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Sample records for bessac bf jordt

  1. The entropic boundary law in BF theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livine, Etera R.; Terno, Daniel R.

    2009-01-01

    We compute the entropy of a closed bounded region of space for pure 3d Riemannian gravity formulated as a topological BF theory for the gauge group SU(2) and show its holographic behavior. More precisely, we consider a fixed graph embedded in space and study the flat connection spin network state without and with particle-like topological defects. We regularize and compute exactly the entanglement for a bipartite splitting of the graph and show it scales at leading order with the number of vertices on the boundary (or equivalently with the number of loops crossing the boundary). More generally these results apply to BF theory with any compact gauge group in any space-time dimension.

  2. A mathematical method to calculate efficiency of BF3 detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Fenni; Hu Qingyuan; Peng Taiping

    2009-01-01

    In order to calculate absolute efficiency of the BF 3 detector, MCNP/4C code is applied to calculate relative efficiency of the BF 3 detector first, and then absolute efficiency is figured out through mathematical techniques. Finally an energy response curve of the BF 3 detector for 1-20 MeV neutrons is derived. It turns out that efficiency of BF 3 detector are relatively uniform for 2-16 MeV neutrons. (authors)

  3. Dinamics of BF3 sorption on activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polevoj, A.S.; Petrenko, A.E.

    1989-01-01

    The dynamics of BF 3 sorption on BAUAG-3 and SKT-4A carbons is studied by recording the curve of BF 3 concentration change in time at the outlet from the column filled with activated carbon when blowing it with a current of BF 3 and helium mixture. The effect of sorbent type, temperature and pressure of the gaseous mixture, BF 3 content in it and its partial pressure, BF 3 consumption on the width of sorption zone is studied. The results of studies can be used to calculate and optimize the conditions of sorption processes connected with the absorption of BF 3 by carbons from the gaseous flows in the dynamic mode

  4. Tests of BF3 counters with getter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comte, R.; Dauphin, G.

    1968-01-01

    BF 3 counters with addition of a getter have been developed to improve operation characteristics of these detectors in presence of strong gamma flows. The getter is made of an active coal deposit on the cathode. As noticed by other studies, the degradation of these counters is related to the exposure to strong neutron flows and to gamma radiations. The authors report tests performed on these counters with a brief presentation of the counters, and a presentation of the test installation. A threshold curve and an amplitude spectrum are obtained, and counting is performed for a fixed threshold before and after the exposure of detectors to variable doses of γ radiation. The results after a first 2 hour long irradiation, a 230 hour long second irradiation, and a third irradiation under high voltage (2100 V) are discussed. Thermal tests are then performed and commented

  5. Densities and viscosities for ionic liquids mixtures containing [eOHmim][BF4], [bmim][BF4] and [bpy][BF4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Dayong; Chen, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Targets of this research are ILs mixtures. • Densities and viscosities were measured for three ILs mixtures. • Excess molar properties were deduced from the experiments. • Viscosities were discussed by the ideal Grunberg and Nissan mixing law. - Abstract: Densities and viscosities of binary ionic liquids mixtures, 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([eOHmim][BF 4 ]) + 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF 4 ]), 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([eOHmim][BF 4 ]) + N-butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate ([bpy][BF 4 ]) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF 4 ]) + N-butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate ([bpy][BF 4 ]) were measured over the entire mole fraction from T = (298.15 to 343.15) K. The excess molar volumes were calculated and correlated by Redlich–Kiser polynomial expansions. The viscosities for pure ionic liquids were analyzed by means of the Vogel–Tammann–Fulcher equation and ideal mixing rules were applied for the ILs mixtures

  6. MCNP to study the BF3 detection efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Vinicius A.; Cavalieri, Tassio A.; Siqueira, Paulo T.D.; Fedorenko, Giuliana G.; Coelho, Paulo R.P.; Madi Filho, Tufic

    2011-01-01

    One of the main parameters to monitor on the employment of the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is the thermal neutron flux. It can be performed by different techniques such as the activation analysis and the detection by a Boron Trifluoride detector (BF 3 ). BF 3 detector is a real time neutron flux detector which retrieves results in real time. It is however necessary to study the efficiency of the BF 3 detectors when they are exposed to fields of different neutron energy spectra. BF 3 is known to have high efficiency for thermal neutrons (with energy up to 0.5 eV) due the presence of 10 B atoms in the detector. However, one must also understand how this detector interacts with other neutron energy ranges (epithermal and fast). This work shows the experiment and a set of associated simulations carried out in order to evaluate the BF 3 detector efficiency dependence on neutron energy spectra. A set of experiments was conducted in which a BF 3 detector was submitted to different mixed fields (field containing gamma rays and neutrons). These fields were generated by the interposition of paraffin layers with distinct thicknesses between the Am-Be source and the BF 3 detector. The BF 3 detector responses were recorded according to the number of paraffin planes used. MCNP simulations were also performed to study the detector responses on such experimental conditions. It has been possible to achieve the intended goal of evaluating the BF 3 detector response to different mixed irradiation fields. (author)

  7. The Quantum Description of BF Model in Superspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Dwivedi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the BRST symmetric four-dimensional BF theory, a topological theory, containing antisymmetric tensor fields in Landau gauge and extend the BRST symmetry by introducing a shift symmetry to it. Within this formulation, the antighost fields corresponding to shift symmetry coincide with antifields of standard field/antifield formulation. Furthermore, we provide a superspace description for the BF model possessing extended BRST and extended anti-BRST transformations.

  8. An additional memory effect in mass spectrometry for BF3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Kiichi; Satooka, Sakae

    1978-01-01

    It is considered that the memory effect appears in a metallic gas inlet of a mass spectrometer for measurement with samples of BF 3 is classified into two kinds, one is essential memory effect which is caused by an action between the surface of metal and BF 3 , and the other is additional memory effect which is caused by viscous liquid produced by reaction among water, BF 3 and metals. The additional memory effect is caused by stain on the inner surface of the gas inlet. Air is introduced into the sample bottle joint at each time for change of sample bottle. Moisture in the air is adsorbed on inner surfaces of the joint and piping made of metal, and combined with BF 3 which is introduced, and then viscous compound is produced by dissolution of the metal into the compound made from H 2 O and BF 3 . The vapour pressure of the viscous compound is not sufficient low, and so the compound propagates from the sample bottle joint to the whole of the gas inlet at each time of opening and closing of valves of the gas inlet. The coated film of the viscous compound with adsorption and release of Bf 3 is a cause of the additional memory effect. If the stain of the inner surface of the gas inlet grows up, the additional memory effect becomes more intense compared with the essential memory effect, and the measured values are not converged. To remove the additional memory effect, it is desirable to introduce the sample BF 3 after the moisture intruded into the piping by the exchange of sample bottles is removed sufficiently by introduction of F 2 or ClF 3 . (auth.)

  9. Topological higher gauge theory: From BF to BFCG theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girelli, F.; Pfeiffer, H.; Popescu, E. M.

    2008-01-01

    We study generalizations of three- and four-dimensional BF theories in the context of higher gauge theory. First, we construct topological higher gauge theories as discrete state sum models and explain how they are related to the state sums of Yetter, Mackaay, and Porter. Under certain conditions, we can present their corresponding continuum counterparts in terms of classical Lagrangians. We then explain that two of these models are already familiar from the literature: the ΣΦEA model of three-dimensional gravity coupled to topological matter and also a four-dimensional model of BF theory coupled to topological matter

  10. Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS). Annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The progress report submitted by Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz reveals that this federal radiation protection agency is not only entrusted with the fulfillment of the federal administrative tasks imposed by law but engages in applications-oriented research regarding the operational, metrological and health-related aspects of radiation protection, regarding nuclear safety and radioactive waste management. In addition, BfS takes care of public-relations tasks. The reports submitted by the BfS departments are completed by summaries of the main research results. (DG) [de

  11. A Kallosh theorem for BF-type topological field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birmingham, D.; Gibbs, R.; Mokhtari, S.

    1991-01-01

    A Kallosh theorem is established for the case of BF-type theories in three dimensions, including a coupling to Chern-Simons theory. The phase contribution to the one-loop off-shell effective action is computed for a two-parameter family of local covariant gauges. It is shown that the phase is independent of these parameters, and thus equals the 'no Vilkovisky-DeWitt' gauge result. The field space metric dependence of a corresponding calculation for generalized BF theory is briefly discussed. (orig.)

  12. A Kallosh theorem for BF-type topological field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birmingham, D. (Theory Div., CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)); Gibbs, R.; Mokhtari, S. (Physics Dept., Louisiana Tech. Univ., Ruston, LA (United States))

    1991-12-12

    A Kallosh theorem is established for the case of BF-type theories in three dimensions, including a coupling to Chern-Simons theory. The phase contribution to the one-loop off-shell effective action is computed for a two-parameter family of local covariant gauges. It is shown that the phase is independent of these parameters, and thus equals the 'no Vilkovisky-DeWitt' gauge result. The field space metric dependence of a corresponding calculation for generalized BF theory is briefly discussed. (orig.).

  13. Equivalent and Alternative Forms for BF Gravity with Immirzi Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merced Montesinos

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis of the BF formulation for general relativity given by Capovilla, Montesinos, Prieto, and Rojas is performed. The action principle of this formulation is written in an equivalent form by doing a transformation of the fields of which the action depends functionally on. The transformed action principle involves two BF terms and the two Lorentz invariants that appear in the original action principle generically. As an application of this formalism, the action principle used by Engle, Pereira, and Rovelli in their spin foam model for gravity is recovered and the coupling of the cosmological constant in such a formulation is obtained.

  14. Oxygen evolution from BF3/MnO4-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Shek-Man; Man, Wai-Lun; Wang, Xin; Lam, William W Y; Ng, Siu-Mui; Kwong, Hoi-Ki; Lau, Kai-Chung; Lau, Tai-Chu

    2011-04-14

    MnO(4)(-) is activated by BF(3) to undergo intramolecular coupling of two oxo ligands to generate O(2). DFT calculations suggest that there should be a spin intercrossing between the singlet and triplet potential energy surfaces on going from the active intermediate [MnO(2)(OBF(3))(2)](-) to the O···O coupling transition state.

  15. Topological BF field theory description of topological insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Gil Young; Moore, Joel E.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We show that a BF theory is the effective theory of 2D and 3D topological insulators. → The non-gauge-invariance of the bulk theory yields surface terms for a bosonized Dirac fermion. → The 'axion' term in electromagnetism is correctly obtained from gapped surfaces. → Generalizations to possible fractional phases are discussed in closing. - Abstract: Topological phases of matter are described universally by topological field theories in the same way that symmetry-breaking phases of matter are described by Landau-Ginzburg field theories. We propose that topological insulators in two and three dimensions are described by a version of abelian BF theory. For the two-dimensional topological insulator or quantum spin Hall state, this description is essentially equivalent to a pair of Chern-Simons theories, consistent with the realization of this phase as paired integer quantum Hall effect states. The BF description can be motivated from the local excitations produced when a π flux is threaded through this state. For the three-dimensional topological insulator, the BF description is less obvious but quite versatile: it contains a gapless surface Dirac fermion when time-reversal-symmetry is preserved and yields 'axion electrodynamics', i.e., an electromagnetic E . B term, when time-reversal symmetry is broken and the surfaces are gapped. Just as changing the coefficients and charges of 2D Chern-Simons theory allows one to obtain fractional quantum Hall states starting from integer states, BF theory could also describe (at a macroscopic level) fractional 3D topological insulators with fractional statistics of point-like and line-like objects.

  16. The BF formalism for QCD and quark confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fucito, F.; Zeni, M.

    1997-01-01

    Using the BF version of pure Yang-Mills, it is possible to find a covariant representation of the 't Hooft magnetic flux operator. In this framework, 't Hooft's pioneering work on confinement finds an explicit realization in the continuum. Employing the Abelian projection gauge we compute the expectation value of the magnetic variable and find the expected perimeter law. We also check the area law behavior for the Wilson loop average and compute the string tension which turns out to be of the right order of magnitude. (orig.)

  17. Performance Test of BF3 Neutron Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yu Sun; Shin, Ho Cheol [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jin Bok; Oh, Sae Hyun; Ryou, Seok Jean [USERS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The neutron detecting system of First-of-a-kind plant such an APR1400 at Shin Kori should have been verified in the condition of low operating temperature and pressure of the primary coolant system before receiving the operation license. Auxiliary Ex-core Neutron Flux Monitoring System (AENFMS) is supposed to be installed using BF3 neutron detector in Shin Kori plant. The performance test of AENFMS was conducted to measure neutron sensitivity, moderation ratio and count rate in the same condition with Ex-core Neutron Flux Monitoring System (ENFMS) of APR1400 to verify its detection characteristics in compliance with the functional requirement. Performance test has been conducted for AENFMS of APR1400 to verify BF3 neutron sensitivity, moderation ration of PE, expecting neutron signal count rate from AENFMS, possible extending cable length from detector to pre-amplifier. As a result of measurement, the neutron sensitivity of 34.246±0.168(95%CI)cps/nv, moderation ratio of 11.343±0.039(95%CI) and AENFMS expecting count rate related to ENFMS of 17.8 times are acceptable in compliance with functional requirement, respectively.

  18. Higgsless superconductivity from topological defects in compact BF terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cristina Diamantini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a new Higgsless model of superconductivity, inspired from anyon superconductivity but P- and T-invariant and generalisable to any dimension. While the original anyon superconductivity mechanism was based on incompressible quantum Hall fluids as average field states, our mechanism involves topological insulators as average field states. In D space dimensions it involves a (D−1-form fictitious pseudovector gauge field which originates from the condensation of topological defects in compact low-energy effective BF theories. In the average field approximation, the corresponding uniform emergent charge creates a gap for the (D−2-dimensional branes via the Magnus force, the dual of the Lorentz force. One particular combination of intrinsic and emergent charge fluctuations that leaves the total charge distribution invariant constitutes an isolated gapless mode leading to superfluidity. The remaining massive modes organise themselves into a D-dimensional charged, massive vector. There is no massive Higgs scalar as there is no local order parameter. When electromagnetism is switched on, the photon acquires mass by the topological BF mechanism. Although the charge of the gapless mode (2 and the topological order (4 are the same as those of the standard Higgs model, the two models of superconductivity are clearly different since the origins of the gap, reflected in the high-energy sectors are totally different. In 2D this type of superconductivity is explicitly realised as global superconductivity in Josephson junction arrays. In 3D this model predicts a possible phase transition from topological insulators to Higgsless superconductors.

  19. Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS). Annual report 2011; Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS). Jahresbericht 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebermann, Lutz (comp.)

    2012-07-01

    The annual report 2011 of the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS) includes the following main articles: Fukushima and the consequences, new power lines across Germany and the management of radioactive wastes in Germany. Further topics of the BfS were reasonable exposure to sun and skin cancer prevention, individual health assessment of lung cancer with low-dose CT, occupational radiation exposure in medicine, radiation protection at setting up digital radio of security authorities and organizations, importance of laboratory ring experiments for incorporation monitoring, defence against nuclear hazards: cooperation and exercises in 2011, new developments with regard to radioactivity in drinking water, reportable events in nuclear facilities in 2011, decommissioning of a permanently shut down NPP. The environmental research program of the Federal Environmental ministry - research for strengthening nuclear safety and radiation protection: German uranium miners biobank: consequences of uranium mining and radiological impacts, German miners cohort study, health effects of strong magnetic fields of NMR imaging, radiation exposure due to nuclear medical examinations, national survey on the radio-cesium contamination of wild boars.

  20. Toxicity of two imidazolium ionic liquids, [bmim][BF4] and [omim][BF4], to standard aquatic test organisms: Role of acetone in the induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarpali, Vasiliki; Dailianis, Stefanos

    2015-07-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs), [bmim][BF4] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) and [omim][BF4] (1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate), in battery of standard aquatic toxicity test organisms. Specifically, exposure of the algae Scenedesmus rubescens, crustaceans Thamnocephalus platyurus and Artemia franciscana, rotifers Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus plicatilis and bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis to different concentrations of [bmim][BF4], [omim][BF4] and/or a binary mixture of [bmim][BF4]-[omim][BF4] (1:1) with or without acetone (carrier solvent), revealed that solvent can differentially mediate ILs' toxic profile. Acetone's ability to differentially affect ILs' cation's alkyl chain length, as well as the hydrolysis of [BF4(-)] anions was evident. Given that the toxic potency of the tested ILs seemed to be equal or even higher (in some cases) than those of conventional organic solvents, the present study revealed that the characterization of imidazolium-based ILs as "green solvents" should not be generalized, at least in case of their natural occurrence in mixtures with organic solvents, such as acetone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dicty_cDB: FC-BF01 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC (Link to library) FC-BF01 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15105-1 FC-BF01Z (Li...nk to Original site) - - FC-BF01Z 674 - - - - Show FC-BF01 Library FC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-BF01 (Link to dict...yBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U15105-1 Original site URL http://dict...402813_1( AF402813 |pid:none) Ictalurus punctatus 40S ribosomal ... 260 3e-68 AJ783868_1( AJ783868 |pid:none...lasmic 8.0 %: mitochondrial 4.0 %: nuclear >> prediction for FC-BF01 is cyt 5' end seq. ID - 5' end seq. - L

  2. Young's modulus of BF wood material by longitudinal vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phadke, Sushil; Shrivastava, Bhakt Darshan; Mishra, Ashutosh; Dagaonkar, N

    2014-01-01

    All engineered structures are designed and built with consideration of resisting the same fundamental forces of tension, compression, shear, bending and torsion. Structural design is a balance of these internal and external forces. So, it is interesting to calculate the Young's moduli of Borassus Flabellifier BF wood are quite important from the application point of view. The ultrasonic waves are closely related with the elastic and inelastic properties of the materials. In the present study, we measured longitudinal wave ultrasonic velocities in BF wood material by longitudinal vibration method. After measuring ultrasonic velocity in BF wood material, we calculated Young's modulus of Borassus Flabellifier BF wood material. We used ultrasonic interferometer for measuring longitudinal wave ultrasonic velocity in BF wood material made by Mittal Enterprises, New Delhi, India in our laboratory. Borassus Flabellifier BF wood material was collected from Dhar district of Madhya Pradesh, India.

  3. On the nature of the symbiotic star BF Cygni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikolajewska, J.; Mikolajewski, M.; Kenyon, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    Optical and ultraviolet spectroscopy of the symbiotic binary BF Cyg obtained during 1979-1988 is discussed. This system consists of a low-mass M5 giant filling about 50 percent of its tidal volume and a hot, luminous compact object similar to the central star of a planetary nebula. The binary is embedded in an asymmetric nebula which includes a small, high-density region and an extended region of lower density. The larger nebula is formed by a slow wind ejected by the cool component and ionized by the hot star, while the more compact nebula is material expelled by the hot component in the form of a bipolar wind. The analysis indicates that disk accretion is essential to maintain the nuclear burning shell of the hot star. 84 refs

  4. A reciprocity formula from abelian BF and Turaev–Viro theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mathieu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article we show that the use of Deligne–Beilinson cohomology in the context of the U(1 BF theory on a closed 3-manifold M yields a discrete ZN BF theory whose partition function is an abelian TV invariant of M. By comparing the expectation values of the U(1 and ZN holonomies in both BF theories we obtain a reciprocity formula.

  5. Characterization of plasticized PMMA–LiBF4 based solid polymer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Polymer electrolyte films prepared from poly(methyl methacrylate) and LiBF4 with different con- centrations of ... 1. Introduction. Many types of ionically conducting polymers, generally ... 2. Experimental. Thin films of PMMA–LiBF4–DBP in different mole ratios ... remains very close to that of a liquid electrolyte. It is con-.

  6. Enhanced Iron and Selenium Uptake in Plants by Volatile Emissions of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BF06

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs released by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR are involved in promoting growth and triggering systemic resistance (ISR in plants. Importantly, the release of VOCs by some PGPR strains confers improved plant uptake of nutrient elements from the soil. However, the underlying mechanisms of VOCs-regulated nutrient acquisition remain elusive. In this study, VOCs were extracted and identified from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (strain BF06 using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS. BF06 VOCs exposure significantly promoted the growth and photosynthesis of Arabidopsis plants. To explore how microbial VOCs stimulate growth in plants, gene expression profiles of Arabidopsis seedlings exposed to BF06 VOCs were examined using transcriptomic analyses. In screening differentially expressed genes (DEGs, most upregulated DEGs were found to be related to amino acid transport, iron (Fe uptake and homeostasis, and sulfate transport. Furthermore, BF06 VOCs significantly enhanced Fe absorption in plants under Fe-limited conditions. However, when nitric oxide (NO synthesis was inhibited, BF06 VOCs exposure could not substantially augment Fe acquisition in plants under alkaline stress, indicating that VOCs-mediated plant uptake of Fe was required for induction of root NO accumulation. In addition, BF06 VOCs exposure led to a marked increase in some genes encoding for sulfate transporters, and further increased Se accumulation in plants. Intriguingly, BF06 VOCs exposure failed to increase Se uptake in sultr1;2 mutants, which may indicate that high-level transcription of these sulfate transporters induced by BF06 VOCs was essential for enhancing Se absorption by plants. Taken together, our results demonstrated the potential of VOCs released by this strain BF06 to increase Fe and Se uptake in plants.

  7. In vivo detection of prion amyloid plaques using [{sup 11}C]BF-227 PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, Nobuyuki; Yanai, Kazuhiko [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Sendai (Japan); Shiga, Yusei; Itoyama, Yasuhito [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Sendai (Japan); Furumoto, Shozo [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Sendai (Japan); Tohoku University, Division of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Sendai (Japan); Tashiro, Manabu [Tohoku University, Division of Cyclotron Nuclear Medicine, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Sendai (Japan); Tsuboi, Yoshio [Fukuoka University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Fukuoka (Japan); Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Arai, Hiroyuki [Institute of Development, Aging, and Cancer, Tohoku University, Department of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Division of Brain Sciences, Sendai (Japan); Iwata, Ren [Tohoku University, Division of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Sendai (Japan); Kudo, Yukitsuka [Tohoku University, Innovation of New Biomedical Engineering Center, Sendai (Japan); Doh-ura, Katsumi [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Department of Prion Research, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    In vivo detection of pathological prion protein (PrP) in the brain is potentially useful for the diagnosis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). However, there are no non-invasive ante-mortem means for detection of pathological PrP deposition in the brain. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the amyloid imaging tracer BF-227 with positron emission tomography (PET) for the non-invasive detection of PrP amyloid in the brain. The binding ability of BF-227 to PrP amyloid was investigated using autoradiography and fluorescence microscopy. Five patients with TSEs, including three patients with Gerstmann-Straeussler-Scheinker disease (GSS) and two patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), underwent [{sup 11}C]BF-227 PET scans. Results were compared with data from 10 normal controls and 17 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The regional to pons standardized uptake value ratio was calculated as an index of BF-227 retention. Binding of BF-227 to PrP plaques was confirmed using brain samples from autopsy-confirmed GSS cases. In clinical PET study, significantly higher retention of BF-227 was detected in the cerebellum, thalamus and lateral temporal cortex of GSS patients compared to that in the corresponding tissues of normal controls. GSS patients also showed higher retention of BF-227 in the cerebellum, thalamus and medial temporal cortex compared to AD patients. In contrast, the two CJD patients showed no obvious retention of BF-227 in the brain. Although [{sup 11}C]BF-227 is a non-specific imaging marker of cerebral amyloidosis, it is useful for in vivo detection of PrP plaques in the human brain in GSS, based on the regional distribution of the tracer. PET amyloid imaging might provide a means for both early diagnosis and non-invasive disease monitoring of certain forms of TSEs. (orig.)

  8. In vivo detection of prion amyloid plaques using [11C]BF-227 PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Nobuyuki; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Shiga, Yusei; Itoyama, Yasuhito; Furumoto, Shozo; Tashiro, Manabu; Tsuboi, Yoshio; Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Arai, Hiroyuki; Iwata, Ren; Kudo, Yukitsuka; Doh-ura, Katsumi

    2010-01-01

    In vivo detection of pathological prion protein (PrP) in the brain is potentially useful for the diagnosis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). However, there are no non-invasive ante-mortem means for detection of pathological PrP deposition in the brain. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the amyloid imaging tracer BF-227 with positron emission tomography (PET) for the non-invasive detection of PrP amyloid in the brain. The binding ability of BF-227 to PrP amyloid was investigated using autoradiography and fluorescence microscopy. Five patients with TSEs, including three patients with Gerstmann-Straeussler-Scheinker disease (GSS) and two patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), underwent [ 11 C]BF-227 PET scans. Results were compared with data from 10 normal controls and 17 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The regional to pons standardized uptake value ratio was calculated as an index of BF-227 retention. Binding of BF-227 to PrP plaques was confirmed using brain samples from autopsy-confirmed GSS cases. In clinical PET study, significantly higher retention of BF-227 was detected in the cerebellum, thalamus and lateral temporal cortex of GSS patients compared to that in the corresponding tissues of normal controls. GSS patients also showed higher retention of BF-227 in the cerebellum, thalamus and medial temporal cortex compared to AD patients. In contrast, the two CJD patients showed no obvious retention of BF-227 in the brain. Although [ 11 C]BF-227 is a non-specific imaging marker of cerebral amyloidosis, it is useful for in vivo detection of PrP plaques in the human brain in GSS, based on the regional distribution of the tracer. PET amyloid imaging might provide a means for both early diagnosis and non-invasive disease monitoring of certain forms of TSEs. (orig.)

  9. Analysis on ingress of coolant event in vacuum vessel using modified TRAC-BF1 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajima, Toshio; Kurihara, Ryoichi; Seki, Yasushi

    1999-08-01

    The Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC-BF1) was modified on the basis of ICE experimental results so as to analyze the Ingress of Coolant Event (ICE) in the vacuum vessel of a nuclear fusion reactor. In the previous report, the TRAC-BF1 code, which was originally developed for the safety analysis of a light water reactor, had been modified for the ICE of the fusion reactor. And the addition of the flat structural plate model to the VESSEL component and arbitrary appointment of the gravity direction had been added in the TRAC-BF1 code. This TRAC-BF1 code was further modified. The flat structural plate model of the VESSEL component was enabled to divide in multi layers having different materials, and a part of the multi layers could take a buried heater into consideration. Moreover, the TRAC-BF1 code was modified to analyze under the low-pressure condition close to vacuum within range of the steam table. This paper describes additional functions of the modified TRAC-BF1 code, analytical evaluation using ICE experimental data and the ITER model with final design report (FDR) data. (author)

  10. From lattice BF gauge theory to area-angle Regge calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzom, Valentin

    2009-01-01

    We consider Riemannian 4D BF lattice gauge theory, on a triangulation of spacetime. Introducing the simplicity constraints which turn BF theory into simplicial gravity, some geometric quantities of Regge calculus, areas, and 3D and 4D dihedral angles, are identified. The parallel transport conditions are taken care of to ensure a consistent gluing of simplices. We show that these gluing relations, together with the simplicity constraints, contain the constraints of area-angle Regge calculus in a simple way, via the group structure of the underlying BF gauge theory. This provides a precise road from constrained BF theory to area-angle Regge calculus. Doing so, a framework combining variables of lattice BF theory and Regge calculus is built. The action takes a form a la Regge and includes the contribution of the Immirzi parameter. In the absence of simplicity constraints, the standard spin foam model for BF theory is recovered. Insertions of local observables are investigated, leading to Casimir insertions for areas and reproducing for 3D angles known results obtained through angle operators on spin networks. The present formulation is argued to be suitable for deriving spin foam models from discrete path integrals and to unravel their geometric content.

  11. Molecular cloning, structural analysis and expression of complement component Bf/C2 genes in the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Ho; Webb, Barbara; Nakao, Miki; Smith, Sylvia L

    2007-01-01

    Factor B and C2 are serine proteases that provide the catalytic subunits of C3 and C5 convertases of the alternative (AP) and classical (CP) complement pathways. Two Bf/C2 cDNAs, GcBf/C2-1 and -2 (previously referred to as nsBf/C2-A and nsBf/C2-B), were isolated from the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum. GcBf/C2-1 and -2 are 3364 and 3082bp in length and encode a leader peptide, three CCPs, one VWFA, the serine protease domain and have a putative factor D/C1s/MASP cleavage site. Southern blots show that there might be up to two Bf/C2-like genes for each of the two GcBf/C2 isoforms. GcBf/C2-1 and -2 are constitutively expressed, albeit at different levels, in all nine tissues examined. Expression in erythrocytes is a novel finding. Structural analysis has revealed that the localization of glycosylation sites in the SP domain of both putative proteins indicates that the molecular organization of the shark molecules is more like C2 than factor B. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that GcBf/C2-1 and -2 and TrscBf of Triakis scyllia (another shark species) originated from a common ancestor and share a remote ancestor with Bf and C2 of mammals and bony fish.

  12. Assessment of TRAC-BF1 1D reflood model with CCTF and SCTF data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Hajime; Ohnuki, Akira; Murao, Yoshio; Abe, Yutaka.

    1993-03-01

    Post test calculations for six selected Cylindrical Core Test Facility (CCTF) and Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF) tests were performed to assess the core thermal hydraulic models of the TRAC-BF1 code during the reflood in a PWR LOCA. A special version of the TRAC code was developed at JAERI by implementing the constitutive package of the TRAC-BF1 code into the TRAC-PF1 code for this assessment. The TRAC-BF1 model predicted well the void fraction at either bottom or top part of the core and overpredicted the void fraction at the center part of the core in the CCTF and SCTF tests performed under so-called licensing conditions. The TRAC-BF1 model overpredicted the clad temperatures at the center part of the core. The TRAC-BF1 model predicted a jump of void fraction where the flow pattern transition between the bubbly/slug flow and the annular/dispersed flow regimes occurred. The jump caused the water mass flow rate to be unstable and resulted in the overprediction of the void fraction at the center part of the core. It was also found that the TRAC-BF1 film boiling model underestimated the heat transfer coefficient in the vicinity of the quench front and caused the quench front propagation to be delayed. These assessment results suggest the following areas should be improved in future to apply the TRAC-BF1 code to the reflood in a PWR LOCA: (1) Core hydraulic model where flow pattern transition occurs, (2) Core heat transfer model in the film boiling regime, especially for the dependence on the distance from the quench front. (author)

  13. Verification of Gamma-ray Sensitivity for BF3 Neutron Detection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yu Sun; Cho, Jin Bok; Lyou, Seok Jean

    2016-01-01

    The BF3(Boron Tri-Fluorides) gas filled neutron detector(hereafter BF3 Detector) is commonly used for nuclear reactor’s startup channel due to its relatively high neutron efficiency and good discrimination against gamma-ray backgrounds. In order to measure how much this gamma-ray will affect on BF3 neutron detector performance in view of gamma noise discrimination, Multi-Channel Analyzer(MCA) is utilized for spectrum based signal analysis. The pre-test of BF3 Detector should be performed in an area where the ionization does not exceed 2.5 micro Gy/Hr(Ref.1). In this paper, the discrimination level (Voltage Unit) is verified by experimentally measurement if that discrimination level is acceptable within the criteria or not before installation. The maximum discrimination level, so called LLD, is determined by experimentally measurement. This BF3 Detector (LND20372) is insensitive under 540 micro Gy/Hr of gamma ray and 0.3V of LLD could cut off a background and gamma induced signal in a laboratory. MCA could be a convenient tool for spectrum analysis of signals that induced from gamma ray and a time saving tool rather than oscilloscope investigation due to its function to integrate all input signals at a sudden duration

  14. Assessment of the turbine trip transient in Cofrentes NPP with TRAC-BF1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castrillo, F.; Gomez, A.; Gallego, I.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of the assessment of TRAC-BF1 (G1-J1) code with the model of C. N. Cofrentes for simulation of the transient originated by the manual trip of the main turbine. C. N. Cofrentes is a General Electric designed BWR/6 plant, with a nominal core thermal power of 2894 Mwt, in commercial operation since 1985, owned and operated by Hidroelectrica Espanola, S. A. The plant incorporates all the characteristics of BWR/6 reactors, with two turbine driven FW pumps. As a result of this assessment a model of C. N. Cofrentes has been developed for TRAC-BF1 that fairly reproduces operational transient behavior of the plant. A special purpose code was generated to obtain reactivity coefficients, as required by TRAC-BF1, from the 3D simulator

  15. The BfR publishes workshop report based on the expert meeting on endocrine disruptors

    OpenAIRE

    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

    2016-01-01

    On the occasion of an expert meeting organised by the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) held in Berlin on 11 and 12 April 2016, a consensus was reached on the identification of endocrine disruptors. The BfR has now published the workshop report from the conference. It contains, among other things, the consensus paper agreed by all participants. The report is published at http://www.bfr.bund.de/cm/349/scientific-principles-for-the-identification-of-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-a-co...

  16. LINK codes TRAC-BF1/PARCSv2.7 in LINUX without external communication interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrachina, T.; Garcia-Fenoll, M.; Abarca, A.; Miro, R.; Verdu, G.; Concejal, A.; Solar, A.

    2014-01-01

    The TRAC-BF1 code is still widely used by the nuclear industry for safety analysis. The plant models developed using this code are highly validated, so it is advisable to continue improving this code before migrating to another completely different code. The coupling with the NRC neutronic code PARCSv2.7 increases the simulation capabilities in transients in which the power distribution plays an important role. In this paper, the procedure for the coupling of TRAC-BF1 and PARCSv2.7 codes without PVM and in Linux is presented. (Author)

  17. 1H, 19F and 11B nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of BF3:amine catalysts used in the cure of C fiber-epoxy prepregs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Happe, J.A.; Morgan, R.J.; Walkup, C.M.

    1983-12-01

    The chemical composition of commercial BF 3 :amine complexes are variable and contain BF 4 - and BF 3 (OH) - salts together with other unidentified highly reactive species. The BF 3 :amine complexes, which are susceptible to hydrolysis, also partially convert to the BF 4 - salt (i.e. BF 4 - NH 3 + C 2 H 5 ) upon heating. This salt formation is accelerated in dimethyl sulfoxide solution and in the presence of the epoxides that are present in commercial prepregs. Commercial C fiber-epoxy prepregs are shown to contain either BF 3 :NH 2 C 2 H 5 or BF 3 :NHC 5 H 10 species together with their BF 4 - salts and a variety of boron-fluorine or carbon-fluorine prepreg species. Considerable variation in the relative quantities of BF 3 :amine to its BF 4 - salt was observed from prepreg lot to lot, which will cause variable viscosity-time-temperature prepreg cure profiles. It is concluded that the chemically stable and mobile BF 4 - salt is the pre-dominant catalytic species, acting as a cationic catalyst for the prepreg cure reactions. During the early stages of cure the BF 3 :amine catalyst converts to the BF 4 - salt in the presence of epoxides, whereas the BF 3 -prepreg species are susceptible to catalytic deactivation and immobilization

  18. Priorities, activities and objectives of the BMU/BfS concept for ''Human Factor'' (HF) topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, R.; Kociok, B.

    1994-01-01

    Representation of the SR 2039/1-7 research project of the BMU/BfS, with a short definition of its objectives. The man-machine or man-organization-interface in nuclear power plant operation is dealt with. (DG) [de

  19. New polymers containing BF2-benzoylacetonate groups. Synthesis, luminescence, excimer and exciplex formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorenko, Elena V.; Mirochnik, Anatolii G.; Beloliptsev, Anton Yu.

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, a new synthetic method for the functionalization of polystyrene (PS) and (styrene-methyl methacrylate) copolymer has been developed. Using the new method, polymers containing BF 2 -benzoylacetonate groups have been obtained through double acylation by acetic anhydride with boron trifluoride. Luminescence of the produced polymers in solutions and films has been studied. Quantum yields of polymer solution luminescence are significantly higher than those of the low-molecular-weight analog – boron difluoride benzoylacetonate. For the polymer, in which styrene fragments are separated by methyl methacrylate groups, at low concentrations of the polymer in solution one observes the monomer luminescence of BF 2 -benzoylacetonate groups, while at high concentrations – the excimer luminescence. In case of PS-based polymers, in which BF 2 -benzoylacetonate groups and phenyl rings are not separated, in diluted solutions one observes the fluorescence of the intramolecular exciplexes, while at the concentration increase – the luminescence of intermolecular exciplexes. The ability of excimer formation is responsible for the increased photostability of the produced polymers. - Highlights: •Polymers containing BF 2 -benzoylacetonate groups have been synthesized. •Luminescence of the produced polymers in solutions and films has been studied. •Formation of excimers and exciplexes in solution has been revealed. •Formation of excimers in films increases their photostability.

  20. Rate Coefficients for the Reactions of BF with O and O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-21

    2 indicate that indi- vidual molecular orbitals of BF are quite asymmetric so that the small overall dipole moment could be misleading. Nevertheless...radiation effects on materials, lu- brication and surface phenomena, thersionic " emision . photosensitive materials and detectors, atomic frequency standards

  1. New polymers containing BF{sub 2}-benzoylacetonate groups. Synthesis, luminescence, excimer and exciplex formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorenko, Elena V., E-mail: gev@ich.dvo.ru [Institute of Chemistry, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 159, Prosp. 100 letiya Vladivostoka, Vladivostok 690022 (Russian Federation); Mirochnik, Anatolii G.; Beloliptsev, Anton Yu. [Institute of Chemistry, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 159, Prosp. 100 letiya Vladivostoka, Vladivostok 690022 (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-15

    In the present study, a new synthetic method for the functionalization of polystyrene (PS) and (styrene-methyl methacrylate) copolymer has been developed. Using the new method, polymers containing BF{sub 2}-benzoylacetonate groups have been obtained through double acylation by acetic anhydride with boron trifluoride. Luminescence of the produced polymers in solutions and films has been studied. Quantum yields of polymer solution luminescence are significantly higher than those of the low-molecular-weight analog – boron difluoride benzoylacetonate. For the polymer, in which styrene fragments are separated by methyl methacrylate groups, at low concentrations of the polymer in solution one observes the monomer luminescence of BF{sub 2}-benzoylacetonate groups, while at high concentrations – the excimer luminescence. In case of PS-based polymers, in which BF{sub 2}-benzoylacetonate groups and phenyl rings are not separated, in diluted solutions one observes the fluorescence of the intramolecular exciplexes, while at the concentration increase – the luminescence of intermolecular exciplexes. The ability of excimer formation is responsible for the increased photostability of the produced polymers. - Highlights: •Polymers containing BF{sub 2}-benzoylacetonate groups have been synthesized. •Luminescence of the produced polymers in solutions and films has been studied. •Formation of excimers and exciplexes in solution has been revealed. •Formation of excimers in films increases their photostability.

  2. Dissipation of pyraclostrobin and its metabolite BF-500-3 in maize under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xiangwei; Liu, Congyun; Liu, Fengmao; Liu, Yanping; Dong, Jiannan

    2012-06-01

    The dissipation and residue of pyraclostrobin and its metabolite BF-500-3 in maize under field conditions were investigated. A sensitive, simple and fast method for simultaneous determination of pyraclostrobin and BF-500-3 in maize matrix was established by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The average recoveries of pyraclostrobin and BF-500-3 were found in the range of 83.6-104.9% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.3-10.0%. The results showed that pyraclostrobin dissipated quickly in maize plant with half-lives of 1.6-1.7 days. Its metabolite BF-500-3 showed a tendency of rapid increasing initially and decreasing afterwards. At harvest time, the terminal residues of pyraclostrobin were below the maximum residue limit (MRL) set by USA and Canada in maize grain when measured 7 days after the final application, which suggested that the use of this fungicide was safe for humans. The results could provide guidance to safe and reasonable use of pyraclostrobin in agriculture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation of toxic effects of imidazolium ionic liquids, [bmim][BF4] and [omim][BF4], on marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis with or without the presence of conventional solvents, such as acetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarpali, Vasiliki; Belavgeni, Alexia; Dailianis, Stefanos

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the cytotoxic, oxidative and genotoxic effects of two commonly used imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs), [bmim][BF4] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) and [omim][BF4] (1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate), on the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, as well as whether acetone could mediate their toxic profile. In this context, mussels were firstly exposed to different concentrations of [bmim][BF4] or [omim][BF4], with or without the presence of acetone (at a final concentration of 0.06% v/v), for a period of 96h, in order to determine the concentration that causes 50% mussel mortality (LC50 values) in each case. Thereafter, mussels were exposed to sub- and non-lethal concentrations of ILs for investigating their ability to cause lysosomal membrane impairment (with the use of neutral red retention assay/NRRT), superoxide anion and lipid peroxidation byproduct (malondialdehyde/MDA) formation, as well as DNA damage and formation of nuclear abnormalities in hemocytes. The results showed that [omim][BF4] was more toxic than [bmim][BF4] in all cases, while the presence of acetone resulted in a slight attenuation of its toxicity. The different toxic behavior of ILs was further revealed by the significantly lower levels of NRRT values observed in [omim][BF4]-treated mussels, compared to those occurring in [bmim][BF4] in all cases. Similarly, [bmim][BF4]-mediated oxidative and genotoxic effects were observed only in the highest concentration tested (10mgL(-1)), while [omim][BF4]-mediated effects were enhanced at lower concentrations (0.01-0.05mgL(-1)). Overall, the present study showed that [bmim][BF4] and [omim][BF4] could induce not only lethal but also nonlethal effects on mussel M. galloprovincialis. The extent of [bmim][BF4] and/or [omim][BF4]-mediated effects could be ascribed to the length of each IL alkyl chain, as well as to their lipophilicity. Moreover, the role of acetone on the obtained toxic effects of the specific ILs was

  4. [Cu(I)(bpp)]BF4: the first extended coordination network prepared solvothermally in an ionic liquid solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Kun; Huang, Xiaoying; Pan, Long; Li, Jing; Appel, Aaron; Wherland, Scot; Pang, Long

    2002-12-07

    Use of an ionic liquid [bmim][BF4] (bmim = 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) as solvent has resulted in the first extended coordination structure, the two-dimensional network [Cu(bpp)]BF4 [bpp = 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane], produced via a solvothermal route.

  5. Characterization of BF4− in terms of its effect on water by the 1-propanol probing methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morita, Takeshi; Ayako, Nitta; Nishikawa, Keilo

    2014-01-01

    One of the most common constituent anions for room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), BF4−, was characterized in terms of its effect on H2O using the so-called 1-propanol (1P) probing methodology developed by us earlier [PCCP, 15(2013) 14548-14565]. The results indicated that BF4− is quantitatively...

  6. BF-30 effectively inhibits ciprofloxacin-resistant bacteria in vitro and in a rat model of vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Li, Bing; Li, Yang; Dou, Jie; Hao, Qingru; Tian, Yuwei; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Changlin

    2014-07-01

    Bacterial infections are becoming increasingly difficult to treat due to the increasing number of multidrug-resistant strains. Cathelicidin-BF (BF-30) is a cathelicidin-like antimicrobial peptide and exhibits broad antimicrobial activity against bacteria. In the present study, the antibacterial activity of BF-30 against ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was examined, and the protective effects of this peptide against these bacteria in rats with bacterial vaginosis were identified for the first time. The data showed that BF-30 had effective antimicrobial activities against ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli and S. aureus. The minimal inhibitory concentrations for both bacterial strains were 16 μg/ml, and the minimal bactericidal concentrations were 64 and 128 μg/ml, respectively. A time course experiment showed that the CFU counts rapidly decreased after BF-30 treatment, and the bacteria were nearly eliminated within 4 h. BF-30 could reduce the fold change (CFU/ml) in local colonization by drug-resistant E. coli and S. aureus to 0.01 at a dose of 0.8 mg/kg/day in the rats' vaginal secretions. In addition, BF-30 induced membrane permeabilization and bound to the genomic DNA, interrupting protein synthesis. Taken together, our data demonstrate that BF-30 has potential therapeutic value for the prevention and treatment of bacterial vaginosis.

  7. Cartan's equations define a topological field theory of the BF type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuesta, Vladimir; Montesinos, Merced

    2007-01-01

    Cartan's first and second structure equations together with first and second Bianchi identities can be interpreted as equations of motion for the tetrad, the connection and a set of two-form fields T I and R J I . From this viewpoint, these equations define by themselves a field theory. Restricting the analysis to four-dimensional spacetimes (keeping gravity in mind), it is possible to give an action principle of the BF type from which these equations of motion are obtained. The action turns out to be equivalent to a linear combination of the Nieh-Yan, Pontrjagin, and Euler classes, and so the field theory defined by the action is topological. Once Einstein's equations are added, the resulting theory is general relativity. Therefore, the current results show that the relationship between general relativity and topological field theories of the BF type is also present in the first-order formalism for general relativity

  8. Janus field theories from non-linear BF theories for multiple M2-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryang, Shijong

    2009-01-01

    We integrate the nonpropagating B μ gauge field for the non-linear BF Lagrangian describing N M2-branes which includes terms with even number of the totally antisymmetric tensor M IJK in arXiv:0808.2473 and for the two-types of non-linear BF Lagrangians which include terms with odd number of M IJK as well in arXiv:0809:0985. For the former Lagrangian we derive directly the DBI-type Lagrangian expressed by the SU(N) dynamical A μ gauge field with a spacetime dependent coupling constant, while for the low-energy expansions of the latter Lagrangians the B μ integration is iteratively performed. The derived Janus field theory Lagrangians are compared.

  9. BF3/nano-γ-Al2O3 Promoted Knoevenagel Condensation at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. F. Mirjalili

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Knoevenagel condensation of aromatic aldehydes with barbituric acid, dimedone and malononitrile occurred in the presence of BF3/nano-γ-Al2O3 at room temperature in ethanol. This catalyst is characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS.

  10. The effective action in (2+1)-dimensional gravity and generalized BF topological field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birmingham, D. (Theory Div., CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)); Gibbs, R.; Mokhtari, S. (Physics Dept., Louisiana Tech Univ., Ruston, LA (United States))

    1991-07-11

    The one-loop off-shell effective action is studied for the case of generalized BF theories in three dimensions, including, for example, (2 + 1)-dimensional gravity with a cosmological constant. The phase contribution to the effective action, originating from the {eta}-function of a particular first order operator, is calculated using a momentum space technique. It is found that the {eta}-function is proportional to the classical action. (orig.).

  11. The effective action in (2+1)-dimensional gravity and generalized BF topological field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birmingham, D.; Gibbs, R.; Mokhtari, S.

    1991-01-01

    The one-loop off-shell effective action is studied for the case of generalized BF theories in three dimensions, including, for example, (2 + 1)-dimensional gravity with a cosmological constant. The phase contribution to the effective action, originating from the η-function of a particular first order operator, is calculated using a momentum space technique. It is found that the η-function is proportional to the classical action. (orig.)

  12. BfR removes anthraquinone from its list of recommendations for food packaging

    OpenAIRE

    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

    2013-01-01

    The substance anthraquinone is used in the production of paper and cardboard, including food packaging. Anthraquinone contained in the packaging can contaminate food. The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) took the publication of an expert opinion of the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA) published in 2012 as an opportunity to reassess the use of anthraquinone in the manufacture of paper intended for food contact. In its opinion on anthraquinone as an active pesticide ingredient,...

  13. Investigation of toxic effects of imidazolium ionic liquids, [bmim][BF{sub 4}] and [omim][BF{sub 4}], on marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis with or without the presence of conventional solvents, such as acetone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsarpali, Vasiliki; Belavgeni, Alexia; Dailianis, Stefanos, E-mail: sdailianis@upatras.gr

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • The toxic effects of [bmim][BF{sub 4}] and [omim][BF{sub 4}] on mussels were investigated. • Both ILs could induce lethal and nonlethal effects on Mytilus galloprovincialis. • Different extent of IL-mediated adverse effects was observed in mussel hemocytes. • The alkyl chain length and lipophilicity of ILs are crucial for their toxicity. • Acetone influences the oxidative and genotoxic effects of [omim][BF{sub 4}]. - Abstract: This study investigated the cytotoxic, oxidative and genotoxic effects of two commonly used imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs), [bmim][BF{sub 4}] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) and [omim][BF{sub 4}] (1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate), on the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, as well as whether acetone could mediate their toxic profile. In this context, mussels were firstly exposed to different concentrations of [bmim][BF{sub 4}] or [omim][BF{sub 4}], with or without the presence of acetone (at a final concentration of 0.06% v/v), for a period of 96 h, in order to determine the concentration that causes 50% mussel mortality (LC{sub 50} values) in each case. Thereafter, mussels were exposed to sub- and non-lethal concentrations of ILs for investigating their ability to cause lysosomal membrane impairment (with the use of neutral red retention assay/NRRT), superoxide anion and lipid peroxidation byproduct (malondialdehyde/MDA) formation, as well as DNA damage and formation of nuclear abnormalities in hemocytes. The results showed that [omim][BF{sub 4}] was more toxic than [bmim][BF{sub 4}] in all cases, while the presence of acetone resulted in a slight attenuation of its toxicity. The different toxic behavior of ILs was further revealed by the significantly lower levels of NRRT values observed in [omim][BF{sub 4}]-treated mussels, compared to those occurring in [bmim][BF{sub 4}] in all cases. Similarly, [bmim][BF{sub 4}]-mediated oxidative and genotoxic effects were observed only in the highest

  14. An R-matrix study of electron induced processes in BF3 plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Dhanoj; Chakrabarti, Kalyan; Yoon, Jung-Sik; Song, Mi-Young

    2017-12-01

    An R-matrix formalism is used to study electron collision with the BF3 molecule using Quantemol-N, a computational system for electron molecule collisions which uses the molecular R-matrix method. Several target models are tested for BF3 in its equilibrium geometry, and the results are presented for the best model. Scattering calculations are then performed to yield resonance parameters, elastic, differential, excitation, and momentum transfer cross sections. The results for all the cross sections are compared with the experimental and theoretical data, and a good agreement is obtained. The resonances have been detected at 3.79 and 13.58 eV, with the ionization threshold being 15.7 eV. We have also estimated the absolute dissociative electron attachment (DEA) cross section for the F- ion production from BF3, which is a maiden attempt. The peak of the DEA is at around 13.5 eV, which is well supported by the resonance detected at 13.58 eV. The cross sections reported here find a variety of applications in the plasma technology.

  15. BF2 complex of fluorinated dipyrrolyldiketone: a new class of efficient receptor for acetate anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Hiromitsu; Ito, Yoshihiro

    2006-10-02

    The beta-fluorinated derivative (2b) of the 1,3-dipyrrolyl-1,3-propanedione BF2 complex has been prepared from 3,4-difluoropyrrole and malonyl chloride, followed by treatment with BF3.OEt2. Despite the simple, acyclic, and neutral structure, 2b exhibits efficient 1:1 binding for anions in CH2Cl2 using the bridging CH and pyrrole NH as interaction sites. The binding constant (Ka) of 2b for acetate (CH3CO(2-)), associating more effectively than anions such as F-, Cl-, Br-, H2PO(4-), and HSO(4-), is estimated to be 9.6 x 10(5) M(-1), approximately 9 times larger than that of the beta-H derivative 2a (1.1 x 10(5) M(-1)). The UV-vis and fluorescence spectral changes of 2b elucidate the effective recognition of an amino acid, such as phenylalanine, in the anionic form; this is also supported by CD spectral changes with mirror images by L- and D-isomers. Furthermore, in the solid state, BF2 complex 2b provides Cl- -bridged supramolecular networks and, in sharp contrast, deprotonated "anionic" self-assembled structures by F- binding.

  16. Comparison of proteomics profiles of Campylobacter jejuni strain Bf under microaerobic and aerobic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramila Christiane Rodrigues

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni accounts for one of the leading causes of foodborne bacterial enteritis in humans. Despite being considered an obligate microaerobic microorganism, C. jejuni is regularly exposed to oxidative stress. However, its adaptive strategies to survive the atmospheric oxygen level during transmission to humans remain unclear. Recently, the atypical clinical C. jejuni Bf strain was shown by its unexpected ability to grow under ambient atmosphere. Here, we aimed to understand better the biological mechanisms underlying its atypical aerotolerance trait using two-dimensional protein electrophoresis, gene expression and enzymatic activities. Forty-seven proteins were identified with a significantly different abundance between cultivation under microaerobic and aerobic conditions. The over-expressed proteins in aerobiosis belonged mainly to the oxidative stress response, modulation of the main enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, iron uptake and regulation and amino acid uptake when compared to microaerobic conditions. The higher abundance of proteins related to oxidative stress was correlated to dramatically higher transcript levels of the corresponding encoding genes in aerobic conditions compared to microaerobic conditions. In addition, a higher catalase-equivalent activity in strain Bf was observed. Despite the restricted catabolic capacities of C. jejuni, this study reveals that strain Bf is equipped to withstand oxidative stress. This ability could contribute to emergence and persistence of particular strains of C. jejuni throughout food processing or macrophage attack during human infection.

  17. Stanley Kubrick and B.F. Skinner : Is a Teaching Machine a Monolith ?

    OpenAIRE

    浜野, 保樹; ハマノ, ヤスキ; Yasuki, Hamano

    1990-01-01

    The teaching machine invented by B.F. Skinner was recog-nized as one of few clear achievements of scientific pedagogy and even appeared in SF. Arthur C. Clarke who wrote the script of the SF movie "2001: A Space Odyssey" with Stanley Kubrick wanted to scientifically define a monolith to be a God who had given intelligence to our ancestors. In other words, he wanted to describe a monolith as a teaching machine as well as a God. However Kubrick did not want to make clear about what a monolith i...

  18. Negative charge induced degradation of PMOSFETs with BF2-implanted p+-poly gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, C.Y.; Sung, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    A new degradation phenomenon on thin gate oxide PMOS-FETs with BF 2 implanted p + -poly gate has been demonstrated and investigated. The cause of this type of degradation is a combination of the boron penetration through the gate oxide and charge trap generation due to the presence of fluorine in the gate oxide and some other processing-induced effects. The negative charge-induced degradation other than enhanced boron diffusion has been studied in detail here. The impact of this process-sensitive p + -poly gate structure on deep submicron CMOS process integration has been discussed. (author)

  19. The kinematical Hilbert space of loop quantum gravity from BF theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cianfrani, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    In this work, it is demonstrated how the kinematical Hilbert space of loop quantum gravity (LQG) can be inferred from the configuration space of BF theories via the imposition of the Hamiltonian constraints. In particular, it is outlined how the projection to the representations associated with Ashtekar-Barbero connections provides the correct procedure to implement second-class constraints and the corresponding nontrivial induced symplectic structure. Then, the reduction to SU(2) invariant intertwiners is analyzed and the properties of LQG states under Lorentz transformations are discussed.

  20. Behaviour of BF{sub 3} counters after in-pile irradiation; Comportement de compteurs a BF{sub 3} apres irradiation dans un reacteur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdant, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The behaviour of a proportional BF{sub 3}LCT 14 NE 31 counter with aluminium cathode has been studied after irradiation from 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 6} n.cm{sup -2} in the swimming-pool reactor Triton. The pulse spectrum was only slightly modified by two successive irradiations at 10{sup 15} n.cm{sup -2}, and 1 hour after the end of the irradiation the decrease in sensitivity reached 10 to 20 per cent. One hour after irradiation at 10{sup 16} n.cm{sup -2} this decrease was 20 per cent but the pulse spectrum was affected. The advantages of an aluminium cathode with respect to a standard counter using a copper cathode and irradiated under the same conditions are given. Beforehand, it had been established that the limit for use of an aluminium-cathode counter in the presence of {gamma} radiation is about 200 R.h{sup -1}. (author) [French] Le comportement d'un compteur proportionnel a BF-3LCT 14 NE 31, a cathode d'aluminium, a ete etudie apres des irradiations de 10{sup 5} a 10{sup 6} n.cm{sup -2} dans la pile-piscine TRITON. Deux irradiations successives de 10{sup 15} n.cm{sup -2} ont peu modifie le spectre des impulsions et 1 heure apres la fin de l'exposition la perte de sensibilite etait de 10 a 20 pour cent. Une heure apres une irradiation de 10{sup 16} n.cm{sup -2}, cette perte etait de 20 pour cent mais le spectre d'impulsions etait perturbe. L'avantage d'une cathode en aluminium est mis en evidence par comparaison avec un compteur standard a cathode de cuivre irradie dans les memes conditions. En preliminaire, on avait etabli que la limite d'utilisation d'un compteur a cathode d'aluminium en presence de rayonnements {gamma} etait de l'ordre de 200 R.h{sup -1}. (auteur)

  1. The HIV-1 epidemic in Bolivia is dominated by subtype B and CRF12_BF "family" strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Monick L; Velarde-Dunois, Ketty G; Segurondo, David; Morgado, Mariza G

    2012-01-16

    Molecular epidemiological studies of HIV-1 in South America have revealed the occurrence of subtypes B, F1 and BF1 recombinants. Even so, little information concerning the HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in Bolivia is available. In this study we performed phylogenetic analyses from samples collected in Bolivia at two different points in time over a 10 year span. We analyzed these samples to estimate the trends in the HIV subtype and recombinant forms over time. Fifty one HIV-1 positive samples were collected in Bolivia over two distinct periods (1996 and 2005). These samples were genetically characterized based on partial pol protease/reverse transcriptase (pr/rt) and env regions. Alignment and neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic analyses were established from partial env (n = 37) and all pol sequences using Mega 4. The remaining 14 env sequences from 1996 were previously characterized based on HMA-env (Heteroduplex mobility assay). The Simplot v.3.5.1 program was used to verify intragenic recombination, and SplitsTree 4.0 was employed to confirm the phylogenetic relationship of the BF1 recombinant samples. Phylogenetic analysis of both env and pol regions confirmed the predominance of "pure" subtype B (72.5%) samples circulating in Bolivia and revealed a high prevalence of BF1 genotypes (27.5%). Eleven out of 14 BF1 recombinants displayed a mosaic structure identical or similar to that described for the CRF12_BF variant, one sample was classified as CRF17_BF, and two others were F1pol/Benv. No "pure" HIV-1 subtype F1 or B" variant of subtype B was detected in the present study. Of note, samples characterized as CRF12_BF-related were depicted only in 2005. HIV-1 genetic diversity in Bolivia is mostly driven by subtype B followed by BF1 recombinant strains from the CRF12_BF "family". No significant temporal changes were detected between the mid-1990s and the mid-2000s for subtype B (76.2% vs 70.0%) or BF1 recombinant (23.8% vs 30.0%) samples from Bolivia.

  2. The HIV-1 epidemic in Bolivia is dominated by subtype B and CRF12_BF "family" strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães Monick L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular epidemiological studies of HIV-1 in South America have revealed the occurrence of subtypes B, F1 and BF1 recombinants. Even so, little information concerning the HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in Bolivia is available. In this study we performed phylogenetic analyses from samples collected in Bolivia at two different points in time over a 10 year span. We analyzed these samples to estimate the trends in the HIV subtype and recombinant forms over time. Materials and methods Fifty one HIV-1 positive samples were collected in Bolivia over two distinct periods (1996 and 2005. These samples were genetically characterized based on partial pol protease/reverse transcriptase (pr/rt and env regions. Alignment and neighbor-joining (NJ phylogenetic analyses were established from partial env (n = 37 and all pol sequences using Mega 4. The remaining 14 env sequences from 1996 were previously characterized based on HMA-env (Heteroduplex mobility assay. The Simplot v.3.5.1 program was used to verify intragenic recombination, and SplitsTree 4.0 was employed to confirm the phylogenetic relationship of the BF1 recombinant samples. Results Phylogenetic analysis of both env and pol regions confirmed the predominance of "pure" subtype B (72.5% samples circulating in Bolivia and revealed a high prevalence of BF1 genotypes (27.5%. Eleven out of 14 BF1 recombinants displayed a mosaic structure identical or similar to that described for the CRF12_BF variant, one sample was classified as CRF17_BF, and two others were F1pol/Benv. No "pure" HIV-1 subtype F1 or B" variant of subtype B was detected in the present study. Of note, samples characterized as CRF12_BF-related were depicted only in 2005. Conclusion HIV-1 genetic diversity in Bolivia is mostly driven by subtype B followed by BF1 recombinant strains from the CRF12_BF "family". No significant temporal changes were detected between the mid-1990s and the mid-2000s for subtype B (76.2% vs 70

  3. Assessing toxic effects of [Omim]Cl and [Omim]BF4 in zebrafish adults using a biomarker approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Guo, Yingying; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Zhu, Lusheng; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Cheng

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, the toxic effects of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Omim]Cl) and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Omim]BF4) on the zebrafish livers were studied at 0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg L(-1) on the 7th and 14th days. In addition, the concentrations of [Omim]Cl and [Omim]BF4 in the test water, the acute toxicity of the two ionic liquids (ILs), and the influence of anions on the toxicity of the ILs were evaluated. The acute toxicity test results showed 50 % lethal concentration (LC50) values of 152.3 ± 12.1 mg L(-1) for [Omim]Cl and 144.0 ± 11.4 mg L(-1) for [Omim]BF4. At the lowest concentration investigated (5 mg L(-1)), [Omim]Cl and [Omim]BF4 did not significantly affect zebrafish during the exposure period. However, the toxic effects of these substances were enhanced as dosing concentrations and exposure times were increased. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were significantly enhanced on the 7th day after 20 mg L(-1) and on the 14th day after 10 mg L(-1) of either substance was applied, resulting in oxidative damage, such as lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. The experimental results also indicated little effect of the anions on the toxicity of ILs and consistent toxic effects of [Omim]Cl and [Omim]BF4. Graphical Abstract The graphical abstract for the present study after exposure to [Omim]Cl and [Omim]BF4. The letter R represents the anions Cl(-) and BF4 (.)

  4. What Powers the 2006 Outburst of the Symbiotic Star BF Cygni?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Skopal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BF Cygni is a classical symbiotic binary. Its optical light curve occasionally shows outbursts of the Z And-type, whose nature is not well understood. During the 2006 August, BF Cyg underwent the recent outburst, and continues its active phase to the present. The aim of this contribution is to determine the fundamental parameters of the hot component in the binary during the active phase. For this purpose we used a high- and low-resolution optical spectroscopy and the multicolour UBV RCIC photometry. Our photometric monitoring revealed that a high level of the star’s brightness lasts for unusually long time of > 7 years. A sharp violet-shifted absorption component and broad emission wings in the Hα profile developed during the whole active phase. From 2009, our spectra revealed a bipolar ejection from the white dwarf (WD. Modelling the spectral energy distribution (SED of the low-resolution spectra showed simultaneous presence of a warm (< 10 000 K disk-like pseudophotosphere and a strong nebular component of radiation (emission measure of ~1061 cm−3. The luminosity of the hot active object was estimated to > 5−8×103 Lʘ. Such high luminosity, sustained for the time of years, can be understood as a result of an enhanced transient accretion rate throughout a large disk, leading also to formation of collimated ejection from the WD.

  5. Krypton-85 Monitoring at BfS in Germany and Technical Solutions for Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, C.; Klingberg, F.

    2015-01-01

    The radioactive noble gas isotope krypton-85 with a half-life of 10.76 years is produced by nuclear fission. The main source of krypton-85 in the atmosphere are releases from reprocessing plants for nuclear fuel in the Northern Hemisphere. This volatile isotope is not retained in such plants and thus a very good indicator for the processing of irradiated nuclear fuel. This includes reprocessing for military purposes. Additionally, Kr-85 could be used as tracer for the validation of Atmospheric Transport Models. The German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) operates a noble gas laboratory and a global network which continuously monitors the krypton-85 activity concentrations in ground level air since the 1970s. The atmospheric activity concentration has continuously been increasing since the installation of reprocessing plants for nuclear fuels in the early 1950s until 2003. In the first decades it came mostly from military applications and later from civil reprocessing. Since 2003 the atmospheric krypton-85 background level in the Northern Hemisphere is nearly constant with a value of around 1.5 Bq/m 3 in Central Europe. The baseline is superimposed by spikes as a result from discharges of two European reprocessing plants of nuclear fuel, Sellafield and La Hague. The laboratory of the BfS and the techniques used will be presented. Long time series will be discussed and the use of ATM for source location demonstrated. (author)

  6. Two-dimensional topological field theories coupled to four-dimensional BF theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montesinos, Merced; Perez, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    Four-dimensional BF theory admits a natural coupling to extended sources supported on two-dimensional surfaces or string world sheets. Solutions of the theory are in one to one correspondence with solutions of Einstein equations with distributional matter (cosmic strings). We study new (topological field) theories that can be constructed by adding extra degrees of freedom to the two-dimensional world sheet. We show how two-dimensional Yang-Mills degrees of freedom can be added on the world sheet, producing in this way, an interactive (topological) theory of Yang-Mills fields with BF fields in four dimensions. We also show how a world sheet tetrad can be naturally added. As in the previous case the set of solutions of these theories are contained in the set of solutions of Einstein's equations if one allows distributional matter supported on two-dimensional surfaces. These theories are argued to be exactly quantizable. In the context of quantum gravity, one important motivation to study these models is to explore the possibility of constructing a background-independent quantum field theory where local degrees of freedom at low energies arise from global topological (world sheet) degrees of freedom at the fundamental level

  7. Study on Digital Pulse Shape Discrimination System in BF{sub 3} Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jinhyeong; Kim, J. H.; Choi, H. D. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, we develop the digital PSD system and discriminate the background signal of BF{sub 3}. Spectrum shapes are different according to the t{sub start} setting method, and it is favorable to set it as the certain ratio of maximum height. In future, it will be performed to vary t{sub start} point to optimize the pulse discrimination. To quantify the performance, Figure Of Merit (FOM) will be determined. For the nuclear non-proliferation and safeguards, an accurate and reliable measurement of nuclear material is essential. The nuclear material emits neutron and γ-ray, simultaneously. For the accurate detection of the nuclear material, neutron should be discriminated from γ-ray or background radiation. In previous study, N. S. Jung developed pulse shape analysis method based on NIM and CAMAC system. However, applications of other discrimination methods based on different detection modules or changing parameters are time-and-money consuming procedures in analogue systems. Today, the performance of digitizers is improved and it replaces some radiation measurement systems which require simple and portable equipment. Digital Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) method by using a digital oscilloscope is developed and applied to a neutron detection system by using BF{sub 3} detector in this study.

  8. Incident reporting to BfArM - regulatory framework, results and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Robin; Stößlein, Ekkehard; Lauer, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Medical devices are manifold and one of the most innovative fields of technology. As technologies advance, former limits cease to exist and complex devices become reality. Medical devices represent a very dynamic field with high economic relevance. The manufacturer of a medical device is obliged to minimize product-related risks as well as to demonstrate compliance with the so-called "essential requirements" regarding safety and performance before placing the device on the market. Any critical incident in relation to the application of a medical device has to be reported to the competent authority for risk assessment, which in Germany is either the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM) or the Paul Ehrlich Institute (PEI) depending on the type of device. In this article, the German regulatory framework for medical devices and the resulting tasks for BfArM are described as well as the topics of its recently installed research and development group on prospective risk identification and application safety for medical devices. Results of failure mode and root cause analyses of incident data are presented as well as further data on cases with the result "root-cause analysis not possible". Finally an outlook is given on future challenges regarding risk assessment for medical devices.

  9. Surface morphologies of excimer-laser annealed BF2+ implanted Si diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtsev, A.; Schut, H.; Nanver, L.K.; Veen, A. van; Slabbekoorn, J.; Scholtes, T.L.M.

    2004-01-01

    Laser-induced surface roughness and damage formation in ultra-shallow n + -p and p + -n junctions, formed by low energy (5 keV) As + and BF 2 + implantations in Si, respectively, with a dose of 1 x 10 15 cm -2 have been investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Positron Annihilation Doppler Broadening (PADB) technique. The Si surface roughness is found to increase with laser energy density, and reaches a value of 3.5 nm after excimer-laser annealing (ELA) at 1100 mJ/cm 2 . However, anomalous behavior is witnessed for BF 2 + -implanted Si sample at 800 mJ/cm 2 , at which energy very high surface protrusions up to 9 nm high are observed. By PADB this behavior is correlated to extensive deep microcavity formation in the Si whereby the volatile F 2 fraction can accumulate and evaporate/out-diffuse, leading to Si surface roughening. The consequences for the diode characteristics and contact resistivity are examined

  10. LINK codes TRAC-BF1/PARCSv2.7 in LINUX without external communication interface; Acoplamiento de los codigos TRAC-BF1/PARCSv2.7 en Linux sin interfaz externa de comunicacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrachina, T.; Garcia-Fenoll, M.; Abarca, A.; Miro, R.; Verdu, G.; Concejal, A.; Solar, A.

    2014-07-01

    The TRAC-BF1 code is still widely used by the nuclear industry for safety analysis. The plant models developed using this code are highly validated, so it is advisable to continue improving this code before migrating to another completely different code. The coupling with the NRC neutronic code PARCSv2.7 increases the simulation capabilities in transients in which the power distribution plays an important role. In this paper, the procedure for the coupling of TRAC-BF1 and PARCSv2.7 codes without PVM and in Linux is presented. (Author)

  11. Capillary evaporation of the ionic liquid [EMIM][BF4] in nanoscale solvophobic confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastav, Gourav; Remsing, Richard C.; Kashyap, Hemant K.

    2018-05-01

    Solvent density fluctuations play a crucial role in liquid-vapor transitions in solvophobic confinement and can also be important for understanding solvation of polar and apolar solutes. In the case of ionic liquids (ILs), density fluctuations can be used to understand important processes in the context of nanoscale aggregation and colloidal self-assemblies. In this article, we explore the nature of density fluctuations associated with capillary evaporation of the IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([EMIM][BF4]) in the confined region of model solvophobic nanoscale sheets by using molecular dynamics simulations combined with non-Boltzmann sampling techniques. We demonstrate that density fluctuations of the confined IL play an important role in capillary evaporation, suggesting analogies to dewetting transitions involving water. Significant changes in the interfacial structure of the IL are also detailed and suggested to underlie a non-classical (non-parabolic) dependence of the free energy barrier to evaporation on the degree of confinement.

  12. Observations of zodiacal light of the isolated Herbig BF Ori Ae star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinin, V.P.; Kiselev, N.N.; Minikulov, N.Kh.; AN Tadzhikskoj SSR, Dushanbe

    1989-01-01

    The isolated Herbig BF Ori Ae-star belongs to the subclass of young irreguLar variables with non-periodic Algol-type brightness variations. In the course of polarization and photometrical patrol observations carried out in 1987-88 in the Crimea and Sanglock, high linear polarization has been observed in deep minima. The analysis of the observations show, that the most probably a source of polarization is the scattered light from the circumstellar dust disklike envelope that is the analogue of the solar zodiacal light. It is concluded that the bimodal distribution oF positional angles of linear polarization in L 1641 reflects a complex structure of the magnetic field in this giant cloud

  13. Boron diffusion in Ge+ premorphized and BF2 implanted Si(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, L.F.; Acosta-Ortiz, S.E.; Zou, L.X.; Regalado, L.E.; Sun, D.Z.; Wang, Z.G.

    1998-01-01

    The annealing behavior of Si implanted with Ge and then BF 2 has been characterized by double crystal X-ray diffraction (DCXRD) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The results show that annealing at 600 Centigrade for 60 minutes can only remove a little damage induced by implantation and nearly no redistribution of Ge and B atoms has occurred during the annealing. The initial crystallinity of Si is fully recovered after annealing at 950 Centigrade for 60 minutes and accompanied by Ge diffusion. Very shallow boron junction depth has been formed. When annealing temperature rises to 1050 Centigrade, B diffusion enhances, which leads to a deep diffusion and good distribution of B atoms into the Si substrate. The X-ray diffraction (004) rocking curves from the samples annealed at 1050 Centigrade for 60 minutes display two Si Ge peaks, which may be related to the B concentration profiles. (Author)

  14. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of CYP6BF1 from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongshan; Dai, Huaguo; Wei, Hui

    2005-01-01

    A novel cDNA clong encoding a cytochrome P450 was screened from the insecticide-susceptible strain of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera:Yponomeutidae). The nucleotide sequence of the clone, designated CYP6BF1, was determined. This is the first full-length sequence of the CYP6 family from Plutella xylostella (L.). The cDNA is 1661bp in length and contains an open reading frame from base pairs 26 to 1570, encoding a protein of 514 amino acid residues. It is similar to the other insect P450s in gene family 6, including CYP6AE1 from Depressaria pastinacella, (46%). The GenBank accession number is AY971374. PMID:17119627

  15. Di-ureasil hybrids doped with LiBF{sub 4}: Spectroscopic study of the ionic interactions and hydrogen bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Mariana [Departamento de Quimica/CQ-VR, Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal); Barbosa, Paula C.; Manuela Silva, M.; Smith, Michael J. [Departamento de Quimica/Centro de Quimica, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Zea Bermudez, Veronica de, E-mail: vbermude@utad.pt [Departamento de Quimica/CQ-VR, Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize cation interactions in two LiBF{sub 4}-doped di-ureasil networks incorporating POE chains with different length. {yields} Over the range of salt content analyzed the cations bond to amorphous POE chains and form ion contact pairs with BF{sub 4}{sup -}. {yields} A crystalline POE/LiBF{sub 4} complex of unknown stoichiometry emerges at high salt concentration. - Abstract: In the present work Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the cation/polymer, cation/cross-link, cation/anion and hydrogen bonding interactions in hybrid electrolytes composed of lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF{sub 4}) and di-urea cross-linked poly(oxyethylene) (POE)/siloxane hybrid networks (di-ureasils) designated as d-U(2000) and d-U(600) and incorporating polyether chains with ca. 40.5 and 8.5 oxyethylene repeat units, respectively. Samples with {infinity} > n {>=} 2.5 (where n, composition, is the molar ratio of CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O units per Li{sup +} ion) were analyzed. In both di-ureasil systems over the whole range of salt content examined the Li{sup +} ions bond to the ether oxygen atoms of amorphous POE chains and to BF{sub 4}{sup -} ions forming ion contact pairs. Spectroscopic evidences and SEM images confirm the presence of a crystalline POE/LiBF{sub 4} complex of unknown stoichiometry at n < 20 and 25, respectively. Ionic association is particularly important in the case of the d-U(600)-based materials, as a result of the presence of strong hydrogen-bonded aggregates that prevent the establishment of Li{sup +}/urea carbonyl oxygen atom interactions.

  16. BF*F allotype of the alternative pathway of complement: A marker of protection against the development of antiphospholipid antibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picceli, V F; Skare, T L; Nisihara, R M; Nass, F R; Messias-Reason, I T; Utiyama, S R R

    2016-04-01

    B factor (BF) from the alternative complement pathway seems to participate in the pathophysiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). To study the allotypic variability of BF in SLE and their associations with clinical and autoantibodies profile. BF allotypes were determined by high-voltage agarose gel electrophoresis, under constant cooling, followed by immunofixation with anti-human BF antibody, in 188 SLE patients and 103 controls. Clinical and serological data were obtained from medical examination and records. No significant differences of BF variants between patients and controls were found, neither in relation to epidemiologic or clinical manifestations. Associations of phenotype BF SS07 and allotype BF*S07 were found with anticardiolipin IgM (aCl-IgM) antibodies (p = 0.014 and p = 0.009 respectively), but not with aCl-IgG, lupus anticoagulant (LA), anti β2GPI or clinical APS. A significant decrease in BF*F allotype (p = 0.043) and BF SF phenotype (p = 0.018) was detected in patients with anti-phospholipid antibodies as a whole (aCl-IgG, aCl-IgM, LA and anti β2GPI). There is a link between phenotype BF SS07 and allotype BF*S07 with aCl-IgM in SLE patients; BF*F allotype could be considered a marker of protection against the development of antiphospholipid antibodies in these patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Characteristics of ZnO nanostructures produced with [DMIm]BF{sub 4} using ultrasonic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, I. B. Abdul; Ayob, M. T. M.; Ishak, I. S.; Mohd Lawi, R. L.; Isahak, W. N. R. W.; Hamid, M. H. N. Abd; Othman, N. K.; Radiman, S. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology (FST), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); School of Chemistry and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology (FST), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology (FST), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2012-11-27

    Great interests in metallic oxides have emerged because of the promising properties of these materials for various applications such as solar cells and sensors. ZnO nanostructures with different morphologies were successfully synthesized from Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} Bullet 2H{sub 2}O, NaOH and room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [DMIm][BF{sub 4}] with ultrasound irradiation. Parameters such as the effect of sonication time (30, 60 and 90 minutes) and Zn(Ac){sub 2} precursor to [DMIm][BF{sub 4}] ratios of 3:5, 5:5 and 5:3 were investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the ZnO nanocrystals were hexagonal zincite crystalline in structure. The band gap energies (E{sub g}) were estimated to be 3.35-3.55 eV from the UV-Visible spectrum. The solution with the highest ratio of Zn was analysed with photoluminescence spectroscopy, which exhibited peaks at 362, 403, 468 and 539 nm, at room temperature. The micrographs of field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the synthesis products were spherical (30-60 nm), spindle ({approx}10 Multiplication-Sign 70 nm for width Multiplication-Sign length) and whisker-like (100-200 nm), with their dimensions decreasing systematically with increased sonication time. Chemical compositions were approximated at 1:1 for Zn and O, estimated by electron dispersive x-ray spectrum.

  18. Implementation and assessment of improved models and options in TRAC-BF1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytis, G.Th.

    1996-07-01

    A summary of modifications and options introduced in TRAC-BF1 is presented and it is shown that the predicting capabilities of the modified version of the core are greatly improved. These changes include the introduction of a different heat transfer package during reflooding, the implementation of a simple single-phase limit procedure for forcing the two phases to acquire the same velocity if one phase disappears, a close assessment of the annular flow interfacial shear correlation, implementation of a simple radiation model which seems to alleviate some numerical-oscillations problems induced by the existing highly complex model. Furthermore, different options were introduced and tested like upwinding some terms of the momentum equations (which seems to solve a number of problems reported in the past), the second upwind scheme for the convective terms of the phasic momentum equations and the implementation and assessment of a completely different annular flow interfacial shear correlation. The modified TRAC-BF1 is assessed against some bottom-flooding separate-effect experiments, a 'benchmark' top flooding simulation as well as against the TLTA test Nr. 6423. In the process of this task, the different options are assessed and discussed and is shown that the predictions of the modified code are physically sound and close to the measurements, while almost all the predicted variables are free of unphysical spurious oscillations. The modifications introduced solve a number of problems associated with the frozen version of the code and result in a version which can be confidently used for LB-LOCA analyses. (author) 19 figs., 16 refs

  19. Study of thermal spin crossover in [Fe(II)(isoxazole)(6)](BF4)(2) with Mossbauer spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhattacharjee, A.; van Koningsbruggen, P. J.; Hibbs, W.; Miller, Joel S.; Guetlich, P.

    2007-01-01

    Fe-57 Mossbauer spectroscopy of the mononuclear [Fe( II)( isoxazole)(6)]( BF4)(2) compound has been studied to reveal the thermal spin crossover of Fe( II) between low- spin ( S = 0) and high- spin ( S = 2) states. A temperature-dependent spin transition curve has been constructed with the least-

  20. Membrane fouling mechanism of biofilm-membrane bioreactor (BF-MBR): Pore blocking model and membrane cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Wenxiang; Tang, Bing; Ding, Jie; Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Zhien

    2018-02-01

    Biofilm membrane bioreactor (BF-MBR) is considered as an important wastewater treatment technology that incorporates advantages of both biofilm and MBR process, as well as can alleviate membrane fouling, with respect to the conventional activated sludge MBR. But, to be efficient, it necessitates the establishment of proper methods for the assessment of membrane fouling. Four Hermia membrane blocking models were adopted to quantify and evaluate the membrane fouling of BF-MBR. The experiments were conducted with various operational conditions, including membrane types, agitation speeds and transmembrane pressure (TMP). Good agreement between cake formation model and experimental data was found, confirming the validity of the Hermia models for assessing the membrane fouling of BF-MBR and that cake layer deposits on membrane. Moreover, the influences of membrane types, agitation speeds and transmembrane pressure on the Hermia pore blocking coefficient of cake layer were investigated. In addition, the permeability recovery after membrane cleaning at various operational conditions was studied. This work confirms that, unlike conventional activated sludge MBR, BF-MBR possesses a low degree of membrane fouling and a higher membrane permeability recovery after cleaning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Adsorption of reactive blue BF-5G dye by soybean hulls: kinetics, equilibrium and influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honorio, Jacqueline Ferandin; Veit, Márcia Teresinha; Gonçalves, Gilberto da Cunha; de Campos, Élvio Antonio; Fagundes-Klen, Márcia Regina

    2016-01-01

    The textile industry is known for the high use of chemicals, such as dyes, and large volumes of effluent that contaminate waters, a fact that has encouraged research and improved treatment techniques. In this study, we used unprocessed soybean hulls for the removal of reactive blue BF-5G dye. The point of zero charge of soybean hulls was 6.76. Regarding the speed of agitation in the adsorption process, the resistance to mass transfer that occurs in the boundary layer was eliminated at 100 rpm. Kinetics showed an experimental amount of dye adsorbed at equilibrium of 57.473 mg g(-1) obtained under the following conditions: dye initial concentration = 400 mg L(-1); diameter of particle = 0.725 mm; dosage = 6 g L(-1); pH 2; 100 rpm; temperature = 30 °C; and duration of 24 hours. The pseudo-second order best showed the dye removal kinetics. The adsorption isotherms performed at different temperatures (20, 30, 40 and 50 °C) showed little variation in the concentration range assessed, being properly adjusted by the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum capacity of dye adsorption was 72.427 mg g(-1) at 30 °C. Since soybean hull is a low-cost industrial byproduct, it proved to be a potential adsorbent for the removal of the textile dye assessed.

  2. Temperature dependence of the elastic constant of Borassus Flabellifier 'BF' material by acoustic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phadke, Sushil; DShrivastava, B; Dagaonkar, N; Mishra, Ashutosh

    2012-01-01

    The homogeneous continuous materials are widely used for many structural applications. Migrations of atoms or molecules are the mechanism of mechanical and kinetic processes in materials for their synthesis processing as well as for their structural evolutions. The elastic constant of solids provides valuable information on their mechanical and dynamical properties. In particular, they provide information on the stability and stiffness of materials. In the present study author investigated relation between elastic constant and temperature in Borassus Flabellifier 'BF' wood part. Determination of elastic properties of material is based on the longitudinal wave's velocities via ultrasonic methods. The resonant frequencies of the specimens were measured by Ultrasonic Interferometer (for solids) dual frequency using longitudinal cubic piezoelectric crystal of quartz of frequency 123.62 KHz. The temperature variations from room temperature were done by PID control unit, Mittal Enterprises, New Delhi, India. Characterization of the samples was done by scanning electron microscope (SEM) Model JEOL JSM5400 at 5.0kvx750, 10 μm.

  3. M1 distributions for {sup 163}Dy and {sup 157}Gd in the SU{sup BF}{sub sdg}(3) and SU{sup BF}{sub sd}(3) x 1g limits of pn-sdgIBFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devi, Y.D. [Saha Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta (India); Kota, V.K.B. [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380 009 (India)

    1996-04-01

    The SU{sup BF}{sub sdg}(3) limit of pn-sdgIBFM, which was developed earlier, is applied with success in analyzing the recently observed M1 data in the {sup 163}Dy nucleus. As new experiments are being planned for {sup 157}Gd nucleus and that {sup 156}Gd is known to be a good SU{sub sd}(3) x 1g nucleus, in the second part of the paper a formalism for M1 distributions in the SU{sup BF}{sub sd}(3) x 1g limit is developed. In both these analytically solvable limiting situations, predictions are made for M1 distributions in the {sup 157}Gd nucleus. (orig.).

  4. Comparison of the local binding motifs in the imidazolium-based ionic liquids [EMIM][BF{sub 4}] and [EMMIM][BF{sub 4}] through cryogenic ion vibrational predissociation spectroscopy: Unraveling the roles of anharmonicity and intermolecular interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, Joseph A.; Wolke, Conrad T.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Johnson, Mark A., E-mail: mark.johnson@yale.edu, E-mail: mccoy@chemistry.ohio-state.edu [Sterling Chemistry Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); McCoy, Anne B., E-mail: mark.johnson@yale.edu, E-mail: mccoy@chemistry.ohio-state.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2015-02-14

    We clarify the role of the critical imidazolium C{sub (2)}H position (the central C between N atoms in the heterocycle) in the assembly motif of the [EMIM][BF{sub 4}] ionic liquid by analyzing the vibrational spectra of the bare EMIM{sup +} ion as well as that of the cationic [EMIM]{sub 2}[BF{sub 4}]{sup +} (EMIM{sup +} = 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium, C{sub 6}H{sub 11}N{sub 2}{sup +}) cluster. Vibrational spectra of the cold, mass-selected ions are obtained using cryogenic ion vibrational predissociation of weakly bound D{sub 2} molecules formed in a 10 K ion trap. The C{sub (2)}H behavior is isolated by following the evolution of key vibrational features when the C{sub (2)} hydrogen, the proposed binding location of the anion to the imidazolium ring, is replaced by either deuterium or a methyl group (i.e., in the EMMIM{sup +} analogue). Strong features in the ring CH stretching region of the bare ion are traced to Fermi resonances with overtones of lower frequency modes. Upon incorporation into the EMIM{sup +} ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ BF{sub 4}{sup −} ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ EMIM{sup +} ternary complex, the C{sub (2)}H oscillator strength is dramatically increased, accounting for the much more complicated patterns derived from the EMIM{sup +} ring CH stretches in the light isotopomer, which are strongly suppressed in the deuterated analogue. Further changes in the spectra that occur when the C{sub (2)}H is replaced by a methyl group are consistent with BF{sub 4}{sup −} attachment directly to the imidazolium ring in an arrangement that maximizes the electrostatic interaction between the molecular ions.

  5. Pulse discrimination of background and gamma-ray source by digital pulse shape discrimination in a BF3 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jinhyung; Kim, J. H.; Choi, H. D.

    2014-01-01

    As a representative method of non-destructive assay, accurate neutron measurement is difficult due to large background radiation such as γ-ray, secondary radiation, spurious pulse, etc. In a BF 3 detector, the process of signal generation is different between neutron and other radiations. As the development of detection technique, all of signal data can be digitized by digital measurement method. In the previous study, Applied Nuclear Physics Group in Seoul National University has developed digital Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) method using digital oscilloscope. In this study, optimization of parameters for pulse discrimination is discussed and γ-ray region is determined by measuring 60 Co source. The background signal of BF 3 detector is discriminated by digital PSD system. Parameters for PSD are optimized through FOM calculation. And the γ-ray region is determined by measuring 60 Co source. In the future, the performance of developed system will be tested in low and high intensity neutron field

  6. Recrystallization of implanted amorphous silicon layers. I. Electrical properties of silicon implanted with BF+2 or Si++B+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, M.Y.; Streetman, B.G.

    1979-01-01

    Electrical properties of recrystallized amorphous silicon layers, formed by BF + 2 implants or Si + +B + implants, have been studied by differential resistivity and Hall-effect measurements. Electrical carrier distribution profiles show that boron atoms inside the amorphized Si layers can be fully activated during recrystallization at 550 0 C. The mobility is also recovered. However, the tail of the B distribution, located inside a damaged region near the original amorphous-crystalline interface, remains inactive. This inactive tail has been observed for all samples implanted with BF + 2 . Only in a thicker amorphous layer, formed for example by Si + predamage implants, can the entire B profile be activated. The etch rate of amorphous silicon in HF and the effect of fluorine on the recrystallization rate are also reported

  7. Systemic Responses of Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii Following Exposure to the Antimicrobial Peptide Cathelicidin-BF Imply Multiple Intracellular Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunbao Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cathelicidin-BF, derived from the banded krait (Bungarus fasciatus, is a typically cationic, amphiphilic and α-helical antimicrobial peptide (AMP with 30 amino acids that exerts powerful effects on multidrug-resistant (MDR clinical isolates, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, but whether it targets plasma membranes or intracellular targets to kill bacteria is still controversial. In the present study, we demonstrated that the disruption of bacterial membranes with high concentrations of cathelicidin-BF was the cause of bacterial death, as with conventional antibiotics at high concentrations. At lower concentrations, cathelicidin-BF did not cause bacterial plasma membrane disruption, but it was able to cross the membrane and aggregate at the nucleoid regions. Functional proteins of the transcription processes of P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii were affected by sublethal doses of cathelicidin-BF, as demonstrated by comparative proteomics using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification and subsequent gene ontology (GO analysis. Analysis using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes showed that cathelicidin-BF mainly interferes with metabolic pathways related to amino acid synthesis, metabolism of cofactors and vitamins, metabolism of purine and energy supply, and other processes. Although specific targets of cathelicidin-BF must still be validated, our study offers strong evidence that cathelicidin-BF may act upon intracellular targets to kill superbugs, which may be helpful for further efforts to discover novel antibiotics to fight against them.

  8. BF3.SiO2: an efficient catalyst for the synthesis of azo dyes at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Bi Fatemeh Mirjalili

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A rapid one-pot method has been developed for the synthesis of azo dyes via ‎sequential diazotization–diazo coupling of aromatic amines with coupling agents at room ‎temperature in the presence of BF3.SiO2 as acidic catalyst. The obtained aryl diazonium salts bearing silica supported boron tri-flouride counter ion‎ was sufficiently stable to be kept at room ‎temperature in the dry state.‎

  9. Synthesis of 11C labelled methyl esters: transesterification of enol esters versus BF3 catalysed esterification-a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, Uwe; Blanc, Paul; Falzon, Cheryl L.; Issa, William; White, Jonathan; Tochon-Danguy, Henri J.; Sachinidis, John I.; Scott, Andrew M.

    2006-01-01

    C-11 labelled methyl esters have been synthesized via the transesterification of enol esters in the presence of C-11 methanol and 1,3 dichlorodibutylstannoxane as catalyst. This method leaves functional groups intact and allows access to a wider variety of C-11 labelled methyl esters compared to the BF 3 catalysed ester formation, which uses carboxylic acids and C-11 methanol as starting materials

  10. BF integrase genes of HIV-1 circulating in São Paulo, Brazil, with a recurrent recombination region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atila Iamarino

    Full Text Available Although some studies have shown diversity in HIV integrase (IN genes, none has focused particularly on the gene evolving in epidemics in the context of recombination. The IN gene in 157 HIV-1 integrase inhibitor-naïve patients from the São Paulo State, Brazil, were sequenced tallying 128 of subtype B (23 of which were found in non-B genomes, 17 of subtype F (8 of which were found in recombinant genomes, 11 integrases were BF recombinants, and 1 from subtype C. Crucially, we found that 4 BF recombinant viruses shared a recurrent recombination breakpoint region between positions 4900 and 4924 (relative to the HXB2 that includes 2 gRNA loops, where the RT may stutter. Since these recombinants had independent phylogenetic origin, we argue that these results suggest a possible recombination hotspot not observed so far in BF CRF in particular, or in any other HIV-1 CRF in general. Additionally, 40% of the drug-naïve and 45% of the drug-treated patients had at least 1 raltegravir (RAL or elvitegravir (EVG resistance-associated amino acid change, but no major resistance mutations were found, in line with other studies. Importantly, V151I was the most common minor resistance mutation among B, F, and BF IN genes. Most codon sites of the IN genes had higher rates of synonymous substitutions (dS indicative of a strong negative selection. Nevertheless, several codon sites mainly in the subtype B were found under positive selection. Consequently, we observed a higher genetic diversity in the B portions of the mosaics, possibly due to the more recent introduction of subtype F on top of an ongoing subtype B epidemics and a fast spread of subtype F alleles among the B population.

  11. BF3·Et2O promoted conjugate addition of ethanethiol to electron-deficient alkynes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Fa Zhou; Xue Ping Chu; Shen Zhao; Tao Lu; Wei Fang Tang

    2012-01-01

    An effective method for the synthesis of vinyl thioethers through the conjugate addition of ethanethiol to electron-deficient alkynes promoted by BF3·Et2O has been developed.Electron-deficient internal alkynes react with ethanethiol in this system to yield mainly Z-isomer of vinyl thioether adducts,while electron-deficient terminal alkynes afford mainly E-isomer of vinyl thioether adducts.

  12. Turbine trip transient analysis in peach bottom NPP with TRAC-BF1 code and Simtab-1D methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrachina, T.; Miro, R.; Verdu, G.; Collazo, I.; Gonzalez, P.; Concejal, A.; Ortego, P.; Melara, J.

    2010-01-01

    In TRAC-BF1 nuclear cross-sections are specified in the input deck in as a polynomial expansion. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain the coefficients of this polynomial function. One of the methods proposed in the literature is the KINPAR methodology. This methodology uses the results from different perturbations of the original state to obtain the coefficients of the polynominal expansion. The simulations are performed using the SIMULATE3 code. In this work, a new methodology to obtain the cross-sections set in 1D is presented. The first step consists of the application of the SIMTAB methodology, developed in UPV, to obtain the 3D cross-sections sets from CASMO4/SIMULATE3. These 3D cross-sections sets are collapsed to 1D, using as a weighting factor the 3D thermal and rapid neutron fluxes obtained from SIMULATE3. The 1D cross-sections obtained are in the same format as the 3D sets, hence, it has been necessary to modify the TRAC-BF1 code in order to be able to read and interpolate between these tabulated 1D cross-sections. With this new methodology it is not necessary to perform simulations of different perturbations of the original state, and also the variation range of the moderator density can be higher than using the former KINPAR methodology. This is important for simulating severe accidents in which the variables vary in a wide range. This new methodology is applied to the simulation of the turbine trip transient Benchmark in Peach Bottom NPP using the TRAC-BF1 code. The results of the transient simulation in TRAC-BF1 using the KINPAR methodology and the new methodology, SIMTAB-1D, are compared. (author)

  13. TRACE and TRAC-BF1 benchmark against Leibstadt plant data during the event inadvertent opening of relief valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekhri, A.; Baumann, P. [KernkraftwerkLeibstadt AG, 5325 Leibstadt (Switzerland); Wicaksono, D. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology Zurich ETH, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Miro, R.; Barrachina, T.; Verdu, G. [Inst. for Industrial, Radiophysical and Environmental Safety ISIRYM, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia UPV, Cami de Vera s/n, 46021 Valencia (Spain)

    2012-07-01

    In framework of introducing TRACE code to transient analyses system codes for Leibstadt Power Plant (KKL), a conversion process of existing TRAC-BF1 model to TRACE has been started within KKL. In the first step, TRACE thermal-hydraulic model for KKL has been developed based on existing TRAC-BF1 model. In order to assess the code models a simulation of plant transient event is required. In this matter simulations of inadvertent opening of 8 relief valves event have been performed. The event occurs at KKL during normal operation, and it started when 8 relief valves open resulting in depressurization of the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV). The reactor was shutdown safely by SCRAM at low level. The high pressure core spray (HPCS) and the reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) have been started manually in order to compensate the level drop. The remaining water in the feedwater (FW) lines flashes due to saturation conditions originated from RPV depressurization and refills the reactor downcomer. The plant boundary conditions have been used in the simulations and the FW flow rate has been adjusted for better prediction. The simulations reproduce the plant data with good agreement. It can be concluded that the TRAC-BF1 existing model has been used successfully to develop the TRACE model and the results of the calculations have shown good agreement with plant recorded data. Beside the modeling assessment, the TRACE and TRAC-BF1 capabilities to reproduce plant physical behavior during the transient have shown satisfactory results. The first step of developing KKL model for TRACE has been successfully achieved and this model is further developed in order to simulate more complex plant behavior such as Turbine Trip. (authors)

  14. TRACE and TRAC-BF1 benchmark against Leibstadt plant data during the event inadvertent opening of relief valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekhri, A.; Baumann, P.; Wicaksono, D.; Miro, R.; Barrachina, T.; Verdu, G.

    2012-01-01

    In framework of introducing TRACE code to transient analyses system codes for Leibstadt Power Plant (KKL), a conversion process of existing TRAC-BF1 model to TRACE has been started within KKL. In the first step, TRACE thermal-hydraulic model for KKL has been developed based on existing TRAC-BF1 model. In order to assess the code models a simulation of plant transient event is required. In this matter simulations of inadvertent opening of 8 relief valves event have been performed. The event occurs at KKL during normal operation, and it started when 8 relief valves open resulting in depressurization of the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV). The reactor was shutdown safely by SCRAM at low level. The high pressure core spray (HPCS) and the reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) have been started manually in order to compensate the level drop. The remaining water in the feedwater (FW) lines flashes due to saturation conditions originated from RPV depressurization and refills the reactor downcomer. The plant boundary conditions have been used in the simulations and the FW flow rate has been adjusted for better prediction. The simulations reproduce the plant data with good agreement. It can be concluded that the TRAC-BF1 existing model has been used successfully to develop the TRACE model and the results of the calculations have shown good agreement with plant recorded data. Beside the modeling assessment, the TRACE and TRAC-BF1 capabilities to reproduce plant physical behavior during the transient have shown satisfactory results. The first step of developing KKL model for TRACE has been successfully achieved and this model is further developed in order to simulate more complex plant behavior such as Turbine Trip. (authors)

  15. Pressure-induced change in the Raman spectra of ionic liquid [DEME][BF4]-H2O mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Y; Abe, H; Goto, T; Miyashita, T; Yoshimura, Y

    2010-01-01

    We have measured Raman spectral changes of N,N,diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl) ammonium tetrafluoroborate, [DEME][BF 4 ]-H 2 O mixtures under high pressure. All the Raman spectra of mixtures of water concentrations below 50.0 mol% H 2 O changed at around 1 GPa at room temperature. The spectrum at high pressure is completely different from that obtained by cooling the sample at a normal pressure.

  16. Kinetic and spectroscopic studies of cytochrome b-563 in isolated cytochrome b/f complex and in thylakoid membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hind, G.; Clark, R.D.; Houchins, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    Extensive studies, performed principally by Hauska, Hurt and collaborators, have shown that a cytochrome (cyt) b/f complex isolated from photosynthetic membranes of spinach or Anabaena catalyzes electron transport from plastoquinol (PQH/sub 2/) to plastocyanin or algal cyt c-552. The complex from spinach thylakoids generated a membrane potential when reconstituted into liposomes, and although the electrogenic mechanism remains unknown, a key role for cyt b-563 is widely accepted. Electrogenesis by a Q-cycle mechanism requires a plastoquinone (PQ) reductase to be associated with the stromal side of the thylakoid b/f complex though this activity has yet to be demonstrated. It seemed possible that more gentle isolation of the complex might yield a form containing additional polypeptides, perhaps including a PQ reductase or a component involved in returning electrons from reduced ferredoxin to the complex in cyclic electron flow. Optimization of the isolation of cyt b/f complex for Hybrid 424 spinach from a growth room was also required. The procedure we devised is compared to the protocol of Hurt and Hauska (1982). 13 references.

  17. FTIR Spectroscopic and DC Ionic conductivity Studies of PVDF-HFP: LiBF4: EC Plasticized Polymer Electrolyte Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, M.; Mallikarjun, A.; Jaipal Reddy, M.; Siva Kumar, J.

    2017-08-01

    In the present paper; the FTIR and Temperature dependent DC Ionic conductivity studies of polymer (80 Wt% PVDF-HFP) with inorganic lithium tetra fluoroborate salt (20 Wt% LiBF4) as ionic charge carrier and plasticized with various weight ratios of Ethylene carbonate plasticizer (10 Wt% to 70 Wt% EC) as gel polymer electrolytes. Solution casting method is used for the preparation of plasticized polymer-salt electrolyte films. FTIR analysis shows the good complexation between PVDF-HFP: LiBF4 and the presence of functional groups in the plasticized polymer-salt electrolyte membrane. Also the analysis and results show that the highest DC ionic conductivity of 1.66 × 10-3 SCm -1 was found at 373 K for a particular concentration of 80 Wt% PVDF-HFP: 20 Wt% LiBF4: 40 Wt% EC porous gel type polymer-salt plasticized porous membrane. Increase of temperature results expansion and segmental motion of polymer chain that generates free volume in turn promotes hopping of the lithium ions satisfying Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher equation.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of ionic liquid (EMImBF{sub 4})/Li{sup +} - chitosan membranes for ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasaribu, Marvin H., E-mail: marvin-shady88@yahoo.com; Arcana, I Made, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id; Wahyuningrum, Deana, E-mail: deana@chem.itb.ac.id [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, InstitutTeknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha No. 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Lithium ion battery has been currently developed and produced because it has a longer life time, high energycapacity, and the efficient use of lithium ion battery that is suitable for storing electrical energy. However, this battery has some drawbacks such as use liquid electrolytes that are prone to leakage and flammability during the battery charging process in high temperature. In this study, an ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMImBF4) containing Li{sup +} ions was synthesized and combined with chitosan polymer host as a polymer electrolyte membrane for lithium-ion batteries to solve this problems. This ionic liquid was obtained from the anion metathesis reaction between EMImBr and LiBF4 salt, while EMImBr was synthesized from the reaction between 1-methylimidazole and ethyl bromide utilizing Microwave Assisted Organic Synthesis (MAOS) method. The ionic liquid obtained was characterized by microstructure analysis with using NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The polymer electrolyte membrane was characterized by analysis functional groups (FTIR), ionic conductivity (EIS), and surface morphology (SEM). The analysis results of ion conductivity by the EIS method showed the increase the ionic conductivity value of membranes from 1.30 × 10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1} for chitosan to 1.30 × 10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1} for chitosan with EMImBF4/Li{sup +}, and this result was supported by analysis the surface morphology (SEM)

  19. Improvement of neutron kinetics module in TRAC-BF1code: one-dimensional nodal collocation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jambrina, Ana; Barrachina, Teresa; Miro, Rafael; Verdu, Gumersindo, E-mail: ajambrina@iqn.upv.es, E-mail: tbarrachina@iqn.upv.es, E-mail: rmiro@iqn.upv.es, E-mail: gverdu@iqn.upv.es [Universidade Politecnica de Valencia (UPV), Valencia (Spain); Soler, Amparo, E-mail: asoler@iberdrola.es [SEA Propulsion S.L., Madrid (Spain); Concejal, Alberto, E-mail: acbe@iberdrola.es [Iberdrola Ingenieria y Construcion S.A.U., Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    The TRAC-BF1 one-dimensional kinetic model is a formulation of the neutron diffusion equation in the two energy groups' approximation, based on the analytical nodal method (ANM). The advantage compared with a zero-dimensional kinetic model is that the axial power profile may vary with time due to thermal-hydraulic parameter changes and/or actions of the control systems but at has the disadvantages that in unusual situations it fails to converge. The nodal collocation method developed for the neutron diffusion equation and applied to the kinetics resolution of TRAC-BF1 thermal-hydraulics, is an adaptation of the traditional collocation methods for the discretization of partial differential equations, based on the development of the solution as a linear combination of analytical functions. It has chosen to use a nodal collocation method based on a development of Legendre polynomials of neutron fluxes in each cell. The qualification is carried out by the analysis of the turbine trip transient from the NEA benchmark in Peach Bottom NPP using both the original 1D kinetics implemented in TRAC-BF1 and the 1D nodal collocation method. (author)

  20. Tumor cell-released TLR4 ligands stimulate Gr-1+CD11b+F4/80+ cells to induce apoptosis of activated T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Yan; Sun, Ling-Cong; Wei, Jing-Jing; Li, Dong; Yuan, Ye; Yan, Bin; Liang, Zhi-Hui; Zhu, Hui-Fen; Xu, Yong; Li, Bo; Song, Chuan-Wang; Liao, Sheng-Jun; Lei, Zhang; Zhang, Gui-Mei; Feng, Zuo-Hua

    2010-09-01

    Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells play important roles in tumor development and have a negative effect on tumor immunotherapy. So far, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of their immunosuppressive phenotype by classical and alternative macrophage activation stimuli are not well elucidated. In this study, we found that molecules from necrotic tumor cells (NTC-Ms) stimulated Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells to induce apoptosis of activated T cells but not nonstimulated T cells. The apoptosis-inducing capacity was determined by higher expression levels of arginase I and IL-10 relative to those of NO synthase 2 and IL-12 in Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells, which were induced by NTC-Ms through TLR4 signaling. The apoptosis-inducing capacity of NTC-Ms-stimulated Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells could be enhanced by IL-10. IFN-gamma may reduce the apoptosis-inducing capacity of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells only if their response to IFN-gamma was not attenuated. However, the potential of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells to express IL-12 in response to IFN-gamma could be attenuated by tumor, partially due to the existence of active STAT3 in Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells and NTC-Ms from tumor. In this situation, IFN-gamma could not effectively reduce the apoptosis-inducing capacity of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells. Tumor immunotherapy with 4-1BBL/soluble programmed death-1 may significantly reduce, but not abolish the apoptosis-inducing capacity of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells in local microenvironment. Blockade of TLR4 signaling could further reduce the apoptosis-inducing capacity of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells and enhance the suppressive effect of 4-1BBL/soluble form of programmed death-1 on tumor growth. These findings indicate the relationship of distinct signaling pathways with apoptosis-inducing capacity of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells and emphasize the importance of blocking TLR4 signaling to prevent the induction of T cell apoptosis by Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells.

  1. A modified method of 3D-SSP analysis for amyloid PET imaging using [¹¹C]BF-227.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneta, Tomohiro; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Minoshima, Satoshi; Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Tashiro, Manabu; Furumoto, Shozo; Iwata, Ren; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Shoki; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Kudo, Yukitsuka; Arai, Hiroyuki

    2011-12-01

    Three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) analyses have been widely used in dementia imaging studies. However, 3D-SSP sometimes shows paradoxical results on amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) analyses. This is thought to be caused by errors in anatomical standardization (AS) based on an (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) template. We developed a new method of 3D-SSP analysis for amyloid PET imaging, and used it to analyze (11)C-labeled 2-(2-[2-dimethylaminothiazol-5-yl]ethenyl)-6-(2-[fluoro]ethoxy)benzoxazole (BF-227) PET images of subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The subjects were 20 with MCI, 19 patients with AD, and 17 healthy controls. Twelve subjects with MCI were followed up for 3 years or more, and conversion to AD was seen in 6 cases. All subjects underwent PET with both FDG and BF-227. For AS and 3D-SSP analyses of PET data, Neurostat (University of Washington, WA, USA) was used. Method 1 involves AS for BF-227 images using an FDG template. In this study, we developed a new method (Method 2) for AS: First, an FDG image was subjected to AS using an FDG template. Then, the BF-227 image of the same patient was registered to the FDG image, and AS was performed using the transformation parameters calculated for AS of the corresponding FDG images. Regional values were normalized by the average value obtained at the cerebellum and values were calculated for the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. For statistical comparison of the 3 groups, we applied one-way analysis of variance followed by the Bonferroni post hoc test. For statistical comparison between converters and non-converters, the t test was applied. Statistical significance was defined as p SSP analysis of amyloid PET imaging possible. This new method of 3D-SSP analysis for BF-227 PET could prove useful for detecting differences between normal groups and AD and MCI groups, and between converters and non-converters.

  2. The roles of the analogy with natural selection in B.F. Skinner's philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Terry L

    2018-02-17

    Beginning in the 1950s, B.F. Skinner made increasing reference to an analogy between operant conditioning and natural selection. This analogy is the basis of an argument that, in contrast to Skinner's other critiques of cognitive science, is neither epistemological nor pragmatic. Instead, it is based on the claim that ontogenetic adaptation is due to a special mode of causation he called "selection by consequences." He argued that this mode of causation conflicts with explanations that attribute action to an autonomous agent with reasons for acting. This argument dismisses ordinary explanations of action, and has implications not only for cognitive science but also for morals. Skinner cited the latter implications to counter objections to the application of behavior analysis to the reform of society and its institutions. Skinner's critique, however, rests upon empirical assumptions that have been criticized by other behavior analysts. Although for Skinner the major role of the analogy was to propose an empirical thesis, it also can play a metaphysical role-namely, to demonstrate the possibility of ontogenetic adaptation without reference to agents who have reasons for acting. These two roles, empirical and metaphysical, are the mirror image of the empirical and metaphysical roles of the computer analogy for cognitive science. That analogy also can be (and has been) interpreted as an empirical thesis. Its empirical implications, however, have been difficult to confirm. It also, however, has played a metaphysical role-namely, to demonstrate the possibility that a physical process could perform logical operations on states having propositional content. Neither analogy provides a well-confirmed, general answer to the question of how to explain the process of ontogenetic adaptation. But together they show there are two metaphysically coherent, but conflicting, answers to this question. Depending upon one's epistemology, the analogy with natural selection may provide a

  3. Characterization of a backfill candidate material, IBECO-RWC-BF Baclo Project - Phase 3 Laboratory tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Sanden, Torbjoern; Dueck, Ann; Ohlsson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    A backfill candidate material, IBECO-RWC-BF, which origin from Milos, Greece, has been investigated. The material was delivered both as granules and as pellets. The investigation described in this report aimed to characterize the material and evaluate if it can be used in a future repository. The following investigations have been done and are presented in this report: 1. Standard laboratory tests. Water content, liquid limit and swelling potential are examples on standard tests that have been performed. 2. Block manufacturing. The block compaction properties of the material have been determined. A first test was performed in laboratory but also tests in large scale have been performed. After finishing the test phase, 60 tons of blocks were manufactured at Hoeganaes Bjuf AB. The blocks will be used in large scale laboratory tests at Aespoe HRL. 3. Mechanical parameters. The compressibility of the material was investigated with oedometer tests (four tests) where the load was applied in steps after saturation. The evaluated oedometer modulus varied between 34.50 MPa. Tests were made to evaluate the elastic parameters of the material (E, ν). Altogether three tests were made on specimens with dry densities of about 1,710 kg/m 3 . The evaluated E-modulus and Poisson's ratio varied between 231-263 MPa and 0.16-0.19 respectively. The strength of the material, both the compressive strength and the tensile strength were measured on specimens compacted to different dry densities. The test results yielded a relation between density and the two types of strength. Furthermore, tests have been made in order to determine the compressibility of the unsaturated filling of pellets. Two tests were made where the pellets were loosely filled in a Proctor cylinder and then compressed at a constant rate of strain during continuously measurement of the applied load. 4. Swelling pressure and hydraulic conductivity. There is, as expected, a very clear influence of the dry density on the

  4. Characterization of a backfill candidate material, IBECO-RWC-BF Baclo Project - Phase 3 Laboratory tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Sanden, Torbjoern; Dueck, Ann; Ohlsson, Lars (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    A backfill candidate material, IBECO-RWC-BF, which origin from Milos, Greece, has been investigated. The material was delivered both as granules and as pellets. The investigation described in this report aimed to characterize the material and evaluate if it can be used in a future repository. The following investigations have been done and are presented in this report: 1. Standard laboratory tests. Water content, liquid limit and swelling potential are examples on standard tests that have been performed. 2. Block manufacturing. The block compaction properties of the material have been determined. A first test was performed in laboratory but also tests in large scale have been performed. After finishing the test phase, 60 tons of blocks were manufactured at Hoeganaes Bjuf AB. The blocks will be used in large scale laboratory tests at Aespoe HRL. 3. Mechanical parameters. The compressibility of the material was investigated with oedometer tests (four tests) where the load was applied in steps after saturation. The evaluated oedometer modulus varied between 34.50 MPa. Tests were made to evaluate the elastic parameters of the material (E, nu). Altogether three tests were made on specimens with dry densities of about 1,710 kg/m3. The evaluated E-modulus and Poisson's ratio varied between 231-263 MPa and 0.16-0.19 respectively. The strength of the material, both the compressive strength and the tensile strength were measured on specimens compacted to different dry densities. The test results yielded a relation between density and the two types of strength. Furthermore, tests have been made in order to determine the compressibility of the unsaturated filling of pellets. Two tests were made where the pellets were loosely filled in a Proctor cylinder and then compressed at a constant rate of strain during continuously measurement of the applied load. 4. Swelling pressure and hydraulic conductivity. There is, as expected, a very clear influence of the dry density on the

  5. Superacid Catalyzed Depolymerization and Conversion of Coals. Final Technical Report. [HF:BF{sub 2}/H{sub 2}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, G.

    1980-01-01

    We were interested in applying superacid catalyzed cleavage-depolymerization and ionic hydrogenation low temperature conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbon, as well as obtaining information about the reactions involved and the structure of intermediates of the coal liquefaction process. In order to show the feasibility of our proposed research we have carried out preliminary investigation in these areas. Preceding our work there was no practical application of a superacid system to coal liquefaction. We carried out an extensive study of the potential of the HF:BF{sub 3}/H{sub 2} system for coal hydroliquefaction. Under varying conditions of reactant ratio, reaction time and temperature, we were able to obtain over 95% pyridine extractible product by treating coal in HF:BF{sub 3}:H{sub 2} system at approx. 100 degrees C for 4 hours. The coal to acid ratio was 1:5 and FB{sub 3} at 900 psi and H{sub 2} at 500 psi were used. These are extremely encouraging results in that the conditions used are drastically milder than those used in any known process, such as Exxon donor solvent and related processes. The cyclohexane extractibility of the treated coal was as high as 27% and the yield of liquid distillate at 400 degrees C/5 x 10{sup -3}/sup torr/ was approx. 30%. The infrared spectrum of product coal, extracts and distillates were distinctly different from the starting coal and show a significant increase in the amount of saturates. The {sup 1}H NMR spectrum of cyclohexane extract of the treated coal shows essentially all aliphatic photons. The spectra of other treated coal extracts show increased amounts and types of aliphatic protons as well as significant amounts of protons bound to unsaturated sites. This again indicates that the HF-BF{sub 3} system is depolymerizing the coal to small fragments which are soluble in non-polar solvents.

  6. Second expert discussion on the BMU/BfS concept of man-machine interaction in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gersinska, R.; Hennig, R.; Kociok, B.

    1992-04-01

    The purpose of this meeting was to assess the need for further research on the impact of human factors. As a result, the following topics were defined as future research projects: Technical requirements on the interface man-machine during the operation of nuclear power plants; technical, organizational and personal requirements during service, maintenance and repair in nuclear power plants; technical, organizational and personel requirements for accident management. For the examination of these key subjects detailled performance criteria were set up by the BfS. (orig./DG) [de

  7. Main areas of work of the German Radiation Protection Office (BfS). Final disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleemann, U.

    2006-01-01

    The Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (BMU) formulated twelve questions which are in principle relevant to all host rock formations and require clarification in any case. The task of the BfS was to compile a comparison of different host rock formations on the basis of the answers given to these twelve questions for the individual projects. The main focus was on whether these safety-related questions merit different answers for different host rock formations and whether this has an impact on the requirements to be placed on final disposal concepts

  8. Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTA-Br) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (bmim-BF4) in aqueous solution: An ephemeral binary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comelles, Francesc; Ribosa, Isabel; Gonzalez, Juan José; Garcia, M Teresa

    2017-03-15

    Mixtures of the cationic surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTA-Br) and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (bmim-BF 4 ) in aqueous solutions are expected to behave as typical binary cationic surfactant system taking into account the surface activity displayed by the ionic liquid, instead of considering the IL as a water cosolvent. Surface tension and conductivity measurements have been conducted as a function of the total concentration of the mixtures at different surfactant mole fraction (α CTA-Br ) to investigate the surface active properties. Turbidity immediately appearing when the compounds are mixed in water suggests the spontaneous formation of the low soluble compound hexadecyltrimethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (CTA-BF 4 ), together with the salt formed by the respective counterions bmim + and Br - in solution. For α CTA-Br ≠0.5, furthermore of the mentioned compounds, the spare bmim-BF 4 (for α CTA-Br Br (for α CTA-Br >0.5), are also present in the aqueous solution. Systems containing excess of bmim-BF 4 show a low critical aggregate concentration (cac), but an unexpected high surface tension at cac (γ cac ≈53-56mN/m), as pure CTA-BF 4 . For systems containing excess of CTA-Br, cac increases but γ cac decreases up to 36mN/m. Mixtures of pure CTA-BF 4 and bmim-BF 4 or CTA-Br behave as typical binary surfactant systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Electrochemical fabrication of TiO2 nanoparticles/[BMIM]BF4 ionic liquid hybrid film electrode and its application in determination of p-acetaminophen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bin; Li, Yuan; Qin, Xianjing; Zhan, Guoqing; Ma, Ming; Li, Chunya

    2012-01-01

    A water soluble ionic liquid, 1‐butyl‐3‐methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM]BF 4 ), was incorporated into TiO 2 nanoparticles to fabricate a hybrid film modified glassy carbon electrode (nano‐TiO 2 /[BMIM]BF 4 /GCE) through electrochemical deposition in a tetrabutyltitanate sol solution containing [BMIM]BF 4 . The obtained nano‐TiO 2 /[BMIM]BF 4 /GCEs were characterized scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Electrochemical behaviors of p‐acetaminophen at the nano‐TiO 2 /[BMIM]BF 4 /GCEs were thoroughly investigated. Compared to the redox reaction of p‐acetaminophen using an unmodified electrode under the same conditions, a new reduction peak was observed clearly at 0.26 V with the modified electrode. In addition, the peak potential for the oxidation of p‐acetaminophen was found to shift negatively about 90 mV and the current response increased significantly. These changes indicate that the nano‐TiO 2 /[BMIM]BF 4 hybrid film can improve the redox reactions of p‐acetaminophen in aqueous medium. Under optimum conditions, a linear relationship was obtained for the p‐acetaminophen solutions with concentration in the range from 5.0 × 10 −8 to 5.0 × 10 −5 M. The estimated detection limit was 1.0 × 10 −8 M (S/N = 3). The newly developed method was applied for the determination of p-acetaminophen in urine samples. - Highlights: ► Nano-TiO 2 /[BMIM]BF 4 hybrid film electrode was fabricated with electrodeposition. ► Voltammetric behavior of p-acetaminophen at the obtained electrode was investigated. ► The hybrid film electrode shows good electrocatalytic response to p-acetaminophen. ► p-acetaminophen in urine samples was successfully determined.

  10. Rate theory of solvent exchange and kinetics of Li(+) - BF4 (-)/PF6 (-) ion pairs in acetonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Liem X; Chang, Tsun-Mei

    2016-09-07

    In this paper, we describe our efforts to apply rate theories in studies of solvent exchange around Li(+) and the kinetics of ion pairings in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). We report one of the first computer simulations of the exchange dynamics around solvated Li(+) in acetonitrile (ACN), which is a common solvent used in LIBs. We also provide details of the ion-pairing kinetics of Li(+)-[BF4] and Li(+)-[PF6] in ACN. Using our polarizable force-field models and employing classical rate theories of chemical reactions, we examine the ACN exchange process between the first and second solvation shells around Li(+). We calculate exchange rates using transition state theory and weighted them with the transmission coefficients determined by the reactive flux, Impey, Madden, and McDonald approaches, and Grote-Hynes theory. We found the relaxation times changed from 180 ps to 4600 ps and from 30 ps to 280 ps for Li(+)-[BF4] and Li(+)-[PF6] ion pairs, respectively. These results confirm that the solvent response to the kinetics of ion pairing is significant. Our results also show that, in addition to affecting the free energy of solvation into ACN, the anion type also should significantly influence the kinetics of ion pairing. These results will increase our understanding of the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of LIB systems.

  11. Bone marrow CD11b(+)F4/80(+) dendritic cells ameliorate collagen-induced arthritis through modulating the balance between Treg and Th17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingling; Fu, Jingjing; Sheng, Kangliang; Li, Ying; Song, Shanshan; Li, Peipei; Song, Shasha; Wang, Qingtong; Chen, Jingyu; Yu, Jianhua; Wei, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs) are well-known to show an immunosuppressive function. In this study we determine the therapeutic effects and potential mechanisms of transferred bone marrow (BM) CD11b(+)F4/80(+) DCs on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. Murine BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+) DCs were generated under the stimulation of GM-CSF and IL-4, and the function of BM CD11b(+) F4/80(+) DCs was identified by measuring the levels of IL-10, TGF-beta and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+) DCs were transferred to CIA mice by intravenous injections. The histopathology of joint and spleen were evaluated. T lymphocyte proliferation, Treg and Th17 subsets were analyzed. The expressions of Foxp3, Helios and RORγt in T lymphocytes co-cultured with BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+) DCs were measured in vitro. We found that BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+) DCs induced by GM-CSF and IL-4 could express high levels of IL-10, TGF-beta and IDO. BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+) DCs significantly reduced the pathologic scores in joints and spleens, which correlated significantly with the reduced T lymphocyte proliferation and Th17 cell number, and with the increased Tregs number. In vitro, OVA-pulsed BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+) DCs promoted Treg cell expansion, enhanced IL-10 and CTLA-4 protein expression, augmented Foxp3 and Helios mRNA expression, and inhibited RORγt and IL-17 mRNA expression. Taken together, BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+) DCs are able to ameliorate the development and severity of CIA, at least partly by inducing Foxp3(+) Treg cell expansion and suppressing Th17 function. The BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+) DCs might have a promising immunotherapeutic potential for autoimmune arthritis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. On chirality transfer in electron donor-acceptor complexes. A prediction for the sulfinimine···BF3 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Joanna E; Dobrowolski, Jan Cz

    2012-01-01

    Stabilization energies of the electron donor-acceptor sulfinimine···BF(3) complexes calculated at either the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ or the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ level do not allow to judge, whether the N- or O-atom in sulfinimine is stronger electron-donor to BF(3) . The problem seems to be solvable because chirality transfer phenomenon between chiral sulfinimine and achiral BF(3) is expected to be vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) active. Moreover, the bands associated with the achiral BF(3) molecule are predicted to be the most intense in the entire spectrum. However, the VCD band robustness analyses show that most of the chirality transfer modes of BF(3) are unreliable. Conversely, variation of VCD intensity with change of intermolecular distance, angle, and selected dihedrals between the complex partners shows that to establish the robustness of chirality transfer mode. It is also necessary to determine the influence of the potential energy surface (PES) shape on the VCD intensity. At the moment, there is still no universal criterion for the chirality transfer mode robustness and the conclusions formulated based on one system cannot be directly transferred even to a quite similar one. However, it is certain that more attention should be focused on relation of PES shape and the VCD mode robustness problem. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Electrodes for the hydrogen through water electrolysis using BMI.BF{sub 4} as electrolyte; Eletrodos para a producao de hidrogenio via eletrolise da agua utilizando BMI.BF{sub 4} como eletrolito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botton, Janine Padilha; Martini, Emilse M.A.; Souza, Michele Oberson de; Souza, Roberto Fernando de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Eletroquimica e Catalise]. E-mail: janine@iq.ufrgs.br; Loget, Gabriel [Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France). Lab. de Eletroquimica Molecular e Macromolecular. UMR CNRS 6510

    2008-07-01

    The hydrogen production by water electrolysis was tested with different electrocatalysts (nickel, iron alloys containing nickel, chromium and manganese, and molybdenum) in the ionic liquid electrolyte, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMI.BF{sub 4}), 10 vol.% in water. The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) worked at room temperature with a platinum quasi-reference electrode (PtQRE) applying a -1.7 V potential. The experimental conditions used were determined in previous work and such parameters of operation were confirmed with the electrocatalysts employed in this work. A Hoffman cell apparatus was used to perform the water electrolysis. The current density values, j, obtained were between 3.0 mA cm{sup -2} and 77.5 mA cm{sup -2}. The system efficiency was very high for all electrocatalysts tested, between 97.0% and 99.2%. The molybdenum (Mo) electrode was better than others showing the highest current density value in HER. This behavior has been explained by the lower value of activation energy for the electrolysis reaction when Mo is employed comparing with Pt electrode. The energy activation of the HER using platinum (Pt) as electrocatalyst in an aqueous solution of BMI.BF{sub 4} 10 vol.% was 23.40 kJ mol{sup -1}, whereas with electrode of Mo in the same conditions , was 9.22 kJ mol{sup -1}. In an alkaline aqueous electrolyte (usual medium for such reaction), Mo is less efficient than Pt explaining the lack of published citation using pure Mo as cathode for the HER. The excellent results obtained with a Mo electrode employing ionic liquid as electrolyte show that the hydrogen production can be carried out with cheap electrode material at room temperature, which makes this method economically attractive. (author)

  14. Investigation of electric conductivity, viscosity and density of LiBF4-1,3-dioxolane system in homogeneity region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plakhotnik, V.N.; Tovmash, N.F.; Mishustin, A.N.; Dam'e, V.N.

    1987-01-01

    Solutions of lithium tetrafluoborate in 1,3-dioxolane (DOL) in temperature range and concentrations limiting the homogeneity region from the side of salt crystallization and formation of polymer structures from -30 deg to +25 deg and from 10 -6 to 1.4 mol/l. are investigated using methods of conductometry, densimetry, viscosimetry and by measuring time of spinlattice 7 Li nuclei relaxation. The dissociation constant of LiBF 4 in DOL (pK D =4.9±0.2 at 25 deg) is determined. Comparison with systems based on 1,2-dimethoxyethane and tetrahydrofurane studied earlier is carried out. Suppositions concerning considerable contribution of ion molecular structures with participation of salt ions and solvent molecules to electric conductivity are stated, and it agrees with the data on measurements of velocities of spin-lattice relaxation of 7 Li nuclei

  15. A wide dynamic range BF3 neutron monitor with front-end electronics based on a logarithmic amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrarini, M.; Varoli, V.; Favalli, A.; Caresana, M.; Pedersen, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a wide dynamic range neutron monitor based on a BF 3 neutron detector. The detector is used in current mode, and front-end electronics based on a logarithmic amplifier are used in order to have a measurement capability ranging over many orders of magnitude. The system has been calibrated at the Polytechnic of Milan, CESNEF, with an AmBe neutron source, and has been tested in a pulsed field at the PUNITA facility at JRC, Ispra. The detector has achieved a dynamic range of over 6 orders of magnitude, being able to measure single neutron pulses and showing saturation-free response for a reaction rate up to 10 6 s -1 . It has also proved effective in measuring the PUNITA facility pulse integral fluence.

  16. A wide dynamic range BF{sub 3} neutron monitor with front-end electronics based on a logarithmic amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrarini, M., E-mail: michele.ferrarini@polimi.i [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento Energia, via G. Ponzio 34/3, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Fondazione CNAO, via Caminadella 16, 20123 Milano (Italy); Varoli, V. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento Energia, via G. Ponzio 34/3, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Favalli, A. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Protection and Security of Citizen, TP 800, Via E. Fermi, 21027 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy); Caresana, M. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento Energia, via G. Ponzio 34/3, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Pedersen, B. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Protection and Security of Citizen, TP 800, Via E. Fermi, 21027 Ispra (Italy)

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes a wide dynamic range neutron monitor based on a BF{sub 3} neutron detector. The detector is used in current mode, and front-end electronics based on a logarithmic amplifier are used in order to have a measurement capability ranging over many orders of magnitude. The system has been calibrated at the Polytechnic of Milan, CESNEF, with an AmBe neutron source, and has been tested in a pulsed field at the PUNITA facility at JRC, Ispra. The detector has achieved a dynamic range of over 6 orders of magnitude, being able to measure single neutron pulses and showing saturation-free response for a reaction rate up to 10{sup 6} s{sup -1}. It has also proved effective in measuring the PUNITA facility pulse integral fluence.

  17. Phylogenetic analysis of HIV-1 pol gene: first subgenomic evidence of CRF29-BF among Iranian HIV-1 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Baesi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the dominant subtype among the HIV-1 strains circulation in Iran. Methods: In this cross sectional study 100 HIV positive patients participated. HIV-1 RNA was extracted from plasma. RT nested-PCR was performed and the final products were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed; reference sequences were downloaded from Los Alamos, aligned with Iranian pol sequences in the study and analyzed by neighbor-joining method. Results: The results of the phylogenetic analysis showed that HIV-1 subtype CRF-35AD was the dominant subtype among HIV-1 infected patients in Iran; this analysis also suggested a new circulating recombinant form that had not previously been identified in Iran: CRF-29BF. Conclusions: The impact of HIV diversity on pathogenesis, transmission and clinical management have been discussed in different studies; therefore, analyses of HIV genetic diversity is required to design effective antiretroviral strategies for different HIV subtypes.

  18. Emission line relative intensity variations in the symbiotic stars: CI Cygni, BF Cygni, AX Persei and V1016 Cygni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliversen, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    Low resolution spectra (lambda 3800 to lambda 5900) are presented of the symbiotic stars CI Cygni, BF Cygni, AX Persei and V1016 Cygni, which were obtained with the Washburn Observatory Boller and Chivens cassegrain spectrograph and intensified Reticon. The spectra were obtained as part of a monitoring program covering 36 months since November 1978. The nebular electron temperature and density are derived from the [O III] lambda 5007 and lambda 4363 emission lines and the uv intercombination lines of lambda 1661 and lambda 1667. Relative emission line intensity variations were observed in all four stars. The relative emission line changes correlated with photometric minima for CI Cyg, AX Per and possibly BF Cyg. These changes are interpreted as due to a red giant eclipsing a nebula surrounding the exciting source. Based on the [O III] line ratio change, the nebular density of V1016 Cyg has continued to decline since 1978. The thesis also contains a discussion of the use of the emision lines of [Ne III] lambda 3869, [O III] lambda 5007, lambda 4363 and He lambda 5876 to derive nebular electron temperature and density. A decline in the intensity ratios of I(lambda 3869)/(lambda 5007) and I(lambda 5876)/I(lambda 5007) were observed during the 1980 minimum of CI Cyg. The observed I(lambda 3869)/I(lambda 5007) decline was too large to be explained by temperature or density changes. The [Ne III] and He II regions in CI Cyg are therefore closer to the hot source than the more extended (o III] emission region. Contained within the appendix is a discussion of a graphical method of solution ot the nebular temperature and density, which is based on the emission lines of [Ne III], [O III] and He I

  19. Diffusion modelling of low-energy ion-implanted BF{sub 2} in crystalline silicon: Study of fluorine vacancy effect on boron diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcon, J. [Laboratoire Electronique Microtechnologie et Instrumentation (LEMI), University of Rouen, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan (France)], E-mail: Jerome.Marcon@univ-rouen.fr; Merabet, A. [Laboratoire de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux Metalliques, Departement d' O.M.P., Faculte des Sciences de l' Ingenieur, Universite de Setif, 19000 Setif (Algeria)

    2008-12-05

    We have investigated and modelled the diffusion of boron implanted into crystalline silicon in the form of boron difluoride BF{sub 2}{sup +}. We have used published data for BF{sub 2}{sup +} implanted with an energy of 2.2 keV in crystalline silicon. Fluorine effects are considered by using vacancy-fluorine pairs which are responsible for the suppression of boron diffusion in crystalline silicon. Following Uematsu's works, the simulations satisfactory reproduce the SIMS experimental profiles in the 800-1000 deg. C temperature range. The boron diffusion model in silicon of Uematsu has been improved taking into account the last experimental data.

  20. Thermally Tunable Dual Emission of the d8–d8 Dimer [Pt2(μ-P2O5(BF2)2)4]4–

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofbeck, T.; Lam, Y.; Ch.; Kalbáč, Martin; Záliš, Stanislav; Vlček, Antonín; Yersin, H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 5 (2016), s. 2441-2449 ISSN 0020-1669 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13015; GA MŠk LD14129; GA MŠk LL1301 Grant - others:COST(XE) cm1202 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : High-resolution fluorescence * phosphorescence spectra * [Pt2(μ-P2O5(BF2)2)4]4− (Pt(pop-BF2)) Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.857, year: 2016

  1. Comparison between a conventional membrane bioreactor (C-MBR and a biofilm membrane bioreactor (BF-MBR for domestic wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Subtil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the influence of biofilm carriers in a MBR on the performance of organic matter and nitrogen removal and the influence on membrane fouling were evaluated. The configurations studied included a Conventional Membrane Bioreactor (C-MBR and a Biofilm Membrane Bioreactor (BF-MBR operated in parallel, both fed with domestic wastewater. Regarding organic matter removal, no statistically significant differences were observed between C-MBR and BF-MBR, producing an effluent with a Soluble COD concentration of 27 ± 9.0 mgO2/L and 26 ±1.0 mgO2/L and BOD concentration of 6.0 ± 2.5 mgO2/L and 6.2 ± 2.1 mgO2/L, respectively. On the other hand, the BF-MBR produced a permeate with lower ammonia and total nitrogen concentrations, which resulted in a removal efficiency of 98% and 73%, respectively. It was also observed that the fouling rate was about 35% higher in the C-MBR than that for the BF-MBR, which also presented a reduction of total membrane resistance, about 29%, and increased operational cycle length around 7 days, compared to C-MBR.

  2. Stereoisomerization of the P(OCH2CH2)3N+BF4– radical: a single-crystal e.s.r. study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamerlinck, J.H.H.; Schipper, P.; Buck, H.M.

    1981-01-01

    The [graphic omitted]+BF4– radical with the unpaired electron in an apical position of the trigonal-bipyramidal (TBP) structure is generated by X-irradiation via an intermediate TBP structure in which the unpaired electron is located in an equatorial position.

  3. Spin-crossover in [Fe(3-bpp)2][BF4]2 in different solvents--a dramatic stabilisation of the low-spin state in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Simon A; Kilner, Colin A; Halcrow, Malcolm A

    2011-12-07

    The temperature of spin-crossover in [Fe(3-bpp)(2)][BF(4)](2) (3-bpp = 2,6-di{pyrazol-3-yl}pyridine) tends to increase in associating solvents. In particular, T(½) shifts to 60-70 K higher temperature in water compared to organic solvents.

  4. Vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy with BF2-chelated Tetraaryl-Azadipyrromethene agents: a multi-modality molecular imaging approach to therapeutic assessment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, A T

    2009-11-03

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality for a range of diseases including cancer. The BF(2)-chelated tetraaryl-azadipyrromethenes (ADPMs) are an emerging class of non-porphyrin PDT agent, which have previously shown excellent photochemical and photophysical properties for therapeutic application. Herein, in vivo efficacy and mechanism of action studies have been completed for the lead agent, ADMP06.

  5. Crystal structure and characterization of the novel NH+⋯N hydrogen bonded polar crystal [NH2(CH2)4NH][BF4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtaś, M.; Gaģor, A.; Czupiński, O.; Medycki, W.; Jakubas, R.

    2012-03-01

    Dielectric properties and phase transitions of the piperazinium tetrafluoroborate ([NH2(CH2)4NH][BF4], abbreviated as PFB) crystal are related to the one-dimensional arrangement of the cations linked by the bistable NH+⋯N hydrogen bonds and molecular motions of the [BF4]- units. The crystal structure of [NH2(CH2)4NH][BF4] is monoclinic at room temperature with the polar space group Pn. The polar/acentric properties of the room temperature phase IV have been confirmed by the piezoelectric and pyroelectric measurements. DSC measurements show that the compound undergoes three first-order structural phase transitions: at 421/411 K (heating/cooling), at 386/372 K and at 364/349 K. 1H and 19F NMR measurements indicate the reorientational motions of [BF4]- anions and piperazinium(+) cations as well as the proton motion in the hydrogen-bonded chains of piperazine along the [001] direction. Over the phase I the isotropic reorientational motions or even self-diffusion of the cations and anions are expected. The conductivity measurements in the vicinity of the II-I PT indicate a superionic phase over the phase I.

  6. Validation of the BPUMP BF1112 upper-arm blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Kang, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2017-04-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the automated oscillometric upper-arm blood pressure (BP) monitor BPUMP BF1112 for home BP monitoring according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension revision 2010 (ESH-IP2010). Systolic and diastolic BPs were sequentially measured in 33 adult Chinese (13 women, mean age 46.7 years) using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the BF1112 device (one supervisor). A total of 99 pairs of comparisons were obtained from 33 participants for judgments in two parts with three grading phases. The BPUMP BF1112 device achieved the targets in part 1 of the validation study. The number of absolute differences between device and observers within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg was 85/99, 96/99, and 97/99, respectively, for systolic BP, and 83/99, 97/99, and 99/99, respectively, for diastolic BP. The device also fulfilled the criteria in part 2 of the validation study. A total of 31 and 30 participants for systolic and diastolic BP, respectively, had at least two of the three device-observer differences within 5 mmHg (required≥24mmHg). No participant for systolic or diastolic BP had all the three device-observer comparisons greater than 5 mmHg. The BPUMP BP monitor BF1112 has passed the requirements of the ESH-IP2010, and hence can be recommended for home use in adults.

  7. Hybrid biofilm-membrane bioreactor (Bf-MBR) for minimization of bulk liquid-phase organic substances and its positive effect on membrane permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, F Y; Li, P; Li, J; Li, H J; Ou, Q M; Sun, T T; Dong, Z J

    2015-12-01

    Four biofilm membrane bioreactors (Bf-MBRs) with various fixed carrier volumes (C:M) were operated in parallel to investigate the effect of attached-growth mode biomass involvement to the change of liquid-phase organics characteristics and membrane permeability, by comparing with conventional MBR. The experiments displayed that C:M and co-existence of biofilm with suspended solids in Bf-MBRs resulted in slight difference in pollutants removal effectiveness, and in rather distinct biomass properties and bacterial activities. The membrane permeability and specific resistance of bulk suspension of Bf-MBRs related closely with the liquid-phase organic substance, including soluble microbial products (SMP) and biopolymer cluster (BPC). Compared with conventional MBR, Bf-MBR with proper C:M had a low total biomass content and food-chain, where biofilm formation and its dominance affected liquid-phase organics, especially through reducing their content and minimizing strongly and weakly hydrophobic components with small molecular weight, and thus to mitigate membrane fouling significantly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Performance enhancement of Ge-on-Insulator tunneling FETs with source junctions formed by low-energy BF2 ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Takumi; Matsumura, Ryo; Takaguchi, Ryotaro; Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi

    2018-04-01

    To clarify the process of formation of source regions of high-performance Ge n-channel tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs), p+-n junctions formed by low-energy ion implantation (I/I) of BF2 atoms are characterized. Here, the formation of p+-n junctions with steep B profiles and low junction leakage is a key issue. The steepness of 5.7 nm/dec in profiles of B implanted into Ge is obtained for BF2 I/I at 3 keV with a dose of 4 × 1014 cm-2. Ge-on-insulator (GOI) n-TFETs with the source tunnel junctions formed by low-energy B and BF2 I/I are fabricated on GOI substrates and the device operation is confirmed. Although the performance at room temperature is significantly degraded by the source junction leakage current, an I on/I off ratio of 105 and the minimum sub-threshold swing (S.S.) of 130 mV/dec are obtained at 10 K. It is found that GOI n-TFETs with steeper B profiles formed by BF2 I/I have led to higher on current and a lower sub-threshold slope, demonstrating the effectiveness of steep B profiles in enhancing the GOI TFET performance.

  9. Nuclear Hyperfine Structure in the Donor – Acceptor Complexes (CH3)3N-BF3 and (CH)33N-B(CH3)3

    Science.gov (United States)

    The donor-acceptor complexes (CH3)3N-BF3 and (CH3)3N-B(CH3)3 have been reinvestigated at high resolution by rotational spectroscopy in a supersonic jet. Nuclear hyperfine structure resulting from both nitrogen and boron has been resolved and quadrupole coupling constants have bee...

  10. Crystal structure and characterization of the novel NH+⋯N hydrogen bonded polar crystal [NH2(CH2)4NH][BF4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojtaś, M.; Gagor, A.; Czupiński, O.; Medycki, W.; Jakubas, R.

    2012-01-01

    Dielectric properties and phase transitions of the piperazinium tetrafluoroborate ([NH 2 (CH 2 ) 4 NH][BF 4 ], abbreviated as PFB) crystal are related to the one-dimensional arrangement of the cations linked by the bistable NH + ⋯N hydrogen bonds and molecular motions of the [BF 4 ] − units. The crystal structure of [NH 2 (CH 2 ) 4 NH][BF 4 ] is monoclinic at room temperature with the polar space group Pn. The polar/acentric properties of the room temperature phase IV have been confirmed by the piezoelectric and pyroelectric measurements. DSC measurements show that the compound undergoes three first-order structural phase transitions: at 421/411 K (heating/cooling), at 386/372 K and at 364/349 K. 1 H and 19 F NMR measurements indicate the reorientational motions of [BF 4 ] − anions and piperazinium(+) cations as well as the proton motion in the hydrogen-bonded chains of piperazine along the [001] direction. Over the phase I the isotropic reorientational motions or even self-diffusion of the cations and anions are expected. The conductivity measurements in the vicinity of the II–I PT indicate a superionic phase over the phase I. - Graphical abstract: It must be emphasized that the titled compound represents the first organic–inorganic simple salt containing the single-protonated piperazinium cation which was studied by means of the wide variety of experimental techniques. A survey of Cambridge Structural Database (CSD version 5.32 (November 2010) and updates (May 2011)) for structure containing the piperazinium cations yields 248 compounds with the doubly protonated piperazinium(2+) cations and only eight compounds with the singly protonated piperazinium(+) cations. Among these structures only one is the hybrid organic–inorganic material. This is piperazinium nitrate characterized structurally. The crystal packing of [NH 2 (CH 2 ) 4 NH][BF 4 ], phase IV. The dashed lines stand for the hydrogen bonds. The hydrogen bonds to BF4 groups are not included for

  11. Bauhinia forficata lectin (BfL) induces cell death and inhibits integrin-mediated adhesion on MCF7 human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Mariana C C; de Paula, Cláudia A A; Ferreira, Joana G; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar J; Vaz, Angela M S F; Sampaio, Misako U; Correia, Maria Tereza S; Oliva, Maria Luiza V

    2014-07-01

    Plant lectins have attracted great interest in cancer studies due to their antitumor activities. These proteins or glycoproteins specifically and reversibly bind to different types of carbohydrates or glycoproteins. Breast cancer, which presents altered glycosylation of cell surface glycoproteins, is one of the most frequent malignant diseases in women. In this work, we describe the effect of the lectin Bauhinia forficata lectin (BfL), which was purified from B. forficata Link subsp. forficata seeds, on the MCF7 human breast cancer cellular line, investigating the mechanisms involved in its antiproliferative activity. MCF7 cells were treated with BfL. Viability and adhesion alterations were evaluated using flow cytometry and western blotting. BfL inhibited the viability of the MCF7 cell line but was ineffective on MDA-MB-231 and MCF 10A cells. It inhibits MCF7 adhesion on laminin, collagen I and fibronectin, decreases α1, α6 and β1 integrin subunit expression, and increases α5 subunit expression. BfL triggers necrosis and secondary necrosis, with caspase-9 inhibition. It also causes deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation, which leads to cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and a decrease in the expression of the regulatory proteins pRb and p21. BfL shows selective cytotoxic effect and adhesion inhibition on MCF7 breast cancer cells. Cell death induction and inhibition of cell adhesion may contribute to understanding the action of lectins in breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mixing thermodynamic properties of 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate [b4mpy][BF{sub 4}] with water and with an alkan-1ol (methanol to pentanol)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, J. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario de Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)], E-mail: jortega@dip.ulpgc.es; Vreekamp, R.; Penco, E.; Marrero, E. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario de Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    This article presents a study of the behaviour in solution of 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate [b4mpy][BF{sub 4}] in water and in the first five alkanols of the series methanol to pentan-1-ol. The excess enthalpies, H{sub m}{sup E} and volumes, V{sub m}{sup E} were determined at the temperatures (298.15 and 318.15) K. At these temperatures, the [b4mpy][BF{sub 4}] was completely miscible in water, methanol, and ethanol, but only partially miscible in the other alkanols. A solubility study was carried out and the (liquid + liquid) equilibria of the ([b4mpy][BF{sub 4}] + alkanol) systems were experimentally determined, evaluating zones of complete miscibility and determining the UCST in each case. The mixtures with water gave positive values of H{sub m}{sup E} and V{sub m}{sup E}, being also positive the changes of these quantities with temperature. The mixtures with alkanols gave values of H{sub m}{sup E}>0 and V{sub m}{sup E}<0, and for these binary mixtures (dH{sub m}{sup E}/dT){sub p}>0 and (dV{sub m}{sup E}/dT){sub p}<0. For all cases, results were interpreted and compared with data obtained in mixtures with another isomer [b3mpy][BF{sub 4}]. Excess properties were correlated with a suitable equation and the area and volume parameters were calculated for [b4mpy][BF{sub 4}].

  13. Electroreduction Property and MD Simulation of Nitrobenzene in Ionic Liquid [BMim][Tf2N]/[BMim][BF4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Jianping; Zhang, Yinxu; Sun, Ruyao; Chen, Song

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The two different common accessible ionic liquids are mixed in a simple and economic way. • In some compound ratios, the dynamic performance of nitrobenzene is superior to either of ionic liquids. • Modification and functionalization of ionic liquids in electrochemical field is feasible. • The mass transfer of diffusion of nitrobenzene in ionic liquids can be simulated with molecular dynamics. • Molecular dynamics explains the improvement of nitrobenzene in composite ionic liquids. - Abstract: The two different common accessible ionic liquids [BMim][BF 4 ] and [BMim][Tf 2 N] were mixed each other in a simple and economic way. In some compound ratios, the dynamic performance of nitrobenzene in electric reduction was superior to that of any single kind of ionic liquid has been appeared. The interaction and mass transfer of diffusion of nitrobenzene in composite ionic liquids with different volume ratios were studied with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The improvement of the electroreduction performance of nitrobenzene in composite ionic liquids was verified and was tried to explain. This provides a new idea for the modification and functionalization of ionic liquids in electrochemical field. The experimental results showed that kinematic viscosity and electroconductibility of different ionic liquid systems display a regular change. And the change law has been basically unchanged after adding water. The two different functional ionic liquids were complemented each other in a simple and economic way, which has compensated for the disadvantage of mono-component ionic liquids. At 25 °C, electroreduction property of V [BMim][BF4] :V [BMim][Tf2N] = 1:1 is the best in cyclic voltammetry experiments of nitrobenzene in different composite ionic liquids. Its electrochemical behavior is significantly affected by scan rate, temperature, concentration of nitrobenzene and concentration of water. The MD simulation results showed most of interaction

  14. Fe4 cluster and a buckled macrocycle complex from the reduction of [(dmgBF2)2Fe(L)2] (L = MeCN, (t)Bu(i)NC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Michael J; Winkler, Jay R; Gray, Harry B

    2012-02-20

    We report the syntheses, X-ray structures, and reductive electrochemistry of the Fe(II) complexes [(dmgBF(2))(2)Fe(MeCN)(2)] (1; dmg = dimethylglyoxime, MeCN = acetonitrile) and [(dmgBF(2))Fe((t)Bu(i)NC)(2)] (2; (t)Bu(i)NC = tert-butylisocyanide). The reaction of 1 with Na/Hg amalgam led to isolation and the X-ray structure of [(dmgBF(2))(2)Fe(glyIm)] (3; glyIm = glyimine), wherein the (dmgBF(2))(2) macrocyclic frame is bent to accommodate the binding of a bidentate apical ligand. We also report the X-ray structure of a rare mixed-valence Fe(4) cluster with supporting dmg-type ligands. In the structure of [(dmg(2)BF(2))(3)Fe(3)((1)/(2)dmg)(3)Fe(O)(6)] (4), the (dmgBF(2))(2) macrocycle has been cleaved, eliminating BF(2) groups. Density functional theory calculations and electron paramagnetic resonance data are in accordance with a central Fe(III) ion surrounded by three formally Fe(II)dmg(2)BF(2) units.

  15. Synthesis, spectroscopic and catalytic properties of some new boron hybrid molecule derivatives by BF2 and BPh2 chelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Ahmet; Alcay, Ferhat; Aydemir, Murat; Durgun, Mustafa; Keles, Armagan; Baysal, Akın

    2015-05-01

    A new series of Schiff base ligands (L1-L3) and their corresponding fluorine/phenyl boron hybrid complexes [LnBF2] and [LnBPh2] (n = 1, 2 or 3) have been synthesized and well characterized by both analytical and spectroscopic methods. The Schiff base ligands and their corresponding fluorine/phenyl boron hybrid complexes have been characterized by NMR (1H, 13C and 19F), FT-IR, UV-Vis, LC-MS, and fluorescence spectroscopy as well as melting point and elemental analysis. The fluorescence efficiencies of phenyl chelate complexes are greatly red-shifted compared to those of the fluorine chelate analogs based on the same ligands, presumably due to the large steric hindrance and hard π → π∗ transition of the diphenyl boron chelation, which can effectively prevent molecular aggregation. The boron hybrid complexes were applied to the transfer hydrogenation of acetophenone derivatives to 1-phenylethanol derivatives in the presence of 2-propanol as the hydrogen source. The catalytic studies showed that boron hybrid complexes are good catalytic precursors for transfer hydrogenation of aromatic ketones in 0.1 M iso-PrOH solution. Also, we have found that both steric and electronic factors have a significant impact on the catalytic properties of this class of molecules.

  16. [Validation of a French translation of Krueger's personality inventory for DSM-5 in its brief form (PID-5 BF)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combaluzier, S; Gouvernet, B; Menant, F; Rezrazi, A

    2018-02-01

    Since the publication of the DSM-5 (APA, 2013), the dimensional conception of the personality disorders is co-existing with the classical categorical paradigm. Tools have been proposed for the evaluations of five big pathological factors to be explored further according to the APA (negative affectivity, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, psychoticism). Despite numerous works using these questionnaires (30 works in 3 years according to Al-Adjani et al., 2015), none of them have yet been translated into French. Also, the main objective of the paper is to present a French translation of the Personality Inventory for DSM -5 by Kruegger et al. (2013) in its brief form of 25 items (PID-5 BF). To reach this goal, we have employed the classic translation-retranslation method (Vallerand, 1989) and tested the consistence and the validity of this French version among a non-clinical sample (n=216) of young adults (age=31.4, SD=4.8), in joining some other questionnaires in their short forms to study the external validity of the PID-5 about the psychological distress (SCL-10, Nguyen, 1983), the categorical diagnosis of personality disorders (SAPAS, Moran et al., 2003) and the classical Big Five dimensions of the personality (BDI 10, Ramamstedt and John, 2007). The internal consistency of this translation has been studied through the classical outcomes on factor analysis for the dimensional repartitions of the items in 5 scales and Cronbach's alpha for the consistency of each found dimensions. The external validity has been explored by studying Pearson's correlations between the outcomes on each dimension of the PID-5 BF and both the clinical dimensions of SCL-10, personality dimensions of the BFI-10 or personality disorders (SAPAS). Factor analysis led to the same repartition of the 25 items as the original versions. Each of the dimensions is consistent enough (α>.65) to be taken into account as clinically significant. The items of the French version of the PID-5 BF follow

  17. Characterization and frequency of a newly identified HIV-1 BF1 intersubtype circulating recombinant form in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neto Walter

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV circulating recombinant forms (CRFs play an important role in the global and regional HIV epidemics, particularly in regions where multiple subtypes are circulating. To date, several (>40 CRFs are recognized worldwide with five currently circulating in Brazil. Here, we report the characterization of near full-length genome sequences (NFLG of six phylogenetically related HIV-1 BF1 intersubtype recombinants (five from this study and one from other published sequences representing CRF46_BF1. Methods Initially, we selected 36 samples from 888 adult patients residing in São Paulo who had previously been diagnosed as being infected with subclade F1 based on pol subgenomic fragment sequencing. Proviral DNA integrated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC was amplified from the purified genomic DNA of all 36-blood samples by five overlapping PCR fragments followed by direct sequencing. Sequence data were obtained from the five fragments that showed identical genomic structure and phylogenetic trees were constructed and compared with previously published sequences. Genuine subclade F1 sequences and any other sequences that exhibited unique mosaic structures were omitted from further analysis Results Of the 36 samples analyzed, only six sequences, inferred from the pol region as subclade F1, displayed BF1 identical mosaic genomes with a single intersubtype breakpoint identified at the nef-U3 overlap (HXB2 position 9347-9365; LTR region. Five of these isolates formed a rigid cluster in phylogentic trees from different subclade F1 fragment regions, which we can now designate as CRF46_BF1. According to our estimate, the new CRF accounts for 0.56% of the HIV-1 circulating strains in São Paulo. Comparison with previously published sequences revealed an additional five isolates that share an identical mosaic structure with those reported in our study. Despite sharing a similar recombinant structure, only one sequence appeared to

  18. A NLTE line formation for neutral and singly-ionised calcium in model atmospheres of B-F stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnova, T. M.; Mashonkina, L. I.; Ryabchikova, T. A.

    2018-03-01

    We present non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) line formation calculations for Ca I and Ca II in B-F stars. The sign and the magnitude of NLTE abundance corrections depend on line and stellar parameters. We determine calcium abundances for nine stars with reliable stellar parameters. For all stars, where the lines of both species could be measured, the NLTE abundances are found to be consistent within the error bars. We obtain consistent NLTE abundances from Ca II lines in the visible and near infra-red (IR, 8912-27, 9890 Å) spectrum range, in contrast with LTE, where the discrepancy between the two groups of lines ranges from -0.5 dex to 0.6 dex for different stars. Our NLTE method reproduces the Ca II 8912-27, 9890 Å lines observed in emission in the late B-type star HD 160762 with the classical plane-parallel and LTE model atmosphere. NLTE abundance corrections for lines of Ca I and Ca II were calculated in a grid of model atmospheres with 7000 K ≤ Teff ≤ 13000 K, 3.2 ≤ log g ≤ 5.0, -0.5 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤0.5, ξt= 2.0 km s-1. Our NLTE results can be applied for calcium NLTE abundance determination from Gaia spectra, given that accurate continuum normalisation and proper treatment of the hydrogen Paschen lines are provided. The NLTE method can be useful to refine calcium underabundances in Am stars and to provide accurate observational constraints on the models of diffusion.

  19. A NLTE line formation for neutral and singly ionized calcium in model atmospheres of B-F stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnova, T. M.; Mashonkina, L. I.; Ryabchikova, T. A.

    2018-07-01

    We present non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) line formation calculations for Ca I and Ca II in B-F stars. The sign and the magnitude of NLTE abundance corrections depend on line and stellar parameters. We determine calcium abundances for nine stars with reliable stellar parameters. For all stars, where the lines of both species could be measured, the NLTE abundances are found to be consistent within the error bars. We obtain consistent NLTE abundances from Ca II lines in the visible and near infra-red (IR, 8912-27, 9890 Å) spectrum range, in contrast with LTE, where the discrepancy between the two groups of lines ranges from -0.5 to 0.6 dex for different stars. Our NLTE method reproduces the Ca II 8912-27, 9890 Å lines observed in emission in the late B-type star HD 160762 with the classical plane-parallel and LTE model atmosphere. NLTE abundance corrections for lines of Ca I and Ca II were calculated in a grid of model atmospheres with 7000 ≤ Teff ≤ 13 000 K, 3.2 ≤ log g ≤ 5.0, -0.5 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤0.5, ξt = 2.0 km s-1. Our NLTE results can be applied for calcium NLTE abundance determination from Gaia spectra, given that accurate continuum normalization and proper treatment of the hydrogen Paschen lines are provided. The NLTE method can be useful to refine calcium underabundances in Am stars and to provide accurate observational constraints on the models of diffusion.

  20. Formation of oxygen-related defects enhanced by fluorine in BF{sub 2}{sup +}-implanted Si studied by a monoenergetic positron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uedono, Akira; Moriya, Tsuyoshi; Tanigawa, Shoichiro [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Materials Science; Kawano, Takao; Nagai, Ryo; Umeda, Kazunori

    1995-12-01

    Defects in 25-keV BF{sub 2}{sup +}- or As{sup +}-implanted Si specimens were probed by a monoenergetic positron beam. For the As{sup +}-implanted specimen, the depth profile of defects was obtained from measurements of Doppler broadening profiles as a function of incident positron energy. The major species of the defects was identified as divacancies. For ion-implanted specimens after annealing treatment, oxygen-related defects were found to be formed. For the BF{sub 2}{sup +}-implanted specimen before annealing treatment, such defects were formed in the subsurface region, where oxygen atoms were implanted by recoil from oxide films. This was attributed to enhanced formation of oxygen-related defects by the presence of F atoms. (author)

  1. Green synthesis of 2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazoles/ 2,3-dimethylindoles catalyzed by [bmim (BF 4] ionic liquid in methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamatakallu O. Shrungesh Kumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [bmim (BF 4] ionic liquid has been used as catalyst for the synthesis of tetrahydrocarbazoles and 2, 3-dimethylindoles with excellent yields in a shorter reaction time. The results show that the [bmim (BF 4] ionic liquid is very efficient in the Fischer indole synthesis due to its operational simplicity, high yields, dual catalyst-solvent properties and reused for five consecutive reactions without significant loss of catalytic efficiency. The applicability of the methodology for large-scale reaction highlights its potentiality for industrial scale synthesis. The main advantage of this procedure is that the products could be obtained in pure form after filtration and evaporation of MeOH solvent.

  2. Li+ solvation and kinetics of Li+-BF4-/PF6- ion pairs in ethylene carbonate. A molecular dynamics study with classical rate theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tsun-Mei; Dang, Liem X.

    2017-10-01

    Using our polarizable force-field models and employing classical rate theories of chemical reactions, we examine the ethylene carbonate (EC) exchange process between the first and second solvation shells around Li+ and the dissociation kinetics of ion pairs Li+-[BF4] and Li+-[PF6] in this solvent. We calculate the exchange rates using transition state theory and correct them with transmission coefficients computed by the reactive flux, Impey, Madden, and McDonald approaches, and Grote-Hynes theory. We found that the residence times of EC around Li+ ions varied from 60 to 450 ps, depending on the correction method used. We found that the relaxation times changed significantly from Li+-[BF4] to Li+-[PF6] ion pairs in EC. Our results also show that, in addition to affecting the free energy of dissociation in EC, the anion type also significantly influences the dissociation kinetics of ion pairing.

  3. Highly precise (liquid + liquid) equilibrium and heat capacity measurements near the critical point for [Bmim][BF4] + 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H perfluoroctanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Sánchez, G.; Troncoso, J.; Losada-Pérez, P.; Méndez-Castro, P.; Romaní, L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Highly precise liquid–liquid curves for [Bmim][BF 4 ] + perfluoroctanol are reported. • Critical behavior of heat capacity for the same system was also characterized. • In contrast to previous results, no coulombic/solvophobic crossover for coexistence curve diameter was found. • The system criticality shows characteristics both solvophobic and coulombic. -- Abstract: Liquid + liquid equilibrium of the system [Bmim][BF 4 ] + 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H perfluoroctanol using a highly precise methodology based on refractive index measurements was experimentally determined. In addition, isobaric heat capacity near the critical point was obtained. The performance of the new refractive index set-up was successfully checked against the coexistence curve of the system dimethyl carbonate + decane, since highly accurate data are available in the literature. The choice of [Bmim][BF 4 ] + 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H perfluoroctanol was motivated by a previous experimental work, whose results suggest that this system could present characteristics of both solvophobic and coulombic behavior, which are the two categories to which an ionic system can belong. Although this was previously observed for other ionic systems, this mixture presented a very striking feature: the diameter of the coexistence curve seemed to change its criticality in the studied temperature range, from solvophobic far away to coulombic close to the critical point. The results of this work reveal that, in fact, [Bmim][BF 4 ] + 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H perfluoroctanol presents characteristics of both solvophobic and coulombic criticality, but no evidence of the observed crossover over the experimental temperature range has been found

  4. Effect of the structure of imidazolium cations in [BF4](-)-type ionic liquids on direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of horseradish peroxidase in Nafion films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Huang, Xirong; Qu, Yinbo

    2011-10-01

    The direct electrochemistry and bioelectrocatalysis of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in Nafion films at glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was investigated in three [BF(4)](-)-type room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) to understand the structural effect of imidazolium cations. The three ILs are 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Emim][BF(4)]), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim][BF(4)]) and 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Hmim][BF(4)]). A small amount of water in the three ILs is indispensable for maintaining the electrochemical activity of HRP in Nafion films, and the optimum water contents decrease with the increase of alkyl chain length on imidazole ring. Analysis shows that the optimum water contents are primarily determined by the hydrophilicity of ILs used. In contrast to aqueous medium, ILs media facilitate the direct electron transfer of HRP, and the electrochemical parameters obtained in different ILs are obviously related to the nature of ILs. The direct electron transfer between HRP and GCE is a surface-confined quasi-reversible single electron transfer process. The apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant decreases gradually with the increase of alkyl chain length on imidazole ring, but the changing extent is relatively small. The electrocatalytic reduction current of H(2)O(2) at the present electrode decreases obviously with the increase of alkyl chain length, and the mass transfer of H(2)O(2) via diffusion in ILs should be responsible for the change. In addition, the modified electrode has good stability and reproducibility; the ability to tolerate high levels of F(-) has been greatly enhanced due to the use of Nafion film. When an appropriate mediator is included in the sensing layer, a sensitive nonaqueous biosensor could be fabricated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Empirical parameters for solvent acidity, basicity, dipolarity, and polarizability of the ionic liquids [BMIM][BF4] and [BMIM][PF6].

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Valle, J C; García Blanco, F; Catalán, J

    2015-04-02

    The empirical solvent scales for polarizability (SP), dipolarity (SdP), acidity (SA), and basicity (SB) have been successfully used to interpret the solvatochromism of compounds dissolved in organic solvents and their solvent mixtures. Providing that the published solvatochromic parameters for the ionic liquids 1-(1-butyl)-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [BMIM][BF4] and 1-(1-butyl)-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [BMIM][PF6], are excessively widespread, their SP, SdP, SA, and SB values are measured herein at temperatures from 293 to 353 K. Four key points are emphasized herein: (i) the origin of the solvatochromic solvent scales--the gas phase, that is the absence of any medium perturbation--; (ii) the separation of the polarizability and dipolarity effects; (iii) the simplification of the probing process in order to obtain the solvatochromic parameters; and (iv) the SP, SdP, SA, and SB solvent scales can probe the polarizability, dipolarity, acidity, and basicity of ionic liquids as well as of organic solvents and water-organic solvent mixtures. From the multiparameter approach using the four pure solvent scales one can draw the conclusion that (a) the solvent influence of [BMIM][BF4] parallels that of formamide at 293 K, both of them miscible with water; (b) [BMIM][PF6] shows a set of solvatochromic parameters similar to that of chloroacetonitrile, both of them water insoluble; and (c) that the corresponding solvent acidity and basicity of the ionic liquids can be explained to a great extent from the cation species by comparing the empirical parameters of [BMIM](+) with those of the solvent 1-methylimidazole. The insolubility of [BMIM][PF6] in water as compared to [BMIM][BF4] is tentatively connected to some extent to the larger molar volume of the anion [PF6](-), and to the difference in basicity of [PF6](-) and [BF4](-).

  6. Quantitative kinetic analysis of PET amyloid imaging agents [11C]BF227 and [18F]FACT in human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shidahara, Miho; Watabe, Hiroshi; Tashiro, Manabu; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Furumoto, Shozo; Watanuki, Shoichi; Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Arakawa, Yuma; Funaki, Yoshihito; Iwata, Ren; Gonda, Kohsuke; Kudo, Yukitsuka; Arai, Hiroyuki; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Yanai, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare two amyloid imaging agents, [ 11 C]BF227 and [ 18 F]FACT (derivative from [ 11 C]BF227) through quantitative pharmacokinetics analysis in human brain. Methods: Positron emission tomography studies were performed on six elderly healthy control (HC) subjects and seven probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients with [ 11 C]BF227 and 10 HC subjects and 10 probable AD patients with [ 18 F]FACT. Data from nine regions of interest were analyzed by several approaches, namely non-linear least-squared fitting methods with arterial input functions (one-tissue compartment model(1TCM), two-tissue compartment model (2TCM)), Logan plot, and linearized methods with reference region (Reference Logan plot (RefLogan), MRTM0, MRTM2). We also evaluated SUV and SUVR for both tracers. The parameters estimated by several approaches were compared between two tracers for detectability of differences between HC and AD patients. Results: For [ 11 C]BF227, there were no significant difference of V T (2TCM, 1TCM) and SUV in all regions (Student t-test; p < 0.05) and significant differences in the DVRs (Logan, RefLogan, and MRTM2) and SUVRs in six neocortical regions (p < 0.05) between the HC and AD groups. For [ 18 F]FACT, significant differences in DVRs (RefLogan, MRTM0, and MRTM2) were observed in more than four neocortical regions between the HC and AD groups (p < 0.05), and the significant differences were found in SUVRs for two neocortical regions (inferior frontal coretex and lateral temporal coretex). Our results showed that both tracers can clearly distinguish between HC and AD groups although the pharmacokinetics and distribution patterns in brain for two tracers were substantially different. Conclusion: This study revealed that although the PET amyloid imaging agents [ 11 C]BF227 and [ 18 F]FACT have similar chemical and biological properties, they have different pharmacokinetics, and caution must be paid for usage of the

  7. Comments on the feasibility studies concerning the decommissioning options LAW retrieval, relocation and backfilling for the Asse facility with respect to the applicability of the BfS evaluation criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alt, Stefan; Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate; Neles, Julia

    2009-01-01

    The comments on the feasibility studies cover the decommissioning options LAW retrieval, relocation and backfilling for the Asse facility with respect to the applicability of the BfS evaluation criteria. The respective BfS criteria include the evaluation with respect to the safety during the operational phase, the environmental impacts in case of an uncontrollable brine intrusion; the preliminary long-term safety assessment; the feasibility; and the time required.

  8. PTF11mnb: First analog of supernova 2005bf. Long-rising, double-peaked supernova Ic from a massive progenitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddia, F.; Sollerman, J.; Fremling, C.; Karamehmetoglu, E.; Quimby, R. M.; Gal-Yam, A.; Yaron, O.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Nugent, P. E.; Smadja, G.; Tao, C.

    2018-01-01

    Aims: We study PTF11mnb, a He-poor supernova (SN) whose light curves resemble those of SN 2005bf, a peculiar double-peaked stripped-envelope (SE) SN, until the declining phase after the main peak. We investigate the mechanism powering its light curve and the nature of its progenitor star. Methods: Optical photometry and spectroscopy of PTF11mnb are presented. We compared light curves, colors and spectral properties to those of SN 2005bf and normal SE SNe. We built a bolometric light curve and modeled this light curve with the SuperNova Explosion Code (SNEC) hydrodynamical code explosion of a MESA progenitor star and semi-analytic models. Results: The light curve of PTF11mnb turns out to be similar to that of SN 2005bf until 50 d when the main (secondary) peaks occur at -18.5 mag. The early peak occurs at 20 d and is about 1.0 mag fainter. After the main peak, the decline rate of PTF11mnb is remarkably slower than what was observed in SN 2005bf, and it traces well the 56Co decay rate. The spectra of PTF11mnb reveal a SN Ic and have no traces of He unlike in the case of SN Ib 2005bf, although they have velocities comparable to those of SN 2005bf. The whole evolution of the bolometric light curve is well reproduced by the explosion of a massive (Mej = 7.8 M⊙), He-poor star characterized by a double-peaked 56Ni distribution, a total 56Ni mass of 0.59 M⊙, and an explosion energy of 2.2 × 1051 erg. Alternatively, a normal SN Ib/c explosion (M(56Ni) = 0.11 M⊙, EK = 0.2 × 1051 erg, Mej = 1 M⊙) can power the first peak while a magnetar, with a magnetic field characterized by B = 5.0 × 1014 G, and a rotation period of P = 18.1 ms, provides energy for the main peak. The early g-band light curve can be fit with a shock-breakout cooling tail or an extended envelope model from which a radius of at least 30 R⊙ is obtained. Conclusions: We presented a scenario where PTF11mnb was the explosion of a massive, He-poor star, characterized by a double-peaked 56Ni

  9. Effects of Royal Jelly and Bee Pollen on the Growth of Selected Probiotic Bacteria (Bf. animalis Spp. Lactis, L. acidophilus and L. casei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guldas Metin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research article, the effects of bee pollen and royal jelly on the selected probiotic bacteria, as growth factors, were investigated. The probiotic cultures were activated in MRS broth at 37°C. Then, bee pollen and royal jelly (10 mg/100 μL, 25 mg/250 μL, 50 mg/500 μL, 75 mg/750 μL, and 100 mg/1000 μL were added on the probiotic cultures in MRS broth and sampled at 0, 24, and 48 hours of incubation. The medias used for enumeration of the probiotic cultures were RCA (Reinforced Clostridial Agar for Bf. animalis spp. lactis, MRS (deMann, Rogosa and Sharpe Agar with D-sorbitol for Lb. acidophilus and MRS-Vancomycine Agar for Lb. casei. The lactic acid production by Lb. acidophilus, Lb. casei, and Bf. animalis spp. lactis, and acetic acid production by Bf. animalis spp. lactis, were determined to compare the bacterial proliferation. The probiotic cultures were mainly affected by the bee pollen and royal jelly during the first 24 hours. The changes observed in the number of probiotic counts between 24 and 48 hours were not significant, statistically (P<0.05. Generally, the probiotic bacterial counts increased parallel to the concentration of bee pollen or royal jelly up to 75mg, and remained unchanged above this concentration. In terms of lactic acid production and bacterial growth, the most significant growth was observed on Lb. acidophilus when bee pollen or royal jelly was added.

  10. Thermodynamic study of binary mixture of x1[C6mim][BF4] + x21-propanol: Measurements and molecular modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kermanpour, F.; Sharifi, T.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Densities and viscosities for binary mixture of {x 1 [C 6 mim][BF 4 ] + x 2 1-propanol} were measured at different temperatures. ► The excess molar functions were calculated from the obtained experimental data. ► These data were correlated with the Redlich–Kister equation and PFP model to obtain the coefficients and standard deviations. - Abstract: Densities, ρ, and viscosities, η, of pure 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazoliumtetrafluoro borate ([C 6 mim][BF 4 ]) and 1-propanol, and their binary mixture {x 1 [C 6 mim][BF 4 ] + x 2 1-propanol} were measured at atmospheric pressure and in the temperature range of 293.15–333.15 K. The excess molar volumes, V m E , thermal expansion coefficients, α, and their excess values, α E , isothermal coefficient of excess molar enthalpy, (∂H m E /∂p) T,x and excess viscosities, η E , were calculated from the experimental values of densities and viscosities. The excess molar volumes of the binary mixture are negative over the entire mole fraction range and increase with increasing temperature. Excess viscosities are negative over the entire mole fraction range of the mixture and decrease with increasing temperature. The obtained excess molar volumes and excess viscosities were correlated with the Redlich–Kister equation. The experimental results have also been used to examine the applicability of Prigogine–Flory–Patterson (PFP) theory in predicting the excess molar volume of the binary mixture. It is indicated that agreement between excess molar volumes calculated via PFP theory and the experimental results is good in all temperatures.

  11. Boron Profile Sharpening in Ultra-Shallow p+-n Junction Produced by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation from BF3 Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukichev, V.; Rudenko, K.; Orlikovsky, A.; Pustovit, A.; Vyatkin, A.

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated plasma immersion ion implantation (PI 3 ) of boron with energies of 500 eV (doses up to 2x10 15 cm -2 ) from BF 3 plasma with He pre-amorphizing implantation (PAI)(energy 3 keV, dose 5x10 16 cm -2 ). Implanted samples were subjected to RTA (T = 900 to 1050 deg. C, t = 2 to 24 sec and spike anneal). SIMS analysis of boron profiles revealed its anomalous behavior. For short RTA times the profile tail (below 5x10 19 cm -3 ) moves toward the surface and then, as in the usual diffusion, toward the bulk at longer annealing times.

  12. Effect of bone marrow-derived CD11b(+)F4/80 (+) immature dendritic cells on the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in DBA/1 mice with collagen-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jingjing; Zhang, Lingling; Song, Shanshan; Sheng, Kangliang; Li, Ying; Li, Peipei; Song, Shasha; Wang, Qingtong; Chu, Jianhong; Wei, Wei

    2014-05-01

    To explore the effect of bone marrow-derived CD11b(+)F4/80(+) immature dendritic cells (BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+)iDC) on the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in DBA/1 mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+)iDC were induced with rmGM-CSF and rmIL-4, and were identified by the expressions of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2), indoleamine 2,3-deoxygenase (IDO), interleukin (IL)-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR). CIA was established in DBA/1 mice by immunization with type II collagen. CIA mice were injected intravenously with BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+)iDC three times after immunization. The effect of BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+)iDC on CIA was evaluated by the arthritis index, joint histopathology, body weight, thymus index, thymocytes proliferation, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-17, IL-10 and TGF-β1 levels. BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+)iDC induced with rmGM-CSF and rmIL-4 expressed high levels of TLR-2, IDO, IL-10 and TGF-β1. Infusion of BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+)iDC in CIA mice significantly reduced the arthritis index and pathological scores of joints, recovered the weight, decreased the thymus index and inhibited thymocyte proliferation. Levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-17 were decreased in BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+)iDC-treated mice. BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+)iDC can be induced successfully with rmGM-CSF and rmIL-4. BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+)iDC treatment can ameliorate the development and severity of CIA by regulating the balance between pro-inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory cytokines.

  13. Volumetric and viscosity properties of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid in methanol%[Bmim]BF4离子液体在甲醇中的体积和黏度性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李诗琴; 周贤丰; 许映杰

    2013-01-01

    在298.15 K和常压下,测定了1-丁基-3-甲基咪唑四氟硼酸([Bmim] BF4)离子液体+甲醇体系的密度和黏度.由密度计算了体系的表观摩尔体积,并采用Redlich-Mayer方程关联了体系的表观摩尔体积与组成的关系,得到了[Bmim]BF4在甲醇中的标准偏摩尔体积.由Jones-Dole方程对体系的黏度随组成的变化进行了拟合,获得了[Bmim] BF4在甲醇中的黏度B系数.结果表明:[Bmim] BF4+甲醇体系的表观摩尔体积和黏度均随[Bmim] BF4浓度的增加而增加,[Bmim] BF4在甲醇中的标准偏摩尔体积和黏度B系数分别为155.72×10-6m3/mol和0.282 9.%Densities and viscosities of l-butyl-3-methylimi-dazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid ( [ Bmim ] BF4 ) with methanol were measured at 298. 15 K and atmospheric pressure. Apparent molar volumes, Vf of the above-mentioned mixture were determined from the experimental densities. Standard partial molar volume , Vo/f of [ Bmim] BF4 in methanol was estimated by the Redlich-Mayer equation. The achieved viscosities were used to calculate the viscosity B-coefficient of [ Bmim ] BF4 in methanol through Jones-Dole equation. The results indicate that the apparent molar volumes and viscosities increase with increasing of ionic liquid concentration. Standard partial molar volume and viscosity B-coefficient of [Bmim] BF4 in methanol is 155.72 ?10-6 m3 穖ol-1 and 0.282 9,respectively.

  14. The reaction of Cs{sub 2}[Tc(NO)F{sub 5}] with BF{sub 3} in acetonitrile. Formation and structure of [{Tc(NO)(CH_3CN)_4}{sub 2}(μ-F)](BF{sub 4}){sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasekaran, Samundeeswari Mariappan [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Hagenbach, Adelheid; Spandl, Johann; Abram, Ulrich [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany)

    2017-10-04

    The deep blue, paramagnetic Cs{sub 2}[Tc{sup II}(NO)F{sub 5}] is formed during reactions of pertechnetate, acetohydroxamic acid, and CsF in aqueous HF. A reaction of Cs{sub 2}[Tc(NO)F{sub 5}] with BF{sub 3}.MeOH in acetonitrile gives yellow blocks of the fluorido-bridged dimer [{Tc"I(NO)(CH_3CN)_4}{sub 2}F](BF{sub 4}){sub 3}. The compound is stable as solid and in acetonitrile solutions. The complex cation contains a bent μ-F{sup -} ligand and two linear nitrosyl groups. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Synthesis of new low band gap dyes with BF{sub 2}-azopyrrole complex and their use for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikroyannidis, John A. [Chemical Technology Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, GR-26500 Patras (Greece); Roy, M.S. [Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur (Raj.) (India); Sharma, G.D. [Physics Department, Molecular Electronic and Optoelectronic Device Laboratory, JNV University, Jodhpur (Raj.) 342005 (India); Jaipur Engineering College, Kukas, Jaipur (Raj.) (India)

    2010-08-15

    The diazonium salt derived from 4-aminobenzoic acid, 4-aminophenol or 2-aminophenol reacted with half equivalent of pyrrole to afford symmetrical 2,5-bisazopyrroles. They reacted subsequently with boron trifluoride in the presence of triethylamine to afford the corresponding BF{sub 2}-azopyrrole complexes D1, D2 and D3 respectively. They were soluble and stable in nonprotic solvents such as chloroform, dichloromethane and tetrahydrofuran but unstable in protic solvents such as ethanol. Their absorption spectra were broad with optical band gap of 1.49-1.70 eV. Among these dyes D2 displayed the broader absorption spectrum with low band gap E{sub g}{sup opt} of 1.49 eV. We have utilized these complexes as photosensitizers for quasi solid state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and achieved power conversion efficiency in the range of 4.0-6.0%. We have also found that the co-adsorption of citric acid hindered the formation of dye aggregates and might improve the electron injection efficiency leading to an enhancement in short circuit photocurrent. This work suggests that metal-free dyes based on BF{sub 2}-azopyrrole complex are promising candidates for improvement of the DSSC performance. (author)

  16. Rate theory of solvent exchange and kinetics of Li+ − BF4−/PF6− ion pairs in acetonitrile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, Liem X.; Chang, Tsun-Mei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our efforts to apply rate theories in studies of solvent exchange around Li + and the kinetics of ion pairings in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). We report one of the first computer simulations of the exchange dynamics around solvated Li + in acetonitrile (ACN), which is a common solvent used in LIBs. We also provide details of the ion-pairing kinetics of Li + -[BF 4 ] and Li + -[PF 6 ] in ACN. Using our polarizable force-field models and employing classical rate theories of chemical reactions, we examine the ACN exchange process between the first and second solvation shells around Li + . We calculate exchange rates using transition state theory and weighted them with the transmission coefficients determined by the reactive flux, Impey, Madden, and McDonald approaches, and Grote-Hynes theory. We found the relaxation times changed from 180 ps to 4600 ps and from 30 ps to 280 ps for Li + -[BF 4 ] and Li + -[PF 6 ] ion pairs, respectively. These results confirm that the solvent response to the kinetics of ion pairing is significant. Our results also show that, in addition to affecting the free energy of solvation into ACN, the anion type also should significantly influence the kinetics of ion pairing. These results will increase our understanding of the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of LIB systems.

  17. [Current cases of falsified medicinal products within the competence of the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM) : Case studies and extent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittstock, Marcus; Paeschke, Norbert

    2017-11-01

    The nature of a falsification of a medicinal product can vary a lot. Therefore the means to detect them and the potential risk to patient safety can also be very different. The whole range of falsification will be described using observed cases from the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM).Based on the relatively low number of detected cases of falsified medicines, the legal supply chain can still be regarded as safe. It has to be assumed that in the illegal supply chain, e. g. illegal internet trade, the majority of the offered medicinal products are not only falsifications due to illegal trade but because they are completely falsified. Therefore there is an especially high risk for the consumer to be harmed by medicinal products that do not fulfil the required specifications.The trend indicates that increased efforts will be necessary to keep the legal supply chain safe and to contain illegal trade with falsifications. The higher federal authorities BfArM, PEI and BVL are involved in this task by coordinating and ensuring the flow of information to the concerned authorities and stakeholders as well as informing the public. Increased efforts are also necessary due to the rising involvement of organised crime in the falsification of medicinal products. A package of measures was enacted with the Falsified Medicines Directive 2011/62/EU to protect the legal supply chain from falsified medicinal products.

  18. Gibb's energy and intermolecular free length of 'Borassus Flabellifier' (BF) and Adansonia digitata (AnD) aqueous binary mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phadke, Sushil; Shrivastava, Bhakt Darshan; Ujle, S K; Mishra, Ashutosh; Dagaonkar, N

    2014-01-01

    One of the potential driving forces behind a chemical reaction is favourable a new quantity known as the Gibbs free energy (G) of the system, which reflects the balance between these forces. Ultrasonic velocity and absorption measurements in liquids and liquid mixtures find extensive application to study the nature of intermolecular forces. Ultrasonic velocity measurements have been successfully employed to detect weak and strong molecular interactions present in binary and ternary liquid mixtures. After measuring the density and ultrasonic velocity of aqueous solution of 'Borassus Flabellifier' BF and Adansonia digitata And, we calculated Gibb's energy and intermolecular free length. The velocity of ultrasonic waves was measured, using a multi-frequency ultrasonic interferometer with a high degree of accuracy operating Model M-84 by M/s Mittal Enterprises, New Delhi, at a fixed frequency of 2 MHz. Natural sample 'Borassus Flabellifier' BF fruit pulp and Adansonia digitata AnD powder was collected from Dhar, District of MP, India for this study.

  19. Separation of toluene from n-heptane by liquid–liquid extraction using binary mixtures of [bpy][BF4] and [4bmpy][Tf2N] ionic liquids as solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García, Silvia; Larriba, Marcos; García, Julián; Torrecilla, José S.; Rodríguez, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Binary mixtures of ionic liquids as extraction solvents of aromatics. ► [4bmpy][Tf 2 N] shows higher capacity but lower selectivity than sulfolane. ► [bpy][BF 4 ] shows lower capacity but higher selectivity than sulfolane. ► Mixed {[4bmpy][Tf 2 N] + [bpy][BF 4 ]} improves both extractive properties. - Abstract: The use of binary mixture of ionic liquids N-butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate ([bpy][BF 4 ]), and 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([4bmpy][Tf 2 N]) in the liquid–liquid extraction of toluene from n-heptane has been investigated at 313.2 K and atmospheric pressure. The experimental capacity of extraction and selectivity for this binary mixture has proved to be intermediate to those corresponding to the pure ionic liquids, and they can be predicted using a logarithmic–linear model of solubility. Furthermore, the results showed that the use of binary mixture of {[bpy][BF 4 ] + [4bmpy][Tf 2 N]} at a mole solvent composition around 0.7 for [bpy][BF 4 ] improves both the capacity of extraction of toluene and the selectivity with respect to those of sulfolane, the organic solvent taken as a benchmark. Thus, this mixed ionic liquid could be likely to be used in the extraction of aromatic from aliphatic in replacement to sulfolane.

  20. Investigation of electric conductivity, viscosity and density of LiBF/sub 4/-1,3-dioxolane system in homogeneity region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plakhotnik, V N; Tovmash, N F; Mishustin, A N; Dam' e, V N

    1987-01-01

    Solutions of lithium tetrafluoborate in 1,3-dioxolane (DOL) in temperature range and concentrations limiting the homogeneity region from the side of salt crystallization and formation of polymer structures from -30 deg to +25 deg and from 10/sup -6/ to 1.4 mol/l. are investigated using methods of conductometry, densimetry, viscosimetry and by measuring time of spinlattice /sup 7/Li nuclei relaxation. The dissociation constant of LiBF/sub 4/ in DOL (pK/sub D/=4.9+-0.2 at 25 deg) is determined. Comparison with systems based on 1,2-dimethoxyethane and tetrahydrofurane studied earlier is carried out. Suppositions concerning considerable contribution of ion molecular structures with participation of salt ions and solvent molecules to electric conductivity are stated, and it agrees with the data on measurements of velocities of spin-lattice relaxation of /sup 7/Li nuclei.

  1. Electronic and structural aspects of spin transitions observed by optical microscopy. The case of [Fe(ptz)6](BF4)2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Christian; Mishra, Haritosh; Boukheddaden, Kamel; Denise, Stéphane; Bouchez, Guillaume; Collet, Eric; Ameline, Jean-Claude; Naik, Anil D; Garcia, Yann; Varret, François

    2010-02-11

    The colorimetric analysis of images recorded with an optical microscope during the onset of the spin crossover transformation allows monitoring separately the involved electronic and structural aspects, through the separation of resonant absorption and scattering effects. Complementary information can also be obtained by using the polarized modes of the microscope. These potentialities are illustrated by the observation of [Fe(ptz)(6)](BF(4))(2) single crystals during the onset of the thermal transitions in the 110-140 K range. We characterized the interplay between the electronic (HS LS) and structural (order disorder) transformations. Elastic stresses and mechanical effects (hopping, self-cleavage) generated by the volume change upon electronic transition are also illustrated, with their impact on the photoswitching properties of the crystals.

  2. Improved production of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid by overexpression of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural oxidase and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural/furfural oxidoreductase in Raoultella ornithinolytica BF60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haibo; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian; Shi, Zhongping; Liu, Long

    2018-01-01

    2,5-Furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) is a promising bio-based building block and can be produced by biotransformation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). To improve the FDCA production, two genes-one encoding HMF oxidase (HMFO; from Methylovorus sp. strain MP688) and another encoding for HMF/Furfural oxidoreductase (HmfH; from Cupriavidus basilensis HMF14)-were introduced into Raoultella ornithinolytica BF60. The FDCA production in the engineered whole-cell biocatalyst increased from 51.0 to 93.6mM, and the molar conversion ratio of HMF to FDCA increased from 51.0 to 93.6%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development and Preliminary Psychometric Evaluation of a Brief Self-Report Questionnaire for the Assessment of the DSM-5 level of Personality Functioning Scale: The LPFS Brief Form (LPFS-BF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutsebaut, Joost; Feenstra, Dine J; Kamphuis, Jan H

    2016-04-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) alternative model for personality disorders (PDs) introduced a new paradigm for the assessment of PDs that includes levels of personality functioning indexing the severity of personality pathology irrespective of diagnosis. In this study, we describe the development and preliminary psychometric evaluation of a newly developed brief self-report questionnaire to assess levels of personality functioning, the Level of Personality Functioning Scale-Brief Form (LPFS-BF; Bender, Morey, & Skodol, 2011). Patients (N = 240) referred to a specialized setting for the assessment and treatment of PDs completed the LPFS-BF, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI; Derogatis, 1975), the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118; Verheul et al., 2008), and were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Personality Disorders (SCID-I; APA, 1994; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 1997) and the SCID Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, Williams, & Benjamin, 1996). When constrained to a 2-factor oblique solution, the LPFS-BF yielded a structure that corresponded well to an interpretation of Self- and Interpersonal Functioning scales. The instrument demonstrated fair to satisfactory internal consistency and promising construct validity. The LPFS-BF constitutes a short, user-friendly instrument that provides a quick impression of the severity of personality pathology, specifically oriented to the DSM-5 model. Clearly, more research is needed to test its validity and clinical utility. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Safety of laboratory analyzers for infection testing - results of the market surveillance by the BfArM until end 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siekmeier R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The European Directive 98/79/EC on in vitro diagnostic medical devices (IVD stipulates the marketing and post market surveillance of IVD in the European Economic Area. In cases of issues and field corrective actions, the manufacturers have to inform the responsible Competent Authorities (CA. In Germany, the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM is the responsible CA for most IVD, with a small subset of IVD for immune hematological and infectiological testing as well as tissue typing as specified in Annex II of the Directive, being within the responsibility of the Paul-Ehrlich-Institute (PEI. In this study, all issues regarding laboratory analyzers for infection testing and their consumables, but not reagents, kits and general culture media, reported to the BfArM between begin 1999 and end of 2007 were analyzed in respect to the sources of report, the underlying product failure and the performed corrective actions. Within the observation period a total of 1471 reports for IVD were received of which 73 related to the IVD for infection testing were included in our study. Reports were predominantly received from manufacturers (56 and competent authorities (15. Affected products were most frequently those for immunological analysis (42 whereas those based on culturing techniques (17 and molecular biological techniques (14 played only minor roles. In all these groups, laboratory analyzers (55 were more frequently affected than their consumables (18. Investigations of the manufacturers were able to identify the underlying root causes of product failures in 62 cases (84.9%. In 2 cases (2.7% the root cause remained unclear and in 9 cases (12.3% a product failure was excluded or a user error was the underlying cause. Product failures in laboratory analyzers were most frequently caused by software errors (31 and constructional faults (8 whereas the predominant cause of product failure in consumables were errors in production and

  5. Measurement of sigma(pp'bar' → W) x BF(W → eν) in the CDF experiment, and single photoelectron analysis of light signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorko, I.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, I present a measurement of the cross section of W production at collider Tevatron times branching fraction for W → eν (sigma(pp'bar' → W) x BF(W → eν)) with electron reconstructed in the forward region of the detector CDF, using combined calorimetric and tracking information. This is the first CDF measurement in the forward rapidity range and is the first step for study of W properties at large η. For the period Run II, started from autumn 2001, was made upgrade of CDF detector. The forward region (for pseudorapidity |η| > 1) was strongly affected by this upgrade. Mainly due to new silicon tracking system and new forward calorimeter. With combination of tracking detectors SVXII and ISL it is now possible to reconstruct '3D' tracks. The analysis starts from calorimeter-based selection criteria finished with sample of W candidates. This selection is followed by matching '3D' tracks (to remove remaining background) with reconstructed cluster in electromagnetic calorimeter, which is measuring not only energy, but also position of electromagnetic object by Preshower detector (part of calorimeter). Besides MET PEM trigger and tracking efficiencies were established as a helpful numbers for other analysis in forward region. The measured value of the σ x BF(W → eν) is 2.874 ± 0.034(stat) ± 0.167(sys) ± 0.172(lum)nb for data sample of integrated luminosity 64 pb -1 , taken from February 2002 until the January 2003 shutdown. Presented value is in agreement with measurements performed by CDF in the central region and with theoretical estimates. Analysis of the photomultiplier (PMT) pulse height spectra from faint light sources (usually called the single-photoelectron spectra) is of a great importance because it reveals many features and can be used to find relevant parameters of PMTs. A deconvolution method is based on a sophisticated photomultiplier response function, which takes into account also photoeffect on first dynode and non

  6. Different features of the MHC class I heterodimer have evolved at different rates. Chicken B-F and beta 2-microglobulin sequences reveal invariant surface residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufman, J; Andersen, R; Avila, D

    1992-01-01

    molecules and the MHC-encoded nonclassical molecules more than CD1 or the class I-like FcR. In contrast, the chicken alpha 3 domain is equally homologous to all alpha 3 domains, to beta 2m and to class II beta 2 domains. For each pair of extracellular domains (alpha 1 vs alpha 2, alpha 3 vs beta 2m...... of small exons in the cytoplasmic region. The cDNA sequences were compared to turkey beta 2m, the apparent allele B-F12 alpha and other vertebrate homologs, using the 2.6 A structure of the human HLA-A2 molecule as a model. Both chicken alpha 1 and alpha 2 domains resemble mammalian classical class I...... the ends of the peptide, two residues that bind CD8, and three residues that are phosphorylated. The positions of the allelic residues are conserved. There are other patches of invariant residues on alpha 1, alpha 2, and beta 2m; these might bind TCR or other molecules involved in class I function...

  7. Thyroid exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian children due to the Chernobyl accident and resulting thyroid cancer risk. Final report of BfS project StSch 4240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, P; Meckbach, R; Ulanovski, A; Schotola, C; Proehl, G [GSF-Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany); Kenigsberg, J; Buglova, E; Kruk, J [Institute of Radiation Medicine and Endocrinology, Minsk (Belarus); Likhtarev, I; Kovgan, L; Vavilov, S; Chepurniy, M [Ukrainian Radiation Protection Inst., Kyiv (Ukraine); Tronko, M; Bogdanova, T [Institute of Endocrinolgoy and Metabolism of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Shinkarev, S; Gavrilin, Y [All-Russian Public Organization of Invalids ' Chernobylets' , Scientific Center ' FENIX' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Demidchik, Y [Thyroid Cancer Center, Minsk (Belarus)

    2005-07-01

    Main objectives of the BfS Project StSch4240 Thyroid Exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian Children due to the Chernobyl Accident and Resulting Thyroid Cancer Risk were: to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian settlements, in which more than 10 measurements of the {sup 131}I activity in the human thyroid have been performed in May/June 1986, to explore, whether this dosimetric database can be extended to neighboring settlements, to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian oblasts (regions) and larger cities, to document the thyroid cancer incidence for the period 1986 - 2001 in Ukraine and Belarus and describe morphological characteristics of the cancer cases, to assess the contribution of the baseline incidence to the total thyroid cancer incidence in the two countries and identify regional and temporal dependencies, to perform analyses of excess risks in settlements with more than 10 measurements of the {sup 131}I activity in the human thyroid. The project has been conducted in the period 6 December 1999 to 31 March 2004. (orig.)

  8. Thyroid exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian children due to the Chernobyl accident and resulting thyroid cancer risk. Final report of BfS project StSch 4240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.; Meckbach, R.; Ulanovski, A.; Schotola, C.; Proehl, G.; Kenigsberg, J.; Buglova, E.; Kruk, J.; Likhtarev, I.; Kovgan, L.; Vavilov, S.; Chepurniy, M.; Tronko, M.; Bogdanova, T.; Shinkarev, S.; Gavrilin, Y.; Demidchik, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Main objectives of the BfS Project StSch4240 Thyroid Exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian Children due to the Chernobyl Accident and Resulting Thyroid Cancer Risk were: to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian settlements, in which more than 10 measurements of the 131 I activity in the human thyroid have been performed in May/June 1986, to explore, whether this dosimetric database can be extended to neighboring settlements, to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian oblasts (regions) and larger cities, to document the thyroid cancer incidence for the period 1986 - 2001 in Ukraine and Belarus and describe morphological characteristics of the cancer cases, to assess the contribution of the baseline incidence to the total thyroid cancer incidence in the two countries and identify regional and temporal dependencies, to perform analyses of excess risks in settlements with more than 10 measurements of the 131 I activity in the human thyroid. The project has been conducted in the period 6 December 1999 to 31 March 2004. (orig.)

  9. Evolution of the accretion structure of the compact object in the symbiotic binary BF Cygni during outburst in 2009-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomov, N. A.; Tomova, M. T.; Bisikalo, D. V.

    2017-12-01

    The eclipsing symbiotic binary BF Cyg has had five orbital minima during its last optical outburst after 2006. The second minimum is much shallower than the first one and after that the minimum get deeper again. We determined the parameters of the accretion structure surrounding the compact object in two minima and traced its evolution until 2014. Moreover, we analysed the continuum of the system in the region of the UBVRCIC photometric bands to derive the parameters of its components at two times orbital maximum and calculated the mass-loss rate of the compact object. The results obtained allow us to conclude about the mechanism of fading of the optical light of the system until 2014. These results show that the optical flux of the outbursted compact object decreases because of "contraction" of its observed photosphere (pseudophotosphere) which, on its side, is due to increase of the velocity of its stellar wind, and the optical flux of the circumbinary nebula decreases mainly because of reduction of its mean density, which, on its side, is due to destruction of the accretion structure.

  10. Field safety notices released by manufacturers in cases of failure of products for infection testing: analysis of cases reported to the BfArM between 2005 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siekmeier, R; Lisson, K; Wetzel, D

    2010-11-04

    The European Directive 98/79/EC for in vitro diagnostic medical devices (IVD) regulates marketing and post marketing surveillance of IVD in the European Economic Area. Manufacturers have to inform the responsible Competent Authorities (CA) about incidents and field safety corrective actions (FSCA) related to IVD. In Germany, the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM) is the responsible CA for most IVD, only few IVD as specified in Annex II of the Directive are under the responsibility of the Paul Ehrlich Institute (PEI). In case of a FSCA manufacturers have to inform customers by means of a Field Safety Notice (FSN) which should be sent to BfArM prior to release and is published on the BfArM homepage. Between beginning of 2005 and end of 2007 the BfArM received a total of 1025 reports regarding IVD. From these, 38 related to tests, reagents, calibrators, and control materials for infection testing, 13 related to analysers and general consumables (n = 8 and n = 5, respectively) based on culture techniques, and 7 related to analysers and general consumables (n = 5 and n = 2, respectively) based on molecular biological methods. FSCA were performed in Germany in 32 (84.2%) of all notifications related to tests reagents, calibrators, and control materials as well as in 13 (100%) and 7 (100%) of notifications related to analysers and consumables based on culture techniques and molecular biological methods, respectively. A number of relevant deficiencies regarding the quality of the FSN were separately demonstrated for FSN in German and English language. In brief, manufacturers often sent their FSN to the BfArM with delay. Additionally, a subset of FSN provided insufficient information on the product related risks or the measures to be performed by the customer to mitigate product related risks. Furthermore, customer confirmation forms often were missing in the FSN sent to the BfArM. Our data suggest that for IVD for infection testing FSCA and FSN are

  11. IL-12 and GM-CSF in DNA/MVA immunizations against HIV-1 CRF12_BF Nef induced T-cell responses with an enhanced magnitude, breadth and quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Rodríguez

    Full Text Available In Argentina, the HIV epidemic is characterized by the co-circulation of subtype B and BF recombinant viral variants. Nef is an HIV protein highly variable among subtypes, making it a good tool to study the impact of HIV variability in the vaccine design setting. We have previously reported a specific cellular response against NefBF with low cross-reactivity to NefB in mice. The aim of this work was to analyze whether the co-administration of IL-12 and GM-CSF, using DNA and MVA vaccine vectors, could improve the final cellular response induced. Mice received three DNA priming doses of a plasmid that express NefBF plus DNAs expressing IL-12 and/or GM-CSF. Afterwards, all the groups were boosted with a MVAnefBF dose. The highest increase in the magnitude of the NefBF response, compared to that induced in the control was found in the IL-12 group. Importantly, a response with higher breadth was detected in groups which received IL-12 or GM-CSF, evidenced as an increased frequency of recognition of homologous (BF and heterologous (B Nef peptides, as well as a higher number of other Nef peptide pools representing different viral subtypes. However, these improvements were lost when both DNA cytokines were simultaneously administered, as the response was focused against the immunodominant peptide with a detrimental response towards subdominant epitopes. The pattern of cytokines secreted and the specific-T-cell proliferative capacity were improved in IL-12 and IL-12+GM-CSF groups. Importantly IL-12 generated a significant higher T-cell avidity against a B heterologous peptide.This study indicates that the incorporation of DNA expressing IL-12 in DNA/MVA schemes produced the best results in terms of improvements of T-cell-response key properties such as breadth, cross-reactivity and quality (avidity and pattern of cytokines secreted. These relevant results contribute to the design of strategies aimed to induce T-cell responses against HIV antigens with

  12. Synthesis of [11C]-labelled methyl esters: transesterification of enol esters versus BF3 etherate catalysed esterification - a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, U.; Falzon, C.; Issa, W.; Tochon-Danguy, H.J.; Sachinidis, J.I.; Blanc, P.; White, J.; Scott, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    An important issue in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is the development of labelling techniques to incorporate positron emitting radionuclides into biologically active compounds. When labelling with 11C, the short 20 minutes half-life of the radionuclide significantly limits the number of synthetic protocols available to the radiochemist. C-l synthons such as [HCJ-methyl iodide (1) or methyl triflate (2) are readily available and are frequently used as alkylating agents for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. However, the use of these alkylating agents often makes it necessary to introduce protecting groups in order to prevent labelling at unwanted sites on the molecule. Since the removal of protecting groups is a time-consuming process, a more direct synthesis strategy is desirable. This has prompted us to investigate the esterification of carboxylic acids using [1 lC]-mcthanol and BF3 etherate as Lewis acid catalyst. Our results have demonstrated that the reaction conditions necessary to promote the esterification can cleave functional groups such as ethers. We have therefore shifted our attention towards the irreversible transesterification of enol esters using [HCl-methanol and a tin catalyst as an alternative strategy to [HC]-methyl ester formation. We have prepared a series of 5 aromatic ethoxy vinyl esters bearing various functional groups. The transesterification (radiolabelling) was carried out in DMSO at 150 Degrees C for 7 minutes in the presence of [HQMeOH and 1.3-dichlo-rotetrabutyldistannoxane as catalyst. We have found that the transesterification of enol esters is a mild and efficient labelling method for the formation of [HCl-methyl esters. The reaction proceeds smoothly and leaves functional groups intact. It requires only one synthesis step compared to two steps for the conventional method, and gives a radiochemical yields of 25%

  13. Photomagnetic studies on spin-crossover solid solutions containing two different metal complexes, [Fe(1-bpp)(2)](x)[M(terpy)2](1-x)[BF4]2 (M = Ru or Co).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastanet, Guillaume; Tovee, Clare A; Hyett, Geoffrey; Halcrow, Malcolm A; Létard, Jean-François

    2012-04-28

    The photomagnetic properties of two series of spin-crossover solid solutions, [Fe(1-bpp)(2)](x)[Ru(terpy)(2)](1-x)(BF(4))(2) and [Fe(1-bpp)(2)](x)[Co(terpy)(2)](1-x)(BF(4))(2) (1-bpp = 2,6-bis[pyrazol-1-yl]pyridine), have been investigated. For all the materials, the evolution of the T(LIESST) value, the high-spin → low-spin relaxation parameters and the LITH loops were thoroughly studied. Interestingly in the Fe:Co series, along the photo-excitation, cobalt ions are concomitantly converted from low-spin to high-spin states with the iron centres, and also fully relax after light excitation. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  14. Development of NRESP98 Monte Carlo codes for the calculation of neutron response functions of neutron detectors. Calculation of the response function of spherical BF{sub 3} proportional counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, M.; Saito, K.; Ando, H. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1998-05-01

    The method to calculate the response function of spherical BF{sub 3} proportional counter, which is commonly used as neutron dose rate meter and neutron spectrometer with multi moderator system, is developed. As the calculation code for evaluating the response function, the existing code series NRESP, the Monte Carlo code for the calculation of response function of neutron detectors, is selected. However, the application scope of the existing NRESP is restricted, the NRESP98 is tuned as generally applicable code, with expansion of the geometrical condition, the applicable element, etc. The NRESP98 is tested with the response function of the spherical BF{sub 3} proportional counter. Including the effect of the distribution of amplification factor, the detailed evaluation of the charged particle transportation and the effect of the statistical distribution, the result of NRESP98 calculation fit the experience within {+-}10%. (author)

  15. BF2.649 [1-{3-[3-(4-Chlorophenyl)propoxy]propyl}piperidine, hydrochloride], a nonimidazole inverse agonist/antagonist at the human histamine H3 receptor: Preclinical pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligneau, X; Perrin, D; Landais, L; Camelin, J-C; Calmels, T P G; Berrebi-Bertrand, I; Lecomte, J-M; Parmentier, R; Anaclet, C; Lin, J-S; Bertaina-Anglade, V; la Rochelle, C Drieu; d'Aniello, F; Rouleau, A; Gbahou, F; Arrang, J-M; Ganellin, C R; Stark, H; Schunack, W; Schwartz, J-C

    2007-01-01

    Histamine H3 receptor inverse agonists are known to enhance the activity of histaminergic neurons in brain and thereby promote vigilance and cognition. 1-{3-[3-(4-Chlorophenyl)propoxy]propyl}piperidine, hydrochloride (BF2.649) is a novel, potent, and selective nonimidazole inverse agonist at the recombinant human H3 receptor. On the stimulation of guanosine 5'-O-(3-[35S]thio)triphosphate binding to this receptor, BF2.649 behaved as a competitive antagonist with a Ki value of 0.16 nM and as an inverse agonist with an EC50 value of 1.5 nM and an intrinsic activity approximately 50% higher than that of ciproxifan. Its in vitro potency was approximately 6 times lower at the rodent receptor. In mice, the oral bioavailability coefficient, i.e., the ratio of plasma areas under the curve after oral and i.v. administrations, respectively, was 84%. BF2.649 dose dependently enhanced tele-methylhistamine levels in mouse brain, an index of histaminergic neuron activity, with an ED50 value of 1.6 mg/kg p.o., a response that persisted after repeated administrations for 17 days. In rats, the drug enhanced dopamine and acetylcholine levels in microdialysates of the prefrontal cortex. In cats, it markedly enhanced wakefulness at the expense of sleep states and also enhanced fast cortical rhythms of the electroencephalogram, known to be associated with improved vigilance. On the two-trial object recognition test in mice, a promnesiant effect was shown regarding either scopolamine-induced or natural forgetting. These preclinical data suggest that BF2.649 is a valuable drug candidate to be developed in wakefulness or memory deficits and other cognitive disorders.

  16. Different strain relaxation mechanisms in strained Si/Si sub 1 sub - sub x Ge sub x /Si heterostructures by high dose B sup + and BF sub 2 sup + doping

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, C C; Zhang, S L; Zhu, D Z; Vantomme, A

    2002-01-01

    Strained Si/Si sub 0 sub . sub 8 Ge sub 0 sub . sub 2 /Si heterostructures are implanted at room temperature with 7.5 keV B sup + and 33 keV BF sub 2 sup + ions to a high dose of 2x10 sup 1 sup 5 ions/cm sup 2 , respectively. The samples are subsequently subjected to three-step anneals (spacer anneal, oxidation anneal and rapid thermal anneal), which are used to simulate a real fabrication process of SiGe-based MOSFET devices. The damage induced by implantation and its recovery are characterized by 2 MeV sup 4 He sup + RBS/channeling spectrometry. A damage layer on the surface is induced by B sup + implantation, but BF sup + sub 2 ion implantation amorphizes the surface of Si/Si sub 0 sub . sub 8 Ge sub 0 sub . sub 2 /Si heterostructure. Channeling angular scans along the axial direction demonstrate that the strain stored in the SiGe layer could be nearly completely retained for the B sup + implanted and subsequently annealed sample. However, the strain in the BF sub 2 sup + implanted/annealed SiGe layer has...

  17. Highly efficient extraction and oxidative desulfurization system using Na7H2LaW10O36⋅32 H2O in [bmim]BF4 at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junhua; Zhao, Shen; Chen, Wei; Wang, Miao; Song, Yu-Fei

    2012-04-10

    Highly efficient, deep desulfurization of model oil containing dibenzothiophene (DBT), benzothiophene (BT), or 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) has been achieved under mild conditions by using an extraction and catalytic oxidative desulfurization system (ECODS) in which a lanthanide-containing polyoxometalate Na(7)H(2)LnW(10)O(36)⋅32 H(2)O (LnW(10); Ln = Eu, La) acts as catalyst, [bmim]BF(4) (bmim = 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) as extractant, and H(2)O(2) as oxidant. Sulfur removal follows the order DBT>4,6-DMDBT>BT at 30 °C. DBT can be completely oxidized to the corresponding sulfone in 25 min under mild conditions, and the LaW(10)/[bmim]BF(4) system could be recycled for ten times with only slight decrease in activity. Thus, LaW(10) in [bmim]BF(4) is one of the most efficient systems for desulfurization using ionic liquids as extractant reported so far. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Synthesis of the compound tetrakis (2- methoxy isobutyl isonitrile) copper (I) tetrafluoroborate -(Cu[MIBI]4BF4): substance used in the production of the radiopharmaceutical sestamibi 99m Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Katia Suzi da Silveira

    2005-01-01

    The radiopharmaceutical SESTAMIBI- 99m Tc presents interest and application in the clinical routine in Nuclear Medicine, especially for evaluation of the myocardium function and in the diagnosis of some tumors types, and the Center of Radiopharmacy of the IPEN has interest in the development of this radiopharmaceutical for attendance of the nuclear medicine class necessities. In this work it was demonstrated the synthesis and characterization of the active compound tetrakis (2- methoxy isobutyl isonitrile) copper (I) tetrafluoroborate - Cu[MIBI] 4 BF 4 - to be used in the preparation of lyophilized reagents for labeling with technetium- 99m as well as labeling studies and biological distribution. The synthesis of the reagent Cu[MIBI] 4 BF 4 was carried out in accordance with previously described procedures, in 5 steps and the compounds were characterized for infra-red, magnetic nuclear resonance, melting point and thin layer chromatography. The characterization of the chelate of MIBI -Cu[MIBI] 4 BF 4 - was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography, compared with a standard sample of the product and presented similar results, as described in literature. The lyophilized reagent was prepared and labeled with technetium- 99m , showing high radiochemical purity, higher than 97%, with high stability. Biological distribution in different animals showed good uptake in the heart, in time compatible with the acquisition of scintigraphy images, demonstrating the applicability of the reagent synthesized in the attainment of cardiac scintigraphy images. (author)

  19. Crystal structure and characterization of the novel NH{sup +} Midline-Horizontal-Ellipsis N hydrogen bonded polar crystal [NH{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub 4}NH][BF{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojtas, M., E-mail: maciej.wojtas@chem.uni.wroc.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, Joliot-Curie 14, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Gagor, A. [W. Trzebiatowski Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Science, PO Box 1410, 50-950 Wroclaw (Poland); Czupinski, O. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, Joliot-Curie 14, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Medycki, W. [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Science, Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznan (Poland); Jakubas, R. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, Joliot-Curie 14, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2012-03-15

    Dielectric properties and phase transitions of the piperazinium tetrafluoroborate ([NH{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub 4}NH][BF{sub 4}], abbreviated as PFB) crystal are related to the one-dimensional arrangement of the cations linked by the bistable NH{sup +} Midline-Horizontal-Ellipsis N hydrogen bonds and molecular motions of the [BF{sub 4}]{sup -} units. The crystal structure of [NH{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub 4}NH][BF{sub 4}] is monoclinic at room temperature with the polar space group Pn. The polar/acentric properties of the room temperature phase IV have been confirmed by the piezoelectric and pyroelectric measurements. DSC measurements show that the compound undergoes three first-order structural phase transitions: at 421/411 K (heating/cooling), at 386/372 K and at 364/349 K. {sup 1}H and {sup 19}F NMR measurements indicate the reorientational motions of [BF{sub 4}]{sup -} anions and piperazinium(+) cations as well as the proton motion in the hydrogen-bonded chains of piperazine along the [001] direction. Over the phase I the isotropic reorientational motions or even self-diffusion of the cations and anions are expected. The conductivity measurements in the vicinity of the II-I PT indicate a superionic phase over the phase I. - Graphical abstract: It must be emphasized that the titled compound represents the first organic-inorganic simple salt containing the single-protonated piperazinium cation which was studied by means of the wide variety of experimental techniques. A survey of Cambridge Structural Database (CSD version 5.32 (November 2010) and updates (May 2011)) for structure containing the piperazinium cations yields 248 compounds with the doubly protonated piperazinium(2+) cations and only eight compounds with the singly protonated piperazinium(+) cations. Among these structures only one is the hybrid organic-inorganic material. This is piperazinium nitrate characterized structurally. The crystal packing of [NH{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub 4}NH][BF{sub 4}], phase IV. The

  20. The interaction between Xe and F in Si (1 0 0) pre-amorphised with 20 keV Xe and implanted with low energy BF{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, M. [Joule Physics Laboratory, Institute of Materials Research, University of Salford, Salford M54WT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: m.werner@pgr.salford.ac.uk; Berg, J.A. van den [Joule Physics Laboratory, Institute of Materials Research, University of Salford, Salford M54WT (United Kingdom); Armour, D.G. [Joule Physics Laboratory, Institute of Materials Research, University of Salford, Salford M54WT (United Kingdom); Carter, G. [Joule Physics Laboratory, Institute of Materials Research, University of Salford, Salford M54WT (United Kingdom); Feudel, T. [AMD Saxony LLC and Co. KG, Wilschdorfer Landstrasse, 101 D-01109 Dresden (Italy); Herden, M. [AMD Saxony LLC and Co. KG, Wilschdorfer Landstrasse, 101 D-01109 Dresden (Italy); Bersani, M. [ITC IRST, 38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Giubertoni, D. [ITC IRST, 38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Bailey, P. [CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury WA44A (United Kingdom); Noakes, T.C.Q. [CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury WA44A (United Kingdom)

    2004-12-15

    The pre-amorphisation of Si by Xe{sup +} ions, before source/drain and extension implants, is an attractive alternative to Ge{sup +} or Si{sup +}, as it produces sharper amorphous/crystalline interfaces. Si (1 0 0) samples pre-amorphised with 20 keV Xe{sup +} to a nominal dose of 2E14 cm{sup -2} were implanted with 1 and 3 keV BF{sub 2} {sup +} to doses of 7E14 cm{sup -2}. Samples were annealed at temperatures ranging from 600 to 1130 deg. C and investigated by medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Following annealing, it was observed that implanted Xe has interacted with F originating from the BF{sub 2} {sup +} implant. MEIS studies showed that for all annealing conditions, approximately half of the Xe accumulated at depths of 7 nm for the 1 keV and at 13 nm for the 3 keV BF{sub 2} {sup +} implant. This equates to the end of range of B and F within the amorphous Si. SIMS showed that in the pre-amorphised samples, approximately 10% of the F migrates into the bulk and is trapped at the same depth in a {approx}1:1 ratio to Xe. A small fraction of the implanted B is also trapped. The effect is interpreted in terms of the formation of a defect structure within the amorphised Si, leading to F stabilised Xe bubble or XeF compound formation.

  1. BF3·Et2O-promoted cleavage of the Csp-Csp2 bond of 2-propynolphenols/anilines: route to C2-alkenylated benzoxazoles and benzimidazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xian-Rong; Qiu, Yi-Feng; Song, Bo; Hao, Xin-Hua; Han, Ya-Ping; Gao, Pin; Liu, Xue-Yuan; Liang, Yong-Min

    2015-02-20

    A novel BF3·Et2O-promoted tandem reaction of easily prepared 2-propynolphenols/anilines and trimethylsilyl azide is developed to give C2-alkenylated benzoxazoles and benzimidazoles in moderate to good yields. Most reactions could be accomplished in 30 min at room temperature. This tandem process involves a Csp-Csp2 bond cleavage and a C-N bond formation. Moreover, both tertiary and secondary propargylic alcohols with diverse functional groups were tolerated under the mild conditions.

  2. Design, synthesis and photoelectrochemical properties of hexagonal metallomacrocycles based on triphenylamine: [M6(4,4'-bis(2,2':6',2''-terpyridinyl)triphenylamine)6(X)12]; [M = Fe(II), PF6- and Zn(II), BF4-].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seok-Ho; Moorefield, Charles N; Wang, Pingshan; Fronczek, Frank R; Courtney, Brandy H; Newkome, George R

    2006-08-07

    Synthesis of a novel bis(terpyridine) ligand, 4,4'-bis(2,2':6',2''-terpyridinyl)triphenylamine, utilizing triphenylamine, as a specific angle controller, has led to the self-assembly of a unique hexagonal metallomacrocycle family, [Fe6(2)6(PF6)12] and [Zn6(2)6(BF4)12], utilizing terpyridine-metal(II)-terpyridine connectivity. The crystal structure of the novel ligand shows that the angle between the two terpyridinyl moieties is 119.69 degrees , which enabled the formation of the hexagonal-shaped macrocycles. The crystal packing architectures of this starting ligand revealed channels induced by solvent encapsulation. Following complexation of this ligand with transition metals [Fe(II) or Zn(II)] in a one-pot reaction, the resultant structures were characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR, UV/Vis and mass spectroscopies. The expected metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT; lambda(max) = 582 nm) and emission (lambda(em) = 575 nm) characteristics were exhibited by both [Fe6(2)6(PF6)12] and[Zn6(2)6(BF4)12]. The photoelectrochemical characteristics of these hexagonal metallomacrocycles demonstrate that they can be used as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells.

  3. Li + solvation and kinetics of Li+BF4-/PF 6 - ion pairs in ethylene carbonate. A molecular dynamics study with classical rate theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Tsun-Mei [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin–Parkside, Kenosha, Wisconsin 53141, USA; Dang, Liem X. [Physical Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 93352, USA

    2017-10-28

    Using our polarizable force-field models and employing classical rate theories of chemical reactions, we examine the ethylene carbonate (EC) exchange process between the first and second solvation shells around Li+ and the dissociation kinetics of ion pairs Li+-[BF4] and Li+-[PF6] in this solvent. We calculate the exchange rates using transition state theory and correct them with transmission coefficients computed by the reactive flux; Impey, Madden, and McDonald approaches; and Grote-Hynes theory. We found the residence times of EC around Li+ ions varied from 70 to 450 ps, depending on the correction method used. We found the relaxation times changed significantly from Li+-[BF4] to Li+-[PF6] ion pairs in EC. Our results also show that, in addition to affecting the free energy of dissociation in EC, the anion type also significantly influence the dissociation kinetics of ion pairing. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. The calculations were carried out using computer resources provided by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  4. Nuclear inelastic scattering and density functional theory studies of a one-dimensional spin crossover [Fe(1,2,4-triazole)2(1,2,4-triazolato)](BF4) molecular chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenni, Kevin; Scherthan, Lena; Faus, Isabelle; Marx, Jennifer; Strohm, Cornelius; Herlitschke, Marcus; Wille, Hans-Christian; Würtz, Peter; Schünemann, Volker; Wolny, Juliusz A

    2017-07-26

    Nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS) experiments have been performed in order to study the vibrational dynamics of the low- and high-spin states of the polynuclear 1D spin crossover compound [Fe(1,2,4-triazole) 2 (1,2,4-triazolato)](BF 4 ) (1). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations using the functional B3LYP* and the basis set CEP-31G for heptameric and nonameric models of the compound yielded the normal vibrations and electronic energies for high-spin and low-spin isomers of three models differing in the distribution of anionic trz - ligands and BF 4 - anions. On the basis of the obtained energies a structural model with a centrosymmetric Fe(trzH) 4 (trz - ) 2 coordination core of the mononuclear unit of the chain is proposed. The obtained distribution of the BF 4 - counteranions in the proposed structure is similar to that obtained on the basis of X-ray powder diffraction studies by Grossjean et al. (Eur. J. Inorg. Chem., 2013, 796). The NIS data of the system diluted to 10% Fe(ii) content in a 90% Zn(ii) matrix (compound (2)) show a characteristic change of the spectral pattern of the low-spin centres, compared to the low-spin phase of the parent Fe(ii) complex (1). DFT calculations reveal that this is caused by a change of the structure of the neighbours of the low-spin centres. The spectral pattern of the high-spin centres in (2) is within a good approximation identical to that of the high-spin Fe(ii) isomer of (1). The inspection of the molecular orbitals of the monomeric model systems of [Fe(trzH) 4 (trz - ) 2 ] and [Fe(trzH) 6 ], together with calculations of spin transition energies, point towards the importance of an electrostatic effect caused by the negatively charged ligands. This results in the stabilisation of the low-spin state of the complex containing the anionic ligand and shortening of the Fe-N(trz - ) compared to the Fe-N(trzH) bond in high-spin, but not in low-spin [Fe(trzH) 4 (trz - ) 2 ].

  5. Inversion of spin levels in Ni sup 2 sup + : Zn(BF sub 4) sub 2 centre dot 6H sub 2 O at all -round compression and effect of transition coincidence

    CERN Document Server

    Krygin, I M; Nejlo, G N; Prokhorov, A D

    2001-01-01

    The study of the EPR spectrum of the Ni sup 2 sup + ion, replacing Zn sup 2 sup + in the Zn(BF sub 4) centre dot 6H sub 2 O crystals in the wide temperature range by the all-round compression in the X- and Q-ranges is carried out. The basic changes by varying temperature and pressure occur with the D parameter, characterizing the initial splitting by practically unchanged g-factor. The increase in the temperature is accompanied by the D nonlinear growth. The all-round compression linearly changes the initial splitting and leads to the change in the D-sign, signifying the spin levels inversion by 3.5 kbar. Coincidence of EPR lines, relative to different transitions, leads to the crevasse appearance in the outline of this one, that is connected with cross-relaxation inside the spin system

  6. A Study of the Spin-State Transition and Phase Transformation in [Fe(bpp)(2)][CF(3)SO(3)](2).H(2)O and [Fe(bpp)(2)][BF(4)](2) Using Mn(2+) Electron Spin Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Raymond C. W.; McGarvey, Bruce R.

    1999-08-09

    X-band ESR powder studies have been done on the spin transition in Mn(2+)-doped [Fe(bpp)(2)][CF(3)SO(3)](2).H(2)O and [Fe(bpp)(2)][BF(4)](2) (bpp = 2,6-bis(pyrazol-3-yl) pyridine). The change in D value of Mn(2+) during the thermally induced high-spin (HS) low-spin (LS) transition shows that the spin transition is accompanied by a phase transformation involving a domain mechanism. Irradiation experiments at 77 K have shown that a LS --> HS spin change occurs without a change in the crystalline phase. The rate of the change from the HS phase to the LS phase in the vicinity of 100 K has been measured and is found to be the same as that measured for the corresponding spin change obtained from Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility studies.

  7. Systematic study of spin crossover and structure in [Co(terpyRX)2](Y)2 systems (terpyRX = 4'-alkoxy-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine, X = 4, 8, 12, Y = BF4(-), ClO4(-), PF6(-), BPh4(-))

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pia; Nielsen, Hans Toftlund; Bond, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    A family of spin crossover cobalt(II) complexes of the type [Co(terpyRX)(2)](Y)(2) x nH(2)O (X = 4, 8, 12 and Y = BF(4)(-), ClO(4)(-), PF(6)(-), BPh(4)(-)) has been synthesized, whereby the alkyl chain length, RX, and counteranion, Y, have been systematically varied. The structural (single crystal...

  8. Molecular Orbital and Density Functional Study of the Formation, Charge Transfer, Bonding and the Conformational Isomerism of the Boron Trifluoride (BF3 and Ammonia (NH3 Donor-Acceptor Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulal C. Ghosh

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the F3B–NH3 supermolecule by chemical interaction of its fragment parts, BF3 and NH3, and the dynamics of internal rotation about the ‘B–N’ bond have been studied in terms of parameters provided by the molecular orbital and density functional theories. It is found that the pairs of frontier orbitals of the interacting fragments have matching symmetry and are involved in the charge transfer interaction. The donation process stems from the HOMO of the donor into the LUMO of the acceptor and simultaneously, back donation stems from the HOMO of acceptor into the LUMO of the donor. The density functional computation of chemical activation in the donor and acceptor fragments, associated with the physical process of structural reorganization just prior to the event of chemical reaction, indicates that BF3 becomes more acidic and NH3 becomes more basic, compared to their separate equilibrium states. Theoretically it is observed that the chemical reaction event of the formation of the supermolecule from its fragment parts is in accordance with the chemical potential equalization principle of the density functional theory and the electronegativity equalization principle of Sanderson. The energetics of the chemical reaction, the magnitude of the net charge transfer and the energy of the newly formed bond are quite consistent, both internally and with the principle of maximum hardness, PMH. The dynamics of the internal rotation of one part with respect to the other part of the supermolecule about the ‘B–N’ bond mimics the pattern of the conformational isomerism of the isostructural ethane molecule. It is also observed that the dynamics and evolution of molecular conformations as a function of dihedral angles is also in accordance with the principle of maximum hardness, PMH. Quite consistent with spectroscopic predictions, the height of the molecule

  9. T cells from fully H-2 allogeneic (A replaced by B) radiation bone marrow chimeras are functionally competent and host restricted but are alloreactive against hybrid Ia determinants expressed on (A x B)F1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruisbeek, A.M.; Hathcock, K.S.; Hodes, R.J.; Singer, A.

    1982-01-01

    In this communication it is demonstrated that T cells from fully allogeneic A replaced by B radiation bone marrow chimeras are alloreactive against the hybrid Ia molecules expressed on the surface of heterozygous A X B cells. These results suggested that previous failures to generate cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses from fully allogeneic chimeras by sensitizing the chimeric T cells to antigen in an (A X B)F1-priming environment might have been confounded by an ongoing alloreaction against determinants created by hybrid Ia molecules expressed on F1 cells. Consequently, the ability to generate CTL responses from fully allogeneic chimeras was re-examined by sensitizing the chimeric T cells to antigen presented by homozygous rather that F1 stimulator cells. It was found that T cells of donor bone marrow origin that mediate cytotoxic responses to trinitrophenyl-modified self determinants do differentiate into functional competence in an H-2-incompatible host environment and are restricted to the host H-2 haplotype

  10. Heat transfer measurements in a forced convection loop with two molten-fluoride salts: LiF--BeF2--ThF2--UF4 and eutectic NaBF4--NaF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, M.D.; Huntley, W.R.; Robertson, H.E.

    1976-10-01

    Heat transfer coefficients were determined experimentally for two molten-fluoride salts [LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 2 -UF 4 (72-16-12-0.3 mole %) and NaBF 4 -NaF (92-8 mole %] proposed as the fuel salt and coolant salt, respectively, for molten-salt breeder reactors. Information was obtained over a wide range of variables, with salt flowing through 12.7-mm-OD (0.5-in.) Hastelloy N tubing in a forced convection loop (FCL-2b). Satisfactory agreement with the empirical Sieder-Tate correlation was obtained in the fully developed turbulent region at Reynolds moduli above 15,000 and with a modified Hausen equation in the extended transition region (Re approx.2100-15,000). Insufficient data were obtained in the laminar region to allow any conclusions to be drawn. These results indicate that the proposed salts behave as normal heat transfer fluids with an extended transition region

  11. Crossed-beam experiment for the scattering of low- and intermediate-energy electrons from BF{sub 3}: A comparative study with XF{sub 3} (X = C, N, and CH) molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, M., E-mail: masami-h@sophia.ac.jp; Suga, A.; Kato, H.; Tanaka, H. [Department of Physics, Sophia University, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Limão-Vieira, P. [Department of Physics, Sophia University, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Ferreira da Silva, F. [Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Blanco, F. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); García, G. [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-07-14

    Absolute differential cross sections (DCSs) for electron interaction with BF{sub 3} molecules have been measured in the impact energy range of 1.5–200 eV and recorded over a scattering angle range of 15°–150°. These angular distributions have been normalized by reference to the elastic DCSs of the He atom and integrated by employing a modified phase shift analysis procedure to generate integral cross sections (ICSs) and momentum transfer cross sections (MTCSs). The calculations of DCSs and ICSs have been carried out using an independent atom model under the screening corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR). The present elastic DCSs have been found to agree well with the results of IAM-SCAR calculation above 20 eV, and also with a recent Schwinger multichannel calculation below 30 eV. Furthermore, in the comparison with the XF{sub 3} (X = B, C, N, and CH) molecules, the elastic DCSs reveal a similar angular distribution which are approximately equal in magnitude from 30 to 200 eV. This feature suggests that the elastic scattering is dominated virtually by the 3-outer fluorine atoms surrounding the XF{sub 3} molecules. The vibrational DCSs have also been obtained in the energy range of 1.5–15 eV and vibrational analysis based on the angular correlation theory has been carried out to explain the nature of the shape resonances. Limited experiments on vibrational inelastic scattering confirmed the existence of a shape resonance with a peak at 3.8 eV, which is also observed in the vibrational ICS. Finally, the estimated elastic ICSs, MTCSs, as well as total cross sections are compared with the previous cross section data available.

  12. Efficient approach to androstene-fused arylpyrazolines as potent antiproliferative agents. Experimental and theoretical studies of substituent effects on BF(3)-catalyzed intramolecular [3 + 2] cycloadditions of olefinic phenylhydrazones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Eva; Mucsi, Zoltán; Zupkó, István; Réthy, Borbála; Falkay, George; Schneider, Gyula; Wölfling, János

    2009-03-25

    Highly diastereoselective Lewis acid induced intramolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of alkenyl phenylhydrazones (containing various substituents on the aromatic ring) obtained from a d-secopregnene aldehyde were carried out under fairly mild conditions to furnish androst-5-ene-fused arylpyrazolines in good to excellent yields. The ability of phenylhydrazones to undergo cyclization was found to be affected significantly by the electronic features of the substituents on the aromatic moiety. The rates of the ring-closure reactions were observed to be increased by electron-donating and decreased by electron-withdrawing groups. The experimental findings on the BF(3)-catalyzed transformations were supported by calculations of the proposed mechanism at the BLYP/6-31G(d) level of theory, indicating a noteworthy dependence, mainly of the initial complexation step, and hence of the whole process, on the character of the substituent. The cycloaddition was estimated to occur via a zwitterionic intermediate rather than involving a pure concerted mechanism. The antiproliferative activities of the structurally related pyrazoline derivatives were tested in vitro on three malignant human cell lines (HeLa, MCF7, and A431): the microculture tetrazolium assay revealed that several compounds exerted marked cell growth-inhibitory effects. The highest cytotoxic activities, displayed by the p-methoxyphenylpyrazoline derivative 7d (IC(50) values: 2.01, 2.16, and 1.41 microM on HeLa, MCF7, and A341 cells, respectively), were better than those of cisplatin (IC(50) values: 12.43, 9.63, and 2.84 microM, respectively).

  13. Stabilization and reactivity of a terminal phosphidounit on Pt(II). Synthesis and X-ray structure of cationic diphelylphosphine [Pt{C6H3(CH2NMe2)2-2,6}(PHPh2)][CF3SO3] and Diphenyl-phosphido Bridged Pt(II)-Pd(II) Complex [Pt{C6H3(CH2NMe2)2-2,6} (µ-PPh2) Pd(C6H4CH2NMe2-2)(H2O)][BF4] CH2Cl2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Maassarani, F.; Davidson, M.F.; Wehman-Ooyevaar, ICM; Grove, D.M.; Koten, M.A. van; Smeets, W.J.J.; Spek, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    Reaction of diphenylphosphine with the complexes [Pt(NCN)(H{2}O)]X (NCN = C{6}H{3}(CH{2}NMe{2}){2}-2, 6; X = BF{4} (1a), OSO{2}CF{3} (1b)) leads to substitution of the H{2}O ligand to afford the ionic Pt(II) complexes [Pt(NCN)(PHPh{2})]X (X = BF{4} (2a), OSO{2}CF{3} (2b)). The X-ray structure of the

  14. Digitale Archivierung papierbasierter Krankenakten von Studienpatienten – Eckpunktepapier des KKSN, der GMDS und der TMF unter Mitwirkung des BfArM und der Landesüberwachungsbehörde Nordrhein-Westfalen [Digital archiving of paper-based patient records of clinical trial subjects – a key issues paper of KKSN, GMDS, and TMF in collaboration with the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM and the Health Authority Northrhine-Westphalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohl, Christian D.

    2013-04-01

    örden als Quelldokumente anerkannt werden. Eine solche Anerkennung sollte nach Auffassung der Autoren möglich sein, wenn die gescannten Papierakten die Anforderungen an beglaubigte Kopien entsprechend der Note for Guidance CPMP/ICH/135/95 (ICH-GCP erfüllen. Dies setzt voraus, dass auf der Basis bestehender Regelungen jederzeit nachgewiesen werden kann, dass der Digitalisierungsprozess klar geregelt ist, dessen Ergebnisqualität regelmäßig überprüft wird und ausreichend hoch ist.Ziel dieses Eckpunktepapiers des Netzwerks der Koordinierungszentren für Klinische Studien (KKSN, , der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Medizinische Informatik, Biometrie und Epidemiologie e.V. (GMDS, und der TMF – Technologie- und Methodenplattform für die vernetzte medizinische Forschung e.V. ( unter Mitwirkung des Bundesinstituts für Arzneimittel und Medizinprodukte (BfArM, und der Landesüberwachungsbehörde Nordrhein-Westfalen (Landeshauptstadt Düsseldorf, Gesundheitsamt, Zentrales Inspektorat für klinische Prüfstellen in Nordrhein-Westfalen ist es daher, darzulegen, wie die bestehenden regulatorischen Vorgaben so umgesetzt werden können, dass digitalisierte Patientenakten als Quelldokumente anerkannt werden.

  15. Radiation protection research projects. Programme report 2013. Summary of results from recent research projects of the BMU's Applied Research Programme carried out under the responsibility of the German Office of Radiation Protection (BfS); Strahlenschutzforschung. Programmreport 2013. Bericht ueber das vom Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz fachlich begleitete und administrativ umgesetzte Forschungsprogramm Strahlenschutz des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz, Bau und Reaktorsicherheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt-Hannig, Annemarie; Goedde, Ralph; Loebke-Reinl, Angelika; Hachenberger, Claudia; Trugenberger-Schnabel, Angela (comps.)

    2014-09-15

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) awards research grants for projects in the field of radiation protection. The findings of these projects serve as decision aiding information in the development of radiation protection regulations as well as in the fulfilment of specific tasks in the field of radiation protection. Planning, technical and administrative preparation, awarding of contracts, general support as well as the technical evaluation of research and study projects are tasks of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection. This report provides information on preliminary (in the form of status reports) and, where applicable, final results of radiation protection projects within the BMUB's Environmental Research Plan for the year 2013.

  16. Radiation protection research projects. Programme report 2010. Summary of results from recent research projects of the BMU's Applied Research Programme carried out under the responsibility of the German Office of Radiation Protection (BfS); Strahlenschutzforschung. Programmreport 2010. Bericht ueber das vom Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz fachlich begleitete und administrativ umgesetzte Forschungsprogramm Strahlenschutz des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhard-Stroel, Claudia; Goedde, Ralph; Hachenberger, Claudia; Loebke-Reinl, Angelika; Schmitt-Hannig, Annemarie

    2011-11-15

    On behalf of the Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) awards research grants for projects in the field of radiation protection. The findings of these projects serve as decision aiding information in the development of radiation protection regulations as well as in the fulfilment of specific tasks in the field of radiation protection. Planning, technical and administrative preparation, awarding of contracts, general support as well as the technical evaluation of research and study projects are tasks of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection. This report provides information on preliminary and, where applicable, final results (in the form of status reports) of radiation protection projects within the BMU's Environmental Research Plan for the year 2010. (orig.)

  17. Radiation protection research projects. Programme report 2012. Summary of results from recent research projects of the BMU's Applied Research Programme carried out under the responsibility of the German Office of Radiation Protection (BfS); Strahlenschutzforschung. Programmreport 2012. Bericht ueber das vom Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz fachlich begleitete und administrativ umgesetzte Forschungsprogramm Strahlenschutz des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhard-Stroel, Claudia; Goedde, Ralph; Hachenberger, Claudia; Loebke-Reinl, Angelika; Schmitt-Hannig, Annemarie; Trugenberger-Schnabel, Angela

    2013-12-15

    On behalf of the Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) awards research grants for projects in the field of radiation protection. The findings of these projects serve as decision aiding information in the development of radiation protection regulations as well as in the fulfilment of specific tasks in the field of radiation protection. Planning, technical and administrative preparation, awarding of contracts, general support as well as the technical evaluation of research and study projects are tasks of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection. This report provides information on preliminary (in the form of status reports) and, where applicable, final results of radiation protection projects within the BMU's Environmental Research Plan for the year 2012.

  18. Research activities in radiation protection. Programme report 1997. Report on the departmental research programme of the Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (BMU), performed under the scientific and administrative project management of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt-Hannig, A.; Goedde, R.; Thieme, M.

    1998-03-01

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) is placing research and study contracts in the field of radiation protection. The results of these projects are used for developing radiation protection rules and to fulfill the special radiation protection tasks of the BMU, required by law. Planning, expert and administrative management, placing, assistance as well as expert evaluation of the results from these research projects lies within the responsibility of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection. This report provides information on preliminary and final results of radiation protection projects within the BMU Departmental Research Programme of the year 1997. (orig.) [de

  19. Synthesis, characterization, structure and properties of heterobimetallic complexes [CuNi(μ-OAc) (μ-OH) (μ-OH2) (bpy)2] (BF4)2 and [CuNi(bz)3(bpy)2] ClO4 from 2,2‧ bipyridine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbah, Sunshine D.; Kumar, A.; Syiemlieh, I.; Dey, A. K.; Lal, R. A.

    2018-02-01

    Heterobimetallic complexes of the composition [CuNi(bpy)2 (μ-OAc) (μ-OH) (μ-OH2)](BF4)2 (1) and [CuNi(bz)3 (bpy)2]ClO4 (2) were synthesized in moderate yield through solid state reaction and have been characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance, mass spectra, magnetic moment, EPR, UV-Vis, IR spectroscopies and cyclic voltammetry. The ground state in complex (1) is doublet while that in complex (2), the ground state is a mixture of doublet and quartet, respectively. The structure of the complexes has been established by X-ray crystallography. The electron transfer reactions of the complexes have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry.

  20. Development of somaclones in sugarcane genotype BF-162 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pris

    2012-02-21

    Feb 21, 2012 ... Baksha R, Alam R, Karim MZ, Paul SK, Hossain MA, Miah MAS,. Rahman ABMM (2002). In vitro Shoot Tip Culture of Sugarcane. (Saccharum officinarum) Variety Isd 28. Int. Quarterly J. Biotech. 1: 67-72. Brisibe E, Miyake AH, Taniguchi T, Maeda E (1994). Regulation of somatic embryogenesis in long-term ...

  1. Development of somaclones in sugarcane genotype BF-162 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pris

    2012-02-21

    Feb 21, 2012 ... Cluster and sub cluster formation further verified the presence of variability in the red rot resistant somaclones with respect to the parent. Key words: Sugarcane, callogenesis, organogenesis, somaclone, polymorphism, cluster. INTRODUCTION. Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L) is a major source.

  2. BF3-doped polyaniline: A novel conducting polymer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    During the past two decades, both fundamental and applied research in conducting polymers has grown enormously [1]. Polyaniline (PANI) owing to its ease of synthe- sis, remarkable environmental stability, and high conductivity in the doped form, has remained one of the most thoroughly studied conducting polymers.

  3. Effect bf Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy on the Level of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness or otherwise of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy in reducing the level of general and examination anxieties with a view to fostering better academic performance in English Language among students who had failed this subject at least once. Ninety eight students in ...

  4. An annular BF3 counter of large sensitive volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janardhanan, S.; Swaminathan, N.

    1975-01-01

    An annular neutron counter having a large sensitive volume with inner and outer diameter 31 cms with multiple electrode system fabricated especially to measure the neutron output from fissile region of standard fast reactor fuel of length nearly equivalent to 500 cms is described. The counter efficiency is nearly 0.3% for neutron and sensitivity 0.0018 counts/neutron for (alpha, neutron) and spontaneous fission source. Its other potential applications which are indicated are : (1) quality control of fast reactor fuel pins (2) fuel inventory (3) assessing radioactivity of solid waste packets containing PuO 2 (4) uniformity of fuel loading of a reactor and (5) neutron monitoring in a fuel plant. (M.G.B.)

  5. Amorphous silicon films doped with BF3 and PF5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, A.; Muhl, S.; Sanchez, A.; Monroy, R.; Pickin, W.

    1984-01-01

    By using gaseous discharge process, thin films of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) were produced. This process consists of Silane (SiH 4 ) decomposition at low pressure, in a chamber. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  6. Structure and bonding of transition metal-boryl compounds. Theoretical study of [(PH3)2(CO)ClOs-BR2] and [(PH3)2(CO)2ClOs-BR2] (BR2 = BH2, BF2, B(OH)2, B(OCH=CHO), Bcat).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giju, K T; Bickelhaupt, F M; Frenking, G

    2000-10-16

    Quantum chemical DFT calculations using the B3LYP functionals have been carried out for the electronically unsaturated 16 VE five-coordinate osmium boryl-complexes [(PH3)2(CO)ClOs-BR2] and the 18 VE six-coordinate complexes [(PH3)2(CO)2ClOs-BR2] with BR2 = BH2, BF2, B(OH)2, B(OHC=CHO), and Bcat (cat = catecholate O2C6H4). The bonding situation of the Os-BR2 bond was analyzed with the help of the NBO partitioning scheme. The Os-B bond dissociation energies of the 16 VE complexes are very high, and they do not change very much for the different boryl ligands. The 18 VE complexes have only slightly lower bond energies than the 16 VE species. The Os-B bond in both classes of compounds is provided by a covalent sigma-bond which is polarized toward osmium and by strong charge attraction. Os-->B pi-donation is not important for the Os-B binding interactions, except for the Os-BH2 complexes. The stability of the boryl complexes [Os]-BR2 comes mainly from BB pi-donation. The intraligand charge distribution of the BR2 group changes little when the Os-B bond is formed, except for BH2. The CO ligand in [(PH3)2(CO)2ClOs-BR2] which is trans to BR2 has a relatively weak bond to the osmium atom.

  7. Precision Measurements of Lifetime and $\\bf CP$ Violation Phase in the $\\bf B^{0}_{s}$ Meson with the DØ Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Ortega, Jorge [Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Inst., Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2012-10-01

    The Standard Model of Partice Physics (SM) is probably the most successful theory, regarding to his predictions. The SM prediction for $CP$ violation is not enough to explain the overwhelming asymmetry among the matter and anti-matter abundance. Measuring some process where $CP$ violation is different to the one predicted by the SM would be a clear signal for Physics Beyond the Standard Model. The SM prediction for the $CP$ violation phase, $\\phi_{s}$, in the $B^{0}_{s}$ meson is practically equal to zero for the current experiments. This means that measuring a deviation from zero in $\\phi_{s}$ could be an indication for Physics Beyond the SM. On the other hand, the approximation based on the ``heavy quark symmetry'' let approximated calculations of the fundamental quantities of those hadrons containing a heavy quark, $c,b,t$. These calculations are expressed as expansions on inverse powers of the heavy quark mass in such hadron. This formalism is called `` Heavy Quark Effective Theory'' (HQET), and has been successful predicting some properties of the heavy hadrons. The HQET prediction for the lifetime ratio the $B^{0}_{d}$ and $B^{0}_{s}$ is practically equal to one. So, measuring with good precision the $B^{0}_{s}$ lifetime is also a way to test an approximation based on the SM. In this thesis it is detailed presented the method to measure the $\\phi_{s}$ and the lifetime ratio of the $B^{0}_{d}$ and $B^{0}_{s}$, among other quantities, with the DØ located in the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, in the United States.

  8. 1D and 2D assembly structures by imidazole···chloride hydrogen bonds of iron(II) complexes [Fe(II)(HL(n-Pr))3]Cl·Y (HL(n-Pr) = 2-methylimidazol-4-yl-methylideneamino-n-propyl; Y = AsF6, BF4) and their spin states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujinami, Takeshi; Nishi, Koshiro; Matsumoto, Naohide; Iijima, Seiichiro; Halcrow, Malcolm A; Sunatsuki, Yukinari; Kojima, Masaaki

    2011-12-07

    Two Fe(II) complexes fac-[Fe(II)(HL(n-Pr))(3)]Cl·Y (Y = AsF(6) (1) and BF(4) (2)) were synthesized, where HL(n-Pr) is 2-methylimidazole-4-yl-methylideneamino-n-propyl. Each complex-cation has the same octahedral N(6) geometry coordinated by three bidentate ligands and assumes facial-isomerism, fac-[Fe(II)(HL(n-Pr))(3)](2+) with Δ- and Λ-enantiomorphs. Three imidazole groups per Δ- or Λ-fac-[Fe(II)(HL(n-Pr))(3)](2+) are hydrogen-bonded to three Cl(-) ions or, from the viewpoint of the Cl(-) ion, one Cl(-) ion is hydrogen-bonded to three neighbouring fac-[Fe(II)(HL(n-Pr))(3)](2+) cations. The 3 : 3 NH···Cl(-) hydrogen bonds between Δ- or Λ-fac-[Fe(II)(HL(n-Pr))(3)](2+) and Cl(-) generate two kinds of assembly structures. The directions of the 3 : 3 NH···Cl(-) hydrogen bonds and hence the resulting assembly structures are determined by the size of the anion Y, though Y is not involved into the network structure and just accommodated in the cavity. Compound 1 has a 1D ladder structure giving a larger cavity, in which the Δ- and Λ-fac-[Fe(II)(HL(n-Pr))(3)](2+) enantiomorphs are bridged by two NH···Cl(-) hydrogen bonds. Compound 2 has a 2D network structure with a net unit of a cyclic trimer of {fac-[Fe(II)(HL(n-Pr))(3)](2+)···Cl(-)}(3) giving a smaller cavity, in which Δ- or Λ-fac-[Fe(II)(HL(n-Pr))(3)](2+) species with the same chirality are linked by NH···Cl(-) hydrogen bonds to give a homochiral 2D network structure. Magnetic susceptibility and Mössbauer spectral measurements demonstrated that compound 1 showed an abrupt one-step spin crossover with 4.0 K thermal hysteresis of T(c↓) = 125.5 K and T(c↑) = 129.5 K and compound 2 showed no spin transition and stayed in the high-spin state over the 5-300 K temperature range.

  9. pVT-Second Virial Coefficients B(T ), Viscosity η(T ), and Self-Diffusion ρD(T) of the Gases: BF3, CF4, SiF4, CCl4, SiCl4, SF6, MoF6, WF6, UF6, C(CH3)4, and Si(CH3)4 Determined by Means of an Isotropic Temperature-Dependent Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkova, L.; Hohm, U.

    2002-03-01

    We present results on self-consistent calculations of second pVT-virial coefficients B(T), viscosity data η(T), and diffusion coefficients ρD(T) for eleven heavy globular gases: boron trifluoride (BF3), carbon tetrafluoride (CF4), silicon tetrafluoride (SiF4), carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), molybdenum hexafluoride (MoF6), tungsten hexafluoride (WF6), uranium hexafluoride (UF6), tetramethyl methane (C(CH3)4, TMM), and tetramethyl silane (Si(CH3)4, TMS). The calculations are performed mainly in the temperature range between 200 and 900 K by means of isotropic n-6 potentials with temperature-dependent separation rm(T) and potential well depth ɛ(T). The potential parameters at T=0 K (ɛ, rm, n) and the enlargement of the first level radii δ are obtained solving an ill-posed problem of minimizing the squared deviations between experimental and calculated values normalized to their relative experimental error. The temperature dependence of the potential is obtained as a result of the influence of vibrational excitation on binary interactions. This concept of the isotropic temperature-dependent potential (ITDP) is presented in detail where gaseous SF6 will serve as an example. The ITDP is subsequently applied to all other gases. This approach and the main part of the results presented here have already been published during 1996-2000. However, in some cases the data are upgraded due to the recently improved software (CF4, SF6) and newly found experimental data (CF4, SiF4, CCl4, SF6).

  10. Modeling of High pressure core spray system (HPCS) with TRAC-BF1 code.; Modelacion del HPCS con el codigo TRAC-BF1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel M, E Del

    1994-12-31

    In this work we present a model of the HPCS system of Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (CNLV) which consist of a condensate storage tank (TAC) a vertical surge pipe (TOS), implemented by the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), and the suppression pool (PSP), as well as the associated piping and valves for the HPCS pump suction, to study the system under transient state conditions. The analysis results show that the implemented surge pipe, allows a normal HPCS pump start without automatic inadvertented transfer of the HPCS pump suction from the condensate storage tank to the suppression pool. We briefly mention some problems found during the stimulation and their solution, further we point out some deficiencies of the code for this type of studies. The present model can be used to stimulate other transients with only minor modifications of it. (Author).

  11. IN VITRO CYTOTOXICITY OF AROMATIC AEROBIC BIOTRANSFORMATION PRODUCTS IN BLUEGILL SUNFISH BF-2 CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toluene (methylbenzene) is a common environmental pollutant that is found in many hazardous waste sites and it is an aquifer contaminant. A concern is the potential risk to human and ecosystem health due to exposure to toluene and its major biotransformation products. The cytotox...

  12. Application of Bf-EVALPSN to Real-time Process Order Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamatsu, Kazumi; Akama, Seiki; Abe, Jair M.

    2009-01-01

    We have already proposed a paraconsistent annotated logic program called EVALPSN. In this paper, EVALPSN is developed to deal with before-after relations between two processes (time intervals), and its application to real-time process order control based on logical safety verification.

  13. BfR recommendations for the health assessment of chlorate residues in food

    OpenAIRE

    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

    2014-01-01

    During industry quality control activities and official food surveillance, residues of chlorate were found in fruit and vegetables. Chlorates are the salts of chloric acid HClO3. In the past, sodium and potassium chlorate were used as herbicides. In the EU, the use of chlorate-containing plant protection products or biocidal products is no longer allowed. However, chlorate can be formed as a by-product when chlorine-containing substances are used, e.g. for cleaning or disinfection purpos...

  14. Analysis of BF Hearth Reasonable Cooling System Based on the Water Dynamic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Haibin; Jiao, Kexin; Zhang, Jianliang; Li, Qian; Wang, Cui

    A rational cooling water system is the assurance for long campaign life of blast furnace. In the paper, the heat transfer of different furnace period and different furnace condition based on the water quality characteristics were analysed, and the reason of the heat flux over the normal from the hydrodynamics was analysed. The results showed that, the vapour-film and scale existence significantly influenced the hearth heat transfer, which accelerated the brick lining erosion. The water dynamic characteristics of the parallel inner pipe or among the pipes were the main reason for the abnormal heat flux and film boiling. As to the reasonable cooling water flow, the gas film and the scale should be controlled and the energy saving should be considered.

  15. A study of the boron profiles caused by BF2 implantation in crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Won-Chae

    2005-01-01

    For integrated CMOS circuits, the one-, two-, and three-dimensional impurity distributions are very important for analyzing the devices. The one-dimensional boron profiles were measured by using secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), and simulation data were obtained by using the TSUPREM4 and the UT-Marlowe programs. The simulated data of UT-Marlowe in 1D agreed very well with the SIMS data. From the SIMS and the simulated 1D data, the four moments were calculated, these 1D data were used in the TSUPREM4 simulator to calculate of 2D profiles. For the TSUPREM4 simulations, several different models were used for the characterization of the 1D and the 2D boron profiles. A Taurus simulation tool was used to obtain the 3D boron profiles for the case of arbitrary tilting and rotation. The measured two-dimensional cross-sectional transmission electron microscope (XTEM) data obtained by using the chemical etching method matched very well with the results of the Gauss model. The vertical depths from the Gauss model and from the XTEM data were 125.8 nm and 125 nm, respectively. The channel lengths from the Gauss model and from the XTEM data were 205 nm and 233 nm, respectively. From the XTEM data and the Gauss model, the deviations of the vertical and the lateral doping distributions were 0.6 % and 12 %, respectively. The detection limit of boron measured by using the chemical-etching method was shown to be a concentration of about 1.0 X 10 16 cm -3 for a PMOS device.

  16. ANALISIS PERBANDINGAN PEMIKIRAN PENDIDIKAN ANTARA AL-GHAZALI DENGAN B.F. SKINNER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Setyaningsih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sumber belajar adalah segala sesuatu yang dapat digunakan untuk mendapatkan informasi dan segala kemudahan dalam belajar. Sumber belajar tersebut dapat berupa Manusia (People, Lingkungan (setting, Tekhnik (Technique, Alat (Device, dan Pesan-pesan (massages, guru adalah salah satu sumber belajar yang memilikiperan strategis dalam mendorong terjadinya kegiatan belajar pada peserta didik. Pusat sumber belajar adalah suatu bangunan dan lembaga yang terdiri atas kepala dan staf yang diatur secara khusus dengan tujuan menyimpan,merawat, mengembangkan dan memanfaatkan sumber belajar dalam berbagai bentuknya baik individusl msupun kelompok untuk memberikan layanan informasi dan pengetahuan kepada peserta didik. Kelengkapan berbagai layanan informasi dan pengetahuan (sumber belajar kepada peserta didik dipastikan akan memberukaj nilai positif terhadap peningkatan mutu pendidikan pada suatu lembaga pendidikan tertentu. Mutu merupakan suatu kumpulan pemikiran seseorang tetapi merupakan pemikiran yang kolektif. Artinya setiap orang yan g terlibat, dilibatkan dalam menghasilkan sesuatu yang terbaik. Dan mutu sebagai kualitas, didefinisikan sebagai konsistensi dalam menghasilkan produk atau jasa. Dalam kaitannya dengan kondisi peserta didik, maka peserta didik pun berhak mendapatkan pelayanan yang memadai dansesuai dengan apa yang pernah ditaearkan oleh pihak sekolah

  17. Application of omics data in regulatory toxicology: report of an international BfR expert workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx-Stoelting, P; Braeuning, A; Buhrke, T; Lampen, A; Niemann, L; Oelgeschlaeger, M; Rieke, S; Schmidt, F; Heise, T; Pfeil, R; Solecki, R

    2015-11-01

    Advances in omics techniques and molecular toxicology are necessary to provide new perspectives for regulatory toxicology. By the application of modern molecular techniques, more mechanistic information should be gained to support standard toxicity studies and to contribute to a reduction and refinement of animal experiments required for certain regulatory purposes. The relevance and applicability of data obtained by omics methods to regulatory purposes such as grouping of chemicals, mode of action analysis or classification and labelling needs further improvement, defined validation and cautious expert judgment. Based on the results of an international expert workshop organized 2014 by the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment in Berlin, this paper is aimed to provide a critical overview of the regulatory relevance and reliability of omics methods, basic requirements on data quality and validation, as well as regulatory criteria to decide which effects observed by omics methods should be considered adverse or non-adverse. As a way forward, it was concluded that the inclusion of omics data can facilitate a more flexible approach for regulatory risk assessment and may help to reduce or refine animal testing.

  18. Modeling of High pressure core spray system (HPCS) with TRAC-BF1 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel M, E. Del.

    1993-01-01

    In this work we present a model of the HPCS system of Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (CNLV) which consist of a condensate storage tank (TAC) a vertical surge pipe (TOS), implemented by the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), and the suppression pool (PSP), as well as the associated piping and valves for the HPCS pump suction, to study the system under transient state conditions. The analysis results show that the implemented surge pipe, allows a normal HPCS pump start without automatic inadvertented transfer of the HPCS pump suction from the condensate storage tank to the suppression pool. We briefly mention some problems found during the stimulation and their solution, further we point out some deficiencies of the code for this type of studies. The present model can be used to stimulate other transients with only minor modifications of it. (Author)

  19. One dimensional neutron kinetics in the TRAC-BF1 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, W.L. III; Wagner, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    The TRAC-BWR code development program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is developing a version of the TRAC code for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) to provide a best-estimate analysis capability for the simulation of postulated accidents in boiling water reactor (BWR) power systems and related experimental facilities. Recent development efforts in the TRAC-BWR program have focused on improving the computational efficiency through the incorporation of a hybrid Courant- limit-violating numerical solution scheme in the one-dimensional component models and on improving code accuracy through the development of a one-dimensional neutron kinetics model. Many other improvements have been incorporated into TRAC-BWR to improve code portability, accuracy, efficiency, and maintainability. This paper will describe the one- dimensional neutron kinetics model, the generation of the required input data for this model, and present results of the first calculations using the model

  20. Analysis of radioxenon and Krypton-85 at the BfS noble gas laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, C; Bollhöfer, A; Schmid, S; Krais, R; Bieringer, J; Konrad, M

    2017-08-01

    Proportional counters and a β-γ coincidence system and their performance characteristics are described, with emphasis on internal and external quality controls. Typical limits of detection (LD) are 8mBqm -3 for 85 Kr and 4mBqm -3 for 133 Xe for the proportional counters, while for similar xenon volumes the LD for 133 Xe in the β-γ system is approximately 4 times lower. Results of comparative analyses agree above the limit of quantification. Xenon-133 levels in southern Germany are presently at or below the LD of the proportional counters, but above the LD of the β-γ system, which is now routinely used for analysis of environmental samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Jenkins study does not refute BfR statement on the needlessness of diabetic foods

    OpenAIRE

    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

    2009-01-01

    In a new study, the Canadian researchers Jenkins et al. again review the effects of diets for individuals suffering from diabetes mellitus type 2. In the study, the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet with a low glycaemic index (GI) compared with a diet high in dietary fibre on the health of patients were examined. 210 diabetics (diabetes mellitus type 2) received one of the two diets for six months. The risk factors for high blood glucose level and cardiovascular diseases were studied. From ...

  2. The Crow Creek Site (39BF11) Massacre: A Preliminary Report,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    samples investi- gated were collected from the fortification ditch. Choke-cherry ( Prunus virginiana L.) and what is believed to be wolfberry (Symphori...below Vegetable Material: Prunus virginiana L. Choke-cherry Ambrosia sp. Ragweed cf. Symphoricarpos occidentalis Hook. Wolfberry Chenopodium sp...1 Sample from Bone Bed B - Upper Level 7B: Prunus virginiana L. Choke-cherry - 10 pits, 5 half pits, and 10 fragments Ambrosia sp. Ragweed - 3 Rumex

  3. Introducing BF++: AC++ framework for cognitive bio-feedback systems design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, L; Babiloni, F; Cincotti, F; Salinari, S; Marciani, M G

    2003-01-01

    This paper addressed the issue of building-up a framework for the realization of several cognitive bio-feedback (CBF) systems. It minimizes the programming effort and maximizes the efficiency and the cross-platform portability so that it can be used with many platforms (either software or hardware). A generic CBF system was decomposed into six modules: acquisition, kernel, feedback rule, patient feedback, operator user interface and persistent storage. The way in which these modules interact was defined by immutable software interfaces in a way that allows to completely substitute a module without the need to modify the others. Three Brain Computer Interface engines were developed with less than 40 lines of C++ code each. They can also be used under virtually any platform that supports an ANSI C++ compiler. A framework for the implementation of a wide range of CBF systems was developed. Compared to the other approaches that are described in the literature, the proposed one is the most efficient, the most protable across different platforms, the most generic and the one that allows the realization of the cheapest final systems.

  4. The Energy Variation of the Sensitivity of a Polyethylene Moderated BF{sub 3} Proportional Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraeki, R; Leimdoerfer, M; Malmskog, S

    1962-11-15

    The variation with neutron energy of the sensitivity of a polyethylene moderated boron counter has been investigated experimentally at 2.3 MeV, 550 keV, 210 keV, 110 keV, 340 eV and 5 eV, and theoretically by the multigroup diffusion method in the same range. Different moderator thicknesses up to 10 cm were considered Results show good agreement between experimental and theoretical sensitivities for the keV and MeV energies, while a discrepancy of the order of a factor 2 at the most is obtained in the eV region.

  5. Ion pair and solvation dynamics of [Bmim][BF4 ] + water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascão, João; Silva, Wagner; Ferreira, Ana S D; Cabrita, Eurico J

    2018-02-01

    In this work, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate/water mixtures were analysed over the whole water composition (x w ) in order to study the rotational and translational behaviour of the ions. We employed a multinuclear NMR approach to determine anion/cation/water diffusion coefficients and longitudinal relaxation rates at different water content. In neat ionic liquids (IL), the cation diffuses faster than the anion, and at low x w , anions and cations share almost the same diffusion coefficient, but above a critical water concentration, the anion begins to diffuse faster than the cation. We identified this composition as approximately 10% x w where the ions share the same diffusion coefficient. We found that the water at this composition seems to have a much more dramatic effect in the rotational diffusion of the anion that decreases substantially and approaches that of the anion in the diluted IL. Translational and rotational dynamics of the ions suggest that water is first incorporated in pockets in the nanostructure of the IL allowing the ions to maintain most of the cation/anion interactions present in neat IL but already disrupting some anion/cation interactions due to preferential interaction with the anion. HOESY and NOESY data show that water displays contacts both with the cation and the anion in a positive NOE regime in contrary to the negative regime found for the cation/anion and cation/cation cross-relaxation. This is in accordance with the high relative diffusion coefficient of water and suggests that water molecules can exchange between preferential location sites that allow water to maintain contacts both with the anion and cation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Venezuela - energy situation 1981. BfAI-Marktinformation. Reihe MI-BS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The energy situation of Venezuela is reviewed on the basis of some relevant data. Its energy policy is commented on, and developments in electric power generation are described as well as the trends observed for the various energy sources. Figures are given on external trade and the balance of payment.

  7. Atomic scale Monte Carlo simulations of BF3 plasma immersion ion implantation in Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Magna, Antonino; Fisicaro, Giuseppe; Nicotra, Giuseppe; Spiegel, Yohann; Torregrosa, Frank

    2014-01-01

    We present a numerical model aimed to accurately simulate the plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) process in micro and nano-patterned Si samples. The code, based on the Monte Carlo approach, is designed to reproduce all the relevant physical phenomena involved in the process. The particle based simulation technique is fundamental to efficiently compute the material modifications promoted by the plasma implantation at the atomic resolution. The accuracy in the description of the process kinetic is achieved linking (one to one) each virtual Monte Carlo event to each possible atomic phenomenon (e.g. ion penetration, neutral absorption, ion induced surface modification, etc.). The code is designed to be coupled with a generic plasma status, characterized by the particle types (ions and neutrals), their flow rates and their energy/angle distributions. The coupling with a Poisson solver allows the simulation of the correct trajectories of charged particles in the void regions of the micro-structures. The implemented model is able to predict the implantation 2D profiles and significantly support the process design. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. micro hydroelectric power plant development in the west region of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    the west region of Cameroon. KEYWORDS: Problems, micro hydroelectric, funds, craftsmen, Cameroon. INTRODUCTION. Energy from Water streaming down the mountains has been exploited since antiquity to replace muscular effort (Bessac, 2000). The perfection of devices used results today in hydroelectric turbines,.

  9. Implementation of new capacities in TRAC-BF1/NEM for the simulation of transient with injection of boron; Implementacion de nuevas capacidades en TRAC-BF1/NEM para la simulacion de transitorios con inyeccion de Boro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jambrina, A.; Barrachina, T.; Miro, R.; Verdu, G.

    2011-07-01

    This article is a step in the simulation of the injection, transport and mixing of boron in the reactor, increasing the capabilities of the TRACBF1/NEM code. This article presents the changes in the source code for TRACBF1/NEM, to be able to simulate the injection of boron in a more realistic way.

  10. Translation of the model plant of the CN code TRAC-BF1 Cofrentes of a SNAP-TRACE; Traduccion del modelo de planta de CN Cofrentes del codigo TRAC-BF1 a SNAP-TRACE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escriva, A.; Munuz-Cobo, J. L.; Concejal, A.; Melara, J.; Albendea, M.

    2012-07-01

    It aims to develop a three-dimensional model of the CN Cofrentes whose consistent results Compared with those in current use programs (TRAC-BFl, RETRAN) validated with data of the plant. This comparison should be done globally and that you can not carry a compensation of errors. To check the correct translation of the results obtained have been compared with TRACE and the programs currently in use and the relevant adjustments have been made, taking into account that both the correlations and models are different codes. During the completion of this work we have detected several errors that must be corrected in future versions of these tools.

  11. Measurement of jet quenching with semi-inclusive hadron-jet distributions in central Pb-Pb collisions at ${\\sqrt{\\bf{s}_{\\mathrm {\\bf{NN}}}}}$ = 2.76 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Jaroslav; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahn, Sang Un; Aimo, Ilaria; Aiola, Salvatore; Ajaz, Muhammad; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Millan Almaraz, Jesus Roberto; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Armesto Perez, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Barth, Klaus; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Bartsch, Esther; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batista Camejo, Arianna; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Iii, Ronald John; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biswas, Rathijit; Biswas, Saikat; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blanco, Fernando; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Bossu, Francesco; Botta, Elena; Boettger, Stefan; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Bashir Butt, Jamila; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calero Diaz, Liliet; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Cerkala, Jakub; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chelnokov, Volodymyr; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Choi, Kyungeon; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Zhang, Chunhui; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Deisting, Alexander; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Engel, Heiko; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erdemir, Irem; Erhardt, Filip; Eschweiler, Dominic; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Eum, Jongsik; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabbietti, Laura; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigorii; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Feuillard, Victor Jose Gaston; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Fleck, Martin Gabriel; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Gao, Chaosong; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Graham, Katie Leanne; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grynyov, Borys; Grion, Nevio; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gulkanyan, Hrant; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Haake, Rudiger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hansen, Alexander; Harris, John William; Hartmann, Helvi; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hilden, Timo Eero; Hillemanns, Hartmut; Hippolyte, Boris; Hosokawa, Ritsuya; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hussain, Tahir; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ilkaev, Radiy; Ilkiv, Iryna; Inaba, Motoi; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Izucheev, Vladimir; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jadlovska, Slavka; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyungtaik; Jusko, Anton; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kamin, Jason Adrian; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karayan, Lilit; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Khan, Kamal; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Beomkyu; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobayashi, Taiyo; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Kopcik, Michal; Kour, Mandeep; Kouzinopoulos, Charalampos; Kovalenko, Oleksandr; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kravcakova, Adela; Krelina, Michal; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kubera, Andrew Michael; Kucera, Vit; Kugathasan, Thanushan; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kulakov, Igor; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Jitendra; Lokesh, Kumar; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; Laudi, Elisa; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Seongjoo; Legrand, Iosif; Lehas, Fatiha; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Leoncino, Marco; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Li, Xiaomei; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-Ivar; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lowe, Andrew John; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Ferreira Natal Da Luz, Pedro Hugo; Ma, Rongrong; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahajan, Sanjay; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Margutti, Jacopo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martin Blanco, Javier; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-Garcia, Gines; Martinez Pedreira, Miguel; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Masui, Hiroshi; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Mcdonald, Daniel; Meddi, Franco; Melikyan, Yuri; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Meninno, Elisa; Mercado-Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Mieskolainen, Matti Mikael; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Minervini, Lazzaro Manlio; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Montes Prado, Esther; Morando, Maurizio; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Mulligan, James Declan; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Naru, Muhammad Umair; Nattrass, Christine; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nellen, Lukas; Ng, Fabian; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Niedziela, Jeremi; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Cabanillas Noris, Juan Carlos; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Ohlson, Alice Elisabeth; Okatan, Ali; Okubo, Tsubasa; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliver, Michael Henry; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Orava, Risto; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozdemir, Mahmut; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Pajares Vales, Carlos; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Pan, Jinjin; Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Pant, Divyash; Papcun, Peter; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Woojin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Patra, Rajendra Nath; Paul, Biswarup; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, Elienos; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Perez Lezama, Edgar; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petrov, Viacheslav; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Poonsawat, Wanchaloem; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Porter, R Jefferson; Pospisil, Jan; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puccio, Maximiliano; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Raha, Sibaji; Rajput, Sonia; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Read, Kenneth Francis; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reidt, Felix; Ren, Xiaowen; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Rettig, Felix Vincenz; Revol, Jean-Pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Ristea, Catalin-Lucian; Rivetti, Angelo; Rocco, Elena; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Ronflette, Lucile; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Ankhi; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahlmuller, Baldo; Sahoo, Pragati; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahoo, Sarita; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Saleh, Mohammad Ahmad; Salgado Lopez, Carlos Alberto; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sanchez Castro, Xitzel; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Sarkar, Debojit; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schulc, Martin; Schuster, Tim Robin; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Seeder, Karin Soraya; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Sekihata, Daiki; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senosi, Kgotlaesele; Seo, Jeewon; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabanov, Arseniy; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shadura, Oksana; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Mona; Sharma, Monika; Sharma, Natasha; Shigaki, Kenta; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Snellman, Tomas Wilhelm; Soegaard, Carsten; Soltz, Ron Ariel; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Song, Zixuan; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Spacek, Michal; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Steinpreis, Matthew Donald; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Symons, Timothy; Szabo, Alexander; Szanto De Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Takahashi, Jun; Tanaka, Naoto; Tangaro, Marco-Antonio; Tapia Takaki, Daniel Jesus; Tarantola Peloni, Attilio; Tarhini, Mohamad; Tariq, Mohammad; Tarzila, Madalina-Gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terasaki, Kohei; Terrevoli, Cristina; Teyssier, Boris; Thaeder, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Trogolo, Stefano; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vajzer, Michal; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vallero, Sara; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vanat, Tomas; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Varga, Dezso; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, Aurora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vauthier, Astrid; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veen, Annelies Marianne; Veldhoen, Misha; Velure, Arild; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Vislavicius, Vytautas; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Vyushin, Alexey; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Jan; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Wang, Yifei; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Yosuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Yaldo, Chris G; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaborowska, Anna; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correia Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zardoshti, Nima; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zyzak, Maksym

    2015-09-24

    We report the measurement of a new observable of jet quenching in central Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}} = 2.76$ TeV, based on the semi-inclusive rate of charged jets recoiling from a high transverse momentum (high-$p_{\\rm T}$) charged hadron trigger. Jets are measured using collinear-safe jet reconstruction with infrared cutoff for jet constituents of 0.15 GeV/$c$, for jet resolution parameters $R = 0.2$, 0.4 and 0.5. Underlying event background is corrected at the event-ensemble level, without imposing bias on the jet population. Recoil jet spectra are reported in the range $20 < p_\\mathrm{T,jet}^\\mathrm{ch} < 100$ GeV/$c$. Reference distributions for pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 2.76$ TeV are calculated using Monte Carlo and NLO pQCD methods, which are validated by comparing with measurements in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV. The recoil jet yield in central Pb-Pb collisions is found to be suppressed relative to that in pp collisions. No significant medium-induced broadening of the intra...

  12. Properties of LiBF4 and LiAsF6 solutions in mixtures of tetrahydrofuran and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plakhotnik, A.V.; Tovmash, N.F.; Mishustin, A.I.; Kokunov, Yu.V.

    1993-01-01

    Solutions of lithium tetrafluoroborate and hexafluoroarsenate in mixtures of tetrahydrofuran and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran were studies by the methods of conductometry, densimetry, viscosimetry and measurement of spin-lattice relaxation rate on 7 Li nuclei. Considerable ifluence of anion nature was ascertained. Assumptions are made on the presence of cooperative interaction involving formation of the structures from solvent molecules and salt ions

  13. Simulation of BWR stability following an ATWS with boron injection using TRAC-BF1 with one-dimensional kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lider, S.; Maclan, R.; Baratta, A.J.; Mahaffy, J.; Robinson, G.E.

    2004-01-01

    The scenario following an ATWS is characterized by the necessity to reduce the power in the reactor as fast as possible. The only means to insert a significant amount of negative reactivity in a BWR during an ATWS are the natural reactor negative void coefficient, and the injection of highly enriched boron through the SLCS. The ATWS management strategy suggested by BWR owner's group contemplates an initial rapid decrease in power as a result of the recirculation pump trip. This is followed by lowering of vessel water level and the injection of borated water into the lower plenum. A recent paper of Dias, et al. reports that reducing core power and lowering water level causes a reduction in boron mixing efficiency and the net effect is a longer time to shut down and an increase in Suppression Pool (SP) temperature. In the present paper, a series of analyses are made to address this issue. The preliminary results for the water level positions at TAF, TAF+1.5 m (TAF+5') and TAF+3 m (TAF+10') support the similar findings of Dias, et al. (author)

  14. 77 FR 15148 - Order Granting an Application of BF Enterprises, Inc. Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... the benefit of other persons. The Commission explained that this would ``have the effect of.../ts051011mls.html . See also Testimony on Crowdfunding and Capital Formation, by Meredith B. Cross, Director... numerical triggers may not, in all cases, be consistent with its desire to balance the public benefits of...

  15. Protoporphyrin IX formation after topical application of methyl aminolaevulinate and BF-200 aminolaevulinic acid declines with age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, C V; Philipsen, P A; Wulf, H C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a popular treatment modality in dermatology. The effect of PDT in epidermal cells depends on formation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) from 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). A variety of physiological changes in epidermal function occur with increasing age...... assessed. Treatment efficacy in relation to age was evaluated in 100 basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) treated with MAL-PDT. RESULTS: Both photosensitizers induced significantly more PpIX formation in the younger group. Linear regression revealed a significant age-related decline in PpIX formation after...

  16. Inner-Sphere versus Outer-Sphere Coordination of BF4– in a NHC-Gold(I) Complex

    KAUST Repository

    Veenboer, Richard M. P.

    2017-07-20

    The role of counterions in chemistry mediated by gold complexes stretches much further than merely providing charge balance to cationic gold species. Interplay between their basicities and coordination strengths influences interactions with both the gold center and substrates in catalysis. Actual monogold(I) active species are generally believed to be monocoordinated species, formed from the abstraction or the decoordination of a second ligand from precursor complexes, but only a small amount of experimental evidence exists to underpin the existence of these transient species. The formation of a bench-stable neutral IPrCl-gold(I) tetrafluoroborate complex is reported herein. Experimental studies by X-ray diffraction analysis and NMR spectroscopy and theoretical studies by DFT calculations were conducted to determine the composition, structure, and behavior of this complex. The absence of an auxiliary ligand resulted in inner-sphere coordination of the counterion in the solid state. In solution, an equilibrium between two conformations was found with the counterion occupying inner-sphere and outer-sphere positions, respectively. Stoichiometric and catalytic reactivity studies with the tetrafluoroborate complex have been conducted. These confirmed the lability of the inner-sphere coordinating counterion that gives the IPrCl-gold(I) fragment behavior similar to that of related systems.

  17. A methodology for the coupling of RAMONA-3B neutron kinetics and TRAC-BF1 thermal-hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Arsenio Procopio; Morales Sandoval, Jaime B.

    2005-01-01

    The initial objective of this project was to directly couple the RAMONA and TRAC codes running on different PCs. The idea was to use the best part of each one and eliminate some of their limitations and widen the applicability of these codes to simulate different BWR and system components. It was required to try to minimize the amount of changes to present code subroutines and calculation procedures. If possible, just substitute values obtained in the parallel code. Preliminary results indicated that using a CHAN component of TRAC to model thermal-hydraulic phenomena for each neutronic channel modeled in RAMONA is rather difficult. Large amounts of CPU time consumption are obtained and lots of PCs would make this solution difficult, besides considerable large transients are introduced by the differences in thermal-hydraulic results of these codes. The substitution of the thermal-hydraulics of RAMONA, by the TRAC channel calculations, is possible but simulation of a null transient on both codes must be planed and a gradual change must be controlled by an additional supervisory subroutine. An indirect coupling of these codes, it is therefore proposed, in order to eliminate most of these limitations. In this indirect coupling, a thermal-hydraulic model of the average tube in a bundle and the global channel cooling fluid dynamics is programmed for each neutronic channel while the global reactor vessel and core is modeled by TRAC with just four channels and four rings. Results are more reliable, coupling is simpler and faster simulations are possible

  18. Translation of the model plant of the CN code TRAC-BF1 Cofrentes of a SNAP-TRACE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escriva, A.; Munuz-Cobo, J. L.; Concejal, A.; Melara, J.; Albendea, M.

    2012-01-01

    It aims to develop a three-dimensional model of the CN Cofrentes whose consistent results Compared with those in current use programs (TRAC-BFl, RETRAN) validated with data of the plant. This comparison should be done globally and that you can not carry a compensation of errors. To check the correct translation of the results obtained have been compared with TRACE and the programs currently in use and the relevant adjustments have been made, taking into account that both the correlations and models are different codes. During the completion of this work we have detected several errors that must be corrected in future versions of these tools.

  19. Variations in the cytoplasmic region account for the heterogeneity of the chicken MHC class I (B-F) molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, L B; Kaufman, J; Verland, S

    1991-01-01

    . Unlike the parent proteins, the Mr 36,000 fragment derived from isolated variants yielded identical, simple patterns in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identical finger prints in peptide mapping. This, together with N-terminal amino acid sequencing, as well as comparison of hydrophobicity...

  20. Solute recovery from ionic liquids: a conceptual design study for recovery of styrene monomer from [4-mebupy][BF4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, Mark; Trampe, J.; Schuur, Boelo; de Haan, A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Extractive distillation using ionic liquids (ILs) is a promising technology to separate the close-boiling mixture ethylbenzene/styrene. A proper solvent regeneration is crucial to obtain a technical and economic feasible process. In this work, several regeneration technologies were studied to

  1. Solute recovery from ionic liquids : a conceptual design study for recovery of styrene monomer from [4-mebupy][BF4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, M.T.G.; Trampé, J.; Schuur, B.; Haan, de A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Extractive distillation using ionic liquids (ILs) is a promising technology to separate the close-boiling mixture ethylbenzene/styrene. A proper solvent regeneration is crucial to obtain a technical and economic feasible process. In this work, several regeneration technologies were studied to

  2. Inner-Sphere versus Outer-Sphere Coordination of BF4– in a NHC-Gold(I) Complex

    KAUST Repository

    Veenboer, Richard M. P.; Collado, Alba; Dupuy, Sté phanie; Lebl, Tomas; Falivene, Laura; Cavallo, Luigi; Cordes, David B.; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; Cazin, Catherine S. J.; Nolan, Steven P.

    2017-01-01

    The role of counterions in chemistry mediated by gold complexes stretches much further than merely providing charge balance to cationic gold species. Interplay between their basicities and coordination strengths influences interactions with both the gold center and substrates in catalysis. Actual monogold(I) active species are generally believed to be monocoordinated species, formed from the abstraction or the decoordination of a second ligand from precursor complexes, but only a small amount of experimental evidence exists to underpin the existence of these transient species. The formation of a bench-stable neutral IPrCl-gold(I) tetrafluoroborate complex is reported herein. Experimental studies by X-ray diffraction analysis and NMR spectroscopy and theoretical studies by DFT calculations were conducted to determine the composition, structure, and behavior of this complex. The absence of an auxiliary ligand resulted in inner-sphere coordination of the counterion in the solid state. In solution, an equilibrium between two conformations was found with the counterion occupying inner-sphere and outer-sphere positions, respectively. Stoichiometric and catalytic reactivity studies with the tetrafluoroborate complex have been conducted. These confirmed the lability of the inner-sphere coordinating counterion that gives the IPrCl-gold(I) fragment behavior similar to that of related systems.

  3. Effects of far-ultraviolet radiation and oxygen on macromolecular synthesis and protein induction in Bacteroides fragilis BF-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, J.P.

    1983-11-01

    The study deals with the effects of far-UV radiation, oxygen and hydrogen peroxide on macromolecular synthesis and viability in the obligate anaerobe, Bacteroides fragilis, as well as the specific proteins induced in this organism by these different DNA damaging agents. Irradiation of Bacteroides fragilis cells with far-UV light (254 nm) under anaerobic conditions resulted in the immediate, rapid and extensive degradation of DNA which continued for 40 to 60 min after irradiation. DNA degradation after irradiation was inhibited by chloramphenicol and caffeine. RNA and protein synthesis were decreased by UV irradiation and the degree of inhibition was proportional to the UV dose. Colony formation was not affected immediately by UV irradiation and continued for a dose-dependent period prior to inhibition. The relationship between the DNA damage-induced proteins, macromolecular synthesis in damaged B. fragilis cells and the observed physiological responses and inducible repair phenomena after the different DNA damaging treatments in this anaerobe are discussed

  4. 7.5K 1bf Thrust Engine Preliminary Design for Orbit Transfer Vehicle. Task D.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    propellant is burned in the combustion chamber it does not have the losses of open cycles. Its limitations are related to dependence on only one 2 LLC 0 0 0...Unclassified NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form 296 (Rey. 2-89) Precribed by ANSI Std. Z30-18 298-102

  5. BfR recommends the establishment of a European maximum level for uranium in drinking and mineral water

    OpenAIRE

    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

    2007-01-01

    Uranium is a widespread, radioactive heavy metal on earth. It is to be found in varying concentrations and states in various rocks and minerals as well as in water, soil and air. Uranium may also reach the environment anthropogenically for instance in mineral phosphate fertilisers. Because of its widespread presence traces of uranium can also be detected in foods like drinking and mineral water. Uranium is not essential for humans. The ongoing intake of higher uranium concentration...

  6. Chemically fixed p-n heterojunctions for polymer electronics by means of covalent B-F bond formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoven, Corey V.; Wang, Huiping; Elbing, Mark; Garner, Logan; Winkelhaus, Daniel; Bazan, Guillermo C.

    2010-03-01

    Widely used solid-state devices fabricated with inorganic semiconductors, including light-emitting diodes and solar cells, derive much of their function from the p-n junction. Such junctions lead to diode characteristics and are attained when p-doped and n-doped materials come into contact with each other. Achieving bilayer p-n junctions with semiconducting polymers has been hindered by difficulties in the deposition of thin films with independent p-doped and n-doped layers. Here we report on how to achieve permanently fixed organic p-n heterojunctions by using a cationic conjugated polyelectrolyte with fluoride counteranions and an underlayer composed of a neutral conjugated polymer bearing anion-trapping functional groups. Application of a bias leads to charge injection and fluoride migration into the neutral layer, where irreversible covalent bond formation takes place. After the initial charging and doping, one obtains devices with no delay in the turn on of light-emitting electrochemical behaviour and excellent current rectification. Such devices highlight how mobile ions in organic media can open opportunities to realize device structures in ways that do not have analogies in the world of silicon and promise new opportunities for integrating organic materials within technologies now dominated by inorganic semiconductors.

  7. Successful validation of in vitro methods in toxicology by ZEBET, the National Centre for Alternatives in Germany at the BfR (Federal Institute for Risk Assessment).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmann, Horst; Grune, Barbara; Liebsch, Manfred; Seiler, Andrea; Vogel, Richard

    2008-06-01

    A short description of the history of the 3Rs concept is given, which was developed as the scientific concept to refine, reduce and replace animal experiments by Russel and Burch more than 40 years ago. In addition, the legal framework in Europe for developing alternatives to animal experiments is given and the current status of in vitro systems in pharmacology and toxicology is described including an update on metabolising systems. The decrease in experimental animal numbers during the past decade in Europe is illustrated by the situation in Germany and the contribution of international harmonisation of test guidelines on reducing animal numbers in regulatory testing is described. A review of the development of the principles of experimental validation is given and the 3T3 NRU in vitro phototoxicity test is used as an example for a successful validation study, which led to the acceptance of the first in vitro toxicity test for regulatory purposes by the OECD. Finally, the currently accepted alternative methods for standardisation and safety testing of drugs, biologicals and medical devices are summarised.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of boron trifluoride (B F[sub 3]). Sintese e caracterizacao de trifluoreto de boro (BF[sub 3])

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, E T.R.; Umeda, K; Echternacht, M V; Silva, E.F. da.

    1994-08-01

    High purity boron trifluoride (B F[sub 3]) has been prepared from reaction of ammonium fluorborate and boron oxide in concentrated sulfuric acid. Fluorborate was synthesized by reaction of ammonium bi fluoride and boric acid produced from enrichment plant. (author).

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli from swine, horses, dogs and cats as determined in the BfT-GermVet monitoring program 2004-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobbel, Mirjam; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Alesík, Eva; Schwarz, Stefan; Wallmann, Jürgen; Werckenthin, Christiane; Wieler, Lothar H

    2007-01-01

    A total of 417 isolates of Escherichia coli collected from five animal species/organ system combinations from swine [urinary/genital tract (UGT) incl. mastitis metritis agalactia syndrome], horses [genital tract (GT)] and dogs/cats [respiratory tract (RT), UGT and gastrointestinal tract (GIT)] were analysed quantitatively for their susceptibility against different antimicrobial agents by determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations. Regardless of which animal species the strains originated from, resistance appeared most frequently against sulfamethoxazole (18-59%), tetracycline (14-54 %), and ampicillin (14-39%). High percentages of intermediate isolates were observed for cephalothin (39-46 %). In general, low prevalences of resistance were detected for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (1-4%), gentamicin (1-9%), and cefazolin (0-11%). Generally speaking, the antimicrobial resistance situation among E. coli isolates from horses and small animals is relatively good.

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility of streptococci from various indications of swine, horses, dogs and cats as determined in the BfT-GermVet monitoring program 2004-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Stefan; Alesík, Eva; Grobbel, Mirjam; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Werckenthin, Christiane; Wieler, Lothar H; Wallmann, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    A total of 500 streptococci from two indications of swine (beta-haemolytic streptococci from infections of the urinary/genital tract including strains from the mastitis metritis agalactia syndrome as well as S. suis from infections of the central nervous system and the musculoskeletal system), two indications of horses (S. equi from respiratory tract infections and beta-haemolytic streptococci from infections of the genital tract), as well as three indications of dogs and cats (beta-haemolytic streptococci from infections of the respiratory tract, the urinary/genital tract, and skin/ear/mouth) were investigated for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Regardless of the animal origin and indication, the most frequently detected resistance properties were resistances against sulfamethoxazole (20-78%), tetracycline (17-93%) as well as gentamicin (14-79%). Resistance to penicillins or cephalosporins was very rarely detected - if at all.

  11. Assessment of MSIV full closure for Santa Maria de Garona Nuclear Power Plant using TRAC-BF1 (G1J1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo, J.L.

    1993-06-01

    This document presents a spurious Main Steam Isolation Value (MSIV) closure analysis for Santa Maria de Garorta Nuclear Power Plan describing the problems found when comparing calculated and real data. The plant is a General Electric Boiling Water Reactor 3, containment type Mark 1. It is operated by NUCLENOR, S.A. and was connected to the grid in 1971. The analysis has been performed by the Apphed Physics Department from the University of Cantabria and the Analysis and Operation Section from NUCLENOR, S.A. as a part of an agreement for developing an engineering simulator of operational transients and accidents for Santa Maria de Gamma Power Plant. The analysis was performed using the frozen version of TRAC-BFI (GlJl) code and is the second of two NUCLENOR contributions to the International Code Applications and Assessment Program (ICAP). The code was run in a Cyber 932 with operating system NOS/VE, property of NUCLENOR, S.A.. A programming effort was carried out in order to provide suitable graphics from the output file

  12. Speeches on the inauguration of the BfS Vice-President, the Manager of the Radiation Hygiene Section and the Manager of the Nuclear Safety Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    The speeches by the Federal Minister for the Environment and the gentlemen in charge of the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz provide information on the perceived tasks of the Bundesamt: the principles of radiation protection, implementation of the new ICRP recommendations, the formation of the radiation protection register, cooperation on the amendment of the nuclear law with regard to disposal - terminal storage area Konrad, terminal storage project Gorleben, terminal storage area Moosleben. (HSCH) [de

  13. IrC2/Bf - A yeast and Borrelia responsive component of the complement system from the hard tick Ixodes ricinus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urbanová, V.; Hajdušek, O.; Šíma, R.; Franta, Z.; Hönig Mondeková, Helena; Grunclová, L.; Bartošová-Sojková, P.; Jalovecká, M.; Kopáček, P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 76, FEB 2018 (2018), s. 86-94 ISSN 0145-305X Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Borrelia * C3-complement convertase * Factor B Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.218, year: 2016

  14. Boron and nitrogen doping of graphene via thermal exfoliation of graphite oxide in a BF3 or NH3 atmosphere: contrasting properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poh, H. L.; Šimek, P.; Sofer, Z.; Tomandl, Ivo; Pumera, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 42 (2013), s. 13146-13153 ISSN 2050-7488 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Boron and nitrogen doping * Prompt gamma-ray activation analysis * Graphene lattices Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  15. V-src oncogene-specific carboxy-terminal peptide is immunoprotective against Rous sarcoma growth in chickens with MHC class I allele B-F12

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofmann, A.; Plachý, Jiří; Hunt, L.; Kaufman, J.; Hála, K.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 2003, č. 21 (2003), s. 4694-4699 ISSN 0264-410X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : Rous sarcoma * v-src peptide * chicken MHC class I allele Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.007, year: 2003

  16. Unraveling the synthesis of homoleptic [Ag(N,N-diaryl-NHC)2]Y (Y = BF4, PF6) complexes by ball-milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beillard, Audrey; Bantreil, Xavier; Métro, Thomas-Xavier; Martinez, Jean; Lamaty, Frédéric

    2016-11-28

    A user-friendly and general mechanochemical method was developed to access rarely described NHC (N-heterocyclic carbene) silver(i) complexes featuring N,N-diarylimidazol(idin)ene ligands and non-coordinating tetrafluoroborate or hexafluorophosphate counter anions. Comparison with syntheses in solution clearly demonstrated the superiority of the ball-milling conditions.

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis: epidemiology, molecular mechanisms, in vitro methods and regulatory aspects : Current knowledge assembled at an international workshop at BfR, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peiser, M; Tralau, T; Heidler, J

    2012-01-01

    potential contact allergens. However, the local lymph node assay (LLNA) presently remains the validated method of choice for hazard identification and characterisation. At the workshop the use of the LLNA for regulatory purposes and for quantitative risk assessment was also discussed....

  18. Respuestas de J.R. Kantor y de B.F. Skinner a las preguntas epistemológicas básicas

    OpenAIRE

    Blanca Patricia Ballesteros; Amanda Rey

    2001-01-01

    Diferentes variables académicas, científicas y sociales hacen necesario el escrutinio de las categorías de clase de los diferentes conductismos en un marco epistemológico. El presente artículo hace una comparación entre el Interconductismo de J. R. Kantor y el Conductismo Radical de B. F. Skinner. Las preguntas para las cuales se identifican las posturas de cada autor y su evolución histórica son: (1) ¿Qué es conocimiento?, (2) ¿Qué se conoce?, (3) ¿Cómo se conoce?, (4) ¿Para qué se ...

  19. Solvent extraction of thiophene from n-alkanes (C7, C12, and C16) using the ionic liquid [C8mim][BF4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Luisa; Arce, Alberto; Francisco, Maria; Soto, Ana

    2008-01-01

    In the last years, new strict environmental regulations to reduce sulfur content in liquid fuels have been established. Thiophene derivates can be considered as the key substances to be separated from liquid fuel oils. This paper reports the ability of the ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate to act as solvent in the (liquid + liquid) extraction of thiophene from aliphatic hydrocarbons. Tie-line data have been determined for ternary systems containing the ionic liquid, thiophene, and some n-alkanes at T = 298.15 K. Extraction process has been analyzed by means of thiophene distribution ratio and selectivity. The solute distribution coefficient decreases and the selectivity increases as the chain length of n-alkane increases. The use of 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate as potential solvent for separation of thiophene from n-alkanes is feasible using the necessary quantity of solvent. A correlation of the equilibrium data reported here has also been made, using the NRTL activity coefficient model, in order to facilitate their use in simulation and design processes

  20. Mississippi River: Study of Alternatives for Rehabilitation of Lock and Dam Number 1. Minneapolis, Minnesota. Volume 3. Appendices B-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    ADA34 023 MSSISSIPPI RVER: STUDOFALERNATVESOR 1/4 REHABILIATION OF LOCK AND D..U) CORPS OF ENGINEERS ST A SR P UNCLASSIFED PALM STPU DITIT AR7 / 132...AFACIFA4 Slh9qFAC,- 6 I0. "A e 6250 , 3 VW~- 41Mj,4, 4 04X, 4950 , 5 SCp * 295" , 6, 496Vs, .3502 S 00-, 55oolo,, ,e-. o’so b, Swl~.-/~o~ 41 N //Z-V...the concrete specimen. Selected portions wurc examined in immersion oils under the petrographic microscope. CONC LUSIONS River Wall, Drill Hole No. 74

  1. Thermodynamic stability of complexes of BF3, PF5 and AsF5 with chlorine fluorides, oxyfluorides, and related compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trowbridge, L.D.

    1996-07-01

    The recent discovery of solid, water sensitive, arsenic-containing deposits in auxiliary process piping in the PGDP led to a search for explanations that could account for such accumulated material. A plausible explanation for the deposits is the formation of complexes of AsF 5 with one or more gases that may have been present as a result of cascade equipment cleanup activities. A literature search was performed. The target of the search was literature that would provide information on the dissociation pressure of complexes of AsF 5 or its hydrolysis products with any gases that may be (at least intermittently) present in the cascade location where the deposits were found. While the precise information sought (namely reliable, accurate dissociation pressures of such complexes at cascade temperatures) was not found in the detail desired. other information on these or similar complexes was obtained which permits prediction of the conditions under which the complexes might form, dissociate, or migrate, and how they might behave in the presence of atmospheric moisture. Information was gathered on potential AsF 5 complexes with ClF, ClF 3 , ClF 5 , ClF 3 O, ClO 2 F, and ClO 3 F. Information was also collected on many other related complexes as it was encountered, particularly for series of complexes which could assist in predicting chemical trends. Thermodynamic analysis and property estimation methods have been used to generate provisional estimates of the dissociation pressures of the two complexes ClF 3 *AsF 5 and ClO 2 F*AsF 5 . In addition, several hydrolysis species have been identified, and stability properties of the most relevant such complex (H 3 O*AsF 6 ) have similarly been estimated. While the predicted dissociation pressures are somewhat uncertain. they do lead to a tentative picture of the formation and behavior of such complexes in a cascade cleanup environment

  2. Properties of LiBF[sub 4] and LiAsF[sub 6] solutions in mixtures of tetrahydrofuran and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran. Svojstva rastvorov LiBF[sub 4] i LiAsF[sub 6] v smesyakh tetragidrofurana i 2-metiltetragidrofurana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plakhotnik, A V; Tovmash, N F; Mishustin, A I; Kokunov, Yu V [AN SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Obshchej i Neorganicheskoj Khimii

    1993-01-01

    Solutions of lithium tetrafluoroborate and hexafluoroarsenate in mixtures of tetrahydrofuran and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran were studies by the methods of conductometry, densimetry, viscosimetry and measurement of spin-lattice relaxation rate on [sup 7]Li nuclei. Considerable ifluence of anion nature was ascertained. Assumptions are made on the presence of cooperative interaction involving formation of the structures from solvent molecules and salt ions.

  3. Relationship between body fat and BMI in a U.S. Hispanic population-based cohort study: Results from HCHS/SOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the percentage of body fat (%BF)-BMI relationship, identify %BF levels corresponding to adult BMI cut points, and examine %BF-BMI agreement in a diverse Hispanic/Latino population. %BF by bioelectrical impedance analysis was corrected against %BF by 18O dilution in 434 participants of th...

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility of coagulase-positive and coagulase-variable Staphylococci from various indications of swine, dogs and cats as determined in the BfT-GermVet monitoring program 2004-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Stefan; Alesík, Eva; Werckenthin, Christiane; Grobbel, Mirjam; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Wieler, Lothar H; Wallmann, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    A total of 248 coagulase-positive and coagulase-variable staphylococci from two indications of swine (infections of the urinary/genital tract including strains from the mastitis metritis agalactia syndrome as well as infections of the skin) as well as two indications of dogs/cats (respiratory tract infections and infections of skin/ear/mouth) were investigated for their susceptibility to numerous antimicrobial agents. Regardless of the animal origin and indication, the most frequently detected resistance properties were resistances against penicillin G (53-77%) and ampicillin (42-75%), tetracycline (33-52%) as well as erythromycin (13-27%). Oxacillin-resistant staphylococci were rarely detected.

  5. Implementation of the model of decay in heat ANSI/ANS-5.l-2005 TRACBF1; Implementacion del moedlo de DecayHeat ANSI/ANS-5.1-2005 EN TRAC-BF1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solar, A.; Barrachina, T.; Miro, R.; Verdu, G.; Concejal, A.; Melara, J.

    2012-07-01

    The verification of the proper implementation of the model is performed in analytical form, which serves as the reference for the comparative study of different models with numerical resolution for the election, and their subsequent implementation in the code, the more optimal method.

  6. Angular analysis of the decay $\\mathrm{B^{0}}\\to \\mathrm{K}^{*0} \\mu^{+} \\mu^{-}$ and studies of mixing and $CP$ violation in the $\\bf B_S^0$ system with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00123990

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of B meson decay properties provides an alternative approach for searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. We present two different measurements performed with data taken in 2011 with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron collider. The first measurement is based on an angular analysis of the decay B->K*mumu, and in the second measurement the decay width difference delta_Gamma_S and the weak phase phi_s of the Bs0 system is determined using the decay Bs->JPsiPhi. For the second measurement a probability for the flavour quantum number of the b_quark at production time is determined.

  7. Commissioning of Weighing Unit of Belt Conveyor for 3200 m3 BF Coal Feeder%3 200 m3高炉工程给煤机皮带秤调试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘清玉

    2007-01-01

    介绍给煤机常采用的DNGK-3型电子称重控制系统.重点探讨了该系统的组成,调试、校准方法.该系统在运输过程中完成煤粉重量的精确称量,在天钢东移煤粉制备系统中得到较好的应用.

  8. Development and Preliminary Psychometric Evaluation of a Brief Self-Report Questionnaire for the Assessment of the DSM-5 level of Personality Functioning Scale : The LPFS Brief Form (LPFS-BF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutsebaut, J.; Feenstra, D.J.; Kamphuis, J.H.

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) alternative model for personality disorders (PDs) introduced a new paradigm for the assessment of PDs that includes levels of personality functioning indexing the severity of

  9. Guideline for the assessment of radioactive substances in drinking water in the frame of the implementation of the drinking water regulation. Recommendation by BMUB, BfS, UBA and the responsible state authorities and DVGW and BDFW; Leitfaden zur Untersuchung und Bewertung von radioaktiven Stoffen im Trinkwasser bei der Umsetzung der Trinkwasserverordnung. Empfehlung von BMUB, BMG, BfS, UBA und den zustaendigen Landesbehoerden sowie DVGW und BDEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-01-15

    The guidelines on the assessment of radioactive substances in drinking water cover the following issues: terms, symbols and units concerning radioactivity, radioactivity in the drinking water and radiation exposure, requirements for drinking water with respect to radioactive substances, fundamentals of the assessment concept according to the drinking water regulation, practical application of the assessment concept, analytical determination of radioactivity related parameters.

  10. Effect of inulin and pectin on physicochemical characteristics and stability of meat batters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to investigate levels of inulin and pectin replacing pork back fat (BF) in meat batters (MB) of frankfurter sausage. Six treatments were evaluated: control (T1), control + 70% BF (T2), control + 85% BF + 15% inulin (T3), control + 70% BF + 30% inulin (T4), control + 85% B...

  11. Body fat throughout childhood in 2647 healthy Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Tinggaard, Jeanette; Winther, K.

    2014-01-01

    stage and social class. SF %BF correlated strongly with DXA %BF (r=0.86). BMI and WC also correlated positively with DXA %BF (Z-scores; r= 0.78 and 0.69). Sensitivity and specificity were 79.5 and 93.8 for SF %BF, 75.9 and 90.3 for BMI and 59.2 and 95.4 for WC. CONCLUSIONS: SF %BF showed the highest...

  12. Clustering pesticides according to their molecular properties and their impacts by considering additional ecotoxicological parameters in the TyPol method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traore, Harouna; Crouzet, Olivier; Mamy, Laure; Sireyjol, Christine; Rossard, Virginie; Servien, Remy; Latrille, Eric; Benoit, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    , environmental parameters and the added toxicological parameters. Some trends between soil adsorption or Kow coefficient and the acute toxicity towards earthworms or algae were highlighted, and discussed on the basis of the concept of contaminant bioavailability. This proof-of-concept study also showed that the in silico clustering method TyPol can successfully address new questions and can be expanded with other parameters of interest. Keywords: pesticides, toxicity, QSAR, clustering, PLS References : Servien R., Mamy L., Li Z., Rossard V., Latrille E., Bessac F., Patureau D., Benoit P., 2014. TyPol - A new methodology for organic compounds clustering based on their molecular characteristics and environmental behavior. Chemosphere, 111, 613-622. Mamy L., Patureau D., Barriuso E., Bedos C., Bessac F., Louchart X., Martin-Laurent F., Miege C., Benoit P., 2015. Prediction of the fate of organic compounds in the environment from their molecular properties: A review. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 45, 12, 1277-1377 (Open access). Benoit P., Mamy L., Servien R., Li Z., Latrille E., Rossard V., Bessac F., Patureau D., Martin-Laurent F. 2017. Categorizing chlordecone potential degradation products to explore their environmental fate. Science of the Total Environment, 574, 781-795.

  13. Extension of $b{sub f}$-continuous functions defined on a product of $b{sub f}$-groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchis, M.

    2017-07-01

    Let X be a bf -space and let G be a bf -group. By means of the exponential mapping we characterize when a bf -continuous function on X × G with values in a topologically complete sapce Z has a bf -continuous extension to β(X) × G. As a consequence we show that the product of a pseudocompact space and a bf -group is a bf -group. This result generalizes the fact that the product of a pseudocompact space and a pseudocompact group is pseudocompact. (Author)

  14. Antenatal breastfeeding education for increasing breastfeeding duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbiganon, Pisake; Martis, Ruth; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Festin, Mario R; Ho, Jacqueline J; Hakimi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding (BF) is well recognised as the best food for infants. The impact of antenatal BF education on the duration of BF has not been evaluated. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal BF education for increasing BF initiation and duration. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (21 April 2010), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to April 2010) and SCOPUS (January 1985 to April 2010). We contacted experts and searched reference lists of retrieved articles. We updated the search of the Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register on 28 September 2011 and added the results to the awaiting classification section of the review. Selection criteria All identified published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of formal antenatal BF education or comparing two different methods of formal antenatal BF education, on duration of BF. We excluded RCTs that also included intrapartum or postpartum BF education. Data collection and analysis We assessed all potential studies identified as a result of the search strategy. Two review authors extracted data from each included study using the agreed form and assessed risk of bias. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. Main results We included 17 studies with 7131 women in the review and 14 studies involving 6932 women contributed data to the analyses. We did not do any meta-analysis because there was only one study for each comparison. Five studies compared a single method of BF education with routine care. Peer counselling significantly increased BF initiation. Three studies compared one form of BF education versus another. No intervention was significantly more effective than another intervention in increasing initiation or duration of BF. Seven studies compared multiple methods versus a single method of BF education. Combined BF educational interventions were not

  15. Hydrogeological pre-modelling exercises. Assessment of impact of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Sensitivities of palaeo-hydrogeology. Development of a local near-surface Hydro-DFN for KLX09B-F. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, Lee; Jackson, Peter; Joyce, Steve; Roberts, David; Shevelan, John; Swift, Ben; Gylling, Bjoern; Marsic, Niko; Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan

    2007-12-01

    Numerical modelling has been used to investigate the potential impact of the Aespoe HRL on regional groundwater flow and hydro-geochemistry in the Laxemar study area. The numerical models have been adapted for this application from the ones use in the site-descriptive modelling (SDM) and SR-Can assessment modelling based on Laxemar version 1.2. In order to test the robustness of the simulation results, sensitivities were studied with respect to different flow boundary conditions and the hydraulic properties of the Quaternary deposits, particularly those beneath the sea around the Aespoe island. The simulations show that the Aespoe HRL has a local effect on the groundwater situation. Typically, in the simulations, the rock under the Aespoe island, the bays around it and the Aevroe area (mainly western part of the islands of Aevroe, Mjaelen and Haaloe) are influenced. In the sensitivity study, visualisations of the drawdown caused by the HRL tunnel system show small differences in the results for head versus flux top boundary conditions, little sensitivity to a change in the surface infiltration rate, but most sensitivity to the contact between the sea and the bedrock beneath the seabed sediments. For all simulation cases considered, results suggest that the Aespoe HRL has not been in operation sufficiently long to have affected the chemistry of samples collected at Laxemar and Simpevarp, though there is some possibility that Aevroe samples have been altered, at least for boreholes in the western part of Aevroe, Mjaelen and Haaloe. The distribution of flow and discharge areas around the bay at Aespoe is clearly affected by the HRL for all cases. Using the drawdown in percussion drilled boreholes around Aespoe as an interference test suggests that there is a partial reduction in the hydraulic contact between the sea and the groundwater system in the bedrock beneath. It is recommended that the conclusions about appropriate hydraulic properties for Quaternary sediments beneath the sea be carried forward into future regional groundwater flow modelling studies

  16. Tetranuclear Complexes {(ć.sub.4./sub.-TCNX([Cu(Me.sub.3./sub.TACN)].sub.4./sub.}(BF.sub.4./sub.).sub.4./sub. with TCNX=TCNE, TCNQ or TCNB (1,2,4,5-tetracyanobenzene) and Me.sub.3./sub.TACN=1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berger, S.; Hartmann, H.; Wanner, M.; Fiedler, Jan; Kaim, W.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 314, - (2001), s. 22-26 ISSN 0020-1693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC D15.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : copper compounds * infrared spectra * TCNQ complexes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.394, year: 2001

  17. Hydrogeological pre-modelling exercises. Assessment of impact of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Sensitivities of palaeo-hydrogeology. Development of a local near-surface Hydro-DFN for KLX09B-F. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, Lee; Jackson, Peter; Joyce, Steve; Roberts, David; Shevelan, John; Swift, Ben (Serco Assurance, Harwell (GB)); Gylling, Bjoern; Marsic, Niko (Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (SE)); Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan (Golders Associates (SE))

    2007-12-15

    Numerical modelling has been used to investigate the potential impact of the Aespoe HRL on regional groundwater flow and hydro-geochemistry in the Laxemar study area. The numerical models have been adapted for this application from the ones use in the site-descriptive modelling (SDM) and SR-Can assessment modelling based on Laxemar version 1.2. In order to test the robustness of the simulation results, sensitivities were studied with respect to different flow boundary conditions and the hydraulic properties of the Quaternary deposits, particularly those beneath the sea around the Aespoe island. The simulations show that the Aespoe HRL has a local effect on the groundwater situation. Typically, in the simulations, the rock under the Aespoe island, the bays around it and the Aevroe area (mainly western part of the islands of Aevroe, Mjaelen and Haaloe) are influenced. In the sensitivity study, visualisations of the drawdown caused by the HRL tunnel system show small differences in the results for head versus flux top boundary conditions, little sensitivity to a change in the surface infiltration rate, but most sensitivity to the contact between the sea and the bedrock beneath the seabed sediments. For all simulation cases considered, results suggest that the Aespoe HRL has not been in operation sufficiently long to have affected the chemistry of samples collected at Laxemar and Simpevarp, though there is some possibility that Aevroe samples have been altered, at least for boreholes in the western part of Aevroe, Mjaelen and Haaloe. The distribution of flow and discharge areas around the bay at Aespoe is clearly affected by the HRL for all cases. Using the drawdown in percussion drilled boreholes around Aespoe as an interference test suggests that there is a partial reduction in the hydraulic contact between the sea and the groundwater system in the bedrock beneath. It is recommended that the conclusions about appropriate hydraulic properties for Quaternary sediments beneath the sea be carried forward into future regional groundwater flow modelling studies

  18. Research activities in radiation protection. Programme report 1996. Report on the departmental research programme of the Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (BMU), performed under the scientific and administrative project management of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt-Hannig, A.; Thieme, M.; Goedde, R.

    1997-02-01

    On behalf of the Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), the Federal Office for Radiation Protection is placing research and study contracts in the field of radiation protection. The results of these projects are used for developing radiation protection rules and to fulfill the special radiation protection tasks of the BMU, required by law. Planning, expert and administrative management, placing, assistance as well as expert evaluation of the results from these research projects lies within the responsibility of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection. This report provides information on preliminary and final results of radiation protection projects within the BMU Department Research Programme of the year 1996. (orig.) [de

  19. Scholarly Research Program. Delivery Order 0007: Characterization of Ionic Liquids as Fuel Cell Electrolytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keitz, Thomas L; Katovic, Vladimir; Davidson, Amanda

    2004-01-01

    The object of this work was to synthesize the room temperature ionic liquids, EMImBF4, BMImBF4 and BMPBETI, and to study the electrochemical behavior of ethanol in these electrolytes on the Pt electrode...

  20. Quality evaluation of tortilla chips made with corn meal dough and cooked bean flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Araceli Ochoa-Martínez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of cornmeal dough and cooked bean flour (BF was prepared at different ratios (50/50, 60/40, and 70/30 w/w, and processed to chips. Viscosity profile, temperature of gelatinization and enthalpy, texture, protein content, and in vitro digestibility were measured. Pasting temperature tended to be lower when the flour bean concentration was lower. Maximum viscosity increased significantly in both samples (dough mixture and chips when the BF concentration was lower. In general, gelatinization temperature remains constant, while the heating enthalpy was higher with lower BF concentration. The addition of BF was correlated with greater crispiness, suggesting improved chip texture at higher BF concentrations. The final protein content in the corn-bean chips was very similar, despite the concentration of BF used. Protein digestibility in the chips was affected by the proportion of BF added, being higher when the amount of the BF was lower.

  1. A note on structural and dielectric properties of BiFeO3- PbTiO3 and BiFeO3- PbZrO3 composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satpathy, S. K.; Mohanty, N. K.; Behera, A. K.; Behera, B.; Nayak, P.

    2015-01-01

    The composites of BiFeO 3 -PbTiO 3 (BF-PT) and BiFeO 3 -PbZrO 3 (BF-PZ) were prepared by mixed oxide method. Room temperature X-ray diffraction data confirms the rhombohedral and tetragonal crystal structure respectively. Dielectric constant of BF-PZ is found to give high value compared to BF-PT and hence, there is an increase value of ac conductivity for the former. Both the composites show negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR) behavior. The activation energies of BF-PT and BF-PZ are found to be 0.35 eV and 0.53 eV respectively. The d 33 coefficients are found to be 2.0 and 2.1 pC/N for BF-PT and BF-PZ respectively

  2. Values Affirmation Intervention Reduces Achievement Gap between Underrepresented Minority and White Students in Introductory Biology Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordt, Hannah; Eddy, Sarah L; Brazil, Riley; Lau, Ignatius; Mann, Chelsea; Brownell, Sara E; King, Katherine; Freeman, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Achievement gaps between underrepresented minority (URM) students and their white peers in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics classrooms are persistent across many white-majority institutions of higher education. Attempts to reduce this phenomenon of underperformance through increasing classroom structure via active learning have been partially successful. In this study, we address the hypothesis that the achievement gap between white and URM students in an undergraduate biology course has a psychological and emotional component arising from stereotype threat. Specifically, we introduced a values affirmation exercise that counters stereotype threat by reinforcing a student's feelings of integrity and self-worth in three iterations of an intensive active-learning college biology course. On average, this exercise reduced the achievement gap between URM and white students who entered the course with the same incoming grade point average. This result suggests that achievement gaps resulting from the underperformance of URM students could be mitigated by providing students with a learning environment that removes psychological and emotional impediments of performance through short psychosocial interventions. © 2017 H. Jordt et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  3. TRPA1 controls inflammation and pruritogen responses in allergic contact dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boyi; Escalera, Jasmine; Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Fan, Lu; Caceres, Ana I.; Robinson, Eve; Sui, Aiwei; McKay, M. Craig; McAlexander, M. Allen; Herrick, Christina A.; Jordt, Sven E.

    2013-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common skin disease associated with inflammation and persistent pruritus. Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels in skin-innervating sensory neurons mediate acute inflammatory and pruritic responses following exogenous stimulation and may contribute to allergic responses. Genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of TRPA1, but not TRPV1, inhibited skin edema, keratinocyte hyperplasia, nerve growth, leukocyte infiltration, and antihistamine-resistant scratching behavior in mice exposed to the haptens, oxazolone and urushiol, the contact allergen of poison ivy. Hapten-challenged skin of TRPA1-deficient mice contained diminished levels of inflammatory cytokines, nerve growth factor, and endogenous pruritogens, such as substance P (SP) and serotonin. TRPA1-deficient sensory neurons were defective in SP signaling, and SP-induced scratching behavior was abolished in Trpa1−/− mice. SP receptor antagonists, such as aprepitant inhibited both hapten-induced cutaneous inflammation and scratching behavior. These findings support a central role for TRPA1 and SP in the integration of immune and neuronal mechanisms leading to chronic inflammatory responses and pruritus associated with contact dermatitis.—Liu, B., Escalera, J., Balakrishna, S., Fan, L., Caceres, A. I., Robinson, E., Sui, A., McKay, M. C., McAlexander, M. A., Herrick, C. A., Jordt, S. E. TRPA1 controls inflammation and pruritogen responses in allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:23722916

  4. Éloge du décor : l’église Saint-Jean-Bosco à Paris, sanctuaire national du père des orphelins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Gaudard

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Architecte méconnu, D. Rotter élève en 1933 le sanctuaire national de l’ordre de Saint-Jean-Bosco, soixantième chantier du cardinal Verdier. Élément d’un projet plus vaste de bâtiments destinés à l’éducation des jeunes défavorisés, l’église en béton armé, à la silhouette proche de l’église du Raincy, frappe par l’originalité, la richesse et la bonne conservation de son décor. Bessac et Gaudin signent une partie du décor dû pour l’essentiel à Mauméjean Frères. Cet unicum parisien contient l’un des derniers décors figurés d’église avant leur disparition après-guerre.

  5. cis-Bifenthrin enantioselectively induces hepatic oxidative stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuanxiang; Wang, Jiangcong; Pan, Xiuhong; Wang, Linggang; Fu, Zhengwei

    2013-09-01

    Bifenthrin (BF), as a chiral synthetic pyrethroid, is widely used to control field and household pests. In China, the commercial cis-BF contained two enantiomers including 1R-cis-BF and 1S-cis-BF. However, the difference in oxidative stress induced by the two enantiomers in mice still remains unclear. In the present study, 4 week-old adolescent male ICR mice were orally administered cis-BF, 1R-cis-BF or 1S-cis-BF daily for 2, 4 and 6 weeks at doses of 5 mg/kg/day, respectively. We found that the hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, as well as the malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) content both in the serum and liver increased significantly in the 4 or 6 weeks 1S-cis-BF treated groups. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) also changed significantly in the serum and liver of 1S-cis-BF treated mice. More importantly, the significant differences in MDA content and CAT activity both in the serum and liver, and the activities of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and SOD in serum were also observed between the 1S-cis-BF and 1R-cis-BF treated groups. Moreover, the transcription of oxidative stress response related genes including Sod1, Cat and heme oxygenase-1(Ho-1) in the liver of 1S-cis-BF treated groups were also significant higher than those in 1R-cis-BF treated group. Thus, it was concluded that cis-BF induced hepatic oxidative stress in an enantiomer specific manner in mice when exposed during the puberty, and that 1S-cis-BF showed much more toxic in hepatic oxidative stress than 1R-cis-BF. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Density nonlinearities and a field theory for the dynamics of simple fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Mazenko, Gene F.; Yeo, Joonhyun

    1994-01-01

    We study the role of the Jacobian arising from a constraint enforcing the nonlinear relation: ${\\bf g}=\\rho{\\bf V}$, where $\\rho,\\: {\\bf g}$ and ${\\bf V}$ are the mass density, the momentum density and the local velocity field, respectively, in the field theoretic formulation of the nonlinear fluctuating hydrodynamics of simple fluids. By investigating the Jacobian directly and by developing a field theoretic formulation without the constraint, we find that no changes in dynamics result as co...

  7. Generalized equations for estimating DXA percent fat of diverse young women and men: The Tiger Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popular generalized equations for estimating percent body fat (BF%) developed with cross-sectional data are biased when applied to racially/ethnically diverse populations. We developed accurate anthropometric models to estimate dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry BF% (DXA-BF%) that can be generalized t...

  8. Breastfeeding: changes after 12 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Romão

    2017-11-01

    Discussion/Conclusion: The demographic changes aware to the emergence of possibly different difficulties in BF promoting. At the hospital, reduction of infant formula use and time to BF onset represented improvements in this area. Such results highlight the importance of BF efforts over the years and must encourage other similar initiatives after discharge.

  9. Can minimal running shoes imitate barefoot heel-toe running patterns? A comparison of lower leg kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hein

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: BF running does not change the landing automatically to forefoot running, especially after a systematic exclusion of surface and other influencing factors. The Nike Free 3.0 mimics some BF features. Nevertheless, changes in design of the Nike Free should be considered in order to mimic BF movement even more closely.

  10. filled neutron detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Boron trifluoride (BF3) proportional counters are used as detectors for thermal neutrons. They are characterized by high neutron sensitivity and good gamma discriminating properties. Most practical BF3 counters are filled with pure boron trifluoride gas enriched up to 96% 10B. But BF3 is not an ideal proportional counter ...

  11. A density functional theory study on the interactions between dibenzothiophene and tetrafluoroborate-based ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin; Lü, Renqing; Wu, Chongchong; Xiao, Ye; Liang, Fei; Famakinwa, Temilola

    2017-04-01

    The interactions between dibenzothiophene (DBT) and N-butyl-N-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF 4 ]), N-butyl-N-methylmorpholinium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmmorpholinium][BF 4 ]), N-butyl-N-methylpiperdinium tetrafluoroborate ([BMPiper][BF 4 ]), N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium tetrafluoroborate ([BMPyrro][BF 4 ]), and N-butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate ([BPY][BF 4 ]) were investigated using density functional theory approach. Geometric, electron, and topological properties were analyzed using natural bond orbital, atoms in molecules theory, and noncovalent interaction methods in order to understand intermolecular interactions between DBT and ionic liquids. The result shows that hydrogen bond and van der Waals interactions are widespread in all the ionic liquids-DBT systems. Ion-π interactions between DBT and cation or anion are also observed, while π + -π interactions are only found in the [BMIM][BF 4 ]-DBT and [BPY][BF 4 ]-DBT systems. The order of interaction energy is [BPY][BF4]-DBT > [BMIM][BF 4 ]-DBT > [BMPiper][BF 4 ]-DBT > [BMPyrro][BF 4 ]-DBT > [BMmorpholinum][BF 4 ]-DBT. The energies between DBT and the two ionic liquids containing aromatic cations are significantly higher.

  12. Inhibitory effect of 2‑mercaptoethane sulfonate on the formation of Escherichia coli biofilms in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng; He, Nianhai; Yu, Jialin; Li, Luquan; Sun, Fengjun; Hu, Ying; Deng, Rui; Zhong, Shiming; Shen, Leilei

    2015-10-01

    The biofilms (BF) formed by Escherichia coli (E. coli) is an important cause of chronic and recurrent infections due to its capacity to persist on medical surfaces and indwelling devices, demonstrating the importance of inhibiting the formation of E. coli BF and reducing BF infection. Although 2‑mercaptoethane sulfonate (MESNA) exhibits a marked mucolytic effect clinically, the effect of MESNA on the inhibition of E. coli BF formation remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated whether MESNA inhibits the formation of E. coli BF in vitro. The minimum inhibitory concentration of MESNA on E. coli was determined to be 10 mg/ml. Subsequently, the effect of MESNA on BF early adhesion, extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) and extracellular protein were detected. The effect of a subinhibitory concentration of MESNA on BF formation was evaluated, and the inhibitory potency of MESNA against matured BF was assayed. The results revealed that MESNA inhibited early stage adhesion and formation of the E. coli BF, destroyed the mature BF membrane and reduced the EPS and extracellular proteins levels of the BF. In addition, the present study investigated the effects of MESNA on the expression of EPS‑ and adhesion protein‑associated genes using quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, which demonstrated that MESNA effectively inhibited the expression of these genes. These results suggested that MESNA possesses anti‑BF formation capability on E. coli in vitro and may be used as a potential reagent for the clinical treatment of E. coli BF‑associated infections.

  13. A comparative assessment of chemical contaminant removal by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The CCF removed total organic carbon (TOC) (up to 39%) better than the BSF and BF (p ≤ 0.05). The filters removed turbidity effectively with the BSF having the highest reduction (70%). The average turbidity reduction efficiency was in the order BSF (70%) > BF (51%) > CCF (44%). The BSF, CCF and BF reduced turbidity ...

  14. Enantioselective disruption of the endocrine system by Cis-Bifenthrin in the male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuanxiang; Wang, Jiangcong; Pan, Xiuhong; Miao, Wenyu; Lin, Xiaojian; Wang, Linggang; Fu, Zhengwei

    2015-07-01

    Bifenthrin (BF), as a chiral pyrethroid, is widely used to control field and household pests in China. At present, the commercial BF is a mixed compound containing cis isomers (cis-BF) including two enantiomers of 1R-cis-BF and 1S-cis-BF. In the present study, the two individual cis-BF enantiomers were separated by a preparative supercritical fluid chromatography. Then, four week-old adolescent male ICR mice were orally administered 1R-cis-BF and 1S-cis-BF separately daily for 3 weeks at doses of 0, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg/day, respectively. Results showed that the transcription status of some genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and transport as well as testosterone (T) synthesis in the testes were influenced by cis-BF enantiomers. Especially, we observed that the transcription status of key genes on the pathway of T synthesis including cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) and cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (P45017α)) were selectively altered in the testis of mice when treated with 1S-cis-BF, suggesting that it is the possible reason to explain why the lower serum T concentration in 1S-cis-BF treated group. Taken together, it concluded that both of the cis-BF enantiomers have the endocrine disruption activities, while 1S-cis-BF was higher than 1R-cis-BF in mice when exposed during the puberty. The data was helpful to understand the toxicity of cis-BF in mammals under enantiomeric level. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Biofilm colonization in chronic treatment refractory infections presenting with discharging sinuses: A study in a tertiary care hospital of Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmita De

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: AFM has been proven to be a useful method for detection of in vitro grown BF including those for anaerobes and atypical Mycobacteria. In vivo BF detection becomes possible by FISH. S. aureus was the most common isolate. Among the aerobic isolates, P. aeruginosa and S. epidermidis were found to be the most common BF producers. Atypical mycobacteria were also found to be BF producers. Diagnosis of BF s in chronic infections significantly changes the management strategy as these infections can no longer be dealt simply with antibiotics alone but require mechanical removal of the foci along with antibiotic coverage for complete cure.

  16. EFFECT OF CaO/SiO₂ AND HEAT TREATMENT ON THE MICROSTRUCTURE OF GLASS-CERAMICS FROM BLAST FURNACE SLAG

    OpenAIRE

    Chunshai Xie; Yongliang Gui; Song Chunyan; Hu Binsheng

    2016-01-01

    Glass-ceramics, with molten blast furnace (BF) slag as the major raw material, were prepared successfully by the melting method. The effect of the CaO/SiO₂ ratio in the molten BF slag and heat treatment on the viscosity and microstructure of glass-ceramics produced from BF slag were traced using the melt property tester, DSC, XRD and SEM. The results showed that increasing the CaO/SiO₂ ratio of BF slag caused a decrease not only in the viscosity of the BF slag at high temperature but also in ...

  17. Preparation and characterization of a novel degradable nano-hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic) composite reinforced with bamboo fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liuyun; Li, Ye; Xiong, Chengdong; Su, Shengpei

    2017-06-01

    It is a promising and challenging to achieve an ideal poly (lactic-co-glycolic) (PLGA)-based composite. In this paper, bamboo fiber (BF) was firstly designed to incorporate into nano-hydroxyapatite/PLGA (n-HA/PLGA) composite, and a series of novel biodegradable BF/n-HA/PLGA ternary composites with different BF amounts (0wt%, 5wt%, 10wt% and 20wt%) were prepared by solution mixing method. The effect of BF content on the crystallization behavior, interface structure and mechanical property of BF/n-HA/PLGA ternary composite was investigated by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), comparing with pure PLGA and n-HA/PLGA composite. The results showed that BF further promoted the crystallization of PLGA acting as a heterogeneous nucleation agent, and the addition of 10wt% BF was the best benefit to promote the crystallization. However, the higher addition content of BF caused more agglomeration in n-HA/PLGA matrix, which decreased gradually the mechanical properties of the BF/n-HA/PLGA composite. In conclusion, the addition content of 5wt% BF to n-HA/PLGA matrix was an appropriate proportion, which can achieved the best mechanical reinforce effectiveness, suggesting that BF/n-HA/PLGA composite had more potential in biomedical application than n-HA/PLGA composite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Disposal Options of Bamboo Fabric-Reinforced Poly(Lactic Acid Composites for Sustainable Packaging: Biodegradability and Recyclability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Nurul Fazita

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the recyclability and biodegradability of bamboo fabric-reinforced poly(lactic acid (BF-PLA composites for sustainable packaging. BF-PLA composite was recycled through the granulation, extrusion, pelletization and injection processes. Subsequently, mechanical properties (tensile, flexural and impact strength, thermal stability and the morphological appearance of recycled BF-PLA composites were determined and compared to BF-PLA composite (initial materials and virgin PLA. It was observed that the BF-PLA composites had the adequate mechanical rigidity and thermal stability to be recycled and reused. Moreover, the biodegradability of BF-PLA composite was evaluated in controlled and real composting conditions, and the rate of biodegradability of BF-PLA composites was compared to the virgin PLA. Morphological and thermal characteristics of the biodegradable BF-PLA and virgin PLA were obtained by using environment scanning electron microscopy (ESEM and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, respectively. The first order decay rate was found to be 0.0278 and 0.0151 day−1 in a controlled composting condition and 0.0008 and 0.0009 day−1 in real composting conditions for virgin PLA and BF-PLA composite, respectively. Results indicate that the reinforcement of bamboo fabric in PLA matrix minimizes the degradation rate of BF-PLA composite. Thus, BF-PLA composite has the potential to be used in product packaging for providing sustainable packaging.

  19. Embryonic exposure to cis-bifenthrin enantioselectively induces the transcription of genes related to oxidative stress, apoptosis and immunotoxicity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuanxiang; Pan, Xiuhong; Cao, Limin; Ma, Bufang; Fu, Zhengwei

    2013-02-01

    Cis-bifenthrin (cis-BF) is used widely for agricultural and non-agricultural purpose. Thus, cis-BF is one of the most frequently detected insecticides in the aquatic ecosystem. As a chiral pesticide, the commercial cis-BF contained two enantiomers including 1R-cis-BF and 1S-cis-BF. However, the difference in inducing oxidative stress, apoptosis and immunotoxicity by the two enantiomers in zebrafish still remains unclear. In the present study, the zebrafish were exposed to environmental concentrations of cis-BF, 1R-cis-BF and 1S-cis-BF during the embryos developmental stage. We observed that the mRNA levels of the most genes related to oxidative stress, apoptosis and immunotoxicity including Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-Sod), catalase (Cat), P53, murine double minute 2 (Mdm2), B-cell lymphoma/leukaemia-2 gene (Bcl2), Bcl2 associated X protein (Bax), apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf1), Caspase 9 (Cas9), Caspase 3 (Cas3), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-8(Il-8) were much higher in 1S-cis-BF treated group than those in cis-BF or 1R-cis-BF treated ones, suggesting that 1S-cis-BF has higher risk to induced oxidative stress, apoptosis and immunotoxicity than 1R-cis-BF in zebrafish. The information presented in this study will help with elucidating the differences and environmental risk of the two enantiomers of cis-BF-induced toxicity in aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hypocretin/orexin antagonism enhances sleep-related adenosine and GABA neurotransmission in rat basal forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-DeRose, Jacqueline; Schwartz, Michael D; Nguyen, Alexander T; Warrier, Deepti R; Gulati, Srishti; Mathew, Thomas K; Neylan, Thomas C; Kilduff, Thomas S

    2016-03-01

    Hypocretin/orexin (HCRT) neurons provide excitatory input to wake-promoting brain regions including the basal forebrain (BF). The dual HCRT receptor antagonist almorexant (ALM) decreases waking and increases sleep. We hypothesized that HCRT antagonists induce sleep, in part, through disfacilitation of BF neurons; consequently, ALM should have reduced efficacy in BF-lesioned (BFx) animals. To test this hypothesis, rats were given bilateral IgG-192-saporin injections, which predominantly targets cholinergic BF neurons. BFx and intact rats were then given oral ALM, the benzodiazepine agonist zolpidem (ZOL) or vehicle (VEH) at lights-out. ALM was less effective than ZOL at inducing sleep in BFx rats compared to controls. BF adenosine (ADO), γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA), and glutamate levels were then determined via microdialysis from intact, freely behaving rats following oral ALM, ZOL or VEH. ALM increased BF ADO and GABA levels during waking and mixed vigilance states, and preserved sleep-associated increases in GABA under low and high sleep pressure conditions. ALM infusion into the BF also enhanced cortical ADO release, demonstrating that HCRT input is critical for ADO signaling in the BF. In contrast, oral ZOL and BF-infused ZOL had no effect on ADO levels in either BF or cortex. ALM increased BF ADO (an endogenous sleep-promoting substance) and GABA (which is increased during normal sleep), and required an intact BF for maximal efficacy, whereas ZOL blocked sleep-associated BF GABA release, and required no functional contribution from the BF to induce sleep. ALM thus induces sleep by facilitating the neural mechanisms underlying the normal transition to sleep.

  1. Validity and Reliability of Assessing Body Composition Using a Mobile Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Elizabeth Z; Vehrs, Pat R; Fellingham, Gilbert W; Eggett, Dennis; George, James D; Hager, Ronald

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the LeanScreen (LS) mobile application that estimates percent body fat (%BF) using estimates of circumferences from photographs. The %BF of 148 weight-stable adults was estimated once using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Each of two administrators assessed the %BF of each subject twice using the LS app and manually measured circumferences. A mixed-model ANOVA and Bland-Altman analyses were used to compare the estimates of %BF obtained from each method. Interrater and intrarater reliabilities values were determined using multiple measurements taken by each of the two administrators. The LS app and manually measured circumferences significantly underestimated (P < 0.05) the %BF determined using DXA by an average of -3.26 and -4.82 %BF, respectively. The LS app (6.99 %BF) and manually measured circumferences (6.76 %BF) had large limits of agreement. All interrater and intrarater reliability coefficients of estimates of %BF using the LS app and manually measured circumferences exceeded 0.99. The estimates of %BF from manually measured circumferences and the LS app were highly reliable. However, these field measures are not currently recommended for the assessment of body composition because of significant bias and large limits of agreements.

  2. Preparation and Characterisation of Linear Low-Density Polyethylene / Thermoplastic Starch Blends Filled with Banana Fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahar, A. W. M.; Ann, L. Ju

    2017-06-01

    In this study, the influence of banana fibre (BF) loading using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pre-treated and succinic anhydride-treated (SA) BF on the mechanical properties of linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE)/thermoplastic starch (TPS) matrix is investigated. LLDPE/TPS/BF composites were developed under different BF conditions, with and without chemical modifications with the BF content ranging from 5% to 30% based on the total composite. The tensile strength showed an increase with an increase of fibre content up to 10%, thereby decreasing gradually beyond this level. NaOH pre-treated and SA treated BF added with LLDPE/TPS composite displays a higher tensile strength as compared to untreated BF in LLDPE/TPS composites. Thermal behaviour of the BF incorporated in LLDPE/TPS composite was characterised using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). This showed that SA treated BF exhibits better thermal stability, compared to other composites. This is because of the improvement in interfacial adhesion existing between both the fibre and matrix. In addition, a morphology study confirmed that pre-treated and treated BF had excellent interfacial adhesion with LLDPE/TPS matrix, leading to better mechanical properties of resultant composites.

  3. Performance analysis of absorption heat transformer cycles using ionic liquids based on imidazolium cation as absorbents with 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol as refrigerant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayou, Dereje S.; Currás, Moisés R.; Salavera, Daniel; García, Josefa; Bruno, Joan C.; Coronas, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • TFE + [emim][BF 4 ] (or [bmim][BF 4 ]) absorption heat transformer cycles are studied. • Influence of various operating conditions on cycle’s performance is investigated. • Performance comparisons with H 2 O + LiBr and TFE + TEGDME cycles are done. • Enthalpy data for TFE + [emim][BF 4 ] (or [bmim][BF 4 ]) liquid mixtures are calculated. • TFE + [emim][BF 4 ] (or [bmim][BF 4 ]) cycles have higher gross temperature lift (GTL). - Abstract: A detailed thermodynamic performance analysis of a single-stage absorption heat transformer and double absorption heat transformer cycles using new working pairs composed of ionic liquids (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([emim][BF 4 ]) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF 4 ])) as absorbent and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) as refrigerant has been studied. Several performance indicators were used to evaluate and compare the performance of the cycles using the TFE + [emim][BF 4 ] and TFE + [bmim][BF 4 ] working pairs with the conventional H 2 O + LiBr and organic TFE + TEGDME working pairs. The obtained results show that the ionic liquid based working pairs are suitable candidates to replace the conventional H 2 O + LiBr working pairs in order to avoid the disadvantages associated with it mainly crystallization and corrosion and also they perform better (higher gross temperature lift) than TFE + TEGDME working pair at several operating conditions considered in this work

  4. Distinct Temporal Coordination of Spontaneous Population Activity between Basal Forebrain and Auditory Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josue G. Yague

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The basal forebrain (BF has long been implicated in attention, learning and memory, and recent studies have established a causal relationship between artificial BF activation and arousal. However, neural ensemble dynamics in the BF still remains unclear. Here, recording neural population activity in the BF and comparing it with simultaneously recorded cortical population under both anesthetized and unanesthetized conditions, we investigate the difference in the structure of spontaneous population activity between the BF and the auditory cortex (AC in mice. The AC neuronal population show a skewed spike rate distribution, a higher proportion of short (≤80 ms inter-spike intervals (ISIs and a rich repertoire of rhythmic firing across frequencies. Although the distribution of spontaneous firing rate in the BF is also skewed, a proportion of short ISIs can be explained by a Poisson model at short time scales (≤20 ms and spike count correlations are lower compared to AC cells, with optogenetically identified cholinergic cell pairs showing exceptionally higher correlations. Furthermore, a smaller fraction of BF neurons shows spike-field entrainment across frequencies: a subset of BF neurons fire rhythmically at slow (≤6 Hz frequencies, with varied phase preferences to ongoing field potentials, in contrast to a consistent phase preference of AC populations. Firing of these slow rhythmic BF cells is correlated to a greater degree than other rhythmic BF cell pairs. Overall, the fundamental difference in the structure of population activity between the AC and BF is their temporal coordination, in particular their operational timescales. These results suggest that BF neurons slowly modulate downstream populations whereas cortical circuits transmit signals on multiple timescales. Thus, the characterization of the neural ensemble dynamics in the BF provides further insight into the neural mechanisms, by which brain states are regulated.

  5. Breathing frequency-independent effect of Tai Chi Chuan on autonomic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wan-An; Kuo, Cheng-Deng

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the breathing frequency (BF)-independent effect of Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) on autonomic nervous modulation in TCC practitioners. Twenty-five TCC practitioners and 25 sedentary normal controls were recruited. The stationary heart rate variability (HRV) measures of TCC practitioners and controls were compared. The same HRV measures in TCC practitioners and among the controls, TCC practitioners before TCC and TCC practitioners 30 min after TCC were compared. In TCC practitioners, the BF, normalized high-frequency power (nHFP), and normalized very low-frequency power were significantly increased, while the normalized low-frequency power (nLFP) was significantly decreased 30 min after TCC. The BF correlated significantly and negatively with heart rate (HR), nHFP and nLFP, and correlated significantly and positively with mean RR interval (MnRR) before TCC in TCC practitioners. A slower BF is associated with a higher HR, a greater vagal modulation, and a greater combined sympatho-vagal modulation before TCC. To remove the effect of BF on HRV measures, new indices such as HR*BF, nHFP*BF, nLFP*BF, and MnRR/BF were introduced for comparison among the controls, TCC practitioners before TCC, and TCC practitioners 30 min after TCC. Thirty minutes after TCC, the MnRR/BF of TCC practitioner was smaller whereas HR*BF and nHFP*BF were greater than those before TCC. The BF-independent effects of TCC on the autonomic nervous modulation of TCC practitioners are an increase in vagal modulation and HR, and a decrease in mean RR interval. The mechanism underlying the parallel increase in HR and vagal modulation in TCC practitioners is not understood yet at present.

  6. Physical activity within a CBT intervention improves coping with pain in traumatized refugees: results of a randomized controlled design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedl, Alexandra; Müller, Julia; Morina, Naser; Karl, Anke; Denke, Claudia; Knaevelsrud, Christine

    2011-02-01

    Many traumatized refugees experience both posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain. Based on Mutual Maintenance Theory and the Perpetual Avoidance Model, this study examined the additional effect of physical activity within a biofeedback-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-BF) for traumatized refugees. In a controlled design, 36 patients were randomized into one of three conditions (CBT-BF, CBT-BF with physical activity [CBT-BF+active], and a waiting list control group [WL]). Thirty patients (n=10 in each group) completed the treatment and a follow-up assessment 3 months later. Participants' coping strategies, pain and mental health status, and physiological reactivity were assessed before and after the intervention and at 3-month follow-up. Treatment effects were analyzed using analyses of variance with baseline scores as covariates (ANCOVAs) and the Reliable Change Index. The CBT-BF and CBT-BF+active groups showed improvements in all outcome measures relative to the WL group. The effect sizes for the main outcome measures were higher in the CBT-BF+active group than in the CBT-BF group. Repeated measures analyses of covariance showed significant group effects for coping strategies--in particular, for the "cognitive restructuring" and "counter-activities" subscales as well as a marginally significant group effect for "perceived self-competence"--with the CBT-BF+active group showing more favorable outcomes than the CBT-BF group. Moreover, 60% of participants in the CBT-BF+active group showed clinically reliable intraindividual change in at least one subscale of the pain coping strategies questionnaire, compared with just 30% of participants in the CBT-BF group. Findings of improved coping strategies, larger effect sizes, and higher rates of clinical improvement in the CBT-BF+active group suggest that physical activity adds value to pain management interventions for traumatized refugees. Given the small sample size, however, these preliminary results need

  7. Role of adenosine in regulating the heterogeneity of skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinonen, Ilkka; Nesterov, Sergey V; Kemppainen, Jukka

    2007-01-01

    receptor blockade. BF heterogeneity within muscles was calculated from 16-mm(3) voxels in BF images and heterogeneity among the muscles from the mean values of the four QF compartments. Mean BF in the whole QF and its four parts increased, and heterogeneity decreased with workload both without......Evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that adenosine plays a role in the regulation of exercise hyperemia in skeletal muscle. We tested whether adenosine also plays a role in the regulation of blood flow (BF) distribution and heterogeneity among and within quadriceps femoris (QF...... and with theophylline (P heterogeneity among the QF muscles, yet blockade increased within-muscle BF heterogeneity in all four QF muscles (P = 0.03). Taken together, these results show that BF becomes less heterogeneous with increasing...

  8. Postoperative Verlaufskontrollen beim Ulcus cruris nach Shave-Operation und Hauttransplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Pantelaki, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    \\(\\bf Hintergrund:\\) Die Arbeit hat das Ziel die Shave-Operation mit Meshgraft-Deckung hinsichtlich der Einheilungsrate und der Schmerzreduktion zu untersuchen. \\(\\bf Methoden:\\) 56 Patienten mit einem Ulcus cruris unterzogen sich dem genannten Eingriff. Vor und 6 Monate nach der Operation wurden die Ulkusgröße, die bakterielle Besiedlung und die Schmerzintensität analysiert. \\(\\bf Ergebnis:\\) Bei 42,86% der Patienten konnte eine Abheilung erreicht werden, wobei die Ergebnisse hoch sign...

  9. Hydroecology of Intermittent and Ephemeral Streams: Will Landscape Connectivity Sustain Aquatic Organisms in a Changing Climate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-24

    invaded ponds (2 bullfrog ponds (BF), dark grey triangles: CHOL = Cholla Pond, SHEL = Shell Pond; 1 bullfrog and mosquitofish pond (BF+M), black...conditions can cause loss of species and biomass that triggers restructuring of food webs (Ledger et al. 2013a). In light of projected climate change...ponds”), two ponds with bullfrogs present at time of sampling ( Shell and Cholla Ponds, “BF ponds”), and one pond with bullfrogs and mosquitofish

  10. Learning effects of dynamic postural control by auditory biofeedback versus visual biofeedback training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Naoya; Takeda, Kenta; Sakuma, Moe; Mani, Hiroki; Maejima, Hiroshi; Asaka, Tadayoshi

    2017-10-01

    Augmented sensory biofeedback (BF) for postural control is widely used to improve postural stability. However, the effective sensory information in BF systems of motor learning for postural control is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the learning effects of visual versus auditory BF training in dynamic postural control. Eighteen healthy young adults were randomly divided into two groups (visual BF and auditory BF). In test sessions, participants were asked to bring the real-time center of pressure (COP) in line with a hidden target by body sway in the sagittal plane. The target moved in seven cycles of sine curves at 0.23Hz in the vertical direction on a monitor. In training sessions, the visual and auditory BF groups were required to change the magnitude of a visual circle and a sound, respectively, according to the distance between the COP and target in order to reach the target. The perceptual magnitudes of visual and auditory BF were equalized according to Stevens' power law. At the retention test, the auditory but not visual BF group demonstrated decreased postural performance errors in both the spatial and temporal parameters under the no-feedback condition. These findings suggest that visual BF increases the dependence on visual information to control postural performance, while auditory BF may enhance the integration of the proprioceptive sensory system, which contributes to motor learning without BF. These results suggest that auditory BF training improves motor learning of dynamic postural control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of the Breastfeeding Personal Efficacy Beliefs Inventory and Acknowledgment of Barriers for Improving Breastfeeding Initiation Rates in an Urban Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diwata Bose

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breastfeeding (BF is recognized as the preferred method of infant nutrition by American Academy of Pediatricians, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the World Health Organization. Despite the benefits of BF, in 1998 only 69% of new mothers in the United States initiated BF and 29% continued to breastfeed at 6 months. Objective: To assess perceived breastfeeding confidence (BFC and determine barriers in regards to BF in an urban population. Methods: The Breastfeeding Personal Efficacy Beliefs Inventory (BPEBI was used to determine perceived BFC. The survey was distributed to 271 women during prenatal appointments at an urban Milwaukee medical center. BF initiation rate at discharge was determined by records review. A principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation was used to examine the structure of the BPEBI in this population. Results: Survey response rate was 89%. Overall BFC was 74%. BF initiation rate at discharge was 62%, exclusively BF (EBF at discharge (no bottle-feeding was 55%. In multivariate models, EBF decreased with black race (p=0.02 and with residence in the low socioeconomic status zip codes of the central city of Milwaukee (p=0.01. BFC increased with prior exposure to BF (p=0.03, EBF (p=0.03 and length of BF (p=0.02. Factor analysis identified two constructs: BFC increased with prior exposure to BF (p=0.006 and EBF (p=0.001 within the motivation construct, and BFC increased with EBF (p=0.000 within the technique/environment construct. Conclusions: The main barriers to increased BFC were lack of prior exposure to BF and nonexclusive breastfeeding practices. BF initiation rate at discharge was low compared to self-reported level of confidence. EBF decreased with black race and with closer proximity to the central city of Milwaukee.

  12. Synthesis and spectroscopic studies of silver and rhodium mono- and polynuclear complexes with multidentate phosphines (Ph2P)2CHR (R = H, Me, PPh2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Ploeg, A.F.M.J. van der

    1981-01-01

    Trinuclear [{(Ph{2}P){3}CH}Ag{3}(O{2}CR'){3}], dinuclear [{(Ph{2}P){2}CHR}Ag{2}(O{2}CR'){2}], [{(Ph{2}P){2}CHR}{2}Ag{2}](BF{4}){2} and (Rh{2}(Cl)(CO){2}{(Ph{2}P){2}CHMe}{2}][RhCl{2}(CO){2}], and mononuclear (Rh{(Ph{2}P){2}CHR}{2}](BF{4}), (Rh{(Ph{2}P){2}CHR}{2}HCl](BF{4}), d

  13. Electrochemical studies in molten sodium fluoroborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigaudeau, M.; Wagner, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Physical properties of sodium fluoroborate are recalled and first results obtained during experimental study of molten NaBF 4 are exposed. The system Cu/CuF is used as an indicator of fluoride ion activity and dissociation constant of the solvent is determined by adding NaF to NaBF 4 saturated with BF 3 at a pressure of 1 atm and found equal to 2.7x10 -3 [fr

  14. The Addition of Simple Biological Filters of Different Capacity to Semi‑Recirculating Fish Rearing System and Its Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štěpán Lang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is currently one of the fastest growing food-producing sectors, accounting for around 50 % of the world’s food fish production. Limited resources, together with climatic change, have stimulated the search for solutions to support and sustain the production of fish as a source of protein for human consumption. The integration of a biological filtration (BF into a semi-recirculating fish rearing system can increase its carrying capacity and increase system efficiency compared to its’ energy consumption with minimum changes of system composition and minimal costs. Question is the capacity of the BF installed to a system and how it affects water quality. Two different amounts of BF media (surface added to semi-recirculating rearing system compared with the same system without BF were tested in case of this study. The results have shown that if the BF capacity is insufficient, BF can have negative effects to the quality of water environment. The insufficient amount of BF media caused 4 times reduction of ammonia nitrogen (N-NH4+ in system with BF compared to non BF system so it increased the system capacity for feed load 4 times. On the other hand it also increased nitrite nitrogen concentrations permanently more than 5.8 times for BF system compared to non BF system and increased rearing costs because the need of adding chlorides to the system to protect fish from nitrites toxicity. When the BF was dimensioned properly (next year there were almost no N-NH4+ in a system (0.10 mg.l−1 and the concentration of N-NO2− was kept at low levels too (0.150 mg .l−1. The nitrates (N‑NO3− concentration reached the level of 5.37 and 8.65 mg.l−1 in 2012 and 2013 respectively.

  15. Bio/neurofeedback

    OpenAIRE

    Carrobles, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Biofeedback (BF) techniques were developed by psychology in the 1960s having then a long history in which they have proved their usefulness and therapeutic efficacy in a considerable variety of clinical disorders: neurologic, neuromuscular, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, chronic pain, dermatological, sleep, respiratory, trauma and stress, among many other disorders. Practical applications of the BF include in particular Electroencephalographic Biofeedback (BF-EEG), known as Neurofeedback (...

  16. Predictive Validity of the Body Adiposity Index in Overweight and Obese Adults Using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Vivas, Andrés; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Triana-Reina, Hector Reynaldo

    2016-01-01

    The body adiposity index (BAI) is a recent anthropometric measure proven to be valid in predicting body fat percentage (BF%) in some populations. However, the results have been inconsistent across populations. This study was designed to verify the validity of BAI in predicting BF% in a sample of overweight/obese adults, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) as the reference method. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 48 participants (54% women, mean age 41.0 ± 7.3 years old). DEXA was used as the “gold standard” to determine BF%. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the association between BAI and BF%, as assessed by DEXA. A paired sample t-test was used to test differences in mean BF% obtained with BAI and DEXA methods. To evaluate the concordance between BF% as measured by DEXA and as estimated by BAI, we used Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient and Bland–Altman agreement analysis. The correlation between BF% obtained by DEXA and that estimated by BAI was r = 0.844, p < 0.001. Paired t-test showed a significant mean difference in BF% between methods (BAI = 33.3 ± 6.2 vs. DEXA 39.0 ± 6.1; p < 0.001). The bias of the BAI was −6.0 ± 3.0 BF% (95% CI = −12.0 to 1.0), indicating that the BAI method significantly underestimated the BF% compared to the reference method. Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient was considered stronger (ρc = 0.923, 95% CI = 0.862 to 0.957). In obese adults, BAI presented low agreement with BF% measured by DEXA; therefore, BAI is not recommended for BF% prediction in this overweight/obese sample studied. PMID:27916871

  17. Hardwood sawmill downtime costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Wiedenbeck; Kyle Blackwell

    2003-01-01

    How time flies when you don't pay attention to it. With hardwood sawmill operating costs ranging from $4 to $25 per operating minute ($95/MBF to $335/MBF) and gross profit margins ranging from $0.10/BF to $0.35/BF, five extra minutes of downtime per day will cost a sawmill that produces an average of 20,000 BF per day (5 MMBF annually) between $21 and $73 per day...

  18. Tensile Mechanical Properties and Failure Modes of a Basalt Fiber/Epoxy Resin Composite Material

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jingjing; Shi, Junping; Cao, Xiaoshan; Hu, Yifeng

    2018-01-01

    Uniaxial tensile tests of basalt fiber/epoxy (BF/EP) composite material with four different fiber orientations were conducted under four different fiber volume fractions, and the variations of BF/EP composite material failure modes and tensile mechanical properties were analyzed. The results show that when the fiber volume fraction is constant, the tensile strength, elastic modulus, and limiting strain of BF/EP composite material all decrease with increasing fiber orientation angle. When the ...

  19. A Recursive Formulation of Cholesky Factorization of a Matrix in Packed Storage Format

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjarne Stig; Gustavson, Fred; Wasniewski, Jerzy

    2001-01-01

    . Algorithm RPC is based on level-3 BLAS and requires variants of algorithms {\\$\\backslash\\$bf TRSM} and {\\$\\backslash\\$bf SYRK} that work on RPF. We call these {\\$\\backslash\\$bf RP\\$\\backslash\\$\\_TRSM} and {\\$\\backslash\\$bf RP\\$\\backslash\\$\\_SYRK} and find that they do most of their work by calling...... matrix. Second, RPC gives a level-3 implementation of Cholesky factorization whereas standard packed implementations are only level 2. Hence, the performance of our RPC implementation is decidedly superior. Third, unlike fixed block size algorithms, RPC requires no block size tuning parameter. We present...

  20. BMI or BIA: Is Body Mass Index or Body Fat Mass a Better Predictor of Cardiovascular Risk in Overweight or Obese Children and Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Barbara; Müller, Manfred James; Simic-Schleicher, Gunter; Kiess, Wieland; Siegfried, Wolfgang; Oelert, Monika; Tuschy, Sabine; Berghem, Stefan; Holl, Reinhard W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Body fat (BF) percentiles for German children and adolescents have recently been published. This study aims to evaluate the association between bioelectrical impedance analysis(BIA)-derived BF and cardiovascular risk factors and to investigate whether BF is better suited than BMI in children and adolescents. Methods Data of 3,327 children and adolescents (BMI > 90th percentile) were included. Spearman's correlation and receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) were applied determining the associations between BMI or BF and cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia, elevated liver enzymes, abnormal carbohydrate metabolism). Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to predict cardiovascular risk factors. Results A significant association between both obesity indices and hypertension was present (all p correlation with BMI was stronger (r = 0.22) compared to BF (r = 0.13). There were no differences between BMI and BF regarding their correlation with other cardiovascular risk factors. BF significantly predicted hypertension (AUC = 0.61), decreased HDL-cholesterol (AUC = 0.58), elevated LDL-cholesterol (AUC = 0.59), elevated liver enzymes (AUC = 0.61) (all p < 0.0001), and elevated triglycerides (AUC = 0.57, p < 0.05), but not abnormal carbohydrate metabolism (AUC = 0.54, p = 0.15). For the prediction of cardiovascular risk factors, no significant differences between BMI and BF were observed. Conclusion BIA-derived BF was not superior to BMI to predict cardiovascular risk factors in overweight or obese children and adolescents. PMID:26087841

  1. The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 Brief Form: Evidence for Reliability and Construct Validity in a Sample of Community-Dwelling Italian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, Andrea; Somma, Antonella; Borroni, Serena; Markon, Kristian E; Krueger, Robert F

    2017-07-01

    To assess the reliability and construct validity of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 Brief Form (PID-5-BF) among adolescents, 877 Italian high school students were administered the PID-5-BF. Participants were administered also the Measure of Disordered Personality Functioning (MDPF) as a criterion measure. In the full sample, Cronbach's alpha values for the PID-5-BF scales ranged from .59 (Detachment) to .77 (Psychoticism); in addition, all PID-5-BF scales showed mean interitem correlation values in the .22 to .40 range. Cronbach's alpha values for the PID-5-BF total score was .83 (mean interitem r = .16). Although 2-month test-retest reliability could be assessed only in a small ( n = 42) subsample of participants, all PID-5-BF scale scores showed adequate temporal stability, as indexed by intraclass r values ranging from .78 (Negative Affectivity) to .97 (Detachment), all ps <.001. Exploratory structural equation modeling analyses provided at least moderate support for the a priori model of PID-5-BF items. Multiple regression analyses showed that PID-5-BF scales predicted a nonnegligible amount of variance in MDPF Non-Cooperativeness, adjusted R 2 = .17, p < .001, and Non-Coping scales, adjusted R 2 = .32, p < .001. Similarly, the PID-5-BF total score was a significant predictor of both MDPF Non-Coping, and Non-Cooperativeness scales.

  2. A multicenter study demonstrating discordant results from electronic prostate-specific antigen biochemical failure calculation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Scott G.; Pickles, Tom; Kestin, Larry; Potters, Louis; Fearn, Paul; Smith, Ryan; Pratt, Gary

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the interobserver variation of four electronic biochemical failure (bF) calculators using three bF definitions. Methods and Materials: The data of 1200 men were analyzed using the electronic bF calculators of four institutions. Three bF definitions were examined for their concordance of bF identification across the centers: the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology consensus definition (ACD), the lowest prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level to date plus 2 ng/mL (L2), and a threshold of 3 ng/mL (T3). Results: Unanimous agreement regarding bF status using the ACD, L2, and T3 definitions occurred in 87.3%, 96.4%, and 92.7% of cases, respectively. Using the ACD, 63% of the variation was from one institution, which allowed the bF status to be reversed if a PSA decline was seen after bF (PSA 'bounce'). A total of 270 men had an ACD bF time variation of >2 months across the calculators, and the 5-year freedom from bF rate was 49.8-60.9%. The L2 definition had a 20.5% rate of calculated bF times; which varied by >2 months (median, 6.4; range, 2.1-75.6) and a corresponding 5-year freedom from bF rate of 55.9-61.0%. The T3 definition had a 2.0% range in the 5-year freedom from bF. Fifteen definition interpretation variations were identified. Conclusion: Reported bF results vary not only because of bF definition differences, but because of variations in how those definitions are written into computer-based calculators, with multiple interpretations most prevalent for the ACD. An algorithm to avoid misinterpretations is proposed for the L2 definition. A verification system to guarantee consistent electronic bF results requires development

  3. Exposure of maternal mice to cis-bifenthrin enantioselectively disrupts the transcription of genes related to testosterone synthesis in male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuanxiang; Wang, Jiangcong; Sun, Xueqing; Ye, Yang; Xu, Minjie; Wang, Jianai; Chen, Shaoping; Fu, Zhengwei

    2013-12-01

    The commercial bifenthrin (BF) contains two cis isomers. In the present study, a dose of 15mg/kg of 1R-cis-BF or 1S-cis-BF was orally administered for 3 weeks to female mice before or during pregnancy. Then, the expression of steroidogenesis related genes which were considered as effective biomarkers of endocrine disruption were analyzed in the male offspring. Maternal exposure to 1S-cis-BF during pregnancy significantly reduced the mRNA levels of peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in the testes of 3- or 6-week old male offspring. In addition, a significant decrease of cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (P450-17α) was also observed in the testes of 6-week old male offspring when dams were treated with 1S-cis-BF during pregnancy but not before pregnancy. Moreover, the scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SRB1) and cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) decreased significantly in the testes of 6-week old male offspring when dams were treated with 1S-cis-BF during and before pregnancy. Thus, oral administration of the maternal mice to cis-BF for 3 weeks, particularly during pregnancy, resulted in endocrine disruption in the male offspring, with the 1S-cis-BF causing more significant alterations than the 1R-cis-BF form. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Phase Equilibria and Ionic Solvation in the Lithium Tetrafluoroborate-Dimethylsulfoxide System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, M. M.; Kirillov, S. A.; Gorobets, M. I.; Rabadanov, K. Sh.; Ataev, M. B.; Tretyakov, D. O.; Aydemirov, K. M.

    2015-01-01

    The phase diagram and electrical conductivity isotherms for the lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF4)-dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) system and Raman spectra of DMSO and the LiBF4-DMSO solution were studied. Spectroscopic signatures of a H-bond between DMSO and BF4 - ions were found. The bonds of Li+ ions to the solvent were stronger than the bonds in DMSO dimers because formation of the solvate destroyed dimeric DMSO molecules. The τω values for DMSO molecules in the Li+-ion solvate shell of the LiBF4-DMSO system were similar to those for associated solvent molecules.

  5. Non-relativistic Limit of a Dirac Polaron in Relativistic Quantum Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Arai, A

    2006-01-01

    A quantum system of a Dirac particle interacting with the quantum radiation field is considered in the case where no external potentials exist. Then the total momentum of the system is conserved and the total Hamiltonian is unitarily equivalent to the direct integral $\\int_{{\\bf R}^3}^\\oplus\\overline{H({\\bf p})}d{\\bf p}$ of a family of self-adjoint operators $\\overline{H({\\bf p})}$ acting in the Hilbert space $\\oplus^4{\\cal F}_{\\rm rad}$, where ${\\cal F}_{\\rm rad}$ is the Hilbert space of the quantum radiation field. The fibre operator $\\overline{H({\\bf p})}$ is called the Hamiltonian of the Dirac polaron with total momentum ${\\bf p} \\in {\\bf R}^3$. The main result of this paper is concerned with the non-relativistic (scaling) limit of $\\overline{H({\\bf p})}$. It is proven that the non-relativistic limit of $\\overline{H({\\bf p})}$ yields a self-adjoint extension of a Hamiltonian of a polaron with spin $1/2$ in non-relativistic quantum electrodynamics.

  6. Basal forebrain motivational salience signal enhances cortical processing and decision speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvina M Raver

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The basal forebrain (BF contains major projections to the cerebral cortex, and plays a well-documented role in arousal, attention, decision-making, and in modulating cortical activity. BF neuronal degeneration is an early event in Alzheimer’s disease and dementias, and occurs in normal cognitive aging. While the BF is best known for its population of cortically projecting cholinergic neurons, the region is anatomically and neurochemically diverse, and also contains prominent populations of non-cholinergic projection neurons. In recent years, increasing attention has been dedicated to these non-cholinergic BF neurons in order to better understand how non-cholinergic BF circuits control cortical processing and behavioral performance. In this review, we focus on a unique population of putative non-cholinergic BF neurons that encodes the motivational salience of stimuli with a robust ensemble bursting response. We review recent studies that describe the specific physiological and functional characteristics of these BF salience-encoding neurons in behaving animals. These studies support the unifying hypothesis whereby BF salience-encoding neurons act as a gain modulation mechanism of the decision-making process to enhance cortical processing of behaviorally relevant stimuli, and thereby facilitate faster and more precise behavioral responses. This function of BF salience-encoding neurons represents a critical component in determining which incoming stimuli warrant an animal’s attention, and is therefore a fundamental and early requirement of behavioral flexibility.

  7. Longitudinal Association Between Physical Activity and Body Fat During Adolescence: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramires, Virgílio Viana; Dumith, Samuel Carvalho; Gonçalves, Helen

    2015-09-01

    Physical activity (PA) practice has been inversely associated to body fat (BF) and recommended as a way to reduce and prevent obesity. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review on the association of PA and BF in adolescence. The review includes 18 longitudinal studies found in the PubMed database, comprising papers published from January 1990 to July 2014. Studies assessing BF only through body mass index were excluded. Among the outcomes analyzed, waist circumference, skinfolds, and absolute and relative fat mass measurement were identified. Questionnaires were the more predominant way to evaluate PA. Most studies showed that PA promotes a protective effect against a higher BF gain. It was concluded that PA has a protective effect against BF with differences between the genders and according to the BF marker or measurement assessed; higher intensity PA leads to a greater effect against BF gain in both genders; and the maintenance or increase of PA level on BF observed through analysis of change in PA level yielded more consistent findings in the relation between PA and BF.

  8. Framework for feasibility assessment and performance analysis of riverbank filtration systems for water treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Saroj K.

    2012-03-01

    Bank filtration (BF) is an attractive, robust and reliable water treatment technology. It has been used in Europe and USA for a long time; however experience with this technology so far is site specific. There are no guidelines or tools for transfer of this technology to other locations, specifically to developing countries. A four-step methodology was developed at UNESCO-IHE to analyse feasibility and to predict the performance of BF for water treatment. This included (i) hydraulic simulation using MODFLOW; (ii) determination of share of bank filtrate using NASRI BF simulator; (iii) prediction of water quality from a BF system using the water quality guidelines developed and (iv) comparison of the costs of BF systems and existing conventional surface water treatment systems for water treatment. The methodology was then applied to assess feasibility of BF in five cities in Africa. It was found that in most of the cities studied BF is a feasible and attractive option from hydraulic, water quality as well as operational cost considerations. Considerable operational and maintenance costs saving can be achieved and water quality can be further improved by switching from conventional chemical-based surface water treatment to BF or at least by replacing some of the treatment units with BF systems. © IWA Publishing 2012.

  9. Atrophy and structural covariance of the cholinergic basal forebrain in primary progressive aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teipel, Stefan; Raiser, Theresa; Riedl, Lina; Riederer, Isabelle; Schroeter, Matthias L; Bisenius, Sandrine; Schneider, Anja; Kornhuber, Johannes; Fliessbach, Klaus; Spottke, Annika; Grothe, Michel J; Prudlo, Johannes; Kassubek, Jan; Ludolph, Albert; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Straub, Sarah; Otto, Markus; Danek, Adrian

    2016-10-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is characterized by profound destruction of cortical language areas. Anatomical studies suggest an involvement of cholinergic basal forebrain (BF) in PPA syndromes, particularly in the area of the nucleus subputaminalis (NSP). Here we aimed to determine the pattern of atrophy and structural covariance as a proxy of structural connectivity of BF nuclei in PPA variants. We studied 62 prospectively recruited cases with the clinical diagnosis of PPA and 31 healthy older control participants from the cohort study of the German consortium for frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). We determined cortical and BF atrophy based on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Patterns of structural covariance of BF with cortical regions were determined using voxel-based partial least square analysis. We found significant atrophy of total BF and BF subregions in PPA patients compared with controls [F(1, 82) = 20.2, p covariance analysis in healthy controls revealed associations of the BF nuclei, particularly the NSP, with left hemispheric predominant prefrontal, lateral temporal, and parietal cortical areas, including Broca's speech area (p covariance of the BF nuclei mostly with right but not with left hemispheric cortical areas (p covariance of the BF with left hemispheric cortical areas in healthy aging towards right hemispheric cortical areas in PPA, possibly reflecting a consequence of the profound and early destruction of cortical language areas in PPA. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic activation, inactivation and deletion reveal a limited and nuanced role for somatostatin-containing basal forebrain neurons in behavioral state control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaclet, Christelle; De Luca, Roberto; Venner, Anne; Malyshevskaya, Olga; Lazarus, Michael; Arrigoni, Elda; Fuller, Patrick M

    2018-05-07

    Recent studies have identified an especially important role for basal forebrain GABAergic (BF VGAT ) neurons in the regulation of behavioral waking and fast cortical rhythms associated with cognition. However, BF VGAT neurons comprise several neurochemically and anatomically distinct sub-populations, including parvalbumin- and somatostatin-containing BF VGAT neurons (BF Parv and BF SOM ), and it was recently reported that optogenetic activation of BF SOM neurons increases the probability of a wakefulness to non-rapid-eye movement (NREM) sleep transition when stimulated during the animal's rest period. This finding was unexpected given that most BF SOM neurons are not NREM sleep active and that central administration of the synthetic SOM analog, octreotide, suppresses NREM sleep or increases REM sleep. Here we employed a combination of genetically-driven chemogenetic and optogenetic activation, chemogenetic inhibition and ablation approaches to further explore the in vivo role of BF SOM neurons in arousal control. Our findings indicate that acute activation or inhibition of BF SOM neurons is neither wakefulness- nor NREM sleep-promoting, is without significant effect on the EEG, and that chronic loss of these neurons is without effect on total 24h sleep amounts, although a small but significant increase in waking was observed in the lesioned mice during the early active period. Our in vitro cell recordings further reveal electrophysiological heterogeneity in BF SOM neurons, specifically suggesting at least two distinct sub-populations. Taken together our data support the more nuanced view that BF SOM are electrically heterogeneous and are not NREM sleep- or wake-promoting per se , but may exert, in particular during the early active period, a modest inhibitory influence on arousal circuitry. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The cellular basal forebrain (BF) is a highly complex area of the brain that is implicated in a wide-range of higher-level neurobiological processes

  11. Preparation and characterization of a novel degradable nano-hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic) composite reinforced with bamboo fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Liuyun, E-mail: jlytxg@163.com [Key Laboratory of Sustainable Resources Processing and Advanced Materials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Li, Ye; Xiong, Chengdong [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); Su, Shengpei [Key Laboratory of Sustainable Resources Processing and Advanced Materials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China)

    2017-06-01

    It is a promising and challenging to achieve an ideal poly (lactic-co-glycolic) (PLGA)-based composite. In this paper, bamboo fiber (BF) was firstly designed to incorporate into nano-hydroxyapatite/PLGA (n-HA/PLGA) composite, and a series of novel biodegradable BF/n-HA/PLGA ternary composites with different BF amounts (0 wt%, 5 wt%, 10 wt% and 20 wt%) were prepared by solution mixing method. The effect of BF content on the crystallization behavior, interface structure and mechanical property of BF/n-HA/PLGA ternary composite was investigated by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), comparing with pure PLGA and n-HA/PLGA composite. The results showed that BF further promoted the crystallization of PLGA acting as a heterogeneous nucleation agent, and the addition of 10 wt% BF was the best benefit to promote the crystallization. However, the higher addition content of BF caused more agglomeration in n-HA/PLGA matrix, which decreased gradually the mechanical properties of the BF/n-HA/PLGA composite. In conclusion, the addition content of 5 wt% BF to n-HA/PLGA matrix was an appropriate proportion, which can achieved the best mechanical reinforce effectiveness, suggesting that BF/n-HA/PLGA composite had more potential in biomedical application than n-HA/PLGA composite. - Highlights: • Bamboo fiber was firstly design to incorporate into n-HA/PLGA composite. • The effect of bamboo fiber content on the n-HA/PLGA composite was studied in detail. • Isothermal crystallization, microstructure and mechanical property were studied. • The relation between bamboo fiber content and properties of n-HA/PLGA composite was found. • An appropriate proportion of bamboo fiber in n-HA/PLGA composite was obtained.

  12. Inhibition of α-adrenergic tone disturbs the distribution of blood flow in the exercising human limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Ilkka; Wendelin-Saarenhovi, Maria; Kaskinoro, Kimmo; Knuuti, Juhani; Scheinin, Mika; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2013-07-15

    The role of neuronal regulation of human cardiovascular function remains incompletely elucidated, especially during exercise. Here we, by positron emission tomography, monitored tissue-specific blood flow (BF) changes in nine healthy young men during femoral arterial infusions of norepinephrine (NE) and phentolamine. At rest, the α-adrenoceptor agonist NE reduced BF by ~40%, similarly in muscles (from 3.2 ± 1.9 to 1.4 ± 0.3 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1) in quadriceps femoris muscle), bone (from 1.1 ± 0.4 to 0.5 ± 0.2 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1)) and adipose tissue (AT) (from 1.2 ± 0.7 to 0.7 ± 0.3 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1)). During exercise, NE reduced exercising muscle BF by ~16%. BF in AT was reduced similarly as rest. The α-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine increased BF similarly in the different muscles and other tissues of the limb at rest. During exercise, BF in inactive muscle was increased 3.4-fold by phentolamine compared with exercise without drug, but BF in exercising muscles was not influenced. Bone and AT (P = 0.055) BF were also increased by phentolamine in the exercise condition. NE increased and phentolamine decreased oxygen extraction in the limb during exercise. We conclude that inhibition of α-adrenergic tone markedly disturbs the distribution of BF and oxygen extraction in the exercising human limb by increasing BF especially around inactive muscle fibers. Moreover, although marked functional sympatholysis also occurs during exercise, the arterial NE infusion that mimics the exaggerated sympathetic nerve activity commonly seen in patients with cardiovascular disease was still capable of directly limiting BF in the exercising leg muscles.

  13. Factors for Consideration in an Open-Flame Test for Assessing Fire Blocking Performance of Barrier Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shonali Nazaré

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the work reported here is to assess factors that could affect the outcome of a proposed open flame test for barrier fabrics (BF-open flame test. The BF-open flame test characterizes barrier effectiveness by monitoring the ignition of a flexible polyurethane foam (FPUF layer placed in contact with the upper side of the barrier fabric, exposed to a burner flame from below. Particular attention is given to the factors that influence the ignitibility of the FPUF, including thermal resistance, permeability, and structural integrity of the barrier fabrics (BFs. A number of barrier fabrics, displaying a wide range of the properties, are tested with the BF-open flame test. Visual observations of the FPUF burning behavior and BF char patterns, in addition to heat flux measurements on the unexposed side of the barrier fabrics, are used to assess the protective performance of the BF specimen under the open flame test conditions. The temperature and heat transfer measurements on the unexposed side of the BF and subsequent ranking of BFs for their thermal protective performance suggest that the BF-open flame test does not differentiate barrier fabrics based on their heat transfer properties. A similar conclusion is reached with regard to BF permeability characterized at room temperature. However, the outcome of this BF-open flame test is found to be heavily influenced by the structural integrity of thermally degraded BF. The BF-open flame test, in its current form, only ignited FPUF when structural failure of the barrier was observed.

  14. Intravenous Administration Is an Effective and Safe Route for Cancer Gene Therapy Using the Bifidobacterium-Mediated Recombinant HSV-1 Thymidine Kinase and Ganciclovir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huicong Zhou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (HSV TK/GCV system is one of the best studied cancer suicide gene therapy systems. Our previous study showed that caspase 3 expression was upregulated and bladder tumor growth was significantly reduced in rats treated with a combination of Bifidobacterium (BF and HSV TK/GCV (BF-rTK/GCV. However, it was raised whether the BF-mediated recombinant thymidine kinase combined with ganciclovir (BF-rTK/GCV was safe to administer via venous for cancer gene therapy. To answer this question, the antitumor effects of BF-rTK/GCV were mainly evaluated in a xenograft nude mouse model bearing MKN-45 gastric tumor cells. The immune response, including analysis of cytokine profiles, was analyzed to evaluate the safety of intramuscular and intravenous injection of BF-rTK in BALB/c mice. The results suggested that gastric tumor growth was significantly inhibited in vivo by BF-rTK/GCV. However, the BF-rTK/GCV had no effect on mouse body weight, indicating that the treatment was safe for the host. The results of cytokine profile analysis indicated that intravenous injection of a low dose of BF-rTK resulted in a weaker cytokine response than that obtained with intramuscular injection. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis showed that intravenous administration did not affect the expression of immune-associated TLR2 and TLR4. Finally, the BF-rTK/GCV inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression in mouse model, which is helpful for inhibiting of tumor angiogenesis. That meant intravenous administration of BF-rTK/GCV was an effective and safe way for cancer gene therapy.

  15. Radiation dose and late failures in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, Peter B.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Horwitz, Eric M.; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Uzzo, Robert G.; Pollack, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the impact of radiation dose escalation on the timing of biochemical failure (BF) and distant metastasis (DM) for prostate cancer treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone. Methods: The data from 667 men with clinically localized intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer treated with three-dimensional conformal RT alone were retrospectively analyzed. The interval hazard rates of DM and BF, using the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) and Phoenix (nadir + 2) definitions, were determined. The median follow-up was 77 months. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that increasing radiation dose was independently associated with decreased ASTRO BF (p < 0.0001), nadir + 2 BF (p = 0.001), and DM (p = 0.006). The preponderance (85%) of ASTRO BF occurred at ≤4 years after RT, and nadir + 2 BF was more evenly spread throughout Years 1-10, with 55% of BF in ≤4 years. Radiation dose escalation caused a shift in the BF from earlier to later years. The interval hazard function for DM appeared to be biphasic (early and late peaks) overall and for the <74-Gy group. In patients receiving ≥74 Gy, a reduction occurred in the risk of DM in the early and late waves, although the late wave appeared reduced to a greater degree. Conclusion: The ASTRO definition of BF systematically underestimated late BF because of backdating. Radiation dose escalation diminished and delayed BF; the delay suggested that local persistence may still be present in some patients. For DM, a greater radiation dose reduced the early and late waves, suggesting that persistence of local disease contributed to both

  16. Exposure to bifenthrin causes immunotoxicity and oxidative stress in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuanxiang; Pan, Xiuhong; Fu, Zhengwei

    2014-09-01

    Bifenthrin (BF) is one of the most commonly used pesticides among the synthetic pyrethroids. The effects of BF exposure on the induction of immunotoxicity and oxidative stress were studied both in adolescent and adult male ICR mice. Both the weights of the spleen and thymus decreased significantly in the adolescent mice when they were treated with 20 mg/kg BF for 3 weeks. We found that the 3-week oral administration of BF during puberty increased the transcriptional levels of the genes TNF and IL2 in the spleen and IL2 as well as IL4 in the thymus. The effect of BF exposure on the induction of oxidative stress was also studied in serum and liver samples. The total antioxidant capacity and activity of superoxide dismutase were altered significantly in the serum of the 20 mg/kg BF-treated adolescent mice, and the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPX) decreased significantly in the serum of adolescent and adult mice after 3 weeks of oral administration of 20 mg/kg BF. Compared to serum, hepatic GSH content increased significantly in both the adolescent and adult mice exposed to 20 mg/kg BF; hepatic CAT and GPX activities were altered significantly, even in adolescent mice, after treatment with 10 mg/kg BF. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that exposure to BF, especially during puberty, has the potential to induce immunotoxicity accompanied by oxidative stress in male mice. These findings will help in elucidating the mechanism of toxicity induced by BF in mice. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  17. Preparation and characterization of a novel degradable nano-hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic) composite reinforced with bamboo fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Liuyun; Li, Ye; Xiong, Chengdong; Su, Shengpei

    2017-01-01

    It is a promising and challenging to achieve an ideal poly (lactic-co-glycolic) (PLGA)-based composite. In this paper, bamboo fiber (BF) was firstly designed to incorporate into nano-hydroxyapatite/PLGA (n-HA/PLGA) composite, and a series of novel biodegradable BF/n-HA/PLGA ternary composites with different BF amounts (0 wt%, 5 wt%, 10 wt% and 20 wt%) were prepared by solution mixing method. The effect of BF content on the crystallization behavior, interface structure and mechanical property of BF/n-HA/PLGA ternary composite was investigated by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), comparing with pure PLGA and n-HA/PLGA composite. The results showed that BF further promoted the crystallization of PLGA acting as a heterogeneous nucleation agent, and the addition of 10 wt% BF was the best benefit to promote the crystallization. However, the higher addition content of BF caused more agglomeration in n-HA/PLGA matrix, which decreased gradually the mechanical properties of the BF/n-HA/PLGA composite. In conclusion, the addition content of 5 wt% BF to n-HA/PLGA matrix was an appropriate proportion, which can achieved the best mechanical reinforce effectiveness, suggesting that BF/n-HA/PLGA composite had more potential in biomedical application than n-HA/PLGA composite. - Highlights: • Bamboo fiber was firstly design to incorporate into n-HA/PLGA composite. • The effect of bamboo fiber content on the n-HA/PLGA composite was studied in detail. • Isothermal crystallization, microstructure and mechanical property were studied. • The relation between bamboo fiber content and properties of n-HA/PLGA composite was found. • An appropriate proportion of bamboo fiber in n-HA/PLGA composite was obtained.

  18. Cross-validation of generalised body composition equations with diverse young men and women: the Training Intervention and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generalised skinfold equations developed in the 1970s are commonly used to estimate laboratory-measured percentage fat (BF%). The equations were developed on predominately white individuals using Siri's two-component percentage fat equation (BF%-GEN). We cross-validated the Jackson-Pollock (JP) gene...

  19. Federal Agency for Limnology. Annual report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Federal Agency for Limnology (BfG) reports on its research and activities in 1990. Contents: the former institute for water management as new Berlin branch office of BfG, report of activities, research projects, list of scientific staff, publications, committee activities, science lectures, list of abbreviations and organization plan. (BBR) [de

  20. Body fat does not affect venous bubble formation after air dives of moderate severity: theory and experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, Nico A. M.; van Rees Vellinga, Tjeerd P.; van Hulst, Rob A.

    2013-01-01

    For over a century, studies on body fat (BF) in decompression sickness and venous gas embolism of divers have been inconsistent. A major problem is that age, BF, and maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2max) show high multicollinearity. Using the Bühlmann model with eight parallel compartments, preceded

  1. Polyols from microwave liquefied bagasse and its application to rigid polyurethane foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiulong Xie; Xianglin Zhai; Chung Hse; Todd Shupe; Hui Pan

    2015-01-01

    Bagasse flour (BF) was liquefied using bi-component polyhydric alcohol (PA) as a solventand phosphoric acid as a catalyst in a microwave reactor. The effect of BF to solvent ratio andreaction temperatures on the liquefaction extent and characteristics of liquefied products wereevaluated. The results revealed that almost 75% of the...

  2. Dicty_cDB: SLJ215 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .7_1.5_KB Zea mays genomic clone ZMMBMa0453M17, genomic survey sequence. 42 4.5 1 BF012148 |BF012148.1 us38h03.y1 Soares_NMEBA_branch...ial_arch Mus musculus cDNA clone IMAGE:3169397 5' similar to TR:Q9QYU2 Q9QYU2 ELONG

  3. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Eklöw, Annelie; Dalgaard, Paw

    2014-01-01

    bacteria fromadded starter culturewere on average predicted to grow16% faster than observed (Bf of 1.16 and Af of 1.32) and growth of the diacetyl producing aromaculturewas on average predicted 9% slower than observed (Bf of 0.91 and Af of 1.17). The acceptable simulation zone method showed the new models...

  4. Inter-relationships among physical activity, body fat, and motor performance in 6- to 8-year-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Kyle M; Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the interrelationships among physical activity (PA), percent body fat (%BF), and motor performance (MP) in 498 6- to 8-year-old Danish children. PA was assessed by accelerometer, %BF was calculated from skinfolds, and the Koordinations Test für Kinder along with a throwing acc...

  5. Effects of Origanum Syriacum Essential Oil on Blood Parameters of Broilers Reared at High Ambient Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Tekce

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The biochemical and hematological blood values of broilers fed under heat stress and that were administered Origanum syriacum (OS essential oil were investigated in this study. In total, 400 male broilers (Ross-308; age, 1 day were used for the period of 42-days of the study. The experiment included ten groups (n = 50/group; each group divided into five sub-groups: normal heat, 22°C: basal feed (BF-positive control group (PC, BF + 100 ppm OS; BF + 300 ppm OS; BF + 600 ppm OS. Heat stress, 36°C: BF-positive control group (PC, BF + 100 ppm SOS; BF + 300 ppm OS; and BF + 600 ppm OS. Biochemical and hematological parameters were measured in blood collected into EDTA tubes. Total bilirubin, cholesterol, low-density cholesterol, Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ increased, whereas alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase (CK, CK-MB, urea, uric acid, Cl-, and K+ decreased (p<0.05; however, no changes were detected in the other hematological values.

  6. Weighted potential and consistency: a unified approach to values for TU-games (Revised version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, Theo; Radzik, T.; Wanink, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    A value on the set {\\bf G} of all transferable utility games is said to have a weighted potential representation if there exists a potential function $P: {\\bf G} \\to {\\mathbb{R}}$, associated with a collection of weights, such that, for every game and every player, an appropriately chosen weighted

  7. Increases in extracellular serotonin and dopamine metabolite levels in the basal forebrain during sleep deprivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zant, J.C.; Leenaars, C.H.; Kostin, A.; van Someren, E.J.W.; Porrka-Heiskanen, T.

    2011-01-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) is an important mediator of cortical arousal, which is innervated by all ascending arousal systems. During sleep deprivation (SD) a site-specific accumulation of sleep factors in the BF results in increased sleep pressure (Kalinchuk et al., 2006; Porkka-Heiskanen et al.,

  8. Publications - GMC 164 | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staines St. 10-09-23, Nora Fed #1, Sag Delta 33-12-16, Sag Delta #1, Kavik #1, BF-47 #1, OCS Y-0804-1 , Nora Fed #1, Sag Delta 33-12-16, Sag Delta #1, Kavik #1, BF-47 #1, OCS Y-0804-1 (Orion #1), OCS Y-0334

  9. The influence of anthropometry and body composition on children's bone health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Malene; Holst, René; Schou, Anders J

    2015-01-01

    . Height and BMI are both positive predictors of bone accruement. LM is a more precise predictor of bone traits than BF % in both genders. The effects of height and BMI and LM on bone accruement are nearly identical in the two genders, while changes in BF % have different but positive effects on bone...

  10. Synthesis and characterization of Polyindole and its catalytic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    bisindolyl alkanes using [BMIM]BF4 as ionic liquid within 3-4 h ... liquid,12 lithium perchlorate,13 Cu(BF4).SiO2,14 ... of the reaction was monitored by thin layer chromatog- raphy TLC ..... very low, less than 10% after prolonged reaction time.

  11. Stochastic Beamforming via Compact Antenna Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrabadi, Osama; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates the average beamforming (BF) gain of compact antenna arrays when statistical channel knowledge is available. The optimal excitation (precoding vector) and impedance termination that maximize the average BF gain are a compromise between the ones that maximize the array...

  12. Dicty_cDB: VSB586 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0.085 own update 2004.12.25 Homology vs DNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value N K00918 |K00918.1 param...ecium species 7,227 mt dna dimer: replication init. region. 46 3e-04 2 BF779692 |BF

  13. Rapidity and energy dependence of the electric charge correlations in A+A collisions from 20A to 158A GeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botje, M.A.J.; van Leeuwen, M.; Mischke, A.

    2007-01-01

    Results from electric charge correlations studied with the Balance Function (BF) method in A+A collisions from 20A to 158A GeV are presented in two different rapidity intervals: In the midrapidity region we observe a decrease of the width of the BF distribution with increasing centrality of the

  14. NMR 11B, 19F of hydroxofluoroborate solutions in acetic and peracetic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchetinina, G.P.; Brovkina, O.V.; Chernyshov, B.N.

    1985-01-01

    Hydroxofluoroborate solutions in acetic and peracetic acids are studied by the 11 B, 19 F NMR method. The reactions of substitutions of acetate- and peracetate ions for nucleophilic hydroxogroups with the formation of the respective complexes are shown to occur in these solutions, with monodentate coordination of BF 3 CH 3 COO - - and BF 3 CH 3 COOO - - groups being accomplished in this case

  15. Breastfeeding in infancy is not associated with inflammatory status in healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vérier, Caroline M P; Duhamel, Alain; Béghin, Laurent; Diaz, Ligia-Esperanza; Warnberg, Julia; Marcos, Ascensión; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Manios, Yannis; De Henauw, Stefaan; Sjöström, Michael; Moreno, Luis A; Kersting, Mathilde; Breidenassel, Christina; Molnar, Dènes; Artero, Enrique G; Ferrari, Marika; Widhalm, Kurt; Turck, Dominique; Gottrand, Frédéric

    2011-03-01

    It has been suggested that breast-feeding (BF) may be associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. A low-grade inflammation is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, even in apparently healthy children. The objective of this study was to assess the potential modulating effect of BF on the inflammatory status of healthy adolescents. Information on BF (duration) was obtained from parental records in 484 of 1040 healthy European urban adolescents (56.4% females) that had a blood sample obtained as part of the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition and Adolescence study. Blood serum inflammatory markers were measured, including high sensitivity C-reactive protein, complement factors 3 and 4, ceruloplasmin, adhesion molecules (L-selectin and soluble endothelial selectin, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1), cytokines, TGFβ1, and white blood cells. After univariate analysis, a propensity score, including the potential confounding factors, was computed and used to assess the association between BF and selected inflammatory markers. BF was not significantly associated with any of the selected inflammatory markers after adjustment for gender and propensity score. In our study, BF was not associated with low-grade inflammatory status in healthy adolescents, suggesting that the potential cardiovascular benefits of BF are related to other mechanisms than modulation of inflammation or might become relevant at a later age. Groups at high risk for cardiovascular disease should be a target for further research concerning the effects of BF.

  16. Respiratory irritation associated with inhalation of boron trifluoride and fluorosulfonic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusch, G.M.; Bowden, A.M.; Muijser, H.; Arts, J.

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the respiratory irritancy of boron trifluoride (BF3) and fluorosulfonic acid (FSA) following acute inhalation exposure. Testing was conducted using groups of 10 male and 10 female rats (BF3) or groups of 6 male rats (FSA). Rats were exposed for a single

  17. Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz 1989-2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebermann, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    The information on the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz 1989-2014 includes the following contributions: Bfs concentrates the radiation protection expertise; knowledge generation, knowledge testing knowledge application: the BfS as scientific organization; radiation protection and health; radiation protection and environment, safety of nuclear waste management; safety in nuclear technology; specific challenges for BfS.

  18. 78 FR 27408 - Revised OIG's Provider Self-Disclosure Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... voluntarily identify, disclose, and resolve instances of potential fraud involving the Federal health care programs (as defined in section 1128B(f) of the Social Security Act (the Act), 42 U.S.C. 1320a-7b(f)). The...

  19. High-Performance Near-Infrared Phototransistor Based on n-Type Small-Molecular Organic Semiconductor

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Feng

    2016-12-13

    A solution-processed near-infrared (NIR) organic phototransistor (OPT) based on n-type organic small molecular material BODIPY-BF2 has been successfully fabricated. Its unprecedented performance, as well as its easy fabrication and good stability, mark this BODIPY-BF2 based OPT device as a very promising candidate for optoelectronic applications in the NIR regime.

  20. Ethnic differences in the relationship between body mass index and percentage body fat among Asian children from different backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ailing; Byrne, Nuala M; Kagawa, Masaharu; Ma, Guansheng; Poh, Bee Koon; Ismail, Mohammad Noor; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Nasreddine, Lara; Trinidad, Trinidad Palad; Hills, Andrew P

    2011-11-01

    Overweight and obesity in Asian children are increasing at an alarming rate; therefore a better understanding of the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat (%BF) in this population is important. A total of 1039 children aged 8-10 years, encompassing a wide BMI range, were recruited from China, Lebanon, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. Body composition was determined using the 2H dilution technique to quantify total body water and subsequently fat mass, fat-free mass and %BF. Ethnic differences in the BMI-%BF relationship were found; for example, %BF in Filipino boys was approximately 2 % lower than in their Thai and Malay counterparts. In contrast, Thai girls had approximately 2.0 % higher %BF values than in their Chinese, Lebanese, Filipino and Malay counterparts at a given BMI. However, the ethnic difference in the BMI-%BF relationship varied by BMI. Compared with Caucasian children of the same age, Asian children had 3-6 units lower BMI at a given %BF. Approximately one-third of the obese Asian children (%BF above 25 % for boys and above 30 % for girls) in the study were not identified using the WHO classification and more than half using the International Obesity Task Force classification. Use of the Chinese classification increased the sensitivity. Results confirmed the necessity to consider ethnic differences in body composition when developing BMI cut-points and other obesity criteria in Asian children.

  1. High-Performance Near-Infrared Phototransistor Based on n-Type Small-Molecular Organic Semiconductor

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Feng; Chen, Yin; Ma, Chun; Buttner, Ulrich; Leo, Karl; Wu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    A solution-processed near-infrared (NIR) organic phototransistor (OPT) based on n-type organic small molecular material BODIPY-BF2 has been successfully fabricated. Its unprecedented performance, as well as its easy fabrication and good stability, mark this BODIPY-BF2 based OPT device as a very promising candidate for optoelectronic applications in the NIR regime.

  2. PATTERNS OF SEVEN AND COMPLICATED MALARIA IN CHILDREN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    analysis: sex, age, residence, blood film (BF) microscopy result, type of malaria parasite identified, year and month when the patients visited WHC. Logistic regression was employed to assess the association between potential associated factors and positive. BF result; p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Among ...

  3. Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz. Scientific publications, papers and lectures 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    Results of the scientific work of BfS (Federal Office for Radiation Protection) staff are usually published in professional journals or presented at congresses and meetings. The publications cover the fields radiation hygiene, radiation protection, nuclear safety, as well as nuclear waste management and transport. The annex contains a list of every thing published so far by BfS. (DG) [de

  4. Using the Bayes Factors to Evaluate Person Fit in the Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tianshu; Yin, Yue

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we propose using the Bayes factors (BF) to evaluate person fit in item response theory models under the framework of Bayesian evaluation of an informative diagnostic hypothesis. We first discuss the theoretical foundation for this application and how to analyze person fit using BF. To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach,…

  5. Using piecewise sinusoidal basis functions to blanket multiple wire segments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, AA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses application of the piecewise sinusoidal (PWS) basis function (BF) over a chain of several wire segments, for example as a multiple domain basis function. The usage of PWS BF is compared to results based on the piecewise linear...

  6. Feedback or biofeedback to augment pelvic floor muscle training for urinary incontinence in women: shortened version of a Cochrane systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herderschee, Roselien; Hay-Smith, E. C. Jean; Herbison, G. Peter; Roovers, Jan Paul; Heineman, Maas Jan

    2013-01-01

    Feedback and biofeedback (BF) are common adjuncts to pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) for women with stress, urgency, and mixed urinary incontinence (UI). An up to date systematic review of adjunctive feedback or BF was needed to guide practice and further research. To determine whether feedback

  7. A cationic Ag-I(PNPtBu) species acting as PNP transfer agent: Facile synthesis of Pd(PNPtBu)(alkyl) complexes and their reactivity compared to PCPtBu analogues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vlugt, J.I.; Siegler, M.A.; Janssen, M.; Vogt, D.; Spek, A.L.

    2009-01-01

    The straightforward Synthesis of cationic complex 1, [Ag(PNtBu)]BF4 (PNPtBu = 1,2-bis[(di-tert-butylphosphino)methyl]pyridine), and its facile transmetalating properties toward gold and palladium are described. The corresponding Au complex [Au(PNPtBu)](2)(BF4)(2) (2) exists its a dimer in the solid

  8. A cationic Agi( PNPtBu) species acting as PNP transfer agent: facile synthesis of Pd(PNPtBu)(alkyl) complexes and their reactivity compared to PCPtBu analogues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlugt, van der J.I.; Siegler, M.A.; Janssen, M.C.C.; Vogt, D.; Spek, A.L.

    2009-01-01

    The straightforward synthesis of cationic complex 1, [Ag(PNPtBu)]BF4 (PNPtBu = 1,2-bis[(di-tert-butylphosphino)methyl]pyridine), and its facile transmetalating properties toward gold and palladium are described. The corresponding Au complex [Au(PNPtBu)]2(BF4)2 (2) exists as a dimer in the solid

  9. Relationship between Height-Weight Difference Index and Body-Fat Percentage Estimated by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Thai Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokkarn Juntaping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The height-weight difference index (HWDI is a new indicator for evaluating obesity status. While body-fat percentage (BF% is considered to be the most accurate obesity evaluation tool, it is a more expensive method and more difficult to measure than the others. Objective. Our objectives were to find the relationship between HWDI and BF% and to find a BF% prediction model from HWDI in relation to age and gender. Method. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to measure BF% in 2,771 healthy adult Thais. HWDI was calculated as the difference between height and weight. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to assess the relationship between HWDI and BF%. Multiple linear and nonlinear regression analysis were used to construct the BF% prediction model. Results. HWDI and BF% were found to be inverse which related to a tendency toward a linear relationship. Results of a multivariate linear regression analysis, which included HWDI and age as variables in the model, predicted BF% to be 34.508 − 0.159 (HWDI + 0.161 (age for men and 53.35 − 0.265 (HWDI + 0.132 (age for women. Conclusions. The prediction model provides an easy-to-use obesity evaluation tool that should help awareness of underweight and obesity conditions.

  10. [Сontamination of baby foods with ochratoxin A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, I V; Sedova, I B; Tutelyan, V A

    Mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) is a widespread contaminant of raw cereal grains with nephrotoxic activity. Сereal-based baby foods (BF) are an important component of the infant diet. In Russia, the presence of OTA in grainbased BF is not allowed (monitoring of the quality of the products from the manufacturers and regulatory authorities.

  11. Effects of Biofeedback on Distress in a University Counseling Center: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipper-Smith, Adriana; Tift, Jay H.; Frye, Joan F.

    2016-01-01

    Biofeedback (BF) and its mechanisms of change were examined alongside self-regulation and mind-body approaches in the context of counseling centers. The advance in psychopathology within this context and its intersections with neurophysiological, psychological, and social variables were highlighted. Although BF is commonly provided to students,…

  12. Temporal divergence of percent body fat and body mass index in pre-teenage children: the LOOK longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, R D; Cunningham, R B; Abhayaratna, W P

    2014-12-01

    The index of body mass related to stature, (body mass index, BMI, kgm(-2) ), is widely used as a proxy for percent body fat (%BF) in cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations. BMI does not distinguish between lean and fat mass and in children, the cross-sectional relationship between %BF and BMI changes with age and sex. While BMI increases linearly with age from age 8 to 12 years in both boys and girls, %BF plateaus off between 10 and 12 years. Repeated measures in children show a systematic decrease in %BF for any given BMI from age 8 to 10 to 12 years. Because changes in BMI misrepresent changes in %BF, its use as a proxy of %BF should be avoided in longitudinal studies in this age group. Body mass index (BMI, kgm(-2) ) is commonly used as an indicator of pediatric adiposity, but with its inability to distinguish changes in lean and fat mass, its use in longitudinal studies of children requires careful consideration. To investigate the suitability of BMI as a surrogate of percent body fat (%BF) in pediatric longitudinal investigations. In this longitudinal study, healthy Australian children (256 girls and 278 boys) were measured at ages 8.0 (standard deviation 0.3), 10.0 and 12.0 years for height, weight and percent body fat (%BF) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The patterns of change in the means of %BF and BMI were different (P < 0.001). While mean BMI increased linearly from 8 to 12 years of age, %BF did not change between 10 and 12 years. Relationships between %BF and BMI in boys and girls were curvilinear and varied with age (P < 0.001) and gender (P < 0.001); any given BMI corresponding with a lower %BF as a child became older. Considering the divergence of temporal patterns of %BF and BMI between 10 and 12 years of age, employment of BMI as a proxy for %BF in absolute or age and sex standardized forms in pediatric longitudinal investigations is problematical. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association

  13. Performance analysis of AES-Blowfish hybrid algorithm for security of patient medical record data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud H, Amir; Angga W, Bayu; Tommy; Marwan E, Andi; Siregar, Rosyidah

    2018-04-01

    A file security is one method to protect data confidentiality, integrity and information security. Cryptography is one of techniques used to secure and guarantee data confidentiality by doing conversion to the plaintext (original message) to cipher text (hidden message) with two important processes, they are encrypt and decrypt. Some researchers proposed a hybrid method to improve data security. In this research we proposed hybrid method of AES-blowfish (BF) to secure the patient’s medical report data into the form PDF file that sources from database. Generation method of private and public key uses two ways of approach, those are RSA method f RSA and ECC. We will analyze impact of these two ways of approach for hybrid method at AES-blowfish based on time and Throughput. Based on testing results, BF method is faster than AES and AES-BF hybrid, however AES-BF hybrid is better for throughput compared with AES and BF is higher.

  14. Morphologic and Biochemical Changes in Dogs After Portacaval Shunt Plus Bile Fistula or Ileal Bypass: Failure of Bile Fistula or Ileal Bypass to Prevent Hepatocyte Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jon S.; Porter, Kendrick A.; Hayashida, Nobuo; McNamara, Donald J.; Parker, Thomas S.; Russell, William J. I.; Francavilla, Antonio; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    External biliary fistula (BF) or ileal bypass (IB) was performed in dogs at the time of or 2 weeks after portacaval shunt (PCS). The pathologic changes in the dog livers 2 to 4 weeks later were compared to those caused by PCS alone. Histopathologic differences between PCS alone vs. PCS plus BF or IB could not be found. Thus, the experiments did not confirm recent observations by others in rats that BF prevents or reverses the hepatic injury of PCS. As estimated by plasma mevalonic acid determinations, the increase in hepatic cholesterol synthesis that is characteristic after BF or IB was suppressed in animals with PCS. BF and IB reduced but did not eliminate the postprandial elevation in serum bile acid that occurs after PCS. The findings have possible relevance in planning the treatment of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia with the combined use of PCS and IB. PMID:6862371

  15. Relationship between percentage of body fat and anthropometric indicators in individuals attending a gym

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Grossl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between percentage of body fat (% BF and anthropometric indicators in individuals attending a gym. Four hundred and thirty eight individuals, 195 men and 243 women, from 18 to 50 years of age took part in this study. The % BF was estimated by the skinfold method. The following anthropometric indicators were assessed: waist circumference, abdomen circumference (AC, waist-to-hip ratio, body mass index (BMI and waist-height ratio. Linear Pearson correlation and simple linear regression analysis were used to investigate the relationship between variables. For women, BMI strongly correlated with % BF (r = .73, whereas for males, AC showed high correlation with % BF (r = .73. With varying degrees of magnitude, there were significant correlations between all of the anthropometric indicators analyzed and % BF.

  16. Enantioselective apoptosis induced by individual isomers of bifenthrin in Hep G2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huigang; Li, Juan

    2015-03-01

    Bifenthrin (BF) has been used in racemate for agricultural purposes against soil insects, leading to increased inputs into soil environments. However, most of the studies about the toxicology research on BF were performed in its racemic form. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the enantiomer-specific cis-BF-induced apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation on human hepatocarcinoma cells (Hep G2). The results of cell viability assay and cytoflow assay indicated an obvious enantioselective hepatocyte toxicity of 1S-cis-BF in Hep G2 cells. 1S-cis-BF also induced ROS production, up-regulated Bax protein expression and down-regulated Bcl-2 expression levels. The present study suggested that enantioselective toxicity should be evaluated on currently used chiral pesticides, such as synthetic pyrethroids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Blast furnace residues for arsenic removal from mining-contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Pedroza, Fco Raúl; Soria-Aguilar, Ma de Jesús; Martínez-Luevanos, Antonia; Narvaez-García, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    In this work, blast furnace (BF) residues were well characterized and then evaluated as an adsorbent material for arsenic removal from a mining-contaminated groundwater. The adsorption process was analysed using the theories of Freundlich and Langmuir. BF residues were found to be an effective sorbent for As (V) ions. The modelling of adsorption isotherms by empirical models shows that arsenate adsorption is fitted by the Langmuir model, suggesting a monolayer adsorption of arsenic onto adsorbents. Arsenate adsorption onto BF residue is explained by the charge density surface affinity and by the formation of Fe (II) and Fe (III) corrosion products onto BF residue particles. The results indicate that BF residues represent an attractive low-cost absorbent option for the removal of arsenic in wastewater treatment.

  18. Measurement of the decays B --> phi K and B --> K*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.

    2001-01-01

    We have observed the decays B → phi K and phi K* in a sample of over 45 million B mesons collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II collider. The measured branching fractions are BF(B + → phi K + ) = (7.7 -1.4 +1.6 +/- 0.8) x 10 -6 , BF(B 0 → phi K 0 ) =(8.1 -2.5 +3.1 +/- 0.8) x 10 -6 , BF(B + → phi K* + ) = (9.7 -3.4 +4.2 +/- 1.7) x 10 -6 , and BF(B 0 → phi K* 0 ) = (8.6 -2.4 +2.8 +/- 1.1) x 10 -6 . We also report the upper limit BF(B + → phi pi + ) -6 (90 percent CL)

  19. The MISO wiretap channel with channel uncertainty: Asymptotic perspectives

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas; Rezki, Zouheir; Alomair, Basel; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    The N-antenna MISO Gaussian wiretap channel with imperfect channel-state information at the transmitter (CSIT) is studied in terms of secrecy rate scaling versus the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and N. Two schemes are considered, beamforming (BF) and artificial noise injection (AN). It is shown that if the CSIT error is independent of SNR, then both schemes do not achieve scaling versus SNR. However, if this error vanishes as SNR increases, then AN achieves the optimal scaling versus SNR, contrary to BF. Scaling can be achieved in BF by increasing N. In fact, BF achieves the optimal scaling versus N. In the AN scheme however, injecting noise in multiple direction deteriorates its scaling versus N. Nevertheless, AN can achieve the optimal scaling if noise is sent in only one direction. This leads to better performance than BF if the CSIT error is smaller than a threshold which is also derived.

  20. The MISO wiretap channel with channel uncertainty: Asymptotic perspectives

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas

    2017-05-12

    The N-antenna MISO Gaussian wiretap channel with imperfect channel-state information at the transmitter (CSIT) is studied in terms of secrecy rate scaling versus the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and N. Two schemes are considered, beamforming (BF) and artificial noise injection (AN). It is shown that if the CSIT error is independent of SNR, then both schemes do not achieve scaling versus SNR. However, if this error vanishes as SNR increases, then AN achieves the optimal scaling versus SNR, contrary to BF. Scaling can be achieved in BF by increasing N. In fact, BF achieves the optimal scaling versus N. In the AN scheme however, injecting noise in multiple direction deteriorates its scaling versus N. Nevertheless, AN can achieve the optimal scaling if noise is sent in only one direction. This leads to better performance than BF if the CSIT error is smaller than a threshold which is also derived.

  1. Calcium imaging of basal forebrain activity during innate and learned behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Clarke Harrison

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The basal forebrain (BF plays crucial roles in arousal, attention, and memory, and its impairment is associated with a variety of cognitive deficits. The BF consists of cholinergic, GABAergic, and glutamatergic neurons. Electrical or optogenetic stimulation of BF cholinergic neurons enhances cortical processing and behavioral performance, but the natural activity of these cells during behavior is only beginning to be characterized. Even less is known about GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons. Here, we performed microendoscopic calcium imaging of BF neurons as mice engaged in spontaneous behaviors in their home cages (innate or performed a go/no-go auditory discrimination task (learned. Cholinergic neurons were consistently excited during movement, including running and licking, but GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons exhibited diverse responses. All cell types were activated by overt punishment, either inside or outside of the discrimination task. These findings reveal functional similarities and distinctions between BF cell types during both spontaneous and task-related behaviors.

  2. The impact of various browse feeds with different tannin content on the fecal shedding of Clostridium perfringens in West African dwarf sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschfalk, A; Müller, W; Drochner, W

    2000-01-01

    In 1994 and 1995 leaves from eight browse feeds, containing tannins in different amounts (BF), were fed to West African Dwarf Sheep in Benin to evaluate their impact on Clostridium perfringens in the intestinal tract. An inhibitory impact of various BF on the growth of C. perfringens was assessed in in-vitro assays before, and thus a potential use of these leaves as a preventive diet against C. perfringens enterotoxemia in small ruminants was assumed. Surprisingly, an inhibitory impact of the BF on the shedding of C. perfringens in the feces of West African Dwarf Sheep could not be shown in seven of the eight BF examined. However, the pattern of inhibition of unlike C. perfringens toxovars may differ and a selective inhibitory impact of the BF Dialium guineense on C. perfringens toxovar D may be assumed.

  3. BMI or BIA: Is Body Mass Index or Body Fat Mass a Better Predictor of Cardiovascular Risk in Overweight or Obese Children and Adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bohn

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body fat (BF percentiles for German children and adolescents have recently been published. This study aims to evaluate the association between bioelectrical impedance analysis(BIA-derived BF and cardiovascular risk factors and to investigate whether BF is better suited than BMI in children and adolescents. Methods: Data of 3,327 children and adolescents (BMI > 90th percentile were included. Spearman's correlation and receiver operating characteristics (ROCs were applied determining the associations between BMI or BF and cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia, elevated liver enzymes, abnormal carbohydrate metabolism. Area under the curve (AUC was calculated to predict cardiovascular risk factors. Results: A significant association between both obesity indices and hypertension was present (all p Conclusion: BIA-derived BF was not superior to BMI to predict cardiovascular risk factors in overweight or obese children and adolescents.

  4. Effects of pyrethroid pesticide cis-bifenthrin on lipogenesis in hepatic cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Dandan; Chu, Tianyi; Li, Meng; Wang, Qiangwei; Zhu, Guonian

    2018-06-01

    Mounting evidence suggests there is a link between exposure to synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) and the development of obesity. The information presented in this study suggests that cis-bifenthrin (cis-BF) could activate pregnane X receptor (PXR) mediated pathway and lead to the lipid accumulation of human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. Cells were incubated in the control or different concentrations of cis-BF for 24 h. The 1 × 10 -7  M and 1 × 10 -6  M cis-BF exposure were found to induce cellular triglyceride (TG) accumulation significantly. This phenomenon was further supported by Oil Red O Staining assay. The cis-BF exposure caused upregulation of PXR gene and protein. Correspondingly, we also observed the increased expression of downstream genes involved in lipid formation and the inhibition of the expression of β-oxidation. As chiral pesticide,cis-BF was further conformed to behave enantioselectivity in the lipid metabolism. Rather than 1R-cis-BF, HepG2 cells incubated with 1S-cis-BF exhibited a significant TG accumulation. 1S-cis-BF also showed a higher binding level, of which the KD value was 9.184 × 10 -8  M in the SPR assay, compared with 1R-cis-BF (3.463 × 10 -6  M). In addition, the molecular docking simulation analyses correlated well with the KD values measured by the SPR, indicating that 1S-cis-BF showed a better binding affinity with PXR. The results in this study also elucidates the differences between the two enantiomers of pyrethroid-induced toxicity in lipid metabolism of non-target organism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization and expression analysis of a complement component gene in sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhong; Zhou, Zunchun; Yang, Aifu; Dong, Ying; Guan, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Bei; Wang, Bai

    2015-12-01

    The complement system plays a crucial role in the innate immune system of animals. It can be activated by distinct yet overlapping classical, alternative and lectin pathways. In the alternative pathway, complement factor B (Bf) serves as the catalytic subunit of complement component 3 (C3) convertase, which plays the central role among three activation pathways. In this study, the Bf gene in sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), termed AjBf, was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of AjBf was 3231 bp in length barring the poly (A) tail. It contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2742 bp encoding 913 amino acids, a 105 bp 5'-UTR (5'-terminal untranslated region) and a 384 bp 3'-UTR. AjBf was a mosaic protein with six CCP (complement control protein) domains, a VWA (von Willebrand factor A) domain, and a serine protease domain. The deduced molecular weight of AjBf protein was 101 kDa. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the expression level of AjBf in A. japonicus was obviously higher at larval stage than that at embryonic stage. Expression detection in different tissues showed that AjBf expressed higher in coelomocytes than in other four tissues. In addation, AjBf expression in different tissues was induced significantly after LPS or PolyI:C challenge. These results indicated that AjBf plays an important role in immune responses to pathogen infection.

  6. Changes in lower extremity movement and power absorption during forefoot striking and barefoot running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D S Blaise; Green, Douglas H; Wurzinger, Brian

    2012-10-01

    Both forefoot strike shod (FFS) and barefoot (BF) running styles result in different mechanics when compared to rearfoot strike (RFS) shod running. Additionally, running mechanics of FFS and BF running are similar to one another. Comparing the mechanical changes occurring in each of these patterns is necessary to understand potential benefits and risks of these running styles. The authors hypothesized that FFS and BF conditions would result in increased sagittal plane joint angles at initial contact and that FFS and BF conditions would demonstrate a shift in sagittal plane joint power from the knee to the ankle when compared to the RFS condition. Finally, total lower extremity power absorption will be least in BF and greatest in the RFS shod condition. The study included 10 male and 10 female RFS runners who completed 3-dimensional running analysis in 3 conditions: shod with RFS, shod with FFS, and BF. Variables were the angles of plantarflexion, knee flexion, and hip flexion at initial contact and peak sagittal plane joint power at the hip, knee, and ankle during stance phase. Running with a FFS pattern and BF resulted in significantly greater plantarflexion and significantly less negative knee power (absorption) when compared to shod RFS condition. FFS condition runners landed in the most plantarflexion and demonstrated the most peak ankle power absorption and lowest knee power absorption between the 3 conditions. BF and FFS conditions demonstrated decreased total lower extremity power absorption compared to the shod RFS condition but did not differ from one another. BF and FFS running result in reduced total lower extremity power, hip power and knee power and a shift of power absorption from the knee to the ankle. Alterations associated with BF running patterns are present in a FFS pattern when wearing shoes. Additionally, both patterns result in increased demand at the foot and ankle as compared to the knee.

  7. Heat stress redistributes blood flow in arteries of the brain during dynamic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kohei; Oue, Anna; Yoneya, Marina; Sadamoto, Tomoko; Ogoh, Shigehiko

    2016-04-01

    We hypothesized that heat stress would decrease anterior and posterior cerebral blood flow (CBF) during exercise, and the reduction in anterior CBF would be partly associated with large increase in extracranial blood flow (BF). Nine subjects performed 40 min of semirecumbent cycling at 60% of the peak oxygen uptake in hot (35°C; Heat) and thermoneutral environments (25°C; Control). We evaluated BF and conductance (COND) in the external carotid artery (ECA), internal carotid artery (ICA), and vertebral artery (VA) using ultrasonography. During the Heat condition, ICA and VA BF were significantly increased 10 min after the start of exercise (P Heat. Compared with the Control, either BF or COND of ICA and VA at the end of Heat tended to be lower, but not significantly. In contrast, ECA BF and COND at the end of Heat were both higher than levels in the Control condition (P Heat, a reduction in ICA BF appears to be associated with a decline in end-tidal CO2 tension (r = 0.84), whereas VA BF appears to be affected by a change in cardiac output (r = 0.87). In addition, a change in ECA BF during Heat was negatively correlated with a change in ICA BF (r = -0.75). Heat stress resulted in modification of the vascular response of head and brain arteries to exercise, which resulted in an alteration in the distribution of cardiac output. Moreover, a hyperthermia-induced increase in extracranial BF might compromise anterior CBF during exercise with heat stress. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Bifidobacterial recombinant thymidine kinase-ganciclovir gene therapy system induces FasL and TNFR2 mediated antitumor apoptosis in solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Changdong; Ma, Yongping; Hu, Qiongwen; Xie, Tingting; Wu, Jiayan; Zeng, Fan; Song, Fangzhou

    2016-01-01

    Directly targeting therapeutic suicide gene to a solid tumor is a hopeful approach for cancer gene therapy. Treatment of a solid tumor by an effective vector for a suicide gene remains a challenge. Given the lack of effective treatments, we constructed a bifidobacterial recombinant thymidine kinase (BF-rTK) -ganciclovir (GCV) targeting system (BKV) to meet this requirement and to explore antitumor mechanisms. Bifidobacterium (BF) or BF-rTK was injected intratumorally with or without ganciclovir in a human colo320 intestinal xenograft tumor model. The tumor tissues were analyzed using apoptosis antibody arrays, real time PCR and western blot. The colo320 cell was analyzed by the gene silencing method. Autophagy and necroptosis were also detected in colo320 cell. Meanwhile, three human digestive system xenograft tumor models (colorectal cancer colo320, gastric cancer MKN-45 and liver cancer SSMC-7721) and a breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) model were employed to validate the universality of BF-rTK + GCV in solid tumor gene therapy. The survival rate was evaluated in three human cancer models after the BF-rTK + GCV intratumor treatment. The analysis of inflammatory markers (TNF-α) in tumor indicated that BF-rTK + GCV significantly inhibited TNF-α expression. The results suggested that BF-rTK + GCV induced tumor apoptosis without autophagy and necroptosis occurrence. The apoptosis was transduced by multiple signaling pathways mediated by FasL and TNFR2 and mainly activated the mitochondrial control of apoptosis via Bid and Bim, which was rescued by silencing Bid or/and Bim. However, BF + GCV only induced apoptosis via Fas/FasL signal pathway accompanied with increased P53 expression. We further found that BF-rTK + GCV inhibited the expression of the inflammatory maker of TNF-α. However, BF-rTK + GCV did not result in necroptosis and autophagy. BF-rTK + GCV induced tumor apoptosis mediated by FasL and TNFR2 through the mitochondrial control of apoptosis via Bid and Bim

  9. The Terneuzen Birth Cohort. Longer exclusive breastfeeding duration is associated with leaner body mass and a healthier diet in young adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Buuren Stef

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding (BF is protective against overweight and is associated with dietary behaviour. The aims of our study were to assess the relationship between exclusive BF duration and BMI, waist circumference (WC and waist-hip ratio (WHR at adulthood, and to study whether dietary behaviour could explain the relationship between BF duration and the proxies of fat mass. Methods In 2004-2005, 822 subjects from the Terneuzen Birth Cohort (n = 2,604, aged 18-28 years, filled in postal questionnaires including sociodemographic factors and aspects of dietary behaviour (dietary pattern, and consumption of fruit and vegetables, snacks, sweetened beverages and alcohol; 737 subjects also underwent anthropometric measurements of weight, height, and waist and hip circumference. The relationship between exclusive BF duration and dietary outcomes was investigated by logistic regression analysis. The relationships of BF duration with the anthropometric measures were investigated by linear regression analyses. All results were corrected for age, gender and possible confounders. Finally, regression analyses were performed to investigate if diet factors had a mediating effect on the relationship between BF duration and fat mass. Results A significant inverse dose-response relationship of BF duration was found for BMI (β-0.13, SE 0.06, WC (β-0.39, SE 0.18 and WHR (β-0.003, SE 0.001, after correction for age, gender and confounders. The odds ratio (OR of exclusive BF duration in months for a breakfast frequency of at least 5 times a week was 1.16 (95%CI 1.06-1.27, and for snack consumption of less than twice a week was 1.15 (95%CI 1.06-1.25. Both ORs were corrected for age, gender and confounders. For other dietary outcomes, the results point in the same direction, i.e. a positive relationship with BF duration, but these were not statistically significant. A mediating effect of the diet factors on the association between BF and anthropometric

  10. Antenatal breastfeeding education for increasing breastfeeding duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbiganon, Pisake; Martis, Ruth; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Festin, Mario R; Ho, Jacqueline J; Hakimi, Mohammad

    2016-12-06

    Breast milk is well recognised as the best food source for infants. The impact of antenatal breastfeeding (BF) education on the duration of BF has not been evaluated. To assess the effectiveness of antenatal breastfeeding (BF) education for increasing BF initiation and duration. We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register on 1 March 2016, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library, 2016, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1966 to 1 March 2016) and Scopus (January 1985 to 1 March 2016). We contacted experts and searched reference lists of retrieved articles. All identified published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of formal antenatal BF education or comparing two different methods of formal antenatal BF education, on the duration of BF. We included RCTs that only included antenatal interventions and excluded those that combined antenatal and intrapartum or postpartum BF education components. Cluster-randomised trials were included in this review. Quasi-randomised trials were not eligible for inclusion. We assessed all potential studies identified as a result of the search strategy. Two review authors extracted data from each included study using the agreed form and assessed risk of bias. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. This review update includes 24 studies (10,056 women). Twenty studies (9789 women) contribute data to analyses. Most studies took place in high-income countries such as the USA, UK, Canada and Australia. In the first five comparisons, we display the included trials according to type of intervention without pooling data. For the 'Summary of findings' we pooled data for a summary effect.Five included studies were cluster-randomised trials: all of these adjusted data and reported adjustments as odds ratios (OR). We have analysed the data using the generic inverse variance method and presented results as odds ratios, because we were

  11. Guideline for the diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity reactions: S2K-Guideline of the German Society for Allergology and Clinical Immunology (DGAKI) and the German Dermatological Society (DDG) in collaboration with the Association of German Allergologists (AeDA), the German Society for Pediatric Allergology and Environmental Medicine (GPA), the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group (DKG), the Swiss Society for Allergy and Immunology (SGAI), the Austrian Society for Allergology and Immunology (ÖGAI), the German Academy of Allergology and Environmental Medicine (DAAU), the German Center for Documentation of Severe Skin Reactions and the German Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Products (BfArM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockow, Knut; Przybilla, Bernhard; Aberer, Werner; Bircher, Andreas J; Brehler, Randolf; Dickel, Heinrich; Fuchs, Thomas; Jakob, Thilo; Lange, Lars; Pfützner, Wolfgang; Mockenhaupt, Maja; Ott, Hagen; Pfaar, Oliver; Ring, Johannes; Sachs, Bernhardt; Sitter, Helmut; Trautmann, Axel; Treudler, Regina; Wedi, Bettina; Worm, Margitta; Wurpts, Gerda; Zuberbier, Torsten; Merk, Hans F

    Drug hypersensitivity reactions are unpredictable adverse drug reactions. They manifest either within 1-6 h following drug intake (immediate reactions) with mild to life-threatening symptoms of anaphylaxis, or several hours to days later (delayed reactions), primarily as exanthematous eruptions. It is not always possible to detect involvement of the immune system (allergy). Waiving diagnostic tests can result in severe reactions on renewed exposure on the one hand, and to unjustified treatment restrictions on the other. With this guideline, experts from various specialist societies and institutions have formulated recommendations and an algorithm for the diagnosis of allergies. The key principles of diagnosing allergic/hypersensitivity drug reactions are presented. Where possible, the objective is to perform allergy diagnostics within 4 weeks-6 months following the reaction. A clinical classification of symptoms based on the morphology and time course of the reaction is required in order to plan a diagnostic work-up. In the case of typical symptoms of a drug hypersensitivity reaction and unequivocal findings from validated skin and/or laboratory tests, a reaction can be attributed to a trigger with sufficient confidence. However, skin and laboratory tests are often negative or insufficiently reliable. In such cases, controlled provocation testing is required to clarify drug reactions. This method is reliable and safe when attention is paid to indications and contraindications and performed under appropriate medical supervision. The results of the overall assessment are discussed with the patient and documented in an "allergy passport" in order to ensure targeted avoidance in the future and allow the use of alternative drugs where possible.

  12. High performance of nitrogen and phosphorus removal in an electrolysis-integrated biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y; Xie, Y W; Zhang, Q; Yu, Y X; Yang, L Y

    A novel electrolysis-integrated biofilter system was developed in this study to evaluate the intensified removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from contaminated water. Two laboratory-scale biofilter systems were established, one with electrolysis (E-BF) and one without electrolysis (BF) as control. The dynamics of intensified nitrogen and phosphorus removal and the changes of inflow and outflow water qualities were also evaluated. The total nitrogen (TN) removal rate was 94.4% in our newly developed E-BF, but only 74.7% in the control BF. Ammonium removal rate was up to 95% in biofilters with or without electrolysis integration with an influent ammonium concentration of 40 mg/L, and the accumulation of nitrate and nitrite was much lower in the effluent of E-BF than that of BF. Thus electrolysis plays an important role in TN removal especially the nitrate and nitrite removal. Phosphorus removal was significantly enhanced, exceeding 90% in E-BF by chemical precipitation, physical adsorption, and flocculation of phosphorus because of the in situ formation of ferric ions by the anodizing of sacrificial iron anodes. Results from this study indicate that the electrolysis integrated biofilter is a promising solution for intensified nitrogen and phosphorus removal.

  13. Immediate increases in quadriceps corticomotor excitability during an electromyography biofeedback intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrosimone, Brian; McLeod, Michelle M; Florea, David; Gribble, Phillip A; Tevald, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of EMG-BF on vastus lateralis corticomotor excitability, measured via motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes elicited using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) during a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). We also determined the effect of EMG-BF on isometric knee extensor strength. Fifteen healthy participants volunteered for this crossover study with two sessions held one-week apart. Participants were randomly assigned to condition order, during which five intervention MVICs were performed with or without EMG-BF. MEP amplitudes were collected with TMS during five knee extension contractions (5% of MVIC) at baseline and again during intervention MVICs within each session. During the control condition, participants were instructed to perform the same number of MVICs without any EMG-BF. Percent change scores were used to calculate the change in peak-to-peak MEP amplitudes that occurred during EMG-BF and Control MVICs compared to the baseline MEPs. Peak knee extension torque was recorded during MVICs prior to TMS for each condition. EMG-BF produced significantly increased MEP change scores and significantly greater torque than the control condition. The results of the current study suggest that EMG-BF may be a viable clinical method for targeting corticomotor excitability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of bromfenac sodium ophthalmic solution for treatment of dry eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishima, Hiroshi; Fuseya, Miki; Ogata, Masarou; Murat, Dogru

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of bromfenac sodium ophthalmic solution (BF) in patients with dry eye disease (DED) inadequately controlled by monotherapy with artificial tears (ATs). An investigator-oriented trial with a single-arm, nonrandomized, open-label design. Twenty-six patients, who showed no symptomatic improvement of DED after 1 month of AT treatment, were enrolled. Bromfenac sodium ophthalmic solution was administered adjunctively with AT for 1 month. The BF treatment was then discontinued, and AT treatment alone was continued for 3 months. The signs and symptoms were evaluated at the beginning of BF treatment (Pre), at the end of the combined BF and AT treatment (BF1M), and at 1 and 3 months after discontinuation of BF treatment (Po1M and Po3M, respectively). The dryness scores at BF1M were significantly improved compared with Pre (P ophthalmic solution has improved the dryness of the eye and signs of DED through its anti-inflammatory effects. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were suitable as anti-inflammatory ophthalmic solutions for patients with DED.

  15. Association of adiposity measures with blood lipids and blood pressure in children aged 8-11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcaíno, Vicente Martínez; Aguilar, Fernando Salcedo; Martínez, Montserrat Solera; López, Mairena Sánchez; Gutiérrez, Ricardo Franquelo; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2007-09-01

    To examine the association of body mass index (BMI), triceps skinfold thickness (TST) and percentage body fat (%BF) from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) with blood lipids, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in children. Cross-sectional study was conducted on 1280 schoolchildren aged 8-11 years from the Cuenca province (Spain). Data collection was conducted under standardized conditions, taking several measurements of each variable to enhance accuracy. Analyses were performed using age-adjusted correlation coefficients, and multiple linear regression adjusted for age, BMI, TST and %BF. Correlations between %BF and apolipoprotein (apo) B, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), total cholesterol/HDL-c ratio and DBP were higher than those for BMI and TST. In contrast, the correlations between BMI, and apo A-I and SBP were higher than those for %BF and TST. The results were similar across the sexes. The correlations between each of the three measures of body fatness, and blood lipids and blood pressure were highest in children with greatest BMI and %BF. When analyses were adjusted for the three body fatness measures, %BF showed stronger associations than did BMI or TST with blood lipids and blood pressure, with the exception of apo A-I and SBP, which were more closely associated with BMI. %BF from BIA is more strongly associated than either BMI or TST with most of the blood lipid fractions in schoolchildren aged 8-11 years.

  16. Pengaruh penambahan tepung kulit bawang terhadap kecernaan protein kasar pakan, pertambahan bobot badan dan persentase karkas itik Mojosari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoseph Avian Saputra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of addition of onion skin flour (OSF and garlic skin flour (GSF on feed digestibility of crude protein, body weight gain and carcass percentage of Mojosari ducks. The research used 168 Mojosari duck males aged 4 weeks and had an average weight of 335.5 ± 72 g/duck (CV = 7.8%. The study used completely randomized design with7 treatments and 4 replications (T0 = basal feed (BF; T1 = BF + 3% OSF; T2 = BF+ 6% OSF; T3 = BF+ 3% GSF; T4 = BF+ 6% GSF; T5 = BF + 1.5% OSF + 1.5% GSF; and T6 = BF+ 3% OSF + 3% GSF.The results showed that the protein digestibility was found higher (P 0.05 the duck carcass percentage. The study concluded that the addition of 6% GSF and combination of 3% OSF + 3% GSF could improve crude protein digestibility and weight gain, but was not able to increase the percentage of duck carcasses. Keywords: duck, digestible protein, body weight, carcas

  17. Simultaneous biodegradation of bifenthrin and chlorpyrifos by Pseudomonas sp. CB2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qun; Li, Shuhuai; Ma, Chen; Wu, Nancun; Li, Chunli; Yang, Xinfeng

    2018-05-04

    The degradation of bifenthrin (BF) and chlorpyrifos (CP), either together or individually, by a bacterial strain (CB2) isolated from activated sludge was investigated. Strain CB2 was identified as belonging to genus Pseudomonas based on the morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and a homological analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence. Strain CB2 has the potential to degrade BF and CP, either individually or in a mixture. The optimum conditions for mixture degradation were as follows: OD 600nm = 0.5; incubation temperature = 30°C; pH = 7.0; BF-CP mixture (10 mg L -1 of each). Under these optimal conditions, the degradation rate constants (and half-lives) were 0.4308 d -1 (1.61 d) and 0.3377 d -1 (2.05 d) for individual BF and CP samples, respectively, and 0.3463 d -1 (2.00 d) and 0.2931 d -1 (2.36 d) for the BF-CP mixture. Major metabolites of BF and CP were 2-methyl-3-biphenylyl methanol and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, respectively. No metabolite bioaccumulation was observed. The ability of CB2 to efficiently degrade BF and CP, particularly in a mixture, may be useful in bioremediation efforts.

  18. Cis-bifenthrin induces immunotoxicity in adolescent male C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Gao, Xingli; He, Bingnan; Zhu, Jiawei; Lou, Huihui; Hu, Qinglian; Jin, Yuanxiang; Fu, Zhengwei

    2017-07-01

    Bifenthrin (BF) is an important synthetic pyrethroid. Previous studies have demonstrated that cis-BF exhibits toxic effects on development, the neurological, reproductive and endocrine system. In this study, we evaluated the immunotoxicity caused by cis-BF in adolescent male C57BL/6 mice. Mice were exposed orally to 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg/d for 3 weeks. The results showed that body weight, spleen weight, and splenic cellularity decreased in mice exposed to 20 mg/kg/d cis-BF. Additionally, we found that the mRNA levels of the pro-inflammatory factors IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL-1, and TNF-α, in peritoneal macrophages, the spleen, and the thymus were inhibited in the cis-BF-treated groups. Moreover, MTT assays demonstrated that cis-BF inhibited splenocyte proliferation stimulated by LPS or Con A, as well as the secretion of IFN-γ on Con A stimulation. Collectively, the results of this study suggest that exposure to cis-BF has the potential to induce immunotoxicity in adolescent male C57BL/6 mice. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Differences in regional adiposity, bone mineral density, and physical exercise participation based on exercise self-efficacy among senior adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, J M; Gray, M; Vincenzo, J L

    2015-10-01

    The impact of exercise self-efficacy levels (ESE) on exercise participation, levels of body fat (BF), and bone mineral density (BMD) are unclear in senior-aged adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of ESE on exercise participation, regional distribution of BF, and BMD among seniors. Senior adults (N.=76; 36 males, 40 females) were separated into tertiles (T1, age=60.4±1.4; T2, age=61.3±1.4; T3, age=60.4±1.5) based on self-reported levels of ESE. BMD and regional BF were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and exercise participation levels were measured using the Rapid Physical-Activity Questionnaire. MANOVA revealed a significant Wilks Lambda (p exercise participation levels, android BF, gynoid BF, and spinal BMD. ANOVA revealed T3 was significantly lower for android BF (p=0.002) than T1 and T2 (30% and 26%, respectively) while gynoid BF was significantly lower (p=0.012) for T3 (24%) compared to T1. When evaluating exercise participation levels, T3 was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than T1 or T2. Spinal BMD was significantly higher (p=0.030) between T2 (10%) and T1. ESE is an important factor in senior adults ability to maintain longitudinal health.

  20. Differences in activation properties of the hamstring muscles during overground sprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashihara, Ayako; Nagano, Yasuharu; Ono, Takashi; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify activation of the biceps femoris (BF) and medial hamstring (MH) during overground sprinting. Lower-extremity kinematics and electromyography (EMG) of the BF and MH were recorded in 13 male sprinters performing overground sprinting at maximum effort. Mean EMG activity was calculated in the early stance, late stance, mid-swing, and late-swing phases. Activation of the BF was significantly greater during the early stance phase than the late stance phase (p<0.01). Activation of the BF muscle was significantly lower during the first half of the mid-swing phase than the other phases (p<0.05). The MH had significantly greater EMG activation relative to its recorded maximum values compared to that for the BF during the late stance (p<0.05) and mid-swing (p<0.01) phases. These results indicate that the BF shows high activation before and after foot contact, while the MH shows high activation during the late stance and mid-swing phases. We concluded that the activation properties of the BF and MH muscles differ within the sprinting gait cycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Outstanding features of alginate-based gel electrolyte with ionic liquid for electric double layer capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeda, Kazunari; Yamagata, Masaki; Ishikawa, Masashi

    2015-04-01

    An alginate-based gel electrolyte with an ionic liquid (Alg/IL) is investigated for electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) by using physicochemical and electrochemical measurements. The Alg/EMImBF4 (EMImBF4 = 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) gel electrolyte is thermally stable up to 280 °C, where EMImBF4 decomposes. Furthermore, the EDLC with the gel electrolyte can be operated even at high temperature. The cell containing Alg/EMImBF4 is also electrochemically stable even under high voltage (∼3.5 V) operation. Thus, the alginate is a suitable host polymer for the gel electrolyte for EDLCs. According to the result of charge-discharge characteristics, the voltage drop in the charge-discharge curve for the cell with Alg/EMImBF4 gel electrolyte is considerably smaller than that with liquid-phase EMImBF4 electrolyte. To clarify the effect of Alg in contact with the activated carbon electrode, we also prepared an Alg-containing ACFC electrode (Alg + ACFC), and evaluated its EDLC characteristics in liquid EMImBF4. The results prove that the presence of Alg close to the active materials significantly reduces the internal resistance of the EDLC cell, which may be attributed to the high affinity of Alg to activated carbon.

  2. Endothelium-Dependent Vasorelaxant Effect of Butanolic Fraction from Caryocar brasiliense Camb. Leaves in Rat Thoracic Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lais Moraes de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caryocar brasiliense Camb. “pequi” is a native plant from the Cerrado region of Brazil that contains bioactive components reported to be antioxidant agents. Previous work has demonstrated that dietary supplementation with pequi decreased the arterial pressure of volunteer athletes. We found that the crude hydroalcoholic extract (CHE of C. brasiliense leaves relaxed, in a concentration-dependent manner, rat aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine, and that the butanolic fraction (BF produced an effect similar to that of the CHE. Aortic relaxation induced by BF was abolished by endothelium removal, by incubation of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME, or the soluble guanylatecyclase inhibitor ODQ. However, incubation with atropine and pyrilamine had no effect on the BF-induced vasorelaxation. Moreover, this effect was not inhibited by indomethacin and tetraethylammonium. The concentration-response curve to calcium in denuded-endothelium rings was not modified after incubation with BF, and the vasorelaxation by BF in endothelium-intact rings precontracted with KCl was abolished after incubation with L-NAME. In addition, administration of BF in anesthetized rats resulted in a reversible hypotension. The results reveal that C. brasiliense possesses both in vivo and in vitro activities and that the vascular effect of BF involves stimulation of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway.

  3. BMI or BIA: Is Body Mass Index or Body Fat Mass a Better Predictor of Cardiovascular Risk in Overweight or Obese Children and Adolescents? A German/Austrian/Swiss Multicenter APV Analysis of 3,327 Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Barbara; Müller, Manfred James; Simic-Schleicher, Gunter; Kiess, Wieland; Siegfried, Wolfgang; Oelert, Monika; Tuschy, Sabine; Berghem, Stefan; Holl, Reinhard W

    2015-01-01

    Body fat (BF) percentiles for German children and adolescents have recently been published. This study aims to evaluate the association between bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)-derived BF and cardiovascular risk factors and to investigate whether BF is better suited than BMI in children and adolescents. Data of 3,327 children and adolescents (BMI > 90th percentile) were included. Spearman's correlation and receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) were applied determining the associations between BMI or BF and cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia, elevated liver enzymes, abnormal carbohydrate metabolism). Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to predict cardiovascular risk factors. A significant association between both obesity indices and hypertension was present (all p risk factors. BF significantly predicted hypertension (AUC = 0.61), decreased HDL-cholesterol (AUC = 0.58), elevated LDL-cholesterol (AUC = 0.59), elevated liver enzymes (AUC = 0.61) (all p risk factors, no significant differences between BMI and BF were observed. BIA-derived BF was not superior to BMI to predict cardiovascular risk factors in overweight or obese children and adolescents.

  4. The effect of biofiltration on red blood cells 2.3-diphosphoglycerate and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umimoto, K; Hirai, Y; Hayashi, T; Tanaka, H

    2000-12-01

    To investigate the effect of biofiltration (BF) on the ability of blood to supply oxygen to the peripheral tissues, a 2 week crossover study was conducted with bicarbonate hemodialysis (BcHD) and BF using 5 male patients with diabetic renal failure as subjects. BcHD and BF were performed for 4 h and 3.5 h per session, respectively. Blood gases, the pH of red blood cells (RBC-pH), and 2. 3-diphosphoglycerate in RBC (RBC-2.3DPG) were measured during each treatment. After a 2 week BF treatment, the plasma HCO3- at the beginning of BF was significantly higher than that of BcHD (p level (p levels. The RBC-2.3DPG during BcHD remained unchanged, but during BF significantly increased (p level. The improved metabolic acidosis might occur as a result of the increase in RBC-2.3DPG during BF. This increase in RBC-2.3DPG has the effect of reducing the affinity of oxygen for hemoglobin and allows more oxygen to be delivered to the peripheral tissues although the increase in RBC-pH by dialysis restricts the dissociation of oxygen from hemoglobin.

  5. Genome-wide DNA-(de)methylation is associated with Noninfectious Bud-failure exhibition in Almond (Prunus dulcis [Mill.] D.A.Webb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresnedo-Ramírez, Jonathan; Chan, Helen M; Parfitt, Dan E; Crisosto, Carlos H; Gradziel, Thomas M

    2017-02-16

    Noninfectious bud-failure (BF) remains a major threat to almond production in California, particularly with the recent rapid expansion of acreage and as more intensive cultural practices and modern cultivars are adopted. BF has been shown to be inherited in both vegetative and sexual progeny, with exhibition related to the age and propagation history of scion clonal sources. These characteristics suggest an epigenetic influence, such as the loss of juvenility mediated by DNA-(de)methylation. Various degrees of BF have been reported among cultivars as well as within sources of clonal propagation of the same cultivar. Genome-wide methylation profiles for different clones within almond genotypes were developed to examine their association with BF levels and association with the chronological time from initial propagation. The degree of BF exhibition was found to be associated with DNA-(de)methylation and clonal age, which suggests that epigenetic changes associated with ageing may be involved in the differential exhibition of BF within and among almond clones. Research is needed to investigate the potential of DNA-(de)methylation status as a predictor for BF as well as for effective strategies to improve clonal selection against age related deterioration. This is the first report of an epigenetic-related disorder threatening a major tree crop.

  6. High genetic variability of HIV-1 in female sex workers from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carr Jean K

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A cross-sectional study on 625 Female Sex Workers (FSWs was conducted between 2000 and 2002 in 6 cities in Argentina. This study describes the genetic diversity and the resistance profile of the HIV-infected subjects. Results Seventeen samples from HIV positive FSWs were genotyped by env HMA, showing the presence of 9 subtype F, 6 subtype B and 2 subtype C. Sequence analysis of the protease/RT region on 16 of these showed that 10 were BF recombinants, three were subtype B, two were subtype C, and one sample presented a dual infection with subtype B and a BF recombinant. Full-length genomes of five of the protease/RT BF recombinants were also sequenced, showing that three of them were CRF12_BF. One FSW had a dual HIV-1 infection with subtype B and a BF recombinant. The B sections of the BF recombinant clustered closely with the pure B sequence isolated from the same patient. Major resistance mutations to antiretroviral drugs were found in 3 of 16 (18.8% strains. Conclusion The genetic diversity of HIV strains among FSWs in Argentina was extensive; about three-quarters of the samples were infected with diverse BF recombinants, near twenty percent had primary ART resistance and one sample presented a dual infection. Heterosexual transmission of genetically diverse, drug resistant strains among FSWs and their clients represents an important and underestimated threat, in Argentina.

  7. Supplemental effects of biofloc powder on growth performance, innate immunity, and disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chorong Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of dietary supplementation of a biofloc powder on growth performance and non-specific immune response of Litopenaeus vannamei. Seven experimental diets were prepared with supplementation of graded levels of dried biofloc powder by 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0% (designated as Con, BF0.5, BF1, BF2, BF4, BF6, and BF8, respectively. Triplicate groups of shrimp (1.01 ± 0.01 g were hand-fed with one of the diets four times a day. At the end of the feeding trial, significantly (P ˂ 0.05 higher growth performance and feed utilization were obtained in BF4 groups compared to those fed the Con diet. The innate immunity of shrimp was improved by the dietary supplementation of biofloc. Dietary inclusion of biofloc at the level of 4.0% significantly increased disease resistance of shrimp against Vibrio harveyi. The results indicate that biofloc might be used as a dietary supplement for growth performance, innate immunity and disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp.

  8. Bioaccumulation and enantioselectivity of type I and type II pyrethroid pesticides in earthworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jing; Wang, Yinghuan; Wang, Huili; Li, Jianzhong; Xu, Peng

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the bioavailability and enantioselectivity differences between bifenthrin (BF, typeⅠpyrethroid) and lambad-cyhalothrin (LCT, type Ⅱ pyrethroid) in earthworm (Eisenia fetida) were investigated. The bio-soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) of BF was about 4 times greater than that of LCT. LCT was degraded faster than BF in soil while eliminated lower in earthworm samples. Compound sorption plays an important role on bioavailability in earthworm, and the soil-adsorption coefficient (K(oc)) of BF and LCT were 22 442 and 42 578, respectively. Metabolic capacity of earthworm to LCT was further studied as no significant difference in the accumulation of LCT between the high and low dose experiment was found. 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (PBCOOH), a metabolite of LCT produced by earthworm was detected in soil. The concentration of PBCOOH at high dose exposure was about 4.7 times greater than that of in low dose level at the fifth day. The bioaccumulation of BF and LCT were both enantioselective in earthworm. The enantiomer factors of BF and LCT in earthworm were approximately 0.12 and 0.65, respectively. The more toxic enantiomers ((+)-BF and (-)-LCT) had a preferential degradation in earthworm and leaded to less toxicity on earthworm for racemate exposure. In combination with other studies, a liner relationship between Log BSAF(S) and Log K(ow) was observed, and the Log BSAF(S) decreased with the increase of Log K(ow). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A comparison of thermoregulatory responses to exercise between mass-matched groups with large differences in body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervis, Sheila; Coombs, Geoff B; Chaseling, Georgia K; Filingeri, Davide; Smoljanic, Jovana; Jay, Ollie

    2016-03-15

    We sought to determine 1) the influence of adiposity on thermoregulatory responses independently of the confounding biophysical factors of body mass and metabolic heat production (Hprod); and 2) whether differences in adiposity should be accounted for by prescribing an exercise intensity eliciting a fixed Hprod per kilogram of lean body mass (LBM). Nine low (LO-BF) and nine high (HI-BF) body fat males matched in pairs for total body mass (TBM; LO-BF: 88.7 ± 8.4 kg, HI-BF: 90.1 ± 7.9 kg; P = 0.72), but with distinctly different percentage body fat (%BF; LO-BF: 10.8 ± 3.6%; HI-BF: 32.0 ± 5.6%; P mass and Hprod, possibly due to a lower mean specific heat capacity or impaired sudomotor control. However, thermoregulatory responses of groups with different adiposity levels should not be compared using a fixed Hprod in watts per kilogram lean body mass. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. The Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (CAPRA) in patients treated with external beam radiation therapy: Evaluation and optimization in patients at higher risk of relapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, Schuyler; Schipper, Matthew; Blas, Kevin; Lee, Vivien; Sabolch, Aaron; Olson, Karin; Sandler, Howard M.; Feng, Felix Y.; Hamstra, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (CAPRA) was developed to predict freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF) following radical prostatectomy (RP). Its utility following external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) has not been externally evaluated. Methods: A retrospective study of 612 patients treated with dose-escalated EBRT at University of Michigan Medical Center. Results: Compared to the derivation cohort, EBRT treated patients had higher-risk disease (28% with CAPRA of 6–10 vs. 5%, respectively). A total of 114 patients (19%) had BF with 5-year BF ranging from 7% with CAPRA 0–3 to 35% with CAPRA 7–10. For RT patients the risk of BF at 5-year was similar to 4 surgical cohorts for CAPRA scores 0–2 but lower for all CAPRA scores ⩾ 3. The difference favoring RT increased with increasing CAPRA score reaching a 27–50% absolute improved at 5-years for CAPRA scores of 6–10. On multivariate analysis each CAPRA point increased the risk of BF (p < 0.0001) while Gleason pattern 5 in the biopsy also increased BF (p = 0.01) and long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) significantly reduced the risk of BF (p = 0.015). Conclusions: Compared to surgical series the risk of BF was lower with dose-escalated EBRT with the greatest difference at the highest CAPRA scores.

  11. Purification and characterization of an inhibitor (soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor) for tumor necrosis factor and lymphotoxin obtained from the serum ultrafiltrates of human cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatanaga, Tetsuya; Whang, Chenduen; Cappuccini, F.; Lucci, J.A. III; Jeffes, E.W.B.; Kohr, W.; Lentz, R.; Tomich, J.; Yamamoto, R.S.; Granger, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Serum ultrafiltrates (SUF) from human patients with different types of cancer contain a blocking factor (BF) that inhibits the cytolytic activity of human tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in vitro. BF is a protein with a molecular mass of 28kDa on reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS/PAGE). The active material was purified to homogeneity by a combination of affinity chromatography, PAGE, and high-pressure liquid chromatography. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that BF is derived from the membrane TNF receptor. Purified BF blocks the lytic activity of recombinant human and mouse TNF-α and recombinant human lymphotoxin activity of TNF-α and recombinant human lymphotoxin on murine L929 cells in vitro. However, BF inhibits the lytic activity of TNF-α more effectively than it does that of lymphotoxin. The BF also inhibits the necrotizing activity of recombinant human TNF-α when coinjected into established cutaneous Meth A tumors in BALB/c mice. The BF may have an important role in (i) the regulation and control of TNF-α and lymphotoxin activity in cancer patients, (ii) interaction between the tumor and the host antitumor mechanisms, and (iii) use of systemically administered TNF-α in clinical trials with human cancer patients

  12. Vanadium bioavailability in soils amended with blast furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Maja A., E-mail: maja.larsson@slu.se [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7014, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Baken, Stijn, E-mail: stijn.baken@ees.kuleuven.be [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Leuven University, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20 bus 2459, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Smolders, Erik, E-mail: erik.smolders@ees.kuleuven.be [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Leuven University, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20 bus 2459, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Cubadda, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.cubadda@iss.it [Department of Food Safety and Veterinary Public Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, Rome 00161 (Italy); Gustafsson, Jon Petter, E-mail: jon-petter.gustafsson@slu.se [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7014, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Division of Land and Water Resources Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Brinellvägen 28, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-10-15

    Blast furnace (BF) slags are commonly applied as soil amendments and in road fill material. In Sweden they are also naturally high in vanadium. The aim of this study was to assess the vanadium bioavailability in BF slags when applied to soil. Two soils were amended with up to 29% BF slag (containing 800 mg V kg{sup −1}) and equilibrated outdoors for 10 months before conducting a barley shoot growth assay. Additional soil samples were spiked with dissolved vanadate(V) for which assays were conducted two weeks (freshly spiked) and 10 months (aged) after spiking. The BF slag vanadium was dominated by vanadium(III) as shown by V K-edge XANES spectroscopy. In contrast, results obtained by HPLC-ICP-MS showed that vanadium(V), the most toxic vanadium species, was predominant in the soil solution. Barley shoot growth was not affected by the BF slag additions. This was likely due to limited dissolution of vanadium from the BF slag, preventing an increase of dissolved vanadium above toxic thresholds. The difference in vanadium bioavailability among treatments was explained by the vanadium concentration in the soil solution. It was concluded that the vanadium in BF slag is sparingly available. These findings should be of importance in environmental risk assessment.

  13. Enantioselective cytotoxicity of the insecticide bifenthrin on a human amnion epithelial (FL) cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Huigang; Zhao Meirong; Zhang Cong; Ma Yun; Liu Weiping

    2008-01-01

    Synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) are used in preference to organochlorines and organophosphates due to their high efficiency, low toxicity to mammals, and ready biodegradability. Previous studies reported that enantioselective toxicity of SPs occurs in aquatic toxicity. Several studies have indicated that SPs could lead to oxidative damage in humans or animals which was associated with their toxic effects. Little is known about the differences in the effects of chronic toxicity induced by individual stereoisomers of chiral SPs. The present study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the enantioselectivity in cytotoxicity, genotoxicity caused by bifenthrin (BF) on human amnion epithelial (FL) cell lines and pesticidal activity on target organism. The cell proliferation and cytoflow analysis indicated that 1S-cis-BF presented more toxic effects than 1R-cis-BF above the concentration of 7.5 mg L -1 (p > 0.05). FL cells incubated with 1S-cis-BF exhibited a dose-dependent accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the comet assay, the number of cells with damaged DNA incubated with 1S-cis-BF was more than that with 1R-cis-BF (p 50 values of enantiomer to the target pest on Pieris rapae L. show that 1R-cis-BF was 300 times more active than 1S-cis-BF. These results indicate that the enantioselective toxicity and activity of BF between non-target organism and target organism was reversal. These implications together suggest that assessment of the environmental safety and new pesticides development with chiral centers should consider enantioselectivity

  14. Bioaccumulation of P-32 in bluegill and catfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, B.; Turgeon, K.S.; Martini, D.K.; Dunkerly, S.J.; El-Shinawy, R.M.K.; Wilson, M.D.; Hammond, R.A.; Uribe, R.; Mizner, A.A.

    1985-02-01

    Bluegill and catfish were fed P-32 at a constant feeding rate per body weight to determine the bioaccummulation factor (BF/sub r/) for P-32 in muscle relative to water. The fish were maintained in flow-through tanks at two feeding levels. The bluegill accumulated P-32 for 51 days, followed by depuration for 28 days. The catfish study had to be teminated after 11 days. Fish were analyzed in triplicte for P-32 and phosphorus at intervals of 1 to 8 days. Additional aquaria experiments were performed to determine the effects of water temperature, feeding rate, and type of food (worms vs. pellets) on P-32 uptake, and to observe P-32 uptake from water by unfed fish (including fish with blocked esophagus). A simple calculational model was used to determine the phosphorus turnover constant from the specific activity in tissue relative to food. This ratio at steady state approaches the BF/sub r/BF ratio (where BF is the phosphorus bioaccumulation factor) if P-32 transfers rapidly from water to food. The bluegill showed a weight gain of 0.2 %/d, a phosphorous turnover constant in muscle of 0.43 %/d, and a BF/sub r//BF ratio of 0.081 at the higher feeding rate, and 0.05 %/d, 0.34 %/d, and 0.064 at the lower feeding rate. Hence, respective P-32 BF/sub r/ values are 6000 and 4000 at a phosphorus BF of 70,000. The BF/sub r/ values for catfish were approximately twice as high. The aquarium experiments suggest that the higher factors are due to a much higher phosphorus intake, higher water temperature, higher retention from pellets than from worms, and possible higher retention by catfish than bluegill under the same conditions. 36 references, 15 figures, 22 tables

  15. Hypoxic Prostate/Muscle PO{sub 2} Ratio Predicts for Outcome in Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer: Long-Term Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turaka, Aruna [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Buyyounouski, Mark K., E-mail: mark.buyyounouski@fccc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hanlon, Alexandra L. [School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Horwitz, Eric M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Greenberg, Richard E. [Department of Surgery, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Movsas, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To correlate tumor oxygenation status with long-term biochemical outcome after prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Custom-made Eppendorf PO{sub 2} microelectrodes were used to obtain PO{sub 2} measurements from the prostate (P), focused on positive biopsy locations, and normal muscle tissue (M), as a control. A total of 11,516 measurements were obtained in 57 men with localized prostate cancer immediately before prostate brachytherapy was given. The Eppendorf histograms provided the median PO{sub 2}, mean PO{sub 2}, and % <5 mm Hg or <10 mm Hg. Biochemical failure (BF) was defined using both the former American Society of Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) (three consecutive raises) and the current Phoenix (prostate-specific antigen nadir + 2 ng/mL) definitions. A Cox proportional hazards regression model evaluated the influence of hypoxia using the P/M mean PO{sub 2} ratio on BF. Results: With a median follow-up time of 8 years, 12 men had ASTRO BF and 8 had Phoenix BF. On multivariate analysis, P/M PO{sub 2} ratio <0.10 emerged as the only significant predictor of ASTRO BF (p = 0.043). Hormonal therapy (p = 0.015) and P/M PO{sub 2} ratio <0.10 (p = 0.046) emerged as the only independent predictors of the Phoenix BF. Kaplan-Meier freedom from BF for P/M ratio <0.10 vs. {>=}0.10 at 8 years for ASTRO BF was 46% vs. 78% (p = 0.03) and for the Phoenix BF was 66% vs. 83% (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Hypoxia in prostate cancer (low mean P/M PO{sub 2} ratio) significantly predicts for poor long-term biochemical outcome, suggesting that novel hypoxic strategies should be investigated.

  16. Evaluate the potential environmental toxicity of quantum dots on ciliated protozoa by microcalorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Qi [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Huang, Shan, E-mail: huangs@whu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Su, Wei [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); Li, Peiyuan [College of Pharmacy, Guangxi Traditional Chinese Medical University, Nanning 530001 (China); Liang, Zuocui; Ou, Jianzhen; Ma, Jianqiang [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); Liu, Yi, E-mail: prof.liuyi@263.net [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2012-11-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The toxic effects of QDs to T. thermophila BF{sub 5} using a TAM air microcalorimeter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer QDs were acutely toxic for T. thermophila BF{sub 5} growth in a dose-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The toxicity of different ligands-capped QDs on T. thermophila BF{sub 5} was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer QDs could be ingested by cells and affect the morphology of T. thermophila BF{sub 5}. - Abstract: In the present study, we evaluated the toxic effects of mercaptoacetic acid (MAA)-capped CdSe QDs and CdSe/ZnS QDs to particle-ingesting model ciliated protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila BF{sub 5} (T. thermophila BF{sub 5}) by using a TAM air isothermal microcalorimeter. These results suggested that both MAA-CdSe QDs and MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs were indeed acutely toxic for T. thermophila BF{sub 5} growth in a dose-dependent manner, and the toxicities of both MAA-CdSe QDs and MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs increased dramatically after UV irradiation due to the liberation of more toxic Cd{sup 2+}, which indicated that the toxicity of MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs was less than that of MAA-CdSe QDs. Furthermore, the toxicity of different ligands-capped CdSe/ZnS QDs on T. thermophila BF{sub 5} was also investigated. The uptake of MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs and adenosine 5 Prime -monophosphate (AMP)-CdSe/ZnS QDs by cells and the morphological change during the process of T. thermophila BF{sub 5} growth incubated with these QDs were further studied by fluorescence inverted microscopy.

  17. Linkage and association mapping reveals the genetic basis of brown fibre (Gossypium hirsutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Tianwang; Wu, Mi; Shen, Chao; Gao, Bin; Zhu, De; Zhang, Xianlong; You, Chunyuan; Lin, Zhongxu

    2018-02-24

    Brown fibre cotton is an environmental-friendly resource that plays a key role in the textile industry. However, the fibre quality and yield of natural brown cotton are poor, and fundamental research on brown cotton is relatively scarce. To understand the genetic basis of brown fibre cotton, we constructed linkage and association populations to systematically examine brown fibre accessions. We fine-mapped the brown fibre region, Lc 1 , and dissected it into 2 loci, qBF-A07-1 and qBF-A07-2. The qBF-A07-1 locus mediates the initiation of brown fibre production, whereas the shade of the brown fibre is affected by the interaction between qBF-A07-1 and qBF-A07-2. Gh_A07G2341 and Gh_A07G0100 were identified as candidate genes for qBF-A07-1 and qBF-A07-2, respectively. Haploid analysis of the signals significantly associated with these two loci showed that most tetraploid modern brown cotton accessions exhibit the introgression signature of Gossypium barbadense. We identified 10 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fibre yield and 19 QTLs for fibre quality through a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and found that qBF-A07-2 negatively affects fibre yield and quality through an epistatic interaction with qBF-A07-1. This study sheds light on the genetics of fibre colour and lint-related traits in brown fibre cotton, which will guide the elite cultivars breeding of brown fibre cotton. © 2018 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Activation of the Basal Forebrain by the Orexin/Hypocretin Neurons: Orexin International Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigoni, Elda; Mochizuki, Takatoshi; Scammell, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    The orexin neurons play an essential role in driving arousal and in maintaining normal wakefulness. Lack of orexin neurotransmission produces a chronic state of hypoarousal characterized by excessive sleepiness, frequent transitions between wake and sleep, and episodes of cataplexy. A growing body of research now suggests that the basal forebrain (BF) may be a key site through which the orexin-producing neurons promote arousal. Here we review anatomical, pharmacological and electrophysiological studies on how the orexin neurons may promote arousal by exciting cortically-projecting neurons of the BF. Orexin fibers synapse on BF cholinergic neurons and orexin-A is released in the BF during waking. Local application of orexins excites BF cholinergic neurons, induces cortical release of acetylcholine, and promotes wakefulness. The orexin neurons also contain and probably co-release the inhibitory neuropeptide dynorphin. We found that orexin-A and dynorphin have specific effects on different classes of BF neurons that project to the cortex. Cholinergic neurons were directly excited by orexin-A, but did not respond to dynorphin. Non-cholinergic BF neurons that project to the cortex seem to comprise at least two populations with some directly excited by orexin that may represent wake-active, GABAergic neurons, whereas others did not respond to orexin but were inhibited by dynorphin and may be sleep-active, GABAergic neurons. This evidence suggests that the BF is a key site through which orexins activate the cortex and promotes behavioral arousal. In addition, orexins and dynorphin may act synergistically in the BF to promote arousal and improve cognitive performance. PMID:19723027

  19. Pain relief effect of breast feeding and music therapy during heel lance for healthy-term neonates in China: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiemin; Hong-Gu, He; Zhou, Xiuzhu; Wei, Haixia; Gao, Yaru; Ye, Benlan; Liu, Zuguo; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi

    2015-03-01

    to test the effectiveness of breast feeding (BF), music therapy (MT), and combined breast feeding and music therapy (BF+MT) on pain relief in healthy-term neonates during heel lance. randomised controlled trial. in the postpartum unit of one university-affiliated hospital in China from August 2013 to February 2014. among 288 healthy-term neonates recruited, 250 completed the trial. All neonates were undergoing heel lancing for metabolic screening, were breast fed, and had not been fed for the previous 30 minutes. all participants were randomly assigned into four groups - BF, MT, BF+MT, and no intervention - with 72 neonates in each group. Neonates in the control group received routine care. Neonates in the other three intervention groups received corresponding interventions five minutes before the heel lancing and throughout the whole procedure. Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS), latency to first cry, and duration of first crying. mean changes in NIPS scores from baseline over time was dependent on the interventions given. Neonates in the BF and combined BF+MT groups had significantly longer latency to first cry, shorter duration of first crying, and lower pain mean score during and one minute after heel lance, compared to the other two groups. No significant difference in pain response was found between BF groups with or without music therapy. The MT group did not achieve a significantly reduced pain response in all outcome measures. BF could significantly reduce pain response in healthy-term neonates during heel lance. MT did not enhance the effect of pain relief of BF. healthy-term neonates should be breast fed to alleviate pain during heel lance. There is no need for the additional input of classical music on breast feeding in clinic to relieve procedural pain. Nurses should encourage breast feeding to relieve pain during heel lance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Magnetoelectric and electric measurements of the (1-x)BiFeO{sub 3}–(x)Pb(Fe{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2})O{sub 3} solid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochenek, D., E-mail: dariusz.bochenek@us.edu.pl [University of Silesia, Faculty of Computer Science and Material Science, Institute of Technology and Mechatronics, 12, Żytnia St., 41–200, Sosnowiec (Poland); Niemiec, P. [University of Silesia, Faculty of Computer Science and Material Science, Institute of Technology and Mechatronics, 12, Żytnia St., 41–200, Sosnowiec (Poland); Guzdek, P. [Institute of Electron Technology Cracow Division, 39, Zabłocie St., Cracow, 30-701 (Poland); Wzorek, M. [Institute of Electron Technology, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668, Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-07-01

    In the paper ferro–electro–magnetic (1-x)BiFeO{sub 3}-(x)Pb(Fe{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2})O{sub 3} (BF-PFN) solid solutions were obtained (containing the percentage BF/PFN: 60/40 and 70/30). Individual components of the solid solution were prepared by follows methods: synthesizing a powder BF was performed by calcining the simple oxides (Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and synthesizing a powder PFN was carried out by calcining a mixture of complex oxides (FeNbO{sub 4}, PbO). Compaction of synthesized and mixed BiFeO{sub 3}, PbFe{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2}O{sub 3} powders was carried out by free sintering methods. X–ray, microstructure, dielectric, magnetic and magnetoelectric studies, DC electrical conductivity and electrical hysteresis loop were carried out. Magnetoelectric effect measurements performed at room temperature showed coupling between electric and magnetic subsystem of the BF–PFN solid solutions. - Highlights: • BF-PFN samples have a densely packed microstructure, with well crystallized grains. • Bi atoms possibly migrate from BF toward PFN component during sintering. • BF-PFN have a diffuse character of the ferroelectric–paraelectric phase transition. • Magnetoelectric coefficient (α{sub ME}) for BF-PFN is higher, than for pure BF. • The α{sub ME} for BF-PFN is about three times higher than for 0.75BiFeO{sub 3}–0.25BaTiO{sub 3}.

  1. Permanent 125I-seed prostate brachytherapy: early prostate specific antigen value as a predictor of PSA bounce occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazeron Renaud

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To evaluate predictive factors for PSA bounce after 125I permanent seed prostate brachytherapy and identify criteria that distinguish between benign bounces and biochemical relapses. Materials and methods Men treated with exclusive permanent 125I seed brachytherapy from November 1999, with at least a 36 months follow-up were included. Bounce was defined as an increase ≥ 0.2 ng/ml above the nadir, followed by a spontaneous return to the nadir. Biochemical failure (BF was defined using the criteria of the Phoenix conference: nadir +2 ng/ml. Results 198 men were included. After a median follow-up of 63.9 months, 21 patients experienced a BF, and 35.9% had at least one bounce which occurred after a median period of 17 months after implantation (4-50. Bounce amplitude was 0.6 ng/ml (0.2-5.1, and duration was 13.6 months (4.0-44.9. In 12.5%, bounce magnitude exceeded the threshold defining BF. Age at the time of treatment and high PSA level assessed at 6 weeks were significantly correlated with bounce but not with BF. Bounce patients had a higher BF free survival than the others (100% versus 92%, p = 0,007. In case of PSA increase, PSA doubling time and velocity were not significantly different between bounce and BF patients. Bounces occurred significantly earlier than relapses and than nadir + 0.2 ng/ml in BF patients (17 vs 27.8 months, p Conclusion High PSA value assessed 6 weeks after brachytherapy and young age were significantly associated to a higher risk of bounces but not to BF. Long delays between brachytherapy and PSA increase are more indicative of BF.

  2. Evaluate the potential environmental toxicity of quantum dots on ciliated protozoa by microcalorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Qi; Huang, Shan; Su, Wei; Li, Peiyuan; Liang, Zuocui; Ou, Jianzhen; Ma, Jianqiang; Liu, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The toxic effects of QDs to T. thermophila BF 5 using a TAM air microcalorimeter. ► QDs were acutely toxic for T. thermophila BF 5 growth in a dose-dependent manner. ► The toxicity of different ligands-capped QDs on T. thermophila BF 5 was investigated. ► QDs could be ingested by cells and affect the morphology of T. thermophila BF 5 . - Abstract: In the present study, we evaluated the toxic effects of mercaptoacetic acid (MAA)-capped CdSe QDs and CdSe/ZnS QDs to particle-ingesting model ciliated protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila BF 5 (T. thermophila BF 5 ) by using a TAM air isothermal microcalorimeter. These results suggested that both MAA-CdSe QDs and MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs were indeed acutely toxic for T. thermophila BF 5 growth in a dose-dependent manner, and the toxicities of both MAA-CdSe QDs and MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs increased dramatically after UV irradiation due to the liberation of more toxic Cd 2+ , which indicated that the toxicity of MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs was less than that of MAA-CdSe QDs. Furthermore, the toxicity of different ligands-capped CdSe/ZnS QDs on T. thermophila BF 5 was also investigated. The uptake of MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs and adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP)-CdSe/ZnS QDs by cells and the morphological change during the process of T. thermophila BF 5 growth incubated with these QDs were further studied by fluorescence inverted microscopy.

  3. Oro-facial evaluation of women with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyuela, C P S; Furtado, R N V; Chiari, A; Natour, J

    2015-05-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an aggressive articular autoimmune disease that causes deformities and disability. The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) might be affected by this disease. Few controlled studies have evaluated bite force (BF) and oro-facial manifestations of this disease. To characterise oro-facial alterations in patients with RA, correlate these results with clinical and disease activity parameters and correlate BF with hand strength (HS). A cross-sectional study of 150 women was performed, (75 RA patients (RA group) and 75 healthy individuals (control group). The presence of articular sounds, pain on palpation of masseter, temporal and TMJ lateral pole, changes in occlusion, range of mandibular motion, measurement of BF in the incisor and molar regions and assessment of HS were evaluated. In relation to oro-facial evaluation there were statistical differences between the groups. There was correlation between BF and HS, in the RA group, this correlation was consistent in patients with natural teeth. Patients with RA had lower scores (P < 0·05) in the HAQ, DASH and OHIP-14 questionnaires than the control group. Inverse correlations were found between BF and HAQ, but not between BF and DAS-28, DASH and OHIP-14 questionnaires in the RA group. The women with RA presented more signs and symptoms in the oro-facial region and had a lower BF than the women in the control group. BF was inversely correlated with the overall function (evaluated by the HAQ) in the patients with RA, and there were correlations between BF and HS in the RA patients and in the control group. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Comparison of biochemical failure rates between permanent prostate brachytherapy and radical retropubic prostatectomy as a function of posttherapy PSA nadir plus ‘X’

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Kamran A; Davis, Brian J; Mynderse, Lance A; Slezak, Jeffrey M; Bergstralh, Eric J; Wilson, Torrence M; Choo, C Richard

    2014-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir + 2 ng/mL, also known as the Phoenix definition, is the definition most commonly used to establish biochemical failure (BF) after external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer management. The purpose of this study is to compare BF rates between permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) and radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) as a function of PSA nadir plus varying values of X and examine the associated implications. We retrospectively searched for patients who underwent PPB or RRP at our institution between 1998 and 2004. Only primary patients not receiving androgen-deprivation therapy were included in the study. Three RRP patients were matched to each PPB patient on the basis of prognostic factors. BF rates were estimated for PSA nadirs + different values of X. A total of 1,164 patients were used for analysis: 873 in the RRP group and 291 in the PPB group. Patients were equally matched by clinical stage, biopsy Gleason sum, primary Gleason grade, and pretherapy PSA value. Median follow-up was 3.1 years for RRP patients and 3.6 years in the PPB group (P = .01). Using PSA nadir + 0.1 ng/mL for the definition of BF, the 5-year BF rate was 16.3% for PPB patients and 13.5% for RRP patients (P = .007), whereas at nadir + 2 ng/mL or greater, the BF rates were less than 3% and were indistinguishable between PPB and RRP patients. In a cohort of well-matched patients who had prostatectomy or brachytherapy, we examined BF as a function of nadir + X, where X was treated as a continuous variable. As X increases from 0.1 to 2.0 ng/mL, the BF curves converge, and above 2.0 ng/mL they are essentially indistinguishable. The data presented are of interest as BF definitions continue to evolve

  5. Abatement of styrene waste gas emission by biofilter and biotrickling filter: comparison of packing materials and inoculation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, M C; Álvarez-Hornos, F J; Portune, K; Gabaldón, C

    2015-01-01

    The removal of styrene was studied using two biofilters packed with peat and coconut fibre (BF1-P and BF2-C, respectively) and one biotrickling filter (BTF) packed with plastic rings. Two inoculation procedures were applied: an enriched culture with strain Pseudomonas putida CECT 324 for BFs and activated sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant for the BTF. Inlet loads (ILs) between 10 and 45 g m(-3) h(-1) and empty bed residence times (EBRTs) from 30 to 120 s were applied. At inlet concentrations ranging between 200 and 400 mg Nm(-3), removal efficiencies between 70 % and 95 % were obtained in the three bioreactors. Maximum elimination capacities (ECs) of 81 and 39 g m(-3) h(-1) were obtained for the BF1-P and BF2-C, respectively (IL of 173 g m(-3) h(-1) and EBRT of 60 s in BF1-P; IL of 89 g m(-3) h(-1) and EBRT of 90 s in BF2-C). A maximum EC of 52 g m(-3) h(-1) was obtained for the BTF (IL of 116 g m(-3) h(-1), EBRT of 45 s). Problems regarding high pressure drop appeared in the peat BF, whereas drying episodes occurred in the coconut fibre BF. DGGE revealed that the pure culture used for BF inoculation was not detected by day 105. Although two different inoculation procedures were applied, similar styrene removal at the end of the experiments was observed. The use as inoculum of activated sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant appears a more feasible option.

  6. The interrealtionship between locally applied heat, ageing and skin blood flow on heat transfer into and from the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrofsky, Jerrold; Alshahmmari, Faris; Yim, Jong Eun; Hamdan, Adel; Lee, Haneul; Neupane, Sushma; Shetye, Gauri; Moniz, Harold; Chen, Wei-Ti; Cho, Sungkwan; Pathak, Kunal; Malthane, Swapnil; Shenoy, Samruddha; Somanaboina, Karunakar; Alshaharani, Mastour; Nevgi, Bhakti; Dave, Bhargav; Desai, Rajavi

    2011-07-01

    In response to a thermal stress, skin blood flow (BF) increases to protect the skin from damage. When a very warm, noxious, heat source (44 °C) is applied to the skin, the BF increases disproportionately faster than the heat stress that was applied, creating a safety mechanism for protecting the skin. In the present investigation, the rate of rise of BF in response to applied heat at temperatures between 32 °C and 40 °C was examined as well as the thermal transfer to and from the skin with and without BF in younger and older subjects to see how the skin responds to a non-noxious heat source. Twenty male and female subjects (10 - 20-35 years, 10 - 40-70 years) were examined. The arms of the subjects were passively heated for 6 min with and without vascular occlusion by a thermode at temperatures of 32, 36, 38 or 40 °C. When occlusion was not used during the 6 min exposure to heat, there was an exponential rise in skin temperature and BF in both groups of subjects over the 6-min period. However, the older subjects achieved similar skin temperatures but with the expenditure of fewer calories from the thermode than was seen for the younger subjects (p<0.05). BF was significantly less in the older group than the younger group at rest and after exposure to each of the three warmest thermode temperatures (p<0.05). As was seen for noxious temperatures, after a delay, the rate of rise of BF at the three warmest thermode temperatures was faster than the rise in skin temperature in the younger group but less in the older group of subjects. Thus, a consequence of ageing is reduced excess BF in response to thermal stress increasing susceptibility to thermal damage. This must be considered in modelling of BF. Copyright © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

  7. Functionality of the contralateral biceps femoris reflex response during human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevenson, Andrew James Thomas; Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Sinkjaer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    of the body in order to maintain dynamic equilibrium during walking. Therefore, we hypothesized that if we suddenly slowed the treadmill participants were walking on, the cBF reflex would be inhibited because the necessity to break the forward progression of the body would be decreased. Conversely, if we...... the treadmill velocity was altered concurrently or 50 ms after knee perturbation onset. These results, together with the finding that the cBF reflex response is under some cortical control [1], strongly suggest a functional role for the cBF reflex during walking that is adaptable to the environmental situation....

  8. Comparación de barnices y dentífrico con flúor en la prevención de caries en escolares

    OpenAIRE

    Irigoyen-Camacho, María E; Luengas-Aguirre, María I; Amador-Pedraza, Yazmine; Zepeda-Zepeda, Marco A; Villanueva-Gutiérrez, Teresa; Sánchez-Pérez, Leonor

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo Comparar el efecto preventivo de caries dental de dos frecuencias de aplicación de barniz fluorado (BF) con un grupo que utilizó instrucciones de cepillado con dentífrico fluorado. Materiales y Método Se siguieron durante 22 meses a 203 niños de una escuela primaria en la delegación Tláhuac, Ciudad de México, quienes fueron asignados aleatoriamente a uno de los siguientes grupos: 1) instrucciones de cepillado con dentífrico fluorado 3 veces al año, 2) BF semestral, 3) BF tres aplicac...

  9. Effect of By-product Feed-based Silage Feeding on the Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers (a Field Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y I; Park, J M; Lee, Y H; Lee, M; Choi, D Y; Kwak, W S

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding by-product feed (BF)-based silage on the performance, blood metabolite parameters, and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. The BF-based silage was composed of 50% spent mushroom substrate, 21% recycled poultry bedding, 15% cut ryegrass straw, 10.8% rice bran, 2% molasses, 0.6% bentonite, and 0.6% microbial additive (on a wet basis), and ensiled for over 5 d. Fifteen steers were allocated to three diets during the growing and fattening periods (3.1 and 9.8 months, respectively): a control diet (concentrate mix and free access to rice straw), a 50% BF-based silage diet (control diet+50% of maximum BF-based silage intake), and a 100% BF-based silage diet (the same amount of concentrate mix and ad libitum BF-based silage). The BF-based silage was fed during the growing and fattening periods, and was replaced with larger particles of rice straw during the finishing period. After 19.6 months of the whole period all the steers were slaughtered. Compared with feeding rice straw, feeding BF-based silage tended (p = 0.10) to increase the average daily gain (27%) and feed efficiency (18%) of the growing steers, caused by increased voluntary feed intake. Feeding BF-based silage had little effect on serum constituents, electrolytes, enzymes, or the blood cell profiles of fattening steers, except for low serum Ca and high blood urea concentrations (p<0.05). Feeding BF-based silage did not affect cold carcass weight, yield traits such as back fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, yield index or yield grade, or quality traits such as meat color, fat color, texture, maturity, marbling score, or quality grade. However, it improved good quality grade (1(+) and 1(++)) appearance rates (60% for the control group vs 100% for the BF-based silage-fed groups). In conclusion, cheap BF-based silage could be successfully used as a good quality roughage source for beef cattle.

  10. Effect of ageing time in vacuum package on veal longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris physical and sensory traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Baldi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Study evaluated the effects of vacuum ageing (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16 days on veal loin (longissimus dorsi; LD and silverside (biceps femoris; BF physical and sensory characteristics. Ageing did not affect cooking loss, increased LD pH and L*, a* and b* in both muscles. Shear force (SF decreased until day 6 in LD and day 10 in BF. Aroma, flavor and taste were not affected, while texturetraits were improved. SF was negative correlated with tenderness and juiciness and positive correlated with BF fibrousness and stringy sensation. Ageing improved texture properties withoutaltering other sensory traits.

  11. Chemical separation of boron isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palko, A.A.

    1978-06-01

    This is the final report of the research performed at ORNL on the chemical fractionation of boron isotopes between BF/sub 3/ gas and the liquid molecular addition compounds of BF/sub 3/. Thirty compounds were studied, ten of them in detail. Graphs and equations are given for variation of isotopic equilibrium constant, vapor pressure, and BF/sub 3/ solubility as a function of temperature. Rate of isotopic exchange and melting points were determined. Several of the compounds are likely candidates for use in a gas-liquid countercurrent exchange system for large-scale separation of boron isotopes. 23 figs, 53 tables, 39 references.

  12. Injection of natural gas in the blast furnace tuyeres three of the Usiminas, Ipatinga Plant; Injecao de gas natural nas ventaneiras do alto-forno 3 da Usiminas, Usina de Ipatinga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Murilo Alves Tito de; Rosa, Ericson Rimen Ribeiro; Oliveira, Claudiney Freitas de; Hostt, Helton [USIMINAS, Ipatinga, MG (Brazil). Gerencia Geral de Reducao

    2011-12-21

    The reduction in production costs is a major strategic objectives of Usiminas and the use of natural gas in the Blast Furnace 3 (BF 3) contribute to achieve this goal. The use of natural gas as fuel in the BF 3 to reduce the use of metallurgical coke (main fuel) and reduces production losses during periods of maintenance in the pulverized coal injection system and improving operational control of the Blast Furnace. The work presents the deployment of the natural gas injection and the performance obtained by the BF 3 from the start of injection, with a focus on reducing consumption of metallurgical coke and stable operation of blast furnace (author)

  13. THE RELATION OF FAT FREE MASS TO LUNG FUNCTION, MUSCLE STRENGTH AND EXERCISE PERFORMANCE IN PATIENTS WITH EMPHYSEMA

    OpenAIRE

    竹中, 英昭

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes of body composition in patients with pulmonary emphysema (PE) and their influence on physiological function. Body composition analysis by means of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was performed in 36 patients with stable PE and 19 age-matched healthy controls. I compared fat free mass (FFM) and body fat (BF), as a percentage of ideal body weight (FFM/IBW, BF/IBW), between patients with PE and healthy controls. FFM/IBW and BF /IBW were...

  14. Breast-feeding trends and the breast-feeding promotion programme in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, N E

    1990-03-01

    Breastfeeding (BF) duration and incidence have declined in the Philippines since 1973, particularly among urban, better-educated and higher income groups. As more and more women move into these modern groups, BF may continue to decline, making attempts to decrease fertility more difficult. The National Movement for the Promotion of Breastfeeding (NMPB) seeks to overcome the declines by encouraging a wide range of BF promotion activities including improving hospital practices and implementing a 5-year plan. In 1988, the 2nd 5 years of the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund support for BF promotion started as part of a program to strengthen health services for child survival. Also in 1988, the Ministry of Health directed private hospitals to have rooming-in. In 1984, BF promotion messages began in the mass media. In 1983, NMPB was set up. The NMPB is housed in the Department of Public Health and has 30 member agencies: 14 governmental organizations and 25 nongovernmental agencies/institutions. From 1982-84 a longitudinal study on decision making regrading infant feeding practices was started. A hospital-based BF promotion program was started in the city of Baguio in the 70s. "Rooming-in" is required in government facilities, but there is a need for education programs for women so that they will continue their healthy practices at home. Challenges of the Philippines BF promotion program corner 4 areas: 1) health facilities; 2) information, education, and communication; 3) training; and 4) outreach. Research activities for the future include: 1) continued monitoring of patterns and trends of BF, including evaluation of the 1988 national survey; 2) analysis of the impact of "rooming-in" programs; 3) studies on the cost effectiveness of different strategies for increasing BF incidence and length and modifying BF practices and beliefs; 4) testing of strategies for helping working women to breastfeed; 5) research on obstacles to BF in private hospitals

  15. Validity of Standing Posture Eight-electrode Bioelectrical Impedance to Estimate Body Composition in Taiwanese Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Chun Lee

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the impedance index and LST in the whole body, upper limbs, and lower limbs derived from DXA findings were highly correlated. The LST and BF% estimated by BIA8 in whole body and various body segments were highly correlated with the corresponding DXA results; however, BC-418 overestimates the participants' appendicular LST and underestimates whole body BF%. Therefore, caution is needed when interpreting the results of appendicular LST and whole body BF% estimated for elderly adults.

  16. Synthesis, structure, and properties of azatriangulenium salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, B.W.; Krebs, Frederik C

    2001-01-01

    amines and, by virtue of its stepwise and irreversible nature, provides a powerful tool for the preparation of a wide variety of new heterocyclic carbenium salts. Several derivatives of the three new oxygen- and/or nitrogen-bridged triangulenium salts, azadioxa- (6), diazaoxa- (7......), and triazatriangulenium (4), have been synthesized and their physicochemical properties have been investigated. Crystal structures for compounds 2 b-PF6: 2d-PF6, 4b-BF4, 4c-BF4, 6e-BF4, and 8 are reported. The different packing modes found for the triazatriagulenium salts are discussed in relation to the electrostatic...

  17. Ocular surface area and human eye blink frequency during VDU work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pernille Kofoed; Søgaard, Karen; Skotte, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    . The low BF during the active task was succeded by a burst with high BF after cessation of the active task, indicating a compensatory blinking process. This stresses that interchange of work tasks with different cognitive load is as important as the monitor position in the prevention of visual......The purpose of this study was to investigate how the ocular surface area (OSA) and the eye blink frequency (BF) are affected by a high versus a low-monitor position during visual display unit (VDU) work with varying cognitive demands. In a balanced randomized (2 x 2) design ten healthy subjects...

  18. Biomolecule-to-fluorescent-color encoder: modulation of fluorescence emission via DNA structural changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Takahiro; Ogura, Yusuke; Yamada, Kenji; Ohno, Yuko; Tanida, Jun

    2014-01-01

    A biomolecule-to-fluorescent-color (B/F) encoder for optical readout of biomolecular information is proposed. In the B/F encoder, a set of fluorescence wavelengths and their intensity levels are used for coding of a biomolecular signal. A hybridization chain reaction of hairpin DNAs labeled with fluorescent reporters was performed to generate the fluorescence color codes. The fluorescence is modulated via fluorescence resonance energy transfer, which is controlled by DNA structural changes. The results demonstrate that fluorescent color codes can be configured based on two wavelengths and five intensities using the B/F encoder, and the assigned codes can be retrieved via fluorescence measurements. PMID:25071950

  19. Chemical separation of boron isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palko, A.A.

    1978-06-01

    This is the final report of the research performed at ORNL on the chemical fractionation of boron isotopes between BF 3 gas and the liquid molecular addition compounds of BF 3 . Thirty compounds were studied, ten of them in detail. Graphs and equations are given for variation of isotopic equilibrium constant, vapor pressure, and BF 3 solubility as a function of temperature. Rate of isotopic exchange and melting points were determined. Several of the compounds are likely candidates for use in a gas-liquid countercurrent exchange system for large-scale separation of boron isotopes. 23 figs, 53 tables, 39 references

  20. Effects of lipid emulsion with various concentrations on hemodynamics of a rabbit model with bupivacaine-induced cardiac depression%不同浓度脂肪乳剂对布比卡因心脏抑制家兔模型血流动力学影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓霞; 郎中兵; 陈楠; 龙海林; 徐昆

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨不同浓度脂肪乳剂分别对布比卡因心脏抑制家兔模型血流动力学影响。方法:28只家兔随机分为B组(布比卡因与生理盐水组),BF10组(布比卡因与30%脂肪乳组),BF20组(布比卡因与20%脂肪乳组),BF10组(布比卡因与10%脂肪乳组)。家兔静脉输入布比卡因(4mg.kg-1.min-1),使平均动脉压(MAP)降至基础值的60%,局麻药心脏抑制的中毒模型造模成功。BF30组、BF20组、BF10组分别静脉注射30%、20%、10%脂肪乳剂负荷量1mL/kg,然后匀速输入0.5mL/kg/min脂肪乳剂。B组以同样速度和容量输入生理盐水。家兔平均动脉压和心率恢复至基础值80%视为治疗成功。分别监测记录各组家兔基础心率和基础平均动脉压、治疗成功时间以及治疗成功率。结果:各组家兔的基础心率、基础平均动脉压无差异。BF30组的治疗成功时间显著小于BF20组、BF10组以及B组,BF20组的治疗成功时间小于BF10组以及B组。BF30组的治疗成功率显著高于BF20组、BF10组以及B组,BF20组的治疗成功率高于BF10组与B组,BF10组与B组间未见明显差异。结论:脂肪乳剂有拮抗布比卡因导致的家兔心脏毒性的作用,且呈现浓度依赖性,30%脂肪乳剂的拮抗作用最大。%Objective:To investigate the effects of lipid emulsion with various concentrations on hemodynamics of a rabbit model with bupivacaine-induced cardiac depression.Methods:New Zealand rabbits(n=28) were randomly divided into four groups which are group B(n=7,treated with bupivacaine plus saline),group BF30(n=7,treated with bupivacaine plus lipid emulsion with 30% original concentration),group BF20(n=7,treated with bupivacaine plus lipid emulsion with 20% original concentration)and group BF10(n=7,treated with bupivacaine plus lipid emulsion with 10% original concentration).Bupivacaine was injected via rabbit's auricular vein,and MAP decreased to 60

  1. Spleen removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spleen. Sickle cell anemia . Splenic artery aneurysm (rare). Trauma to the spleen. Risks Risks for anesthesia and surgery in general ... removal - series References Brandow AM, Camitta BM. Hyposplenism, splenic trauma, and splenectomy. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. ...

  2. Methanol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tests Chest x-ray CT (computerized tomography, or advanced imaging) scan EKG (electrocardiogram, or heart tracing) Fluids ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  3. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... urine, and stool tests CT (computerized tomography, or advanced imaging) scan Ultrasound of the abdomen X-rays ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  4. Windshield washer fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tests Chest x-ray CT (computerized tomography, or advanced imaging) scan EKG (electrocardiogram, or heart tracing) Fluids ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  5. Near infrared reactance for the estimation of body fatness in regularly exercising individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J; Lambert, M I; Micklesfield, L K; Goedecke, J H; Jennings, C L; Savides, L; Claassen, A; Lambert, E V

    2013-07-01

    Near infrared reactance (NIR) is used to measure body fat percentage (BF%), but there is little data on its use in non-obese, regularly exercising individuals. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the limits of agreement between NIR compared to dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for the measurement of BF% in 2 cohorts of regularly exercising individuals. BF% was measured using DXA and NIR in a regular exercising (≥3 sessions/week), healthy active cohort (HA; n=57), and in a regularly exercising and resistance trained (≥2 sessions/week) cohort (RT; n=59). The RT cohort had lower BF% than the HA cohort (15.3±5.5% and 25.8±7.1%, Pexercising individuals. However, the rather broad LOA of NIR need to be considered when using NIR to screen for overweight and obesity, or measure and track changes in body composition. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Paddling, Punishing and Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Irwin A.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the extent and use of corporal punishment in public schools, the results of research on the effectiveness of corporal punishment as a deterrent to misbehavior, and the use and effect of alternative measures of classroom management. (BF)

  7. Role of plasma adiponectin /C-reactive protein ratio in obesity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences ... Objective(s): We examined relations between fasting plasma adiponectin (ADIP), C-reactive protein (CRP) ... Methods: Fasting plasma ADIP, CRP, Insulin (IN), HOMA-IR, lipid profiles, body fat percent (%BF), waist ...

  8. Anionic polymerization and polyhomologation: An ideal combination to synthesize polyethylene-based block copolymers

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, H.; Alkayal, N.; Gnanou, Yves; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos

    2013-01-01

    A novel one-pot methodology combining anionic polymerization and polyhomologation, through a "bridge" molecule (BF3OEt 2), was developed for the synthesis of polyethylene (PE)-based block copolymers. The anionically synthesized macroanion reacts

  9. The small angle tile calorimeter in the DELPHI experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Alvsvaag, S J; Barreira, G; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bigi, M; Bonesini, M; Bozzo, M; Camporesi, T; Carling, H; Cassio, V; Castellani, L; Cereseto, R; Chignoli, F; Della Ricca, G; Dharmasiri, D R; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fenyuk, A; Ferrari, P; Gamba, D; Giordano, V; Guz, Yu; Guerzoni, M; Gumenyuk, S A; Hedberg, V; Jarlskog, G; Karyukhin, A N; Klovning, A; Konoplyannikov, A K; Kronkvist, I J; Lanceri, L; Leoni, R; Maeland, O A; Maio, A; Mazza, R; Migliore, E; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Negri, P; Nossum, B; Obraztsov, V F; Onofre, A; Paganoni, M; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Petrovykh, L P; Pimenta, M; Poropat, P; Prest, M; Read, A L; Romero, A; Shalanda, N A; Simonetti, L; Skaali, T B; Stugu, B; Terranova, F; Tomé, B; Torassa, E; Trapani, P P; Verardi, M G; Vallazza, E; Vlasov, E; Zaitsev, A

    1999-01-01

    The {\\bf S}mall angle {\\bf TI}le {\\bf C}alorimeter ({\\bf STIC}) provides calorimetric coverage in the very forward region of the DELPHI experiment at the CERN LEP collider. The structure of the calorimeters, built with a so-called ``shashlik'' technique, gives a perfectly hermetic calorimeter and still allows for the insertion of tracking detectors within the sampling structure to measure the direction of the showering particle. A charged-particle veto system, composed of two scintillator layers, makes it possible to trigger on single photon events and provides e-$\\gamma$ separat ion. Results are presented from the extensive studies of these detectors in the CERN testbeams prior to installation and of the detector performance at LEP.

  10. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... the surface finish and dimensional features of metallic and non-metallic parts using different types of media. ... geometry of prototype, layer density, part orientation, types of BF media, weight of media and finish cycle time, ... Sadhana | News.

  11. Insulin action in adipose tissue and muscle in hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, George; Mitrou, Panayota; Lambadiari, Vaia; Boutati, Eleni; Maratou, Eirini; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Koukkou, Efi; Tzanela, Marinela; Thalassinos, Nikos; Raptis, Sotirios A

    2006-12-01

    Although insulin resistance in thyroid hormone excess is well documented, information on insulin action in hypothyroidism is limited. To investigate this, a meal was given to 11 hypothyroid (HO; aged 45 +/- 3 yr) and 10 euthyroid subjects (EU; aged 42 +/- 4 yr). Blood was withdrawn for 360 min from veins (V) draining the anterior abdominal sc adipose tissue and the forearm and from the radial artery (A). Blood flow (BF) in adipose tissue was measured with 133Xe and in forearm with strain-gauge plethysmography. Tissue glucose uptake was calculated as (A-V)glucose(BF), lipoprotein lipase as (A-V)Triglycerides(BF), and lipolysis as [(V-A)glycerol(BF)]-lipoprotein lipase. The HO group had higher glucose and insulin levels than the EU group (P hypothyroidism: 1) glucose uptake in muscle and adipose tissue is resistant to insulin; 2) suppression of lipolysis by insulin is not impaired; and 3) hypertriglyceridemia is due to decreased clearance by the adipose tissue.

  12. Bio/neurofeedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Carrobles

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofeedback (BF techniques were developed by psychology in the 1960s having then a long history in which they have proved their usefulness and therapeutic efficacy in a considerable variety of clinical disorders: neurologic, neuromuscular, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, chronic pain, dermatological, sleep, respiratory, trauma and stress, among many other disorders. Practical applications of the BF include in particular Electroencephalographic Biofeedback (BF-EEG, known as Neurofeedback (NF, whose importance and clinical applications have grown and continue to grow rapidly thanks to the significant development in the fields of neuroscience and computer science on which NF rests. This paper describes and analyzes the technique and process of BF and NF, apart from their methodological foundations but, above all, from a critical point of view, the paper examines their main clinical applications together with the level of utility and therapeutic effectiveness currently achieved.

  13. Biofiltration of a styrene/acetone vapor mixture in two reactor types under conditions of styrene overloading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubos Zapotocky

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This aim of study was to compare the performance of a biofilter (BF and trickle bed reactor (TBR under increased styrene loading with a constant acetone load, 2 gc/m3/h. At styrene loading rates up to 30 gc/m3/h, the BF showed higher styrene removal than TBR. However, the BF efficiency started to drop beyond this threshold loading and could never reach steady state, whereas the TBR continued to yield a 50% styrene removal. The acetone removal remained constant (93-98% in both the reactors at any styrene loading. Once the overloading was lifted, the BF recovered within 26 min, whereas the TBR efficiency bounced back only to 95%, gradually returning to complete removal only in 10 h.

  14. Selective CO2 gas adsorption in the narrow crystalline cavities of flexible peptide metallo-macrocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Ryosuke; Kuwata, Chika; Masumoto, Yui

    2015-02-21

    Crystalline peptide Ni(ii)-macrocycles (BF4(-) salt) exhibited moderate CO2 gas adsorption (ca. 6-7 CO2 molecules per macrocycle) into very narrow cavities (narrowest part gas in preference to CH4 and N2 gases.

  15. 40 CFR 798.6500 - Schedule-controlled operant behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., such as food or water (Ferster and Skinner, 1957 under paragraph (f)(2) of this section). For example....B. Skinner, B.F. Schedules of Reinforcement. (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1957). (3) Laties...

  16. Echinococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Echinococcosis is an infection caused by either the Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis tapeworm. The infection is also ... References Fischer PR, Cabada MM, White AC. Echinococcosis ( Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis ). In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ...

  17. Learning Theories Applied to the Teaching of Business Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Maxine Barton

    1980-01-01

    Reviews major learning theories that can be followed by business communication instructors, including those by David Ausubel, Albert Bandura, Kurt Lewin, Edward Thorndike, B.F. Skinner, and Robert Gagne. (LRA)

  18. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    RSV; Palivizumab; Respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin; Bronchiolitis - RSV ... Crowe JE. Respiratory syncytial virus. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ...

  19. Crystal structure of a dinuclear CoII complex with bridging fluoride ligands: di-μ-fluorido-bis{tris[(6-methylpyridin-2-ylmethyl]amine}dicobalt(II bis(tetrafluoridoborate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Inomata

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Reaction of Co(BF42·6H2O with tris[(6-methylpyridin-2-ylmethyl]amiine in methanol results in a fluoride abstraction from BF4−, yielding the unexpected title compound, [Co2F2(C21H24N42](BF42. The complex cation consists of two inversion-related [Co(C21H24N4]2+ moieties bridged by a pair of fluoride ligands. The CoII cation is six-coordinated in a distorted octahedral geometry and forms a +II high-spin state. In the crystal, the complex cation and the BF4− anion are connected by C—H...F hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. An intramolecular C—H...F hydrogen bond is also observed.

  20. Statistics for High Energy Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    The lectures emphasize the frequentist approach used for Dark Matter search and the Higgs search, discovery and measurements of its properties. An emphasis is put on hypothesis test using the asymptotic formulae formalism and its derivation, and on the derivation of the trial factor formulae in one and two dimensions. Various test statistics and their applications are discussed.  Some keywords: Profile Likelihood, Neyman Pearson, Feldman Cousins, Coverage, CLs. Nuisance Parameters Impact, Look Elsewhere Effect... Selected Bibliography: G. J. Feldman and R. D. Cousins, A Unified approach to the classical statistical analysis of small signals, Phys.\\ Rev.\\ D {\\bf 57}, 3873 (1998). A. L. Read, Presentation of search results: The CL(s) technique,'' J.\\ Phys.\\ G {\\bf 28}, 2693 (2002). G. Cowan, K. Cranmer, E. Gross and O. Vitells,  Asymptotic formulae for likelihood-based tests of new physics,' Eur.\\ Phys.\\ J.\\ C {\\bf 71}, 1554 (2011) Erratum: [Eur.\\ Phys.\\ J.\\ C {\\bf 73}...

  1. Duality in non-linear B and F models: equivalence between self-dual and topologically massive Born-Infeld B and F models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, R.; Nascimento, J.R.S.; Ribeiro, R.F.; Wotzasek, C.

    2002-01-01

    We study the dual equivalence between the non-linear generalization of the self-dual (NSD BF ) and the topologically massive B and F models with particular emphasis on the non-linear electrodynamics proposed by Born and Infeld. This is done through a dynamical gauge embedding of the non-linear self-dual model yielding to a gauge invariant and dynamically equivalent theory. We clearly show that non-polinomial NSD BF models can be map, through a properly defined duality transformation into TM BF actions. The general result obtained is then particularized for a number of examples, including the Born-Infeld-BF (BIBF) model that has experienced a revival in the recent literature

  2. Reduction in ground reaction force variables with instructed barefoot running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia D. Samaan

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: As impact loading has been associated with certain running-related injuries, instruction and feedback on the proper forefoot strike pattern may help reduce the injury risk associated with transitioning to BF running.

  3. Hypervitaminosis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... much vitamin A, or you have symptoms of excess vitamin A. Prevention How much vitamin A you need ... Saunders; 2015:chap 218. Ross AC, Tan L. Vitamin A deficiencies and excess. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, ...

  4. Vitamin A blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A higher than normal value means you have excess vitamin A in your blood (toxic levels). This may ... Saunders; 2013:1175-1177. Ross AC, Tan L. Vitamin A deficiencies and excess. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, ...

  5. Niemann-Pick disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    NPD; Sphingomyelinase deficiency; Lipid storage disorder - Niemann-Pick disease; Lysosomal storage disease - Niemann-Pick ... lipofuscinoses or Batten disease (Wolman disease, cholesteryl ... metabolism of lipids. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, ...

  6. Osteomyelitis - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 21. Kaplan SL. Osteomyelitis. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. ... Krogstad P. Osteomyelitis. In: Cherry JD, Harrison GJ, Kaplan SL, Steinbach WJ, Hotez PJ, eds. Feigin and ...

  7. Doctor of medicine profession (MD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... set could be more helpful in some situations. Economics also played an important role, because specialists typically ... Saunders; 2016:chap 1. Kaljee L, Stanton BF. Cultural issues in pediatric care. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton ...

  8. Gamma (1S+2S+3S) production in d plus Au and p plus p collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV and cold-nuclear-matter effects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Tomášek, Lukáš; Tomášek, Michal; Vrba, Václav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 4 (2013), "044909-1"-"044909-13" ISSN 0556-2813 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : parton distributions Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.881, year: 2013

  9. Insulin sensitivity is reduced in children with high body-fat regardless of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fairchild, Timothy J; Klakk, Heidi; Heidemann, Malene

    2018-01-01

    BF% was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured and the homoeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) used to assess insulin sensitivity. RESULTS: Approximately 8% of children classified as normal weight...... by BMI had high BF% (NW + Adipose). Children with high BF% had significantly higher insulin (NW + adipose: 32.3%; OW/OB + Adipose: 52.2%) and HOMA-IR scores (NW + Adipose: 32.3%; OW/OB + Adipose: 55.3%) than children classified as NW without high BF% (reference group; NW + NonAdipose). Adjusting for CRF...

  10. Some factors affecting the accuracy of uranium content determined by DNC measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Quanxun

    1988-01-01

    Some factors affecting the accuracy of uranium contents determined by delayed neutron counting and methods solving these problems are described. One of the factors is deterioration of the BF 3 proportional counters. This problem is discussed in more detail

  11. Enrichment of gluten-free cakes with lupin (Lupinus albus L.) or buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levent, Hacer; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2011-11-01

    In the present study, the effect of debittered lupin flour (LF) and whole buckwheat flour (BF) on the nutritional and sensory quality of gluten-free cake was studied. LF (10, 20, 30 and 40%) and BF (5, 10, 15 and 20%) were partially replaced with corn starch and rice flour mixture (1:1 w/w) in the gluten-free cake recipe. LF increased the protein, calcium, iron, manganese, phosphorus and zinc contents of the cakes, while BF caused a significant increase (P cakes. According to the overall acceptability rating, it was concluded that gluten-free cake could be produced with satisfactory results by the addition of LF and BF up to 30% and 10%, respectively.

  12. Antioxidant Activities of Methanol Extract and Solvent Fractions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-09

    : The antioxidant activities of ME as well as its chloroform, butanol, and aqueous fractions (CF,. BF and WF ... quantified to determine if these phytochemical parameters ..... food items using reversed-phase HPLC. Food Chem.

  13. Prevalence and factors associated with body mass index in children aged 9–11 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Luis de Moraes Ferrari

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: High prevalence of overweight/obesity was observed in children from São Caetano do Sul. Different associated factors were identified between the genders, with only BF% being common in both genders.

  14. Nasal flaring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AP, Clark JA, Sarnaik AA. Respiratory distress and failure. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, ... Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also ...

  15. Experimental investigation on shore hardness of barrel-finished ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rupinder Singh

    2017-08-02

    Aug 2, 2017 ... Barrel finishing (BF) process is widely used to improve the surface finish and dimensional features of metallic and ... plastic-based waste can be easily recycled. However .... The pattern prepared with solid density has a dense.

  16. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV positive mothers in Kabarole district, Uganda. Design ... While breast feeding (BF) improves child survival than exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). This is partially ..... encouraged and reinforcement messages regarding infant feeding should ...

  17. Iron overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tracing) X-ray to detect and track iron tablets through the stomach and intestines Treatment may include: ... BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016: ...

  18. Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    Presented are organization and tasks of the departments of the BfS: Central Department Z (administration, legal concerns); Department S Radiation Hygiene; Department ST Radiation Protection; Department KT Nuclear Safety; Department ET Nuclear Waste Management and Transport. (HP) [de

  19. Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some types of fat. Supplements of medium-chain triglycerides are taken under the supervision of a health ... St. Geme JW, Schor NF. Defects in the metabolism of lipids. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. ...

  20. Von Gierke disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sugar test Genetic testing Lactic acid blood test Triglyceride level Uric acid blood test If a person ... 45. Kishnani PS, Chen Y-T. Defects in metabolism of carbohydrates. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. ...

  1. Optimal body fat percentage cut-off values for identifying cardiovascular risk factors in Mongolian and Han adults: a population-based cross-sectional study in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanlong; Wang, Hailing; Wang, Ke; Wang, Wenrui; Dong, Fen; Qian, Yonggang; Gong, Haiying; Xu, Guodong; Li, Guoju; Pan, Li; Zhu, Guangjin; Shan, Guangliang

    2017-04-17

    The present study was designed to determine the optimal cut-off values of body fat percentage (BF%) for the detection of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Mongolian and Han adults. This cross-sectional study involving 3221 Chinese adults (2308 Han and 913 Mongolian) aged 20-80 years was conducted in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, in 2014. Data from a standardised questionnaire, physical examination and blood sample were obtained. The BF% was estimated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Optimal BF% cut-offs were analysed by receiver operating characteristic curves to predict the risk of diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the OR of each CVD risk factor according to obesity defined by BF%. Mean BF% levels were lower in men than in women (22.54±5.77 vs 32.95±6.18 in Han, 23.86±5.72 vs 33.98±6.40 in Mongolian population, respectively; ppopulation, the area under curve (AUC) values for BF% ranged from 0.589 to 0.699 for men and from 0.711 to 0.763 for women. Compared with men, AUCs for diabetes and clustering of ≥2 risk factors in women were significantly higher (ppopulation. In Han adults, the optimal BF% cut-off values to detect CVD risk factors varied from 18.7% to 24.2% in men and 32.7% to 35.4% in women. In Mongolian population, the optimal cut-off values of BF% for men and women ranged from 21.0% to 24.6% and from 35.7% to 40.0%, respectively. Subjects with high BF% (≥24% in men, ≥34% in women) had higher risk of CVD risk factors in Han (age-adjusted ORs from 1.479 to 3.680, 2.660 to 4.016, respectively). In Mongolia, adults with high BF% (≥25% in men, ≥35% in women) had higher risk of CVD risk factors (age-adjusted ORs from 2.587 to 3.772, 2.061 to 4.882, respectively). The optimal BF% cut-offs for obesity for the prediction of CVD risk factors in Chinese men and women were approximately 24% and 34% for Han adults and 25% and 35% for Mongolian

  2. Acute exposure to synthetic pyrethroids causes bioconcentration and disruption of the hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid axis in zebrafish embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Wenqing; Xu, Chao; Lu, Bin; Lin, Chunmian; Wu, Yongming; Liu, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) have the potential to disrupt the thyroid endocrine system in mammals; however, little is known of the effects of SPs and underlying mechanisms in fish. In the current study, embryonic zebrafish were exposed to various concentrations (1, 3 and 10 μg/L) of bifenthrin (BF) or λ-cyhalothrin (λ-CH) until 72 h post fertilization, and body condition, bioaccumulation, thyroid hormone levels and transcription of related genes along the hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis examined. Body weight was significantly decreased in the λ-CH exposure groups, but not the BF exposure groups. BF and λ-CH markedly accumulated in the larvae, with concentrations ranging from 90.7 to 596.8 ng/g. In both exposure groups, alterations were observed in thyroxine (T 4 ) and triiodothyronine (T 3 ) levels. In addition, the majority of the HPT axis-related genes examined, including CRH, TSHβ, TTR, UGT1ab, Pax8, Dio2 and TRα, were significantly upregulated in the presence of BF. Compared to BF, λ-CH induced different transcriptional regulation patterns of the tested genes, in particular, significant stimulation of TTR, Pax8, Dio2 and TRα levels along with concomitant downregulation of Dio1. Molecular docking analyses revealed that at the atomic level, BF binds to thyroid hormone receptor (TRα) protein more potently than λ-CH, consequently affecting HPT axis signal transduction. In vitro and in silico experiments disclosed that during the early stages of zebrafish development, BF and λ-CH have the potential to disrupt thyroid endocrine system. - Highlights: • Following respective exposure of embryos to BF and λ-CH, thyroid endocrine disruption was investigated in zebrafish embryos. • Thyroid hormones (T3 and T4 levels) were significantly altered after being exposed to BF and λ-CH. • Gene transcription modulation in the HPT axis was examined. • BF and λ-CH bioconcentration in zebrafish larvae were evident. • BF binds to thyroid hormone

  3. Acute exposure to synthetic pyrethroids causes bioconcentration and disruption of the hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid axis in zebrafish embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Wenqing [Research Institute of Poyang Lake, Jiangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanchang 330029 (China); Institute of Environmental Science, College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Xu, Chao, E-mail: chaoxu@zjut.edu.cn [Institute of Environmental Science, College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Lu, Bin; Lin, Chunmian [Institute of Environmental Science, College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Wu, Yongming [Research Institute of Poyang Lake, Jiangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanchang 330029 (China); Liu, Weiping [Institute of Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) have the potential to disrupt the thyroid endocrine system in mammals; however, little is known of the effects of SPs and underlying mechanisms in fish. In the current study, embryonic zebrafish were exposed to various concentrations (1, 3 and 10 μg/L) of bifenthrin (BF) or λ-cyhalothrin (λ-CH) until 72 h post fertilization, and body condition, bioaccumulation, thyroid hormone levels and transcription of related genes along the hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis examined. Body weight was significantly decreased in the λ-CH exposure groups, but not the BF exposure groups. BF and λ-CH markedly accumulated in the larvae, with concentrations ranging from 90.7 to 596.8 ng/g. In both exposure groups, alterations were observed in thyroxine (T{sub 4}) and triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) levels. In addition, the majority of the HPT axis-related genes examined, including CRH, TSHβ, TTR, UGT1ab, Pax8, Dio2 and TRα, were significantly upregulated in the presence of BF. Compared to BF, λ-CH induced different transcriptional regulation patterns of the tested genes, in particular, significant stimulation of TTR, Pax8, Dio2 and TRα levels along with concomitant downregulation of Dio1. Molecular docking analyses revealed that at the atomic level, BF binds to thyroid hormone receptor (TRα) protein more potently than λ-CH, consequently affecting HPT axis signal transduction. In vitro and in silico experiments disclosed that during the early stages of zebrafish development, BF and λ-CH have the potential to disrupt thyroid endocrine system. - Highlights: • Following respective exposure of embryos to BF and λ-CH, thyroid endocrine disruption was investigated in zebrafish embryos. • Thyroid hormones (T3 and T4 levels) were significantly altered after being exposed to BF and λ-CH. • Gene transcription modulation in the HPT axis was examined. • BF and λ-CH bioconcentration in zebrafish larvae were evident. • BF binds to thyroid

  4. Biofilm Formation in Klebsiella pneumoniae Bacteremia Strains Was Found to be Associated with CC23 and the Presence of wcaG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-xin Zheng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia biofilm traits and distribution characteristics have not been clarified. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of K. pneumoniae bacteremia biofilm formation (BF and to explore the virulence factors associated with K. pneumoniae BF. A total of 250 K. pneumoniae bacteremia isolates were collected from patients in Shenzhen and Shanghai, China. Virulence genes in their genomes were detected by PCR. The isolates were subjected to multilocus sequence typing (MLST and clonal complex (CC classification based on housekeeping genes. Biofilms were detected by crystal violet staining. Greater BF was observed in isolates from young adults (<40 years old than in those from seniors (≥65 years old; P = 0.002. MLST yielded 65 different sequence types (STs, with the most represented STs being ST11, ST23, and ST65, and the main CCs were CC23 and CC65; CC23 isolates exhibited greater BF than CC65 or ST11 isolates (both P < 0.001. BF was more pronounced among magA(K1, aero+, rmpA+, rmpA2+, allS+, wcaG+, and iutA+ isolates than in isolates that were negative for these virulence factors. Multivariate regression analysis revealed only wcaG as an independent risk factor for BF (odds ratio 11.426, P < 0.001, and BF was decreased when wcaG was silenced by antisense RNA. In conclusion, BF in K. pneumoniae bacteremia isolates was found to be associated with CC23 classification and the presence of the wcaG virulence factor gene.

  5. The Role of Body Adiposity Index in Determining Body Fat Percentage in Colombian Adults with Overweight or Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez; Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista; Katherine González-Ruíz; Alejandra Tordecilla-Sanders; Antonio García-Hermoso; Jacqueline Schmidt-RioValle; Emilio González-Jiménez

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the accuracy of body adiposity index (BAI) as a convenient tool for assessing body fat percentage (BF%) in a sample of adults with overweight/obesity using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The study population was composed of 96 volunteers (60% female, mean age 40.6 ?? 7.5 years old). Anthropometric characteristics (body mass index, height, waist-to-height ratio, hip and waist circumference), socioeconomic status, and diet were assessed, and BF% ...

  6. Matrix infrared spectra and electronic structure calculations of the first actinide borylene: FB=ThF(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefeng; Roos, Björn O; Andrews, Lester

    2010-03-14

    Laser-ablated Th atoms react with BF(3) during condensation in excess argon at 6 K to form the first actinide borylene (FB=ThF(2)) and actinide-boron multiple bond. Three new product absorptions in the B-F and Th-F stretching regions of matrix infrared spectra are assigned to FB=ThF(2) from comparison to theoretically predicted vibrational frequencies.

  7. Identification of candidate genes associated with porcine meat color traits by genome-wide transcriptome analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bojiang Li; Chao Dong; Pinghua Li; Zhuqing Ren; Han Wang; Fengxiang Yu; Caibo Ning; Kaiqing Liu; Wei Wei; Ruihua Huang; Jie Chen; Wangjun Wu; Honglin Liu

    2016-01-01

    Meat color is considered to be the most important indicator of meat quality, however, the molecular mechanisms underlying traits related to meat color remain mostly unknown. In this study, to elucidate the molecular basis of meat color, we constructed six cDNA libraries from biceps femoris (Bf) and soleus (Sol), which exhibit obvious differences in meat color, and analyzed the whole-transcriptome differences between Bf (white muscle) and Sol (red muscle) using high-throughput sequencing techn...

  8. Non invasive blood flow measurement in cerebellum detects minimal hepatic encephalopathy earlier than psychometric tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipo, Vicente; Urios, Amparo; Giménez-Garzó, Carla; Cauli, Omar; Andrés-Costa, Maria-Jesús; González, Olga; Serra, Miguel A; Sánchez-González, Javier; Aliaga, Roberto; Giner-Durán, Remedios; Belloch, Vicente; Montoliu, Carmina

    2014-09-07

    To assess whether non invasive blood flow measurement by arterial spin labeling in several brain regions detects minimal hepatic encephalopathy. Blood flow (BF) was analyzed by arterial spin labeling (ASL) in different brain areas of 14 controls, 24 cirrhotic patients without and 16 cirrhotic patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). Images were collected using a 3 Tesla MR scanner (Achieva 3T-TX, Philips, Netherlands). Pulsed ASL was performed. Patients showing MHE were detected using the battery Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score (PHES) consisting of five tests. Different cognitive and motor functions were also assessed: alterations in selective attention were evaluated using the Stroop test. Patients and controls also performed visuo-motor and bimanual coordination tests. Several biochemical parameters were measured: serum pro-inflammatory interleukins (IL-6 and IL-18), 3-nitrotyrosine, cGMP and nitrates+nitrites in plasma, and blood ammonia. Bivariate correlations were evaluated. In patients with MHE, BF was increased in cerebellar hemisphere (P = 0.03) and vermis (P = 0.012) and reduced in occipital lobe (P = 0.017). BF in cerebellar hemisphere was also increased in patients without MHE (P = 0.02). Bimanual coordination was impaired in patients without MHE (P = 0.05) and much more in patients with MHE (P battery and with CFF. BF in cerebellar hemisphere correlates with plasma cGMP and nitric oxide (NO) metabolites. BF in vermis cerebellar also correlates with NO metabolites and with 3-nitrotyrosine. IL-18 in plasma correlates with BF in thalamus and occipital lobe. Non invasive BF determination in cerebellum using ASL may detect MHE earlier than the PHES. Altered NO-cGMP pathway seems to be associated to altered BF in cerebellum.

  9. Dependency of the hydrogen bonding capacity of the solvent anion on the thermal stability of feruloyl esterases in ionic liquid systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuner, Birgitte; Ståhlberg, Tim; Nguyen van Buu, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    acid with glycerol in four ionic liquid (IL) systems. The IL systems were systematically composed of two selected pairs of cations and anions, respectively: [BMIm][PF6], [C2OHMIm][PF6], [BMIm][BF4], and [C2OHMIm][BF4]. AnFaeA had activity in [PF6]--based ILs, whereas the AndFaeC and the FAE in Ultraflo...

  10. Improved W\\'{o}jcik's Eavesdropping Attack on Ping-Pong Protocol Without Eavesdropping-Induced Channel Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhan-jun; Li, Yong; Man, Zhong-xiao

    2004-01-01

    The eavesdropping scheme proposed by W\\'{o}jcik [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 90},157901(2003)] on the ping-pong protocol [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 89}, 187902(2002)] is improved by constituting a new set of attack operations. The improved scheme has a zero eavesdropping-induced channel loss and produces perfect anticorrelation. Therefore, the eavesdropper Eve can safely attack all the transmitted bits and the eavesdropping information gain can always exceed the legitimate user's information gain in th...

  11. Electromyogram biofeedback training for daytime clenching and its effect on sleep bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, M; Iizuka, T; Watanabe, A; Iwase, N; Otsuka, H; Terada, N; Fujisawa, M

    2015-02-01

    Bruxism contributes to the development of temporomandibular disorders as well as causes dental problems. Although it is an important issue in clinical dentistry, no treatment approaches have been proven effective. This study aimed to use electromyogram (EMG) biofeedback (BF) training to improve awake bruxism (AB) and examine its effect on sleep bruxism (SB). Twelve male participants (mean age, 26·8 ± 2·5 years) with subjective symptoms of AB or a diagnosis of SB were randomly divided into BF (n = 7) and control (CO, n = 5) groups to undergo 5-h daytime and night-time EMG measurements for three consecutive weeks. EMG electrodes were placed over the temporalis muscle on the habitual masticatory side. Those in the BF group underwent BF training to remind them of the occurrence of undesirable clenching activity when excessive EMG activity of certain burst duration was generated in week 2. Then, EMGs were recorded at week 3 as the post-BF test. Those in the CO group underwent EMG measurement without any EMG BF training throughout the study period. Although the number of tonic EMG events did not show statistically significant differences among weeks 1-3 in the CO group, events in weeks 2 and 3 decreased significantly compared with those in week 1, both daytime and night-time, in the BF group (P < 0·05, Scheffé's test). This study results suggest that EMG BF to improve AB tonic EMG events can also provide an effective approach to regulate SB tonic EMG events. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Cholinergic depletion and basal forebrain volume in primary progressive aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolien Schaeverbeke

    2017-01-01

    In the PPA group, only LV cases showed decreases in AChE activity levels compared to controls. Surprisingly, a substantial number of SV cases showed significant AChE activity increases compared to controls. BF volume did not correlate with AChE activity levels in PPA. To conclude, in our sample of PPA patients, LV but not SV was associated with cholinergic depletion. BF atrophy in PPA does not imply cholinergic depletion.

  13. Body mass index adjustments to increase the validity of body fatness assessment in UK Black African and South Asian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudda, M T; Nightingale, C M; Donin, A S; Fewtrell, M S; Haroun, D; Lum, S; Williams, J E; Owen, C G; Rudnicka, A R; Wells, J C K; Cook, D G; Whincup, P H

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Body mass index (BMI) (weight per height2) is the most widely used marker of childhood obesity and total body fatness (BF). However, its validity is limited, especially in children of South Asian and Black African origins. We aimed to quantify BMI adjustments needed for UK children of Black African and South Asian origins so that adjusted BMI related to BF in the same way as for White European children. Methods: We used data from four recent UK studies that made deuterium dilution BF measurements in UK children of White European, South Asian and Black African origins. A height-standardized fat mass index (FMI) was derived to represent BF. Linear regression models were then fitted, separately for boys and girls, to quantify ethnic differences in BMI–FMI relationships and to provide ethnic-specific BMI adjustments. Results: We restricted analyses to 4–12 year olds, to whom a single consistent FMI (fat mass per height5) could be applied. BMI consistently underestimated BF in South Asians, requiring positive BMI adjustments of +1.12 kg m−2 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.83, 1.41 kg m−2; Pchildren. However, these were complex because there were statistically significant interactions between Black African ethnicity and FMI (P=0.004 boys; P=0.003 girls) and also between FMI and age group (Pchildren with higher unadjusted BMI and the smallest in older children with lower unadjusted BMI. Conclusions: BMI underestimated BF in South Asians and overestimated BF in Black Africans. Ethnic-specific adjustments, increasing BMI in South Asians and reducing BMI in Black Africans, can improve the accuracy of BF assessment in these children. PMID:28325931

  14. Iminium Salts by Meerwein Alkylation of Ehrlich’s Aldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Laus

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available 4-(Dimethylaminobenzaldehyde is alkylated at the N atom by dialkyl sulfates, MeI, or Me3O BF4. In contrast, ethylation by Et3O BF4 occurs selectively at the O atom yielding a quinoid iminium ion. 4-(Diethylaminobenzaldehyde is alkylated only at O by either Et or Me oxonium reagent. The iminium salts are prone to hydrolysis giving the corresponding hydrotetrafluoroborates. Five crystal structures were determined.

  15. Characterization of a gamma spectrometry monitor LaBr{sub 3} automatic stations for environmental monitoring; Caracterizacion de un monitor de espectrometria gamma de LaBr{sub 3} para las estaciones automaticas de vigilancia ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, A.; Salvador-Castineria, P.; Roig, M.; Fernandez-Varea, J. M.; Padro, A.

    2011-07-01

    The Institut de Techniques Energetiques (INTE) of the Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC) is collaborating with the German Radiation Protection (BfS) in order to characterize LaBr{sub 3} detector developed by the BfS for future installation of monitoring networks automatic. This paper presents the results obtained with the monitor installed on the roof of the premises of INTE South Campus located in Barcelona and Monte Carlo simulations that complement its characterization.

  16. Injury Prevention and Performance Enhancement in 101st Airborne Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    assessments consisting of strength, cardiorespiratory, anaerobic, and body composition tests. Isokinetic strength testing 10 was performed on the...a meter or more. Moreover, the maximum VGRF experienced during landing tasks performed in the field could be much greater than the standardized... isokinetic strength. Subjects were assigned to groups based on the DoD’s standard for body fat (Group 1: ≤18% BF; Group 2 >18% BF). Soldiers who met

  17. Gender- and Gestational Age-Specific Body Fat Percentage at Birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin P

    2011-08-08

    Background: There is increasing evidence that in utero growth has both immediate and far-reaching influence on health. Birth weight and length are used as surrogate measures of in utero growth. However, these measures poorly reflect neonatal adiposity. Air-displacement plethysmography has been validated for the measurement of body fat in the neonatal population. Objective: The goal of this study was to show the normal reference values of percentage body fat (%BF) in infants during the first 4 days of life. Methods: As part of a large population-based birth cohort study, fat mass, fat-free mass, and %BF were measured within the first 4 days of life using air-displacement plethsymography. Infants were grouped into gestational age and gender categories. Results: Of the 786 enrolled infants, fat mass, fat-free mass, and %BF were measured in 743 (94.5%) infants within the first 4 days of life. %BF increased significantly with gestational age. Mean (SD) %BF at 36 to 37 weeks\\' gestation was 8.9% (3.5%); at 38 to 39 weeks\\' gestation, 10.3% (4%); and at 40 to 41 weeks\\' gestation, 11.2% (4.3%) (P < .001). Female infants had significantly increased mean (SD) %BF at 38 to 39(11.1% [3.9%] vs 9.8% [3.9%]; P = .012) and at 40 to 41 (12.5% [4.4%] vs 10% [3.9%]; P < .001) weeks\\' gestation compared with male infants. Gender- and gestational age-specific centiles were calculated, and a normative table was generated for reference. Conclusion: %BF at birth is influenced by gestational age and gender. We generated accurate %BF centiles from a large population-based cohort.

  18. Double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of benfotiamine for severe alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzardo, Ann M; He, Jianghua; Poje, Albert; Penick, Elizabeth C; Campbell, Jan; Butler, Merlin G

    2013-12-01

    Alcohol dependence is associated with severe nutritional and vitamin deficiency. Vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency erodes neurological pathways that may influence the ability to drink in moderation. The present study examines tolerability of supplementation using the high-potency thiamine analog, benfotiamine (BF), and BF's effects on alcohol consumption in severely affected, self-identified, alcohol dependent subjects. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 120 non-treatment seeking, actively drinking, alcohol dependent men and women volunteers (mean age=47 years) from the Kansas City area who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for current alcohol dependence. Subjects were randomized to receive 600 mg benfotiamine or placebo (PL) once daily by mouth for 24 weeks with 6 follow-up assessments scheduled at 4 week intervals. Side effects and daily alcohol consumption were recorded. Seventy (58%) subjects completed 24 weeks of study (N=21 women; N=49 men) with overall completion rates of 55% (N=33) for PL and 63% (N=37) for BF groups. No significant adverse events were noted and alcohol consumption decreased significantly for both treatment groups. Alcohol consumption decreased from baseline levels for 9 of 10 BF treated women after 1 month of treatment compared with 2 of 11 on PL. Reductions in total alcohol consumption over 6 months were significantly greater for BF treated women (BF: N=10, -611 ± 380 standard drinks; PL: N=11, -159 ± 562 standard drinks, p-value=0.02). BF supplementation of actively drinking alcohol dependent men and women was well-tolerated and may discourage alcohol consumption among women. The results do support expanded studies of BF treatment in alcoholism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Random Matrix Theory of the Energy-Level Statistics of Disordered Systems at the Anderson Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Canali, C. M.

    1995-01-01

    We consider a family of random matrix ensembles (RME) invariant under similarity transformations and described by the probability density $P({\\bf H})= \\exp[-{\\rm Tr}V({\\bf H})]$. Dyson's mean field theory (MFT) of the corresponding plasma model of eigenvalues is generalized to the case of weak confining potential, $V(\\epsilon)\\sim {A\\over 2}\\ln ^2(\\epsilon)$. The eigenvalue statistics derived from MFT are shown to deviate substantially from the classical Wigner-Dyson statistics when $A

  20. Superspace gauge fixing of topological Yang-Mills theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantinidis, Clisthenis P; Piguet, Olivier [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES) (Brazil); Spalenza, Wesley [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2004-03-01

    We revisit the construction of topological Yang-Mills theories of the Witten type with arbitrary space-time dimension and number of ''shift supersymmetry'' generators, using a superspace formalism. The super-BF structure of these theories is exploited in order to determine their actions uniquely, up to the ambiguities due to the fixing of the Yang-Mills and BF gauge invariance. UV finiteness to all orders of perturbation theory is proved in a gauge of the Landau type. (orig.)