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Sample records for best1 gene causing

  1. Hereditary retinal disease : clinical and genetic studies on the role of the peripherin/RDS gene , the BEST1 gene, and the CFH gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, C.J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in the peripherin/RDS gene, the BEST1 gene, and the CFH gene appear to be relatively frequent causes of hereditary retinal diseases that principally affect the macula. Intriguingly, a single mutation may be associated with a broad range of retinal phenotypes. Even in a single family, one m

  2. Ocular Phenotype Analysis of a Family With Biallelic Mutations in the BEST1 Gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharon, Dror; Al-Hamdani, Sermed; Engelsberg, Karl

    2014-01-01

    -segregation analysis. Clinical investigations included electro-oculography, full-field electroretinography, multifocal electroretinography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and fundus autofluorescence imaging. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed. main outcome measures: BEST1 mutations, imaging......PURPOSE: To investigate the genetic cause and perform a comprehensive clinical analysis of a Danish family with autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy; to investigate whether Bestrophin may be expressed in normal human retina. DESIGN: Retrospective clinical and molecular genetic analysis...... and immunohistochemical observational study. METHODS: setting: National referral center. participants: A family with 5 individuals and biallelic BEST1 mutations, and enucleated eyes from 2 individuals with nonaffected retinas. observation procedures: Molecular genetic analysis included sequencing of BEST1 and co...

  3. Flat Anterior Chamber after Trabeculectomy in Secondary Angle-Closure Glaucoma with BEST1 Gene Mutation: Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hui; Luo, Jingyi; Zuo, Chengguo; Huang, Xiaobo; Huang, Jingjing; Mi, Lan; Zhang, Qingjiong; Liu, Xing

    2017-01-01

    the patients and enrolled family members carried mutation in BEST1 gene. Conclusions ARB is a rare condition with fundus manifestations mimicking various diseases. Careful discrimination should be taken to exclude any secondary causes for ACG before treatment. Concerning the high incidence of postoperative shallow anterior chamber, selection of filtering surgery should be very careful in these patients. PMID:28056057

  4. Genes Causing Male Infertility in Humans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lawrence C. Layman

    2002-01-01

    There are an accumulating number of identified gene mutations that cause infertility in humans. Most of the known gene mutations impair normal puberty and subsequently cause infertility by either hypothalamic /pituitary deficiency of important tropic factors to the gonad or by gonadal genes.

  5. Mislocalisation of BEST1 in iPSC-derived retinal pigment epithelial cells from a family with autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy (ADVIRC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, David A.; Smart, Matthew J. K.; Letton, William V. G.; Ramsden, Conor M.; Nommiste, Britta; Chen, Li Li; Fynes, Kate; Muthiah, Manickam N.; Goh, Pollyanna; Lane, Amelia; Powner, Michael B.; Webster, Andrew R.; da Cruz, Lyndon; Moore, Anthony T.; Coffey, Peter J.; Carr, Amanda-Jayne F.

    2016-01-01

    Autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy (ADVIRC) is a rare, early-onset retinal dystrophy characterised by distinct bands of circumferential pigmentary degeneration in the peripheral retina and developmental eye defects. ADVIRC is caused by mutations in the Bestrophin1 (BEST1) gene, which encodes a transmembrane protein thought to function as an ion channel in the basolateral membrane of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Previous studies suggest that the distinct ADVIRC phenotype results from alternative splicing of BEST1 pre-mRNA. Here, we have used induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology to investigate the effects of an ADVIRC associated BEST1 mutation (c.704T > C, p.V235A) in patient-derived iPSC-RPE. We found no evidence of alternate splicing of the BEST1 transcript in ADVIRC iPSC-RPE, however in patient-derived iPSC-RPE, BEST1 was expressed at the basolateral membrane and the apical membrane. During human eye development we show that BEST1 is expressed more abundantly in peripheral RPE compared to central RPE and is also expressed in cells of the developing retina. These results suggest that higher levels of mislocalised BEST1 expression in the periphery, from an early developmental stage, could provide a mechanism that leads to the distinct clinical phenotype observed in ADVIRC patients. PMID:27653836

  6. Contemporary Approaches for Identifying Rare Bone Disease Causing Genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles R.Farber; Thomas L.Clemens

    2013-01-01

    Recent improvements in the speed and accuracy of DNA sequencing, together with increasingly sophisti-cated mathematical approaches for annotating gene networks, have revolutionized the field of human genetics and made these once time consuming approaches assessable to most investigators. In the field of bone research, a particularly active area of gene discovery has occurred in patients with rare bone disorders such as osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) that are caused by mutations in single genes. In this perspective, we highlight some of these technological advances and describe how they have been used to identify the genetic determinants underlying two previously unexplained cases of OI. The widespread availability of advanced methods for DNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis can be expected to greatly facilitate identification of novel gene networks that normally function to control bone formation and maintenance.

  7. Gene Tree Discordance Causes Apparent Substitution Rate Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Fábio K; Hahn, Matthew W

    2016-07-01

    Substitution rates are known to be variable among genes, chromosomes, species, and lineages due to multifarious biological processes. Here, we consider another source of substitution rate variation due to a technical bias associated with gene tree discordance. Discordance has been found to be rampant in genome-wide data sets, often due to incomplete lineage sorting (ILS). This apparent substitution rate variation is caused when substitutions that occur on discordant gene trees are analyzed in the context of a single, fixed species tree. Such substitutions have to be resolved by proposing multiple substitutions on the species tree, and we therefore refer to this phenomenon as Substitutions Produced by ILS (SPILS). We use simulations to demonstrate that SPILS has a larger effect with increasing levels of ILS, and on trees with larger numbers of taxa. Specific branches of the species trees are consistently, but erroneously, inferred to be longer or shorter, and we show that these branches can be predicted based on discordant tree topologies. Moreover, we observe that fixing a species tree topology when performing tests of positive selection increases the false positive rate, particularly for genes whose discordant topologies are most affected by SPILS. Finally, we use data from multiple Drosophila species to show that SPILS can be detected in nature. Although the effects of SPILS are modest per gene, it has the potential to affect substitution rate variation whenever high levels of ILS are present, particularly in rapid radiations. The problems outlined here have implications for character mapping of any type of trait, and for any biological process that causes discordance. We discuss possible solutions to these problems, and areas in which they are likely to have caused faulty inferences of convergence and accelerated evolution.

  8. Insulin gene mutations as a cause of permanent neonatal diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støy, Julie; Edghill, Emma L; Flanagan, Sarah E; Ye, Honggang; Paz, Veronica P; Pluzhnikov, Anna; Below, Jennifer E; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Cox, Nancy J; Lipkind, Gregory M; Lipton, Rebecca B; Greeley, Siri Atma W; Patch, Ann-Marie; Ellard, Sian; Steiner, Donald F; Hattersley, Andrew T; Philipson, Louis H; Bell, Graeme I

    2007-09-18

    We report 10 heterozygous mutations in the human insulin gene in 16 probands with neonatal diabetes. A combination of linkage and a candidate gene approach in a family with four diabetic members led to the identification of the initial INS gene mutation. The mutations are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner in this and two other small families whereas the mutations in the other 13 patients are de novo. Diabetes presented in probands at a median age of 9 weeks, usually with diabetic ketoacidosis or marked hyperglycemia, was not associated with beta cell autoantibodies, and was treated from diagnosis with insulin. The mutations are in critical regions of the preproinsulin molecule, and we predict that they prevent normal folding and progression of proinsulin in the insulin secretory pathway. The abnormally folded proinsulin molecule may induce the unfolded protein response and undergo degradation in the endoplasmic reticulum, leading to severe endoplasmic reticulum stress and potentially beta cell death by apoptosis. This process has been described in both the Akita and Munich mouse models that have dominant-acting missense mutations in the Ins2 gene, leading to loss of beta cell function and mass. One of the human mutations we report here is identical to that in the Akita mouse. The identification of insulin mutations as a cause of neonatal diabetes will facilitate the diagnosis and possibly, in time, treatment of this disorder.

  9. [Mutations in the gene encoding filaggrin cause ichthyosis vulgaris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sumangali Chandra; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Bygum, Anette

    2011-02-14

    Ichthyosis vulgaris is a common genetic skin disorder with an estimated prevalence of 1:250 caused by mutations in the gene encoding filaggrin. This disorder manifests itself within the first year of life and is clinically characterized by dry, scaly skin, keratosis pilaris, palmar hyperlinearity and atopic manifestations. Patients with a severe phenotype are homozygous or compound heterozygous for the mutations, whereas heterozygous patients show mild disease, suggesting semidominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance. We present a patient with classic severe ichthyosis vulgaris, atopic eczema and two loss-of-function mutations.

  10. Identification of disease-causing genes using microarray data mining and Gene Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraee Mohammad H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the best and most accurate methods for identifying disease-causing genes is monitoring gene expression values in different samples using microarray technology. One of the shortcomings of microarray data is that they provide a small quantity of samples with respect to the number of genes. This problem reduces the classification accuracy of the methods, so gene selection is essential to improve the predictive accuracy and to identify potential marker genes for a disease. Among numerous existing methods for gene selection, support vector machine-based recursive feature elimination (SVMRFE has become one of the leading methods, but its performance can be reduced because of the small sample size, noisy data and the fact that the method does not remove redundant genes. Methods We propose a novel framework for gene selection which uses the advantageous features of conventional methods and addresses their weaknesses. In fact, we have combined the Fisher method and SVMRFE to utilize the advantages of a filtering method as well as an embedded method. Furthermore, we have added a redundancy reduction stage to address the weakness of the Fisher method and SVMRFE. In addition to gene expression values, the proposed method uses Gene Ontology which is a reliable source of information on genes. The use of Gene Ontology can compensate, in part, for the limitations of microarrays, such as having a small number of samples and erroneous measurement results. Results The proposed method has been applied to colon, Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL and prostate cancer datasets. The empirical results show that our method has improved classification performance in terms of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. In addition, the study of the molecular function of selected genes strengthened the hypothesis that these genes are involved in the process of cancer growth. Conclusions The proposed method addresses the weakness of conventional

  11. Polymorphism of the human vitronectin gene causes vitronectin blood type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, K; Hayashi, M; Oishi, N; Sakaki, Y

    1990-03-30

    Human blood plasma/sera are classified into three distinct vitronectin types based on the relative amount of the 75 kDa polypeptide to its cleavage product of 65 kDa. We asked whether the vitronectin blood types correlated with the polymorphism of the vitronectin gene. A portion of the vitronectin gene was amplified by using polymerase chain reaction and digested with a restriction enzyme PmaC I which may distinguish the base sequence causing the polymorphic change at the amino acid position 381. Amplified DNAs of the blood type I (75 kDa-rich), II (75/65 kDa-even), and III (65 kDa-rich) were shown to be resistant, moderately sensitive and completely sensitive to PmaC I, respectively. These results suggest that Thr at position 381 is essential for the cleavage of the vitronectin 75 kDa polypeptide and that three possible combinations of two codominant alleles of vitronectin determine three vitronectin blood types.

  12. Ribosomal protein gene knockdown causes developmental defects in zebrafish.

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    Tamayo Uechi

    Full Text Available The ribosomal proteins (RPs form the majority of cellular proteins and are mandatory for cellular growth. RP genes have been linked, either directly or indirectly, to various diseases in humans. Mutations in RP genes are also associated with tissue-specific phenotypes, suggesting a possible role in organ development during early embryogenesis. However, it is not yet known how mutations in a particular RP gene result in specific cellular changes, or how RP genes might contribute to human diseases. The development of animal models with defects in RP genes will be essential for studying these questions. In this study, we knocked down 21 RP genes in zebrafish by using morpholino antisense oligos to inhibit their translation. Of these 21, knockdown of 19 RPs resulted in the development of morphants with obvious deformities. Although mutations in RP genes, like other housekeeping genes, would be expected to result in nonspecific developmental defects with widespread phenotypes, we found that knockdown of some RP genes resulted in phenotypes specific to each gene, with varying degrees of abnormality in the brain, body trunk, eyes, and ears at about 25 hours post fertilization. We focused further on the organogenesis of the brain. Each knocked-down gene that affected the morphogenesis of the brain produced a different pattern of abnormality. Among the 7 RP genes whose knockdown produced severe brain phenotypes, 3 human orthologs are located within chromosomal regions that have been linked to brain-associated diseases, suggesting a possible involvement of RP genes in brain or neurological diseases. The RP gene knockdown system developed in this study could be a powerful tool for studying the roles of ribosomes in human diseases.

  13. SINE retrotransposons cause epigenetic reprogramming of adjacent gene promoters.

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    Estécio, Marcos R H; Gallegos, Juan; Dekmezian, Mhair; Lu, Yue; Liang, Shoudan; Issa, Jean-Pierre J

    2012-10-01

    Almost half of the human genome and as much as 40% of the mouse genome is composed of repetitive DNA sequences. The majority of these repeats are retrotransposons of the SINE and LINE families, and such repeats are generally repressed by epigenetic mechanisms. It has been proposed that these elements can act as methylation centers from which DNA methylation spreads into gene promoters in cancer. Contradictory to a methylation center function, we have found that retrotransposons are enriched near promoter CpG islands that stay methylation-free in cancer. Clearly, it is important to determine which influence, if any, these repetitive elements have on nearby gene promoters. Using an in vitro system, we confirm here that SINE B1 elements can influence the activity of downstream gene promoters, with acquisition of DNA methylation and loss of activating histone marks, thus resulting in a repressed state. SINE sequences themselves did not immediately acquire DNA methylation but were marked by H3K9me2 and H3K27me3. Moreover, our bisulfite sequencing data did not support that gain of DNA methylation in gene promoters occurred by methylation spreading from SINE B1 repeats. Genome-wide analysis of SINE repeats distribution showed that their enrichment is directly correlated with the presence of USF1, USF2, and CTCF binding, proteins with insulator function. In summary, our work supports the concept that SINE repeats interfere negatively with gene expression and that their presence near gene promoters is counter-selected, except when the promoter is protected by an insulator element.

  14. Exome Sequencing Reveals Cubilin Mutation as a Single-Gene Cause of Proteinuria

    OpenAIRE

    Ovunc, Bugsu; Otto, Edgar A.; Vega-Warner, Virginia; Saisawat, Pawaree; Ashraf, Shazia; Ramaswami, Gokul; Fathy, Hanan M.; Schoeb, Dominik; Chernin, Gil; Lyons, Robert H.; Engin YILMAZ; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2011-01-01

    In two siblings of consanguineous parents with intermittent nephrotic-range proteinuria, we identified a homozygous deleterious frameshift mutation in the gene CUBN, which encodes cubulin, using exome capture and massively parallel re-sequencing. The mutation segregated with affected members of this family and was absent from 92 healthy individuals, thereby identifying a recessive mutation in CUBN as the single-gene cause of proteinuria in this sibship. Cubulin mutations cause a hereditary fo...

  15. Occurrence of enterotoxin-encoding genes in Staphylococcus aureus causing mastitis in lactating goats

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    Daneelly H. Ferreira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal enterotoxins are the leading cause of human food poisoning worldwide. Staphylococcus spp. are the main mastitis-causing agents in goats and frequently found in high counts in goat milk. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of enterotoxin-encoding genes in Staphylococcus aureus associated with mastitis in lactating goats in Paraiba State, Brazil. Milk samples (n=2024 were collected from 393 farms. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 55 milk samples. Classical (sea, seb, sec, sed, see and novel (seg, seh, sei enterotoxin-encoding genes were investigated by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR. From thirty-six tested isolates, enterotoxin-encoding genes were detected in 7 (19.5% S. aureus. The gene encoding enterotoxin C (seC was identified in six isolates, while seiwas observed in only one isolate. The genes sea, seb, sed, see, seg and seh were not observed amongst the S. aureus investigated in this study. In summary, S. aureus causing mastitis in goats can harbor enterotoxin-encoding genes and seC was the most frequent gene observed amongst the investigated isolates. This finding is important for surveillance purposes, since enterotoxin C should be investigated in human staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks caused by consumption of goat milk and dairy products.

  16. Wolfram gene (WFS1) mutation causes autosomal dominant congenital nuclear cataract in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Vanita; Gregory-Evans, Cheryl; Emmett, Warren; Waseem, Naushin; Raby, Jacob; Prescott, DeQuincy; Moore, Anthony T; Bhattacharya, Shomi S

    2013-12-01

    Congenital cataracts are an important cause of bilateral visual impairment in infants. Through genome-wide linkage analysis in a four-generation family of Irish descent, the disease-associated gene causing autosomal-dominant congenital nuclear cataract was mapped to chromosome 4p16.1. The maximum logarithm of odds (LOD) score was 2.62 at a recombination fraction θ=0, obtained for marker D4S432 physically close to the Wolfram gene (WFS1). By sequencing the coding regions and intron-exon boundaries of WFS1, we identified a DNA substitution (c.1385A-to-G) in exon 8, causing a missense mutation at codon 462 (E462G) of the Wolframin protein. This is the first report of a mutation in this gene causing an isolated nuclear congenital cataract. These findings suggest that the membrane trafficking protein Wolframin may be important for supporting the developing lens.

  17. VIP Gene Deletion in Mice Causes Cardiomyopathy Associated with Upregulation of Heart Failure Genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szema, Anthony M.; Hamidi, Sayyed A.; Smith, S. David; Benveniste, Helene; Katare, Rajesh Gopalrao

    2013-05-20

    Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP), a pulmonary vasodilator and inhibitor of vascular smooth muscle proliferation, is absent in pulmonary arteries of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We previously determined that targeted deletion of the VIP gene in mice leads to PAH with pulmonary vascular remodeling and right ventricular (RV) dilatation. Whether the left ventricle is also affected by VIP gene deletion is unknown. In the current study, we examined if VIP knockout mice (VIP-/-) develop both right (RV) and left ventricular (LV) cardiomyopathy, manifested by LV dilatation and systolic dysfunction, as well as overexpression of genes conducive to heart failure.

  18. An essential cell cycle regulation gene causes hybrid inviability in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadnis, Nitin; Baker, EmilyClare P; Cooper, Jacob C; Frizzell, Kimberly A; Hsieh, Emily; de la Cruz, Aida Flor A; Shendure, Jay; Kitzman, Jacob O; Malik, Harmit S

    2015-12-18

    Speciation, the process by which new biological species arise, involves the evolution of reproductive barriers, such as hybrid sterility or inviability between populations. However, identifying hybrid incompatibility genes remains a key obstacle in understanding the molecular basis of reproductive isolation. We devised a genomic screen, which identified a cell cycle-regulation gene as the cause of male inviability in hybrids resulting from a cross between Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans. Ablation of the D. simulans allele of this gene is sufficient to rescue the adult viability of hybrid males. This dominantly acting cell cycle regulator causes mitotic arrest and, thereby, inviability of male hybrid larvae. Our genomic method provides a facile means to accelerate the identification of hybrid incompatibility genes in other model and nonmodel systems.

  19. Exome Sequencing Reveals Cubilin Mutation as a Single-Gene Cause of Proteinuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovunc, Bugsu; Otto, Edgar A.; Vega-Warner, Virginia; Saisawat, Pawaree; Ashraf, Shazia; Ramaswami, Gokul; Fathy, Hanan M.; Schoeb, Dominik; Chernin, Gil; Lyons, Robert H.; Yilmaz, Engin

    2011-01-01

    In two siblings of consanguineous parents with intermittent nephrotic-range proteinuria, we identified a homozygous deleterious frameshift mutation in the gene CUBN, which encodes cubulin, using exome capture and massively parallel re-sequencing. The mutation segregated with affected members of this family and was absent from 92 healthy individuals, thereby identifying a recessive mutation in CUBN as the single-gene cause of proteinuria in this sibship. Cubulin mutations cause a hereditary form of megaloblastic anemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency, and proteinuria occurs in 50% of cases since cubilin is coreceptor for both the intestinal vitamin B12-intrinsic factor complex and the tubular reabsorption of protein in the proximal tubule. In summary, we report successful use of exome capture and massively parallel re-sequencing to identify a rare, single-gene cause of nephropathy. PMID:21903995

  20. Exome sequencing reveals cubilin mutation as a single-gene cause of proteinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovunc, Bugsu; Otto, Edgar A; Vega-Warner, Virginia; Saisawat, Pawaree; Ashraf, Shazia; Ramaswami, Gokul; Fathy, Hanan M; Schoeb, Dominik; Chernin, Gil; Lyons, Robert H; Yilmaz, Engin; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2011-10-01

    In two siblings of consanguineous parents with intermittent nephrotic-range proteinuria, we identified a homozygous deleterious frameshift mutation in the gene CUBN, which encodes cubulin, using exome capture and massively parallel re-sequencing. The mutation segregated with affected members of this family and was absent from 92 healthy individuals, thereby identifying a recessive mutation in CUBN as the single-gene cause of proteinuria in this sibship. Cubulin mutations cause a hereditary form of megaloblastic anemia secondary to vitamin B(12) deficiency, and proteinuria occurs in 50% of cases since cubilin is coreceptor for both the intestinal vitamin B(12)-intrinsic factor complex and the tubular reabsorption of protein in the proximal tubule. In summary, we report successful use of exome capture and massively parallel re-sequencing to identify a rare, single-gene cause of nephropathy.

  1. Network analysis of differential expression for the identification of disease-causing genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Nitsch

    Full Text Available Genetic studies (in particular linkage and association studies identify chromosomal regions involved in a disease or phenotype of interest, but those regions often contain many candidate genes, only a few of which can be followed-up for biological validation. Recently, computational methods to identify (prioritize the most promising candidates within a region have been proposed, but they are usually not applicable to cases where little is known about the phenotype (no or few confirmed disease genes, fragmentary understanding of the biological cascades involved. We seek to overcome this limitation by replacing knowledge about the biological process by experimental data on differential gene expression between affected and healthy individuals. Considering the problem from the perspective of a gene/protein network, we assess a candidate gene by considering the level of differential expression in its neighborhood under the assumption that strong candidates will tend to be surrounded by differentially expressed neighbors. We define a notion of soft neighborhood where each gene is given a contributing weight, which decreases with the distance from the candidate gene on the protein network. To account for multiple paths between genes, we define the distance using the Laplacian exponential diffusion kernel. We score candidates by aggregating the differential expression of neighbors weighted as a function of distance. Through a randomization procedure, we rank candidates by p-values. We illustrate our approach on four monogenic diseases and successfully prioritize the known disease causing genes.

  2. Congenital Hypothyroidism Caused by a PAX8 Gene Mutation Manifested as Sodium/Iodide Symporter Gene Defect

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    Wakako Jo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Loss-of-function mutations of the PAX8 gene are considered to mainly cause congenital hypothyroidism (CH due to thyroid hypoplasia. However, some patients with PAX8 mutation have demonstrated a normal-sized thyroid gland. Here we report a CH patient caused by a PAX8 mutation, which manifested as iodide transport defect (ITD. Hypothyroidism was detected by neonatal screening and L-thyroxine replacement was started immediately. Although 123I scintigraphy at 5 years of age showed that the thyroid gland was in the normal position and of small size, his iodide trapping was low. The ratio of the saliva/plasma radioactive iodide was low. He did not have goiter; however laboratory findings suggested that he had partial ITD. Gene analyses showed that the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS gene was normal; instead, a mutation in the PAX8 gene causing R31H substitution was identified. The present report demonstrates that individuals with defective PAX8 can have partial ITD, and thus genetic analysis is useful for differential diagnosis.

  3. A duplicated PLP gene causing Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease detected by comparative multiplex PCR

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    Inoue, K.; Sugiyama, N.; Kawanishi, C. [Yokohama City Univ., Yokohama (Japan)] [and others

    1996-07-01

    Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is an X-linked dysmyelinating disorder caused by abnormalities in the proteolipid protein (PLP) gene, which is essential for oligodendrocyte differentiation and CNS myelin formation. Although linkage analysis has shown the homogeneity at the PLP locus in patients with PMD, exonic mutations in the PLP gene have been identified in only 10% - 25% of all cases, which suggests the presence of other genetic aberrations, including gene duplication. In this study, we examined five families with PMD not carrying exonic mutations in PLP gene, using comparative multiplex PCR (CM-PCR) as a semiquantitative assay of gene dosage. PLP gene duplications were identified in four families by CM-PCR and confirmed in three families by densitometric RFLP analysis. Because a homologous myelin protein gene, PMP22, is duplicated in the majority of patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A, PLP gene overdosage may be an important genetic abnormality in PMD and affect myelin formation. 38 ref., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Prevalence of coagulase gene polymorphism in Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing bovine mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Dangler, C. A.; Sordillo, L. M.

    1995-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate polymorphism of the coagulase gene of Staphylococcus aureus causing bovine mastitis. One hundred eighty-seven strains of S. aureus were isolated from bovine mastitic milk samples obtained from 187 different Danish dairy farms. The isolates were characterised...

  5. No muscle involvement in myoclonus-dystonia caused by epsilon-sarcoglycan gene mutations1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjermind, L.E.; Vissing, J.; Asmus, F.;

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in the epsilon-sarcoglycan gene (SGCE) can cause autosomal dominant inherited myoclonus-dystonia (M-D). Defects in other sarcoglycans; alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta can cause autosomal recessive inherited limb girdle muscular dystrophies. epsilon- and alpha-sarcoglycans are very...... homologous and may substitute for one-another in different tissues. We therefore investigated whether mutations in SGCE also cause abnormalities of skeletal and myocardial muscle. Six patients with clinically and genetically verified M-D and no signs of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy were included. Skeletal...

  6. Hydrocephalus caused by conditional ablation of the Pten or beta-catenin gene

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    Ohtoshi Akihira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To investigate the roles of Pten and β-Catenin in the midbrain, either the Pten gene or the β-catenin gene was conditionally ablated, using Dmbx1 (diencephalon/mesencephalon-expressed brain homeobox gene 1-Cre mice. Homozygous disruption of the Pten or β-catenin gene in Dmbx1-expressing cells caused severe hydrocephalus and mortality during the postnatal period. Conditional deletion of Pten resulted in enlargement of midbrain structures. β-catenin conditional mutant mice showed malformation of the superior and inferior colliculi and stenosis of the midbrain aqueduct. These results demonstrate that both Pten and β-Catenin are essential for proper midbrain development, and provide the direct evidence that mutations of both Pten and β-catenin lead to hydrocephalus.

  7. An exonic insertion within Tex14 gene causes spermatogenic arrest in pigs

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    Sironen Anu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male infertility is an increasing problem in all domestic species including man. Localization and identification of genes involved in defects causing male infertility provide valuable information of specific events in sperm development. Sperm development is a complex process, where diploid spermatogonia develop into haploid, highly specialized spermatozoa. Correct expression and function of various genes and their protein products are required for production of fertile sperm. We have identified an infertility defect in Finnish Yorkshire boars caused by spermatogenic arrest. The aim of this study was to locate the disease associated region using genome wide screen with the PorcineSNP60 Beadchip and identify the causal mutation by candidate gene approach. Results In the Finnish Yorkshire pig population the spermatogenic arrest (SA defect appears to be of genetic origin and causes severe degeneration of germ cells and total absence of spermatozoa. Genome wide scan with the PorcineSNP60 Beadchip localized the SA defect to porcine chromosome 12 in a 2 Mbp region. Sequencing of a candidate gene Tex14 revealed a 51 bp insertion within exon 27, which caused differential splicing of the exon and created a premature translation stop codon. The expression of Tex14 was markedly down regulated in the testis of a SA affected boar compared to control boars and no protein product was identified by Western blotting. The SA insertion sequence was also found within intron 27 in all analyzed animals, thus the insertion appears to be a possible duplication event. Conclusion In this study we report the identification of a causal mutation for infertility caused by spermatogenic arrest at an early meiotic phase. Our results highlight the role of TEX14 specifically in spermatogenesis and the importance of specific genomic remodeling events as causes for inherited defects.

  8. Schizophrenia: A Pathogenetic Autoimmune Disease Caused by Viruses and Pathogens and Dependent on Genes

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    C. J. Carter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many genes have been implicated in schizophrenia as have viral prenatal or adult infections and toxoplasmosis or Lyme disease. Several autoantigens also target key pathology-related proteins. These factors are interrelated. Susceptibility genes encode for proteins homologous to those of the pathogens while the autoantigens are homologous to pathogens' proteins, suggesting that the risk-promoting effects of genes and risk factors are conditional upon each other, and dependent upon protein matching between pathogen and susceptibility gene products. Pathogens' proteins may act as dummy ligands, decoy receptors, or via interactome interference. Many such proteins are immunogenic suggesting that antibody mediated knockdown of multiple schizophrenia gene products could contribute to the disease, explaining the immune activation in the brain and lymphocytes in schizophrenia, and the preponderance of immune-related gene variants in the schizophrenia genome. Schizophrenia may thus be a “pathogenetic” autoimmune disorder, caused by pathogens, genes, and the immune system acting together, and perhaps preventable by pathogen elimination, or curable by the removal of culpable antibodies and antigens.

  9. Exonic rearrangements in the known Parkinson's disease-causing genes are a rare cause of the disease in South African patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Celia; Carr, Jonathan; Glanzmann, Brigitte; Bardien, Soraya

    2016-04-21

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the midbrain. To date, a number of PD-causing genes have been found, including SNCA, LRRK2, VPS35, PARK2, PINK1, DJ-1, ATP13A2, and most recently CHCHD2. Mutations in these genes range from point mutations to larger exonic rearrangements including deletions and duplications. This study aimed to detect possible copy number variation (CNV) in the known PD-causing genes in a cohort of South African patients with PD. Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) analysis was performed on a total of 210 South African PD patients, and possible CNVs were verified using quantitative real time PCR. No homozygous or compound heterozygous exon rearrangements in the genes analysed were found in the patient group. A heterozygous PARK2 exon 4 deletion was found in a sporadic patient with an age at onset of 51 years. Sanger sequencing did not reveal any additional mutations in PARK2 in this patient. Combining our results with that of previous studies in a South African cohort, the frequency of exonic rearrangements in the known PD-causing genes is only 1.8% (8/439 patients). In conclusion, CNV in the known PD-causing genes are a rare cause of PD in a South African cohort, and there may be as yet unknown genetic causes of PD that are specific to patients of African ethnicity.

  10. An atypical case of fragile X syndrome caused by a deletion that includes FMRI gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan, F.; Zonana, J.; Gunter, K.; Peterson, K.L.; Magenis, R.E., Popovich, B.W. [Shriners Hospital for Crippled Children, Portland, OR (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Fragile X syndrome is the most common form of inherited mental retardation and results from the transcriptional inactivation of the FMR1 gene. In the vast majority of cases, this is caused by the expansion of an unstable CGG repeat in the first exon of the FMR1 gene. We describe here a phenotypically atypical case of fragile X syndrome, caused by a deletion that includes the entire FMR1 gene and {ge}9.0 Mb of flanking DNA. The proband, RK, was a 6-year-old mentally retarded male with obesity and anal atresia. A diagnosis of fragile X syndrome was established by the failure of RK`s DNA to hybridize to a 558-bp PstI-XhoI fragment (pfxa3) specific for the 5{prime}-end of the FMR1 gene. The analysis of flanking markers in the interval from Xq26.3-q28 indicated a deletion extending from between 160-500 kb distal and 9.0 Mb proximal to the FMR1 gene. High-resolution chromosome banding confirmed a deletion with breakpoints in Xq26.3 and Xq27.3. This deletion was maternally transmitted and arose as a new mutation on the grandpaternal X chromosome. The maternal transmission of the deletion was confirmed by FISH using a 34-kb cosmid (c31.4) containing most of the FMR1 gene. These results indicated that RK carried a deletion of the FMR1 region with the most proximal breakpoint described to date. This patient`s unusual clinical presentation may indicate the presence of genes located in the deleted interval proximal to the FMR1 locus that are able to modify the fragile X syndrome phenotype. 36 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Alu-mediated large deletion of the CDSN gene as a cause of peeling skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, T; Matsuda, Y; Muraoka, M; Toma, T; Takehara, K; Fujimoto, M; Yachie, A

    2014-10-01

    Peeling skin disease (PSD) is an autosomal recessive skin disorder caused by mutations in CDSN and is characterized by superficial peeling of the upper epidermis. Corneodesmosin (CDSN) is a major component of corneodesmosomes that plays an important role in maintaining epidermis integrity. Herein, we report a patient with PSD caused by a novel homozygous large deletion in the 6p21.3 region encompassing the CDSN gene, which abrogates CDSN expression. Several genes including C6orf15, PSORS1C1, PSORS1C2, CCHCR1, and TCF19 were also deleted, however, the patient showed only clinical features typical of PSD. The deletion size was 59.1 kb. Analysis of the sequence surrounding the breakpoint showed that both telomeric and centromeric breakpoints existed within Alu-S sequences that were oriented in opposite directions. These results suggest an Alu-mediated recombination event as the mechanism underlying the deletion in our patient.

  12. ISPD gene mutations are a common cause of congenital and limb-girdle muscular dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirak, Sebahattin; Foley, Aileen Reghan; Herrmann, Ralf; Willer, Tobias; Yau, Shu; Stevens, Elizabeth; Torelli, Silvia; Brodd, Lina; Kamynina, Alisa; Vondracek, Petr; Roper, Helen; Longman, Cheryl; Korinthenberg, Rudolf; Marrosu, Gianni; Nürnberg, Peter; Michele, Daniel E; Plagnol, Vincent; Hurles, Matt; Moore, Steven A; Sewry, Caroline A; Campbell, Kevin P; Voit, Thomas; Muntoni, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Dystroglycanopathies are a clinically and genetically diverse group of recessively inherited conditions ranging from the most severe of the congenital muscular dystrophies, Walker-Warburg syndrome, to mild forms of adult-onset limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. Their hallmark is a reduction in the functional glycosylation of α-dystroglycan, which can be detected in muscle biopsies. An important part of this glycosylation is a unique O-mannosylation, essential for the interaction of α-dystroglycan with extracellular matrix proteins such as laminin-α2. Mutations in eight genes coding for proteins in the glycosylation pathway are responsible for ∼50% of dystroglycanopathy cases. Despite multiple efforts using traditional positional cloning, the causative genes for unsolved dystroglycanopathy cases have escaped discovery for several years. In a recent collaborative study, we discovered that loss-of-function recessive mutations in a novel gene, called isoprenoid synthase domain containing (ISPD), are a relatively common cause of Walker-Warburg syndrome. In this article, we report the involvement of the ISPD gene in milder dystroglycanopathy phenotypes ranging from congenital muscular dystrophy to limb-girdle muscular dystrophy and identified allelic ISPD variants in nine cases belonging to seven families. In two ambulant cases, there was evidence of structural brain involvement, whereas in seven, the clinical manifestation was restricted to a dystrophic skeletal muscle phenotype. Although the function of ISPD in mammals is not yet known, mutations in this gene clearly lead to a reduction in the functional glycosylation of α-dystroglycan, which not only causes the severe Walker-Warburg syndrome but is also a common cause of the milder forms of dystroglycanopathy.

  13. Clinical study of DMD gene point mutation causing Becker muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-qing CAO

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background  DMD gene point mutation, mainly nonsense mutation, always cause the most severe Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. However, we also observed some cases of Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD carrying DMD point mutation. This paper aims to explore the mechanism of DMD point mutation causing BMD, in order to enhance the understanding of mutation types of BMD.  Methods  Sequence analysis was performed in 11 cases of BMD confirmed by typical clinical manifestations and muscle biopsy. The exon of DMD gene was detected non-deletion or duplication by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA.  Results  Eleven patients carried 10 mutation types without mutational hotspot. Six patients carried nonsense mutations [c.5002G>T, p.(Glu1668X; c.1615C > T, p.(Arg539X; c.7105G > T, p.(Glu2369X; c.5287C > T, p.(Arg1763X; c.9284T > G, p.(Leu3095X]. One patient carried missense mutation [c.5234G > A, p.(Arg1745His]. Two patients carried frameshift mutations (c.10231dupT, c.10491delC. Two patients carried splicing site mutations (c.4518 + 3A > T, c.649 + 2T > C.  Conclusions  DMD gene point mutation may result in BMD with mild clinical symptoms. When clinical manifestations suggest the possibility of BMD and MLPA reveals non?deletion or duplication mutation of DMD gene, BMD should be considered. Study on the mechanism of DMD point mutation causing BMD is very important for gene therapy of DMD. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.06.005

  14. First contiguous gene deletion causing biotinidase deficiency: The enzyme deficiency in three Sri Lankan children

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    Danika Nadeen Senanayake

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report three symptomatic children with profound biotinidase deficiency from Sri Lanka. All three children presented with typical clinical features of the disorder. The first is homozygous for a missense mutation in the BTD gene (c.98_104 del7insTCC; p.Cys33PhefsX36 that is commonly seen in the western countries, the second is homozygous for a novel missense mutation (p.Ala439Asp, and the third is the first reported instance of a contiguous gene deletion causing the enzyme deficiency. In addition, this latter finding exemplifies the importance of considering a deletion within the BTD gene for reconciling enzymatic activity with genotype, which can occur in asymptomatic children who are identified by newborn screening.

  15. Alpharetroviral Vectors: From a Cancer-Causing Agent to a Useful Tool for Human Gene Therapy

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    Julia D. Suerth

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy using integrating retroviral vectors has proven its effectiveness in several clinical trials for the treatment of inherited diseases and cancer. However, vector-mediated adverse events related to insertional mutagenesis were also observed, emphasizing the need for safer therapeutic vectors. Paradoxically, alpharetroviruses, originally discovered as cancer-causing agents, have a more random and potentially safer integration pattern compared to gammaretro- and lentiviruses. In this review, we provide a short overview of the history of alpharetroviruses and explain how they can be converted into state-of-the-art gene delivery tools with improved safety features. We discuss development of alpharetroviral vectors in compliance with regulatory requirements for clinical translation, and provide an outlook on possible future gene therapy applications. Taken together, this review is a broad overview of alpharetroviral vectors spanning the bridge from their parental virus discovery to their potential applicability in clinical settings.

  16. Hereditary juvenile cobalamin deficiency caused by mutations in the intrinsic factor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Stephan M; Li, Zhongyuan; Perko, James D; Oner, Cihan; Cetin, Mualla; Altay, Cigdem; Yurtsever, Zekiye; David, Karen L; Faivre, Laurence; Ismail, Essam A; Gräsbeck, Ralph; de la Chapelle, Albert

    2005-03-15

    Hereditary juvenile megaloblastic anemia due to vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency is caused by intestinal malabsorption of cobalamin. In Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome (IGS), cobalamin absorption is completely abolished and not corrected by the administration of intrinsic factor (IF); if untreated, the disease is fatal. Biallelic mutations either in the cubilin (CUBN) or amnionless (AMN) gene cause IGS. In a series of families clinically diagnosed with likely IGS, at least six displayed no evidence of mutations in CUBN or AMN. A genome-wide search for linkage followed by mutational analysis of candidate genes was performed in five of these families. A region in chromosome 11 showed evidence of linkage in four families. The gastric IF (GIF) gene located in this region harbored homozygous nonsense and missense mutations in these four families and in three additional families. The disease in these cases therefore should be classified as hereditary IF deficiency. Clinically, these patients resembled those with typical IGS; radiocobalamin absorption tests had been inconclusive regarding the nature of the defect. In the diagnosis of juvenile cobalamin deficiency, mutational analysis of the CUBN, AMN, and GIF genes provides a molecular characterization of the underlying defect and may be the diagnostic method of choice.

  17. Enhancing the prioritization of disease-causing genes through tissue specific protein interaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oded Magger

    Full Text Available The prioritization of candidate disease-causing genes is a fundamental challenge in the post-genomic era. Current state of the art methods exploit a protein-protein interaction (PPI network for this task. They are based on the observation that genes causing phenotypically-similar diseases tend to lie close to one another in a PPI network. However, to date, these methods have used a static picture of human PPIs, while diseases impact specific tissues in which the PPI networks may be dramatically different. Here, for the first time, we perform a large-scale assessment of the contribution of tissue-specific information to gene prioritization. By integrating tissue-specific gene expression data with PPI information, we construct tissue-specific PPI networks for 60 tissues and investigate their prioritization power. We find that tissue-specific PPI networks considerably improve the prioritization results compared to those obtained using a generic PPI network. Furthermore, they allow predicting novel disease-tissue associations, pointing to sub-clinical tissue effects that may escape early detection.

  18. Absence of functional TolC protein causes increased stress response gene expression in Sinorhizobium meliloti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Leonilde M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The TolC protein from Sinorhizobium meliloti has previously been demonstrated to be required for establishing successful biological nitrogen fixation symbiosis with Medicago sativa. It is also needed in protein and exopolysaccharide secretion and for protection against osmotic and oxidative stresses. Here, the transcriptional profile of free-living S. meliloti 1021 tolC mutant is described as a step toward understanding its role in the physiology of the cell. Results Comparison of tolC mutant and wild-type strains transcriptomes showed 1177 genes with significantly increased expression while 325 had significantly decreased expression levels. The genes with an increased expression suggest the activation of a cytoplasmic and extracytoplasmic stress responses possibly mediated by the sigma factor RpoH1 and protein homologues of the CpxRA two-component regulatory system of Enterobacteria, respectively. Stress conditions are probably caused by perturbation of the cell envelope. Consistent with gene expression data, biochemical analysis indicates that the tolC mutant suffers from oxidative stress. This is illustrated by the elevated enzyme activity levels detected for catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase. The observed increase in the expression of genes encoding products involved in central metabolism and transporters for nutrient uptake suggests a higher metabolic rate of the tolC mutant. We also demonstrated increased swarming motility in the tolC mutant strain. Absence of functional TolC caused decreased expression mainly of genes encoding products involved in nitrogen metabolism and transport. Conclusion This work shows how a mutation in the outer membrane protein TolC, common to many bacterial transport systems, affects expression of a large number of genes that act in concert to restore cell homeostasis. This finding further underlines the fundamental role of this protein in Sinorhizobium meliloti biology.

  19. Sudden infant death syndrome caused by cardiac arrhythmias: only a matter of genes encoding ion channels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarquella-Brugada, Georgia; Campuzano, Oscar; Cesar, Sergi; Iglesias, Anna; Fernandez, Anna; Brugada, Josep; Brugada, Ramon

    2016-03-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome is the unexpected demise of a child younger than 1 year of age which remains unexplained after a complete autopsy investigation. Usually, it occurs during sleep, in males, and during the first 12 weeks of life. The pathophysiological mechanism underlying the death is unknown, and the lethal episode is considered multifactorial. However, in cases without a conclusive post-mortem diagnosis, suspicious of cardiac arrhythmias may also be considered as a cause of death, especially in families suffering from any cardiac disease associated with sudden cardiac death. Here, we review current understanding of sudden infant death, focusing on genetic causes leading to lethal cardiac arrhythmias, considering both genes encoding ion channels as well as structural proteins due to recent association of channelopathies and desmosomal genes. We support a comprehensive analysis of all genes associated with sudden cardiac death in families suffering of infant death. It allows the identification of the most plausible cause of death but also of family members at risk, providing cardiologists with essential data to adopt therapeutic preventive measures in families affected with this lethal entity.

  20. Human case of bacteremia caused by Streptococcus canis sequence type 9 harboring the scm gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniyama, Daisuke; Abe, Yoshihiko; Sakai, Tetsuya; Kikuchi, Takahide; Takahashi, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus canis (Sc) is a zoonotic pathogen that is transferred mainly from companion animals to humans. One of the major virulence factors in Sc is the M-like protein encoded by the scm gene, which is involved in anti-phagocytic activities, as well as the recruitment of plasminogen to the bacterial surface in cooperation with enolase, and the consequent enhancement of bacterial transmigration and survival. This is the first reported human case of uncomplicated bacteremia following a dog bite, caused by Streptococcus canis harboring the scm gene. The similarity of the 16S rRNA from the infecting species to that of the Sc type strain, as well as the amplification of the species-specific cfg gene, encoding a co-hemolysin, was used to confirm the species identity. Furthermore, the isolate was confirmed as sequence type 9. The partial scm gene sequence harbored by the isolate was closely related to those of other two Sc strains. While this isolate did not possess the erm(A), erm(B), or mef(A), macrolide/lincosamide resistance genes, it was not susceptible to azithromycin: its susceptibility was intermediate. Even though human Sc bacteremia is rare, clinicians should be aware of this microorganism, as well as Pasteurella sp., Prevotella sp., and Capnocytophaga sp., when examining and treating patients with fever who maintain close contact with companion animals.

  1. Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy caused by a mutation in the GATOR1 complex gene NPRL3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenke, Georg-Christoph; Eggert, Marlene; Thiele, Holger; Nürnberg, Peter; Sander, Thomas; Steinlein, Ortrud K

    2016-03-01

    Mutations in NPRL3, one of three genes that encode proteins of the mTORC1-regulating GATOR1 complex, have recently been reported to cause cortical dysplasia with focal epilepsy. We have now analyzed a multiplex epilepsy family by whole exome sequencing and identified a frameshift mutation (NM_001077350.2; c.1522delG; p.E508Rfs*46) within exon 13 of NPRL3. This truncating mutation causes an epilepsy phenotype characterized by early childhood onset of mainly nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. The penetrance in our family was low (three affected out of six mutation carriers), compared to families with either ion channel- or DEPDC5-associated familial nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. The absence of apparent structural brain abnormalities suggests that mutations in NPRL3 are not necessarily associated with focal cortical dysplasia but might be able to cause epilepsy by different, yet unknown pathomechanisms.

  2. Familial Dilated Cardiomyopathy Caused by a Novel Frameshift in the BAG3 Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Toro

    Full Text Available Dilated cardiomyopathy, a major cause of chronic heart failure and cardiac transplantation, is characterized by left ventricular or biventricular heart dilatation. In nearly 50% of cases the pathology is inherited, and more than 60 genes have been reported as disease-causing. However, in 30% of familial cases the mutation remains unidentified even after comprehensive genetic analysis. This study clinically and genetically assessed a large Spanish family affected by dilated cardiomyopathy to search for novel variations.Our study included a total of 100 family members. Clinical assessment was performed in alive, and genetic analysis was also performed in alive and 1 deceased relative. Genetic screening included resequencing of 55 genes associated with sudden cardiac death, and Sanger sequencing of main disease-associated genes. Genetic analysis identified a frame-shift variation in BAG3 (p.H243Tfr*64 in 32 patients. Genotype-phenotype correlation identified substantial heterogeneity in disease expression. Of 32 genetic carriers (one deceased, 21 relatives were clinically affected, and 10 were asymptomatic. Seventeen of the symptomatic genetic carriers exhibited proto-diastolic septal knock by echocardiographic assessment.We report p.H243Tfr*64_BAG3 as a novel pathogenic variation responsible for familial dilated cardiomyopathy. This variation correlates with a more severe phenotype of the disease, mainly in younger individuals. Genetic analysis in families, even asymptomatic individuals, enables early identification of individuals at risk and allows implementation of preventive measures.

  3. A new mutation of the fukutin gene causing late-onset limb girdle muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riisager, M; Duno, M; Hansen, F Juul; Krag, T O; Vissing, C R; Vissing, J

    2013-07-01

    Defects in glycosylations of α-dystroglycan are associated with mutations in several genes, including the fukutin gene (FKTN). Hypoglycosylation of α-dystroglycan results in several forms of muscular dystrophy with variable phenotype. Outside Japan, the prevalence of muscular dystrophies related to aberrations of FKTN is rare, with only eight reported cases of limb girdle phenotype (LGMD2M). We describe the mildest affected patient outside Japan with genetically confirmed LGMD2M and onset of symptoms at age 14. She was brought to medical attention at age 12, not because of muscle weakness, but due to episodes of tachycardia caused by Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. On examination, she had rigid spine syndrome, a typical limb girdle dystrophy pattern of muscle weakness, cardiomyopathy, and serum CK levels >2000 IU/L (normal G; p.Y306C mutation in the FKTN gene was found. The case confirms FKTN mutations as a cause of LGMD2M without mental retardation and expands the phenotypic spectrum for LGMD2M to include cardiomyopathy and rigid spine syndrome in the mildest affected non-Japanese patient reported so far.

  4. Gonadal mosaicism in ARID1B gene causes intellectual disability and dysmorphic features in three siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Salem, Salma; Sobreira, Nara; Akawi, Nadia A; Al-Shamsi, Aisha M; John, Anne; Pramathan, Thachillath; Valle, David; Ali, Bassam R; Al-Gazali, Lihadh

    2016-01-01

    The gene encoding the AT-rich interaction domain-containing protein 1B (ARID1B) has recently been shown to be one of the most frequently mutated genes in patients with intellectual disability (ID). The phenotypic spectrums associated with variants in this gene vary widely ranging for mild to severe non-specific ID to Coffin-Siris syndrome. In this study, we evaluated three children from a consanguineous Emirati family affected with ID and dysmorphic features. Genomic DNA from all affected siblings was analyzed using CGH array and whole-exome sequencing (WES). Based on a recessive mode of inheritance, homozygous or compound heterozygous variants shared among all three affected children could not be identified. However, further analysis revealed a heterozygous variant (c.4318C>T; p.Q1440*) in the three affected children in an autosomal dominant ID causing gene, ARID1B. This variant was absent in peripheral blood samples obtained from both parents and unaffected siblings. Therefore, we propose that the most likely explanation for this situation is that one of the parents is a gonadal mosaic for the variant. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a gonadal mosaicism inheritance of an ARID1B variant leading to familial ID recurrence.

  5. MASA syndrome is caused by mutations in the neural cell adhesion gene, L1CAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, C.E.; Wang, Y.; Schroer, R.J.; Stevenson, R.E. [Greenwood Genetic Center, SC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The MASA syndrome is a recessive X-linked disorder characterized by Mental retardation, Adducted thumbs, Shuffling gait and Aphasia. Recently we found that MASA in one family was likely caused by a point mutation in exon 6 of the L1CAM gene. This gene has also been shown to be involved in X-linked hydrocephalus (HSAS). We have screened 60 patients with either sporadic HSAS or MASA as well as two additional families with MASA. For the screening, we initially utilized 3 cDNA probes for the L1CAM gene. In one of the MASA families, K8310, two affected males were found to have an altered BglII band. The band was present in their carrier mother but not in their normal brothers. This band was detected by the entire cDNA probe as well as the cDNA probe for 3{prime} end of the gene. Analysis of the L1CAM sequence indicated the altered BglII site is distal to the exon 28 but proximal to the punative poly A signal site. It is hypothesized that this point mutation alters the stability of the L1CAM mRNA. This is being tested using cell lines established from the two affected males.

  6. New mutations in MAPT gene causing frontotemporal lobar degeneration: biochemical and structural characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Giacomina; Bastone, Antonio; Piccoli, Elena; Mazzoleni, Giulia; Morbin, Michela; Uggetti, Andrea; Giaccone, Giorgio; Sperber, Sarah; Beeg, Marten; Salmona, Mario; Tagliavini, Fabrizio

    2012-04-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) can be sporadic or familial. The genes encoding the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) and progranulin (GRN) are the most relevant genes so far known causing the hereditary forms. Following genetic screening of patients affected by FTLD, we identified 2 new MAPT mutations, P364S and G366R, the former in a sporadic case. In the study we report the clinical and genetic features of the patients carrying these mutations, and the functional effects of the mutations, analyzed in vitro in order to investigate their pathogenic character. Both mutations resulted in reduced ability of tau to promote microtubule polymerization; the P364S protein variant also showed a high propensity to aggregate into filaments. These results suggest a high probability that these mutations are pathogenic. Our findings highlight the importance of genetic analysis also in sporadic forms of FTLD, and the role of in vitro studies to evaluate the pathologic features of new mutations.

  7. Fetal and neonatal exposure to the endocrine disruptor methoxychlor causes epigenetic alterations in adult ovarian genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zama, Aparna Mahakali; Uzumcu, Mehmet

    2009-10-01

    Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals during development could alter the epigenetic programming of the genome and result in adult-onset disease. Methoxychlor (MXC) and its metabolites possess estrogenic, antiestrogenic, and antiandrogenic activities. Previous studies showed that fetal/neonatal exposure to MXC caused adult ovarian dysfunction due to altered expression of key ovarian genes including estrogen receptor (ER)-beta, which was down-regulated, whereas ERalpha was unaffected. The objective of the current study was to evaluate changes in global and gene-specific methylation patterns in adult ovaries associated with the observed defects. Rats were exposed to MXC (20 microg/kgxd or 100 mg/kg.d) between embryonic d 19 and postnatal d 7. We performed DNA methylation analysis of the known promoters of ERalpha and ERbeta genes in postnatal d 50-60 ovaries using bisulfite sequencing and methylation-specific PCRs. Developmental exposure to MXC led to significant hypermethylation in the ERbeta promoter regions (P < 0.05), whereas the ERalpha promoter was unaffected. We assessed global DNA methylation changes using methylation-sensitive arbitrarily primed PCR and identified 10 genes that were hypermethylated in ovaries from exposed rats. To determine whether the MXC-induced methylation changes were associated with increased DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) levels, we measured the expression levels of Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b, and Dnmt3l using semiquantitative RT-PCR. Whereas Dnmt3a and Dnmt3l were unchanged, Dnmt3b expression was stimulated in ovaries of the 100 mg/kg MXC group (P < 0.05), suggesting that increased DNMT3B may cause DNA hypermethylation in the ovary. Overall, these data suggest that transient exposure to MXC during fetal and neonatal development affects adult ovarian function via altered methylation patterns.

  8. Mutations in c10orf11, a melanocyte-differentiation gene, cause autosomal-recessive albinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønskov, Karen; Dooley, Christopher M; Østergaard, Elsebet

    2013-01-01

    in an individual originating from Lithuania. Immunohistochemistry showed localization of C10orf11 in melanoblasts and melanocytes in human fetal tissue, but no localization was seen in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Knockdown of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) homolog with the use of morpholinos resulted...... in substantially decreased pigmentation and a reduction of the apparent number of pigmented melanocytes. The morphant phenotype was rescued by wild-type C10orf11, but not by mutant C10orf11. In conclusion, we have identified a melanocyte-differentiation gene, C10orf11, which when mutated causes autosomal...

  9. A new mutation of the fukutin gene causing late-onset limb girdle muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, Maria; Duno, M; Hansen, Flemming Juul;

    2013-01-01

    to aberrations of FKTN is rare, with only eight reported cases of limb girdle phenotype (LGMD2M). We describe the mildest affected patient outside Japan with genetically confirmed LGMD2M and onset of symptoms at age 14. She was brought to medical attention at age 12, not because of muscle weakness, but due...... to episodes of tachycardia caused by Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. On examination, she had rigid spine syndrome, a typical limb girdle dystrophy pattern of muscle weakness, cardiomyopathy, and serum CK levels >2000 IU/L (normal G; p.Y306C mutation in the FKTN gene was found. The case confirms FKTN mutations...

  10. Mutations in the DNA methyltransferase gene DNMT3A cause an overgrowth syndrome with intellectual disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatton-Brown, Katrina; Seal, Sheila; Ruark, Elise

    2014-01-01

    Overgrowth disorders are a heterogeneous group of conditions characterized by increased growth parameters and other variable clinical features such as intellectual disability and facial dysmorphism. To identify new causes of human overgrowth, we performed exome sequencing in ten proband...... and histone binding. Similar mutations were not present in 1,000 UK population controls (13/152 cases versus 0/1,000 controls; P ... methylation during embryogenesis and is commonly somatically mutated in acute myeloid leukemia. Thus, DNMT3A joins an emerging group of epigenetic DNA- and histone-modifying genes associated with both developmental growth disorders and hematological malignancies....

  11. Disrupted auto-regulation of the spliceosomal gene SNRPB causes cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Danielle C; Revil, Timothée; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy; Bhoj, Elizabeth J; Innes, A Micheil; Lamont, Ryan E; Lemire, Edmond G; Chodirker, Bernard N; Taylor, Juliet P; Zackai, Elaine H; McLeod, D Ross; Kirk, Edwin P; Hoover-Fong, Julie; Fleming, Leah; Savarirayan, Ravi; Majewski, Jacek; Jerome-Majewska, Loydie A; Parboosingh, Jillian S; Bernier, Francois P

    2014-07-22

    Elucidating the function of highly conserved regulatory sequences is a significant challenge in genomics today. Certain intragenic highly conserved elements have been associated with regulating levels of core components of the spliceosome and alternative splicing of downstream genes. Here we identify mutations in one such element, a regulatory alternative exon of SNRPB as the cause of cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome. This exon contains a premature termination codon that triggers nonsense-mediated mRNA decay when included in the transcript. These mutations cause increased inclusion of the alternative exon and decreased overall expression of SNRPB. We provide evidence for the functional importance of this conserved intragenic element in the regulation of alternative splicing and development, and suggest that the evolution of such a regulatory mechanism has contributed to the complexity of mammalian development.

  12. Tissue-specific expression of a splicing mutation in the IKBKAP gene causes familial dysautonomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaugenhaupt, S A; Blumenfeld, A; Gill, S P; Leyne, M; Mull, J; Cuajungco, M P; Liebert, C B; Chadwick, B; Idelson, M; Reznik, L; Robbins, C; Makalowska, I; Brownstein, M; Krappmann, D; Scheidereit, C; Maayan, C; Axelrod, F B; Gusella, J F

    2001-03-01

    Familial dysautonomia (FD; also known as "Riley-Day syndrome"), an Ashkenazi Jewish disorder, is the best known and most frequent of a group of congenital sensory neuropathies and is characterized by widespread sensory and variable autonomic dysfunction. Previously, we had mapped the FD gene, DYS, to a 0.5-cM region on chromosome 9q31 and had shown that the ethnic bias is due to a founder effect, with >99.5% of disease alleles sharing a common ancestral haplotype. To investigate the molecular basis of FD, we sequenced the minimal candidate region and cloned and characterized its five genes. One of these, IKBKAP, harbors two mutations that can cause FD. The major haplotype mutation is located in the donor splice site of intron 20. This mutation can result in skipping of exon 20 in the mRNA of patients with FD, although they continue to express varying levels of wild-type message in a tissue-specific manner. RNA isolated from lymphoblasts of patients is primarily wild-type, whereas only the deleted message is seen in RNA isolated from brain. The mutation associated with the minor haplotype in four patients is a missense (R696P) mutation in exon 19, which is predicted to disrupt a potential phosphorylation site. Our findings indicate that almost all cases of FD are caused by an unusual splice defect that displays tissue-specific expression; and they also provide the basis for rapid carrier screening in the Ashkenazi Jewish population.

  13. Some novel intron positions in conserved Drosophila genes are caused by intron sliding or tandem duplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stadler Peter F

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Positions of spliceosomal introns are often conserved between remotely related genes. Introns that reside in non-conserved positions are either novel or remnants of frequent losses of introns in some evolutionary lineages. A recent gain of such introns is difficult to prove. However, introns verified as novel are needed to evaluate contemporary processes of intron gain. Results We identified 25 unambiguous cases of novel intron positions in 31 Drosophila genes that exhibit near intron pairs (NIPs. Here, a NIP consists of an ancient and a novel intron position that are separated by less than 32 nt. Within a single gene, such closely-spaced introns are very unlikely to have coexisted. In most cases, therefore, the ancient intron position must have disappeared in favour of the novel one. A survey for NIPs among 12 Drosophila genomes identifies intron sliding (migration as one of the more frequent causes of novel intron positions. Other novel introns seem to have been gained by regional tandem duplications of coding sequences containing a proto-splice site. Conclusions Recent intron gains sometimes appear to have arisen by duplication of exonic sequences and subsequent intronization of one of the copies. Intron migration and exon duplication together may account for a significant amount of novel intron positions in conserved coding sequences.

  14. EPILEPSY CAUSED BY PCDH19 GENE MUTATION: A REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND THE AUTHORS’ OBSERVATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu. Mukhin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutation in the PCDH19 gene was first described by L.M. Dibbens et al. in 2008. Mutations in this gene are associated with epilepsy and mental retardation limited to females. The clinical manifestations that are observed in some patients with PCDH19 mutation and Dravet syndrome that is caused by mutation in the SCN1A gene include the onset of febrile and afebrile seizures in infancy, serial seizures during fever, and regression in development after the onset of seizures. Due to the fact that the two diseases have common clinical signs, it is best to test for PCDH19 mutation in patients with the clinical picture of Dravet syndrome and a negative test for SCN1A. In general, the number of scientific papers devoted to analysis and recommendations for the choice of therapy in patients with rare genetic pathology is small now. We analyzed the specific features of clinical signs and therapy in our two observed female patients aged 4 and 11 years with verified PCDH19 mutation. Both patients were noted to have severe epilepsy with febrile convulsions with the development of status epilepticus and to be unresponsive to antiepileptic therapy. The use of different antiepileptic drugs (valproate, oxcarbazepine, phenobarbital, topiramate, levetiracetam at different combinations failed to control the course of epilepsy in the 4-year-old patient whereas the 11-year-old patient who took a combination of valproic acid and benzodiazepines achieved a positive effect.

  15. A novel mutation in the AGXT gene causing primary hyperoxaluria type I: genotype–phenotype correlation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SAOUSSEN M’DIMEGH; CÉCILE AQUAVIVA- BOURDAIN; ASMA OMEZZINE; IBTIHEL M’BAREK; GENEVIÉVE SOUCHE; DORSAF ZELLAMA; KAMEL ABIDI; ABDELATTIF ACHOUR; TAHAR GARGAH; SAOUSSEN ABROUG; ALI BOUSLAMA

    2016-09-01

    Primary hyperoxaluria type I (PH1) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by inherited mutations in the AGXT gene encoding liver peroxisomal alanine : glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) which is deficient or mistargeted to mitochon-dria. PH1 shows considerable phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity. The incidence and severity of PH1 varies in different geographic regions. DNA samples of the affected members from two unrelated Tunisian families were tested by amplifying and sequencing each of the AGXT exons and intron–exon junctions. We identified a novel frameshift mutation in the AGXT gene, the c.406_410dupACTGC resulting in a truncated protein (p.Gln137Hisfs*19). It is found in homozygous state in two nonconsanguineous unrelated families from Tunisia. These molecular findings provide genotype/phenotype correlations in the intrafamilial phenotypic and permit accurate carrier detection, and prenatal diagnosis. The novel p.G ln137Hisfs*19 mutation detected in our study extend the spectrum of knownAGXT gene mutations in Tunisia.

  16. A partial gene deletion of SLC45A2 causes oculocutaneous albinism in Doberman pinscher dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paige A Winkler

    Full Text Available The first white Doberman pinscher (WDP dog was registered by the American Kennel Club in 1976. The novelty of the white coat color resulted in extensive line breeding of this dog and her offspring. The WDP phenotype closely resembles human oculocutaneous albinism (OCA and clinicians noticed a seemingly high prevalence of pigmented masses on these dogs. This study had three specific aims: (1 produce a detailed description of the ocular phenotype of WDPs, (2 objectively determine if an increased prevalence of ocular and cutaneous melanocytic tumors was present in WDPs, and (3 determine if a genetic mutation in any of the genes known to cause human OCA is causal for the WDP phenotype. WDPs have a consistent ocular phenotype of photophobia, hypopigmented adnexal structures, blue irides with a tan periphery and hypopigmented retinal pigment epithelium and choroid. WDPs have a higher prevalence of cutaneous melanocytic neoplasms compared with control standard color Doberman pinschers (SDPs; cutaneous tumors were noted in 12/20 WDP (5 years of age: 8/8 and 1/20 SDPs (p<0.00001. Using exclusion analysis, four OCA causative genes were investigated for their association with WDP phenotype; TYR, OCA2, TYRP1 and SLC45A2. SLC45A2 was found to be linked to the phenotype and gene sequencing revealed a 4,081 base pair deletion resulting in loss of the terminus of exon seven of SLC45A2 (chr4∶77,062,968-77,067,051. This mutation is highly likely to be the cause of the WDP phenotype and is supported by a lack of detectable SLC45A2 transcript levels by reverse transcriptase PCR. The WDP provides a valuable model for studying OCA4 visual disturbances and melanocytic neoplasms in a large animal model.

  17. Conditional ablation of the choroideremia gene causes age-related changes in mouse retinal pigment epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silène T Wavre-Shapton

    Full Text Available The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is a pigmented monolayer of cells lying between the photoreceptors and a layer of fenestrated capillaries, the choriocapillaris. Choroideremia (CHM is an X-linked progressive degeneration of these three layers caused by the loss of function of Rab Escort protein-1 (REP1. REP1 is involved in the prenylation of Rab proteins, key regulators of membrane trafficking. To study the pathological consequences of chronic disruption of membrane traffic in the RPE we used a cell type-specific knock-out mouse model of the disease, where the Chm/Rep1 gene is deleted only in pigmented cells (Chm(Flox, Tyr-Cre+. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM was used to quantitate the melanosome distribution in the RPE and immunofluorescent staining of rhodopsin was used to quantitate phagocytosed rod outer segments in retinal sections. The ultrastructure of the RPE and Bruch's membrane at different ages was characterised by TEM to analyse age-related changes occurring as a result of defects in membrane traffic pathways. Chm/Rep1 gene knockout in RPE cells resulted in reduced numbers of melanosomes in the apical processes and delayed phagosome degradation. In addition, the RPE accumulated pathological changes at 5-6 months of age similar to those observed in 2-year old controls. These included the intracellular accumulation of lipofuscin-containing deposits, disorganised basal infoldings and the extracellular accumulation of basal laminar and basal linear deposits. The phenotype of the Chm(Flox, Tyr-Cre+ mice suggests that loss of the Chm/Rep1 gene causes premature accumulation of features of aging in the RPE. Furthermore, the striking similarities between the present observations and some of the phenotypes reported in age-related macular degeneration (AMD suggest that membrane traffic defects may contribute to the pathogenesis of AMD.

  18. Genetic interactions between planar cell polarity genes cause diverse neural tube defects in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer N. Murdoch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs are among the commonest and most severe forms of developmental defect, characterized by disruption of the early embryonic events of central nervous system formation. NTDs have long been known to exhibit a strong genetic dependence, yet the identity of the genetic determinants remains largely undiscovered. Initiation of neural tube closure is disrupted in mice homozygous for mutations in planar cell polarity (PCP pathway genes, providing a strong link between NTDs and PCP signaling. Recently, missense gene variants have been identified in PCP genes in humans with NTDs, although the range of phenotypes is greater than in the mouse mutants. In addition, the sequence variants detected in affected humans are heterozygous, and can often be detected in unaffected individuals. It has been suggested that interactions between multiple heterozygous gene mutations cause the NTDs in humans. To determine the phenotypes produced in double heterozygotes, we bred mice with all three pairwise combinations of Vangl2Lp, ScribCrc and Celsr1Crsh mutations, the most intensively studied PCP mutants. The majority of double-mutant embryos had open NTDs, with the range of phenotypes including anencephaly and spina bifida, therefore reflecting the defects observed in humans. Strikingly, even on a uniform genetic background, variability in the penetrance and severity of the mutant phenotypes was observed between the different double-heterozygote combinations. Phenotypically, Celsr1Crsh;Vangl2Lp;ScribCrc triply heterozygous mutants were no more severe than doubly heterozygous or singly homozygous mutants. We propose that some of the variation between double-mutant phenotypes could be attributed to the nature of the protein disruption in each allele: whereas ScribCrc is a null mutant and produces no Scrib protein, Celsr1Crsh and Vangl2Lp homozygotes both express mutant proteins, consistent with dominant effects. The variable outcomes of these genetic

  19. Correlating gene expression with deformities caused by aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugiak, B.; Weber, L. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists in fish causes lethal disturbances in fish development, but the effects of acute AhR agonist exposure on the cardiovascular system and deformities remain unclear. This study addressed this issue by performing a series of experiments on zebrafish (Danio rerio). The authors hypothesized that genes needed for cardiovascular regulation (PTGS) would exhibit a stronger link to deformities than detoxification enzymes (CYPs). Zebrafish eggs were exposed aqueously until 4 days post-fertilization (dpf) to the AhR agonists benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzop-dioxin (TCDD) alone and in combination with the putative AhR antagonists resveratrol or alpha-naphthoflavone (ANF). Gene expression was measured using real-time, reverse transcriptase PCR in zebrafish at 5 and 10 dpf. Although the mortalities did not differ considerably among groups at 10 dpf, the deformities increased significantly after BaP-ANF at 5 dpf and after BaP at 10 dpf, but not after TCDD treatment. CYP and PTGS isozymes exhibited small, but statistically significant changes at 5 dpf. By 10 dpf, the expression returned to control values. In general, CYP1A and PTGS-1 expression at 5 dpf were positively correlated with deformities, while all other genes were negatively correlated with deformities. It was concluded that changes in CYP1A, CYP1C2, and PTGS-1 gene expression at 5 dpf are associated with developmental deformities, but additional work is needed to determine which has the most important mechanistic link.

  20. Genetic interactions between planar cell polarity genes cause diverse neural tube defects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Jennifer N; Damrau, Christine; Paudyal, Anju; Bogani, Debora; Wells, Sara; Greene, Nicholas D E; Stanier, Philip; Copp, Andrew J

    2014-10-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among the commonest and most severe forms of developmental defect, characterized by disruption of the early embryonic events of central nervous system formation. NTDs have long been known to exhibit a strong genetic dependence, yet the identity of the genetic determinants remains largely undiscovered. Initiation of neural tube closure is disrupted in mice homozygous for mutations in planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway genes, providing a strong link between NTDs and PCP signaling. Recently, missense gene variants have been identified in PCP genes in humans with NTDs, although the range of phenotypes is greater than in the mouse mutants. In addition, the sequence variants detected in affected humans are heterozygous, and can often be detected in unaffected individuals. It has been suggested that interactions between multiple heterozygous gene mutations cause the NTDs in humans. To determine the phenotypes produced in double heterozygotes, we bred mice with all three pairwise combinations of Vangl2(Lp), Scrib(Crc) and Celsr1(Crsh) mutations, the most intensively studied PCP mutants. The majority of double-mutant embryos had open NTDs, with the range of phenotypes including anencephaly and spina bifida, therefore reflecting the defects observed in humans. Strikingly, even on a uniform genetic background, variability in the penetrance and severity of the mutant phenotypes was observed between the different double-heterozygote combinations. Phenotypically, Celsr1(Crsh);Vangl2(Lp);Scrib(Crc) triply heterozygous mutants were no more severe than doubly heterozygous or singly homozygous mutants. We propose that some of the variation between double-mutant phenotypes could be attributed to the nature of the protein disruption in each allele: whereas Scrib(Crc) is a null mutant and produces no Scrib protein, Celsr1(Crsh) and Vangl2(Lp) homozygotes both express mutant proteins, consistent with dominant effects. The variable outcomes of these genetic

  1. Nucleos(t)ide analogues causes HBV S gene mutations and carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng-Lan Wang; Hong Tang

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The long-term use of nucleos(t)ide analogues causes drug resistance and mutations in the HBV reverse tran-scriptase (RT) region of the polymerase gene. The RT region overlaps the HBV surface gene (S gene) and therefore, the mutations in the RT region simultaneously modify S gene se-quence. Certain mutations in the RT region bring about trun-cated S proteins because the corresponding changed S gene en-codes a stop codon which results in the loss of a large portion of the C-terminal hydrophobic region of HBV surface protein. The rtA181T/sW172*, rtM204I/sW196* and rtV191I/sW182*are the most frequently reported drug-resistant mutations with C-terminal truncation, these mutations have oncogenic potential. DATA SOURCES: PubMed and Web of Science were searched using terms: “hepatitis B virus”, “HBV drug resistance muta-tion”, “HBV surface protein”, “HBV truncation”, “hepatocel-lular carcinoma”, “rtA181T/sW172*”, “rtM204I/sW196*”,“rtV191I/sW182*”, and relevant articles published in English in the past decades were reviewed. RESULTS: The rtA181T/sW172* and rtV191I/sW182* mu-tants occurred more frequently than the rtM204I/sW196* mu-tant both in chronic hepatitis B patients and the HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma tissues. Although these mutations occur naturally, nucleos(t)ide analogues therapy is the main driving force. These mutations may exist alone or coexist with other HBV mutations. All these three mutants impair the vi-rion secretion and result in HBV surface protein retention and serum HBV DNA level reduction. These mutations possess potential carcinogenic properties. The three mutations are re-sistant to more than one nucleos(t)ide analogue and therefore, it is dififcult to treat the patients with the truncated mutations. CONCLUSIONS: Nucleos(t)ide analogues induce drug resis-tance and HBV S gene truncated mutations. These mutations have potential carcinogenesis.

  2. Targeting Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling in Mouse Models of Cardiomyopathy Caused by Lamin A/C Gene Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchir, Antoine; Worman, Howard J

    2016-01-01

    The most frequently occurring mutations in the gene encoding nuclear lamin A and nuclear lamin C cause striated muscle diseases virtually always involving the heart. In this review, we describe the approaches and methods used to discover that cardiomyopathy-causing lamin A/C gene mutations increase MAP kinase signaling in the heart and that this plays a role in disease pathogenesis. We review different mouse models of cardiomyopathy caused by lamin A/C gene mutations and how transcriptomic analysis of one model identified increased cardiac activity of the ERK1/2, JNK, and p38α MAP kinases. We describe methods used to measure the activity of these MAP kinases in mouse hearts and then discuss preclinical treatment protocols using pharmacological inhibitors to demonstrate their role in pathogenesis. Several of these kinase inhibitors are in clinical development and could potentially be used to treat human subjects with cardiomyopathy caused by lamin A/C gene mutations.

  3. Protein causes hyperinsulinemia: a Chinese patient with hyperinsulinism/hyperammonaemia syndrome due to a glutamate dehydrogenase gene mutation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shi; XIAO Xin-hua; DIAO Cheng-ming; TONG An-li; WANG Ou; QIU Zheng-qing; YU Kang; WANG Tong

    2010-01-01

    @@ Glucose is derived from three sources: intestinal absorption, glycogenolysis, and gluconeogenesis. Hypoglycemia in child is often attributed to depletion of glycogen stores. However, recently, congenital hyperinsulinism becomes an important cause of hypoglycaemia in early infancy. Mutations in the genes encoding SUR1 and KIR6.2 are the most frequent genetic causes of hyperinsulinism followed by mutations in the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) gene which encodes hyperinsulinism/hyperammonaemia (HI/HA) syndrome.

  4. Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 4F disease caused by S399fsx410 mutation in the PRX gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabzinska, D; Drac, H; Sherman, D L; Kostera-Pruszczyk, A; Brophy, P J; Kochanski, A; Hausmanowa-Petrusewicz, I

    2006-03-14

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 4F disease (CMT4F) is an autosomal recessive neuropathy caused by mutations in the PRX gene. To date, only seven mutations have been identified in the PRX gene. In this study, the authors report a novel S399fsX410 mutation in the PRX gene and its effects at the protein level, which was identified in an 8-year-old patient with early-onset CMT disease.

  5. The Arabidopsis thaliana homeobox gene ATHB12 is involved in symptom development caused by geminivirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungan Park

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Geminiviruses are single-stranded DNA viruses that infect a number of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. Arabidopsis is susceptible to infection with the Curtovirus, Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV. Infection of Arabidopsis with BSCTV causes severe symptoms characterized by stunting, leaf curling, and the development of abnormal inflorescence and root structures. BSCTV-induced symptom development requires the virus-encoded C4 protein which is thought to interact with specific plant-host proteins and disrupt signaling pathways important for controlling cell division and development. Very little is known about the specific plant regulatory factors that participate in BSCTV-induced symptom development. This study was conducted to identify specific transcription factors that are induced by BSCTV infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Arabidopsis plants were inoculated with BSCTV and the induction of specific transcription factors was monitored using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. We found that the ATHB12 and ATHB7 genes, members of the homeodomain-leucine zipper family of transcription factors previously shown to be induced by abscisic acid and water stress, are induced in symptomatic tissues of Arabidopsis inoculated with BSCTV. ATHB12 expression is correlated with an array of morphological abnormalities including leaf curling, stunting, and callus-like structures in infected Arabidopsis. Inoculation of plants with a BSCTV mutant with a defective c4 gene failed to induce ATHB12. Transgenic plants expressing the BSCTV C4 gene exhibited increased ATHB12 expression whereas BSCTV-infected ATHB12 knock-down plants developed milder symptoms and had lower ATHB12 expression compared to the wild-type plants. Reporter gene studies demonstrated that the ATHB12 promoter was responsive to BSCTV infection and the highest expression levels were observed in symptomatic tissues where cell cycle genes also were

  6. Partial Gene Deletions of PMP22 Causing Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Mi Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP is an autosomal neuropathy that is commonly caused by a reciprocal 1.5 Mb deletion on chromosome 17p11.2, at the site of the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22 gene. Other patients with similar phenotypes have been shown to harbor point mutations or small deletions, although there is some clinical variation across these patients. In this report, we describe a case of HNPP with copy number changes in exon or promoter regions of PMP22. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe analysis revealed an exon 1b deletion in the patient, who had been diagnosed with HNPP in the first decade of life using molecular analysis.

  7. A human CCT5 gene mutation causing distal neuropathy impairs hexadecamer assembly in an archaeal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Wonki; Angileri, Francesca; Luo, Haibin; Lauria, Antonino; Shanmugasundaram, Maruda; Almerico, Anna Maria; Cappello, Francesco; de Macario, Everly Conway; Lednev, Igor K; Macario, Alberto J L; Robb, Frank T

    2014-10-27

    Chaperonins mediate protein folding in a cavity formed by multisubunit rings. The human CCT has eight non-identical subunits and the His147Arg mutation in one subunit, CCT5, causes neuropathy. Knowledge is scarce on the impact of this and other mutations upon the chaperone's structure and functions. To make progress, experimental models must be developed. We used an archaeal mutant homolog and demonstrated that the His147Arg mutant has impaired oligomeric assembly, ATPase activity, and defective protein homeostasis functions. These results establish for the first time that a human chaperonin gene defect can be reproduced and studied at the molecular level with an archaeal homolog. The major advantage of the system, consisting of rings with eight identical subunits, is that it amplifies the effects of a mutation as compared with the human counterpart, in which just one subunit per ring is defective. Therefore, the slight deficit of a non-lethal mutation can be detected and characterized.

  8. Mutational hot spot in the DSPP gene causing dentinogenesis imperfecta type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Wook; Hu, Jan C-C; Lee, Jae-Il; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Kim, Young-Jae; Jang, Ki-Taeg; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Chong-Chul; Hahn, Se-Hyun; Simmer, James P

    2005-02-01

    The current system for the classification of hereditary defects of tooth dentin is based upon clinical and radiographic findings and consists of two types of dentin dysplasia (DD) and three types of dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI). However, whether DGI type III should be considered a distinct phenotype or a variation of DGI type II is debatable. In the 30 years since the classification system was first proposed, significant advances have been made regarding the genetic etiologies of inherited dentin defects. DGI type II is recognized as an autosomal dominant disorder with almost complete penetrance and a low frequency of de novo mutations. We have identified a mutation (c.52G-->T, p.V18F) at the first nucleotide of exon 3 of the DSPP (dentin sialophosphoprotein) gene in a Korean family (de novo) and a Caucasian family. This mutation has previously been reported as causing DGI type II in a Chinese family. These findings suggest that this mutation site represents a mutational "hot spot" in the DSPP gene. The clinical and radiographic features of these two families include the classic phenotypes associated with both DGI type II and type III. Finding that a single mutation causes both phenotypic patterns strongly supports the conclusion that DGI type II and DGI type III are not separate diseases but rather the phenotypic variation of a single disease. We propose a modification of the current classification system such that the designation "hereditary opalescent dentin" or "DGI type II" should be used to describe both the DGI type II and type III phenotypes.

  9. Loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding filaggrin cause ichthyosis vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frances J D; Irvine, Alan D; Terron-Kwiatkowski, Ana; Sandilands, Aileen; Campbell, Linda E; Zhao, Yiwei; Liao, Haihui; Evans, Alan T; Goudie, David R; Lewis-Jones, Sue; Arseculeratne, Gehan; Munro, Colin S; Sergeant, Ann; O'Regan, Gráinne; Bale, Sherri J; Compton, John G; DiGiovanna, John J; Presland, Richard B; Fleckman, Philip; McLean, W H Irwin

    2006-03-01

    Ichthyosis vulgaris (OMIM 146700) is the most common inherited disorder of keratinization and one of the most frequent single-gene disorders in humans. The most widely cited incidence figure is 1 in 250 based on a survey of 6,051 healthy English schoolchildren. We have identified homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations R501X and 2282del4 in the gene encoding filaggrin (FLG) as the cause of moderate or severe ichthyosis vulgaris in 15 kindreds. In addition, these mutations are semidominant; heterozygotes show a very mild phenotype with incomplete penetrance. The mutations show a combined allele frequency of approximately 4% in populations of European ancestry, explaining the high incidence of ichthyosis vulgaris. Profilaggrin is the major protein of keratohyalin granules in the epidermis. During terminal differentiation, it is cleaved into multiple filaggrin peptides that aggregate keratin filaments. The resultant matrix is cross-linked to form a major component of the cornified cell envelope. We find that loss or reduction of this major structural protein leads to varying degrees of impaired keratinization.

  10. The R527H mutation in LMNA gene causes an increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Masi, Alessandra; D'Apice, Maria Rosaria; Ricordy, Ruggero; Tanzarella, Caterina; Novelli, Giuseppe

    2008-07-01

    Mandibuloacral dysplasia type A (MADA; OMIM # 248370) is a premature ageing disease caused by the homozygous R527H mutation in the LMNA gene. At the cellular level, MADA is characterized by unprocessed prelamin A accumulation, nuclear architecture alterations, chromatin defects and increased incidence of apoptosis. In some progeroid laminopathies (e.g., HGPS) it has been demonstrated that such biochemical and morphological alterations are strongly linked with genomic instability. To test this also in MADA fibroblasts, their response to the ionising radiation-induced damage was analysed. We observed that their ability to repair the damage was significantly impaired, as demonstrated by the increased chromosome damage and the higher percentage of residual gamma-H2AX foci, corresponding to unrepaired DNA-damage sites. Moreover, MADA fibroblasts showed a markedly reduced phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15(S15) and a lower induction of p53 and CDKN1A proteins after irradiation, compared to the control cell line. Upon irradiation, we also detected differences in the expression of some p53 downstream target genes. In addition, MADA cells showed partial defects in the checkpoint response, particularly in G(1)/S transition. Our results indicate that accumulation of the lamin A precursor protein determines a defect in DNA damage response after X-ray exposure, supporting a crucial role of lamin A in regulating DNA repair process and cell cycle control.

  11. A novel heterozygous deletion in the EVC2 gene causes Weyers acrofacial dysostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoqian; Song, Guangtai; Fan, Mingwen; Shi, Lisong; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Huang, Shangzhi; Guo, Ruiqiang; Bian, Zhuan

    2006-03-01

    Weyers acrofacial dysostosis (MIM 193530) is an autosomal dominant disorder clinically characterized by mild short stature, postaxial polydactyly, nail dystrophy and dysplastic teeth. Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EvC, MIM 225500) is an autosomal recessive disorder with a similar, but more severe phenotype. Mutations in the EVC have been identified in both syndromes. However, the EVC mutations only occur in a small proportion of EvC patients. Recently, mutations in a new gene, EVC2, were found to be associated with other EvC cases. The EVC and EVC2 are located close to each other in a head-to-head configuration and may be functionally related. In this study, we report identification of a novel heterozygous deletion in the EVC2 that is responsible for autosomal dominant Weyers acrofacial dysostosis in a large Chinese family. This constitutes the first report of Weyers acrofacial dysostosis caused by this gene. Hence, the spectrum of malformation syndromes due to EVC2 mutations is further extended. Our data provides conclusive evidence that Weyers acrofacial dysostosis and EvC syndrome are allelic and genetically heterogeneous conditions.

  12. A functional alternative splicing mutation in AIRE gene causes autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyu Zhang

    Full Text Available Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1 is a rare autosomal recessive disease defined by the presence of two of the three conditions: mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and Addison's disease. Loss-of-function mutations of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE gene have been linked to APS-1. Here we report mutational analysis and functional characterization of an AIRE mutation in a consanguineous Chinese family with APS-1. All exons of the AIRE gene and adjacent exon-intron sequences were amplified by PCR and subsequently sequenced. We identified a homozygous missense AIRE mutation c.463G>A (p.Gly155Ser in two siblings with different clinical features of APS-1. In silico splice-site prediction and minigene analysis were carried out to study the potential pathological consequence. Minigene splicing analysis and subsequent cDNA sequencing revealed that the AIRE mutation potentially compromised the recognition of the splice donor of intron 3, causing alternative pre-mRNA splicing by intron 3 retention. Furthermore, the aberrant AIRE transcript was identified in a heterozygous carrier of the c.463G>A mutation. The aberrant intron 3-retaining transcript generated a truncated protein (p.G155fsX203 containing the first 154 AIRE amino acids and followed by 48 aberrant amino acids. Therefore, our study represents the first functional characterization of the alternatively spliced AIRE mutation that may explain the pathogenetic role in APS-1.

  13. Mutations in c10orf11, a melanocyte-differentiation gene, cause autosomal-recessive albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønskov, Karen; Dooley, Christopher M; Østergaard, Elsebet; Kelsh, Robert N; Hansen, Lars; Levesque, Mitchell P; Vilhelmsen, Kaj; Møllgård, Kjeld; Stemple, Derek L; Rosenberg, Thomas

    2013-03-07

    Autosomal-recessive albinism is a hypopigmentation disorder with a broad phenotypic range. A substantial fraction of individuals with albinism remain genetically unresolved, and it has been hypothesized that more genes are to be identified. By using homozygosity mapping of an inbred Faroese family, we identified a 3.5 Mb homozygous region (10q22.2-q22.3) on chromosome 10. The region contains five protein-coding genes, and sequencing of one of these, C10orf11, revealed a nonsense mutation that segregated with the disease and showed a recessive inheritance pattern. Investigation of additional albinism-affected individuals from the Faroe Islands revealed that five out of eight unrelated affected persons had the nonsense mutation in C10orf11. Screening of a cohort of autosomal-recessive-albinism-affected individuals residing in Denmark showed a homozygous 1 bp duplication in C10orf11 in an individual originating from Lithuania. Immunohistochemistry showed localization of C10orf11 in melanoblasts and melanocytes in human fetal tissue, but no localization was seen in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Knockdown of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) homolog with the use of morpholinos resulted in substantially decreased pigmentation and a reduction of the apparent number of pigmented melanocytes. The morphant phenotype was rescued by wild-type C10orf11, but not by mutant C10orf11. In conclusion, we have identified a melanocyte-differentiation gene, C10orf11, which when mutated causes autosomal-recessive albinism in humans.

  14. Familial glucocorticoid resistance caused by a splice site deletion in the human glucocorticoid receptor gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl, M.; Lamberts, S.W.J.; Detera-Wadleigh, S.D.; Encio, I.J.; Stratakis, C.A.; Hurley, D.M.; Accili, D.; Chrousos, G.P. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States) Erasmus Univ. of Rotterdam (Netherlands))

    1993-03-01

    The clinical syndrome of generalized, compensated glucocorticoid resistance is characterized by increased cortisol secretion without clinical evidence of hyper- or hypocortisolism, and manifestations of androgen and/or mineralocorticoid excess. This condition results from partial failure of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to modulate transcription of its target genes. The authors studied the molecular mechanisms of this syndrome in a Dutch kindred, whose affected members had hypercortisolism and approximately half of normal GRs, and whose proband was a young woman with manifestations of hyperandrogenism. Using the polymerase chain reaction to amplify and sequence each of the nine exons of the GR gene [alpha], along with their 5[prime]- and 3[prime]-flanking regions, the authors identified a 4-base deletion at the 3[prime]-boundary of exon 6 in one GR allele ([Delta][sub 4]), which removed a donor splice site in all three affected members studied. In contrast, the sequence of exon 6 in the two unaffected siblings was normal. A single nucleotide substitution causing an amino acid substitution in the amino terminal domain of the GR (asparagine to serine, codon 363) was also discovered in exon 2 of the other allele (G[sub 1220]) in the proband, in one of her affected brothers and in her unaffected sister. This deletion in the glucocorticoid receptor gene was associated with the expression of only one allele and a decrease of GR protein by 50% in affected members of this glucocorticoid resistant family. The mutation identified in exon 2 did not segregate with the disease and appears to be of no functional significance. The presence of the null allele was apparently compensated for by increased cortisol production at the expense of concurrent hyperandrogenism. 40 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Mutations in the SPG7 gene cause chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia through disordered mitochondrial DNA maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Gerald; Gorman, Gráinne S; Griffin, Helen; Kurzawa-Akanbi, Marzena; Blakely, Emma L; Wilson, Ian; Sitarz, Kamil; Moore, David; Murphy, Julie L; Alston, Charlotte L; Pyle, Angela; Coxhead, Jon; Payne, Brendan; Gorrie, George H; Longman, Cheryl; Hadjivassiliou, Marios; McConville, John; Dick, David; Imam, Ibrahim; Hilton, David; Norwood, Fiona; Baker, Mark R; Jaiser, Stephan R; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick; Farrell, Michael; McCarthy, Allan; Lynch, Timothy; McFarland, Robert; Schaefer, Andrew M; Turnbull, Douglass M; Horvath, Rita; Taylor, Robert W; Chinnery, Patrick F

    2014-05-01

    Despite being a canonical presenting feature of mitochondrial disease, the genetic basis of progressive external ophthalmoplegia remains unknown in a large proportion of patients. Here we show that mutations in SPG7 are a novel cause of progressive external ophthalmoplegia associated with multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions. After excluding known causes, whole exome sequencing, targeted Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis were used to study 68 adult patients with progressive external ophthalmoplegia either with or without multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions in skeletal muscle. Nine patients (eight probands) were found to carry compound heterozygous SPG7 mutations, including three novel mutations: two missense mutations c.2221G>A; p.(Glu741Lys), c.2224G>A; p.(Asp742Asn), a truncating mutation c.861dupT; p.Asn288*, and seven previously reported mutations. We identified a further six patients with single heterozygous mutations in SPG7, including two further novel mutations: c.184-3C>T (predicted to remove a splice site before exon 2) and c.1067C>T; p.(Thr356Met). The clinical phenotype typically developed in mid-adult life with either progressive external ophthalmoplegia/ptosis and spastic ataxia, or a progressive ataxic disorder. Dysphagia and proximal myopathy were common, but urinary symptoms were rare, despite the spasticity. Functional studies included transcript analysis, proteomics, mitochondrial network analysis, single fibre mitochondrial DNA analysis and deep re-sequencing of mitochondrial DNA. SPG7 mutations caused increased mitochondrial biogenesis in patient muscle, and mitochondrial fusion in patient fibroblasts associated with the clonal expansion of mitochondrial DNA mutations. In conclusion, the SPG7 gene should be screened in patients in whom a disorder of mitochondrial DNA maintenance is suspected when spastic ataxia is prominent. The complex neurological phenotype is likely a result of the clonal

  16. Mutations in the MORC2 gene cause axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla, Teresa; Lupo, Vincenzo; Martínez-Rubio, Dolores; Sancho, Paula; Sivera, Rafael; Chumillas, María J; García-Romero, Mar; Pascual-Pascual, Samuel I; Muelas, Nuria; Dopazo, Joaquín; Vílchez, Juan J; Palau, Francesc; Espinós, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a complex disorder with wide genetic heterogeneity. Here we present a new axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease form, associated with the gene microrchidia family CW-type zinc finger 2 (MORC2). Whole-exome sequencing in a family with autosomal dominant segregation identified the novel MORC2 p.R190W change in four patients. Further mutational screening in our axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease clinical series detected two additional sporadic cases, one patient who also carried the same MORC2 p.R190W mutation and another patient that harboured a MORC2 p.S25L mutation. Genetic and in silico studies strongly supported the pathogenicity of these sequence variants. The phenotype was variable and included patients with congenital or infantile onset, as well as others whose symptoms started in the second decade. The patients with early onset developed a spinal muscular atrophy-like picture, whereas in the later onset cases, the initial symptoms were cramps, distal weakness and sensory impairment. Weakness and atrophy progressed in a random and asymmetric fashion and involved limb girdle muscles, leading to a severe incapacity in adulthood. Sensory loss was always prominent and proportional to disease severity. Electrophysiological studies were consistent with an asymmetric axonal motor and sensory neuropathy, while fasciculations and myokymia were recorded rather frequently by needle electromyography. Sural nerve biopsy revealed pronounced multifocal depletion of myelinated fibres with some regenerative clusters and occasional small onion bulbs. Morc2 is expressed in both axons and Schwann cells of mouse peripheral nerve. Different roles in biological processes have been described for MORC2. As the silencing of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease genes have been associated with DNA damage response, it is tempting to speculate that a deregulation of this pathway may be linked to the axonal degeneration observed in MORC2 neuropathy, thus adding a

  17. Mutation of the iron-sulfur cluster assembly gene IBA57 causes fatal infantile leukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debray, François-Guillaume; Stümpfig, Claudia; Vanlander, Arnaud V; Dideberg, Vinciane; Josse, Claire; Caberg, Jean-Hubert; Boemer, François; Bours, Vincent; Stevens, René; Seneca, Sara; Smet, Joél; Lill, Roland; van Coster, Rudy

    2015-11-01

    Leukodystrophies are a heterogeneous group of severe genetic neurodegenerative disorders. A multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome was found in an infant presenting with a progressive leukoencephalopathy. Homozygosity mapping, whole exome sequencing, and functional studies were used to define the underlying molecular defect. Respiratory chain studies in skeletal muscle isolated from the proband revealed a combined deficiency of complexes I and II. In addition, western blotting indicated lack of protein lipoylation. The combination of these findings was suggestive for a defect in the iron-sulfur (Fe/S) protein assembly pathway. SNP array identified loss of heterozygosity in large chromosomal regions, covering the NFU1 and BOLA3, and the IBA57 and ABCB10 candidate genes, in 2p15-p11.2 and 1q31.1-q42.13, respectively. A homozygous c.436C > T (p.Arg146Trp) variant was detected in IBA57 using whole exome sequencing. Complementation studies in a HeLa cell line depleted for IBA57 showed that the mutant protein with the semi-conservative amino acid exchange was unable to restore the biochemical phenotype indicating a loss-of-function mutation of IBA57. In conclusion, defects in the Fe/S protein assembly gene IBA57 can cause autosomal recessive neurodegeneration associated with progressive leukodystrophy and fatal outcome at young age. In the affected patient, the biochemical phenotype was characterized by a defect in the respiratory chain complexes I and II and a decrease in mitochondrial protein lipoylation, both resulting from impaired assembly of Fe/S clusters.

  18. A novel splice acceptor mutation in the DSPP gene causing dentinogenesis imperfecta type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J W; Nam, S H; Jang, K T; Lee, S H; Kim, C C; Hahn, S H; Hu, J C C; Simmer, J P

    2004-08-01

    The dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) gene (4q21.3) encodes two major noncollagenous dentin matrix proteins: dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and dentin phosphoprotein (DPP). Defects in the human gene encoding DSPP cause inherited dentin defects, and these defects can be associated with bilateral progressive high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss. Clinically, five different patterns of inherited dentin defects are distinguished and are classified as dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI) types I, II, and III, and dentin dysplasia types I and II. The genetic basis for this clinical heterogeneity is unknown. Among the 11 members recruited from the studied kindred, five were affected with autosomal dominant DGI type II. The mutation (g.1188C-->G, IVS2-3C-->G) lay in the third from the last nucleotide of intron 2 and changed its sequence from CAG to GAG. The mutation was correlated with the affection status and was absent in 104 unaffected individuals (208 alleles) with the same ethnic and geological background. The proband was in the primary dentition stage and presented with multiple pulp exposures. The occlusal surface of his dental enamel was generally abraded, and the dentin was heavily worn and uniformly shaded brown. The dental pulp chambers appeared originally to be within normal limits without any sign of obliteration, but over time (by age 4), the pulp chambers became partially or completely obliterated. The oldest affected member (age 59) showed mild hearing loss at high-frequency (8 kHz). Permanent dentition was severely affected in the adults, who had advanced dental attrition, premature loss of teeth, and extensive dental reconstruction.

  19. Reduced expression of the ATRX gene, a chromatin-remodeling factor, causes hippocampal dysfunction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, Tatsuya; Beppu, Hideyuki; Tokoro, Takashi; Moriguchi, Shigeki; Shioda, Norifumi; Fukunaga, Kohji; Ohtsuka, Toshihisa; Ishii, Yoko; Sasahara, Masakiyo; Shimada, Yutaka; Nishijo, Hisao; Li, En; Kitajima, Isao

    2011-06-01

    Mutations of the ATRX gene, which encodes an ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling factor, were identified in patients with α-thalassemia X-linked mental retardation (ATR-X) syndrome. There is a milder variant of ATR-X syndrome caused by mutations in the Exon 2 of the gene. To examine the impact of the Exon 2 mutation on neuronal development, we generated ATRX mutant (ATRX(ΔE2)) mice. Truncated ATRX protein was produced from the ATRX(ΔE2) mutant allele with reduced expression level. The ATRX(ΔE2) mice survived and reproduced normally. There was no significant difference in Morris water maze test between wild-type and ATRX(ΔE2) mice. In a contextual fear conditioning test, however, total freezing time was decreased in ATRX(ΔE2) mice compared to wild-type mice, suggesting that ATRX(ΔE2) mice have impaired contextual fear memory. ATRX(ΔE2) mice showed significantly reduced long-term potentiation in the hippocampal CA1 region evoked by high-frequency stimulation. Moreover, autophosphorylation of calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase II (αCaMKII) and phosphorylation of glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA 1 (GluR1) were decreased in the hippocampi of the ATRX(ΔE2) mice compared to wild-type mice. These findings suggest that ATRX(ΔE2) mice may have fear-associated learning impairment with the dysfunction of αCaMKII and GluR1. The ATRX(ΔE2) mice would be useful tools to investigate the role of the chromatin-remodeling factor in the pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors and learning impairment.

  20. The upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase -2 and -9 genes caused by resistin in human chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kürşat Oğuz Yaykaşlı

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available  OBJECTIVES: The articular cartilage allows movement by absorbing mechanical loading within a physiological range. However, the accumulation of excessive adipose tissue has catabolic effect on extracellular matrix (ECM components in some diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA and osteoarthritis (OA. Resistin, inflammatory adipokines is secreted by adipose tissue, and the elevated serum level was reported in obese subjects and patients with RA and OA. Gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9, a subfamily of matrix metalloproteinases are responsible for destruction of collagen and matrix components. In this study, the effect of resistin on gelatinases genes expression was investigated. METHODS: Human chondrocytes was stimulated by resistin at 100 and 250 ng/ml doses for 3h, 6h, 12h, 24h and 48h. 2 µg RNA was subject to reverse transcription after RNA extraction. Gelatinases expressions were analyzed by quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction method. RESULTS: The expression levels of gelatinases were increased at both 100 and 250 ng/mL and peaked at 250 ng/ml dose for 48 hours. CONCLUSIONS: The clarification of etiology for irreversible destruction of ECM has a vital importance to develop new treatment strategies for RA and OA. In conclusion, increased levels of gelatinases expression caused by resistin were founded. The upregulation of gelatinases caused by resistin is might be a new target for obesity associated patients with RA and OA. However, the molecular pathways of this induction should be investigated in other studies. 

  1. Idiopathic neonatal necrotising fasciitis caused by community-acquired MSSA encoding Panton Valentine Leukocidin genes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dunlop, Rebecca L E

    2012-02-01

    Neonatal necrotising fasciitis is very rare in comparison to the adult presentation of the disease and a Plastic Surgeon may only encounter one such case during his or her career. Often this is initially misdiagnosed and managed as simple cellulitis. It generally affects previously healthy babies, the site is often the lower back area and a history of minor skin trauma may be elicited. The causative organism is usually Streptococcus or polymicrobial, as is the case in the adult population. We present the case of a previously healthy 11-day-old infant with idiopathic, rapidly progressive necrotising fasciitis of the back, cause by Methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infection. The strain was isolated and found to encode the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin genes, which have been associated with particularly severe necrotising infections in other sites, with high mortality. These strains are the subject of specific treatment and eradication guidance in the UK but awareness of this and the importance of obtaining detailed culture typing is likely to be low amongst Plastic Surgeons.

  2. Evidence that Natural Selection is the Primary Cause of the Guanine-cytosine Content Variation in Rice Genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoli Shi; Xiyin Wang; Zhe Li; Qihui Zhu; Ji Yang; Song Ge; Jingchu Luo

    2007-01-01

    Cereal genes are classified into two distinct classes according to the guanine-cytosine (GC) content at the third codon sites (GC3). Natural selection and mutation bias have been proposed to affect the GC content. However, there has been controversy about the cause of GC variation. Here, we characterized the GC content of 1 092 paralogs and other single-copy genes in the duplicated chromosomal regions of the rice genome (ssp. indica) and classified the paralogs into GC3-rich and GC3-poor groups. By referring to out-group sequences from Arabidopsis and maize, we confirmed that the average synonymous substitution rate of the GC3-rich genes is significantly lower than that of the GC3-poor genes. Furthermore,we explored the other possible factors corresponding to the GC variation including the length of coding sequences, the number of exons in each gene, the number of genes in each family, the location of genes on chromosomes and the protein functions. Consequently, we propose that natural selection rather than mutation bias was the primary cause of the GC variation.

  3. Mutations in the glucose-6-phosphatase gene that cause glycogen storage disease type 1a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, J.Y.; Lei, K.J.; Shelly, L.L. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Glycogen storage disease (GSD) type la (von Gierke disease) is caused by the deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), the key enzyme in glucose homeostasis. The disease presents with clinical manifestations of severe hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly, growth retardation, lactic acidemia, hyperlipidemia, and hyperuricemia. We have succeeded in isolating a murine G6Pase cDNA from a normal mouse liver cDNA library by differentially screening method. We then isolated the human G6Pase cDNA and gene. To date, we have characterized the G6Pase genes of twelve GSD type la patients and uncovered a total of six different mutations. The mutations are comprised of R83C (an Arg at codon 83 to a Cys), Q347X (a Gly at codon 347 to a stop codon), 459insTA (a two basepair insertion at nucleotide 459 yielding a truncated G6Pase of 129 residues), R295C (an Arg at codon 295 to a Cys), G222R (a Gly at codon 222 to an Arg) and {delta}F327 (a codon deletion for Phe-327 at nucleotides 1058 to 1060). The relative incidences of these mutations are 37.5% (R83C), 33.3% (Q347X), 16.6% (459insTA), 4.2% (G222R), 4.2% (R295C) and 4.2% ({delta}F327). Site-directed mutagenesis and transient expression assays demonstrated that the R83C, Q347X, R295C, and {delta}F327 mutations abolished whereas the G222R mutation greatly reduced G6Pase activity. We further characterized the structure-function requirements of amino acids 83, 222, and 295 in G6Pase catalysis. The identification of mutations in GSD type la patients has unequivocally established the molecular basis of the type la disorder. Knowledge of the mutations may be applied to prenatal diagnosis and opens the way for developing and evaluating new therapeutic approaches.

  4. Developmental Deltamethrin Exposure Causes Persistent Changes in Dopaminergic Gene Expression, Neurochemistry, and Locomotor Activity in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Tiffany S; Richardson, Jason R; Cooper, Keith R; White, Lori A

    2015-08-01

    Pyrethroids are commonly used insecticides that are considered to pose little risk to human health. However, there is an increasing concern that children are more susceptible to the adverse effects of pesticides. We used the zebrafish model to test the hypothesis that developmental exposure to low doses of the pyrethroid deltamethrin results in persistent alterations in dopaminergic gene expression, neurochemistry, and locomotor activity. Zebrafish embryos were treated with deltamethrin (0.25-0.50 μg/l), at concentrations below the LOAEL, during the embryonic period [3-72 h postfertilization (hpf)], after which transferred to fresh water until the larval stage (2-weeks postfertilization). Deltamethrin exposure resulted in decreased transcript levels of the D1 dopamine (DA) receptor (drd1) and increased levels of tyrosine hydroxylase at 72 hpf. The reduction in drd1 transcripts persisted to the larval stage and was associated with decreased D2 dopamine receptor transcripts. Larval fish, exposed developmentally to deltamethrin, had increased levels of homovanillic acid, a DA metabolite. Since the DA system is involved in locomotor activity, we measured the swim activity of larval fish following a transition to darkness. Developmental exposure to deltamethrin significantly increased larval swim activity which was attenuated by concomitant knockdown of the DA transporter. Acute exposure to methylphenidate, a DA transporter inhibitor, increased swim activity in control larva, while reducing swim activity in larva developmentally exposed to deltamethrin. Developmental exposure to deltamethrin causes locomotor deficits in larval zebrafish, which is likely mediated by dopaminergic dysfunction. This highlights the need to understand the persistent effects of low-dose neurotoxicant exposure during development.

  5. A novel gene amplification causes upregulation of the PatAB ABC transporter and fluoroquinolone resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylay, Alison J; Ivens, Alasdair; Piddock, Laura J V

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of the ABC transporter genes patA and patB confers efflux-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae and is also linked to pneumococcal stress responses. Although upregulation of patAB has been observed in many laboratory mutants and clinical isolates, the regulatory mechanisms controlling expression of these genes are unknown. In this study, we aimed to identify the cause of high-level constitutive overexpression of patAB in M184, a multidrug-resistant mutant of S. pneumoniae R6. Using a whole-genome transformation and sequencing approach, we identified a novel duplication of a 9.2-kb region of the M184 genome which included the patAB genes. This duplication did not affect growth and was semistable with a low segregation rate. The expression levels of patAB in M184 were much higher than those that could be fully explained by doubling of the gene dosage alone, and inactivation of the first copy of patA had no effect on multidrug resistance. Using a green fluorescent protein reporter system, increased patAB expression was ascribed to transcriptional read-through from a tRNA gene upstream of the second copy of patAB. This is the first report of a large genomic duplication causing antibiotic resistance in S. pneumoniae and also of a genomic duplication causing antibiotic resistance by a promoter switching mechanism.

  6. Ogura-CMS in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) causes delayed expression of many nuclear genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiangshu; Kim, Wan Kyu; Lim, Yong-Pyo; Kim, Yeon-Ki; Hur, Yoonkang

    2013-02-01

    We investigated the mechanism regulating cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis using floral bud transcriptome analyses of Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage and its maintainer line in B. rapa 300-K oligomeric probe (Br300K) microarrays. Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage produced few and infertile pollen grains on indehiscent anthers. Compared to the maintainer line, CMS plants had shorter filaments and plant growth, and delayed flowering and pollen development. In microarray analysis, 4646 genes showed different expression, depending on floral bud size, between Ogura-CMS and its maintainer line. We found 108 and 62 genes specifically expressed in Ogura-CMS and its maintainer line, respectively. Ogura-CMS line-specific genes included stress-related, redox-related, and B. rapa novel genes. In the maintainer line, genes related to pollen coat and germination were specifically expressed in floral buds longer than 3mm, suggesting insufficient expression of these genes in Ogura-CMS is directly related to dysfunctional pollen. In addition, many nuclear genes associated with auxin response, ATP synthesis, pollen development and stress response had delayed expression in Ogura-CMS plants compared to the maintainer line, which is consistent with the delay in growth and development of Ogura-CMS plants. Delayed expression may reduce pollen grain production and/or cause sterility, implying that mitochondrial, retrograde signaling delays nuclear gene expression.

  7. A Novel Mutation in the EDAR Gene Causes Severe Autosomal Recessive Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Emil; Svendsen, Mathias Tiedemann; Lildballe, D. L.;

    2014-01-01

    nasal discharge. The girl was the second born child of first-cousin immigrants from Northern Iraq. A novel homozygous mutation (c.84delC) in the EDAR gene was identified. This mutation most likely causes a frameshift in the protein product (p.S29fs*74). This results in abolition of all ectodysplasin...

  8. NK cells are intrinsically functional in pigs with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) caused by spontaneous mutations in the Artemis gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have identified Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) in a line of Yorkshire pigs at Iowa State University. These SCID pigs lack B-cells and T-cells, but possess Natural Killer (NK) cells. This SCID phenotype is caused by recessive mutations in the Artemis gene. Interestingly, two human tumor c...

  9. Campylobacter jejuni, an uncommon cause of splenic abscess diagnosed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Piseth; Quenard, Fanny; Menard, Amélie; Heyries, Laurent; Stein, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    Splenic abscess is a rare disease that primarily occurs in patients with splenic trauma, endocarditis, sickle cell anemia, or other diseases that compromise the immune system. This report describes a culture-negative splenic abscess in an immunocompetent patient caused by Campylobacter jejuni, as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

  10. A Nonsense Mutation in the Acid α-Glucosidase Gene Causes Pompe Disease in Finnish and Swedish Lapphunds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H. Seppälä (Eija); A.J.J. Reuser (Arnold); H. Lohi (Hannes)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPompe disease is a recessively inherited and often fatal disorder caused by the deficiency of acid α-glucosidase, an enzyme encoded by the GAA gene and needed to break down glycogen in lysosomes. This glycogen storage disease type II has been reported also in Swedish Lapphund dogs. Here

  11. Mutations in two nonhomologous genes in a head-to-head configuration cause Ellis-van Creveld syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Perez, V.L.; Tompson, S.W.; Blair, H.J.; Espinoza-Valdez, C.; Lapunzina, P.; Silva, E.O.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Gibbs, J.L.; Young, I.D.; Wright, M.J.; Goodship, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EvC) is an autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia. Elsewhere, we described mutations in EVC in patients with this condition (Ruiz-Perez et al. 2000). We now report that mutations in EVC2 also cause EvC. These two genes lie in a head-to-head configuration that is conserved

  12. Identification of a gene causing human cytochrome c oxidase deficiency by integrative genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mootha, Vamsi K; Lepage, Pierre; Miller, Kathleen;

    2003-01-01

    Identifying the genes responsible for human diseases requires combining information about gene position with clues about biological function. The recent availability of whole-genome data sets of RNA and protein expression provides powerful new sources of functional insight. Here we illustrate how...

  13. Partial duplications of the ATRX gene cause the ATR-X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thienpont, Bernard; de Ravel, Thomy; Van Esch, Hilde; Van Schoubroeck, Dominique; Moerman, Philippe; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Froyen, Guy; Lacoste, Caroline; Badens, Catherine; Devriendt, Koen

    2007-10-01

    ATR-X syndrome is a rare syndromic X-linked mental retardation disorder. We report that some of the patients suspected of ATR-X carry large intragenic duplications in the ATRX gene, leading to an absence of ATRX mRNA and of the protein. These findings underscore the need for including quantitative analyses to mutation analysis of the ATRX gene.

  14. A novel mutation in the ADA gene causing severe combined immunodeficiency in an Arab patient: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellani Ali

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction About 20% of the cases of human severe combined immunodeficiency are the result of the child being homozygous for defective genes encoding the enzyme adenosine deaminase. To our knowledge, the mutation pattern in Arab patients with severe combined immunodeficiency has never been reported previously. Case presentation A 14-month-old Arab boy had clinical features typical of severe combined immunodeficiency. His clinical picture and flow cytometric analysis raised the diagnosis of adenosine deaminase deficiency and prompted us to screen the adenosine deaminase gene for mutation(s. We detected a novel mutation in exon 9 of the adenosine deaminase gene (p.Arg282>Gln, which we believe is the cause of the severe combined immunodeficiency phenotype observed in our patient. Conclusion This is the first report of adenosine deaminase mutation in an Arab patient with severe combined immunodeficiency due to a novel pathogenic mutation in the adenosine deaminase gene.

  15. [Current Status of Genetic Diagnosis of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease: Variety of the Disease-causing Genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Akihiro; Higuchi, Yujiro; Takashima, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    At least 40 genes have been associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) and the related inherited neuropathies. Genetic studies have revealed the following factors as causes of inherited neuropathies: myelin components, transcription factors for myelination, myelin maintenance systems, differentiation factors of the peripheral nerve, neurofilaments, protein transfer systems, mitochondrial proteins, DNA repair, RNA/protein synthesis, ion channels, and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Since 2007, we have tried to screen for mutations in CMT patients using microarrays or next generation sequencers. As a result, the detection rate of gene mutations has improved to about 25%. In this study, we applied target resequencing to 72 genes. From the negative examples, we identified the cases based on clinical course, family history, and electrophysiological findings, and then performed exome analysis. We then tried to identify novel causative genes by analyzing the enormous data obtained from our exome analysis.

  16. Accelerated alcoholic fermentation caused by defective gene expression related to glucose derepression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Naoya; Mizuno, Megumi; Zhou, Yan; Akao, Takeshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Sake yeast strains maintain high fermentation rates, even after the stationary growth phase begins. To determine the molecular mechanisms underlying this advantageous brewing property, we compared the gene expression profiles of sake and laboratory yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the stationary growth phase. DNA microarray analysis revealed that the sake yeast strain examined had defects in expression of the genes related to glucose derepression mediated by transcription factors Adr1p and Cat8p. Furthermore, deletion of the ADR1 and CAT8 genes slightly but statistically significantly improved the fermentation rate of a laboratory yeast strain. We also identified two loss-of-function mutations in the ADR1 gene of existing sake yeast strains. Taken together, these results indicate that the gene expression program associated with glucose derepression for yeast acts as an impediment to effective alcoholic fermentation under glucose-rich fermentative conditions.

  17. Digital gene expression analysis of corky split vein caused by boron deficiency in 'Newhall' Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck for selecting differentially expressed genes related to vascular hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Quan Yang

    Full Text Available Corky split vein caused by boron (B deficiency in 'Newhall' Navel Orange was studied in the present research. The boron-deficient citrus exhibited a symptom of corky split vein in mature leaves. Morphologic and anatomical surveys at four representative phases of corky split veins showed that the symptom was the result of vascular hypertrophy. Digital gene expression (DGE analysis was performed based on the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform, which was applied to analyze the gene expression profilings of corky split veins at four morphologic phases. Over 5.3 million clean reads per library were successfully mapped to the reference database and more than 22897 mapped genes per library were simultaneously obtained. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs revealed that the expressions of genes associated with cytokinin signal transduction, cell division, vascular development, lignin biosynthesis and photosynthesis in corky split veins were all affected. The expressions of WOL and ARR12 involved in the cytokinin signal transduction pathway were up-regulated at 1(st phase of corky split vein development. Furthermore, the expressions of some cell cycle genes, CYCs and CDKB, and vascular development genes, WOX4 and VND7, were up-regulated at the following 2(nd and 3(rd phases. These findings indicated that the cytokinin signal transduction pathway may play a role in initiating symptom observed in our study.

  18. [Advances in molecular mechanisms of bacterial resistance caused by stress-induced transfer of resistance genes--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongchang; Wang, Bing; Zhu, Lihong

    2013-07-04

    The transfer of resistance gene is one of the most important causes of bacterial resistance. Recent studies reveal that stresses induce the transfer of antibiotic resistance gene through multiple mechanisms. DNA damage stresses trigger bacterial SOS response and induce the transfer of resistance gene mediated by conjugative DNA. Antibiotic stresses induce natural bacterial competence for transformation in some bacteria which lack the SOS system. In addition, our latest studies show that the general stress response regulator RpoS regulates a novel type of resistance gene transfer which is mediated by double-stranded plasmid DNA and occurs exclusively on the solid surface. In this review, we summarized recent advances in SOS dependent and independent stress-induced DNA transfer which is mediated by conjugation and transformation respectively, and the transfer of double-stranded plasmid DNA on the solid surface which is regulated by RpoS. We propose that future work should address how stresses activate the key regulators and how these regulators control the expression of gene transfer related genes. Answers to the above questions would pave the way for searching for candidate targets for controlling bacterial resistance resulted from the transfer of antibiotic genes.

  19. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in obesity-related genes and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruczinski Ingo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to examine the associations between 16 specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 8 obesity-related genes and overall and cause-specific mortality. We also examined the associations between the SNPs and body mass index (BMI and change in BMI over time. Methods Data were analyzed from 9,919 individuals who participated in two large community-based cohort studies conducted in Washington County, Maryland in 1974 (CLUE I and 1989 (CLUE II. DNA from blood collected in 1989 was genotyped for 16 SNPs in 8 obesity-related genes: monoamine oxidase A (MAOA, lipoprotein lipase (LPL, paraoxonase 1 and 2 (PON1 and PON2, leptin receptor (LEPR, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα, and peroxisome proliferative activated receptor-γ and -δ (PPARG and PPARD. Data on height and weight in 1989 (CLUE II baseline and at age 21 were collected from participants at the time of blood collection. All participants were followed from 1989 to the date of death or the end of follow-up in 2005. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to obtain the relative risk (RR estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI for each SNP and mortality outcomes. Results The results showed no patterns of association for the selected SNPs and the all-cause and cause-specific mortality outcomes, although statistically significant associations (p PPARG rs4684847 and all-cause mortality (CC: reference; CT: RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.89, 1.11; TT: RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.39, 0.93 and cancer-related mortality (CC: reference; CT: RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.82, 1.25; TT: RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.06, 0.90 and TNFα rs1799964 and cancer-related mortality (TT: reference; CT: RR 1.23, 95% CI 1.03, 1.47; CC: RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.54, 1.28. Additional analyses showed significant associations between SNPs in LEPR with BMI (rs1137101 and change in BMI over time (rs1045895 and rs1137101. Conclusion Findings from this cohort study suggest that the selected SNPs are not associated with overall

  20. Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus caused by a novel mutation in the KCNJ11 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doneray, Hakan; Houghton, Jayne; Tekgunduz, Kadir Serafettin; Balkir, Ferat; Caner, Ibrahim

    2014-03-01

    Mutations in the KCNJ11 gene are responsible for the majority of permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM) cases. Some mutations in this gene, including p.Q52R, are associated with the developmental delay, epilepsy, neonatal diabetes (DEND) syndrome. We describe a patient with PNDM who had no neurological finding although she was determined to have a novel mutation (p.Q52L) in the same residue of the KCNJ11 as in the previously reported cases with DEND syndrome. This case suggests that not all Q52 mutations in the KCNJ11 gene are necessarily related to DEND syndrome.

  1. Evaluation of the gene encoding the enzyme βHPMEH for the bacterial wilt inhibition caused by Ralstonia solanacearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Fernandez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia solanacearum is the causal agent of the devastating bacterial wilt disease that attacks important agricultural crops such as potato, tomato, banana, among others, causing serious yield losses. Control of R. solanacearum is difficult because of its wide range of alternate hosts, its long survival in soil, its biological and genetic variation, the lack of natural resistance sources and the insufficiency of the appropriate chemical control measures. Quorum sensing is the term that describes the phenomenon whereby the accumulation of molecules allows bacteria to know the number of bacteria found in the environment (population density. R. solanacearum has a quorum sensing system for the regulation of the expression of virulence genes; the molecule 3-OH-PAME is the self-regulatory signal. The molecule ΒHPMEH hydrolyzes 3-OH-PAME nullifying the signal of virulence, and thus, the quorum sensing communication in R. solanacearum. In order to evaluate the βhpmeh gene we designed two vectors that express this gene under the control of two different promoters. Both vectors were verified by restriction analysis and sequencing. Agroinfiltration assays were used to analyze gene expression and the effect against R. solanacearum in potato (Solanum tuberosum leaves. The results of the transient expression experiments showed that the expression of gene βhpmeh caused a delay in the appearance of symptoms of bacterial wilt and thus is a good candidate for whole genetic plant transformation.

  2. Norepinephrine causes epigenetic repression of PKCε gene in rodent hearts by activating Nox1-dependent reactive oxygen species production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Fuxia; Xiao, Daliao; Zhang, Lubo

    2012-07-01

    Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Recent studies demonstrate that fetal programming of PKCε gene repression results in ischemia-sensitive phenotype in the heart. The present study tests the hypothesis that increased norepinephrine causes epigenetic repression of PKCε gene in the heart via Nox1-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Prolonged norepinephrine treatment increased ROS production in fetal rat hearts and embryonic ventricular myocyte H9c2 cells via a selective increase in Nox1 expression. Norepinephrine-induced ROS resulted in an increase in PKCε promoter methylation at Egr-1 and Sp-1 binding sites, leading to PKCε gene repression. N-acetylcysteine, diphenyleneiodonium, and apocynin blocked norepinephrine-induced ROS production and the promoter methylation, and also restored PKCε mRNA and protein to control levels in vivo in fetal hearts and in vitro in embryonic myocyte cells. Accordingly, norepinephrine-induced ROS production, promoter methylation, and PKCε gene repression were completely abrogated by knockdown of Nox1 in cardiomyocytes. These findings provide evidence of a novel interaction between elevated norepinephrine and epigenetic repression of PKCε gene in the heart mediated by Nox1-dependent oxidative stress and suggest new insights of molecular mechanisms linking the heightened sympathetic activity to aberrant cardioprotection and increased ischemic vulnerability in the heart.

  3. A new PKLR gene mutation in the R-type promoter region affects the gene transcription causing pyruvate kinase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manco, L; Ribeiro, M L; Máximo, V; Almeida, H; Costa, A; Freitas, O; Barbot, J; Abade, A; Tamagnini, G

    2000-09-01

    Mutations in the PKLR gene responsible for pyruvate kinase (PK)-deficient anaemia are mainly located in the coding regions: 11 are in the splicing sites and, recently, three mutations have been described in the promoter region. We now report a novel point mutation A-->G on nucleotide 72, upstream from the initiation codon of the PKLR gene, in four Portuguese PK-deficient patients. This new regulatory mutation occurs within the most proximal of the four GATA motifs (GATA-A element) in the R-type promoter region. In two patients who were homozygous for this mutation, a semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure was used to evaluate the amount of R-PK mRNA transcript in the reticulocytes. The mRNA level was about five times lower than in normal controls, demonstrating that the PKLR gene transcription is severely affected, most probably because the -72A-->G point mutation disables the binding of the erythroid transcription factor GATA-1 to the GATA-A element. Supporting these data, the two patients homozygous for the -72A-->G mutation had severe haemolytic anaemia and were transfusion dependent until splenectomy. Two other patients who were compound heterozygous for this mutation and the previously described missense mutation 1456C-->T had a mild condition.

  4. A mutation in the MATP gene causes the cream coat colour in the horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guérin Gérard

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In horses, basic colours such as bay or chestnut may be partially diluted to buckskin and palomino, or extremely diluted to cream, a nearly white colour with pink skin and blue eyes. This dilution is expected to be controlled by one gene and we used both candidate gene and positional cloning strategies to identify the "cream mutation". A horse panel including reference colours was established and typed for different markers within or in the neighbourhood of two candidate genes. Our data suggest that the causal mutation, a G to A transition, is localised in exon 2 of the MATP gene leading to an aspartic acid to asparagine substitution in the encoded protein. This conserved mutation was also described in mice and humans, but not in medaka.

  5. Ethylmalonic encephalopathy is caused by mutations in ETHE1, a gene encoding a mitochondrial matrix protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiranti, Valeria; D'Adamo, Pio; Briem, Egill; Ferrari, Gianfrancesco; Mineri, Rossana; Lamantea, Eleonora; Mandel, Hanna; Balestri, Paolo; Garcia-Silva, Maria-Teresa; Vollmer, Brigitte; Rinaldo, Piero; Hahn, Si Houn; Leonard, James; Rahman, Shamima; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Garavaglia, Barbara; Gasparini, Paolo; Zeviani, Massimo

    2004-02-01

    Ethylmalonic encephalopathy (EE) is a devastating infantile metabolic disorder affecting the brain, gastrointestinal tract, and peripheral vessels. High levels of ethylmalonic acid are detected in the body fluids, and cytochrome c oxidase activity is decreased in skeletal muscle. By use of a combination of homozygosity mapping, integration of physical and functional genomic data sets, and mutational screening, we identified GenBank D83198 as the gene responsible for EE. We also demonstrated that the D83198 protein product is targeted to mitochondria and internalized into the matrix after energy-dependent cleavage of a short leader peptide. The gene had previously been known as "HSCO" (for hepatoma subtracted clone one). However, given its role in EE, the name of the gene has been changed to "ETHE1." The severe consequences of its malfunctioning indicate an important role of the ETHE1 gene product in mitochondrial homeostasis and energy metabolism.

  6. Waardenburg syndrome type 2 caused by mutations in the human microphthalmia (MITF) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassabehji, M; Newton, V E; Read, A P

    1994-11-01

    Waardenburg syndrome type 2 (WS2) is a dominantly inherited syndrome of hearing loss and pigmentary disturbances. We recently mapped a WS2 gene to chromosome 3p12.3-p14.1 and proposed as a candidate gene MITF, the human homologue of the mouse microphthalmia (mi) gene. This encodes a putative basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper transcription factor expressed in adult skin and in embryonic retina, otic vesicle and hair follicles. Mice carrying mi mutations show reduced pigmentation of the eyes and coat, and with some alleles, microphthalmia, hearing loss, osteopetrosis and mast cell defects. Here we show that affected individuals in two WS2 families have mutations affecting splice sites in the MITF gene.

  7. Natural disease course and genotype-phenotype correlations in Complex I deficiency caused by nuclear gene defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koene, S; Rodenburg, R J; van der Knaap, M S;

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial complex I is the largest multi-protein enzyme complex of the oxidative phosphorylation system. Seven subunits of this complex are encoded by the mitochondrial and the remainder by the nuclear genome. We review the natural disease course and signs and symptoms of 130 patients (four new...... cases and 126 from literature) with mutations in nuclear genes encoding structural complex I proteins or those involved in its assembly. Complex I deficiency caused by a nuclear gene defect is usually a non-dysmorphic syndrome, characterized by severe multi-system organ involvement and a poor prognosis...

  8. Enlarged parietal foramina caused by mutations in the homeobox genes ALX4 and MSX2: from genotype to phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Heterozygous mutations of the homeobox genes ALX4 and MSX2 cause skull defects termed enlarged parietal foramina (PFM) and cranium bifidum (CB); a single MSX2 mutation has been documented in a unique craniosynostosis (CRS) family. However, the relative mutational contribution of these genes to PFM/CB and CRS is not known and information on genotype–phenotype correlations is incomplete. We analysed ALX4 and MSX2 in 11 new unrelated cases or families with PFM/CB, 181 cases of CRS, and a single ...

  9. A missense mutation S228P in the CRYBB1 gene causes autosomal dominant congenital cataract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun; MA Xu; GU Feng; LIU Ning-pu; HAO Xiao-lin; WANG Kai-jie; WANG Ning-li; ZHU Si-quan

    2007-01-01

    Background Congenital cataract is a highly heterogeneous disorder at both the genetic and phenotypic levels. This study was conducted to identify disease locus for autosomal dominant congenital cataracts in a four generation Chinese family.Methods Family history and clinical data were recorded. All the members were genotyped with microsatellite markers which are close to the known genetic loci for autosomal congenital cataracts. Two-point Lod scores were obtained using the MLINK of the LINKAGE program package (ver 5.1). Candidate genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct cycle sequencing.Results The maximum Lod score of Zmax=2.11 was obtained with three microsatellite markers D22S258, D22S315,and D22S1163 at recombination fraction θ= 0. Haplotype analysis showed that the disease gene was localized to a 18.5 Mbp region on chromosome 22 flanked by markers D22S1174 and D22S270, spanning the β-crystallin gene cluster. A c.752T-->C mutation in exon 6 of CRYBB1 gene, which resulted in a heterozygous S228P mutation in predicted protein,was found to cosegregate with cataract in the family.Conclusions This study identified a novel mutation in CRYBB1 gene in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant congenital cataract. These results provide strong evidence that CRYBB1 is a pathogenic gene for congenital cataract.

  10. Taproot promoters cause tissue specific gene expression within the storage root of sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmanns, Heiko; Kloos, Dorothee U; Briess, Waltraud; Pflugmacher, Maike; Stahl, Dietmar J; Hehl, Reinhard

    2006-08-01

    The storage root (taproot) of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) originates from hypocotyl and primary root and contains many different tissues such as central xylem, primary and secondary cambium, secondary xylem and phloem, and parenchyma. It was the aim of this work to characterize the promoters of three taproot-expressed genes with respect to their tissue specificity. To investigate this, promoters for the genes Tlp, His1-r, and Mll were cloned from sugar beet, linked to reporter genes and transformed into sugar beet and tobacco. Reporter gene expression analysis in transgenic sugar beet plants revealed that all three promoters are active in the storage root. Expression in storage root tissues is either restricted to the vascular zone (Tlp, His1-r) or is observed in the whole organ (Mll). The Mll gene is highly organ specific throughout different developmental stages of the sugar beet. In tobacco, the Tlp and Mll promoters drive reporter gene expression preferentially in hypocotyl and roots. The properties of the Mll promoter may be advantageous for the modification of sucrose metabolism in storage roots.

  11. The Differences Between Cis- and Trans-Gene Inactivation Caused by Heterochromatin in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Yuriy A; Shatskikh, Aleksei S; Maksimenko, Oksana G; Bonaccorsi, Silvia; Gvozdev, Vladimir A; Lavrov, Sergey A

    2016-01-01

    Position-effect variegation (PEV) is the epigenetic disruption of gene expression near the de novo-formed euchromatin-heterochromatin border. Heterochromatic cis-inactivation may be accompanied by the trans-inactivation of genes on a normal homologous chromosome in trans-heterozygous combination with a PEV-inducing rearrangement. We characterize a new genetic system, inversion In(2)A4, demonstrating cis-acting PEV as well as trans-inactivation of the reporter transgenes on the homologous nonrearranged chromosome. The cis-effect of heterochromatin in the inversion results not only in repression but also in activation of genes, and it varies at different developmental stages. While cis-actions affect only a few juxtaposed genes, trans-inactivation is observed in a 500-kb region and demonstrates а nonuniform pattern of repression with intermingled regions where no transgene repression occurs. There is no repression around the histone gene cluster and in some other euchromatic sites. trans-Inactivation is accompanied by dragging of euchromatic regions into the heterochromatic compartment, but the histone gene cluster, located in the middle of the trans-inactivated region, was shown to be evicted from the heterochromatin. We demonstrate that trans-inactivation is followed by de novo HP1a accumulation in the affected transgene; trans-inactivation is specifically favored by the chromatin remodeler SAYP and prevented by Argonaute AGO2.

  12. [From gene to disease; Dent's disease caused by abnormalities in the CLCN5 and OCRL1 genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levtchenko, E.N.; Monnens, L.A.H.; Bokenkamp, A.; Knoers, N.V.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Dent's disease is an X-linked disorder, characterized by generalized proximal tubular dysfunction, nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis and the development ofend-stage renal disease, generally occurring after the age of thirty. In the majority of cases, the disease is caused by mutations in the CLCN5-g

  13. Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia caused by mutations in the PEX2 gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Sevin; S. Ferdinandusse; H.R. Waterham; R.J. Wanders; P. Aubourg

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To expand the spectrum of genetic causes of autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia (ARCA). Case report: Two brothers are described who developed progressive cerebellar ataxia at 3 1/2 and 18 years, respectively. After ruling out known common genetic causes of ARCA, analysis of bl

  14. Clinical and Genomic Analysis of Liver Abscess-Causing Klebsiella pneumoniae Identifies New Liver Abscess-Associated Virulence Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Meiping; Tu, Jianfei; Jiang, Jianping; Bi, Yingmin; You, Weibo; Zhang, Yanliang; Ren, Jianmin; Zhu, Taohui; Cao, Zhuo; Yu, Zuochun; Shao, Chuxiao; Shen, Zhen; Ding, Baixing; Yuan, Jinyi; Zhao, Xu; Guo, Qinglan; Xu, Xiaogang; Huang, Jinwei; Wang, Minggui

    2016-01-01

    Hypervirulent variants of Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKp) that cause invasive community-acquired pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) have emerged globally. Little is known about the virulence determinants associated with hvKp, except for the virulence genes rmpA/A2 and siderophores (iroBCD/iucABCD) carried by the pK2044-like large virulence plasmid. Here, we collected most recent clinical isolates of hvKp from PLA samples in China, and performed clinical, molecular, and genomic sequencing analyses. We found that 90.9% (40/44) of the pathogens causing PLA were K. pneumoniae. Among the 40 LA-Kp, K1 (62.5%), and K2 (17.5%) were the dominant serotypes, and ST23 (47.5%) was the major sequence type. S1-PFGE analyses demonstrated that although 77.5% (31/40) of the LA-Kp isolates harbored a single large virulence plasmid varied in size, 5 (12.5%) isolates had no plasmid and 4 (10%) had two or three plasmids. Whole genome sequencing and comparative analysis of 3 LA-Kp and 3 non-LA-Kp identified 133 genes present only in LA-Kp. Further, large scale screening of the 133 genes in 45 LA-Kp and 103 non-LA-Kp genome sequences from public databases identified 30 genes that were highly associated with LA-Kp, including iroBCD, iucABCD and rmpA/A2 and 21 new genes. Then, these 21 new genes were analyzed in 40 LA-Kp and 86 non-LA-Kp clinical isolates collected in this study by PCR, showing that new genes were present 80–100% among LA-Kp isolates while 2–11% in K. pneumoniae isolates from sputum and urine. Several of the 21 genes have been proposed as virulence factors in other bacteria, such as the gene encoding SAM-dependent methyltransferase and pagO which protects bacteria from phagocytosis. Taken together, these genes are likely new virulence factors contributing to the hypervirulence phenotype of hvKp, and may deepen our understanding of virulence mechanism of hvKp. PMID:27965935

  15. Clinical and Genomic Analysis of Liver Abscess-Causing Klebsiella pneumoniae Identifies New Liver Abscess-Associated Virulence Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiping Ye

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypervirulent variants of Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKp that cause invasive community-acquired pyogenic liver abscess have emerged globally. Little is known about the virulence determinants associated with hvKp, except for the virulence genes rmpA/A2 and siderophores (iroBCD/iucABCD carried by the pK2044-like large virulence plasmid. Here, we collected most recent clinical isolates of hvKp from pyogenic liver abscess (PLA samples in China, and performed clinical, molecular, and genomic sequencing analyses. We found that 90.9% (40/44 of the pathogens causing PLA were K. pneumoniae. Among the 40 LA-Kp, K1 (62.5% and K2 (17.5% were the dominant serotypes, and ST23 (47.5% was the major sequence type. S1-PFGE analyses demonstrated that although 77.5% (31/40 of the LA-Kp isolates harbored a single large virulence plasmid varied in size, 5 (12.5% isolates had no plasmid and 4 (10% had two or three plasmids. Whole genome sequencing and comparative analysis of 3 LA-Kp and 3 non-LA-Kp identified 133 genes present only in LA-Kp. Further, large scale screening of the 133 genes in 45 LA-Kp and 103 non-LA-Kp genome sequences from public databases identified 30 genes that were highly associated with LA-Kp, including iroBCD, iucABCD and rmpA/A2 and 21 new genes. Then, these 21 new genes were analyzed in 40 LA-Kp and 86 non-LA-Kp clinical isolates collected in this study by PCR, showing that new genes were present 80-100% among LA-Kp isolates while 2-11% in K. pneumoniae isolates from sputum and urine. Several of the 21 genes have been proposed as virulence factors in other bacteria, such as the gene encoding SAM-dependent methyltransferase and pagO which protects bacteria from phagocytosis. Taken together, these genes are likely new virulence factors contributing to the hypervirulence phenotype of hvKp, and may deepen our understanding of virulence mechanism of hvKp.

  16. Mutations in low-density lipoprotein receptor gene as a cause of hypercholesterolemia in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chih-Yang; Wu, Yi-Chi; Jenq, Shwu-Fen; Jap, Tjin-Shing

    2005-08-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait that has been associated with more than 920 different mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene. To characterize LDLR gene mutations in the Chinese of Han descent with FH, we isolated genomic DNA from peripheral blood samples of 20 affected subjects and 50 healthy subjects with no family history of hypercholesterolemia. We used polymerase chain reaction and long polymerase chain reaction to amplify the 18 coding exons and the minimal promoter of the LDLR gene, and subjected amplicons to direct sequence analysis. We identified 6 mutations in LDLR gene, including heterozygous missense mutations I420T (ATC-->ACC), C660W (TGC-->TGG), H562Y (CAC-->TAC), and A606T (GCC-->ACC), and a heterozygous and a homozygous mutation in codon P664L (CCG-->CTG) as well as a homozygous large deletion of exons 6 to 8. The FH homozygotes manifested generalized xanthomatosis. One of the mutations we identified (C660W) was novel. In conclusion, we identified 5 missense mutations and 1 large deletion in LDLR gene, including 1 novel mutation in Han Chinese with FH in Taiwan.

  17. A nonsense mutation in the acid α-glucosidase gene causes Pompe disease in Finnish and Swedish Lapphunds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppälä, Eija H; Reuser, Arnold J J; Lohi, Hannes

    2013-01-01

    Pompe disease is a recessively inherited and often fatal disorder caused by the deficiency of acid α-glucosidase, an enzyme encoded by the GAA gene and needed to break down glycogen in lysosomes. This glycogen storage disease type II has been reported also in Swedish Lapphund dogs. Here we describe the genetic defect in canine Pompe disease and show that three related breeds from Scandinavia carry the same mutation. The affected dogs are homozygous for the GAA c.2237G>A mutation leading to a premature stop codon at amino acid position 746. The corresponding mutation has previously been reported in humans and causes infantile Pompe disease in combination with a second fully deleterious mutation. The affected dogs from both the Finnish as well as the Swedish breed mimic infantile-onset Pompe disease genetically, but also clinico-pathologically. Therefore this canine model provides a valuable tool for preclinical studies aimed at the development of gene therapy in Pompe disease.

  18. Three patients with middle-age-onset hemochromatosis caused by novel mutations in the hemojuvelin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Chizu; Hayashi, Hisao; Wakusawa, Shinya; Ueno, Toshio; Yano, Motoyoshi; Katano, Yoshiaki; Goto, Hidemi; Kidokoro, Ryuichi

    2005-10-01

    Hemochromatosis is a genetically heterogeneous condition. Mutations in the recently described hemojuvelin gene were found in patients with juvenile hemochromatosis, who usually manifest clinical signs of iron overload, including cardiomyopathy and hypogonadism, in their teens and early 20s. In this report, we describe three Japanese patients who showed typical clinical and hepatic histological damage compatible with hemochromatosis at around 50 years of age. Genetic analyses showed that all three patients carried mutations in the hemojuvelin gene. The first patient was homozygous for a novel mutation (745G > C [D249H]), and the second and third patients from the same family were homozygous for another novel mutation (934C > T [Q312X]). No mutations in their HFE, hepcidin, transferrin receptor 2, or ferroportin genes were found. One patient had chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori. The age at initial presentation of hemojuvelin-hemochromatosis occurs over a wider range than previously described.

  19. Mutations in MODY Genes Are not Common Cause of Early-Onset Type 2 Diabetes in Mexican Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bravo-Ríos LE

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY is a monogenic form of diabetes mellitus characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance, early age of onset and a primary insulin secretion defect. Certain MODY gene sequence variants may be involved in polygenic forms of type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the contribution of MODY genes to the etiology of type 2 early-onset diabetes in 23 Mexican families, including five with apparently autosomal dominant inheritance. PATIENTS: Twenty-three unrelated Mexican families with early-onset type 2 diabetes previously screened for the presence of glucokinase mutations, were studied. DESIGN: We screened MODY genes for sequence variants by PCR-SSCP analysis and automated sequencing. We performed a functional analysis of the HNF-1alpha P379H recombinant protein in vitro in both HeLa and RINm5f beta-cell lines. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: MODY gene mutation screening and P379H mutant protein transactivation assay. RESULTS: No mutations were detected in the HNF-4alpha, IPF-1, NEUROD1 or HNF-1beta genes in any of the families studied. A new mutation (P379H of the HNF-1alpha gene was identified in one MODY family. RINm5f and HeLa cell transfection assays revealed decreased transactivation activity of the mutant protein on the human insulin promoter. CONCLUSIONS: All known MODY genes were screened for abnormalities in this cohort of early-onset diabetes families which included 5 MODY pedigrees. We identified a new HNF-1alpha MODY mutation (P379H and demonstrated that it reduces the transactivation potential of the mutant protein on the human insulin promoter. No other mutation was identified in this cohort indicating that abnormalities in MODY genes are generally not a common cause of early-onset diabetes and this includes MODY families in Mexico.

  20. Modulation of gene expression in a human cell line caused by poliovirus, vaccinia virus and interferon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoddevik Gunnar

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The project was initiated to describe the response of a human embryonic fibroblast cell line to the replication of two different viruses, and, more specifically, to look for candidate genes involved in viral defense. For this purpose, the cells were synchronously infected with poliovirus in the absence or presence of interferon-alpha, or with vaccinia virus, a virus that is not inhibited by interferon. By comparing the changes in transcriptosome due to these different challenges, it should be possible to suggest genes that might be involved in defense. Results The viral titers were sufficient to yield productive infection in a majority of the cells. The cells were harvested in triplicate at various time-points, and the transcriptosome compared with mock infected cells using oligo-based, global 35 k microarrays. While there was very limited similarities in the response to the different viruses, a large proportion of the genes up-regulated by interferon-alpha were also up-regulated by poliovirus. Interferon-alpha inhibited poliovirus replication, but there were no signs of any interferons being induced by poliovirus. The observations suggest that the cells do launch an antiviral response to poliovirus in the absence of interferon. Analyses of the data led to a list of candidate antiviral genes. Functional information was limited, or absent, for most of the candidate genes. Conclusion The data are relevant for our understanding of how the cells respond to poliovirus and vaccinia virus infection. More annotations, and more microarray studies with related viruses, are required in order to narrow the list of putative defence-related genes.

  1. Inflammatory peeling skin syndrome caused by homozygous genomic deletion in the PSORS1 region encompassing the CDSN gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida-Yamamoto, Akemi; Furio, Laetitia; Igawa, Satomi; Honma, Masaru; Tron, Elodie; Malan, Valerie; Murakami, Masamoto; Hovnanian, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Peeling skin syndrome (PSS) type B is a rare recessive genodermatosis characterized by lifelong widespread, reddish peeling of the skin with pruritus. The disease is caused by small-scale mutations in the Corneodesmosin gene (CDSN) leading to premature termination codons. We report for the first time a Japanese case resulting from complete deletion of CDSN. Corneodesmosin was undetectable in the epidermis, and CDSN was unamplifiable by PCR. QMPSF analysis demonstrated deletion of CDSN exons inherited from each parent. Deletion mapping using microsatellite haplotyping, CGH array and PCR analysis established that the genomic deletion spanned 49-72 kb between HCG22 and TCF19, removing CDSN as well as five other genes within the psoriasis susceptibility region 1 (PSORS1) on 6p21.33. This observation widens the spectrum of molecular defects underlying PSS type B and shows that loss of these five genes from the PSORS1 region does not result in an additional cutaneous phenotype.

  2. Body fat distribution in women with familial partial lipodystrophy caused by mutation in the lamin A/C gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Z Monteiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD, Dunnigan variety, is an autosomal dominant disorder caused due to missense mutations in the lamin A/C (LMNA gene encoding nuclear lamina proteins. Patients with FPLD are predisposed to metabolic complications of insulin resistance such as diabetes. We sought to evaluate and compare body fat distribution with dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry in women with and without FPLD and identify densitometric, clinical and metabolic features.

  3. Exclusion of the APC gene as the cause of a variant form of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stella, A.; Resta, N.; Susca, F.; Guanti, G.; Gentile, M. (Universita di Bari (Italy)); Mareni, C.; Montera, P. (Universita di Genova (Italy))

    1993-11-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a premalignant disease inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, characterized by hundreds to thousands of polyps in the colorectal tract. Recently, the syndrome has been shown to be caused by mutations in the APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) gene located on chromosome 5q21. The authors studied two families that both presented a phenotype different from that of the classical form of FAP. The most important findings observed in these two kindreds are (a) low and variable number of colonic polyps (from 5 to 100) and (b) a slower evolution of the disease, with colon cancer occurring at a more advanced age than in FAP in spite of the early onset of intestinal manifestations. To determine whether mutations of the APC gene are also responsible for this variant syndrome, linkage studies were performed by using a series of markers both intragenic and tightly linked to the APC gene. The results provide evidence for exclusion of the APC gene as the cause of the variant form of polyposis present in the two families described. 30 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Alu Sx repeat-induced homozygous deletion of the StAR gene causes lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden-Plach, Antje; Nguyen, Huy-Hoang; Schneider, Ursula; Hartmann, Michaela F; Bernhardt, Rita; Hannemann, Frank; Wudy, Stefan A

    2012-05-01

    Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (Lipoid CAH) is the most severe form of the autosomal recessive disorder CAH. A general loss of the steroid biosynthetic activity caused by defects in the StAR gene manifests as life-threatening primary adrenal insufficiency. We report a case of Lipoid CAH caused by a so far not described homozygous deletion of the complete StAR gene and provide diagnostic results based on a GC-MS steroid metabolomics and molecular genetic analysis. The patient presented with postnatal hypoglycemia, vomiting, adynamia, increasing pigmentation and hyponatremia. The constellation of urinary steroid metabolites suggested Lipoid CAH and ruled out all other forms of CAH or defects of aldosterone biosynthesis. After treatment with sodium supplementation, hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone the child fully recovered. Molecular genetic analysis demonstrated a homozygous 12.1 kb deletion in the StAR gene locus. The breakpoints of the deletion are embedded into two typical genomic repetitive Alu Sx elements upstream and downstream of the gene leading to the loss of all exons and regulatory elements. We established deletion-specific and intact allele-specific PCR methods and determined the StAR gene status of all available family members over three generations. This analysis revealed that one of the siblings, who died a few weeks after birth, carried the same genetic defect. Since several Alu repeats at the StAR gene locus increase the probability of deletions, patients with typical symptoms of lipoid CAH lacking evidence for the presence of both StAR alleles should be analyzed carefully for this kind of disorder.

  5. Comparative Profile of Heme Acquisition Genes in Disease-Causing and Colonizing Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariadi, Nurul I; Zhang, Lixin; Patel, Mayuri; Sandstedt, Sara A; Davis, Gregg S; Marrs, Carl F; Gilsdorf, Janet R

    2015-07-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) are Gram-negative bacteria that colonize the human pharynx and can cause respiratory tract infections, such as acute otitis media (AOM). Since NTHI require iron from their hosts for aerobic growth, the heme acquisition genes may play a significant role in avoiding host nutritional immunity and determining virulence. Therefore, we employed a hybridization-based technique to compare the prevalence of five heme acquisition genes (hxuA, hxuB, hxuC, hemR, and hup) between 514 middle ear strains from children with AOM and 235 throat strains from healthy children. We also investigated their prevalences in 148 Haemophilus haemolyticus strains, a closely related species that colonizes the human pharynx and is considered to be nonpathogenic. Four out of five genes (hxuA, hxuB, hxuC, and hemR) were significantly more prevalent in the middle ear strains (96%, 100%, 100%, and 97%, respectively) than in throat strains (80%, 92%, 93%, and 85%, respectively) of NTHI, suggesting that strains possessing these genes have a virulence advantage over those lacking them. All five genes were dramatically more prevalent in NTHI strains than in H. haemolyticus, with 91% versus 9% hxuA, 98% versus 11% hxuB, 98% versus 11% hxuC, 93% versus 20% hemR, and 97% versus 34% hup, supporting their potential role in virulence and highlighting their possibility to serve as biomarkers to distinguish H. influenzae from H. haemolyticus. In summary, this study demonstrates that heme acquisition genes are more prevalent in disease-causing NTHI strains isolated from the middle ear than in colonizing NTHI strains and H. haemolyticus isolated from the pharynx.

  6. Genetic heterogeneity in Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome: mutations in both the CBP and EP300 genes cause disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfsema, Jeroen H; White, Stefan J; Ariyürek, Yavuz; Bartholdi, Deborah; Niedrist, Dunja; Papadia, Francesco; Bacino, Carlos A; den Dunnen, Johan T; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; Breuning, Martijn H; Hennekam, Raoul C; Peters, Dorien J M

    2005-04-01

    CREB-binding protein and p300 function as transcriptional coactivators in the regulation of gene expression through various signal-transduction pathways. Both are potent histone acetyl transferases. A certain level of CREB-binding protein is essential for normal development, since inactivation of one allele causes Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS). There is a direct link between loss of acetyl transferase activity and RSTS, which indicates that the disorder is caused by aberrant chromatin regulation. We screened the entire CREB-binding protein gene (CBP) for mutations in patients with RSTS by using methods that find point mutations and larger rearrangements. In 92 patients, we were able to identify a total of 36 mutations in CBP. By using multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification, we found not only several deletions but also the first reported intragenic duplication in a patient with RSTS. We extended the search for mutations to the EP300 gene and showed that mutations in EP300 also cause this disorder. These are the first mutations identified in EP300 for a congenital disorder.

  7. High Frequency of Pulmonary Hypertension-Causing Gene Mutation in Chinese Patients with Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunying Xi

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is unknown. Histopathologic studies revealed that pulmonary vasculature lesions similar to idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH existed in CTEPH patients as well. It's well-known that genetic predisposition plays an important role in the mechanism of PAH. So we hypothesized that PAH-causing gene mutation might exist in some CTEPH patients and act as a background to facilitate the development of CTEPH. In this study, we analyzed 7 PAH-causing genes including BMPR2, ACVRL1, ENG, SMAD9, CAV1, KCNK3, and CBLN2 in 49 CTEPH patients and 17 patients recovered from pulmonary embolism (PE but without pulmonary hypertension(PH. The results showed that the nonsynonymous mutation rate in CTEPH patients is significantly higher than that in PE without PH patients (25 out of 49 (51% CTEPH patients vs. 3 out of 17 PE without PH patients (18%; p = 0.022. Four CTEPH patients had the same point mutation in ACVRL1 exon 10 (c.1450C>G, a mutation approved to be associated with PH in a previous study. In addition, we identified two CTEPH associated SNPs (rs3739817 and rs55805125. Our results suggest that PAH-causing gene mutation might play an important role in the development of CTEPH.

  8. Mutations in genes encoding subunits of RNA polymerases I and III cause Treacher Collins syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dauwerse, J.G.; Dixon, J.; Seland, S.; Ruivenkamp, C.A.; Haeringen, A. van; Hoefsloot, L.H.; Peters, D.J.; Boers, A.C.; Daumer-Haas, C.; Maiwald, R.; Zweier, C.; Kerr, B.; Cobo, A.M.; Toral, J.F.; Hoogeboom, A.J.M.; Lohmann, D.R.; Hehr, U.; Dixon, M.J.; Breuning, M.H.; Wieczorek, D.

    2011-01-01

    We identified a deletion of a gene encoding a subunit of RNA polymerases I and III, POLR1D, in an individual with Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS). Subsequently, we detected 20 additional heterozygous mutations of POLR1D in 252 individuals with TCS. Furthermore, we discovered mutations in both allele

  9. Whispering dysphonia (DYT4 dystonia) is caused by a mutation in the TUBB4 gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohmann, Katja; Wilcox, Robert A.; Winkler, Susen; Ramirez, Alfredo; Rakovic, Aleksandar; Park, Jin-Sung; Arns, Bjoern; Lohnau, Thora; Kasten, Meike; Brueggemann, Norbert; Hagenah, Johann; Schmidt, Alexander; Kaiser, Frank J.; Kumar, Kishore R.; Zschiedrich, Katja; Alvarez-Fischer, Daniel; Altenmueller, Eckart; Ferbert, Andreas; Lang, Anthony E.; Muenchau, Alexander; Kostic, Vladimir; Simonyan, Kristina; Agzarian, Marc; Ozelius, Laurie J.; Langeveld, Antonius P. M.; Sue, Carolyn M.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.; Klein, Christine; Groen, Justus

    2013-01-01

    Objective A study was undertaken to identify the gene underlying DYT4 dystonia, a dominantly inherited form of spasmodic dysphonia combined with other focal or generalized dystonia and a characteristic facies and body habitus, in an Australian family. Methods Genome-wide linkage analysis was carried

  10. Murine muscular dystrophy caused by a mutation in the laminin alpha 2 (Lama2) gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, H; Wu, X R; Wewer, U M;

    1994-01-01

    The classic murine muscular dystrophy strain, dy, was first described almost 40 years ago. We have identified the molecular basis of an allele of dy, called dy2J, by detecting a mutation in the laminin alpha 2 chain gene--the first identified mutation in laminin-2. The G to A mutation in a splice...

  11. Mutations in the polyglutamine binding protein 1 gene cause X-linked mental retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalscheuer, Vera M; Freude, Kristine; Musante, Luciana

    2003-01-01

    We found mutations in the gene PQBP1 in 5 of 29 families with nonsyndromic (MRX) and syndromic (MRXS) forms of X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). Clinical features in affected males include mental retardation, microcephaly, short stature, spastic paraplegia and midline defects. PQBP1 has...

  12. Juvenile-onset spinal muscular atrophy caused by compound heterozygosity for mutations in the HEXA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navon, R; Khosravi, R; Melki, J; Drucker, L; Fontaine, B; Turpin, J C; N'Guyen, B; Fardeau, M; Rondot, P; Baumann, N

    1997-05-01

    Progressive proximal muscle weakness is present both in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) type III (Kugelberg-Welander disease) and in GM2 gangliosidosis, diseases that segregate in an autosomal recessive fashion. The SMN gene for SMA and the HEXA gene for GM2 gangliosidosis were investigated in a woman with progressive proximal muscle weakness, long believed to be SMA type III (Kugelberg-Welander type). She and her family underwent biochemical studies for GM2 gangliosidosis. Analysis of SMN excluded SMA. Biochemical studies on GM2 gangliosidosis showed deficiency in hexosaminidase A activity and increased GM2 ganglioside accumulation in the patient's fibroblasts. The HEXA gene was first analyzed for the Gly269-->Ser mutation characteristic for adult GM2 gangliosidosis. Since the patient was carrying the adult mutation heterozygously, all 14 exons and adjacent intron sequences were analyzed. A novel mutation in exon 1 resulting in an A-to-T change in the initiation codon (ATG to TTG) was identified. The adult patient is a compound heterozygote, with each allele containing a different mutation. Although mRNA was transcribed from the novel mutant allele, expression experiments showed no enzyme activity, suggesting that neither the TTG nor an alternative codon serve as an initiation codon in the HEXA gene.

  13. Permanent neonatal diabetes caused by a novel mutation in the INS gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catli, Gonul; Abaci, Ayhan; Flanagan, Sarah E; Anik, Ahmet; Ellard, Sian; Bober, Ece

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal diabetes mellitus (DM) is a rare condition that can be either transient or permanent. In this case report, we describe a novel mutation (p.L30Q) in the INS gene resulting in permanent DM in a four-month-old female who presented with polyphagia, polyuria, irritability, and hyperglycemia with glucosuria and ketonuria without acidosis.

  14. Mutations in the histone methyltransferase gene KMT2B cause complex early-onset dystonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, Esther; Carss, Keren J.; Rankin, Julia; Nichols, John M. E.; Grozeva, Detelina; Joseph, Agnel P.; Mencacci, Niccolo E.; Papandreou, Apostolos; Ng, Joanne; Barra, Serena; Ngoh, Adeline; Ben-Pazi, Hilla; Willemsen, Michel A.; Arkadir, David; Barnicoat, Angela; Bergman, Hagai; Bhate, Sanjay; Boys, Amber; Darin, Niklas; Foulds, Nicola; Gutowski, Nicholas; Hills, Alison; Houlden, Henry; Hurst, Jane A.; Israe, Zvi; Kaminska, Margaret; Limousin, Patricia; Lumsden, Daniel; Mckee, Shane; Misra, Shibalik; Mohammed, Shekeeb S.; Nakou, Vasiliki; Nicolai, Joost; Nilsson, Magnus; Pall, Hardev; Peall, Kathryn J.; Peters, Gregory B.; Prabhakar, Prab; Reuter, Miriam S.; Rump, Patrick; Sege, Reeval; Sinnema, Margje; Smith, Martin; Turnpenny, Peter; White, Susan M.; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Wiethoff, Sarah; Wilson, Brian T.; Winter, Gidon; Wragg, Christopher; Pope, Simon; Heales, Simon J. H.; Morrogh, Deborah; Pittman, Alan; Carr, Lucinda J.; Perez-Duenas, Belen; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Reis, Andre; Gahl, William A.; Toro, Camilo; Bhatia, Kailash P.; Wood, Nicholas W.; Kamsteeg, Erik-Jan; Chong, Wui K.; Gissen, Paul; Topf, Maya; Dale, Russell C.; Chubby, Jonathan R.; Raymond, F. Lucy; Kurian, Manju A.

    2017-01-01

    Histone lysine methylation, mediated by mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) proteins, is now known to be critical in the regulation of gene expression, genomic stability, cell cycle and nuclear architecture. Despite MLL proteins being postulated as essential for normal development, little is known about th

  15. Comparison of Proinflammatory Gene Expression in Lesions Caused by either Burn Injuries or Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Akhzari; Rezvan; Zolhavarieh; Moafi

    2016-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is a worldwide disease prevalent in tropical and sub-tropical countries in the world. Characterization of inflammatory responses produced in cutaneous Leishmaniasis has not yet been completed. The current study aims to assess and compare pro-inflammatory cytokines between burning injuries and Leishmania infection. Methods the specific primers were designed for 10 proinflammatory genes including CCL4, CCL3,...

  16. Mutations in the Gene PRRT2 Cause Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesia with Infantile Convulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Hsien-Yang; Huang, Yong; Bruneau, Nadine; Roll, Patrice; Roberson, Elisha D. O.; Hermann, Mark; Quinn, Emily; Maas, James; Edwards, Robert; Ashizawa, Tetsuo; Baykan, Betul; Bhatia, Kailash; Bressman, Susan; Bruno, Michiko K.; Brunt, Ewout R.; Caraballo, Roberto; Echenne, Bernard; Fejerman, Natalio; Frucht, Steve; Gurnett, Christina A.; Hirsch, Edouard; Houlden, Henry; Jankovic, Joseph; Lee, Wei-Ling; Lynch, David R.; Mohammed, Shehla; Mueller, Ulrich; Nespeca, Mark P.; Renner, David; Rochette, Jacques; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Saiki, Shinji; Soong, Bing-Wen; Swoboda, Kathryn J.; Tucker, Sam; Wood, Nicholas; Hanna, Michael; Bowcock, Anne M.; Szepetowski, Pierre; Fu, Ying-Hui; Ptacek, Louis J.

    2012-01-01

    Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with infantile convulsions (PKD/IC) is an episodic movement disorder with autosomal-dominant inheritance and high penetrance, but the causative genetic mutation is unknown. We have now identified four truncating mutations involving the gene PRRT2 in the vast majorit

  17. Intragenic deletion in the LARGE gene causes Walker-Warburg syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeuwijk, J. van; Grewal, P.K.; Salih, M.A.; Beltran Valero de Bernabe, D.; McLaughlan, J.M.; Michielse, C.B.; Herrmann, R.; Hewitt, J.E.; Steinbrecher, A.; Seidahmed, M.Z.; Shaheed, M.M.; Abomelha, A.; Brunner, H.G.; Bokhoven, J.H.L.M. van; Voit, T.

    2007-01-01

    Intragenic homozygous deletions in the Large gene are associated with a severe neuromuscular phenotype in the myodystrophy (myd) mouse. These mutations result in a virtual lack of glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan. Compound heterozygous LARGE mutations have been reported in a single human patient,

  18. Calcitonin gene-related peptide does not cause migraine attacks in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob M; Thomsen, Lise L; Olesen, Jes

    2011-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a key molecule in migraine pathogenesis. Intravenous CGRP triggers migraine-like attacks in patients with migraine with aura and without aura. In contrast, patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) with known mutations did not report more migraine-...

  19. Two different forms of lethal chondrodysplasias caused by COL2A1 gene mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterpacht, A.; Hilbert, K.; Schwarze, U. [Univ. of Mainz (Germany)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Two bone dysplasia families seem to be due to mutations in the type II procollagen gene (COL2A1): the so-called spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita (SEDC) group with achondrogenesis II, hypochondrogenesis, SEDC, osteoarthrosis and the Stickler-Kniest pattern that include different forms of Kniest and Stickler dysplasia. Both groups comprise a clinical spectrum ranging from lethal to mild. COL2A1-mutations have been identified in lethal forms of the SEDC family but not in lethal forms of the Stickler/Kniest group. We now report a COL2A-1 mutation in an additional case of hypochondrogenesis (patient S) and in a lethal case of Kniest dysplasia (patient B). We amplified all 54 exons of the COL2A1 gene in both patients and screened the PCR products for mutations by SSCP analysis and sequencing. In patient B, we identified an 18 bp deletion in exon 34 which removes 6 amino acids from the mature protein. In patient S, we were able to identify a two base pair exchange (GG to AT) in exon 31, which leads to the very unusual conversion of Gly to Ile. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a Gly to Ile conversion in the COL2A1 gene, and the first report of a COL2A1 gene mutation in a lethal form of Kniest dysplasia. On the basis of the known COL2A1 gene mutations and the genotype-phenotype correlations established so far, we provide molecular data (an in frame deletion in patient B and a Gly conversion in patient S) that support their clinical classification as Kniest dysplasia and hypochondrogenesis, respectively.

  20. Environmental and chemotherapeutic agents induce breakage at genes involved in leukemia-causing gene rearrangements in human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thys, Ryan G., E-mail: rthys@wakehealth.edu [Department of Cancer Biology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1016 (United States); Lehman, Christine E., E-mail: clehman@wakehealth.edu [Department of Cancer Biology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1016 (United States); Pierce, Levi C.T., E-mail: Levipierce@gmail.com [Human Longevity, Inc., San Diego, California 92121 (United States); Wang, Yuh-Hwa, E-mail: yw4b@virginia.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Virginia, 1340 Jefferson Park Avenue, Charlottesville, VA 22908-0733 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Environmental/chemotherapeutic agents cause DNA breakage in MLL and CBFB in HSPCs. • Diethylnitrosamine-induced DNA breakage at MLL and CBFB shown for the first time. • Chemical-induced DNA breakage occurs at topoisomerase II cleavage sites. • Chemical-induced DNA breaks display a pattern similar to those in leukemia patients. • Long-term exposures suggested to generate DNA breakage at leukemia-related genes. - Abstract: Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) give rise to all of the cells that make up the hematopoietic system in the human body, making their stability and resilience especially important. Damage to these cells can severely impact cell development and has the potential to cause diseases, such as leukemia. Leukemia-causing chromosomal rearrangements have largely been studied in the context of radiation exposure and are formed by a multi-step process, including an initial DNA breakage and fusion of the free DNA ends. However, the mechanism for DNA breakage in patients without previous radiation exposure is unclear. Here, we investigate the role of non-cytotoxic levels of environmental factors, benzene, and diethylnitrosamine (DEN), and chemotherapeutic agents, etoposide, and doxorubicin, in generating DNA breakage at the patient breakpoint hotspots of the MLL and CBFB genes in human HSPCs. These conditions represent exposure to chemicals encountered daily or residual doses from chemotherapeutic drugs. Exposure of HSPCs to non-cytotoxic levels of environmental chemicals or chemotherapeutic agents causes DNA breakage at preferential sites in the human genome, including the leukemia-related genes MLL and CBFB. Though benzene, etoposide, and doxorubicin have previously been linked to leukemia formation, this is the first study to demonstrate a role for DEN in the generation of DNA breakage at leukemia-specific sites. These chemical-induced DNA breakpoints coincide with sites of predicted topoisomerase II cleavage. The

  1. A novel deletion partly removing the AVP gene causes autosomal recessive inheritance of early-onset neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J H; Kvistgaard, H; Knudsen, J; Shaikh, G; Tolmie, J; Cooke, S; Pedersen, S; Corydon, T J; Gregersen, N; Rittig, S

    2013-01-01

    Familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI) typically presents with age-dependent penetrance and autosomal dominant inheritance caused by missense variations in one allele of the AVP gene encoding the arginine vasopressin (AVP) prohormone. We present the molecular genetic characteristics underlying an unusual form of FNDI occurring with very early onset and seemingly autosomal recessive inheritance. By DNA amplification and sequencing, we identified a novel variant allele of the AVP gene carrying a 10,396 base pair deletion involving the majority of the AVP gene as well as its regulatory sequences in the intergenic region between the AVP and the OXT gene, encoding the oxytocin prohormone. We found two chromosomes carrying the deletion in affected family members and one in unaffected family members suspected to transmit the deleted allele. Whole-genome array analysis confirmed the results and excluded the presence of any additional major pathogenic abnormalities. The deletion is predicted to abolish the transcription of the AVP gene, thus the fact that family members heterozygous for the deletion remain healthy argues, in general, against haploinsufficiency as the pathogenic mechanism FNDI. Accordingly, our data is strong support to the prevailing idea that dominant inheritance of FNDI is due to a dominant-negative effect exerted by variant AVP prohormone.

  2. Screening and analysis of genes expressed upon infection of broad bean with Clover yellow vein virus causing lethal necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Yuji

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV causes lethal systemic necrosis in legumes, including broad bean (Vicia faba and pea (Pisum sativum. To identify host genes involved in necrotic symptom expression after ClYVV infection, we screened cDNA fragments in which expression was changed in advance of necrotic symptom expression in broad bean (V. faba cv. Wase using the differential display technique and secondarily with Northern blot analysis. Expression changes were confirmed in 20 genes, and the six that exhibited the most change were analyzed further. These six genes included a gene that encodes a putative nitrate-induced NOI protein (VfNOI, and another was homologous to an Arabidopsis gene that encodes a glycine- and proline-rich protein GPRP (VfGPRP. We recently reported that necrotic symptom development in ClYVV-infected pea is associated with expression of salicylic acid (SA-dependent pathogenesis-related (PR proteins and requires SA-dependent host responses. Interestingly, VfNOI and VfGPRP expression was correlated with that of the putative SA-dependent PR proteins in ClYVV-infected broad bean. However, broad bean infected with a recombinant ClYVV expressing the VfGPRP protein showed weaker symptoms and less viral multiplication than that infected with ClYVV expressing the GFP protein. These results imply that VfGPRP plays a role in defense against ClYVV rather than in necrotic symptom expression.

  3. Silencing of the ACC synthase gene ACACS2 causes delayed flowering in pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusov, Yuri; Botella, José Ramón

    2006-01-01

    Flowering is a crucial developmental stage in the plant life cycle. A number of different factors, from environmental to chemical, can trigger flowering. In pineapple, and other bromeliads, it has been proposed that flowering is triggered by a small burst of ethylene production in the meristem in response to environmental cues. A 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACC synthase) gene has been cloned from pineapple (ACACS2), which is induced in the meristem under the same environmental conditions that induce flowering. Two transgenic pineapple lines have been produced containing co-suppression constructs designed to down-regulate the expression of the ACACS2 gene. Northern analysis revealed that the ACACS2 gene was silenced in a number of transgenic plants in both lines. Southern hybridization revealed clear differences in the methylation status of silenced versus non-silenced plants by the inability of a methylation-sensitive enzyme to digest within the ACACS2 DNA extracted from silenced plants, indicating that methylation is the cause of the observed co-suppression of the ACACS2 gene. Flowering characteristics of the transgenic plants were studied under field conditions in South East Queensland, Australia. Flowering dynamics studies revealed significant differences in flowering behaviour, with transgenic plants exhibiting silencing showing a marked delay in flowering when compared with non-silenced transgenic plants and control non-transformed plants. It is argued that the ACACS2 gene is one of the key contributors towards triggering 'natural flowering' in mature pineapples under commercial field conditions.

  4. A frameshift mutation in the melanophilin gene causes the dilute coat colour in rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanesi, L; Scotti, E; Allain, D; Dall'olio, S

    2014-04-01

    In rabbit, the dilute locus is determined by a recessive mutated allele (d) that causes the dilution of both eumelanic and pheomelanic pigmentations. In mice, similar phenotypes are determined by mutations in the myosin VA, Rab27a and melanophilin (MLPH) genes. In this study, we investigated the rabbit MLPH gene and showed that a mutation in this gene appears responsible for the dilute coat colour in this species. Checkered Giant F1 families segregating for black and grey (diluted or blue) coat colour were first genotyped for a complex indel in intron 1 of the MLPH gene that was completely associated with the coat colour phenotype (θ = 0.00; LOD = 4.82). Then, we sequenced 6357 bp of the MLPH gene in 18 rabbits of different coat colours, including blue animals. A total of 165 polymorphisms were identified: 137 were in non-coding regions and 28 were in coding exons. One of them was a frameshift deletion in exon 5. Genotyping the half-sib families confirmed the complete cosegregation of this mutation with the blue coat colour. The mutation was analysed in 198 rabbits of 23 breeds. All Blue Vienna and all other blue/grey/ash rabbits in other breeds (Californian, Castor Rex, Checkered Giant, English Spot, Fairy Marburg and Fairy Pearly) were homozygous for this deletion. The identification of MLPH as the responsible gene for the dilute locus in rabbit provides a natural animal model for human Griscelli syndrome type 3 and a new mutant to study the role of this gene on pigmentation.

  5. Partial nephrogenic diabetes insipidus caused by a novel mutation in the AVPR2 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færch, Mia; Christensen, Jane H; Corydon, Thomas J;

    2008-01-01

    Objective To identify the molecular basis and clinical characteristics of X-linked congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (CNDI) presenting with an unusual phenotype characterized by partial resistance to AVP. Subjects The proband was admitted at the age of 4 years with a history of polydipsia...... and polyuria since infancy. Initial clinical testing confirmed a diagnosis of diabetes insipidus (DI). Urine osmolarity rose during fluid deprivation and after 20 microg of intranasal desmopressin [1-deamino-8-d-arginine-vasopressin (dDAVP)]. A similar DI phenotype was found in his brother. Methods The coding...... regions of the AVP gene and the AVP receptor 2 (AVPR2) genes were sequenced in two affected and three unaffected family members. Clinical studies included a fluid deprivation test, intranasal dDAVP challenge, infusion of graded doses of dDAVP and AVP, and measurements of 24-h urine output before...

  6. DNA rearrangement causes multiple changes in gene expression at the amylase locus in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, D A; Benkel, B F; Abukashawa, S; Haus, S

    1988-12-01

    A spontaneous null mutation at the alpha-amylase locus in Drosophila melanogaster was recovered from a laboratory population. The mutant strain was found to lack amylase enzyme production and to produce low, but detectable, levels of amylase mRNA. Moreover, the null strain is also lacking the glucose repression of amylase mRNA production which is seen in wild-type strains. The mutant phenotype correlates with a rearrangement in genomic DNA which, in turn, corresponds to a simple inversion in the arrangement observed most frequently in North American populations of D. melanogaster, including the common laboratory strain, Oregon-R. These results have implications for our understanding of both the evolution of the duplicated amylase gene structure and the regulation of amylase gene expression.

  7. An unusual cause of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis: prothrombin G20210A gene mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porres-Aguilar, Mateo; Square, Jaime H; Storey, Raul; Rodriguez-Dunn, Simon; Mohamed-Aly, Mohamed S

    2007-09-01

    Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis represents less than 1% of all strokes, being an uncommon entity with a wide spectrum of clinical scenarios. We present a 45-year-old Hispanic female with a history of long-term oral contraceptive use who was diagnosed with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis due to a heterozygous carrier mutation in the prothrombin G20210A gene. The patient was successfully managed with intravenous heparin with favorable clinical results without adverse effects. The prevalence of inherited primary thrombophilia increases with additional risk factors such as the use of oral contraceptives that can trigger or prothrombotic events in any vascular bed. An increased prevalence in the prothrombin G20210 gene mutation has been demonstrated in the Mexican-Mestizo population. Controversy exists regarding therapy of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis; according to experts, heparin remains the cornerstone of therapy with acceptable outcomes. More clinical trials are required to evaluate long-term outcomes in this subgroup of patients.

  8. Calcitonin gene-related peptide does not cause the familial hemiplegic migraine phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J.M.; Thomsen, L.L.; Olesen, J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a migraine trigger that plays a crucial role in migraine pathophysiology, and CGRP antagonism is efficient in the treatment of migraine attacks. Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) is a dominantly inherited subtype of migraine...... without aura. This indicates that the pathophysiologic pathways underlying migraine headache in FHM may be different from the common types of migraine and questions whether CGRP antagonists would be effective in the treatment of FHM patients Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9/9...... with aura associated with several gene mutations. FHM shares many phenotypical similarities with common types of migraine, indicating common neurobiological pathways. We tested the hypothesis that the FHM genotype confers a CGRP hypersensitive phenotype. Methods: We included 9 FHM patients with known...

  9. Hereditary spastic paraplegia with recessive trait caused by mutation in KLC4 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrakli, Fatih; Poyrazoglu, Hatice Gamze; Yuksel, Sirin; Yakicier, Cengiz; Erguner, Bekir; Sagiroglu, Mahmut Samil; Yuceturk, Betul; Ozer, Bugra; Doganay, Selim; Tanrikulu, Bahattin; Seker, Askin; Akbulut, Fatih; Ozen, Ali; Per, Huseyin; Kumandas, Sefer; Altuner Torun, Yasemin; Bayri, Yasar; Sakar, Mustafa; Dagcinar, Adnan; Ziyal, Ibrahim

    2015-12-01

    We report an association between a new causative gene and spastic paraplegia, which is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. Clinical phenotyping of one consanguineous family followed by combined homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing analysis. Three patients from the same family shared common features of progressive complicated spastic paraplegia. They shared a single homozygous stretch area on chromosome 6. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a homozygous mutation (c.853_871del19) in the gene coding the kinesin light chain 4 protein (KLC4). Meanwhile, the unaffected parents and two siblings were heterozygous and one sibling was homozygous wild type. The 19 bp deletion in exon 6 generates a stop codon and thus a truncated messenger RNA and protein. The association of a KLC4 mutation with spastic paraplegia identifies a new locus for the disease.

  10. Permanent neonatal diabetes caused by creation of an ectopic splice site within the INS gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intza Garin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to characterize the genetic etiology in a patient who presented with permanent neonatal diabetes at 2 months of age. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Regulatory elements and coding exons 2 and 3 of the INS gene were amplified and sequenced from genomic and complementary DNA samples. A novel heterozygous INS mutation within the terminal intron of the gene was identified in the proband and her affected father. This mutation introduces an ectopic splice site leading to the insertion of 29 nucleotides from the intronic sequence into the mature mRNA, which results in a longer and abnormal transcript. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study highlights the importance of routinely sequencing the exon-intron boundaries and the need to carry out additional studies to confirm the pathogenicity of any identified intronic genetic variants.

  11. A Hybrid CFHR3-1 Gene Causes Familial C3 Glomerulopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malik, Talat H

    2012-07-01

    Controlled activation of the complement system, a key component of innate immunity, enables destruction of pathogens with minimal damage to host tissue. Complement factor H (CFH), which inhibits complement activation, and five CFH-related proteins (CFHR1-5) compose a family of structurally related molecules. Combined deletion of CFHR3 and CFHR1 is common and confers a protective effect in IgA nephropathy. Here, we report an autosomal dominant complement-mediated GN associated with abnormal increases in copy number across the CFHR3 and CFHR1 loci. In addition to normal copies of these genes, affected individuals carry a unique hybrid CFHR3-1 gene. In addition to identifying an association between these genetic observations and complement-mediated kidney disease, these results provide insight into the protective role of the combined deletion of CFHR3 and CFHR1 in IgA nephropathy.

  12. Permanent Neonatal Diabetes Caused by Creation of an Ectopic Splice Site within the INS Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastaldo, Elena; Harries, Lorna W.; Rubio-Cabezas, Oscar; Castaño, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to characterize the genetic etiology in a patient who presented with permanent neonatal diabetes at 2 months of age. Methodology/Principal Findings Regulatory elements and coding exons 2 and 3 of the INS gene were amplified and sequenced from genomic and complementary DNA samples. A novel heterozygous INS mutation within the terminal intron of the gene was identified in the proband and her affected father. This mutation introduces an ectopic splice site leading to the insertion of 29 nucleotides from the intronic sequence into the mature mRNA, which results in a longer and abnormal transcript. Conclusions/Significance This study highlights the importance of routinely sequencing the exon-intron boundaries and the need to carry out additional studies to confirm the pathogenicity of any identified intronic genetic variants. PMID:22235272

  13. Calcitonin gene-related peptide does not cause migraine attacks in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob M; Thomsen, Lise L; Olesen, Jes;

    2011-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a key molecule in migraine pathogenesis. Intravenous CGRP triggers migraine-like attacks in patients with migraine with aura and without aura. In contrast, patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) with known mutations did not report more migraine......-like attacks compared to controls. Whether CGRP triggers migraine-like attacks in FHM patients without known mutations is unknown....

  14. Ethylmalonic Encephalopathy Is Caused by Mutations in ETHE1, a Gene Encoding a Mitochondrial Matrix Protein

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Ethylmalonic encephalopathy (EE) is a devastating infantile metabolic disorder affecting the brain, gastrointestinal tract, and peripheral vessels. High levels of ethylmalonic acid are detected in the body fluids, and cytochrome c oxidase activity is decreased in skeletal muscle. By use of a combination of homozygosity mapping, integration of physical and functional genomic data sets, and mutational screening, we identified GenBank D83198 as the gene responsible for EE. We also demonstrated t...

  15. Mutation of the Erwinia amylovora argD gene causes arginine auxotrophy, nonpathogenicity in apples, and reduced virulence in pears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Laura S; Lehman, Brian L; Peter, Kari A; McNellis, Timothy W

    2014-11-01

    Fire blight is caused by Erwinia amylovora and is the most destructive bacterial disease of apples and pears worldwide. In this study, we found that E. amylovora argD(1000)::Tn5, an argD Tn5 transposon mutant that has the Tn5 transposon inserted after nucleotide 999 in the argD gene-coding region, was an arginine auxotroph that did not cause fire blight in apple and had reduced virulence in immature pear fruits. The E. amylovora argD gene encodes a predicted N-acetylornithine aminotransferase enzyme, which is involved in the production of the amino acid arginine. A plasmid-borne copy of the wild-type argD gene complemented both the nonpathogenic and the arginine auxotrophic phenotypes of the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant. However, even when mixed with virulent E. amylovora cells and inoculated onto immature apple fruit, the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant still failed to grow, while the virulent strain grew and caused disease. Furthermore, the pCR2.1-argD complementation plasmid was stably maintained in the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant growing in host tissues without any antibiotic selection. Therefore, the pCR2.1-argD complementation plasmid could be useful for the expression of genes, markers, and reporters in E. amylovora growing in planta, without concern about losing the plasmid over time. The ArgD protein cannot be considered an E. amylovora virulence factor because the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant was auxotrophic and had a primary metabolism defect. Nevertheless, these results are informative about the parasitic nature of the fire blight disease interaction, since they indicate that E. amylovora cannot obtain sufficient arginine from apple and pear fruit tissues or from apple vegetative tissues, either at the beginning of the infection process or after the infection has progressed to an advanced state.

  16. Alzheimer's Disease: A Pathogenetic Autoimmune Disorder Caused by Herpes Simplex in a Gene-Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Carter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex is implicated in Alzheimer's disease and viral infection produces Alzheimer's disease like pathology in mice. The virus expresses proteins containing short contiguous amino acid stretches (5–9aa “vatches” = viralmatches homologous to APOE4, clusterin, PICALM, and complement receptor 1, and to over 100 other gene products relevant to Alzheimer's disease, which are also homologous to proteins expressed by other pathogens implicated in Alzheimer's disease. Such homology, reiterated at the DNA level, suggests that gene association studies have been tracking infection, as well as identifying key genes, demonstrating a role for pathogens as causative agents. Vatches may interfere with the function of their human counterparts, acting as dummy ligands, decoy receptors, or via interactome interference. They are often immunogenic, and antibodies generated in response to infection may target their human counterparts, producing protein knockdown, or generating autoimmune responses that may kill the neurones in which the human homologue resides, a scenario supported by immune activation in Alzheimer's disease. These data may classify Alzheimer's disease as an autoimmune disorder created by pathogen mimicry of key Alzheimer's disease-related proteins. It may well be prevented by vaccination and regular pathogen detection and elimination, and perhaps stemmed by immunosuppression or antibody adsorption-related therapies.

  17. NUCLEAR GENE MUTATIONS AS THE CAUSE OF MITOCHONDRIAL COMPLEX III DEFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika eFernandez-Vizarra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Complex III (CIII deficiency is one of the least common oxidative phosphorylation defects associated to mitochondrial disease. CIII constitutes the center of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, as well as a crossroad for several other metabolic pathways. For more than ten years, of all the potential candidate genes encoding structural subunits and assembly factors, only three were known to be associated to CIII defects in human pathology. Thus, leaving many of these cases unresolved. These first identified genes were MT-CYB, the only CIII subunit encoded in the mitochondrial DNA; BCS1L, encoding an assembly factor, and UQCRB, a nuclear-encoded structural subunit. Nowadays, thanks to the fast progress that has taken place in the last three-four years, pathological changes in seven more genes are known to be associated to these conditions. This review will focus on the strategies that have permitted the latest discovery of mutations in factors that are necessary for a correct CIII assembly and activity, in relation with their function. In addition, new data further establishing the molecular role of LYRM7/MZM1L as a chaperone involved in CIII biogenesis are provided.

  18. Mutations in DDR2 gene cause SMED with short limbs and abnormal calcifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargal, Ruth; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Ben-Neriah, Ziva; Le Merrer, Martine; Sosna, Jacob; Melki, Judith; Zangen, David H; Smithson, Sarah F; Borochowitz, Zvi; Belostotsky, Ruth; Raas-Rothschild, Annick

    2009-01-01

    The spondylo-meta-epiphyseal dysplasia [SMED] short limb-hand type [SMED-SL] is a rare autosomal-recessive disease, first reported by Borochowitz et al. in 1993.(1) Since then, 14 affected patients have been reported.(2-5) We diagnosed 6 patients from 5 different consanguineous Arab Muslim families from the Jerusalem area with SMED-SL. Additionally, we studied two patients from Algerian and Pakistani ancestry and the parents of the first Jewish patients reported.(1) Using a homozygosity mapping strategy, we located a candidate region on chromosome 1q23 spanning 2.4 Mb. The position of the Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 (DDR2) gene within the candidate region and the similarity of the ddr2 knockout mouse to the SMED patients' phenotype prompted us to study this gene(6). We identified three missense mutations c.2254 C > T [R752C], c. 2177 T > G [I726R], c.2138C > T [T713I] and one splice site mutation [IVS17+1g > a] in the conserved sequence encoding the tyrosine kinase domain of the DDR2 gene. The results of this study will permit an accurate early prenatal diagnosis and carrier screening for families at risk.

  19. Knockout of Lysosomal Enzyme-Targeting Gene Causes Abnormalities in Mouse Pup Isolation Calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Terra D.; Holy, Timothy E.

    2017-01-01

    Humans lacking a working copy of the GNPTAB gene suffer from the metabolic disease Mucolipidosis type II (MLII). MLII symptoms include mental retardation, skeletal deformities and cartilage defects as well as a speech delay with most subjects unable to utter single words (Otomo et al., 2009; Cathey et al., 2010; Leroy et al., 2012). Here we asked whether mice lacking a copy of Gnptab gene exhibited vocal abnormities. We recorded ultrasonic vocalizations from 5 to 8 day old mice separated from their mother and littermates. Although Gnptab−/− pups emitted a similar number of calls, several features of the calls were different from their wild type littermates. Gnptab−/− mice showed a decrease in the length of calls, an increase in the intra-bout pause duration, significantly fewer pitch jumps with smaller mean size, and an increase in the number of isolated calls. In addition, Gnptab−/− mice vocalizations had less power, particularly in the higher frequencies. Gnptab+/− mouse vocalizations did not appear to be affected. We then attempted to classify these recordings using these features to determine the genotype of the animal. We were able to correctly identify 87% of the recordings as either Gnptab−/− or Gnptab+/+ pup, significantly better than chance, demonstrating that genotype is a strong predictor of vocalization phenotype. These data show that deletion of genes in the lysosomal enzyme targeting pathway affect mouse pup isolation calls.

  20. Double-mismatched siRNAs enhance selective gene silencing of a mutant ALS-causing allele

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-ming GENG; Hong-liu DING

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Our previous study demonstrated an siRNA-mediated, allele-specific silenc-ing of mutant genes that cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. To improve siRNA design for better therapeutic use of RNA interference, we systematically tested the base-pairing mismatch strategy in the design of asymmetric siRNA. Methods: A naturally symmetric siRNA that targets the human Cu Zn superoxide dismutase G85R mutant allele was modified by placing either 1 or 2 mismatches at the end of the siRNA from position 1 to 4 at each time. The target preference and silencing efficacy of modified siRNA were measured using a modified dual luciferase system. Results: The modification of single base-pairing mismatch successfully achieved the conversion of the siRNA that was originally favored to the antisense of the mutant allele to the one that was favored to the sense strand of the gene. Com-pared to the single-mismatched siRNA, those with double-mismatch at one end demonstrated an increased asymmetry, and thus, an enhanced specificity and efficacy of gene silencing. In addition, the siRNA with double-mismatch at both ends remained in symmetry. Conclusion: Our results suggest the effectiveness of converting a symmetric siRNA to an asymmetric one by introducing mismatches into its structure, and the superiority of double-mismatched siRNA to single-mismatched siRNA in producing selective gene silencing resulting from the dis-ruption of siRNA symmetry. The double-mismatch strategy is an improvement of the single-mismatch method and could be useful in the design of effective siRNAs for the treatment of diseases caused by dominant, gain-of-function gene mutations, such as ALS.

  1. Transcriptional regulation of the ABCC6 gene and the background of impaired function of missense disease-causing mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás eArányi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The human ABCC6 gene encodes an ABC transporter protein expressed primarily in the liver and to a lesser extent in the kidneys and the intestines. We review here the mechanisms of this restricted tissue-specific expression and the role of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α which is responsible for the expression pattern. Detailed analyses uncovered further regulators of the expression of the gene pointing to an intronic primate-specific regulator region, an activator of the expression of the gene by binding C/EBPbeta, which interacts with other proteins acting in the proximal promoter. This regulatory network is affected by various environmental stimuli including oxidative stress and the ERK1/2 pathway. We also review here the structural and functional consequences of disease-causing missense mutations of ABCC6. A significant clustering of the missense disease-causing mutations was found at the domain-domain interfaces. This clustering means that the domain contacts are much less permissive to amino acid replacements than the rest of the protein. We summarize the experimental methods resulting in the identification of mutants with preserved transport activity but failure in intracellular targeting. These mutants are candidates for functional rescue by chemical chaperons. The results of such research can provide the basis of future allele-specific therapy of ABCC6-mediated disorders like pseudoxanthoma elasticum or the generalized arterial calcification in infancy.

  2. Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD) caused by duplication of exons 3-6 of the dystrophin gene presenting as dilated cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, A.C.; Allingham-Hawkins, D.J.; Becker, L. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy (XLCM) is a progressive myocardial disease presenting with congestive heart failure in teenage males without clinical signs of skeletal myopathy. Tight linkage of XLCM to the DMD locus has been demonstrated; it has been suggested that, at least in some families, XLCM is a {open_quotes}dystrophinopathy.{close_quotes} We report a 14-year-old boy who presented with acute heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy. He had no history of muscle weakness, but physical examination revealed pseudohypertrophy of the calf muscles. He subsequently received a heart transplantation. Family history was negative. Serum CK level at the time of diagnosis was 10,416. Myocardial biopsy showed no evidence of carditis. Dystrophin staining of cardiac and skeletal muscle with anti-sera to COOH and NH{sub 2}termini showed a patchy distribution of positivity suggestive of Becker muscular dystrophy. Analysis of 18 of the 79 dystrophin exons detected a duplication that included exons 3-6. The proband`s mother has an elevated serum CK and was confirmed to be a carrier of the same duplication. A mutation in the muscle promotor region of the dystrophin gene has been implicated in the etiology of SLCM. However, Towbin et al. (1991) argued that other 5{prime} mutations in the dystrophin gene could cause selective cardiomyopathy. The findings in our patient support the latter hypothesis. This suggests that there are multiple regions in the dystrophin gene which, when disrupted, can cause isolated dilated cardiomyopathy.

  3. Abnormal desmin protein in myofibrillar myopathies caused by desmin gene mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M; Dalakas, M C

    2001-04-01

    Muscle proteins were extracted in various sodium dodecyl sulfate buffers from 6 patients with myofibrillar myopathy (MFM) and previously identified with mutations in the desmin gene (desmin myopathy; DesM), 6 with MFM without mutations, and 14 disease controls to search for alterations in biochemistry and solubility of mutated desmin filaments. In the 1% posthigh-speed pellet fraction, desmin was detected with immunoblots only in DesM and not the other MFM. We conclude that mutant desmin forms insoluble aggregates that are specific for the DesM and can be detected with Western blots.

  4. Tissue-Specific Expression of a Splicing Mutation in the IKBKAP Gene Causes Familial Dysautonomia

    OpenAIRE

    Slaugenhaupt, Susan A; Blumenfeld, Anat; Gill, Sandra P.; Leyne, Maire; Mull, James; Cuajungco, Math P.; Liebert, Christopher B.; Chadwick, Brian; Idelson, Maria; Reznik, Luba; Robbins, Christiane M.; Makalowska, Izabela; Brownstein, Michael J.; Krappmann, Daniel; Scheidereit, Claus

    2001-01-01

    Familial dysautonomia (FD; also known as “Riley-Day syndrome”), an Ashkenazi Jewish disorder, is the best known and most frequent of a group of congenital sensory neuropathies and is characterized by widespread sensory and variable autonomic dysfunction. Previously, we had mapped the FD gene, DYS, to a 0.5-cM region on chromosome 9q31 and had shown that the ethnic bias is due to a founder effect, with >99.5% of disease alleles sharing a common ancestral haplotype. To investigate the molecular...

  5. Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome is caused by mutations in the 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Waterham, H. R.; Wijburg, F.A.; Hennekam, R. C.; Vreken, P; Poll-The, B T; Dorland, L.; Duran, M.; Jira, P.E.; Smeitink, J. A.; Wevers, R. A.; Wanders, R J

    1998-01-01

    Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome is a frequently occurring autosomal recessive developmental disorder characterized by facial dysmorphisms, mental retardation, and multiple congenital anomalies. Biochemically, the disorder is caused by deficient activity of 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, which catalyzes the final step in the cholesterol-biosynthesis pathway-that is, the reduction of the Delta7 double bond of 7-dehydrocholesterol to produce cholesterol. We identified a partial transcript coding for...

  6. Molecular Diagnosis of Analbuminemia: A New Case Caused by a Nonsense Mutation in the Albumin Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Minchiotti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Analbuminemia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder manifested by the absence, or severe reduction, of circulating serum albumin (ALB. We report here a new case diagnosed in a 45 years old man of Southwestern Asian origin, living in Switzerland, on the basis of his low ALB concentration (0.9 g/L in the absence of renal or gastrointestinal protein loss, or liver dysfunction. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by a mutational analysis of the albumin (ALB gene, carried out by single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP, heteroduplex analysis (HA, and DNA sequencing. This screening of the ALB gene revealed that the proband is homozygous for two mutations: the insertion of a T in a stretch of eight Ts spanning positions c.1289 + 23–c.1289 + 30 of intron 10 and a c.802 G > T transversion in exon 7. Whereas the presence of an additional T in the poly-T tract has no direct deleterious effect, the latter nonsense mutation changes the codon GAA for Glu244 to the stop codon TAA, resulting in a premature termination of the polypeptide chain. The putative protein product would have a length of only 243 amino acid residues instead of the normal 585 found in the mature serum albumin, but no evidence for the presence in serum of such a truncated polypeptide chain could be obtained by two dimensional electrophoresis and western blotting analysis.

  7. Stilbene synthase gene transfer caused alterations in the phenylpropanoid metabolism of transgenic strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanhineva, Kati; Kokko, Harri; Siljanen, Henri; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph; Kärenlampi, Sirpa O

    2009-01-01

    The gene encoding stilbene synthase is frequently used to modify plant secondary metabolism with the aim of producing the self-defence phytoalexin resveratrol. In this study, strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) was transformed with the NS-Vitis3 gene encoding stilbene synthase from frost grape (Vitis riparia) under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S and the floral filament-specific fil1 promoters. Changes in leaf metabolites were investigated with UPLC-qTOF-MS (ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry) profiling, and increased accumulation of cinnamate, coumarate, and ferulate derivatives concomitantly with a decrease in the levels of flavonols was observed, while the anticipated resveratrol or its derivatives were not detected. The changed metabolite profile suggested that chalcone synthase was down-regulated by the genetic modification; this was verified by decreased chalcone synthase transcript levels. Changes in the levels of phenolic compounds led to increased susceptibility of the transgenic strawberry to grey mould fungus.

  8. Frameshift mutation in the PTCH2 gene can cause nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Katsunori; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Maiko; Hatsuse, Hiromi; Shiohama, Tadashi; Uchikawa, Hideki; Miyashita, Toshiyuki

    2013-12-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by developmental defects and tumorigenesis. The gene responsible for NBCCS is PTCH1, encoding a receptor for the secreted protein, sonic hedgehog. Recently, a Chinese family with NBCCS carrying a missense mutation in PTCH2, a close homolog of PTCH1, was reported. However, the pathological significance of missense mutations should be discussed cautiously. Here, we report a 13-year-old girl diagnosed with NBCCS based on multiple keratocystic odontogenic tumors and rib anomalies carrying a frameshift mutation in the PTCH2 gene (c.1172_1173delCT). Considering the deleterious nature of the frameshift mutation, our study further confirmed a causative role for the PTCH2 mutation in NBCCS. The absence of typical phenotypes in this case such as palmar/plantar pits, macrocephaly, falx calcification, hypertelorism and coarse face, together with previously reported cases, suggested that individuals with NBCCS carrying a PTCH2 mutation may have a milder phenotype than those with a PTCH1 mutation.

  9. Bmp2 deletion causes an amelogenesis imperfecta phenotype via regulating enamel gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Feng, Junsheng; Wang, Feng; Li, Wentong; Gao, Qingping; Chen, Zhuo; Shoff, Lisa; Donly, Kevin J; Gluhak-Heinrich, Jelica; Chun, Yong Hee Patricia; Harris, Stephen E; MacDougall, Mary; Chen, Shuo

    2015-08-01

    Although Bmp2 is essential for tooth formation, the role of Bmp2 during enamel formation remains unknown in vivo. In this study, the role of Bmp2 in regulation of enamel formation was investigated by the Bmp2 conditional knock out (Bmp2 cKO) mice. Teeth of Bmp2 cKO mice displayed severe and profound phenotypes with asymmetric and misshaped incisors as well as abrasion of incisors and molars. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the enamel layer was hypoplastic and enamel lacked a typical prismatic pattern. Teeth from null mice were much more brittle as tested by shear and compressive moduli. Expression of enamel matrix protein genes, amelogenin, enamelin, and enamel-processing proteases, Mmp-20 and Klk4 was reduced in the Bmp2 cKO teeth as reflected in a reduced enamel formation. Exogenous Bmp2 up-regulated those gene expressions in mouse enamel organ epithelial cells. This result for the first time indicates Bmp2 signaling is essential for proper enamel development and mineralization in vivo.

  10. [Sop proteins can cause transcriptional silencing of genes located close to the centromere sites of linear plasmid N15].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardanov, A V; Lane, D; Ravin, N V

    2010-01-01

    Stable inheritance of bacterial chromosomes and low copy number plasmids is ensured by accurate partitioning of replicated molecules between the daughter cells at division. Partitioning of the prophage of the temperate bacteriophage N15, which exists as a linear plasmid molecule with covalently closed ends, depends on the sop locus, comprising genes sopA and sopB, as well as four centromere sites located in different regions of the N15 genome essential for replication and the control of lysogeny. We found that binding of SopB to the centromere can silence centromere-proximal promoters, presumably due to subsequent polymerizing of SopB along the DNA. Close to the IR4 centromere site we identified a promoter, P59, able to drive expression of phage late genes encoding the structural proteins of virion. We found that following binding to IR4 the N15 Sop proteins can cause repression of this promoter. The repression depends on SopB and became stronger in the presence of SopA. Sop-dependent silencing of centromere-proximal promoters control gene expression in phage N15, particularly preventing undesired expression of late genes in the N15 prophage. Thus, the phage N15 sop system not only ensures plasmid partitioning but is also involved in the genetic network controlling prophage replication and the maintenance of lysogeny.

  11. Novel frameshift mutation in the CACNA1A gene causing a mixed phenotype of episodic ataxia and familiar hemiplegic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinder, S; Ossig, C; Wienecke, M; Beyer, A; von der Hagen, M; Storch, A; Smitka, M

    2015-01-01

    Episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2, MIM#108500) is the most common form of EA and an autosomal-dominant inherited disorder characterized by paroxysmal episodes of ataxia. The disease causative gene CACNA1A encodes for the alpha 1A subunit of the voltage-gated P/Q-type calcium channel. We report on a family with a novel mutation in the CACNA1A gene. The clinical symptoms within the family varied from the typical clinical presentation of EA2 with dysarthria, gait ataxia and oculomotor symptoms to migraine and dystonia. A novel nonsense mutation of the CACNA1A gene was identified in all affected family members and is most likely the disease causing molecular defect. The pharmacological treatment with acetazolamide (AAA) was successful in three family members so far. Treatment with AAA led to a reduction of migraine attacks and an improvement of the dystonia. This relationship confirmed the hypothesis that this novel mutation results in a heterogeneous phenotype and confutes the coincidence with common migraine. Dystonia is potentially included as a further part of the phenotype spectrum of CACNA1A gene mutations.

  12. The A395T mutation in ERG11 gene confers fluconazole resistance in Candida tropicalis causing candidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jingwen; Zhang, Jinqing; Chen, Wei; Sun, Yi; Wan, Zhe; Li, Ruoyu; Liu, Wei

    2015-04-01

    The mechanism of fluconazole resistance in Candida tropicalis is still unclear. Recently, we isolated a fluconazole-resistant strain of C. tropicalis from the blood specimen of a patient with candidemia in China. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of the isolate was determined by using CLSI M27-A3 and E-test methods. The sequence of ERG11 gene was then analyzed, and the three-dimensional model of Erg11p encoded by ERG11 gene was also investigated. The sequencing of ERG11 gene revealed the mutation of A395T in this fluconazole-resistant isolate of C. tropicalis, resulting in the Y132F substitution in Erg11p. Sequence alignment and three-dimensional model comparison of Erg11ps showed high similarity between fluconazole-susceptible isolates of C. tropicalis and Candida albicans. The comparison of the three-dimensional models of Erg11ps demonstrated that the position of the Y132F substitution in this isolate of C. tropicalis is identical to the isolate of C. albicans with fluconazole resistance resulting from Y132F substitution in Erg11p. Hence, we ascertain that the Y132F substitution of Erg11p caused by A395T mutation in ERG11 gene confers the fluconazole resistance in C. tropicalis.

  13. Gypenosides causes DNA damage and inhibits expression of DNA repair genes of human oral cancer SAS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kung-Wen; Chen, Jung-Chou; Lai, Tung-Yuan; Yang, Jai-Sing; Weng, Shu-Wen; Ma, Yi-Shih; Tang, Nou-Ying; Lu, Pei-Jung; Weng, Jing-Ru; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2010-01-01

    Gypenosides (Gyp) are the major components of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino, a Chinese medical plant. Recently, Gyp has been shown to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in many human cancer cell lines. However, there is no available information to address the effects of Gyp on DNA damage and DNA repair-associated gene expression in human oral cancer cells. Therefore, we investigated whether Gyp induced DNA damage and DNA repair gene expression in human oral cancer SAS cells. The results from flow cytometric assay indicated that Gyp-induced cytotoxic effects led to a decrease in the percentage of viable SAS cells. The results from comet assay revealed that the incubation of SAS cells with Gyp led to a longer DNA migration smear (comet tail) when compared with control and this effect was dose-dependent. The results from real-time PCR analysis indicated that treatment of SAS cells with 180 mug/ml of Gyp for 24 h led to a decrease in 14-3-3sigma, DNA-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase (DNAPK), p53, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) and breast cancer gene 1 (BRCA1) mRNA expression. These observations may explain the cell death caused by Gyp in SAS cells. Taken together, Gyp induced DNA damage and inhibited DNA repair-associated gene expressions in human oral cancer SAS cells in vitro.

  14. Further insight into the phenotype associated with a mutation in the ORC6 gene, causing Meier-Gorlin syndrome 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Stavit Allon; Khayat, Morad; Etty, Daniel-Spiegl; Elpeleg, Orly

    2015-03-01

    Mutations in genes encoding the origin recognition complex subunits cause Meier-Gorlin syndrome. The disease manifests a triad of short stature, small ears, and small and/or absent patellae with variable expressivity. We report on the identification of a homozygous deleterious mutation in the ORC6 gene in previously described fetuses at the severe end of the Meier-Gorlin spectrum. The phenotype included severe intrauterine growth retardation, dislocation of knees, gracile bones, clubfeet, and small mandible and chest. To date, the clinical presentation of ORC6-associated Meier-Gorlin syndrome has been mild compared to other the phenotype associated with other loci. The present report expands the clinical phenotype associated with ORC6 mutations to include severely abnormal embryological development suggesting a possible genotype-phenotype correlation.

  15. Bietti crystalline corneoretinal dystrophy is caused by mutations in the novel gene CYP4V2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Anren; Jiao, Xiaodong; Munier, Francis L; Schorderet, Daniel F; Yao, Wenliang; Iwata, Fumino; Hayakawa, Mutsuko; Kanai, Atsushi; Shy Chen, Muh; Alan Lewis, Richard; Heckenlively, John; Weleber, Richard G; Traboulsi, Elias I; Zhang, Qingjiong; Xiao, Xueshan; Kaiser-Kupfer, Muriel; Sergeev, Yuri V; Hejtmancik, J Fielding

    2004-05-01

    Bietti crystalline corneoretinal dystrophy (BCD) is an autosomal recessive retinal dystrophy characterized by multiple glistening intraretinal crystals scattered over the fundus, a characteristic degeneration of the retina, and sclerosis of the choroidal vessels, ultimately resulting in progressive night blindness and constriction of the visual field. The BCD region of chromosome 4q35.1 was refined to an interval flanked centromerically by D4S2924 by linkage and haplotype analysis; mutations were found in the novel CYP450 family member CYP4V2 in 23 of 25 unrelated patients with BCD tested. The CYP4V2 gene, transcribed from 11 exons spanning 19 kb, is expressed widely. Homology to other CYP450 proteins suggests that CYP4V2 may have a role in fatty acid and steroid metabolism, consistent with biochemical studies of patients with BCD.

  16. Overexpression of the CmACS-3 gene in melon causes abnormal pollen development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Luan, F

    2015-01-01

    Sexual diversity expressed by the Curcurbitaceae family is a primary example of developmental plasticity in plants. Most melon genotypes are andromonoecious, where an initial phase of male flowers is followed by a mixture of bisexual and male flowers. Over-expression of the CmACS-3 gene in melon plants showed an increased number of flower buds, and increased femaleness as demonstrated by a larger number bisexual buds. Transformation of CmACS-3 in melons showed earlier development of and an increased number of bisexual buds that matured to anthesis but also increased the rate of development of the bisexual buds to maturity. Field studies showed that CmACS-3-overexpressing melons had earlier mature bisexual flowers, earlier fruit set, and an increased number of fruits set on closely spaced nodes on the main stem.

  17. The Tourette International Collaborative Genetics (TIC Genetics) study, finding the genes causing Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, Andrea; Fernandez, Thomas V; King, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by recurrent motor and vocal tics, often accompanied by obsessive-compulsive disorder and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. While the evidence for a genetic contribution is strong, its exact nature has yet...... to be clarified fully. There is now mounting evidence that the genetic risks for TS include both common and rare variants and may involve complex multigenic inheritance or, in rare cases, a single major gene. Based on recent progress in many other common disorders with apparently similar genetic architectures...... discovery effort, focusing both on familial genetic variants with large effects within multiply affected pedigrees and on de novo mutations ascertained through the analysis of apparently simplex parent-child trios with non-familial tics. The clinical data and biomaterials (DNA, transformed cell lines, RNA...

  18. Mutations in the Gene PRRT2 Cause Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesia with Infantile Convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Yang Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with infantile convulsions (PKD/IC is an episodic movement disorder with autosomal-dominant inheritance and high penetrance, but the causative genetic mutation is unknown. We have now identified four truncating mutations involving the gene PRRT2 in the vast majority (24/25 of well-characterized families with PKD/IC. PRRT2 truncating mutations were also detected in 28 of 78 additional families. PRRT2 encodes a proline-rich transmembrane protein of unknown function that has been reported to interact with the t-SNARE, SNAP25. PRRT2 localizes to axons but not to dendritic processes in primary neuronal culture, and mutants associated with PKD/IC lead to dramatically reduced PRRT2 levels, leading ultimately to neuronal hyperexcitability that manifests in vivo as PKD/IC.

  19. Identification of novel mutation in cathepsin C gene causing Papillon-Lefèvre Syndrome in Mexican patients

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Papillon-Lefèvre Syndrome (PLS) is a type IV genodermatosis caused by mutations in cathepsin C (CTSC), with a worldwide prevalence of 1–4 cases per million in the general population. In México, the prevalence of this syndrome is unknown, and there are few case reports. The diagnosis of twenty patients in the state of Sinaloa highlights the need to characterize this syndrome in Mexicans. Methods To understand the basis of PLS in Mexicans, the gene expression, enzymatic acti...

  20. Identification of novel mutation in cathepsin C gene causing Papillon-Lefèvre Syndrome in Mexican patients

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background Papillon-Lefèvre Syndrome (PLS) is a type IV genodermatosis caused by mutations in cathepsin C (CTSC), with a worldwide prevalence of 1–4 cases per million in the general population. In México, the prevalence of this syndrome is unknown, and there are few case reports. The diagnosis of twenty patients in the state of Sinaloa highlights the need to characterize this syndrome in Mexicans. Methods To understand the basis of PLS in Mexicans, the gene expression, enzymatic activity and ...

  1. Mutations in sodium-channel gene SCN9A cause a spectrum of human genetic pain disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Drenth, J.P.H.; Waxman, S G

    2007-01-01

    The voltage-gated sodium-channel type IX alpha subunit, known as Na(v)1.7 and encoded by the gene SCN9A, is located in peripheral neurons and plays an important role in action potential production in these cells. Recent genetic studies have identified Na(v)1.7 dysfunction in three different human pain disorders. Gain-of-function missense mutations in Na(v)1.7 have been shown to cause primary erythermalgia and paroxysmal extreme pain disorder, while nonsense mutations in Na(v)1.7 result in los...

  2. North Carolina macular dystrophy (MCDR1) caused by a novel tandem duplication of the PRDM13 gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Lori S.; Wheaton, Dianna K.; Locke, Kirsten G.; Jones, Kaylie D.; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Fulton, Robert S.; Wilson, Richard K.; Blanton, Susan H.; Birch, David G.; Daiger, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify the underlying cause of disease in a large family with North Carolina macular dystrophy (NCMD). Methods A large four-generation family (RFS355) with an autosomal dominant form of NCMD was ascertained. Family members underwent comprehensive visual function evaluations. Blood or saliva from six affected family members and three unaffected spouses was collected and DNA tested for linkage to the MCDR1 locus on chromosome 6q12. Three affected family members and two unaffected spouses underwent whole exome sequencing (WES) and subsequently, custom capture of the linkage region followed by next-generation sequencing (NGS). Standard PCR and dideoxy sequencing were used to further characterize the mutation. Results Of the 12 eyes examined in six affected individuals, all but two had Gass grade 3 macular degeneration features. Large central excavation of the retinal and choroid layers, referred to as a macular caldera, was seen in an age-independent manner in the grade 3 eyes. The calderas are unique to affected individuals with MCDR1. Genome-wide linkage mapping and haplotype analysis of markers from the chromosome 6q region were consistent with linkage to the MCDR1 locus. Whole exome sequencing and custom-capture NGS failed to reveal any rare coding variants segregating with the phenotype. Analysis of the custom-capture NGS sequencing data for copy number variants uncovered a tandem duplication of approximately 60 kb on chromosome 6q. This region contains two genes, CCNC and PRDM13. The duplication creates a partial copy of CCNC and a complete copy of PRDM13. The duplication was found in all affected members of the family and is not present in any unaffected members. The duplication was not seen in 200 ethnically matched normal chromosomes. Conclusions The cause of disease in the original family with MCDR1 and several others has been recently reported to be dysregulation of the PRDM13 gene, caused by either single base substitutions in a DNase 1

  3. Structural Basis for a Human Glycosylation Disorder Caused by Mutation of the COG4 Gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, B.; Smith, R; Ungar, D; Nakamura, A; Jeffrey, P; Lupashin, V; Hughson, F

    2009-01-01

    The proper glycosylation of proteins trafficking through the Golgi apparatus depends upon the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex. Defects in COG can cause fatal congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) in humans. The recent discovery of a form of CDG, caused in part by a COG4 missense mutation changing Arg 729 to Trp, prompted us to determine the 1.9 A crystal structure of a Cog4 C-terminal fragment. Arg 729 is found to occupy a key position at the center of a salt bridge network, thereby stabilizing Cog4's small C-terminal domain. Studies in HeLa cells reveal that this C-terminal domain, while not needed for the incorporation of Cog4 into COG complexes, is essential for the proper glycosylation of cell surface proteins. We also find that Cog4 bears a strong structural resemblance to exocyst and Dsl1p complex subunits. These complexes and others have been proposed to function by mediating the initial tethering between transport vesicles and their membrane targets; the emerging structural similarities provide strong evidence of a common evolutionary origin and may reflect shared mechanisms of action.

  4. Refsum disease is caused by mutations in the phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, G A; Ofman, R; Ferdinandusse, S; Ijlst, L; Muijsers, A O; Skjeldal, O H; Stokke, O; Jakobs, C; Besley, G T; Wraith, J E; Wanders, R J

    1997-10-01

    Refsum disease is an autosomal-recessively inherited disorder characterized clinically by a tetrad of abnormalities: retinitis pigmentosa, peripheral neuropathy, cerebellar ataxia and elevated protein levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) without an increase in the number of cells in the CSF. All patients exhibit accumulation of an unusual branched-chain fatty acid, phytanic acid (3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadecanoic acid), in blood and tissues. Biochemically, the disease is caused by the deficiency of phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase (PhyH), a peroxisomal protein catalyzing the first step in the alpha-oxidation of phytanic acid. We have purified PhyH from rat-liver peroxisomes and determined the N-terminal amino-acid sequence, as well as an additional internal amino-acid sequence obtained after Lys-C digestion of the purified protein. A search of the EST database with these partial amino-acid sequences led to the identification of the full-length human cDNA sequence encoding PhyH: the open reading frame encodes a 41.2-kD protein of 338 amino acids, which contains a cleavable peroxisomal targeting signal type 2 (PTS2). Sequence analysis of PHYH fibroblast cDNA from five patients with Refsum disease revealed distinct mutations, including a one-nucleotide deletion, a 111-nucleotide deletion and a point mutation. This analysis confirms our finding that Refsum disease is caused by a deficiency of PhyH.

  5. Mutations in the promoter region of the aldolase B gene that cause hereditary fructose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee, Erin M; Tolan, Dean R

    2010-12-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is a potentially fatal inherited metabolic disease caused by a deficiency of aldolase B activity in the liver and kidney. Over 40 disease-causing mutations are known in the protein-coding region of ALDOB. Mutations upstream of the protein-coding portion of ALDOB are reported here for the first time. DNA sequence analysis of 61 HFI patients revealed single base mutations in the promoter, intronic enhancer, and the first exon, which is entirely untranslated. One mutation, g.-132G>A, is located within the promoter at an evolutionarily conserved nucleotide within a transcription factor-binding site. A second mutation, IVS1+1G>C, is at the donor splice site of the first exon. In vitro electrophoretic mobility shift assays show a decrease in nuclear extract-protein binding at the g.-132G>A mutant site. The promoter mutation results in decreased transcription using luciferase reporter plasmids. Analysis of cDNA from cells transfected with plasmids harboring the IVS1+1G>C mutation results in aberrant splicing leading to complete retention of the first intron (~5 kb). The IVS1+1G>C splicing mutation results in loss of luciferase activity from a reporter plasmid. These novel mutations in ALDOB represent 2% of alleles in American HFI patients, with IVS1+1G>C representing a significantly higher allele frequency (6%) among HFI patients of Hispanic and African-American ethnicity.

  6. Novel splice, missense, and nonsense mutations in the fumarylacetoacetase gene causing tyrosinemia type I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rootwelt, H.; Kvittingen, E.A. [Univ. of Oslo (Norway); Berger, R. [Wilhelmina Kinderziekenhuis, Utrecht (Netherlands); Gray, G.; Kelly, D.A. [Children`s Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Coskun, T. [Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey)

    1994-10-01

    In six unrelated patients with hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1), three different disease-causing mutations were found by DNA sequencing. Two Pakistani patients, with acute and intermediate forms of HT1, were homozygous for a G{sup 192} {yields} T mutation in the last nucleotide of exon 2. This caused aberrant splicing with partial intron 2 retention and premature termination. Three Turkish patients with chronic and intermediate forms of HT1 were homozygous for an A{sup 698} {yields} T mutation substituting aspartic acid 233 with valine. A Norwegian patient with an intermediate clinical phenotype was heterozygous for G{sup 786} {yields} A, introducing a TGA stop codon for Trp262 (W262X). Site-directed mutagenesis and expression in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system demonstrated that the nonsense and missense mutations abolished fumarylacetoacetase activity and gave reduced amounts of a truncated and a full-length protein, respectively. Simple tests were established to identify the three mutations by restriction digestion of PCR-amplified genomic DNA. Among 30 additional HT1 patients investigated, 2 were found to be homozygous and 1 heterozygous for G{sup 192} {yields} T. Two other patients were homozygous and one was heterozygous for W262X. 21 refs., 4 figs.

  7. A novel mitofusin 2 gene mutation causing Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2A disease in a Chinese family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEING Chor Kwan; LAU Kwok Kwong; YU Kwok Wai; CHAN Yan Wo Albert; MAK Miu Chloe

    2010-01-01

    @@ Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), also known as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies, comprises a genetically heterogeneous group of inherited peripheral neuropathies. Clinically it is characterized by progressive distal weakness, muscle atrophy, distal sensory loss and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Following electrophysiological criteria, CMT is divided into two main forms: the primarily demyelinating neuropathy CMT1 with severely decreased nerve conduction velocity (NCV) (38 m/s) but decreased amplitudes.1 CMT2A, an autosomal dominant disease caused by mitofusin 2 gene (MFN2) mutations, is the most common type of CMT2, accounting for up to 33% of familial CMT2 cases.2 We reported a patient with clinical diagnosis of CMT2 caused by a novel MFN2 mutation. To our knowledge, this is a relatively early report of genetically confirmed CMT2A in Chinese.

  8. A mutation in the atrial-specific myosin light chain gene (MYL4) causes familial atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Nathan; Arnaout, Rima; Gula, Lorne J; Spears, Danna A; Leong-Sit, Peter; Li, Qiuju; Tarhuni, Wadea; Reischauer, Sven; Chauhan, Vijay S; Borkovich, Matthew; Uppal, Shaheen; Adler, Arnon; Coughlin, Shaun R; Stainier, Didier Y R; Gollob, Michael H

    2016-04-12

    Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common arrhythmia, is a growing epidemic with substantial morbidity and economic burden. Mechanisms underlying vulnerability to AF remain poorly understood, which contributes to the current lack of highly effective therapies. Recognizing mechanistic subtypes of AF may guide an individualized approach to patient management. Here, we describe a family with a previously unreported syndrome characterized by early-onset AF (age <35 years), conduction disease and signs of a primary atrial myopathy. Phenotypic penetrance was complete in all mutation carriers, although complete disease expressivity appears to be age-dependent. We show that this syndrome is caused by a novel, heterozygous p.Glu11Lys mutation in the atrial-specific myosin light chain gene MYL4. In zebrafish, mutant MYL4 leads to disruption of sarcomeric structure, atrial enlargement and electrical abnormalities associated with human AF. These findings describe the cause of a rare subtype of AF due to a primary, atrial-specific sarcomeric defect.

  9. Mutations in Three Genes Encoding Proteins Involved in Hair Shaft Formation Cause Uncombable Hair Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ü Basmanav, F Buket; Cau, Laura; Tafazzoli, Aylar

    2016-01-01

    Uncombable hair syndrome (UHS), also known as "spun glass hair syndrome," "pili trianguli et canaliculi," or "cheveux incoiffables" is a rare anomaly of the hair shaft that occurs in children and improves with age. UHS is characterized by dry, frizzy, spangly, and often fair hair that is resistant...... in the majority of UHS case subjects. The two enzymes PADI3 and TGM3, responsible for posttranslational protein modifications, and their target structural protein TCHH are all involved in hair shaft formation. Elucidation of the molecular outcomes of the disease-causing mutations by cell culture experiments...... and tridimensional protein models demonstrated clear differences in the structural organization and activity of mutant and wild-type proteins. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed morphological alterations in hair coat of Padi3 knockout mice. All together, these findings elucidate the molecular genetic...

  10. Oocyte and embryonic cytoskeletal defects caused by mutations in the Drosophila swallow gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jing; Stephenson, Edwin C

    2002-06-01

    The maternal effect gene swallow ( swa) of Drosophila is required for bicoid and htsN4 mRNA localization during oogenesis. Swallow is also required for additional, poorly understood, functions in early embryogenesis. We have examined the cytoskeleton in swa mutant oocytes and embryos by immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. Mid- and late-stage swaoocytes have defective cytoplasmic actin networks. Stage-10 oocytes have solid actin clumps and hollow actin spheres in the subcortical layer, and late-stage oocytes have uniformly distributed hollow actin spheres in the subcortical layer and in deeper cytoplasm. Swa preblastoderm embryos have uneven and irregularly distributed actin at the cortex, and defective subcortical actin networks that contain hollow and solid spheres. In swa syncytial blastoderm embryos, the abnormal actin cytoskeleton is associated with defects in nuclear distribution, migration and cleavage. Actin cytoskeletal defects correlate with spindle defects, suggesting that the abnormal organization of the actin cytoskeleton allows interaction of mitotic spindles, which induces defective nuclear divisions and loss of nuclei from the surface of the embryo.

  11. Identification of novel mutations confirms PDE4D as a major gene causing acrodysostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Danielle C; Dyment, David A; Huang, Lijia; Nikkel, Sarah M; Lacombe, Didier; Campeau, Philippe M; Lee, Brendan; Bacino, Carlos A; Michaud, Jacques L; Bernier, Francois P; Parboosingh, Jillian S; Innes, A Micheil

    2013-01-01

    Acrodysostosis is characterized by nasal hypoplasia, peripheral dysostosis, variable short stature, and intellectual impairment. Recently, mutations in PRKAR1A were reported in patients with acrodysostosis and hormone resistance. Subsequently, mutations in a phosphodiesterase gene (PDE4D) were identified in seven sporadic cases. We sequenced PDE4D in seven acrodysostosis patients from five families. Missense mutations were identified in all cases. Families showed de novo inheritance except one family with three affected children whose father was subsequently found to have subtle features of acrodysostosis. There were no recurrent mutations. Short stature and endocrine resistance are rare in this series; however, cognitive involvement and obesity were frequent. This last finding is relevant given PDE4D is insulin responsive and potentially involved in lipolysis. PDE4D encodes a cyclic AMP regulator and places PDE4D-related acrodysostosis within the same family of diseases as pseudohypoparathyroidism, pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism, PRKAR1A-related acrodysostosis and brachydactyly-mental retardation syndrome; all characterized by cognitive impairment and short distal extremities.

  12. Inhibition of scratching behaviour caused by contact dermatitis in histidine decarboxylase gene knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seike, M; Ikeda, M; Kodama, H; Terui, T; Ohtsu, H

    2005-03-01

    A neuronal system dedicated to itch consists of primary afferent and spinothalamic projection neurons. Histamine is thought to be one of the main mediators for the transmission of itch sensation. However, there are little available information on the role of histamine in scratching behaviour and sensory transmission of atopic dermatitis and chronic eczema. In the present study, the role of histamine in scratching behaviour and neural conduction of sensation in the chronic eczema model was investigated by using l-histidine decarboxylase (HDC) gene knockout mice lacking histamine. The chronic contact dermatitis was induced with daily application of diphenylcyclopropenone (DCP) on a hind paw of HDC (+/+) and HDC (-/-) mice for 2 months. The observation of scratching behaviour and the hot-plate test were performed in both mice. Histological studies were performed in the skin and spinal cord tissues. Histological examination revealed that both HDC (+/+) and HDC (-/-) mice displayed the similar extent of inflammatory cell infiltration, hyperplastic epidermis and newly spreading of neuronal processes in the skin tissue. Scratching behaviour was exclusively induced in HDC (+/+) mice, whereas it was barely observed in HDC (-/-) mice. The expression of c-Fos was specifically upregulated in HDC (+/+) mice in lamina I of the spinal dorsal horn following repeated DCP application. Scratching behaviour in chronic contact dermatitis in mice was thought mainly mediated with histamine. The afferent pathway of sensation in chronic contact dermatitis model may connect with the central nervous system through lamina I of the spinal dorsal horn.

  13. Mutations of the aurora kinase C gene causing macrozoospermia are the most frequent genetic cause of male infertility in Algerian men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Ounis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Klinefelter syndrome and Y-chromosomal microdeletion analyses were once the only two genetic tests offered to infertile men. Analyses of aurora kinase C (AURKC and DPY19L2 are now recommended for patients presenting macrozoospermia and globozoospermia, respectively, two rare forms of teratozoospermia particularly frequent among North African men. We carried out genetic analyses on Algerian patients, to evaluate the prevalence of these syndromes in this population and to compare it with the expected frequency of Klinefelter syndrome and Y-microdeletions. We carried out a retrospective study on 599 consecutive patients consulting for couple infertility at the assisted reproduction unit of the Ibn Rochd Clinique, Constantine, Algeria. Abnormal sperm parameters were observed in 404 men. Fourteen and seven men had typical macrozoospermia and globozoospermia profiles, respectively. Molecular diagnosis was carried out for these patients, for the AURKC and DPY19L2 genes. Eleven men with macrozoospermia had a homozygous AURKC mutation (79%, corresponding to 2.7% of all patients with abnormal spermograms. All the men with globozoospermia studied (n = 5, corresponding to 1.2% of all infertile men, presented a homozygous DPY19L2 deletion. By comparison, we would expect 1.6% of the patients in this cohort to have Klinefelter syndrome and 0.23% to have Y-microdeletion. Our findings thus indicate that AURKC mutations are more frequent than Klinefelter syndrome and constitute the leading genetic cause of infertility in North African men. Furthermore, we estimate that AURKC and DPY19L2 molecular defects are 10 and 5 times more frequent, respectively, than Y-microdeletions.

  14. Autosomal recessive posterior column ataxia with retinitis pigmentosa caused by novel mutations in the FLVCR1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaibani, Aziz; Wong, Lee-Jun; Wei Zhang, Victor; Lewis, Richard Alan; Shinawi, Marwan

    2015-01-01

    Posterior column ataxia with retinitis pigmentosa (PCARP) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe sensory ataxia, muscle weakness and atrophy, and progressive pigmentary retinopathy. Recently, mutations in the FLVCR1 gene were described in four families with this condition. We investigated the molecular basis and studied the phenotype of PCARP in a new family. The proband is a 33-year-old woman presented with sensory polyneuropathy and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). The constellation of clinical findings with normal metabolic and genetic evaluation, including mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis and normal levels of phytanic acid and vitamin E, prompted us to seek other causes of our patient's condition. Sequencing of FLVCR1 in the proband and targeted mutation testing in her two affected siblings revealed two novel variants, c.1547G > A (p.R516Q) and c.1593+5_+8delGTAA predicted, respectively, to be highly conserved throughout evolution and affecting the normal splicing, therefore, deleterious. This study supports the pathogenic role of FLVCR1 in PCARP and expands the molecular and clinical spectra of PCARP. We show for the first time that nontransmembrane domain (TMD) mutations in the FLVCR1 can cause PCARP, suggesting different mechanisms for pathogenicity. Our clinical data reveal that impaired sensation can be part of the phenotypic spectrum of PCARP. This study along with previously reported cases suggests that targeted sequencing of the FLVCR1 gene should be considered in patients with severe sensory ataxia, RP, and peripheral sensory neuropathy.

  15. Ultrastructural changes caused by polymyxin B and meropenem in multiresistant Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying blaKPC-2 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavuzzi, Alexsandra Maria Lima; Alves, Luiz Carlos; Veras, Dyana Leal; Brayner, Fábio André; Lopes, Ana Catarina Souza

    2016-12-01

    The ultrastructural alterations caused by polymyxin B and meropenem and by the association between polymyxin B and meropenem were investigated in two multiresistant isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae (K3-A2 and K12-A2) carriers of blaKPC-2, coming from infection and colonization in patients in a public hospital in Recife, Brazil. The ultrastructural changes were detected by transmission electron microscopy and scanning. The susceptibility of the isolates to antimicrobials was tested by the disc diffusion method and microdilution in broth. The analysis by electron microscopy showed that the isolates presented morphological and ultrastructural cellular changes when subjected to a clinically relevant concentration of antimicrobials alone or in combination. When subjected to meropenem, they presented retraction of the cytoplasmic material, rupture of the cell wall and extravasation of the cytoplasmic content. When submitted to polymyxin B, the isolates showed condensation of the ribosomes, DNA clotting, cell wall thickening and the presence of membrane compartment. When subjected to polymyxin B and meropenem in combination, the isolates showed a higher intensity of the ultrastructural changes visualized. This is the first report of the ultrastructural changes caused by polymyxin B and meropenem in multiresistant isolates of K. pneumoniae carriers of the blaKPC-2 gene. It should be noted that even when the K. pneumoniae isolates were multiresistant carriers of the blaKPC-2 gene, they underwent important structural change owing to the action of polymyxin B and meropenem.

  16. A nonsense mutation in the acid α-glucosidase gene causes Pompe disease in Finnish and Swedish Lapphunds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eija H Seppälä

    Full Text Available Pompe disease is a recessively inherited and often fatal disorder caused by the deficiency of acid α-glucosidase, an enzyme encoded by the GAA gene and needed to break down glycogen in lysosomes. This glycogen storage disease type II has been reported also in Swedish Lapphund dogs. Here we describe the genetic defect in canine Pompe disease and show that three related breeds from Scandinavia carry the same mutation. The affected dogs are homozygous for the GAA c.2237G>A mutation leading to a premature stop codon at amino acid position 746. The corresponding mutation has previously been reported in humans and causes infantile Pompe disease in combination with a second fully deleterious mutation. The affected dogs from both the Finnish as well as the Swedish breed mimic infantile-onset Pompe disease genetically, but also clinico-pathologically. Therefore this canine model provides a valuable tool for preclinical studies aimed at the development of gene therapy in Pompe disease.

  17. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 1F is caused by a microdeletion in the transportin 3 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melià, Maria J; Kubota, Akatsuki; Ortolano, Saida; Vílchez, Juan J; Gámez, Josep; Tanji, Kurenai; Bonilla, Eduardo; Palenzuela, Lluís; Fernández-Cadenas, Israel; Pristoupilová, Anna; García-Arumí, Elena; Andreu, Antoni L; Navarro, Carmen; Hirano, Michio; Martí, Ramon

    2013-05-01

    In 2001, we reported linkage of an autosomal dominant form of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 1F, to chromosome 7q32.1-32.2, but the identity of the mutant gene was elusive. Here, using a whole genome sequencing strategy, we identified the causative mutation of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 1F, a heterozygous single nucleotide deletion (c.2771del) in the termination codon of transportin 3 (TNPO3). This gene is situated within the chromosomal region linked to the disease and encodes a nuclear membrane protein belonging to the importin beta family. TNPO3 transports serine/arginine-rich proteins into the nucleus, and has been identified as a key factor in the HIV-import process into the nucleus. The mutation is predicted to generate a 15-amino acid extension of the C-terminus of the protein, segregates with the clinical phenotype, and is absent in genomic sequence databases and a set of >200 control alleles. In skeletal muscle of affected individuals, expression of the mutant messenger RNA and histological abnormalities of nuclei and TNPO3 indicate altered TNPO3 function. Our results demonstrate that the TNPO3 mutation is the cause of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 1F, expand our knowledge of the molecular basis of muscular dystrophies and bolster the importance of defects of nuclear envelope proteins as causes of inherited myopathies.

  18. Mutations in MAPT gene cause chromosome instability and introduce copy number variations widely in the genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Giacomina; Conconi, Donatella; Panzeri, Elena; Redaelli, Serena; Piccoli, Elena; Paoletta, Laura; Dalprà, Leda; Tagliavini, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    In addition to the main function of promoting polymerization and stabilization of microtubules, other roles are being attributed to tau, now considered a multifunctional protein. In particular, previous studies suggest that tau is involved in chromosome stability and genome protection. We performed cytogenetic analysis, including molecular karyotyping, on lymphocytes and fibroblasts from patients affected by frontotemporal lobar degeneration carrying different mutations in the microtubule-associated protein tau gene, to investigate the effects of these mutations on genome stability. Furthermore, we analyzed the response of mutated lymphoblastoid cell lines to genotoxic agents to evaluate the participation of tau to DNA repair systems. We found a significantly higher level of chromosome aberrations in mutated than in control cells. Mutated lymphocytes showed higher percentages of stable lesions, clonal and total aneuploidy (medians: 2 versus 0, p $\\ll$ 0.01; 1.5 versus 0, p $\\ll$ 0.01; 16.5 versus 0, p $\\ll$ 0.01, respectively). Fibroblasts of patients showed higher percentages of stable lesions, structural aberrations and total aneuploidy (medians: 0 versus 0, p = 0.03; 5.8 versus 0, p = 0.02; 26.5 versus 12.6, p $\\ll$ 0.01, respectively). In addition, the in depth analysis of DNA copy number variations showed a higher tendency to non-allelic homologous recombination in mutated cells. Finally, while our analysis did not support an involvement of tau in DNA repair systems, it revealed its role in stabilization of chromatin. In summary, our findings indicate a role of tau in genome and chromosome stability that can be ascribed to its function as a microtubule-associated protein as well as a protein protecting chromatin integrity through interaction with DNA.

  19. Mutations in the lysosomal [beta]-galactosidase gene that cause the adult form of GMI gangliosidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, S.; Rafi, M.A.; Wenger, D.A. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States))

    1994-06-01

    Three adult patients with acid-galactosidase deficiency/GM1 gangliosidosis who were from two unrelated families of Scandinavian descent were found to share a common point mutation in the coding region of the corresponding gene. The patients share common clinical features, including early dysarthria, mild ataxia, and bone abnormalities. When cDNA from the two patients in family 1 was PCR amplified and sequenced, most (39/41) of the clones showed a C-to-T transition (C[yields]T) at nucleotide 245 (counting from the initiation codon). This mutation changes the codon for the Thr(ACG) to Met(ATG). Mutant and normal sequences were also found in that position in genomic DNA, indicating the presence of another mutant allele. Genomic DNA from the patient in family 2 revealed the same point mutation in one allele. It was determined that in each family only the father carried the C[yields]T mutation. Expression studies showed that this mutation produced 3%-4% of [beta]-galactosidase activity, confirming its deleterious effects. The cDNA clones from the patients in family 1 that did not contain the C[yields]T revealed a 20-bp insertion of intronic sequence between nucleotides 75 and 76, the location of the first intron. Further analysis showed the insertion of a T near the 5[prime] splice donor site which led to the use of a cryptic splice site. It appears that the C[yields]T mutation results in enough functional enzyme to produce a mild adult form of the disease, even in the presence of a second mutation that likely produces nonfunctional enzyme. 31 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Insertional mutagenesis combined with acquired somatic mutations causes leukemogenesis following gene therapy of SCID-X1 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Steven J; Mansour, Marc R; Schwarzwaelder, Kerstin; Bartholomae, Cynthia; Hubank, Michael; Kempski, Helena; Brugman, Martijn H; Pike-Overzet, Karin; Chatters, Stephen J; de Ridder, Dick; Gilmour, Kimberly C; Adams, Stuart; Thornhill, Susannah I; Parsley, Kathryn L; Staal, Frank J T; Gale, Rosemary E; Linch, David C; Bayford, Jinhua; Brown, Lucie; Quaye, Michelle; Kinnon, Christine; Ancliff, Philip; Webb, David K; Schmidt, Manfred; von Kalle, Christof; Gaspar, H Bobby; Thrasher, Adrian J

    2008-09-01

    X-linked SCID (SCID-X1) is amenable to correction by gene therapy using conventional gammaretroviral vectors. Here, we describe the occurrence of clonal T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) promoted by insertional mutagenesis in a completed gene therapy trial of 10 SCID-X1 patients. Integration of the vector in an antisense orientation 35 kb upstream of the protooncogene LIM domain only 2 (LMO2) caused overexpression of LMO2 in the leukemic clone. However, leukemogenesis was likely precipitated by the acquisition of other genetic abnormalities unrelated to vector insertion, including a gain-of-function mutation in NOTCH1, deletion of the tumor suppressor gene locus cyclin-dependent kinase 2A (CDKN2A), and translocation of the TCR-beta region to the STIL-TAL1 locus. These findings highlight a general toxicity of endogenous gammaretroviral enhancer elements and also identify a combinatorial process during leukemic evolution that will be important for risk stratification and for future protocol design.

  1. Saethre-Chotzen syndrome caused by TWIST 1 gene mutations: functional differentiation from Muenke coronal synostosis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Wolfram; Schropp, Christian; Lieb, Gabriele; Petersen, Birgit; Büsse-Ratzka, Maria; Kunz, Jürgen; Reinhart, Edeltraut; Schäfer, Wolf-Dieter; Sold, Johanna; Hoppe, Florian; Pahnke, Jan; Trusen, Andreas; Sörensen, Niels; Krauss, Jürgen; Collmann, Hartmut

    2006-01-01

    The Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (SCS) is an autosomal dominant craniosynostosis syndrome with uni- or bilateral coronal synostosis and mild limb deformities. It is caused by loss-of-function mutations of the TWIST 1 gene. In an attempt to delineate functional features separating SCS from Muenke's syndrome, we screened patients presenting with coronal suture synostosis for mutations in the TWIST 1 gene, and for the Pro250Arg mutation in FGFR3. Within a total of 124 independent pedigrees, 39 (71 patients) were identified to carry 25 different mutations of TWIST 1 including 14 novel mutations, to which six whole gene deletions were added. The 71 patients were compared with 42 subjects from 24 pedigrees carrying the Pro250Arg mutation in FGFR3 and 65 subjects from 61 pedigrees without a detectable mutation. Classical SCS associated with a TWIST 1 mutation could be separated phenotypically from the Muenke phenotype on the basis of the following features: low-set frontal hairline, gross ptosis of eyelids, subnormal ear length, dilated parietal foramina, interdigital webbing, and hallux valgus or broad great toe with bifid distal phalanx. Functional differences were even more important: intracranial hypertension as a consequence of early progressive multisutural fusion was a significant problem in SCS only, while mental delay and sensorineural hearing loss were associated with the Muenke's syndrome. Contrary to previous reports, SCS patients with complete loss of one TWIST allele showed normal mental development.

  2. A Hereditary Enteropathy Caused by Mutations in the SLCO2A1 Gene, Encoding a Prostaglandin Transporter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Umeno

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we proposed a rare autosomal recessive inherited enteropathy characterized by persistent blood and protein loss from the small intestine as chronic nonspecific multiple ulcers of the small intestine (CNSU. By whole-exome sequencing in five Japanese patients with CNSU and one unaffected individual, we found four candidate mutations in the SLCO2A1 gene, encoding a prostaglandin transporter. The pathogenicity of the mutations was supported by segregation analysis and genotyping data in controls. By Sanger sequencing of the coding regions, 11 of 12 other CNSU patients and 2 of 603 patients with a diagnosis of Crohn's disease were found to have homozygous or compound heterozygous SLCO2A1 mutations. In total, we identified recessive SLCO2A1 mutations located at seven sites. Using RT-PCR, we demonstrated that the identified splice-site mutations altered the RNA splicing, and introduced a premature stop codon. Tracer prostaglandin E2 uptake analysis showed that the mutant SLCO2A1 protein for each mutation exhibited impaired prostaglandin transport. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analyses revealed that SLCO2A1 protein was expressed on the cellular membrane of vascular endothelial cells in the small intestinal mucosa in control subjects, but was not detected in affected individuals. These findings indicate that loss-of-function mutations in the SLCO2A1 gene encoding a prostaglandin transporter cause the hereditary enteropathy CNSU. We suggest a more appropriate nomenclature of "chronic enteropathy associated with SLCO2A1 gene" (CEAS.

  3. Lyme disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi with two homeologous 16S rRNA genes: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee SH

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sin Hang Lee,1,21Pathology Department, Milford Hospital, Milford, CT, USA; 2Milford Molecular Diagnostics, Milford, CT, USA Abstract: Lyme disease (LD, the most common tick-borne disease in North America, is believed to be caused exclusively by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and is usually diagnosed by clinical evaluation and serologic assays. As reported previously in a peer-reviewed article, a 13-year-old boy living in the Northeast of the USA was initially diagnosed with LD based on evaluation of his clinical presentations and on serologic test results. The patient was treated with a course of oral doxycycline for 28 days, and the symptoms resolved. A year later, the boy developed a series of unusual symptoms and did not attend school for 1 year. A LD specialist reviewed the case and found the serologic test band patterns nondiagnostic of LD. The boy was admitted to a psychiatric hospital. After discharge from the psychiatric hospital, a polymerase chain reaction test performed in a winter month when the boy was 16 years old showed a low density of B. burgdorferi sensu lato in the blood of the patient, confirmed by partial 16S rRNA (ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Subsequent DNA sequencing analysis presented in this report demonstrated that the spirochete isolate was a novel strain of B. burgdorferi with two homeologous 16S rRNA genes, which has never been reported in the world literature. This case report shows that direct DNA sequencing is a valuable tool for reliable molecular diagnosis of Lyme and related borrelioses, as well as for studies of the diversity of the causative agents of LD because LD patients infected by a rare or novel borrelial variant may produce an antibody pattern that can be different from the pattern characteristic of an infection caused by a typical B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strain. Keywords: Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, homeologous 16S rRNA genes, DNA sequencing

  4. Enlarged parietal foramina caused by mutations in the homeobox genes ALX4 and MSX2: from genotype to phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogiannis, Lampros A; Taylor, Indira B; Davies, Sally J; Ramos, Feliciano J; Olivares, José L; Wilkie, Andrew O M

    2006-02-01

    Heterozygous mutations of the homeobox genes ALX4 and MSX2 cause skull defects termed enlarged parietal foramina (PFM) and cranium bifidum (CB); a single MSX2 mutation has been documented in a unique craniosynostosis (CRS) family. However, the relative mutational contribution of these genes to PFM/CB and CRS is not known and information on genotype-phenotype correlations is incomplete. We analysed ALX4 and MSX2 in 11 new unrelated cases or families with PFM/CB, 181 cases of CRS, and a single family segregating a submicroscopic deletion of 11p11.2, including ALX4. We explored the correlations between skull defect size and age, gene, and mutation type, and reviewed additional phenotypic manifestations. Four PFM cases had mutations in either ALX4 or MSX2; including previous families, we have identified six ALX4 and six MSX2 mutations, accounting for 11/13 familial, but only 1/6 sporadic cases. The deletion family confirms the delineation of a mental retardation locus to within 1.1 Mb region of 11p11.2. Overall, no significant size difference was found between ALX4- and MSX2-related skull defects, but the ALX4 mutation p.R218Q tends to result in persistent CB and is associated with anatomical abnormalities of the posterior fossa. We conclude that PFM caused by mutations in ALX4 and MSX2 have a similar prevalence and are usually clinically indistinguishable. Mutation screening has a high pickup rate in PFM, especially in familial cases, but is not indicated in CRS.

  5. Two Tightly Linked Genes at the hsa1 Locus Cause Both F1 and F2 Hybrid Sterility in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Takahiko; Takashi, Tomonori; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Kurata, Nori

    2016-02-01

    Molecular mechanisms of hybrid breakdown associated with sterility (F2 sterility) are poorly understood as compared with those of F1 hybrid sterility. Previously, we characterized three unlinked epistatic loci, hybrid sterility-a1 (hsa1), hsa2, and hsa3, responsible for the F2 sterility in a cross between Oryza sativa ssp. indica and japonica. In this study, we identified that the hsa1 locus contains two interacting genes, HSA1a and HSA1b, within a 30-kb region. HSA1a-j (japonica allele) encodes a highly conserved plant-specific domain of unknown function protein (DUF1618), whereas the indica allele (HSA1a-i(s)) has two deletion mutations that cause disruption of domain structure. The second gene, HSA1b-i(s), encodes an uncharacterized protein with some similarity to a nucleotide-binding protein. Homozygous introgression of indica HSA1a-i(s)-HSA1b-i(s) alleles into japonica showed female gamete abortion at an early mitotic stage. The fact that the recombinant haplotype HSA1a-j-HSA1b-i(s) caused semi-sterility in the heterozygous state with the HSA1a-i(s)-HSA1b-i(s) haplotype suggests that variation in the hsa1 locus is a possible cause of the wide-spectrum sterility barriers seen in F1 hybrids and successive generations in rice. We propose a simple genetic model to explain how a single causal mechanism can drive both F1 and F2 hybrid sterility.

  6. Epilepsy caused by an abnormal alternative splicing with dosage effect of the SV2A gene in a chicken model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Douaud

    Full Text Available Photosensitive reflex epilepsy is caused by the combination of an individual's enhanced sensitivity with relevant light stimuli, such as stroboscopic lights or video games. This is the most common reflex epilepsy in humans; it is characterized by the photoparoxysmal response, which is an abnormal electroencephalographic reaction, and seizures triggered by intermittent light stimulation. Here, by using genetic mapping, sequencing and functional analyses, we report that a mutation in the acceptor site of the second intron of SV2A (the gene encoding synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A is causing photosensitive reflex epilepsy in a unique vertebrate model, the Fepi chicken strain, a spontaneous model where the neurological disorder is inherited as an autosomal recessive mutation. This mutation causes an aberrant splicing event and significantly reduces the level of SV2A mRNA in homozygous carriers. Levetiracetam, a second generation antiepileptic drug, is known to bind SV2A, and SV2A knock-out mice develop seizures soon after birth and usually die within three weeks. The Fepi chicken survives to adulthood and responds to levetiracetam, suggesting that the low-level expression of SV2A in these animals is sufficient to allow survival, but does not protect against seizures. Thus, the Fepi chicken model shows that the role of the SV2A pathway in the brain is conserved between birds and mammals, in spite of a large phylogenetic distance. The Fepi model appears particularly useful for further studies of physiopathology of reflex epilepsy, in comparison with induced models of epilepsy in rodents. Consequently, SV2A is a very attractive candidate gene for analysis in the context of both mono- and polygenic generalized epilepsies in humans.

  7. A novel mutation in the upstream open reading frame of the CDKN1B gene causes a MEN4 phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Occhi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The CDKN1B gene encodes the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(KIP1, an atypical tumor suppressor playing a key role in cell cycle regulation, cell proliferation, and differentiation. Impaired p27(KIP1 expression and/or localization are often observed in tumor cells, further confirming its central role in regulating the cell cycle. Recently, germline mutations in CDKN1B have been associated with the inherited multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 4, an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by varying combinations of tumors affecting at least two endocrine organs. In this study we identified a 4-bp deletion in a highly conserved regulatory upstream ORF (uORF in the 5'UTR of the CDKN1B gene in a patient with a pituitary adenoma and a well-differentiated pancreatic neoplasm. This deletion causes the shift of the uORF termination codon with the consequent lengthening of the uORF-encoded peptide and the drastic shortening of the intercistronic space. Our data on the immunohistochemical analysis of the patient's pancreatic lesion, functional studies based on dual-luciferase assays, site-directed mutagenesis, and on polysome profiling show a negative influence of this deletion on the translation reinitiation at the CDKN1B starting site, with a consequent reduction in p27(KIP1 expression. Our findings demonstrate that, in addition to the previously described mechanisms leading to reduced p27(KIP1 activity, such as degradation via the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway or non-covalent sequestration, p27(KIP1 activity can also be modulated by an uORF and mutations affecting uORF could change p27(KIP1 expression. This study adds the CDKN1B gene to the short list of genes for which mutations that either create, delete, or severely modify their regulatory uORFs have been associated with human diseases.

  8. A novel mutation in the upstream open reading frame of the CDKN1B gene causes a MEN4 phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhi, Gianluca; Regazzo, Daniela; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Boaretto, Francesca; Ciato, Denis; Bobisse, Sara; Ferasin, Sergio; Cetani, Filomena; Pardi, Elena; Korbonits, Márta; Pellegata, Natalia S; Sidarovich, Viktoryia; Quattrone, Alessandro; Opocher, Giuseppe; Mantero, Franco; Scaroni, Carla

    2013-03-01

    The CDKN1B gene encodes the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(KIP1), an atypical tumor suppressor playing a key role in cell cycle regulation, cell proliferation, and differentiation. Impaired p27(KIP1) expression and/or localization are often observed in tumor cells, further confirming its central role in regulating the cell cycle. Recently, germline mutations in CDKN1B have been associated with the inherited multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 4, an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by varying combinations of tumors affecting at least two endocrine organs. In this study we identified a 4-bp deletion in a highly conserved regulatory upstream ORF (uORF) in the 5'UTR of the CDKN1B gene in a patient with a pituitary adenoma and a well-differentiated pancreatic neoplasm. This deletion causes the shift of the uORF termination codon with the consequent lengthening of the uORF-encoded peptide and the drastic shortening of the intercistronic space. Our data on the immunohistochemical analysis of the patient's pancreatic lesion, functional studies based on dual-luciferase assays, site-directed mutagenesis, and on polysome profiling show a negative influence of this deletion on the translation reinitiation at the CDKN1B starting site, with a consequent reduction in p27(KIP1) expression. Our findings demonstrate that, in addition to the previously described mechanisms leading to reduced p27(KIP1) activity, such as degradation via the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway or non-covalent sequestration, p27(KIP1) activity can also be modulated by an uORF and mutations affecting uORF could change p27(KIP1) expression. This study adds the CDKN1B gene to the short list of genes for which mutations that either create, delete, or severely modify their regulatory uORFs have been associated with human diseases.

  9. Single-nucleotide variations in the genes encoding the mitochondrial Hsp60/Hsp10 chaperone system and their disease-causing potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bross, Peter; Li, Zhijie; Hansen, Jakob;

    2007-01-01

    Molecular chaperones assist protein folding, and variations in their encoding genes may be disease-causing in themselves or influence the phenotypic expression of disease-associated or susceptibility-conferring variations in many different genes. We have screened three candidate patient groups fo...

  10. Single-nucleotide variations in the genes encoding the mitochondrial Hsp60/Hsp10 chaperone system and their disease-causing potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bross, Peter; Li, Zhijie; Hansen, Jakob; Hansen, Jens Jacob; Nielsen, Marit Nyholm; Corydon, Thomas Juhl; Georgopoulos, Costa; Ang, Debbie; Lundemose, Jytte Banner; Niezen-Koning, Klary; Eiberg, Hans; Yang, Huanming; Kolvraa, Steen; Bolund, Lars; Gregersen, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Molecular chaperones assist protein folding, and variations in their encoding genes may be disease-causing in themselves or influence the phenotypic expression of disease-associated or susceptibility-conferring variations in many different genes. We have screened three candidate patient groups for v

  11. Rapid characterization of disease-causing mutations in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) gene by overexpression in COS cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T G; Andresen, B S; Jensen, H K;

    1996-01-01

    To characterize disease-causing mutations in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) gene, COS cells are transfected with the mutant gene in an EBV-based expression vector and characterized by flow cytometry. Using antibodies against the LDL-receptor the amount of receptor protein on the cell...

  12. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli carrying supplementary virulence genes are an important cause of moderate to severe diarrhoeal disease in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzi-Vargas, Sandra; Zaidi, Mussaret Bano; Perez-Martinez, Iza; León-Cen, Magda; Michel-Ayala, Alba; Chaussabel, Damien; Estrada-Garcia, Teresa

    2015-03-01

    Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) cause acute and persistent diarrhoea worldwide, but little is known about their epidemiology in Mexico. We determined the prevalence of bacterial enteropathogens in 831 children with acute diarrhoea over a four-year period in Yucatan, Mexico. Six DEC supplementary virulence genes (SVG), mainly associated with enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), were sought in 3100 E. coli isolates. DEC was the most common bacterial enteropathogen (28%), surpassing Salmonella (12%) and Shigella (9%). Predominant DEC groups were diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC) (35%), EAEC (24%), and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) (19%). Among children with DEC infections, 14% had severe illness mainly caused by EPEC (26%) and DAEC (18%); 30% had moderate diarrhoea mainly caused by DAEC (36%), mixed DEC infections (33%) and EAEC (32%). DAEC was most prevalent during spring, while ETEC, EAEC and EPEC predominated in summer. EAEC was more frequent in children 6-24 months old than in those younger than 6 months of age (P = 0.008, OR = 4.2, 95% CI, 1.3-13.9). The presence of SVG dispersin, (aatA), dispersin-translocator (aatA), enteroaggregative heat-stable toxin 1 (astA), plasmid encoded toxin (pet), cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) was higher in DEC than non-DEC strains, (36% vs 26%, P DAEC patients had strains with SVG. 54% of EPEC patients carried pet-positive strains alone or in combination with astA; only this DEC group harboured cdt-positive isolates. All ETEC patients carried astA- or astA-aap-positive strains. astA and aap were the most common SVG in DAEC (3% and 2%) and non-DEC strains (21% and 13%). DEC carrying SVG are an important cause of moderate to severe bacterial diarrhoea in Mexican children.

  13. YBR/EiJ mice: a new model of glaucoma caused by genes on chromosomes 4 and 17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Saidas Nair

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A variety of inherited animal models with different genetic causes and distinct genetic backgrounds are needed to help dissect the complex genetic etiology of glaucoma. The scarcity of such animal models has hampered progress in glaucoma research. Here, we introduce a new inherited glaucoma model: the inbred mouse strain YBR/EiJ (YBR. YBR mice develop a form of pigmentary glaucoma. They exhibit a progressive age-related pigment-dispersing iris disease characterized by iris stromal atrophy. Subsequently, these mice develop elevated intraocular pressure (IOP and glaucoma. Genetic mapping studies utilizing YBR as a glaucoma-susceptible strain and C57BL/6J as a glaucoma-resistant strain were performed to identify genetic loci responsible for the iris disease and high IOP. A recessive locus linked to Tyrp1b on chromosome 4 contributes to iris stromal atrophy and high IOP. However, this is not the only important locus. A recessive locus on YBR chromosome 17 causes high IOP independent of the iris stromal atrophy. In specific eyes with high IOP caused by YBR chromosome 17, the drainage angle (through which ocular fluid leaves the eye is largely open. The YBR alleles of genes on chromosomes 4 and 17 underlie the development of high IOP and glaucoma but do so through independent mechanisms. Together, these two loci act in an additive manner to increase the susceptibility of YBR mice to the development of high IOP. The chromosome 17 locus is important not only because it causes IOP elevation in mice with largely open drainage angles but also because it exacerbates IOP elevation and glaucoma induced by pigment dispersion. Therefore, YBR mice are a valuable resource for studying the genetic etiology of IOP elevation and glaucoma, as well as for testing new treatments.

  14. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli carrying supplementary virulence genes are an important cause of moderate to severe diarrhoeal disease in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patzi-Vargas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC cause acute and persistent diarrhoea worldwide, but little is known about their epidemiology in Mexico. We determined the prevalence of bacterial enteropathogens in 831 children with acute diarrhoea over a four-year period in Yucatan, Mexico. Six DEC supplementary virulence genes (SVG, mainly associated with enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC, were sought in 3100 E. coli isolates. DEC was the most common bacterial enteropathogen (28%, surpassing Salmonella (12% and Shigella (9%. Predominant DEC groups were diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC (35%, EAEC (24%, and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC (19%. Among children with DEC infections, 14% had severe illness mainly caused by EPEC (26% and DAEC (18%; 30% had moderate diarrhoea mainly caused by DAEC (36%, mixed DEC infections (33% and EAEC (32%. DAEC was most prevalent during spring, while ETEC, EAEC and EPEC predominated in summer. EAEC was more frequent in children 6-24 months old than in those younger than 6 months of age (P = 0.008, OR = 4.2, 95% CI, 1.3-13.9. The presence of SVG dispersin, (aatA, dispersin-translocator (aatA, enteroaggregative heat-stable toxin 1 (astA, plasmid encoded toxin (pet, cytolethal distending toxin (cdt was higher in DEC than non-DEC strains, (36% vs 26%, P <0.0001, OR = 1.5, 95% CI, 1.3-1.8. 98% of EAEC-infected children harboured strains with SVG; 85% carried the aap-aatA gene combination, and 33% of these also carried astA. 28% of both EPEC and ETEC, and 6% of DAEC patients had strains with SVG. 54% of EPEC patients carried pet-positive strains alone or in combination with astA; only this DEC group harboured cdt-positive isolates. All ETEC patients carried astA- or astA-aap-positive strains. astA and aap were the most common SVG in DAEC (3% and 2% and non-DEC strains (21% and 13%. DEC carrying SVG are an important cause of moderate to severe bacterial diarrhoea in Mexican children.

  15. Mutations in sodium-channel gene SCN9A cause a spectrum of human genetic pain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenth, Joost P H; Waxman, Stephen G

    2007-12-01

    The voltage-gated sodium-channel type IX alpha subunit, known as Na(v)1.7 and encoded by the gene SCN9A, is located in peripheral neurons and plays an important role in action potential production in these cells. Recent genetic studies have identified Na(v)1.7 dysfunction in three different human pain disorders. Gain-of-function missense mutations in Na(v)1.7 have been shown to cause primary erythermalgia and paroxysmal extreme pain disorder, while nonsense mutations in Na(v)1.7 result in loss of Na(v)1.7 function and a condition known as channelopathy-associated insensitivity to pain, a rare disorder in which affected individuals are unable to feel physical pain. This review highlights these recent developments and discusses the critical role of Na(v)1.7 in pain sensation in humans.

  16. Lyme disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi with two homeologous 16S rRNA genes: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sin Hang

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease (LD), the most common tick-borne disease in North America, is believed to be caused exclusively by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and is usually diagnosed by clinical evaluation and serologic assays. As reported previously in a peer-reviewed article, a 13-year-old boy living in the Northeast of the USA was initially diagnosed with LD based on evaluation of his clinical presentations and on serologic test results. The patient was treated with a course of oral doxycycline for 28 days, and the symptoms resolved. A year later, the boy developed a series of unusual symptoms and did not attend school for 1 year. A LD specialist reviewed the case and found the serologic test band patterns nondiagnostic of LD. The boy was admitted to a psychiatric hospital. After discharge from the psychiatric hospital, a polymerase chain reaction test performed in a winter month when the boy was 16 years old showed a low density of B. burgdorferi sensu lato in the blood of the patient, confirmed by partial 16S rRNA (ribosomal RNA) gene sequencing. Subsequent DNA sequencing analysis presented in this report demonstrated that the spirochete isolate was a novel strain of B. burgdorferi with two homeologous 16S rRNA genes, which has never been reported in the world literature. This case report shows that direct DNA sequencing is a valuable tool for reliable molecular diagnosis of Lyme and related borrelioses, as well as for studies of the diversity of the causative agents of LD because LD patients infected by a rare or novel borrelial variant may produce an antibody pattern that can be different from the pattern characteristic of an infection caused by a typical B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strain.

  17. Deletion of exon 8 from the EXT1 gene causes multiple osteochondromas (MO) in a family with three affected members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Lei; Gerber, Simon D; Kuchen, Stefan; Villiger, Peter M; Trueb, Beat

    2016-01-01

    Multiple osteochondromas (also called hereditary multiple exostoses) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple cartilaginous tumors, which are caused by mutations in the genes for exostosin-1 (EXT1) and exostosin-2 (EXT2). The goal of this study was to elucidate the genetic alterations in a family with three affected members. Isolation of RNA from the patients' blood followed by reverse transcription and PCR amplification of selected fragments showed that the three patients lack a specific region of 90 bp from their EXT1 mRNA. This region corresponds to the sequence of exon 8 from the EXT1 gene. No splice site mutation was found around exon 8. However, long-range PCR amplification of the region from intron 7 to intron 8 indicated that the three patients contain a deletion of 4318 bp, which includes exon 8 and part of the flanking introns. There is evidence that the deletion was caused by non-homologous end joining because the breakpoints are not located within a repetitive element, but contain multiple copies of the deletion hotspot sequence TGRRKM. Exon 8 encodes part of the active site of the EXT1 enzyme, including the DXD signature of all UDP-sugar glycosyltransferases. It is conceivable that the mutant protein exerts a dominant negative effect on the activity of the EXT glycosyltransferase since it might interact with normal copies of the enzyme to form an inactive hetero-oligomeric complex. We suggest that sequencing of RNA might be superior to exome sequencing to detect short deletions of a single exon.

  18. Sepsis in preterm infants causes alterations in mucosal gene expression and microbiota profiles compared to non-septic twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernada, María; Bäuerl, Christine; Serna, Eva; Collado, Maria Carmen; Martínez, Gaspar Pérez; Vento, Máximo

    2016-05-16

    Sepsis is a life-threatening condition in preterm infants. Neonatal microbiota plays a pivotal role in the immune system maturation. Changes in gut microbiota have been associated to inflammatory disorders; however, a link with sepsis in the neonatal period has not yet been established. We aimed to analyze gut microbiota and mucosal gene expression using non-invasively obtained samples to provide with an integrative perspective of host-microbe interactions in neonatal sepsis. For this purpose, a prospective observational case-control study was conducted in septic preterm dizygotic twins and their non-septic twin controls. Fecal samples were used for both microbiota analysis and host genome-wide expression using exfoliated intestinal cells. Gene expression of exfoliated intestinal cells in septic preterm showed an induction of inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways in the gut and pro-oxidant profile that caused dysbiosis in the gut microbiota with predominance of Enterobacteria and reduction of Bacteroides and Bifidobacterium spp.in fecal samples, leading to a global reduction of beneficial anaerobic bacteria. Sepsis in preterm infants induced low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress in the gut mucosa, and also changes in the gut microbiota. This study highlights the role of inflammation and oxidative stress in neonatal sepsis on gut microbial profiles.

  19. Two mutational hotspots in the interleukin-2 receptor {gamma} chain gene causing human X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, A.E.; Puck, J.M. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Buckley, R.H. [and others

    1995-09-01

    Human severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), a syndrome of profoundly impaired cellular and humoral immunity, is most commonly caused by mutations in the X-linked gene for interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor {gamma} chain (IL2RG). For mutational analysis of IL2RG in males with SCID, SSCP screening was followed by DNA sequencing. Of 40 IL2RG mutations found in unrelated SCID patients, 6 were point mutations at the CpG dinucleotide at cDNA 690-691, encoding amino acid R226. This residue lies in the extracellular domain of the protein in a region not previously recognized to be significantly conserved in the cytokine receptor gene family, 11 amino acids upstream from the highly conserved WSXWS motif. Three additional instances of mutation at another CpG dinucleotide at cDNA 879 produced a premature termination signal in the intracellular domain of IL2RG, resulting in loss of the SH2-homologous intracellular domain known to be essential for signaling from the IL-2 receptor complex. Mutations at these two hotspots constitute >20% of the X-linked SCID mutations found by our group and a similar proportion of all reported IL2RG mutations. 41 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Induced pluripotent stem cells derived from a patient with autosomal dominant familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus caused by a variant in the AVP gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toustrup, Lise Bols; Zhou, Yan; Kvistgaard, Helene

    2017-01-01

    Autosomal dominant familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (adFNDI) is caused by variants in the arginine vasopressin (AVP) gene. Here we report the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from a 42-year-old man carrying an adFNDI causing variant in exon 1 of the AVP gene using...... lentivirus-mediated nuclear reprogramming. The iPSCs carried the expected variant in the AVP gene. Furthermore, the iPSCs expressed pluripotency markers; displayed in vitro differentiation potential to the three germ layers and had a normal karyotype consistent with the original fibroblasts. This iPSC line...

  1. Lactobacillus zeae protects Caenorhabditis elegans from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-caused death by inhibiting enterotoxin gene expression of the pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengzhou Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has become increasingly used for screening antimicrobials and probiotics for pathogen control. It also provides a useful tool for studying microbe-host interactions. This study has established a C. elegans life-span assay to preselect probiotic bacteria for controlling K88(+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC, a pathogen causing pig diarrhea, and has determined a potential mechanism underlying the protection provided by Lactobacillus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Life-span of C. elegans was used to measure the response of worms to ETEC infection and protection provided by lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB. Among 13 LAB isolates that varied in their ability to protect C. elegans from death induced by ETEC strain JG280, Lactobacillus zeae LB1 offered the highest level of protection (86%. The treatment with Lactobacillus did not reduce ETEC JG280 colonization in the nematode intestine. Feeding E. coli strain JFF4 (K88(+ but lacking enterotoxin genes of estA, estB, and elt did not cause death of worms. There was a significant increase in gene expression of estA, estB, and elt during ETEC JG280 infection, which was remarkably inhibited by isolate LB1. The clone with either estA or estB expressed in E. coli DH5α was as effective as ETEC JG280 in killing the nematode. However, the elt clone killed only approximately 40% of worms. The killing by the clones could also be prevented by isolate LB1. The same isolate only partially inhibited the gene expression of enterotoxins in both ETEC JG280 and E. coli DH5α in-vitro. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The established life-span assay can be used for studies of probiotics to control ETEC (for effective selection and mechanistic studies. Heat-stable enterotoxins appeared to be the main factors responsible for the death of C. elegans. Inhibition of ETEC enterotoxin production, rather than interference of its intestinal colonization, appears to be the

  2. Postretinal Structure and Function in Severe Congenital Photoreceptor Blindness Caused by Mutations in the GUCY2D Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Geoffrey K.; Butt, Omar H.; Datta, Ritobrato; Roman, Alejandro J.; Sumaroka, Alexander; Schwartz, Sharon B.; Cideciyan, Artur V.; Jacobson, Samuel G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To examine how severe congenital blindness resulting from mutations of the GUCY2D gene alters brain structure and function, and to relate these findings to the notable preservation of retinal architecture in this form of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). Methods Six GUCY2D-LCA patients (ages 20–46) were studied with optical coherence tomography of the retina and multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Measurements from this group were compared to those obtained from populations of normally sighted controls and people with congenital blindness of a variety of causes. Results Patients with GUCY2D-LCA had preservation of the photoreceptors, ganglion cells, and nerve fiber layer. Despite this, visual function in these patients ranged from 20/160 acuity to no light perception, and functional MRI responses to light stimulation were attenuated and restricted. This severe visual impairment was reflected in substantial thickening of the gray matter layer of area V1, accompanied by an alteration of resting-state correlations within the occipital lobe, similar to a comparison group of congenitally blind people with structural damage to the retina. In contrast to the comparison blind population, however, the GUCY2D-LCA group had preservation of the size of the optic chiasm, and the fractional anisotropy of the optic radiations as measured with diffusion tensor imaging was also normal. Conclusions These results identify dissociable effects of blindness upon the visual pathway. Further, the relatively intact postgeniculate white matter pathway in GUCY2D-LCA is encouraging for the prospect of recovery of visual function with gene augmentation therapy.

  3. Down-regulation of glycosyltransferase 8D genes in Populus trichocarpa caused reduced mechanical strength and xylan content in wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quanzi; Min, Douyong; Wang, Jack Peng-Yu; Peszlen, Ilona; Horvath, Laszlo; Horvath, Balazs; Nishimura, Yufuko; Jameel, Hasan; Chang, Hou-Min; Chiang, Vincent L

    2011-02-01

    Members of glycosyltransferase protein families GT8, GT43 and GT47 are implicated in the biosynthesis of xylan in the secondary cell walls of Arabidopsis. The Arabidopsis mutant irx8 has a 60% reduction in xylan. However, over-expression of an ortholog of Arabidopsis IRX8, poplar PoGT8D, in Arabidopsis irx8 mutant could not restore xylan synthesis. The functions of tree GT8D genes remain unclear. We identified two GT8 gene homologs, PtrGT8D1 and PtrGT8D2, in Populus trichocarpa. They are the only two GT8D members and are abundantly and specifically expressed in the differentiating xylem of P. trichocarpa. PtrGT8D1 transcript abundance was >7 times that of PtrGT8D2. To elucidate the genetic function of GT8D in P. trichocarpa, the expression of PtrGT8D1 and PtrGT8D2 was simultaneously knocked down through RNAi. Four transgenic lines had 85-94% reduction in transcripts of PtrGT8D1 and PtrGT8D2, resulting in 29-36% reduction in stem wood xylan content. Xylan reduction had essentially no effect on cellulose quantity but caused an 11-25% increase in lignin. These transgenics exhibit a brittle wood phenotype, accompanied by increased vessel diameter and thinner fiber cell walls in stem xylem. Stem modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture were reduced by 17-29% and 16-23%, respectively, and were positively correlated with xylan content but negatively correlated with lignin quantity. These results suggest that PtrGT8Ds play key roles in xylan biosynthesis in wood. Xylan may be a more important factor than lignin affecting the stiffness and fracture strength of wood.

  4. Identification of Two Disease-causing Genes TJP2 and GJB2 in a Chinese Family with Unconditional Autosomal Dominant Nonsyndromic Hereditary Hearing Impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Yang Wang; Ya-Li Zhao; Qiong Liu; Hu Yuan; Yun Gao; Lan Lan; Lan Yu

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are more than 300 genetic loci that have been found to be related to hereditary hearing impairment (HHI), including 92 causative genes for nonsyndromic hearing loss, among which 34 genes are related to autosomal dominant nonsyndromic HHI (ADNSHHI).Traditional linkage analysis and candidate gene sequencing are not effective at detecting the ADNSHHI, especially for the unconditional families that may have more than one pathogenic cause.This study identified two disease-causing genes TJP2 and GJB2 in a Chinese family with unconditional ADNSHHI.Methods: To decipher the genetic code of a Chinese family (family 686) with ADNSHHI, different gene screening techniques have been performed, including linkage analysis, candidate genes screening, high-throughput sequencing and Sanger sequencing.These techniques were done on samples obtained from this family over a period of 10 years.Results: We identified a pathogenic missense mutation, c.2081G>A (p.G694E), in TJP2, a gene that plays a crucial role in apoptosis and age-related hearing loss (ARHL).The mutation was co-segregated in this pedigree in all, but not in the two patients who presented with different phenotypes from the other affected family members.In one of the two patients, we confirmed that the compound heterozygosity for p.Y136* and p.G45E in the GJB2 gene may account for the phenotype shown in this patient.Conclusions: We identified the co-occurrence of two genetic causes in family 686.The possible disease-causing missense mutation of TJP2 in family 686 presents an opportunity for further investigation into ARHL.It is necessary to combine various genes screening methods, especially for some unconventional cases.

  5. Molecular evolution of the human SRPX2 gene that causes brain disorders of the Rolandic and Sylvian speech areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levasseur Anthony

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The X-linked SRPX2 gene encodes a Sushi Repeat-containing Protein of unknown function and is mutated in two disorders of the Rolandic/Sylvian speech areas. Since it is linked to defects in the functioning and the development of brain areas for speech production, SRPX2 may thus have participated in the adaptive organization of such brain regions. To address this issue, we have examined the recent molecular evolution of the SRPX2 gene. Results The complete coding region was sequenced in 24 human X chromosomes from worldwide populations and in six representative nonhuman primate species. One single, fixed amino acid change (R75K has been specifically incorporated in human SRPX2 since the human-chimpanzee split. The R75K substitution occurred in the first sushi domain of SRPX2, only three amino acid residues away from a previously reported disease-causing mutation (Y72S. Three-dimensional structural modeling of the first sushi domain revealed that Y72 and K75 are both situated in the hypervariable loop that is usually implicated in protein-protein interactions. The side-chain of residue 75 is exposed, and is located within an unusual and SRPX-specific protruding extension to the hypervariable loop. The analysis of non-synonymous/synonymous substitution rate (Ka/Ks ratio in primates was performed in order to test for positive selection during recent evolution. Using the branch models, the Ka/Ks ratio for the human branch was significantly different (p = 0.027 from that of the other branches. In contrast, the branch-site tests did not reach significance. Genetic analysis was also performed by sequencing 9,908 kilobases (kb of intronic SRPX2 sequences. Despite low nucleotide diversity, neither the HKA (Hudson-Kreitman-Aguadé test nor the Tajima's D test reached significance. Conclusion The R75K human-specific variation occurred in an important functional loop of the first sushi domain of SRPX2, indicating that this evolutionary

  6. Aerobactin and other virulence factor genes among strains of Escherichia coli causing urosepsis: association with patient characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J R; Moseley, S L; Roberts, P L; Stamm, W E

    1988-02-01

    To assess the role of aerobactin as a virulence factor among uropathogenic Escherichia coli, we determined the prevalence, location, and phenotypic expression of aerobactin determinants among 58 E. coli strains causing bacteremic urinary tract infections. We correlated the presence of the aerobactin system with antimicrobial-agent resistance, the presence and phenotypic expression of other uropathogenic virulence factor determinants (P fimbriae, hemolysin, and type 1 fimbriae), and characteristics of patients. Colony and Southern hybridization of total and plasmid DNA with DNA probes for each virulence factor showed that aerobactin determinants were present in 78% of the strains and were plasmid associated in 21%, whereas P fimbria, hemolysin, and type 1 fimbria determinants were present in 74, 43, and 98% of the strains, respectively, and were always chromosomal. Chromosomal aerobactin, P fimbria, and hemolysin determinants occurred together on the chromosome more often in strains from patients without predisposing urological or medical conditions (P = 0.04). Strains with plasmid-encoded aerobactin lacked determinants for P fimbriae (P = 0.004) and hemolysin (P = 0.0004), were resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents (P = 0.0001), and were found only in compromised patients. Mating experiments demonstrated that some aerobactin plasmids also encoded antimicrobial-agent resistance. These findings suggest that the determinants for aerobactin, P fimbriae, and hemolysin are conserved on the chromosome of the antimicrobial-agent-susceptible uropathogenic strains of E. coli which invade noncompromised patients. In contrast, these chromosomal virulence factors are often absent from E. coli strains causing urosepsis in compromised hosts; these strains may acquire plasmid aerobactin in conjunction with antimicrobial-agent resistance genes.

  7. Structural and functional mutations of the perlecan gene cause Schwartz-Jampel syndrome, with myotonic myopathy and chondrodysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikawa-Hirasawa, Eri; Le, Alexander H; Nishino, Ichizo; Nonaka, Ikuya; Ho, Nicola C; Francomano, Clair A; Govindraj, Prasanthi; Hassell, John R; Devaney, Joseph M; Spranger, Jürgen; Stevenson, Roger E; Iannaccone, Susan; Dalakas, Marinos C; Yamada, Yoshihiko

    2002-05-01

    Perlecan, a large heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is a component of the basement membrane and other extracellular matrices and has been implicated in multiple biological functions. Mutations in the perlecan gene (HSPG2) cause two classes of skeletal disorders: the relatively mild Schwartz-Jampel syndrome (SJS) and severe neonatal lethal dyssegmental dysplasia, Silverman-Handmaker type (DDSH). SJS is an autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia characterized by varying degrees of myotonia and chondrodysplasia, and patients with SJS survive. The molecular mechanism underlying the chondrodystrophic myotonia phenotype of SJS is unknown. In the present report, we identify five different mutations that resulted in various forms of perlecan in three unrelated patients with SJS. Heterozygous mutations in two patients with SJS either produced truncated perlecan that lacked domain V or significantly reduced levels of wild-type perlecan. The third patient had a homozygous 7-kb deletion that resulted in reduced amounts of nearly full-length perlecan. Unlike DDSH, the SJS mutations result in different forms of perlecan in reduced levels that are secreted to the extracellular matrix and are likely partially functional. These findings suggest that perlecan has an important role in neuromuscular function and cartilage formation, and they define the molecular basis involved in the difference in the phenotypic severity between DDSH and SJS.

  8. Prevalent and rare mutations in the gene encoding filaggrin cause ichthyosis vulgaris and predispose individuals to atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandilands, Aileen; O'Regan, Gráinne M; Liao, Haihui; Zhao, Yiwei; Terron-Kwiatkowski, Ana; Watson, Rosemarie M; Cassidy, Andrew J; Goudie, David R; Smith, Frances J D; McLean, W H Irwin; Irvine, Alan D

    2006-08-01

    Mutations in the filament aggregating protein (filaggrin) gene have recently been identified as the cause of the common genetic skin disorder ichthyosis vulgaris (IV), the most prevalent inherited disorder of keratinization. The main characteristics of IV are fine-scale on the arms and legs, palmar hyperlinearity, and keratosis pilaris. Here, we have studied six Irish families with IV for mutations in filaggrin. We have identified a new mutation, 3702delG, in addition to further instances of the reported mutations R501X and 2282del4, which are common in people of European origin. A case of a 2282del4 homozygote was also identified. Mutation 3702delG terminates protein translation in filaggrin repeat domain 3, whereas both recurrent mutations occur in repeat 1. These mutations are semidominant: heterozygotes have an intermediate phenotype most readily identified by palmar hyperlinearity and in some cases fine-scale and/or keratosis pilaris, whereas homozygotes or compound heterozygotes generally have more marked ichthyosis. Interestingly, the phenotypes of individuals homozygous for R501X, 2282del4, or compound heterozygous for R501X and 3702delG, were comparable, suggesting that mutations located centrally in the filaggrin repeats are also pathogenic.

  9. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, caused by mutations in the NEFL gene in a family from Karachaevo-Cherkessia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Dadali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical and genetic features of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN; Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, CMT caused by newly identified missense mutation s.65G>T (p.Pro22His in NEFL gene located on the chromosome 8р21.2 are described. The disease was diagnosed in a large family from Ust-Dzhegutinsky district of the Karachay-Cherkess Republic with the segregation of the disease in four generations. The prevalence of the HMSN in that district was found to be 1:4340 persons, including 1:3376 among Karachays. The clinical picture of the disease was characterized by onset at the age of 11–14 years, weakness in foot muscles and steppage gait. The specific features in the majority of patients were the absence of major sensory disturbances, as well as long-term preserved distal arm muscles. Nerve conduction velocity in the median nerve varied from 30 to 42 m/s, which corresponds to values in patients with CMT2E, previously described.

  10. Heimler Syndrome Is Caused by Hypomorphic Mutations in the Peroxisome-Biogenesis Genes PEX1 and PEX6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratbi, Ilham; Falkenberg, Kim D.; Sommen, Manou; Al-Sheqaih, Nada; Guaoua, Soukaina; Vandeweyer, Geert; Urquhart, Jill E.; Chandler, Kate E.; Williams, Simon G.; Roberts, Neil A.; El Alloussi, Mustapha; Black, Graeme C.; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Ramdi, Hind; Heimler, Audrey; Fryer, Alan; Lynch, Sally-Ann; Cooper, Nicola; Ong, Kai Ren; Smith, Claire E.L.; Inglehearn, Christopher F.; Mighell, Alan J.; Elcock, Claire; Poulter, James A.; Tischkowitz, Marc; Davies, Sally J.; Sefiani, Abdelaziz; Mironov, Aleksandr A.; Newman, William G.; Waterham, Hans R.; Van Camp, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Heimler syndrome (HS) is a rare recessive disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), amelogenesis imperfecta, nail abnormalities, and occasional or late-onset retinal pigmentation. We ascertained eight families affected by HS and, by using a whole-exome sequencing approach, identified biallelic mutations in PEX1 or PEX6 in six of them. Loss-of-function mutations in both genes are known causes of a spectrum of autosomal-recessive peroxisome-biogenesis disorders (PBDs), including Zellweger syndrome. PBDs are characterized by leukodystrophy, hypotonia, SNHL, retinopathy, and skeletal, craniofacial, and liver abnormalities. We demonstrate that each HS-affected family has at least one hypomorphic allele that results in extremely mild peroxisomal dysfunction. Although individuals with HS share some subtle clinical features found in PBDs, the diagnosis was not suggested by routine blood and skin fibroblast analyses used to detect PBDs. In conclusion, our findings define HS as a mild PBD, expanding the pleiotropy of mutations in PEX1 and PEX6. PMID:26387595

  11. An active hAT transposable element causing bud mutation of carnation by insertion into the flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Masaki; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Itoh, Yoshio; Umemoto, Naoyuki; Toguri, Toshihiro; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2013-04-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying spontaneous bud mutations, which provide an important breeding tool in carnation, are poorly understood. Here we describe a new active hAT type transposable element, designated Tdic101, the movement of which caused a bud mutation in carnation that led to a change of flower color from purple to deep pink. The color change was attributed to Tdic101 insertion into the second intron of F3'H, the gene for flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase responsible for purple pigment production. Regions on the deep pink flowers of the mutant can revert to purple, a visible phenotype of, as we show, excision of the transposable element. Sequence analysis revealed that Tdic101 has the characteristics of an autonomous element encoding a transposase. A related, but non-autonomous element dTdic102 was found to move in the genome of the bud mutant as well. Its mobilization might be the result of transposase activities provided by other elements such as Tdic101. In carnation, therefore, the movement of transposable elements plays an important role in the emergence of a bud mutation.

  12. A novel point mutation within the EDA gene causes an exon dropping in mature RNA in Holstein Friesian cattle breed affected by X-linked anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia

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    Pariset Lorraine

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background X-linked anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is a disorder characterized by abnormal development of tissues and organs of ectodermal origin caused by mutations in the EDA gene. The bovine EDA gene encodes the ectodysplasin A, a membrane protein expressed in keratinocytes, hair follicles and sweat glands, which is involved in the interactions between cell and cell and/or cell and matrix. Four mutations causing ectodermal dysplasia in cattle have been described so far. Results We identified a new single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at the 9th base of exon 8 in the EDA gene in two calves of Holstein Friesian cattle breed affected by ectodermal dysplasia. This SNP is located in the exonic splicing enhancer (ESEs recognized by SRp40 protein. As a consequence, the spliceosome machinery is no longer able to recognize the sequence as exonic and causes exon skipping. The mutation determines the deletion of the entire exon (131 bp in the RNA processing, causing a severe alteration of the protein structure and thus the disease. Conclusion We identified a mutation, never described before, that changes the regulation of alternative splicing in the EDA gene and causes ectodermal dysplasia in cattle. The analysis of the SNP allows the identification of carriers that can transmit the disease to the offspring. This mutation can thus be exploited for a rational and efficient selection of unequivocally healthy cows for breeding.

  13. Causes of Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donate to the National Ataxia Foundation Causes of Ataxia The hereditary ataxias are genetic, which means they ... the disease is inherited as a recessive gene. Ataxia Gene Identified in 1993 The first ataxia gene ...

  14. Pol II-expressed shRNA knocks down Sod2 gene expression and causes phenotypes of the gene knockout in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Gang Xia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi has been used increasingly for reverse genetics in invertebrates and mammalian cells, and has the potential to become an alternative to gene knockout technology in mammals. Thus far, only RNA polymerase III (Pol III-expressed short hairpin RNA (shRNA has been used to make shRNA-expressing transgenic mice. However, widespread knockdown and induction of phenotypes of gene knockout in postnatal mice have not been demonstrated. Previous studies have shown that Pol II synthesizes micro RNAs (miRNAs-the endogenous shRNAs that carry out gene silencing function. To achieve efficient gene knockdown in mammals and to generate phenotypes of gene knockout, we designed a construct in which a Pol II (ubiquitin C promoter drove the expression of an shRNA with a structure that mimics human miRNA miR-30a. Two transgenic lines showed widespread and sustained shRNA expression, and efficient knockdown of the target gene Sod2. These mice were viable but with phenotypes of SOD2 deficiency. Bigenic heterozygous mice generated by crossing these two lines showed nearly undetectable target gene expression and phenotypes consistent with the target gene knockout, including slow growth, fatty liver, dilated cardiomyopathy, and premature death. This approach opens the door of RNAi to a wide array of well-established Pol II transgenic strategies and offers a technically simpler, cheaper, and quicker alternative to gene knockout by homologous recombination for reverse genetics in mice and other mammalian species.

  15. The frequency of a disease-causing point mutation in the gene coding for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase in sudden infant death syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banner, Jytte; Gregersen, N; Kølvraa, S

    1993-01-01

    syndrome is still a matter of controversy. The present study investigated 120 well-defined cases of sudden infant death syndrome in order to detect the frequency of the most common disease-causing point mutation in the gene coding for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (G985) compared with the frequency...

  16. An outbreak of acute respiratory disease caused by a virus associated RNA II gene mutation strain of human adenovirus 7 in China, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Beibei; Wu, Fuli; Li, Hao; Liu, Hongbo; Sheng, Chunyu; Ma, Qiuxia; Yang, Chaojie; Xie, Jing; Li, Peng; Jia, Leili; Wang, Ligui; Du, Xinying; Qiu, Shaofu; Song, Hongbin

    2017-01-01

    Human adenovirus 7 (HAdV-7) strains are a major cause of acute respiratory disease (ARD) among adults and children, associated with fatal pneumonia. An ARD outbreak caused by HAdV-7 that involved 739 college students was reported in this article. To better understand the underlying cause of this large-scale epidemic, virus strains were isolated from infected patients and sequence variations of the whole genome sequence were detected. Evolutionary trees and alignment results indicated that the major capsid protein genes hexon and fibre were strongly conserved among serotype 7 strains in China at that time. Instead, the HAdV-7 strains presented three thymine deletions in the virus associated RNA (VA RNA) II terminal region. We also found that the mutation might lead to increased mRNA expression of an adjacent gene, L1 52/55K, and thus promoted faster growth. These findings suggest that sequence variation of VA RNA II gene was a potential cause of such a severe HAdV-7 infection and this gene should be a new-emerging factor to be monitored for better understanding of HAdV-7 infection. PMID:28225804

  17. Hypomethylation of the H19 gene causes not only Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) but also isolated asymmetry or an SRS-like phenotype.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bliek, J.; Terhal, P.; Bogaard, M.J. van den; Maas, S.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Salieb-Beugelaar, G.; Simon, M.; Letteboer, T.; Smagt, J. van der; Kroes, H.Y.; Mannens, M.

    2006-01-01

    The H19 differentially methylated region (DMR) controls the allele-specific expression of both the imprinted H19 tumor-suppressor gene and the IGF2 growth factor. Hypermethylation of this DMR--and subsequently of the H19 promoter region--is a major cause of the clinical features of gigantism and/or

  18. Mutations in ZMYND10, a gene essential for proper axonemal assembly of inner and outer dynein arms in humans and flies, cause primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Daniel J; Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Shoemark, Amelia

    2013-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a ciliopathy characterized by airway disease, infertility, and laterality defects, often caused by dual loss of the inner dynein arms (IDAs) and outer dynein arms (ODAs), which power cilia and flagella beating. Using whole-exome and candidate-gene Sanger resequ...

  19. A new Frameshift mutation on the α2-globin gene causing α⁺-thalassemia: codon 43 (TTC>-TC or TTC>T-C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Philippe; Lacan, Philippe; Garcia, Caroline; Barro, Claire; Francina, Alain

    2012-01-01

    We report a new mutation on the α2-globin gene causing α(+)-thalassemia (α(+)-thal) with a deletion of a single nucleotide (T) at amino acid residue 43 [HBA2:c.130delT or HBA2:c.131delT]. This frameshift deletion gives rise to a premature termination codon at codon 47.

  20. A novel mutation (4040-4045 nt. delA in exon 14 of the factor VIII gene causing severe hemophilia A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Onsori

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemophilia A is an X-linked congenital bleeding disorder caused by Factor VIII deficiency. Different mutations including point mutations, deletions, insertions and inversions have been reported in the FVIII gene, which cause hemophilia A. In the current study, with the use of conformational sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE analysis, we report a novel 1-nt deletion in the A6 sequence at codons 1328-1330 (4040-4045 nt delA occurring in exon 14 of the FVIII gene in a seven-year-old Iranian boy with severe hemophilia A. This mutation that causes frameshift and premature stop-codon at 1331 has not previously been reported in the F8 Hemophilia A Mutation, Structure, Test and Resource Site (HAMSTeRS database.

  1. Congenital bovine spinal dysmyelination is caused by a missense mutation in the SPAST gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bo; Nissen, Peter H.; Agerholm, Jørgen S

    2010-01-01

    European cattle breeds upgraded with ABS. Here, we show that the disease locus on bovine chromosome 11 harbors the SPAST gene that, when mutated, is responsible for the human disorder hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). Initially, SPAST encoding Spastin was considered a less likely candidate gene for BSD...

  2. 5q14.3 deletion neurocutaneous syndrome: Contiguous gene syndrome caused by simultaneous deletion of RASA1 and MEF2C: A progressive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilari, Rita; Agosta, Guillermo; Bacino, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    We report the case of a young girl who was presented with complex clinical symptoms caused by the deletion of contiguous genes: RASA1 and MEF2C, located on chromosome 5q14.3. Specifically, the diagnosis of her skin disorder and vascular malformations involving central nervous system is consistent with a RASopathy. The child's neurological manifestations are observed in most patients suffering from 5q14.3 by deletion or mutation of the MEF2C gene. A review of the literature allowed us to conclude that the contiguous deletion of genes RASA1 and MEF2C fulfills the criteria for the diagnosis of a Neurocutaneous syndrome as proposed by Carr et al. [2011]. We also assessed the penetrance of RASA1 and clinical manifestations of MEF2C according to the type of deletion. This child described presents the complete symptomatology of both deleted genes. We would also like to highlight the progression of the disorder.

  3. The einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum) mutant, maintained vegetative phase, is caused by a deletion in the VRN1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitsukawa, Naoki; Ikari, Chihiro; Shimada, Sanae; Kitagawa, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Koichi; Saito, Hiroyuki; Ryuto, Hiromichi; Fukunishi, Nobuhisa; Abe, Tomoko; Takumi, Shigeo; Nasuda, Shuhei; Murai, Koji

    2007-04-01

    The einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum) mutant, maintained vegetative phase (mvp), was induced by nitrogen ion-beam treatment and was identified by its inability to transit from the vegetative to reproductive phase. In our previous study, we showed that WAP1 (wheat APETALA1) is a key gene in the regulatory pathway that controls phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth in common wheat. WAP1 is an ortholog of the VRN1 gene that is responsible for vernalization insensitivity in einkorn wheat. The mvp mutation resulted from deletion of the VRN1 coding and promoter regions, demonstrating that WAP1/VRN1 is an indispensable gene for phase transition in wheat. Expression analysis of flowering-related genes in mvp plants indicated that wheat GIGANTIA (GI), CONSTANS (CO) and SUPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) genes either act upstream of or in a different pathway to WAP1/VRN1.

  4. Intronic L1 retrotransposons and nested genes cause transcriptional interference by inducing intron retention, exonization and cryptic polyadenylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristel Kaer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transcriptional interference has been recently recognized as an unexpectedly complex and mostly negative regulation of genes. Despite a relatively few studies that emerged in recent years, it has been demonstrated that a readthrough transcription derived from one gene can influence the transcription of another overlapping or nested gene. However, the molecular effects resulting from this interaction are largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using in silico chromosome walking, we searched for prematurely terminated transcripts bearing signatures of intron retention or exonization of intronic sequence at their 3' ends upstream to human L1 retrotransposons, protein-coding and noncoding nested genes. We demonstrate that transcriptional interference induced by intronic L1s (or other repeated DNAs and nested genes could be characterized by intron retention, forced exonization and cryptic polyadenylation. These molecular effects were revealed from the analysis of endogenous transcripts derived from different cell lines and tissues and confirmed by the expression of three minigenes in cell culture. While intron retention and exonization were comparably observed in introns upstream to L1s, forced exonization was preferentially detected in nested genes. Transcriptional interference induced by L1 or nested genes was dependent on the presence or absence of cryptic splice sites, affected the inclusion or exclusion of the upstream exon and the use of cryptic polyadenylation signals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that transcriptional interference induced by intronic L1s and nested genes could influence the transcription of the large number of genes in normal as well as in tumor tissues. Therefore, this type of interference could have a major impact on the regulation of the host gene expression.

  5. Evidence that an evolutionary transition from dehiscent to indehiscent fruits in Lepidium (Brassicaceae) was caused by a change in the control of valve margin identity genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlhausen, Andreas; Lenser, Teresa; Mummenhoff, Klaus; Theißen, Günter

    2013-03-01

    In the Brassicaceae, indehiscent fruits evolved from dehiscent fruits several times independently. Here we use closely related wild species of the genus Lepidium as a model system to analyse the underlying developmental genetic mechanisms in a candidate gene approach. ALCATRAZ (ALC), INDEHISCENT (IND), SHATTERPROOF1 (SHP1) and SHATTERPROOF2 (SHP2) are known fruit developmental genes of Arabidopsis thaliana that are expressed in the fruit valve margin governing dehiscence zone formation. Comparative expression analysis by quantitative RT-PCR, Northern blot and in situ hybridization show that their orthologues from Lepidium campestre (dehiscent fruits) are similarly expressed at valve margins. In sharp contrast, expression of the respective orthologues is abolished in the corresponding tissue of indehiscent Lepidium appelianum fruits, indicating that changes in the genetic pathway identified in A. thaliana caused the transition from dehiscent to indehiscent fruits in the investigated species. As parallel mutations in different genes are quite unlikely, we conclude that the changes in gene expression patterns are probably caused by changes in upstream regulators of ALC, IND and SHP1/2, possible candidates from A. thaliana being FRUITFULL (FUL), REPLUMLESS (RPL) and APETALA2 (AP2). However, neither expression analyses nor functional tests in transgenic plants provided any evidence that the FUL or RPL orthologues of Lepidium were involved in evolution of fruit indehiscence in Lepidium. In contrast, stronger expression of AP2 in indehiscent compared to dehiscent fruits identifies AP2 as a candidate gene that deserves further investigation.

  6. Replication error deficient and proficient colorectal cancer gene expression differences caused by 3'UTR polyT sequence deletions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilding, Jennifer L; McGowan, Simon; Liu, Ying

    2010-01-01

    , and have distinct pathologies. Regulatory sequences controlling all aspects of mRNA processing, especially including message stability, are found in the 3'UTR sequence of most genes. The relevant sequences are typically A/U-rich elements or U repeats. Microarray analysis of 14 RER+ (deficient) and 16 RER......- (proficient) colorectal cancer cell lines confirms a striking difference in expression profiles. Analysis of the incidence of mononucleotide repeat sequences in the 3'UTRs, 5'UTRs, and coding sequences of those genes most differentially expressed in RER+ versus RER- cell lines has shown that much...... of this differential expression can be explained by the occurrence of a massive enrichment of genes with 3'UTR T repeats longer than 11 base pairs in the most differentially expressed genes. This enrichment was confirmed by analysis of two published consensus sets of RER differentially expressed probesets for a large...

  7. Identical Mutation in SH3BP2 Gene Causes Clinical Phenotypes with Different Severity in Mother and Daughter – Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preda, L.; Dinca, O.; Bucur, A.; Dragomir, C.; Severin, E.

    2010-01-01

    Cherubism is a particular form of fibrous dysplasia of the jaws. Familial occurrence was reported in most cases. The condition is a rare hereditary disorder with autosomal dominant inheritance, with complete penetrance in males and incomplete penetrance in females and variable expressivity. It is known to be caused by mutations in the gene encoding SH3-domain binding protein 2, SH3BP2 gene. Major diagnostic criteria are cherubic facial appearance, painless hard enlargement of the jaws, and frequently associated dental abnormalities. The aim of the study was to analyze clinical and genetic features of cherubism in a family with 3 daughters in which the youngest one was affected. Clinical and radiographic examinations, hematological and biochemical evaluations and biopsy were performed. Molecular genetic analysis consisted of PCR amplification and direct sequencing of selected exons of the SH3BP2 gene. Cherubism was suspected based on clinical and radiographic examinations of the 9-year-old daughter. She presented asymmetrical enlargement of the mandible, speech and swallowing problems and dental abnormalities on the lower jaw. There was no history of similar clinical findings in any of the daughters or the parents of the affected girl. Abnormal results were obtained by genetic analysis. A c.1244G>A mutation was identified in exon 9 of the SH3BP2 gene in the asymptomatic mother and her affected daughter. The identified mutation in the SH3BP2 gene is probably disease-causing. The asymptomatic mother transmitted the gene mutation to her affected daughter. Our results confirm the reduced penetrance and variable expression of the gene mutation. PMID:21045962

  8. Differential gene expression of three mastitis-causing Escherichia coli strains grown in planktonic, swimming, and swarming culture conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia coli is a leading cause of intramammary infections in dairy cattle and is typically transient in nature. However, in a minority of cases, E. coli can cause persistent infections. Although the mechanisms that allow for a persistent intramammary E. coli infection are not fully understood...

  9. Host knockout of E-prostanoid 2 receptors reduces tumor growth and causes major alterations of gene expression in prostaglandin E2-producing tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asting, Annika Gustafsson; Iresjö, Britt-Marie; Nilsberth, Camilla; Smedh, Ulrika; Lundholm, Kent

    2017-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is elevated in a variety of malignant tumors and has been shown to affect several hallmarks of cancer. Accordingly, the PGE2 receptor, E-prostanoid 2 (EP2), has been reported to be associated with patient survival and reduced tumor growth in EP2-knockout mice. Thus, the aim of the present study was to screen for major gene expression alterations in tumor tissue growing in EP2-knockout mice. EP2-knockout mice were bred and implanted with EP2 receptor-expressing and PGE2-producing epithelial-like tumors. Tumor tissue and plasma were collected and used for analyses with gene expression microarrays and multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Tumor growth, acute phase reactions/systemic inflammation and the expression of interleukin-6 were reduced in EP2-knockout tumor-bearing mice. Several hundreds of genes displayed major changes of expression in the tumor tissue when grown in EP2-knockout mice. Such gene alterations involved several different cellular functions, including stemness, migration and cell signaling. Besides gene expression, several long non-coding RNAs were downregulated in the tumors from the EP2-knockout mice. Overall, PGE2 signaling via host EP2 receptors affected a large number of different genes involved in tumor progression based on signaling between host stroma and tumor cells, which caused reduced tumor growth. PMID:28123585

  10. Resistance to rice blast(Pyricularia oryzae) caused by the expression of trichosanthin gene in transgenic rice plants transferred through agrobacterium method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The gene of trichosanthin has been transferred into rice plants through agrobacterium method.The single copy insertion and the expression of foreign gene have been proved in regenerated plants.In antifungal assay the degrees of rice blast (Pyricularia oryzae) infection of the transgenic plants expressing trichosanthin and expressing GUS gene as control have been evaluated.The differences such as the time of disease symptom observed,the number of infected plants and damaged leaves,the growth of infected plants of the two transgenic plants after being inoculated by rice blast (Pyricularia oryzae) are significant.The transgenic plants with trichosanthin gene grew faster than the plants with GUS gene,even when humidity environment was removed.The results show that the transgenic plants that expressed trichosanthin are able to delay the infection of rice blast compared with the plants as control.In addition,no damage caused by the expression of trichosanthin gene in transgenic plants has been observed.

  11. LOW MOLECULAR MASS POLYPEPTIDE AND TRANSPORTER ANTIGEN PEPTIDE GENES POLYMORPHISM AS THE RISK FACTORS OF CERVICAL CANCER WHICH CAUSED BY HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS TYPE-16 INFECTION IN BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I N. B. Mahendra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Until recently, cervical cancer is one of the major problem in women’s health issue related to its high incidence and mortality rate. The etiology of cervical cancer is the high risk oncogenic group of Human Papillomavirus (HPV, especially HPV-16 and 18 and its phylogenies. Meanwhile in Bali, more than 50% of infection are caused by HPV-16 infection. The main objective of this study was to investigate the role of LMP-2, LMP-7, TAP-1 and TAP-2 gene polymorphism as the risk factor in the cervical cancer carcinogenesis that is caused by HPV-16 infection. Method: A nested non-paired case-control study was conducted at Obstetric and Gynecologic Department Sanglah General Hospital, Bali-Indonesia from March 1 until August 31, 2013. Laboratory testing was carried out at Laboratory of Histopathology Leiden University Medical Centre, Netherlands,. Results: A total of 40 samples were collected, consist of 20epithelial cervical cancer patients with positive HPV-16 infection as the case group and 20 non-cervical cancer patients with positive HPV-16 infection as the control group. Women infected by HPV-16 with LMP-7 gene polymorphism had a higher risk (OR=7.36, CI 95%=1.38-40.55, p=0.013 to be diagnosed with cervical cancer. Balinese women who were infected by HPV-16 with TAP-2 gene polymorphism had a higher risk (OR= 9.33, CI 95%=2.18-39.96, p=0.001 to be diagnosed with cervical cancer. Meanwhile, Balinese women who were infected by HPV-16 with LMP-7 and TAP-2 genes polymorphism had a higher risk (OR=12.67, CI 95%=1.40-114.42, p=0.020 to be diagnosed with cervical cancer. As the result, it was shown that both of this gene polymorphism was working synergistically. Conclusion: TAP-2 and LMP-7 genes polymorphism play a role in the carcinogenesis mechanism of cervical cancer that is caused by HPV-16 infection in Bali. Meanwhile, LMP-2 and TAP-1 genes polymorphism were not found to play a role in the immunology pathway of cervical cancer that is

  12. [Diversity and genetic stability of yeast flocculation caused by variation of tandem repeats in yeast flocculin genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Feng; Guo, Xuena; He, Xiuping; Zhang, Borun

    2013-07-01

    Yeast flocculation is described as a reversible, asexual and calcium dependent process, in which cells adhere to form flocs by interaction of specific cell surface proteins named flocculins on yeast cells with mannose residues present on the cell wall of adjacent yeast cells. Yeast flocculation provides a very economical and convenient pathway for separation of yeast cells from the fermentation broth or removal of heavy metal ions from effluent. A large number of tandem repeats have been found in genes encoding flocculins, which not only have great regulatory effect on the structure and function of flocculins, generating the diversity of flocculation characteristics, but lead to genetic instability in flocculation as well for driving slippage and recombination reactions within and between FLO genes. Here, the research progress in effect of variation of tandem repeats in FLO genes on flocculation characteristics and genetic stability were reviewed to direct and promote the controllable application of flocculation in industrial fermentation process and environmental remediation.

  13. Mutations in the latent TGF-beta binding protein 3 (LTBP3) gene cause brachyolmia with amelogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckert, Mathilde; Stoetzel, Corinne; Morkmued, Supawich; Laugel-Haushalter, Virginie; Geoffroy, Véronique; Muller, Jean; Clauss, François; Prasad, Megana K; Obry, Frédéric; Raymond, Jean Louis; Switala, Marzena; Alembik, Yves; Soskin, Sylvie; Mathieu, Eric; Hemmerlé, Joseph; Weickert, Jean-Luc; Dabovic, Branka Brukner; Rifkin, Daniel B; Dheedene, Annelies; Boudin, Eveline; Caluseriu, Oana; Cholette, Marie-Claude; Mcleod, Ross; Antequera, Reynaldo; Gellé, Marie-Paule; Coeuriot, Jean-Louis; Jacquelin, Louis-Frédéric; Bailleul-Forestier, Isabelle; Manière, Marie-Cécile; Van Hul, Wim; Bertola, Debora; Dollé, Pascal; Verloes, Alain; Mortier, Geert; Dollfus, Hélène; Bloch-Zupan, Agnès

    2015-06-01

    Inherited dental malformations constitute a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders. Here, we report on four families, three of them consanguineous, with an identical phenotype, characterized by significant short stature with brachyolmia and hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) with almost absent enamel. This phenotype was first described in 1996 by Verloes et al. as an autosomal recessive form of brachyolmia associated with AI. Whole-exome sequencing resulted in the identification of recessive hypomorphic mutations including deletion, nonsense and splice mutations, in the LTBP3 gene, which is involved in the TGF-beta signaling pathway. We further investigated gene expression during mouse development and tooth formation. Differentiated ameloblasts synthesizing enamel matrix proteins and odontoblasts expressed the gene. Study of an available knockout mouse model showed that the mutant mice displayed very thin to absent enamel in both incisors and molars, hereby recapitulating the AI phenotype in the human disorder.

  14. Guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A gene disruption causes increased adrenal angiotensin II and aldosterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Di; Vellaichamy, Elangovan; Somanna, Naveen K; Pandey, Kailash N

    2007-07-01

    Disruption of the guanylyl cyclase-A/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA) gene leads to elevated arterial blood pressure and congestive heart failure in mice lacking NPRA. This study was aimed at determining whether Npr1 (coding for GC-A/NPRA) gene copy number affects adrenal ANG II and aldosterone (Aldo) levels in a gene-dose-dependent manner in Npr1 gene-targeted mice. Adrenal ANG II and Aldo levels increased in 1-copy mice compared with 2-copy mice, but decreased in 3-copy and 4-copy mice. In contrast, renal ANG II levels decreased in 1-copy (25%), 3-copy (38%), and 4-copy (39%) mice compared with 2-copy mice. The low-salt diet stimulated adrenal ANG II and Aldo levels in 1-copy (20 and 2,441%), 2-copy (15 and 2,339%), 3-copy (20 and 424%), and 4-copy (31 and 486%) mice, respectively. The high-salt diet suppressed adrenal ANG II and Aldo levels in 1-copy (46 and 29%) and 2-copy (38 and 17%) mice. On the other hand, the low-salt diet stimulated renal ANG II levels in 1-copy (45%), 2-copy (45%), 3-copy (59%), and 4-copy (48%) mice. However, the high-salt diet suppressed renal ANG II levels in 1-copy (28%) and 2-copy (27%) mice. In conclusion, NPRA signaling antagonizes adrenal ANG II and Aldo levels in a gene-dose dependent manner. Increased adrenal ANG II and Aldo levels may play an important role in elevated arterial blood pressure and progressive hypertension, leading to renal and vascular injury in Npr1 gene-disrupted mice.

  15. Transmitochondrial mice as models for primary prevention of diseases caused by mutation in the tRNA(Lys) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Akinori; Mito, Takayuki; Hayashi, Chisato; Ogasawara, Emi; Koba, Ryusuke; Negishi, Issei; Takenaga, Keizo; Nakada, Kazuto; Hayashi, Jun-Ichi

    2014-02-25

    We generated transmitochondrial mice (mito-mice) that carry a mutation in the tRNA(Lys) gene encoded by mtDNA for use in studies of its pathogenesis and transmission profiles. Because patients with mitochondrial diseases frequently carry mutations in the mitochondrial tRNA(Lys) and tRNA(Leu(UUR)) genes, we focused our efforts on identifying somatic mutations of these genes in mouse lung carcinoma P29 cells. Of the 43 clones of PCR products including the tRNA(Lys) or tRNA(Leu(UUR)) genes in mtDNA of P29 cells, one had a potentially pathogenic mutation (G7731A) in the tRNA(Lys) gene. P29 subclones with predominant amounts of G7731A mtDNA expressed respiration defects, thus suggesting the pathogenicity of this mutation. We then transferred G7731A mtDNA into mouse ES cells and obtained F0 chimeric mice. Mating these F0 mice with C57BL/6J (B6) male mice resulted in the generation of F1 mice with G7731A mtDNA, named "mito-mice-tRNA(Lys7731)." Maternal inheritance and random segregation of G7731A mtDNA occurred in subsequent generations. Mito-mice-tRNA(Lys7731) with high proportions of G7731A mtDNA exclusively expressed respiration defects and disease-related phenotypes and therefore are potential models for mitochondrial diseases due to mutations in the mitochondrial tRNA(Lys) gene. Moreover, the proportion of mutated mtDNA varied markedly among the pups born to each dam, suggesting that selecting oocytes with high proportions of normal mtDNA from affected mothers with tRNA(Lys)-based mitochondrial diseases may be effective as a primary prevention for obtaining unaffected children.

  16. Three-factor reciprocal cross mapping of a gene that causes expression of feedback-resistant acetohydroxy acid synthase in Escherichia coli K-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J H; Davis, E J; Madu, A C; Braxter, S E

    1981-01-01

    The ilv-662 allele was previously identified as a mutation that caused acetohydroxy acid synthase activity to be resistant to feedback inhibition by valine (Davis et al. 1977). This allele was mapped between thr and leu by cotransduction analysis and labeled ilvJ. This report describes the mapping of ilvJ relative to genes that lie between thr and leu (ara, carA and pdxA) by three factor reciprocal cross analyses. We find that the probable gene order is thr-carA-pdxA-ilvJ-ara-leu. Although the phenotypic properties of ilvJ662 appear to be quite distinct from brnS, a gene reported to involve branched chain amino acid transport (Guardiola et al. 1974), we do not rule out possible allelism because of the uncertainty of the map position of brnS.

  17. GCK gene mutations are a common cause of childhood‐onset MODY (maturity‐onset diabetes of the young) in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Haliloglu, Belma; Hysenaj, Gerald; Atay, Zeynep; Guran, Tulay; Abalı, Saygın; Turan, Serap; Bereket, Abdullah; Ellard, Sian

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective Inactivating heterozygous mutations in the GCK gene are a common cause of MODY and result in mild fasting hyperglycaemia, which does not require treatment. We aimed to identify the frequency, clinical and molecular features of GCK mutations in a Turkish paediatric cohort. Design and Patients Fifty‐four unrelated probands were selected based on the following criteria: age of diagnosis ≤17 years, family history of diabetes in at least two generations, anti‐GAD/ICA negative, BM...

  18. Founder mutations in NDRG1 and HK1 genes are common causes of inherited neuropathies among Roma/Gypsies in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrikova, Dana; Mistrik, Martin; Bernasovska, Jarmila; Bozikova, Alexandra; Behulova, Regina; Tothova, Iveta; Macekova, Sona

    2013-11-01

    Autosomal recessive forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) account for less than 10 % of all CMT cases, but are more frequent in the populations with a high rate of consanguinity. Roma (Gypsies) are a transnational minority with an estimated population of 10 to 14 million, in which a high degree of consanguineous marriages is a generally known fact. Similar to the other genetically isolated founder populations, the Roma harbour a number of unique or rare autosomal recessive disorders, caused by "private" founder mutations. There are three subtypes of autosomal recessive CMT with mutations private to the Roma population: CMT4C, CMT4D and CMT4G. We report on the molecular examination of four families of Roma origin in Slovakia with early-onset demyelinating neuropathy and autosomal recessive inheritance. We detected mutation p.R148X (g.631C>T) in the NDRG1 (NM_006096.3) gene in two families and mutation g.9712G>C in the HK1 (NM_033498) gene in the other two families. These mutations cause CMT4D and CMT4G, respectively. The success of molecular genetic analysis in all families confirms that autosomal recessive forms of CMT caused by mutations on the NDRG1 and HK1 genes are common causes of inherited neuropathies among Slovak Roma. Providing genetic analysis of these genes for patients with Roma origin as a common part of diagnostic procedure would contribute to a better rate of diagnosed cases of demyelinating neuropathy in Slovakia and in other countries with a Roma minority.

  19. Q289p Mutation In Fgfr2 Gene Causes Saethre-chotzen Syndrome: Some Considerations About Familial Heterogeneity.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the first report on a three-generation family presenting typical features of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, in which the Q289P mutation in the FGFR2 gene was detected. Design: Dysmorphological evaluation was performed by a clinical geneticist. Direct sequencing of the polymerase chain reaction-amplified coding region of TWIST and screening for the P250R mutation in the FGFR3 gene were performed. Exons IIIa and IIIc of FGFR2 were sequenced also. The mutation was confirmed by ...

  20. Investigating the Potential Influence of Cause of Death and Cocaine Levels on the Differential Expression of Genes Associated with Cocaine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannon, Michael J.; Savonen, Candace L.; Hartley, Zachary J.; Johnson, Magen M.; Schmidt, Carl J.

    2015-01-01

    The development of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of complex brain disorders such as drug addiction is likely to be advanced by a more complete understanding of the underlying molecular pathophysiology. Although the study of postmortem human brain represents a unique resource in this regard, it can be challenging to disentangle the relative contribution of chronic pathological processes versus perimortem events to the observed changes in gene expression. To begin to unravel this issue, we analyzed by quantitative PCR the midbrain expression of numerous candidate genes previously associated with cocaine abuse. Data obtained from chronic cocaine abusers (and matched control subjects) dying of gunshot wounds were compared with a prior study of subjects with deaths directly attributable to cocaine abuse. Most of the genes studied (i.e., tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine transporter, forkhead box A2, histone variant H3 family 3B, nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor alpha, growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible beta) were found to be differentially expressed in chronic cocaine abusers irrespective of immediate cause of death or perimortem levels of cocaine, suggesting that these may represent core pathophysiological changes arising with chronic drug abuse. On the other hand, chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 and jun proto-oncogene expression were unaffected in cocaine-abusing subjects dying of gunshot wounds, in contrast to the differential expression previously reported in cocaine-related fatalities. The possible influence of cause of death and other factors on the cocaine-responsiveness of these genes is discussed. PMID:25658879

  1. Conditional beta1-integrin gene deletion in neural crest cells causes severe developmental alterations of the peripheral nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietri, Thomas; Eder, Olivier; Breau, Marie Anne;

    2004-01-01

    Integrins are transmembrane receptors that are known to interact with the extracellular matrix and to be required for migration, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. We have generated mice with a neural crest cell-specific deletion of the beta1-integrin gene to analyse the role of beta1-...

  2. Targeted knockdown of Cerkl, a retinal dystrophy gene, causes mild affectation of the retinal ganglion cell layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garanto, A.; Vicente-Tejedor, J.; Riera, M.; Villa, P. de la; Gonzalez-Duarte, R.; Blanco, R.; Marfany, G.

    2012-01-01

    In order to approach the function of the retinal dystrophy CERKL gene we generated a novel knockout mouse model by cre-mediated targeted deletion of the Cerkl first exon and proximal promoter. The excised genomic region (2.3kb) encompassed the first Cerkl exon, upstream sequences including the proxi

  3. Presence of the KPC carbapenemase gene in Enterobacteriaceae causing bacteremia, and the correlation with in vitro carbapenem susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    During six months, we obtained Enterobacteriaceae isolates from patients with Gram-negative bacteremia at a 1250-bed teaching hospital in St. Louis, Missouri, and compared carbapenem susceptibility with the presence of blaKPC, a transferable carbapenemase gene. Three (1.2%) out of 243 isolates were ...

  4. Common variation in oxidative phosphorylation genes is not a major cause of insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snogdal, L S; Wod, M; Grarup, Niels;

    2012-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction is linked to insulin resistance and is present in several tissues relevant to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Here, we examined whether common variation in genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) contributes to type 2...... diabetes susceptibility or influences diabetes-related metabolic traits....

  5. Mutations in sodium-channel gene SCN9A cause a spectrum of human genetic pain disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, J.P.H.; Waxman, S.G.

    2007-01-01

    The voltage-gated sodium-channel type IX alpha subunit, known as Na(v)1.7 and encoded by the gene SCN9A, is located in peripheral neurons and plays an important role in action potential production in these cells. Recent genetic studies have identified Na(v)1.7 dysfunction in three different human pa

  6. DISRUPTION OF THE SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE GENE FOR NADPH-CYTOCHROME P450-REDUCTASE CAUSES INCREASED SENSITIVITY TO KETOCONAZOLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae deleted in the NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase gene by transplacement are 200-fold more sensitive to ketoconazole, an inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14-demethylase. Resistance is restored through complementation by the plasmid-born...

  7. Identification and validation of a gene causing cross-resistance between insecticide classes in Anopheles gambiae from Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sara N; Stevenson, Bradley J; Müller, Pie; Wilding, Craig S; Egyir-Yawson, Alexander; Field, Stuart G; Hemingway, Janet; Paine, Mark J I; Ranson, Hilary; Donnelly, Martin James

    2012-04-17

    In the last decade there have been marked reductions in malaria incidence in sub-Saharan Africa. Sustaining these reductions will rely upon insecticides to control the mosquito malaria vectors. We report that in the primary African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, a single enzyme, CYP6M2, confers resistance to two classes of insecticide. This is unique evidence in a disease vector of cross-resistance associated with a single metabolic gene that simultaneously reduces the efficacy of two of the four classes of insecticide routinely used for malaria control. The gene-expression profile of a highly DDT-resistant population of A. gambiae s.s. from Ghana was characterized using a unique whole-genome microarray. A number of genes were significantly overexpressed compared with two susceptible West African colonies, including genes from metabolic families previously linked to insecticide resistance. One of the most significantly overexpressed probe groups (false-discovery rate-adjusted P metabolize both type I and type II pyrethroids in recombinant protein assays. Using in vitro assays we show that recombinant CYP6M2 is also capable of metabolizing the organochlorine insecticide DDT in the presence of solubilizing factor sodium cholate.

  8. Manipulation of DET1 expression in tomato results in photomorphogenic phenotypes caused by post-transcriptional gene silencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davuluri, Ganga Rao; van Tuinen, Ageeth; Mustilli, Anna Chiara; Manfredonia, Alessandro; Newman, Robert; Burgess, Diane; Brummell, David A.; King, Stephen R.; Palys, Joe; Uhlig, John; Pennings, Henk M. J.; Bowler, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Summary The tomato HIGH PIGMENT-2 gene encodes an orthologue of the Arabidopsis nuclear protein DE-ETIOLATED 1 (DET1). From genetic analyses it has been proposed that DET1 is a negative regulator of light signal transduction, and recent results indicate that it may control light-regulated gene expression at the level of chromatin remodelling. To gain further understanding about the function of DET1 during plant development, we generated a range of overexpression constructs and introduced them into tomato. Unexpectedly, we only observed phenotypes characteristic of DET1 inactivation, i.e. hyper-responsiveness to light. Molecular analysis indicated in all cases that these phenotypes were a result of suppression of endogenous DET1 expression, due to post-transcriptional gene silencing. DET1 silencing was often lethal when it occurred at relatively early stages of plant development, whereas light hyper-responsive phenotypes were obtained when silencing occurred later on. The appearance of phenotypes correlated with the generation of siRNAs but not DNA hypermethylation, and was most efficient when using constructs with mutations in the DET1 coding sequence or with constructs containing only the 3′-terminal portion of the gene. These results indicate an important function for DET1 throughout plant development and demonstrate that silencing of DET1 in fruits results in increased carotenoids, which may have biotechnological potential. PMID:15469492

  9. Severe myocardial fibrosis caused by a deletion of the 5' end of the lamin A/C gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tintelen, J. Peter; Tio, Rene A.; Kerstjens-Frederikse, Wilhelmina S.; van Berlo, Jop H.; Boven, Ludolf G.; Suurmeijer, Albert J. H.; White, Stefan J.; den Dunnen, Johan T.; te Meerman, Gerard J.; Vos, Yvonne J.; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Osinga, Jan; van den Berg, Maarten P.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Buys, Charles H. C. M.; Hofstra, Robert M. W.; Pinto, Yigal M.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this study was to identify the underlying gene defect in a family with inherited myocardial fibrosis. Background A large family with an autosomal dominantly inherited form of myocardial fibrosis with a highly malignant clinical outcome has been investigated. Because myocardial

  10. Novel membrane frizzled-related protein gene mutation as cause of posterior microphthalmia resulting in high hyperopia with macular folds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasmann, Rosemarie A.; Wassink-Ruiter, Jolien S. Klein; Sundin, Olof H.; Morales, Elisa; Verheij, Joke B. G. M.; Pott, Jan Willem R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Purpose: We present a genetic and clinical analysis of two sisters, 3 and 4 years of age, with nanophthalmos and macular folds. Methods: Ophthalmological examination, general paediatric examination and molecular genetic analysis of the MFRP gene were performed in both affected siblings. Re

  11. Ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae carrying multiple metallo-beta-lactamase genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwivedi Mayank

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP is a leading nosocomial infection in the intensive care unit (ICU. Members of Enterobacteriaceae are the most common causative agents and carbapenems are the most commonly used antibiotics. Metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL production leading to treatment failure may go unnoticed by routine disc diffusion susceptibility testing. Moreover, there is not much information on association of MBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae with ICU-acquired VAP. Therefore, a study was undertaken to find out the association of MBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae with VAP. Settings: This study was conducted in a large tertiary care hospital of North India with an eight-bed critical care unit. Materials and Methods: The respiratory samples (bronchoalveolar lavage, protected brush catheter specimens and endotracheal or transtracheal aspirates obtained from VAP patients (during January 2005-December 2006 were processed, isolated bacteria identified and their antibiotic susceptibilities tested as per standard protocols. The isolates of Enterobacteriaceae resistant to carbapenem were subjected to phenotypic and genotypic tests for the detection of MBLs. Results: Twelve of 64 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae were detected as MBL producers, bla IMP being the most prevalent gene. Additionally, in three strains, simultaneous coexistence of multiple MBL genes was detected. Conclusion: The coexistence of multiple MBL genes in Enterobacteriaceae is an alarming situation. As MBL genes are associated with integrons that can be embedded in transposons, which in turn can be accommodated on plasmids thereby resulting in a highly mobile genetic apparatus, the further spread of these genes in different pathogens is likely to occur.

  12. X-linked familial exudative vitreoretinopathy caused by an arginine to leucine substitution in exon 3 of the Norrie gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K.; Perry, Y.M.; Ferrell, R.E. [Univ. of Pittsburg, PA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a disorder characterized by abnormal vascularization of the peripheral retina affecting both the retina and the vitreous body. This is a bilateral disorder and leads to a clinical phenotype resembling retinopathy of prematurity, but affected individuals experience a normal gestational period, and they do not have a history of oxygen therapy. Manifestations of the disorder may include retinal folds, retinal traction, sub- or intraretinal exudates, and in severe cases enophthalmos or phthisis ultimately leading to blindness. Autosomal dominant and X-linked patterns of segregation have been reported. We studied a large three-generation family in which FEVR segregated as an X-linked recessive trait. The Norrie gene was examined because of a prior report of mutation in this gene in a small X-linked FEVR family. Exons 1-3 of the Norrie gene were amplified and screened for mutations by single stranded conformational analysis. A variant conformer of exon 3 was observed in an affected male and in combination with the normal conformer in an obligate carrier female. Sequence analysis revealed a G{r_arrow}T transversion destroying an MspI restriction site. The mutation was present in all affected males, and all obligate carrier females were heterozygous for the mutation. The mutation was not present in unaffected males or in 108 randomly selected normal females. The G{r_arrow}T mutation leads to the substitution of a hydrophobic leucine residue for the positively charged arginine normally present at position 121 of the Norrie gene product. This study confirms that mutation in the Norrie gene can lead to the FEVR phenotype and the existence of allelic heterogeneity.

  13. Arabidopsis nonhost resistance gene PSS1 confers immunity against an oomycete and a fungal pathogen but not a bacterial pathogen that cause diseases in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Rishi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonhost resistance (NHR provides immunity to all members of a plant species against all isolates of a microorganism that is pathogenic to other plant species. Three Arabidopsis thaliana PEN (penetration deficient genes, PEN1, 2 and 3 have been shown to provide NHR against the barley pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei at the prehaustorial level. Arabidopsis pen1-1 mutant lacking the PEN1 gene is penetrated by the hemibiotrophic oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae, the causal organism of the root and stem rot disease in soybean. We investigated if there is any novel nonhost resistance mechanism in Arabidopsis against the soybean pathogen, P. sojae. Results The P.sojaesusceptible (pss 1 mutant was identified by screening a mutant population created in the Arabidopsis pen1-1 mutant that lacks penetration resistance against the non adapted barley biotrophic fungal pathogen, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. Segregation data suggested that PEN1 is not epistatic to PSS1. Responses of pss1 and pen1-1 to P. sojae invasion were distinct and suggest that PSS1 may act at both pre- and post-haustorial levels, while PEN1 acts at the pre-haustorial level against this soybean pathogen. Therefore, PSS1 encodes a new form of nonhost resistance. The pss1 mutant is also infected by the necrotrophic fungal pathogen, Fusarium virguliforme, which causes sudden death syndrome in soybean. Thus, a common NHR mechanism is operative in Arabidopsis against both hemibiotrophic oomycetes and necrotrophic fungal pathogens that are pathogenic to soybean. However, PSS1 does not play any role in immunity against the bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea, that causes bacterial blight in soybean. We mapped PSS1 to a region very close to the southern telomere of chromosome 3 that carries no known disease resistance genes. Conclusions The study revealed that Arabidopsis PSS1 is a novel nonhost resistance gene that confers a new form of

  14. Steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1 gene mutation as a frequent cause of primary amenorrhea in 46,XY female adolescents with low testosterone concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servant Nadège

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary amenorrhea due to 46,XY disorders of sex differentiation (DSD is a frequent reason for consultation in endocrine and gynecology clinics. Among the genetic causes of low-testosterone primary amenorrhea due to 46,XY DSD, SRY gene is reported to be frequently involved, but other genes, such as SF1 and WT1, have never been studied for their prevalence. Methods We directly sequenced SRY, SF1 and WT1 genes in 15 adolescent girls with primary amenorrhea, low testosterone concentration, and XY karyotype, to determine the prevalence of mutations. We also analyzed the LH receptor gene in patients with high LH and normal FSH concentrations. Results Among the 15 adolescents with primary amenorrhea and low testosterone concentration, we identified two new SRY mutations, five new SF1 mutations and one new LH receptor gene mutation. Our study confirms the 10-15% prevalence of SRY mutations and shows the high prevalence (33% of SF1 abnormalities in primary amenorrhea due to 46,XY DSD with low plasma testosterone concentration. Conclusions The genetic analysis of low-testosterone primary amenorrhea is complex as several factors may be involved. This work underlines the need to systematically analyze the SF1 sequence in girls with primary amenorrhea due to 46,XY DSD and low testosterone, as well as in newborns with 46,XY DSD.

  15. Structure of the Elastin-Contractile Units in the Thoracic Aorta and How Genes That Cause Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections Disrupt This Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ashkan; Milewicz, Dianna M

    2016-01-01

    The medial layer of the aorta confers elasticity and strength to the aortic wall and is composed of alternating layers of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and elastic fibres. The SMC elastin-contractile unit is a structural unit that links the elastin fibres to the SMCs and is characterized by the following: (1) layers of elastin fibres that are surrounded by microfibrils; (2) microfibrils that bind to the integrin receptors in focal adhesions on the cell surface of the SMCs; and (3) SMC contractile filaments that are linked to the focal adhesions on the inner side of the membrane. The genes that are altered to cause thoracic aortic aneurysms and aortic dissections encode proteins involved in the structure or function of the SMC elastin-contractile unit. Included in this gene list are the genes encoding protein that are structural components of elastin fibres and microfibrils, FBN1, MFAP5, ELN, and FBLN4. Also included are genes that encode structural proteins in the SMC contractile unit, including ACTA2, which encodes SMC-specific α-actin and MYH11, which encodes SMC-specific myosin heavy chain, along with MYLK and PRKG1, which encode kinases that control SMC contraction. Finally, mutations in the gene encoding the protein linking integrin receptors to the contractile filaments, FLNA, also predispose to thoracic aortic disease. Thus, these data suggest that functional SMC elastin-contractile units are important for maintaining the structural integrity of the aorta.

  16. Whole-exome sequencing reveals a novel frameshift mutation in the FAM161A gene causing autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa in the Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Saikia, Bibhuti B; Jiang, Zhilin; Zhu, Xiong; Liu, Yuqing; Huang, Lulin; Kim, Ramasamy; Yang, Yin; Qu, Chao; Hao, Fang; Gong, Bo; Tai, Zhengfu; Niu, Lihong; Yang, Zhenglin; Sundaresan, Periasamy; Zhu, Xianjun

    2015-10-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a heterogenous group of inherited retinal degenerations caused by mutations in at least 50 genes. To identify genetic mutations underlying autosomal recessive RP (arRP), we performed whole-exome sequencing study on two consanguineous marriage Indian families (RP-252 and RP-182) and 100 sporadic RP patients. Here we reported novel mutation in FAM161A in RP-252 and RP-182 with two patients affected with RP in each family. The FAM161A gene was identified as the causative gene for RP28, an autosomal recessive form of RP. By whole-exome sequencing we identified several homozygous genomic regions, one of which included the recently identified FAM161A gene mutated in RP28-linked arRP. Sequencing analysis revealed the presence of a novel homozygous frameshift mutation p.R592FsX2 in both patients of family RP-252 and family RP-182. In 100 sporadic Indian RP patients, this novel homozygous frameshift mutation p.R592FsX2 was identified in one sporadic patient ARRP-S-I-46 by whole-exome sequencing and validated by Sanger sequencing. Meanwhile, this homozygous frameshift mutation was absent in 1000 ethnicity-matched control samples screened by direct Sanger sequencing. In conclusion, we identified a novel homozygous frameshift mutations of RP28-linked RP gene FAM161A in Indian population.

  17. Mutations in Splicing Factor Genes Are a Major Cause of Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa in Belgian Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppieters, Frauke; Roels, Dimitri; De Jaegere, Sarah; Flipts, Helena; De Zaeytijd, Julie; Walraedt, Sophie; Claes, Charlotte; Fransen, Erik; Van Camp, Guy; Depasse, Fanny; Casteels, Ingele; de Ravel, Thomy

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) is characterized by an extensive genetic heterogeneity, implicating 27 genes, which account for 50 to 70% of cases. Here 86 Belgian probands with possible adRP underwent genetic testing to unravel the molecular basis and to assess the contribution of the genes underlying their condition. Methods Mutation detection methods evolved over the past ten years, including mutation specific methods (APEX chip analysis), linkage analysis, gene panel analysis (Sanger sequencing, targeted next-generation sequencing or whole exome sequencing), high-resolution copy number screening (customized microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization). Identified variants were classified following American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) recommendations. Results Molecular genetic screening revealed mutations in 48/86 cases (56%). In total, 17 novel pathogenic mutations were identified: four missense mutations in RHO, five frameshift mutations in RP1, six mutations in genes encoding spliceosome components (SNRNP200, PRPF8, and PRPF31), one frameshift mutation in PRPH2, and one frameshift mutation in TOPORS. The proportion of RHO mutations in our cohort (14%) is higher than reported in a French adRP population (10.3%), but lower than reported elsewhere (16.5–30%). The prevalence of RP1 mutations (10.5%) is comparable to other populations (3.5%-10%). The mutation frequency in genes encoding splicing factors is unexpectedly high (altogether 19.8%), with PRPF31 the second most prevalent mutated gene (10.5%). PRPH2 mutations were found in 4.7% of the Belgian cohort. Two families (2.3%) have the recurrent NR2E3 mutation p.(Gly56Arg). The prevalence of the recurrent PROM1 mutation p.(Arg373Cys) was higher than anticipated (3.5%). Conclusions Overall, we identified mutations in 48 of 86 Belgian adRP cases (56%), with the highest prevalence in RHO (14%), RP1 (10.5%) and PRPF31 (10.5%). Finally, we expanded the molecular

  18. A novel Ehrlichia genotype strain distinguished by the TRP36 gene naturally infects cattle in Brazil and causes clinical manifestations associated with ehrlichiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Daniel M; Ziliani, Thayza F; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Melo, Andreia L T; Braga, Isis A; Witter, Rute; Freitas, Leodil C; Rondelli, André L H; Luis, Michele A; Sorte, Eveline C B; Jaune, Felipe W; Santarém, Vamilton A; Horta, Mauricio C; Pescador, Carolina A; Colodel, Edson M; Soares, Herbert S; Pacheco, Richard C; Onuma, Selma S M; Labruna, Marcelo B; McBride, Jere W

    2014-09-01

    A novel Ehrlichia genotype most closely related to E. canis was reported in North American cattle in 2010, and a similar agent was subsequently identified in the hemolymph of Brazilian Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks and isolated in 2012. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this or other novel ehrlichial agents naturally infect Brazilian cattle. Using PCR targeting the genus-conserved dsb gene, DNA from this novel ehrlichial agent in Brazilian cattle was detected. Attempts to isolate the organism in vitro were performed using DH82 cells, but morulae and ehrlichial DNA could only be detected for approximately one month. In order to further molecularly characterize the organism, PCR was performed using primers specific for multiple E. canis genes (dsb, rrs, and trp36). Sequence obtained from the conserved rrs and dsb genes demonstrated that the organism was 99-100% identical to the novel Ehrlichia genotypes previously reported in North American cattle (rrs gene) and Brazilian ticks (rrs and dsb genes). However, analysis of the trp36 gene revealed substantial strain diversity between these Ehrlichia genotypes strains, including divergent tandem repeat sequences. In order to obtain preliminary information on the potential pathogenicity of this ehrlichial agent and clinical course of infection, a calf was experimentally infected. The calf showed clinical signs of ehrlichiosis, including fever, depression, lethargy, thrombocytopenia, and morulae were observed in peripheral blood monocytes. This study reports a previously unrecognized disease-causing Ehrlichia sp. in Brazilian cattle that is consistent with the genotype previously described in North America cattle and ticks from Brazil. Hence, it is likely that this is the organism previously identified as Ehrlichia bovis in Brazil in 1982. Furthermore, we have concluded that strains of these Ehrlichia genotypes can be molecularly distinguished by the trp36 gene, which has been widely utilized to

  19. Mutations in the VNTR of the carboxyl-ester lipase gene (CEL) are a rare cause of monogenic diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torsvik, Janniche; Johansson, Stefan; Johansen, Anders;

    2009-01-01

    of the VNTR, and determined the VNTR-length of each allele. When blindly testing 56 members of the two families with known single-base deletions in the CEL VNTR, the method correctly assessed the mutation carriers. Screening of 241 probands from suspected maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) families...... negative for mutations in known MODY genes (95 individuals from Denmark and 146 individuals from UK) revealed no deletions in the proximal repeats of the CEL VNTR. However, we found one Danish patient with a short, novel CEL allele containing only three VNTR repeats (normal range 7-23 in healthy controls......). This allele co-segregated with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance in the patient's family as six of seven mutation carriers were affected. We also identified individuals who had three copies of a complete CEL VNTR. In conclusion, the CEL gene is highly polymorphic, but mutations in CEL are likely...

  20. Meiotic recombination in the beta globin gene cluster causing an error in prenatal diagnosis of beta thalassaemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Camaschella, C.; Serra, A.; Saglio, G; Bertero, M T; Mazza, U; Terzoli, S; Brambati, B; Cremonesi, L.; Travi, M; Ferrari, M

    1988-01-01

    In the course of a prenatal diagnosis for beta thalassaemia by linkage analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms, a homozygous beta thalassaemia fetus was misdiagnosed as beta thalassaemia trait. Extensive studies of the polymorphic sites within the beta globin gene cluster in all the members of the family resulted in the conclusion that the paternal chromosome 11 of the newborn was different from that expected. Paternity was confirmed by HLA typing and blood group studies. The an...

  1. A novel mutation in the upstream open reading frame of the CDKN1B gene causes a MEN4 phenotype.

    OpenAIRE

    Gianluca Occhi; Daniela Regazzo; Giampaolo Trivellin; Francesca Boaretto; Denis Ciato; Sara Bobisse; Sergio Ferasin; Filomena Cetani; Elena Pardi; Márta Korbonits; Pellegata, Natalia S.; Viktoryia Sidarovich; Alessandro Quattrone; Giuseppe Opocher; Franco Mantero

    2013-01-01

    The CDKN1B gene encodes the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(KIP1), an atypical tumor suppressor playing a key role in cell cycle regulation, cell proliferation, and differentiation. Impaired p27(KIP1) expression and/or localization are often observed in tumor cells, further confirming its central role in regulating the cell cycle. Recently, germline mutations in CDKN1B have been associated with the inherited multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 4, an autosomal dominant syndrome ch...

  2. Analysis of the cbhE' plasmid gene from acute disease-causing isolates of Coxiella burnetii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnick, M F; Small, C L; Frazier, M E; Mallavia, L P

    1991-07-15

    A gene termed cbhE' was cloned from the QpH1 plasmid of Coxiella burnetii. Expression of recombinants containing cbhE' in vitro and in Escherichia coli maxicells, produced an insert-encoded polypeptide of approx. 42 kDa. The CbhE protein was not cleaved when intact maxicells were treated with trypsin. Hybridizations of total DNA isolated from the six strains of C. burnetii indicate that this gene is unique to C. burnetii strains associated with acute disease, i.e., Hamilton[I], Vacca[II], and Rasche[III]. The cbhE' gene was not detected in strains associated with chronic disease (Biotzere[IV] and Corazon[V]) or the Dod[VI] strain. The cbhE' open reading frame (ORF) is 1022 bp in length and is preceded by a predicted promoter/Shine-Dalgarno (SD) region of TCAACT(-35)-N16-TAAAAT(-10)-N14-AGAAGGA (SD) located 10 nucleotides (nt) before the presumed AUG start codon. The ORF ends with a single UAA stop codon and has no apparent Rho-factor-independent terminator following it. The cbhE' gene codes for the CbhE protein of 341 amino acid (aa) residues with a deduced Mr of 39,442. CbhE is predominantly hydrophilic with a predicted pI of 4.43. The function of CbhE is unknown. No nt or aa sequences with homology to cbhE' or CbhE, respectively, were found in searches of a number of data bases.

  3. Exome sequencing of senescence-accelerated mice (SAM) reveals deleterious mutations in degenerative disease-causing genes

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background Senescence-accelerated mice (SAM) are a series of mouse strains originally derived from unexpected crosses between AKR/J and unknown mice, from which phenotypically distinct senescence-prone (SAMP) and -resistant (SAMR) inbred strains were subsequently established. Although SAMP strains have been widely used for aging research focusing on their short life spans and various age-related phenotypes, such as immune dysfunction, osteoporosis, and brain atrophy, the responsible gene muta...

  4. Monocrotophos pesticide modulates the expression of sexual differentiation genes and causes phenotypic feminization in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaona; Gao, Lei; Yang, Kunfeng; Tian, Hua; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2013-01-01

    Monocrotophos (MCP) is an organophosphorus pesticide moderately toxic to fish, and it has significant estrogenic properties in vivo. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to 0.001, 0.010, and 0.100 mg/L 40% MCP pesticide in a semi-static manner from fertilization to 40 days post-hatching. Histological analyses were performed to determine whether sex differentiation in zebrafish was affected by MCP, and the mRNA expression levels of genes involved in sexual differentiation were quantified by real-time PCR to clarify the possible mechanism(s) of action. The results revealed a prominent increase in the proportion of females (71%) in the 0.100 mg/L MCP pesticide treatment as well as the presence of one intersex individual in each of the groups exposed to 0.001 and 0.100 mg/L MCP. MCP exposure stimulated forkhead transcription factor gene L2 (foxl2) expression and suppressed doublesex/mab-3 related transcription factor 1 (dmrt1) expression, indirectly leading to elevated gonadal aromatase (cyp19a1a) gene expression, which should promote phenotypic feminization. In addition, MCP treatment increased the transcription of brain aromatase (cyp19a1b), resulting in an indirect impact on sexual differentiation. The results from this investigation can be used for risk and hazard assessment of MCP pesticide.

  5. RNA interference gene therapy in dominant retinitis pigmentosa and cone-rod dystrophy mouse models caused by GCAP1 mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li eJiang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi knockdown is an efficacious therapeutic strategy for silencing genes causative for dominant retinal dystrophies. To test this, we used self-complementary (sc AAV2/8 vector to develop an RNAi-based therapy in two dominant retinal degeneration mouse models. The allele-specific model expresses transgenic bovine GCAP1(Y99C establishing a rapid RP-like phenotype, whereas the nonallele-specific model expresses mouse GCAP1(L151F producing a slowly progressing cone/rod dystrophy (CORD. The late onset GCAP1(L151F-CORD mimics the dystrophy observed in human GCAP1-CORD patients. Subretinal injection of scAAV2/8 carrying shRNA expression cassettes specific for bovine or mouse GCAP1 showed strong expression at one week post-injection. In both allele-specific (GCAP1(Y99C-RP and nonallele-specific (GCAP1(L151F-CORD models of dominant retinal dystrophy, RNAi-mediated gene silencing enhanced photoreceptor survival, delayed onset of degeneration and improved visual function. Such results provide a proof of concept toward effective RNAi-based gene therapy mediated by scAAV2/8 for dominant retinal disease based on GCAP1 mutation. Further, nonallele-specific RNAi knockdown of GCAP1 may prove generally applicable toward the rescue of any human GCAP1-based dominant cone-rod dystrophy.

  6. DNA as patentable subject matter and a narrow framework for addressing the perceived problems caused by gene patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Stephen H

    2011-12-01

    Concerns about the alleged harmful effects of gene patents--including hindered research and innovation and impeded patient access to high-quality genetic diagnostic tests--have resulted in overreactions from the public and throughout the legal profession. These overreactions are exemplified by Association for Molecular Pathology v. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, a 2010 case in the Southern District of New York that held that isolated DNA is unpatentable subject matter under 35 U.S.C. § 101. The problem with these responses is that they fail to adequately consider the role that gene patents and patents on similar biomolecules play in facilitating investment in the costly and risky developmental processes required to transform the underlying inventions into marketable products. Accordingly, a more precisely refined solution is advisable. This Note proposes a narrowly tailored set of solutions to address the concerns about gene patents without destroying the incentives for companies to create and commercialize inventions derived from these and similar patents.

  7. First report of neonatal bacteremia caused by "Haemophilus quentini" diagnosed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giufrè, Maria; Cardines, Rita; Degl'Innocenti, Roberto; Cerquetti, Marina

    2015-10-01

    We report the first case of neonatal bacteremia caused by a "Haemophilus quentini" isolate in Italy. The isolate was differentiated from H. influenzae by 16S rRNA sequencing and was characterized by comparison with the wild-type "H. quentini" CCUG 36167. Both isolates carried substitutions in penicillin-binding protein 3 but were susceptible to aminopenicillins.

  8. Alu-Repeat-Induced Deletions Within the NCF2 Gene Causing p67-phox-Deficient Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Gentsch; A. Kaczmarczyk; K. van Leeuwen; M. de Boer; M. Kaus-Drobek; M.C. Dagher; P. Kaiser; P.D. Arkwright; M. Gahr; A. Rösen-Wolff; M. Bochtler; E. Secord; P. Britto-Williams; G.M. Saifi; A. Maddalena; G. Dbaibo; J. Bustamante; J.L. Casanova; D. Roos; J. Roesler

    2010-01-01

    Mutations that impair express. ion or function of the components, of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase complex cause. chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), which is associated with life-threatening infections and dysregulated granulomatous inflammation. In five CGD patients from four consanguineous familie

  9. Mutations in the phospholipid remodeling gene SERAC1 impair mitochondrial function and intracellular cholesterol trafficking and cause dystonia and deafness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortmann, S.B.; Vaz, F.M.; Gardeitchik, T.; Vissers, L.E.L.M.; Renkema, G.H.; Schuurs-Hoeijmakers, J.H.M.; Kulik, W.; Lammens, M.M.Y.; Christin, C.; Kluijtmans, L.A.J.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Nijtmans, L.G.J.; Grunewald, A.; Klein, C.; Gerhold, J.M.; Kozicz, T.L.; Hasselt, P.M. van; Harakalova, M.; Kloosterman, W.; Baric, I.; Pronicka, E.; Ucar, S.K.; Naess, K.; Singhal, K.K.; Krumina, Z.; Gilissen, C.F.H.A.; Bokhoven, J.H.L.M. van; Veltman, J.A.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Lefeber, D.J.; Spelbrink, J.N.; Wevers, R.A.; Morava, E.; Brouwer, A.P.M. de

    2012-01-01

    Using exome sequencing, we identify SERAC1 mutations as the cause of MEGDEL syndrome, a recessive disorder of dystonia and deafness with Leigh-like syndrome, impaired oxidative phosphorylation and 3-methylglutaconic aciduria. We localized SERAC1 at the interface between the mitochondria and the endo

  10. Duplication in the microtubule-actin cross-linking factor 1 gene causes a novel neuromuscular condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise H; Mosbech, Mai-Britt; Færgeman, Nils J;

    2014-01-01

    muscles and diminished motor skills, with heterogeneous presentation among the affected family members. To corroborate these findings we used RNA interference to knock down the VAB-10 locus containing the MACF1 homologue in C. elegans, and we could show that this also causes movement disturbances...

  11. A single nucleotide deletion of 293delT in SEDL gene causing spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda in a four-generation Chinese family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Cuiying; Zhang Sizhong; Wang Jun; Qiu Weimin; Chi Leiting; Li Yunqing; Su Zhiguang

    2003-04-09

    Spondyloepiphyseal Dysplasia Tarda (SEDT; MIM 313400) is a rare genetically heterogeneous disorder of vertebral and epiphyseal growth resulting in disproportionally short-trunked short stature, barrel-shaped chest, and dysplasia of the large joints. It is caused by the mutations of SEDL gene. The distinctive radiological signs and the X-linked mode of inheritance make it easy to diagnose. Here a four-generation Chinese SEDT family has been analyzed and the disease-causing mutation has been found. After polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and DNA sequencing, a previously unreported deletion of T in exon 5 of SEDL gene (i.e. 293delT) was observed and seven individuals in the family carried the mutation. It results in frameshift and a putative truncated protein with the 97 N-terminal amino acids, and 9 changed amino acids. Therefore, loss of function of the gene could be predicted. However, this mutation has not been detected in 50 age and sex matched unrelated controls.

  12. L712V mutation in the androgen receptor gene causes complete androgen insensitivity syndrome due to severe loss of androgen function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajender, Singh; Gupta, Nalini J; Chakrabarty, Baidyanath; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2013-12-11

    Inability to respond to the circulating androgens is named as androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). Mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) gene are the most common cause of AIS. A cause and effect relationship between some of these mutations and the AIS phenotype has been proven by in vitro studies. Several other mutations have been identified, but need to be functionally validated for pathogenicity. Screening of the AR mutations upon presumptive diagnosis of AIS is recommended. We analyzed a case of complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) for mutations in the AR gene. Sequencing of the entire coding region revealed C>G mutation (CTT-GTT) at codon 712 (position according to the NCBI database) in exon 4 of the gene, resulting in replacement of leucine with valine in the ligand-binding domain of the AR protein. No incidence of this mutation was observed in 230 normal male individuals analyzed for comparison. In vitro androgen binding and transactivation assays using mutant clone showed approximately 71% loss of ligand binding and about 76% loss of transactivation function. We conclude that CAIS in this individual was due to L712V substitution in the androgen receptor protein.

  13. What Causes Hemophilia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Hemophilia? A defect in one of the genes that ... the hemophilia gene is inherited. Inheritance Pattern for Hemophilia—Example 1 The image shows one example of ...

  14. Limited divergence among populations of rice striped stem borer in southeast China caused by gene flow: Implications for resistance management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao YANG; Xiao YANG; Qiang FU; Kai XU; Bao-Rong LU

    2012-01-01

    Rice striped stem borer (RSSB,Chilo suppressalis) is a serious lepidopteron pest occurring in rice ecosystems of Asia and Europe.Genetically modified (GM) insect-resistant Bt rice has been developed to deter lepidopteron pests including RSSB.The concern of resistance evolution to the Bt toxin by the pests under commercial cultivation of GM Bt rice and the need of effective management of the resistance encourage the studies of genetic variation and divergence,as well as gene flow of RSSB populations.We analyzed 13 RSSB populations fed on water-oats or rice plants,respectively,from southeast China applying the fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprints.A generally moderate level of genetic variation was detected in the populations,as estimated by Nei's genetic diversity (0.27) and Shannon's index (0.42).The FsT- and AMOVA values indicated a low level (~ 12%) of genetic divergence among the RSSB populations.A relatively frequent gene flow (an average Nm =2.62) was detected among the 12 RSSB populations,which may explain the limited genetic divergence among the rice-feeding populations.This explanation gains support by the assignment test of the corresponding populations,suggesting that a considerable proportion of individuals was contributed from non-native populations.Our results revealed that the moderate level of genetic diversity combined with relatively frequent gene flow among RSSB populations across a large geographical range may slow down the resistance evolution of the RSSB populations,given that a proper measure of resistance management is taken.

  15. Identification of a Novel Gene on 10q22.1 Causing Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa (adRP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiger, Stephen P; Sullivan, Lori S; Bowne, Sara J; Koboldt, Daniel C; Blanton, Susan H; Wheaton, Dianna K; Avery, Cheryl E; Cadena, Elizabeth D; Koenekoop, Robert K; Fulton, Robert S; Wilson, Richard K; Weinstock, George M; Lewis, Richard A; Birch, David G

    2016-01-01

    Whole-genome linkage mapping identified a region on chromosome 10q21.3-q22.1 with a maximum LOD score of 3.0 at 0 % recombination in a six-generation family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). All known adRP genes and X-linked RP genes were excluded in the family by a combination of methods. Whole-exome next-generation sequencing revealed a missense mutation in hexokinase 1, HK1 c.2539G > A, p.Glu847Lys, tracking with disease in all affected family members. One severely-affected male is homozygous for this region by linkage analysis and has two copies of the mutation. No other potential mutations were detected in the linkage region nor were any candidates identified elsewhere in the genome. Subsequent testing detected the same mutation in four additional, unrelated adRP families, for a total of five mutations in 404 probands tested (1.2 %). Of the five families, three are from the Acadian population in Louisiana, one is French Canadian and one is Sicilian. Haplotype analysis of the affected chromosome in each family and the homozygous individual revealed a rare, shared haplotype of 450 kb, suggesting an ancient founder mutation. HK1 is a widely-expressed gene, with multiple, abundant retinal transcripts, coding for hexokinase 1. Hexokinase catalyzes phosphorylation of glucose to glusose-6-phospate, the first step in glycolysis. The Glu847Lys mutation is in a highly-conserved site, outside of the active site or known functional sites.

  16. Gene conversion in the CYP11B2 gene encoding P450c11AS is associated with, but does not cause, the syndrome of corticosterone methyloxidase II deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fardella, C.E.; Hum, D.W.; Rodriguez, H. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)]|[Univ. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-01-01

    Cytochrome P450c11AS (aldosterone synthase) has 11{beta}hydroxylase, 18-hydroxylase, and 18-oxidase activities and is expressed solely in the adrenal zona glomerulosa. Corticosterone methyloxidase II (CMOII) deficiency denotes a rare disorder of adrenal steroidogenesis in which only the 18-oxidase activity of P450c11AS is disrupted, while the 11{beta}-hydroxylase and 18-hydroxylase activities persist. Such patients have elevated serum concentrations of corticosterone and 18-hydroxycorticosterone and very low or unmeasurable concentrations of aldosterone, often resulting in a clinical salt-losing crisis in infancy. We have sought mutations causing CMOII deficiency in outbred populations. In three of four unrelated P450c11AS alleles from two unrelated patients with CMOII deficiency, we found a gene conversion event in which exons 3 and 4 of the CYP11B2 gene encoding P450c11AS were changed to the sequence of the nearby CYP11B1 gene, which encodes the related enzyme P450c11{beta}. This conversion resulted in a mutant P450c11AS protein carrying three changes. We built seven vectors expressing P450c11AS carrying each mutation singly, each of the three possible pairs of mutations, and the triple mutation as found in the proband. The activities in steroidogenic MA-10 and JEG-3 cells were 10- to 20-fold higher. In these systems all of the mutants retained normal 18-oxidase activity, indicating that the detected gene conversion event is associated with but does not cause CMOII deficiency. None of the four CPY11B2 alleles in these two patients bore other identifiable mutations. These patients might have mutations in the promoters or other noncoding regions, or mutations in genes other than CYP11B2 may cause the syndrome of CMOII deficiency. 37 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Loss of function of the yellow-e gene causes dehydration-induced mortality of adult Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Mi Young; Kramer, Karl J; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Beeman, Richard W; Kanost, Michael R; Arakane, Yasuyuki

    2015-03-15

    Yellow protein (dopachrome conversion enzyme, DCE) is involved in the melanin biosynthetic pathway that significantly accelerates pigmentation reactions in insects. Recent studies have suggested that the insect yellow genes represent a rapidly evolving gene family generating functionally diverse paralogs, but the exact physiological functions of several yellow genes are still not understood. To study the function(s) of one of the yellow genes, yellow-e (TcY-e), in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, we performed real-time PCR to analyze its developmental and tissue-specific expression, and utilized immunohistochemistry to identify the localization of the TcY-e protein in adult cuticle. Injection of double-stranded RNA for TcY-e (dsTcY-e) into late instar larvae had no effect on larval-pupal molting or pupal development. The pupal cuticle, including that lining the setae, gin traps and urogomphi, underwent normal tanning. Adult cuticle tanning including that of the head, mandibles and legs viewed through the translucent pupal cuticle was initiated on schedule (pupal days 4-5), indicating that TcY-e is not required for pupal or pharate adult cuticle pigmentation in T. castaneum. The subsequent pupal-adult molt, however, was adversely affected. Although pupal cuticle apolysis and slippage were evident, some of the adults (~25%) were unable to shed their exuvium and died entrapped in their pupal cuticle. In addition, the resulting adults rapidly became highly desiccated. Interestingly, both the failure of the pupal-adult molt and desiccation-induced mortality were prevented by maintaining the dsTcY-e-treated insects at 100% relative humidity (rh). However, when the high humidity-rescued adults were removed from 100% rh and transferred to 50% rh, they rapidly dehydrated and died, whereas untreated beetles thrived throughout development at 50% rh. We also observed that the body color of the high humidity-rescued dsTcY-e-adults was slightly darker than that of

  18. Expression of a constitutively active prolactin receptor causes histone trimethylation of the p53 gene in breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Dunyong; Tang Peizhi; Huang Jianjun; Zhang Jie; Zhou Weihua; Ameae M.Walker

    2014-01-01

    Background Prolactin (PRL) is a pituitary polypeptide hormone characterized by multiple biological actions including stimulation of growth in the prostate and formation of secretory alveoli and stimulation of milk protein gene expression in the mammary gland.PRL exerts its effect by dimerizing its receptor (PRLR) on the plasma membrane and regulating gene expression through the JAK-Stat signal pathway.We have previously described a natural variant of the PRLR in which the S2 subdomain of the extracellular domain is missing (Delta S2).Delta S2 PRLRs are dimerized in the absence of PRL and have constitutive activity in the promotion of breast cancer cell growth.Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2),as one of the histone-modifying enzymes,is a key factor regulating gene expression by epigenetic modification.We hypothesized that these constitutive activated Delta S2 PRLRs played a pathogenic role in breast cancer in part through alterations in the expression of EZH2 and the trimethylation of histone 3 on lysine 27 (H3K27Me3).Methods In order to verify the clinical significance and to establish the link between Delta S2 PRLR expression and epigenetic change,EZH2,H3K27Me3,and Delta S2 PRLR were detected in both normal and cancerous human breast tissues.Also,overexpression of Delta S2 PRLR in breast epithelial cells was achieved by infection with adenovirus carrying the cDNA.Western blotting and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assay) and acid histone extraction were applied to detect the expression of EZH2 and the trimethylation of histone 3,respectively.Results In breast tissue,higher EZH2 expression and higher H3K27Me3 were found associated with higher Delta S2 expression in breast cancer samples.In breast epithelial cells,overexpression of Delta S2 PRLR increased EZH2 methyltransferase mRNA and protein,induced EZH2 methyltransferase recruitment to chromatin,increased the trimethylation of H3K27Me3,and decreased the expression of p53 gene.Conclusions Delta S2 PRLR

  19. A novel mutation in ABCA1 gene causing Tangier Disease in an Italian family with uncommon neurological presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ceccanti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tangier disease is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe reduction in HDL-cholesterol and peripheral lipid storage. We describe a family with c.5094C>A p.Tyr16980* mutation in the ABCA1 gene, clinically characterized by syringomyelic-like anesthesia, demyelinating multineuropathy and reduction in intraepidermal small fibers innervation. In the proband patient, cardiac involvement determined a myocardial infarction; lipid storage was demonstrated in gut, cornea and aortic wall. The reported ABCA1 mutation has never been described before in a Tangier family.

  20. Ectopic expression of the HAM59 gene causes homeotic transformations of reproductive organs in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulga, O A; Neskorodov, Ya B; Shchennikova, A V; Gaponenko, A K; Skryabin, K G

    2015-01-01

    The function of the HAM59 MADS-box gene in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was studied to clarify homeotic C activity in the Asteraceae plant family. For the first time, transgenic sunflower plants with a modified pattern of HAM59 expression were obtained. It was shown that the HAM59 MADS-box transcription factor did mediate C activity in sunflower. In particular, it participated in termination of the floral meristem, repression of the cadastral function of A-activity, and together with other C-type sunflower protein HAM45-in the specification of the identity of stamens and pistils.

  1. Gain-of-function mutations in the phosphatidylserine synthase 1 (PTDSS1) gene cause Lenz-Majewski syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Sérgio B; Jenkins, Dagan; Chanudet, Estelle; Tasseva, Guergana; Ishida, Miho; Anderson, Glenn; Docker, James; Ryten, Mina; Sa, Joaquim; Saraiva, Jorge M; Barnicoat, Angela; Scott, Richard; Calder, Alistair; Wattanasirichaigoon, Duangrurdee; Chrzanowska, Krystyna; Simandlová, Martina; Van Maldergem, Lionel; Stanier, Philip; Beales, Philip L; Vance, Jean E; Moore, Gudrun E

    2014-01-01

    Lenz-Majewski syndrome (LMS) is a syndrome of intellectual disability and multiple congenital anomalies that features generalized craniotubular hyperostosis. By using whole-exome sequencing and selecting variants consistent with the predicted dominant de novo etiology of LMS, we identified causative heterozygous missense mutations in PTDSS1, which encodes phosphatidylserine synthase 1 (PSS1). PSS1 is one of two enzymes involved in the production of phosphatidylserine. Phosphatidylserine synthesis was increased in intact fibroblasts from affected individuals, and end-product inhibition of PSS1 by phosphatidylserine was markedly reduced. Therefore, these mutations cause a gain-of-function effect associated with regulatory dysfunction of PSS1. We have identified LMS as the first human disease, to our knowledge, caused by disrupted phosphatidylserine metabolism. Our results point to an unexplored link between phosphatidylserine synthesis and bone metabolism.

  2. Overexpression of a Gene Encoding a Catabolite Repression Element in Alternaria citri Causes Severe Symptoms of Black Rot in Citrus Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, H; Ohtani, K; Yamamoto, H; Akimitsu, K

    2007-05-01

    ABSTRACT A gene (AcCreA) encoding a catabolite repression element (CreA) with (two zinc fingers of the Cys(2)His(2) type was isolated from the postharvest fungal pathogen Alternaria citri. The AcCreA overexpression mutant AcOEC2 of A. citri showed normal growth on pectin medium and on segments of peel or the juice sac area from citrus fruit. Production of endopolygalacturonase, an essential virulence factor of this pathogen, was similar in AcOEC2 and the wild type in pectin-containing media. However, addition of glucose to the medium showed that carbon catabolite repression of endopolygalacturonase gene (Acpg1) expression, as well as endopolygalacturonase production, was lost in AcOEC2. The wild-type strain of A. citri causes rot mainly in the central axis of citrus fruit without development of rotting in the juice sac area; however, AcOEC2 caused severe black rot symptoms in both the central axis and juice sac areas. These results indicate that AcCreA-mediated catabolite repression controls the virulence or infection of this pathogen, and that the wild-type A. citri does not cause symptoms in the juice sac area due to carbon catabolite repression by sugars in the juice of the juice sac area.

  3. Disease-causing mutations in exon 11 of the medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, B S; Jensen, T G; Bross, P

    1994-01-01

    spot. Here we describe the results from sequence analysis of exon 11 and part of the flanking introns from 36 compound heterozygous patients with MCAD deficiency. We have identified four previously unknown disease-causing mutations (M301T, S311R, R324X, and E359X) and two silent mutations in exon 11......Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is the most commonly recognized defect of the mitochondrial beta-oxidation in humans. It is a potentially fatal, autosomal recessive inherited defect. Most patients with MCAD deficiency are homozygous for a single disease-causing mutation (G985......), causing a change from lysine to glutamate at position 304 (K304E) in the mature MCAD. Only seven non-G985 mutations, all of which are rare, have been reported. Because the G985 mutation and three of the non-G985 mutations are located in exon 11, it has been suggested that this exon may be a mutational hot...

  4. A Novel Missense Mutation in the CLPP Gene Causing Perrault Syndrome Type 3 in a Turkish Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Fatma; Mohamoud, Hussein Sheikh Ali; Karim, Noreen; Naeem, Muhammad; Jelani, Musharraf; Kırmızıbekmez, Heves

    2016-01-01

    Perrault syndrome (PRLTS) is a heterogeneous group of clinical and genetic disorders characterized by sensory neuronal hearing loss in both sexes and premature ovarian failure or infertility in females. Neurological and hearing loss symptoms appear early in life, but female infertility cannot be detected before puberty. Spastic limbs, muscle weakness, delayed puberty and irregular menstrual cycles have also been observed in PRLTS patients. Mutations in five genes, i.e. HSD17B4, HARS2, CLPP, LARS2, and C10orf2, have been reported in five subtypes of PRLTS. Here, we report a milder phenotype of PRLTS in a Turkish family in which two affected patients had no neurological findings. However, both were characterized by sensory neuronal hearing loss and the female sibling had secondary amenorrhea and gonadal dysgenesis. Genome-wide homozygosity mapping using 300K single-nucleotide polymorphism microarray analysis together with iScan platform (Illumina, USA) followed by candidate gene Sanger sequencing with ABI 3500 Genetic Analyzer (Life Technologies, USA) were used for molecular diagnosis. We found a novel missense alteration c.624C>G; p.Ile208Met in exon 5 of the CLPP at chromosome 19p13.3. This study expands the mutation spectrum of CLPP pathogenicity in PRLTS type 3 phenotype. PMID:27087618

  5. Characterization of Alu and recombination-associated motifs mediating a large homozygous SPG7 gene rearrangement causing hereditary spastic paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Eva; Casasnovas, Carlos; Giménez, Javier; Matilla-Dueñas, Antoni; Sánchez, Ivelisse; Volpini, Víctor

    2015-04-01

    Spastic paraplegia type 7 (SPG7) is one of the most common forms of autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia (AR-HSP). Although over 77 different mutations have been identified in SPG7 patients, only 9 gross deletions have been reported with only a few of them being fully characterized. Here, we present a detailed description of a large homozygous intragenic SPG7 gene rearrangement involving a 5144-base pair (bp) genomic loss (c. 1450-446_1779 + 746 delinsAAAGTGCT) encompassing exons 11 to 13, identified in a Spanish AR-HSP family. Analysis of the deletion junction sequences revealed that the 5' breakpoint of this SPG7 gene deletion was located within highly homologous Alu sequences where the 3' breakpoint appears to be flanked by the core crossover hotspot instigator (chi)-like sequence (GCTGG). Furthermore, an 8-bp (AAAGTTGCT) conserved sequence at the breakpoint junction was identified, suggesting that the most likely mechanism for the occurrence of this rearrangement is by Alu microhomology and chi-like recombination-associated motif-mediated multiple exon deletion. Our results are consistent with non-allelic homologous recombination and non-homologous end joining in deletion mutagenesis for the generation of rearrangements. This study provides more evidence associating repeated elements as a genetic mechanism underlying neurodegenerative disorders, highlighting their importance in human diseases.

  6. Sensory ataxic neuropathy in golden retriever dogs is caused by a deletion in the mitochondrial tRNATyr gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabella Baranowska

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Sensory ataxic neuropathy (SAN is a recently identified neurological disorder in golden retrievers. Pedigree analysis revealed that all affected dogs belong to one maternal lineage, and a statistical analysis showed that the disorder has a mitochondrial origin. A one base pair deletion in the mitochondrial tRNA(Tyr gene was identified at position 5304 in affected dogs after re-sequencing the complete mitochondrial genome of seven individuals. The deletion was not found among dogs representing 18 different breeds or in six wolves, ruling out this as a common polymorphism. The mutation could be traced back to a common ancestor of all affected dogs that lived in the 1970s. We used a quantitative oligonucleotide ligation assay to establish the degree of heteroplasmy in blood and tissue samples from affected dogs and controls. Affected dogs and their first to fourth degree relatives had 0-11% wild-type (wt sequence, while more distant relatives ranged between 5% and 60% wt sequence and all unrelated golden retrievers had 100% wt sequence. Northern blot analysis showed that tRNA(Tyr had a 10-fold lower steady-state level in affected dogs compared with controls. Four out of five affected dogs showed decreases in mitochondrial ATP production rates and respiratory chain enzyme activities together with morphological alterations in muscle tissue, resembling the changes reported in human mitochondrial pathology. Altogether, these results provide conclusive evidence that the deletion in the mitochondrial tRNA(Tyr gene is the causative mutation for SAN.

  7. TMPRSS2-ERG Gene Fusion Causing ERG Overexpression Precedes Chromosome Copy Number Changes in Prostate Carcinomas, Paired HGPIN Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Cerveira

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available TMPRSS2-ETS gene fusions have been found recurrently in prostate carcinomas, but not in the presumed precursor lesion, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN. However, HGPIN lesions may share chromosomal changes with prostate cancer. To determine the relative order of genetic events in prostate carcinogenesis, we have analyzed 34 prostate carcinomas, 19 paired HGPIN lesions, 14 benign prostate hyperplasias, 11 morphologically normal prostatic tissues for TMPRSS2-ERG, TMPRSS2-ETV1 rearrangements, genomic imbalances. TMPRSS2 exon 1 was fused in-frame with ERG exon 4 in 17 of 34 (50% prostate carcinomas, in 4 of 19 (21% HGPIN lesions, but in none of controls. The findings were further validated by sequencing analysis, by the real-time polymerase chain reaction quantification of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion transcript, the ERG exons 5/6:exons 1/2 expression ratio. Chromosome copy number changes were detected by comparative genomic hybridization in 42% of clinically confined carcinomas, in none of the 16 HGPIN lesions analyzed. We demonstrate for the first time that the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene can be detected in a proportion of HGPIN lesions, that this molecular rearrangement is an early event that may precede chromosome-level alterations in prostate carcinogenesis.

  8. Influenza A virus infection causes alterations in expression of synaptic regulatory genes combined with changes in cognitive and emotional behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraki, S; Aronsson, F; Karlsson, H; Ogren, S O; Kristensson, K

    2005-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have indicated a link between certain neuropsychiatric diseases and exposure to viral infections. In order to examine long-term effects on behavior and gene expression in the brain of one candidate virus, we have used a model involving olfactory bulb injection of the neuro-adapted influenza A virus strain, WSN/33, in C57Bl/6 mice. Following this olfactory route of invasion, the virus targets neurons in the medial habenular, midline thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei as well as monoaminergic neurons in the brainstem. The mice survive and the viral infection is cleared from the brain within 12 days. When tested 14-20 weeks after infection, the mice displayed decreased anxiety in the elevated plus-maze and impaired spatial learning in the Morris water maze test. Elevated transcriptional activity of two genes encoding synaptic regulatory proteins, regulator of G-protein signaling 4 and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIalpha, was found in the amygdala, hypothalamus and cerebellum. It is of particular interest that the gene encoding RGS4, which has been related to schizophrenia, showed the most pronounced alteration. This study indicates that a transient influenza virus infection can cause persistent changes in emotional and cognitive functions as well as alterations in the expression of genes involved in the regulation of synaptic activities.

  9. Biallelic mutations in the gene encoding eEF1A2 cause seizures and sudden death in F0 mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Faith C. J.; Hope, Jilly E.; McLachlan, Fiona; Nunez, Francis; Doig, Jennifer; Bengani, Hemant; Smith, Colin; Abbott, Catherine M.

    2017-01-01

    De novo heterozygous missense mutations in the gene encoding translation elongation factor eEF1A2 have recently been found to give rise to neurodevelopmental disorders. Children with mutations in this gene have developmental delay, epilepsy, intellectual disability and often autism; the most frequently occurring mutation is G70S. It has been known for many years that complete loss of eEF1A2 in mice causes motor neuron degeneration and early death; on the other hand heterozygous null mice are apparently normal. We have used CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in the mouse to mutate the gene encoding eEF1A2, obtaining a high frequency of biallelic mutations. Whilst many of the resulting founder (F0) mice developed motor neuron degeneration, others displayed phenotypes consistent with a severe neurodevelopmental disorder, including sudden unexplained deaths and audiogenic seizures. The presence of G70S protein was not sufficient to protect mice from neurodegeneration in G70S/− mice, showing that the mutant protein is essentially non-functional. PMID:28378778

  10. A missense mutation in the alpha-actinin 1 gene (ACTN1 is the cause of autosomal dominant macrothrombocytopenia in a large French family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Guéguen

    Full Text Available Inherited thrombocytopenia is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by a reduced number of blood platelets. Despite the identification of nearly 20 causative genes in the past decade, approximately half of all subjects with inherited thrombocytopenia still remain unexplained in terms of the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. Here we report a six-generation French pedigree with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance and the identification of its genetic basis. Of the 55 subjects available for analysis, 26 were diagnosed with isolated macrothrombocytopenia. Genome-wide linkage analysis mapped a 10.9 Mb locus to chromosome 14 (14q22 with a LOD score of 7.6. Candidate gene analysis complemented by targeted next-generation sequencing identified a missense mutation (c.137GA; p.Arg46Gln in the alpha-actinin 1 gene (ACTN1 that segregated with macrothrombocytopenia in this large pedigree. The missense mutation occurred within actin-binding domain of alpha-actinin 1, a functionally critical domain that crosslinks actin filaments into bundles. The evaluation of cultured mutation-harboring megakaryocytes by electron microscopy and the immunofluorescence examination of transfected COS-7 cells suggested that the mutation causes disorganization of the cellular cytoplasm. Our study concurred with a recently published whole-exome sequence analysis of six small Japanese families with congenital macrothrombocytopenia, adding ACTN1 to the growing list of thrombocytopenia genes.

  11. Novel Hypomorphic Alleles of the Mouse Tyrosinase Gene Induced by CRISPR-Cas9 Nucleases Cause Non-Albino Pigmentation Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challa, Anil K; Boitet, Evan R; Turner, Ashley N; Johnson, Larry W; Kennedy, Daniel; Downs, Ethan R; Hymel, Katherine M; Gross, Alecia K; Kesterson, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosinase is a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis. Mutations in the gene encoding tyrosinase (Tyr) cause oculocutaneous albinism (OCA1) in humans. Alleles of the Tyr gene have been useful in studying pigment biology and coat color formation. Over 100 different Tyr alleles have been reported in mice, of which ≈24% are spontaneous mutations, ≈60% are radiation-induced, and the remaining alleles were obtained by chemical mutagenesis and gene targeting. Therefore, most mutations were random and could not be predicted a priori. Using the CRISPR-Cas9 system, we targeted two distinct regions of exon 1 to induce pigmentation changes and used an in vivo visual phenotype along with heteroduplex mobility assays (HMA) as readouts of CRISPR-Cas9 activity. Most of the mutant alleles result in complete loss of tyrosinase activity leading to an albino phenotype. In this study, we describe two novel in-frame deletion alleles of Tyr, dhoosara (Sanskrit for gray) and chandana (Sanskrit for sandalwood). These alleles are hypomorphic and show lighter pigmentation phenotypes of the body and eyes. This study demonstrates the utility of CRISPR-Cas9 system in generating domain-specific in-frame deletions and helps gain further insights into structure-function of Tyr gene.

  12. Absence of the A4 peptide in the G4 glycinin subunit of soybean cultivar Enrei is caused by a point mutation in the Gy4 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Kangfu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties of soy proteins for food are closely related to the composition of their storage protein subunits. Using base excision sequence scanning (BESS, we show that the absence of the A4 peptide in the G4 glycinin subunit of the soybean (Glycine max L. cultivar Enrei was caused by the same point mutation in the Gy4 gene as previously reported in the soybean cultivar Raiden. Although the genetic relationship between Raiden and Enrei is not known, the same point mutation in their Gy4 genes may indicate that they probably share a related origin. The application of BESS to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs as co-dominant markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS of a recessive null allele is also discussed.

  13. Long-term gene therapy causes transgene-specific changes in the morphology of regenerating retinal ganglion cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Rodger

    Full Text Available Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV vectors can be used to introduce neurotrophic genes into injured CNS neurons, promoting survival and axonal regeneration. Gene therapy holds much promise for the treatment of neurotrauma and neurodegenerative diseases; however, neurotrophic factors are known to alter dendritic architecture, and thus we set out to determine whether such transgenes also change the morphology of transduced neurons. We compared changes in dendritic morphology of regenerating adult rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs after long-term transduction with rAAV2 encoding: (i green fluorescent protein (GFP, or (ii bi-cistronic vectors encoding GFP and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF or growth-associated protein-43 (GAP43. To enhance regeneration, rats received an autologous peripheral nerve graft onto the cut optic nerve of each rAAV2 injected eye. After 5-8 months, RGCs with regenerated axons were retrogradely labeled with fluorogold (FG. Live retinal wholemounts were prepared and GFP positive (transduced or GFP negative (non-transduced RGCs injected iontophoretically with 2% lucifer yellow. Dendritic morphology was analyzed using Neurolucida software. Significant changes in dendritic architecture were found, in both transduced and non-transduced populations. Multivariate analysis revealed that transgenic BDNF increased dendritic field area whereas GAP43 increased dendritic complexity. CNTF decreased complexity but only in a subset of RGCs. Sholl analysis showed changes in dendritic branching in rAAV2-BDNF-GFP and rAAV2-CNTF-GFP groups and the proportion of FG positive RGCs with aberrant morphology tripled in these groups compared to controls. RGCs in all transgene groups displayed abnormal stratification. Thus in addition to promoting cell survival and axonal regeneration, vector-mediated expression of neurotrophic factors has measurable, gene-specific effects on the morphology of injured

  14. Novel point mutation in the uroporphyrinogen III synthase gene causes congenital erythropoietic porphyria of a Japanese family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, N; Hombrados, I; Tanigawa, K; Namba, H; Nagayama, Y; de Verneuil, H; Yamashita, S

    1997-06-13

    The molecular basis of the uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROIIIS) deficiency was investigated in a member of a Japanese family. This defect in heme biosynthesis is responsible for a rare autosomal recessive disease: congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) or Günther's disease. The patient was homozygous for a novel missense mutation: a G to T transition of nucleotide 7 that predicted a valine to phenylalanine substitution at residue 3 (V3F). The parents were heterozygous for the same mutation. The loss of UROIIIS activity was verified by an in vitro assay system. The corresponding mutated protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and no residual activity was observed. Further studies are needed to determine whether the mutations of the UROIIIS gene (UROS) have a specific profile in Japan compared to European or American countries.

  15. A mutation in the Golgi Qb-SNARE gene GOSR2 causes progressive myoclonus epilepsy with early ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Mark A; Schwake, Michael; Bahlo, Melanie; Dibbens, Leanne M; Lin, Meng; Gandolfo, Luke C; Vears, Danya F; O'Sullivan, John D; Robertson, Thomas; Bayly, Marta A; Gardner, Alison E; Vlaar, Annemarie M; Korenke, G Christoph; Bloem, Bastiaan R; de Coo, Irenaeus F; Verhagen, Judith M A; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Gecz, Jozef; Berkovic, Samuel F

    2011-05-13

    The progressive myoclonus epilepsies (PMEs) are a group of predominantly recessive disorders that present with action myoclonus, tonic-clonic seizures, and progressive neurological decline. Many PMEs have similar clinical presentations yet are genetically heterogeneous, making accurate diagnosis difficult. A locus for PME was mapped in a consanguineous family with a single affected individual to chromosome 17q21. An identical-by-descent, homozygous mutation in GOSR2 (c.430G>T, p.Gly144Trp), a Golgi vesicle transport gene, was identified in this patient and in four apparently unrelated individuals. A comparison of the phenotypes in these patients defined a clinically distinct PME syndrome characterized by early-onset ataxia, action myoclonus by age 6, scoliosis, and mildly elevated serum creatine kinase. This p.Gly144Trp mutation is equivalent to a loss of function and results in failure of GOSR2 protein to localize to the cis-Golgi.

  16. A Mutation in the Golgi Qb-SNARE Gene GOSR2 Causes Progressive Myoclonus Epilepsy with Early Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Mark A.; Schwake, Michael; Bahlo, Melanie; Dibbens, Leanne M.; Lin, Meng; Gandolfo, Luke C.; Vears, Danya F.; O'Sullivan, John D.; Robertson, Thomas; Bayly, Marta A.; Gardner, Alison E.; Vlaar, Annemarie M.; Korenke, G. Christoph; Bloem, Bastiaan R.; de Coo, Irenaeus F.; Verhagen, Judith M.A.; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Gecz, Jozef; Berkovic, Samuel F.

    2011-01-01

    The progressive myoclonus epilepsies (PMEs) are a group of predominantly recessive disorders that present with action myoclonus, tonic-clonic seizures, and progressive neurological decline. Many PMEs have similar clinical presentations yet are genetically heterogeneous, making accurate diagnosis difficult. A locus for PME was mapped in a consanguineous family with a single affected individual to chromosome 17q21. An identical-by-descent, homozygous mutation in GOSR2 (c.430G>T, p.Gly144Trp), a Golgi vesicle transport gene, was identified in this patient and in four apparently unrelated individuals. A comparison of the phenotypes in these patients defined a clinically distinct PME syndrome characterized by early-onset ataxia, action myoclonus by age 6, scoliosis, and mildly elevated serum creatine kinase. This p.Gly144Trp mutation is equivalent to a loss of function and results in failure of GOSR2 protein to localize to the cis-Golgi. PMID:21549339

  17. Mutations in the sodium channel gene SCN2A cause neonatal epilepsy with late-onset episodic ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, N; Hahn, A; Bast, T; Müller, S; Löffler, H; Maljevic, S; Gaily, E; Prehl, I; Biskup, S; Joensuu, T; Lehesjoki, A-E; Neubauer, B A; Lerche, H; Hedrich, U B S

    2016-02-01

    Mutations in SCN2A cause epilepsy syndromes of variable severity including neonatal-infantile seizures. In one case, we previously described additional childhood-onset episodic ataxia. Here, we corroborate and detail the latter phenotype in three further cases. We describe the clinical characteristics, identify the causative SCN2A mutations and determine their functional consequences using whole-cell patch-clamping in mammalian cells. In total, four probands presented with neonatal-onset seizures remitting after five to 13 months. In early childhood, they started to experience repeated episodes of ataxia, accompanied in part by headache or back pain lasting minutes to several hours. In two of the new cases, we detected the novel mutation p.Arg1882Gly. While this mutation occurred de novo in both patients, one of them carries an additional known variant on the same SCN2A allele, inherited from the unaffected father (p.Gly1522Ala). Whereas p.Arg1882Gly alone shifted the activation curve by -4 mV, the combination of both variants did not affect activation, but caused a depolarizing shift of voltage-dependent inactivation, and a significant increase in Na(+) current density and protein production. p.Gly1522Ala alone did not change channel gating. The third new proband carries the same de novo SCN2A gain-of-function mutation as our first published case (p.Ala263Val). Our findings broaden the clinical spectrum observed with SCN2A gain-of-function mutations, showing that fairly different biophysical mechanisms can cause a convergent clinical phenotype of neonatal seizures and later onset episodic ataxia.

  18. Mutations in TBC1D24, a gene associated with epilepsy, also cause nonsyndromic deafness DFNB86.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Atteeq U; Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P; Morell, Robert J; Drummond, Meghan C; Ito, Taku; Lee, Kwanghyuk; Khan, Asma A; Basra, Muhammad Asim R; Wasif, Naveed; Ayub, Muhammad; Ali, Rana A; Raza, Syed I; Nickerson, Deborah A; Shendure, Jay; Bamshad, Michael; Riazuddin, Saima; Billington, Neil; Khan, Shaheen N; Friedman, Penelope L; Griffith, Andrew J; Ahmad, Wasim; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Leal, Suzanne M; Friedman, Thomas B

    2014-01-01

    Inherited deafness is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. We recently mapped DFNB86, a locus associated with nonsyndromic deafness, to chromosome 16p. In this study, whole-exome sequencing was performed with genomic DNA from affected individuals from three large consanguineous families in which markers linked to DFNB86 segregate with profound deafness. Analyses of these data revealed homozygous mutation c.208G>T (p.Asp70Tyr) or c.878G>C (p.Arg293Pro) in TBC1D24 as the underlying cause of deafness in the three families. Sanger sequence analysis of TBC1D24 in an additional large family in which deafness segregates with DFNB86 identified the c.208G>T (p.Asp70Tyr) substitution. These mutations affect TBC1D24 amino acid residues that are conserved in orthologs ranging from fruit fly to human. Neither variant was observed in databases of single-nucleotide variants or in 634 chromosomes from ethnically matched control subjects. TBC1D24 in the mouse inner ear was immunolocalized predominantly to spiral ganglion neurons, indicating that DFNB86 deafness might be an auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. Previously, six recessive mutations in TBC1D24 were reported to cause seizures (hearing loss was not reported) ranging in severity from epilepsy with otherwise normal development to epileptic encephalopathy resulting in childhood death. Two of our four families in which deafness segregates with mutant alleles of TBC1D24 were available for neurological examination. Cosegregation of epilepsy and deafness was not observed in these two families. Although the causal relationship between genotype and phenotype is not presently understood, our findings, combined with published data, indicate that recessive alleles of TBC1D24 can cause either epilepsy or nonsyndromic deafness.

  19. Depletion of PHF14, a novel histone-binding protein gene, causes neonatal lethality in mice due to respiratory failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Huang; Lin Zhang; Yiguo Wang; Chenyi Zhang; Shuhua Zhou; Guang Yang; Zhongqiang Li

    2013-01-01

    The plant homeodomain (PHD) finger is identified in many chromatin-binding proteins,and functions as a ‘reader' that recognizes specific epigenetic marks on histone tails,bridging transcription factors and their associated complexes to chromatin,and regulating gene expression.PHD finger-containing proteins perform many biological functions and are involved in many human diseases including cancer.PHF14 is predicted to code for a protein with multiple PHD fingers.However,its function is unidentified.The aim of this study is to characterize PHF14 and investigate its biological significance by employing multiple approaches including mouse gene-targeting knockout,and molecular cloning and characterization.Three transcripts of PHF14 in human cell lines were identified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.Two isoforms of PHF14 (PHF14α and PHF14β) were cloned in this study.It was found that PHF14 was ubiquitously expressed in mouse tissues and human cell lines.PHF14α,the major isoform of PHF14,was localized in the nucleus and also bound to chromatin during cell division.Interestingly,co-immunoprecipitation results suggested that PHF14α bound to histones via its PHD fingers.Strikingly,genetargeting knockout of PHF14 in mice resulted in a neonatal lethality due to respiratory failure.Pathological analysis revealed severe disorders of tissue and cell structures in multiple organs,particularly in the lungs.These results indicated that PHF14 might be an epigenetic regulator and play an important role in the development of multiple organs in mouse.

  20. The Tourette International Collaborative Genetics (TIC Genetics) study, finding the genes causing Tourette syndrome: objectives and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Andrea; Fernandez, Thomas V; King, Robert A; State, Matthew W; Tischfield, Jay A; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Heiman, Gary A

    2015-02-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by recurrent motor and vocal tics, often accompanied by obsessive-compulsive disorder and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. While the evidence for a genetic contribution is strong, its exact nature has yet to be clarified fully. There is now mounting evidence that the genetic risks for TS include both common and rare variants and may involve complex multigenic inheritance or, in rare cases, a single major gene. Based on recent progress in many other common disorders with apparently similar genetic architectures, it is clear that large patient cohorts and open-access repositories will be essential to further advance the field. To that end, the large multicenter Tourette International Collaborative Genetics (TIC Genetics) study was established. The goal of the TIC Genetics study is to undertake a comprehensive gene discovery effort, focusing both on familial genetic variants with large effects within multiply affected pedigrees and on de novo mutations ascertained through the analysis of apparently simplex parent-child trios with non-familial tics. The clinical data and biomaterials (DNA, transformed cell lines, RNA) are part of a sharing repository located within the National Institute for Mental Health Center for Collaborative Genomics Research on Mental Disorders, USA, and will be made available to the broad scientific community. This resource will ultimately facilitate better understanding of the pathophysiology of TS and related disorders and the development of novel therapies. Here, we describe the objectives and methods of the TIC Genetics study as a reference for future studies from our group and to facilitate collaboration between genetics consortia in the field of TS.

  1. A mutation in the Srrm4 gene causes alternative splicing defects and deafness in the Bronx waltzer mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Nakano

    Full Text Available Sensory hair cells are essential for hearing and balance. Their development from epithelial precursors has been extensively characterized with respect to transcriptional regulation, but not in terms of posttranscriptional influences. Here we report on the identification and functional characterization of an alternative-splicing regulator whose inactivation is responsible for defective hair-cell development, deafness, and impaired balance in the spontaneous mutant Bronx waltzer (bv mouse. We used positional cloning and transgenic rescue to locate the bv mutation to the splicing factor-encoding gene Ser/Arg repetitive matrix 4 (Srrm4. Transcriptome-wide analysis of pre-mRNA splicing in the sensory patches of embryonic inner ears revealed that specific alternative exons were skipped at abnormally high rates in the bv mice. Minigene experiments in a heterologous expression system confirmed that these skipped exons require Srrm4 for inclusion into the mature mRNA. Sequence analysis and mutagenesis experiments showed that the affected transcripts share a novel motif that is necessary for the Srrm4-dependent alternative splicing. Functional annotations and protein-protein interaction data indicated that the encoded proteins cluster in the secretion and neurotransmission pathways. In addition, the splicing of a few transcriptional regulators was found to be Srrm4 dependent, and several of the genes known to be targeted by these regulators were expressed at reduced levels in the bv mice. Although Srrm4 expression was detected in neural tissues as well as hair cells, analyses of the bv mouse cerebellum and neocortex failed to detect splicing defects. Our data suggest that Srrm4 function is critical in the hearing and balance organs, but not in all neural tissues. Srrm4 is the first alternative-splicing regulator to be associated with hearing, and the analysis of bv mice provides exon-level insights into hair-cell development.

  2. The influence of autophagy on mouse inflammatory responses caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium with spv genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yuan-Yuan; WU Shu-Yan; CHU Yuan-Yuan; LIAO LI; LIQiong; HUANG Rui

    2011-01-01

    An investigation into the effects of Salmonella plasmid virulence genes (spv) on autophagy,apoptosis,and inflammation was carried out in mice,using a strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S.typhimurium) SR-11 carrying spv.Strain BRD509 without spy was used as a control.Results showed that the expression of autophagy protein Beclin-1 in the livers and spleens in the SR-11 group was lower than that in the BRD509 group,while the apoptosis protein,Caspase-3,was higher in the SR-11 group.Inflammatory cytokine levels [interleukin 12 (IL-12) and interferon γ (IFN-γ)] were higher in the SR-11 group compared with those in the BRD509 group since 4 d post-infection.In addition,we found an increase in severe pathological changes and larger viable bacterial amounts in livers and spleens in the SR-11 group.After intervention with autophagy agonist rapamycin (RAPA),Beclin-1 expression increased in both groups,while Caspase-3 expression was different between the two groups: Caspase-3 decreased in the SR-11 group but increased in the BRD509 group.Moreover,RAPA decreased cytokine levels,bacterial quantity and organ-related injury in the SR-11 group whereas RAPA increased cytokine levels and aggravated organ injury in the BRD509 group.Results from these studies suggest that S.typhimurium with spv genes may exacerbate infection by inhibiting autophagy and affecting the production of inflammatory cytokines.RAPA-enhanced autophagy may improve the secretion of cytokines in order to protect the host from damaging by Salmonella infection.Our study suggests that the regulation of cellular autophagy may play a role in the prevention and control of certain infectious diseases.

  3. Delayed-onset enzootic bovine leukosis possibly caused by superinfection with bovine leukemia virus mutated in the pol gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tadaaki; Inoue, Emi; Mori, Hiroshi; Osawa, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Katsunori

    2015-08-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL), to which animals are most susceptible at 4-8 years of age. In this study, we examined tumor cells associated with EBL in an 18-year-old cow to reveal that the cells carried at least two different copies of the virus, one of which was predicted to encode a reverse transcriptase (RT) lacking ribonuclease H activity and no integrase. Such a deficient enzyme may exhibit a dominant negative effect on the wild-type RT and cause insufficient viral replication, resulting in delayed tumor development in this cow.

  4. A case report of primary ciliary dyskinesia, laterality defects and developmental delay caused by the co-existence of a single gene and chromosome disorder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Casey, Jillian P

    2015-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterised by abnormal ciliary motion and impaired mucociliary clearance, leading to recurrent respiratory infections, sinusitis, otitis media and male infertility. Some patients also have laterality defects. We recently reported the identification of three disease-causing PCD genes in the Irish Traveller population; RSPH4A, DYX1C1 and CCNO. We have since assessed an additional Irish Traveller family with a complex phenotype involving PCD who did not have any of the previously identified PCD mutations.

  5. Hb Filottrano [codon 120 (-A)]: a novel frameshift mutation in exon 3 of the β-globin gene causing dominantly inherited β-thalassemia intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Antonio; Cappabianca, Maria Pia; Perri, Maria; Zaghis, Ivo; Mastropietro, Fabrizio; Ponzini, Donatella; Di Biagio, Paola; Piscitelli, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    We report a novel frameshift mutation in exon 3 of the β-globin gene, that, in the heterozygous state, leads to a β-thalassemia intermedia (β-TI) phenotype (marked anemia, splenomegaly, hyperbilirubinemia, jaundice, unbalanced synthesis of α/non-α chains in a 34-year-old Italian woman. This frameshift mutation, due to the deletion of the first nucleotide (-A) at codon 120, results in a β-globin chain that is elongated to 156 amino acid residues. These highly unstable abnormal chains precipitate in the erythroblasts as inclusion bodies, thus causing inefficient erythropoiesis and ultimately resulting in the observed dominant clinical phenotype.

  6. What Causes Cystic Fibrosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Cystic Fibrosis? A defect in the CFTR gene causes cystic ... in the severity of the disease. How Is Cystic Fibrosis Inherited? Every person inherits two CFTR genes—one ...

  7. Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with cytochrome c oxidase deficiency caused by a novel mutation in the MTCO1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debray, François-Guillaume; Seneca, Sara; Gonce, Michel; Vancampenhaut, Kim; Bianchi, Elettra; Boemer, François; Weekers, Laurent; Smet, Joél; Van Coster, Rudy

    2014-07-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficiency is one of the most common respiratory chain deficiencies. A woman was presented at the age of 18y with acute loss of consciousness, non-convulsive status epilepticus, slow neurological deterioration, transient cortical blindness, exercise intolerance, muscle weakness, hearing loss, cataract and cognitive decline. Muscle biopsy revealed ragged-red fibers, COX negative fibers and a significant decreased activity of complex IV in a homogenate. Using next generation massive parallel sequencing of the mtDNA, a novel heteroplasmic mutation was identified in MTCO1, m.7402delC, causing frameshift and a premature termination codon. Single fiber PCR showed co-segregation of high mutant load in COX negative fibers. Mutation in mitochondrially encoded complex IV subunits should be considered in mitochondrial encephalomyopathies and COX negative fibers after the common mtDNA mutations have been excluded.

  8. Familial Congenital Hypothyroidism Caused by Abnormal and Bioinactive TSH due to Mutations in the beta-Subunit Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros-Neto, G; de Lacerda, L; Wondisford, F E

    1997-01-01

    Hereditary TSH deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disease described in inbred Japanese families and in Greek and Brazilian kindreds. The TSH-beta-subunit gene has been shown to be the site of mutations that will give rise to truncated proteins that cannot dimerize with the alpha subunit or, alternatively, will produce a mutated TSH that is present in the circulation of the affected patients, but it is biologically inactive. Characteristically, the patients with TSH-beta-subunit-defects are born with congenital hypothyroidism, with very low levels of serum thyroid hormones and serum thyroglobulin and, paradoxically, with serum TSH levels that are consistently undetectable or at very low levels. Goiter is not present at birth, but the low radioactive thyroid uptake will increase after bovine TSH stimulation. Other pituitary hormones responses to provocative tests are normal. The subunit levels are at high concentration and are significantly increased following TRH stimulation. In two kindreds, molecular biological studies have indicated mutations in two different sites of exon 2, generating a peptide that would not dimerize with subunits to synthesize TSH molecules. In one kindred, a truncated TSH-beta protein was translated that generated a biologically inactive but detectable serum TSH molecule. (c) 1997, Elsevier Science Inc. (Trends Endocrinol Metab 1997;8:15-20).

  9. [Phenotypic variations in Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome caused by RNASEH2B gene mutations: report of two new cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Madinaveitia, Saturnino; Conejo-Moreno, David; López-Pisón, Javier; Peña-Segura, José Luis; Serrano-Madrid, M Luisa; Durán-Palacios, Ingrid C; Peláez-Cabo, Pilar

    2016-02-16

    Introduccion. El sindrome de Aicardi-Goutieres es un trastorno inmunitario raro debido a mutaciones en siete genes que codifican proteinas llamadas TREX1, el complejo ribonucleasa H2, SAMHD1, ADAR e IFIH1 (MAD5), las cuales estan implicadas en el metabolismo de los acidos nucleicos. A continuacion se presentan dos nuevos casos por mutacion en el gen RNASEH2B, uno de los cuales presenta una mutacion no descrita hasta la fecha. Casos clinicos. Caso 1: varon que consulto porque desde los 5 meses, coincidiendo con cuadros febriles de repeticion, presentaba perdida de los items madurativos adquiridos hasta la fecha. Caso 2: niño de 4 meses que desde los 2 meses mostraba gran irritabilidad con dificultades en la alimentacion, asociado a un grave retraso psicomotor. En ambos casos se constato un aumento de las pterinas en el liquido cefalorraquideo, principalmente de la neopterina, con calcificaciones en los ganglios basales. El diagnostico se confirmo mediante secuenciacion del gen RNASEH2B; el caso 2 presentaba una mutacion no descrita en la literatura medica. Conclusiones. Los casos corresponden a la descripcion clasica realizada por Aicardi-Goutieres. Debe tenerse en cuenta este sindrome ante un paciente con un cuadro de encefalopatia subaguda de comienzo en el primer año de vida, distonia/espasticidad en grado variable e importante afectacion/regresion del desarrollo psicomotor, especialmente si asocia aumento de las pterinas (neopterina) en el liquido cefalorraquideo y calcificaciones en los ganglios basales.

  10. Ectopic expression of the agouti gene in transgenic mice causes obesity, features of type II diabetes, and yellow fur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klebig, M.L.; Woychik, R.P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilkinson, J.E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Geisler, J.G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-05-23

    Mice that carry the lethal yellow (A{sup y}) or viable yellow (A{sup vy}) mutation, two dominant mutations of the agouti (a) gene in mouse chromosome 2, exhibit a phenotype that includes yellow fur, marked obesity, a form of type II diabetes associated with insulin resistance, and an increased susceptibility to tumor development. Molecular analyses of these and several other dominant {open_quotes}obese yellow{close_quotes} a-locus mutations suggested that ectopic expression of the normal agouti protein gives rise to this complex pleiotropic phenotype. We have now tested this hypothesis directly by generating transgenic mice that ectopically express an agouti cDNA clone encoding the normal agouti protein in all tissues examined. Transgenic mice of both sexes have yellow fur, become obese, and develop hyperinsulinemia. In addition, male transgenic mice develop hyperglycemia by 12-20 weeks of age. These results demonstrate conclusively that the ectopic agouti expression is responsible for most, if not all, of the phenotypic traits of the dominant, obese yellow mutants. 42 refs., 5 figs.

  11. A novel deletion/insertion caused by a replication error in the β-globin gene locus control region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Philippe; Lacan, Philippe; Garcia, Caroline; Meley, Roland; Pondarré, Corinne; Francina, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Deletions in the β-globin locus control region (β-LCR) lead to (εγδβ)(0)-thalassemia [(εγδβ)(0)-thal]. In patients suffering from these rare deletions, a normal hemoglobin (Hb), phenotype is found, contrasting with a hematological thalassemic phenotype. Multiplex-ligation probe amplification (MLPA) is an efficient tool to detect β-LCR deletions combined with long-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing to pinpoint deletion breakpoints. We present here a novel 11,155 bp β-LCR deletion found in a French Caucasian patient which removes DNase I hypersensitive site 2 (HS2) to HS4 of the β-LCR. Interestingly, a 197 bp insertion of two inverted sequences issued from the HS2-HS3 inter-region is present and suggests a complex rearrangement during replication. Carriers of this type of thalassemia can be misdiagnosed as an α-thal trait. Consequently, a complete α- and β-globin gene cluster analysis is required to prevent a potentially damaging misdiagnosis in genetic counselling.

  12. Carcinoma of two parathyroid glands caused by a novel MEN1 gene mutation - a rare feature of the MEN 1 syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juodelė, Linas; Serapinas, Danielius; Sabaliauskas, Gintaras; Krasauskienė, Aurelija; Krasauskas, Virgilijus; Verkauskienė, Rasa; Barkauskienė, Diana; Juozaitytė, Elona

    2011-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) is a rare syndrome inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, characterized by combinations of tumors of the parathyroid glands, pituitary gland, and pancreatic islet cells and more rare tumors of endocrine organs and nonendocrine tissues. Germline mutations in the MEN1 gene are responsible for the MEN 1 syndrome, leading to an inactive form of menin protein. Benign lesions of the parathyroid glands are characteristic in patients with the MEN 1 syndrome; however, patients can develop parathyroid carcinomas very rarely. This report presents a clinical case of the MEN 1 syndrome: a 39-year-old woman underwent surgery for carcinoma of two parathyroid glands as well as was treated for pituitary prolactinoma, which caused infertility, and malignant insulinoma; the patient had multiple subcutaneous lipomas as well. Genetic analysis revealed a novel germline mutation in the MEN1 gene - a nucleotide insertion at codon 43 in exon 2 (c.129insA), which caused the occurrence of the MEN1 syndrome. The clinical case of the MEN 1 syndrome presented here is relevant in gathering the data on etiopathogenesis of not only MEN 1 syndrome, but an extremely rare pathology - parathyroid carcinoma - as well.

  13. Two novel splicing mutations in the SLC45A2 gene cause Oculocutaneous Albinism Type IV by unmasking cryptic splice sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straniero, Letizia; Rimoldi, Valeria; Soldà, Giulia; Mauri, Lucia; Manfredini, Emanuela; Andreucci, Elena; Bargiacchi, Sara; Penco, Silvana; Gesu, Giovanni P; Del Longo, Alessandra; Piozzi, Elena; Asselta, Rosanna; Primignani, Paola

    2015-09-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is characterized by hypopigmentation of the skin, hair and eye, and by ophthalmologic abnormalities caused by a deficiency in melanin biosynthesis. OCA type IV (OCA4) is one of the four commonly recognized forms of albinism, and is determined by mutation in the SLC45A2 gene. Here, we investigated the genetic basis of OCA4 in an Italian child. The mutational screening of the SLC45A2 gene identified two novel potentially pathogenic splicing mutations: a synonymous transition (c.888G>A) involving the last nucleotide of exon 3 and a single-nucleotide insertion (c.1156+2dupT) within the consensus sequence of the donor splice site of intron 5. As computer-assisted analysis for mutant splice-site prediction was not conclusive, we investigated the effects on pre-mRNA splicing of these two variants by using an in vitro minigene approach. Production of mutant transcripts in HeLa cells demonstrated that both mutations cause the almost complete abolishment of the physiologic donor splice site, with the concomitant unmasking of cryptic donor splice sites. To our knowledge, this work represents the first in-depth molecular characterization of splicing defects in a OCA4 patient.

  14. TDP-43 Loss-of-Function Causes Neuronal Loss Due to Defective Steroid Receptor-Mediated Gene Program Switching in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lies Vanden Broeck

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available TDP-43 proteinopathy is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and related neurodegenerative disorders. Whether TDP-43 neurotoxicity is caused by a novel toxic gain-of-function mechanism of the aggregates or by a loss of its normal function is unknown. We increased and decreased expression of TDP-43 (dTDP-43 in Drosophila. Although upregulation of dTDP-43 induced neuronal ubiquitin and dTDP-43-positive inclusions, both up- and downregulated dTDP-43 resulted in selective apoptosis of bursicon neurons and highly similar transcriptome alterations at the pupal-adult transition. Gene network analysis and genetic validation showed that both up- and downregulated dTDP-43 directly and dramatically increased the expression of the neuronal microtubule-associated protein Map205, resulting in cytoplasmic accumulations of the ecdysteroid receptor (EcR and a failure to switch EcR-dependent gene programs from a pupal to adult pattern. We propose that dTDP-43 neurotoxicity is caused by a loss of its normal function.

  15. Random Splicing of Several Exons Caused by a Single Base Change in the Target Exon of CRISPR/Cas9 Mediated Gene Knockout

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    Marcel Kapahnke

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR-associated sequence 9 (CRISPR/Cas9 system is widely used for genome editing purposes as it facilitates an efficient knockout of a specific gene in, e.g. cultured cells. Targeted double-strand breaks are introduced to the target sequence of the guide RNAs, which activates the cellular DNA repair mechanism for non-homologous-end-joining, resulting in unprecise repair and introduction of small deletions or insertions. Due to this, sequence alterations in the coding region of the target gene frequently cause frame-shift mutations, facilitating degradation of the mRNA. We here show that such CRISPR/Cas9-mediated alterations in the target exon may also result in altered splicing of the respective pre-mRNA, most likely due to mutations of splice-regulatory sequences. Using the human FLOT-1 gene as an example, we demonstrate that such altered splicing products also give rise to aberrant protein products. These may potentially function as dominant-negative proteins and thus interfere with the interpretation of the data generated with these cell lines. Since most researchers only control the consequences of CRISPR knockout at genomic and protein level, our data should encourage to also check the alterations at the mRNA level.

  16. Thaxtomin A affects CESA-complex density, expression of cell wall genes, cell wall composition, and causes ectopic lignification in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Volker; Cookson, Sarah Jane; Wu, Shuang; Scheible, Wolf-Rüdiger

    2009-01-01

    Thaxtomin A, a phytotoxin produced by Streptomyces eubacteria, is suspected to act as a natural cellulose synthesis inhibitor. This view is confirmed by the results obtained from new chemical, molecular, and microscopic analyses of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings treated with thaxtomin A. Cell wall analysis shows that thaxtomin A reduces crystalline cellulose, and increases pectins and hemicellulose in the cell wall. Treatment with thaxtomin A also changes the expression of genes involved in primary and secondary cellulose synthesis as well as genes associated with pectin metabolism and cell wall remodelling, in a manner nearly identical to isoxaben. In addition, it induces the expression of several defence-related genes and leads to callose deposition. Defects in cellulose synthesis cause ectopic lignification phenotypes in A. thaliana, and it is shown that lignification is also triggered by thaxtomin A, although in a pattern different from isoxaben. Spinning disc confocal microscopy further reveals that thaxtomin A depletes cellulose synthase complexes from the plasma membrane and results in the accumulation of these particles in a small microtubule-associated compartment. The results provide new and clear evidence for thaxtomin A having a strong impact on cellulose synthesis, thus suggesting that this is its primary mode of action.

  17. Illegitimate translation causes unexpected gene expression from on-target out-of-frame alleles created by CRISPR-Cas9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Shigeru; Fukumura, Ryutaro; Gondo, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas9 is efficient enough to knock out both alleles directly by introducing out-of-frame mutations. We succeeded in making biallelic on-target frameshift mutations of the endogenous Gli3 gene; however, the GLI3 protein was expressed in all six of the established cell lines carrying homozygous out-of-frame mutations. We developed a dual-tagged expression vector and proved that illegitimate translation (ITL) was the cause of the unexpected Gli3 expression. Thus, gene expression must be examined even if designed on-target out-of-frame sequences are introduced by genome editing. In addition, it is highly recommended to pre-examine the occurrence of ITL in vitro prior to the design and construction of any genome-editing vectors. In vitro assay systems such as the dual-tagged ITL assay system developed in this study should aid the identification and elucidation of ITL-based human diseases and gene expression. PMID:28000783

  18. Analyses of loss-of-function mutations of the MITF gene suggest that haploinsufficiency is a cause of Waardenburg syndrome type 2A

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    Nobukuni, Yoshitaka; Watanabe, A.; Takeda, Kazushisa; Skarka, Hana; Tachibana, Masayoshi [National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Waardenburg syndrome type 2 (WS2) is a dominantly inherited disorder characterized by a pigmentation anomaly and hearing impairment due to lack of melanocyte. Previous work has linked a subset of families with WS2 (WS2A) to the MITF gene that encodes a transcription factor with a basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) motif and that is involved in melanocyte differentiation. Several splice-site and missense mutations have been reported in individuals affected with WS2A. In this report, we have identified two novel point mutations in the MITF gene in affected individuals from two different families with WS2A. The two mutations (C760{r_arrow}T and C895{r_arrow}T) create stop codons in exons 7 and 8, respectively. Corresponding mutant alleles predict the truncated proteins lacking HLH-Zip or Zip structure. To understand how these mutations cause WS2 in heterozygotes, we generated mutant MITF cDNAs and used them for DNA-binding and luciferase reporter assays. The mutated MITF proteins lose the DNA-binding activity and fail to transactivate the promoter of tyrosinase, a melanocyte-specific enzyme. However, these mutated proteins do not appear to interfere with the activity of wild-type MITF protein in these assays, indicating that they do not show a dominant-negative effect. These findings suggest that the phenotypes of the two families with WS2A in the present study are caused by loss-of-function mutations in one of the two alleles of the MITF gene, resulting in haploinsufficiency of the MITF protein, the protein necessary for normal development of melanocytes. 37 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Impairment of the tRNA-splicing endonuclease subunit 54 (tsen54) gene causes neurological abnormalities and larval death in zebrafish models of pontocerebellar hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasher, Paul R; Namavar, Yasmin; van Tijn, Paula; Fluiter, Kees; Sizarov, Aleksander; Kamermans, Maarten; Grierson, Andrew J; Zivkovic, Danica; Baas, Frank

    2011-04-15

    Pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) represents a group (PCH1-6) of neurodegenerative autosomal recessive disorders characterized by hypoplasia and/or atrophy of the cerebellum, hypoplasia of the ventral pons, progressive microcephaly and variable neocortical atrophy. The majority of PCH2 and PCH4 cases are caused by mutations in the TSEN54 gene; one of the four subunits comprising the tRNA-splicing endonuclease (TSEN) complex. We hypothesized that TSEN54 mutations act through a loss of function mechanism. At 8 weeks of gestation, human TSEN54 is expressed ubiquitously in the brain, yet strong expression is seen within the telencephalon and metencephalon. Comparable expression patterns for tsen54 are observed in zebrafish embryos. Morpholino (MO) knockdown of tsen54 in zebrafish embryos results in loss of structural definition in the brain. This phenotype was partially rescued by co-injecting the MO with human TSEN54 mRNA. A developmental patterning defect was not associated with tsen54 knockdown; however, an increase in cell death within the brain was observed, thus bearing resemblance to PCH pathophysiology. Additionally, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea mutant zebrafish homozygous for a tsen54 premature stop-codon mutation die within 9 days post-fertilization. To determine whether a common disease pathway exists between TSEN54 and other PCH-related genes, we also monitored the effects of mitochondrial arginyl-tRNA synthetase (rars2; PCH1 and PCH6) knockdown in zebrafish. Comparable brain phenotypes were observed following the inhibition of both genes. These data strongly support the hypothesis that TSEN54 mutations cause PCH through a loss of function mechanism. Also we suggest that a common disease pathway may exist between TSEN54- and RARS2-related PCH, which may involve a tRNA processing-related mechanism.

  20. Spermine oxidase maintains basal skeletal muscle gene expression and fiber size and is strongly repressed by conditions that cause skeletal muscle atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Kale S; Fox, Daniel K; Kunkel, Steven D; Stebounova, Larissa V; Murry, Daryl J; Pufall, Miles A; Ebert, Scott M; Dyle, Michael C; Bullard, Steven A; Dierdorff, Jason M; Adams, Christopher M

    2015-01-15

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common and debilitating condition that remains poorly understood at the molecular level. To better understand the mechanisms of muscle atrophy, we used mouse models to search for a skeletal muscle protein that helps to maintain muscle mass and is specifically lost during muscle atrophy. We discovered that diverse causes of muscle atrophy (limb immobilization, fasting, muscle denervation, and aging) strongly reduced expression of the enzyme spermine oxidase. Importantly, a reduction in spermine oxidase was sufficient to induce muscle fiber atrophy. Conversely, forced expression of spermine oxidase increased muscle fiber size in multiple models of muscle atrophy (immobilization, fasting, and denervation). Interestingly, the reduction of spermine oxidase during muscle atrophy was mediated by p21, a protein that is highly induced during muscle atrophy and actively promotes muscle atrophy. In addition, we found that spermine oxidase decreased skeletal muscle mRNAs that promote muscle atrophy (e.g., myogenin) and increased mRNAs that help to maintain muscle mass (e.g., mitofusin-2). Thus, in healthy skeletal muscle, a relatively low level of p21 permits expression of spermine oxidase, which helps to maintain basal muscle gene expression and fiber size; conversely, during conditions that cause muscle atrophy, p21 expression rises, leading to reduced spermine oxidase expression, disruption of basal muscle gene expression, and muscle fiber atrophy. Collectively, these results identify spermine oxidase as an important positive regulator of muscle gene expression and fiber size, and elucidate p21-mediated repression of spermine oxidase as a key step in the pathogenesis of skeletal muscle atrophy.

  1. Mapping and exome sequencing identifies a mutation in the IARS gene as the cause of hereditary perinatal weak calf syndrome.

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    Takashi Hirano

    Full Text Available We identified an IARS (isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase c.235G>C (p.Val79Leu substitution as the causative mutation for neonatal weakness with intrauterine growth retardation (perinatal weak calf syndrome. In Japanese Black cattle, the syndrome was frequently found in calves sired by Bull A. Hence, we employed homozygosity mapping and linkage analysis. In order to identify the perinatal weak calf syndrome locus in a 4.04-Mb region of BTA 8, we analysed a paternal half-sibling family with a BovineSNP50 BeadChip and microsatellites. In this critical region, we performed exome sequencing to identify a causative mutation. Three variants were detected as possible candidates for causative mutations that were predicted to disrupt the protein function, including a G>C (p.Val79Leu mutation in IARS c.235. The IARS c.235G>C mutation was not a homozygous risk allele in the 36 healthy offspring of Bull A. Moreover, the IARS Val79 residue and its flanking regions were evolutionarily and highly conserved. The IARS mutant (Leu79 had decreased aminoacylation activity. Additionally, the homozygous mutation was not found in any of 1526 healthy cattle. Therefore, we concluded that the IARS c.235G>C mutation was the cause of hereditary perinatal weak calf syndrome.

  2. Deletion of exon 20 of the Familial Dysautonomia gene Ikbkap in mice causes developmental delay, cardiovascular defects, and early embryonic lethality.

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    Paula Dietrich

    Full Text Available Familial Dysautonomia (FD is an autosomal recessive disorder that affects 1/3,600 live births in the Ashkenazi Jewish population, and leads to death before the age of 40. The disease is characterized by abnormal development and progressive degeneration of the sensory and autonomic nervous system. A single base pair substitution in intron 20 of the Ikbkap gene accounts for 98% of FD cases, and results in the expression of low levels of the full-length mRNA with simultaneous expression of an aberrantly spliced mRNA in which exon 20 is missing. To date, there is no animal model for the disease, and the essential cellular functions of IKAP--the protein encoded by Ikbkap--remain unknown. To better understand the normal function of IKAP and in an effort to generate a mouse model for FD, we have targeted the mouse Ikbkap gene by homologous recombination. We created two distinct alleles that result in either loss of Ikbkap expression, or expression of an mRNA lacking only exon 20. Homozygosity for either mutation leads to developmental delay, cardiovascular and brain malformations, accompanied with early embryonic lethality. Our analyses indicate that IKAP is essential for expression of specific genes involved in cardiac morphogenesis, and that cardiac failure is the likely cause of abnormal vascular development and embryonic lethality. Our results also indicate that deletion of exon 20 abolishes gene function. This implies that the truncated IKAP protein expressed in FD patients does not retain any significant biological function.

  3. Fanconi Bickel Syndrome: Novel Mutations in GLUT 2 Gene Causing a Distinguished Form of Renal Tubular Acidosis in Two Unrelated Egyptian Families

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    Mohammad Al-Haggar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fanconi-Bickel syndrome (FBS is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defects in facilitative glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2 or SLC2A2 gene mapped on chromosome 3q26.1-26.3, that codes for the glucose transporter protein 2. Methods. Two unrelated Egyptian families having suspected cases of FBS were enrolled after taking a written informed consent; both had positive consanguinity, and index cases had evidences of proximal renal tubular defects with hepatomegaly; they were subjected to history taking, signs of rickets as well as anthropometric measurements. Laboratory workup included urinalysis, renal and liver function tests including fasting and postprandial blood sugar; serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, sodium and potassium, lipid profile, and detailed blood gas. Imaging including bone survey and abdominal ultrasound, and liver biopsy were done to confirm diagnosis. Molecular analysis of the GLUT2 gene was done for DNA samples extracted from peripheral blood leukocyte. All coding sequences, including flanking introns in GLUT2 gene, were amplified using PCR followed by direct sequencing. Results. Two new mutations had been detected, one in each family, in exon 3 two bases (GA were deleted (c.253 254delGA and in exon 6 in the second family, G-to-C substitution at position-1 of the splicing acceptor site (c.776-1G>C or IVS5-1G>A. Conclusion. FBS is a rare disease due to mutation in GLUT2 gene; many mutations were reported, about half were novel mutations; yet none of these mutations is more frequent. A more extensive survey for the most frequent mutations among FBS has to be contemplated to allow for use of molecular screening tests like ARMS.

  4. Fanconi Bickel Syndrome: Novel Mutations in GLUT 2 Gene Causing a Distinguished Form of Renal Tubular Acidosis in Two Unrelated Egyptian Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haggar, Mohammad; Sakamoto, Osamu; Shaltout, Ali; El-Hawary, Amany; Wahba, Yahya; Abdel-Hadi, Dina

    2011-01-01

    Background. Fanconi-Bickel syndrome (FBS) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defects in facilitative glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2 or SLC2A2) gene mapped on chromosome 3q26.1-26.3, that codes for the glucose transporter protein 2. Methods. Two unrelated Egyptian families having suspected cases of FBS were enrolled after taking a written informed consent; both had positive consanguinity, and index cases had evidences of proximal renal tubular defects with hepatomegaly; they were subjected to history taking, signs of rickets as well as anthropometric measurements. Laboratory workup included urinalysis, renal and liver function tests including fasting and postprandial blood sugar; serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, sodium and potassium, lipid profile, and detailed blood gas. Imaging including bone survey and abdominal ultrasound, and liver biopsy were done to confirm diagnosis. Molecular analysis of the GLUT2 gene was done for DNA samples extracted from peripheral blood leukocyte. All coding sequences, including flanking introns in GLUT2 gene, were amplified using PCR followed by direct sequencing. Results. Two new mutations had been detected, one in each family, in exon 3 two bases (GA) were deleted (c.253 254delGA) and in exon 6 in the second family, G-to-C substitution at position-1 of the splicing acceptor site (c.776-1G>C or IVS5-1G>A). Conclusion. FBS is a rare disease due to mutation in GLUT2 gene; many mutations were reported, about half were novel mutations; yet none of these mutations is more frequent. A more extensive survey for the most frequent mutations among FBS has to be contemplated to allow for use of molecular screening tests like ARMS.

  5. A Novel Mutation in the CYP11B1 Gene Causes Steroid 11β-Hydroxylase Deficient Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia with Reversible Cardiomyopathy

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    Mohammad A. Alqahtani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH due to steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency is the second most common form of CAH, resulting from a mutation in the CYP11B1 gene. Steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency results in excessive mineralcorticoids and androgen production leading to hypertension, precocious puberty with acne, enlarged penis, and hyperpigmentation of scrotum of genetically male infants. In the present study, we reported 3 male cases from a Saudi family who presented with penile enlargement, progressive darkness of skin, hypertension, and cardiomyopathy. The elder patient died due to heart failure and his younger brothers were treated with hydrocortisone and antihypertensive medications. Six months following treatment, cardiomyopathy disappeared with normal blood pressure and improvement in the skin pigmentation. The underlying molecular defect was investigated by PCR-sequencing analysis of all coding exons and intron-exon boundary of the CYP11B1 gene. A novel biallelic mutation c.780 G>A in exon 4 of the CYP11B1 gene was found in the patients. The mutation created a premature stop codon at amino acid 260 (p.W260∗, resulting in a truncated protein devoid of 11β-hydroxylase activity. Interestingly, a somatic mutation at the same codon (c.779 G>A, p.W260∗ was reported in a patient with papillary thyroid cancer (COSMIC database. In conclusion, we have identified a novel nonsense mutation in the CYP11B1 gene that causes classic steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficient CAH. Cardiomyopathy and cardiac failure can be reversed by early diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Clinical characteristics and follow-up of 5 young Chinese males with gonadotropin-releasing hormone deficiency caused by mutations in the KAL1 gene

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    Juan Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH deficiency (IGD pertains to a group of genetic disorders consisting of anosmic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (Kallmann syndrome, KS and normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nIHH. KS is genetically heterogeneous. We hereby present 5 young male patients with GnRH deficiency caused by mutations in the KAL1 gene. Their ages ranged from 9 months to 16 years. They were referred to our department for an endocrine consultation for micropenis. Hormone assays showed low circulating gonadotropins and testosterone. Molecular studies revealed KAL1 mutations in all cases, three reported nonsense sequence variants in the KAL1 gene were detected in 4 patients, respectively (c.784C > T (p.Arg 262*, c.1267C > T (p.Arg423*, and c.1270C > T (p.Arg424*, and one patient harbored a novel hemizygous sequence variant [c.227G > A (p.Trp76*]. Only one patient presented short stature without growth hormone deficiency and anosmia. Another patient had bilateral eyelid ptosis, trichiasis, and refractive error. This is the first report on the co-occurrence of a KAL1 gene mutation and tent-like upper lip in four patients. All of our cases had normal olfactory bulbs and showed no renal agenesis, cleft lip/palate, and hearing impairment. These cases expand our knowledge of the phenotype associated with KAL1 sequence variations, although the precise mechanism by which KAL1 gene influences the development of this phenotype is still unknown.

  7. A novel HSF4 gene mutation (p.R405X causing autosomal recessive congenital cataracts in a large consanguineous family from Pakistan

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    Cheema Abdul

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hereditary cataracts are most frequently inherited as autosomal dominant traits, but can also be inherited in an autosomal recessive or X-linked fashion. To date, 12 loci for autosomal recessive cataracts have been mapped including a locus on chromosome 16q22 containing the disease-causing gene HSF4 (Genbank accession number NM_001040667. Here, we describe a family from Pakistan with the first nonsense mutation in HSF4 thus expanding the mutational spectrum of this heat shock transcription factor gene. Methods A large consanguineous Pakistani family with autosomal recessive cataracts was collected from Quetta. Genetic linkage analysis was performed for the common known autosomal recessive cataracts loci and linkage to a locus containing HSF4 (OMIM 602438 was found. All exons and adjacent splice sites of the heat shock transcription factor 4 gene (HSF4 were sequenced. A mutation-specific restriction enzyme digest (HphI was performed for all family members and unrelated controls. Results The disease phenotype perfectly co-segregated with markers flanking the known cataract gene HSF4, whereas other autosomal recessive loci were excluded. A maximum two-point LOD score with a Zmax = 5.6 at θ = 0 was obtained for D16S421. Direct sequencing of HSF4 revealed the nucleotide exchange c.1213C > T in this family predicting an arginine to stop codon exchange (p.R405X. Conclusion We identified the first nonsense mutation (p.R405X in exon 11 of HSF4 in a large consanguineous Pakistani family with autosomal recessive cataract.

  8. Gene

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    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes,...

  9. Polycystic kidney disease in the medaka (Oryzias latipes pc mutant caused by a mutation in the Gli-Similar3 (glis3 gene.

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    Hisashi Hashimoto

    Full Text Available Polycystic kidney disease (PKD is a common hereditary disease in humans. Recent studies have shown an increasing number of ciliary genes that are involved in the pathogenesis of PKD. In this study, the Gli-similar3 (glis3 gene was identified as the causal gene of the medaka pc mutant, a model of PKD. In the pc mutant, a transposon was found to be inserted into the fourth intron of the pc/glis3 gene, causing aberrant splicing of the pc/glis3 mRNA and thus a putatively truncated protein with a defective zinc finger domain. pc/glis3 mRNA is expressed in the epithelial cells of the renal tubules and ducts of the pronephros and mesonephros, and also in the pancreas. Antisense oligonucleotide-mediated knockdown of pc/glis3 resulted in cyst formation in the pronephric tubules of medaka fry. Although three other glis family members, glis1a, glis1b and glis2, were found in the medaka genome, none were expressed in the embryonic or larval kidney. In the pc mutant, the urine flow rate in the pronephros was significantly reduced, which was considered to be a direct cause of renal cyst formation. The cilia on the surface of the renal tubular epithelium were significantly shorter in the pc mutant than in wild-type, suggesting that shortened cilia resulted in a decrease in driving force and, in turn, a reduction in urine flow rate. Most importantly, EGFP-tagged pc/glis3 protein localized in primary cilia as well as in the nucleus when expressed in mouse renal epithelial cells, indicating a strong connection between pc/glis3 and ciliary function. Unlike human patients with GLIS3 mutations, the medaka pc mutant shows none of the symptoms of a pancreatic phenotype, such as impaired insulin expression and/or diabetes, suggesting that the pc mutant may be suitable for use as a kidney-specific model for human GLIS3 patients.

  10. A single base insertion in the putative transmembrane domain of the tyrosinase gene as a cause for tyrosinase-negative oculocutaneous albinism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chintamaneni, C.D.; Kobayashi, Y.; Kwon, B.S. (Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Indianapolis (United States)); Halaban, R. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)); Witkop, C.J. Jr. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States))

    1991-06-15

    The authors have determined a molecular defect to be the likely basis for inactivity of the tyrosinase from a patient with tyrosinase-negative oculocutaneous albinism. A single base (thymine) was inserted in exon 5 of the tyrosinase gene following codon 471 in the putative transmembrane coding region. This insertion caused a shift in the reading frame of 19 amino acids at the 3{prime} end and introduced a premature termination signal that would be expected to truncate the protein by 21 amino acids at the carboxyl terminus. The albino tyrosinase was not recognized by antibodies directed to the carboxyl terminus of tyrosinase. Furthermore, as shown by gel electrophoresis of the immunoprecipitated protein, the tyrosinase was {approx} 3kDa smaller than normal. Similar immunoprecipitation data were obtained when cloned normal and mutant tyrosinases were expressed in COS-1 cells.

  11. Atypical severe combined immunodeficiency caused by a novel homozygous mutation in Rag1 gene in a girl who presented with pyoderma gangrenosum: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiroglu, Turkan; Akar, H Haluk; Gilmour, Kimberly; Ozdemir, M Akif; Bibi, Shahnaz; Henriquez, Frances; Burns, Siobhan O; Unal, Ekrem

    2014-10-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a heterogeneous group of inherited defects involving the development of T- and/or B-lymphocytes. We report a female with atypical severe combined immunodeficiency caused by a novel homozygous mutation at cDNA position 2290 (c.2290C > T) in exon 2 of the RAG1 gene. The patient presented with bronchopneumonia, pyoderma gangrenosum (PG), pancytopenia and splenomegaly. She presented to us with pancytopenia and splenomegaly at the age of 11. Her condition was complicated by PG on left lower ankle at the age of 12. She experienced bronchopneumonia at the age of 15. She was diagnosed with RAG1 deficiency at the age of 16. Her immunological presentation included leucopenia and diminished number of B cells.

  12. Mutation G805R in the transmembrane domain of the LDL receptor gene causes familial hypercholesterolemia by inducing ectodomain cleavage of the LDL receptor in the endoplasmic reticulum

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    Thea Bismo Strøm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 1700 mutations in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR gene have been found to cause familial hypercholesterolemia (FH. These are commonly divided into five classes based upon their effects on the structure and function of the LDLR. However, little is known about the mechanism by which mutations in the transmembrane domain of the LDLR gene cause FH. We have studied how the transmembrane mutation G805R affects the function of the LDLR. Based upon Western blot analyses of transfected HepG2 cells, mutation G805R reduced the amounts of the 120 kDa precursor LDLR in the endoplasmic reticulum. This led to reduced amounts of the mature 160 kDa LDLR at the cell surface. However, significant amounts of a secreted 140 kDa G805R-LDLR ectodomain fragment was observed in the culture media. Treatment of the cells with the metalloproteinase inhibitor batimastat largely restored the amounts of the 120 and 160 kDa forms in cell lysates, and prevented secretion of the 140 kDa ectodomain fragment. Together, these data indicate that a metalloproteinase cleaved the ectodomain of the 120 kDa precursor G805R-LDLR in the endoplasmic reticulum. It was the presence of the polar Arg805 and not the lack of Gly805 which led to ectodomain cleavage. Arg805 also prevented γ-secretase cleavage within the transmembrane domain. It is conceivable that introducing a charged residue within the hydrophobic membrane lipid bilayer, results in less efficient incorporation of the 120 kDa G805R-LDLR in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and makes it a substrate for metalloproteinase cleavage.

  13. Mutations in the heat-shock protein A9 (HSPA9) gene cause the EVEN-PLUS syndrome of congenital malformations and skeletal dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer-Bertrand, Beryl; Castillo-Taucher, Silvia; Moreno-Salinas, Rodrigo; Cho, Tae-Joon; Chae, Jong-Hee; Choi, Murim; Kim, Ok-Hwa; Dikoglu, Esra; Campos-Xavier, Belinda; Girardi, Enrico; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Bonafé, Luisa; Rivolta, Carlo; Unger, Sheila; Superti-Furga, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We and others have reported mutations in LONP1, a gene coding for a mitochondrial chaperone and protease, as the cause of the human CODAS (cerebral, ocular, dental, auricular and skeletal) syndrome (MIM 600373). Here, we delineate a similar but distinct condition that shares the epiphyseal, vertebral and ocular changes of CODAS but also included severe microtia, nasal hypoplasia, and other malformations, and for which we propose the name of EVEN-PLUS syndrome for epiphyseal, vertebral, ear, nose, plus associated findings. In three individuals from two families, no mutation in LONP1 was found; instead, we found biallelic mutations in HSPA9, the gene that codes for mHSP70/mortalin, another highly conserved mitochondrial chaperone protein essential in mitochondrial protein import, folding, and degradation. The functional relationship between LONP1 and HSPA9 in mitochondrial protein chaperoning and the overlapping phenotypes of CODAS and EVEN-PLUS delineate a family of “mitochondrial chaperonopathies” and point to an unexplored role of mitochondrial chaperones in human embryonic morphogenesis. PMID:26598328

  14. The dwarf phenotype in GH240B mice, haploinsufficient for the autism candidate gene Neurobeachin, is caused by ectopic expression of recombinant human growth hormone.

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    Kim Nuytens

    Full Text Available Two knockout mouse models for the autism candidate gene Neurobeachin (Nbea have been generated independently. Although both models have similar phenotypes, one striking difference is the dwarf phenotype observed in the heterozygous configuration of the GH240B model that is generated by the serendipitous insertion of a promoterless human growth hormone (hGH genomic fragment in the Nbea gene. In order to elucidate this discrepancy, the dwarfism present in this Nbea mouse model was investigated in detail. The growth deficiency in Nbea+/- mice coincided with an increased percentage of fat mass and a decrease in bone mineral density. Low but detectable levels of hGH were detected in the pituitary and hypothalamus of Nbea+/- mice but not in liver, hippocampus nor in serum. As a consequence, several members of the mouse growth hormone (mGH signaling cascade showed altered mRNA levels, including a reduction in growth hormone-releasing hormone mRNA in the hypothalamus. Moreover, somatotrope cells were less numerous in the pituitary of Nbea+/- mice and both contained and secreted significantly less mGH resulting in reduced levels of circulating insulin-like growth factor 1. These findings demonstrate that the random integration of the hGH transgene in this mouse model has not only inactivated Nbea but has also resulted in the tissue-specific expression of hGH causing a negative feedback loop, mGH hyposecretion and dwarfism.

  15. Inactivation of promoter 1B of APC causes partial gene silencing: evidence for a significant role of the promoter in regulation and causative of familial adenomatous polyposis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohlin, A; Engwall, Y; Fritzell, K

    2011-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is caused by germline mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. Two promoters, 1A and 1B, have been recognized in APC, and 1B is thought to have a minor role in the regulation of the gene. We have identified a novel deletion encompassing half of ...... homozygous inactivation of APC allowing for alternative genetic models as basis for adenoma formation.Oncogene advance online publication, 6 June 2011; doi:10.1038/onc.2011.201....... of this promoter in the largest family (Family 1) of the Swedish Polyposis Registry. The mutation leads to an imbalance in allele-specific expression of APC, and transcription from promoter 1B was highly impaired in both normal colorectal mucosa and blood from mutation carriers. To establish the significance...... of promoter 1B in normal colorectal mucosa (from controls), expression levels of specific transcripts from each of the promoters, 1A and 1B, were examined, and the expression from 1B was significantly higher compared with 1A. Significant amounts of transcripts generated from promoter 1B were also determined...

  16. Exploring the structural and functional effect of pRB by significant nsSNP in the coding region of RB1 gene causing retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, R; Sethumadhavan, Rao

    2010-02-01

    In this study, we identified the most deleterious nsSNP in RB1 gene through structural and functional properties of its protein (pRB) and investigated its binding affinity with E2F-2. Out of 956 SNPs, we investigated 12 nsSNPs in coding region in which three of them (SNPids rs3092895, rs3092903 and rs3092905) are commonly found to be damaged by I-Mutant 2.0, SIFT and PolyPhen programs. With this effort, we modeled the mutant pRB proteins based on these deleterious nsSNPs. From a comparison of total energy, stabilizing residues and RMSD of these three mutant proteins with native pRB protein, we identified that the major mutation is from Glutamic acid to Glycine at the residue position of 746 of pRB. Further, we compared the binding efficiency of both native and mutant pRB (E746G) with E2F-2. We found that mutant pRB has less binding affinity with E2F-2 as compared to native type. This is due to sixteen hydrogen bonding and two salt bridges that exist between native type and E2F-2, whereas mutant type makes only thirteen hydrogen bonds and one salt bridge with E2F-2. Based on our investigation, we propose that the SNP with an id rs3092905 could be the most deleterious nsSNP in RB1 gene causing retinoblastoma.

  17. The dwarf phenotype in GH240B mice, haploinsufficient for the autism candidate gene Neurobeachin, is caused by ectopic expression of recombinant human growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuytens, Kim; Tuand, Krizia; Fu, Quili; Stijnen, Pieter; Pruniau, Vincent; Meulemans, Sandra; Vankelecom, Hugo; Creemers, John W M

    2014-01-01

    Two knockout mouse models for the autism candidate gene Neurobeachin (Nbea) have been generated independently. Although both models have similar phenotypes, one striking difference is the dwarf phenotype observed in the heterozygous configuration of the GH240B model that is generated by the serendipitous insertion of a promoterless human growth hormone (hGH) genomic fragment in the Nbea gene. In order to elucidate this discrepancy, the dwarfism present in this Nbea mouse model was investigated in detail. The growth deficiency in Nbea+/- mice coincided with an increased percentage of fat mass and a decrease in bone mineral density. Low but detectable levels of hGH were detected in the pituitary and hypothalamus of Nbea+/- mice but not in liver, hippocampus nor in serum. As a consequence, several members of the mouse growth hormone (mGH) signaling cascade showed altered mRNA levels, including a reduction in growth hormone-releasing hormone mRNA in the hypothalamus. Moreover, somatotrope cells were less numerous in the pituitary of Nbea+/- mice and both contained and secreted significantly less mGH resulting in reduced levels of circulating insulin-like growth factor 1. These findings demonstrate that the random integration of the hGH transgene in this mouse model has not only inactivated Nbea but has also resulted in the tissue-specific expression of hGH causing a negative feedback loop, mGH hyposecretion and dwarfism.

  18. Detailed analysis of targeted gene mutations caused by the Platinum-Fungal TALENs in Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 strain and a ligD disruptant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Osamu; Arazoe, Takayuki; Toshida, Kenji; Hayashi, Risa; Ohsato, Shuichi; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kuwata, Shigeru; Yamada, Osamu

    2017-03-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), which can generate DNA double-strand breaks at specific sites in the desired genome locus, have been used in many organisms as a tool for genome editing. In Aspergilli, including Aspergillus oryzae, however, the use of TALENs has not been validated. In this study, we performed genome editing of A. oryzae wild-type strain via error of nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair by transient expression of high-efficiency Platinum-Fungal TALENs (PtFg TALENs). Targeted mutations were observed as various mutation patterns. In particular, approximately half of the PtFg TALEN-mediated deletion mutants had deletions larger than 1 kb in the TALEN-targeting region. We also conducted PtFg TALEN-based genome editing in A. oryzae ligD disruptant (ΔligD) lacking the ligD gene involved in the final step of the NHEJ repair and found that mutations were still obtained as well as wild-type. In this case, the ratio of the large deletions reduced compared to PtFg TALEN-based genome editing in the wild-type. In conclusion, we demonstrate that PtFg TALENs are sufficiently functional to cause genome editing via error of NHEJ in A. oryzae. In addition, we reveal that genome editing using TALENs in A. oryzae tends to cause large deletions at the target region, which were partly suppressed by deletion of ligD.

  19. Novel mutations in DNAJB6 gene cause a very severe early-onset limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 1D disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmio, Johanna; Jonson, Per Harald; Evilä, Anni; Auranen, Mari; Straub, Volker; Bushby, Kate; Sarkozy, Anna; Kiuru-Enari, Sari; Sandell, Satu; Pihko, Helena; Hackman, Peter; Udd, Bjarne

    2015-11-01

    DNAJB6 is the causative gene for limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 1D (LGMD1D). Four different coding missense mutations, p.F89I, p.F93I, p.F93L, and p.P96R, have been reported in families from Europe, North America and Asia. The previously known mutations cause mainly adult-onset proximal muscle weakness with moderate progression and without respiratory involvement. A Finnish family and a British patient have been studied extensively due to a severe muscular dystrophy. The patients had childhood-onset LGMD, loss of ambulation in early adulthood and respiratory involvement; one patient died of respiratory failure aged 32. Two novel mutations, c.271T > A (p.F91I) and c.271T > C (p.F91L), in DNAJB6 were identified by whole exome sequencing as a cause of this severe form of LGMD1D. The results were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The anti-aggregation effect of the mutant DNAJB6 was investigated in a filter-trap based system using transient transfection of mammalian cell lines and polyQ-huntingtin as a model for an aggregation-prone protein. Both novel mutant proteins show a significant loss of ability to prevent aggregation.

  20. A novel mutation in the nerve-specific 5'UTR of the GJB1 gene causes X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Sinéad M

    2011-03-01

    X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT1X) is the second most common cause of CMT, and is usually caused by mutations in the gap junction protein beta 1 (GJB1) gene which codes for connexin 32 (CX32). CX32 has three tissue-specific promoters, P1 which is specific for liver and pancreas, P1a specific for liver, oocytes and embryonic stem cells, and P2 which is nerve-specific. Over 300 mutations have been described in GJB1, spread throughout the coding region. We describe two families with X-linked inheritance and a phenotype consistent with CMT1X who did not have mutations in the GJB1 coding region. The non-coding region of GJB1 was sequenced and an upstream exon-splicing variant found at approximately - 373G>A which segregated with the disease in both families and was not present in controls. This substitution is located at the last base of the nerve-specific 5\\'UTR and thus may disrupt splicing of the nerve-specific transcript. Online consensus splice-site programs predict a reduced score for the mutant sequence vs. the normal sequence. It is likely that other mutations within the GJB1 non-coding regions account for the CMT1X families who do not have coding region mutations.

  1. Abscisic Acid Regulation of Root Hydraulic Conductivity and Aquaporin Gene Expression Is Crucial to the Plant Shoot Growth Enhancement Caused by Rhizosphere Humic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaetxea, Maite; Mora, Verónica; Bacaicoa, Eva; Garnica, María; Fuentes, Marta; Casanova, Esther; Zamarreño, Angel M; Iriarte, Juan C; Etayo, David; Ederra, Iñigo; Gonzalo, Ramón; Baigorri, Roberto; García-Mina, Jose M

    2015-12-01

    The physiological and metabolic mechanisms behind the humic acid-mediated plant growth enhancement are discussed in detail. Experiments using cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants show that the shoot growth enhancement caused by a structurally well-characterized humic acid with sedimentary origin is functionally associated with significant increases in abscisic acid (ABA) root concentration and root hydraulic conductivity. Complementary experiments involving a blocking agent of cell wall pores and water root transport (polyethylenglycol) show that increases in root hydraulic conductivity are essential in the shoot growth-promoting action of the model humic acid. Further experiments involving an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis in root and shoot (fluridone) show that the humic acid-mediated enhancement of both root hydraulic conductivity and shoot growth depended on ABA signaling pathways. These experiments also show that a significant increase in the gene expression of the main root plasma membrane aquaporins is associated with the increase of root hydraulic conductivity caused by the model humic acid. Finally, experimental data suggest that all of these actions of model humic acid on root functionality, which are linked to its beneficial action on plant shoot growth, are likely related to the conformational structure of humic acid in solution and its interaction with the cell wall at the root surface.

  2. Spontaneous excision of the O-polysaccharide wbkA glycosyltranferase gene is a cause of dissociation of smooth to rough Brucella colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla, Marcos; Marín, Clara M; Blasco, José M; Zárraga, Ana María; López-Goñi, Ignacio; Moriyón, Ignacio

    2012-04-01

    The brucellae are Gram-negative pathogens that cause brucellosis, a zoonosis of worldwide importance. The genus Brucella includes smooth and rough species that differ in that they carry smooth and rough lipopolysaccharides, respectively. Brucella abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis are typical smooth species. However, these smooth brucellae dissociate into rough mutants devoid of the lipopolysaccharide O-polysaccharide, a major antigen and a virulence determinant encoded in regions wbo (included in genomic island-2) and wbk. We demonstrate here the occurrence of spontaneous recombination events in those three Brucella species leading to the deletion of a 5.5-kb fragment carrying the wbkA glycosyltranferase gene and to the appearance of rough mutants. Analysis of the recombination intermediates suggested homologous recombination between the ISBm1 insertion sequences flanking wbkA as the mechanism generating the deletion. Excision of wbkA was reduced but not abrogated in a recA-deficient mutant, showing the existence of both RecA-dependent and -independent processes. Although the involvement of the ISBm1 copies flanking wbkA suggested a transpositional event, the predicted transpositional joint could not be detected. This absence of detectable transposition was consistent with the presence of polymorphism in the inverted repeats of one of the ISBm1 copies. The spontaneous excision of wbkA represents a novel dissociation mechanism of smooth brucellae that adds to the previously described excision of genomic island-2. This ISBm1-mediated wbkA excision and the different %GC levels of the excised fragment and of other wbk genes suggest that the Brucella wbk locus is the result of at least two horizontal acquisition events.

  3. Exploring the structural and functional effect of pRB by significant nsSNP in the coding region of RB1 gene causing retinoblastoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajasekaran; R; Rao; Sethumadhavan

    2010-01-01

    In this study,we identified the most deleterious nsSNP in RB1 gene through structural and functional properties of its protein (pRB) and investigated its binding affinity with E2F-2.Out of 956 SNPs,we investigated 12 nsSNPs in coding region in which three of them (SNPids rs3092895,rs3092903 and rs3092905) are commonly found to be damaged by I-Mutant 2.0,SIFT and PolyPhen programs.With this effort,we modeled the mutant pRB proteins based on these deleterious nsSNPs.From a comparison of total energy,stabilizing residues and RMSD of these three mutant proteins with native pRB protein,we identified that the major mutation is from Glutamic acid to Glycine at the residue position of 746 of pRB.Further,we compared the binding efficiency of both native and mutant pRB (E746G) with E2F-2.We found that mutant pRB has less binding affinity with E2F-2 as compared to native type.This is due to sixteen hydrogen bonding and two salt bridges that exist between native type and E2F-2,whereas mutant type makes only thirteen hydrogen bonds and one salt bridge with E2F-2.Based on our investigation,we propose that the SNP with an id rs3092905 could be the most deleterious nsSNP in RB1 gene causing retinoblastoma.

  4. Functional characterization of two novel point mutations in the CYP21 gene causing simple virilizing forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krone, Nils; Riepe, Felix G; Grötzinger, Joachim; Partsch, Carl-Joachim; Sippell, Wolfgang G

    2005-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a group of autosomal recessive disorders most often caused by deficiency of steroid 21-hydroxylase due to mutations in the CYP21 gene. We studied the functional and structural consequences of two novel missense mutations in the CYP21 gene, detected in two simple virilizing congenital adrenal hyperplasia patients. Both the male and female patient were compound heterozygous for the novel I77T and A434V point mutations, respectively. The in vitro expression analysis in COS-7 cells revealed a reduced 21-hydroxylase activity in the I77T mutant of 3 +/- 2% (sd) for the conversion of 17-hydroxyprogesterone to 11-deoxycortisol and of 5 +/- 3% for the conversion of progesterone to 11-deoxycorticosterone. The A434V mutant had a residual enzyme activity of 14 +/- 2% for 17-hydroxyprogesterone and 12 +/- 6% for progesterone. Substrate affinity was similar in the mutants as in the CYP21 wild-type protein, whereas reaction velocity was markedly decreased in both mutants. These effects could be readily explained by structural changes induced by the mutations, which were rationalized by a three-dimensional-model structure of the CYP21 protein. We hypothesize that the I77T mutation markedly decreases the reaction product release and/or substrate entrance to the enzyme's active site, whereas the A434V mutant reduces both the catalytic capacity and reaction velocity. Studying the enzyme function in vitro helps to understand the phenotypical expression and disease severity of 21-hydroxylase deficiency and also provides new insights into cytochrome P450 structure-function relationships.

  5. Detection of a novel mutation Y468X in exon 10 of the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene causing heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia among French Canadians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, P.; Simard, J.; Moorjani, S. [Laval Univ., Quebec (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is caused by mutations in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene and characterized by raised plasma LDL-cholesterol (C) and premature coronary heart disease. FH has higher frequency among French Canadians (FC) in northeastern Quebec than in most other populations, 1:154 vs. 1:500. In FC, five mutations account for all the mutant alleles in homozygous FH and 81% in heterozygous FH; thus 19% are uncharacterized at the molecular level. We investigated the possibility of additional mutations(s), and direct sequencing of asymmetric PCR fragments showed a novel mutation (468 stop-codon) in the heterozygous form in exon 10 of the LDL receptor gene. This mutation results from cytosine to guanine transversion, converting codon 468 (TAC) encoding tyrosine into TAG stop-codon (Y468X). This nonsense mutation will result in a truncated protein shortened by 371 amino acids which will be rapidly degraded. However, we did not ascertain the functional aspects. We rather assessed its effects on the extent of elevation of LDL-C in heterozygous FH children. The Y468X mutation resulted in raised LDL-C levels which were comparable to subjects with a non-functional `null` allele due to deletion of the promoter region and exon 1 (237{plus_minus}49 vs. 248 {plus_minus}41 mg/dl; mean{plus_minus}SD, p<0.05). The relative frequency of the Y468X mutation in a cohort of 343 children suspected for FH is 4.1% and it ranks number 4 in term of its prevalence. High frequency of FH among FC is attributed to a founder effect due to a high prevalence of one mutation; it is suggested that this novel mutation with low prevalence may be of later entry in this population.

  6. Acute 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene exposure causes differential concentration-dependent follicle depletion and gene expression in neonatal rat ovaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madden, Jill A. [Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Hoyer, Patricia B. [Department of Physiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Devine, Patrick J. [INRS—Institut Armand-Frappier Research Centre, University of Quebec, Laval, QC H7V 1B7 (Canada); Keating, Aileen F., E-mail: akeating@iastate.edu [Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Physiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Chronic exposure to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), generated during combustion of organic matter including cigarette smoke, depletes all ovarian follicle types in the mouse and rat, and in vitro models mimic this effect. To investigate the mechanisms involved in follicular depletion during acute DMBA exposure, two concentrations of DMBA at which follicle depletion has (75 nM) and has not (12.5 nM) been observed were investigated. Postnatal day four F344 rat ovaries were maintained in culture for four days before a single exposure to vehicle control (1% DMSO; CT) or DMBA (12 nM; low-concentration or 75 nM; high-concentration). After four or eight additional days of culture, DMBA-induced follicle depletion was evaluated via follicle enumeration. Relative to control, DMBA did not affect follicle numbers after 4 days of exposure, but induced large primary follicle loss at both concentrations after 8 days; while, the low-concentration DMBA also caused secondary follicle depletion. Neither concentration affected primordial or small primary follicle number. RNA was isolated and quantitative RT-PCR performed prior to follicle loss to measure mRNA levels of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism (Cyp2e1, Gstmu, Gstpi, Ephx1), autophagy (Atg7, Becn1), oxidative stress response (Sod1, Sod2) and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway (Kitlg, cKit, Akt1) 1, 2 and 4 days after exposure. With the exception of Atg7 and cKit, DMBA increased (P < 0.05) expression of all genes investigated. Also, BECN1 and pAKT{sup Thr308} protein levels were increased while cKIT was decreased by DMBA exposure. Taken together, these results suggest an increase in DMBA bioactivation, add to the mechanistic understanding of DMBA-induced ovotoxicity and raise concern regarding female low concentration DMBA exposures. - Highlights: • Acute DMBA exposures induce large primary and/or secondary follicle loss. • Acute DMBA exposure did not impact

  7. The low-temperature- and salt-induced RCI2A gene of Arabidopsis complements the sodium sensitivity caused by a deletion of the homologous yeast gene SNA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylander, M; Heino, P; Helenius, E; Palva, E T; Ronne, H; Welin, B V

    2001-02-01

    Two closely related, tandemly arranged, low-temperature- and salt-induced Arabidopsis genes, corresponding to the previously isolated cDNAs RCI2A and RCI2B, were isolated and characterized. The RCI2A transcript accumulated primarily in response to low temperature or high salinity, and to a lesser extent in response to ABA treatment or water deficit stress. The RCI2B transcript was present at much lower levels than RCI2A, and could only be detected by reverse transcription-PCR amplification. The predicted 6 kDa RCI2 proteins are highly hydrophobic and contain two putative membrane-spanning regions. The polypeptides exhibit extensive similarity to deduced low-temperature- and/or salt-induced proteins from barley, wheat grass and strawberry, and to predicted proteins from bacteria, fungi, nematodes and yeast. Interestingly, we found that a deletion of the RCI2 homologous gene, SNA1 (YRD276c), in yeast causes a salt-sensitive phenotype. This effect is specific for sodium, since no growth defect was observed for the sna1 mutant on 1.7 M sorbitol, 1 M KCl or 0.6 M LiCl. Finally, we found that the Arabidopsis RCI2A cDNA can complement the sna1 mutant when expressed in yeast, indicating that the plant and yeast proteins have similar functions during high salt stress.

  8. The most common mutation causing medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency is strongly associated with a particular haplotype in the region of the gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kølvraa, S; Gregersen, N; Blakemore, A I;

    1991-01-01

    RFLP haplotypes in the region containing the medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) gene on chromosome 1 have been determined in patients with MCAD deficiency. The RFLPs were detected after digestion of patient DNA with the enzymes BanII. PstI and TaqI and with an MCAD cDNA-clone as a probe....... Of 32 disease-causing alleles studied, 31 possessed the previously published A----G point-mutation at position 985 of the cDNA. This mutation has been shown to result in inactivity of the MCAD enzyme. In at least 30 of the 31 alleles carrying this G985 mutation a specific RFLP haplotype was present....... In contrast, the same haplotype was present in only 23% of normal alleles (P less than or equal to 3.4 x 10(-18)). These findings are consistent with the existence of a pronounced founder effect, possibly combined with biological and/or sampling selection....

  9. Early stress causes sex-specific, life-long changes in behaviour, levels of gonadal hormones, and gene expression in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfwing, Magnus; Nätt, Daniel; Goerlich-Jansson, Vivian C; Persson, Mia; Hjelm, Jonas; Jensen, Per

    2015-01-01

    Early stress can have long-lasting phenotypic effects. Previous research shows that male and female chickens differ in many behavioural aspects, and respond differently to chronic stress. The present experiment aimed to broadly characterize long-term sex differences in responses to brief events of stress experienced during the first weeks of life. Chicks from a commercial egg-laying hybrid were exposed to stress by inducing periods of social isolation during their first three weeks of life, followed by a broad behavioural, physiological and genomic characterization throughout life. Early stressed males, but not females, where more anxious in an open field-test, stayed shorter in tonic immobility and tended to have delayed sexual maturity, as shown by a tendency for lower levels of testosterone compared to controls. While early stressed females did not differ from non-stressed in fear and sexual maturation, they were more socially dominant than controls. The differential gene expression profile in hypothalamus was significantly correlated from 28 to 213 days of age in males, but not in females. In conclusion, early stress had a more pronounced long-term effect on male than on female chickens, as evidenced by behavioral, endocrine and genomic responses. This may either be attributed to inherent sex differences due to evolutionary causes, or possibly to different stress related selection pressures on the two sexes during commercial chicken breeding.

  10. Early stress causes sex-specific, life-long changes in behaviour, levels of gonadal hormones, and gene expression in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Elfwing

    Full Text Available Early stress can have long-lasting phenotypic effects. Previous research shows that male and female chickens differ in many behavioural aspects, and respond differently to chronic stress. The present experiment aimed to broadly characterize long-term sex differences in responses to brief events of stress experienced during the first weeks of life. Chicks from a commercial egg-laying hybrid were exposed to stress by inducing periods of social isolation during their first three weeks of life, followed by a broad behavioural, physiological and genomic characterization throughout life. Early stressed males, but not females, where more anxious in an open field-test, stayed shorter in tonic immobility and tended to have delayed sexual maturity, as shown by a tendency for lower levels of testosterone compared to controls. While early stressed females did not differ from non-stressed in fear and sexual maturation, they were more socially dominant than controls. The differential gene expression profile in hypothalamus was significantly correlated from 28 to 213 days of age in males, but not in females. In conclusion, early stress had a more pronounced long-term effect on male than on female chickens, as evidenced by behavioral, endocrine and genomic responses. This may either be attributed to inherent sex differences due to evolutionary causes, or possibly to different stress related selection pressures on the two sexes during commercial chicken breeding.

  11. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the interferon gamma gene are associated with distinct types of retinochoroidal scar lesions presumably caused by Toxoplasma gondii infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixe, Ricardo Guerra; Boechat, Marcela Santana Bastos; Rangel, Alba Lucinia Peixoto; Rosa, Rhônia França Gomes; Petzl-Erler, Maria Luiza; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian M G

    2014-02-01

    The association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the interferon (IFN)-γ gene ( IFNG ) with different types of retinal scar lesions presumably caused by toxoplasmosis were investigated in a cross-sectional population-based genetic study. Ten SNPs were investigated and after Bonferroni correction, only the associations between SNPs rs2069718 and rs3181035 with retinal/retinochoroidal scar lesions type A (most severe scar lesions) and C (least severe scar lesions), respectively, remained significant. The associations of two different IFNG SNPs with two different types of retinal lesions attributable to toxoplasmosis support the hypothesis that different inflammatory mechanisms underlie the development of these lesions. The in vitro analysis of IFN-γ secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with Toxoplasma gondii antigens was also investigated. The association between SNP rs2069718 and type A scar lesions revealed that differential IFN-γ levels are correlated with distinct genotypes. However, no correlation was observed with IFN-γ secretion levels and the SNP rs3181035 , which was significantly associated with type C scar lesions. Our findings strongly suggest that immunogenetic studies of individuals with congenital or postnatally acquired infection are needed to better understand the role of IFN-γ and its polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of ocular toxoplasmosis.

  12. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the interferon gamma gene are associated with distinct types of retinochoroidal scar lesions presumably caused by Toxoplasma gondii infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Guerra Peixe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the interferon (IFN-γ gene ( IFNG with different types of retinal scar lesions presumably caused by toxoplasmosis were investigated in a cross-sectional population-based genetic study. Ten SNPs were investigated and after Bonferroni correction, only the associations between SNPs rs2069718 and rs3181035 with retinal/retinochoroidal scar lesions type A (most severe scar lesions and C (least severe scar lesions, respectively, remained significant. The associations of two different IFNG SNPs with two different types of retinal lesions attributable to toxoplasmosis support the hypothesis that different inflammatory mechanisms underlie the development of these lesions. The in vitro analysis of IFN-γ secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with Toxoplasma gondii antigens was also investigated. The association between SNP rs2069718 and type A scar lesions revealed that differential IFN-γ levels are correlated with distinct genotypes. However, no correlation was observed with IFN-γ secretion levels and the SNP rs3181035 , which was significantly associated with type C scar lesions. Our findings strongly suggest that immunogenetic studies of individuals with congenital or postnatally acquired infection are needed to better understand the role of IFN-γ and its polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of ocular toxoplasmosis.

  13. Disruption of zebrafish cyclin G-associated kinase (GAK function impairs the expression of Notch-dependent genes during neurogenesis and causes defects in neuronal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szeto Daniel P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The J-domain-containing protein auxilin, a critical regulator in clathrin-mediated transport, has been implicated in Drosophila Notch signaling. To ask if this role of auxilin is conserved and whether auxilin has additional roles in development, we have investigated the functions of auxilin orthologs in zebrafish. Results Like mammals, zebrafish has two distinct auxilin-like molecules, auxilin and cyclin G-associated kinase (GAK, differing in their domain structures and expression patterns. Both zebrafish auxilin and GAK can functionally substitute for the Drosophila auxilin, suggesting that they have overlapping molecular functions. Still, they are not completely redundant, as morpholino-mediated knockdown of the ubiquitously expressed GAK alone can increase the specification of neuronal cells, a known Notch-dependent process, and decrease the expression of Her4, a Notch target gene. Furthermore, inhibition of GAK function caused an elevated level of apoptosis in neural tissues, resulting in severe degeneration of neural structures. Conclusion In support of the notion that endocytosis plays important roles in Notch signaling, inhibition of zebrafish GAK function affects embryonic neuronal cell specification and Her4 expression. In addition, our analysis suggests that zebrafish GAK has at least two functions during the development of neural tissues: an early Notch-dependent role in neuronal patterning and a late role in maintaining the survival of neural cells.

  14. Mutation of the mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase gene, YARS2, causes myopathy, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia--MLASA syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Lisa G; Cooper, Sandra; Hickey, Peter; Rudinger-Thirion, Joëlle; McKenzie, Matthew; Compton, Alison; Lim, Sze Chern; Thorburn, David; Ryan, Michael T; Giegé, Richard; Bahlo, Melanie; Christodoulou, John

    2010-07-09

    Mitochondrial respiratory chain disorders are a heterogeneous group of disorders in which the underlying genetic defect is often unknown. We have identified a pathogenic mutation (c.156C>G [p.F52L]) in YARS2, located at chromosome 12p11.21, by using genome-wide SNP-based homozygosity analysis of a family with affected members displaying myopathy, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia (MLASA). We subsequently identified the same mutation in another unrelated MLASA patient. The YARS2 gene product, mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (YARS2), was present at lower levels in skeletal muscle whereas fibroblasts were relatively normal. Complex I, III, and IV were dysfunctional as indicated by enzyme analysis, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry. A mitochondrial protein-synthesis assay showed reduced levels of respiratory chain subunits in myotubes generated from patient cell lines. A tRNA aminoacylation assay revealed that mutant YARS2 was still active; however, enzyme kinetics were abnormal compared to the wild-type protein. We propose that the reduced aminoacylation activity of mutant YARS2 enzyme leads to decreased mitochondrial protein synthesis, resulting in mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction. MLASA has previously been associated with PUS1 mutations; hence, the YARS2 mutation reported here is an alternative cause of MLASA.

  15. Evidence for modifier genes that enhance the effect of the Pax-3 mutation, splotch-delayed (Sp{sup d}), on facial morphology: A model for studying the causes of variation of Waardenburg syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, R.W.; Morell, R.; Friedman, T.B. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Waardenburg syndrome type I (WS1) is caused by autosomal dominant mutations of the gene coding for the PAX3 transcription factor. These mutations have variable penetrance and expressivity within and between families where they cause hypopigmentation, deafness and facially dysmorphic features. It has been suspected that changes of penetrance and expressivity in WS1 mutations are caused by familial variation in other loci which interact with or modify the expression of the PAX3 locus. Splotch mutations (Sp, Sp{sup d}, etc.) are the mouse homologs of WS1 mutations. Mutations in Pax-3 were first used to predict the map position and function of WS1 mutations. We now present morphometric evidence for alleles of modifier genes, originating from Mus spretus and segregating in an F{sub 1} backcross with Mus musculus, that modify the effects of Sp{sup d} on the structure of mouse facial bones. Variation caused by these mouse genes are precisely homologous to the familial variation we see in dystopia canthorum, the principal diagnostic feature of Waardenburg syndrome type I. The mouse modifier genes of Pax-3 identified by this analysis are now being mapped as a first step towards positional cloning human PAX3 modifier genes.

  16. Mutations in the paired domain of the human PAX3 gene cause Klein-Waardenburg syndrome (WS-III) as well as Waardenburg syndrome type I (WS-I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoth, C.F.; Milunsky, A.; Lipsky, N.; Baldwin, C.T. (Boston Univ. School of Medicine, MA (United States)); Sheffer, R. (Hadassah-Hebrew Univ. Medical Center, Jerusalem (Israel)); Clarren, S.K. (Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Waardenburg syndrome type I (WS-I) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, dystopia canthorum, pigmentary disturbances, and other developmental defects. Klein-Waardenburg syndrome (WS-III) is a disorder with many of the same characteristics as WS-I and includes musculoskeletal abnormalities. The authors have recently reported the identification and characterization of one of the first gene defects, in the human PAX3 gene, which causes WS-I. PAX3 is a DNA-binding protein that contains a structural motif known as the paired domain and is believed to regulate the expression of other genes. In this report they describe two new mutations, in the human PAX3 gene, that are associated with WS. One mutation was found in a family with WS-I, while the other mutation was found in a family with WS-III. Both mutations were in the highly conserved paired domain of the human PAX3 gene and are similar to other mutations that cause WS. The results indicate that mutations in the PAX3 gene can cause both WS-I and WS-III. 36 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Functional Investigation of a Non-coding Variant Associated with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis in Zebrafish: Elevated Expression of the Ladybird Homeobox Gene Causes Body Axis Deformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we identified an adolescent idiopathic scoliosis susceptibility locus near human ladybird homeobox 1 (LBX1 and FLJ41350 by a genome-wide association study. Here, we characterized the associated non-coding variant and investigated the function of these genes. A chromosome conformation capture assay revealed that the genome region with the most significantly associated single nucleotide polymorphism (rs11190870 physically interacted with the promoter region of LBX1-FLJ41350. The promoter in the direction of LBX1, combined with a 590-bp region including rs11190870, had higher transcriptional activity with the risk allele than that with the non-risk allele in HEK 293T cells. The ubiquitous overexpression of human LBX1 or either of the zebrafish lbx genes (lbx1a, lbx1b, and lbx2, but not FLJ41350, in zebrafish embryos caused body curvature followed by death prior to vertebral column formation. Such body axis deformation was not observed in transcription activator-like effector nucleases mediated knockout zebrafish of lbx1b or lbx2. Mosaic expression of lbx1b driven by the GATA2 minimal promoter and the lbx1b enhancer in zebrafish significantly alleviated the embryonic lethal phenotype to allow observation of the later onset of the spinal curvature with or without vertebral malformation. Deformation of the embryonic body axis by lbx1b overexpression was associated with defects in convergent extension, which is a component of the main axis-elongation machinery in gastrulating embryos. In embryos overexpressing lbx1b, wnt5b, a ligand of the non-canonical Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP pathway, was significantly downregulated. Injection of mRNA for wnt5b or RhoA, a key downstream effector of Wnt/PCP signaling, rescued the defective convergent extension phenotype and attenuated the lbx1b-induced curvature of the body axis. Thus, our study presents a novel pathological feature of LBX1 and its zebrafish homologs in body axis deformation at

  18. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 inhibition and angiotensin II converting inhibition in mice with cardiomyopathy caused by lamin A/C gene mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muchir, Antoine, E-mail: a.muchir@institut-myologie.org [Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Wu, Wei [Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Sera, Fusako; Homma, Shunichi [Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Worman, Howard J., E-mail: hjw14@columbia.edu [Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • Both ACE and MEK1/2 inhibition are beneficial on cardiac function in Lmna cardiomyopathy. • MEK1/2 inhibitor has beneficial effects beyond ACE inhibition for Lmna cardiomyopathy. • These results provide further preclinical rationale for a clinical trial of a MEK1/2 inhibitor. - Abstract: Background: Mutations in the LMNA gene encoding A-type nuclear lamins can cause dilated cardiomyopathy with or without skeletal muscular dystrophy. Previous studies have shown abnormally increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activity in hearts of Lmna{sup H222P/H222P} mice, a small animal model. Inhibition of this abnormal signaling activity with a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2) inhibitor has beneficial effects on heart function and survival in these mice. However, such treatment has not been examined relative to any standard of care intervention for dilated cardiomyopathy or heart failure. We therefore examined the effects of an angiotensin II converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor on left ventricular function in Lmna{sup H222P/H222P} mice and assessed if adding a MEK1/2 inhibitor would provide added benefit. Methods: Male Lmna{sup H222P/H222P} mice were treated with the ACE inhibitor benazepril, the MEK1/2 inhibitor selumetinib or both. Transthoracic echocardiography was used to measure left ventricular diameters and fractional shortening was calculated. Results: Treatment of Lmna{sup H222P/H222P} mice with either benazepril or selumetinib started at 8 weeks of age, before the onset of detectable left ventricular dysfunction, lead to statistically significantly increased fractional shortening compared to placebo at 16 weeks of age. There was a trend towards a great value for fractional shortening in the selumetinib-treated mice. When treatment was started at 16 weeks of age, after the onset of left ventricular dysfunction, the addition of selumetinib treatment to benazepril lead to a statistically significant increase in left

  19. The E180splice mutation in the GHR gene causing Laron syndrome: witness of a Sephardic Jewish exodus from the Iberian Peninsula to the New World?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Fernanda T; Fridman, Cintia; Pinto, Emília M; Guevara-Aguirre, Jaime; Shevah, Orit; Rosembloom, Arlan L; Hwa, Vivian; Cassorla, Fernando; Rosenfeld, Ron G; Lins, Theresa S S; Damiani, Durval; Arnhold, Ivo J P; Laron, Zvi; Jorge, Alexander A L

    2014-05-01

    Laron syndrome (LS) is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene. The most frequent GHR mutation is E180splice (rs121909360), which was initially found in an inbred population of Spanish descent in Ecuador and subsequently in Israel, Brazil, Chile, and the United States. The aim of the present study is to determine if the E180splice mutation arose from a common origin. We studied 22 patients with LS from Ecuador, Israel (of Moroccan origin), Brazil, Chile, and the United States (of Mexican origin) who were homozygous for the E180splice mutation and compared them to control individuals for markers surrounding the GHR, intragenic polymorphisms, and Y-chromosome STR. An identical haplotype was found in all but one of the subjects carrying the E180splice mutation: D5S665: 150/150; D5S2082: 192/192; D5S2087: 246/246; rs6179 G/G; and rs6180 C/C. One patient differed from the others only at D5S2082 (168/192). This haplotype is rare (~1%) in control individuals and confirmed that the E180splice-associated haplotype was not derived from independent origins but represented recombination from a common ancestor. The analysis of paternal lineage markers showed that 50% belong to haplogroup R1b (found in Portugal and Spain) and 40% to haplogroups J and E (typical in the Middle East and in Eastern European Jews). The germline E180Splice mutation appears to have originated from a single common ancestor. The presence of Y-chromosome markers associated with Sephardic populations in persons harboring the E180splice mutation provides genetic evidence in support of the historical tracking of the exodus of this specific population.

  20. Altered Pre-mRNA Splicing Caused by a Novel Intronic Mutation c.1443+5G>A in the Dihydropyrimidinase (DPYS Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Nakajima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dihydropyrimidinase (DHP deficiency is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the DPYS gene. Patients present with highly elevated levels of dihydrouracil and dihydrothymine in their urine, blood and cerebrospinal fluid. The analysis of the effect of mutations in DPYS on pre-mRNA splicing is hampered by the fact that DHP is primarily expressed in liver and kidney cells. The minigene approach can detect mRNA splicing aberrations using cells that do not express the endogenous mRNA. We have used a minigene-based approach to analyze the effects of a presumptive pre-mRNA splicing mutation in two newly identified Chinese pediatric patients with DHP deficiency. Mutation analysis of DPYS showed that both patients were compound heterozygous for a novel intronic mutation c.1443+5G>A in intron 8 and a previously described missense mutation c.1001A>G (p.Q334R in exon 6. Wild-type and the mutated minigene constructs, containing exons 7, 8 and 9 of DPYS, yielded different splicing products after expression in HEK293 cells. The c.1443+5G>A mutation resulted in altered pre-mRNA splicing of the DPYS minigene construct with full skipping of exon 8. Analysis of the DHP crystal structure showed that the deletion of exon 8 severely affects folding, stability and homooligomerization of the enzyme as well as disruption of the catalytic site. Thus, the analysis suggests that the c.1443+5G>A mutation results in aberrant splicing of the pre-mRNA encoding DHP, underlying the DHP deficiency in two unrelated Chinese patients.

  1. Truncating Mutations in the Adhesion G Protein-Coupled Receptor G2 Gene ADGRG2 Cause an X-Linked Congenital Bilateral Absence of Vas Deferens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patat, Olivier; Pagin, Adrien; Siegfried, Aurore; Mitchell, Valérie; Chassaing, Nicolas; Faguer, Stanislas; Monteil, Laetitia; Gaston, Véronique; Bujan, Louis; Courtade-Saïdi, Monique; Marcelli, François; Lalau, Guy; Rigot, Jean-Marc; Mieusset, Roger; Bieth, Eric

    2016-08-04

    In 80% of infertile men with obstructive azoospermia caused by a congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD), mutations are identified in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR). For the remaining 20%, the origin of the CBAVD is unknown. A large cohort of azoospermic men with CBAVD was retrospectively reassessed with more stringent selection criteria based on consistent clinical data, complete description of semen and reproductive excurrent ducts, extensive CFTR testing, and kidney ultrasound examination. To maximize the phenotypic prioritization, men with CBAVD and with unilateral renal agenesis were considered ineligible for the present study. We performed whole-exome sequencing on 12 CFTR-negative men with CBAVD and targeted sequencing on 14 additional individuals. We identified three protein-truncating hemizygous mutations, c.1545dupT (p.Glu516Ter), c.2845delT (p.Cys949AlafsTer81), and c.2002_2006delinsAGA (p.Leu668ArgfsTer21), in ADGRG2, encoding the epididymal- and efferent-ducts-specific adhesion G protein-coupled receptor G2, in four subjects, including two related individuals with X-linked transmission of their infertility. Previous studies have demonstrated that Adgrg2-knockout male mice develop obstructive infertility. Our study confirms the crucial role of ADGRG2 in human male fertility and brings new insight into congenital obstructive azoospermia pathogenesis. In men with CBAVD who are CFTR-negative, ADGRG2 testing could allow for appropriate genetic counseling with regard to the X-linked transmission of the molecular defect.

  2. A temperature-sensitive allele of a putative mRNA splicing helicase down-regulates many cell wall genes and causes radial swelling in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howles, Paul A; Gebbie, Leigh K; Collings, David A; Varsani, Arvind; Broad, Ronan C; Ohms, Stephen; Birch, Rosemary J; Cork, Ann H; Arioli, Tony; Williamson, Richard E

    2016-05-01

    The putative RNA helicase encoded by the Arabidopsis gene At1g32490 is a homolog of the yeast splicing RNA helicases Prp2 and Prp22. We isolated a temperature-sensitive allele (rsw12) of the gene in a screen for root radial swelling mutants. Plants containing this allele grown at the restrictive temperature showed weak radial swelling, were stunted with reduced root elongation, and contained reduced levels of cellulose. The role of the protein was further explored by microarray analysis. By using both fold change cutoffs and a weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) to investigate coexpression of genes, we found that the radial swelling phenotype was not linked to genes usually associated with primary cell wall biosynthesis. Instead, the mutation has strong effects on expression of secondary cell wall related genes. Many genes potentially associated with secondary walls were present in the most significant WGCNA module, as were genes coding for arabinogalactans and proteins with GPI anchors. The proportion of up-regulated genes that possess introns in rsw12 was above that expected if splicing was unrelated to the activity of the RNA helicase, suggesting that the helicase does indeed play a role in splicing in Arabidopsis. The phenotype may be due to a change in the expression of one or more genes coding for cell wall proteins.

  3. Mechanisms of Disease and Clinical Features of Mutations of the Gene for Mitofusin 2: An Important Cause of Hereditary Peripheral Neuropathy with Striking Clinical Variability in Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouvrier, Robert; Grew, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Mitofusin 2, a large transmembrane GTPase located in the outer mitochondrial membrane, promotes membrane fusion and is involved in the maintenance of the morphology of axonal mitochondria. Mutations of the gene encoding mitofusin 2 ("MFN2") have recently been identified as the cause of approximately one-third of dominantly inherited cases of the…

  4. BDE-47 causes developmental retardation with down-regulated expression profiles of ecdysteroid signaling pathway-involved nuclear receptor (NR) genes in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Dae-Sik; Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Jeong, Chang-Bum [Department of Biological Science, College of Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Un-Ki [Marine Ecological Risk Assessment Center, West Sea Fisheries Research Institute, National Fisheries Research & Development Institute, Incheon 46083 (Korea, Republic of); Zhou, Bingsheng [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Choe, Joonho [Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Seong, E-mail: jslee2@skku.edu [Department of Biological Science, College of Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • The developmental rate was significantly inhibited (P < 0.05) in response to BDE-47. • Expression profiles of nearly all NR genes were the highest at naupliar stages 5–6. • USP, HR96, and FTZ-F1 genes showed significant sex differences (P < 0.05) over different developmental stages. • NR gene expression patterns showed significant decreases (P<0.05) in response to BDE-47. • BDE-47 leads to molting and metamorphosis retardation and suppresses transcription of NR genes. - Abstract: 2,2′,4,4′-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) in marine environments. Despite its adverse effects (e.g. developmental retardation) in ecdysozoa, the effects of BDE-47 on transcription of ecdysteroid signaling pathway-involved-nuclear receptor (NR) genes and metamorphosis-related genes have not been examined in copepods. To examine the deleterious effect of BDE-47 on copepod molting and metamorphosis, BDE-47 was exposed to the harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus japonicus, followed by monitoring developmental retardation and transcriptional alteration of NR genes. The developmental rate was significantly inhibited (P < 0.05) in response to BDE-47 and the agricultural insecticide gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane. Conversely, the ecdysteroid agonist ponasterone A (PoA) led to decreased molting and metamorphosis time (P < 0.05) from the nauplius stage to the adult stage. In particular, expression profiles of all NR genes were the highest at naupliar stages 5–6 except for SVP, FTZ-F1, and HR96 genes. Nuclear receptor USP, HR96, and FTZ-F1 genes also showed significant sex differences (P < 0.05) in gene expression levels over different developmental stages, indicating that these genes may be involved in vitellogenesis. NR gene expression patterns showed significant decreases (P < 0.05) in response to BDE-47 exposure, implying that molting and metamorphosis retardation is likely associated with NR gene expression. In summary, BDE-47

  5. What Causes Sickle Cell Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Sickle Cell Disease? Abnormal hemoglobin, called hemoglobin S , causes sickle cell ... way that hemoglobin works. ( See Overview. ) How Is Sickle Cell Disease Inherited? When the hemoglobin S gene is inherited ...

  6. Autosomal recessive hypophosphataemic rickets with hypercalciuria is not caused by mutations in the type II renal sodium/phosphate cotransporter gene.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Koul, K. Op de; Knots, E.; Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Monnens, L.A.H.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At present the genetic defect for autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant hypophosphataemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH) is unknown. Type II sodium/phosphate cotransporter (NPT2) gene is a serious candidate for being the causative gene in either or both autosomal recessive and a

  7. Mutations in the T (brachyury) gene cause a novel syndrome consisting of sacral agenesis, abnormal ossification of the vertebral bodies and a persistent notochordal canal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, A. V.; Alders, M.; Sylva, M.; Bilardo, C. M.; Pajkrt, E.; van Rijn, R. R.; Schulte-Merker, S.; Bulk, S.; Stefanovic, S.; Ilgun, A.; Barnett, P.; Mannens, M. M. A. M.; Moorman, A. F. M.; Oostra, R. J.; van Maarle, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background The T gene (brachyury gene) is the founding member of the T-box family of transcription factors and is vital for the formation and differentiation of the mesoderm and the axial development of all vertebrates. Results We report here on four patients from three consanguineous families exhib

  8. Mutations in the T (brachyury) gene cause a novel syndrome consisting of sacral agenesis, abnormal ossification of the vertebral bodies and a persistent notochordal canal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, A V; Alders, M; Sylva, M; Bilardo, C M; Pajkrt, E; van Rijn, R R; Schulte-Merker, S; Bulk, S; Stefanovic, S; Ilgun, A; Barnett, P; Mannens, M M A M; Moorman, A F M; Oostra, R J; van Maarle, M C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The T gene (brachyury gene) is the founding member of the T-box family of transcription factors and is vital for the formation and differentiation of the mesoderm and the axial development of all vertebrates. RESULTS: We report here on four patients from three consanguineous families exh

  9. Large-scale codon de-optimisation of the p29 replicase gene by synonymous substitutions causes a loss of infectivity of melon necrotic spot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Atsushi; Mochizuki, Tomofumi; Tsuda, Shinya; Ohki, Satoshi T

    2013-09-01

    The effect of synonymous substitutions in the melon necrotic spot virus p29 replicase gene on viral pathogenicity was investigated. The codons in the p29 gene were replaced by the least frequently used synonymous codons in Arabidopsis thaliana or melons. Mechanical inoculation of melon with p29 variants resulted in a loss of viral infectivity when all, one-half, or one-quarter of the gene was de-optimised. The effect of the de-optimisation in one-sixth of the gene was different depending on the de-optimised region. These results demonstrate that large-scale codon bias de-optimisation without amino acid substitutions of the p29 gene alter viral infectivity.

  10. Erythropoietin gene transfer into rat testes by in vivo electropo-ration may reduce the risk of germ cell loss caused by cryptorchidism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masaki Dobashi; Kazumasa Goda; Hiroki Maruyama; Masato Fujisawa

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of rat Erythropoietin (Epo) on spermatogenesis by transferring rat Epo gene into cryptorchid testes by means of in vivo electroporation. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats with surgically-induced unilateral cryptorchidism were divided into three groups: the first group was given intratesticular injections of pCAGGSEpo (pCAGGS-Epo group), the second group was given intratesticular injections of pCAGGS (pCAGGS group), and the third group were given intratesticular injections of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS group). At the same time,square electric pulses of 30 V were applied six times with a time constant of 100 ms. One or two weeks after injection, each testis was weighed and the ratio of the total number of germ cells to that of Sertoli cells (G/S ratio) was calculated to evaluate the impairment of spermatogenesis. Ten testes taken from each of the three groups were examined at each time point. Results: The testicular weight after the injection of pCAGGS-Epo or pCAGGS control plasmid was (0.85 ± 0.08) g and (0.83 ± 0.03) g, respectively, at week 1 (P = 0.788) and (0.62 ± 0.06) g and (0.52± 0.02) g, respectively, at week 2 (P = 0.047). At week 1, spermatids and sperm were more abundant in testes with pCAGGS-Epo than those in the control testes. At week 2, spermatids and sperm were hardly detected in either group.The G/S ratio was 23.27 ± 6,80 vs. 18.63 ± 5.30 at week 1 (P = 0.0078) and 7.16 ± 3.06 vs. 6.05 ± 1.58 at week 2(P = 0.1471), respectively. Conclusion: The transfer of Epo to rat testes by in vivo electroporation may reduce the risk of the germ cell loss caused by cryptorchidism.

  11. Global gene expression profiling of a mouse model of ovarian clear cell carcinoma caused by ARID1A and PIK3CA mutations implicates a role for inflammatory cytokine signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald L. Chandler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian clear-cell carcinoma (OCCC is an aggressive form of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC. OCCC represents 5–25% of all EOC incidences and is the second leading cause of death from ovarian cancer (Glasspool and McNeish, 2013 [1]. A recent publication by Chandler et al. reported the first mouse model of OCCC that resembles human OCCC both genetically and histologically by inducing a localized deletion of ARID1A and the expression of the PIK3CAH1047R substitution mutation (Chandler et al., 2015 [2]. We utilized Affymetrix Mouse Gene 2.1 ST arrays for the global gene expression profiling of mouse primary OCCC tumor samples and animal-matched normal ovaries to identify cancer-dependent gene expression. We describe the approach used to generate the differentially expressed genes from the publicly available data deposited at the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database under the accession number GSE57380. These data were used in cross-species comparisons to publically available human OCCC gene expression data and allowed the identification of coordinately regulated genes in both mouse and human OCCC and supportive of a role for inflammatory cytokine signaling in OCCC pathogenesis (Chandler et al., 2015 [2].

  12. Clinical Features and Genetic Analysis of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex in a Chinese Family Caused by c.2677-2678del Mutation on TSC2 Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Lai-shun; JIANG Hua; QU Xiu-xiu; ZHENG De-quan; WU Xin-yu; LU Wu-sheng

    2016-01-01

    The clinical data of patients from a Chinese family with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) were collected and the gene mutation type of TSC2 of proband in pedigree one was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct genes sequencing. There were 2 cases with TSC in the family, both of whom had facial angioifbromas, one case with ungual ifbromas, the other with mental retardation. The MRI and CT showed multiple intracranial nodules together. What’s more, gene mutation analysis of TSC2 demonstrated the c.2677-2678del mutation in both and the genetic manner deduced with autosomal dominant inheritance.

  13. Delineation of a contiguous gene syndrome with multiple exostoses, enlarged parietal foramina, craniofacial dysostosis, and mental retardation, caused by deletions on the short arm of chromosome 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartsch, O.; Werner, W.; Hinkel, G.K. [Univ. Hospital Dresden (Germany); Van Hul, W.; Willems, P.J. [Univ. of Antwerp (Belgium)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    A contiguous gene syndrome due to deletions of the proximal short arm of chromosome 11 is described in eight patients belonging to four families. The main clinical features are multiple exostoses, enlarged parietal foramina, craniofacial dysostosis, and mental retardation. The patients have cytogenetic and/or molecular deletions of chromosome 11p11-p13. These deletions are located between the centromere and D11S914 in a region of {approximately}20 cM. The present study confirms the presence of a multiple exostoses gene on chromosome 11p. Furthermore, it suggests that the gene for isolated foramina parietalia permagna and genes associated with craniofacial dysostosis and mental retardation reside in the same chromosomal region. 31 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Silencing of Target Chitinase Genes via Oral Delivery of dsRNA Caused Lethal Phenotypic Effects in Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Budao; Bao, Wenhua; Wuriyanghan, Hada

    2017-02-01

    Mythimna separata walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous, migratory corn pest. Outbreak of M. separata has led to severe damage to corn production recently in China. RNAi (RNA interference) is a gene silencing technology applied both in model and non-model organisms, and it is especially useful for the latter in which the reverse genetic research tools are not available. RNAi approach was broadly investigated in many plant pathogens and was used for the generation of anti-pest transgenic plants. We are proposing to use this technology to silence M. separata endogenous genes, thereby, providing a biocontrol method for this insect. Feeding of dsRNAs for target Chitinase genes resulted in substantial decreases of their transcript levels in M. separata. Furthermore, silencing of target Chitinase genes led to phenotypic effects such as reduced body weight and increased mortality. Our study provided both reverse genetic research tool and potential control strategy for this insect species.

  15. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from a symptomatic carrier of a S305I mutation in the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT)-gene causing frontotemporal dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nimsanor, Natakarn; Jørring, Ida; Rasmussen, Mikkel A.

    2016-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17q21.2 (FTDP-17) is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder. Mutations in the gene coding the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) can cause FTDP-17 but the underlying mechanisms of the disease are still unknown. Induce...... pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great promise to model FTDP-17 as such cells can be differentiated in vitro to the required neuronal cell type. Here, we report the generation of iPSCs from a 44-year-old symptomatic woman carrying a S305I mutation in the MAPT-gene....

  16. Maternal exposure to a Western‐style diet causes differences in intestinal microbiota composition and gene expression of suckling mouse pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischke, Mona; Lute, Carolien; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Lendvai, Agnes; Pruis, Maurien G. M.; Verkade, Henkjan J.; van de Heijning, Bert J. M.; Boekhorst, Jos; Timmerman, Harro M.; Plösch, Torsten; Müller, Michael; Hooiveld, Guido J. E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Scope The long‐lasting consequences of nutritional programming during the early phase of life have become increasingly evident. The effects of maternal nutrition on the developing intestine are still underexplored. Methods and results In this study, we observed (1) altered microbiota composition of the colonic luminal content, and (2) differential gene expression in the intestinal wall in 2‐week‐old mouse pups born from dams exposed to a Western‐style (WS) diet during the perinatal period. A sexually dimorphic effect was found for the differentially expressed genes in the offspring of WS diet‐exposed dams but no differences between male and female pups were found for the microbiota composition. Integrative analysis of the microbiota and gene expression data revealed that the maternal WS diet independently affected gene expression and microbiota composition. However, the abundance of bacterial families not affected by the WS diet (Bacteroidaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, and Lachnospiraceae) correlated with the expression of genes playing a key role in intestinal development and functioning (e.g. Pitx2 and Ace2). Conclusion Our data reveal that maternal consumption of a WS diet during the perinatal period alters both gene expression and microbiota composition in the intestinal tract of 2‐week‐old offspring. PMID:27129739

  17. Prevalence of Gene Rearrangements in Mexican Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Population Study—Report from the Mexican Interinstitutional Group for the Identification of the Causes of Childhood Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Carolina Bekker-Méndez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mexico has one of the highest incidences of childhood leukemia worldwide and significantly higher mortality rates for this disease compared with other countries. One possible cause is the high prevalence of gene rearrangements associated with the etiology or with a poor prognosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. The aims of this multicenter study were to determine the prevalence of the four most common gene rearrangements [ETV6-RUNX1, TCF3-PBX1, BCR-ABL1, and MLL rearrangements] and to explore their relationship with mortality rates during the first year of treatment in ALL children from Mexico City. Patients were recruited from eight public hospitals during 2010–2012. A total of 282 bone marrow samples were obtained at each child’s diagnosis for screening by conventional and multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to determine the gene rearrangements. Gene rearrangements were detected in 50 (17.7% patients. ETV6-RUNX1 was detected in 21 (7.4% patients, TCF3-PBX1 in 20 (7.1% patients, BCR-ABL1 in 5 (1.8% patients, and MLL rearrangements in 4 (1.4% patients. The earliest deaths occurred at months 1, 2, and 3 after diagnosis in patients with MLL, ETV6-RUNX1, and BCR-ABL1 gene rearrangements, respectively. Gene rearrangements could be related to the aggressiveness of leukemia observed in Mexican children.

  18. Prevalence of Gene Rearrangements in Mexican Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Population Study—Report from the Mexican Interinstitutional Group for the Identification of the Causes of Childhood Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker-Méndez, Vilma Carolina; Miranda-Peralta, Enrique; Núñez-Enríquez, Juan Carlos; Olarte-Carrillo, Irma; Guerra-Castillo, Francisco Xavier; Pompa-Mera, Ericka Nelly; Ocaña-Mondragón, Alicia; Bernáldez-Ríos, Roberto; Medina-Sanson, Aurora; Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Amador-Sánchez, Raquel; Peñaloza-González, José Gabriel; de Diego Flores-Chapa, José; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo; Flores-Lujano, Janet; Rodríguez-Zepeda, María del Carmen; Dorantes-Acosta, Elisa María; Bolea-Murga, Victoria; Núñez-Villegas, Nancy; Velázquez-Aviña, Martha Margarita; Torres-Nava, José Refugio; Reyes-Zepeda, Nancy Carolina; González-Bonilla, Cesar; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Mexico has one of the highest incidences of childhood leukemia worldwide and significantly higher mortality rates for this disease compared with other countries. One possible cause is the high prevalence of gene rearrangements associated with the etiology or with a poor prognosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The aims of this multicenter study were to determine the prevalence of the four most common gene rearrangements [ETV6-RUNX1, TCF3-PBX1, BCR-ABL1, and MLL rearrangements] and to explore their relationship with mortality rates during the first year of treatment in ALL children from Mexico City. Patients were recruited from eight public hospitals during 2010–2012. A total of 282 bone marrow samples were obtained at each child's diagnosis for screening by conventional and multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to determine the gene rearrangements. Gene rearrangements were detected in 50 (17.7%) patients. ETV6-RUNX1 was detected in 21 (7.4%) patients, TCF3-PBX1 in 20 (7.1%) patients, BCR-ABL1 in 5 (1.8%) patients, and MLL rearrangements in 4 (1.4%) patients. The earliest deaths occurred at months 1, 2, and 3 after diagnosis in patients with MLL, ETV6-RUNX1, and BCR-ABL1 gene rearrangements, respectively. Gene rearrangements could be related to the aggressiveness of leukemia observed in Mexican children. PMID:25692130

  19. A low-pungency S3212 genotype of Capsicum frutescens caused by a mutation in the putative aminotransferase (p-AMT) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Jun; Nishikawa, Tomotaro; Minami, Mineo; Nemoto, Kazuhiro; Iwasaki, Tomohiro; Matsushima, Kenichi

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the genetic mechanism underlying capsinoid biosynthesis in S3212, a low-pungency genotype of Capsicum frutescens. Screening of C. frutescens accessions for capsaicinoid and capsiate contents by high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that low-pungency S3212 contained high levels of capsiate but no capsaicin. Comparison of DNA coding sequences of pungent (T1 and Bird Eye) and low-pungency (S3212) genotypes uncovered a significant 12-bp deletion mutation in exon 7 of the p-AMT gene of S3212. In addition, p-AMT gene transcript levels in placental tissue were positively correlated with the degree of pungency. S3212, the low-pungency genotype, exhibited no significant p-AMT transcript levels, whereas T1, one of the pungent genotypes, displayed high transcript levels of this gene. We therefore conclude that the deletion mutation in the p-AMT gene is related to the loss of pungency in placental tissue and has given rise to the low-pungency S3212 C. frutescens genotype. C. frutescens S3212 represents a good natural source of capsinoids. Finally, our basic characterization of the uncovered p-AMT gene mutation should contribute to future studies of capsinoid biosynthesis in Capsicum.

  20. Overexpression of a tobacco small G protein gene NtRop1 causes salt sensitivity and hydrogen peroxide production in transgenic plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO YangRong; LI ZhiGang; CHEN Tao; ZHANG ZhiGang; ZHANG JinSong; CHEN ShouYi

    2008-01-01

    The small GTPases of Rop/Rho family is central regulators of important cellular processes in plants.Tobacco small G protein gene NtRop1 has been isolated; however, its roles in stress responses were unknown. In the present study, the genomic sequence of NtRop1 was cloned, which has seven exons and six introns, similar to the Rop gene structure from Arabidopsis. The NtRopl gene was constitutively expressed in the different organs whereas the other six Rop genes from tobacco had differential expression patterns. The expression of the NtRop1 gene was moderately induced by methyl viologen,NaCl, and ACC treatments, but slightly inhibited by ABA treatment, with no significant induction by NAA treatment. The trsnsgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing the NtRop1 showed increased salt sensitivity as can be seen from the reduced root growth and elevated relative electrolyte leakage. The hydrogen peroxide production was also promoted in the NtRop1-trangenic plants in comparison with wild type plants. These results imply that the NtRopl may confer salt sensitivity through activation of H2O2 production during plant response to salt stress.

  1. Overexpression of a tobacco small G protein gene NtRop1 causes salt sensitivity and hydrogen peroxide production in transgenic plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The small GTPases of Rop/Rho family is central regulators of important cellular processes in plants. Tobacco small G protein gene NtRop1 has been isolated; however, its roles in stress responses were unknown. In the present study, the genomic sequence of NtRop1 was cloned, which has seven exons and six introns, similar to the Rop gene structure from Arabidopsis. The NtRop1 gene was constitutively expressed in the different organs whereas the other six Rop genes from tobacco had differential expression patterns. The expression of the NtRop1 gene was moderately induced by methyl viologen, NaCl, and ACC treatments, but slightly inhibited by ABA treatment, with no significant induction by NAA treatment. The transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing the NtRop1 showed increased salt sensitivity as can be seen from the reduced root growth and elevated relative electrolyte leakage. The hydrogen peroxide production was also promoted in the NtRop1-trangenic plants in comparison with wild type plants. These results imply that the NtRop1 may confer salt sensitivity through activation of H2O2 production during plant response to salt stress.

  2. Generation of an isogenic, gene-corrected iPSC line from a symptomatic 57-year-old female patient with frontotemporal dementia caused by a P301L mutation in the microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT) gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nimsanor, Natakarn; Kitiyanant, Narisorn; Poulsen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great promise to model FTDP-17 as such cells can be differentiated in vitro to the required cell type. Furthermore, gene-editing approaches allow generating isogenic gene-corrected controls that can be used as a very specific control. Here, we report the generation...

  3. Generation of an isogenic, gene-corrected iPSC line from a symptomatic 59-year-old female patient with frontotemporal dementia caused by an R406W mutation in the microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT) gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nimsanor, Natakarn; Poulsen, Ulla; Rasmussen, Mikkel A.

    2016-01-01

    pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great promise to model FTDP-17 as such cells can be differentiated in vitro to the required cell type. Furthermore, gene-editing approaches allow generating isogenic gene-corrected controls that can be used as a very specific control. Here, we report the generation...

  4. T-Cell Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms and Vitamin D Pathway Gene Polymorphisms in End-Stage Renal Disease due to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Nephropathy: Comparisons with Health Status and Other Main Causes of End-Stage Renal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja E. Grzegorzewska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. T-cell cytokine gene polymorphisms and vitamin D pathway gene polymorphisms were evaluated as possibly associated with end-stage renal disease (ESRD resulting from type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM nephropathy. Methods. Studies were conducted among hemodialysis (HD patients with ESRD due to type 2 DM nephropathy, chronic glomerulonephritis, chronic infective tubulointerstitial nephritis, and hypertensive nephropathy as well as in healthy subjects. A frequency distribution of T-cell-related interleukin (IL genes (IL18 rs360719, IL12A rs568408, IL12B rs3212227, IL4R rs1805015, IL13 rs20541, IL28B rs8099917, IL28B, and rs12979860 and vitamin D pathway genes (GC genes: rs2298849, rs7041, and rs1155563; VDR genes: rs2228570, rs1544410; and RXRA genes: rs10776909, rs10881578, and rs749759 was compared between groups. Results. No significant differences in a frequency distribution of tested polymorphisms were shown between type 2 DM nephropathy patients and controls. A difference was found in IL18 rs360719 polymorphic distribution between the former group and chronic infective tubulointerstitial nephritic patients (Ptrend=0.033, which also differed in this polymorphism from controls (Ptrend=0.005. Conclusion. T-cell cytokine and vitamin D pathway gene polymorphisms are not associated with ESRD due to type 2 DM nephropathy in Polish HD patients. IL18 rs360719 is probably associated with the pathogenesis of chronic infective tubulointerstitial nephritis.

  5. False-positive rifampicin resistance on Xpert® MTB/RIF caused by a silent mutation in the rpoB gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathys, V; van de Vyvere, M; de Droogh, E; Soetaert, K; Groenen, G

    2014-10-01

    The Xpert® MTB/RIF assay detects the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its resistance to rifampicin (RMP) directly in sputum samples. Discrepant results were observed in a case of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis that was Xpert-resistant but phenotypically susceptible to RMP. Complementary investigations (repeat Xpert, Genotype®MTBDRplus assay and sequencing of the rpoB gene) revealed the presence of a silent mutation in the rpoB gene, leading to the conclusion of a false-positive Xpert result. As misinterpretation of Xpert results may lead to inappropriate treatment, the presence of rpoB mutations should be confirmed by sequencing the rpoB gene.

  6. Genes that encodes NAGT, MIF1 and MIF2 are not virulence factors for kala-azar caused by Leishmania infantum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Guedes Alcoforado Aguiar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Kala-azar is a disease resulting from infection by Leishmania donovani and Leishmania infantum. Most patients with the disease exhibit prolonged fever, wasting, anemia and hepatosplenomegaly without complications. However, some patients develop severe disease with hemorrhagic manifestations, bacterial infections, jaundice, and edema dyspnea, among other symptoms, followed by death. Among the parasite molecules that might influence the disease severity are the macrophage migration inhibitory factor-like proteins (MIF1 and MIF2 and N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase (NAGT, which act in the first step of protein N-glycosylation. This study aimed to determine whether MIF1, MIF2 and NAGT are virulence factors for severe kala-azar. Methods To determine the parasite genotype in kala-azar patients from Northeastern Brazil, we sequenced the NAGT genes of L. infantum from 68 patients as well as the MIF1 and MIF2 genes from 76 different subjects with diverse clinical manifestations. After polymerase chain reaction (PCR, the fragments were sequenced, followed by polymorphism identification. Results The nucleotide sequencing of the 144 amplicons revealed the absence of genetic variability of the NAGT, MIF1 and MIF2 genes between the isolates. The conservation of these genes suggests that the clinical variability of kala-azar does not depend upon these genes. Additionally, this conservation suggests that these genes may be critical for parasite survival. Conclusions NAGT, MIF1 and MIF2 do not alter the severity of kala-azar. NAGT, MIF1 and MIF2 are highly conserved among different isolates of identical species and exhibit potential for use in phylogenetic inferences or molecular diagnosis.

  7. Study of Antibiotic Resistance Pattern and Mutation in Genes gyrA and parC of Escherichia Coli Causing Urinary Tract Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Faghri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Fluoroquinolones are essential antimicrobial agents used to treat UTIs. Clinical experiences have shown a high rate of antibiotic resistance among uropatho-gens. These resistance are usually the consequence of mutations involving genes encoding gyrA and parC. The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial resistance pattern and the presence of mutations in regions that code for quinolone resistance in the genes gyrA and parC in clinical isolates of E. coli from a hospital in Isfahan, Iran. Materials & Methods: A total of 135 isolates of E.coli (from urine were collected from Sep-tember to February 2013 from Alzahra Hospital (Isfahan, Iran. Bacterial susceptibility to an-timicrobial agents was determined using disk diffusion method. PCR was performed to detect genes gyrA and parC. Then, 13 isolates were randomly chosen for genetic characterization of the quinolone-determining region (QRDR of the parC and gyrA genes. Results: Among 135 E. coli isolates, 61 isolates ( 45 % were resistant to fluoroquinolones. From 13 isolates, 11 isolates showed two mutations (Ser83Leu/ Asp87Asn and 2 isolates showed a single mutation (Ser83Leu in gyrA gene. Also, five different mutations were de-tected in parC gene in the E. coli isolates, encoding Ser80Ile, Ser80Val, Ser80Arg, Glu84Val, Gly78Ser. Conclusion: More research on the molecular basis of FQ resistance is required to develop new therapeutic strategies for FQ-resistant E. coli. To overcome antibiotic resistance antibiotic therapy should be limited and based on the susceptibility patterns of microorganisms. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2016; 23 (2:118-125

  8. MAPK signaling pathway alters expression of midgut ALP and ABCC genes and causes resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin in diamondback moth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaojiang Guo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Insecticidal crystal toxins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt are widely used as biopesticide sprays or expressed in transgenic crops to control insect pests. However, large-scale use of Bt has led to field-evolved resistance in several lepidopteran pests. Resistance to Bt Cry1Ac toxin in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L., was previously mapped to a multigenic resistance locus (BtR-1. Here, we assembled the 3.15 Mb BtR-1 locus and found high-level resistance to Cry1Ac and Bt biopesticide in four independent P. xylostella strains were all associated with differential expression of a midgut membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (ALP outside this locus and a suite of ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily C (ABCC genes inside this locus. The interplay between these resistance genes is controlled by a previously uncharacterized trans-regulatory mechanism via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway. Molecular, biochemical, and functional analyses have established ALP as a functional Cry1Ac receptor. Phenotypic association experiments revealed that the recessive Cry1Ac resistance was tightly linked to down-regulation of ALP, ABCC2 and ABCC3, whereas it was not linked to up-regulation of ABCC1. Silencing of ABCC2 and ABCC3 in susceptible larvae reduced their susceptibility to Cry1Ac but did not affect the expression of ALP, whereas suppression of MAP4K4, a constitutively transcriptionally-activated MAPK upstream gene within the BtR-1 locus, led to a transient recovery of gene expression thereby restoring the susceptibility in resistant larvae. These results highlight a crucial role for ALP and ABCC genes in field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac and reveal a novel trans-regulatory signaling mechanism responsible for modulating the expression of these pivotal genes in P. xylostella.

  9. A novel mutation in the β-spectrin gene causes the activation of a cryptic 5'-splice site and the creation of a de novo 3'-splice site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Pilar Carrasco; Rosales, José Miguel Lezana; Milla, Carmen Palma; Montiel, Javier López; Siles, Juan López

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of genes involved in hereditary spherocytosis, by next-generation sequencing in two patients with clinical diagnosis of the disease, showed the presence of the c.1795+1G>A mutation in the SPTB gene. cDNA amplification then revealed the occurrence of a consequent aberrant mRNA isoform produced from the activation of a cryptic 5'-splice site and the creation of a newly 3'-splice site. The mechanisms by which these two splice sites are used as a result of the same mutation should be analyzed in depth in further studies.

  10. Maternal immune stimulation reduces both placental morphologic damage and down-regulated placental growth-factor and cell cycle gene expression caused by urethane: are these events related to reduced teratogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharova, L V; Sharov, A A; Sura, P; Gogal, R M; Smith, B J; Holladay, S D

    2003-07-01

    Activation of the maternal immune system in mice decreased cleft palate caused by the chemical teratogen, urethane. Direct and indirect mechanisms for this phenomenon have been suggested, including maternal macrophages that cross the placenta to find and eliminate pre-teratogenic cells, or maternal immune proteins (cytokines) that cross placenta to alleviate or partially alleviate toxicant-mediated effects in the developing fetus. A third mechanism to explain improved fetal developmental outcome in teratogen-challenged pregnant mice might involve beneficial effects of immune stimulation on the placenta. In the present experiments, urethane treatment altered placental morphology and impaired placental function, the latter indicated by down-regulated activity of cell cycle genes and of genes encoding cytokines and growth factors. Maternal immune stimulation with either Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) or interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) reduced morphologic damage to the placenta caused by urethane and normalized expression of several genes that were down-regulated by urethane. Urethane treatment also shifted placental cytokine gene expression toward a T cell helper 1 (Th1) profile, while immunostimulation tended to restore a Th2 profile that may be more beneficial to pregnancy and fetal development. These data suggest that the beneficial effects of maternal immune stimulation on fetal development in teratogen-exposed mice may, in part, result from improved placental structure and function.

  11. Single amino acid mutation in an ATP-binding cassette transporter gene causes resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ab in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsumi, Shogo; Miyamoto, Kazuhisa; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Narukawa, Junko; Kawai, Sawako; Sezutsu, Hideki; Kobayashi, Isao; Uchino, Keiro; Tamura, Toshiki; Mita, Kazuei; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko; Wada, Sanae; Kanda, Kohzo; Goldsmith, Marian R; Noda, Hiroaki

    2012-06-19

    Bt toxins derived from the arthropod bacterial pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis are widely used for insect control as insecticides or in transgenic crops. Bt resistance has been found in field populations of several lepidopteran pests and in laboratory strains selected with Bt toxin. Widespread planting of crops expressing Bt toxins has raised concerns about the potential increase of resistance mutations in targeted insects. By using Bombyx mori as a model, we identified a candidate gene for a recessive form of resistance to Cry1Ab toxin on chromosome 15 by positional cloning. BGIBMGA007792-93, which encodes an ATP-binding cassette transporter similar to human multidrug resistance protein 4 and orthologous to genes associated with recessive resistance to Cry1Ac in Heliothis virescens and two other lepidopteran species, was expressed in the midgut. Sequences of 10 susceptible and seven resistant silkworm strains revealed a common tyrosine insertion in an outer loop of the predicted transmembrane structure of resistant alleles. We confirmed the role of this ATP-binding cassette transporter gene in Bt resistance by converting a resistant silkworm strain into a susceptible one by using germline transformation. This study represents a direct demonstration of Bt resistance gene function in insects with the use of transgenesis.

  12. Translation-coupled violation of Parity Rule 2 in human genes is not the cause of heterogeneity of the DNA G+C content of third codon position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueoka, N

    1999-09-30

    The genome of higher eukaryotes consists of genes having a widely heterogeneous base composition at the third codon position. Ubiquitous variability of the DNA base composition has the following two aspects: intragenomic heterogeneity of the G+C content and the amino-acid-specific translation-coupled biases from the Parity Rule 2 (PR2). PR2 is an intrastrand rule where A = T and G = C are expected if there is no bias in mutation and selection between the two complementary strands of DNA. To examine whether or not the biases from PR2 are responsible for the wide heterogeneity of the DNA G+C content in human, the third codon position of 846 human genes was analyzed. Genes were separated into six groups according to their G+C content of the third codon position, and each group was examined for the translation-coupled PR2 biases in the nucleotide composition of the third codon position for two- and four-codon amino acids. The results show that genes in the different G+C content groups have similar PR2 biases, indicating that the intragenomic heterogeneity of the G+C content is not correlated with translation-coupled biases from the PR2. Therefore, the heterogeneity of the G+C content is likely to be determined by some other mechanism (e.g. locally variable directional mutation pressures) than amino-acid-specific selections for the codon preference.

  13. Association of single nucleotide polymorphic sites in candidate genes with aggressiveness and deoxynivalenol production in Fusarium graminearum causing wheat head blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talas Firas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto (s.s. is an ubiquitous pathogen of cereals. The economic impact of Fusarium head blight (FHB is characterized by crop losses and mycotoxin contamination. Our objective was to associate SNP diversity within candidate genes with phenotypic traits. A total of 77 F. graminearum s.s. isolates was tested for severity of fungal infection (= aggressiveness and deoxynivalenol (DON production in an inoculated field experiment at two locations in each of two years. For seven genes known to control fungal growth (MetAP1, Erf2 or DON production (TRI1, TRI5, TRI6 TRI10 and TRI14 single nucleotides polymorphic sites (SNPs were determined and evaluated for the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD. Associations of SNPs with both phenotypic traits were tested using linear mixed models. Results Decay of LD was in most instances fast. Two neighboring SNPs in MetAP1 and one SNP in Erf2 were significantly (P pG of 25.6%, 0.5%, and 13.1%, respectively. One SNP in TRI1 was significantly associated with DON production (pG = 4.4. Conclusions We argue that using the published sequence information of Fusarium graminearum as a template to amplify comparative sequence parts of candidate genes is an effective method to detect quantitative trait loci. Our findings underline the potential of candidate gene association mapping approaches to identify functional SNPs underlying aggressiveness and DON production for F. graminearum s.s populations.

  14. Silent exonic mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene that cause familial hypercholesterolemia by affecting mRNA splicing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Defesche, J.C.; Schuurman, E.J.M.; Klaaijsen, L.N.; Khoo, K.L.; Wiegman, A.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    2008-01-01

    In a large group of patients with the clinical phenotype of familial hypercholesterolemia, such as elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and premature atherosclerosis, but without functional mutations in the genes coding for the LDL receptor and apolipoprotein B, we examined the effect

  15. Detection of gene expression changes in Capsicum annuum L. leaf foliar blight caused by Phytophthora capsici Leon. using qRT-PCR and leaf discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora capsici is responsible for multiple disease syndromes of Capsicum annuum but the resistance mechanism is still unknown. Evaluating gene expression during foliar blight can be used to identify expression patterns associated with resistance in Capsicum species. This study reports a direct...

  16. Identification of a novel gene (HSN2) causing hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II through the Study of Canadian Genetic Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafreniere, Ronald G; MacDonald, Marcia L E; Dube, Marie-Pierre; MacFarlane, Julie; O'Driscoll, Mary; Brais, Bernard; Meilleur, Sebastien; Brinkman, Ryan R; Dadivas, Owen; Pape, Terry; Platon, Christele; Radomski, Chris; Risler, Jenni; Thompson, Jay; Guerra-Escobio, Ana-Maria; Davar, Gudarz; Breakefield, Xandra O; Pimstone, Simon N; Green, Roger; Pryse-Phillips, William; Goldberg, Y Paul; Younghusband, H Banfield; Hayden, Michael R; Sherrington, Robin; Rouleau, Guy A; Samuels, Mark E

    2004-05-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN) type II is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impairment of pain, temperature, and touch sensation owing to reduction or absence of peripheral sensory neurons. We identified two large pedigrees segregating the disorder in an isolated population living in Newfoundland and performed a 5-cM genome scan. Linkage analysis identified a locus mapping to 12p13.33 with a maximum LOD score of 8.4. Haplotype sharing defined a candidate interval of 1.06 Mb containing all or part of seven annotated genes, sequencing of which failed to detect causative mutations. Comparative genomics revealed a conserved ORF corresponding to a novel gene in which we found three different truncating mutations among five families including patients from rural Quebec and Nova Scotia. This gene, termed "HSN2," consists of a single exon located within intron 8 of the PRKWNK1 gene and is transcribed from the same strand. The HSN2 protein may play a role in the development and/or maintenance of peripheral sensory neurons or their supporting Schwann cells.

  17. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Distribution of TEM and CTX-M Genes among ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Causing Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Alavi-Naini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs have been observed in nearly all the species of family Enterobacteriaceae. The enzymes are plasmid mediated and are derived from broad-spectrum beta lactamase TEM and CTX- M by a limited number of mutations. This study was undertaken to characterize ESBL producers among Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by PCR, which were initially screened by phenotypic method. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate 180 strains (30 K. pneumoniae and 150 P. aeruginosa isolated from urine culture of hospitalized patients (Amir Al-Momenin Hospital, Zabol, south-eastern Iran suffered from urinary tract infections during a period of six months. The prevalence of ESBL producing K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa was evaluated by disk diffusion test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR by detecting TEM and CTX-M gene. Results: The results of the study revealed that the prevalence of ESBL producing P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae by disk diffusion test was 13.3% for P. aeruginosa and 66.6% for K. pneumoniae. Seventy five percent and 65% of K. pneumoniae harboured the gene TEM and CTX-M, respectively. Forty five percent of P. aeruginosa isolates harboured the gene TEM but none of them demonstrated the gene CTX-M using PCR method. Conclusion: ESBL producing P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae isolates showed a high prevalence in this study. Therefore it seems that continuous surveillance is essential to monitor the ESBLs producing microorganisms in hospitals and community

  18. The p.Ala510Val mutation in the SPG7 (paraplegin) gene is the most common mutation causing adult onset neurogenetic disease in patients of British ancestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roxburgh, R.H.; Marquis-Nicholson, R.; Ashton, F.; George, A.M.; Lea, R.A.; Eccles, D.; Mossman, S.; Bird, T.; Gassen, K.L.I. van; Kamsteeg, E.J.; Love, D.R.

    2013-01-01

    The c.1529C >T change in the SPG7 gene, encoding the mutant p.Ala510Val paraplegin protein, was first described as a polymorphism in 1998. This was based on its frequency of 3 % and 4 % in two separate surveys of controls in the United Kingdom (UK) population. Subsequently, it has been found to c

  19. Liver tumor formation by a mutant retinoblastoma protein in the transgenic mice is caused by an upregulation of c-Myc target genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bo; Hikosaka, Keisuke; Sultana, Nishat; Sharkar, Mohammad Tofael Kabir [Department of Biochemistry, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handa-yama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Noritake, Hidenao [Department of Biochemistry, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handa-yama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Department of Internal Medicine, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handa-yama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Kimura, Wataru; Wu, Yi-Xin [Department of Biochemistry, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handa-yama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Kobayashi, Yoshimasa [Department of Internal Medicine, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handa-yama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Uezato, Tadayoshi [Department of Biochemistry, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handa-yama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Miura, Naoyuki, E-mail: nmiura@hama-med.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handa-yama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fifty percent of the mutant Rb transgenic mice produced liver tumors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the tumor, Foxm1, Skp2, Bmi1 and AP-1 mRNAs were up-regulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No increase in expression of the Myc-target genes was observed in the non-tumorous liver. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tumor formation depends on up-regulation of the Myc-target genes. -- Abstract: The retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor encodes a nuclear phosphoprotein that regulates cellular proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. In order to adapt itself to these biological functions, Rb is subjected to modification cycle, phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. To directly determine the effect of phosphorylation-resistant Rb on liver development and function, we generated transgenic mice expressing phosphorylation-resistant human mutant Rb (mt-Rb) under the control of the rat hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 gene promoter/enhancer. Expression of mt-Rb in the liver resulted in macroscopic neoplastic nodules (adenomas) with {approx}50% incidence within 15 months old. Interestingly, quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis showed that c-Myc was up-regulated in the liver of mt-Rb transgenic mice irrespective of having tumor tissues or no tumor. In tumor tissues, several c-Myc target genes, Foxm1, c-Jun, c-Fos, Bmi1 and Skp2, were also up-regulated dramatically. We determined whether mt-Rb activated the Myc promoter in the HTP9 cells and demonstrated that mt-Rb acted as an inhibitor of wild-type Rb-induced repression on the Myc promoter. Our results suggest that continued upregulation of c-Myc target genes promotes the liver tumor formation after about 1 year of age.

  20. A "White" Anthocyanin-less Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Caused by an Insertion in the Coding Region of the Leucoanthocyanidin Dioxygenase (LDOX; ANS) Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Simhon, Zohar; Judeinstein, Sylvie; Trainin, Taly; Harel-Beja, Rotem; Bar-Ya'akov, Irit; Borochov-Neori, Hamutal; Holland, Doron

    2015-01-01

    Color is an important determinant of pomegranate fruit quality and commercial value. To understand the genetic factors controlling color in pomegranate, chemical, molecular and genetic characterization of a "white" pomegranate was performed. This unique accession is lacking the typical pomegranate color rendered by anthocyanins in all tissues of the plant, including flowers, fruit (skin and arils) and leaves. Steady-state gene-expression analysis indicated that none of the analyzed "white" pomegranate tissues are able to synthesize mRNA corresponding to the PgLDOX gene (leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase, also called ANS, anthocyanidin synthase), which is one of the central structural genes in the anthocyanin-biosynthesis pathway. HPLC analysis revealed that none of the "white" pomegranate tissues accumulate anthocyanins, whereas other flavonoids, corresponding to biochemical reactions upstream of LDOX, were present. Molecular analysis of the "white" pomegranate revealed the presence of an insertion and an SNP within the coding region of PgLDOX. It was found that the SNP does not change amino acid sequence and is not fully linked with the "white" phenotype in all pomegranate accessions from the collection. On the other hand, genotyping of pomegranate accessions from the collection and segregating populations for the "white" phenotype demonstrated its complete linkage with the insertion, inherited as a recessive single-gene trait. Taken together, the results indicate that the insertion in PgLDOX is responsible for the "white" anthocyanin-less phenotype. These data provide the first direct molecular, genetic and chemical evidence for the effect of a natural modification in the LDOX gene on color accumulation in a fruit-bearing woody perennial deciduous tree. This modification can be further utilized to elucidate the physiological role of anthocyanins in protecting the tree organs from harmful environmental conditions, such as temperature and UV radiation.

  1. A "White" Anthocyanin-less Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. Caused by an Insertion in the Coding Region of the Leucoanthocyanidin Dioxygenase (LDOX; ANS Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohar Ben-Simhon

    Full Text Available Color is an important determinant of pomegranate fruit quality and commercial value. To understand the genetic factors controlling color in pomegranate, chemical, molecular and genetic characterization of a "white" pomegranate was performed. This unique accession is lacking the typical pomegranate color rendered by anthocyanins in all tissues of the plant, including flowers, fruit (skin and arils and leaves. Steady-state gene-expression analysis indicated that none of the analyzed "white" pomegranate tissues are able to synthesize mRNA corresponding to the PgLDOX gene (leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase, also called ANS, anthocyanidin synthase, which is one of the central structural genes in the anthocyanin-biosynthesis pathway. HPLC analysis revealed that none of the "white" pomegranate tissues accumulate anthocyanins, whereas other flavonoids, corresponding to biochemical reactions upstream of LDOX, were present. Molecular analysis of the "white" pomegranate revealed the presence of an insertion and an SNP within the coding region of PgLDOX. It was found that the SNP does not change amino acid sequence and is not fully linked with the "white" phenotype in all pomegranate accessions from the collection. On the other hand, genotyping of pomegranate accessions from the collection and segregating populations for the "white" phenotype demonstrated its complete linkage with the insertion, inherited as a recessive single-gene trait. Taken together, the results indicate that the insertion in PgLDOX is responsible for the "white" anthocyanin-less phenotype. These data provide the first direct molecular, genetic and chemical evidence for the effect of a natural modification in the LDOX gene on color accumulation in a fruit-bearing woody perennial deciduous tree. This modification can be further utilized to elucidate the physiological role of anthocyanins in protecting the tree organs from harmful environmental conditions, such as temperature and UV

  2. Splice-site mutations cause Rrp6-mediated nuclear retention of the unspliced RNAs and transcriptional down-regulation of the splicing-defective genes.

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    Andrea B Eberle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eukaryotic cells have developed surveillance mechanisms to prevent the expression of aberrant transcripts. An early surveillance checkpoint acts at the transcription site and prevents the release of mRNAs that carry processing defects. The exosome subunit Rrp6 is required for this checkpoint in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but it is not known whether Rrp6 also plays a role in mRNA surveillance in higher eukaryotes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed an in vivo system to study nuclear mRNA surveillance in Drosophila melanogaster. We have produced S2 cells that express a human beta-globin gene with mutated splice sites in intron 2 (mut beta-globin. The transcripts encoded by the mut beta-globin gene are normally spliced at intron 1 but retain intron 2. The levels of the mut beta-globin transcripts are much lower than those of wild type (wt ss-globin mRNAs transcribed from the same promoter. We have compared the expression of the mut and wt beta-globin genes to investigate the mechanisms that down-regulate the production of defective mRNAs. Both wt and mut beta-globin transcripts are processed at the 3', but the mut beta-globin transcripts are less efficiently cleaved than the wt transcripts. Moreover, the mut beta-globin transcripts are less efficiently released from the transcription site, as shown by FISH, and this defect is restored by depletion of Rrp6 by RNAi. Furthermore, transcription of the mut beta-globin gene is significantly impaired as revealed by ChIP experiments that measure the association of the RNA polymerase II with the transcribed genes. We have also shown that the mut beta-globin gene shows reduced levels of H3K4me3. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that there are at least two surveillance responses that operate cotranscriptionally in insect cells and probably in all metazoans. One response requires Rrp6 and results in the inefficient release of defective mRNAs from the transcription site. The

  3. Partial deletion of eNOS gene causes hyperinsulinemic state, unbalance of cardiac insulin signaling pathways and coronary dysfunction independently of high fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Vecoli

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in eNOS gene, possibly interacting with high fat diet (HFD, affect peripheral vascular function and glucose metabolism. The relative role of eNOS gene, HFD and metabolic derangement on coronary function has not been fully elucidated. We test whether eNOS gene deficiency per se or in association with HFD modulates coronary function through mechanisms involving molecular pathways related to insulin signaling. Wild type (WT, eNOS-/- and eNOS+/- mice were studied. WT and eNOS+/- mice were fed with either standard or HF diet for 16 weeks and compared with standard diet fed eNOS-/-. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed during the last week of diet. Coronary resistance (CR was measured at baseline and during infusions of acetylcholine (Ach or sodium-nitroprusside (SNP to evaluate endothelium-dependent or independent vasodilation, in the Langendorff isolated hearts. Cardiac expression of Akt and ERK genes as evaluation of two major insulin-regulated signaling pathways involved in the control of vascular tone were assessed by western blot. HFD-fed mice developed an overt diabetic state. Conversely, chow-fed genetically modified mice (in particular eNOS-/- showed a metabolic pattern characterized by normoglycemia and hyperinsulinemia with a limited degree of insulin resistance. CR was significantly higher in animals with eNOS gene deletions than in WT, independently of diet. Percent decrease in CR, during Ach infusion, was significantly lower in both eNOS-/- and eNOS+/- mice than in WT, independently of diet. SNP reduced CR in all groups except eNOS-/-. The cardiac ERK1-2/Akt ratio, increased in animals with eNOS gene deletions compared with WT, independently of diet. These results suggest that the eNOS genetic deficiency, associated or not with HFD, has a relevant effect on coronary vascular function, possibly mediated by increase in blood insulin levels and unbalance in insulin-dependent signaling in coronary vessels

  4. The cell death and DNA damages caused by the Tet-On regulating HSV-tk/GCV suicide gene system in MCF-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhao-Jun; Xiang, Sheng-Guang; Xue, Wei-Wen; Li, Hong-De; Ma, Nan; Ren, Zi-Jing; Xu, Zhu-Jun; Jiao, Chun-Hong; Wang, Cui-Yun; Hu, Wei-Xin

    2014-09-01

    Ganciclovir (GCV) affects the molecular mechanism of cell death and DNA damage by the rAAV (recombinant adeno-associated virus)-mediated Tet-On/HSV-tk/GCV suicide gene system in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. A rAAV/TRE/Tet-On/HSV-tk combining a Tet-On regulating system and a suicide gene HSV-tk was used to transfect human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, and therapeutic effects on this system were studied. Afterwards, we used RT-PCR, western blotting, and a modified comet-assay to explore the potential mechanism of the HSV-tk/GCV suicide gene system in breast cancer treatments. MTT assay has shown that the cell number of GCV+rAAV+Dox group was significantly decreased compared with that of other groups after treatment and flow cytometric analysis detected that there was a substantial increase of S phase cells in this group, which means the HSV-tk/GCV suicide gene system probably works on the cell cycle. RT-PCR detected the expression level of p21 increased and PCNA had an opposite trend. Western blotting detected the protein expression of p21 and p53 increased and PCNA, CDK1, cyclin B decreased in GCV+rAAV+Dox group. The modified comet-assay shown that the very small extra fragments generated by the GCV+rAAV+Dox group treatment are visible as a small cloud extending from the comet in the direction of electrophoresis. The therapeutic mechanism of the HSV-tk/GCV suicide gene system on human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 is probably by upregulating the expression of p21 through a p53-dependent DNA damage signalling pathway, leading the decrease of protein expression of PCNA, cyclin B, CDK1 in MCF-7 cells and promoting the cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase. In summary, the HSV-tk/GCV suicide gene system arouses the death of MCF-7 cells from blocking the cell cycle and DNA damage.

  5. C-terminal deletions in the ALAS2 gene lead to gain of function and cause X-linked dominant protoporphyria without anemia or iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley, Sharon D; Ducamp, Sarah; Gouya, Laurent; Grandchamp, Bernard; Beaumont, Carole; Badminton, Michael N; Elder, George H; Holme, S Alexander; Anstey, Alexander V; Parker, Michelle; Corrigall, Anne V; Meissner, Peter N; Hift, Richard J; Marsden, Joanne T; Ma, Yun; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Deybach, Jean-Charles; Puy, Hervé

    2008-09-01

    All reported mutations in ALAS2, which encodes the rate-regulating enzyme of erythroid heme biosynthesis, cause X-linked sideroblastic anemia. We describe eight families with ALAS2 deletions, either c.1706-1709 delAGTG (p.E569GfsX24) or c.1699-1700 delAT (p.M567EfsX2), resulting in frameshifts that lead to replacement or deletion of the 19-20 C-terminal residues of the enzyme. Prokaryotic expression studies show that both mutations markedly increase ALAS2 activity. These gain-of-function mutations cause a previously unrecognized form of porphyria, X-linked dominant protoporphyria, characterized biochemically by a high proportion of zinc-protoporphyrin in erythrocytes, in which a mismatch between protoporphyrin production and the heme requirement of differentiating erythroid cells leads to overproduction of protoporphyrin in amounts sufficient to cause photosensitivity and liver disease.

  6. Genetic identification of cryptic genospecies of Haemophilus causing urogenital and neonatal infections by PCR using specific primers targeting genes coding for 16S rRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quentin, R; Ruimy, R; Rosenau, A; Musser, J M; Christen, R

    1996-06-01

    Previous genetic analysis of Haemophilus influenzae strains isolated from genital and neonatal infections identified a group of biotype IV that constitutes a cryptic genospecies only distantly related to H. influenzae and H. Haemolyticus. Small-subunit rRNA genes of two representative strains of this genital Haemophilus genospecies (strains 16N and 2406) were sequenced. The analysis indicated that these strains form a monophyletic unit with H. haemolyticus and H. influenzae biogroups Influenzae and Aegyptius and are more closely related to H. haemolyticus than to H. influenzae biogroups Influenzae and Aegyptius. 16S rRNA gene sequences were used to formulate primers for PCR-based identification of cryptic genital Haemophilus organisms. A 242-bp fragment was amplified from strains belonging to the genital Haemophilus genospecies but not from strains of 12 other Haemophilus species, including strains of H. influenzae biotype IV sensu stricto.

  7. Loss of the Response Regulator CtrA Causes Pleiotropic Effects on Gene Expression but Does Not Affect Growth Phase Regulation in Rhodobacter capsulatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, Ryan; Callister, Stephen J.; Lipton, Mary S.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Strnad, Hynek; Paces, Vaclav; Beatty, J. T.; Lang, Andrew S.

    2010-06-01

    The purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus has been extensively studied for its diverse metabolic capabilities, as well as for its production of a Gene Transfer Agent (RcGTA). Production of RcGTA requires the response regulator protein CtrA. We have used whole genome transcript and whole cell proteome analyses of wild type and ctrA mutant cultures to completely characterize the regulatory role of CtrA in R. capsulatus.

  8. Posterior microphthalmia and nanophthalmia in Tunisia caused by a founder c.1059_1066insC mutation of the PRSS56 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Mariem Ben; Chouchène, Ebtissem; Salem, Salma Ben; Daoud, Kods; Largueche, Leila; Bouassida, Walid; Benzina, Zeineb; Ayadi, Hammadi; Söderkvist, Peter; Matri, Leila; Hmani-Aifa, Mounira

    2013-10-10

    Congenital microphthalmia (CMIC) is a common developmental ocular disorder characterized by a small, and sometimes malformed, eye. Posterior microphthalmia (PM) and nanophthalmia are two rare subtypes of isolated CMIC characterized by extreme hyperopia due to short axial length and elevated lens/eye volume ratio. While nanophthalmia is associated with a reduced size in both anterior and posterior segments, PM involves a normal-size anterior chamber but a small posterior segment. Several genes encoding transcription and non-transcription regulators have been identified in different forms of CMIC. MFRP gene mutations have, for instance, been associated with nanophthalmia, and mutations in the recently identified PRSS56 gene have been linked to PM. So far, these two forms of CMIC have been associated with 9 mutations in PRSS56. Of particular interest, a c.1059_1066insC mutation has recently been reported in four Tunisian families with isolated PM and one Tunisian family with nanophthalmia. Here, we performed a genome-wide scan using a high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array 50 K in a large consanguineous Tunisian family (PM7) affected with PM and identified the same causative disease mutation. A total of 24 polymorphic markers spanning the PRSS56 gene in 6 families originating from different regions of Tunisia were analyzed to investigate the origin of the c.1059_1066insC mutation and to determine whether it arose in a common ancestor. A highly significant disease-associated haplotype, spanning across the 146 kb of the 2q37.1 chromosome, was conserved in those families, suggesting that c.1059_1066insC arose from a common founder. The age of the mutation in this haplotype was estimated to be around 1,850 years. The identification of such 'founder effects' may greatly simplify diagnostic genetic screening and lead to better prognostic counseling.

  9. Genotype-phenotype relationship in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy caused by desmosomal gene mutations: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenyan; Zhu, Wengen; Wang, Cen; Huang, Lin; Zhou, Qiongqiong; Hu, Jinzhu; Cheng, Xiaoshu; Hong, Kui

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between clinical phenotypes and desmosomal gene mutations in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is poorly characterized. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to explore the genotype-phenotype relationship in patients with ARVC. Any studies reporting this genotype-phenotype relationship were included. In total, 11 studies involving 1,113 patients were included. The presence of desmosomal gene mutations was associated with a younger onset age of ARVC (32.7 ± 15.2 versus 43.2 ± 13.3 years; P = 0.001), a higher incidence of T wave inversion in V1–3 leads (78.5% versus 51.6%; P = 0.0002) or a family history of ARVC (39.5% versus 27.1%; P = 0.03). There was no difference in the proportion of males between desmosomal-positive and desmosomal-negative patients (68.3% versus 68.9%; P = 0.60). The presence of desmosomal gene mutations was not associated with global or regional structural and functional alterations (63.5% versus 60.5%; P = 0.37), epsilon wave (29.4% versus 26.2%; P = 0.51) or ventricular tachycardia of left bundle-branch morphology (62.6% versus 57.2%; P = 0.30). Overall, patients with desmosomal gene mutations are characterized by an earlier onset age, a higher incidence of T wave inversion in V1–3 leads and a strong family history of ARVC. PMID:28120905

  10. Expression of wild-type PtrIAA14.1, a poplar Aux/IAA gene causes morphological changes in Arabidopsis

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    Shanda eLiu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aux/IAA proteins are transcriptional repressors that control auxin signaling by interacting with Auxin Response Factors (ARFs. So far all of the identified Aux/IAA mutants with auxin-related phenotypes in Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa are dominant gain-of-function mutants, with mutantions in Domain II that affected stability of the corresponding Aux/IAA proteins. On the other hand, morphological changes were observed in knock-down mutants of Aux/IAA genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, suggesting that functions of Aux/IAA proteins may be specific for certain plant species. We report here the characterization of PtrIAA14.1, a poplar (Populus trichocarpa homologue of IAA7. Bioinformatics analysis showed that PtrIAA14.1 is a classic Aux/IAA protein. It contains four conserved domains with the repressor motif in Domain I, the degron in Domain II, and the conserved amino acid signatures for protein-protein interactions in Domain III and Domain IV. Protoplast transfection assays showed that PtrIAA14.1 is localized in nucleus. It is unable in the presence of auxin, and it represses auxin response reporter gene expression. Expression of wild type PtrIAA14.1 in Arabidopsis resulted in auxin-related phenotypes including down-curling leaves, semi-draft with increased number of branches, and greatly reduced fertility, but expression of the Arabidopsis Aux/IAA genes tested remain largely unchanged in the transgenic plants. Protein-protein interaction assays in yeast and protoplasts showed that PtrIAA14.1 interacted with ARF5, but not other ARFs. Consistent with this observation, vascular patterning was altered in the transgenic plants, and the expression of AtHB8 (Arabidopsis thaliana Homeobox Gene 8 was reduced in transgenic plants.

  11. Analysis of gene expression changes, caused by exposure to nitrite, in metabolic and antioxidant enzymes in the red claw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qichen; Zhang, Wenyi; Tan, Hongyue; Pan, Dongmei; Yang, Yuanhao; Ren, Qian; Yang, Jiaxin

    2014-06-01

    We evaluated the effect of acute exposure to nitrite on expression of antioxidant and metabolic enzyme genes in gill tissue of advanced juvenile Cherax quadricarinatus. A 48h nitrite exposure was conducted, using four test concentrations (NO2-N=0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2mg L(-1)) plus a control group. The relative mRNA expression of mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (mMnSOD), cytosolic MnSOD (cMnSOD), extracellular copper/zinc SOD (exCu/ZnSOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), arginine kinase (AK), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH), Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α-subunit and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in gill tissue was measured. Significantly increased mRNA expression was observed for all the antioxidant enzymes after 12 and 24h. After 48h, they all decreased at high nitrite concentrations. The gene expression levels of AK, GDH, mMDH and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α-subunit showed similar trends as the antioxidant enzymes. Significant depression of gene expression levels of PEPCK occurred throughout the experimental time at high nitrite concentrations. The results indicated that nitrite could induce oxidative and metabolic stress in C. quadricarinatus, in a time dependent manner, which suggests they could be helpful in predicting sublethal nitrite toxicity and useful in environmental monitoring studies.

  12. Silent exonic mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene that cause familial hypercholesterolemia by affecting mRNA splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defesche, J C; Schuurman, E J M; Klaaijsen, L N; Khoo, K L; Wiegman, A; Stalenhoef, A F H

    2008-06-01

    In a large group of patients with the clinical phenotype of familial hypercholesterolemia, such as elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and premature atherosclerosis, but without functional mutations in the genes coding for the LDL receptor and apolipoprotein B, we examined the effect of 128 seemingly neutral exonic and intronic DNA variants, discovered by routine sequencing of these genes. Two variants, G186G and R385R, were found to be associated with altered splicing. The nucleotide change leading to G186G resulted in the generation of new 3'-splice donor site in exon 4 and R385R was associated with a new 5'-splice acceptor site in exon 9 of the LDL receptor gene. Splicing of these alternate splice sites leads to an in-frame 75-base pair deletion in a stable mRNA of exon 4 in case of G186G and R385R resulted in a 31-base pair frame-shift deletion in exon 9 and non-sense-mediated mRNA decay.

  13. Species-Level Identification of Actinomyces Isolates Causing Invasive Infections: Multiyear Comparison of Vitek MS (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry) to Partial Sequencing of the 16S rRNA Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, T; Gregson, D; Church, D L

    2016-03-01

    Actinomyces species are uncommon but important causes of invasive infections. The ability of our regional clinical microbiology laboratory to report species-level identification of Actinomyces relied on molecular identification by partial sequencing of the 16S ribosomal gene prior to the implementation of the Vitek MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry [MALDI-TOF MS]) system. We compared the use of the Vitek MS to that of 16S rRNA gene sequencing for reliable species-level identification of invasive infections caused by Actinomyces spp. because limited data had been published for this important genera. A total of 115 cases of Actinomyces spp., either alone or as part of a polymicrobial infection, were diagnosed between 2011 and 2014. Actinomyces spp. were considered the principal pathogen in bloodstream infections (n = 17, 15%), in skin and soft tissue abscesses (n = 25, 22%), and in pulmonary (n = 26, 23%), bone (n = 27, 23%), intraabdominal (n = 16, 14%), and central nervous system (n = 4, 3%) infections. Compared to sequencing and identification from the SmartGene Integrated Database Network System (IDNS), Vitek MS identified 47/115 (41%) isolates to the correct species and 10 (9%) isolates to the correct genus. However, the Vitek MS was unable to provide identification for 43 (37%) isolates while 15 (13%) had discordant results. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA sequences demonstrate high diversity in recovered Actinomyces spp. and provide additional information to compare/confirm discordant identifications between MALDI-TOF and 16S rRNA gene sequences. This study highlights the diversity of clinically relevant Actinomyces spp. and provides an important typing comparison. Based on our analysis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing should be used to rapidly identify Actinomyces spp. until MALDI-TOF databases are optimized.

  14. A single nucleotide deletion of 293delT in SEDL gene causing spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda in a four-generation Chinese family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Cuiying; Zhang, Sizhong; Wang, Jun

    2003-01-01

    . The distinctive radiological signs and the X-linked mode of inheritance make it easy to diagnose. Here a four-generation Chinese SEDT family has been analyzed and the disease-causing mutation has been found. After polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and DNA...

  15. Intragenic deletions and a deep intronic mutation affecting pre-mRNA splicing in the dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase gene as novel mechanisms causing 5-fluorouracil toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kuilenburg, A.B.P.; Meijer, J.; Mul, A.N.P.M.; Meinsma, R.; Schmid, V.; Dobritzsch, D.; Hennekam, R.C.M.; Mannens, M.M.A.M.; Kiechle, M.; Etienne-Grimaldi, M.C.; Klümpen, H.J.; Maring, J.G.; Derleyn, V.A.; Maartense, E.; Milano, G.; Vijzelaar, R.; Gross, E.

    2010-01-01

    Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is the initial enzyme acting in the catabolism of the widely used antineoplastic agent 5-fluorouracil (5FU). DPD deficiency is known to cause a potentially lethal toxicity following administration of 5FU. Here, we report novel genetic mechanisms underlying DPD d

  16. Jasmonic acid causes short- and long-term alterations to the transcriptome and the expression of defense genes in sugarbeet roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmonic acid (JA) induces native defense responses in plants and increases the resistance of postharvest sugarbeet roots to three common storage-rot causing organisms. To gain insight into the defense responses induced by JA in harvested sugarbeet roots, RNA was isolated from roots treated with wat...

  17. Food Shortage Causes Differential Effects on Body Composition and Tissue-Specific Gene Expression in Salmon Modified for Increased Growth Hormone Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernathy, Jason; Panserat, Stéphane; Welker, Thomas; Plagne-Juan, Elisabeth; Sakhrani, Dionne; Higgs, David A; Audouin, Florence; Devlin, Robert H; Overturf, Ken

    2015-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) transgenic salmon possesses markedly increased metabolic rate, appetite, and feed conversion efficiency, as well as an increased ability to compete for food resources. Thus, the ability of GH-transgenic fish to withstand periods of food deprivation as occurs in nature is potentially different than that of nontransgenic fish. However, the physiological and genetic effects of transgenic GH production over long periods of food deprivation remain largely unknown. Here, GH-transgenic coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and nontransgenic, wild-type coho salmon were subjected to a 3-month food deprivation trial, during which time performance characteristics related to growth were measured along with proximate compositions. To examine potential genetic effects of GH-transgenesis on long-term food deprivation, a group of genes related to muscle development and liver metabolism was selected for quantitative PCR analysis. Results showed that GH-transgenic fish lose weight at an increased rate compared to wild-type even though proximate compositions remained relatively similar between the groups. A total of nine genes related to muscle physiology (cathepsin, cee, insulin-like growth factor, myostatin, murf-1, myosin, myogenin, proteasome delta, tumor necrosis factor) and five genes related to liver metabolism (carnitine palmitoyltransferase, fatty acid synthase, glucose-6-phosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase) were shown to be differentially regulated between GH-transgenic and wild-type coho salmon over time. These genetic and physiological responses assist in identifying differences between GH-transgenic and wild-type salmon in relation to fitness effects arising from elevated growth hormone during periods of long-term food shortage.

  18. The phytohormone ethylene enhances bacterial cellulose production, regulates CRP/FNRKx transcription and causes differential gene expression within the cellulose synthesis operon of Komagataeibacter (Gluconacetobacter xylinus ATCC 53582

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Vincent Augimeri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Komagataeibacter (formerly Gluconacetobacter xylinus ATCC 53582 is a plant-associated model organism for bacterial cellulose (BC biosynthesis. This bacterium inhabits the carposphere where it interacts with fruit through the bi-directional transfer of phytohormones. The majority of research regarding K. xylinus has been focused on identifying and characterizing structural and regulatory factors that control BC biosynthesis, but its ecophysiology has been generally overlooked. Ethylene is a phytohormone that regulates plant development in a variety of ways, but is most commonly known for its positive role on fruit ripening. In this study, we utilized ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid to produce in situ ethylene to investigate the effects of this phytohormone on BC production and the expression of genes known to be involved in K. xylinus BC biosynthesis (bcsA, bcsB, bcsC, bcsD, cmcAx, ccpAx and bglAx. Using pellicle assays and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR, we demonstrate that ethephon-derived ethylene enhances BC directly in K. xylinus by up-regulating the expression of bcsA and bcsB, and indirectly though the up-regulation of cmcAx, ccpAx and bglAx. We confirm that IAA directly decreases BC biosynthesis by showing that IAA down-regulates bcsA expression. Similarly, we confirm that ABA indirectly influences BC biosynthesis by showing it does not affect the expression of bcs operon genes. In addition, we are the first to report the ethylene and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA induced differential expression of genes within the bacterial cellulose synthesis (bcs operon. Using bioinformatics we have identified a novel phytohormone-regulated CRP/FNRKx transcription factor and provide evidence that it influences BC biosynthesis in K. xylinus. Lastly, utilizing current and previous data, we propose a model for the phytohormone-mediated fruit-bacteria interactions that K. xylinus experiences in nature.

  19. The Phytohormone Ethylene Enhances Cellulose Production, Regulates CRP/FNRKx Transcription and Causes Differential Gene Expression within the Bacterial Cellulose Synthesis Operon of Komagataeibacter (Gluconacetobacter) xylinus ATCC 53582.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augimeri, Richard V; Strap, Janice L

    2015-01-01

    Komagataeibacter (formerly Gluconacetobacter) xylinus ATCC 53582 is a plant-associated model organism for bacterial cellulose (BC) biosynthesis. This bacterium inhabits the carposphere where it interacts with fruit through the bi-directional transfer of phytohormones. The majority of research regarding K. xylinus has been focused on identifying and characterizing structural and regulatory factors that control BC biosynthesis, but its ecophysiology has been generally overlooked. Ethylene is a phytohormone that regulates plant development in a variety of ways, but is most commonly known for its positive role on fruit ripening. In this study, we utilized ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) to produce in situ ethylene to investigate the effects of this phytohormone on BC production and the expression of genes known to be involved in K. xylinus BC biosynthesis (bcsA, bcsB, bcsC, bcsD, cmcAx, ccpAx and bglAx). Using pellicle assays and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), we demonstrate that ethephon-derived ethylene enhances BC directly in K. xylinus by up-regulating the expression of bcsA and bcsB, and indirectly though the up-regulation of cmcAx, ccpAx, and bglAx. We confirm that IAA directly decreases BC biosynthesis by showing that IAA down-regulates bcsA expression. Similarly, we confirm that ABA indirectly influences BC biosynthesis by showing it does not affect the expression of bcs operon genes. In addition, we are the first to report the ethylene and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) induced differential expression of genes within the bacterial cellulose synthesis (bcs) operon. Using bioinformatics we have identified a novel phytohormone-regulated CRP/FNRKx transcription factor and provide evidence that it influences BC biosynthesis in K. xylinus. Lastly, utilizing current and previous data, we propose a model for the phytohormone-mediated fruit-bacteria interactions that K. xylinus experiences in nature.

  20. A fragmented adeno-associated viral dual vector strategy for treatment of diseases caused by mutations in large genes leads to expression of hybrid transcripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClements, Michelle E.; Charbel Issa, Peter; Blouin, Véronique; MacLaren, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Dual vector AAV systems are being utilised to enable gene therapy for disorders in which the disease gene is too large to fit into a single capsid. Fragmented adeno-associated viral (fAAV) vectors containing single inverted terminal repeat truncated transgenes have been considered as one such gene replacement strategy. Here we aim to add to the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms employed by fAAV dual vector systems. Methods Oversized (>8kb) transgene constructs containing ABCA4 coding sequence were packaged as truncated fragments <5kb in size into various AAV serotypes. In vitro transductions with these fAAV vector preparations were conducted with mRNA and protein expression products assessed by way of RT-PCR, qPCR and western blot techniques. Results Transductions with fAAV vector preparations yielded ABCA4 mRNA, but did not generate detectable levels of protein. Sequencing of the transcript population revealed the presence of full length ABCA4 CDS with additional hybrid ABCA4 variants, indicating truncated transgenes without regions of overlap were joining and forming stable hybrid transgenes. In contrast, an ABCA4 overlapping dual vector system (OV) with a defined complementary region generated only full length mRNA transcripts plus detectable ABCA4 protein. Conclusion Despite previous success shown with the fAAV approach, the lack of repeatability and identification of stable hybrid transcripts capable of protein production suggests there is more refinement required before considering this approach in a clinical setting. PMID:28239514

  1. TAT gene mutation analysis in three Palestinian kindreds with oculocutaneous tyrosinaemia type II; characterization of a silent exonic transversion that causes complete missplicing by exon 11 skipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maydan, G; Andresen, Brage Storstein; Madsen, Pia Pinholt

    2006-01-01

    , we sought TAT gene mutations in 9 tyrosinaemia II patients from three consanguineous Palestinian kindreds. In two kindreds (7 patients), the only potential abnormality identified after sequencing all 12 exons and exon-intron boundaries was homozygosity for a silent, single-nucleotide transversion c....... Homozygosity for a c.1249C > T (R417X) exon 12 nonsense mutation (previously reported in a French patient) was identified in both patients from the third kindred, enabling successful prenatal diagnosis of an unaffected fetus using chorionic villous tissue....

  2. Cystathionine γ-lyase, a H2S-generating enzyme, is a GPBAR1-regulated gene and contributes to vasodilation caused by secondary bile acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renga, Barbara; Bucci, Mariarosaria; Cipriani, Sabrina; Carino, Adriana; Monti, Maria Chiara; Zampella, Angela; Gargiulo, Antonella; d'Emmanuele di Villa Bianca, Roberta; Distrutti, Eleonora; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2015-07-01

    GPBAR1 is a bile acid-activated receptor (BAR) for secondary bile acids, lithocholic (LCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA), expressed in the enterohepatic tissues and in the vasculature by endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Despite that bile acids cause vasodilation, it is unclear why these effects involve GPBAR1, and the vascular phenotype of GPBAR1 deficient mice remains poorly defined. Previous studies have suggested a role for nitric oxide (NO) in regulatory activity exerted by GPBAR1 in liver endothelial cells. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a vasodilatory agent generated in endothelial cells by cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE). Here we demonstrate that GPBAR1 null mice had increased levels of primary and secondary bile acids and impaired vasoconstriction to phenylephrine. In aortic ring preparations, vasodilation caused by chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), a weak GPBAR1 ligand and farnesoid-x-receptor agonist (FXR), was iberiotoxin-dependent and GPBAR1-independent. In contrast, vasodilation caused by LCA was GPBAR1 dependent and abrogated by propargyl-glycine, a CSE inhibitor, and by 5β-cholanic acid, a GPBAR1 antagonist, but not by N(5)-(1-iminoethyl)-l-ornithine (l-NIO), an endothelial NO synthase inhibitor, or iberiotoxin, a large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channels antagonist. In venular and aortic endothelial (HUVEC and HAEC) cells GPBAR1 activation increases CSE expression/activity and H2S production. Two cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) sites (CREs) were identified in the CSE promoter. In addition, TLCA stimulates CSE phosphorylation on serine residues. In conclusion we demonstrate that GPBAR1 mediates the vasodilatory activity of LCA and regulates the expression/activity of CSE. Vasodilation caused by CDCA involves BKCa channels. The GPBAR1/CSE pathway might contribute to endothelial dysfunction and hyperdynamic circulation in liver cirrhosis.

  3. Fine mapping of a gene causing hybrid pollen sterility between Yunnan weedy rice and cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) and phylogenetic analysis of Yunnan weedy rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Zhong, Zheng Zheng; Zhao, Zhi Gang; Jiang, Ling; Bian, Xiao Feng; Zhang, Wen Wei; Liu, Ling Long; Ikehashi, H; Wan, Jian Min

    2010-02-01

    Weedy rice represents an important resource for rice improvement. The F(1) hybrid between the japonica wide compatibility rice cultivar 02428 and a weedy rice accession from Yunnan province (SW China) suffered from pollen sterility. Pollen abortion in the hybrid occurred at the early bicellular pollen stage, as a result of mitotic failure in the microspore, although the tapetum developed normally. Genetic mapping in a BC(1)F(1) population (02428//Yunnan weedy rice (YWR)/02428) showed that a major QTL for hybrid pollen sterility (qPS-1) was present on chromosome 1. qPS-1 was fine-mapped to a 110 kb region known to contain the hybrid pollen sterility gene Sa, making it likely that qPS-1 is either identical to, or allelic with Sa. Interestingly, F(1) hybrid indicated that Dular and IR36 were assumed to carry the sterility-neutral allele, Sa ( n ). Re-sequencing SaM and SaF, the two component genes present at Sa, suggested that variation for IR36 and Dular may be responsible for the loss of male sterility, and the qPS-1 sequence might be derived from wild rice or indica cultivars. A phylogenetic analysis based on microsatellite genotyping suggested that the YWR accession is more closely related to wild rice and indica type cultivars than to japonica types. Thus it is probable that the YWR accession evolved from a spontaneous hybrid between wild rice and an ancient cultivated strain of domesticated rice.

  4. An ochre mutation in the vitamin D receptor gene causes hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D sub 3 -resistant rickets in three families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, H.H.; Hughes, M.R.; Thompson, E.T.; Pike, J.W.; O' Malley, B.W. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (USA)); Malloy, P.J.; Feldman, D. (Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA (USA)); Hochberg, Z. (Rambam Medical Center, Haifa (Israel))

    1989-12-01

    Hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}-resistant rickets is a rare autosomal-recessive disease resulting from target-organ resistance to the action of the active hormonal form of vitamin D. Four affected children from three related families with the classical syndrome of hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}-resistant rickets and the absence of detectable binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in cultured fibroblasts or lymphoblasts were examined for genetic abnormalities in the VDR gene. Genomic DNA from Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblasts of eight family members was isolated and amplified by polymerase chain reaction techniques. Amplified fragments containing the eight structural exons encoding the VDR protein were sequenced. The DNA from all affected children exhibited a single C {yields} A base substitution within exon 7 at nucleotide 970. Although the affected children were all homozygotic for the mutation, the four parents tested all exhibited both wild-type and mutant alleles, indicating a heterozygous state. Recreated mutant receptor exhibited no specific 1,25-({sup 3}H)dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} binding and failed to activate a cotransfected VDR promoter-reporter gene construct. Thus these findings identify an ochre mutation in a human steroid hormone receptor in patients with hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}-resistant rickets.

  5. Axial skeletal defects caused by mutation in the spondylocostal dysplasia/pudgy gene Dll3 are associated with disruption of the segmentation clock within the presomitic mesoderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunwoodie, Sally L; Clements, Melanie; Sparrow, Duncan B; Sa, Xin; Conlon, Ronald A; Beddington, Rosa S P

    2002-04-01

    A loss-of-function mutation in the mouse delta-like3 (Dll3) gene has been generated following gene targeting, and results in severe axial skeletal defects. These defects, which consist of highly disorganised vertebrae and costal defects, are similar to those associated with the Dll3-dependent pudgy mutant in mouse and with spondylocostal dysplasia (MIM 277300) in humans. This study demonstrates that Dll3(neo) and Dll3(pu) are functionally equivalent alleles with respect to the skeletal dysplasia, and we suggest that the three human DLL3 mutations associated with spondylocostal dysplasia are also functionally equivalent to the Dll3(neo) null allele. Our phenotypic analysis of Dll3(neo)/Dll3(neo) mutants shows that the developmental origins of the skeletal defects lie in delayed and irregular somite formation, which results in the perturbation of anteroposterior somite polarity. As the expression of Lfng, Hes1, Hes5 and Hey1 is disrupted in the presomitic mesoderm, we suggest that the somitic aberrations are founded in the disruption of the segmentation clock that intrinsically oscillates within presomitic mesoderm.

  6. Sex reversal in C57BL/6J XY mice caused by increased expression of ovarian genes and insufficient activation of the testis determining pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M Correa

    Full Text Available Sex reversal can occur in XY humans with only a single functional WT1 or SF1 allele or a duplication of the chromosome region containing WNT4. In contrast, XY mice with only a single functional Wt1, Sf1, or Wnt4 allele, or mice that over-express Wnt4 from a transgene, reportedly are not sex-reversed. Because genetic background plays a critical role in testis differentiation, particularly in C57BL/6J (B6 mice, we tested the hypothesis that Wt1, Sf1, and Wnt4 are dosage sensitive in B6 XY mice. We found that reduced Wt1 or Sf1 dosage in B6 XY(B6 mice impaired testis differentiation, but no ovarian tissue developed. If, however, a Y(AKR chromosome replaced the Y(B6 chromosome, these otherwise genetically identical B6 XY mice developed ovarian tissue. In contrast, reduced Wnt4 dosage increased the amount of testicular tissue present in Sf1+/- B6 XY(AKR, Wt1+/- B6 XY(AKR, B6 XY(POS, and B6 XY(AKR fetuses. We propose that Wt1(B6 and Sf1(B6 are hypomorphic alleles of testis-determining pathway genes and that Wnt4(B6 is a hypermorphic allele of an ovary-determining pathway gene. The latter hypothesis is supported by the finding that expression of Wnt4 and four other genes in the ovary-determining pathway are elevated in normal B6 XX E12.5 ovaries. We propose that B6 mice are sensitive to XY sex reversal, at least in part, because they carry Wt1(B6 and/or Sf1(B6 alleles that compromise testis differentiation and a Wnt4(B6 allele that promotes ovary differentiation and thereby antagonizes testis differentiation. Addition of a "weak" Sry allele, such as the one on the Y(POS chromosome, to the sensitized B6 background results in inappropriate development of ovarian tissue. We conclude that Wt1, Sf1, and Wnt4 are dosage-sensitive in mice, this dosage-sensitivity is genetic background-dependant, and the mouse strains described here are good models for the investigation of human dosage-sensitive XY sex reversal.

  7. The expanding phenotype of MELAS caused by the m.3291T > C mutation in the MT-TL1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilland, E; Rupar, C A; Prasad, Asuri N; Tay, K Y; Downie, A; Prasad, C

    2016-03-01

    m.3291T > C mutation in the MT-TL1 gene has been infrequently encountered in association with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), however remains poorly characterized from a clinical perspective. In the following report we describe in detail the phenotypic features, long term follow up (> 7 years) and management in a Caucasian family with MELAS due to the m.3291T > C mutation and review the literature on m.3291T > C mutation. The clinical phenotype in the proposita included overlapping features of MELAS, MERRF (Myoclonic epilepsy and ragged-red fiber syndrome), MNGIE (Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy), KSS (Kearns-Sayre Syndrome) and CPEO (Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia).

  8. Osteogenesis imperfecta Type I caused by a novel mutation in the start codon of the COL1A1 gene in a Korean family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung Yoon; Lee, Ji-Ho; Ki, Chang-Seok; Chang, Mi Sun; Jin, Dong-Kyu; Han, Heon-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) comprises a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by susceptibility to bone fractures ranging in severity from perinatal death to a subtle increase in fracture frequency. We report the case of a patient who appeared healthy at birth and did not experience any fractures until 12 months of age. We observed blue sclera, frequent fractures without commensurate trauma, nearly normal stature, the absence of dentinogenesis imperfecta, no bony deformity, and no limitation of mobility in the patient--all characteristics suggestive of OI Type I. The patient's mother also had blue sclera and a history of frequent fracture episodes until the age of 15 years. A novel COL1A1 missense mutation (c.2T>G) disrupting the start codon of the gene (ATG to AGG (Met1Arg)) was found in the patient and his mother.

  9. A nonsense mutation in the 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid dioxygenase gene (Hpd) causes skipping of the constitutive exon and hypertyrosinemia in mouse strain III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Fumio; Awata, Hisataka; Matsuda, Ichiro [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid dioxygenase (HPD; EC 1.13.11.27) is an important enzyme in tyrosine catabolism in most organisms. Decreased activity of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid dioxygenase in the liver of mouse strain III is associated with tyrosinemia. We report a nucleotide substitution that generates a termination codon in exon 7 of the 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid dioxygenase gene in III mice. This mutation is associated with partial exon skipping, and most of the mRNA lacks sequences corresponding to exon 7. The partial exon skipping apparently is the result of a nonsense mutation in the exon. Mouse strain III is a model for human tyrosinemia type 3 (McKusick 276710), and this train together with recently established models for tyrosinemia type 1 will facilitate studies of hereditary tyrosinemias.

  10. A nonsense mutation in the 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid dioxygenase gene (Hpd) causes skipping of the constitutive exon and hypertyrosinemia in mouse strain III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, F; Awata, H; Katoh, H; Matsuda, I

    1995-01-01

    4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid dioxygenase (HPD; EC 1.13.11.27) is an important enzyme in tyrosine catabolism in most organisms. Decreased activity of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid dioxygenase in the liver of mouse strain III is associated with tyrosinemia. We report a nucleotide substitution that generates a termination codon in exon 7 of the 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid dioxygenase gene in III mice. This mutation is associated with partial exon skipping, and most of the mRNA lacks sequences corresponding to exon 7. The partial exon skipping apparently is the result of a nonsense mutation in the exon. Mouse strain III is a model for human tyrosinemia type 3 (McKusick 276710), and this strain together with recently established models for tyrosinemia type 1 will facilitate studies of hereditary tyrosinemias.

  11. The expanding phenotype of MELAS caused by the m.3291T>C mutation in the MT-TL1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Keilland

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available m.3291T>C mutation in the MT-TL1 gene has been infrequently encountered in association with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS, however remains poorly characterized from a clinical perspective. In the following report we describe in detail the phenotypic features, long term follow up (>7 years and management in a Caucasian family with MELAS due to the m.3291T>C mutation and review the literature on m.3291T>C mutation. The clinical phenotype in the proposita included overlapping features of MELAS, MERRF (Myoclonic epilepsy and ragged-red fiber syndrome, MNGIE (Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy, KSS (Kearns-Sayre Syndrome and CPEO (Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia.

  12. Familial Polycythemia Caused by a Novel Mutation in the Beta Globin Gene: Essential Role of P50 in Evaluation of Familial Polycythemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Agarwal, Mariluz P. Mojica-Henshaw, Elizabeth. D. Simmons, Dottie Hussey, Ching N. Ou, Josef T. Prchal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two polycythemic subjects from a family with multiple polycythemic subjects were evaluated. Estimation of oxygen affinity of Hb from venous blood gas parameters (P50 revealed low P50 suggesting a high affinity Hb variant. Further work up, which included beta globin gene sequencing, revealed a novel mutation changing a codon to the previously reported high affinity Hb - Hb Johnstown (beta109 Val->Leu. Polycythemic subjects with high affinity Hb variant are asymptomatic with normal life expectancy. Their differentiation from polycythemia vera (PV is crucial to avoid therapy which is otherwise reserved for PV patients. We provide an electronic version (in Microsoft excel program of a previously reported mathematical formula for rapid calculation of P50 from venous blood gases. Estimation of P50 is an essential initial step in the evaluation of a subject with personal and family history of polycythemia.

  13. Water Deficit and Abscisic Acid Cause Differential Inhibition of Shoot versus Root Growth in Soybean Seedlings : Analysis of Growth, Sugar Accumulation, and Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creelman, R A; Mason, H S; Bensen, R J; Boyer, J S; Mullet, J E

    1990-01-01

    Roots often continue to elongate while shoot growth is inhibited in plants subjected to low-water potentials. The cause of this differential response to water deficit was investigated. We examined hypocotyl and root growth, polysome status and mRNA populations, and abscisic acid (ABA) content in etiolated soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Williams) seedlings whose growth was inhibited by transfer to low-water potential vermiculite or exogenous ABA. Both treatments affected growth and dry weight in a similar fashion. Maximum inhibition of hypocotyl growth occurred when internal ABA levels (modulated by ABA application) reached the endogenous level found in the elongating zone of seedlings grown in water-deficient vermiculite. Conversely, root growth was affected to only a slight extent in low-water potential seedlings and by most ABA treatments (in some, growth was promoted). In every seedling section examined, transfer of seedlings into low-water potential vermiculite caused ABA levels to increase approximately 5- to 10-fold over that found in well-watered seedlings. Changes in soluble sugar content, polysome status, and polysome mRNA translation products seen in low-water potential seedlings did not occur with ABA treatments sufficient to cause significant inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. These data suggest that both variation in endogenous ABA levels, and differing sensitivity to ABA in hypocotyls and roots can modulate root/shoot growth ratios. However, exogenous ABA did not induce changes in sugar accumulation, polysome status, and mRNA populations seen after transfer into low-water potential vermiculite.

  14. Early onset Paget's disease of bone caused by a novel mutation (78dup27) of the TNFRSF11A gene in a Chinese family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao-hua KE; Hua YUE; Jin-wei HE; Yu-juan LIU; Zhen-lin ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Aim: A previous study showed that individuals of Japanese descent affected by early onset familial Paget's disease of bone (PDB) car-ried a 27-bp duplication at position 75 (75dup27) in the TNFRSF11A gene encoding RANK. Here we report the identification of a novel mutation (78dup27) in exon 1 of TNFRSF11A in a Chinese family with early onset PDB. Methods: We conducted clinical and genetic studies in a non-consanguineous Chinese family with early onset PDB. The entire coding region of TNFRSF11A was amplified and directly sequenced directly.Results: A novel 27-bp duplication in exon 1 (78dup27) in TNFRSF11A was found in four affected individuals and one asymptomatic individual. Although this duplication was the same length as the previously identified mutation (27 bp, from bases 78 to 104), in our patients the nine duplicated amino acids in the RANK signal peptide were LLLLCALLA. The phenotypes of affected individuals in this family overlapped with both early onset PDB and classic PDB, but several distinguishing features were found in our patients. The key difference between our familial PDB and the Japanese early onset PDB was the age of onset, which in most of our patients was during their late 20s (except for the propositus' niece). Another notable difference was that the propositus' son (24 years old), who carried the 78dup27 mutation, had no clinical symptoms or bone abnormalities, except for increased serum ALP, OC and CTX.Conclusion: Our findings may provide a better understanding of the clinical features of early onset PDB and support the notion of a hot spot for mutations in exon 1 of the TNFRSF11A gene.

  15. What Causes High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Causes of High Blood Pressure Changes, either from genes or the environment, in ... and blood vessel structure and function. Biology and High Blood Pressure Researchers continue to study how various changes in ...

  16. Deletion of the pluripotency-associated Tex19.1 gene causes activation of endogenous retroviruses and defective spermatogenesis in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ollinger, Rupert; Childs, Andrew J; Burgess, Hannah M

    2008-01-01

    . During male spermatogenesis, Tex19.1 expression is highest in mitotic spermatogonia and diminishes as these cells differentiate and progress through meiosis. In pluripotent stem cells, Tex19.1 expression is also downregulated upon differentiation. However, it is not clear whether Tex19.1 has an essential...... spermatogenesis. Immunostaining and histological analysis revealed defects in meiotic chromosome synapsis, the persistence of DNA double-strand breaks during meiosis, and a loss of post-meiotic germ cells in the testis. Furthermore, expression of a class of endogenous retroviruses is upregulated during meiosis...... in the Tex19.1(-/-) testes. Increased transposition of endogenous retroviruses in the germline of Tex19.1(-/-) mutant mice, and the concomitant increase in DNA damage, may be sufficient to disrupt the normal processes of recombination and chromosome synapsis during meiosis and cause defects...

  17. A MusD retrotransposon insertion in the mouse Slc6a5 gene causes alterations in neuromuscular junction maturation and behavioral phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent P Bogdanik

    Full Text Available Glycine is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and some brain regions. The presynaptic glycine transporter, GlyT2, is required for sustained glycinergic transmission through presynaptic reuptake and recycling of glycine. Mutations in SLC6A5, encoding GlyT2, cause hereditary hyperekplexia in humans, and similar phenotypes in knock-out mice, and variants are associated with schizophrenia. We identified a spontaneous mutation in mouse Slc6a5, caused by a MusD retrotransposon insertion. The GlyT2 protein is undetectable in homozygous mutants, indicating a null allele. Homozygous mutant mice are normal at birth, but develop handling-induced spasms at five days of age, and only survive for two weeks, but allow the study of early activity-regulated developmental processes. At the neuromuscular junction, synapse elimination and the switch from embryonic to adult acetylcholine receptor subunits are hastened, consistent with a presumed increase in motor neuron activity, and transcription of acetylcholine receptors is elevated. Heterozygous mice, which show no reduction in lifespan but nonetheless have reduced levels of GlyT2, have a normal thermal sensitivity with the hot-plate test, but differences in repetitive grooming and decreased sleep time with home-cage monitoring. Open-field and elevated plus-maze tests did not detect anxiety-like behaviors; however, the latter showed a hyperactivity phenotype. Importantly, grooming and hyperactivity are observed in mouse schizophrenia models. Thus, mutations in Slc6a5 show changes in neuromuscular junction development as homozygotes, and behavioral phenotypes as heterozygotes, indicating their usefulness for studies related to glycinergic dysfunction.

  18. Over-expression of the PaAP1 gene from sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) causes early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yan, Guohua; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Kaichun

    2013-02-15

    A homologue of SQUAMOSA/APETALA1, designated PaAP1, was isolated from Prunus avium by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The full length of PaAP1 cDNA is 753 bp, and it codes for a polypeptide of 250 amino acid residues. Sequence comparison revealed that PaAP1 belongs to the MADS-box gene family. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PaAP1 shared the highest identity with SQUA/AP1 homologues from Prunus serrulata. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis showed that PaAP1 was expressed at high levels in petal, sepal, style, and flower buds, which was slightly different from the expression pattern of AP1 of Arabidopsis thaliana. To characterize the functions of PaAP1, we assessed Arabidopsis transformed with 35S::PaAP1. A total of 8 transgenic T(1) lines with an early flowering phenotype were obtained, and a 3:1 segregation ratio of flowering time was observed in the T(2) generation of 4 lines. This study provides the first functional analysis of an SQUA/AP1 homolog from P. avium and suggests that PaAP1 is potentially useful for shortening the juvenile period in sweet cherry.

  19. G-quadruplex structures and CpG methylation cause drop-out of the maternal allele in polymerase chain reaction amplification of the imprinted MEST gene promoter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron J Stevens

    Full Text Available We observed apparent non-Mendelian behaviour of alleles when genotyping a region in a CpG island at the 5' end of the maternally imprinted human MEST isoform. This region contains three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in total linkage disequilibrium, such that only two haplotypes occur in the human population. Only one haplotype was detectable in each subject, never both, despite the use of multiple primers and several genotyping methods. We observed that this region contains motifs capable of forming several G-quadruplex structures. Circular dichroism spectroscopy and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis confirmed that at least three G-quadruplexes form in vitro in the presence of potassium ions, and one of these structures has a Tm of greater than 99°C in polymerase chain reaction (PCR buffer. We demonstrate that it is the methylated maternal allele that is always lost during PCR amplification, and that formation of G-quadruplexes and presence of methylated cytosines both contributed to this phenomenon. This observed parent-of-origin specific allelic drop-out has important implications for analysis of imprinted genes in research and diagnostic settings.

  20. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome caused by a novel splice donor site mutation and activation of a cryptic splice donor site in the androgen receptor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, Joana B; Alvelos, Maria I; Bastos, Margarida; Carrilho, Francisco; Lemos, Manuel C

    2016-01-01

    The androgen insensitivity syndrome is an X-linked recessive genetic disorder characterized by resistance to the actions of androgens in an individual with a male karyotype. We evaluated a 34-year-old female with primary amenorrhea and a 46,XY karyotype, with normal secondary sex characteristics, absence of uterus and ovaries, intra-abdominal testis, and elevated testosterone levels. Sequence analysis of the androgen receptor (AR) gene revealed a novel splice donor site mutation in intron 4 (c.2173+2T>C). RT-PCR analysis showed that this mutation resulted in the activation of a cryptic splice donor site located in the second half of exon 4 and in the synthesis of a shorter mRNA transcript and an in-frame deletion of 41 amino acids. This novel mutation associated with a rare mechanism of abnormal splicing further expands the spectrum of mutations associated with the androgen insensitivity syndrome and may contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in splicing defects.

  1. Centrosomal Nlp is an oncogenic protein that is gene-amplified in human tumors and causes spontaneous tumorigenesis in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Shujuan; Liu, Rong; Wang, Yang; Song, Yongmei; Zuo, Lihui; Xue, Liyan; Lu, Ning; Hou, Ning; Wang, Mingrong; Yang, Xiao; Zhan, Qimin

    2010-02-01

    Disruption of mitotic events contributes greatly to genomic instability and results in mutator phenotypes. Indeed, abnormalities of mitotic components are closely associated with malignant transformation and tumorigenesis. Here we show that ninein-like protein (Nlp), a recently identified BRCA1-associated centrosomal protein involved in microtubule nucleation and spindle formation, is an oncogenic protein. Nlp was found to be overexpressed in approximately 80% of human breast and lung carcinomas analyzed. In human lung cancers, this deregulated expression was associated with NLP gene amplification. Further analysis revealed that Nlp exhibited strong oncogenic properties; for example, it conferred to NIH3T3 rodent fibroblasts the capacity for anchorage-independent growth in vitro and tumor formation in nude mice. Consistent with these data, transgenic mice overexpressing Nlp displayed spontaneous tumorigenesis in the breast, ovary, and testicle within 60 weeks. In addition, Nlp overexpression induced more rapid onset of radiation-induced lymphoma. Furthermore, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from Nlp transgenic mice showed centrosome amplification, suggesting that Nlp overexpression mimics BRCA1 loss. These findings demonstrate that Nlp abnormalities may contribute to genomic instability and tumorigenesis and suggest that Nlp might serve as a potential biomarker for clinical diagnosis and therapeutic target.

  2. Autotransporter genes pic and tsh are associated with Escherichia coli strains that cause acute pyelonephritis and are expressed during urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimer, Susan R; Rasko, David A; Lockatell, C Virginia; Johnson, David E; Mobley, Harry L T

    2004-01-01

    We have identified two chromosomal open reading frames in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strain CFT073 which are highly homologous to serine protease autotransporters Pic and Tsh. Both cloned determinants were correlated with the presence of 105- to 110-kDa proteins in the culture supernatants. Furthermore, in cellular fractionation experiments, 30-kDa polypeptides were identified in the outer membrane; we speculated that these proteins are the beta-barrel portions of the autotransporter homologues. Furthermore, Pic-containing culture supernatants have serine protease activity. In reverse transcription-PCR analyses, the expression of the pic and tsh genes in E. coli CFT073 was higher in broth cultures grown at 37 degrees C than at 25 degrees C. Moreover, pic and tsh were expressed by bacteria isolated from urine of transurethrally infected mice. The tsh determinant was identified in 63% of our clinical UPEC strain isolates (n = 87) and in 33% of fecal strains (n = 27), whereas pic was present in 31% of the pyelonephritis (n = 67) and 7% of the fecal strains. There was no significant correlation between cystitis strains (n = 20) and the pic determinant.

  3. Correction of the consequences of mitochondrial 3243A>G mutation in the MT-TL1 gene causing the MELAS syndrome by tRNA import into mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karicheva, Olga Z; Kolesnikova, Olga A; Schirtz, Tom; Vysokikh, Mikhail Y; Mager-Heckel, Anne-Marie; Lombès, Anne; Boucheham, Abdeldjalil; Krasheninnikov, Igor A; Martin, Robert P; Entelis, Nina; Tarassov, Ivan

    2011-10-01

    Mutations in human mitochondrial DNA are often associated with incurable human neuromuscular diseases. Among these mutations, an important number have been identified in tRNA genes, including 29 in the gene MT-TL1 coding for the tRNA(Leu(UUR)). The m.3243A>G mutation was described as the major cause of the MELAS syndrome (mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes). This mutation was reported to reduce tRNA(Leu(UUR)) aminoacylation and modification of its anti-codon wobble position, which results in a defective mitochondrial protein synthesis and reduced activities of respiratory chain complexes. In the present study, we have tested whether the mitochondrial targeting of recombinant tRNAs bearing the identity elements for human mitochondrial leucyl-tRNA synthetase can rescue the phenotype caused by MELAS mutation in human transmitochondrial cybrid cells. We demonstrate that nuclear expression and mitochondrial targeting of specifically designed transgenic tRNAs results in an improvement of mitochondrial translation, increased levels of mitochondrial DNA-encoded respiratory complexes subunits, and significant rescue of respiration. These findings prove the possibility to direct tRNAs with changed aminoacylation specificities into mitochondria, thus extending the potential therapeutic strategy of allotopic expression to address mitochondrial disorders.

  4. Two unique mutations in the interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain gene (IL2RG) cause X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency arising in opposite parental germ lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puck, J.M.; Pepper, A.E. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The gene encoding the gamma chain of the lymphocyte receptor for IL-2 lies in human X13.1 and is mutated in males with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). 27 X-linked SCID mutations have been found in our laboratory. Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of genomic DNA using primers flanking each of the 8 exons was followed by direct sequencing of abnormally migrating fragments from SCID patients and family members. A 9 bp in-frame duplication insertion was found in IL2RG exon 5 of a patient from a large X-linked SCID pedigree; the resulting duplication of 3 extracellular amino acids, including the first tryptophan of the {open_quotes}WSXWS{close_quotes} cytokine binding motif, is predicted to disrupt interaction of the cytokine receptor chain with its ligand. Genetic linkage studies demonstrated that the grandmaternal X chromosome associated with SCID was contributed to 3 daughters, 2 obligate carriers and 1 woman of unknown status. However, this grandmother`s genomic DNA did not contain the insertion mutation, nor did she have skewed X-chromosome inactivation in her lymphocytes. That both obligate carrier daughters, but not the third daughter, had the insertion proved the grandmother to be a germline mosaic. A second proband had X-linked SCID with a branch point mutation due to substitution of T for A 15 bp 5{prime} of the start of IL2RG exon 3. This mutation resulted in undetectable IL2RG mRNA by Northern blot. Linkage analysis and sequencing of IL2RG DNA in this family proved the mutation to have originated in the germline of the proband`s grandfather, an immunocompetent individual who contributed an X chromosome with normal IL2RG to one daughter and a mutated X to the another.

  5. The VviMYB80 Gene is Abnormally Expressed in Vitis vinifera L. cv. 'Zhong Shan Hong' and its Expression in Tobacco Driven by the 35S Promoter Causes Male Sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huan; Yu, Xiaojuan; Yuan, Yue; Zhang, Yaguang; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Jiyu; Zhang, Meng; Ji, Chenfei; Liu, Qian; Tao, Jianmin

    2016-03-01

    Anther development is a very precise and complicated process. In Arabidopsis, the AtMYB80 transcription factor regulates genes involved in pollen development and controls the timing of tapetal programmed cell death (PCD). In this study, we isolated and characterized cDNA for VviMYB80 expressed in flower buds of male-sterile Vitis vinifera L. cv. 'Zhong Shan Hong', a late-maturing cultivar derived from self-progeny of cv. 'Wink'. VviMYB80 belongs to the MYB80 subfamily and clusters with AtMYB35/TDF1 in a distinct clade. We found that in flower buds, expression of the VviMYB80 gene in cv. 'Zhong Shan Hong' sharply increased at the tetrad stage, resulting in a higher and earlier transcript level than that found in cv. 'Wink'. Expression of the VviMYB80 gene, driven by the 35S promoter, caused pleiotropic effects on the stamens, including smaller and shriveled anthers, delayed dehiscence, fewer seeds, shorter anther filaments, distorted pollen shape and a lack of cytoplasm, with the tapetum exhibiting hypertrophy in transformed tobacco. These results suggest that VviMYB80 may play an important role in stamen development and that expression of VviMYB80 driven by the 35S promoter in tobacco induces male sterility.

  6. Reduced Vglut2/Slc17a6 Gene Expression Levels throughout the Mouse Subthalamic Nucleus Cause Cell Loss and Structural Disorganization Followed by Increased Motor Activity and Decreased Sugar Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Anttila, Casey J.A.; Nordenankar, Karin; Arvidsson, Emma; Mahmoudi, Souha; Zampera, André; Wärner Jonsson, Hanna; Bergquist, Jonas; Lévesque, Daniel; Andersson, Malin; Dumas, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) plays a central role in motor, cognitive, and affective behavior. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the STN is the most common surgical intervention for advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD), and STN has lately gained attention as target for DBS in neuropsychiatric disorders, including obsessive compulsive disorder, eating disorders, and addiction. Animal studies using STN-DBS, lesioning, or inactivation of STN neurons have been used extensively alongside clinical studies to unravel the structural organization, circuitry, and function of the STN. Recent studies in rodent STN models have exposed different roles for STN neurons in reward-related functions. We have previously shown that the majority of STN neurons express the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 gene (Vglut2/Slc17a6) and that reduction of Vglut2 mRNA levels within the STN of mice [conditional knockout (cKO)] causes reduced postsynaptic activity and behavioral hyperlocomotion. The cKO mice showed less interest in fatty rewards, which motivated analysis of reward-response. The current results demonstrate decreased sugar consumption and strong rearing behavior, whereas biochemical analyses show altered dopaminergic and peptidergic activity in the striatum. The behavioral alterations were in fact correlated with opposite effects in the dorsal versus the ventral striatum. Significant cell loss and disorganization of the STN structure was identified, which likely accounts for the observed alterations. Rare genetic variants of the human VGLUT2 gene exist, and this study shows that reduced Vglut2/Slc17a6 gene expression levels exclusively within the STN of mice is sufficient to cause strong modifications in both the STN and the mesostriatal dopamine system. PMID:27699212

  7. Mutations of the Imprinted CDKN1C Gene as a Cause of the Overgrowth Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome: Clinical Spectrum and Functional Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brioude, Frederic; Netchine, Irène; Praz, Francoise; Le Jule, Marilyne; Calmel, Claire; Lacombe, Didier; Edery, Patrick; Catala, Martin; Odent, Sylvie; Isidor, Bertrand; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Sigaudy, Sabine; Leheup, Bruno; Audebert-Bellanger, Séverine; Burglen, Lydie; Giuliano, Fabienne; Alessandri, Jean-Luc; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; Laffargue, Fanny; Blesson, Sophie; Coupier, Isabelle; Lespinasse, James; Blanchet, Patricia; Boute, Odile; Baumann, Clarisse; Polak, Michel; Doray, Berenice; Verloes, Alain; Viot, Géraldine; Le Bouc, Yves; Rossignol, Sylvie

    2015-09-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an imprinting disorder associating macroglossia, abdominal wall defects, visceromegaly, and a high risk of childhood tumor. Molecular anomalies are mostly epigenetic; however, mutations of CDKN1C are implicated in 8% of cases, including both sporadic and familial forms. We aimed to describe the phenotype of BWS patients with CDKN1C mutations and develop a functional test for CDKN1C mutations. For each propositus, we sequenced the three exons and intron-exon boundaries of CDKN1C in patients presenting a BWS phenotype, including abdominal wall defects, without 11p15 methylation defects. We developed a functional test based on flow cytometry. We identified 37 mutations in 38 pedigrees (50 patients and seven fetuses). Analysis of parental samples when available showed that all mutations tested but one was inherited from the mother. The four missense mutations led to a less severe phenotype (lower frequency of exomphalos) than the other 33 mutations. The following four tumors occurred: one neuroblastoma, one ganglioneuroblastoma, one melanoma, and one acute lymphoid leukemia. Cases of BWS caused by CDKN1C mutations are not rare. CDKN1C sequencing should be performed for BWS patients presenting with abdominal wall defects or cleft palate without 11p15 methylation defects or body asymmetry, or in familial cases of BWS.

  8. A single crossing-over event in voltage-sensitive Na+ channel genes may cause critical failure of dengue mosquito control by insecticides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Hirata

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The voltage-sensitive sodium (Na+ channel (Vssc is the target site of pyrethroid insecticides. Pest insects develop resistance to this class of insecticide by acquisition of one or multiple amino acid substitution(s in this channel. In Southeast Asia, two major Vssc types confer pyrethroid resistance in the dengue mosquito vector Aedes aegypti, namely, S989P+V1016G and F1534C. We expressed several types of Vssc in Xenopus oocytes and examined the effect of amino acid substitutions in Vssc on pyrethroid susceptibilities. S989P+V1016G and F1534C haplotypes reduced the channel sensitivity to permethrin by 100- and 25-fold, respectively, while S989P+V1016G+F1534C triple mutations reduced the channel sensitivity to permethrin by 1100-fold. S989P+V1016G and F1534C haplotypes reduced the channel sensitivity to deltamethrin by 10- and 1-fold (no reduction, respectively, but S989P+V1016G+F1534C triple mutations reduced the channel sensitivity to deltamethrin by 90-fold. These results imply that pyrethroid insecticides are highly likely to lose their effectiveness against A. aegypti if such a Vssc haplotype emerges as the result of a single crossing-over event; thus, this may cause failure to control this key mosquito vector. Here, we strongly emphasize the importance of monitoring the occurrence of triple mutations in Vssc in the field population of A. aegypti.

  9. Microhomology-mediated mechanisms underlie non-recurrent disease-causing microdeletions of the FOXL2 gene or its regulatory domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Verdin

    Full Text Available Genomic disorders are often caused by recurrent copy number variations (CNVs, with nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR as the underlying mechanism. Recently, several microhomology-mediated repair mechanisms--such as microhomology-mediated end-joining (MMEJ, fork stalling and template switching (FoSTeS, microhomology-mediated break-induced replication (MMBIR, serial replication slippage (SRS, and break-induced SRS (BISRS--were described in the etiology of non-recurrent CNVs in human disease. In addition, their formation may be stimulated by genomic architectural features. It is, however, largely unexplored to what extent these mechanisms contribute to rare, locus-specific pathogenic CNVs. Here, fine-mapping of 42 microdeletions of the FOXL2 locus, encompassing FOXL2 (32 or its regulatory domain (10, serves as a model for rare, locus-specific CNVs implicated in genetic disease. These deletions lead to blepharophimosis syndrome (BPES, a developmental condition affecting the eyelids and the ovary. For breakpoint mapping we used targeted array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH, quantitative PCR (qPCR, long-range PCR, and Sanger sequencing of the junction products. Microhomology, ranging from 1 bp to 66 bp, was found in 91.7% of 24 characterized breakpoint junctions, being significantly enriched in comparison with a random control sample. Our results show that microhomology-mediated repair mechanisms underlie at least 50% of these microdeletions. Moreover, genomic architectural features, like sequence motifs, non-B DNA conformations, and repetitive elements, were found in all breakpoint regions. In conclusion, the majority of these microdeletions result from microhomology-mediated mechanisms like MMEJ, FoSTeS, MMBIR, SRS, or BISRS. Moreover, we hypothesize that the genomic architecture might drive their formation by increasing the susceptibility for DNA breakage or promote replication fork stalling. Finally, our locus-centered study

  10. Yellow mosaic symptom caused by the nuclear shuttle protein gene of mungbean yellow mosaic virus is associated with single-stranded DNA accumulation and mesophyll spread of the virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruba, B L; Buvani, A P; Veluthambi, K

    Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-[India:Vigna] (MYMV-[IN:Vig]), a blackgram isolate of MYMV, causes yellow mosaic disease in blackgram and mungbean. Two variable DNA-B components, KA22 and KA27, cause distinct symptoms in blackgram [V. mungo (L.) Hepper] with the same DNA-A component. KA22 + DNA-A-agroinoculated blackgram plants displayed yellow mosaic symptom and accumulated high levels of viral single-stranded (ss) DNA. KA27 + DNA-A-agroinoculated blackgram plants displayed severe stunting symptom and accumulated very low levels of viral ssDNA. However, in mungbean [V. radiata (L.) Wilczek], KA27 + DNA-A caused yellow mosaic symptom and a high level of viral ssDNA accumulated. Swapping of KA27 DNA-B with the nuclear shuttle protein gene (NSP) of KA22 DNA-B (KA27xKA22 NSP) caused yellow mosaic symptom in blackgram, suggesting that KA22 NSP is the determinant of yellow mosaic symptom. Interestingly, KA27xKA22 NSP-infected blackgram plants accumulated high levels of viral ssDNA, comparable to that of KA22 DNA-B infection, suggesting that the KA22 NSP is responsible for accumulation of high levels of viral ssDNA. MYMV distribution was studied in blackgram and mungbean plants by leaf tissue hybridization, which showed mesophyll spread of the virus in KA22-infected blackgram leaflets and in KA27-infected mungbean leaflets, both of which displayed yellow mosaic symptom. However, the virus did not accumulate in the mesophyll in the case of KA27-infected blackgram leaflets. Interestingly, the swapped KA27xKA22 NSP-infected blackgram leaflets showed mesophyll accumulation of the virus, suggesting that KA22 NSP determines its mesophyll spread.

  11. Base substitution mutations in uridinediphosphate-dependent glycosyltransferase 76G1 gene of Stevia rebaudiana causes the low levels of rebaudioside A: mutations in UGT76G1, a key gene of steviol glycosides synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong-Heng; Huang, Su-Zhen; Han, Yu-Lin; Yuan, Hai-Yan; Gu, Chun-Sun; Zhao, Yan-Hai

    2014-07-01

    Steviol glycosides, extracted from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana (Bert) Bertoni, are calorie-free sugar substitute of natural origin with intensely sweet (Boileau et al., 2012). Stevioside and rebaudioside A are the two main kinds of the diterpenic glycosides. We analyzed the concentration of stevioside and rebaudioside A in Stevia leaves of about 500 samples (hybrid progenies) and discovered a mutation plant "Z05" with very low levels of rebaudioside A. Because UGT76G1, a uridinediphosphate-dependent glycosyltransferases, is responsible for the conversion from stevioside to rebaudioside A (Richman et al., 2005), so mutation identification was done by sequencing the candidate gene, UGT76G1. In this study molecular analysis of two strains revealed a heterozygotic nonsense mutation of c.389T > G (p.L121X) in UGT76G1. Meanwhile, we found some amino acid substitutions significant change the protein structure. And the difference of enzyme activity between two strains proved the lack of functionality of UGT76G1 of the mutation "Z05". So the nonsense mutation and amino acid substitution mutation resulted in the low levels of rebaudioside A.

  12. Two CpG mutational hot spots in the X-linked interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain gene (IL2RG) may cause 15% of all human severe combined immunodeficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, A.E.; Puck, J.M. [National Center for Human Genome Research, Bethseda, MD (United States); Liu, X. [Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), a syndrome of profoundly impaired cellular and humoral immune function, is caused by various autosomal gene defects, including adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency, as well as mutations in the X-linked IL2RG gene encoding the gamma chain of the lymphocyte receptor for IL-2. Mutational analysis of IL2RG was performed using genomic DNA from males with SCID referred from genetics and immunology centers. Single strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) were sought by PCR amplification of each of the 8 IL2RG exons using labelled flanking primers. Sequence of exons with aberrant SSCP detected a majority of unique deleterious IL2RG mutations in 30 unrelated SCID patients. However, multiple mutations were seen at CpG dinucleotides, known to be C{yields}T transversion sites. cDNA 690-691 in exon 5 was mutated in 4 patients, 1 patient with each of the C{sub 690}{yields}T causing an Arg{yields}Cys substitution, and 1 with G{sub 691}{yields}A causing Arg{yields}His. Two other patients had SCID caused by a single mutation in IL2RG exon 7. This C{sub 879}{yields}T, also in a CpG, changed an Arg to STOP, resulting in loss of the SH2-related intracellular domain. In addition to our patients, 1 patient with each of the C{sub 690} and the C{sub 879} mutations have been reported by others, giving an overall incidence of 20% from our lab and 21% from all reported IL2RG SCID mutations. While ADA defects account for approximately 15% of SCID, a striking male SCID predominance suggest up to 70% of the cases are X-linked, due to IL2RG mutation. Thus, screening for mutations at the 2 CpG hot spots we have found in IL2RG can identify the genotype of as many SCID cases as are found by ADA testing.

  13. 肌萎缩侧索硬化症的新型致病基因及治疗展望%New disease-causing genes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and the new therapeutic treatments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴淑琪; 康丽; 武策; 杨叔媛; 应征

    2015-01-01

    肌萎缩侧索硬化症是一种渐进性的神经退行性疾病,也是最常见的运动神经元疾病。起因是中枢神经系统内控制骨骼肌的运动神经元退变,导致病人从发病开始2到3年内便会出现进展迅速的肌肉萎缩并最终因呼吸衰竭而死亡。近年来随着基因测序技术的不断发展,该病许多新型致病基因被鉴定出来,其功能研究以及寻找潜在治疗靶点逐渐引起人们关注。%Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease and the most common motor neuron disease. The etiology of ALS is that the degeneration of motor neurons in the central never system which control skeletal muscle, and it leads to the rapid amyotrophy, respiratory insufficiency and death in 2-3 years after disease onset. With the advantage of new sequencing technology, many new ALS disease-causing genes have been identified in recent years. Studies of the functions of these genes and seeking for the potential therapeutic targets are thereby worth attention.

  14. Safety and durability of effect of contralateral-eye administration of AAV2 gene therapy in patients with childhood-onset blindness caused by RPE65 mutatons: a follow-on phase 1 trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jean; Wellman, Jennifer; Marshall, Kathleen A; McCague, Sarah; Ashtari, Manzar; DiStefano-Pappas, Julie; Elci, Okan U; Chung, Daniel C; Sun, Junwei; Wright, J Fraser; Cross, Dominique R; Aravand, Puya; Cyckowski, Laura L; Bennicelli, Jeannette L; Mingozzi, Federico; Auricchio, Alberto; Pierce, Eric A; Ruggiero, Jason; Leroy, Bart P; Simonelli, Francesca; High, Katherine A; Maguire, Albert M

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Safety and efficacy have been shown in a phase 1 dose-escalation study involving a unilateral subretinal injection of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector containing the RPE65 gene (AAV2-hRPE65v2) in individuals with inherited retinal dystrophy caused by RPE65 mutations. This finding, along with the bilateral nature of the disease and intended use in treatment, prompted us to determine the safety of administration of AAV2-hRPE65v2 to the contralateral eye in patients enrolled in the phase 1 study. Methods In this follow-on phase 1 trial, one dose of AAV2-hRPE65v2 (1·5 × 1011 vector genomes) in a total volume of 300 μL was subretinally injected into the contralateral, previously uninjected, eyes of 11 children and adults (aged 11–46 years at second administration) with inherited retinal dystrophy caused by RPE65 mutations, 1·71–4·58 years after the initial subretinal injection. We assessed safety, immune response, retinal and visual function, functional vision, and activation of the visual cortex from baseline until 3 year follow-up, with observations ongoing. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01208389. Findings No adverse events related to the AAV were reported, and those related to the procedure were mostly mild (dellen formation in three patients and cataracts in two). One patient developed bacterial endophthalmitis and was excluded from analyses. We noted improvements in efficacy outcomes in most patients without significant immunogenicity. Compared with baseline, pooled analysis of ten participants showed improvements in mean mobility and full-field light sensitivity in the injected eye by day 30 that persisted to year 3 (mobility p=0·0003, white light full-field sensitivity p0·49 for all time-points compared with baseline). Interpretation To our knowledge, AAV2-hRPE65v2 is the first successful gene therapy administered to the contralateral eye. The results highlight the use of several outcome

  15. 新发基因突变致成人线粒体神经胃肠脑肌病%Mitochondrial Neurogastrointestinal Encephalomyopathy Caused by A Novel TYMP Gene Mutation in An Adult Patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭蓓; 冯云路; 吴东; 朱以诚; 陈钰; 钱家鸣

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨线粒体神经胃肠脑肌病患者的临床表现及基因突变情况。方法分析1例成人线粒体神经胃肠脑肌病患者临床资料,对患者及其家系线粒体病相关基因应用NimbleGen固相芯片进行目标区域捕获测序。结果该患者表现为进行性加重的假性胃肠梗阻、脑白质病、恶液质、周围神经病、眼外肌无力及多种代谢紊乱。基因检测发现TYMP基因c.217 G>A纯合突变为该患者的致病突变,患者父母(近亲婚配)及姐姐均为该突变杂合子,该突变为新发突变。结论经基因检测确诊TYMP基因新发突变致成人线粒体神经胃肠脑肌病。%Objective To analyze the clinical features and genetic background of mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy(MNGIE). Methods The clinical data of an adult patient with MNGIE wereretrospectively reviewed. Meanwhile, the mitochondrial disease-related gene of the patient and his families weredetected by target area capture sequencing with NimbleGen solid phase chip. Results This patient presented with progressive pseudo-gastrointestinal obstruction, leukoencephalopathy, cachexia, peripheral neuropathy, extraocularmuscle weakness, and multiple metabolic disorders. A homozygous mutation(TYMP gene c.217G >A) was identified. The patient's parents and sister were heterozygous for this novel mutation. Conclusion A novel TYMP gene mutation that caused MNGIE in a Chinese adult patient was confirmed by gene detection.

  16. Prenatal diagnosis of craniosynostosis (compound Saethre-Chotzen syndrome phenotype) caused by a de novo complex chromosomal rearrangement (1; 4; 7) with a microdeletion of 7p21.3-7p15.3, including TWIST1 gene--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massalska, Diana; Bijok, Julia; Kucińska-Chahwan, Anna; Jamsheer, Aleksander; Bogdanowicz, Joanna; Jakiel, Grzegorz; Roszkowski, Tomasz

    2014-07-01

    Craniosynostosis (a premature fusion of the cranial sutures) occurs with a frequency of 1 in 2100-2500 births and in over 40% cases is caused by known genetic factors--either single gene mutations or chromosomal rearrangements. Cases caused by complex chromosomal abnormalities are uncommon and likely associated with compound phenotype. Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (SCS) [#101400] is caused by TWIST1 gene haploinsufficiency. Its phenotype includes uni- or bicoronal synostosis, short stature, facial dysmorphism and variable anomalies of the hands and feet. Due to its poor sonographic manifestation a prenatal diagnosis of SCS is challenging. We report a case of a prenatally detected craniosynostosis (compound Saethre-Chotzen syndrome phenotype) caused by a de novo complex chromosomal rearrangement (1; 4; 7) with a microdeletion of 7p21.3-7p15.3, including TWIST1 gene.

  17. Causes of reduced expression of Cosmc gene in IgA nephropathy patients%IgA肾病患者Cosmc基因表达低下原因探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦伟; 钟翔; 张颖娟; 谭淳予; 杨立川; 樊均明

    2008-01-01

    that in healthy controls) than that in healthy controls. (3) Relative quantification PCR indicated that Cosmc mRNA expression level was significantly increased (219% of baseline) after RPMI-1640 culture, and treatment of LPS could strongly inhibit this effect. (4) The Cosmc gene expression of healthy control was not affected by RPMI-1640 or LPS. Conclusion It is not genetic disorders but external suppression to cause the down-regulation of Cosmc gene mRNA expression in IgAN.

  18. 肺癌患者并发肺部感染的病原菌谱及耐药基因检测%Pathogens causing pulmonary infections in lung cancer patients and drug resistance genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔艳慧; 梁海军; 杨留中; 张清琴; 花勤亮

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解肺癌患者合并肺部感染的病原菌谱及主要病原菌的耐药基因,以指导临床合理应用抗菌药物.方法 对220例肺癌并发肺部感染患者进行痰培养,其中100例培养阳性,对培养阳性的细菌进行鉴定;应用纸片扩散法对主要细菌进行药敏试验,并应用PCR法检测主要细菌的耐药基因.结果 肺癌并肺部感染的病原菌以革兰阴性菌为主占62.0%、革兰阳性菌占31.0%,真菌占7.0%,革兰阴性菌以大肠埃希菌、肺炎克雷伯菌及铜绿假单胞菌为主,革兰阳性菌以金黄色葡萄球菌及肺炎链球菌为主,革兰阴性菌及阳性菌对多种抗菌药物耐药;部分大肠埃希菌及肺炎克雷伯菌携带TEM型及SHV型耐药基因.结论 肺癌并肺部感染以革兰阴性菌最为常见,多药耐药严重,部分携带有耐药基因.%OBJECTIVE To explore the spectrum of the pathogens causing pulmonary infections in lung cancer patients as well as the drug resistant genes ir the main pathogens so as to guide tie reaso nable use of antibiotics. METHODS The sputum culture was performed for 220 lung cancer patients combined with pulmonary infections, among which there were 100 cases cultured positive, then the bacteria isolated from the positive cases were identified; the drug susceptibility testing for the main pathogens was carried out by using disk diffusion method, the drug resistance genes in the main bacteria were detected with PCR. RESULTS The main pathogens involving in the pulmonary infections combined with lung cancer were as follows : gram—negative bacteria (62.0%), gram-positive bacteria (31. 0%) ,and fungi (7. 0%) , the predominant gram-negative bacilli included Escherichia coli , Kleb-siella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa , the predominant gram-positive bacteria were Staphylococcus au-reus and Streptococcs pneumoniae ; the gram-negative bacteria and gram-positive bacteria were resistant to many antibiotics; part of E. coli

  19. The causes of epistasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, J. Arjan G. M.; Cooper, Tim F.; Elena, Santiago F.

    2011-01-01

    Since Bateson's discovery that genes can suppress the phenotypic effects of other genes, gene interactions—called epistasis—have been the topic of a vast research effort. Systems and developmental biologists study epistasis to understand the genotype–phenotype map, whereas evolutionary biologists recognize the fundamental importance of epistasis for evolution. Depending on its form, epistasis may lead to divergence and speciation, provide evolutionary benefits to sex and affect the robustness and evolvability of organisms. That epistasis can itself be shaped by evolution has only recently been realized. Here, we review the empirical pattern of epistasis, and some of the factors that may affect the form and extent of epistasis. Based on their divergent consequences, we distinguish between interactions with or without mean effect, and those affecting the magnitude of fitness effects or their sign. Empirical work has begun to quantify epistasis in multiple dimensions in the context of metabolic and fitness landscape models. We discuss possible proximate causes (such as protein function and metabolic networks) and ultimate factors (including mutation, recombination, and the importance of natural selection and genetic drift). We conclude that, in general, pleiotropy is an important prerequisite for epistasis, and that epistasis may evolve as an adaptive or intrinsic consequence of changes in genetic robustness and evolvability. PMID:21976687

  20. Single base mutation in the pro. alpha. 2(I) collagen gene that causes efficient splicing of RNA from exon 27 to exon 29 and synthesis of a shortened but in-frame pro. alpha. 2(I) chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tromp, G.; Prockop, D.J. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA))

    1988-07-01

    Previous observations demonstrated that a lethal variant of osteogenesis imperfecta had two altered alleles for pro{alpha}2(I) chains of type I procollagen. One mutation produced a nonfunctioning allele in that there was synthesis of mRNA but no detectable synthesis of pro{alpha}2(I) chains from the allele. The mutation in the other allele caused synthesis of shortened pro{alpha}2(I) chains that lacked most or all of the 18 amino acids encoded by exon 28. Subclones of the pro{alpha}2(I) gene were prepared from the proband's DNA and the DNA sequence was determined for a 582-base-pair (bp) region that extended from the last 30 bp of intervening sequence 26 to the first 26 bp of intervening sequence 29. Data from six independent subclones demonstrated that all had the same sequence as a previously isolated normal clone for the pro{alpha}2(I) gene except that four subclones had a single base mutation at the 3{prime} end of intervening sequence 27. The mutation was a substitution of guanine for adenine that changed the universal consensus sequence for the 3{prime} splicing site of RNA from -AG- to -GG-. S1 nuclease experiments demonstrated that about half the pro{alpha}2(I) mRNA in the proband's fibroblasts was abnormally spliced and that the major species of abnormal pro{alpha}2(I) mRNA was completely spliced from the last codon of exon 27 to the first codon of exon 29. The mutation is apparently unique among RNA splicing mutations of mammalian systems in producing a shortened polypeptide chain that is in-frame in terms of coding sequences, that is used in the subunit assembly of a protein, and that contributes to a lethal phenotype.

  1. Four new mutations in the erythroid-specific 5-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS2) gene causing X-linked sideroblastic anemia: increased pyridoxine responsiveness after removal of iron overload by phlebotomy and coinheritance of hereditary hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, P D; May, A; Li, L; Al-Sabah, A I; Fitzsimons, E J; Cazzola, M; Bishop, D F

    1999-03-01

    X-linked sideroblastic anemia (XLSA) in four unrelated male probands was caused by missense mutations in the erythroid-specific 5-aminolevulinate synthase gene (ALAS2). All were new mutations: T647C, C1283T, G1395A, and C1406T predicting amino acid substitutions Y199H, R411C, R448Q, and R452C. All probands were clinically pyridoxine-responsive. The mutation Y199H was shown to be the first de novo XLSA mutation and occurred in a gamete of the proband's maternal grandfather. There was a significantly higher frequency of coinheritance of the hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) HFE mutant allele C282Y in 18 unrelated XLSA hemizygotes than found in the normal population, indicating a role for coinheritance of HFE alleles in the expression of this disorder. One proband (Y199H) with severe and early iron loading coinherited HH as a C282Y homozygote. The clinical and hematologic histories of two XLSA probands suggest that iron overload suppresses pyridoxine responsiveness. Notably, reversal of the iron overload in the Y199H proband by phlebotomy resulted in higher hemoglobin concentrations during pyridoxine supplementation. The proband with the R452C mutation was symptom-free on occasional phlebotomy and daily pyridoxine. These studies indicate the value of combined phlebotomy and pyridoxine supplementation in the management of XLSA probands in order to prevent a downward spiral of iron toxicity and refractory anemia.

  2. Green tea proanthocyanidins cause impairment of hormone-regulated larval development and reproductive fitness via repression of juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase, insulin-like peptide and cytochrome P450 genes in Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyanjom, Steven G.; Mutunga, James M.; Njeru, Sospeter N.; Bargul, Joel L.

    2017-01-01

    Successful optimization of plant-derived compounds into control of nuisance insects would benefit from scientifically validated targets. However, the close association between the genotypic responses and physiological toxicity effects mediated by these compounds remains underexplored. In this study, we evaluated the sublethal dose effects of proanthocyanidins (PAs) sourced from green tea (Camellia sinensis) on life history traits of Anopheles gambiae (sensu stricto) mosquitoes with an aim to unravel the probable molecular targets. Based on the induced phenotypic effects, genes selected for study targeted juvenile hormone (JH) bi