehyde derivatives of F-beta-alanine and beta-alanine after separation with dual-column reversed-phase HPLC. The detection limits of F-beta-alanine and beta-alanine in the HPLC

  10. BETASCAN: probable beta-amyloids identified by pairwise probabilistic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen W Bryan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Amyloids and prion proteins are clinically and biologically important beta-structures, whose supersecondary structures are difficult to determine by standard experimental or computational means. In addition, significant conformational heterogeneity is known or suspected to exist in many amyloid fibrils. Recent work has indicated the utility of pairwise probabilistic statistics in beta-structure prediction. We develop here a new strategy for beta-structure prediction, emphasizing the determination of beta-strands and pairs of beta-strands as fundamental units of beta-structure. Our program, BETASCAN, calculates likelihood scores for potential beta-strands and strand-pairs based on correlations observed in parallel beta-sheets. The program then determines the strands and pairs with the greatest local likelihood for all of the sequence's potential beta-structures. BETASCAN suggests multiple alternate folding patterns and assigns relative a priori probabilities based solely on amino acid sequence, probability tables, and pre-chosen parameters. The algorithm compares favorably with the results of previous algorithms (BETAPRO, PASTA, SALSA, TANGO, and Zyggregator in beta-structure prediction and amyloid propensity prediction. Accurate prediction is demonstrated for experimentally determined amyloid beta-structures, for a set of known beta-aggregates, and for the parallel beta-strands of beta-helices, amyloid-like globular proteins. BETASCAN is able both to detect beta-strands with higher sensitivity and to detect the edges of beta-strands in a richly beta-like sequence. For two proteins (Abeta and Het-s, there exist multiple sets of experimental data implying contradictory structures; BETASCAN is able to detect each competing structure as a potential structure variant. The ability to correlate multiple alternate beta-structures to experiment opens the possibility of computational investigation of prion strains and structural heterogeneity of amyloid

  11. Chemoradioprotection of the rat parotid gland by the beta-sympathomimetic agonist, terbutaline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinesi, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the effectiveness of the beta-adrenergic stimulator known as terbutaline in providing increased radioresistance to the normal, (i.e. nonmalignant) rat parotid salivary gland. Radiation damage was assessed by gland weight and microscopic examination of saline-treated and terbutaline-treated groups during days 1 to 10 and at 60 days post-irradiation. Terbutaline-treated groups exhibited both a sparing of gland weight loss as well as better preservation of glandular microstructure at all periods examined post-irradiation. Radioprotection of human parotid glands would provide relief from the xerostomia and its severe sequelae which often follow radiotherapy to the head and neck region in cancer patients. Terbutaline, with its preferential affinity for the beta-2 adrenergic receptor may provide a therapeutic advantage without the cardiac effects which normally accompany less specific (beta-1 + beta-2) adrenergic stimulation. In addition to providing a model for clinical protection of the salivary glands, this demonstration of protection of the rat parotid may also serve as a model for investigation of the mechanisms of action of terbutaline and other radioprotective compounds

  12. Determination of beta-adrenergic receptor blocking pharmaceuticals in united states wastewater effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huggett, D.B.; Khan, I.A.; Foran, C.M.; Schlenk, D

    2003-02-01

    This is the first report of beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist pharmaceuticals in United States wastewater effluent. - Beta adrenergic receptor antagonists ({beta}-Blockers) are frequently prescribed medications in the United States and have been identified in European municipal wastewater effluent, however no studies to date have investigated these compounds in United States wastewater effluent. Municipal wastewater effluent was collected from treatment facilities in Mississippi, Texas, and New York to investigate the occurrence of metoprolol, nadolol, and propranolol. Propranolol was identified in all wastewater samples analyzed (n=34) at concentrations {<=}1.9 {mu}g/l. Metoprolol and nadolol were identified in {>=}71% of the samples with concentrations of metoprolol {<=}1.2 {mu}g/l and nadolol {<=}0.36 {mu}g/l. Time course studies at both Mississippi plants and the Texas plant indicate that concentrations of propranolol, metoprolol, and nadolol remain relatively constant at each sampling period. This study indicates that {beta}-Blockers are present in United States wastewater effluent in the ng/l to {mu}g/l range.

  13. The ontogeny of seizures induced by leucine-enkephalin and beta-endorphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snead, O C; Stephens, H

    1984-06-01

    Rats ranging in postnatal age from 6 hours to 28 days were implanted with cortical and depth electrodes as well as an indwelling cannula in the lateral ventricle. We then administered varying amounts of the opiate peptides leucine-enkephalin and beta-endorphin intracerebroventricularly with continuous electroencephalographic monitoring. Leucine-enkephalin produced electrical seizure activity in rats as young as 2 days. beta-Endorphin administration was associated with seizures at the fifth postnatal day, with a high incidence of apnea resulting in death in animals as young as 6 hours. An adult seizure response to beta-endorphin and leucine-enkephalin was seen at 15 and 28 days of age, respectively. Naloxone blocked the seizure produced by these opiate peptides in all age groups. The data indicate that the opiate peptides are potent epileptogenic compounds in developing brain, that seizures induced by leucine-enkephalin differ from those caused by beta-endorphin, and that petit mal-like seizure activity can be an adult response in the rodent.

  14. Properties of parameter estimation techniques for a beta-binomial failure model. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shultis, J.K.; Buranapan, W.; Eckhoff, N.D.

    1981-12-01

    Of considerable importance in the safety analysis of nuclear power plants are methods to estimate the probability of failure-on-demand, p, of a plant component that normally is inactive and that may fail when activated or stressed. Properties of five methods for estimating from failure-on-demand data the parameters of the beta prior distribution in a compound beta-binomial probability model are examined. Simulated failure data generated from a known beta-binomial marginal distribution are used to estimate values of the beta parameters by (1) matching moments of the prior distribution to those of the data, (2) the maximum likelihood method based on the prior distribution, (3) a weighted marginal matching moments method, (4) an unweighted marginal matching moments method, and (5) the maximum likelihood method based on the marginal distribution. For small sample sizes (N = or < 10) with data typical of low failure probability components, it was found that the simple prior matching moments method is often superior (e.g. smallest bias and mean squared error) while for larger sample sizes the marginal maximum likelihood estimators appear to be best

  15. Benzodiazepine antagonism by harmane and other beta-carbolines in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommelspacher, H; Nanz, C; Borbe, H O; Fehske, K J; Müller, W E; Wollert, U

    1981-03-26

    Harmane and other related beta-carbolines are putative endogenous ligands of the benzodiazepine receptor. Since the compounds are potent convulsants they may have agonist activities at the benzodiazepine receptor while the benzodiazepines may be antagonists. This hypothesis was proved by comparing the in vivo and in vitro antagonism of benzodiazepines by harmane and other beta-carbolines. Harmane is clearly a competitive inhibitor of benzodiazepine receptor binding in vitro. Moreover, harmane-induced convulsions can be inhibited reversibly by diazepam in a manner which is consistent with the assumption of competitive antagonism in vivo. For some beta-carboline derivatives a correlation was found between the affinity for the benzodiazepine receptor in vitro and the convulsive potency in vivo. Thus, the data reported suggest that harmane or other related beta-carbolines are putative endogenous agonists of the benzodiazepine receptor. This suggestion is further supported by the observation that diazepam is equally potent in inhibiting harmane- or picrotoxin-induced convulsions, indicating a convulsive mechanism within the GABA receptor-benzodiazepine receptor system.

  16. Normotensive sodium loading in conscious dogs: Regulation of renin secretion during beta receptor blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bie, Peter; Mølstrøm, Simon; Wamberg, Søren

    2009-01-01

    Cl (20 micromol/kg/min for 180 min, NaLoad) during regular or low-sodium diet (0.03 mmol/kg/d, LowNa) with and without metoprolol (2 mg/kg plus 0.9 mg/kg/h). Vasopressin V2 receptors were blocked by Otsuka compound OPC31260 to facilitate clearance measurements. Body fluid volume was maintained by servo-controlled...... that in this setting, renin secretion and renin-dependent sodium excretion are controlled by via the renal nerves and therefore eliminated or reduced by blocking the action of norepinephrine on the juxtaglomerular cells with the beta1-receptor antagonist metoprolol. This was tested in conscious dogs by infusion of Na...... irrespective of diet. In conclusion, PRC depended on dietary sodium and beta1-adrenergic control as expected; however, the acute sodium-driven decrease in PRC at constant MAP and GFR was unaffected by beta1-receptor blockade demonstrating that renin may be regulated without changes in MAP, GFR, or beta1...

  17. Discovery of olodaterol, a novel inhaled beta2-adrenoceptor agonist with a 24 h bronchodilatory efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyssou, Thierry; Hoenke, Christoph; Rudolf, Klaus; Lustenberger, Philipp; Pestel, Sabine; Sieger, Peter; Lotz, Ralf; Heine, Claudia; Büttner, Frank H; Schnapp, Andreas; Konetzki, Ingo

    2010-02-15

    Compound 4p was identified from a series of 6-hydroxy-4H-benzo[1,4]oxazin-3-ones as potent agonist of the human beta2-adrenoceptor with a high beta1/beta2-selectivity. A complete reversal of acetylcholine-induced bronchoconstriction which lasted over the whole study period of 5h was demonstrated for 4p in a guinea pig in vivo model without any signs of cardiovascular effects up to 10-fold above the first dose reaching 100% bronchoprotection. The enantiomerically pure (R)-form of 4p exerted a bronchodilatory efficacy over 24 h in dogs and guinea pigs in the absence of systemic pharmacodynamic effects. Formoterol which was tested as comparator in the same in vivo models of acetylcholine-induced bronchoconstriction did not retain efficacy after 24 h. In summary, the preclinical profile of compound (R)-4p (olodaterol, also known as BI 1744 CL) suggests a potential for once-daily dosing in man accompanied with an improved safety profile. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ballooning stable high beta tokamak equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuda, Takashi; Azumi, Masafumi; Kurita, Gen-ichi; Takizuka, Tomonori; Takeda, Tatsuoki

    1981-04-01

    The second stable regime of ballooning modes is numerically studied by using the two-dimensional tokamak transport code with the ballooning stability code. Using the simple FCT heating scheme, we find that the plasma can locally enter this second stable regime. And we obtained equilibria with fairly high beta (β -- 23%) stable against ballooning modes in a whole plasma region, by taking into account of finite thermal diffusion due to unstable ballooning modes. These results show that a tokamak fusion reactor can operate in a high beta state, which is economically favourable. (author)

  19. Construction of a high beta plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naraghi, M.; Torabi-Fard, A.

    1976-02-01

    A high beta plasma source has been designed and constructed. This source will serve as a means of developing and exercising different diagnostic techniques as required for ALVAND I, linear theta pinch experiment. Also, it will serve to acquaint the technicians with some of the techniques and safety rules of high voltage and capacitor discharge experiments. The operating parameters of the theta pinch and Z-pinch preionization is presented and the program of diagnostic measurements on the high beta plasma source is discussed

  20. Critical beta for analytical spheromak equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire, E.M.; Clemente, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Mercier criterion is applied to two analytical spheromak equilibria, one with a spherical separatrix and the other with a cylindrical one of variable elongation. The maximum beta, defined as the ratio between the plasma pressure and the magnetic pressure averaged over the plasma volume, for which the criterion is satisfied on every magnetic surface, has been obtained. In the spherical model the critical beta is 0.003, while in the cylindrical case it is a function of the elongation of the separatrix with a maximum of 0.083. (author)

  1. Measuring Systematic Risk Using Implicit Beta

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew F. Siegel

    1995-01-01

    A new technology is proposed for estimating the systematic (beta) risk of a firm's stock. Just as the implicit volatility of an asset is revealed by an ordinary call option, the "implicit beta" of a stock would be revealed by the price of an option to exchange shares of stock for shares of a market index. Considerable benefits would accrue to those involved with the theory and practice of finance, if and when these exchange options begin trading, due to the availability of instantaneous, up-t...

  2. Beta/gamma test problems for ITS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, G.T.

    1993-01-01

    The Integrated Tiger Series of Coupled Electron/Photon Monte Carlo Transport Codes (ITS 3.0, PC Version) was used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to compare with and extend the experimental findings of the beta/gamma response of selected health physics instruments. In order to assure that ITS gives correct results, several beta/gamma problems have been tested. ITS was used to simulate these problems numerically, and results for each were compared to the problem's experimental or analytical results. ITS successfully predicted the experimental or analytical results of all tested problems within the statistical uncertainty inherent in the Monte Carlo method

  3. Why search for double beta decay?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayser, B.

    1988-01-01

    Searching for neutrinoless double beta decay is the only known practical method for trying to determine whether neutrinos are their own antiparticles. The theoretical motivation for supposing that they may indeed be their own antiparticles is described. The reason that it is so difficult to ascertain experimentally whether they are or are not is explained, as is the special sensitivity of neutrinoless double beta decay. The potential implications of the observation of this reaction for neutrino mass and for the physics of neutrinos is discussed

  4. Majorana neutrinos and double beta-decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchepkin, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    Problem, related to neutrino mass and lepton charge L conservation is briefly discussed. A possibility to experimentally test L conservation in different processes and to produce limitations for neutrino mass in double beta-decay processes is considered. Planned experiments on studying the double neutrinoless (2β) beta-decays and searching 2β(2ν)-decays, permitted by the conservation laws, are discussed. It is stressed, that comparison of the existing theoretical predictions of 2β(2ν)-decay probability with experimental results will make it possible to choose the most adequate approach to the calculation of double β-transition nuclear amplitudes

  5. Beta-decay of {sup 56}Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramdhane, M.; Baumann, P.; Knipper, A.; Walter, G. [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Janas, Z.; Plochocki, A. [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Experimental Physics; Aeystoe, J.; Dendooven, P.; Jokinen, A.; Oinonen, M.; Pentilae, H. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland); Liu, W.; Grawe, H.; Hu, Z.; Kirchner, R.; Klepper, O.; Roeckl, E. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Gorska, M. [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Experimental Physics]|[Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Fujita, Y. [Osaka Univ. (Japan); Brown, B.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1998-02-01

    By measuring positrons and {beta}-delayed {gamma}-rays emitted from mass-separated sources, the decay of {sup 56}Cu(4{sup +},T{sub z}=-1,T=1) to states in the doubly-magic nucleus {sup 56}Ni was studied for the first time. The half-life of {sup 56}Cu was measured to be 78(15) ms, and four {beta}-delayed {gamma}-rays were assigned to its decay. The resulting experimental data on Fermi and Gamow-Teller strength are compared with shell-model predictions. (orig.)

  6. Card controlled beta backscatter thickness measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, J.

    1978-01-01

    An improved beta backscatter instrument for the nondestructive measurement of the thickness of thin coatings on a substrate is described. Included therein is the utilization of a bank of memory stored data representative of isotope, substrate, coating material and thickness range characteristics in association with a control card having predetermined indicia thereon selectively representative of a particular isotope, substrate material, coating material and thickness range for conditioning electronic circuit means by memory stored data selected in accord with the predetermined indicia on a control card for converting backscattered beta particle counts into indicia of coating thickness

  7. Search for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay

    OpenAIRE

    Tornow, Werner

    2014-01-01

    After the pioneering work of the Heidelberg-Moscow (HDM) and International Germanium Experiment (IGEX) groups, the second round of neutrinoless double-$\\beta$ decay searches currently underway has or will improve the life-time limits of double-$\\beta$ decay candidates by a factor of two to three, reaching in the near future the $T_{1/2} = 3 \\times 10^{25}$ yr level. This talk will focus on the large-scale experiments GERDA, EXO-200, and KamLAND-Zen, which have reported already lower half-life...

  8. Simulated progress in double-beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, H.S.; Arthur, R.J.; Avignone, F.T.

    1993-09-01

    A Monte Carlo code has been developed to accurately simulate double-beta decay measurements. Coincident gamma rays, beta spectra, and angular correlations have been added to adequately simulate a complete 100 Mo nuclear decay and provide corrections to experimentally determined detector efficiencies. This code has been used to strip certain low-background spectra obtained in the Homestake gold mine in Lead, SD, for the purpose of extremely sensitive materials assay for the construction of new, large, enriched germanium detectors. Assays as low as 9 μBq/g of 210 Pb in lead shielding were obtained

  9. Precision measurements in nuclear beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naviliat-Cuncic, Oscar, E-mail: naviliat@nscl.msu.edu [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Precision measurements in nuclear beta decay provide sensitive means to determine the fundamental coupling of charged fermions to weak bosons and to test discrete symmetries in the weak interaction. The main motivation of such measurements is to find deviations from Standard Model predictions as possible indications of new physics. I focus here on two topics related to precision measurements in beta decay, namely: (i) the determination of the V{sub ud} element of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark mixing matrix from nuclear mirror transitions and (ii) selected measurements of time reversal violating correlations in nuclear and neutron decays. These topics complement those presented in other contributions to this conference.

  10. Increase in beta limit in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Yutaka

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews recent studies of tokamak MHD stability towards the achievement of a high beta steady-state, where the profile control of current, pressure, and rotation, and the optimization of the plasma shape play fundamental roles. The key instabilities include the neoclassical tearing mode, the resistive wall mode, the edge localized mode, etc. In order to demonstrate an economically attractive tokamak reactor, it is necessary to increase the beta value simultaneously with a sufficiently high integrated plasma performance. Towards this goal, studies of stability control in self-regulating plasma systems are essential. (author)

  11. Post-process intensification of photographic silver images, using radioactive compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A method of post-process intensification of silver images on a developed and fixed photographic film or plate is described, comprising the steps of (a) converting silver of the developed film or plate to a radioactive compound by contracting the film or plate with an aqueous alkaline solution of an organo-S 35 compound which reacts selectively with silver in a photographic film or plate; (b) placing the film or plate treated in step (a) in direct contact with a receiver film which is sensitive to beta radiation whereby the receiver film is exposed by radiation from the radioactive compound; and (c) developing and fixing the resulting intensified receiver film. (author)

  12. [Clinical analysis of three cases with beta-thalassemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X Y; Liu, M J; Xu, L H; Xu, H G; Chen, H L; Fang, J P

    2018-04-02

    Objective: To study the diagnostic strategy of β-thalassemia through retrospective analysis of 3 cases of β-thalassemia. Methods: Three patients were admitted to the Department of Pediatrics, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from January 2014 to June 2015. The clinical manifestations, hemoglobin electrophoresis and gene detection of these patients and their parents were analyzed, diagnostic ideas and key points were discussed when beta thalassemia gene detection did not explain clinical manifestations or hemoglobin electrophoresis. Results: Case 1, boy, 5 years old, was diagnosed as compound heterozygotes of β41-42 and IVS-Ⅱ-654 with hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin(HPFH) according to the clinical manifestations of mild anemia, normal size of liver and spleen, 92.8% fetal hemoglobin (HbF) and gene analysis. Case 2, girl, 3 years old, was confirmed the diagnosis of thalassemia intermedia with β41-42 heterozygote compound and ααα anti3.7 heterozygote in accordance with the manifestations of severe anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, 8.6% HbF, 4.1% hemoglobin A 2 (HbA 2 ) and gene analysis. Case 3, girl, 3 years old, with severe anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, 51.2% HbF and 3.7% HbA 2 , was diagnosed as thalassemia major with compound heterozygotes of PolyA (T→C) and β17 by DNA sequencing. Conclusion: The diagnosis of β-thalassemia should be confirmed by clinical manifestations of hemolytic anemia, hemoglobin electrophoresis, gene diagnosis and family survey.

  13. Nuclear Matrix Elements for the $\\beta\\beta$ Decay of the $^{76}$Ge

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, B A; Horoi, M

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear matrix elements for two-neutrino double-beta (2 n$\\beta\\beta$ ) and zero-neutrino double-beta (0 n$\\beta\\beta$) decay of 76 Ge are evaluated in terms of the configuration interaction (CI), quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA) and interacting boson model (IBM) methods. We show that the decomposition of the matrix elements in terms of interemediate states in 74 Ge is dominated by ground state of this nucleus. We consider corrections to the CI results that arise from configurations admixtures involving orbitals out-side of the CI configuration space by using results from QRPA, many-body-perturbation theory, and the connections to related observables. The CI two-neutrino matrix element is reduced due to the inclusion of spin-orbit partners, and to many-body correlations connected with Gamow-Teller beta decay. The CI zero-neutrino matrix element for the heavy neutrino is enhanced due to particle-particle correlations that are connected with the odd-even oscillations in the nuclear masse...

  14. Compound semiconductor device modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Compound semiconductor devices form the foundation of solid-state microwave and optoelectronic technologies used in many modern communication systems. In common with their low frequency counterparts, these devices are often represented using equivalent circuit models, but it is often necessary to resort to physical models in order to gain insight into the detailed operation of compound semiconductor devices. Many of the earliest physical models were indeed developed to understand the 'unusual' phenomena which occur at high frequencies. Such was the case with the Gunn and IMPATI diodes, which led to an increased interest in using numerical simulation methods. Contemporary devices often have feature sizes so small that they no longer operate within the familiar traditional framework, and hot electron or even quantum­ mechanical models are required. The need for accurate and efficient models suitable for computer aided design has increased with the demand for a wider range of integrated devices for operation at...

  15. A comparison of heart function and arrhythmia in clinically asymptomatic patients with beta thalassemia intermedia and beta thalassemia major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoozgar, Hamid; Zeighami, Samaneh; Haghpanah, Sezaneh; Karimi, Mehran

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare heart function and arrhythmia in clinically asymptomatic patients with beta thalassemia intermedia and beta thalassemia major. In this cross-sectional study, 60 patients with beta thalassemia major and 60 patients with beta thalassemia intermedia who had clinically no symptoms of arrhythmia and clinically normal heart function were evaluated using 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring and echocardiography. For data analysis SPSS ver.20 software was used. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The mean age of the beta thalassemia intermedia patients was 24.18 ± 7.9 years and the mean age in beta thalassemia major was 24.38 ± 7.7 years (P>0.05). Premature atrial contractions (PACs) were observed in 14 (23.3%) patients with beta thalassemia intermedia and in 22 (36.6%) beta thalassemia major patients. Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) were detected in 8 (13.3%) patients in the beta thalassemia intermediate group and 16 (26.6) patients in the beta thalassemia major group, respectively. The left ventricular diastolic dimension, end-diastolic volume, and stroke volume were significantly higher in beta thalassemia intermedia group (Pintermedia group. Both atrial and ventricular arrhythmias were more common in the beta thalassemia major group. Higher end-diastolic volume and stroke volume were detected in the beta thalassemia intermedia group. Pulmonary acceleration time was lower in the beta thalassemia intermedia group, which can be an indicator of higher pulmonary pressure.

  16. Tripolar Mesoionic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Shuki, Araki; Jiro, Mizuya; Naomitsu, Aoyama; Yasuo, Butsugan

    1995-01-01

    Tripolar mesoionic compounds have been synthesized by the reaction of (1,3-diphenyltetrazol-5-ylio)cyclopentadienide (or -indenide) with the dicationic ether salts derived from mesoionic olates and trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride. The structures of the newly prepared mesoionic systems are discussed on the basis of spectroscopic analysis; it is shown that the tripolar [tetrazolium-cyclopentadienide (or indenide)-tetrazolium] canonical structure contributes significantly to the ground state ...

  17. Oligosilanylated Antimony Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Zitz, Rainer; Gatterer, Karl; Reinhold, Crispin R. W.; M?ller, Thomas; Baumgartner, Judith; Marschner, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    By reactions of magnesium oligosilanides with SbCl3, a number of oligosilanylated antimony compounds were obtained. When oligosilanyl dianions were used, either the expected cyclic disilylated halostibine was obtained or alternatively the formation of a distibine was observed. Deliberate formation of the distibine from the disilylated halostibine was achieved by reductive coupling with C8K. Computational studies of Sb?Sb bond energies, barriers of pyramidal inversion at Sb, and the conformati...

  18. Labelled compounds. (Pt. B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buncel, E.; Jones, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Since the end of World War II there has been a tremendous increase in the number of compounds that have been synthesized with radioactive or stable isotopes. They have found application in many diverse fields, so much so, that hardly a single area in pure and applied science has not benefited. Not surprisingly it has been reflected in appearance of related publications. The early proceedings of the Symposia on Advances in Trace Methodology were soon followed by various Euratom sponsored meetings in which methods of preparing and storing labelled compounds featured prominently. In due course a resurgence of interest in stable isotopes, brought about by their greater availability (also lower cost) and partly by development of new techniques such as gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (gc-ms), led to the publication of proceedings of several successful conferences. More recently conferences dealing with the synthesis and applications of isotopes and isotopically labelled compounds have been established on a regular basis. In addition to the proceedings of conferences and journal publications individuals left their mark by producing definitive texts, usually on specific nuclides. Only the classic two volume publication of Murray and Williams (Organic syntheses with isotopes, New York 1985), now over 30 years old and out of print, attempted to do justice to several nuclides. With the large amount of work that has been undertaken since then it seems unlikely that an updated edition could be produced. The alternative strategy was to ask scientists currently active to review specific areas and this is the approach adopted in the present series of monographs. In this way it is intended to cover the broad advances that have been made in the synthesis and applications of isotopes and isotopically labelled compounds in the physical and biomedical sciences. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  19. Process for compound transformation

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie

    2016-12-29

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of using a catalytic system to chemically transform a compound (e.g., a hydrocarbon). In an embodiment, the method does not employ grafting the catalyst prior to catalysis. In particular, embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a process of hydrocarbon (e.g., C1 to C20 hydrocarbon) metathesis (e.g., alkane, olefin, or alkyne metathesis) transformation, where the process can be conducted without employing grafting prior to catalysis.

  20. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. K.; Park, S. H.; Lee, W. G.; Ha, J. H.

    2005-01-01

    In 1945, Van Heerden measured α, β and γ radiations with the cooled AgCl crystal. It was the first radiation measurement using the compound semiconductor detector. Since then the compound semiconductor has been extensively studied as radiation detector. Generally the radiation detector can be divided into the gas detector, the scintillator and the semiconductor detector. The semiconductor detector has good points comparing to other radiation detectors. Since the density of the semiconductor detector is higher than that of the gas detector, the semiconductor detector can be made with the compact size to measure the high energy radiation. In the scintillator, the radiation is measured with the two-step process. That is, the radiation is converted into the photons, which are changed into electrons by a photo-detector, inside the scintillator. However in the semiconductor radiation detector, the radiation is measured only with the one-step process. The electron-hole pairs are generated from the radiation interaction inside the semiconductor detector, and these electrons and charged ions are directly collected to get the signal. The energy resolution of the semiconductor detector is generally better than that of the scintillator. At present, the commonly used semiconductors as the radiation detector are Si and Ge. However, these semiconductor detectors have weak points. That is, one needs thick material to measure the high energy radiation because of the relatively low atomic number of the composite material. In Ge case, the dark current of the detector is large at room temperature because of the small band-gap energy. Recently the compound semiconductor detectors have been extensively studied to overcome these problems. In this paper, we will briefly summarize the recent research topics about the compound semiconductor detector. We will introduce the research activities of our group, too

  1. Bronzes and relative compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehlls, A.

    1987-01-01

    Preparation and the crystal structure of bronzes based on complex oxides of transition (Ti, V, Nb, Ta, Mo, W, Re, Ru and etc.) and alkali metals, as well as oxides of some other elements (Sr, In, La and etc.) are described. Peculiarities of formation of the structure of tetragonal, tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium bronzes and their analogs depending on the chemical composition of these compounds are considered

  2. Plasma beta-endorphin, beta-lipotropin and corticotropin in polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laatikainen, T; Salminen, K; Virtanen, T; Apter, D

    1987-04-01

    In 9 women with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) and in 11 control subjects at the follicular phase of the normal cycle, blood samples were collected at 15-min intervals during a 2 h period of bed rest for the assay of beta-endorphin, beta-lipotropin, corticotropin, cortisol and prolactin. During the study period, the plasma levels of these hormones decreased more significantly in the PCOD than in the control group, suggesting that the PCOD patients had a more significant stress response to the puncture of the vein than the control subjects. The second hour of the study period was considered to represent resting levels of hormones. The mean resting levels (+/- S.E.) of the hormones between the PCOD and control groups, respectively, were as follows: beta-E, 2.0 +/- 0.4 vs. 1.1 +/- 0.1 pmol/l, p less than 0.05; beta-LPH, 3.4 +/- 0.6 vs. 2.1 +/- 0.5 pmol/l, N.S.; corticotropin, 2.0 +/- 0.3 vs. 1.1 +/- 0.5 pmol/l, p less than 0.05; cortisol, 176 +/- 24 vs. 128 +/- 16, N.S.; and prolactin; 3.9 +/- 0.6 vs. 5.6 +/- 1.2 ng/ml, N.S. These results confirm the previous findings on increased circulating levels of beta-E in PCOD. A concomitant increase of the plasma level of corticotropin suggests that the basal secretion of both beta-E and corticotropin from the anterior pituitary gland is increased in women with PCOD.

  3. Compound Wiretap Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomo Shamai (Shitz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the compound wiretap channel, which generalizes Wyner's wiretap model to allow the channels to the (legitimate receiver and to the eavesdropper to take a number of possible states. No matter which states occur, the transmitter guarantees that the receiver decodes its message and that the eavesdropper is kept in full ignorance about the message. The compound wiretap channel can also be viewed as a multicast channel with multiple eavesdroppers, in which the transmitter sends information to all receivers and keeps the information secret from all eavesdroppers. For the discrete memoryless channel, lower and upper bounds on the secrecy capacity are derived. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded channel and the semideterministic channel with one receiver. The parallel Gaussian channel is further studied. The secrecy capacity and the secrecy degree of freedom (s.d.o.f. are derived for the degraded case with one receiver. Schemes to achieve the s.d.o.f. for the case with two receivers and two eavesdroppers are constructed to demonstrate the necessity of a prefix channel in encoder design. Finally, the multi-antenna (i.e., MIMO compound wiretap channel is studied. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded case and an achievable s.d.o.f. is given for the general case.

  4. Antifungal compounds from cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishido, Tânia K; Humisto, Anu; Jokela, Jouni; Liu, Liwei; Wahlsten, Matti; Tamrakar, Anisha; Fewer, David P; Permi, Perttu; Andreote, Ana P D; Fiore, Marli F; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2015-04-13

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes found in a range of environments. They are infamous for the production of toxins, as well as bioactive compounds, which exhibit anticancer, antimicrobial and protease inhibition activities. Cyanobacteria produce a broad range of antifungals belonging to structural classes, such as peptides, polyketides and alkaloids. Here, we tested cyanobacteria from a wide variety of environments for antifungal activity. The potent antifungal macrolide scytophycin was detected in Anabaena sp. HAN21/1, Anabaena cf. cylindrica PH133, Nostoc sp. HAN11/1 and Scytonema sp. HAN3/2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Anabaena strains that produce scytophycins. We detected antifungal glycolipopeptide hassallidin production in Anabaena spp. BIR JV1 and HAN7/1 and in Nostoc spp. 6sf Calc and CENA 219. These strains were isolated from brackish and freshwater samples collected in Brazil, the Czech Republic and Finland. In addition, three cyanobacterial strains, Fischerella sp. CENA 298, Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110 and Nostoc sp. N107.3, produced unidentified antifungal compounds that warrant further characterization. Interestingly, all of the strains shown to produce antifungal compounds in this study belong to Nostocales or Stigonematales cyanobacterial orders.

  5. Toxic compounds in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-07-01

    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Antifungal Compounds from Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia K. Shishido

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes found in a range of environments. They are infamous for the production of toxins, as well as bioactive compounds, which exhibit anticancer, antimicrobial and protease inhibition activities. Cyanobacteria produce a broad range of antifungals belonging to structural classes, such as peptides, polyketides and alkaloids. Here, we tested cyanobacteria from a wide variety of environments for antifungal activity. The potent antifungal macrolide scytophycin was detected in Anabaena sp. HAN21/1, Anabaena cf. cylindrica PH133, Nostoc sp. HAN11/1 and Scytonema sp. HAN3/2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Anabaena strains that produce scytophycins. We detected antifungal glycolipopeptide hassallidin production in Anabaena spp. BIR JV1 and HAN7/1 and in Nostoc spp. 6sf Calc and CENA 219. These strains were isolated from brackish and freshwater samples collected in Brazil, the Czech Republic and Finland. In addition, three cyanobacterial strains, Fischerella sp. CENA 298, Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110 and Nostoc sp. N107.3, produced unidentified antifungal compounds that warrant further characterization. Interestingly, all of the strains shown to produce antifungal compounds in this study belong to Nostocales or Stigonematales cyanobacterial orders.

  7. Compound Wiretap Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramer Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper considers the compound wiretap channel, which generalizes Wyner's wiretap model to allow the channels to the (legitimate receiver and to the eavesdropper to take a number of possible states. No matter which states occur, the transmitter guarantees that the receiver decodes its message and that the eavesdropper is kept in full ignorance about the message. The compound wiretap channel can also be viewed as a multicast channel with multiple eavesdroppers, in which the transmitter sends information to all receivers and keeps the information secret from all eavesdroppers. For the discrete memoryless channel, lower and upper bounds on the secrecy capacity are derived. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded channel and the semideterministic channel with one receiver. The parallel Gaussian channel is further studied. The secrecy capacity and the secrecy degree of freedom ( are derived for the degraded case with one receiver. Schemes to achieve the for the case with two receivers and two eavesdroppers are constructed to demonstrate the necessity of a prefix channel in encoder design. Finally, the multi-antenna (i.e., MIMO compound wiretap channel is studied. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded case and an achievable is given for the general case.

  8. Interactions between {beta}-carboline alkaloids and bovine serum albumin: Investigation by spectroscopic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nafisi, Shohreh, E-mail: drshnafisi@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch (IAUCTB), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Panahyab, Ataollah [Department of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch (IAUCTB), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bagheri Sadeghi, Golshan [Department of Biology, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    {beta}-Carboline alkaloids are present in medicinal plants such as Peganum harmala L. that have been used as folk medicine in anticancer therapy. BSA is the major soluble protein constituent of the circulatory system, and has many physiological functions including the transport of a variety of compounds. This study is the first attempt to investigate the binding of {beta}-carboline alkaloids to BSA by using a constant protein concentration and varying drug concentrations at pH 7.2. FTIR and UV-Vis spectroscopic methods were used to analyze the binding modes of {beta}-carboline alkaloids, the binding constants and the effects of drug complexation on BSA stability and conformation. Spectroscopic evidence showed that {beta}-carboline alkaloids bind BSA via hydrophobic interaction and van der Waals contacts along with H-bonding with the -NH groups, with overall binding constants of K{sub harmine-BSA}=2.04 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} M{sup -1}, K{sub tryptoline-BSA}=1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} M{sup -1}, K{sub harmaline-BSA}=5.04 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} M{sup -1}, K{sub harmane-BSA}=1.41 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} M{sup -1} and K{sub harmalol-BSA}=1.01 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} M{sup -1}, assuming that there is one drug molecule per protein. The BSA secondary structure was altered with a major decrease of {alpha}-helix from 64% (free protein) to 59% (BSA-harmane), 56% (BSA-harmaline and BSA-harmine), 55% (BSA-tryptoline), 54% (BSA-harmalol) and {beta}-sheet from 15% (free protein) to 6-8% upon {beta}-carboline alkaloids complexation, inducing a partial protein destabilization. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model the binding of {beta}-carboline alkaloids to BSA by using the spectroscopic methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the effects of drug complexation on BSA stability and conformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A partial protein destabilization occurred at high alkaloids concentration. Black

  9. Interactions of [alpha,beta]-unsaturated carbonyl compounds with the glutathione-related biotransformation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, van M.L.P.S.

    1998-01-01

    Introduction
    Modulation of glutathione-related biotransformation steps may play a role in important phenomena as anticarcinogenicity and multidrug resistance. Glutathione-related biotransformation comprises three main aspects i.e. glutathione, the

  10. Bioassay-Guided Isolation of Neuroprotective Compounds from Uncaria rhynchophylla against Beta-Amyloid-Induced Neurotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Xian, Yan-Fang; Lin, Zhi-Xiu; Mao, Qing-Qiu; Hu, Zhen; Zhao, Ming; Che, Chun-Tao; Ip, Siu-Po

    2012-01-01

    Uncaria rhynchophylla is a component herb of many Chinese herbal formulae for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Previous study in our laboratory has demonstrated that an ethanol extract of Uncaria rhynchophylla ameliorated cognitive deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease induced by D-galactose. However, the active ingredients of Uncaria rhynchophylla responsible for the anti-Alzheimer's disease activity have not been identified. This study aims to identify the active ingr...

  11. Conjugate addition of diethyl 1-fluoro-1-phenylsulfonylmethanephosphonate to alpha,beta-unsaturated compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Opekar, Stanislav; Pohl, Radek; Eigner, V.; Beier, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 9 (2013), s. 4573-4579 ISSN 0022-3263 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP203/08/P310 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : fluorine * phosphonate * conjugate addition Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.638, year: 2013

  12. 1,4-Addition of tetraethyl fluoromethylenebisphosphonate to alpha, beta-unsaturated compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Opekar, Stanislav; Beier, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 132, č. 5 (2011), s. 363-366 ISSN 0022-1139 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP203/08/P310 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : 1,4-addition * phosphonates * fluorine Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.033, year: 2011

  13. Development of a gas-ionization {beta}-spectrometer; Etude et realisation d'un spectrometre {beta} a ionisation gazeuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Du, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1968-05-15

    We intend to develop in our laboratory a {beta}-spectrometer. This apparatus will have two main objectives: 1 - the determination of the nature and the degree of purity of certain {beta}-emitting radioactive substances; 2 - the study of an activity calibration process for {beta}-emitting radioactive sources. (author) [French] Nous nous proposons d'etudier et de realiser dans notre laboratoire un spectrometre {beta}. Cet appareil aura deux buts principaux: 1 - determiner la nature et le degre de purete de certains corps radioactifs emetteurs {beta}; 2 - permettre l'etude d'un procede d'etalonnage en activite de sources radioactives emetteurs {beta}. (auteur)

  14. Nomenclature on an inorganic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    This book contains eleven chapters : which mention nomenclature of an inorganic compound with introduction and general principle on nomenclature of compound. It gives the description of grammar for nomenclature such as brackets, diagonal line, asterisk, and affix, element, atom and groups of atom, chemical formula, naming by stoichiometry, solid, neutral molecule compound, ion, a substituent, radical and name of salt, oxo acid and anion on introduction and definition of oxo acid, coordination compound like symbol of stereochemistry , boron and hydrogen compound and related compound.

  15. Effect of beta-adrenoceptor blockers on human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Delphine S; Klaerke, Dan A; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2005-01-01

    Patients with congenital long QT syndrome may develop arrhythmias under conditions of increased sympathetic tone. We have addressed whether some of the beta-adrenoceptor blockers commonly used to prevent the development of these arrhythmias could per se block the cardiac HERG (Human Ether....... These data showed that HERG blockade by beta-adrenoceptor blockers occurred only at high micromolar concentrations, which are significantly above the recently established safe margin of 100 (Redfern et al., 2003).......-1H-inden-4-yl)oxy]-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-2-butanol hydrochloride) blocked the HERG channel with similar affinity, whereas the beta1-receptor antagonists metoprolol and atenolol showed weak effects. Further, the four compounds blocked HERG channels expressed in a mammalian HEK293 cell line...

  16. Phosphorylation events implicating p38 and PI3K mediate tungstate-effects in MIN6 beta cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piquer, Sandra; Barcelo-Batllori, Silvia; Julia, Marta; Marzo, Nuria; Nadal, Belen; Guinovart, Joan J.; Gomis, Ramon

    2007-01-01

    Oral administration of sodium tungstate is an effective treatment for diabetes in animal models. Several lines of evidence indicate the pancreatic beta cell as one of the targets of tungstate action. Here, we examined the molecular mechanism by which this compound exerts its effects on the beta cell line MIN6. Tungstate treatment induced phosphorylation and subsequent activation of p38 and PI3K which in turn are implicated in tungstate PDX-1 nuclear localization and activation. Although no effect was observed in glucose-induced insulin secretion we found that tungstate activates basal insulin release, a process driven, at least in part, by activation of p38. These results show a direct involvement of p38 and PI3K phosphorylation in the mechanism of action of tungstate in the beta cell

  17. Scintillation characteristics of phosphich-detector for detection of beta- and gamma-radiations

    CERN Document Server

    Ananenko, A A; Gavrilyuk, V

    2002-01-01

    The results of the study on the influence of individual peculiarities of the compound scintillation detector structure on the value and stability of the light yield by the gamma- and beta-radiation combined registration are presented. The phosphich detector is manufactured from the sodium iodide monocrystal, activated by thallium, and the scintillation plastic on the polystyrol basis. The comparison of the experimental results with the mathematical modeling data revealed certain regularities of the process of forming the phosphich detector light signal. The recommendations are worked out by means whereof the following characteristics of the scintillation unit: the light yield and its stability, amplitude resolution and the peak-to-valley ratio by the gamma- and beta-radiation registration were improved

  18. 1-Methyl-beta-carboline (harmane), a potent endogenous inhibitor of benzodiazepine receptor binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommelspacher, H; Nanz, C; Borbe, H O; Fehske, K J; Müller, W E; Wollert, U

    1980-10-01

    The interaction of several beta-carbolines with specific [3H]-flunitrazepam binding to benzodiazepine receptors in rat brain membranes was investigated. Out of the investigated compounds, harmane and norharmane were the most potent inhibitors of specific [3H]-flunitrazepam binding, with IC50-values in the micromolar range. All other derivatives, including harmine, harmaline, and several tetrahydroderivatives were at least ten times less potent. Harmane has been previously found in rat brain and human urine, so it is the most potent endogenous inhibitor of specific [3H]-flunitrazepam binding known so far, with a several fold higher affinity for the benzodiazepine receptor than inosine and hypoxanthine. Thus, we suggest that harmane or other related beta-carbolines could be potential candidates as endogenous ligands of the benzodiazepine receptor.

  19. Weak interaction studies from nuclear beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, M.

    1981-01-01

    The studies performed at the theoretical nuclear physics division of the Laboratory of Nuclear Studies, Osaka University, are reported. Electron spin density and internal conversion process, nuclear excitation by electron transition, beta decay, weak charged current, and beta-ray angular distributions in oriented nuclei have been studied. The relative intensity of internal conversion electrons for the case in which the radial wave functions of orbital electrons are different for electron spin up and down was calculated. The calculated value was in good agreement with the experimental one. The nuclear excitation following the transition of orbital electrons was studied. The calculated probability of the nuclear excitation of Os 189 was 1.4 x 10 - 7 in conformity with the experimental value 1.7 x 10 - 7 . The second class current and other problems on beta-decay have been extensively studied, and described elsewhere. Concerning weak charged current, the effects of all induced terms, the time component of main axial vector, all partial waves of leptons, Coulomb correction for the electrons in finite size nuclei, and radiative correction were studied. The beta-ray angular distribution for the 1 + -- 0 + transition in oriented B 12 and N 12 was investigated. In this connection, investigation on the weak magnetism to include all higher order corrections for the evaluation of the spectral shape factors was performed. Other works carried out by the author and his collaborators are also explained. (Kato, T.)

  20. IKK and (Beta) - Catenin in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    TOPFLASIt + + + + . + + + + - - - - IKK( (SS/AA) +- -. - - IKKII(SS/AA) -+ + Nl’- k3 reporwr - + + + + B) 180 160 140 120 100 - U 80 60 401...2001 Vitamin D(3) promotes the differentiation of colon carcinoma cells by the induction of E-cadherin and the inhibition of beta-catenin signaling. J

  1. Average beta measurement in EXTRAP T1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, E.R.

    1988-12-01

    Beginning with the ideal MHD pressure balance equation, an expression for the average poloidal beta, Β Θ , is derived. A method for unobtrusively measuring the quantities used to evaluate Β Θ in Extrap T1 is described. The results if a series of measurements yielding Β Θ as a function of externally applied toroidal field are presented. (author)

  2. Redox Homeostasis in Pancreatic beta Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Petr; Dlasková, Andrea; Plecitá-Hlavatá, Lydie

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2012, č. 2012 (2012), s. 932838 ISSN 1942-0900 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/10/0346; GA ČR(CZ) GPP304/10/P204 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : beta cells * reactive oxygen species homeostasis * mitochondria Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.393, year: 2012

  3. On the absolute measure of Beta activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez del Rio, C.; Jimenez Reynaldo, O.; Rodriguez Mayquez, E.

    1956-01-01

    A new method for absolute beta counting of solid samples is given. The mea surements is made with an inside Geiger-Muller tube of new construction. The backscattering correction when using an infinite thick mounting is discussed and results for different materials given. (Author)

  4. Double beta decay: recent developments and projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avignone, F.T. III; Brodzinski, R.L.; Brown, D.P.; Evans, J.C. Jr.; Hensley, W.K.; Reeves, J.H.; Wogman, N.A.

    1983-08-01

    A report of recent events in both theoretical and experimental aspects of double beta decay is given. General theoretical considerations, recent developments in nuclear structure theory, geochronological determinations of half lives and ratios as well as laboratory experiments are discussed with emphasis on the past three years. Some projections are given. 28 references

  5. Topical beta-Blockers and Mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muskens, Rogier P. H. M.; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; Wittenian, Jacqueline C. M.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Stricker, Bruno H. C.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    Purpose: To study the associations between long-term and short-term use of topical beta-blockers and mortality. Design: Prospective population-based cohort study. Participants: To examine long-term effects, 3842 participants aged 55 years and older were recruited. To examine short-term effects, 484

  6. Poster: The EURISOL Beta-beam facility

    CERN Document Server

    The beta-beam concept for the generation of an electron (anti-)neutrino beam was proposed by Piero Zucchelli (CERN) in 2002. A first study of the possibility of using the existing CERN machines for the acceleration for radioactive ions to a relativistic gamma of roughly 100, for later storage in a new decay ring of approximately the size of SPS, was made in 2002. The results from this very first short study were very encouraging.In 2004 it was decided to incorporate a design study for the beta-beam within the EURISOL DS proposal. EURISOL is a project name for a next-generation radioactive beam facility based on the ISOL method for the production of intense radioactive beams for nuclear physics, astrophysics and other applications. The proposal was accepted with the beta-beam task as an integral part. The design study officially started 1 February 2005 and will run for 4 years resulting in a conceptual design report for a beta-beam facility.

  7. Study of detectors in beta radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, M. da P.P.; Xavier, M.; Caldas, L.V.E.

    1987-01-01

    Several commercial detectors used with gamma or X radiation are studied. Their sensibility and energetic dependence are analysed in exposures of beta radiation fields. A comparative evaluation with the reference detector (the extrapolation chamber) is presented. (M.A.C.) [pt

  8. Characterization of a Commercial Silicon Beta Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foxe, Michael P.; Hayes, James C.; Mayer, Michael F.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Sivels, Ciara B.; Suarez, Rey

    2016-01-01

    Silicon detectors are of interest for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) due to their enhanced energy resolution compared to plastic scintillators beta cells. Previous work developing a figure-of-merit (FOM) for comparison of beta cells suggests that the minimum detectable activity (MDA) could be reduced by a factor of two to three with the use of silicon detectors. Silicon beta cells have been developed by CEA (France) and Lares Ltd. (Russia), with the PIPSBox developed by CEA being commercially available from Canberra for approximately $35k, but there is still uncertainty about the reproducibility of the capabilities in the field. PNNL is developing a high-resolution beta-gamma detector system in the shallow underground laboratory, which will utilize and characterize the operation of the PIPSBox detector. Throughout this report, we examine the capabilities of the PIPSBox as developed by CEA. The lessons learned through the testing and use of the PIPSBox will allow PNNL to strategically develop a silicon detector optimized to better suit the communities needs in the future.

  9. Beta decay of highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinov, Yuri A; Bosch, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    Beta decay of highly charged ions has attracted much attention in recent years. An obvious motivation for this research is that stellar nucleosynthesis proceeds at high temperatures where the involved atoms are highly ionized. Another important reason is addressing decays of well-defined quantum-mechanical systems, such as one-electron ions where all interactions with other electrons are excluded. The largest modifications of nuclear half-lives with respect to neutral atoms have been observed in beta decay of highly charged ions. These studies can be performed solely at ion storage rings and ion traps, because there high atomic charge states can be preserved for extended periods of time (up to several hours). Currently, all experimental results available in this field originate from experiments at the heavy-ion complex GSI in Darmstadt. There, the fragment separator facility FRS allows the production and separation of exotic, highly charged nuclides, which can then be stored and investigated in the storage ring facility ESR. In this review, we present and discuss in particular two-body beta decays, namely bound-state beta decay and orbital electron capture. Although we focus on experiments conducted at GSI, we will also attempt to provide general requirements common to any other experiment in this context. Finally, we address challenging but not yet performed experiments and we give prospects for the new radioactive beam facilities, such as FAIR in Darmstadt, IMP in Lanzhou and RIKEN in Wako.

  10. Additive Manufacturing of Metastable Beta Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannetta, Christopher J.

    Additive manufacturing processes of many alloys are known to develop texture during the deposition process due to the rapid reheating and the directionality of the dissipation of heat. Titanium alloys and with respect to this study beta titanium alloys are especially susceptible to these effects. This work examines Ti-20wt%V and Ti-12wt%Mo deposited under normal additive manufacturing process parameters to examine the texture of these beta-stabilized alloys. Both microstructures contained columnar prior beta grains 1-2 mm in length beginning at the substrate with no visible equiaxed grains. This microstructure remained constant in the vanadium system throughout the build. The microstructure of the alloy containing molybdenum changed from a columnar to an equiaxed structure as the build height increased. Eighteen additional samples of the Ti-Mo system were created under different processing parameters to identify what role laser power and travel speed have on the microstructure. There appears to be a correlation in alpha lath size and power density. The two binary alloys were again deposited under the same conditions with the addition of 0.5wt% boron to investigate the effects an insoluble interstitial alloying element would have on the microstructure. The size of the prior beta grains in these two alloys were reduced with the addition of boron by approximately 50 (V) and 100 (Mo) times.

  11. [High beta tokamak research and plasma theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Our activities on High Beta Tokamak Research during the past 12 months of the present budget period can be divided into four areas: completion of kink mode studies in HBT; completion of carbon impurity transport studies in HBT; design of HBT-EP; and construction of HBT-EP. Each of these is described briefly in the sections of this progress report

  12. Nuclear structure and double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, P.

    1988-01-01

    Double beta decay is a rare transition between two nuclei of the same mass number A involving a change of the nuclear charge Z by two units. It has long been recognized that the Oν mode of double beta decay, where two electrons and no neutrinos are emitted, is a powerful tool for the study of neutrino properties. Its observation would constitute a convincing proof that there exists a massive Majorana neutrino which couples to electrons. Double beta decay is a process involving an intricate mixture of particle physics and physics of the nucleus. The principal nuclear physics issues have to do with the evaluation of the nuclear matrix elements responsible for the decay. If the authors wish to arrive at quantitative answers for the neutrino properties the authors have no choice but to learn first how to understand the nuclear mechanisms. The authors describe first the calculation of the decay rate of the 2ν mode of double beta decay, in which two electrons and two antineutrinos are emitted

  13. Association behavior of native beta-lactoglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verheul, M.; Pedersen, J.S.; Roefs, S.P.F.M.

    1999-01-01

    The association behavior of beta-lactoglobulin has been studied by small-angle neutron scattering as a function of protein concentration, temperature, pH, and NaCl concentration of the solution. By indirect Fourier transformation of the spectra, pair-distance distribution functions for the variou...

  14. The photodiodes response in beta dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, Helen; Amaral, Ademir; Hazin, Clovis; Melo, Francisco

    1996-01-01

    The response of the photodiodes BPY-12, BPW-34 and SFH-206 is tested for use as beta dosimeters. The results obtained show a dose-response relationships as well as less than 1% of coefficient of variation for the reproducibility of their responses. The photodiode BPY-12 has presented a better response in comparison with the others

  15. Can Beta Blockers Cause Weight Gain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause weight gain? Can beta blockers cause weight gain? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes. Weight gain can occur as a side effect of some ... and metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol-XL). The average weight gain is about 2.6 pounds (about 1.2 ...

  16. Double beta decay: A theoretical overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, S.P.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the theoretical possibility of double beta decay. The titles of the main sections of this paper are: Nuclear physics setting; Particle physics requirements; Kinematical features of the decay modes; Nuclear matrix elements; the Shell model and two-neutrino decay; Quasi-particle random phase approximation; and Future considerations. 18 refs., 7 tabs

  17. Structure modeling and mutational analysis of gap junction beta 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-03

    Apr 3, 2012 ... Three dimensional (3 D) structure is very useful for understanding biological functions. Gap junction beta 2 (GJB2), human gene encoding for gap junction beta 2 protein is involved in ... Research in deafness became real.

  18. International beta-dosimetry symposium. Program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    Abstracts of the presentations at the symposium are contained in this volume. Problems associated with beta dosimetry, beta detectors and dosemeters, and current development programs are described. Each abstract has been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  19. Isolation and characterization of chicken and turkey beta 2-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, K; Welinder, K G; Crone, M

    1986-01-01

    Chicken and turkey beta 2-m were isolated from citrated plasma in sequential use of three chromatographic steps: affinity chromatography, gel filtration chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified protein was identified as beta 2-m by reaction with a beta 2-m specific monoclonal...... (turkey migrates in the alpha and chicken migrates in the beta region). The mol. wt of both chicken and turkey beta 2-m was 14,500 estimated by SDS-PAGE whereas calculations based on the amino acid compositions gave mol. wts of 11,000. EM280 was 15.9 for chicken beta 2-m and 16.4 for turkey beta 2-m......, and is incompatible with a previously published sequence also thought to be from turkey beta 2-m. Reasons for our opinion that the molecules isolated and sequenced in this paper are the correct ones are given. Udgivelsesdato: 1986-Dec...

  20. Estimation error algorithm at analysis of beta-spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakovets, N.V.; Zhukovskij, A.I.; Zubarev, V.N.; Khadzhinov, E.M.

    2005-01-01

    This work describes the estimation error algorithm at the operations with beta-spectrums, as well as compares the theoretical and experimental errors by the processing of beta-channel's data. (authors)