WorldWideScience

Sample records for beryllium surface contamination

  1. Analysis of surface contaminants on beryllium and aluminum windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmur, N.F.

    1987-06-01

    An effort has been made to document the types of contamination which form on beryllium window surfaces due to interaction with a synchrotron radiation beam. Beryllium windows contaminated in a variety of ways (exposure to water and air) exhibited surface powders, gels, crystals and liquid droplets. These contaminants were analyzed by electron diffraction, electron energy loss spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and wet chemical methods. Materials found on window surfaces include beryllium oxide, amorphous carbon, cuprous oxide, metallic copper and nitric acid. Aluminum window surface contaminants were also examined

  2. Analysis of surface contaminants on beryllium windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmur, N.F.

    1986-12-01

    It is known that various crystalline and liquid compounds form on the downstream surfaces of beryllium windows exposed to air. It is also known that the integrity of such windows may be compromised resulting in leaks through the window. The purpose of this report is to document the occurrences described as they pertain to the NSLS and to analyze, where possible, the various substances formed

  3. Sampling for Beryllium Surface Contamination using Wet, Dry and Alcohol Wipe Sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, Kent [Central Missouri State Univ., Warrensburg, MO (United States)

    2004-12-01

    This research project was conducted at the National Nuclear Security Administration's Kansas City Plant, operated by Honeywell Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, in conjunction with the Safety Sciences Department of Central Missouri State University, to compare relative removal efficiencies of three wipe sampling techniques currently used at Department of Energy facilities. Efficiencies of removal of beryllium contamination from typical painted surfaces were tested by wipe sampling with dry Whatman 42 filter paper, with water-moistened (Ghost Wipe) materials, and by methanol-moistened wipes. Test plates were prepared using 100 mm X 15 mm Pyrex Petri dishes with interior surfaces spray painted with a bond coat primer. To achieve uniform deposition over the test plate surface, 10 ml aliquots of solution containing 1 beryllium and 0.1 ml of metal working fluid were transferred to the test plates and subsequently evaporated. Metal working fluid was added to simulate the slight oiliness common on surfaces in metal working shops where fugitive oil mist accumulates over time. Sixteen test plates for each wipe method (dry, water, and methanol) were processed and sampled using a modification of wiping patterns recommended by OSHA Method 125G. Laboratory and statistical analysis showed that methanol-moistened wipe sampling removed significantly more (about twice as much) beryllium/oil-film surface contamination as water-moistened wipes (p< 0.001), which removed significantly more (about twice as much) residue as dry wipes (p <0.001). Evidence for beryllium sensitization via skin exposure argues in favor of wipe sampling with wetting agents that provide enhanced residue removal efficiency.

  4. Controlling Beryllium Contaminated Material And Equipment For The Building 9201-5 Legacy Material Disposition Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, T.D.; Easterling, S.D.

    2010-01-01

    This position paper addresses the management of beryllium contamination on legacy waste. The goal of the beryllium management program is to protect human health and the environment by preventing the release of beryllium through controlling surface contamination. Studies have shown by controlling beryllium surface contamination, potential airborne contamination is reduced or eliminated. Although there are areas in Building 9201-5 that are contaminated with radioactive materials and mercury, only beryllium contamination is addressed in this management plan. The overall goal of this initiative is the compliant packaging and disposal of beryllium waste from the 9201-5 Legacy Material Removal (LMR) Project to ensure that beryllium surface contamination and any potential airborne release of beryllium is controlled to levels as low as practicable in accordance with 10 CFR 850.25.

  5. Method for removal of beryllium contamination from an article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simandl, Ronald F.; Hollenbeck, Scott M.

    2012-12-25

    A method of removal of beryllium contamination from an article is disclosed. The method typically involves dissolving polyisobutylene in a solvent such as hexane to form a tackifier solution, soaking the substrate in the tackifier to produce a preform, and then drying the preform to produce the cleaning medium. The cleaning media are typically used dry, without any liquid cleaning agent to rub the surface of the article and remove the beryllium contamination below a non-detect level. In some embodiments no detectible residue is transferred from the cleaning wipe to the article as a result of the cleaning process.

  6. Beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Nora K.; Jaskula, Brian W.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Schulte, Ruth F.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    producing aircraft and satellite structural components that have a high stiffness-to-weight ratio and low surface vibration. Beryllium oxide ceramics are used in a wide range of applications, including missile guidance systems, radar applications, and cell phone transmitters, and they are critical to medical technologies, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines, medical lasers, and portable defibrillators.The United States is expected to remain self-sufficient with respect to most of its beryllium requirements, based on information available at the time this chapter was prepared (2013). The United States is one of only three countries that currently process beryllium ores and concentrate them into beryllium products, and these three countries supply most of the rest of the world with these products. Exploration for new deposits in the United States is limited because domestic beryllium production is dominated by a single producer that effectively controls the domestic beryllium market, which is relatively small and specialized, and the market cannot readily accommodate new competition on the raw material supply side.

  7. Boron nitride protective coating of beryllium window surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmuer, N.F.

    1991-12-01

    The use of beryllium windows on white synchrotron radiation beamlines is constrained by the fact that the downstream surfaces of these windows should not be exposed to ambient atmosphere. They should, rather, be protected by a tail-piece under vacuum or containing helium atmosphere. This tailpiece is typically capped by Kapton (3M Corporation, St. Paul, MN) or aluminum foil. The reason for such an arrangement is due to the health risk associated with contaminants (BeO) which from on the exposed beryllium window surfaces and due to possible loss of integrity of the windows. Such a tail-piece may, however, add unwanted complications to the beamline in the form of vacuum pumps or helium supplies and their related monitoring systems. The Kapton windows may burn through in the case of high intensity beams and lower energy radiation may be absorbed in the case of aluminum foil windows. A more ideal situation would be to provide a coating for the exposed beryllium window surface, sealing it off from the atmosphere, thus preventing contamination and/or degradation of the window, and eliminating the need for helium or vacuum equipment

  8. The unusual properties of beryllium surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpf, R.; Hannon, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    Be is a ''marginal metal.'' The stable phase, hcp-Be, has a low Fermi-level density of states and very anisotropic structural and elastic properties, similar to a semiconductor's. At the Be(0001) surface, surface states drastically increase the Fermi-level density of states. The different nature of bonding in bulk-Be and at the Be(0001) surface explains the large outward relaxation. The presence of surface states causes large surface core-level shifts by inducing a higher electrostatic potential in the surface layers and by improving the screening at the surface. The authors experimental and theoretical investigations of atomic vibrations at the Be(0001) surface demonstrate clearly that Be screening of atomic motion by the surface states makes the surface phonon dispersion fundamentally different from that of the bulk. Properties of Be(0001) are so different from those of the bulk that the surface can be considered a new ''phase'' of beryllium with unique electronic and structural characteristics. For comparison they also study Be(11 bar 20), a very open surface without important surface states. Be(11 bar 20) is the only clean s-p metal surface known to reconstruct (1 x 3 missing row reconstruction)

  9. Investigation of the ion beryllium surface interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseva, M.I.; Birukov, A.Yu.; Gureev, V.M.

    1995-01-01

    The self -sputtering yield of the Be was measured. The energy dependence of the Be self-sputtering yield agrees well with that calculated by W. Eckstein et. al. Below 770 K the self-sputtering yield is temperature independent; at T irr .> 870 K it increases sharply. Hot-pressed samples at 370 K were implanted with monoenergetic 5 keV hydrogen ions and with a stationary plasma (flux power ∼ 5 MW/m 2 ). The investigation of hydrogen behavior in beryllium shows that at low doses hydrogen is solved, but at doses ≥ 5x10 22 m -2 the bubbles and channels are formed. It results in hydrogen profile shift to the surface and decrease of its concentration. The sputtering results in further concentration decrease at doses > 10 25 m -2

  10. Beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In this data sheet the occurrence, ore processing, chemical and physical properties and the uses of beryllium and its alloys is presented. The hazards involved in the use of beryllium and its compounds in the laboratory are discussed with particular reference to its toxicity, carcinogenicity, handling, storage, disposal, fire prevention and the principal health hazards. Further reading is suggested. (UK)

  11. Beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, N.B.

    1980-01-01

    A method for determination of beryllium in minerals and rocks is described. The method comprises microanalysis and trace analysis. Because of the toxidity of beryllium the method is designed for determination of a hitherto unknown small amount, 1-10 nanogram Be. With the optimal amount for determination, 3 ng Be, the relative error of the method is 10%. The description includes an inventory of chemicals and apparatus, also an example of application of the method on the mineral epididymite. In brief, the sample is melted with sodium carbonate and sodium tetra borate; when required the sample in advance is fumed with hydrogen fluoride and sulphuric acid to evaporate silica. The residuum is dissolved in water and hydrogen chloride, upon which the solution is made to volume. In the Ring oven interfering compounds are masked with EDTA. Beryllium is settled with chrome azurol and ammonia. Beryllium is identified and evaluated in comparison with previously produced standards. (author)

  12. Beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, N.B.

    1979-01-01

    A method for determination of beryllium in minerals and rocks is described. The method comprises microanalysis and trace analysis. Because of the toxidity of beryllium the method is designed for determination of a hitherto unknown small amount, 1-10 nanogram Be. With the optimal amount for determination, 3 ng Be, the relative error of the method is 10%. The description includes an inventory of chemicals and apparatus, also an example of application of the method on the mineral epididymite. In brief, the sample is melted with sodium carbonate and sodium tetra borate; when required the sample in advance is fumed with hydrogen fluoride and sulphuric acid to evaporate silica. The residuum is dissolved in water and hydrogen chloride, upon which the solution is made to volume. In the Ring oven interfering compounds are masked with EDTA. Beryllium is settled with chrome azurol and ammonia. Beryllium is identified and evaluated in comparison with previously produced standards. (author)

  13. Data Needs for Erosion and Tritium Retention in Beryllium Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braams, B.J.

    2011-07-01

    A Consultants' Meeting was held at IAEA Headquarters 30-31 May 2011 with the aim to provide advice about the scope and aims of a planned IAEA coordinated research project on erosion and tritium retention in beryllium plasma-facing materials and about other activities of the A+M Data Unit in the area of plasma interaction with beryllium surfaces. The present report contains the proceedings, recommendations and conclusions of that Consultants' Meeting. (author)

  14. Evaluation of Beryllium, Total Chromium and Nickel in the Surface Contaminant Layer Available for Dermal Exposure After Abrasive Blasting in a Shipyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    workers are potentially exposed to metals including cadmium, chromium, beryllium, iron, lead, nickel, tin, zinc and copper (43). 2 Potential worker...identified in the breathing zone air samples at Portsmouth NSY, coal slag was the abrasive in use. Within Portsmouth NSY, there are two main areas...where coal slag is used for blasting: the dry docks for blasting of submarines and in Building 286. Building 286 is a large bay room building where

  15. Investigations of the ternary system beryllium-carbon-tungsten and analyses of beryllium on carbon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kost, Florian

    2009-01-01

    Beryllium, carbon and tungsten are planned to be used as first wall materials in the future fusion reactor ITER. The aim of this work is a characterization of mixed material formation induced by thermal load. To this end, model systems (layers) were prepared and investigated, which give insight into the basic physical and chemical concepts. Before investigating ternary systems, the first step was to analyze the binary systems Be/C and Be/W (bottom-up approach), where the differences between the substrates PG (pyrolytic graphite) and HOPG (highly oriented pyrolytic graphite) were of special interest. Particularly X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low energy ion scattering (ISS) and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) were used as analysis methods. Beryllium evaporated on carbon shows an island growth mode, whereas a closed layer can be assumed for layer thicknesses above 0.7 nm. Annealing of the Be/C system induces Be 2 C island formation for T≥770 K. At high temperatures (T≥1170 K), beryllium carbide dissociates, resulting in (metallic) beryllium desorption. For HOPG, carbide formation starts at higher temperatures compared to PG. Activation energies for the diffusion processes were determined by analyzing the decreasing beryllium amount versus annealing time. Surface morphologies were characterized using angle-resolved XPS (ARXPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Experiments were performed to study processes in the Be/W system in the temperature range from 570 to 1270 K. Be 2 W formation starts at 670 K, a complete loss of Be 2 W is observed at 1170 K due to dissociation (and subsequent beryllium desorption). Regarding ternary systems, particularly Be/C/W and C/Be/W were investigated, attaching importance to layer thickness (reservoir) variations. At room temperature, Be 2 C, W 2 C, WC and Be 2 W formation at the respective interfaces was observed. Further Be 2 C is forming with increasing annealing temperatures. Depending on the layer

  16. MD simulation: determination of the physical properties and surface vaporization analysis of beryllium armours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prinzio, M. Di; Aquaro, D.

    2006-01-01

    The erosion of the divertor and of the first wall determined on the base of the anticipated operating conditions, is a critical issue that could affect the performance and the operating schedule of the nuclear fusion reactor ITER. This paper deals with the analysis of beryllium thermal properties by means of MD simulations, in order to better predict thermal behaviour of beryllium armoured PFCs in fusion devices. The importance of this analysis is clearly connected to thermal response evaluation of PFCs to high heat flux exposure, during off-normal events and Edge Localized Modes. The ensuing strong over-heating, in fact, produces material ablation through vaporization of surface material layers and possible loss of melting material. The overall PFCs erosion has bearings on plasma contamination, due to eroded material transport, and components lifetime, due to armour thickness reduction. An important feature of beryllium is its high vapour pressure. During thermal transients the strong vaporization keeps surface temperature relatively low but eroded thickness results high as well. Small changes in beryllium vapour pressure produce not negligible differences in thermal analyses results. On the basis of available force fields, classical Molecular Dynamics simulations have been carried out in order to better understand surface vaporization in tokamak conditions and to evaluate the effect of beryllium oxides formation. This effect has been successfully modelled by MD simulation, carried out with Moldy code. Morse stretching and bending potential for Be-O bond simulation have been used, and partial charges method, accounting for molecular polarity, has been employed. Since during short thermal transients, such as ELMs, only a few microns of Be armour will be overheated and reach melting threshold, the effective thermal conductivity is very important in determining the temperature evolution of surface layers and the ensuing erosion. Thermal conductivity can be evaluated

  17. Multiscale modelling of hydrogen behaviour on beryllium (0001 surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Stihl

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Beryllium is proposed to be a neutron multiplier and plasma facing material in future fusion devices. Therefore, it is crucial to acquire an understanding of the microscopic mechanisms of tritium accumulation and release as a result of transmutation processes that Be undergoes under neutron irradiation. A multiscale simulation of ad- and desorption of hydrogen isotopes on the beryllium (0001 surface is developed. It consists of ab initio calculations of certain H adsorption configurations, a suitable cluster expansion approximating the energies of arbitrary configurations, and a kinetic Monte Carlo method for dynamic simulations of adsorption and desorption. The processes implemented in the kinetic Monte Carlo simulation are deduced from further ab initio calculations comprising both, static relaxation as well as molecular dynamics runs. The simulation is used to reproduce experimental data and the results are compared and discussed. Based on the observed results, proposals for a refined model are made.

  18. Investigation of the beryllium ion-surface interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guseva, M.I. [Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Birukov, A.Yu. [Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Gureev, V.M. [Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Daneljan, L.S. [Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Korshunov, S.N. [Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Martynenko, Yu.V. [Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Moskovkin, P.S. [Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Sokolov, Yu.A. [Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Stoljarova, V.G. [Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Kulikauskas, V.S. [M.V. Lomonosov University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zatekin, V.V. [M.V. Lomonosov University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-10-01

    The energy and temperature dependence of self-sputtering yields of beryllium were measured. The energy dependence of the beryllium self-sputtering yield agrees well with that calculated by Eckstein et al. Below 770 K the self-sputtering yields are temperature independent; at T{sub irr.}>870 K the yield increases steeply. Beryllium samples were implanted at 370 K with monoenergetic 5 keV hydrogen ions and with a stationary hydrogen plasma power flux of about 5 MW/m{sup 2}. In the fluence range of 5 x 10{sup 22}-1.5 x 10{sup 25} m{sup -2} the depth profile is shifted towards the surface with increasing fluence and the concentration of trapped hydrogen atoms is reduced from 3.3 x 10{sup 21} to 7.4 x 10{sup 20} m{sup -2}. About 95% of the trapped hydrogen is located within bubbles and only {proportional_to}5% is trapped as atoms. With increasing implantation fluence the bubbles coalesce, producing channels through which hydrogen escapes. (orig.).

  19. Radioactive surface contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Kei; Minagoshi, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Toru

    1994-01-01

    To reduce radiation exposure and prevent contamination from spreading, each nuclear power plant has established a radiation controlled area. People and articles out of the controlled area are checked for the surface contamination of radioactive materials with surface contamination monitors. Fuji Electric has repeatedly improved these monitors on the basis of user's needs. This paper outlines typical of a surface contamination monitor, a personal surface contamination monitor, an article surface contamination monitor and a laundry monitor, and the whole-body counter of an internal contamination monitor. (author)

  20. Low-Z material for limiters and wall surfaces in JET: beryllium and carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebut, P.H.; Hugon, M.; Booth, S.J.; Dean, J.R.; Dietz, K.J.; Sonnenberg, K.; Watkins, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    The relative merits of graphite and beryllium, as a low-Z material for limiters and wall surfaces in JET, are compared. A consideration of data on thermomechanical properties, retention of hydrogen and gettering action, indicates that beryllium offers the best prospects as a material for the JET belt limiters and walls. (U.K.)

  1. Occupational exposure to beryllium in French enterprises: a survey of airborne exposure and surface levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Raymond; Catani, Jacques; Créau, Yvon; Frocaut, Anne-Marie; Good, Andrée; Goutet, Pierre; Hou, Alain; Leray, Fabrice; André-Lesage, Marie-Ange; Soyez, Alain

    2009-06-01

    An assessment survey of occupational exposure to beryllium (Be) was conducted in France between late 2004 and the end of 2006. Exposure estimates were based on the analytical results of samples collected from workplace air and from work surfaces in 95 facilities belonging to 37 sectors of activity. The results of this study indicated airborne Be concentrations in excess of the occupational exposure limit value of 2 microg m(-3) recommended in France. Metallurgy and electronic component manufacturing represented the activities and occupations where workers had the highest arithmetic mean exposures to Be. Surface contamination levels were also high and frequently exceeded thresholds recommended by different bodies. These results should prompt the development of prevention programmes that include Be substitution, process control and surface decontamination, in conjunction with suitable medical surveillance.

  2. Method for welding beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O`Leary, R.F.

    1997-04-01

    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. 9 figs.

  3. Method for welding beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O'Leary, R.F.

    1997-01-01

    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. 9 figs

  4. Reduction of surface erosion caused by helium blistering in sintered beryllium and sintered aluminum powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.K.; Kaminsky, M.

    1976-01-01

    Studies have been conducted to find materials with microstructures which minimize the formation of blisters. A promising class of materials appears to be sintered metal powder with small average grain sizes and low atomic number Z. Studies of the surface erosion of sintered aluminum powder (SAP 895) and of aluminum held at 400 0 C due to blistering by 100 keV helium ions have been conducted and the results are compared to those obtained earlier for room temperature irradiation. A significant reduction of the erosion rate in SAP 895 in comparison to annealed aluminum and SAP 930 is observed. In addition results on the blistering of sintered beryllium powder (type I) irradiated at room temperature and 600 0 C by 100 keV helium ions are given. These results will be compared with those reported recently for vacuum cast beryllium foil and a foil of sintered beryllium powder (type II) which was fabricated differently, than type I. For room temperature irradiation only a few blisters could be observed in sintered beryllium powder type I and type II and they are smaller in size and in number than in vacuum cast beryllium. For irradiation at 600 0 C large scale exfoliation of blisters was observed for vacuum cast beryllium but much less exfoliation was seen for sintered beryllium powder, type I, and type II. The results show a reduction in erosion rate cast beryllium, for both room temperature and 600 0 C

  5. New and Emerging Technologies for Real-Time Air and Surface Beryllium Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.; Churnetski, E.L.; Cooke, L.E.; Reed, J.J.; Howell, M.L.; Smith, V.D.

    2001-09-01

    In this study, five emerging technologies were identified for real-time monitoring of airborne beryllium: Microwave-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (MIPS), Aerosol Beam-Focused Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (ABFLIPS), Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Surfaced-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Spectroscopy, and Micro-Calorimetric Spectroscopy (CalSpec). Desired features of real-time air beryllium monitoring instrumentation were developed from the Y-12 CBDPP. These features were used as guidelines for the identification of potential technologies as well as their unique demonstrated capability to provide real-time monitoring of similar materials. However, best available technologies were considered, regardless of their ability to comply with the desired features. None of the five technologies have the capability to measure the particle size of airborne beryllium. Although reducing the total concentration of airborne beryllium is important, current literature suggests that reducing or eliminating the concentration of respirable beryllium is critical for worker health protection. Eight emerging technologies were identified for surface monitoring of beryllium. CalSpec, MIPS, SERS, LIBS, Laser Ablation, Absorptive Stripping Voltametry (ASV), Modified Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Spectroscopy, and Gamma BeAST. Desired features of real-time surface beryllium monitoring were developed from the Y-12 CBDPP. These features were used as guidelines for the identification of potential technologies. However, the best available technologies were considered regardless of their ability to comply with the desired features.

  6. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site beryllium characterization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrell, D.M.; Miller, J.R.; Allen, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    A site beryllium characterization project was completed at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in 1997. Information from historical reviews, previous sampling surveys, and a new sampling survey were used to establish a more comprehensive understanding of the locations and levels of beryllium contamination in 35 buildings. A feature of the sampling strategy was to test if process knowledge was a good predictor of where beryllium contamination could be found. Results revealed that this technique was effective at identifying where surface contamination levels might exceed the RFETS smear control level but that it was not effective in identifying where low concentrations of beryllium might be found

  7. Surface soil contamination standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothe, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to define surface soil contamination limits for radioactive materials below which posting, restrictions and environmental controls are not necessary in order to protect personnel and the environment. The standards can also be used to determine if solid waste or other material is contaminated relative to disposal requirements. The derivation of the standards is given

  8. Investigations of the ternary system beryllium-carbon-tungsten and analyses of beryllium on carbon surfaces; Untersuchung des ternaeren Systems Beryllium-Kohlenstoff-Wolfram und Betrachtungen von Beryllium auf Kohlenstoffoberflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, Florian

    2009-05-25

    Beryllium, carbon and tungsten are planned to be used as first wall materials in the future fusion reactor ITER. The aim of this work is a characterization of mixed material formation induced by thermal load. To this end, model systems (layers) were prepared and investigated, which give insight into the basic physical and chemical concepts. Before investigating ternary systems, the first step was to analyze the binary systems Be/C and Be/W (bottom-up approach), where the differences between the substrates PG (pyrolytic graphite) and HOPG (highly oriented pyrolytic graphite) were of special interest. Particularly X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low energy ion scattering (ISS) and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) were used as analysis methods. Beryllium evaporated on carbon shows an island growth mode, whereas a closed layer can be assumed for layer thicknesses above 0.7 nm. Annealing of the Be/C system induces Be{sub 2}C island formation for T{>=}770 K. At high temperatures (T{>=}1170 K), beryllium carbide dissociates, resulting in (metallic) beryllium desorption. For HOPG, carbide formation starts at higher temperatures compared to PG. Activation energies for the diffusion processes were determined by analyzing the decreasing beryllium amount versus annealing time. Surface morphologies were characterized using angle-resolved XPS (ARXPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Experiments were performed to study processes in the Be/W system in the temperature range from 570 to 1270 K. Be{sub 2}W formation starts at 670 K, a complete loss of Be{sub 2}W is observed at 1170 K due to dissociation (and subsequent beryllium desorption). Regarding ternary systems, particularly Be/C/W and C/Be/W were investigated, attaching importance to layer thickness (reservoir) variations. At room temperature, Be{sub 2}C, W{sub 2}C, WC and Be{sub 2}W formation at the respective interfaces was observed. Further Be{sub 2}C is forming with increasing annealing temperatures

  9. Deep layer-resolved core-level shifts in the beryllium surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldén, Magnus; Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Johansson, Börje

    1993-01-01

    Core-level energy shifts for the beryllium surface region are calculated by means of a Green’s function technique within the tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbitals method. Both initial- and final-state effects in the core-ionization process are fully accounted for. Anomalously large energy shifts...

  10. Fluorescence Imaging Reveals Surface Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirato, Richard; Polichar, Raulf

    1992-01-01

    In technique to detect surface contamination, object inspected illuminated by ultraviolet light to make contaminants fluoresce; low-light-level video camera views fluorescence. Image-processing techniques quantify distribution of contaminants. If fluorescence of material expected to contaminate surface is not intense, tagged with low concentration of dye.

  11. Postmortem near surface analysis of beryllium limiter tiles from ISX-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuhr, R.A.

    1985-11-01

    Beryllium is a promising material for plasma-side components in magnetic confinement fusion devices and is being considered for possible use in the Joint European Torus (JET). In order to test beryllium as a limiter material, a collaborative JET/ISX-B experiment was carried out in which the ISX-B tokamak was operated for more than 4000 discharges with a beryllium limiter. At the end of the test period the limiter was removed and the composition of the near-surface region of selected tiles was analyzed as a function of position by Rutherford backscattering. The amount of deuterium retained near the surface was measured by nuclear reaction analysis. Chromium, iron, and nickel were the dominant metallic impurities in the surface with a combined concentration on the order of 10 16 cm -2 . Oxygen surface coverages were generally in the mid-10 16 cm -2 range. A consistent trend in the impurity data was that heavily damaged or melted areas generally incorporated more impurities. The amounts of deuterium trapped in the tiles ranged from 1 to 5 x 10 17 cm -2 over all of the surfaces exposed to the plasma. No deuterium was detectable on surfaces (the protected sides) not directly exposed to the plasma

  12. Validation of cleaning method for various parts fabricated at a Beryllium facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Cynthia M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated and documented a cleaning process that is used to clean parts that are fabricated at a beryllium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of evaluating this cleaning process was to validate and approve it for future use to assure beryllium surface levels are below the Department of Energy’s release limits without the need to sample all parts leaving the facility. Inhaling or coming in contact with beryllium can cause an immune response that can result in an individual becoming sensitized to beryllium, which can then lead to a disease of the lungs called chronic beryllium disease, and possibly lung cancer. Thirty aluminum and thirty stainless steel parts were fabricated on a lathe in the beryllium facility, as well as thirty-two beryllium parts, for the purpose of testing a parts cleaning method that involved the use of ultrasonic cleaners. A cleaning method was created, documented, validated, and approved, to reduce beryllium contamination.

  13. Technical Basis for PNNL Beryllium Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Michelle Lynn

    2014-07-09

    The Department of Energy (DOE) issued Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 850, “Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program” (the Beryllium Rule) in 1999 and required full compliance by no later than January 7, 2002. The Beryllium Rule requires the development of a baseline beryllium inventory of the locations of beryllium operations and other locations of potential beryllium contamination at DOE facilities. The baseline beryllium inventory is also required to identify workers exposed or potentially exposed to beryllium at those locations. Prior to DOE issuing 10 CFR 850, Pacific Northwest Nuclear Laboratory (PNNL) had documented the beryllium characterization and worker exposure potential for multiple facilities in compliance with DOE’s 1997 Notice 440.1, “Interim Chronic Beryllium Disease.” After DOE’s issuance of 10 CFR 850, PNNL developed an implementation plan to be compliant by 2002. In 2014, an internal self-assessment (ITS #E-00748) of PNNL’s Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) identified several deficiencies. One deficiency is that the technical basis for establishing the baseline beryllium inventory when the Beryllium Rule was implemented was either not documented or not retrievable. In addition, the beryllium inventory itself had not been adequately documented and maintained since PNNL established its own CBDPP, separate from Hanford Site’s program. This document reconstructs PNNL’s baseline beryllium inventory as it would have existed when it achieved compliance with the Beryllium Rule in 2001 and provides the technical basis for the baseline beryllium inventory.

  14. Impact of the surface quality on the thermal shock performance of beryllium armor tiles for first wall applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spilker, B., E-mail: b.spilker@fz-juelich.de; Linke, J.; Pintsuk, G.; Wirtz, M.

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Different surface qualities of S-65 beryllium are tested under high heat flux conditions. • After 1000 thermal shocks, the loaded area exhibits a crucial destruction. • Stress accelerated grain boundary oxidation/dynamic embrittlement effects are linked to the thermal shock performance of beryllium. • Thermally induced cracks form between 1 and 10 pulses and grow wider and deeper between 10 and 100 pulses. • Thermally induced cracks form and propagate independently from surface grooves and the surface quality. - Abstract: Beryllium will be applied as first wall armor material in ITER. The armor has to sustain high steady state and transient power fluxes. For transient events like edge localized modes, these transient power fluxes rise up to 1.0 GW m{sup −2} with a duration of 0.5–0.75 ms in the divertor region and a significant fraction of this power flux is deposited on the first wall as well. In the present work, the reference beryllium grade for the ITER first wall application S-65 was prepared with various surface conditions and subjected to transient power fluxes (thermal shocks) with ITER relevant loading parameters. After 1000 thermal shocks, a crucial destruction of the entire loaded area was observed and linked to the stress accelerated grain boundary oxidation (SAGBO)/dynamic embrittlement (DE) effect. Furthermore, the study revealed that the majority of the thermally induced cracks formed between 1 and 10 pulses and then grew wider and deeper with increasing pulse number. The surface quality did not influence the cracking behavior of beryllium in any detectable way. However, the polished surface demonstrated the highest resistance against the observed crucial destruction mechanism.

  15. The beryllium quandary: will the lower exposure limits spur new developments in sampling and analysis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisson, Michael

    2013-06-03

    At the time this article was written, new rulemakings were under consideration at OSHA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that would propose changes to occupational exposure limits for beryllium. Given these developments, it’s a good time to review the tools and methods available to IHs for assessing beryllium air and surface contamination in the workplace—what’s new and different, and what’s tried and true. The article discusses limit values and action levels for beryllium, problematic aspects of beryllium air sampling, sample preparation, sample analysis, and data evaluation.

  16. Redispersion of indoor surface contamination: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansone, E.B.; Slein, M.W.

    1978-01-01

    The importance of surface contamination as a potential source of exposure to hazardous materials is discussed. Data from the literature concerning the resuspension of indoor surface contamination are presented. Reported procedures for quantitating surface contamination are compared. It is suggested that, despite its limitations, surface contamination monitoring may be useful in estimating potential risks from hazardous materials. (Auth.)

  17. JET-ISX-B beryllium limiter experiment safety analysis report and operational safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmonds, P.H.

    1985-09-01

    An experiment to evaluate the suitability of beryllium as a limiter material has been completed on the ISX-B tokamak. The experiment consisted of two phases: (1) the initial operation and characterization in the ISX experiment, and a period of continued operation to the specified surface fluence (10 22 atoms/cm 2 ) of hydrogen ions; and (2) the disassembly, decontamination, or disposal of the ISX facility. During these two phases of the project, the possibility existed for beryllium and/or beryllium oxide powder to be produced inside the vacuum vessel. Beryllium dust is a highly toxic material, and extensive precautions are required to prevent the release of the beryllium into the experimental work area and to prevent the contamination of personnel working on the device. Details of the health hazards associated with beryllium and the appropriate precautions are presented. Also described in appendixes to this report are the various operational safety requirements for the project

  18. Beryllium production using beryllium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubler, Carlos Henrique

    1993-01-01

    This work presents the beryllium production by thermal decomposition of the ammonium beryllium fluoride, followed by magnesium reduction, obtained in the small pilot plant of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission - Nuclear Engineering Institute

  19. Optical measurements on contaminated surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonham, T. E.; Schmitt, R. J.; Linford, R. M. F.

    1975-01-01

    A bidirectional reflectometer system was developed for in situ measurements of the changes in spectral reflectance of surfaces contaminated with films of organic materials. The system permits experiments with films of controlled thickness in an environment that simulates the thermal, radiation, and vacuum conditions of space. The mechanical and optical construction of the reflectometer are discussed in detail, and actual data curves are used to illustrate its operation and performance.

  20. Abbreviated machining schedule for fabricating beryllium parts free of surface damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitscher, S.; Capes, J.F.; Leslie, W.W.; Luckow, J.R.; Riegel, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    This study was performed to develop a more economical method of machining damage-free beryllium components at Rocky Flats. The present method involves a 9-pass schedule of lathe turning followed by a chemical etch. Prototype beryllium hemispherical shell parts and cylindrical tensile specimens machined to simulate the parts were utilized in this study. The main investigative methods used to evaluate the amount of machining damage were metallography and tensile tests. It was found that damage-free parts could be produced by carefully controlled machining if the number of machining passes was reduced to 4 or even 3, if followed by the standard etching treatment. These findings were made on Select S-65 grade beryllium, and probably apply to other common grades of powder source beryllium but not necessarily to ingot-source beryllium. It is recommended that the 4-pass schedule becomes the standard method to produce damage-free beryllium derived from powder. Significant savings in time, labor, and equipment can be realized by this change in method without decreasing the quality of the product

  1. Hydrogen Contamination of Niobium Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viet Nguyen-Tuong; Lawrence Doolittle

    1993-01-01

    The presence of hydrogen is blamed for dramatic reductions in cavity Q's. Hydrogen concentration is difficult to measure, so there is a great deal of Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt (FUD) associated with the problem. This paper presents measurements of hydrogen concentration depth profiles, commenting on the pitfalls of the methods used and exploring how material handling can change the amount of hydrogen in pieces of niobium. Hydrogen analysis was performed by a forward scattering experiment with Helium used as the primary beam. This technique is variously known as FRES (Forward Recoil Elastic Scattering), FRS, HFS (Hydrogen Forward Scattering), and HRA (Hydrogen Recoil Analysis). Some measurements were also made using SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry). Both HFS and SIMS are capable of measuring a depth profile of Hydrogen. The primary difficulty in interpreting the results from these techniques is the presence of a surface peak which is due (at least in part) to contamination with either water or hydrocarbons. With HFS, the depth resolution is about 30 nm, and the maximum depth profiled is about 300 nm. (This 10-1 ratio is unusually low for ion beam techniques, and is a consequence of the compromises that must be made in the geometry of the experiment, surface roughness, and energy straggling in the absorber foil that must be used to filter out the forward scattered helium.) All the observed HFS spectra include a surface peak which includes both surface contamination and any real hydrogen uptake by the niobium surface. Some contamination occurs during the analysis. The vacuum in the analysis chamber is typically a few times 10(sup -6) torr, and some of the contamination is in the form of hydrocarbons from the pumping system. Hydrocarbons normally form a very thin (less than a monolayer) film which is in equilibrium between arrival rate and the evaporation rate. In the presence of the incoming ion beam, however, these hydrocarbons crack on the surface into non

  2. Some problems in calibrating surface contamination meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zigen; LI Xingyuan; Shuai Xiaoping.

    1984-01-01

    It is necessary that instruments are calibrated accurately in order to obtain reliable survey data of surface contamination. Some problems in calibrating surface contamination meters are expounded in this paper. Measurement comparison for beta surface contamination meters is organized within limited scope, thus survey quality is understood, questions are discovered, significance of calibration is expounded further. (Author)

  3. Derived limits for surface contamination

    CERN Document Server

    Wrixon, A D; Linsley, G S; White, D F

    1979-01-01

    Derived limits (DLs) for surface contamination were first established for use in the nuclear energy industry where a wide variety of radionuclides is encountered. They were later used in factories, hospitals, and universities, where the radionuclides used are normally fewer in number, either known or readily identifiable, and often of low toxicity. In these situations the current limits are frequently over-restrictive. This report describes a reassessment of the values in the light of more recent information on the possible pathways of exposure and the dose equivalent limits given in ICRP Publication 26. The reassessment is prompted also by the introduction of SI units. The results of the reassessment are used to produce a classification of DLs for all radionuclides for active and inactive area surfaces and for skin.

  4. Thermal effects on beryllium mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinswig, S.

    1989-01-01

    Beryllium is probably the most frequently used material for spaceborne system scan mirrors. Beryllium's properties include lightweightedness, high Young's modulus, high stiffness value, high resonance value. As an optical surface, beryllium is usually nickel plated in order to produce a higher quality surface. This process leads to the beryllium mirror acting like a bimetallic device. The mirror's deformation due to the bimetallic property can possibly degrade the performance of the associated optical system. As large space borne systems are designed and as temperature considerations become more crucial in the instruments, the concern about temporal deformation of the scan mirrors becomes a prime consideration. Therefore, two sets of tests have been conducted in order to ascertain the thermal effects on nickel plated beryllium mirrors. These tests are categorized. The purpose of this paper is to present the values of the bimetallic effect on typical nickel plated beryllium mirrors

  5. Diamond-turning HP-21 beryllium to achieve an optical surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, D.K.; Hauschildt, H.W.; Bryan, J.B.

    1975-01-01

    Investigation of diamond turning on beryllium was made in anticipation of obtaining an optical finish. Although results of past experiences were poor, it was decided to continue diamond turning on beryllium beyond initial failures. By changing speed and using coolant, partial success was achieved. Tool wear was the major problem. Tests were made to establish and plot wear as a function of cutting speed and time. Slower speeds did cause lower wear rates, but at no time did wear reach an acceptable level. The machine, tools, and procedure used were chosen based on the results of preliminary attempts and on previous experience. It was unnecessary to use an air-bearing spindle because tool failure governed the best finish that could be expected. All tools of diamond composition, whether single crystal or polycrystalline, wore at unacceptable rates. Based on present technology, it must be concluded that beryllium cannot be feasibly diamond turned to achieve an optical finish. (22 fig.)

  6. Beryllium allergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenherr, S.; Pevny, I.

    1989-12-01

    Beryllium is not only a high potent allergen, but also a fotoallergen and can provoke contact allergic reactions, fotoallergic reactions, granulomatous skin reactions, pulmonary granulomatous diseases and sometimes even systemic diseases. The authors present 9 own cases of a patch test positive beryllium allergy, 7 patients with relevant allergy and 5 patients with an allergic contact stomatitis. (author)

  7. Evaluation of Unfixed Tritium Surface Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postolache, C.; Matei, Lidia

    2005-01-01

    Surface unfixed radioactive contamination represents the amount of surface total radioactive contamination which can be eliminated by pure mechanical processes. This unfixed contamination represents the main risk factor for contamination of the personnel which operates in tritium laboratories. Unfixed contamination was determined using sampling smears type FPCSN-PSE-AA. Those FPCSN-PSE-AA smears are disks of expanded polystyrene which contain acrylic acid fragments superficially grafted. Sampling factor was determinated by contaminated surface wiping with moisten smears in 50 μL butylic alcohol and activity measuring at liquid scintillation measuring device. Sampling factor was determined by the ratio between measured activity and initially real conventional activity. The sampling factor was determined for Tritium Laboratory existent surfaces: stainless steel, aluminum, glass, ceramics, linoleum, washable coats, epoxy resins type ALOREX LP-52.The sampling factors and the reproducibility were determined in function of surface nature

  8. Beryllium. Health hazards and their control. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lires, O.A.; Delfino, C.A.; Botbol, J.

    1991-01-01

    In this work (continuation of 'Beryllium' series) health hazards, toxic effects, limits of permissible atmospheric contamination and safe exposure to beryllium are described. Guidelines to the design, control operations and hygienic precautions of the working facilities are given. (Author) [es

  9. Techniques for removing contaminated concrete surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halter, J.M.; Sullivan, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    This discussion compares various techniques that have been used to clean concrete surfaces by removing the surface. Three techniques which have been investigated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for removing surfaces are also described: the water cannon, the concrete spaller, and high-pressure water jet. The equipment was developed with the assumption that removal of the top 1/8 to 1/4 in. of surface would remove most of the contamination. If the contamination has gone into cracks or deep voids in the surface, the removal processes can be repeated until the surface is acceptable

  10. BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SURFACE SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological remediation of soils contaminated with organic chemicals is an alternative treatment technology that can often meet the goal of achieving a permanent clean-up remedy at hazardous waste sites, as encouraged by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) for impl...

  11. Calibration of alpha surface contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, I.S.M. de; Goncalez, O.L.

    1990-01-01

    In this work, the results, as well as the methodology, of the calibration of an alpha surface contamination monitor are presented. The calibration factors are obtained by least-squares fitting with effective variance. (author)

  12. Beryllium dust generation resulting from plasma bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerner, R.; Mays, C.

    1997-01-01

    The beryllium dust resulting from erosion of beryllium samples subjected to plasma bombardment has been measured in PISCES-B. Loose surface dust was found to be uniformly distributed throughout the device and accounts for 3% of the eroded material. A size distribution measurement of the loose surface dust shows an increasing number of particles with decreasing diameter. Beryllium coatings on surfaces with a line of sight view of the target interaction region account for an additional 33% of the eroded beryllium material. Flaking of these surface layers is observed and is thought to play a significant role in dust generation inside the vacuum vessel. (orig.)

  13. Beryllium poisonings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alibert, S.

    1959-03-01

    This note reports a bibliographical study of beryllium toxicity. Thus, this bibliographical review addresses and outlines aspects and issues like aetiology, cases of acute poisoning (cutaneous manifestations, pulmonary manifestations), chronic poisoning (cutaneous, pulmonary and bone manifestations), excretion and localisation, and prognosis

  14. Surface contamination technology in decommissioning of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Hideharu

    2012-01-01

    Surface contamination measurement is the most basic technology in radiation control of the nuclear and radiation facilities. Loose surface contamination causes internal exposure through airborne contamination. Surface contamination measurement is recently more important in the waste management such as confirmation of decontamination factor, contamination survey of carried-out materials from radioactive control area, and application of clearance level. This report describes the base of surface contamination standards, meaning of contamination in decommissioning, relationship between clearance level and surface contamination, and current technology of surface contamination measurement. (author)

  15. Monitoring of surface and airborne contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradeep Kumar, K S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India)

    1997-06-01

    Indian nuclear energy programme aims at total safety in all activities involved in the entire fuel cycle for the occupational workers, members of the public and the environment as a whole. Routine radiation monitoring with clearly laid out procedures are followed for ensuring the safety of workers and public. Radiation monitoring carried out for the nuclear installations comprises of process monitoring, monitoring of effluent releases and also of the radiation protection monitoring of the individuals, work place and environment. Regulations like banning of smoking and consumption of food and drink etc. reduces the risk of direct ingestion even if inadvertent spread of contamination takes place. Though limit of transportable surface contamination is prescribed, the health physicists always follow a ``clean on swipe`` philosophy which compensates any error in the measurement of surface contamination. In this paper, the following items are contained: Necessity of contamination monitoring, accuracy required in the calibration of surface contamination monitors, methodology for contamination monitoring, air monitoring, guidelines for unrestricted release of scrap materials, and problems in contamination monitoring. (G.K.)

  16. Decontamination of radioactively contaminated surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    By this standard objective conditions to evaluate and test the ease of decontamination of surfaces under laboratory conditions are to be laid down. Ease of decontamination in this context denotes the summed-up effect of two material properties: a) the capacity of the material for retaining radioactive substances at its surface; b) the ease with which these substances are given off again in the course of cleaning processes. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Development of radioactive surface contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Tadao; Hasegawa, Toru; Fukumoto, Keisuke; Ooki, Yasushi

    2008-01-01

    In the radiation facilities such as nuclear power plants, surface contamination of the people accessing or articles conveyed in and out of the radiation controlled areas is detected and monitored by installing contamination monitors at the boundary of controlled areas and uncontrolled areas against the expansion of the radioactive materials to out of the facilities. It is required for the surface contamination of articles to be tightened of control criteria as 'Guidelines for discrimination ways of nonradioactive waste (not classified as radioactive waste) generated from nuclear power plants' (hereinafter referred to as 'the Guideline') was established by the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry in August, 2005. It predicts that the control criteria of monitors other than article monitors are also tightened in the future. Fuji electric has been fabricating and delivering surface contamination detecting monitors. Now we are developing the new contamination monitor corresponding to the tightening of the control criteria. 'Large article transfer monitor', 'Clothing monitor' and 'Body surface contamination monitor' are introduced in this article. (author)

  18. Occurrence of Surface Water Contaminations: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabudin, M. M.; Musa, S.

    2018-04-01

    Water is a part of our life and needed by all organisms. As time goes by, the needs by human increased transforming water quality into bad conditions. Surface water contaminated in various ways which is pointed sources and non-pointed sources. Pointed sources means the source are distinguished from the source such from drains or factory but the non-pointed always occurred in mixed of elements of pollutants. This paper is reviewing the occurrence of the contaminations with effects that occurred around us. Pollutant factors from natural or anthropology factors such nutrients, pathogens, and chemical elements contributed to contaminations. Most of the effects from contaminated surface water contributed to the public health effects also to the environments.

  19. Quantification of surface contamination: principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1982-01-01

    The applications discussed in this paper underscore the usefulness and versatility of molecular luminescence spectroscopy as an efficient surface detection technique. The technique can be used not only as a qualitative characterization method, but also as a quantitative analytical tool to detect trace contaminants on surfaces. Recent advances in instrumentation and methodology have expanded the applicability of surface luminescence into many new problem areas. Trace organics are emphasized here

  20. Defense programs beryllium good practice guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, M.

    1997-07-01

    generate dusts, mists, fumes, or small particulates. A beryllium exposure control program should minimize airborne concentrations, the potential for and spread of contamination, the number of times individuals are exposed to beryllium, and the number of employees who may be potentially exposed.

  1. Worker Environment Beryllium Characterization Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the conclusion of regular monitoring of occupied buildings at the Nevada Test Site and North Las Vegas facility to determine the extent of beryllium (Be) contamination in accordance with Judgment of Needs 6 of the August 14, 2003, 'Minnema Report.'

  2. Worker Environment Beryllium Characterization Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environment, Safety, Health & Quality

    2009-12-28

    This report summarizes the conclusion of regular monitoring of occupied buildings at the Nevada Test Site and North Las Vegas facility to determine the extent of beryllium (Be) contamination in accordance with Judgment of Needs 6 of the August 14, 2003, “Minnema Report.”

  3. Mechanisms of hydrogen retention in metallic beryllium and beryllium oxide and properties of ion-induced beryllium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberkofler, Martin

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of this thesis laboratory experiments on atomically clean beryllium surfaces were performed. They aim at a basic understanding of the mechanisms occurring upon interaction of a fusion plasma with a beryllium first wall. The retention and the temperature dependent release of implanted deuterium ions are investigated. An atomistic description is developed through simulations and through the comparison with calculations based on density functional theory. The results of these investigations are compared to the behaviour of hydrogen upon implantation into thermally grown beryllium oxide layers. Furthermore, beryllium nitride is produced by implantation of nitrogen into metallic beryllium and its properties are investigated. The results are interpreted with regard to the use of beryllium in a fusion reactor. (orig.)

  4. Radiative Transfer Model for Contaminated Rough Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    reflectance of potassium chlorate and ammonium nitrate contaminated surfaces in mid-wavelength and long-wavelength infrared for detection. Our framework...obtained excellent or good results for lab measurements of potassium chlorate on most aluminum surfaces; however, ammonium nitrate on painted aluminum...misidentify potassium chlorate as ammonium nitrate and vice versa). We also observed moderate success on field data. 15. SUBJECT TERMS radiative

  5. Contamination of optical surfaces in Earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Donald L.; Weller, Robert A.; Mendenhall, M. H.; Wiedlocher, D. E.; Nichols, R.; Tucker, D.; Whitaker, A.

    1992-01-01

    Glass and glass ceramic samples exposed to the low earth orbit environment for approximately 5.5 years on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) were found to display limited degradation in optical transmission. Commercial optical quality fused silica samples display decreases in transmission in the 200 to 400 nm wavelength region, and this degradation appears to be a consequence of surface contamination. The contamination, found only on internal surfaces of samples, was measured by medium energy backscattering spectrometry and found to be primarily carbon. Additional thin film contamination by a species with atomic mass near 64, which was present at the level of about 8 x 10 exp 14/sq. cm has not been identified. These observations are consistent with the interpretation that organic binders used in the black absorbing paint (Chem Glaze Z-306) inside the sample holding tray were concentrated in the vicinity of the samples and photolytically cracked by solar UV radiation. The resulting decomposition products were deposited on the interior sample surface and gave rise to the optical transmission loss. No detectable contamination was observed on the external or space exposed surface of the samples. No measurable damage was detected which could be attributed to the direct action of gamma or UV radiation on the glass samples. These results emphasize the need for special precautions in the preparation of spacecraft carrying precision optical components on long duration missions.

  6. Belgian research on fusion beryllium waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druyts, F.; Mallants, D.; Sillen, X.; Iseghem, P. Van

    2004-01-01

    Future fusion power plants will generate important quantities of neutron irradiated beryllium. Although recycling is the preferred management option for this waste, this may not be technically feasible for all of the beryllium, because of its radiological characteristics. Therefore, at SCK·CEN, we initiated a research programme aimed at studying aspects of the disposal of fusion beryllium, including waste characterisation, waste acceptance criteria, conditioning methods, and performance assessment. One of the main issues to be resolved is the development of fusion-specific waste acceptance criteria for surface or deep geological disposal, in particular with regard to the tritium content. In case disposal is the only solution, critical nuclides can be immobilised by conditioning the waste. As a first approach to immobilising beryllium waste, we investigated the vitrification of beryllium. Corrosion tests were performed on both metallic and vitrified beryllium to provide source data for performance assessment. Finally, a first step in performance assessment was undertaken. (author)

  7. RF Sheath-Enhanced Plasma Surface Interaction Studies using Beryllium Optical Emission Spectroscopy in JET ITER-Like Wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarici, G. [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Barcelona, Spain; Klepper, C Christopher [ORNL; Colas, L. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA); Krivska, Alena [Ecole Royale Militaire, Brussels Belgium; Bobkov, V. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching, Germany; Jacquet, P. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy (CCFE), Abingdon, UK; Delabie, Ephrem G. [ORNL; Giroud, C. [EURATOM / UKAEA, UK; Kirov, K K. [Association EURATOM-CCFE, Abingdon, UK; Lasa Esquisabel, Ane [ORNL; Lerche, E. [ERM-KMS, Association EURATOM-Belgian State, Brussels, Belgium; Dumortier, P. [ERM-KMS, Association EURATOM-Belgian State, Brussels, Belgium; Durodie, Frederic [Ecole Royale Militaire, Brussels Belgium

    2017-10-01

    A dedicated study on JET-ILW, deploying two types of ICRH antennas and spectroscopic observation spots at two outboard, beryllium limiters, has provided insight on long-range (up to 6m) RFenhanced plasma-surface interactions (RF-PSI) due to near-antenna electric fields. To aid in the interpretation of optical emission measurements of these effects, the antenna near-fields are computed using the TOPICA code, specifically run for the ITER-like antenna (ILA); similar modelling already existed for the standard JET antennas (A2). In the experiment, both antennas were operated in current drive mode, as RF-PSI tends to be higher in this phasing and at similar power (∼0.5 MW). When sweeping the edge magnetic field pitch angle, peaked RF-PSI effects, in the form of 2-4 fold increase in the local Be source,are consistently measured with the observation spots magnetically connect to regions of TOPICAL-calculated high near-fields, particularly at the near-antenna limiters. It is also found that similar RF-PSI effects are produced by the two types of antenna on similarly distant limiters. Although this mapping of calculated near-fields to enhanced RF-PSI gives only qualitative interpretion of the data, the present dataset is expected to provide a sound experimental basis for emerging RF sheath simulation model validation.

  8. Hydrogen transport behavior of beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, R.A.; Hankins, M.R.; Longhurst, G.R.; Pawelko, R.J. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Macaulay-Newcombe, R.G. (Dept. of Engineering Physics, Univ. Hamilton, ON (Canada))

    1992-12-01

    Beryllium is being evaluated for use as a plasma-facing material in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). One concern in the evaluation is the retention and permeation of tritium implanted into the plasma-facing surface. We performed laboratory-scale studies to investigate mechanisms that influence hydrogen transport and retention in beryllium foil specimens of rolled powder metallurgy product and rolled ingot cast beryllium. Specimen characterization was accomplished using scanning electron microscopy. Auger electron spectroscopy, and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) techniques. Hydrogen transport was investigated using ion-beam permeation experiments and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Results indicate that trapping plays a significant role in permeation, re-emission, and retention, and that surface processes at both upstream and downstream surfaces are also important. (orig.).

  9. Technical aspects of the joint JET-ISX-B beryllium limiter experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmonds, P.H.; Dietz, K.J.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Watson, R.D.; Emerson, L.C.; Gabbard, W.A.; Goodall, D.; Simpkins, J.E.; Yarber, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    An experiment has been performed on the Impurity Study Experiment (ISX-B) tokamak to test beryllium as a limiter material. Beryllium is an attractive candidate for a limiter and has been proposed for use in the Joint European Torus (JET) experiment. A temperature-controlled, segmented, beryllium top-rail limiter was located inside the plasma radius described by the existing titanium limiters. An extended set of diagnostics was added for measurement of scrapeoff and limiter parameters. These included visible and infrared monitoring systems, probes, and surface analysis experiments. Tokamak experiments included parameter surveys of both Ohmically heated and neutral-beam-heated plasmas and an extended fluence test of the limiter. The most significant effect of operation with a beryllium limiter was the reduction in low-Z impurities caused by gettering action of beryllium deposited on the liner walls. The experiment required the design and implementation of contamination control apparatus and work procedures to prevent the accidental dispersion of beryllium dust

  10. Investigation of beryllium/steam interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekhonadskikh, A.M.; Vurim, A.D.; Vasilyev, Yu.S.; Pivovarov, O.S. [Inst. of Atomic Energy National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakstan Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan); Shestakov, V.P.; Tazhibayeva, I.L.

    1998-01-01

    In this report program on investigations of beryllium emissivity and transient processes on overheated beryllium surface attacked by water steam to be carried out in IAE NNC RK within Task S81 TT 2096-07-16 FR. The experimental facility design is elaborated in this Report. (author)

  11. Description of measurement techniques for surface contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrez, E.

    2001-01-01

    The needs of evaluation of the surface contamination are numerous in the processes of production and management of radioactive waste. The market of radiation protection materials proposes a lot of devices answering to the almost all these needs. These device have however their conditions and particular limits for use. To realize correct measurements it is use the device, the technique and the methods adapted to the need, by taking into account the optimization of economical aspect. (N.C.)

  12. Effect of machining damage on tensile properties of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanafee, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    It is well established that damage introduced at the surface of beryllium during machining operations can lower its mechanical properties. Tensile tests were conducted to illustrate this on beryllium presently being used for parts in the W79 program and similar to the new powder-processed beryllium specified for production (tentative specification MEL 76-001319). The objective of this study is to quantitatively illuminate the importance of controlling machining damage in this particular grade of powder-processed beryllium

  13. System for removing contaminated surface layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Kozo.

    1987-04-01

    The object of the present invention is to offer a new type of useful decontamination system, with which the contaminated surface layers can be removed effectively by injection of such solid microparticles. Liquid carbon dioxide is passed from a liquid carbon dioxide tank via the carbon dioxide supply line into the system for injecting solid carbon dioxide particles. Part of the liquid carbon dioxide introduced into the system is converted to solid carbon dioxide particles by the temperature drop resulting from adiabatic expansion in the carbon dioxide expansion space of the injection system. The solid carbon dioxide particles reach the injection nozzle, which is connected through the expansion space. The carbon dioxide microparticles are further cooled and accelerated by nitrogen gas injected from the nitrogen gas nozzle at the tip of the nitrogen gas supply line, which is connected to a liquid nitrogen tank. The cooled and accelerated solid carbon dioxide microparticles are injected from the injection nozzle for the solid carbon dioxide and directed against the contaminated surface to be cleaned, and, as a result, the surface contamination is removed

  14. Smears for determinations surface unfixed tritium contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postolache, Cristian; Matei, Lidia

    2003-01-01

    The present paper describes a method of obtaining expanded polystyrene with hydrophilized surface smears by radioinduced grafting of acrylic acid. The grafting was carried out by using a 60 Co γ radiation source. The variation of grafting rates as a function of dose range and absorbed dose was established. Grafting radiochemical rates were determined by radiometric methods using acrylic acid labeled with tritium as a grafting agent. The sampling coefficients and the reproducibility were analyzed as a function of the nature of the contaminated surface. (authors)

  15. Airborne iodine-125 arising from surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, C.S.; Hilditch, T.E.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of airborne 125 I were made during the subdivision of 740 MBq stocks of 125 I iodide solution in a hospital dispensary. Within the fume cupboard the mean airborne 125 I concentration was 3.5 +- 2.9 kBqm -3 . No airborne concentration contamination was found outside the fume cupboard during these dispensing sessions. The airborne 125 I concentration arising from deliberate surface contamination (50 μl, 3.7-6.3 MBq) of the top of a lead pot was measured at a height simulating face level at an open work bench. There was a progressive fall in airborne concentration over seven days but even then the level was still significantly above background. Measurements made with the extraction system of the fume cupboard in operation were 2-3 times lower. (U.K.)

  16. Contamination detector for inner surface of container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Tadao.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns a device for detecting contamination of radioactive materials on the inner surface of a vessel upon reutilizing the vessel for containing solidified radioactive wastes and transporting them. Namely, the detecting device has following functions. (1) A radiation detector detects the radioactive materials on the inner surface of the vessel. (2) A plurality of proximity switches measure the distance from the radiation detector to the wall surface of the vessel and are actuated if the distance is decreased to a predetermined value, (3) A vessel inner surface position calculation mechanism calculates the position of the inner surface of the vessel based on the information from a direction indicator and a height indicator. (4) A frontal limit detector detects the limit for allowing the radiation detector to proceed. (5) A vessel inner shape judging mechanism for judging the shape of the inner side of the vessel based on the signals from the proximity switches in a state where the frontal limit detector is operated and a vessel inner surface position signal outputted from the vessel inner surface position calculation mechanism. As a result, the shape of the inner side of the vessel can accurately be recognized, thereby improving accuracy of radiation measurement. (I.S.)

  17. Chronic Beryllium Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who are exposed to beryllium will not experience health effects. Studies have shown that on average, 1 – 6 percent of exposed workers develop beryllium sensitization, although the rates can be ...

  18. The status of beryllium technology for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Longhurst, G.R. E-mail: gx1@inel.gov; Shestakov, V.; Kawamura, H

    2000-12-01

    Beryllium was used for a number of years in the Joint European Torus (JET), and it is planned to be used extensively on the lower heat-flux surfaces of the reduced technical objective/reduced cost international thermonuclear experimental reactor (RTO/RC ITER). It has been included in various forms in a number of tritium breeding blanket designs. There are technical advantages but also a number of safety issues associated with the use of beryllium. Research in a variety of technical areas in recent years has revealed interesting issues concerning the use of beryllium in fusion. Progress in this research has been presented at a series of International Workshops on Beryllium Technology for Fusion. The most recent workshop was held in Karlsruhe, Germany on 15-17 September 1999. In this paper, a summary of findings presented there and their implications for the use of beryllium in the development of fusion reactors are presented.

  19. The status of beryllium technology for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Longhurst, G.R.; Shestakov, V.; Kawamura, H.

    2000-01-01

    Beryllium was used for a number of years in the Joint European Torus (JET), and it is planned to be used extensively on the lower heat-flux surfaces of the reduced technical objective/reduced cost international thermonuclear experimental reactor (RTO/RC ITER). It has been included in various forms in a number of tritium breeding blanket designs. There are technical advantages but also a number of safety issues associated with the use of beryllium. Research in a variety of technical areas in recent years has revealed interesting issues concerning the use of beryllium in fusion. Progress in this research has been presented at a series of International Workshops on Beryllium Technology for Fusion. The most recent workshop was held in Karlsruhe, Germany on 15-17 September 1999. In this paper, a summary of findings presented there and their implications for the use of beryllium in the development of fusion reactors are presented

  20. Quantification and micron-scale imaging of spatial distribution of trace beryllium in shrapnel fragments and metallurgic samples with correlative fluorescence detection method and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jerrold L.; Chandra, Subhash; Agrawal, Anoop

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a report raised the possibility of shrapnel-induced chronic beryllium disease (CBD) from long-term exposure to the surface of retained aluminum shrapnel fragments in the body. Since the shrapnel fragments contained trace beryllium, methodological developments were needed for beryllium quantification and to study its spatial distribution in relation to other matrix elements, such as aluminum and iron, in metallurgic samples. In this work, we developed methodology for quantification of trace beryllium in samples of shrapnel fragments and other metallurgic sample-types with main matrix of aluminum (aluminum cans from soda, beer, carbonated water, and aluminum foil). Sample preparation procedures were developed for dissolving beryllium for its quantification with the fluorescence detection method for homogenized measurements. The spatial distribution of trace beryllium on the sample surface and in 3D was imaged with a dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) instrument, CAMECA IMS 3f SIMS ion microscope. The beryllium content of shrapnel (~100 ppb) was the same as the trace quantities of beryllium found in aluminum cans. The beryllium content of aluminum foil (~25 ppb) was significantly lower than cans. SIMS imaging analysis revealed beryllium to be distributed in the form of low micron-sized particles and clusters distributed randomly in X-Y-and Z dimensions, and often in association with iron, in the main aluminum matrix of cans. These observations indicate a plausible formation of Be-Fe or Al-Be alloy in the matrix of cans. Further observations were made on fluids (carbonated water) for understanding if trace beryllium in cans leached out and contaminated the food product. A direct comparison of carbonated water in aluminum cans and plastic bottles revealed that beryllium was below the detection limits of the fluorescence detection method (~0.01 ppb). These observations indicate that beryllium present in aluminum matrix was either present in an

  1. Quantification and micron-scale imaging of spatial distribution of trace beryllium in shrapnel fragments and metallurgic samples with correlative fluorescence detection method and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, J L; Chandra, S; Agrawal, A

    2014-11-01

    Recently, a report raised the possibility of shrapnel-induced chronic beryllium disease from long-term exposure to the surface of retained aluminum shrapnel fragments in the body. Since the shrapnel fragments contained trace beryllium, methodological developments were needed for beryllium quantification and to study its spatial distribution in relation to other matrix elements, such as aluminum and iron, in metallurgic samples. In this work, we developed methodology for quantification of trace beryllium in samples of shrapnel fragments and other metallurgic sample-types with main matrix of aluminum (aluminum cans from soda, beer, carbonated water and aluminum foil). Sample preparation procedures were developed for dissolving beryllium for its quantification with the fluorescence detection method for homogenized measurements. The spatial distribution of trace beryllium on the sample surface and in 3D was imaged with a dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry instrument, CAMECA IMS 3f secondary ion mass spectrometry ion microscope. The beryllium content of shrapnel (∼100 ppb) was the same as the trace quantities of beryllium found in aluminum cans. The beryllium content of aluminum foil (∼25 ppb) was significantly lower than cans. SIMS imaging analysis revealed beryllium to be distributed in the form of low micron-sized particles and clusters distributed randomly in X-Y- and Z dimensions, and often in association with iron, in the main aluminum matrix of cans. These observations indicate a plausible formation of Be-Fe or Al-Be alloy in the matrix of cans. Further observations were made on fluids (carbonated water) for understanding if trace beryllium in cans leached out and contaminated the food product. A direct comparison of carbonated water in aluminum cans and plastic bottles revealed that beryllium was below the detection limits of the fluorescence detection method (∼0.01 ppb). These observations indicate that beryllium present in aluminum matrix was either

  2. Measurement and removal of surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neider, M.; Tamberg, T.

    1990-01-01

    This is a critical reappraisal of the sampling factor which is important for indirect contamination measurement. The factor gives the radioactivity collected by means of a wipe sample as a fraction of the total loose radioactivity i.e. without firm adhesion. It is used in national and international standard specifications and stated, frequently with excessive conservatism, as 0.1. Secondly, the standard specifications for the testing and appraisal of surface materials in relation to their decontamination capacity and for testing the effect of decontamination agents hitherto bond and Co-60 and Cs-137 are to be expanded to include radioactive iodine, which is important in nuclear medicine. The selection of optimum surface materials will thus be put on an improved basis. (orig./DG) [de

  3. Laser fabrication of beryllium components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanafee, J.E.; Ramos, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    Working with the beryllium industry on commercial applications and using prototype parts, the authors have found that the use of lasers provides a high-speed, low-cost method of cutting beryllium metal, beryllium alloys, and beryllium-beryllium oxide composites. In addition, they have developed laser welding processes for commercial structural grades of beryllium that do not need a filler metal; i.e., autogenous welds were made in commercial structural grades of beryllium by using lasers

  4. Beryllium chemistry and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Kenneth A

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces beryllium; its history, its chemical, mechanical, and physical properties including nuclear properties. The 29 chapters include the mineralogy of beryllium and the preferred global sources of ore bodies. The identification and specifics of the industrial metallurgical processes used to form oxide from the ore and then metal from the oxide are thoroughly described. The special features of beryllium chemistry are introduced, including analytical chemical practices. Beryllium compounds of industrial interest are identified and discussed. Alloying, casting, powder processing, forming, metal removal, joining and other manufacturing processes are covered. The effect of composition and process on the mechanical and physical properties of beryllium alloys assists the reader in material selection. The physical metallurgy chapter brings conformity between chemical and physical metallurgical processing of beryllium, metal, alloys, and compounds. The environmental degradation of beryllium and its all...

  5. Beryllium. Evaluation of beryllium hydroxide industrial processes. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lires, O.A.; Delfino, C.A.; Botbol, J.

    1991-01-01

    This work continues the 'Beryllium' series. It is a historical review of different industrial processes of beryllium hydroxide obtention from beryllium ores. Flowsheats and operative parameters of five plants are provided. These plants (Degussa, Brush Beryllium Co., Beryllium Corp., Murex Ltd., SAPPI) were selected as representative samples of diverse commercial processes in different countries. (Author) [es

  6. Comparison of Two Surface Contamination Sampling Techniques Conducted for the Characterization of Two Pajarito Site Manhattan Project National Historic Park Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Tammy Ann [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-29

    Technical Area-18 (TA-18), also known as Pajarito Site, is located on Los Alamos National Laboratory property and has historic buildings that will be included in the Manhattan Project National Historic Park. Characterization studies of metal contamination were needed in two of the four buildings that are on the historic registry in this area, a “battleship” bunker building (TA-18-0002) and the Pond cabin (TA-18-0029). However, these two buildings have been exposed to the elements, are decades old, and have porous and rough surfaces (wood and concrete). Due to these conditions, it was questioned whether standard wipe sampling would be adequate to detect surface dust metal contamination in these buildings. Thus, micro-vacuum and surface wet wipe sampling techniques were performed side-by-side at both buildings and results were compared statistically. A two-tail paired t-test revealed that the micro-vacuum and wet wipe techniques were statistically different for both buildings. Further mathematical analysis revealed that the wet wipe technique picked up more metals from the surface than the microvacuum technique. Wet wipes revealed concentrations of beryllium and lead above internal housekeeping limits; however, using an yttrium normalization method with linear regression analysis between beryllium and yttrium revealed a correlation indicating that the beryllium levels were likely due to background and not operational contamination. PPE and administrative controls were implemented for National Park Service (NPS) and Department of Energy (DOE) tours as a result of this study. Overall, this study indicates that the micro-vacuum technique may not be an efficient technique to sample for metal dust contamination.

  7. Thermal fatigue of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deksnis, E.; Ciric, D.; Falter, H.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal fatigue life of S65c beryllium castellated to a geometry 6 x 6 x (8-10)mm deep has been tested for steady heat fluxes of 3 MW/m 2 to 5 MW/m 2 and under pulsed heat fluxes (10-20 MW/m 2 ) for which the time averaged heat flux is 5 MW/m 2 . These tests were carried out in the JET neutral beam test facility A test sequence with peak surface temperatures ≤ 600 degrees C produced no visible fatigue cracks. In the second series of tests, with T max ≤ 750 degrees C evidence for fatigue appeared after a minimum of 1350 stress cycles. These fatigue data are discussed in view of the observed lack of thermal fatigue in JET plasma operations with beryllium PFC. JET experience with S65b and S65c is reviewed; recent operations with Φ = 25 MW/m 2 and sustained melting/resolidification are also presented. The need for a failure criterion for finite element analyses of Be PFC lifetimes is discussed

  8. Corrosion of beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elston, J.; Caillat, R.

    1958-01-01

    Data are reported on the volatilization rate of beryllium oxide in moist air depending on temperature and water vapour concentration. They are concerned with powder samples or sintered shapes of various densities. For sintered samples, the volatilization rate is very low under the following conditions: - temperature: 1300 deg. C, - water vapour concentration in moist air: 25 g/m 3 , - flow rate: 12 I/hour corresponding to a speed of 40 m/hour on the surface of the sample. For calcinated powders (1300 deg. C), grain growth has been observed under a stream of moist air at 1100 deg. C. For instance, grain size changes from 0,5 to at least 2 microns after 500 hours of exposure at this temperature. Furthermore, results data are reported on corrosion of sintered beryllium oxide in pressurized water. At 250 deg. C, under a pressure of 40 kg/cm 2 water is very slightly corrosive; however, internal strains are revealed. Finally, some features on the corrosion in liquid sodium are exposed. (author) [fr

  9. Developments in surface contamination and cleaning fundamentals and applied aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Kohli, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Vol. 1: Fundamentals and Applied Aspects, Second Edition, provides an excellent source of information on alternative cleaning techniques and methods for characterization of surface contamination and validation. Each volume in this series contains a particular topical focus, covering the key techniques and recent developments in the area. This volume forms the heart of the series, covering the fundamentals and application aspects, characterization of surface contaminants, and methods for removal of surface contamination. In addition, new cleaning techniques effective at smaller scales are considered and employed for removal where conventional cleaning techniques fail, along with new cleaning techniques for molecular contaminants. The Volume is edited by the leading experts in small particle surface contamination and cleaning, providing an invaluable reference for researchers and engineers in R&D, manufacturing, quality control, and procurement specific...

  10. Dependence of secondary electron emission on the incident angle and the energy of primary electrons bombarding bowl-structured beryllium surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, Jun; Ohya, Kaoru.

    1994-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation of the secondary electron emission from beryllium is combined with a model of bowl structure for surface roughness, for analyzing the difference between the electron emissions for normal and oblique incidences. At normal incidence, with increasing the roughness parameter H/W, the primary energy E pm at which the maximum electron yield occurs becomes higher, and at more than the E pm , the decrease in the yield is slower; where H and W are the depth and width of the bowl structure, respectively. The dispersion of incident angle to the microscopic surface causes a small increase in the yield at oblique incidence, whereas the blocking of primary electrons from bombarding the bottom of the structure causes an opposite trend. The strong anisotropy in the polar angular distribution with respect to the azimuthal angle is calculated at oblique incidence. (author)

  11. (Beryllium). Internal Report No. 137, Jan. 15, 1958; Le beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouret, P; Rigaud, A

    1959-07-01

    After a brief summary of the physical and chemical properties of beryllium, the various chemical treatments which can be applied to beryllium minerals either directly or after a physical enrichment are discussed. These various treatments give either the hydroxide or beryllium salts, from which either beryllium oxide or metallic beryllium can easily be obtained. The purification, analysis and uses of beryllium are also briefly discussed. (author)

  12. Thermomechanical testing of beryllium for the JET/ISX-B beryllium limiter experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.D.; Smith, M.F.; Whitley, J.B.; McDonald, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Materials testing of S-65-B beryllium has been conducted in support of the beryllium limiter experiment on the ISX-B tokamak. The S-65-B grade of hot-pressed beryllium was chosen over S-200-E because of its superior strength and ductility at elevated temperatures. The testing has included measurement of tensile and yield strength, ductility, Young's Modulus, thermal conductivity, and specific heat from 50 0 C to 700 0 C. Thermal fatigue testing of a 2.5 cm beryllium cube was conducted using an electron beam to apply a heat flux of 2.5 kw/cm 2 for 0.3 second pulses for 1500 cycles. Results from the tests are compared to elastic-plastic finite element stress calculations. The testing indicates that the ISX-B beryllium limiter should survive the tokamak environment without serious structural failure, although some surface cracking is expected to occur. (author)

  13. Bonding of radioactive contamination. IV. Effect of surface finish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.N.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanisms by which radioactive contamination would be bonded to a DWPF canister are being investigated. Previous investigations in this series have examined the effects of temperature, oxidation before contamination, and atmosphere composition control on the bonding of contamination. This memorandum describes the results of tests to determine the effect of special surface finishes on the bonding of contamination to waste glass canisters. Surface pretreatments which produce smoother canister surfaces actually cause radioactive contamination to be more tightly bonded to the metal surface than on an untreated surface. Based on the results of these tests it is recommended that the canister surface finish be specified as having a bright cold rolled mill finish equivalent to ASTM No. 2B. 7 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  14. Report of a technical evaluation panel on the use of beryllium for ITER plasma facing material and blanket breeder material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrickson, M.A. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Manly, W.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dombrowski, D.E. [Brush Wellman, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    Beryllium because of its low atomic number and high thermal conductivity, is a candidate for both ITER first wall and divertor surfaces. This study addresses the following: why beryllium; design requirements for the ITER divertor; beryllium supply and unirradiated physical/mechanical property database; effects of irradiation on beryllium properties; tritium issues; beryllium health and safety; beryllium-coolant interactions and safety; thermal and mechanical tests; plasma erosion of beryllium; recommended beryllium grades for ITER plasma facing components; proposed manufacturing methods to produce beryllium parts for ITER; emerging beryllium materials; proposed inspection and maintenance techniques for beryllium components and coatings; time table and costs; and the importance of integrating materials and manufacturing personnel with designers.

  15. Report of a technical evaluation panel on the use of beryllium for ITER plasma facing material and blanket breeder material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrickson, M.A.; Manly, W.D.; Dombrowski, D.E.

    1995-08-01

    Beryllium because of its low atomic number and high thermal conductivity, is a candidate for both ITER first wall and divertor surfaces. This study addresses the following: why beryllium; design requirements for the ITER divertor; beryllium supply and unirradiated physical/mechanical property database; effects of irradiation on beryllium properties; tritium issues; beryllium health and safety; beryllium-coolant interactions and safety; thermal and mechanical tests; plasma erosion of beryllium; recommended beryllium grades for ITER plasma facing components; proposed manufacturing methods to produce beryllium parts for ITER; emerging beryllium materials; proposed inspection and maintenance techniques for beryllium components and coatings; time table and costs; and the importance of integrating materials and manufacturing personnel with designers

  16. Improvement of a device for monitoring the contamination of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, Albert.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this invention is to make it possible to monitor the contamination of surfaces by a light weight portable device and enabling the alpha, beta and gamma radiation contamination to be detected. The detection probe which is connected by a single lead to the box is adapted, in each particular case, to the radiation mode emitted by the contaminated surfaces and the box is provided with a special leak-proof socket for connecting the probe and includes means for assessing the counting rate of the radiation given off, depending on the mode of the radiations emitted by the contaminated surfaces and the intensity of the count rate [fr

  17. Extractive metallurgy of the beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Neusa; Capocchi, Jose Deodoro Trani

    1995-01-01

    A bibliographic review is performed on the beryllium extractive metallurgy. The work describes the main type of ores and processes applied to the metallic beryllium production, beryllium oxide production using fluoride, sulfide and direct chlorination. The thermodynamic consideration are made on beryllium reduction processes, discussing the viability of the beryllium oxide and hallide reduction processes. Under the technological viewpoint, the Cu-Be alloys main production processes are discussed, and the main toxicity problems related with beryllium are mentioned

  18. Test of a beryllium limiter in the tokamak UNITOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackmann, J.; Uhlenbusch, J.

    1984-01-01

    Beryllium rail limiters are inserted into the tokamak UNITOR to study the compatibility of this material with the plasma. The power load onto the limiter surface is 1-2 kW/cm 2 during the plasma pulse length of 50 ms duration. The concentration of heavy (Cr) and light (O) impurities is monitored by means of spectroscopy. In comparison with other materials tested likewise (graphite, Ni, Al 2 O 3 , TiC, SiC, SS) the Be-experiments have shown the following improvements: (a) the concentration of heavy impurities is considerably reduced, (b) this reduction is preserved if the poloidal Be-limiters are retracted from the plasma, (c) the plasma resistivity is diminished, (d) the occurrence of disruptions decreases. A total amount of 6 mg beryllium was found distributed on the inner torus wall after 1500 shots. The decontamination of the apparatus was performed without major problems. Only very little volatile Be-dust was detected, and peripheric parts (pumps, mass spectrometer etc.) were not contaminated. The beryllium released from the limiters was found to be entirely deposited on the torus wall mainly in the vicinity of the limiters. (orig.)

  19. Re-establishing filtering capabilities of machined porous beryllium via chemical reduction and cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, W.L.

    1975-01-01

    Porous beryllium is furnished in sheets of varying sizes and thickness; it is therefore necessary that it be machined into specified sizes. A chemical reduction and cleaning procedure was devised to remove the disrupted surface, open the sealed pores of the material, and clean entrapped contaminates from the internal structure. Dimensional stability can be closely controlled and material size is of no consequence. (U.S.)

  20. Effect of transient heating loads on beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupriyanov, Igor B.; Porezanov, Nicolay P.; Nikolaev, Georgyi N.; Kurbatova, Liudmila A.; Podkovyrov, Vyacheslav L.; Muzichenko, Anatoliy D.; Zhitlukhin, Anatoliy M.; Khimchenko, Leonid N.; Gervash, Alexander A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the effect of transient plasma loads on beryllium erosion and surface microstructure. • Beryllium targets were irradiated by plasma streams with energy of 0.5–1 MJ/m 2 at ∼250 °C. • Under plasma loads 0.5–1 MJ/m 2 cracking of beryllium surface is rather slight. • Under 0.5 MJ/m 2 the mass loss of Be is no more than 0.2 g/m 2 shot and decreasing with shots number. • Under 1 MJ/m 2 maximum mass loss of beryllium was 3.7 g/m 2 shot and decreasing with shots number. - Abstract: Beryllium will be used as a plasma facing material for ITER first wall. It is expected that erosion of beryllium under transient plasma loads such as the edge-localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions will mainly determine a lifetime of ITER first wall. The results of recent experiments with the Russian beryllium of TGP-56FW ITER grade on QSPA-Be plasma gun facility are presented. The Be/CuCrZr mock-ups were exposed to upto 100 shots by deuterium plasma streams with pulse duration of 0.5 ms at ∼250 °C and average heat loads of 0.5 and 1 MJ/m 2 . Experiments were performed at 250 °C. The evolution of surface microstructure and cracks morphology as well as beryllium mass loss are investigated under erosion process

  1. The adhesive bonding of beryllium structural components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullerton-Batten, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    Where service conditions permit, adhesive bonding is a highly recommendable, reliable means of joining beryllium structural parts. Several important programs have successfully used adhesive bonding for joining structural and non-structural beryllium components. Adhesive bonding minimizes stress concentrations associated with other joining techniques and considerably improves fatigue resistance. In addition, no degradation of base metal properties occur. In many instances, structural joints can be fabricated more cheaply by adhesive bonding or in combination with adhesive bonding than by any other method used alone. An evaluation program on structural adhesive bonding of beryllium sheet components is described. A suitable surface pretreatment for beryllium adherends prior to bonding is given. Tensile shear strength and fatigue properties of FM 1000 and FM 123-5 adhesive bonded joints are reviewed and compared with data obtained from riveted joints of similar geometry. (author)

  2. Experiments on tritium behavior in beryllium, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Nakata, Hirokatsu; Sugai, Hiroyuki; Tanase, Masakazu.

    1990-02-01

    Beryllium has been used as the neutron reflector of material testing reactor and as the neutron multiplier for the fusion reactor lately. To study the tritium behavior in beryllium, we conducted the experiments, i.e., tritium release by recoil or diffusion by using the hot-pressed beryllium which had been produced both tritium and helium by neutron irradiation. From our experiments, we found that (1) amount of tritium production per one cycle irradiation (lasting 22 days) of JMTR is 10 mCi/g, (2) amount of tritium per surface area of hot-pressed beryllium released by recoil is 4 μCi/cm 2 , (3) diffusion coefficient of tritium in a temperature range of 800 ∼1180degC can be expressed with the following equation; D = 8.7 x 10 4 exp(-2.9x10 5 /R/T) cm 2 /s. (author)

  3. METHOD OF BRAZING BERYLLIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, G.S.; Keil, R.W.

    1963-05-21

    A process is described for brazing beryllium metal parts by coating the beryllium with silver (65- 75 wt%)-aluminum alloy using a lithium fluoride (50 wt%)-lithium chloride flux, and heating the coated joint to a temperature of about 700 un. Concent 85% C for about 10 minutes. (AEC)

  4. Preparation of beryllium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, C.B.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for preparing beryllium hydride by the direct reaction of beryllium borohydride and aluminum hydride trimethylamine adduct. Volatile by-products and unreacted reactants are readily removed from the product mass by sublimation and/or evaporation. (U.S.)

  5. Experimental studies and modeling of processes of hydrogen isotopes interaction with beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazhibaeva, I.L.; Chikhray, Y.V.; Romanenko, O.G.; Klepikov, A.Kh.; Shestakov, V.P.; Kulsartov, T.V. [Science Research Inst. of Experimental and Theoretical Physics of Kazakh State Univ., Almaty (Kazakhstan); Kenzhin, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this work was to clarify the surface beryllium oxide influence on hydrogen-beryllium interaction characteristics. Analysis of experimental data and modeling of processes of hydrogen isotopes accumulation, diffusion and release from neutron irradiated beryllium was used to achieve this purpose as well as the investigations of the changes of beryllium surface element composition being treated by H{sup +} and Ar{sup +} plasma glowing discharge. (author)

  6. Control of beryllium powder at a DOE facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langner, G.C.; Creek, K.L.; Castro, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    Beryllium is contained in a number of domestic and national defense items. Although many items might contain beryllium in some manner, few people need worry about the adverse effects caused by exposure to beryllium because it is the inhalable form of beryllium that is most toxic. Chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a granulomas and fibrotic lung disease with long latency, can be developed after inhalation exposures to beryllium. It is a progressive, debilitating lung disease. Its occurrence in those exposed to beryllium has been difficult to predict because some people seem to react to low concentration exposures whereas others do not react to high concentration exposures. Onset of the disease frequently occurs between 15 to 20 years after exposure begins. Some people develop the disease after many years of low concentration exposures but others do not develop CBD even though beryllium is shown to be present in lungs and urine. Conclusions based on these experiences are that their is some immunological dependence of developing CBD in about 3--4% of the exposed population, but the exact mechanism involved has not yet been identified. Acute beryllium disease can occur after a single exposure to a concentration of greater than 0.100 mg/m3 (inhalation exposure); it is characterized by the development of chemical pneumoconiosis, a respiratory disease. The acute effect of skin contact is a dermatitis characterized by itching and reddened, elevated, or fluid-accumulated lesions which appear particularly on the exposed surfaces of the body, especially the face, neck, arms, and hands. Small particles of beryllium that enter breaks in the skin can lead to the development of granulomas and/or open sores that do not heal until the beryllium has been removed. Our interest is only airborne beryllium, which is found in areas that machine or produce beryllium

  7. Mechanisms of hydrogen retention in metallic beryllium and beryllium oxide and properties of ion-induced beryllium nitride; Rueckhaltemechanismen fuer Wasserstoff in metallischem Beryllium und Berylliumoxid sowie Eigenschaften von ioneninduziertem Berylliumnitrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberkofler, Martin

    2011-09-22

    In the framework of this thesis laboratory experiments on atomically clean beryllium surfaces were performed. They aim at a basic understanding of the mechanisms occurring upon interaction of a fusion plasma with a beryllium first wall. The retention and the temperature dependent release of implanted deuterium ions are investigated. An atomistic description is developed through simulations and through the comparison with calculations based on density functional theory. The results of these investigations are compared to the behaviour of hydrogen upon implantation into thermally grown beryllium oxide layers. Furthermore, beryllium nitride is produced by implantation of nitrogen into metallic beryllium and its properties are investigated. The results are interpreted with regard to the use of beryllium in a fusion reactor. (orig.)

  8. Beryllium concentration in pharyngeal tonsils in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Nogaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Power plant dust is believed to be the main source of the increased presence of the element beryllium in the environment which has been detected in the atmospheric air, surface waters, groundwater, soil, food, and cigarette smoke. In humans, beryllium absorption occurs mainly via the respiratory system. The pharyngeal tonsils are located on the roof of the nasopharynx and are in direct contact with dust particles in inhaled air. As a result, the concentration levels of beryllium in the pharyngeal tonsils are likely to be a good indicator of concentration levels in the air. The presented study had two primary aims: to investigate the beryllium concentration in pharyngeal tonsils in children living in southern Poland, and the appropriate reference range for this element in children’s pharyngeal tonsils. Pharyngeal tonsils were extracted from a total of 379 children (age 2–17 years, mean 6.2 ± 2.7 years living in southern Poland. Tonsil samples were mineralized in a closed cycle in a pressure mineralizer PDS 6, using 65% spectrally pure nitric acid. Beryllium concentration was determined using the ICP-AES method with a Perkin Elmer Optima 5300DVTM. The software Statistica v. 9 was used for the statistical analysis. It was found that girls had a significantly greater beryllium concentration in their pharyngeal tonsils than boys. Beryllium concentration varies greatly, mostly according to the place of residence. Based on the study results, the reference value for beryllium in pharyngeal tonsils of children is recommended to be determined at 0.02–0.04 µg/g.

  9. Tritium release from neutron irradiated beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reactortechnik

    1998-01-01

    One of the most important open issues related to beryllium for fusion applications refers to the kinetics of the tritium release as a function of neutron fluence and temperature. The EXOTIC-7 as well as the `Beryllium` experiments carried out in the HFR reactor in Petten are considered as the most detailed and significant tests for investigating the beryllium response under neutron irradiation. This paper reviews the present status of beryllium post-irradiation examinations performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe with samples from the above mentioned irradiation experiments, trying to elucidate the tritium release controlling processes. In agreement with previous studies it has been found that release starts at about 500-550degC and achieves a maximum at about 700-750degC. The observed release at about 500-550degC is probably due to tritium escaping from chemical traps, while the maximum release at about 700-750degC is due to tritium escaping from physical traps. The consequences of a direct contact between beryllium and ceramics during irradiation, causing tritium implanting in a surface layer of beryllium up to a depth of about 40 mm and leading to an additional inventory which is usually several times larger than the neutron-produced one, are also presented and the effects on the tritium release are discussed. (author)

  10. Corrosion of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.J.; Adolphson, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of beryllium in aqueous and elevated-temperature oxidizing environments has been extensively studied for early-intended use of beryllium in nuclear reactors and in jet and rocket propulsion systems. Since that time, beryllium has been used as a structural material in les corrosive environments. Its primary applications include gyro systems, mirror and reentry vehicle structures, and aircraft brakes. Only a small amount of information has been published that is directly related to the evaluation of beryllium for service in the less severe or normal atmospheric environments associated with these applications. Despite the lack of published data on the corrosion of beryllium in atmospheric environments, much can be deduced about its corrosion behavior from studies of aqueous corrosion and the experiences of fabricators and users in applying, handling, processing, storing, and shipping beryllium components. The methods of corrosion protection implemented to resist water and high-temperature gaseous environments provide useful information on methods that can be applied to protect beryllium for service in future long-term structural applications

  11. The structure, properties and performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Elliott, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma-spray technology is under investigation as a method for producing high thermal conductivity beryllium coatings for use in magnetic fusion applications. Recent investigations have focused on optimizing the plasma-spray process for depositing beryllium coatings on damaged beryllium surfaces. Of particular interest has been optimizing the processing parameters to maximize the through-thickness thermal conductivity of the beryllium coatings. Experimental results will be reported on the use of secondary H 2 gas additions to improve the melting of the beryllium powder and transferred-arc cleaning to improve the bonding between the beryllium coatings and the underlying surface. Information will also be presented on thermal fatigue tests which were done on beryllium coated ISX-B beryllium limiter tiles using 10 sec cycle times with 60 sec cooldowns and an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) relevant divertor heat flux slightly in excess of 5 MW/m 2

  12. Beryllium poisonings; Les intoxications par le beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alibert, S.

    1959-03-15

    This note reports a bibliographical study of beryllium toxicity. Thus, this bibliographical review addresses and outlines aspects and issues like aetiology, cases of acute poisoning (cutaneous manifestations, pulmonary manifestations), chronic poisoning (cutaneous, pulmonary and bone manifestations), excretion and localisation, and prognosis.

  13. Body-surface contamination monitoring preparatory to monitoring for internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, W.; Klucke, H.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements in the whole-body counter of the SAAS are routinely preceded by a thorough inspection of the patients for body-surface contamination to protect the sensitive counting equipment against becoming contaminated and to avoid a falsified indication of incorporated radionuclides. The measuring system employed for these examinations is described. (author)

  14. Study beryllium microplastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papirov, I.I.; Ivantsov, V.I.; Nikolaenko, A.A.; Shokurov, V.S.; Tuzov, Yu.V.

    2015-01-01

    Microplastic flow characteristics systematically studied for different varieties beryllium. In isostatically pressed beryllium it decreased with increasing particle size of the powder, increasing temperature and increasing the pressing metal purity. High initial values of the limit microelasticity and microflow in some cases are due a high level of internal stresses of thermal origin and over time it can relax slowly. During long-term storage of beryllium materials with high initial resistance values microplastic deformation microflow limit and microflow stress markedly reduced, due mainly to the relaxation of thermal microstrain

  15. Preparation of beryllium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowrance, B.R.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for the preparation of beryllium hydride which comprises pyrolyzing, while in solution in a solvent inert under the reaction conditions, with respect to reactants and products and at a temperature in the range of about 100 0 to about 200 0 C, sufficient to result in the formation of beryllium hydride, a di-t-alkyl beryllium etherate wherein each tertiary alkyl radical contains from 4 to 20 carbon atoms. The pyrolysis is carried out under an atmosphere inert under the reaction conditions, with respect to reactants and products. (U.S.)

  16. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's beryllium control program for high-explosive test firing bunkers and tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    This detailed report on Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's control program to minimize beryllium levels in Laboratory workplaces includes an outline of beryllium surface, soil, and air levels and an 11-y summary of sampling results from two high-use, high-explosive test firing bunkers. These sampling data and other studies demonstrate that the beryllium control program is funcioning effectively

  17. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's beryllium control program for high-explosive test firing bunkers and tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    This report on the control program to minimize beryllium levels in Laboratory workplaces includes an outline of beryllium surface, soil, and air levels and an 11-y summary of sampling results from two high-use, high-explosive test firing bunkers. These sampling data and other studies demonstrate that the beryllium control program is functioning effectively

  18. Decontamination of plutonium-contaminated surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, J.; Clouet d'Orval, Ch.; Tachon, J.

    1958-01-01

    The measure of the neutron distribution in the core of 'Proserpine', by means of activation detectors, requires no contact between the plutonium sulfate solution and the detectors. These detectors are put into PVC or polyethylene bags. This report describes the process used to decontaminate these bags. A washing by nitric acid followed by coating with plexiglass is kept, with this process we have no contamination on the detectors. (author) [fr

  19. Tritium behavior in ITER beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.

    1990-10-01

    The beryllium neutron multiplier in the ITER breeding blanket will generate tritium through transmutations. That tritium constitutes a safety hazard. Experiments evaluating tritium storage and release mechanisms have shown that most of the tritium comes out in a burst during thermal ramping. A small fraction of retained tritium is released by thermally activated processes. Analysis of recent experimental data shows that most of the tritium resides in helium bubbles. That tritium is released when the bubbles undergo swelling sufficient to develop porosity that connects with the surface. That appears to occur when swelling reaches about 10--15%. Other tritium appears to be stored chemically at oxide inclusions, probably as Be(OT) 2 . That component is released by thermal activation. There is considerable variation in published values for tritium diffusion through the beryllium and solubility in it. Data from experiments using highly irradiated beryllium from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory showed diffusivity generally in line with the most commonly accepted values for fully dense material. Lower density material, planned for use in the ITER blanket may have very short diffusion times because of the open structure. The beryllium multiplier of the ITER breeding blanket was analyzed for tritium release characteristics using temperature and helium production figures at the midplane generated in support of the ITER Summer Workshop, 1990 in Garching. Ordinary operation, either in Physics or Technology phases, should not result in the release of tritium trapped in the helium bubbles. Temperature excursions above 600 degree C result in large-scale release of that tritium. 29 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Total effective dose equivalent associated with fixed uranium surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogard, J.S.; Hamm, R.N.; Ashley, J.C.; Turner, J.E.; England, C.A.; Swenson, D.E.; Brown, K.S.

    1997-04-01

    This report provides the technical basis for establishing a uranium fixed-contamination action level, a fixed uranium surface contamination level exceeding the total radioactivity values of Appendix D of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, part 835 (10CFR835), but below which the monitoring, posting, and control requirements for Radiological Areas are not required for the area of the contamination. An area of fixed uranium contamination between 1,000 dpm/100 cm 2 and that level corresponding to an annual total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) of 100 mrem requires only routine monitoring, posting to alert personnel of the contamination, and administrative control. The more extensive requirements for monitoring, posting, and control designated by 10CFR835 for Radiological Areas do not have to be applied for these intermediate fixed-contamination levels

  1. Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feit, M.D.; Rubenchik, A.M.; Faux, D.R.; Riddle, R.A.; Shapiro, A.; Eder, D.C.; Penetrante, B.M.; Milam, D.; Genin, F.Y.; Kozlowski, M.R.

    1996-11-01

    The authors are engaged in a comprehensive effort to understand and model the initiation and growth of laser damage initiated by surface contaminants. This includes, for example, the initial absorption by the contaminant, heating and plasma generation, pressure and thermal loading of the transparent substrate, and subsequent shockwave propagation, 'splashing' of molten material and possible spallation, optical propagation and scattering, and treatment of material fracture. The integration use of large radiation hydrodynamics codes, optical propagation codes and material strength codes enables a comprehensive view of the damage process The following picture of surface contaminant initiated laser damage is emerging from our simulations

  2. Optimization in the nuclear fuel cycle II: Surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, W.S.; Silva, A.X.; Lopes, J.M.; Carmo, A.S.; Fernandes, T.S.; Mello, C.R.; Kelecom, A.

    2017-01-01

    Optimization is one of the bases of radioprotection and aims to move doses away from the dose limit that is the borderline of acceptable radiological risk. This work aims to use the monitoring of surface contamination as a tool of the optimization process. 53 surface contamination points were analyzed at a nuclear fuel cycle facility. Three sampling points were identified with monthly mean values of contamination higher than 1 Bq ∙ cm -2 , points 28, 42 and 47. These points were indicated for the beginning of the optimization process

  3. Automatic Measurement of Low Level Contamination on Concrete Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, M.; Itoh, H.; Shimada, T.; Yanagihara, S.

    2002-01-01

    Automatic measurement of radioactivity is necessary for considering cost effectiveness in final radiological survey of building structures in decommissioning nuclear facilities. The RAPID (radiation measuring pilot device for surface contamination) was developed to be applied to automatic measurement of low level contamination on concrete surfaces. The RAPID has a capability to measure contamination with detection limit of 0.14 Bq/cm2 for 60Co in 30 seconds of measurement time and its efficiency is evaluated to be 5 m2/h in a normal measurement option. It was confirmed that low level contamination on concrete surfaces could be surveyed by the RAPID efficiently compared with direct measurement by workers through its actual application

  4. Beryllium and copper-beryllium alloys; Beryllium und Kupfer-Beryllium-Legierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, Nikolaus [Materion Brush GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany). Operation and Quality/EH and S

    2017-02-15

    The light metal beryllium is a comparatively rare element, which today is primarily derived from bertrandite. It is mainly used as pure metal or in the form of copper-beryllium alloys, e.g., in automotive industry, aerospace, and electrical components. The wide range of applications is mainly attributed to the extremely high rigidity/density ratio. An overview of the history of the metal, its production, and recycling as well as the properties of CuBe alloys are given.

  5. The immunotoxicity of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    In the disease berylliosis, granulomatous hypersensitivity is the specific immune response to tissue contact with a poorly soluble particle of beryllium compound, mediated through the accumulation and proliferation of reticuloendothelial cells. A review is given of the work accomplished since the 1950's and particularly since the 1970's to elucidate the nature and consequences of this response to beryllium and its compounds. (U.K.)

  6. Preparation of beryllium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, C.R.; Baker, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    Beryllium hydride of high bulk density, suitable for use as a component of high-energy fuels, is prepared by the pyrolysis, in solution in an inert solvent, of a ditertiary-alkyl beryllium. An agitator introduces mechanical energy into the reaction system, during the pyrolysis, at the rate of 0.002 to 0.30 horsepower per gallon of reaction mixture. (U.S.)

  7. Automation system for tritium contaminated surface monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culcer, Mihai; Iliescu, Mariana; Curuia, Marian; Raceanu, Mircea; Enache, Adrian; Stefanescu, Ioan; Ducu, Catalin; Malinovschi, Viorel

    2005-01-01

    The low energy of betas makes tritium difficult to detect. However, there are several methods used in tritium detection, such as liquid scintillation and ionization chambers. Tritium on or near a surface can be also detected using proportional counter and, recently, solid state devices. The paper presents our results in the design and achievement of a surface tritium monitor using a PIN photodiode as a solid state charged particle detector to count betas emitted from the surface. That method allows continuous, real-time and non-destructively measuring of tritium. (authors)

  8. Reaction-diffusion modeling of hydrogen in beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wensing, Mirko; Matveev, Dmitry; Linsmeier, Christian [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institut fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung - Plasmaphysik (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Beryllium will be used as first-wall material for the future fusion reactor ITER as well as in the breeding blanket of DEMO. In both cases it is important to understand the mechanisms of hydrogen retention in beryllium. In earlier experiments with beryllium low-energy binding states of hydrogen were observed by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) which are not yet well understood. Two candidates for these states are considered: beryllium-hydride phases within the bulk and surface effects. The retention of deuterium in beryllium is studied by a reaction rate approach using a coupled reaction diffusion system (CRDS)-model relying on ab initio data from density functional theory calculations (DFT). In this contribution we try to assess the influence of surface recombination.

  9. Estimating dermal transfer from PCB-contaminated porous surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayton, T M; Valberg, P A; Wait, A D

    1998-06-01

    Health risks posed by dermal contact with PCB-contaminated porous surfaces have not been directly demonstrated and are difficult to estimate indirectly. Surface contamination by organic compounds is commonly assessed by collecting wipe samples with hexane as the solvent. However, for porous surfaces, hexane wipe characterization is of limited direct use when estimating potential human exposure. Particularly for porous surfaces, the relationship between the amount of organic material collected by hexane and the amount actually picked up by, for example, a person's hand touch is unknown. To better mimic PCB pickup by casual hand contact with contaminated concrete surfaces, we used alternate solvents and wipe application methods that more closely mimic casual dermal contact. Our sampling results were compared to PCB pickup using hexane-wetted wipes and the standard rubbing protocol. Dry and oil-wetted samples, applied without rubbing, picked up less than 1% of the PCBs picked up by the standard hexane procedure; with rubbing, they picked up about 2%. Without rubbing, saline-wetted wipes picked up 2.5%; with rubbing, they picked up about 12%. While the nature of dermal contact with a contaminated surface cannot be perfectly reproduced with a wipe sample, our results with alternate wiping solvents and rubbing methods more closely mimic hand contact than the standard hexane wipe protocol. The relative pickup estimates presented in this paper can be used in conjunction with site-specific PCB hexane wipe results to estimate dermal pickup rates at sites with PCB-contaminated concrete.

  10. Implanted deuterium retention and release in carbon-coated beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, R.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Pawelko, R.J.; Oates, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Deuterium implantation experiments have been conducted on samples of clean and carbon-coated beryllium. These studies entailed preparation and characterization of beryllium samples coated with carbon thicknesses of 100, 500, and 1000 angstrom. Heat treatment of a beryllium sample coated with carbon to a thickness of approximately 100 angstrom revealed that exposure to a temperature of 400 degrees C under high vacuum conditions was sufficient to cause substantial diffusion of beryllium through the carbon layer, resulting in more beryllium than carbon at the surface. Comparable concentrations of carbon and beryllium were observed in the bulk of the coating layer. Higher than expected oxygen levels were observed throughout the coating layer as well. Samples were exposed to deuterium implantation followed by thermal desorption without exposure to air. Differences were observed in deuterium retention and postimplantation release behavior in the carbon-coated samples as compared with bare samples. For comparable implantation conditions (sample temperature of 400 degrees C and an incident deuterium flux of approximately 6 X 10 19 D/m 2 sec), the quantity of deuterium retained in the bare sample was less than that retained in the carbon-coated samples. Further, the release of the deuterium took place at lower temperatures for the bare beryllium surfaces than for carbon-coated beryllium samples. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  11. Implanted Deuterium Retention and Release in Carbon-Coated Beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderl, R. A.; Longhurst, G. R.; Pawelko, R. J.; Oates, M. A.

    1997-06-01

    Deuterium implantation experiments have been conducted on samples of clean and carbon-coated beryllium. These studies entailed preparation and characterization of beryllium samples coated with carbon thicknesses of 100, 500, and 1000 Å. Heat treatment of a beryllium sample coated with carbon to a thickness of approximately 100 Å revealed that exposure to a temperature of 400°C under high vacuum conditions was sufficient to cause substantial diffusion of beryllium through the carbon layer, resulting in more beryllium than carbon at the surface. Comparable concentrations of carbon and beryllium were observed in the bulk of the coating layer. Higher than expected oxygen levels were observed throughout the coating layer as well. Samples were exposed to deuterium implantation followed by thermal desorption without exposure to air. Differences were observed in deuterium retention and postimplantation release behavior in the carbon-coated samples as compared with bare samples. For comparable implantation conditions (sample temperature of 400°C and an incident deuterium flux of approximately 6 × 1019 D/m2-s), the quantity of deuterium retained in the bare sample was less than that retained in the carbon-coated samples. Further, the release of the deuterium took place at lower temperatures for the bare beryllium surfaces than for carbon-coated beryllium samples.

  12. Process for cleaning radioactively contaminated metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihram, R.G.; Snyder, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for removing radioactive scale from a ferrous metal surface, including the steps of initially preconditioning the surface by contacting it with an oxidizing solution (such as an aqueous solution of an alkali metal permanganate or hydrogen peroxide), then, after removal or decomposition of the oxidizing solution, the metallic surface is contacted with a cleaning solution which is a mixture of a mineral acid and a complexing agent (such as sulfuric acid and oxalic acid), and which preferably contains a corrosion inhibitor. A final step in the process is the treatment of the spent cleaning solution containing radioactive waste materials in solution by adding a reagent selected from the group consisting of calcium hydroxide or potassium permanganate and an alkali metal hydroxide to thereby form easily recovered metallic compounds containing substantially all of the dissolved metals and radioactivity. (auth)

  13. Surface roughness statistics and temperature step stress effects for D-T solid layers equilibrated inside a 2 mm beryllium torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheliak, J.D.; Hoffer, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    Solid D-T layers are equilibrated inside a 2 mm diameter beryllium toroidal cell at temperatures ranging from 19.0 K to 19.6 K, using the beta-layering process. The experimental runs consists of multiple cycles of rapid- or slow-freezing of the initially liquid D-T charge, followed by a lengthy period of beta-layering equilibration, terminated by melting the layer. The temperature was changed in discrete steps at the end of some equilibration cycles in an attempt to simulate actual ICF target conditions. High-precision images of the D-T solid-vapor interface were analyzed to yield the surface roughness σ mns as a sum of modal contributions. Results show an overage σ mns of 1.3 ± 0.3 microm for layers equilibrated at 19.0 K and show an inverse dependence of σ mns on equilibration temperature up to 19.525 K. Inducing sudden temperature perturbations lowered σ mns to 1.0 ± 0.05 microm

  14. Cleaning, disinfection and sterilization of surface prion contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, G; Dehen, C; Perrin, A; Thomas, V; Igel-Egalon, A; Burke, P A; Deslys, J P; Comoy, E

    2013-12-01

    Prion contamination is a risk during device reprocessing, being difficult to remove and inactivate. Little is known of the combined effects of cleaning, disinfection and sterilization during a typical reprocessing cycle in clinical practice. To investigate the combination of cleaning, disinfection and/or sterilization on reducing the risk of surface prion contamination. In vivo test methods were used to study the impact of cleaning alone and cleaning combined with thermal disinfection and high- or low-temperature sterilization processes. A standardized test method, based on contamination of stainless steel wires with high titres of scrapie-infected brain homogenates, was used to determine infectivity reduction. Traditional chemical methods of surface decontamination against prions were confirmed to be effective, but extended steam sterilization was more variable. Steam sterilization alone reduced the risk of prion contamination under normal or extended exposure conditions, but did show significant variation. Thermal disinfection had no impact in these studies. Cleaning with certain defined formulations in combination with steam sterilization can be an effective prion decontamination process, in particular with alkaline formulations. Low-temperature, gaseous hydrogen peroxide sterilization was also confirmed to reduce infectivity in the presence and absence of cleaning. Prion decontamination is affected by the full reprocessing cycle used on contaminated surfaces. The correct use of defined cleaning, disinfection and sterilization methods as tested in this report in the scrapie infectivity assay can provide a standard precaution against prion contamination. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Release of Streptomyces albus propagules from contaminated surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorny, R.L.; Mainelis, Gediminas; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Willeke, Klaus; Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Reponen, Tiina

    2003-01-01

    The release of Streptomyces albus propagules from contaminated agar an ceiling tile surfaces was studied under controlled environmental condition in a newly developed aerosolization chamber. The experiments revealed tha both spores and cell fragments can be simultaneously released from the colonized surface by relatively gentle air currents of 0.3 m s -1 . A 100x increase of the air velocity can result in a 50-fold increase in the number of released propagules. The aerosolization rate depends strongly on the typ and roughness of the contaminated surface. Up to 90% of available actinomycete propagules can become airborne during the first 10 min of th release process. Application of vibration to the surface did not reveal an influence on the aerosolization process of S. albus propagules under th tested conditions. This study has shown that propagules in the fine particle size range can be released in large amounts from contaminated surfaces Measurement of the number of S. albus fragments in the vicinity of contaminated area, as an alternative to conventional air or surface sampling appears to be a promising approach for quantitative exposure assessment

  16. Protection of air in premises and environment against beryllium aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitkolov, N.Z.; Vishnevsky, E.P.; Krupkin, A.V. [Research Inst. of Industrial and Marine Medicine, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1998-01-01

    First and foremost, the danger of beryllium aerosols concerns a possibility of their inhalation. The situation is aggravated with high biological activity of the beryllium in a human lung. The small allowable beryllium aerosols` concentration in air poses a rather complex and expensive problem of the pollution prevention and clearing up of air. The delivery and transportation of beryllium aerosols from sites of their formation are defined by the circuit of ventilation, that forms aerodynamics of air flows in premises, and aerodynamic links between premises. The causes of aerosols release in air of premises from hoods, isolated and hermetically sealed vessels can be vibrations, as well as pulses of temperature and pressure. Furthermore, it is possible the redispersion of aerosols from dirty surfaces. The effective protection of air against beryllium aerosols at industrial plants is provided by a complex of hygienic measures: from individual means of breath protection up to collective means of the prevention of air pollution. (J.P.N.)

  17. Behaviour of molten beryllium with ITER reference CFC SEPCARB NB31 under moisture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipa, M. [CEA/Cadarache-DSM/DRFC, Euratom-Association, Saint Paul Lez Durance F-13108 (France)], E-mail: manfred.lipa@cea.fr; Linke, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Euratom-Association, Juelich D-52425 (Germany); Martin, G. [CEA/Cadarache-DSM/DRFC, Euratom-Association, Saint Paul Lez Durance F-13108 (France); Wessel, E. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Euratom-Association, Juelich D-52425 (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    A dramatic exothermic reaction has been observed in Tore Supra with molten aluminium enclosed in a thermally loaded 2D carbon fibre reinforced carbon composite (CFC) tile, exposed after component removal to atmospheric moisture. This led to an important local destruction of the graphite matrix and fibre texture. Beryllium, as aluminium, a carbide forming metal, is foreseen for the ITER first wall armour. Since it can be expected that sputtered, molten and/or evaporated beryllium material will be transported to the hot CFC based divertor surface during normal and off-normal plasma operation, a preliminary reaction experiment has been performed in order to investigate to which extent the Be contaminated graphite matrix and fibre texture of 3D-CFC SEPCARB NB31 could be locally damaged ('erosion') following a subsequent long lasting air venting or a supposed in-vessel ingress of coolant (steam) event (ICE)

  18. Techniques for removing contaminants from optical surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stowers, I.F.; Patton, H.G.

    1978-01-01

    Particle removal procedures such as plasma cleaning, ultrasonic agitation of solvents, detergents, solvent wiping, mild abrasives, vapor degreasing, high pressure solvent spraying and others have been evaluated and the results are reported here. Wiping with a lens tissue wetted with an organic solvent and high pressure fluid spraying are the only methods by which particles as small as 5 μm can be effectively removed. All of the other methods tested were found to be at least two orders of magnitude less effective at removing small insoluble particles. An additional and as yet unresolved problem is the development of a reliable method for evaluating particulate surface cleanliness. Without such a reproducible monitoring technique, the large diversity of cleaning methods currently available cannot be quantitatively evaluated

  19. The effect of processing parameters on plasma sprayed beryllium for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Jacobson, L.A.; Cowgill, D.F.; Snead, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Plasma spraying is being investigated as a potential coating technique for applying thin (0.1--5mm) layers of beryllium on plasma facing surfaces of blanket modules in ITER and also as an in-situ repair technique for repairing eroded beryllium surfaces in high heat flux divertor regions. High density spray deposits (>98% of theoretical density) of beryllium will be required in order to maximize the thermal conductivity of the beryllium coatings. A preliminary investigation was done to determine the effect of various processing parameters (particle size, particle morphology, secondary gas additions and reduced chamber pressure) on the as-deposited density of beryllium. The deposits were made using spherical beryllium feedstock powder which was produced by centrifugal atomization at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Improvements in the as-deposited densities and deposit efficiencies of the beryllium spray deposits will be discussed along with the corresponding thermal conductivity and outgassing behavior of these deposits

  20. The development of beryllium plasma spray technology for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Elliott, K.E.; Hollis, K.J.; Watson, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Over the past five years, four international parties, which include the European Communities, Japan, the Russian Federation and the United States, have been collaborating on the design and development of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the next generation magnetic fusion energy device. During the ITER Engineering Design Activity (EDA), beryllium plasma spray technology was investigated by Los Alamos National Laboratory as a method for fabricating and repairing and the beryllium first wall surface of the ITER tokamak. Significant progress has been made in developing beryllium plasma spraying technology for this application. Information will be presented on the research performed to improve the thermal properties of plasma sprayed beryllium coatings and a method that was developed for cleaning and preparing the surface of beryllium prior to depositing plasma sprayed beryllium coatings. Results of high heat flux testing of the beryllium coatings using electron beam simulated ITER conditions will also be presented

  1. The effect of processing parameters on plasma sprayed beryllium for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Jacobson, L.W.; Cowgill, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    Plasma spraying is being investigated as a potential coating technique for applying thin (0.1-5mm) layers of beryllium on plasma facing surfaces of blanket modules in ITER and also as an in-situ repair technique for repairing eroded beryllium surfaces in high heat flux divertor regions. High density spray deposits (>98% of theoretical density) of beryllium will be required in order to maximize the thermal conductivity of the beryllium coatings. A preliminary investigation was done to determine the effect of various processing parameters (particle size, particle morphology, secondary gas additions and reduced chamber pressure) on the as-deposited density of beryllium. The deposits were made using spherical beryllium feedstock powder which was produced by centrifugal atomization at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Improvements in the as-deposited densities and deposit efficiencies of the beryllium spray deposits will be discussed along with the corresponding thermal conductivity and outgassing behavior of these deposits. (orig.)

  2. Monitoring of tritium-contaminated surfaces, including skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surette, R A; Wood, M J

    1994-05-01

    We have examined various commercially available tritium surface contamination monitors along with different swipe media and techniques for direct and indirect (swipe) monitoring of contaminated surfaces, including skin. None of the methods or instruments evaluated were more sensitive than the swipe and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) method. Swipe measurements with open-window proportional counters were, in general, less than half as sensitive as LSC, but have the advantages of having the results available almost immediately, and no sample preparation is required. The Nuclear Measurement Corporation`s PC-55 is the most suitable instrument we tested for the analysis of routine swipe measurement. The PC-55 was about one third as sensitive as LSC when used with Ontario Hydro filter paper swipe media. Surface contamination measurement results can be obtained within minutes using the PC-55, compared to hours using LSC. The selection of swipe media for use with proportional counter-based instruments is critical. A medium that is electrically insulating can develop an electrostatic charge on its surface; this may alter the field gradient in the detector and may adversely influence the results. Although the PC-55 is sufficiently sensitive and very convenient, operational experience with the instrument is needed before recommending that it replace current LSC methods. The PC-55`s susceptibility to internal tritium contamination may limit its practical usefulness. Because of the complexity of using live animals to evaluate direct and indirect methods for assessing skin contamination, pig skin was investigated as a possible substitute. We concluded that, for the first few hours post-exposure, pig skin mimics the kinetics of animal skin that has contacted a tritium-contaminated surface. (author). 30 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  3. Monitoring of tritium-contaminated surfaces, including skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surette, R.A.; Wood, M.J.

    1994-05-01

    We have examined various commercially available tritium surface contamination monitors along with different swipe media and techniques for direct and indirect (swipe) monitoring of contaminated surfaces, including skin. None of the methods or instruments evaluated were more sensitive than the swipe and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) method. Swipe measurements with open-window proportional counters were, in general, less than half as sensitive as LSC, but have the advantages of having the results available almost immediately, and no sample preparation is required. The Nuclear Measurement Corporation's PC-55 is the most suitable instrument we tested for the analysis of routine swipe measurement. The PC-55 was about one third as sensitive as LSC when used with Ontario Hydro filter paper swipe media. Surface contamination measurement results can be obtained within minutes using the PC-55, compared to hours using LSC. The selection of swipe media for use with proportional counter-based instruments is critical. A medium that is electrically insulating can develop an electrostatic charge on its surface; this may alter the field gradient in the detector and may adversely influence the results. Although the PC-55 is sufficiently sensitive and very convenient, operational experience with the instrument is needed before recommending that it replace current LSC methods. The PC-55's susceptibility to internal tritium contamination may limit its practical usefulness. Because of the complexity of using live animals to evaluate direct and indirect methods for assessing skin contamination, pig skin was investigated as a possible substitute. We concluded that, for the first few hours post-exposure, pig skin mimics the kinetics of animal skin that has contacted a tritium-contaminated surface. (author). 30 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  4. The Effect of Artificial Aging on The Bond Strength of Heat-activated Acrylic Resin to Surface-treated Nickel-chromium-beryllium Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Jabbari, Youssef S; Zinelis, Spiros; Al Taweel, Sara M; Nagy, William W

    2016-01-01

    The debonding load of heat-activated polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) denture base resin material to a nickel-chromium-beryllium (Ni-Cr-Be) alloy conditioned by three different surface treatments and utilizing two different commercial bonding systems was investigated. Denture resin (Lucitone-199) was bonded to Ni-Cr-Be alloy specimens treated with Metal Primer II, the Rocatec system with opaquer and the Rocatec system without opaquer. Denture base resin specimens bonded to non-treated sandblasted Ni-Cr-Be alloy were used as controls. Twenty samples for each treatment condition (80 specimens) were tested. The 80 specimens were divided into two categories, thermocycled and non-thermocycled, containing four groups of ten specimens each. The non-thermocycled specimens were tested after 48 hours' storage in room temperature water. The thermocycled specimens were tested after 2,000 cycles in 4°C and 55°C water baths. The debonding load was calculated in Newtons (N), and collected data were subjected by non parametric test Kruskal-Wallis One Way Analysis of Variance on Ranks and Dunn's post hoc test at the α = 0.05. The Metal Primer II and Rocatec system without opaquer groups produced significantly higher bond strengths (119.9 and 67.6 N), respectively, than did the sandblasted and Rocatec system with opaquer groups, where the bond strengths were 2.6 N and 0 N, respectively. The Metal Primer II was significantly different from all other groups (P<0.05). The bond strengths of all groups were significantly decreased (P<0.05) after thermocycling. Although thermocycling had a detrimental effect on the debonding load of all surface treatments tested, the Metal Primer II system provided higher values among all bonding systems tested, before and after thermocycling.

  5. Worker exposures from recycling surface contaminated radioactive scrap metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluk, A.; Phillips, J.W.; Culp, J.

    1996-01-01

    Current DOE policy permits release from DOE control of real property with residual levels of surficial radioactive contamination if the contamination is below approved guidelines. If the material contains contamination that is evenly distributed throughout its volume (referred to as volumetric contamination), then Departmental approval for release must be obtained in advance. Several DOE sites presently recycle surface contaminated metal, although the quantities are small relative to the quantities of metal processed by typical mini-mills, hence the potential radiation exposures to mill workers from processing DOE metals and the public from the processed metal are at present also a very small fraction of their potential value. The exposures calculated in this analysis are based on 100% of the scrap metal being processed at the maximum contamination levels and are therefore assumed to be maximum values and not likely to occur in actual practice. This paper examines the relationship between the surface contamination limits established under DOE Order 5400.5, open-quotes Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment,close quotes and radiation exposures to workers involved in the scrap metal recycling process. The analysis is limited to surficial contamination at or below the guideline levels established in DOE Order 5400.5 at the time of release. Workers involved in the melting and subsequent fabrication of products are not considered radiation workers (no requirements for monitoring) and must be considered members of the public. The majority of the exposures calculated in this analysis range from tenths of a millirem per year (mrem/yr) to less than 5 mrem/yr. The incremental risk of cancer associated with these exposures ranges from 10 -8 cancers per year to 10 -6 cancers per year

  6. Sintering of beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caillat, R.; Pointud, R.

    1955-01-01

    This study had for origin to find a process permitting to manufacture bricks of beryllium oxide of pure nuclear grade, with a density as elevated as possible and with standardized shape. The sintering under load was the technique kept for the manufacture of the bricks. Because of the important toxicity of the beryllium oxide, the general features for the preliminary study of the sintering, have been determined while using alumina. The obtained results will be able to act as general indication for ulterior studies with sintering under load. (M.B.) [fr

  7. Modelling of contamination of surface atmosphere for deflation of Cesium-137 on contaminated territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, A.P.; Zhmura, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    Presence of Cesium 137 in near land air is caused at the contaminated territories by 'local' dusting and transport of the dust from the zone of strong contamination. For large distance is it caused by resuspension of radioactive dust from the surface in the given region. In accordance with the models of dusting round square sources based on Gauss statistical model of dissemination of admixtures in the atmosphere, the contaminated areas of european part of the former of USSR with the density of contamination over 1 Ci/km 2 with Cesium 137 were represented by 30 round square sources covering the main spots of contamination. The results of calculation of contamination of the atmosphere for several cities of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, where there are the permanent points of observation for the content of radionuclides in the air, have shown that the proposed model of dusting sources describes the contamination of near land air with Cesium 137 reasonably well. 7 refs., 3 tabs

  8. Assessment of arsenic surface contamination in a museum anthropology department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribovich, Andrey; Lacey, Steven; Franke, John; Hinkamp, David

    2013-02-01

    To assess potential arsenic (As) contamination of work surfaces to improve upon the control strategy at an anthropology department in a large natural history museum. Work practices were observed and control strategy reviewed to inform an occupational hygiene assessment strategy utilizing surface wipe sampling. A total of 35 sampling targets were identified, focusing on surfaces that receive high touch traffic, including workstations, artifact transport carts, and elevator buttons. Arsenic sampling and analysis were performed using reference method Occupational Safety and Health Administration ID-125G. Four of the sampling areas returned detectable levels of As, ranging from 0.052 to 0.350 μg/100 cm. Workplace observations and wipe sampling data enabled the development of recommendations to help to further reduce potential occupational exposure to As. Continuous reduction of surface contamination is prudent for known human carcinogens.

  9. Development of a calibration system for surface contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marechal, M.H.H.; Barbosa, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    A calibration system for surface contamination monitors is developed, aiming supply the existence demand of these instruments. A experimental arrangement and a methodology are described. The advantages of use this system for calibration routine optimization are also discussed. (C.G.C.)

  10. Influence of the target surface contamination on UHV screening energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Targosz-Sleczka, N; Czerski, K; Kilic, A I [Institute of Physics, University of Szczecin, Szczecin (Poland); Huke, A; Martin, L; Heide, P [Institut fuer Atomare Physik und Optik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Blauth, D; Winter, H, E-mail: natalia.targosz@wmf.univ.szczecin.p [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-01-01

    The d + d fusion reactions have been investigated in the Zirconium environment under ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions for projectile energies below 30 keV. The experimentally determined screening energy value of 497 {+-} 7 eV is larger than the previous results by a factor of almost two. Despite the UHV conditions a small deviation between experimental data and the theoretical curve arising from the target surface contamination could be still observed at the lowest projectile energies. Calculations made under the assumption of formation of a Zirconium oxide contamination, show that every atomic monolayer reduces the estimated screening energy significantly.

  11. Influence of the target surface contamination on UHV screening energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Targosz-Sleczka, N; Czerski, K; Kilic, A I; Huke, A; Martin, L; Heide, P; Blauth, D; Winter, H

    2010-01-01

    The d + d fusion reactions have been investigated in the Zirconium environment under ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions for projectile energies below 30 keV. The experimentally determined screening energy value of 497 ± 7 eV is larger than the previous results by a factor of almost two. Despite the UHV conditions a small deviation between experimental data and the theoretical curve arising from the target surface contamination could be still observed at the lowest projectile energies. Calculations made under the assumption of formation of a Zirconium oxide contamination, show that every atomic monolayer reduces the estimated screening energy significantly.

  12. Laser Decontamination of Surfaces Contaminated with Cs+ Ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baigalmaaa, B.; Won, H. J.; Moon, J. K.; Jung, C. H.; Lee, K. W.; Hyun, J. H.

    2008-01-01

    Laser decontamination technology has been proven to be an efficient method for a surface modification of metals and concretes contaminated with radioactive isotopes. Furthermore, the generation of a secondary waste is negligible. The radioactivity of hot cells in the DFDF (Dupic Fuel Development Facility) is presumed to be very high and the predominant radionuclide is Cs-137. A series of laser decontamination studies by a fabricated Q-switched Nd:YAG laser system were performed on stainless steel specimens artificially contaminated with Cs+ ion. Decontamination characteristics of the stainless steel were analyzed by SEM and EPMA

  13. Movement of liquid beryllium during melt events in JET with ITER-like wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergienko, G; Huber, A; Brezinsek, S; Coenen, J W; Mertens, Ph; Philipps, V; Samm, U; Arnoux, G; Matthews, G F; Nunes, I; Riccardo, V; Sirinelli, A; Devaux, S

    2014-01-01

    The ITER-like wall recently installed in JET comprises solid beryllium limiters and a combination of bulk tungsten and tungsten-coated carbon fibre composite divertor tiles without active cooling. During a beryllium power handling qualification experiment performed in limiter configuration with 5 MW neutral beam injection input power, accidental beryllium melt events, melt layer motion and splashing were observed locally on a few beryllium limiters in the plasma contact areas. The Lorentz force is responsible for the observed melt layer movement. To move liquid beryllium against the gravity force, the current flowing from the plasma perpendicularly to the limiter surface must be higher than 6 kA m −2 . The thermo-emission current at the melting point of beryllium is much lower. The upward motion of the liquid beryllium against gravity can be due to a combination of the Lorentz force from the secondary electron emission and plasma pressure force. (paper)

  14. Surface Modification of C17200 Copper-Beryllium Alloy by Plasma Nitriding of Cu-Ti Gradient Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y. D.; Yan, M. F.; Zhang, Y. X.; Zhang, C. S.

    2018-03-01

    In the present work, a copper-titanium film of gradient composition was firstly fabricated by the dual magnetron sputtering through power control and plasma nitriding of the film was then conducted to modify C17200 Cu alloy. The results showed that the prepared gradient Cu-Ti film by magnetron sputtering was amorphous. After plasma nitriding at 650 °C, crystalline Cu-Ti intermetallics appeared in the multi-phase coating, including CuTi2, Cu3Ti, Cu3Ti2 and CuTi. Moreover, even though the plasma nitriding duration of the gradient Cu-Ti film was only 0.5 h, the mechanical properties of the modified Cu surface were obviously improved, with the surface hardness enhanced to be 417 HV0.01, the wear rate to be 0.32 × 10-14 m3/Nm and the friction coefficient to be 0.075 at the load of 10 N, which are all more excellent than the C17200 Cu alloy. In addition, the wear mechanism also changed from adhesion wear for C17200 Cu substrate to abrasive wear for the modified surface.

  15. Strippable gel for decontamination of contaminated metallic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, D.; Sandhya, U.; Khot, S.A.; Srinivas, C.; Wattal, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    Periodic decontamination of radioactive laboratories including fume hoods, glove boxes and all surfaces used for handling, processing and transporting radioactive materials is mandatory in all nuclear installations as this reduces spread of contamination and decreases total man rem exposure. Conventionally, chemical decontaminating agents or surfactant solutions are used for this purpose. However, this approach leads to generation of large volume of secondary radioactive waste. The use of strippable gel is an attractive alternative with low secondary waste generation particularly where removal of loose or weakly fixed contamination is necessary and also when the decontaminated material are to be reused, for e.g. decontamination of fume hoods, glove boxes, transport casks, spent fuel storage racks, control rod drive transport containers etc. Literature on gel formulations is scarce and mostly in the patent form. The sustained effort on gel formulation development has resulted in a basic gel formulation. The gel is a highly viscous water-based organic polymer, particularly suitable for application on vertical surfaces including difficult to reach metallic surfaces of complex geometry and not just limited to horizontal surfaces. The gel can be easily applied on contaminated surfaces by brushing or spraying. Curing of the gel is complete within 16-24 hours under ambient conditions and can then be removed by peeling as a dry sheet. While curing, the contaminants are trapped in gel either physically or chemically depending upon the nature of the contaminant. Salient features of cured gel include that it is water soluble and can be disposed off after immobilization in cement. Decontamination performance of the gel was initially evaluated by applying it on SS planchettes contaminated with known amount of radionuclides such as Cs(I), Co(II) and Ce(III). The measured decontamination factor was found to be in the range of 50-500, lowest for Ce(III) and highest for Co

  16. Experiment on Physical Desalinisation of Uranium-contaminated Gravel Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Uk-Ryang; Kim, Gye-Nam; Kim, Seung-Soo; Han, Gyu-Seong; Moon, Jai-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    As a result, the method to wash uranium-contaminated gravels could not get satisfactory desalinization rate. During the long oxidization process it was judged that uranium penetrated inside the gravels, so we tried to increase the desalinization rate by fragmentizing them into pieces and then washing them. The desalinization rate after fragmentizing the gravels into pieces and washing them brought a satisfactory result.. However, we could obtain desired concentration for gravels with high uranium concentration by fragmentizing them and breaking them further into even smaller pieces. Likewise, desalinization using soil washing process is complicated and has to go through multiple washing steps, resulting in too much of waste fluid generated accordingly. The increase of waste fluid generated leads to the increase in by-products of the final disposal process later on, bringing a not good economic result. Furthermore, taking into account that the desalinization rate is 65% during soil washing process, it is expected that gravel washing will show a similar desalinization result; it is considered uneasy to have a perfect desalinization only by soil washing. The grinding method is actually used in the primary desalinization process in order to desalinize radioactivity-contaminated concrete. This method does desalinization by grinding the radioactivity-contaminated area of the concrete surface with desalinization equipment, which enables a near-to-perfect desalinization for relatively thinly contaminated surface. Likewise, this research verified the degree of desalinization by applying the grinding method and comparing it to the fragmentizing-washing method, and attempted to find a method to desalinize uranium-contaminated gravels more effectively. In order to desalinize uranium-contaminated gravels more effectively and compare to the existing washing-desalinization method, we conducted a desalinization experiment with grinding method that grinds gravel surface. As a

  17. Simultaneous observation of seasonal variations of beryllium-7 and typical POPs in near-surface atmospheric aerosols in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jing; Yang, Yong-Liang; Zhang, Gan; Shi, Jing-Lei; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Li, Yong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2011-07-01

    Near-surface atmospheric aerosol samples were collected at the sampling frequency of 2-3 d per week for one year from August 2006 to August 2007 at a low latitude station in Tianhe District, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province of southern China. The samples were analyzed for cosmogenic nuclide 7Be and persistent organic pollutants, i.e. organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The annual average 7Be concentration was 2.59 mBq m -3, with the maximum occurred in May (8.45 mBq m -3) and minimum in late August and early September (0.07 mBq m -3). Winter and spring were the seasons in which the 7Be concentrations were high while summer and autumn were the lower 7Be seasons. Spring peaks in 7Be in the near-surface atmospheric aerosols may have associated with the "spring leak maximum" episode. The annual average ∑OCPs concentration was 345.6 pg m -3, ∑ 33PCBs 317.6 pg m -3, and ∑ 31PBDEs 609.0 pg m -3. The variation trends in the time-series of 7Be, OCPs, PCBs, and PBDEs in near-surface atmospheric aerosol showed both common features and differences. Significant correlations ( R2 = 0.957 and 0.811. respectively, p = 0.01) were observed between the monthly average 7Be concentrations and those of ∑PCBs and ∑PBDEs in summer, autumn, and early winter. The difference between the seasonal variation features of OCPs and PCBs (and PBDEs) could be attributed to the different source functions and physical-chemical properties which could control the behaviors of these compounds in air-aerosol partitions as well as atmospheric transport.

  18. Residual viral and bacterial contamination of surfaces after cleaning and disinfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuladhar, E.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Koopmans, M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Beumer, R.R.; Duizer, E.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental surfaces contaminated with pathogens can be sources of indirect transmission, and cleaning and disinfection are common interventions focused on reducing contamination levels. We determined the efficacy of cleaning and disinfection procedures for reducing contamination by noroviruses,

  19. Reactor surface contamination stabilization. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    Contaminated surfaces, such as the face of a nuclear reactor, need to be stabilized (fixed) to avoid airborne contamination during decontamination and decommissioning activities, and to prepare for interim safe storage. The traditional (baseline) method of fixing the contamination has been to spray a coating on the surfaces, but ensuring complete coverage over complex shapes, such as nozzles and hoses, is difficult. The Hanford Site C Reactor Technology Demonstration Group demonstrated innovative technologies to assess stabilization properties of various coatings and to achieve complete coverage of complex surfaces on the reactor face. This demonstration was conducted in two phases: the first phase consisted of a series of laboratory assessments of various stabilization coatings on metal coupons. For the second phase, coatings that passed the laboratory tests were applied to the front face of the C Reactor and evaluated. The baseline coating (Rust-Oleum No. 769) and one of the innovative technologies did not completely cover nozzle assemblies on the reactor face, the most critical of the second-phase evaluation criteria. However, one of the innovative coating systems, consisting of a base layer of foam covered by an outer layer of a polymeric film, was successful. The baseline technology would cost approximately 33% as much as the innovative technology cost of $64,000 to stabilize an entire reactor face (196 m 2 or 2116 ft 2 ) with 2,004 nozzle assemblies, but the baseline system failed to provide complete surface coverage

  20. Ion beam assisted deposition of metal-coatings on beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashlykov, I.S.; Tul'ev, V.V.

    2015-01-01

    Thin films were applied on beryllium substrates on the basis of metals (Cr, Ti, Cu and W) with method of the ion-assisted deposition in vacuum. Me/Be structures were prepared using 20 kV ions irradiation during deposition on beryllium neutral fraction generated from vacuum arc plasma. Rutherford back scattering and computer simulation RUMP code were applied to investigate the composition of the modified beryllium surface. Researches showed that the superficial structure is formed on beryllium by thickness ~ 50-60 nm. The covering composition includes atoms of the deposited metal (0.5-3.3 at. %), atoms of technological impurity carbon (0.8-1.8 at. %) and oxygen (6.3-9.9 at. %), atoms of beryllium from the substrate. Ion assisted deposition of metals on beryllium substrate is accompanied by radiation enhanced diffusion of metals, oxygen atoms in the substrate, out diffusion of beryllium, carbon atoms in the deposited coating and sputtering film-forming ions assists. (authors)

  1. Removable coating for contamination protection of concrete surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, G.; Beaulardi, L.

    1985-01-01

    In order to research protective coatings for concrete surfaces, assuring an effective protection against contamination and that it be easily removed before dismantling the structures, commercial stripping paints have been characterized for their conventional and nuclear properties: water and chemicals, abrasion, impact, tensile stress resistance, stripping capacity, decontaminability. The protective power of the coatings against contamination has been checked by recording the surface activity before and after stripping the paint film: the activity filtered through the coating was, in any case, very low (< 1% of the deposited activity). Indications from large scale application of a stripping paint in NUCLEO (Rome) establishments and technical evaluation of the possible utilization of removable coatings in the CAORSO Nuclear Power Station, are also reported

  2. Method of beryllium implantation in germanium substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagawa, S.; Baba, Y.; Kaneda, T.; Shirai, T.

    1983-01-01

    A semiconductor device is disclosed, as well as a method for manufacturing it in which ions of beryllium are implanted into a germanium substrate to form a layer containing p-type impurity material. There after the substrate is heated at a temperature in the range of 400 0 C. to 700 0 C. to diffuse the beryllium ions into the substrate so that the concentration of beryllium at the surface of the impurity layer is in the order of 10 17 cm- 3 or more. In one embodiment, a p-type channel stopper is formed locally in a p-type germanium substrate and an n-type active layer is formed in a region surrounded by, and isolated from, the channel stopper region. In another embodiment, a relatively shallow p-type active layer is formed at one part of an n-type germanium substrate and p-type guard ring regions are formed surrounding, and partly overlapping said p-type active layer. In a further embodiment, a p-type island region is formed at one part of an n-type germanium substrate, and an n-type region is formed within said p-type region. In these embodiments, the p-type channel stopper region, p-type guard ring regions and the p-type island region are all formed by implanting ions of beryllium into the germanium substrate

  3. Beryllium-7 in near-surface atmospheric aerosols in mid-latitude (40 deg N) city Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyan Tan; Yongliang Yang; Xiaohua Zhu; Shu Chen; Xingchun Jiao; Nan Gai; Yi Huang

    2013-01-01

    A high-volume air sampler and a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer have been used to measure the activity of 7 Be in near-surface atmospheric aerosols at sampling frequency of 3 days week for 1 year from August 2009 to July 2010 at Beijing in the mid-latitude region of East Asia monsoon. The measurements indicate that the average concentration of 7 Be was 8.39 ± 0.49 mBq m -3 , which was significantly higher than values reported for other cities in the East Asia monsoon region and in the world during the same period. The maximum and minimum of the weekly means of 7 Be concentration were observed in September and May, respectively. The 7 Be concentrations varied in accordance with the monsoon phases. Low but frequent wet precipitation may have caused lower 7 Be observed in July when southeasterly was prevailing. Higher seasonal mean of 7 Be concentrations in autumn could be attributed to the abnormal atmospheric circulation in autumn 2009. (author)

  4. Modeling Groundwater-Surface Water Interaction and Contaminant Transport of Chlorinated Solvent Contaminated Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimer Ebrahim, Girma; Jonoski, Andreja; van Griensven, Ann; Dujardin, Juliette; Baetelaan, Okke; Bronders, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Chlorinated-solvent form one of the largest groups of environmental chemicals. Their use and misuse in industry have lead to a large entry of these chemicals into the environment, resulting in widespread dissemination and oftentimes environmental contamination. Chlorinated solvent contamination of groundwater resources has been widely reported. For instance, there has been much interest in the assessment of these contaminant levels and their evolutions with time in the groundwater body below the Vilvoorde-Machelen industrial area (Belgium). The long industrial history of the area has lead to complex patterns of pollution from multiple sources and the site has been polluted to the extent that individual plumes are not definable any more. Understanding of groundwater/surface water interaction is a critical component for determining the fate of contaminant both in streams and ground water due to the fact that groundwater and surface water are in continuous dynamic interaction in the hydrologic cycle. The interaction has practical consequences in the quantity and quality of water in either system in the sense that depletion and/or contamination of one of the system will eventually affect the other one. The transition zone between a stream and its adjacent aquifer referred to as the hyporheic zone plays a critical role in governing contaminant exchange and transformation during water exchange between the two water bodies. The hyporheic zone of Zenne River ( the main receptor ) is further complicated due to the fact that the river banks are artificially trained with sheet piles along its reach extending some 12 m below the surface. This study demonstrates the use of MODFLOW, a widely used modular three-dimensional block-centred finite difference, saturated flow model for simulating the flow and direction of movement of groundwater through aquifer and stream-aquifer interaction and the use of transport model RT3D, a three-dimensional multi-species reactive transport model

  5. Calibration and verification of surface contamination meters --- Procedures and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuler, C; Butterweck, G.; Wernli, C.; Bochud, F.; Valley, J.-F.

    2007-03-01

    A standardised measurement procedure for surface contamination meters (SCM) is presented. The procedure aims at rendering surface contamination measurements to be simply and safely interpretable. Essential for the approach is the introduction and common use of the radionuclide specific quantity 'guideline value' specified in the Swiss Radiation Protection Ordinance as unit for the measurement of surface activity. The according radionuclide specific 'guideline value count rate' can be summarized as verification reference value for a group of radionuclides ('basis guideline value count rate'). The concept can be generalized for SCM of the same type or for SCM of different types using he same principle of detection. A SCM multi source calibration technique is applied for the determination of the instrument efficiency. Four different electron radiation energy regions, four different photon radiation energy regions and an alpha radiation energy region are represented by a set of calibration sources built according to ISO standard 8769-2. A guideline value count rate representing the activity per unit area of a surface contamination of one guideline value can be calculated for any radionuclide using instrument efficiency, radionuclide decay data, contamination source efficiency, guideline value averaging area (100 cm 2 ), and radionuclide specific guideline value. n this way, instrument responses for the evaluation of surface contaminations are obtained for radionuclides without available calibration sources as well as for short-Iived radionuclides, for which the continuous replacement of certified calibration sources can lead to unreasonable costs. SCM verification is based on surface emission rates of reference sources with an active area of 100 cm 2 . The verification for a given list of radionuclides is based on the radionuclide specific quantity guideline value count rate. Guideline value count rates for groups of radionuclides can be represented within the maximum

  6. Removal of Microbial Contamination from Surface by Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xinxin; Liu, Hongxia; Shen, Zhenxing; Wang, Taobo

    2018-01-01

    Microbial contamination is closely associated with human and environmental health, they can be tested on food surfaces, medical devices, packing material and so on. In this paper the removal of the microbial contamination from surface using plasma treatment is investigated. The Escherichia coli (E. coli) has been chosen as a bio-indicator enabling to evaluate the effect of plasma assisted microbial inactivation. Oxygen gas was as the working gas. The plasma RF power, plasma exposition time, gas flow and the concentration of organic pollutant were varied in order to see the effect of the plasma treatment on the Gram-negative germ removal. After the treatment, the microbial abatement was evaluated by the standard plate count method. This proved a positive effect of the plasma treatment on Gram-negative germ removal. The kinetics and mathematical model of removal were studied after plasma treatment, and then the removing course of E. coli was analyzed. This work is meaningful for deepening our understanding of the fundamental scientific principles regarding microbial contamination from surface by plasma.

  7. Beryllium. Its minerals. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lires, O.A.; Delfino, C.A.; Botbol, J.

    1990-01-01

    With this work a series of reports begins, under the generic name 'Beryllium', related to several aspects of beryllium technology. The target is to update, with critical sense, current bibliographic material in order to be used in further applications. Some of the most important beryllium ores, the Argentine emplacement of their deposits and world occurrence are described. Argentine and world production, resources and reserves are indicated here as well. (Author) [es

  8. Beryllium Metal Supply Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Carcinogen Assessment Group (U.S. Environmental Protec- tion Agency, 1987). The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health is currently examining...Epidemiology of beryllium intox- ication. Arch. Ind. Hyg. Occup . Med. 4:123-151. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 1987. Health Assessment Document...1957 to 1961. He rejoined the Bureau of Mines in 1961 as the aluminum and bauxite commcdity specialist. In 1973 he became chief of the Division of

  9. Beryllium and zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salesse, Marc

    1959-01-01

    Pure beryllium and zirconium, both isolated at about the same date but more than a century ago remained practically unused for eighty years. Fifteen years ago they were released from this state of inactivity by atomic energy, which made them into current metal a with an annual production which runs into tens of tons for the one and thousands for the other. The reasons for this promotion promise well for the future of the two metals, which moreover will probably find additional uses in other branches of industry. The attraction of beryllium and zirconium for atomic energy is easily explained. The curve of figure 1 gives the price per gram of uranium-235 as a function of enrichment: this price increases by about a factor of 3 on passing from natural uranium (0, 7 percent 235 U) to almost pure uranium-235. Because of their tow capture cross-section beryllium and zirconium make it possible, or at least easier, to use natural uranium and they thus enjoy an advantage the extent of which must be calculated for each reactor or fuel element project, but which is generally considerable. It will be seen later that this advantage should be based on figures which are even more favourable that would appear from the simple ratio 3 of the price of pure uranium- 235 contained in natural uranium. Reprint of a paper published in 'Industries Atomiques' - n. 1-2, 1959

  10. Characterization of shocked beryllium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papin P.A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available While numerous studies have investigated the low-strain-rate constitutive response of beryllium, the combined influence of high strain rate and temperature on the mechanical behavior and microstructure of beryllium has received limited attention over the last 40 years. In the current work, high strain rate tests were conducted using both explosive drive and a gas gun to accelerate the material. Prior studies have focused on tensile loading behavior, or limited conditions of dynamic strain rate and/or temperature. Two constitutive strength (plasticity models, the Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW and Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS models, were calibrated using common quasi-static and Hopkinson bar data. However, simulations with the two models give noticeably different results when compared with the measured experimental wave profiles. The experimental results indicate that, even if fractured by the initial shock loading, the Be remains sufficiently intact to support a shear stress following partial release and subsequent shock re-loading. Additional “arrested” drive shots were designed and tested to minimize the reflected tensile pulse in the sample. These tests were done to both validate the model and to put large shock induced compressive loads into the beryllium sample.

  11. Explosive Contamination from Substrate Surfaces: Differences and Similarities in Contamination Techniques Using RDX and C-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. J.; Yoder, T. S.

    2010-06-01

    Explosive trace detection equipment has been deployed to airports for more than a decade. During this time, the need for standardized procedures and calibrated trace amounts for ensuring that the systems are operating properly and detecting the correct explosive has been apparent but a standard representative of a fingerprint has been elusive. Standards are also necessary to evaluate instrumentation in the laboratories during development and prior to deployment to determine sample throughput, probability of detection, false positive/negative rates, ease of use by operator, mechanical and/or software problems that may be encountered, and other pertinent parameters that would result in the equipment being unusable during field operations. Since many laboratories do not have access to nor are allowed to handle explosives, the equipment is tested using techniques aimed at simulating the actual explosives fingerprint. This laboratory study focused on examining the similarities and differences in three different surface contamination techniques that are used to performance test explosive trace detection equipment in an attempt to determine how effective the techniques are at replicating actual field samples and to offer scenarios where each contamination technique is applicable. The three techniques used were dry transfer deposition of standard solutions using the Transportation Security Laboratory’s (TSL) patented dry transfer techniques (US patent 6470730), direct deposition of explosive standards onto substrates, and fingerprinting of actual explosives onto substrates. RDX was deposited on the surface of one of five substrates using one of the three different deposition techniques. The process was repeated for each substrate type using each contamination technique. The substrate types used were: 50% cotton/50% polyester as found in T-shirts, 100% cotton with a smooth surface such as that found in a cotton dress shirt, 100% cotton on a rough surface such as that

  12. Permeation behavior of deuterium implanted into beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Hirofumi; Hayashi, Takumi; O' hira, Shigeru; Nishi, Masataka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-09-01

    Study on Implantation Driven Permeation (IDP) behavior of deuterium through pure beryllium was investigated as a part of the research to predict the tritium permeation through the first wall components ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). The permeation experiments were carried out with two beryllium specimens, one was an unannealed specimen and the other was that annealed at 1173 K. The permeation flux was measured as a function of specimen temperature and incident ion flux. Surface analysis of specimen was also carried out after the permeation experiment. Permeation was observed only with the annealed specimen and no significant permeation was observed with unannealed specimen under the present experimental condition (maximum temperature: 685 K, detection limit: 1x10{sup 13} D atoms/m{sup 2}s). It could be attributed that the intrinsic lattice defects, which act as diffusion preventing site, decreased with the specimen annealing. Based on the result of steady and transient permeation behavior and surface analysis, it was estimated that the deuterium permeation implanted into annealed beryllium was controlled by surface recombination due to the oxide layer on the surface of the permeated side. (author)

  13. Corrosion of beryllium oxide; Corrosion de l'oxyde de beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elston, J; Caillat, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Data are reported on the volatilization rate of beryllium oxide in moist air depending on temperature and water vapour concentration. They are concerned with powder samples or sintered shapes of various densities. For sintered samples, the volatilization rate is very low under the following conditions: - temperature: 1300 deg. C, - water vapour concentration in moist air: 25 g/m{sup 3}, - flow rate: 12 I/hour corresponding to a speed of 40 m/hour on the surface of the sample. For calcinated powders (1300 deg. C), grain growth has been observed under a stream of moist air at 1100 deg. C. For instance, grain size changes from 0,5 to at least 2 microns after 500 hours of exposure at this temperature. Furthermore, results data are reported on corrosion of sintered beryllium oxide in pressurized water. At 250 deg. C, under a pressure of 40 kg/cm{sup 2} water is very slightly corrosive; however, internal strains are revealed. Finally, some features on the corrosion in liquid sodium are exposed. (author)Fren. [French] La volatilisation de l'oxyde de beryllium dans l'air humide est etudiee en fonction de la temperature pour differentes teneurs de vapeur d'eau. Les essais decrits portent sur de l'oxyde de beryllium en poudre ou sur des echantillons d'oxyde de beryllium fritte de differentes densites. Avec un debit d'air de 12 I/h contenant 25 g de vapeur par m{sup 3} correspondant a une vitesse de 40 m/h sur la surface de l'echantillon, la volatilisation des frittes a 1300 deg. C reste tres faible. Sur de la poudre d'oxyde de beryllium calcinee initialement a 1300 deg. C, on observe un grossissement de la taille des grains sous l'influence de l'air humide a 1100 deg. C. Par exemple, elle passe de 0,5 a au moins 2 microns apres 500 heures d'exposition a cette temperature. On donne d'autre part les resultats d'une etude de la corrosion de frittes d'oxyde de beryllium par l'eau, en autoclave. A 250 deg. C, sous une pression de 40 kg/cm{sup 2}, l'action de l'eau reste tres

  14. Beryllium. Beryllium oxide, obtention and properties. Pt.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lires, O.A.; Delfino, C.A.; Botbol, J.

    1991-01-01

    As a continuation of the 'Beryllium' series this work reviews several methods of high purity beryllia production. Diverse methods of obtention and purification from different beryllium compounds are described. Some chemical, mechanical and electrical properties related with beryllia obtention methods are summarized. (Author) [es

  15. Deuterium permeation and diffusion in high-purity beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, E.; Riehm, M.P.; Thompson, D.A.; Smeltzer, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    The permeation rate of deuterium through high-purity beryllium membranes was measured using the gas-driven permeation technique. The time-dependent and the steady-state deuterium flux data were analyzed and the effective diffusivities of the samples were determined. Using multilayer permeation theory the effects of surface oxide were eliminated and the diffusion coefficients of the bulk beryllium determined. The diffusion parameters obtained for the extra-grade beryllium samples (99.8%) are D 0 =6.7x10 -9 m 2 /s and E D =28.4 kJ/mol. For the high-grade beryllium samples (99%) the parameters are D 0 =8.0x10 -9 m 2 /s and E D =35.1 kJ/mol. (orig.)

  16. Deuterium permeation and diffusion in high purity beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, E.

    1990-05-01

    The permeation rate of deuterium through high-purity beryllium membranes was measured using the gas-driven permeation technique. The time-dependent and the steady-state deuterium flux data were analyzed and the effective diffusivities of the samples were determined. A multilayer permeation theory was used in order to eliminate the surface oxide effects and the diffusion coefficients of the bulk beryllium were determined. The diffusion parameters obtained for the extra-grade beryllium samples (99.8%) are D 0 = 6.7 x 10 -9 [m 2 /s] and E D = 28.4 [KJ/mol]; and for the high-grade beryllium samples (99%) the parameters are D 0 = 8.0 x 10 -9 [m 2 /s] and E D = 35.1 [KJ/mol

  17. Beryllium armour produced by evaporation-condensation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimov, A.; Frolov, V.; Moszherin, S.; Pepekin, G.; Pirogov, A.; Komarov, V.; Mazul, I.

    1997-01-01

    Beryllium, as armour material for ITER plasma facing components, has a limited erosion lifetime. In order to repair the surface of eroded tiles in-situ, Be-deposition technologies are under consideration. One of them uses the physical vapour deposition of beryllium on copper or beryllium substrate produced by a hot Be-target placed in the vicinity of this substrate. Three different options for using this technology for ITER Be-armour application are considered. The first option is the repair in-situ of eroded Be-tiles. The second option suggests the use of this technology to provide the joining of Be to Cu-substrate. The third option assumes the use of evaporated-condensed beryllium as a bulk tile material bonded to copper substrate by conventional joining (Brazing et al.) techniques. The first results and prospects of these approaches are presented below. (orig.)

  18. Experimental study on source efficiencies for estimating surface contamination level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiji, Takeshi; Ogino, Haruyuki

    2008-01-01

    Source efficiency was measured experimentally for various materials, such as metals, nonmetals, flooring materials, sheet materials and other materials, contaminated by alpha and beta emitter radioactive nuclides. Five nuclides, 147 Pm, 60 Co, 137 Cs, 204 Tl and 90 Sr- 90 Y, were used as the beta emitters, and one nuclide 241 Am was used as the alpha emitter. The test samples were prepared by placing drops of the radioactive standardized solutions uniformly on the various materials using an automatic quantitative dispenser system from Musashi Engineering, Inc. After placing drops of the radioactive standardized solutions, the test materials were allowed to dry for more than 12 hours in a draft chamber with a hood. The radioactivity of each test material was about 30 Bq. Beta rays or alpha rays from the test materials were measured with a 2-pi gas flow proportional counter from Aloka Co., Ltd. The source efficiencies of the metals, nonmetals and sheet materials were higher than 0.5 in the case of contamination by the 137 Cs, 204 Tl and 90 Sr- 90 Y radioactive standardized solutions, higher than 0.4 in the case of contamination by the 60 Co radioactive standardized solution, and higher than 0.25 in the case of contamination by the alpha emitter the 241 Am radioactive standardized solution. These values were higher than those given in Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) documents. In contrast, the source efficiencies of some permeable materials were lower than those given in JIS documents, because source efficiency varies depending on whether the materials or radioactive sources are wet or dry. This study provides basic data on source efficiency, which is useful for estimating the surface contamination level of materials. (author)

  19. Plasma spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum-silver alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Elliott, K.E.; Jacobson, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary investigation on plasma-spraying of beryllium and a beryllium-aluminum-4% silver alloy was done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Beryllium Atomization and Thermal Spray Facility (BATSF). Spherical Be and Be-Al-4%Ag powders, which were produced by centrifugal atomization, were used as feedstock material for plasma-spraying. The spherical morphology of the powders allowed for better feeding of fine (<38 μm) powders into the plasma-spray torch. The difference in the as-deposited densities and deposit efficiencies of the two plasma-sprayed powders will be discussed along with the effect of processing parameters on the as-deposited microstructure of the Be-Al-4%Ag. This investigation represents ongoing research to develop and characterize plasma-spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum alloys for magnetic fusion and aerospace applications

  20. Plasma spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum-silver alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Elliott, K.E.; Jacobson, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary investigation on plasma-spraying of beryllium and a beryllium-aluminum 4% silver alloy was done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Beryllium Atomization and Thermal Spray Facility (BATSF). Spherical Be and Be-Al-4%Ag powders, which were produced by centrifugal atomization, were used as feedstock material for plasma-spraying. The spherical morphology of the powders allowed for better feeding of fine (<38 μm) powders into the plasma-spray torch. The difference in the as-deposited densities and deposit efficiencies of the two plasma-sprayed powders will be discussed along with the effect of processing parameters on the as-deposited microstructure of the Be-Al-4%Ag. This investigation represents ongoing research to develop and characterize plasma-spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum alloys for magnetic fusion and aerospace applications

  1. Comparison between actively cooled divertor dump plates with beryllium and CFC armour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falter, H.D.; Araki, M.; Sato, K.; Suzuki, S.; Cardella, A.

    1995-01-01

    Actively cooled test sections with beryllium and graphite armour all withstand power densities between 15 and 20 MW/m 2 . Beryllium as structural material fails mechanically at low power densities. Monoblocks appear to be the most rigid design but frequently large variations in surface temperature are observed. All other test sections show a uniform surface temperature distribution. (orig.)

  2. Measurements of beryllium sputtering yields at JET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jet-Efda Contributors Stamp, M. F.; Krieger, K.; Brezinsek, S.

    2011-08-01

    The lifetime of the beryllium first wall in ITER will depend on erosion and redeposition processes. The physical sputtering yields for beryllium (both deuterium on beryllium (Be) and Be on Be) are of crucial importance since they drive the erosion process. Literature values of experimental sputtering yields show an order of magnitude variation so predictive modelling of ITER wall lifetimes has large uncertainty. We have reviewed the old beryllium yield experiments on JET and used current beryllium atomic data to produce revised beryllium sputtering yields. These experimental measurements have been compared with a simple physical sputtering model based on TRIM.SP beryllium yield data. Fair agreement is seen for beryllium yields from a clean beryllium limiter. However the yield on a beryllium divertor tile (with C/Be co-deposits) shows poor agreement at low electron temperatures indicating that the effect of the higher sputtering threshold for beryllium carbide is important.

  3. SOURCE AND PATHWAY DETERMINATION FOR BERYLLIUM FOUND IN BECHTEL NEVADA NORTH LAS VEGAS FACILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2004-07-01

    In response to the report ''Investigation of Beryllium Exposure Cases Discovered at the North Las Vegas Facility of the National Nuclear Security Administration'', published by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) in August 2003, Bechtel Nevada (BN) President and General Manager Dr. F. A. Tarantino appointed the Beryllium Investigation & Assessment Team (BIAT) to identify both the source and pathway for the beryllium found in the North Las Vegas (NLV) B-Complex. From September 8 to December 18, 2003, the BIAT investigated the pathway for beryllium and determined that a number of locations existed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which could have contained sufficient quantities of beryllium to result in contamination if transported. Operations performed in the B-1 Building as a result of characterization activities at the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (EMAD); Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (RMAD); Test Cells A and C; and the Central Support Facility in Area 25 had the greatest opportunity for transport of beryllium. Investigative monitoring and sampling was performed at these sites with subsequent transport of sample materials, equipment, and personnel from the NTS to the B-1 Building. The timeline established by the BIAT for potential transport of the beryllium contamination into the B-1 Building was from September 1997 through November 2002. Based on results of recently completed swipe sampling, no evidence of transport of beryllium from test areas has been confirmed. Results less than the DOE beryllium action level of 0.2 ???g/100 cm2 were noted for work support facilities located in Area 25. All of the identified sites in Area 25 worked within the B-1 tenant's residency timeline have been remediated. Legacy contaminants have either been disposed of or capped with clean borrow material. As such, no current opportunity exists for release or spread of beryllium

  4. Method for fabricating beryllium structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovis, Jr., Victor M.; Northcutt, Jr., Walter G.

    1977-01-01

    Thin-walled beryllium structures are prepared by plasma spraying a mixture of beryllium powder and about 2500 to 4000 ppm silicon powder onto a suitable substrate, removing the plasma-sprayed body from the substrate and placing it in a sizing die having a coefficient of thermal expansion similar to that of the beryllium, exposing the plasma-sprayed body to a moist atmosphere, outgassing the plasma-sprayed body, and then sintering the plasma-sprayed body in an inert atmosphere to form a dense, low-porosity beryllium structure of the desired thin-wall configuration. The addition of the silicon and the exposure of the plasma-sprayed body to the moist atmosphere greatly facilitate the preparation of the beryllium structure while minimizing the heretofore deleterious problems due to grain growth and grain orientation.

  5. Doped beryllium lanthanate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Monocrystals of doped beryllium lanthanate, Be 2 Lasub(2-2x)Zsub(2x)O 5 --where Z may be any rare earth, but preferably neodymium, and x may have values between 0.001 and 0.2, but preferably between 0.007 and 0.015-- are recommended as laser hosts. They are softer and may be grown at a lower temperature than Y 3 A1 5 O 12 :Nd (YAG:Nd). Their chemical composition and preparation are described. An example of an optically pumped laser apparatus with this type of monocrystal as laser host is presented

  6. Physicochemical characteristics of aerosol particles generated during the milling of beryllium silicate ores: implications for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Chipera, Steve J; Day, Gregory A; Sabey, Phil; Dickerson, Robert M; Sbarra, Deborah C; Duling, Mathew G; Lawrence, Robert B; Stanton, Marcia L; Scripsick, Ronald C

    2008-01-01

    Inhalation of beryllium dusts generated during milling of ores and cutting of beryl-containing gemstones is associated with development of beryllium sensitization and low prevalence of chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Inhalation of beryllium aerosols generated during primary beryllium production and machining of the metal, alloys, and ceramics are associated with sensitization and high rates of CBD, despite similar airborne beryllium mass concentrations among these industries. Understanding the physicochemical properties of exposure aerosols may help to understand the differential immunopathologic mechanisms of sensitization and CBD and lead to more biologically relevant exposure standards. Properties of aerosols generated during the industrial milling of bertrandite and beryl ores were evaluated. Airborne beryllium mass concentrations among work areas ranged from 0.001 microg/m(3) (beryl ore grinding) to 2.1 microg/m(3) (beryl ore crushing). Respirable mass fractions of airborne beryllium-containing particles were 80% in high-energy input areas (beryl melting, beryl grinding). Particle specific surface area decreased with processing from feedstock ores to drumming final product beryllium hydroxide. Among work areas, beryllium was identified in three crystalline forms: beryl, poorly crystalline beryllium oxide, and beryllium hydroxide. In comparison to aerosols generated by high-CBD risk primary production processes, aerosol particles encountered during milling had similar mass concentrations, generally lower number concentrations and surface area, and contained no identifiable highly crystalline beryllium oxide. One possible explanation for the apparent low prevalence of CBD among workers exposed to beryllium mineral dusts may be that characteristics of the exposure material do not contribute to the development of lung burdens sufficient for progression from sensitization to CBD. In comparison to high-CBD risk exposures where the chemical nature of aerosol

  7. Experience of beryllium blocks operation in the SM and MIR nuclear reactors useful for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakin, V.P.; Melder, R.R.; Belozerov, S.V.

    2004-01-01

    The results are presented concerning the examinations of state of beryllium blocks after the completion of their operation in the SM and MIR reactors. Both cracks and more significant mechanical damages are revealed in the irradiated beryllium blocks. Under neutron irradiation of beryllium radiation degradation of its physical and mechanical properties occurs. It shows itself in embrittlement, decrease of brittle strength level as well in worsening of thermal conductivity that leads to increase of thermal stresses into beryllium block. Under irradiation it takes place damage of beryllium microstructure, in particular, formation of radiation defects occurs in the form of dislocation loops and great amount of helium atoms. Optimization of beryllium radioactive waste storage is related to their preliminary surface and volumetric decontamination. (author)

  8. Beryllium coating produced by evaporation-condensation method and some their properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepekin, G.I.; Anisimov, A.B.; Chernikov, A.S.; Mozherinn, S.I.; Pirogov, A.A. [SRI SIA Lutch., Podolsk (Russian Federation)

    1998-01-01

    The method of vacuum evaporation-condensation for deposition of beryllium coatings on metal substrates, considered in the paper, side by side with a plasma-spray method is attractive fon ITER application. In particular this technique may be useful for repair the surface of eroded tiles which is operated in a strong magnetic field. The possibility of deposition of beryllium coatings with the rate of layer growth 0.1-0.2 mm/h is shown. The compatibility of beryllium coating with copper or stainless steel substrate is provided due to intermediate barrier. The results of examination of microstructure, microhardness, porosity, thermal and physical properties and stability under thermal cycling of beryllium materials are presented. The value of thermal expansion coefficient and thermal conductivity of condensed beryllium are approximately the same as for industrial grade material produced by powder mettalurgy technique. However, the condensed beryllium has higher purity (up to 99.9-99.99 % wt.). (author)

  9. Bacteria contamination of touch surfaces in Polish hospital wards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Różańska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the study has been to evaluate the pathogenic bacteria contamination of touch surfaces in hospital wards. Material and Methods: Samples were taken from frequently touched surfaces in the hospital environment in 13 units of various types. Culturing was carried out on solid blood agar and in growth broth (tryptic soy broth – TSB. Species identification was performed using the analytical profile index (API biochemical testing and confirmed with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS system. Results: The total of 161 samples were taken for the study. Fifty-two of them, after 24 h of culture on a solid medium, demonstrated bacterial growth and further 60 samples had growth after prior multiplication in TSB. Overall, 69.6% of samples exhibited growth of 19 bacterial species. Pathogenic species – representing indicator organisms of efficiency of hospital cleaning – was demonstrated by 21.4% of samples. Among them Acinetobacter spp., Enterocococci spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were identified. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS were predominant. The proportion of various groups of bacteria significantly varied in respective hospitals, and in various types of wards. Disturbing observation is a large proportion of resistance of isolated CNS strains as a potential reservoir of resistance genes. Conclusions: The results show that touch surfaces in hospital units are contaminated by both potentially pathogenic and pathogenic bacterial species. In connection with the reported, also in Poland, frequent omission or incorrect execution of hand hygiene by hospital staff, and probably patients, touch surfaces still constitute important reservoir of pathogenic bacteria. Improving hand hygiene compliance of health-care workers with recommendations is necessary for increasing biological safety of hospital environment. Med Pr 2017;68(3:459–467

  10. Impurities effect on the swelling of neutron irradiated beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donne, M.D.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F.

    1995-01-01

    An important factor controlling the swelling behaviour of fast neutron irradiated beryllium is the impurity content which can strongly affect both the surface tension and the creep strength of this material. Being the volume swelling of the old beryllium (early sixties) systematically higher than that of the more modem one (end of the seventies), a sensitivity analysis with the aid of the computer code ANFIBE (ANalysis of Fusion Irradiated BEryllium) to investigate the effect of these material properties on the swelling behaviour of neutron irradiated beryllium has been performed. Two sets of experimental data have been selected: the first one named Western refers to quite recently produced Western beryllium, whilst the second one, named Russian refers to relatively old (early sixties) Russian beryllium containing a higher impurity rate than the Western one. The results obtained with the ANFIBE Code were assessed by comparison with experimental data and the used material properties were compared with the data available in the literature. Good agreement between calculated and measured values has been found

  11. Recommendations for determining the surface contamination of the skin and estimating radiation exposure of the skin after contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The recommendations are applicable to the determination of surface contaminations of the skin and to the estimation of the expected radiation exposure of the skin of contaminated persons. According to the present recommendations, the radiation exposure can only be estimated for the intact and healthy skin

  12. The INEL beryllium multiplication experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.R.; King, J.J.

    1991-03-01

    The experiment to measure the multiplication of 14-MeV neutrons in bulk beryllium has been completed. The experiment consists of determining the ratio of 56 Mn activities induced in a large manganese bath by a central 14-MeV neutron source, with and without a beryllium sample surrounding the source. In the manganese bath method a neutron source is placed at the center of a totally-absorbing aqueous solution of MnSo 4 . The capture of neutrons by Mn produces a 56 Mn activity proportional to the emission rate of the source. As applied to the measurement of the multiplication of 14- MeV neutrons in bulk beryllium, the neutron source is a tritium target placed at the end of the drift tube of a small deuteron accelerator. Surrounding the source is a sample chamber. When the sample chamber is empty, the neutrons go directly to the surrounding MnSO 4 solution, and produce a 56 Mn activity proportional to the neutron emission rate. When the chamber contains a beryllium sample, the neutrons first enter the beryllium and multiply through the (n,2n) process. Neutrons escaping from the beryllium enter the bath and produce a 56 Mn activity proportional to the neutron emission rate multiplied by the effective value of the multiplication in bulk beryllium. The ratio of the activities with and without the sample present is proportional to the multiplication value. Detailed calculations of the multiplication and all the systematic effects were made with the Monte Carlo program MCNP, utilizing both the Young and Stewart and the ENDF/B-VI evaluations for beryllium. Both data sets produce multiplication values that are in excellent agreement with the measurements for both raw and corrected values of the multiplication. We conclude that there is not real discrepancy between experimental and calculated values for the multiplication of neutrons in bulk beryllium. 12 figs., 11 tabs., 18 refs

  13. Effect of Surface Contaminants Remained on the Blasted Surface on Epoxy Coating Performance and Corrosion Resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Kwang Ki; Park, Chung Seo; Kim, Ki Hong; Chung, Mong Kyu; Park, Jin Hwan

    2006-01-01

    One of the critical issues in the coating specification is the allowable limit of surface contaminant(s) - such as soluble salt(s), grit dust, and rust - after grit blasting. Yet, there is no universally accepted data supporting the relationship between the long-term coating performance and the amount of various surface contaminants allowed after grit blasting. In this study, it was attempted to prepare epoxy coatings applied on grit-blasted steel substrate dosed with controlled amount of surface contaminants - such as soluble salt(s), grit dust, and rust. Then, coating samples were subjected to 4,200 hours of cyclic test(NORSOK M-501), which were then evaluated in terms of resistance to rust creepage, blistering, chalking, rusting, cracking and adhesion strength. Additional investigations on the possible damage at the paint/steel interface were carried out using an Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy(EIS) and observations of under-film-corrosion. Test results suggested that the current industrial specifications were well matched with the allowable degree of rust, whereas the allowable amount of soluble salt and grit dust after grit blasting showed a certain deviation from the specifications currently employed for fabrication of marine vessels and offshore facilities

  14. Offshoots from beryllium development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.P.; Sinha, P.K.

    1995-01-01

    The paper briefly presents extraction and processing of beryllium metal as practiced in the beryllium facilities at Turbhe, New Bombay. These facilities have been set up to meet the indigenous requirements of the metal in space and nuclear science programmes. As offshoot of this beryllium development programme has been the development of a number of pyro and powder metallurgical equipment. Indigenous development of these pieces of equipment has been a professionally rewarding experience. Efforts are now on to promote these equipment for industrial use. (author). 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Conformation evolution of oil contaminants onto aluminum oxide surface in aqueous solution: The effect of surface coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Wenkun; Liu, Haitao, E-mail: xwk584523412@126.com; Sun, Yazhou; Fu, Hongya; Liang, Yingchun

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • The dynamic conformational change of oil contaminations, at various surface coverages onto perfect α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) surface in aqueous solution is given. • The effect of surface coverage of oil molecules on the driving forces for the conformational change of oil contaminations is described. • The effect of interfacial water on the conformational change and even detachment of oil contaminations is considered. - Abstract: The microscopic conformational change process of oil contaminants adhered onto perfect α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0001) surface in aqueous solution was investigated by using all-atom classic molecular dynamics simulations. The change in removal mechanism of oil contaminants induced by surface coverage (surface area per molecule) was emphatically explored. Our simulation results strongly reveal that the increase in oil surface coverage induces an evident difference in microscopic detachment processes of oil contaminants. At a low surface coverage, oil contaminants can be thoroughly detached from solid surface. The whole detachment process could be divided into multi stages, including conformational change of oil contaminants on solid surface, dynamic motion of those in bulk solution and rapid migration of those from bulk solution to air/water interface. With surface coverage increasing, water diffusion becomes the key to induce conformational change and promote the detachment of oil contaminants. When oil surface coverage exceeds a threshold value, oil contaminants also undertake an evident conformational change process exhibiting typical characteristics but an incomplete detachment process occurs. All findings of the present study are helpful for the interpretation of the removal mechanism of oil contaminants on solid surface.

  16. A consideration on internal dose evaluation and intervention based on a surface contamination concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, H.

    1997-01-01

    Long-term radiation doses received by the inhabitants after the Chernobyl accident have been evaluated according to the surface contamination levels on the ground surface. The health effects have also been discussed by comparison between the surface-contaminated area and the uncontaminated control area. Selected protective measures were carried out in accordance with the contamination level of surface soil. These have been based on the 'surface contamination concept' which assumes that the radiation risk to inhabitants is proportional to the level of ground-surface contamination. The observations collected in regions around Chernobyl, however, show that the internal radiation doses to the inhabitants poorly correlate with the surface contamination level. This fact poses a question on the suitability of dose evaluations and interventions based on this concept

  17. MULTIPLE IMAGING TECHNIQUES DEMONSTRATE THE MANIPULATION OF SURFACES TO REDUCE BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface imaging techniques were combined to determine appropriate manipulation of technologically important surfaces for commercial applications. Stainless steel surfaces were engineered to reduce bacterial contamination, biofilm formation, and corrosion during product processing...

  18. Testing of beryllium marker coatings in PISCES-B for the JET ITER-like wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widdowson, A.; Baldwin, M.J.; Coad, J.P.; Doerner, R.P.; Hanna, J.; Hole, D.E.; Matthews, G.F.; Rubel, M.; Seraydarian, R.; Xu, H.

    2009-01-01

    Beryllium has been chosen as the first wall material for ITER. In order to understand the issues of material migration and tritium retention associated with the use of beryllium, a largely beryllium first wall will be installed in JET. As part of the JET ITER-like wall, beryllium tiles with marker coatings are proposed as a diagnostic tool for studying the erosion and deposition of beryllium around the vessel. The nominal structure for these coatings is a ∼10 μm beryllium surface layer separated from the beryllium tile by a 2-3 μm metallic inter-layer. Two types of coatings are tested here; one with a nickel inter-layer and one with a copper/beryllium mixed inter-layer. The coating samples were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering at General Atomics and were exposed to deuterium plasma in PISCES-B. The results of this testing show that the beryllium/nickel marker coating would be suitable for installation in JET.

  19. Natural Contamination and Surface Flashover on Silicone Rubber Surface under Haze–Fog Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang Ren

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Anti-pollution flashover of insulator is important for power systems. In recent years, haze-fog weather occurs frequently, which makes discharge occurs easily on the insulator surface and accelerates insulation aging of insulator. In order to study the influence of haze-fog on the surface discharge of room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber, an artificial haze-fog lab was established. Based on four consecutive years of insulator contamination accumulation and atmospheric sampling in haze-fog environment, the contamination configuration appropriate for RTV-coated surface discharge test under simulation environment of haze-fog was put forward. ANSYS Maxwell was used to analyze the influence of room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber surface attachments on electric field distribution. The changes of droplet on the polluted room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber surface and the corresponding surface flashover voltage under alternating current (AC, direct current (DC positive polar (+, and DC negative polar (− power source were recorded by a high speed camera. The results are as follows: The main ion components from haze-fog atmospheric particles are NO3−, SO42−, NH4+, and Ca2+. In haze-fog environment, both the equivalent salt deposit density (ESDD and non-soluble deposit density (NSDD of insulators are higher than that under general environment. The amount of large particles on the AC transmission line is greater than that of the DC transmission line. The influence of DC polarity power source on the distribution of contamination particle size is not significant. After the deposition of haze-fog, the local conductivity of the room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber surface increased, which caused the flashover voltage reduce. Discharge is liable to occur at the triple junction point of droplet, air, and room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber surface. After the deformation or movement of droplets, a new triple junction

  20. Research of beryllium safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Anderl, R.A.; Dolan, T.J.; Hankins, M.R.; Pawelko, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Beryllium has been identified as a leading contender for the plasma-facing material in ITER. Its use has some obvious advantages, but there are also a number of safety concerns associated with it. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has undertaken a number of studies to help resolve some of these issues. One issue is the response of beryllium to neutron irradiation. We have tested samples irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and are currently preparing to make measurements of the change in mechanical properties of beryllium samples irradiated at elevated temperatures in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) at the INEL. Mechanical tests will be conducted at the irradiation temperatures of 375-550 C. Other experiments address permeation and retention of implanted tritium in plasma-sprayed beryllium. In one test the porosity of the material allowed 0.12% of implanted ions and 0.17% of atoms from background gas pressure to pass through the foil with essentially no delay. For comparison, similar tests on fully dense hot-rolled, vacuum melted or sintered powder foils of high purity beryllium showed only 0.001% of implanting ions to pass through the foil, and then only after a delay of several hours. None of the molecular gas appeared to permeate these latter targets. An implication is that plasma-sprayed beryllium may substantially enhance recycling of tritium to the plasma provided it is affixed to a relatively impermeable substrate. (orig.)

  1. Fracture toughness of irradiated beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeston, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The fracture toughness of nuclear grade hot-pressed beryllium upon irradiation to fluences of 3.5 to 5.0 x 10 21 n/cm 2 , E greater than 1 MeV, was determined. Procedures and data relating to a round-robin test contributing to a standard ASTM method for unirradiated beryllium are discussed in connection with the testing of irradiated specimens. A porous grade of beryllium was also irradiated and tested, thereby enabling some discrimination between the models for describing the fracture toughness behavior of porous beryllium. The fracture toughness of unirradiated 2 percent BeO nuclear grade beryllium was 12.0 MPa m/sup 1 / 2 /, which was reduced 60 percent upon irradiation at 339 K and testing at 295 K. The fracture toughness of a porous grade of beryllium was 13.1 MPa m/sup 1 / 2 /, which was reduced 68 percent upon irradiation and testing at the same conditions. Reasons for the reduction in fracture toughness upon irradiation are discussed

  2. Wind effected redistribution of surface contamination. Progress report, September 1974--August 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical resuspension ratios were computed through the extension of a one-dimensional model used to simulate the wind effected movement of surface contaminants. The surface movement of contamination associated with inhalable size particles was considered in relation to time, space, wind velocity, distance from the source, soil resuspension ratios, and other variables. A computer program was developed to calculate the wind effected distribution of surface contaminants. (U.S.)

  3. Monitoring of Water and Contaminant Migration at the Groundwater-Surface Water Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    seepage is occurring in a freshwater lake environment and to map the lateral extent of any subsurface contamination at the groundwater –surface water ...and Contaminant Migration at the Groundwater -Surface Water Interface August 2008 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Monitoring of Water and Contaminant Migration at the Groundwater -Surface Water Interface 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  4. On modeling of beryllium molten depths in simulated plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsotridis, G.; Rother, H.

    1996-01-01

    Plasma-facing components in tokamak-type fusion reactors are subjected to intense heat loads during plasma disruptions. The influence of high heat fluxes on the depth of heat-affected zones of pure beryllium metal and beryllium containing very low levels of surface active impurities is studied by using a two-dimensional transient computer model that solves the equations of motion and energy. Results are presented for a range of energy densities and disruption times. Under certain conditions, impurities, through their effect on surface tension, create convective flows and hence influence the flow intensities and the resulting depths of the beryllium molten layers during plasma disruptions. The calculated depths of the molten layers are also compared with other mathematical models that are based on the assumption that heat is transported through the material by conduction only. 32 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  5. Erosion of beryllium under ITER – Relevant transient plasma loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupriyanov, I.B.; Nikolaev, G.N.; Kurbatova, L.A.; Porezanov, N.P.; Podkovyrov, V.L.; Muzichenko, A.D.; Zhitlukhin, A.M.; Gervash, A.A.; Safronov, V.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the erosion, mass loss/gain and surface structure evolution of Be/CuCrZr mock-ups, armored with beryllium of TGP-56FW grade after irradiation by deuterium plasma heat load of 0.5 MJ/m 2 at 250 °C and 500 °C. • Beryllium mass loss/erosion under plasma heat load at 250 °C is rather small (no more than 0.2 g/m 2 shot and 0.11 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 40 shots) and tends to decrease with increasing number of shots. • Beryllium mass loss/erosion under plasma heat load at 500 °C is much higher (∼2.3 g/m 2 shot and 1.2 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 10 shot) and tends to decrease with increasing the number of shots (∼0.26 g/m 2 pulse and 0.14 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 100 shot). • Beryllium erosion value derived from the measurements of profile of irradiated surface is much higher than erosion value derived from mass loss data. - Abstract: Beryllium will be used as a armor material for the ITER first wall. It is expected that erosion of beryllium under transient plasma loads such as the edge-localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions will mainly determine a lifetime of the ITER first wall. This paper presents the results of recent experiments with the Russian beryllium of TGP-56FW ITER grade on QSPA-Be plasma gun facility. The Be/CuCrZr mock-ups were exposed to up to 100 shots by deuterium plasma streams (5 cm in diameter) with pulse duration of 0.5 ms and heat loads range of 0.2–0.5 MJ/m 2 at different temperature of beryllium tiles. The temperature of Be tiles has been maintained about 250 and 500 °C during the experiments. After 10, 40 and 100 shots, the beryllium mass loss/gain under erosion process were investigated as well as evolution of surface microstructure and cracks morphology

  6. Erosion of beryllium under ITER – Relevant transient plasma loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriyanov, I.B., E-mail: igkupr@gmail.com [A.A. Bochvar High Technology Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Rogova St. 5a, 123060 Moscow (Russian Federation); Nikolaev, G.N.; Kurbatova, L.A.; Porezanov, N.P. [A.A. Bochvar High Technology Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Rogova St. 5a, 123060 Moscow (Russian Federation); Podkovyrov, V.L.; Muzichenko, A.D.; Zhitlukhin, A.M. [TRINITI, Troitsk, Moscow reg. (Russian Federation); Gervash, A.A. [Efremov Research Institute, S-Peterburg (Russian Federation); Safronov, V.M. [Project Center of ITER, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • We study the erosion, mass loss/gain and surface structure evolution of Be/CuCrZr mock-ups, armored with beryllium of TGP-56FW grade after irradiation by deuterium plasma heat load of 0.5 MJ/m{sup 2} at 250 °C and 500 °C. • Beryllium mass loss/erosion under plasma heat load at 250 °C is rather small (no more than 0.2 g/m{sup 2} shot and 0.11 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 40 shots) and tends to decrease with increasing number of shots. • Beryllium mass loss/erosion under plasma heat load at 500 °C is much higher (∼2.3 g/m{sup 2} shot and 1.2 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 10 shot) and tends to decrease with increasing the number of shots (∼0.26 g/m{sup 2} pulse and 0.14 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 100 shot). • Beryllium erosion value derived from the measurements of profile of irradiated surface is much higher than erosion value derived from mass loss data. - Abstract: Beryllium will be used as a armor material for the ITER first wall. It is expected that erosion of beryllium under transient plasma loads such as the edge-localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions will mainly determine a lifetime of the ITER first wall. This paper presents the results of recent experiments with the Russian beryllium of TGP-56FW ITER grade on QSPA-Be plasma gun facility. The Be/CuCrZr mock-ups were exposed to up to 100 shots by deuterium plasma streams (5 cm in diameter) with pulse duration of 0.5 ms and heat loads range of 0.2–0.5 MJ/m{sup 2} at different temperature of beryllium tiles. The temperature of Be tiles has been maintained about 250 and 500 °C during the experiments. After 10, 40 and 100 shots, the beryllium mass loss/gain under erosion process were investigated as well as evolution of surface microstructure and cracks morphology.

  7. Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    Shonka Research Associates, Inc.`s (SRA) Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information management System (SCM/SIMS) is designed to perform alpha and beta radiation surveys of floors and surfaces and document the measured data. The SRA-SCM/SIMS technology can be applied to routine operational surveys, characterization surveys, and free release and site closure surveys. Any large nuclear site can make use of this technology. This report describes a demonstration of the SRA-SCM/SIMS technology. This demonstration is part of the chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology (ST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East`s (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor Facility. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that by using innovative and improved deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources, significant benefits can be achieved when compared to baseline D and D technologies.

  8. Development of apparatus for surveying uranium surface contamination quantity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qingheng; Han Jingquan

    1994-11-01

    An apparatus for measuring uranium contamination of the surface of reactor plate component is described. The searching unit of the apparatus is a large surface multi-wire proportional counter. The cathode of the counter is made of stainless steel with low radioactive background, the window is made of film which is plated with aluminum about 6 μm; and the anode is mad by gild tungsten wire of 0.025 mm diameter. The sensitive area of the counter is 1113 mm x 100 mm. It has been shown that the intrinsic radioactive background of the apparatus is 0.002 cpm/cm 2 (2 count/min). The detecting efficiency is 67% for enriched uranium source (2π solid angle). The stability is 0.84% within 24 hour (including detector, high voltage power supply, amplifier, discriminator, computer, type and display system). The lower detection limit of the apparatus is 4.6 x 10 -10 g/cm 2 (for 20% 235 U, 0.13% 234 U, 79.64% 238 U). The apparatus can present timing by a computer controlling, and it also has the following functions: displaying, automatic alarming, classifying and typing the results. (2 tabs., 7 figs.)

  9. Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    Shonka Research Associates, Inc.'s (SRA) Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information management System (SCM/SIMS) is designed to perform alpha and beta radiation surveys of floors and surfaces and document the measured data. The SRA-SCM/SIMS technology can be applied to routine operational surveys, characterization surveys, and free release and site closure surveys. Any large nuclear site can make use of this technology. This report describes a demonstration of the SRA-SCM/SIMS technology. This demonstration is part of the chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology (ST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East's (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor Facility. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that by using innovative and improved deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources, significant benefits can be achieved when compared to baseline D and D technologies

  10. Beryllium technology workshop, Clearwater Beach, Florida, November 20, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.

    1991-12-01

    This report discusses the following topics: beryllium in the ITER blanket; mechanical testing of irradiated beryllium; tritium release measurements on irradiated beryllium; beryllium needs for plasma-facing components; thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed beryllium; beryllium research at the INEL; Japanese beryllium research activities for in-pile mockup tests on ITER; a study of beryllium bonding of copper alloy; new production technologies; thermophysical properties of a new ingot metallurgy beryllium product line; implications of beryllium:steam interactions in fusion reactors; and a test program for irradiation embrittlement of beryllium at JET

  11. Beryllium technology workshop, Clearwater Beach, Florida, November 20, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, G.R.

    1991-12-01

    This report discusses the following topics: beryllium in the ITER blanket; mechanical testing of irradiated beryllium; tritium release measurements on irradiated beryllium; beryllium needs for plasma-facing components; thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed beryllium; beryllium research at the INEL; Japanese beryllium research activities for in-pile mockup tests on ITER; a study of beryllium bonding of copper alloy; new production technologies; thermophysical properties of a new ingot metallurgy beryllium product line; implications of beryllium:steam interactions in fusion reactors; and a test program for irradiation embrittlement of beryllium at JET.

  12. Behaviour of Molten Beryllium with ITER Reference CFC NB31 (SNECMA) Under Moisture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipa, M.; Martin, G.; Linke, J.

    2006-01-01

    A dramatic exothermic reaction with aluminium, a carbide forming metal, has been observed in Tore Supra. A small rod of 30 mm 3 , acting as a temperature proof, was enclosed in a blind hole of a thermally loaded low density PAN fiber CFC 1001Z block (SGL), which reached a temperature of about 1300 o C during plasma operation. The molten aluminium had penetrated the carbon matrix through to the block's front surface. After component removal and roughly 2 months of exposure to air in the laboratory, the CFC in front of the blind hole was found to have been locally destroyed over a crater-shaped structure of 2 cm diameter. This was due to an enhanced decomposition of aluminium carbide to aluminium hydroxide. Beryllium (Be), also a carbide forming metal, is used on the ITER first wall. Carbon reinforced carbon (CFC) of type NB31 (Snecma) covers the vertical divertor targets. It is expected that beryllium material will be transported during normal and/or off normal plasma operation to the carbon based divertor targets to form beryllium carbide. During air venting or a supposed accidental in-vessel water leak event, it will react exothermically under moisture to beryllium oxide. In order to investigate to which extent the CFC structure could be modified or eventually destroyed, this reaction process has been simulated with a CFC block NB31 of size 16 x 32 x 20 mm 3 , where about 40 mm 3 of Be S65 C (Brush Wellmann) has been placed in a previously drilled blind hole of 4 mm diameter oriented parallel to the high conductivity pitch fibers. When melted, by heating the CFC block, the Be penetrated in the carbon matrix through to the block's front surface. The front surface of the CFC was then exposed to humidity (tap water) for about 2 weeks and then stored for a further 2 months in a closed vinyl bag under atmospheric pressure after which the sample was analysed. After the exposure of the CFC to humidity, reaction products have been detected at the surface of the carbon

  13. Preparation of a sinterable beryllium oxide through decomposition of beryllium hydroxide (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernier, M.

    1963-01-01

    In the course of the present study, we have attempted to precise the factors which among the ones effective in the course of the preparation of the beryllium hydroxide and oxide and during the sintering have an influence on the final result: the density and homogeneity of the sintered body. Of the several varieties of hydroxides precipitated from a sulfate solution the β-hydroxide only is always contaminated with beryllium sulfate and cannot be purified even by thorough washing. We noticed that those varieties of the hydroxide (gel, α, β) have different decomposition rates; this behaviour is used to identify and even to dose the different species in (α, β) mixtures. The various hydroxides transmit to the resulting oxides the shape they had when precipitated. Accordingly the history of the oxide is revealed by its behaviour during its fabrication and sintering. By comparing the results of the sintering operation with the various measurements performed on the oxide powders we are led to the conclusion that an oxide obtained from beryllium hydroxide is sinterable under vacuum if the following conditions are fulfilled: the particle size must lie between 0.1 and 0.2 μ and the BeSO 4 content of the powder must be less than 0.25 per cent wt (expressed as SO 3 /BeO). The best fitting is obtained with the oxide issued from an α-hydroxide precipitated as very small aggregates and with a low sulfur-content. We have observed that this is also the case for the oxide obtained by direct calcination of beryllium sulfate. (author) [fr

  14. Beryllium R and D for blanket application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalle Donne, M.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik; Longhurst, G.R. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls (United States); Kawamura, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    1998-10-01

    The paper describes the main problems and the R and D for the beryllium to be used as neutron multiplier in blankets. As the four ITER partners propose to use beryllium in the form of pebbles for their DEMO relevant blankets (only the Russians consider the porous beryllium option as an alternative) and the ITER breeding blanket will use beryllium pebbles as well, the paper is mainly based on beryllium pebbles. Also the work on the chemical reactivity of fully dense and porous beryllium in contact with water steam is described, due to the safety importance of this point. (orig.) 29 refs.

  15. Beryllium R and D for blanket application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Kawamura, H.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the main problems and the R and D for the beryllium to be used as neutron multiplier in blankets. As the four ITER partners propose to use beryllium in the form of pebbles for their DEMO relevant blankets (only the Russians consider the porous beryllium option as an alternative) and the ITER breeding blanket will use beryllium pebbles as well, the paper is mainly based on beryllium pebbles. Also the work on the chemical reactivity of fully dense and porous beryllium in contact with water steam is described, due to the safety importance of this point. (orig.)

  16. Beryllium R&D for blanket application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donne, M. Dalle; Longhurst, G. R.; Kawamura, H.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F.

    1998-10-01

    The paper describes the main problems and the R&D for the beryllium to be used as neutron multiplier in blankets. As the four ITER partners propose to use beryllium in the form of pebbles for their DEMO relevant blankets (only the Russians consider the porous beryllium option as an alternative) and the ITER breeding blanket will use beryllium pebbles as well, the paper is mainly based on beryllium pebbles. Also the work on the chemical reactivity of fully dense and porous beryllium in contact with water steam is described, due to the safety importance of this point.

  17. Synthesis of present methods of surface contamination detection (skin, clothes, laboratories)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joudrier, P.

    1983-01-01

    The signification of the term ''contamination'' is briefly recalled. To measure the levels of contamination, there are only two methods: the direct method and the indirect method. Finally, the recent improvements in the surface contamination detection field are shortly reviewed [fr

  18. Salinization and arsenic contamination of surface water in southwest Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, John C; George, Gregory; Fry, David; Benneyworth, Laura; Wilson, Carol; Auerbach, Leslie; Roy, Kushal; Karim, Md Rezaul; Akter, Farjana; Goodbred, Steven

    2017-09-11

    To identify the causes of salinization and arsenic contamination of surface water on an embanked island (i.e., polder) in the tidal delta plain of SW Bangladesh we collected and analyzed water samples in the dry (May) and wet (October) seasons in 2012-2013. Samples were collected from rice paddies (wet season), saltwater ponds used for brine shrimp aquaculture (dry season), freshwater ponds and tidal channels (both wet and dry season), and rainwater collectors. Continuous measurements of salinity from March 2012 to February 2013 show that tidal channel water increases from ~0.15 ppt in the wet season up to ~20 ppt in the dry season. On the polder, surface water exceeds the World Health Organization drinking water guideline of 10 μg As/L in 78% of shrimp ponds and 27% of rice paddies, raising concerns that produced shrimp and rice could have unsafe levels of As. Drinking water sources also often have unsafe As levels, with 83% of tubewell and 43% of freshwater pond samples having >10 μg As/L. Water compositions and field observations are consistent with shrimp pond water being sourced from tidal channels during the dry season, rather than the locally saline groundwater from tubewells. Irrigation water for rice paddies is also obtained from the tidal channels, but during the wet season when surface waters are fresh. Salts become concentrated in irrigation water through evaporation, with average salinity increasing from 0.43 ppt in the tidal channel source to 0.91 ppt in the rice paddies. Our observations suggest that the practice of seasonally alternating rice and shrimp farming in a field has a negligible effect on rice paddy water salinity. Also, shrimp ponds do not significantly affect the salinity of adjacent surface water bodies or subjacent groundwater because impermeable shallow surface deposits of silt and clay mostly isolate surface water bodies from each other and from the shallow groundwater aquifer. Bivariate plots of conservative element

  19. Derivation of beryllium guidelines for use in establishing cleanup levels at the Peek Street and Sacandaga sites, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, H.M.; Avci, H.I.; Ditmars, J.D.

    1992-02-01

    Guideline levels are derived for beryllium in soil and on indoor surfaces at the Peek Street and Sacandaga sites in the state of New York. On the basis of highly conservative assumptions, the soil beryllium concentration that corresponds to a 10 - 4 carcinogenic risk level is estimated to be 13 mg/kg at both sites. Calculations indicate that the proposed US Department of Energy guideline of 2 μg/ft 2 for beryllium in dust on indoor surfaces would be sufficiently protective of human health. For occupational protection of workers during cleanup operations, Office of Safety and Health Administration standards for beryllium are referenced and restated

  20. Erosion of beryllium under ITER - Relevant transient plasma loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupriyanov, I. B.; Nikolaev, G. N.; Kurbatova, L. A.; Porezanov, N. P.; Podkovyrov, V. L.; Muzichenko, A. D.; Zhitlukhin, A. M.; Gervash, A. A.; Safronov, V. M.

    2015-08-01

    Beryllium will be used as a armor material for the ITER first wall. It is expected that erosion of beryllium under transient plasma loads such as the edge-localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions will mainly determine a lifetime of the ITER first wall. This paper presents the results of recent experiments with the Russian beryllium of TGP-56FW ITER grade on QSPA-Be plasma gun facility. The Be/CuCrZr mock-ups were exposed to up to 100 shots by deuterium plasma streams (5 cm in diameter) with pulse duration of 0.5 ms and heat loads range of 0.2-0.5 MJ/m2 at different temperature of beryllium tiles. The temperature of Be tiles has been maintained about 250 and 500 °C during the experiments. After 10, 40 and 100 shots, the beryllium mass loss/gain under erosion process were investigated as well as evolution of surface microstructure and cracks morphology.

  1. Bioremediation of contaminated surface water by immobilized Micrococcus roseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Li, P; Hua, T; Zhang, Y; Xiong, X; Gong, Z

    2005-08-01

    The problems caused by contaminated surface water have gradually become more serious in recent years. Although various remediation technologies were investigated, unfortunately, no efficient method was developed. In this paper, a new bioremediation technology was studied using Micrococcus roseus, which was immobilized in porous spherical beads by an improved polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) - sodium alginate (SA) embedding method. The experimental results indicated that COD removal rate could reach 64.7 % within 72 hours when immobilized M. roseus beads were used, which was ten times as high as that of free cells. The optimum inoculation rate of immobilized M. roseus beads was 10 % (mass percent of the beads in water sample, g g(-1)). Suitable aeration was proved necessary to enhance the bioremediation process. The immobilized cells had an excellent tolerance to pH and temperature changes, and were also more resistant to heavy metal stress compared with free cells. The immobilized M. roseus beads had an excellent regeneration capacity and could be reused after 180-day continuous usage. The Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM) analysis showed that the bead microstructure was suitable for M. roseus growth, however, some defect structures should still be improved.

  2. Safe waste management practices in beryllium facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, P.N.; Soundararajan, S.; Sharma, D.N.

    2012-01-01

    Beryllium, an element with the atomic symbol Be, atomic number 4, has very high stiffness to weight ratio and low density. It has good electrical conductive properties with low coefficient of thermal expansion. These properties make the metal beryllium very useful in varied technological endeavours, However, beryllium is recognised as one of the most toxic metals. Revelation of toxic effects of beryllium resulted in institution of stringent health and safety practices in beryllium handling facilities. The waste generated in such facilities may contain traces of beryllium. Any such waste should be treated as toxic waste and suitable safe waste management practices should be adopted. By instituting appropriate waste management practice and through a meticulously incorporated safety measures and continuous surveillance exercised in such facilities, total safety can be ensured. This paper broadly discusses health hazards posed by beryllium and safe methods of management of beryllium bearing wastes. (author)

  3. Modeling tritium processes in plasma-facing beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Anderl, R.A.; Dolan, T.J.; Mulock, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we present techniques and recommended parameters for modeling tritium implantation, trapping and release, and permeation, in beryllium-clad structures adjacent to the plasma. Among the features that should be considered are the effects of surface films, the mobility of beryllium through those films, damage caused by ion implantation, especially in regions where pitting may be expected, and bubble formation. Tritium transport parameters recommended are based on fits with experimental data and available theory. Estimates of inventories in ITER using these parameters are also given. 31 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  4. Characterization of beryllium foil produced by hot rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittenauer, J.; Nieh, T.G.; Waychunas, G.

    1992-01-01

    Beryllium foil is important for a number of aerospace applications including honeycomb structures and metal-matrix composites. In this study, a method of producing beryllium foil directly from powder or flake is demonstrated. A variety of foils were produced in the thickness range 90-300 μm, free from defects such as pinholes and excessive surface roughness, and exhibiting sufficient formability for honeycomb manufacture. Foil produced directly from powder or flake exhibits crystallographic texture, microstructure, and formability equivalent to foil produced from more massive precursors. (Author)

  5. The nature of beryllium disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    The increasing use of beryllium in modern industry poses a continuing health hazard with a real risk of producing incapacitating disease and even death. Beryllium and its salts are very toxic, even in small doses and may produce lesions in any organ. The majority of cases follow inhalation and may cause either acute or chronic lung disease. Acute pulmonary disease is a form of chemical pneumonitis while the chronic disease is characterised by the production of granulomas and fibrosis. The skin may be affected with the finding of dermatitis, acute or chronic ulceration. Other organs commonly involved include the liver and kidneys. The pathology of beryllium disease is not specific and diagnosis depends on satisfying the following criteria - history of exposure, consistent clinical, radiographic and pathological finding, presence of beryllium in tissue/fluid and evidence of hypersensitivity. Recent development of 'in vitro' tests of hypersensitivity may prove of value in both diagnosis and prevention of disease. Beryllium disease responds to steroid therapy but the only sure treatment is avoidance of exposure. (author)

  6. Assessment of Surface Water Contamination from Coalbed Methane Fracturing-Derived Volatile Contaminants in Sullivan County, Indiana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszaros, Nicholas; Subedi, Bikram; Stamets, Tristan; Shifa, Naima

    2017-09-01

    There is a growing concern over the contamination of surface water and the associated environmental and public health consequences from the recent proliferation of hydraulic fracturing in the USA. Petroleum hydrocarbon-derived contaminants of concern [benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX)] and various dissolved cations and anions were spatially determined in surface waters around 15 coalbed methane fracking wells in Sullivan County, IN, USA. At least one BTEX compound was detected in 69% of sampling sites (n = 13) and 23% of sampling sites were found to be contaminated with all of the BTEX compounds. Toluene was the most common BTEX compound detected across all sampling sites, both upstream and downstream from coalbed methane fracking wells. The average concentration of toluene at a reservoir and its outlet nearby the fracking wells was ~2× higher than other downstream sites. However, one of the upstream sites was found to be contaminated with BTEX at similar concentrations as in a reservoir site nearby the fracking well. Calcium (~60 ppm) and sulfates (~175 ppm) were the dominant cations and anions, respectively, in surface water around the fracking sites. This study represents the first report of BTEX contamination in surface water from coalbed methane hydraulic fracturing wells.

  7. Technical issues and solutions on ITER first wall beryllium application. Industrial viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwadachi, T.; Uda, M.; Ito, M.; Miyakawa, M.; Ibuki, M.

    2004-01-01

    Beryllium is selected as reference armor material of ITER primary first wall and is joined to the copper alloy heat sink such as CuCrZr or Dispersion Strengthened Copper (DSCu) Various joining technologies have been successfully developed and the manufacturing possibilities of large size first wall panels with beryllium armor has been demonstrated. Based on such results, further technical improvement is needed to reduce manufacturing cost and ensure the reliability of joining in actual size first wall. The technical issues to optimize the fabrication process of beryllium attachment were shown in this paper from an industrial point of view. Determination of the optimum size and the surface qualities of beryllium tiles are important issues in term of the material specification to ensure joining reliability and to reduce cost. The consolidation method and the finish machining methods of beryllium tiles are also critical in terms of material cost. These items should be determined by paying concern to the accommodation of the joining methods. The selections of slitting methods for attached beryllium have a great influence on fabrication cost. In the actual fabrication of beryllium attachment, safety provisions for exposure to beryllium in working environment and the recycling of the waste from the fabrication processes will be concerned sufficiently. (author)

  8. Influence of physicochemical properties of beryllium particles on cultured cell toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, G.L.; Brooks, A.L.; Hoover, M.D.; Cuddihy, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    The toxicity of beryllium oxide (BeO)), beryllium metal, and beryllium sulfate (BeSO 4 ) was studied in two cell lines, Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) and lung epithelial cells (LEC). Beryllium oxide particles were prepared at either 500 or 1000 deg. C, and two different particle sizes of beryllium metal were used. Following a 20-h exposure to beryllium compounds, cells were grown in culture to quantitate cloning ability relative to controls as a measure of cell killing, The LEC cultures were more sensitive to beryllium cytotoxicity than the CHO cells. When expressed on the basis of the mass of material added to the cultures, the order of toxicity was BeSO 4 ≥ 500 deg. C -BeO > 1000 deg. C -BeO > Be metal (small) Be metal (large). When cytotoxic effects were expressed on the basis of particulate surface rather than mass, the relative differences in toxicity between compounds was decreased. The order of toxicity was Be metal (small) ∼ Be metal (large) ∼ 500 deg. C-BeO ∼ 1000 deg. C-BeO. These data indicate that solubility influences beryllium toxicity to short-term cell cultures. (author)

  9. 10 CFR Appendix D to Part 835 - Surface Contamination Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... posting of contamination and high contamination areas in accordance with § 835.603(e) and (f) and...-228, Th-230, Th-228, Pa-231, Ac-227, I-125, I-129 20 500 Th-nat, Th-232, Sr-90, Ra-223, Ra-224, U-232... pressure, and then assessing the amount of radioactive material on the swipe with an appropriate instrument...

  10. Characterization of surface water contaminants in the Clinch River and Poplar Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, C.; Madix, S.; Rash, C.

    1995-01-01

    Surface waters in the Clinch River and Poplar Creek have been contaminated by activities on the DOE's Oak Ridge Reservation throughout the more than 50 year history of Oak Ridge. Though the Clinch River and Poplar Creek drainage areas are contaminated with heavy metals, organics and radionuclides, public access to these sites is not restricted. The investigation, divided into discrete studies, was tailored to provide a statistically sound picture of contaminants and aqueous toxicity in Poplar Creek, investigate contaminant remobilization from sediments, and determine contaminant levels during a series of ''worst-case'' events. Results for Poplar Creek indicate that average contaminant values were below levels of concern for human health and ecological risk, though contaminant distributions suggest that episodic events contribute sufficiently to system contaminant levels to be of concern. Additionally, water column contaminant levels were significantly higher in particle deposition areas rather than at known contaminant sources. Levels of organic compounds in reference areas to Poplar Creek exceeded those in the Poplar Creek study area. In the Clinch River and Poplar Creek, statistical differences in metal and radionuclide levels from known contaminated areas confirmed previous results, and were used to independently distinguish between sites. Contaminant concentrations were elevated in association with sediments, though no distinction between deposition and remobilization could be made. Due to elevated contaminant levels, and some unexpected contaminant distributions, sites in Poplar Creek and off-channel embayments of the Clinch River were identified that will require additional characterization

  11. Materials SIG quantification and characterization of surface contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutcher, E. Russ

    1992-01-01

    When LDEF entered orbit its cleanliness was approximately a MIL-STD-1246B Level 2000C. Its burden of contaminants included particles from every part of its history including a relatively small contribution from the shuttle bay itself. Although this satellite was far from what is normally considered clean in the aerospace industry, contaminating events in orbit and from processing after recovery were easily detected. The molecular contaminants carried into orbit were dwarfed by the heavy deposition of UV polymerized films from outgassing urethane paints and silicone based materials. Impacts by relatively small objects in orbit could create particulate contaminants that easily dominated the particle counts within a centimeter of the impact site. During the recovery activities LDEF was 'sprayed' with a liquid high in organics and water soluble salts. With reentry turbulence, vibration, and gravitational loading particulate contaminants were redistributed about LDEF and the shuttle bay.

  12. High-strength beryllium block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, N.P.; Keith, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    Beryllium billets hot isopressed using fine powder of high purity have exceptionally attractive properties; average tensile ultimate, 0.2% offset yield strength and elongation are 590 MPa, 430 MPa and 4.0% respectively. Properties are attributed to the fine grain size (about 4.0 μm average diameter) and the relatively low levels of BeO present as fine, well-dispersed particles. Dynamic properties, e.g., fracture toughness, are similar to those of standard grade, high-purity beryllium. The modulus of beryllium is retained to very high stress levels, and the microyield stress or precision elastic limit is higher than for other grades, including instrument grades. Limited data for billets made from normal-purity fine powders show similar room temperature properties. (author)

  13. Radioactive contamination of some rubber or plastic surfaces by fission products. Decontamination tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestre, E.; Sautiez, N.

    1957-10-01

    With the objective of notably addressing the contamination and decontamination of gloves and floor covering, this report first presents some characteristics of contaminating radioactive materials (nature, physical and chemical condition), of contaminated surfaces (surface condition, surface nature), and of decontamination processes (physical, chemical or mechanical action). It describes the operational modality implemented to test decontamination processes on various glove or flooring materials: sample preparation, counting, decontamination, reproducibility of decontamination tests, results in terms of activity reduction. It more precisely describes the tested samples: short gloves, gloves from glove boxes, floor and wall coverings. Results are presented and discussed in terms of sample susceptibility to contamination, and of decontamination, but also for re-contamination tests after a Nab-based decontamination (susceptibility to contamination, decontamination gain)

  14. Ion implanters contamination on wafer surface analyzed by ToF-SIMS and SPV analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricciari, R.; Bertini, M.; Ferlito, E.P.; Pizzo, G.; Anastasi, G.; Mello, D.; Franco, G.

    2007-01-01

    In ULSI processes, metallic contamination controls are very important issues. For the ion implantation process it is known that several sources of contaminations still need to be controlled: metals from sputtering of the apertures or wafer holders, Na + contaminations from filament impurities and messy maintenance procedure. ToF-SIMS is one of the most promising candidates to perform in-line surface analysis due to its high sensitivity. It is very common to use surface photo-voltage (SPV) techniques to control ion implanter equipments but this kind of analysis is an indirect measure for metallic contamination. The aim of this work is to study the possibility to use ToF-SIMS instead of SPV for in line equipment contamination monitoring. For this reason a comparison between SPV and ToF-SIMS data occurred. Good correlation between the data is shown; moreover ToF-SIMS spectra give detailed information about the other contaminations present on the wafer surface

  15. Cause of pitting in beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kershaw, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    Light microscopy, bare-film radiography, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, electron microprobe and physical testing were used to examine beryllium specimens exhibiting a stratified, pitted, pattern after chemical milling. The objective was to find the cause of this pattern. Specimens were found to have voids in excess of density specification allowances. These voids are attributed, at least in part, to the sublimation of beryllium fluoride during the vacuum hot pressing operation. The origin of the pattern is attributed to these voids and etching out of fines and associated impurities. Hot isostatic pressing with a subsequent heat treatment close residual porosity and dispersed impurities enough to correct the problem

  16. Bioenvironmental Engineering Guide to Beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-26

    Dermal contact with beryllium can result in dermatitis resembling first- or second-degree burns and skin granulomas [7]. Beryllium dust, fume...minute short-term exposure limit (STEL) of 2.0 µg/m3 [§1910.1024(c)(2) & §1926.1124(c)(2)], and added provisions to prevent skin contact [§1910.1024(b...document you want more information, contact the Environmental, Safety, and Occupational Health (ESOH) Service Center at DSN 798-3764, 1-888-232-ESOH (3764

  17. Workshop on beryllium for fusion applications. Proceedings. IEA Implementing Agreement for a Programme of Research and Development on Fusion Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.

    1993-12-01

    As shown by recent developments beryllium has become one of the most important materials in the development of fusion reactors. It is practically the only neutron multiplier available for blankets with ceramic breeder materials and can be used with liquid metal breeders as well. It is one of the most likely materials to be used on the surface of the first walls and of the divertor. The neutron irradiation behavior of beryllium in a fusion reactor is not well know. Beryllium was extensively irradiated about 25-40 years ago and has been used since then in material testing reactors as reflector. In the meantime, however, beryllium has been improved quite considerably. Today it is possible to obtain commercially beryllium which is much more isotropic and contains smaller ammounts of oxide. There are already indications that these new kinds of beryllium behave better under irradiation. (orig.)

  18. Defense programs beryllium good practice guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herr, M.

    1997-07-01

    Within the DOE, it has recently become apparent that some contractor employees who have worked (or are currently working) with and around beryllium have developed chronic beryllium disease (CBD), an occupational granulomatous lung disorder. Respiratory exposure to aerosolized beryllium, in susceptible individuals, causes an immunological reaction that can result in granulomatous scarring of the lung parenchyma, shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, weight loss, and, ultimately, respiratory failure. Beryllium disease was originally identified in the 1940s, largely in the fluorescent light industry. In 1950, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) introduced strict exposure standards that generally curtailed both the acute and chronic forms of the disease. Beginning in 1984, with the identification of a CBD case in a DOE contractor worker, there was increased scrutiny of both industrial hygiene practices and individuals in this workforce. To date, over 100 additional cases of beryllium-specific sensitization and/or CBD have been identified. Thus, a disease previously thought to be largely eliminated by the adoption of permissible exposure standards 45 years ago is still a health risk in certain workforces. This good practice guide forms the basis of an acceptable program for controlling workplace exposure to beryllium. It provides (1) Guidance for minimizing worker exposure to beryllium in Defense Programs facilities during all phases of beryllium-related work, including the decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of facilities. (2) Recommended controls to be applied to the handling of metallic beryllium and beryllium alloys, beryllium oxide, and other beryllium compounds. (3) Recommendations for medical monitoring and surveillance of workers exposed (or potentially exposed) to beryllium, based on the best current understanding of beryllium disease and medical diagnostic tests available. (4) Site-specific safety procedures for all processes of beryllium that is

  19. Assessment of surface contamination level in an operating uranium ore processing facility of Jaduguda, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, J.S.; Patnaik, R.L.; Jha, V.N.; Sahoo, S.K.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Radiological concern of the occupational workers and the area is given priority over other safety issue in confirmation with the stipulated guideline of national regulatory agency (AERB/FEFCF/SG-2, 2007). The key concern from the radiological hazard evaluation point of view is air activity, external gamma level and surface contamination. Present investigations was carried out to ascertain the surface contamination level of uranium ore processing facility at Jaduguda, Jharkhand. For a low grade uranium ore processing industry surface contamination is a major concern in product precipitation and recovery section. In view of this, the ore processing plant can broadly be classified into three areas i.e. ion exchange area, precipitation and product recovery section and other areas. The monitoring results incorporate the level of surface contamination of the plant during the last five years. The geometric mean activity of surface contamination level was 31.1, 34.5 and 9.8 Bq dm -2 in ion exchange, product precipitation and recovery and other areas with GSD of 2, 2.5 and 1.9. In most of the cases the surface contamination level was well within the recommended limit of 100 Bq dm -2 for M class uranium compound. Occasional cases of surface contamination levels exceeding the recommended limit were addressed and areas were decontaminated. Based on the study, modification in the design feature of the surface of the finished product section was also suggested so that the decontamination procedure can be more effectively implemented

  20. Codeposition of deuterium ions with beryllium oxide at elevated temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Markin, A V; Gorodetsky, A E; Negodaev, M A; Rozhanskii, N V; Scaffidi-Argentina, F; Werle, H; Wu, C H; Zalavutdinov, R K; Zakharov, A P

    2000-01-01

    Deuterium-loaded BeO films were produced by sputtering the beryllium target with 10 keV Ne ions in D sub 2 gas at a pressure of approximately 1 Pa. The sputtered beryllium reacts - on the substrate surface - with the residual oxygen, thus forming a beryllium oxide layer. Biasing the substrate negatively with respect to the target provides the simultaneous bombardment of the growing film surface with D ions formed by Ne-D sub 2 collisions. Substrate potential governs the maximum energy of ions striking the growing film surface while its size governs the flux density. According to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) data, the beryllium is deposited in the form of polycrystalline hcp-BeO layers with negligible (about 1 at.%) carbon and neon retention. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) data shows a strong deuterium bonding, with a desorption peak at 950 K, in the films deposited at -50 and -400 V substrate potentia...

  1. Deuterium/hydrogen isotope exchange on beryllium and beryllium nitride; Deuterium/Wasserstoff-Isotopenaustausch an Beryllium und Berylliumnitrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dollase, Petra; Eichler, Michael; Koeppen, Martin; Dittmar, Timo; Linsmeier, Christian [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institut fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung - Plasmaphysik (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In the fusion experiments JET and ITER, the first wall is made up of beryllium. The use of nitrogen is discussed for radiative cooling in the divertor. This can react with the surface of the first wall to form beryllium nitride (Be{sub 3}N{sub 2}). The hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium, which react in the fusion reaction to helium and a neutron, are used as fuel. Since the magnetic confinement of the plasma is not perfect, deuterium and tritium ions are also found on the beryllium wall and can accumulate there. This should be avoided due to the radioactivity of tritium. Therefore the isotope exchange with deuterium is investigated to regenerate the first wall. We investigate the isotopic exchange of deuterium and protium in order to have not to work with radioactive tritium. The ion bombardment is simulated with an ion source. With voltages up to a maximum of 5 kV, deuterium and protic hydrogen ions are implanted in polycrystalline Be and Be{sub 3}N{sub 2}. The samples are then analyzed in situ using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Subsequently, samples prepared under the same conditions are characterized ex-situ by means of nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). [German] In den Fusionsexperimenten JET und ITER besteht die erste Wand im Hauptraum aus Beryllium (Be). Zur Strahlungskuehlung im Divertor wird der Einsatz von Stickstoff diskutiert. Dieser kann mit der Oberflaeche der ersten Wand zu Berylliumnitrid (Be{sub 3}N{sub 2}) reagieren. Als Brennstoff werden die Wasserstoffisotope Deuterium und Tritium eingesetzt, die in der Fusionsreaktion zu Helium und einem Neutron reagieren. Da der magnetische Einschluss des Plasmas nicht perfekt ist, treffen auch Deuterium- und Tritiumionen auf die Berylliumwand auf und koennen sich dort anreichern. Das soll aufgrund der Radioaktivitaet von Tritium unbedingt vermieden werden. Daher wird zur Regenerierung der ersten Wand der Isotopenaustausch mit Deuterium untersucht. Wir

  2. Inhalation hazards from machining beryllium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, M.D.; Finch, G.L.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Eidson, A.F.

    1987-01-01

    Beryllium metal has special nuclear and structural properties that make it useful for applications in fission and fusion reactor designs. Unfortunately, concerns for its toxicity have made designers wary of using beryllium metal. The work being reported here was undertaken to characterize the aerosols produced by two very common operations performed during preparation or modification of components for use in reactor systems: sawing and milling of beryllium metal. The study also covered beryllium metal alloys to allow comparison. Information from this study is to enable better assessments of the risk of using beryllium metal in reactor designs

  3. Surface soil contamination standards for Rockwell Hanford Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothe, G.F.

    1981-01-01

    The 200 Areas of the Hanford site contain soils contaminated with levels of radioactivity ranging from fallout concentrations to levels requiring radiological controls. Some contamination is more or less uniformly distributed, and some occurs as discrete specks or spots of activity. Because of the acute need for standards, the Rockwell Environmental Protection (EP) Group proceeded to develop standards; these were approved by Rockwell in October 1979. It must be emphasized that these standards are only applicable to the 200 Areas of the Hanford site or other areas under Rockwell's jurisdiction. It is assumed that access to these areas will always be restricted and that land-use restrictions will be maintained. Contamination limits for areas used by the general public would normally be lower than the limits derived in this case. It appears that the Rockwell standards divided by a factor of 5 to 10 may be reasonable contamination guidelines for the general environment

  4. Optimization of beryllium for fusion blanket applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billone, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    The primary function of beryllium in a fusion reactor blanket is neutron multiplication to enhance tritium breeding. However, because heat, tritium and helium will be generated in and/or transported through beryllium and because the beryllium is in contact with other blanket materials, the thermal, mechanical, tritium/helium and compatibility properties of beryllium are important in blanket design. In particular, tritium retention during normal operation and release during overheating events are safety concerns. Accommodating beryllium thermal expansion and helium-induced swelling are important issues in ensuring adequate lifetime of the structural components adjacent to the beryllium. Likewise, chemical/metallurgical interactions between beryllium and structural components need to be considered in lifetime analysis. Under accident conditions the chemical interaction between beryllium and coolant and breeding materials may also become important. The performance of beryllium in fusion blanket applications depends on fabrication variables and operational parameters. First the properties database is reviewed to determine the state of knowledge of beryllium performance as a function of these variables. Several design calculations are then performed to indicate ranges of fabrication and operation variables that lead to optimum beryllium performance. Finally, areas for database expansion and improvement are highlighted based on the properties survey and the design sensitivity studies

  5. Reactivity test between beryllium and copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, H.; Kato, M.

    1995-01-01

    Beryllium has been expected for using as plasma facing material on ITER. And, copper alloy has been proposed as heat sink material behind plasma facing components. Therefore, both materials must be joined. However, the elementary process of reaction between beryllium and copper alloy does not clear in detail. For example, other authors reported that beryllium reacted with copper at high temperature, but it was not obvious about the generation of reaction products and increasing of the reaction layer. In the present work, from this point, for clarifying the elementary process of reaction between beryllium and copper, the out-of-pile compatibility tests were conducted with diffusion couples of beryllium and copper which were inserted in the capsule filled with high purity helium gas (6N). Annealing temperatures were 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 degrees C, and annealing periods were 100, 300 and 1000h. Beryllium specimens were hot pressed beryllium, and copper specimens were OFC (Oxygen Free Copper)

  6. Surface contamination to UV-curable acrylates in the furniture and parquet industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surakka, J; Lindh, T; Rosén, G; Fischer, T

    2001-03-01

    Surface contamination to ultraviolet radiation curable coatings (UV coatings), used increasingly in the parquet and furniture industry, is a matter of concern as a source for skin contamination. UV coatings contain chemically and biologically reactive acrylates, well known as skin contact irritants and sensitizers. Surface contamination may spread secondarily to equipment and other unexpected areas even outside the workplace. Yet, studies concerning this type of contamination are lacking due to lack of suitable sampling methods. Surface contamination of the work environment with risk for skin exposure to UV coating was measured employing a quantitative adhesive tape sampling method developed for this purpose. A pilot study was first performed at three workplaces to evaluate the contamination. In the main study, we wanted to locate and identify in detail the surface contamination of areas where problems exist, and to determine the extent of the problem. Measurements were performed at seven workplaces on two separate workdays (round 1 and 2) within a six-month period. Samples were collected from the workplaces based on the video monitoring of skin contact frequency with the surfaces and categorized into three groups to analyze risk. The pilot study indicated that surface contamination to TPGDA containing UV coatings was common, found in 76 percent of the surfaces, and varied with a maximum of 909 microg TPGDA 10 cm(-2) sampling area. In the main study TPGDA was found in 153 out of 196 collected samples (78.1%); for round one 78.1 percent (82 out of 105 samples) and for round two 78.0 percent (71 out of 91 samples). The average TPGDA mass on positive surface samples was on the first round 2,247 +/- 7,462 microg, and on the second round 2,960 +/- 4,590 microg. We conclude that surface contamination to uncured UV coatings at UV-curing lines is common and this involves a risk for harmful, unintentional skin exposure to acrylates.

  7. Galvanic corrosion of beryllium welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.A.; Butt, D.P.; Lillard, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Beryllium is difficult to weld because it is highly susceptible to cracking. The most commonly used filler metal in beryllium welds is Al-12 wt.% Si. Beryllium has been successfully welded using Al-Si filler metal with more than 30 wt.% Al. This filler creates an aluminum-rich fusion zone with a low melting point that tends to backfill cracks. Drawbacks to adding a filler metal include a reduction in service temperature, a lowering of the tensile strength of the weld, and the possibility for galvanic corrosion to occur at the weld. To evaluate the degree of interaction between Be and Al-Si in an actual weld, sections from a mock beryllium weldment were exposed to 0.1 M Cl - solution. Results indicate that the galvanic couple between Be and the Al-Si weld material results in the cathodic protection of the weld and of the anodic dissolution of the bulk Be material. While the cathodic protection of Al is generally inefficient, the high anodic dissolution rate of the bulk Be during pitting corrosion combined with the insulating properties of the Be oxide afford some protection of the Al-Si weld material. Although dissolution of the Be precipitate in the weld material does occur, no corrosion of the Al-Si matrix was observed

  8. Vegetated Treatment Systems for Removing Contaminants Associated with Surface Water Toxicity in Agriculture and Urban Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian S; Phillips, Bryn M; Voorhees, Jennifer P; Cahn, Michael

    2017-05-15

    Urban stormwater and agriculture irrigation runoff contain a complex mixture of contaminants that are often toxic to adjacent receiving waters. Runoff may be treated with simple systems designed to promote sorption of contaminants to vegetation and soils and promote infiltration. Two example systems are described: a bioswale treatment system for urban stormwater treatment, and a vegetated drainage ditch for treating agriculture irrigation runoff. Both have similar attributes that reduce contaminant loading in runoff: vegetation that results in sorption of the contaminants to the soil and plant surfaces, and water infiltration. These systems may also include the integration of granulated activated carbon as a polishing step to remove residual contaminants. Implementation of these systems in agriculture and urban watersheds requires system monitoring to verify treatment efficacy. This includes chemical monitoring for specific contaminants responsible for toxicity. The current paper emphasizes monitoring of current use pesticides since these are responsible for surface water toxicity to aquatic invertebrates.

  9. Contaminant interferences with SIMS analyses of microparticle impactor residues on LDEF surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, C.G.; Batchelor, D.; Griffis, D.P.; Hunter, J.L.; Misra, V.; Ricks, D.A.; Wortman, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    Elemental analyses of impactor residues on high purity surface exposed to the low earth orbit (LEO) environment for 5.8 years on Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) has revealed several probable sources for microparticles at this altitude, including natural micrometeorites and manmade debris ranging from paint pigments to bits of stainless steel. A myriad of contamination interferences were identified and their effects on impactor debris identification mitigated during the course of this study. These interferences included pre-, post-, and in-flight deposited particulate surface contaminants, as well as indigenous heterogeneous material contaminants. Non-flight contaminants traced to human origins, including spittle and skin oils, contributed significant levels of alkali-rich carbonaceous interferences. A ubiquitous layer of in-flight deposited silicaceous contamination varied in thickness with location on LDEF and proximity to active electrical fields. In-flight deposited (low velocity) contaminants included urine droplets and bits of metal film from eroded thermal blankets

  10. Concrete decontamination: two innovative processes in response to surface or deep contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CUER, F.; Nadai, A. de; Faure, S.

    2008-01-01

    To meet the future needs in the nuclear industry as regards dismantling and decommissioning, the LPAD (Laboratoire des Procedes Avances de Decontamination) develops new specific techniques to decontaminate concretes: the drying gel process adapted to surface contamination and the electrokinetics process to treat deep contamination. Indeed, because the concrete constitute a porous medium, two types of contamination can be met according to the environment to which is subjected the material. In the case of an accidental or dry contamination, radio elements do not penetrate beyond the first millimeters of the material. The contamination is then considered as surface. On the contrary, the contamination is considered as 'deep' when radioactive ions have diffused deeply under the effects of the natural diffusion. This is the case in fuel storage pond or other many nuclear infrastructures. (authors)

  11. Plastic deformation to enhance plasma-assisted nitriding: On surface contamination induced by Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samih, Youssef; Novelli, Marc; Bolle, Bernard; Allain, Nathalie; Fundenberger, Jean-Jacques; Marcos, Grégory; Czerwiec, Thierry; Grosdidier, Thierry; Thiriet, Tony

    2014-01-01

    The Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment is a recent technique leading to the formation of nanostructured layers by the repeated action of impacting balls. While several communications have revealed possible contamination of the SMATed surfaces, the nature of this surface contamination was analyzed in the present contribution for the treatment of an AISI 316L stainless steel. It is shown, by a combination of Transmission Electron Microscopy and Glow Discharge – Optical Emission Spectrometry, that the surface was alloyed with Ti, Al and V coming from the sonotrode that is used to move the balls as well as Zr coming from the zirshot® balls themselves

  12. Plastic deformation to enhance plasma-assisted nitriding: On surface contamination induced by Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samih, Youssef; Novelli, Marc; Thiriet, Tony; Bolle, Bernard; Allain, Nathalie; Fundenberger, Jean-Jacques; Marcos, Grégory; Czerwiec, Thierry; Grosdidier, Thierry

    2014-08-01

    The Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment is a recent technique leading to the formation of nanostructured layers by the repeated action of impacting balls. While several communications have revealed possible contamination of the SMATed surfaces, the nature of this surface contamination was analyzed in the present contribution for the treatment of an AISI 316L stainless steel. It is shown, by a combination of Transmission Electron Microscopy and Glow Discharge - Optical Emission Spectrometry, that the surface was alloyed with Ti, Al and V coming from the sonotrode that is used to move the balls as well as Zr coming from the zirshot® balls themselves.

  13. Development of portable and automatic smear sampler for measuring surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bong Jae; Chang, S. Y.; Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, C. K.; Swol, C. W.

    2000-12-01

    In measuring radioactive contamination in radiation controlled area of nuclear facility, the technical criteria to evaluate surface contamination level and to sample by indirect method was established in this paper. Radioactive materials always present on surface within operating nuclear facilities. Because of the presence of interfering radiation field, health physicists take smear samples to monitoring surface contamination according to routine monitoring program. But there are some problems like great errors and difference of personnel. Then, to solve them, The portable and automatic smear sampling apparatus was designed and fabricated

  14. Development of portable and automatic smear sampler for measuring surface contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bong Jae; Chang, S. Y.; Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, C. K.; Swol, C. W

    2000-12-01

    In measuring radioactive contamination in radiation controlled area of nuclear facility, the technical criteria to evaluate surface contamination level and to sample by indirect method was established in this paper. Radioactive materials always present on surface within operating nuclear facilities. Because of the presence of interfering radiation field, health physicists take smear samples to monitoring surface contamination according to routine monitoring program. But there are some problems like great errors and difference of personnel. Then, to solve them, The portable and automatic smear sampling apparatus was designed and fabricated.

  15. Levels of surface contamination with radioactive materials at workplaces of nuclear research centre at Rez

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelgye, Z.; Nemcova, I.; Kasikova, M.; Popper, J.; Chysky, J.

    1983-01-01

    A hygiene supervision unit at workplaces of the nuclear Research Institute in Rez monitored on a long-term basis surface contamination with radioactive substances. Surface contamination was found at workplaces with open sources. Of the 4343 monitored places action levels were only exceeded in 13 cases. The obtained data were used for typifying workplaces with the highest level of surface contamination, to determine in certain instances the mechanism of the escape of radioactive substances from insulating facilities and to determine the rate of the spread of the radioactive substance into adjacent non-active workplaces. (author)

  16. A criterion of contamination of the glass surface of photovoltaic batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tursunov, M.N.; Dyskin, V.G.; Yuldashev, I.A. et al.; Park Jeong Hwoan

    2015-01-01

    The relative change in the coefficient of efficiency is chosen as a criterion for contamination of the glass surface of a photovoltaic battery. Using the formula obtained, the results of measurements of the transmission coefficient of a contaminated glass plate after its exposure to open air in the center of Tashkent for 80 and 110 days are processed. It is shown that the contamination of the glass plate reduces the coefficient of efficiency of the PVB by 50.0%. (authors)

  17. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated surface water, groundwater, and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotrowski, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Bioremediation is currently receiving considerable attention as a remediation option for sites contaminated with hazardous organic compounds. There is an enormous amount of interest in bioremediation, and numerous journals now publish research articles concerning some aspect of the remediation approach. A review of the literature indicates that two basic forms of bioremediation are currently being practiced: the microbiological approach and the microbial ecology approach. Each form has its advocates and detractors, and the microbiological approach is generally advocated by most of the firms that practice bioremediation. In this paper, the merits and disadvantages of these forms are reviewed and a conceptual approach is presented for assessing which form may be most useful for a particular contaminant situation. I conclude that the microbial ecology form of bioremediation may be the most useful for the majority of contaminant situations, and I will present two case histories in support of this hypothesis

  18. Laboratory Studies on Surface Sampling of Bacillus anthracis Contamination: Summary, Gaps, and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Hu, Rebecca

    2011-11-28

    This report summarizes previous laboratory studies to characterize the performance of methods for collecting, storing/transporting, processing, and analyzing samples from surfaces contaminated by Bacillus anthracis or related surrogates. The focus is on plate culture and count estimates of surface contamination for swab, wipe, and vacuum samples of porous and nonporous surfaces. Summaries of the previous studies and their results were assessed to identify gaps in information needed as inputs to calculate key parameters critical to risk management in biothreat incidents. One key parameter is the number of samples needed to make characterization or clearance decisions with specified statistical confidence. Other key parameters include the ability to calculate, following contamination incidents, the (1) estimates of Bacillus anthracis contamination, as well as the bias and uncertainties in the estimates, and (2) confidence in characterization and clearance decisions for contaminated or decontaminated buildings. Gaps in knowledge and understanding identified during the summary of the studies are discussed and recommendations are given for future studies.

  19. Exploring Surface Analysis Techniques for the Detection of Molecular Contaminants on Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Gugu N.; Seasly, Elaine; Thornblom, Mark; Baughman, James

    2016-01-01

    Molecular contamination is a known area of concern for spacecraft. To mitigate this risk, projects involving space flight hardware set requirements in a contamination control plan that establishes an allocation budget for the exposure of non-volatile residues (NVR) onto critical surfaces. The purpose of this work will focus on non-contact surface analysis and in situ monitoring to mitigate molecular contamination on space flight hardware. By using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) with Raman Spectroscopy, an unlikely contaminant was identified on space flight hardware. Using traditional and surface analysis methods provided the broader view of the contamination sources allowing for best fit solutions to prevent any future exposure.

  20. Conformational change of oil contaminants adhered onto crystalline alpha-alumina surface in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Wenkun; Sun, Yazhou; Liu, Haitao; Fu, Hongya; Liang, Yingchun

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Dynamic conformational change process of oil contaminations adhered onto Al-terminated α-Al_2O_3 surface in aqueous solution is given. • Effect of water penetration on the conformational change and even detachment of oil contaminants is considered. • Change of driving forces leading to the conformational change of oil contaminants is described. - Abstract: Microscopic conformational change of oil contaminants adhered onto perfect α-Al_2O_3 (0001) surface in the aqueous solution was simulated by means of detailed fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. The main driving forces of the conformation change process of the oil contaminants were explored. The simulation results indicate that with submerging of the contaminated α-Al_2O_3 (0001) surface into the aqueous solution, the oil contaminants undertake an evident conformational change process. The dynamic process can be divided into several stages, including early penetration of water molecules, formation and widening of water channel, and generation of molecularly adsorbed hydration layers. Moreover, the oil contaminants on the α-Al_2O_3 surface are not fully removed from solid surface after a 10 ns relaxation, while a relatively stable oil/water/solid three-phase interface is gradually formed. Further, the residual oil contaminants are finally divided into several new ordered molecular adsorption layers. In addition, by systemically analyzing the driving forces for the conformational change of the oil contaminants, the penetration of water molecules is found to be the most important driving force. With penetrating of the water molecules, the dominating interactions controlling the conformational change of the oil contaminants have been changing over the whole simulation.

  1. Physical properties of beryllium oxide - Irradiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elston, J.; Caillat, R.

    1958-01-01

    This work has been carried out in view of determining several physical properties of hot-pressed beryllium oxide under various conditions and the change of these properties after irradiation. Special attention has been paid on to the measurement of the thermal conductivity coefficient and thermal diffusivity coefficient. Several designs for the measurement of the thermal conductivity coefficient have been achieved. They permit its determination between 50 and 300 deg. C, between 400 and 800 deg. C. Some measurements have been made above 1000 deg. C. In order to measure the thermal diffusivity coefficient, we heat a perfectly flat surface of a sample in such a way that the heat flux is modulated (amplitude and frequency being adjustable). The thermal diffusivity coefficient is deduced from the variations of temperature observed on several spots. Tensile strength; compressive strength; expansion coefficient; sound velocity and crystal parameters have been also measured. Some of the measurements have been carried out after neutron irradiation. Some data have been obtained on the change of the properties of beryllium oxide depending on the integrated neutron flux. (author) [fr

  2. Technical aspects of the joint JET-ISX-B beryllium limiter experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmonds, P.H.; Dietz, K.J.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Watson, R.D.; Emerson, L.C.; Gabbard, W.A.; Goodall, D.; Simpkins, J.E.; Yarber, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment has been performed on the Impurity Study Experiment (ISX-B) tokamak to test beryllium as a limiter material. Beryllium is an attractive candidate for a limiter and has been proposed for use in the Joint European Torus (JET) experiment. A temperature-controlled, segmented, beryllium top-rail limiter was located inside the plasma radius described by the existing titanium limiters. An extended set of diagnostics was added for measurement of scrapeoff and limiter parameters. These included visible and infrared monitoring systems, probes, and surface analysis experiments. Tokamak experiments included parameter surveys of both ohmically heated and neutral-beam-heated plasmas and an extended fluence test of the limiter

  3. Study of beryllium redeposition under bombardment by high intensity -low energy- hydrogen ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gureev, V.M.; Guseva, M.I.; Danelyan, L.S. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1998-01-01

    The results of studying the erosion of beryllium under an effect of intense ion fluxes with the energy of 250 eV, at the fluences {approx}10{sup 2}1 cm{sup -2}, at the MAGRAS-stand are given. The operating conditions under which a practically-complete redeposition of the sputtered beryllium upon the target surface were experimentally-realized. A change in the microstructure of a beryllium target under sputtering and redeposition is analyzed. Some technological applications are considered. (author)

  4. Soil contamination of plant surfaces from grazing and rainfall interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, T.G.; Stoll, J.M.; Tobler, L.

    1995-01-01

    Contaminants often attach to soil particles, and their subsequent environmental transport is largely determined by processes that govern soil movement. We examined the influence of grazing intensity on soil contamination of pastures. Four different grazing densities of sheep were tested against an ungrazed control plot. Scandium concentrations were determined by neutron activation analysis and was used as a tracer of soil adhesion on vegetation. Soil loadings ( g soil kg -1 dry plant) increased 60% when grazing intensity was increased by a factor of four (p 0.003). Rain and wind removed soil from vegetation in the ungrazed control plots, but when grazing sheep were present, an increase in rain from 0.3 to 9.7 mm caused a 130% increase in soil contamination. Multiple regression was used to develop an equation that predicts soil loadings as a function of grazing density, rainfall and wind speed (p = 0.0001, r 2 = 0.78). The model predicts that if grazing management were to be used as a tool to reduce contaminant intake from inadvertent consumption of resuspended soil by grazing animals, grazing densities would have to be reduced 2.5 times to reduce soil loadings by 50%. (author)

  5. Metal Hydride assited contamination on Ru/Si surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pachecka, Malgorzata; Lee, Christopher James; Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    In extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) residual tin, in the form of particles, ions, and atoms, can be deposited on nearby EUV optics. During the EUV pulse, a reactive hydrogen plasma is formed, which may be able to react with metal contaminants, creating volatile and unstable metal hydrides that

  6. Radioactive air and surface contamination in Czechia and Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumyantsev, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    Data are presented on the radioactive substance effluents into the environment in conditions of NPP normal operation and on the air contamination by 85 Kr due to operation of the European and Soviet plants for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel. Data are given on the dosage of the Czechoslovakia population due to the Chernobyl NPP accident

  7. Preparation of a sinterable beryllium oxide through decomposition of beryllium hydroxide (1963); Preparation d'un oxyde de beryllium frittable par decomposition de l'hydiloxyde (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernier, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    In the course of the present study, we have attempted to precise the factors which among the ones effective in the course of the preparation of the beryllium hydroxide and oxide and during the sintering have an influence on the final result: the density and homogeneity of the sintered body. Of the several varieties of hydroxides precipitated from a sulfate solution the {beta}-hydroxide only is always contaminated with beryllium sulfate and cannot be purified even by thorough washing. We noticed that those varieties of the hydroxide (gel, {alpha}, {beta}) have different decomposition rates; this behaviour is used to identify and even to dose the different species in ({alpha}, {beta}) mixtures. The various hydroxides transmit to the resulting oxides the shape they had when precipitated. Accordingly the history of the oxide is revealed by its behaviour during its fabrication and sintering. By comparing the results of the sintering operation with the various measurements performed on the oxide powders we are led to the conclusion that an oxide obtained from beryllium hydroxide is sinterable under vacuum if the following conditions are fulfilled: the particle size must lie between 0.1 and 0.2 {mu} and the BeSO{sub 4} content of the powder must be less than 0.25 per cent wt (expressed as SO{sub 3}/BeO). The best fitting is obtained with the oxide issued from an {alpha}-hydroxide precipitated as very small aggregates and with a low sulfur-content. We have observed that this is also the case for the oxide obtained by direct calcination of beryllium sulfate. (author) [French] Au cours de cette etude, nous avons cherche a preciser les facteurs qui, intervenant tout au long de la preparation de l'hydroxyde, puis de l'oxyde de beryllium et enfin du frittage, peuvent avoir une influence sur le resultat final: la densite et l'homogeneite du fritte. Parmi tous les hydroxydes precipites d'une solution de sulfate, seul l'hydroxyde {beta} est toujours fortement pollue par le sulfate

  8. OVERVIEW OF BERYLLIUM SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisson, M

    2009-04-01

    Because of its unique properties as a lightweight metal with high tensile strength, beryllium is widely used in applications including cell phones, golf clubs, aerospace, and nuclear weapons. Beryllium is also encountered in industries such as aluminium manufacturing, and in environmental remediation projects. Workplace exposure to beryllium particulates is a growing concern, as exposure to minute quantities of anthropogenic forms of beryllium may lead to sensitization and to chronic beryllium disease, which can be fatal and for which no cure is currently known. Furthermore, there is no known exposure-response relationship with which to establish a 'safe' maximum level of beryllium exposure. As a result, the current trend is toward ever lower occupational exposure limits, which in turn make exposure assessment, both in terms of sampling and analysis, more challenging. The problems are exacerbated by difficulties in sample preparation for refractory forms of beryllium, such as beryllium oxide, and by indications that some beryllium forms may be more toxic than others. This chapter provides an overview of sources and uses of beryllium, health risks, and occupational exposure limits. It also provides a general overview of sampling, analysis, and data evaluation issues that will be explored in greater depth in the remaining chapters. The goal of this book is to provide a comprehensive resource to aid personnel in a wide variety of disciplines in selecting sampling and analysis methods that will facilitate informed decision-making in workplace and environmental settings.

  9. Measurement of residual radioactive surface contamination by 2-D laser heated TLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.C.

    1997-06-01

    The feasibility of applying and adapting a two-dimensional laser heated thermoluminescence dosimetry system to the problem of surveying for radioactive surface contamination was studied. The system consists of a CO 2 laser-based reader and monolithic arrays of thin dosimeter elements. The arrays consist of 10,201 thermoluminescent phosphor elements of 40 micron thickness, covering a 900 cm 2 area. Array substrates are 125 micron thick polyimide sheets, enabling them to easily conform to regular surface shapes, especially for survey of surfaces that are inaccessible for standard survey instruments. The passive, integrating radiation detectors are sensitive to alpha and beta radiation at contamination levels below release guideline limits. Required contact times with potentially contaminated surfaces are under one hour to achieve detection of transuranic alpha emission at 100 dpm/100 cm 2 . Positional information obtained from array evaluation is useful for locating contamination zones. Unique capabilities of this system for survey of sites, facilities and material include measurement inside pipes and other geometrical configurations that prevent standard surveys, and below-surface measurement of alpha and beta emitters in contaminated soils. These applications imply a reduction of material that must be classified as radioactive waste by virtue of its possibility of contamination, and cost savings in soil sampling at contaminated sites

  10. Nuclear electronic components of surface contamination monitor based on multi-electrode proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Xiangyang; Zhang Yong; Han Shuping; Rao Xianming; Fang Jintu

    2001-01-01

    The nuclear electronic components applying in Portal Monitor and Hands and Feet Surface Contamination Monitor were based on modern integrated circuit are introduced. The detailed points in circuit design and manufacturing technique are analyzed

  11. Effect of surface contamination on osseointegration of dental implants surrounded by circumferential bone defects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohamed, Seif

    2010-05-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of surface contamination on osseointegration of dental implants surrounded by a circumferential bone defect and to compare osseointegration around Osseotite with that around Nanotite implants.

  12. National Enforcement Initiative: Preventing Animal Waste from Contaminating Surface and Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page describes EPA's goal in preventing animal waste from contaminating surface and ground Water. It is an EPA National Enforcement Initiative. Both enforcement cases, and a map of enforcement actions are provided.

  13. Sampling and analysis plan for assessment of beryllium in soils surrounding TA-40 building 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruedig, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-19

    Technical Area (TA) 40 Building 15 (40-15) is an active firing site at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The weapons facility operations (WFO) group plans to build an enclosure over the site in 2017, so that test shots may be conducted year-round. The enclosure project is described in PRID 16P-0209. 40-15 is listed on LANL OSH-ISH’s beryllium inventory, which reflects the potential for beryllium in/on soils and building surfaces at 40-15. Some areas in and around 40-15 have previously been sampled for beryllium, but past sampling efforts did not achieve complete spatial coverage of the area. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) investigates the area surrounding 40-15 via 9 deep (≥1-ft.) soil samples and 11 shallow (6-in.) soil samples. These samples will fill the spatial data gaps for beryllium at 40-15, and will be used to support OSH-ISH’s final determination of 40-15’s beryllium registry status. This SAP has been prepared by the Environmental Health Physics program in consultation with the Industrial Hygiene program. Industrial Hygiene is the owner of LANL’s beryllium program, and will make a final determination with regard to the regulatory status of beryllium at 40-15.

  14. TEM study of impurity segregations in beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimenkov, M., E-mail: michael.klimenkov@kit.edu [Institute for Applied Materials – Applied Materials Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Chakin, V.; Moeslang, A. [Institute for Applied Materials – Applied Materials Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Rolli, R. [Institute for Applied Materials – Materials and Biomechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Beryllium is planned to be used as a neutron multiplier in the Helium-cooled Pebble Bed European concept of a breeding blanket of demonstration power reactor DEMO. In order to evaluate the irradiation performance, individual pebbles and constrained pebble beds were neutron-irradiated at temperatures typical of fusion blankets. Beryllium pebbles 1 mm in diameter produced by the rotating electrode method were subjected to a TEM study before and after irradiation at High Flux Reactor, Petten, Netherlands at 861 K. The grain size varied in a wide range from sub-micron size up to several tens of micrometers, which indicated formation bimodal grain size distribution. Based on the application of combined electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy methods, we suggest that impurity precipitates play an important role in controlling the mechanical properties of beryllium. The impurity elements were present in beryllium at a sub-percent concentration form beryllide particles of a complex (Fe/Al/Mn/Cr)B composition. These particles are often ordered along dislocations lines, forming several micron-long chains. It can be suggested that fracture surfaces often extended along these chains in irradiated material.

  15. Combined Contamination and Space Environmental Effects on Solar Cells and Thermal Control Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Bruckner, Eric J.; Scheiman, David A.; Stidham, Curtis R.

    1994-01-01

    For spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO), contamination can occur from thruster fuel, sputter contamination products and from products of silicone degradation. This paper describes laboratory testing in which solar cell materials and thermal control surfaces were exposed to simulated spacecraft environmental effects including contamination, atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation and thermal cycling. The objective of these experiments was to determine how the interaction of the natural LEO environmental effects with contaminated spacecraft surfaces impacts the performance of these materials. Optical properties of samples were measured and solar cell performance data was obtained. In general, exposure to contamination by thruster fuel resulted in degradation of solar absorptance for fused silica and various thermal control surfaces and degradation of solar cell performance. Fused silica samples which were subsequently exposed to an atomic oxygen/vacuum ultraviolet radiation environment showed reversal of this degradation. These results imply that solar cells and thermal control surfaces which are susceptible to thruster fuel contamination and which also receive atomic oxygen exposure may not undergo significant performance degradation. Materials which were exposed to only vacuum ultraviolet radiation subsequent to contamination showed slight additional degradation in solar absorptance.

  16. Methods for the calculation of derived working limits for surface contamination by low-toxicity radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.A.B.; Wrixon, A.D.

    1979-01-01

    Surface contamination is often measured as an indication of the general spread of radioactive contamination in a particular place. Derived working limits, (DWLs) for surface contamination provide figures against which to assess the significance of measurements. Derived working limits for surface contamination were first established for use in the nuclear energy industry. They were designed to cope with a wide range of unspecified radionuclides and were therefore based on the assumption that the contamination was due to the presence of the most hazardous radionuclides, e.g. 90 Sr, 210 Pb, 226 Ra and 239 Pu. While this assumption may still be appropriate when the radionuclide mixture is unknown, there are now many specialized uses of particular low-toxicity radionuclides in universities, hospitals and general industry. If it is known that only a particular radionuclide is present, the general DWL can be replaced by a more specific value. The methods for calculating DWLs for some of the more commonly employed low-toxicity radionuclides are described. The exposure pathways considered are (a) external radiation of the skin and inhalation of airborne material from contaminated surfaces in active areas; (b) external irradiation of the skin and ingestion from contaminated skin. Some consideration is given to the effect of the revised dose equivalent limits in the most recent recommendations of ICRP. (author)

  17. Beryllium minerals - demand strong for miniaturisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, J.

    1985-01-01

    Beryllium is an essential constituent of over 40 minerals of which two are exploited commercially. Beryl is largely produced in the USSR and China and bertrandite in the U.S.A. Phenacite, from Canada, is also under investigation. The largest extraction plant for the recovery of beryllium in the western world is in Utah, U.S.A. and the company also produces beryllium oxide used in the manufacture of ceramics widely used in the electronics industry and for refractory articles. Beryllium-copper alloys in strip, rod and tube form are produced in the U.S.A., Germany and the U.K. Beryllium ceramics are important because of their high thermal conductivity, electrical insulation, strength and rigidity. The alloys, used as electric connectors, microswitch contacts are important for their high suitability for miniaturisation. The future growth potential for the beryllium industry is in the automotive industries in Europe and Japan. (U.K.)

  18. Method for hot pressing beryllium oxide articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Ambrose H.; Godfrey, Jr., Thomas G.; Mowery, Erb H.

    1988-01-01

    The hot pressing of beryllium oxide powder into high density compacts with little or no density gradients is achieved by employing a homogeneous blend of beryllium oxide powder with a lithium oxide sintering agent. The lithium oxide sintering agent is uniformly dispersed throughout the beryllium oxide powder by mixing lithium hydroxide in an aqueous solution with beryllium oxide powder. The lithium hydroxide is converted in situ to lithium carbonate by contacting or flooding the beryllium oxide-lithium hydroxide blend with a stream of carbon dioxide. The lithium carbonate is converted to lithium oxide while remaining fixed to the beryllium oxide particles during the hot pressing step to assure uniform density throughout the compact.

  19. Evaluation of surface contamination due to alpha using large area contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavayya, M.

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive contamination at work places is evaluated routinely using either the swipe sampling technique or a contamination monitor. Commercially available alpha probes used for the purpose are usually circular and have a face diameter of 50 or 100 mm. Square faced probes are also available. A thin aluminized mylar membrane of thickness 0.45 to 0.9 mg.cm -2 is used to screen the phosphor in the alpha probe to protect it from external light. The membrane cuts off more alphas from low energy emitters than from higher energy alpha emitters. Moreover the response of the detector for alphas originating at all points under the detector face is not uniform, especially when the large area alpha monitors are used. These factors can introduce errors as high as 40% into the measurements. This paper aims to quantify these errors and describe a procedure to overcome the limitations. (author)

  20. Mechanical properties of irradiated beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeston, J.M.; Longhurst, G.R.; Wallace, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    Beryllium is planned for use as a neutron multiplier in the tritium breeding blanket of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). After fabricating samples of beryllium at densities varying from 80 to 100% of the theoretical density, we conducted a series of experiments to measure the effect of neutron irradiation on mechanical properties, especially strength and ductility. Samples were irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to a neutron fluence of 2.6 x 10 25 n/m 2 (E > MeV) at an irradiation temperature of 75deg C. These samples were subsequently compression-tested at room temperature, and the results were compared with similar tests on unirradiated specimens. We found that the irradiation increased the strength by approximately four times and reduced the ductility to approximately one fourth. Failure was generally ductile, but the 80% dense irradiated samples failed in brittle fracture with significant generation of fine particles and release of small quantities of tritium. (orig.)

  1. Mechanical properties of irradiated beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeston, J. M.; Longhurst, G. R.; Wallace, R. S.; Abeln, S. P.

    1992-10-01

    Beryllium is planned for use as a neutron multiplier in the tritium breeding blanket of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). After fabricating samples of beryllium at densities varying from 80 to 100% of the theoretical density, we conducted a series of experiments to measure the effect of neutron irradiation on mechanical properties, especially strength and ductility. Samples were irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to a neutron fluence of 2.6 × 10 25 n/m 2 ( E > 1 MeV) at an irradiation temperature of 75°C. These samples were subsequently compression-tested at room temperature, and the results were compared with similar tests on unirradiated specimens. We found that the irradiation increased the strength by approximately four times and reduced the ductility to approximately one fourth. Failure was generally ductile, but the 80% dense irradiated samples failed in brittle fracture with significant generation of fine particles and release of small quantities of tritium.

  2. EM Task 12 - Laser cleaning of Contaminated Painted Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ames A. Grisanti; Charlene R. Crocker; Robert J. Jensen

    1998-01-01

    Several techniques are available or under development for surface decontamination in nuclear facilities. Each technique has its merits; however, none of them is universally the best choice for all surface decontamination applications. Because of the multitude of factors which influence the environmental and economic aspects of selecting a surface decontamination technique, it is difficult to select the best method in a given situation; an objective basis for comparing techniques is needed. The objective of this project is to develop a software tool for use by personnel selecting a surface decontamination technique. The software will incorporate performance data for available surface decontamination techniques. The beta release of the Surface Decontamination Assistant Software has been completed and has undergone testing at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). Minor modifications to the software will be completed before the end of November 1998, and a final release of the software will be issued

  3. EM Task 12 - Laser cleaning of contaminated painted surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisanti, Ames A.; Crocker, Charlene R.; Jensen, Robert R.

    1999-01-01

    Several techniques are available or under development for surface decontamination in nuclear facilities. Each technique has its merits; however, none of them is universally the best choice for all surface decontamination applications. Because of the multitude of factors which influence the environmental and economic aspects of selecting a surface decontamination technique, it is difficult to select the best method in a given situation; an objective basis for comparing techniques is needed. The objective of this project was to develop a software tool for use by personnel selecting a surface decontamination technique. The software incorporates performance data for available surface decontamination techniques. The beta release version of the Surface Decontamination Assistant Software has been completed and has undergone testing at the Energy and Environmental Research Center. Minor modifications to the software were completed, and a final release version of the software is ready to be issued

  4. MEASUREMENTS OF THE PROPERTIES OF BERYLLIUM FOIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZHAO, Y.; WANG, H.

    2000-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of beryllium at radio frequency (800 MHz) and liquid nitrogen temperature were investigated and measured. This summary addresses a collection of beryllium properties in the literature, an analysis of the anomalous skin effect, the test model, the experimental setup and improvements, MAFIA simulations, the measurement results and data analyses. The final results show that the conductivity of beryllium is not as good as indicated by the handbook, yet very close to copper at liquid nitrogen temperature

  5. New audio applications of beryllium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, M.

    1977-01-01

    The major applications of beryllium metal in the field of audio appliances are for the vibrating cones for the two types of speakers 'TWITTER' for high range sound and 'SQUAWKER' for mid range sound, and also for beryllium cantilever tube assembled in stereo cartridge. These new applications are based on the characteristic property of beryllium having high ratio of modulus of elasticity to specific gravity. The production of these audio parts is described, and the audio response is shown. (author)

  6. Thermal expansion of beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solodukhin, A.V.; Kruzhalov, A.V.; Mazurenko, V.G.; Maslov, V.A.; Medvedev, V.A.; Polupanova, T.I.

    1987-01-01

    Precise measurements of temperature dependence of the coefficient of linear expansion in the 22-320 K temperature range on beryllium oxide monocrystals are conducted. A model of thermal expansion is suggested; the range of temperature dependence minimum of the coefficient of thermal expansion is well described within the frames of this model. The results of the experiment may be used for investigation of thermal stresses in crystals

  7. Intoxication experiments with beryllium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucurescu, I.; Stan, T.

    1990-01-01

    The changes in the particular number of animals in two groups of 40 rats each subjected to intoxication experiments with beryllium sulphate was investigated. The two investigations had very different characteristics. In the case of chronic intoxication there was a marked lethality over given time intervals. In the case of subacute intoxication the number of animals decreased with time. It was found empirically that this change can be described by an exponential relationship which lends itself to statistical interpretation. (author)

  8. Thermodynamic properties of beryllium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, A.; Lecocq, A.

    1964-01-01

    The study of the hydro-thermal decomposition of beryllium hydroxide has made it possible to determine the free energy of formation and the entropy. The results obtained are in good agreement with the theoretical values calculated from the solubility product of this substance. They give furthermore the possibility of acquiring a better understanding of the BeO-H 2 O-Be (OH) 2 system between 20 and 1500 C. (authors) [fr

  9. Development of an automatic smear sampler and evaluation of surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, B. K.; Lee, B. J.; Lee, K. W.; Park, J. H.

    2004-01-01

    The surface contamination level of a radiation-controlled area is measured periodically according to atomic energy law and connection regulations. The measurement of surface contamination by an indirect method is subject to various kinds of error depending on the sampling person and consumes much time and effort in the sampling of large nuclear facilities. In this research, an automatic smear sampler is developed to solve these problems. The developed equipment is composed of a rotating sampling part, a sample transferring part, a power supply part a control part, and vacuum part. It improved the efficiency of estimation of the surface contamination level achieved periodically in a radiation-controlled area. Using an automatic smear sampler developed in this research, it is confirmed that radioactive contaminated materials are uniformly transferred to smear paper more than any sampling method by an operator. (authors)

  10. Calculation of reasonable exemption levels for surface contamination by measuring overall gamma ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, Haruyuki; Hattori, Takatoshi

    2008-01-01

    The present regulation on surface contamination [Bq/cm 2 ] is determined from a simple radiological model for the most hazardous radionuclides (Pu-239 for alpha emitters and Sr-90 for beta emitters) and its extremely conservative model is applied for all other alpha and beta emitters. In this study, reasonable exemption levels for surface contamination are calculated for each radionuclide by adopting an original radiological dose evaluation method for surface contamination that can be applied in radiation safety, transport safety and waste safety. Furthermore, a new concept of judging the exemption by estimating the overall contamination [Bq] on the objects from the measurement of gamma ray has been designed and a reasonable value was derived. We conclude that the overall exemption levels obtained by gamma ray measurement can be one order smaller than those obtained by the conventional method for some radionuclides, such as Mn-54, Co-60, Nb-94, Cs-134, Cs-137, Eu-152 and Eu-154. (author)

  11. Study of surface potential contamination in radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production facilities and alternative solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhaedi Muhammad; Rimin Sumantri; Farida Tusafariah; Djarwanti Rahayu Pipin Soedjarwo

    2013-01-01

    Radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production facilities that exist in their operations around the world in the form of radiological impacts of radiation exposure, contamination of surface and air contamination. Given the number of existing open source in radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production facility, then the possibility of surface contamination in the work area is quite high. For that to protect the safety and health of both workers, the public and the environment, then the licensee must conduct an inventory of some of the potential that could result in contamination of surfaces in radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production facilities. Several potential to cause surface contamination in radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production facilities consist of loss of resources, the VAC system disorders, impaired production facilities, limited resources and lack of work discipline and radioactive waste handling activities. From the study of some potential, there are several alternative solutions that can be implemented by the licensee to address the contamination of the surface so as not to cause adverse radiological impacts for both radiation workers, the public or the environment. (author)

  12. Thermal Properties of Beryllium Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Tae Won; Baek, Je Kyun; Jeong, Gwan Yoon; Kim, Ji Hyeon; Sohn, Dong Seong

    2013-01-01

    It is known that the presence of as-fabricated porosity largely affect thermal conductivity of beryllium. Therefore, in this paper we will suggest a new thermal conductivity equation which consider volume fraction and discuss how this can be applied to irradiation induced degradation of thermal conductivity later. This study was performed to develop a new correlation of thermal conductivity of Beryllium. Although there are many factors like BeO contents, impurity level, grain size, and porosity, we assumed porosity will be the dominant factor for thermal conductivity. Therefore, a new correlation which consider volume fraction by applying Maxwell-Eucken equation is developed and this is consistent to some degrees. However, increasing impurity level and decreasing grain size will decrease thermal conductivity. Therefore, we need to consider their effects although we assume BeO contents, impurity, and grain size do not make noticeable effects in the future. Furthermore, thermal conductivity degradation by neutron irradiation should be considered afterward. There are two main factors for the thermal conductivity degradation: the one is defects formed by neutron collisions and the other is helium generated by transmutation of Be. It is known that they make a considerable degradation of conductivity. Beryllium is known there are considerable volume increases by helium accumulation. Therefore, we anticipate our suggested model can be applicable if it has been developed furthermore considering irradiation induced swelling

  13. (Beryllium). Internal Report No. 137, Jan. 15, 1958

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouret, P.; Rigaud, A.

    1959-01-01

    After a brief summary of the physical and chemical properties of beryllium, the various chemical treatments which can be applied to beryllium minerals either directly or after a physical enrichment are discussed. These various treatments give either the hydroxide or beryllium salts, from which either beryllium oxide or metallic beryllium can easily be obtained. The purification, analysis and uses of beryllium are also briefly discussed. (author)

  14. Microplasticity in hot-pressed beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plane, D.C.; Bonfield, W.

    1977-01-01

    Closed hysteresis loops measured in the microstrain region of hot pressed, commercially pure, polycrystalline beryllium are correlated with a dislocation - impurity atom, energy dissipating mechanism. (author)

  15. Beryllium thin films for resistor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiet, O.

    1972-01-01

    Beryllium thin films have a protective oxidation resistant property at high temperature and high recrystallization temperature. However, the experimental film has very low temperature coefficient of resistance.

  16. Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Cleaning of Contaminated Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, Robert F.; Herrmann, Hans W.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this work is to demonstrate a practical, atmospheric pressure plasma tool for the surface decontamination of radioactive waste. Decontamination of radioactive materials that have accumulated on the surfaces of equipment and structures is a challenging and costly undertaking for the US Department of Energy. Our technology shows great potential for accelerating this clean up effort

  17. Contamination of Optical Surfaces Under Irradiation by Outgassed Volatile Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanshin, R. H.; Grigorevskiy, A. V.; Galygin, A. N.; Alexandrov, N. G.

    2009-01-01

    Deposition of outgassed products of a polymeric composite on model material surfaces being irradiated by electrons and protons with initial energies of E e = 40 keV and E p = 30 keV respectively was studied. It was shown that deposition of volatile products on model material surfaces being under ionizing radiations results in increase of organic film growth rate.

  18. Tritium contaminated surface monitoring with a solid - state device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culcer, Mihai; Iliescu, Mariana; Curuia, Marian; Enache, Adrian; Stefanescu, Ioan; Ducu, Catalin; Malinovschi, Viorel

    2004-01-01

    The low energy of betas makes tritium difficult to detect. However, there are several methods used in tritium detection, such as liquid scintillation and ionization chambers. Tritium on or near a surface can be also detected using proportional counters and, recently, solid state devices. The paper presents our results in the design and achievement of a surface tritium monitor using a PIN photodiode as a solid state charged particle detector to count betas emitted from the surface. That method allows continuous, real-time and non-destructively measuring of tritium. (authors)

  19. Bond strength of resin-resin interfaces contaminated with saliva and submitted to different surface treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Yoshio Furuse

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different surface treatments on shear bond strength of saliva-contaminated resin-resin interfaces. Flat resin surfaces were fabricated. In the control group, no contamination or surface treatment was performed. The resin surfaces of the experimental groups were contaminated with saliva and air-dried, and then submitted to: (G1 rinsing with water and drying; (G2 application of an adhesive system; (G3 rinsing and drying, abrasion with finishing disks, etching and application of adhesive system; (G4 rinsing and drying, etching, application of silane and adhesive system. Resin cylinders were placed over the treated surfaces. The specimens were stored in water or ethanol. Shear bond strength tests were performed and the mode of failure was evaluated. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Dunnett T3 test. Contamination of resin-resin interfaces with saliva significantly reduced shear strength, especially after prolonged storage (p<0.05. Similar values to the original bond strength were obtained after abrasion and application of adhesive (G3 or etching and application of silane and adhesive (G4. If contamination occurs, a surface treatment is required to guarantee an adequate interaction between the resin increments.

  20. SUDOQU, a new dose-assessment methodology for radiological surface contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dillen, Teun; van Dijk, Arjan

    2018-06-12

    A new methodology has been developed for the assessment of the annual effective dose resulting from removable and fixed radiological surface contamination. It is entitled SUDOQU (SUrface DOse QUantification) and it can for instance be used to derive criteria for surface contamination related to the import of non-food consumer goods, containers and conveyances, e.g., limiting values and operational screening levels. SUDOQU imposes mass (activity)-balance equations based on radioactive decay, removal and deposition processes in indoor and outdoor environments. This leads to time-dependent contamination levels that may be of particular importance in exposure scenarios dealing with one or a few contaminated items only (usually public exposure scenarios, therefore referred to as the 'consumer' model). Exposure scenarios with a continuous flow of freshly contaminated goods also fall within the scope of the methodology (typically occupational exposure scenarios, thus referred to as the 'worker model'). In this paper we describe SUDOQU, its applications, and its current limitations. First, we delineate the contamination issue, present the assumptions and explain the concepts. We describe the relevant removal, transfer, and deposition processes, and derive equations for the time evolution of the radiological surface-, air- and skin-contamination levels. These are then input for the subsequent evaluation of the annual effective dose with possible contributions from external gamma radiation, inhalation, secondary ingestion (indirect, from hand to mouth), skin contamination, direct ingestion and skin-contact exposure. The limiting effective surface dose is introduced for issues involving the conservatism of dose calculations. SUDOQU can be used by radiation-protection scientists/experts and policy makers in the field of e.g. emergency preparedness, trade and transport, exemption and clearance, waste management, and nuclear facilities. Several practical examples are worked

  1. Development of an automatic smear sampler and a polymer film for surface radioactive contamination assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, B.-K.; Lee, K.-W.; Woo, Z.-H.; Jeong, K.-S.; Oh, W.-Z.; Han, M.-J.

    2004-01-01

    Measurement of the surface contamination by an indirect method is subject to the various kinds of error according to the sampling person and needs much time and effort in the sampling and assay. In this research, an automatic smear sampler is developed. It improved efficiency for assay work of surface contamination level achieved periodically in a radiation controlled area. Using an automatic smear sampler developed, it is confirmed that radioactive contaminated materials are uniformly transferred to smear paper more than any sampling method by an operator. Also, Solid scintillation proximity membranes were prepared for measuring the amount of radioactive contamination in laboratories contaminated by the low energy beta-ray emitter, such as 3 H and 14 C. Polysulfone scintillation proximity membranes were prepared by impregnating Cerium Activated Yttrium Silicate (CAYS), an inorganic fluor, in a membrane structure. The inorganic fluor-impregnated membranes were applied to detect the radioactive surface contamination. The preparation of membranes was divided into two processes. A supporting polymer film was made of casting solutions consisting of polysulfone and solvent, their cast film being solidified by vacuum evaporation. CAYS-dispersed polymer solutions were cast over the first, solidified polymer films and coagulated either by evaporating solvent in the solution with non-solvent in a coagulation bath. The prepared membranes had two distinguished, but tightly attached, double layers : one is the supporting layer of dense polymer film and the other results revealed that the prepared membranes were efficient to monitor radioactive contamination with reliable counting ability. For enhancement of pick-up and measurement efficiency, the membrane was prepared with the condition of different membrane solidification. The scintillation produced by interaction with radiation and CAYS was measured with photomultiplier tube. The test results showed that the prepared

  2. Diamond blade grinding as a means for removing surface contamination from concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    The use of a highway grinding unit for the decontamination of a 5,000 square foot surface is described. The type of equipment presently in use is described. Performance characteristics, waste collection and water usage are commented on. Variables in blade design are discussed. Feasibility of the grinding technique for water soluble contaminants and vertical surfaces is referred to

  3. Development of inspection techniques for quantitatively measuring surface contamination on SRM hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, R. D.

    1989-01-01

    A contaminant is any material or substance which is potentially undesirable or which may adversely affect any part, component, or assembly. Contamination control of SRM hardware surfaces is a serious concern, for both Thiokol and NASA, with particular concern for contaminants which may adversely affect bonding surfaces. The purpose of this study is to develop laboratory analytical techniques which will make it possible to certify the cleanliness of any designated surface, with special focus on particulates (dust, dirt, lint, etc.), oils (hydrocarbons, silicones, plasticizers, etc.), and greases (HD-2, fluorocarbon grease, etc.). The hardware surfaces of concern will include D6AC steel, aluminum alloys, anodized aluminum alloys, glass/phenolic, carbon/phenolic, NBR/asbestos-silica, and EPDM rubber.

  4. Fixation of soil surface contamination using natural polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1993-09-01

    Natural polysaccharides were evaluated as alternatives to commercially available dust-control agents for application in buried-waste and contaminated-soil remediation situations. Materials were identified and evaluated with specific criteria in mind: the materials must be environmentally benign and must not introduce any additional hazardous materials; they must be effective for at least 2 or 3 days, but they do not necessarily have to be effective for more than 2 to 3 weeks; they should be relatively resistant to light traffic; they must not interfere with subsequent soil treatment techniques, especially soil washing; and they must be relatively inexpensive. Two products, a pregelled potato starch and a mixture of carbohydrates derived from sugar beets, were selected for evaluation. Testing included small- and large-scale field demonstrations, laboratory physical property analyses, and wind-tunnel evaluations

  5. The Development of a Sub-Surface Monitoring System for Organic Contamination in Soils and Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L. Huntley

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A major problem when dealing with environmental contamination is the early detection and subsequent surveillance of the contamination. This paper describes the potential of sub-surface sensor technology for the early detection of organic contaminants in contaminated soils, sediments, and landfill sites. Rugged, low-power hydrocarbon sensors have been developed, along with a data-logging system, for the early detection of phase hydrocarbons in soil. Through laboratory-based evaluation, the ability of this system to monitor organic contamination in water-based systems is being evaluated. When used in conjunction with specific immunoassays, this can provide a sensitive and low-cost solution for long-term monitoring and analysis, applicable to a wide range of field applications.

  6. Beryllium and growth. II. The effect of beryllium on plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoagland, M B

    1952-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to determine whether beryllium could replace magnesium in a growing organism. This was stimulated by the several known growth effects of beryllium in animals and by the fact that beryllium apparently competes with magnesium for animal alkaline phosphatases. The following findings are noted: (1) beryllium can reduce the magnesium requirement of plants by some 60% within a certain range of magnesium deficiency. (2) The residual obligatory magnesium requirements is probably accounted for by chlorophyll since beryllium appears to have no primary effect on chlorophyll or chlorophyll production. (3) The pH of the nutrient solution is critical: at acid pH's, beryllium is highly toxic, and growth increase due to beryllium only appears at initial pH's above 11.2, although this initial pH rapidly falls to neutrality during the experimental period. 22 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  7. Application Of The SPV-based Surface Lifetime Technique To In-Line Monitoring Of Surface Cu Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, John; Savtchouk, Alexandre; Wilson, Matthew; Kim, Chul Hong; Yoo, Hyung Won; Lee, Chang Hwan; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Son, Sang Hoon

    2009-09-01

    Implementation of Cu interconnects into Silicon Integrated Circuits (IC's) has been instrumental in the continuing improvement of IC device performance. Copper as a well known Gate Oxide Integrity (GOI) killer [1, 2] requires extensive protocols to minimize the possibility of cross contamination. Despite such protocols the risk for cross contamination exists, and consequently there is the need for in-line Cu cross-contamination detection metrology. Preferably the metrology will be non-destructive, fast, and capable of mapping on product wafers. Up to now the most common approaches for monitoring Cu contamination in IC fabrication lines either measure Cu in the bulk Si, which is not applicable to Cu cross-contamination monitoring because Back-End-of-the-Line thermal budgets restrict the ability to diffuse the surface Cu into the bulk Si; or the techniques are not optimal for in-line monitoring due to their destructive, time-consuming, or costly nature. In this work we demonstrate for the first time the application of the ac-Surface Photo Voltage (ac-SPV) surface lifetime approach [3] to in-line, full wafer coverage mapping of low level (metrology system. Furthermore, because the metrology is non-contact (utilizing edge-grip handling) and non-destructive, it is directly applicable to measurement of production wafers. In-line fab data acquired using this metrology is presented and compared to data from Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS).

  8. Behavior of porous beryllium under thermomechanical loading. Part 6. Effect of pressure on the microstructure of plasma-sprayed beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanafee, J.E.; Snell, E.O.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of pressure and specimen preparation on the microstructure of two grades of porous plasma-sprayed beryllium were determined. One grade, P-1, was sintered after spraying while the other grade, P-10, was tested in the as-sprayed condition. the principal microstructural characteristics studied were grain size: grain morphology, and void distribution and size. It was found that machining can readily cause a significant dense surface layer on the porous beryllium specimens, and that the dense surface layer can be removed by etching. There was substantial difference in microstructure between the P-1 sintered and P-10 unsintered specimens both before and after being subjected to shock waves and static compression. (U.S.)

  9. [Observation of topography and analysis of surface contamination of titanium implant after roughness treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongdan; Yang, Xiaodong; Wu, Dayi; Zhang, Xingdong

    2007-04-01

    The roughness treatment of dental implant surface could improve the bone bonding and increase the success rate of implant, but the difference of diverse treatments is still unknown. In this study using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy disperse spectrometer (EDS) and the test of contact angle, we studied the microstructure, surface contamination and surface energy, and hence conducted a comparative analysis of the following surface roughness treatments: Polished Treatment (PT), Sandblasting with Alumina(SA), Sandblasting with Aluminia and Acid-etched (SAA), Sandblasting with Titanium Acid-etched (STA), Electro-erosion Treatment(ET). The result of SEM showed that the surface displayed irregularities after roughness treatments and that the surface properties of different roughness treatments had some distinctions. SAA and SA had some sharp edges and protrutions; the STA showed a regular pattern like honeycomb, but the ET sample treated by electric erosion exhibited the deeper pores of different sizes and the pores with a perforated secondary structure. The EDS indicated that the surface was contaminated after the treatment with foreign materials; the SA surface had some embedded contaminations even after acid etching. The measurement of water contact angle indicated that the morphology correlated with the surface treatments. These findings suggest that the distinction of surface structure and composition caused by different treatments may result in the disparity in biological behavior of dental implant.

  10. Final report on contamination surveys at NPL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuplin, T.A.

    1984-02-01

    The Environmental and Medical Sciences Division of Harwell was contracted to carry out detailed surveys of Building 154 at the National Physical Laboratory, Teddington. The survey used a variety of radiation detectors appropriate to the conditions found and also involved monitoring for the presence of beryllium, by means of smear (wiping) tests. The results from the beryllium survey showed that no areas exceeded accepted control limits. The results of the contamination survey indicated a few places where the derived limit was exceeded However, averaged over the accepted surface area (1000 cm 2 ), and noting that the contamination was fixed, the levels were considered to present no hazard to any worker in the area nor to anyone outside the building. The environmental radiation in Room 35, the most contaminated room, was one hundredth of a millirem per hour. In only one area (Room 26) was there a radiologically significant dose rate, caused by a sealed source of cobalt-60. The accessible dose rates close to the source were around 8 millirem per hour. However, the uranium contamination should be removed to be consistent with the principle that radiation exposure should be as low as reasonably achievable. (U.K.)

  11. Surface sterilization method for reducing microbial contamination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An effective disinfection method for strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cv. Senga Sengana micropropagation using runner tips and nodal segments as explants was developed. The explants were surface sterilized with different sterilants for different durations. The present studies on the effect of different regimes of ...

  12. Beryllium in aircraft brakes - a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenczak, S.

    1977-01-01

    Beryllium has been in use in aircraft brakes for ten years. During the original design phases of the several aircraft programs using beryllium a number of problems requiring solution confronted the designers. In actual service the solution to these problems performed much better than had been anticipated. A summary is presented. (author)

  13. ICT diagnostic method of beryllium welding quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Lingxia; Wei Kentang; Ye Yunchang

    2002-01-01

    To avoid the interference of high density material for the quality assay of beryllium welding line, a slice by slice scanning method was proposed based upon the research results of the Industrial Computerized Tomography (ICT) diagnostics for weld penetration, weld width, off-centered deviation and weld defects of beryllium-ring welding seam with high density material inside

  14. Modeling of hydrogen interactions with beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, G.R. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, improved mathematical models are developed for hydrogen interactions with beryllium. This includes the saturation effect observed for high-flux implantation of ions from plasmas and retention of tritium produced from neutronic transmutations in beryllium. Use of the models developed is justified by showing how they can replicated experimental data using the TMAP4 tritium transport code. (author)

  15. Managing health effects of beryllium exposure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Beryllium Alloy Exposures; Committee on Toxicology; National Research Council; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council

    2008-01-01

    ... to its occurrence in exposed people. Despite reduced workplace exposure, chronic beryllium disease continues to occur. In addition, beryllium has been classified as a likely human carcinogen by several agencies, such as the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the National Toxicology Program, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Thos...

  16. Structure investigations of some beryllium materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faeldt, I; Lagerberg, G

    1960-05-15

    Metallographic structure, microhardness and texture have been studied on various types of beryllium metal including hot pressed powder, a rolled strip and an extruded tube It was found that beryllium exhibits its highest hardness in directions perpendicular to the basal plane. Good ideas of the prevailing textures were obtained with an ordinary X-ray diffractometer.

  17. Some aspects of beryllium disposal in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shestakov, V.; Chikhray, Y.; Shakhvorostov, Yr.

    2004-01-01

    Historically in Kazakhstan all disposals of used beryllium and beryllium wasted materials were stored and recycled at JSC ''Ulba Metallurgical Plant''. Since Ulba Metallurgical Plant (beside beryllium and tantalum production) is one of the world largest complex producers of fuel for nuclear power plants as well it has possibilities, technologies and experience in processing toxic and radioactive wastes related with those productions. At present time only one operating Kazakhstan research reactors (EWG1M in Kurchatov) contains beryllium made core. The results of current examination of that core allow using it without replacement long time yet (at least for next five-ten years). Nevertheless the problem how to utilize such irradiated beryllium becomes actual issue for Kazakhstan even today. Since Kazakhstan is the member of ITER/DEMO Reactors Projects and is permanently considered as possible provider of huge amount of beryllium for those reactors so that is the reason for starting studies of possibilities of large scale processing/recycling of such disposed irradiated beryllium. It is clear that the Ulba Metallurgical Plant is considered as the best site for it in Kazakhstan. The draft plan how to organize experimental studies of irradiated beryllium disposals in Kazakhstan involving National Nuclear Center, National University (Almaty), JSC ''Ulba Metallurgical Plant'' (Ust-Kamenogorsk) would be presented in this paper as well as proposals to arrange international collaboration in that field through ISTC (International Science Technology Center, Moscow). (author)

  18. Structure investigations of some beryllium materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faeldt, I.; Lagerberg, G.

    1960-05-01

    Metallographic structure, microhardness and texture have been studied on various types of beryllium metal including hot pressed powder, a rolled strip and an extruded tube It was found that beryllium exhibits its highest hardness in directions perpendicular to the basal plane. Good ideas of the prevailing textures were obtained with an ordinary X-ray diffractometer

  19. use of the RESRAD-BUILD code to calculate building surface contamination limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faillace, E.R.; LePoire, D.; Yu, C.

    1996-01-01

    Surface contamination limits in buildings were calculated for 226 Ra, 230 Th, 232 Th, and natural uranium on the basis of 1 mSv y -1 (100 mrem y -1 ) dose limit. The RESRAD-BUILD computer code was used to calculate these limits for two scenarios: building occupancy and building renovation. RESRAD-BUILD is a pathway analysis model designed to evaluate the potential radiological dose incurred by individuals working or living inside a building contaminated with radioactive material. Six exposure pathways are considered in the RESRAD-BUILD code: (1) external exposure directly from the source; (2) external exposure from materials deposited on the floor; (3) external exposure due to air submersion; (4) inhalation of airborne radioactive particles; (5) inhalation of aerosol indoor radon progeny; and (6) inadvertent ingestion of radioactive material, either directly from the sources or from materials deposited on the surfaces. The code models point, line, area, and volume sources and calculates the effects of radiation shielding, building ventilation, and ingrowth of radioactive decay products. A sensitivity analysis was performed to determine how variations in input parameters would affect the surface contamination limits. In most cases considered, inhalation of airborne radioactive particles was the primary exposure pathway. However, the direct external exposure contribution from surfaces contaminated with 226 Ra was in some cases the dominant pathway for building occupancy depending on the room size, ventilation rates, and surface release fractions. The surface contamination limits are most restrictive for 232 Th, followed by 230 Th, natural uranium, and 226 Ra. The results are compared with the surface contamination limits in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 1.86, which are most restrictive for 226 Ra and 230 Th, followed by 232 Th, and are least restrictive for natural uranium

  20. Surface contamination of hazardous drug pharmacy storage bins and pharmacy distributor shipping containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redic, Kimberly A; Fang, Kayleen; Christen, Catherine; Chaffee, Bruce W

    2018-03-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to determine whether there is contamination on exterior drug packaging using shipping totes from the distributor and carousel storage bins as surrogate markers of external packaging contamination. Methods A two-part study was conducted to measure the presence of 5-fluorouracil, ifosfamide, cyclophosphamide, docetaxel and paclitaxel using surrogate markers for external drug packaging. In Part I, 10 drug distributor shipping totes designated for transport of hazardous drugs provided a snapshot view of contamination from regular use and transit in and out of the pharmacy. An additional two totes designated for transport of non-hazardous drugs served as controls. In Part II, old carousel storage bins (i.e. those in use pre-study) were wiped for snapshot view of hazardous drug contamination on storage bins. New carousel storage bins were then put into use for storage of the five tested drugs and used for routine storage and inventory maintenance activities. Carousel bins were wiped at time intervals 0, 8, 16 and 52 weeks to measure surface contamination. Results Two of the 10 hazardous shipping totes were contaminated. Three of the five-old carousel bins were contaminated with cyclophosphamide. One of the old carousel bins was also contaminated with ifosfamide. There were no detectable levels of hazardous drugs on any of the new storage bins at time 0, 8 or 16 weeks. However, at the Week 52, there was a detectable level of 5-FU present in the 5-FU carousel bin. Conclusions Contamination of the surrogate markers suggests that external packaging for hazardous drugs is contaminated, either during the manufacturing process or during routine chain of custody activities. These results demonstrate that occupational exposure may occur due to contamination from shipping totes and storage bins, and that handling practices including use of personal protective equipment is warranted.

  1. BERYLLIUM MEASUREMENT IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE WET WIPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youmans-Mcdonald, L.

    2011-02-18

    Analysis for beryllium by fluorescence is now an established method which is used in many government-run laboratories and commercial facilities. This study investigates the use of this technique using commercially available wet wipes. The fluorescence method is widely documented and has been approved as a standard test method by ASTM International and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The procedure involves dissolution of samples in aqueous ammonium bifluoride solution and then adding a small aliquot to a basic hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate fluorescent dye (Berylliant{trademark} Inc. Detection Solution Part No. CH-2) , and measuring the fluorescence. This method is specific to beryllium. This work explores the use of three different commercial wipes spiked with beryllium, as beryllium acetate or as beryllium oxide and subsequent analysis by optical fluorescence. The effect of possible interfering metals such as Fe, Ti and Pu in the wipe medium is also examined.

  2. Beryllium Measurement In Commercially Available Wet Wipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youmans-Mcdonald, L.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis for beryllium by fluorescence is now an established method which is used in many government-run laboratories and commercial facilities. This study investigates the use of this technique using commercially available wet wipes. The fluorescence method is widely documented and has been approved as a standard test method by ASTM International and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The procedure involves dissolution of samples in aqueous ammonium bifluoride solution and then adding a small aliquot to a basic hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate fluorescent dye (Berylliant(trademark) Inc. Detection Solution Part No. CH-2) , and measuring the fluorescence. This method is specific to beryllium. This work explores the use of three different commercial wipes spiked with beryllium, as beryllium acetate or as beryllium oxide and subsequent analysis by optical fluorescence. The effect of possible interfering metals such as Fe, Ti and Pu in the wipe medium is also examined.

  3. Assessment of LANL beryllium waste management documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danna, J.G.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.; Davis, K.D.; Hoevemeyer, S.S.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this report is to determine present status of the preparation and implementation of the various high priority documents required to properly manage the beryllium waste generated at the Laboratory. The documents being assessed are: Waste Acceptance Criteria, Waste Characterization Plan, Waste Certification Plan, Waste Acceptance Procedures, Waste Characterization Procedures, Waste Certification Procedures, Waste Training Procedures and Waste Recordkeeping Procedures. Beryllium is regulated (as a dust) under 40 CFR 261.33 as ''Discarded commercial chemical products, off specification species, container residues and spill residues thereof.'' Beryllium is also identified in the 3rd thirds ruling of June 1, 1990 as being restricted from land disposal (as a dust). The beryllium waste generated at the Laboratory is handled separately because beryllium has been identified as a highly toxic carcinogenic material

  4. Beryllium for fusion application - recent results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomutov, A.; Barabash, V.; Chakin, V.; Chernov, V.; Davydov, D.; Gorokhov, V.; Kawamura, H.; Kolbasov, B.; Kupriyanov, I.; Longhurst, G.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Shestakov, V.

    2002-01-01

    The main issues for the application of beryllium in fusion reactors are analyzed taking into account the latest results since the ICFRM-9 (Colorado, USA, October 1999) and presented at 5th IEA Be Workshop (10-12 October 2001, Moscow Russia). Considerable progress has been made recently in understanding the problems connected with the selection of the beryllium grades for different applications, characterization of the beryllium at relevant operational conditions (irradiation effects, thermal fatigue, etc.), and development of required manufacturing technologies. The key remaining problems related to the application of beryllium as an armour in near-term fusion reactors (e.g. ITER) are discussed. The features of the application of beryllium and beryllides as a neutron multiplier in the breeder blanket for power reactors (e.g. DEMO) in pebble-bed form are described

  5. Beryllium for fusion application - recent results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomutov, A.; Barabash, V.; Chakin, V.; Chernov, V.; Davydov, D.; Gorokhov, V.; Kawamura, H.; Kolbasov, B.; Kupriyanov, I.; Longhurst, G.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Shestakov, V.

    2002-12-01

    The main issues for the application of beryllium in fusion reactors are analyzed taking into account the latest results since the ICFRM-9 (Colorado, USA, October 1999) and presented at 5th IEA Be Workshop (10-12 October 2001, Moscow Russia). Considerable progress has been made recently in understanding the problems connected with the selection of the beryllium grades for different applications, characterization of the beryllium at relevant operational conditions (irradiation effects, thermal fatigue, etc.), and development of required manufacturing technologies. The key remaining problems related to the application of beryllium as an armour in near-term fusion reactors (e.g. ITER) are discussed. The features of the application of beryllium and beryllides as a neutron multiplier in the breeder blanket for power reactors (e.g. DEMO) in pebble-bed form are described.

  6. Beryllium coating on Inconel tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailescu, V.; Burcea, G.; Lungu, C.P.; Mustata, I.; Lungu, A.M.; Rubel, M.; Coad, J.P.; Matthews, G.; Pedrick, L.; Handley, R.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The Joint European Torus (JET) is a large experimental nuclear fusion device. Its aim is to confine and study the behaviour of plasma in conditions and dimensions approaching those required for a fusion reactor. The plasma is created in the toroidal shaped vacuum vessel of the machine in which it is confined by magnetic fields. In preparation for ITER a new ITER-like Wall (ILW) will be installed on Joint European Torus (JET), a wall not having any carbon facing the plasma [1]. In places Inconel tiles are to be installed, these tiles shall be coated with Beryllium. MEdC represented by the National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele, Bucharest and in direct cooperation with Nuclear Fuel Plant Pitesti started to coat Inconel tiles with 8 μm of Beryllium in accordance with the requirements of technical specification and fit for installation in the JET machine. This contribution provides an overview of the principles of manufacturing processes using thermal evaporation method in vacuum and the properties of the prepared coatings. The optimization of the manufacturing process (layer thickness, structure and purity) has been carried out on Inconel substrates (polished and sand blasted) The results of the optimization process and analysis (SEM, TEM, XRD, Auger, RBS, AFM) of the coatings will be presented. Reference [1] Takeshi Hirai, H. Maier, M. Rubel, Ph. Mertens, R. Neu, O. Neubauer, E. Gauthier, J. Likonen, C. Lungu, G. Maddaluno, G. F. Matthews, R. Mitteau, G. Piazza, V. Philipps, B. Riccardi, C. Ruset, I. Uytdenhouwen, R and D on full tungsten divertor and beryllium wall for JET TIER-like Wall Project, 24. Symposium on Fusion Technology - 11-15 September 2006 -Warsaw, Poland. (authors)

  7. Thermal fatigue behavior of US and Russian grades of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.D.; Youchison, D.L.; Dombrowski, D.E.; Guiniatouline, R.N.; Kupriynov, I.B.

    1996-01-01

    A novel technique has been used to test the relative low cycle thermal fatigue resistance of different grades of US and Russian beryllium which is proposed as plasma facing armor for fusion reactor first wall, limiter, and divertor components. The 30 KW electron beam test system at Sandia National Laboratories was used to sweep the beam spot along one direction at 1 Hz. This produces a localized temperature ''spike'' of 750 degrees C for each pass of the beam. Large thermal stress in excess of the yield strength are generated due to very high spot heat flux, 250 MW/m 2 . Cyclic plastic strains on the order of 0.6% produced visible cracking on the heated surface in less than 3000 cycles. An in-vacuo fiber optic borescope was used to visually inspect the beryllium surfaces for crack initiation. Grades of US beryllium tested included: S-65C, S-65H, S-200F, S-300F-H, Sr-200, I-400, extruded high purity. HIP'd sperical powder, porous beryllium (94% and 98% dense), Be/30% BeO, Be/60% BeO, and TiBe 12 . Russian grades included: TGP-56, TShGT, DShG-200, and TShG-56. Both the number of cycles to crack initiation, and the depth of crack propagation, were measured. The most fatigue resistant grades were S-65C, DShG-200, TShGT, and TShG-56. Rolled sheet Be(SR-200) showed excellent crack propagation resistance in the plane of rolling, despite early formation of delamination cracks. Only one sample showed no evidence of surface melting, Extruded (T). Metallographic and chemical analyses are provided. Good agreement was found between the measured depth of cracks and a 2-D elastic-plastic finite element stress analysis

  8. Deuteriding of thin titanium films: the effect of carbon monoxide surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, M.W.

    1976-02-01

    The effect of adsorbed CO on the deuteriding of thin titanium films at room temperature was measured at D 2 pressures between 10 to 25 mtorr on films contaminated with CO exposures ranging between approximately 10 -8 torr-seconds (''clean'') to 10 -4 torr-seconds. In all measurements, for deuterium/titanium atom ratios greater than .2, the deuteriding appeared to be initally limited by the sticking of D 2 on the clean or contaminated titanium deuteride surface; the effective sticking coefficient on a clean titanium deuteride surface was approximately 3 x 10 -3 , while on a surface contaminated with 10 -4 torr-seconds of CO, the coefficient was reduced to approximately, 2 x 10 -4 . The pumping speeds of Ti films were dramatically different when the films were evaporated over TiD 2 . These changes were attributed to the presence of deuterium which diffused from the substrate film into the overlayer film

  9. Postirradiation examination of beryllium pebbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    Postirradiation examinations of COBRA-1A beryllium pebbles irradiated in the EBR-II fast reactor at neutron fluences which generated 2700--3700 appm helium have been performed. Measurements included density change, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The major change in microstructure is development of unusually shaped helium bubbles forming as highly non-equiaxed thin platelet-like cavities on the basal plane. Measurement of the swelling due to cavity formation was in good agreement with density change measurements

  10. Development of the automatic measuring system to survey the surface contamination on equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, Akira; Matsumura, Hidekatsu; Nawa, Takao; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Yamada, Tadashi.

    1980-01-01

    The inspection of surface contamination carried out when things are taken out of the control areas in nuclear power stations requires considerable labor and time because it is carried out manually. In order to make the inspection of surface contamination more efficiently and to standardize it, the development of an automatic inspection apparatus was carried out. This apparatus inspects the surface contamination due to radio isotopes which do not emit α-ray, and the objects to be measured are the large things with definite forms, such as boards and pipes for scaffolding. The method of measuring β-ray with a gas flow counter was adopted for the apparatus in view of the good detection sensitivity, relatively simple shielding against background, and easy conversion to surface contamination density. The measuring system was composed of the gas flow counters and a rate meter. The outline of the apparatus made for trial is explained. As the result of the performance test, the lowest detection sensitivity was 1.29 x 10 -5 μCi/cm 2 at the moving speed of an object of 1 cm/sec. The detection sensitivity is improved by the flattening of the sensitivity distribution. The evaluation of the error, the reduction of measuring time and the prevention of contamination were also made. (Kako, I.)

  11. Surface sediment quality relative to port activities: A contaminant-spectrum assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shen; Hong, Bing; Ma, Jun; Chen, Yongshan; Xi, Xiuping; Gao, Jingbo; Hu, Xiuqin; Xu, Xiangrong; Sun, Yuxin

    2017-10-15

    Ports are facing increasing environmental concerns with their importance to the global economy. Numerous studies indicated sediment quality deterioration in ports; however, the deterioration is not discriminated for each port activity. This study investigated a spectrum of contaminants (metals and organic pollutants) in surface sediments at 20 sampling points in Port Ningbo, China, one of the top five world ports by volume. The spectrum of contaminants (metals and organic pollutants) was quantified following marine sediment quality guidelines of China and USA and surface sediment quality was assessed according to thresholds of the two guidelines. Coupling a categorical matrix of port activities with the matrix of sedimentary contaminants revealed that contaminants were highly associated with the port operations. Ship repair posed a severe chemical risk to sediment. Operations of crude oil and coal loadings were two top activities related to organic pollutants in sediments while port operations of ore and container loadings discharged metals. Among the 20 sampling points, Cu, Zn, Pb, and DDT and its metabolites were the priority contaminants influencing sediment quality. Overall, surface sediments in Port Ningbo had relatively low environmental risks but ship repair is an environmental concern that must be addressed. This study provides a practical approach for port activity-related quality assessment of surface sediments in ports that could be applicable in many world sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. High heat flux tests on beryllium and beryllium-copper joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roedig, M.; Duwe, R.; Linke, J.; Schuster, A.

    1997-01-01

    A large test program has been set up to evaluate the performance of beryllium as a plasma facing material for the divertor in thermonuclear fusion devices. Simulation of steady state heat loads of 5 MWm -2 and above on actively cooled divertor modules, and off-normal plasma conditions with energy densities in the range 1-7 MJm -2 , have been investigated. Thermal shock tests were carried out with the ITER reference grade S65-C and several Russian grades of beryllium. At incident energies up to 7 MJm -2 the best erosion behaviour is observed for S65-C and for TGP-56. Steady state heating tests with actively cooled Be/Cu mock-ups were performed at incident powers of up to 5.8 MWm -2 . All samples investigated in these tests did not show any indications of failure. A Be/Cu mock-ups with Incusil braze was loaded in thermal fatigue up to 500 cycles at an incident power of 4.8 MWm -2 . Up to the end of the experiment no temperature increase of the surface and no indication of failure was observed. (orig.)

  13. Second IRMF comparison of surface contamination monitor calibrations 2001-2002

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, C J

    2002-01-01

    The Ionising Radiations Metrology Forum (IRMF) organised a second comparison of surface contamination monitor calibrations in which twenty establishments in the UK participated. The exercise involved the circulation of three surface contamination monitors for calibration using large area reference sources available in the participants' laboratories. The instruments used were a Mini Instruments EP15, a Berthold LB122 and an Electra ratemeter with DP6AD probe. The instrument responses were calculated by the individual participants and submitted to the for analysis along with details of the reference sources used. Details of the estimated uncertainties were also reported. The results are compared and demonstrate generally satisfactory agreement between the participating establishments.

  14. Effect of surface contaminants on the light emission spectrum of LiF TLDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhold, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    Recent results show the differences between the light emissions spectra from LiF Thermoluminescent Dosimeters (TLDs) for gamma vs. alpha irradiations to be due to contaminants on the surface of the TLD. The light emission spectrum for thermal neutron irradiations was observed to be identical to that for a Cs-137 gamma irradiation in Harshaw TLD-100. Further experiments with surface treatments on TLD-100 indicate trace contaminants introduced by the standard methanol cleansing rinse in reagent grade methanol to have a substantial effect on the light emission spectrum for Am-241 alpha irradiations

  15. Surface contamination effects on leaf chemical composition in the Atlantic Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.A.; Franca, E.J.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Bacchi, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The exogenous material that adheres to the leaf surface affects the elemental composition of the plant itself, thereby constituting one of the major error sources in plant analysis. The present work investigated the surface contamination of leaves from the Atlantic Forest. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to assess the efficiency of leaf EDTA-washing. Chemical element concentrations were corrected using Sc (soil tracer) since resuspended soil is the main source of contamination in leaves. As a result, EDTA-washing should be used mainly for the evaluation of terrigenous elements, while the Sc-corrected concentrations are considered satisfactory for the other elements. (author)

  16. Experimental Simulation of Beryllium Armour Damage Under ITER-like Intense Transient Plasma Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriyanov, I.; Basaleev, E.; Nikolaev, G.; Kurbatova, L., E-mail: igkupr@gmail.com [A.A. Bochvar High Technology Research Institute of Inorganic Material, Moscow (Russian Federation); Podkovyrov, V.; Zhitlukhin, A. [SRC RF TRINITI, Troitsk (Russian Federation); Khimchenko, L. L. [Project Centre of ITER, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: Beryllium will be used as a plasma facing material in the next generation of tokamaks such as ITER. During plasma operation in ITER, the plasma facing materials and components will be suffered by different kinds of loading which may affect their surface or their joint to the heat sink. In addition to quasi-stationary loadings which are caused by the normal cycling operation, the plasma facing components and materials may also be exposed to the intense short transient loads like disruptions, ELMs. All these events may lead to beryllium surface melting, cracking, evaporation and erosion. It is expected that the erosion of beryllium under transient plasma loads such as ELMs and disruptions will mainly determine a lifetime of ITER first wall. To obtain the experimental data for the evaluation of the beryllium armor lifetime and dust production under ITER-relevant transient loads, the advanced plasma gun QSPA-Be facility has been constructed in Bochvar Institute. This paper presents recent results of the experiments with Russian beryllium of TGP-56FW ITER grade. The mock-ups of a special design armored with two beryllium targets (80 x 80 x 10 mm{sup 3}) were tested by hydrogen plasma streams (5 cm in diameter) with pulse duration of 0.5 ms and heat load of 0.5 and 1.0 MJ/m{sup 2}. Experiments were performed at RT temperature. The evolution of surface microstructure and profile, cracks morphology and mass loss/gain under erosion process on the beryllium surface exposed to up to 250 shots will be presented and discussed. (author)

  17. In-pile thermocycling testing and post-test analysis of beryllium divertor mockups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giniatulin, R.; Mazul, I. [Efremov Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Melder, R.; Pokrovsky, A.; Sandakov, V.; Shiuchkin, A.

    1998-01-01

    The main damaging factors which impact the ITER divertor components are neutron irradiation, cyclic surface heat loads and hydrogen environment. One of the important questions in divertor mockups development is the reliability of beryllium/copper joints and the beryllium resistance under neutron irradiation and thermal cycling. This work presents the experiment, where neutron irradiation and thermocyclic heat loads were applied simultaneously for two beryllium/copper divertor mockups in a nuclear reactor channel to simulate divertor operational conditions. Two mockups with different beryllium grades were mounted facing each other with the tantalum heater placed between them. This device was installed in the active zone of the nuclear reactor SM-2 (Dimitrovgrad, Russia) and the tantalum block was heated by neutron irradiation up to a high temperature. The main part of the heat flux from the tantalum surface was transported to the beryllium surface through hydrogen, as a result the heat flux loaded two mockups simultaneously. The mockups were cooled by reactor water. The device was lowered to the active zone so as to obtain the heating regime and to provide cooling lifted. This experiment was performed under the following conditions: tantalum heater temperature - 1950degC; hydrogen environment -1000 Pa; surface heat flux density -3.2 MW/m{sup 2}; number of thermal cycles (lowering and lifting) -101; load time in each cycle - 200-5000 s; dwell time (no heat flux, no neutrons) - 300-2000 s; cooling water parameters: v - 1 m/s, Tin - 50degC, Pin - 5 MPa; neutron fluence -2.5 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2} ({approx}8 years of ITER divertor operation from the start up). The metallographic analysis was performed after experiment to investigate the beryllium and beryllium/copper joint structures, the results are presented in the paper. (author)

  18. Chemometric Analysis of Selected Organic Contaminants in Surface Water of Langat River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Rafaie Mohamed Zubir; Rozita Osman; Norashikin Saim

    2016-01-01

    Chemometric techniques namely hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis (HACA), discriminant analysis (DA), principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) were applied to the distribution of selected organic contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), sterols, pesticides (chloropyrifos), and phenol) to assess the potential of using these organic contaminants as chemical markers in Langat River Basin. Water samples were collected from February 2012 to January 2013 on a monthly basis for nine monitoring sites along Langat River Basin. HACA was able to classify the sampling sites into three clusters which can be correlated to the level of contamination (low, moderate and high contamination sites). DA was used to discriminate the sources of contamination using the selected organic contaminants and relate to the existing DOE local activities groupings. Forward and backward stepwise DA was able to discriminate two and five organic contaminants variables, respectively, from the original 13 selected variables. The five significant variables identified using backward stepwise DA were fluorene, pyrene, stigmastanol, stigmasterol and phenol. PCA and FA (varimax functionality) were used to identify the possible sources of each organic contaminant based on the inventory of local activities. Five principal components were obtained with 66.5 % of the total variation. Result from FA indicated that PAHs (pyrene, fluorene, acenaphthene, benzo[a]anthracene) originated from industrial activity and socio-economic activities; while sterols (coprostanol, stigmastanol and stigmasterol) were associated to domestic sewage and local socio-economic activities. The occurrence of chloropyrifos was correlated to agricultural activities, urban and domestic discharges. This study showed that the application of chemometrics on the distribution of selected organic contaminants was able to trace the sources of contamination in surface water. (author)

  19. Technical issues for beryllium use in fusion blanket applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarville, T.J.; Berwald, D.H.; Wolfer, W.; Fulton, F.J.; Lee, J.D.; Maninger, R.C.; Moir, R.W.; Beeston, J.M.; Miller, L.G.

    1985-01-01

    Beryllium is an excellent non-fissioning neutron multiplier for fusion breeder and fusion electric blanket applications. This report is a compilation of information related to the use of beryllium with primary emphasis on the fusion breeder application. Beryllium resources, production, fabrication, properties, radiation damage and activation are discussed. A new theoretical model for beryllium swelling is presented

  20. Production of beryllium oxide of nuclear purity from beryl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copat, A; Sood, S P

    1984-01-01

    Production of beryllium oxide from beryl by the fluoride process was optimized in this study. Optimum results were obtained using a mixture of sodium hexafluorsilicate and sodium hexafluorferrate as flux and calcinating at 740/sup 0/C for 2 hours. The beryllium concentrate produced was further purified by crystallization as beryllium sulfate to obtain nuclear grade beryllium oxide

  1. Production of beryllium oxide of nuclear purity from beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copat, A.; Sood, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Production of beryllium oxide from beryl by the fluoride process was optimized in this study. Optimum results were obtained using a mixture of sodium hexafluorsilicate and sodium hexafluorferrate as flux and calcinating at 740 0 C for 2 hours. The beryllium concentrate produced was further purified by crystallization as beryllium sulfate to obtain nuclear grade beryllium oxide (Author) [pt

  2. The Status of Beryllium Research for Fusion in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2003-01-01

    Use of beryllium in fusion reactors has been considered for neutron multiplication in breeding blankets and as an oxygen getter for plasma-facing surfaces. Previous beryllium research for fusion in the United States included issues of interest to fission (swelling and changes in mechanical and thermal properties) as well as interactions with plasmas and hydrogen isotopes and methods of fabrication. When the United States formally withdrew its participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) program, much of this effort was terminated. The focus in the U.S. has been mainly on toxic effects of beryllium and on industrial hygiene and health-related issues. Work continued at the INEEL and elsewhere on beryllium-containing molten salts. This activity is part of the JUPITER II Agreement. Plasma spray of ITER first wall samples at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been performed under the European Fusion Development Agreement. Effects of irradiation on beryllium structure are being studied at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Numerical and phenomenological models are being developed and applied to better understand important processes and to assist with design. Presently, studies are underway at the University of California Los Angeles to investigate thermo-mechanical characteristics of beryllium pebble beds, similar to research being carried out at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and elsewhere. Additional work, not funded by the fusion program, has dealt with issues of disposal, and recycling

  3. Tritium release and retention properties of highly neutron-irradiated beryllium pebbles from HIDOBE-01 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakin, V., E-mail: vladimir.chakin@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Rolli, R.; Moeslang, A.; Klimenkov, M.; Kolb, M.; Vladimirov, P.; Kurinskiy, P.; Schneider, H.-C. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Til, S. van; Magielsen, A.J. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Westerduinweg 3, Postbus 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Zmitko, M. [The European Joint Undertaking for ITER and the Development of Fusion Energy, c/Josep Pla, no. 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    The current helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB) tritium breeding blanket concept for fusion reactors includes a bed of 1 mm diameter beryllium pebbles to act as a neutron multiplier. Beryllium pebbles, fabricated by the rotating electrode method, were neutron irradiated in the HFR in Petten within the HIDOBE-01 experiment. This study presents tritium release and retention properties and data on microstructure evolution of beryllium pebbles irradiated at 630, 740, 873, 948 K up to a damage dose of 18 dpa, corresponding to a helium accumulation of about 3000 appm. The measured cumulative released activity from the beryllium pebbles irradiated at 948 K was found to be significantly lower than the calculated value. After irradiation at 873 and 948 K scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses revealed large pores or bubbles in the bulk and oxide films with a thickness of up to 8 μm at the surface of the beryllium pebbles. The radiation-enhanced diffusion of tritium and the formation of open porosity networks accelerate the tritium release from the beryllium pebbles during the high-flux neutron irradiation.

  4. The status of beryllium research for fusion in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Snead, L.L.; Abou-Sena, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Use of beryllium in fusion reactor has been considered for neutron multiplication in breeding blankets an as an oxygen getter for plasma - facing surface. Previous beryllium research for fusion in the United States included issues of interest to fission (swelling an changes in mechanical and thermal properties) as well as interactions with plasmas and hydrogen isotopes and methods of fabrication. When the United States formally withdrew its participation in the International Experimental Reactor (ITER) program, much of this effort was terminated. The focus in the U.S. has been mainly on toxic effects of beryllium and on industrial hygiene and health-related issues. Work continued at the INEEL (Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory) and elsewhere on beryllium-containing molten salts. This activity is part of the JUPITER II Agreement. Plasma spray of ITER first wall samples at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been performed under the European Fusion Development Agreement. Effects of irradiation on beryllium structure are being studied at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Numerical and phenomenological models are being developed and applied at the University of California Los Angels to investigate thermo-mechanical characteristics of beryllium pebble beds, similar to research being carried out at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and elsewhere. Additional work, not funded by the fusion program, has dealt with issues of disposal, and recycling. (author)

  5. Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Cleaning of Contaminated Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, Robert F.; Selwyn, Gary S.

    2001-01-01

    Project was to develop a low-cost, environmentally benign technology for the decontamination and decommissioning of transuranic waste. With the invention of the atmospheric-pressure plasma jet the goal was achieved. This device selectively etches heavy metals from surfaces, rendering objects radiation free and suitable for decommissioning. The volatile reaction products are captured on filters, which yields a tremendous reduction in the volume of the waste. Studies on tantalum, a surrogate material for plutonium, have shown that etch rate of 6.0 microns per minute can be achieved under mild conditions. Over the past three years, we have made numerous improvements in the design of the plasma jet. It may now be operated for hundreds of hours and not undergo any degradation in performance. Furthermore, small compact units have been developed, which are easily deployed in the field

  6. Force control of a robot for surface contamination detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petterson, B.J.; Jones, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    A system is under development at Sandia National Laboratories for use in understanding the issues relating to automated robotic handling of spent nuclear fuel shipping casks. The goal of robotic handling is reduction of personnel radiation exposure at the proposed geologic repositories. One of the major technology development areas has been the integration of sensors into the control of the robot system to allow operation in semi-structured environments. In particular, a multiaxis force sensor is used to make robot trajectory corrections based on the contact force between the robot and workpiece. This force feedback system allows contact swipes (smears) to be made on the cask surface in a repeatable manner. 8 refs., 3 figs

  7. Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Cleaning of Contaminated Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert F. Hicks; Gary S. Selwyn

    2001-01-09

    Project was to develop a low-cost, environmentally benign technology for the decontamination and decommissioning of transuranic waste. With the invention of the atmospheric-pressure plasma jet the goal was achieved. This device selectively etches heavy metals from surfaces, rendering objects radiation free and suitable for decommissioning. The volatile reaction products are captured on filters, which yields a tremendous reduction in the volume of the waste. Studies on tantalum, a surrogate material for plutonium, have shown that etch rate of 6.0 microns per minute can be achieved under mild conditions. Over the past three years, we have made numerous improvements in the design of the plasma jet. It may now be operated for hundreds of hours and not undergo any degradation in performance. Furthermore, small compact units have been developed, which are easily deployed in the field.

  8. Monitoring beryllium during site cleanup and closure using a real-time analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlager, R.J.; Sappey, A.D.; French, P.D. [ADA Technologies, Inc., Englewood, CO (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Beryllium metal has a number of unique properties that have been exploited for use in commercial and government applications. Airborne beryllium particles can represent a significant human health hazard if deposited in the lungs. These particles can cause immunologically-mediated chronic granulomatous lung disease (chronic beryllium disease). Traditional methods of monitoring airborne beryllium involve collecting samples of air within the work area using a filter. The filter then undergoes chemical analysis to determine the amount of beryllium collected during the sampling period. These methods are time-consuming and results are known only after a potential exposure has occurred. The need for monitoring exposures in real time has prompted government and commercial companies to develop instrumentation that will allow for the real time assessment of short-term exposures so that adequate protection for workers in contaminated environments can be provided. Such an analyzer provides a tool that will allow government and commercial sites to be cleaned up in a more safe and effective manner since exposure assessments can be made instantaneously. This paper describes the development and initial testing of an analyzer for monitoring airborne beryllium using a technique known as Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). Energy from a focused, pulsed laser is used to vaporize a sample and create an intense plasma. The light emitted from the plasma is analyzed to determine the quantity of beryllium in the sampled air. A commercial prototype analyzer has been fabricated and tested in a program conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, and ADA Technologies, Inc. Design features of the analyzer and preliminary test results are presented.

  9. Mechanical properties of irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeston, J.M.; Longhurst, G.R.; Wallace, R.S. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.); Abeln, S.P. (EG and G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States))

    1992-10-01

    Beryllium is planned for use as a neutron multiplier in the tritium breeding blanket of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). After fabricating samples of beryllium at densities varying from 80 to 100% of the theoretical density, we conducted a series of experiments to measure the effect of neutron irradiation on mechanical properties, especially strength and ductility. Samples were irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to a neutron fluence of 2.6 x 10[sup 25] n/m[sup 2] (E > MeV) at an irradiation temperature of 75deg C. These samples were subsequently compression-tested at room temperature, and the results were compared with similar tests on unirradiated specimens. We found that the irradiation increased the strength by approximately four times and reduced the ductility to approximately one fourth. Failure was generally ductile, but the 80% dense irradiated samples failed in brittle fracture with significant generation of fine particles and release of small quantities of tritium. (orig.).

  10. Derived surface contamination limits for the uranium mining and milling industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ching, S.H.

    1984-10-01

    Derived Surface Contamination Limits (DSCL) are proposed for the control of surface contamination at the work place for the uranium mining and milling industry. They have been derived by a method incorporating recent ICRP recommendations and consideration of the radiation exposure pathways of ingestion, inhalation and external irradiation of the basal layer of skin. A generalized DSCL of 10 5 Bq/m 2 of beta activity is recommended for all contaminants likely to be found in uranium mine and mill workplaces except for fresh uranium concentrates. In the latter case, the DSCL is expressed in terms of alpha activity because the ratio of beta to alpha activities for fresh uranium concentrates is variable; the beta activity increases with the ingrowth of U-238 daughter products (Th-234 and Pa-234m) until secular equilibrium is re-established in about six months. A surface contamination limit of 10 4 Bq/m 2 of beta activity is proposed for the release of non-porous materials and equipment with no detectable loose contamination to the public domain

  11. Concentration and toxicity of sea-surface contaminants in Puget Sound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, J.T.; Crecelius, E.A.; Kocan, R.

    1986-04-01

    The Marine Research Laboratory conducted studies during CY 1985 to evaluate the effects of sea-surface contamination on the reproductive success of a valued marine species. Microlayer and bulk water samples were collected from a rural bay, central Puget Sound, and three urban bays and analyzed for a number of metal and organic contaminants as well as for densities of neuston and plankton organisms. Fertilized neustonic eggs of sand sole (Psettichthys melanostictus) were exposed to the same microlayer samples during their first week of embryonic and larval development. Also, we evaluated the effects of microlayer extracts on the growth of trout cell cultures. Compared to rural sites, urban bays generally contained lower densities of neustonic flatfish eggs during the spawning season. Also, in contrast to the rural sites or the one central Puget Sound site, approximately half of the urban bay microlayer samples resulted in significant increases in embryo mortality (up to 100%), kyphosis (bent spine abnormalities) in hatched larvae, increased anaphase aberrations in developing embryos, and decreased trout cell growth. The toxic samples generally contained high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic and/or chlorinated hydrocarbons and/or potentially toxic metals. In some cases, concentrations of contaminants on the sea surface exceeded water-quality criteria by several orders of magnitude. Several samples of subsurface bulk water collected below highly contaminated surfaces showed no detectable contamination or toxicity.

  12. The effects of beryllium metal particles on the viability and function of cultured rat alveolar macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, G.L.; Lowther, W.T.; Hoover, M.D.; Brooks, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    Rat pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) were exposed in vitro to beryllium metal particles. The particles used were relatively large (Be-II) and small (Be-V) size fractions of beryllium metal obtained from an aerosol cyclone, and a beryllium metal aerosol generated by laser vaporization of beryllium metal in an argon atmosphere (Be-L). Glass beads (GB) were used as a negative control particle. The endpoints examined included cell killing (trypan blue dye exclusion) and phagocytic ability (sheep red blood cell uptake). Phagocytic ability was inhibited by beryllium particles at concentrations that did not cause appreciable cell killing. Results based on the mass concentration of particles in culture medium were transformed by the amount of specific surface area of the particles to permit expression of toxicity on the basis of amount of surface area of particles per unit volume of culture medium. On a mass concentration basis, the order of cytotoxicity was Be-L > Be-V ∼ Be-II > GB; for inhibition of phagacytosis, the cytotoxicity order was Be-L ∼ Be-V > Be-II > GB. On a surface area concentration basis, the order of toxicity for viability was altered to Be-II > Be-L ∼ Be-V (with GB indeterminant) and to Be-V > Be-II ∼ Be-L > GB for inhibition of phagocytosis. We conclude that there are factors in addition to specific surface area that influence the expression of toxic effects in cultured PAM. (author)

  13. Experimental analysis on removal factor of smear method in measurement of surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Nobuyuki; Taira, Junichi; Takenaka, Keisuke; Yamanaka, Kazuo; Sugai, Kenji; Kosako, Toshiso

    2007-01-01

    The smear test is one of the important ways to measure surface contamination. The loose contamination under the high background radiation, which is more significant in handling non-sealed radioisotopes, can be evaluated by this method. The removal factor is defined as the ratio of the activity removed from the surface by one smear to the whole activity of the removable surface contamination. The removal factor is greatly changed by the quality and condition of surface materials. In this study, the values of removal factor at several typical surface conditions were evaluated experimentally and the practical application of those values was considered. It is required the smear should be pressed by moderate pressure when wiping the surface. The pressure from 1.0 kg to 1.5 kg per filter paper was recommended. The removal factor showed lower value in wiping by the pressure below 1.0 kg. The value of 0.5 for the removal factor could be applied to the smooth surface of linoleum, concrete coated with paint or epoxy resin, stainless steel and glass with the statistical allowance. (author)

  14. Dosimetry of skin-contact exposure to tritium gas contaminated surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legare, M.

    1990-12-01

    The radiological hazards from tritium are usually associated with exposure to tritium oxide either by inhalation, ingestion or permeation through skin. However, exposure from skin contact with tritium gas contaminated surfaces represents a different radiological hazard in tritium removal facilities and future fusion power plants. Previous experiments on humans and more recent experiments on hairless rats at Chalk River Laboratories have shown that when a tritium gas-contaminated surface is brought into contact with intact skin, high concentrations of organically-bound tritium in urine and skin are observed which were not seen from single tritiated water (liquid or vapour form) contamination. The results of the rat experiments, which involved measurements of tritium activity in urine and skin, after contact with contaminated stainless steel, are described. These results are also compared to previous data from human experiments. The effect of various exposure conditions and different contaminated surfaces such as brass, aluminum and glass are analysed and related to the results from contaminated stainless steel exposure. Dosimetric models are being developed in order to improve the basis for dose assessment for this mode of tritium uptake. The presently studied model is explained along with the assumptions and methods involved in its derivation. The features of 'STELLA', the software program used to implement the model, are discussed. The methods used to estimate skin and whole body dose from a model are demonstrated. Finally, some experiments for improving the accuracy of the model are proposed. Briefly, this study compares the results from animal and human experiments as well as different exposure conditions, and determines the range of whole body and skin dose that may be involved from skin-contact intake. This information is essential for regulatory purposes particularly in the derivation of doses for skin-contact contamination. (15 figs., 7 tabs., 29 refs.)

  15. Fluorimetric method for determination of Beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparacino, N.; Sabbioneda, S.

    1996-10-01

    The old fluorimetric method for the determination of Beryllium, based essentially on the fluorescence of the Beryllium-Morine complex in a strongly alkaline solution, is still competitive and stands the comparison with more modern methods or at least three reasons: in the presence of solid or gaseous samples (powders), the times necessary to finalize an analytic determination are comparable since the stage of the process which lasts the longest is the mineralization of the solid particles containing Beryllium, the cost of a good fluorimeter is by far Inferior to the cost, e. g., of an Emission Spectrophotometer provided with ICP torch and magnets for exploiting the Zeeman effect and of an Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer provided with Graphite furnace; it is possible to determine, fluorimetrically, rather small Beryllium levels (about 30 ng of Beryllium/sample), this potentiality is more than sufficient to guarantee the respect of all the work safety and hygiene rules now in force. The study which is the subject of this publication is designed to the analysis procedure which allows one to reach good results in the determination of Beryllium, chiefly through the control and measurement of the interference effect due to the presence of some metals which might accompany the environmental samples of workshops and laboratories where Beryllium is handled, either at the pure state or in its alloys. The results obtained satisfactorily point out the merits and limits of this analytic procedure

  16. The influence of Triga 2000 reactor operation on the surface contamination at reactor room using smear test method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bintu Khoiriyyah; Budi Purnama; Tri Cahyo Laksono

    2016-01-01

    The monitoring of surface contamination should be conducted to determine the safety of work areas. Surface contamination at the TRIGA 2000 reactor room which is on PSTNT-BATAN Bandung remain to be implemented although reactor not operating. In this research monitoring of surface contamination when TRIGA 2000 in operation of the first time after several years not operating aims to determine the influence on the results of monitoring. The monitoring of surface contamination has been done using smear test method at some predetermined in TRIGA 2000 reactor room. The highest surface contamination activities is obtained 0.32 Bq/cm 2 and there are some points that are not detected. Based on keputusan kepala BAPETEN No.1/Ka BAPETEN/ V/99 the work showed that the TRIGA 2000 reactor in the category of low area contamination, that is <3.7 Bq/cm 2 to gross beta. (author)

  17. Research of flaw assessment methods for beryllium reflector elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Akira; Ito, Masayasu; Takemoto, Noriyuki; Tanimoto, Masataka; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Nakatsuka, Masafumi; Ohara, Hiroshi; Kodama, Mitsuhiro

    2012-02-01

    Reflector elements made from metal beryllium is widely used as neutron reflectors to increase neutron flux in test reactors. When beryllium reflector elements are irradiated by neutron, bending of reflector elements caused by swelling occurs, and beryllium reflector elements must be replaced in several years. In this report, literature search and investigation for non-destructive inspection of Beryllium and experiments for Preliminary inspection to establish post irradiation examination method for research of characteristics of metal beryllium under neutron irradiation were reported. (author)

  18. Preliminary proposal for a beryllium technology program for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    The program was designed to provide the answers to the critical issues of beryllium technology needed in fusion blanket designs. The four tasks are as follows: (1) Beryllium property measurements needed for fusion data base. (2) Beryllium stress relaxation and creep measurements for lifetime modelling calculations. (3) Simplified recycle technique development for irradiated beryllium. (4) Beryllium neutron multiplier measurements using manganese bath absolute calibration techniques

  19. Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to liquid disinfectants on contaminated surfaces before formation of biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagripanti, J L; Bonifacino, A

    2000-01-01

    A comparison was made of the effectiveness of popular disinfectants (Cavicide, Cidexplus, Clorox, Exspor, Lysol, Renalin, and Wavicide) under conditions prescribed for disinfection in the respective product labels on Pseudomonas aeruginosa either in suspension or deposited onto surfaces of metallic or polymeric plastic devices. The testing also included 7 nonformulated germicidal agents (glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde, peracetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite, phenol, and cupric ascorbate) commonly used in disinfection and decontamination. Results showed that P. aeruginosa is on average 300-fold more resistant when present on contaminated surfaces than in suspension. This increase in resistance agrees with results reported in studies of biofilms, but unexpectedly, it precedes biofilm formation. The surface to which bacteria are attached can influence the effectiveness of disinfectants. Viable bacteria attached to devices may require dislodging through more than a one-step method for detection. The data, obtained with a sensitive and quantitative test, suggest that disinfectants are less effective on contaminated surfaces than generally acknowledged.

  20. Recommended design correlations for S-65 beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billone, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    The properties of tritium and helium behavior in irradiated beryllium are reviewed, along with the thermal-mechanical properties needed for ITER design analysis. Correlations are developed to describe the performance of beryllium in a fusion reactor environment. While this paper focuses on the use of beryllium as a plasma-facing component (PFC) material, the correlations presented here can also be used to describe the performance of beryllium as a neutron multiplier for a tritium breeding blanket. The performance properties for beryllium are subdivided into two categories: properties which do not change with irradiation damage to the bulk of the material; and properties which are degraded by neutron irradiation. The irradiation-independent properties described within are: thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, thermal expansion, and elastic constants. Irradiation-dependent properties include: yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, plastic tangent modulus, uniform and total tensile elongation, thermal and irradiation-induced creep strength, He-induced swelling and tritium retention/release. The approach taken in developing properties correlations is to describe the behavior of dense, pressed S-65 beryllium -- the material chosen for ITER PFC application -- as a function of temperature. As there are essentially no data on the performance of porous and/or irradiated S-65 beryllium, the degradation of properties with as-fabricated porosity and irradiation are determined from the broad data base on S-200F, as well as other types and grades, and applied to S-65 beryllium by scaling factors. The resulting correlations can be used for Be produced by vacuum hot pressing (VHP) and cold-pressing (CP)/sintering(S)/hot-isostatic-pressing (HIP). The performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium is discussed but not quantified

  1. Beryllium and growth. III. The effect of beryllium on plant phosphatase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoagland, M B

    1952-01-01

    The purpose of the investigations was to correlate the apparent ability of beryllium to substitute for magnesium in plant growth with a specific biochemical effect of the metal. Through association with earlier work on beryllium inhibition of animal alkaline phosphatase, a study was made of the effect of beryllium and other metals upon the activity of a phosphatase derived from tomato leaves. Although only indirect evidence is available that this enzyme system was magnesium-activated, beryllium was found to inhibit reversibly the splitting of GP and ATP. Other metals were also found to be inhibitory but the ATP-ase inhibition - and especially the ratio of P split from GP to P split from ATP - was higher for beryllium than for any other metal studied. The significance of this finding in relation to energy metabolism, growth, and beryllium toxicity is discussed. 12 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  2. Spectrographic measurement of beryllium in the atmosphere; Dosage spectrographique du beryllium dans l'atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artaud, J; Cittanova, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Service d' Analyses et Recherches Chimiques Appliquees, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Crehange, G; Frequelin, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Dir. des Applications Militaires, Service Chimie, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Baudin, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    We describe here a method for the spectrographic determination of beryllium on filters which is valid for amounts varying between 0,01 and 30 {mu}g of beryllium and which is independent of the nature of the beryllium compound involved. This is a flux method (graphite-lithium carbonate mixture), the excitation being by a direct current arc. (author) [French] Nous decrivons ici, une methode de dosage spectrographique de beryllium sur filtre, valable pour des teneurs comprises entre 0,01 et 30 {mu}g de beryllium et independante de la nature du compose de beryllium a doser. C'est une methode de 'flux' (melange graphite-carbonate de lithium) l'excitation etant un arc a courant continu. (auteur)

  3. Aluminum-contaminant transport by surface runoff and bypass flow from an acid sulphate soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minh, L.Q.; Tuong, T.P.; Mensvoort, van M.E.F.; Bouma, J.

    2002-01-01

    Quantifying the process and the amount of acid-contaminant released to the surroundings is important in assessing the environmental hazards associated with reclaiming acid sulphate soils (ASS). The roles of surface runoff and bypass flow (i.e. the rapid downward flow of free water along macropores

  4. Bond strength of resin-resin interfaces contaminated with saliva and submitted to different surface treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Benetti, Ana Raquel

    2007-01-01

    of silane and adhesive system. Resin cylinders were placed over the treated surfaces. The specimens were stored in water or ethanol. Shear bond strength tests were performed and the mode of failure was evaluated. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Dunnett T3 test. Contamination of resin...

  5. A new technique for the identification of surface contamination in low temperature bolometric experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangiorgio, S.; Arnaboldi, C.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Capelli, S.; Carbone, L.; Clemenza, M.; Cremonesi, O.; Fiorini, E.; Foggetta, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gorla, P.; Nones, C.; Nucciotti, A.; Pavan, M.; Pedretti, M.; Pessina, G.; Pirro, S.; Previtali, E.; Salvioni, C.

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of the bolometric experiment CUORE, a new and promising technique has been developed in order to control the dangerous contamination coming from the surfaces close to the detector. In fact, by means of a composite bolometer, it is possible to partially overcome the loss of spatial resolution of the bolometer itself and to clearly identify events coming from outside.

  6. Metallurgical viewpoints on the brittleness of beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerberg, G

    1960-02-15

    At present the development and use of beryllium metal for structural applications is severely hampered by its brittleness. Reasons for this lack of ductility are reviewed in discussing the deformation behaviour of beryllium in relation to other hexagonal metals. The ease of fracturing in beryllium is assumed to be a consequence of a limited number of deformation modes in combination with high deformation resistance. Models for the nucleation of fracture are suggested. The relation of ductility to elastic constants as well as to grain size, texture and alloying additions is discussed.

  7. THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY BERYLLIUM TECHNOLOGY UPDATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2007-01-01

    A Beryllium Technology Update meeting was held at the Idaho National Laboratory on July 18, 2007. Participants came from the U.S., Japan, and Russia. There were two main objectives of this meeting. One was a discussion of current technologies for beryllium in fission reactors, particularly the Advanced Test Reactor and the Japan Materials Test Reactor, and prospects for material availability in the coming years. The second objective of the meeting was a discussion of a project of the International Science and Technology Center regarding treatment of irradiated beryllium for disposal. This paper highlights discussions held during that meeting and major conclusions reached

  8. Metallurgical viewpoints on the brittleness of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagerberg, G.

    1960-02-01

    At present the development and use of beryllium metal for structural applications is severely hampered by its brittleness. Reasons for this lack of ductility are reviewed in discussing the deformation behaviour of beryllium in relation to other hexagonal metals. The ease of fracturing in beryllium is assumed to be a consequence of a limited number of deformation modes in combination with high deformation resistance. Models for the nucleation of fracture are suggested. The relation of ductility to elastic constants as well as to grain size, texture and alloying additions is discussed

  9. Beryllium health effects in the era of the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, L A

    2001-05-01

    The beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) has revolutionized our approach to the diagnosis, screening, and surveillance of beryllium health effects. Based on the development of a beryllium-specific cell-mediated immune response, the BeLPT has allowed us to define early health effects of beryllium, including beryllium sensitization (BeS), and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) at a subclinical stage. The use of this test as a screening tool has improved our understanding of these health effects. From a number of studies it is apparent that BeS precedes CBD and develops after as little as 9 weeks of beryllium exposure. CBD occurs within 3 months and up to 30 years after initial beryllium exposure. Exposure-response variables have been associated with BeS/CBD, including work as a machinist, chemical or metallurgical operator, laboratory technician, work in ceramics or beryllium metal production, and years of beryllium exposure. Recent studies have found BeS and CBD in workplaces in which the majority of exposures were below the 2 microg/m3 OSHA time-weighted average (TWA). Ideally, the BeLPT would be used in surveillance aimed at defining other risk-related processes, determining exposure variables which predict BeS and CBD, and defining the exposure level below which beryllium health effects do not occur. Unfortunately, the BeLPT can result in false negative tests and still requires an invasive procedure, a bronchoscopy, for the definitive diagnosis of CBD. Thus, research is needed to establish new tests to be used alone or in conjunction with the BeLPT to improve our ability to detect early beryllium health effects.

  10. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR EVALUATING SURFACE BARRIERS TO PROTECT GROUNDWATER FROM DEEP VADOSE ZONE CONTAMINATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayer, J.M.; Freedman, V.L.; Ward, A.L.; Chronister, G.B.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. DOE and its predecessors released nearly 2 trillion liters (450 billion gallons) of contaminated liquid into the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. Some of the contaminants currently reside in the deeper parts of the vadose zone where they are much less accessible to characterization, monitoring, and typical remediation activities. The DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) prepared a treatability test plan in 2008 to examine remediation options for addressing contaminants in the deep vadose zone; one of the technologies identified was surface barriers (also known as engineered barriers, covers, and caps). In the typical configuration, the contaminants are located relatively close to the surface, generally within 15 m, and thus they are close to the base of the surface barrier. The proximity of the surface barrier under these conditions yielded few concerns about the effectiveness of the barrier at depth, particularly for cases in which the contaminants were in a lined facility. At Hanford, however, some unlined sites have contaminants located well below depths of 15 m. The issue raised about these sites is the degree of effectiveness of a surface barrier in isolating contaminants in the deep vadose zone. Previous studies by Hanford Site and PNNL researchers suggest that surface barriers have the potential to provide a significant degree of isolation of deep vadose zone contaminants. The studies show that the actual degree of isolation is site-specific and depends on many factors, including recharge rates, barrier size, depth of contaminants, geohydrologic properties ofthe sediments, and the geochemical interactions between the contaminants and the sediments. After the DOE-RL treatability test plan was published, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted to review the information available to support surface barrier evaluation for the deep vadose zone, identify gaps in the information and outcomes necessary to fill the data gaps, and outline

  11. A new cleaning process for the metallic contaminants on a post-CMP wafer's surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Baohong; Liu Yuling; Wang Chenwei; Wang Shengli; Zhou Qiang; Tan Baimei; Zhu Yadong

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new cleaning process using boron-doped diamond (BDD) film anode electrochemical oxidation for metallic contaminants on polished silicon wafer surfaces. The BDD film anode electrochemical oxidation can efficiently prepare pyrophosphate peroxide, pyrophosphate peroxide can oxidize organic contaminants, and pyrophosphate peroxide is deoxidized into pyrophosphate. Pyrophosphate, a good complexing agent, can form a metal complex, which is a structure consisting of a copper ion, bonded to a surrounding array of two pyrophosphate anions. Three polished wafers were immersed in the 0.01 mol/L CuSO 4 solution for 2 h in order to make comparative experiments. The first one was cleaned by pyrophosphate peroxide, the second by RCA (Radio Corporation of America) cleaning, and the third by deionized (DI) water. The XPS measurement result shows that the metallic contaminants on wafers cleaned by the RCA method and by pyrophosphate peroxide is less than the XPS detection limits of 1 ppm. And the wafer's surface cleaned by pyrophosphate peroxide is more efficient in removing organic carbon residues than RCA cleaning. Therefore, BDD film anode electrochemical oxidation can be used for microelectronics cleaning, and it can effectively remove organic contaminants and metallic contaminants in one step. It also achieves energy saving and environmental protection. (semiconductor technology)

  12. Surface Contaminant Control Technologies to Improve Laser Damage Resistance of Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The large high-power solid lasers, such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF of America and the Shenguang-III (SG-III laser facility of China, can output over 2.1 MJ laser pulse for the inertial confinement fusion (ICF experiments. Because of the enhancement of operating flux and the expansion of laser driver scale, the problem of contamination seriously influences their construction period and operation life. During irradiation by intense laser beams, the contaminants on the metallic surface of beam tubes can be transmitted to the optical surfaces and lead to damage of optical components. For the high-power solid-state laser facilities, contamination control focuses on the slab amplifiers, spatial filters, and final-optical assemblies. In this paper, an effective solution to control contaminations including the whole process of the laser driver is put forward to provide the safe operation of laser facilities, and the detailed technical methods of contamination control such as washing, cleanliness metrology, and cleanliness protecting are also introduced to reduce the probability of laser-induced damage of optics. The experimental results show that the cleanliness level of SG-III laser facility is much better to ensure that the laser facility can safely operate at high energy flux.

  13. Residual viral and bacterial contamination of surfaces after cleaning and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuladhar, Era; Hazeleger, Wilma C; Koopmans, Marion; Zwietering, Marcel H; Beumer, Rijkelt R; Duizer, Erwin

    2012-11-01

    Environmental surfaces contaminated with pathogens can be sources of indirect transmission, and cleaning and disinfection are common interventions focused on reducing contamination levels. We determined the efficacy of cleaning and disinfection procedures for reducing contamination by noroviruses, rotavirus, poliovirus, parechovirus, adenovirus, influenza virus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella enterica from artificially contaminated stainless steel surfaces. After a single wipe with water, liquid soap, or 250-ppm free chlorine solution, the numbers of infective viruses and bacteria were reduced by 1 log(10) for poliovirus and close to 4 log(10) for influenza virus. There was no significant difference in residual contamination levels after wiping with water, liquid soap, or 250-ppm chlorine solution. When a single wipe with liquid soap was followed by a second wipe using 250- or 1,000-ppm chlorine, an extra 1- to 3-log(10) reduction was achieved, and except for rotavirus and norovirus genogroup I, no significant additional effect of 1,000 ppm compared to 250 ppm was found. A reduced correlation between reduction in PCR units (PCRU) and reduction in infectious particles suggests that at least part of the reduction achieved in the second step is due to inactivation instead of removal alone. We used data on infectious doses and transfer efficiencies to estimate a target level to which the residual contamination should be reduced and found that a single wipe with liquid soap followed by a wipe with 250-ppm free chlorine solution was sufficient to reduce the residual contamination to below the target level for most of the pathogens tested.

  14. Steam-chemical reactivity for irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, R.A.; McCarthy, K.A.; Oates, M.A.; Petti, D.A.; Pawelko, R.J.; Smolik, G.R. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation to determine the influence of neutron irradiation effects and annealing on the chemical reactivity of beryllium exposed to steam. The work entailed measurements of the H{sub 2} generation rates for unirradiated and irradiated Be and for irradiated Be that had been previously annealed at different temperatures ranging from 450degC to 1200degC. H{sub 2} generation rates were similar for irradiated and unirradiated Be in steam-chemical reactivity experiments at temperatures between 450degC and 600degC. For irradiated Be exposed to steam at 700degC, the chemical reactivity accelerated rapidly and the specimen experienced a temperature excursion. Enhanced chemical reactivity at temperatures between 400degC and 600degC was observed for irradiated Be annealed at temperatures of 700degC and higher. This reactivity enhancement could be accounted for by the increased specific surface area resulting from development of a surface-connected porosity in the irradiated-annealed Be. (author)

  15. Combined aging of beryllium bronze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duraev, P.P.; Kaplun, Yu.A.; Pastukhova, Zh.P.; Rakhshtadt, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    This article evaluates the possibility of increasing the resistance of beryllium bronze to small plastic deformations as a result of the application of stepped aging under stress. Low-temperature aging under conditions of bending under a stress of about 100 MPa was applied to alloy BrBNT1, 9Mg at 150, 180, and 210 0 C, high-temperature aging at 300 and 340 0 C under stress and without stress. As a result of applying stepped aging under stress, the elastic limit of the alloy BrBNT1, 9Mg was raised to 900 MPa. Stepped aging under stress has a substantial effect on the relaxation stability of the alloy. The procedure suggested in the article for aging may be used efficiently for treating elastic elements made of other brands of bronze as well

  16. Contaminants of emerging concern in surface waters in Barbados, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Quincy A; Kulikov, Sergei M; Garner-O'Neale, Leah D; Metcalfe, Chris D; Sultana, Tamanna

    2017-11-14

    Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), including pharmaceuticals, artificial sweeteners, steroid hormones, and current-use pesticides have been detected in surface waters around the world, but to date, there have been no reports in the peer-reviewed literature on the levels of these classes of contaminants in freshwater resources in the Caribbean region. In the present study, multi-residue solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) were used to analyze grab samples of surface waters collected from five different watersheds in Barbados, West Indies. The artificial sweeteners (AS), acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin, and sucralose were widely detected in the watersheds, indicating contamination from domestic wastewater, and the concentrations of these chemical tracers in water were correlated with the concentrations of the non-prescription pharmaceutical, ibuprofen (R 2 values of 0.4-0.6). Surprisingly, the concentrations of another chemical tracer of domestic wastewater, caffeine were not correlated with ibuprofen or AS concentrations. Several other prescription pharmaceuticals and the steroid hormones, estrone and androstenedione, were detected in selected watersheds at low ng/L concentrations. The fungicide, chlorothalonil was widely detected in surface waters at low (contamination of water resources by pharmaceuticals.

  17. A decision-making process on cleanup of contaminated surface soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Hiroshi

    1996-01-01

    This study presents principles for determining derived intervention levels (DILs) for surface soil cleanup. The people concerned were divided into major three groups: residents, responsible parties, and cleanup workers; it was considered that each group has different interests. The DILs for soil cleanup were determined from the viewpoints of these three groups: safety of residence, advantages of the countermeasures, and safety of cleanup activities, respectively. An example process for determination of the DILs in accordance with the principles was also presented for a site contaminated by 137 Cs. This decision-making frame is expected to be applicable to other contaminants. (author)

  18. Use of a surface contamination survey simulation program and its effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuma, Isamu; Kobayashi, Makoto; Umehara, Takashi; Shimizu, Isamu

    2012-01-01

    A computer simulation program has been developed to train the practitioners examining the surface contamination of objects to be carried out from the controlled area. The efficiency of the examination depends significantly on the proficiency in radiation measurement and proper perception of contamination. It has been demonstrated through the usage of the program that it helps practitioners very much suggest their weakness and promote their skill in examination. The program runs on the commonly used personal computers and users can easily experience the virtual examination by sweeping and cricking the mouse. The program is useful to radiation protection practitioners not only beginners but also experts. (author)

  19. Heavy metal contamination in surface runoff sediments of the urban area of Vilnius, Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gytautas Ignatavičius

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface runoff from urbanized territories carries a wide range of pollutants. Sediments in untreated runoff from direct discharge stormwater systems significantly contribute to urban waterway pollution. In this study, heavy metal (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ba, As and Fe contamination in surface runoff sediments of the urban area of the city of Vilnius was investigated. The surface runoff sediment samples were collected from seven dischargers with the highest volume rate of water flow and concentrations of suspended solids. The geospatial analysis of the distribution of heavy metals shows that there are several active pollution sources supplying the dischargers with contaminated sediments. Most of these areas are located in the central part of the city and in old town with intense traffic. Principal components analysis and t-test results clearly depicted the significantly different chemical compositions of winter and autumn surface sediment samples. The sampling approach and assessment of results provide a useful tool to examine the contamination that is generated in urban areas, distinguish pollution sources and give a better understanding of the importance of permeable surfaces and green areas.

  20. Indoor and Outdoor Surface-Growing Fungi Contamination at Higher Institutional Buildings in a Malaysian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, C. M.; Sunar, N. M.; Leman, A. M.; Khalid, A.; Ali, R.; Zaidi, E.; Azhar, A. T. S.

    2018-04-01

    Surface-growing indoor and outdoor fungi were assessed using swabbing method to investigate the indoor contamination. The painted wall surface samples were collected from two institutional buildings (B1 and B2) of a university in southern Peninsular Malaysia; indoors and outdoors. The mould concentrations varied widely between indoor and outdoor surface samples of both buildings. The total indoor surface-growing mould concentration (8776.49 CFU/cm2) is significantly higher (pair quality parameters (relative humidity, temperature and air velocity) were also measured indoors and outdoors during the study and violation of the guideline provided by ICOP-IAQ 2010 were proven in indoor environment in both buildings. The results of this assessment showed that the indoor environments of both institutional buildings were contaminated by the surface-growing mould. It also suggested the faulty designs and/or usages of building material in these institutional buildings contributed toward the contamination. An innovative solution is needed to correct the problems.

  1. Removal of copper and nickel contaminants from Si surface by use of cyanide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, N.; Liu, Y.-L.; Nakamura, T.; Maida, O.; Takahashi, M.; Kobayashi, H.

    2004-01-01

    The cleaning method using cyanide solutions has been developed to remove heavy metals such as copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) from Si surfaces. Immersion of Si wafers with both Cu and Ni contaminants in potassium cyanide (KCN) solutions of methanol at room temperature decreases these surface concentrations below the detection limit of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy of ∼3x10 9 atoms/cm 2 . UV spectra of the KCN solutions after cleaning of the Cu-contaminated Si surface show that stable copper-cyanide complexes are formed in the solution, leading to the prevention of the re-adsorption of copper in the solutions. From the complex stability constants, it is concluded that the Cu(CN) 4 3- is the most dominant species in the KCN solutions

  2. Contribution to Surface Water Contamination Understanding by Pesticides and Pharmaceuticals, at a Watershed Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Piel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at understanding the presence of regulated and emerging micropollutants, particularly pesticides and pharmaceuticals, in surface water, regarding spatial and temporal influences at a watershed scale. The study of relations between micropollutants and other water quality and hydroclimatic parameters was carried out from a statistical analysis on historical and experimental data of different sampling sites from the main watershed of Brittany, western France. The outcomes point out the influence of urban and rural areas of the watershed as well as the impact of seasons on contamination variations. This work contributes to health risk assessment related to surface water contamination by micropollutants. This approach is particularly interesting in the case of agricultural watersheds such as the one studied, where more than 80% of surface water is used to produce drinking water.

  3. Laser cleaning of the contaminations on the surface of tire mould

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yayun; Jia, Baoshen; Chen, Jing; Jiang, Yilan; Tang, Hongping; Wang, Haijun; Luan, Xiaoyu; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Chuanchao; Yao, Caizhen

    2017-07-01

    During the manufacturing of tires, surface pollutants on tire mould will lead to the production of unqualified tires. Tire moulds need to be regularly cleaned. Laser cleaning is recognized as a non-destructive, effective, precise and environmental friendly method. In this paper, laser cleaning was used to remove contaminants on tire mould surface. First, laser induced damage experiments were performed. The results showed that the roughness and hardness of the cast steel sample surface seldom changed under the energy range of 140.1-580.2 mJ laser irradiation 1 pulse and the energy range of 44.7-168.9 mJ laser irradiation 100 pulses. In the laser cleaning experiments, the cleaning thresholds and the optimal cleaning parameters were obtained. Results indicated that laser cleaning was safe and effective for tire mould contamination removal.

  4. PROCEEDINGS WITH CONTAMINATED INDUSTRIAL SITES IN TERMS OF NEW LEGISLATION – PART I. HISTORICAL POLLUTION OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Paulina Wiśniewska; Agnieszka Pusz

    2017-01-01

    This article shows a way of dealing with the industrial areas, where historical contamination of the earth’s surface occurred, together with an indication of the proper remediation method selection. Public Administration authorities, including the Regional Director of Environmental Protection (RDOŚ) and the governor are responsible, among others, for identifying areas where historical contamination or potential historical contamination of the earth's surface occurred. General Director of Envi...

  5. Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S

    2012-03-29

    This document describes how Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) meets the requirements and management practices of federal regulation 10 CFR 850, 'Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP).' This revision of the LLNL CBDPP incorporates clarification and editorial changes based on lessons learned from employee discussions, observations and reviews of Department of Energy (DOE) Complex and commercial industry beryllium (Be) safety programs. The information is used to strengthen beryllium safety practices at LLNL, particularly in the areas of: (1) Management of small parts and components; and (2) Communication of program status to employees. Future changes to LLNL beryllium activities and on-going operating experience will be incorporated into the program as described in Section S, 'Performance Feedback.'

  6. Beryllium-aluminum alloys for investment castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachtrab, W.T.; Levoy, N.

    1997-01-01

    Beryllium-aluminum alloys containing greater than 60 wt % beryllium are very favorable materials for applications requiring light weight and high stiffness. However, when produced by traditional powder metallurgical methods, these alloys are expensive and have limited applications. To reduce the cost of making beryllium-aluminum components, Nuclear Metals Inc. (NMI) and Lockheed Martin Electronics and Missiles have recently developed a family of patented beryllium-aluminum alloys that can be investment cast. Designated Beralcast, the alloys can achieve substantial weight savings because of their high specific strength and stiffness. In some cases, weight has been reduced by up to 50% over aluminum investment casting. Beralcast is now being used to make thin wall precision investment castings for several advanced aerospace applications, such as the RAH-66 Comanche helicopter and F-22 jet fighter. This article discusses alloy compositions, properties, casting method, and the effects of cobalt additions on strength

  7. Beryllium Project: developing in CDTN of uranium dioxide fuel pellets with addition of beryllium oxide to increase the thermal conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Ricardo Alberto Neto; Camarano, Denise das Merces; Miranda, Odair; Grossi, Pablo Andrade; Andrade, Antonio Santos; Queiroz, Carolinne Mol; Gonzaga, Mariana de Carvalho Leal

    2013-01-01

    Although the nuclear fuel currently based on pellets of uranium dioxide be very safe and stable, the biggest problem is that this material is not a good conductor of heat. This results in an elevated temperature gradient between the center and its lateral surface, which leads to a premature degradation of the fuel, which restricts the performance of the reactor, being necessary to change the fuel before its full utilization. An increase of only 5 to 10 percent in its thermal conductivity, would be a significant increase. An increase of 50 percent would be a great improvement. A project entitled 'Beryllium Project' was developed in CDTN - Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, which aimed to develop fuel pellets made from a mixture of uranium dioxide microspheres and beryllium oxide powder to obtain a better heat conductor phase, filling the voids between the microspheres to increase the thermal conductivity of the pellet. Increases in the thermal conductivity in the range of 8.6% to 125%, depending on the level of addition employed in the range of 1% to 14% by weight of beryllium oxide, were obtained. This type of fuel promises to be safer than current fuels, improving the performance of the reactor, in addition to last longer, resulting in great savings. (author)

  8. Potential effects of groundwater and surface water contamination in an urban area, Qus City, Upper Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Fathy; Khalil, Ramadan

    2018-05-01

    The potential effects of anthropogenic activities, in particular, unsafe sewage disposal practices, on shallow groundwater in an unconfined aquifer and on surface water were evaluated within an urban area by the use of hydrogeological, hydrochemical, and bacteriological analyses. Physicochemical and bacteriological data was obtained from forty-five sampling points based on33 groundwater samples from variable depths and 12 surface water samples. The pollution sources are related to raw sewage and wastewater discharges, agricultural runoff, and wastewater from the nearby Paper Factory. Out of the 33 groundwater samples studied, 17 had significant concentrations of NO3-, Cl- and SO42-, and high bacteria counts. Most of the water samples from the wells contained high Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr. The majority of surface water samples presented high NO3- concentrations and high bacteria counts. A scatter plot of HCO3- versus Ca indicates that 58% of the surface water samples fall within the extreme contamination zone, while the others are within the mixing zone; whereas 94% of groundwater samples showed evidence of mixing between groundwater and wastewater. The bacteriological assessment showed that all measured surface and groundwater samples contained Escherichia coli and total coliform bacteria. A risk map delineated four classes of contamination, namely, those sampling points with high (39.3%), moderate (36.3%), low (13.3%), and very low (11.1%) levels of contamination. Most of the highest pollution points were in the middle part of the urban area, which suffers from unmanaged sewage and industrial effluents. Overall, the results demonstrate that surface and groundwater in Qus City are at high risk of contamination by wastewater since the water table is shallow and there is a lack of a formal sanitation network infrastructure. The product risk map is a useful tool for prioritizing zones that require immediate mitigation and monitoring.

  9. Removal and treatment of radioactive, organochlorine, and heavy metal contaminants from solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieco, S.A.; Neubauer, E.D.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is defining decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) obligations at its sites. Current D ampersand D activities are generally labor intensive, use chemical reagents that are difficult to treat, and may expose workers to radioactive and hazardous chemicals. Therefore, new technologies are desired that minimize waste, allow much of the decommissioned materials to be reused rather than disposed of as waste, and produce wastes that will meet disposal criteria. The O'Brien ampersand Gere companies tested a scouring decontamination system on concrete and steel surfaces contaminated with radioactive and hazardous wastes under the sponsorship of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES) at DOE's K-25 former gaseous diffusion plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The scouring system removes fixed radioactive and hazardous contamination yet leaves the surface intact. Blasting residuals are treated using physical/chemical processes. Bench- and pilot-scale testing of the system was conducted on surfaces contaminated with uranium, technetium, heavy metals, and PCBs. Areas of concrete and metal surfaces were blasted. Residuals were dissolved in tap water and treated for radioactive, hazardous, and organochlorine constituents. The treatment system comprised pH adjustment, aeration, solids settling, filtration, carbon adsorption, and ion exchange. This system produced treated water and residual solid waste. Testing demonstrated that the system is capable of removing greater than 95% of radioactive and PCB surface contamination to below DOE's unrestricted use release limits; aqueous radionuclides, heavy metals, and PCBs were below DOE and USEPA treatment objectives after treatment. Waste residuals volume was decreased by 71 %. Preliminary analyses suggest that this system provides significant waste volume reduction and is more economical than alternative surface decontamination techniques that are commercially available or under development

  10. Radioactive contamination of some rubber or plastic surfaces by fission products. Decontamination tests; Contamination radioactive de quelques surfaces en caoutchouc ou en matiere plastique par des produits de fission. Essais de decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestre, E.; Sautiez, N.

    1957-10-15

    With the objective of notably addressing the contamination and decontamination of gloves and floor covering, this report first presents some characteristics of contaminating radioactive materials (nature, physical and chemical condition), of contaminated surfaces (surface condition, surface nature), and of decontamination processes (physical, chemical or mechanical action). It describes the operational modality implemented to test decontamination processes on various glove or flooring materials: sample preparation, counting, decontamination, reproducibility of decontamination tests, results in terms of activity reduction. It more precisely describes the tested samples: short gloves, gloves from glove boxes, floor and wall coverings. Results are presented and discussed in terms of sample susceptibility to contamination, and of decontamination, but also for re-contamination tests after a Nab-based decontamination (susceptibility to contamination, decontamination gain)

  11. Beryllium R and D for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Longhurst, G.R.; Shestakov, V.; Kawamura, H.

    2000-01-01

    Beryllium is one of the primary candidates as both plasma-facing material (PFM) and neutron multiplier in the next-step fusion reactors. Both sintered-product blocks and pebbles are considered in fusion reactor designs. Beryllium evaporated on carbon tiles has also been used in Joint European Torus (JET) and may be considered for other designs. Future efforts are directed toward the pebble form of beryllium. Research and evaluations of data are underway to determine the most attractive material processing approaches in terms of fabrication cost and quality; technical issues associated with heat transfer; thermal, mechanical and irradiation stability; safety and tritium release. Beryllium plasma-facing components will require periodic repair or replacement, therefore disposal or recycling of activated and tritiated beryllium will also be a concern. Beryllium as a component of the molten salt, Flibe is also being considered in novel approaches to the plasma-structure interface. This paper deals with the main issues related to the use of Be in a fusion reactor as both neutron multiplier and first wall material. These issues include potential reactions with steam during accidents and the health and environmental aspects of its use, reprocessing and reuse, or disposal

  12. Beryllium R and D for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F. E-mail: francesco.scaffidi@iket.fzk.de; Longhurst, G.R.; Shestakov, V.; Kawamura, H

    2000-11-01

    Beryllium is one of the primary candidates as both plasma-facing material (PFM) and neutron multiplier in the next-step fusion reactors. Both sintered-product blocks and pebbles are considered in fusion reactor designs. Beryllium evaporated on carbon tiles has also been used in Joint European Torus (JET) and may be considered for other designs. Future efforts are directed toward the pebble form of beryllium. Research and evaluations of data are underway to determine the most attractive material processing approaches in terms of fabrication cost and quality; technical issues associated with heat transfer; thermal, mechanical and irradiation stability; safety and tritium release. Beryllium plasma-facing components will require periodic repair or replacement, therefore disposal or recycling of activated and tritiated beryllium will also be a concern. Beryllium as a component of the molten salt, Flibe is also being considered in novel approaches to the plasma-structure interface. This paper deals with the main issues related to the use of Be in a fusion reactor as both neutron multiplier and first wall material. These issues include potential reactions with steam during accidents and the health and environmental aspects of its use, reprocessing and reuse, or disposal.

  13. Decontamination of plutonium-contaminated surfaces; Essais de decontamination des surfaces contaminees par du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, J; Clouet d' Orval, Ch; Tachon, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The measure of the neutron distribution in the core of 'Proserpine', by means of activation detectors, requires no contact between the plutonium sulfate solution and the detectors. These detectors are put into PVC or polyethylene bags. This report describes the process used to decontaminate these bags. A washing by nitric acid followed by coating with plexiglass is kept, with this process we have no contamination on the detectors. (author) [French] La mesure de la distribution de neutrons par detecteurs a activation dans le coeur de Proserpine exige de proteger ces detecteurs contre tout contact avec la solution de plutonium. Les detecteurs sont places dans des gaines en polyvinyle ou en polyethylene. Ce rapport decrit le procede utilise pour decontaminer ces gaines. On a retenu un lavage a l'acide nitrique suivi du revetement d'une meme couche de plexiglass, ce qui permet d'eviter la contamination des detecteurs. (auteur)

  14. Skin and surface lead contamination, hygiene programs, and work practices of bridge surface preparation and painting contractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virji, M Abbas; Woskie, Susan R; Pepper, Lewis D

    2009-02-01

    A 2005 regulatory review of the lead in construction standard by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) noted that alternative pathways of exposure can be as significant as inhalation exposure and that noncompliance with the standard pertaining to hygiene facilities and practices was the second most commonly violated section of the standard. Noncompliance with provisions of the standard and unhealthy work and hygiene practices likely increase the likelihood of take-home lead via contaminated clothing, automobiles, and skin, thus contributing to elevated blood lead levels (BLL) among construction workers and their family members. We performed a cross-sectional study of bridge painters working for small contractors in Massachusetts to investigate causes of persistent elevated BLLs and to assess lead exposures. Thirteen work sites were evaluated for a 2-week period during which surface and skin wipe samples were collected and qualitative information was obtained on personal hygiene practices, decontamination and hand wash facilities, and respiratory protection programs. Results showed lead contamination on workers' skin, respirators, personal automobiles, and the decontamination unit, indicating a significant potential for take-home lead exposure. Overall, the geometric mean (GM) skin lead levels ranged from 373 microg on workers' faces at end of shift to 814 microg on hands at break time. The overall GM lead level inside respirators was 143 microg before work and 286 microg after work. Lead contamination was also present inside workers' personal vehicles as well as on surfaces inside the clean side of the decontamination unit. Review of the respiratory protection programs, work site decontamination and hand wash facilities, and personal hygiene practices indicated that these factors had significant impact on skin and surface contamination levels and identified significant opportunities for improving work site facilities and personal practices

  15. Predictions of the microstructural contribution to instability seeding in beryllium ICF capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, Nelson M.; Swift, Damian C.

    2004-01-01

    The constitutive properties of beryllium are anisotropic. During the implosion of an inertial confinement fusion capsule, it is possible for instabilities to be seeded from the microstructure. We are using experiment and theory to place constraints on the microstructure and loading history. The relation between surface roughness and amplitude of ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities has been characterized well. Here we present a method of relating the microstructure to an equivalent surface roughness, using continuum mechanical simulations of shock waves in polycrystalline beryllium. Beryllium was treated using a single-crystal plasticity model developed using ab initio quantum mechanics for the equation of state and elasticity, and laser-driven shock wave measurements to calibrate representations of dislocation and disclination dynamics

  16. Contaminants in surface water and sediments near the Tynagh silver mine site, County Galway, Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, A. [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Phillips, D.H., E-mail: d.phillips@qub.ac.uk [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Bowen, J. [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Sen Gupta, B. [School of the Built Environment, Hariot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    A former silver mine in Tynagh, Co. Galway, Ireland is one of the most contaminated mine sites in Europe with maximum concentrations of Zn, As, Pb, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Cd far exceeding guideline values for water and sediment. The aims of this research were to 1) further assess the contamination, particularly metals, in surface water and sediment around the site, and 2) determine if the contamination has increased 10 years after the Environmental Protection Agency Ireland (EPAI) identified off-site contamination. Site pH is alkaline to neutral because CaCO{sub 3}-rich sediment and rock material buffer the exposed acid generating sulphide-rich ore. When this study was compared to the previous EPAI study conducted 10 years earlier, it appeared that further weathering of exposed surface sediment had increased concentrations of As and other potentially toxic elements. Water samples from the tailings ponds and adjacent Barnacullia Stream had concentrations of Al, Cd, Mn, Zn and Pb above guideline values. Lead and Zn concentrations from the tailings pond sediment were 16 and 5 times higher, respectively, than concentrations reported 10 years earlier. Pb and Zn levels in most sediment samples exceeded the Expert Group (EGS) guidelines of 1000 and 5000 mg/kg, respectively. Arsenic concentrations were as high as 6238 mg/kg in the tailings ponds sediment, which is 62 and 862 times greater than the EGS and Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines (CSQG), respectively. Cadmium, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn concentrations in water and sediment were above guideline values downstream of the site. Additionally, Fe, Mn and organic matter (OM) were strongly correlated and correlated to Zn, Pb, As, Cd, Cu and Ni in stream sediment. Therefore, the nearby Barnacullia Stream is also a significant pathway for contaminant transport to downstream areas. Further rehabilitation of the site may decrease the contamination around the area. - Highlights: • Tynagh silver mine in Co. Galway, Ireland is a source of

  17. Microbial air quality and bacterial surface contamination in ambulances during patient services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Pipitsangjan, Sirikun

    2015-03-01

    We sought to assess microbial air quality and bacterial surface contamination on medical instruments and the surrounding areas among 30 ambulance runs during service. We performed a cross-sectional study of 106 air samples collected from 30 ambulances before patient services and 212 air samples collected during patient services to assess the bacterial and fungal counts at the two time points. Additionally, 226 surface swab samples were collected from medical instrument surfaces and the surrounding areas before and after ambulance runs. Groups or genus of isolated bacteria and fungi were preliminarily identified by Gram's stain and lactophenol cotton blue. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, and Pearson's correlation coefficient with a p-value of less than 0.050 considered significant. The mean and standard deviation of bacterial and fungal counts at the start of ambulance runs were 318±485cfu/m(3) and 522±581cfu/m(3), respectively. Bacterial counts during patient services were 468±607cfu/m(3) and fungal counts were 656±612cfu/m(3). Mean bacterial and fungal counts during patient services were significantly higher than those at the start of ambulance runs, p=0.005 and p=0.030, respectively. For surface contamination, the overall bacterial counts before and after patient services were 0.8±0.7cfu/cm(2) and 1.3±1.1cfu/cm(2), respectively (pair samples and bacterial counts on medical instruments and allocated areas. This study revealed high microbial contamination (bacterial and fungal) in ambulance air during services and higher bacterial contamination on medical instrument surfaces and allocated areas after ambulance services compared to the start of ambulance runs. Additionally, bacterial and fungal counts in ambulance air showed a significantly positive correlation with the bacterial surface contamination on medical instruments and allocated areas. Further studies should be conducted to determine the optimal intervention to reduce

  18. Emerging contaminants in surface waters in China—a short review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Guang; Zhang, Guangming; Fan, Maohong

    2014-01-01

    Emerging contaminants (ECs) have drawn attention to many countries due to their persistent input and potential threat to human health and the environment. This article reviews the current contamination sources and their status for surface waters in China. The contamination levels of ECs in surface waters are in the range ng L −1 to μg L −1 in China, apparently about the same as the situation in other countries. ECs enter surface water via runoff, drainage, rainfall, and wastewater treatment effluent. The frequency of occurrence of ECs increased rapidly from 2006 to 2011; a significant reason is the production and consumption of pharmaceuticals and personal care products. As for the distribution of EC pollution in China, the frequency of occurrence of ECs in eastern regions is higher than in western regions. A majority of EC studies have focused on surface waters of the Haihe River and Pearl River watersheds due to their highly developed industries and intense human activity. Legislative and administrative regulation of ECs is lacking in China. To remove ECs, a number of technologies, such as absorption by activated carbon, membrane filtration technology, and advanced oxidation processes, have been researched. (letter)

  19. Environmental survey to assess viral contamination of air and surfaces in hospital settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carducci, A; Verani, M; Lombardi, R; Casini, B; Privitera, G

    2011-03-01

    The presence of pathogenic viruses in healthcare settings represents a serious risk for both staff and patients. Direct viral detection in the environment poses significant technical problems and the indirect indicators currently in use suffer from serious limitations. The aim of this study was to monitor surfaces and air in hospital settings to reveal the presence of hepatitis C virus, human adenovirus, norovirus, human rotavirus and torque teno virus by nucleic acid assays, in parallel with measurements of total bacterial count and haemoglobin presence. In total, 114 surface and 62 air samples were collected. Bacterial contamination was very low (air was 282 cfu/m(3). Overall, 19 (16.7%) surface samples tested positive for viral nucleic acids: one for norovirus, one for human adenovirus and 17 (14.9%) for torque teno virus (TTV). Only this latter virus was directly detected in 10 air samples (16.1%). Haemoglobin was found on two surfaces. No relationship was found between viral, biochemical or bacterial indicators. The data obtained confirm the difficulty of assessing viral contamination using bacterial indicators. The frequent detection of TTV suggests its possible use as an indicator for general viral contamination of the environment. Copyright © 2010 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Microbiological quality control of single-walled carbon-nanotubes-coated surfaces experimentally contaminated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natalizi, T.; Frioni, A.; Passeri, D.; Pantanella, F.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of new nanotechnologies involves the spreading of nanoparticles in various fields of human life. Nanoparticles in general and, more specifically, carbon nanotubes have been adopted for many practical approaches i.e.: coatings for medical devices, food process industry and drug delivery. Humans will be increasingly exposed to nanoparticles but the susceptibility of nanostructured materials to microbial colonization in process of manufacturing and storage has not been thoroughly considered. Therefore, the microbiological quality control of nanoparticles plays a pivotal role. Different analytical methods have been attempted for detecting bacterial population contaminating a surface, but no one can be considered fully appropriate. Here, BioTimer Assay (BTA) and conventional sonication followed by colony forming units method (S-CFU) were applied for microbiological quality control of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)-coated surfaces experimentally contaminated with Streptococcus mutans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our results demonstrated that S-CFU is unreliable to actually determine the number of bacteria, contaminating abiotic surfaces, as it does not detach all adherent bacteria and kills part of the bacterial population. Instead, BTA is a reliable method to enumerate bacteria colonizing SWCNTs-coated surfaces and can be considered a useful tool for microbiological quality control of nanomaterials for human use.

  1. Emerging contaminants in surface waters in China—a short review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Fan, Maohong; Zhang, Guangming

    2014-07-01

    Emerging contaminants (ECs) have drawn attention to many countries due to their persistent input and potential threat to human health and the environment. This article reviews the current contamination sources and their status for surface waters in China. The contamination levels of ECs in surface waters are in the range ng L-1 to μg L-1 in China, apparently about the same as the situation in other countries. ECs enter surface water via runoff, drainage, rainfall, and wastewater treatment effluent. The frequency of occurrence of ECs increased rapidly from 2006 to 2011; a significant reason is the production and consumption of pharmaceuticals and personal care products. As for the distribution of EC pollution in China, the frequency of occurrence of ECs in eastern regions is higher than in western regions. A majority of EC studies have focused on surface waters of the Haihe River and Pearl River watersheds due to their highly developed industries and intense human activity. Legislative and administrative regulation of ECs is lacking in China. To remove ECs, a number of technologies, such as absorption by activated carbon, membrane filtration technology, and advanced oxidation processes, have been researched.

  2. Transport of contaminants by Arctic sea ice and surface ocean currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfirman, S.

    1995-01-01

    Sea ice and ocean currents transport contaminants in the Arctic from source areas on the shelves, to biologically active regions often more than a thousand kilometers away. Coastal regions along the Siberian margin are polluted by discharges of agricultural, industrial and military wastes in river runoff, from atmospheric deposition and ocean dumping. The Kara Sea is of particular concern because of deliberate dumping of radioactive waste, as well as the large input of polluted river water. Contaminants are incorporated in ice during suspension freezing on the shelves, and by atmospheric deposition during drift. Ice releases its contaminant load through brine drainage, surface runoff of snow and meltwater, and when the floe disintegrates. The marginal ice zone, a region of intense biological activity, may also be the site of major contaminant release. Potentially contaminated ice from the Kara Sea is likely to influence the marginal ice zones of the Barents and Greenland seas. From studies conducted to date it appears that sea ice from the Kara Sea does not typically enter the Beaufort Gyre, and thus is unlikely to affect the northern Canadian and Alaskan margins

  3. Camel meat quality in the slaughterhouse of Ouargla in Algeria. II. Bacterial surface contamination of carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Benaissa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To assess the microbiological quality of camel meat in the slaughterhouse of Ouargla District in Algeria, the bacterial surface contamination of 60 camel carcasses was investigated. Within an hour after slaughter, swabs were used to collect samples on three sites (thigh, flank and shoulder, just after skinning and before postmortem inspection. Germ rates varied depending on the carcasses and sampling sites. The predominant flora was the total aerobic mesophilic flora, whose contamination level was 2.8  log CFU/cm2 (i.e. 25% of the flora count, followed by enterobacteria with 2.4 log CFU/cm2 (21%, total coliforms with 2.2 log CFU/cm2 (20%, fecal coliforms with 2.0  log CFU/cm2 (18%, and staphylococci with 1.8 log CFU/cm2 (16%. Salmonella and Escherichia coli were detected on all the sampled sites of the carcasses. The camel meat of Ouargla slaughterhouse showed a high level of contamination by pathogenic bacteria (salmonellae and staphylococci. A high fecal contamination (E. coli was also present. Good hygiene practices need to be implemented at slaughter to reduce contaminations.

  4. Beryllium electrodeposition on aluminium cathode from chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichkov, I.F.; Novikov, E.A.; Serebryakov, G.A.; Kanashin, Yu.P.; Sardyko, G.N.

    1980-01-01

    Cathodic processes during beryllium deposition on liquid and solid aluminium cathodes are investigated. Mixture of sodium, potassium and beryllium chloride melts served as an lectrolyte. Beryllium ion discharge at the expense of alloy formation takes place at more positive potentials than on an indifferent cathode at low current densities ( in the case of liquid aluminium cathode). Metallographic analysis and measurements of microhardness have shown, that the cathodic product includes two phases: beryllium solid solution in aluminium and metallic beryllium. It is concluded, that aluminium-beryllium alloys with high cathodic yield by current can be obtained by the electrolytic method

  5. Sanitary-hygienic and ecological aspects of beryllium production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvinskykh, E.M.; Savchuk, V.V.; Sidorov, V.L.; Slobodin, D.B.; Tuzov, Y.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant, Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan)

    1998-01-01

    The Report describes An organization of sanitary-hygienic and ecological control of beryllium production at Ulba metallurgical plant. It involves: (1) the consideration of main methods for protection of beryllium production personnel from unhealthy effect of beryllium, (2) main kinds of filters, used in gas purification systems at different process areas, (3) data on beryllium monitoring in water, soil, on equipment. This Report also outlines problems connected with designing devices for a rapid analysis of beryllium in air as well as problems of beryllium production on ecological situation in the town. (author)

  6. Beryllium satellite thrust cone design, manufacture and test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneiter, H.; Chandler, D.

    1977-01-01

    Pre-formed beryllium sheet material has been used in the design, manufacturing and test of a satellite thrust cone structure. Adhesive bonding was used for attachment of aluminium flanges and conical segment lap strips. Difficulties in beryllium structure design such as incompatibilities with aluminium and handling problems are discussed. Testing to optimize beryllium-beryllium and beryllium-aluminium adhesive bonds is described. The completed thrust cone assembly has been subjected to static load testing and the results are presented. A summary of the relative merits of the use of beryllium in satellite structures is given with recommendations for future users. (author)

  7. Occurrence of perchloroethylene in surface water and fish in a river ecosystem affected by groundwater contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittlingerová, Zdena; Macháčková, Jiřina; Petruželková, Anna; Zimová, Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    Long-term monitoring of the content of perchloroethylene (PCE) in a river ecosystem affected by groundwater contamination was performed at a site in the Czech Republic. The quality of surface water was monitored quarterly between 1994 and 2013, and fish were collected from the affected ecosystem to analyse the content of PCE in their tissue in 1998, 2011 and 2012. Concentrations of PCE (9-140 μg/kg) in the tissue of fish collected from the contaminated part of the river were elevated compared to the part of the river unaffected by the contamination (ND to 5 μg/kg PCE). The quality of surface water has improved as a result of groundwater remediation during the evaluated period. Before the remedial action, PCE concentrations ranged from 30 to 95 μg/L (1994-1997). Following commencement of remedial activities in September 1997, a decrease in the content of PCE in the surface water to 7.3 μg/L (1998) and further to 1 μg/L (2011) and 1.1 μg/L (2012) led to a progressive decrease in the average concentration of PCE in the fish muscle tissue from 79 μg/kg (1998) to 24 (2011) and 30 μg/kg (2012), respectively. It was determined that the bioconcentration of PCE does not have a linear dependence because the decrease in contamination in the fish muscle tissue is not directly proportional to the decrease in contamination in the river water. The observed average bioconcentration factors were 24 and 28 for the lower concentrations of PCE and 11 for the higher concentrations of PCE in the river. In terms of age, length and weight of the collected fish, weight had the greatest significance for bioconcentration, followed by the length, with age being evaluated as a less significant factor.

  8. Microstructural study of hydrogen-implanted beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagin, S.P.; Chakrov, P.V.; Utkelbayev, B.D.

    1998-01-01

    Hot pressed beryllium (TGP-56) was implanted by 650 keV H + ions to a dose of 6.7 x 10 16 cm -2 at a temperature below 50 C. TEM examinations were performed both at as-irradiated specimens and after post-irradiation annealings at 400-600 C for 15 min. After irradiation, a high density of ''black dot'' defects with a size of about 5 nm is observed in the straggling zone, some of which are resolved as small dislocation loops. During post-irradiation annealing, growth of dislocation loops and oriented gas-filled bubbles are observed in the damaged zone. The bubbles are strongly elongated along the left angle 0001 right angle direction, and their sidelong facts lie along {1-100} planes. These facets have a regular ''toothed'' surface with ''tooth'' facets on {1-100} planes. The size of the ''teeth'' increases with annealing temperature, as well as the total volume of bubbles, with their length growing faster than their width. (orig.)

  9. Field emission and high voltage cleaning of particulate contaminants on extended metallic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, J.; Bonin, B.; Safa, H.

    1996-01-01

    The vacuum insulation properties of extended metallic surfaces depends strongly on their cleanliness. The usual technique to reduce electronic field emission from such surfaces consists in exposing them to very high electric fields during limited periods of time. This kind of processing also reduces the occurrence of vacuum breakdown. The processing of the surface is generally believed to be due to a thermomechanical destruction of the emitting sites, initiated by the emission itself. Comparison of the electric forces vs adherence forces which act on dust particles lying on the surface shows that the processing could also be due simply to the mechanical removal of the dust particles, with a subsequent reduction of field emission from the contaminated surface. (author)

  10. Beryllium-rich intermediate phases in beryllium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynor, G.V.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a survey of the factors affecting the formation of phases of stoichiometry MBe 5 , M 2 Be 17 , MBe 12 and MBe 13 are presented. Using published information it is shown that the structures adopted at the higher Be:M ratios involve different characteristics from those adopted at lower Be:M ratios. In the ThMn 12 and NaZn 13 structures adopted in the former case dsub(M-Be) > (rsub(M) + rsub(Be)), (where the atomic radii refer to coordination number 12) and the dsub(Be-Be) distances are contracted. In the CaCu 5 structure adopted at composition MBe 5 , dsub(M-Be) < (rsub(M) + rsub(Be)) and interactions between unlike atoms are significant. The structural characteristics, occurrence, and the stabilities of these phases, and of the others mentioned above, are discussed in terms of atomic radius ratios, the position of the M component in the periodic table, and the value of the univalent ionic radius of the M component, taken as a measure of the extension in space of the hard incompressible ionic core. Though the compound-forming characteristics of beryllium are largely dictated by its small atomic diameter, other factors such as the nature of the bonding which can be exerted by the partner atoms are also significant. In particular, the proportions of the volumes of the atoms which are occupied by the hard incompressible ionic cores assume importance. (author)

  11. Substantiation of rate setting of surface contamination with amino acids, labelled with tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhesko, T.V.

    1987-01-01

    For rate setting of surface contamination with the wide-spread biogenic tritium compounds-protein predecessors-experimental study of skin absorption and skin deposit of amino acids labelled with tritium is carried out on rats. While extrapolating data to people and calculating tolerable skin contamination with 3 H- amino acids, it is supposed that people arm skin, 100-500 cm 2 , has no defects and that the skin surface decontamination after radionuclide contact is carried out with a preparation, efficiency of which is not less than 97%. The value of tolerable skin absorption of tritium amino acids, being 110-550 MBq/year or 4.8 kBq/cm 2 per one working day, is calculated

  12. Portable instrumentation for quantitatively measuring radioactive surface contaminations, including 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodzinski, R.L.

    1983-10-01

    In order to measure the effectiveness of decontamination efforts, a quantitative analysis of the radiocontamination is necessary, both before and after decontamination. Since it is desirable to release the decontaminated material for unrestricted use or disposal, the assay equipment must provide adequate sensitivity to measure the radioactivity at or below the release limit. In addition, the instrumentation must be capable of measuring all kinds of radiocontaminants including fission products, activation products, and transuranic materials. Finally, the survey instrumentation must be extremely versatile in order to assay the wide variety of contaminated surfaces in many environments, some of which may be extremely hostile or remote. This communication describes the development and application of portable instrumentation capable of quantitatively measuring most transuranics, activation products, and fission products, including 90 Sr, on almost any contaminated surface in nearly any location

  13. Longer Contact Times Increase Cross-Contamination of Enterobacter aerogenes from Surfaces to Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Robyn C; Schaffner, Donald W

    2016-11-01

    Bacterial cross-contamination from surfaces to food can contribute to foodborne disease. The cross-contamination rate of Enterobacter aerogenes on household surfaces was evaluated by using scenarios that differed by surface type, food type, contact time (food types were watermelon, bread, bread with butter, and gummy candy. Surfaces (25 cm 2 ) were spot inoculated with 1 ml of inoculum and allowed to dry for 5 h, yielding an approximate concentration of 10 7 CFU/surface. Foods (with a 16-cm 2 contact area) were dropped onto the surfaces from a height of 12.5 cm and left to rest as appropriate. Posttransfer, surfaces and foods were placed in sterile filter bags and homogenized or massaged, diluted, and plated on tryptic soy agar. The transfer rate was quantified as the log percent transfer from the surface to the food. Contact time, food, and surface type all had highly significant effects (P food, while the least bacteria transferred to gummy candy (∼0.1 to 62%). Transfer of bacteria to bread (∼0.02 to 94%) was similar to transfer of bacteria to bread with butter (∼0.02 to 82%), and these transfer rates under a given set of conditions were more variable than with watermelon and gummy candy. The popular notion of the "five-second rule" is that food dropped on the floor and left there for foods (watermelon, bread, bread with butter, and gummy candy), four different contact times (food and the surface, are of equal or greater importance. Some transfer takes place "instantaneously," at times of <1 s, disproving the five-second rule. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Evaluation of surface contamination based on certifiably traceable, internationally accreditable measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    National Accreditation and Measurement Service (NAMAS) adopted by the EUROMET agreement requires that the calibration of monitoring instruments be traceable internationally with the objective that radiation hazard assessment be improved. This objective is achieved for Tritium surface contamination by employing calibration sources and evaluation methods which comply with ISO standards including the measurement of activity removable by Volatilization as well as dust. Consideration should be given to organic binding of tritium in the skin with its implications in the event of litigation. (author)

  15. New miniaturized alpha/beta spectrometric system for the surface contamination monitoring and radon personal dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streil, T.; Oeser, V.; Holfeld, G.

    1998-01-01

    The heart of the new miniaturized alpha/beta spectroscopic system is a Smart Card MCA having a 12 bit resolution and a 32 bit memory for each channel with the size of a cheque card. The system consists of a single or up to 12 alpha spectrometers in a battery powered casing with connectors for direct detector/amplifier module plugging. Surface contamination in the order of 1 Bq/cm 2 of 239 Pu can be measured. (M.D.)

  16. Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: Concomitant Contamination of Air and Environmental Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimose, Luis A; Masuda, Eriko; Sfeir, Maroun; Berbel Caban, Ana; Bueno, Maria X; dePascale, Dennise; Spychala, Caressa N; Cleary, Timothy; Namias, Nicholas; Kett, Daniel H; Doi, Yohei; Munoz-Price, L Silvia

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To concomitantly determine the differential degrees of air and environmental contamination by Acinetobacter baumannii based on anatomic source of colonization and type of ICU layout (single-occupancy vs open layout). DESIGN Longitudinal prospective surveillance study of air and environmental surfaces in patient rooms. SETTING A 1,500-bed public teaching hospital in Miami, Florida. PATIENTS Consecutive A. baumannii-colonized patients admitted to our ICUs between October 2013 and February 2014. METHODS Air and environmental surfaces of the rooms of A. baumannii-colonized patients were sampled daily for up to 10 days. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to type and match the matching air, environmental, and clinical A. baumannii isolates. RESULTS A total of 25 A. baumannii-colonized patients were identified during the study period; 17 were colonized in the respiratory tract and 8 were colonized in the rectum. In rooms with rectally colonized patients, 38.3% of air samples were positive for A. baumannii; in rooms of patients with respiratory colonization, 13.1% of air samples were positive (P=.0001). In rooms with rectally colonized patients, 15.5% of environmental samples were positive for A. baumannii; in rooms of patients with respiratory colonization, 9.5% of environmental samples were positive (P=.02). The rates of air contamination in the open-layout and single-occupancy ICUs were 17.9% and 21.8%, respectively (P=.5). Environmental surfaces were positive in 9.5% of instances in open-layout ICUs versus 13.4% in single-occupancy ICUs (P=.09). CONCLUSIONS Air and environmental surface contaminations were significantly greater among rectally colonized patients; however, ICU layout did not influence the rate of contamination. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:777-781.

  17. Device for determining the gross weight, dose rate, surface contamination and/or nuclide inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Barrels with low nuclide inventories (about 1E6 Bq) and with high inventories (1E13 Bq) are inspected with the barrel inspection system. The system provides a rotating plate, which is part of some scales and a measuring sensor arrangement for this purpose. The surface contamination and nuclide inventories of the 200 litre barrels can be calculated from the weight and radiation detector values. (DG) [de

  18. Chemical disinfection of non-porous inanimate surfaces experimentally contaminated with four human pathogenic viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Sattar, S. A.; Springthorpe, V. S.; Karim, Y.; Loro, P.

    1989-01-01

    The chemical disinfection of virus-contaminated non-porous inanimate surfaces was investigated using coxsackievirus B3, adenovirus type 5, parainfluenza virus type 3 and coronavirus 229E as representatives of important nosocomial viral pathogens. A 10 microliter amount of the test virus, suspended in either faeces or mucin, was placed onto each stainless steel disk (about 1 cm in diameter) and the inoculum allowed to dry for 1 h under ambient conditions. Sixteen disinfectant formulations were...

  19. Multiple containment for LSA [low specific activity] and SCO [surface contaminated objects] wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, M.H.

    1993-09-01

    Radioactive wastes are generally transported in the form of Low Specific Activity (LSA) materials or Surface Contaminated Objects (SCO). This report proposes that a method of acknowledging the beneficial effects of multiple containment for such wastes should be written into the 1996 Edition of the IAEA Transport Regulations. Experience used to assess risks from on-site movements of radioactive material in the UK can be applied to develop safety arguments justifying the alleviation of off-site transport risks. (UK)

  20. Model for the assessment of surface radionuclide 210 Pb contamination indoors due to presence of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrdja, D.; Bikit, I.; Forkapic, S.

    2009-01-01

    The model is based on the fact that the change of indoor radon concentration, which periodically enters the room, affects only on radioactive decay and the inserted amount of radon in each impact, but not on its diffusion out, i.e. escape from the room. The aim of the model is to assess the surface contamination of the room by lead 210 Pb. (author) [sr

  1. Risk assessment based on current release standards for radioactive surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.

    1993-09-01

    Standards for uncontrolled releases of radioactive surface contamination have been in existence in the United States for about two decades. Such standards have been issued by various agencies, including the US Department of Energy. This paper reviews the technical basis of published standards, identifies areas in need of revision, provides risk interpretations based on current technical knowledge and the regulatory environment, and offers suggestions for improvements

  2. Detecting buried radium contamination using soil-gas and surface-flux radon meaurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, K.E.

    1988-06-01

    The Technical Measurements Center (TMC) has investigated the effectiveness of using radon soil-gas under surface-flux measurments to locate radium contamination that is buried sufficiently deep to be undetectable by surface gamma methods. At the first test site studied, an indication of a buried source was revealed by mapping anomalous surface-flux and soil-gas concentrations in the near surface overburden. The mapped radon anomalies were found to correspond in rough outline to the shape of the areal extent of the deposit as determined by borehole gamma-ray logs. The 5.9pCi/g radium deposit, buried 2 feet below the surface, went undetected by conventional surface gamma measurements. Similar results were obtained at the second test site where radon and conventional surface gamma measurements were taken in an area having radium concentrations ranging from 13.3 to 341.0 pCi/g at a depth of 4 feet below the surface. The radon methods were found to have a detection limit for buried radium lower than that of the surface gamma methods, as evidenced by the discovery of the 13.3 pCi/g deposit which went undetected by the surface gamma methods. 15 refs., 33 figs., 8 tabs

  3. Trench 'bathtubbing' and surface plutonium contamination at a legacy radioactive waste site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Timothy E; Harrison, Jennifer J; Hughes, Catherine E; Johansen, Mathew P; Thiruvoth, Sangeeth; Wilsher, Kerry L; Cendón, Dioni I; Hankin, Stuart I; Rowling, Brett; Zawadzki, Atun

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive waste containing a few grams of plutonium (Pu) was disposed between 1960 and 1968 in trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), near Sydney, Australia. A water sampling point installed in a former trench has enabled the radionuclide content of trench water and the response of the water level to rainfall to be studied. The trench water contains readily measurable Pu activity (~12 Bq/L of (239+240)Pu in 0.45 μm-filtered water), and there is an associated contamination of Pu in surface soils. The highest (239+240)Pu soil activity was 829 Bq/kg in a shallow sample (0-1 cm depth) near the trench sampling point. Away from the trenches, the elevated concentrations of Pu in surface soils extend for tens of meters down-slope. The broader contamination may be partly attributable to dispersion events in the first decade after disposal, after which a layer of soil was added above the trenched area. Since this time, further Pu contamination has occurred near the trench-sampler within this added layer. The water level in the trench-sampler responds quickly to rainfall and intermittently reaches the surface, hence the Pu dispersion is attributed to saturation and overflow of the trenches during extreme rainfall events, referred to as the 'bathtub' effect.

  4. Trench ‘Bathtubbing’ and Surface Plutonium Contamination at a Legacy Radioactive Waste Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive waste containing a few grams of plutonium (Pu) was disposed between 1960 and 1968 in trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), near Sydney, Australia. A water sampling point installed in a former trench has enabled the radionuclide content of trench water and the response of the water level to rainfall to be studied. The trench water contains readily measurable Pu activity (∼12 Bq/L of 239+240Pu in 0.45 μm-filtered water), and there is an associated contamination of Pu in surface soils. The highest 239+240Pu soil activity was 829 Bq/kg in a shallow sample (0–1 cm depth) near the trench sampling point. Away from the trenches, the elevated concentrations of Pu in surface soils extend for tens of meters down-slope. The broader contamination may be partly attributable to dispersion events in the first decade after disposal, after which a layer of soil was added above the trenched area. Since this time, further Pu contamination has occurred near the trench-sampler within this added layer. The water level in the trench-sampler responds quickly to rainfall and intermittently reaches the surface, hence the Pu dispersion is attributed to saturation and overflow of the trenches during extreme rainfall events, referred to as the ‘bathtub’ effect. PMID:24256473

  5. Detection of fecal contamination on beef meat surfaces using handheld fluorescence imaging device (HFID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Mirae; Lee, Hoonsoo; Cho, Hyunjeong; Moon, Sang-Ho; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Moon S.

    2016-05-01

    Current meat inspection in slaughter plants, for food safety and quality attributes including potential fecal contamination, is conducted through by visual examination human inspectors. A handheld fluorescence-based imaging device (HFID) was developed to be an assistive tool for human inspectors by highlighting contaminated food and food contact surfaces on a display monitor. It can be used under ambient lighting conditions in food processing plants. Critical components of the imaging device includes four 405-nm 10-W LEDs for fluorescence excitation, a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, optical filter (670 nm used for this study), and Wi-Fi transmitter for broadcasting real-time video/images to monitoring devices such as smartphone and tablet. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of HFID in enhancing visual detection of fecal contamination on red meat, fat, and bone surfaces of beef under varying ambient luminous intensities (0, 10, 30, 50 and 70 foot-candles). Overall, diluted feces on fat, red meat and bone areas of beef surfaces were detectable in the 670-nm single-band fluorescence images when using the HFID under 0 to 50 foot-candle ambient lighting.

  6. Mathematical simulation of sediment and contaminant transport in surface waters. Annual report, October 1977--September 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Arnold, E.M.; Serne, R.J.; Cowan, C.E.; Thompson, F.L.; Mayer, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Various pathways exist for exposure of humans and biota to radioactive materials released from nuclear facilities. Hydrologic transport (liquid pathway) is one element in the evaluation of the total radiation dose to man. Mathematical models supported by well-planned field data collection programs can be useful tools in assessing the hydrologic transport and ultimate fate of radionuclides. Radionuclides with high distribution coefficients or radionuclides in surface waters with high suspended sediment concentrations are, to a great extent, adsorbed by river and marine sediments. Thus, otherwise dilute contaminants are concentrated. Contaminated sediments may be deposited on the river and ocean beds creating a significant pathway to man. Contaminated bed sediment in turn may become a long-term source of pollution through desorption and resuspension. In order to assess migration and accumulation of radionuclides in surface waters, mathematical models must correctly simulate essential mechanisms of radionuclide transport. The objectives of this study were: (1) to conduct a critical review of (a) radionuclide transport models as well as sediment transport and representative water quality models in rivers, estuaries, oceans, lakes, and reservoirs, and (b) adsorption and desorption mechanisms of radionuclides with sediments in surface waters; (2) to synthesize a mathematical model capable of predicting short- and long-term transport and accumulation of radionuclides in marine environments

  7. Mitigation of cesium and cobalt contamination on the surfaces of RAM packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumhansl, J.; Bonhomme, F.; McConnell, P.; Kapoor, A.

    2004-01-01

    Techniques for mitigating the adsorption of 137 Cs and 60 Co on metal surfaces (e.g., RAM packages) exposed to contaminated water (e.g., spent-fuel pools) has been developed and experimentally verified. The techniques are also effective in removing some of the 60 Co and 137 Cs that may have been adsorbed on the surfaces after removal from the contaminated water. The principle for the 137 Cs mitigation technique is based upon ion-exchange processes. In contrast, 60 Co contamination primarily resides in minute particles of CRUD that become lodged on cask surfaces. CRUD is an insoluble Fe-Ni-Cr oxide that forms colloidal-sized particles as stainless steels corrode. Because of the similarity between Ni +2 and Co +2 , CRUD is able to scavenge and retain traces of cobalt as it forms. A number of organic compounds have a great specificity for combining with nickel and cobalt. Ongoing research is investigating the effectiveness of chemical complexing agent, EDTA, with regard to its ability to dissolve the host phase (CRUD) thereby liberating the entrained 60Co into a solution where it can be rinsed away

  8. Linking otolith microchemistry and surface water contamination from natural gas mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, David H; Zelanko, Paula M; Gagnon, Joel E; Horwitz, Richard J; Galbraith, Heather S; Velinsky, David J

    2018-09-01

    Unconventional natural gas drilling and the use of hydraulic fracturing technology have expanded rapidly in North America. This expansion has raised concerns of surface water contamination by way of spills and leaks, which may be sporadic, small, and therefore difficult to detect. Here we explore the use of otolith microchemistry as a tool for monitoring surface water contamination from generated waters (GW) of unconventional natural gas drilling. We exposed Brook Trout in the laboratory to three volumetric concentrations of surrogate generated water (SGW) representing GW on day five of drilling. Transects across otolith cross-sections were analyzed for a suite of elements by LA-ICP-MS. Brook Trout exposed to a 0.01-1.0% concentration of SGW for 2, 15, and 30 days showed a significant (p waters and provide support for the use of this technique in natural habitats. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of how trace elements in fish otoliths may be used to monitor for surface water contamination from GW. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Surface Sampling Collection and Culture Methods for Escherichia coli in Household Environments with High Fecal Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exum, Natalie G; Kosek, Margaret N; Davis, Meghan F; Schwab, Kellogg J

    2017-08-22

    Empiric quantification of environmental fecal contamination is an important step toward understanding the impact that water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions have on reducing enteric infections. There is a need to standardize the methods used for surface sampling in field studies that examine fecal contamination in low-income settings. The dry cloth method presented in this manuscript improves upon the more commonly used swabbing technique that has been shown in the literature to have a low sampling efficiency. The recovery efficiency of a dry electrostatic cloth sampling method was evaluated using Escherichia coli and then applied to household surfaces in Iquitos, Peru, where there is high fecal contamination and enteric infection. Side-by-side measurements were taken from various floor locations within a household at the same time over a three-month period to compare for consistency of quantification of E. coli bacteria. The dry cloth sampling method in the laboratory setting showed 105% (95% Confidence Interval: 98%, 113%) E. coli recovery efficiency off of the cloths. The field application demonstrated strong agreement of side-by-side results (Pearson correlation coefficient for dirt surfaces was 0.83 ( p samples (Pearson (0.53, p method can be utilized in households with high bacterial loads using either continuous (quantitative) or categorical (semi-quantitative) data. The standardization of this low-cost, dry electrostatic cloth sampling method can be used to measure differences between households in intervention and non-intervention arms of randomized trials.

  10. Study of luminous phenomena observed on contaminated metallic surfaces submitted to high RF fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maissa, S.; Junquera, T.; Fouaidy, M.; Le Goff, A.; Bonin, B.; Luong, M.; Safa, H.; Tan, J.

    1995-01-01

    The RF field emission from a sample subjected to high RF fields in a copper cavity has been investigated. The study is focused on the luminous emissions occurring on the RF surface simultaneously with the electron emission. The optical apparatus attached to the cavity permits to observe the evolution of the emitters and the direct effects of the surface conditioning. Also, the parameters of the emitted radiation (intensity, glowing duration, spectral distribution) may provide additional informations on the field emission phenomena. Some results concerning samples intentionally contaminated with particles (metallic or dielectric) are presented. (K.A.)

  11. Surface and subsurface characterization of uranium contamination at the Fernald environmental management site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilk, A.J.; Perkins, R.W.; Abel, K.H.; Brodzinski, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    The past operations of uranium production and support facilities at several Department of Energy (DOE) sites have occasionally resulted in the local contamination of some surface and subsurface soils, and the three-dimensional distribution of the uranium at these sites must be thoroughly characterized before any effective remedial protocols can be established. To this end, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been tasked by the DOE's Office of Technology Development with adapting, developing, and demonstrating technologies for the measurement of uranium in surface and subsurface soils at the Fernald Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration site. These studies are detailed in this report

  12. Solid state bonding of beryllium-copper for an ITER first wall application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odegard, B.C. Jr.; Cadden, C.H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Several different joint assemblies were evaluated in support of a manufacturing technology for diffusion bonding a beryllium armor tile to a copper alloy heat sink for fusion reactor applications. Because beryllium reacts with all but a few elements to form intermetallic compounds, this study considered several different surface treatments as a means of both inhibiting these reactions and promoting a good diffusion bond between the two substrates. All diffusion bonded assemblies used aluminum or an aluminum-beryllium composite (AlBeMet-150) as the interfacial material in contact with beryllium. In most cases, explosive bonding was utilized as a technique for joining the copper alloy heat sink to an aluminum or AlBeMet-150 substrate, which was subsequently diffusion bonded to an aluminum coated beryllium tile. In this approach, a 250 {mu}m thick titanium foil was used as a diffusion barrier between the copper and aluminum to prevent the formation of Cu-Al intermetallic phases. In all cases, a hot isostatic pressing (HIP) furnace was used in conjunction with canned assemblies in order to minimize oxidation and apply sufficient pressure on the assembly for excellent metal-to-metal contact and subsequent bonding. Several different processing schedules were evaluated during the course of this study; bonded assemblies were produced that failed outside the bond area indicating a 100% joint efficiency. (author)

  13. Solid state bonding of beryllium-copper for an ITER first wall application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odegard, B.C. Jr.; Cadden, C.H.

    1998-02-01

    Several different joint assemblies were evaluated in support of a manufacturing technology for diffusion bonding a beryllium armor tile to a copper alloy heat sink for fusion reactor applications. Because beryllium reacts with all but a few elements to form intermetallic compounds, this study considered several different surface treatments as a means of both inhibiting these reactions and promoting a good diffusion bond between the two substrates. A diffusion bonded assemblies used aluminum or an aluminum-beryllium composite (AlBeMet-150) as the interfacial material in contact with beryllium. In most cases, explosive bonding was utilized as a technique for joining the copper alloy heat sink to an aluminum or AlBeMet-150 substrate, which was subsequently diffusion bonded to an aluminum coated beryllium tile. In this approach, a 250 microm thick titanium foil was used as a diffusion barrier between the copper and aluminum to prevent the formation of Cu-Al intermetallic phases. In all cases, a hot isostatic pressing (HIP) furnace was used in conjunction with canned assemblies in order to minimize oxidation and apply sufficient pressure on the assembly for excellent metal-to-metal contact and subsequent bonding. Several different processing schedules were evaluated during the course of this study; bonded assemblies were produced that failed outside the bond area indicating a 100% joint efficiency

  14. Methane Bubbles Transport Particles From Contaminated Sediment to a Lake Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delwiche, K.; Hemond, H.

    2017-12-01

    Methane bubbling from aquatic sediments has long been known to transport carbon to the atmosphere, but new evidence presented here suggests that methane bubbles also transport particulate matter to a lake surface. This transport pathway is of particular importance in lakes with contaminated sediments, as bubble transport could increase human exposure to toxic metals. The Upper Mystic Lake in Arlington, MA has a documented history of methane bubbling and sediment contamination by arsenic and other heavy metals, and we have conducted laboratory and field studies demonstrating that methane bubbles are capable of transporting sediment particles over depths as great as 15 m in Upper Mystic Lake. Methane bubble traps were used in-situ to capture particles adhered to bubble interfaces, and to relate particle mass transport to bubble flux. Laboratory studies were conducted in a custom-made 15 m tall water column to quantify the relationship between water column height and the mass of particulate transport. We then couple this particle transport data with historical estimates of ebullition from Upper Mystic Lake to quantify the significance of bubble-mediated particle transport to heavy metal cycling within the lake. Results suggest that methane bubbles can represent a significant pathway for contaminated sediment to reach surface waters even in relatively deep water bodies. Given the frequent co-occurrence of contaminated sediments and high bubble flux rates, and the potential for human exposure to heavy metals, it will be critical to study the significance of this transport pathway for a range of sediment and contaminant types.

  15. A simplified ALARA approach to demonstration of compliance with surface contaminated object regulatory requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Shappert, L.B.; Michelhaugh, R.D.; Boyle, R.W.; Cook, J.C.

    1998-02-01

    The US Department of Transportation (DOT) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have jointly prepared a comprehensive set of draft guidance for consignors and inspectors to use when applying the newly imposed regulatory requirements for low specific activity (LSA) material and surface contaminated objects (SCOs). The guidance is being developed to facilitate compliance with the new LSA material and SCO requirements, not to impose additional requirements. These new requirements represent, in some areas, significant departures from the manner in which packaging and transportation of these materials and objects were previously controlled. On occasion, it may be appropriate to use conservative approaches to demonstrate compliance with some of the requirements, ensuring that personnel are not exposed to radiation at unnecessary levels, so that exposures are kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). In the draft guidance, one such approach would assist consignors preparing a shipment of a large number of SCOs in demonstrating compliance without unnecessarily exposing personnel. In applying this approach, users need to demonstrate that four conditions are met. These four conditions are used to categorize non-activated, contaminated objects as SCO-2. It is expected that, by applying this approach, it will be possible to categorize a large number of small contaminated objects as SCO-2 without the need for detailed, quantitative measurements of fixed, accessible contamination, or of total (fixed and non-fixed) contamination on inaccessible surfaces. The method, which is based upon reasoned argument coupled with limited measurements and the application of a sum of fractions rule, is described and examples of its use are provided

  16. Metals Accumulation and Leaf Surface Anatomy of Murdannia spectabilis Growing in Zn/Cd Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladawan Rattanapolsan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Murdannia spectabilis (Kurz Faden was identified as a Zn/Cd hyperaccumulative plant. Leaf surface anatomy of the plant growing in non-contaminated soil (control and Zn/Cd contaminated soil,was studied and compared by a light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy combined with Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(SEM/EDS. The similarities were reticulate cuticle on epidermises, uniform polygonal cell, stomatal arrangement in six surrounding subsidiary cells, and submarginal sclerenchyma. The dissimilarities were uniserate trichomes spreading on both adaxial and abaxial epidermis of the plants growing in non-contaminated soil, whereas the uniserate trichomes were only on the submarginal-adaxial epidermis of the control plants. The trichomes on leaves of the plants growing in non-contaminated soil were found to have both uniseriate non-glandular and uniseriate glandular trichomes;whereas, leaves of the plants growing in the contaminated soil were merely non-glandular trichomes. The different shape and location of trichomes, the number of stomata and trichome indicated the effect of Zn and Cd on M. spectabilis. The higher percentages of Zn and Cd in the vascular bundle than in the cross section and epidermis areas showed both solutes could move along each route, with diffusion through the symplast and apoplast. The increase of Ca in M. spectabilis growing in Zn/Cd contaminated soil corresponded to the Zn and Cd distributed in the leaves. Zn K-edge and S K-edge XANES spectra proposed that Zn2+ ions were accumulated and/or adsorbed on the epidermis of the tuber, and then absorbed into the root and transport to the xylem. The double peaks of Zn-cysteine in the leaf samples proposed the metal sequestration was by sulphur proteins.

  17. Limits determination of microbial contamination present on surfaces from a pharmaceutical microbiology district reference laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Charry

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Context: The bioburden present on the pharmaceutical microbiology laboratory’s surfaces, may increase the risk of cross-contamination when analytical tests are being carried out; periodic monitoring allows to set limits that reduce the risk. Aims: To determinate the limits of bioburden present on seven surfaces of the pharmaceutical microbiology laboratory, after the cleaning and disinfection process. Methods: The swabbing method was used for sampling. With a 25 cm2 stencil and a sterile swab, a sample was taken, passing the swab over five points of every surface chosen. A total aerobic microbial count and a total yeast and mold count was done. Finally, the average and the standard deviation of the counts was obtained. Results: The average from the counts obtained on each surface selected for the study, were below the recommended limits by international entities like the World Health Organization and the European Union, between others; also, the results generated in this study, allow to classify the biosafety cabinet as an ISO 5 area and the other areas as ISO 7. Conclusions: Bioburden levels on the tested surfaces are considered low, reducing the risk of cross-contamination, which could have a negative impact on laboratory’s activities. Also, it follows that disinfectant concentration used, is effectively.

  18. Radon-induced surface contaminations in neutrinoless double beta decay and dark matter experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattavina, L.

    2011-01-01

    In experiments looking for rare events, like neutrinoless double beta decay (DBD0ν) and dark matter search (DM), one of the main issues is to increase the experimental sensitivity through the material selection and production. The background contribution coming from the materials used for the detector realization has to be minimized. Moreover the net reduction of the background produced by the bulk part of the apparatus has raised concerns about the background contribution coming from the surfaces. Many procedures and techniques were developed during the last years in order to remove and to minimize the presence of possible contaminants on detector surfaces. To succeed in this strategy a big effort was put in defining all possible mechanisms that lead to surface contaminations, as well as specific cleaning procedures, which are able to reduce and control the surface radioactivity. The presence in air and gases of possible radioactive elements that can stick on the detector surfaces can lead to a recontamination process that will vanish all the applied cleaning procedures. Here is presented and analyzed the contribution to the background of rare events experiments like CUORE experiment (DBD0ν) and EDELWEISS experiment (DM) produced by an exposure of their detector components to a big activity of 222 Rn, radioactive daughter isotope from the 238 U chain. (author)

  19. Determination of the external contamination and cross-contamination by cytotoxic drugs on the surfaces of vials available on the Swiss market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury-Souverain, Sandrine; Nussbaumer, Susanne; Mattiuzzo, Marc; Bonnabry, Pascal

    2014-04-01

    The external contamination and cross-contamination by cytotoxic drugs on the surface (outside and septum) of 133 vials from various manufacturers and available on the Swiss market were evaluated. All of the tested vials contained one of the following active ingredients: cyclophosphamide, cytarabine, doxorubicin, epirubicin, etoposide phosphate, gemcitabine, ifosfamide, irinotecan, methotrexate or vincristine. The validated wiping liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method used in this study allowed for the simultaneous determination of these 10 cytotoxic drugs in less than 30 min. External contamination by cytotoxic drugs was detected on 63% of tested vials (outside and septum). The highest contamination level was observed on etoposide phosphate vials with 1896.66 ng of active ingredient on the outside of the vial. Approximately 20% of the contaminated vials had greater than 10 ng of cytotoxic drugs. Chemical contamination on the septum was detected on 38% of the vials. No contamination or very low levels of cytotoxic drugs, less than 1 ng per vial, were detected on the vials protected by plastic shrink-wrap. Traces of cytotoxic drugs different from the active ingredient were detected on 35% of the tested vials. Handling cytotoxic vials with gloves and having a procedure for the decontamination of vials are of the utmost importance for reducing exposure to cytotoxic drugs. Moreover, manufacturers must improve their procedures to provide products free from any contamination.

  20. Accuracy Analysis of a Robotic Radionuclide Inspection and Mapping System for Surface Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauer, Georg F.; Kawa, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The mapping of localized regions of radionuclide contamination in a building can be a time consuming and costly task. Humans moving hand-held radiation detectors over the target areas are subject to fatigue. A contamination map based on manual surveys can contain significant operator-induced inaccuracies. A Fanuc M16i light industrial robot has been configured for installation on a mobile aerial work platform, such as a tall forklift. When positioned in front of a wall or floor surface, the robot can map the radiation levels over a surface area of up to 3 m by 3 m. The robot's end effector is a commercial alpha-beta radiation sensor, augmented with range and collision avoidance sensors to ensure operational safety as well as to maintain a constant gap between surface and radiation sensors. The accuracy and repeatability of the robotically conducted contamination surveys is directly influenced by the sensors and other hardware employed. This paper presents an in-depth analysis of various non-contact sensors for gap measurement, and the means to compensate for predicted systematic errors that arise during the area survey scans. The range sensor should maintain a constant gap between the radiation counter and the surface being inspected. The inspection robot scans the wall surface horizontally, moving down at predefined vertical intervals after each scan in a meandering pattern. A number of non-contact range sensors can be employed for the measurement of the gap between the robot end effector and the wall. The nominal gap width was specified as 10 mm, with variations during a single scan not to exceed ± 2 mm. Unfinished masonry or concrete walls typically exhibit irregularities, such as holes, gaps, or indentations in mortar joints. These irregularities can be sufficiently large to indicate a change of the wall contour. The responses of different sensor types to the wall irregularities vary, depending on their underlying principles of operation. We explored

  1. 75 FR 80734 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... are used in nuclear weapons as nuclear reactor moderators or reflectors and as nuclear reactor fuel...), grinding, and machine tooling of parts. Inhalation of beryllium particles may cause chronic beryllium...

  2. Atmospheric pressure plasma cleaning of contamination surfaces. 1997 mid-year progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, R.; Selwyn, G.S.

    1997-01-01

    'Goals of the project are to (1) identify the key physics and chemistry underlying the use of high pressure plasmas for etching removal of actinides and actinide surrogates; and (2) identify key surface reactions and plasma physics necessary for optimization of the atmospheric pressure plasma jet. Technical description of the work decommissioning of transuranic waste (TRU) into low-level radioactive waste (LLW) represents the largest cleanup cost associated with the nuclear weapons complex. This work is directed towards developing a low-cost plasma technology capable of converting TRU into LLW, based upon highly selective plasma etching of plutonium and other actinides from contaminated surfaces. In this way, only the actinide material is removed, leaving the surface less contaminated. The plasma etches actinide material by producing a volatile halide compound, which may be efficiently trapped using filters. To achieve practical, low-cost operation of a plasma capable of etching actinide materials, the authors have developed a y-mode, resonant-cavity, atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ). In contrast to conventional, low pressure plasmas, the APPJ produces a purely-chemical effluent free of ions, and so achieves very high selectivity and produces negligible damage to the surface. Since the jet operates outside a chamber, many nuclear wastes may be treated including machinery, duct-work, concrete and other building materials. In some cases, it may be necessary to first remove paint from contaminated surfaces using a plasma selective for that surface, then to switch to the actinide etching chemistry for removal of actinide contamination. The goal of this work is to develop the underlying science required for maturation of this technology and to establish early version engineering prototypes. Accomplishments to Date The authors have made significant progress in this program. The work conducted jointly at Los Alamos and at UCLA. This has been facilitated by exchange

  3. Atmospheric pressure plasma cleaning of contamination surfaces. 1997 mid-year progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selwyn, G.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Hicks, R. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (US)

    1997-06-01

    'Goals of the project are to (1) identify the key physics and chemistry underlying the use of high pressure plasmas for etching removal of actinides and actinide surrogates; and (2) identify key surface reactions and plasma physics necessary for optimization of the atmospheric pressure plasma jet. Technical description of the work decommissioning of transuranic waste (TRU) into low-level radioactive waste (LLW) represents the largest cleanup cost associated with the nuclear weapons complex. This work is directed towards developing a low-cost plasma technology capable of converting TRU into LLW, based upon highly selective plasma etching of plutonium and other actinides from contaminated surfaces. In this way, only the actinide material is removed, leaving the surface less contaminated. The plasma etches actinide material by producing a volatile halide compound, which may be efficiently trapped using filters. To achieve practical, low-cost operation of a plasma capable of etching actinide materials, the authors have developed a y-mode, resonant-cavity, atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ). In contrast to conventional, low pressure plasmas, the APPJ produces a purely-chemical effluent free of ions, and so achieves very high selectivity and produces negligible damage to the surface. Since the jet operates outside a chamber, many nuclear wastes may be treated including machinery, duct-work, concrete and other building materials. In some cases, it may be necessary to first remove paint from contaminated surfaces using a plasma selective for that surface, then to switch to the actinide etching chemistry for removal of actinide contamination. The goal of this work is to develop the underlying science required for maturation of this technology and to establish early version engineering prototypes. Accomplishments to Date The authors have made significant progress in this program. The work conducted jointly at Los Alamos and at UCLA. This has been facilitated by

  4. Determination of beryllium in water using silica gel chemically modified with aminophosphonic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajtseva, G.N.; Strelko, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    Considered are methods of Be determination based on Be isolation from the solutions using aminophosphonic acid covalently bound on silica gel surface (APA-SiO 2 ) and subsequent photometric or atomic-absorption determination of Be in eluate ( the limit of Be determination is 0.00005 mg/l or 0.00008 mg/l, respectively). APA-SiO 2 high efficiency and a possibility of beryllium ions extraction from diluted solutions by means of sorbent small weighed portions is shown. High efficiency of the sorbent both for concentration and waters purification from beryllium is shown. Methods are tested in analysis of waste water. To assess the accuracy of the proposed methods, parallel determination of beryllium in tests by means of the additions method was carried out. The given data testify to a sufficient accuracy and reproducibility of the proposed methods [ru

  5. Using Contaminant Transport Modeling to Determine Historical Discharges at the Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogwell, T. W.

    2013-12-01

    When it is determined that a contaminated site needs to be remediated, the issue of who is going to pay for that remediation is an immediate concern. This means that there needs to be a determination of who the responsible parties are for the existing contamination. Seldom is it the case that records have been made and kept of the surface contaminant discharges. In many cases it is possible to determine the relative amount of contaminant discharge at the surface of the various responsible parties by employing a careful analysis of the history of contaminant transport through the surface, through the vadose zone, and within the saturated zone. The process begins with the development of a dynamic conceptual site model that takes into account the important features of the transport of the contaminants through the vadose zone and in the groundwater. The parameters for this model can be derived from flow data available for the site. The resulting contaminant transport model is a composite of the vadose zone transport model, together with the saturated zone (groundwater) flow model. Any calibration of the model should be carefully employed in order to avoid using information about the conclusions of the relative discharge amounts of the responsible parties in determining the calibrated parameters. Determination of the leading edge of the plume is an important first step. It is associated with the first discharges from the surface of the site. If there were several discharging parties at the same time, then it is important to establish a chemical or isotopic signature of the chemicals that were discharged. The time duration of the first discharger needs to be determined as accurately as possible in order to establish the appropriate characterization of the leading portion of the resulting plume in the groundwater. The information about the first discharger and the resulting part of the plume associated with this discharger serves as a basis for the determination of the

  6. Mechanical performance of irradiated beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Dalle-Donne, M.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik

    1998-01-01

    For the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) Blanket, which is one of the two reference concepts studied within the European Fusion Technology Programme, the neutron multiplier consists of a mixed bed of about 2 and 0.1-0.2 mm diameter beryllium pebbles. Beryllium has no structural function in the blanket, however microstructural and mechanical properties are important, as they might influence the material behavior under neutron irradiation. The EXOTIC-7 as well as the `Beryllium` experiments carried out in the HFR reactor in Petten are considered as the most detailed and significant tests for investigating it. This paper reviews the present status of beryllium post-irradiation examinations performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe with samples from these irradiation experiments, emphasizing the effects of irradiation of essential material properties and trying to elucidate the processes controlling the property changes. The microstructure, the porosity distribution, the impurity content, the behavior under compression loads and the compatibility of the beryllium pebbles with lithium orthosilicate (Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}) during the in-pile irradiation are presented and critically discussed. Qualitative information on ductility and creep obtained by hardness-type measurements are also supplied. (author)

  7. Experiments on tritium behavior in beryllium, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Hiroshi; Ishizuka, Etsuo; Matsumoto, Mikio; Inada, Seiji; Sezaki, Katsuji; Saito, Minoru; Kato, Mineo.

    1989-06-01

    In JMTR, it was observed that the tritium concentration of the primary coolant increases with the reactor operation at 50 MW. As one of the tritium generation sources, we paid attention to a neutron reflector made of beryllium because the tritium generation rate in the beryllium is bigger than other components in the reactor core. On the other hand, the irradiation test of blanket materials (i.e. tritium breeding materials and neutron multipling materials) are planned for development of the fusion reactor in JMTR and the beryllium will be also irradiated as a neutron multiplier with tritium breeding materials. Therefore, as the irradiated specimens, we used a hot-pressed beryllium disk fabricated by the same method as the neutron reflector or the neutron multiplier and conducted the irradiation tests in JMTR. The purpose of these tests are to clarify the tritium behavior in the hot-pressed beryllium. In this paper, from a viewpoint of the fabrication of capsules for neutron irradiation, the specifications of the irradiated specimens and capsules are summarized. Additionally, the results on the puncture test of the container of the irradiation specimens are described. (author)

  8. Uptake of radionuclides by wheat roots with respect to location of contamination below the surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suvornmongkhol, Narumon.

    1996-01-01

    The behaviour of 85 Sr, 137 Cs, 54 Mn and 60 Co in terms of plant availability in near surface soil and their root uptake was studied as a function of the location of contamination in the soil profile. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) was employed and the study programme involved both column and hydroponic studies. In the column studies, columns were packed with sandy soil, and either homogeneously or discretely contaminated with the radionuclides, and the water table maintained manually at 3 cm from the bottom. In the discrete contamination, the location of contamination was varied (0-5, 25-30 or 45-50 cm from the top). Wheat plants were grown to maturity in these columns, and harvested at different growth stages to examine radioactivity uptake and its subsequent translocation within the plants. The movement of radionuclides within the soil as well as the soil physicochemical properties were also investigated. The short term uptake kinetics of the hydroponically grown plants during ontogenesis were also studied, both with excised roots and intact plants. The excised root experiment was aimed at investigating the radionuclide by roots of different orders. (author)

  9. Occurrence and behavior of emerging contaminants in surface water and a restored wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamoros, Víctor; Arias, Carlos A; Nguyen, Loc Xuan; Salvadó, Victòria; Brix, Hans

    2012-08-01

    Pollution mitigation is an important target for restored wetlands, and although there is much information in relation to nutrient removal, little attention has been paid to emerging contaminants. This paper reports on the occurrence and attenuation capacity of 17 emerging contaminants in a restored wetland and two rivers in North-East Denmark. The compounds belong to the groups of pharmaceuticals, fragrances, antiseptics, fire retardants, pesticides, and plasticizers. Concentrations in surface waters ranged from 2 to 1476 ng L(-1). The compounds with the highest concentrations were diclofenac, 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), caffeine, and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP). The herbicide concentrations increased after a rain-fall event, demonstrating the agricultural run-off origin of these compounds, whereas the concentration of the other emerging contaminants was rather conservative. The mitigation capacity of the restored wetland for the compounds ranged from no attenuation to 84% attenuation (19% on average). Hence, restored wetlands may be considered as a feasible alternative for mitigating emerging contaminants from river waters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Resistance to disinfection of a polymicrobial association contaminating the surface of elastomeric dental impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammanco, Giovanni M; Melilli, Dario; Rallo, Antonio; Pecorella, Sonia; Mammina, Caterina; Pizzo, Giuseppe

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability to resist disinfection of a polymicrobial association contaminating the surface of dental impressions obtained with two different elastomers: a polyether (Impregum) and an addition-polymerized silicone (Elite). Impressions were contaminated with a mixture of three biofilm-forming microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans) and disinfected immediately after contamination, or after microbial layers were allowed to develop during a six-hour storage. Two commercial disinfectants were tested: MD 520 containing 0.5% glutaraldehyde and Sterigum Powder without glutaraldehyde. Residual contamination was recovered by mechanical rinsing immediately after disinfection and after a six-hour storage of disinfected impressions, and assessed by colony counting. Both disinfectants tested were shown to be effective in reducing the microbial presence on the impression materials, achieving at least a 102 reduction of microbial counts compared to water rinsing. However, Sterigum was generally less effective on the Elite elastomer and could not grant disinfection on six-hour aged P. aeruginosa and C. albicans microbial layers. The results of this study suggest that the materials used for the impressions influence the efficacy of disinfection. Disinfectants should be tested according to conditions encountered in everyday clinical practice and the need for immediate disinfection of impressions should be clearly indicated by manufacturers.

  11. Leachability characteristics of beryllium in redmud waste and its stabilization in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saradhi, I.V.; Mahadevan, T.N.; Krishnamoorthy, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    More than 70% of the beryl ore processed by the Beryllium Metal Plant at the BARC Vashi Complex ends up as redmud waste. The presence of significant quantities (0.4 to 0.8%) of beryllium in the redmud qualifies it as hazardous requiring safe handling, storage and disposal. The waste also contains 0.09% of water soluble fluoride. The various standard protocol of procedures were employed to estimate the leachability of beryllium from redmud for both short term and long term periods. Nearly 50% of beryllium present in redmud is leachable in water. We have tried the stabilization of redmud using portland cement. The proportion of redmud to cement was in the ratio of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:4. The blocks were cast, cured and used in the leachability experiments using standard protocols as above. The results of the TCLP test gave the levels of beryllium well below the standard limits in the TCLP extract of cement stabilized waste indicating the suitability of stabilization of redmud with cement whereas that of raw waste (redmud) are much higher than the prescribed limits. The total leach percent of beryllium in 1:2 block is 0.05% over period of 164 days whereas 1:1 and 1:4 gave a leach percent of 0.26 and 0.15% respectively. The DLT results indicate, diffusion controlled release of beryllium from the cement stabilized redmud blocks. The effective diffusion coefficient of beryllium obtained from the modelling study is 10 orders of magnitude less than the molecular diffusion coefficient of beryllium indicating the effectiveness of cement stabilization. From the detailed experiments performed, it is felt that 1:2 proportion of redmud and cement will be the best suited option for stabilization of redmud waste. The 1:1 proportion of redmud to cement mixture which could not be cast into compact cement blocks also exhibited very low leachability characteristics similar to 1:2 and 1:4 and can be be favourably considered for stabilization in case of space constraints at storage sites. The

  12. Model study in chemisorption: atomic hydrogen on beryllium clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauschlicher, C.W. Jr.

    1976-08-01

    The interaction between atomic hydrogen and the (0001) surface of Be metal has been studied by ab initio electronic structure theory. Self-consistent-field (SCF) calculations have been performed using minimum, optimized minimum, double zeta and mixed basis sets for clusters as large as 22 Be atoms. The binding energy and equilibrium geometry (the distance to the surface) were determined for 4 sites. Both spatially restricted (the wavefunction was constrained to transform as one of the irreducible representations of the molecular point group) and unrestricted SCF calculations were performed. Using only the optimized minimum basis set, clusters containing as many as 22 beryllium atoms have been investigated. From a variety of considerations, this cluster is seen to be nearly converged within the model used, providing the most reliable results for chemisorption. The site dependence of the frequency is shown to be a geometrical effect depending on the number and angle of the bonds. The diffusion of atomic hydrogen through a perfect beryllium crystal is predicted to be energetically unfavorable. The cohesive energy, the ionization energy and the singlet-triplet separation were computed for the clusters without hydrogen. These quantities can be seen as a measure of the total amount of edge effects. The chemisorptive properties are not related to the total amount of edge effects, but rather the edge effects felt by the adsorbate bonding berylliums. This lack of correlation with the total edge effects illustrates the local nature of the bonding, further strengthening the cluster model for chemisorption. A detailed discussion of the bonding and electronic structure is included. The remaining edge effects for the Be 22 cluster are discussed

  13. Direct-scanning alpha spectrometer for americium and plutonium contamination on highly-enriched uranium surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, W.C.; Martinez, H.E.; Abeyta, C.L.; Morgan, A.N.; Nelson, T.O.

    1997-01-01

    Trace Pu 239 and Am 241 contamination on a surface whose alpha count is dominated by U 235 and U 234 decay has been successfully quantified by counting swipes in external alpha spectroscopy chambers. The swipe process, however, is labor intensive and subject to uncertainties in the swiping process as well as degraded spectral resolution due to the presence of the swipe material. A multichannel instrument for automated in situ measurements of interior and exterior contamination has been developed which incorporates a rotary table, 13 fixed ion-implanted silicon detectors, and spectroscopy electronics. Custom software was written to allow alpha spectrometer to function as a virtual instrument in the LabView environment. This system gives improved speed and resolution as well as a complete log of the location of areas of high surface contamination, a feature not practical to obtain by other methods, and one which opens the possibility of long term studies such as Pu outgrowth evaluation employing the instrument. The authors present performance data as well as system integration, calibration, control, and dynamic geometric efficiency calculations related to the design of this and next generation systems

  14. Morphology and Differentiation of MG63 Osteoblast Cells on Saliva Contaminated Implant Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Shams

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Osteoblasts are the most important cells in the osseointegration process. Despite years of study on dental Implants, limited studies have discussed the effect of saliva on the adhesion process of osteoblasts to implant surfaces. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of saliva on morphology and differentiation of osteoblasts attached to implant surfaces.Materials and Methods: Twelve Axiom dental implants were divided into two groups. Implants of the case group were placed in containers, containing saliva, for 40 minutes. Then, all the implants were separately stored in a medium containing MG63 human osteoblasts for a week. Cell morphology and differentiation were assessed using a scanning electron microscope and their alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity was determined. The t-test was used to compare the two groups.Results: Scanning electron microscopic observation of osteoblasts revealed round or square cells with fewer and shorter cellular processes in saliva contaminated samples, whereas elongated, fusiform and well-defined cell processes were seen in the control group. ALP level was significantly lower in case compared to control group (P<0.05.Conclusion: Saliva contamination alters osteoblast morphology and differentiation and may subsequently interfere with successful osseointegration. Thus, saliva contamination of bone and implant must be prevented or minimized.

  15. Analysis of a beryllium-copper diffusion joint after HHF test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiniatouline, R.N.; Mazul, I.V.; Gorodetsky, A.E.; Zalavutdinov, R.Kh.; Rybakov, S.Yu.; Savenko, V.I.

    1996-01-01

    The development of beryllium-copper joints which can withstand relevant ITER divertor conditions is one of the important tasks at the present time. One of the main problems associated with these joints is the intermetallic layers. The strength and life of these joints significantly depend on the width and contents of the intermetallic layers. The objective of this work is to study the diffusion joint of TGP-56 beryllium to OFHC copper after thermal response and thermocyclic tests with a beryllium-copper mock-up. The HHF test was performed on the e-beam facility (EBTS, SNLA). The following methods were used for analysis: roentgenographic analysis, X-ray spectrum analysis and fracture analysis. During the investigation the following studies were undertaken: the analysis of the diffusion boundary layer, which was obtained at the cross-section of one of the tiles, the analysis of the debonded surfaces of several beryllium tiles and corresponding copper parts and the analysis of the upper surface of one of the tiles after HHF tests. The joint roentgenographic and element analyses revealed the following phases in the diffusion zone: Cu 2 Be (∝170 μm), CuBe (∝30 μm), CuBe 2 (∝1 μm) and a solid solution of copper in beryllium. The phases Cu 2 Be, CuBe and the solid solution of copper in beryllium were detected by the quantitative microanalysis and the phases CuBe, CuBe 2 and CuBe, by the roentgenographic analysis. The fracture (origin) is located in the central part of the tiles. This crack was caused by residual stresses and thermal fatigue testing. This analysis provides important data on the joint quality and may be used for all types of joints used for ITER applications. (orig.)

  16. Removal of contaminated concrete surfaces by microwave heating: Phase 1 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, T.L.; Grubb, R.G.; Pugh, L.P.; Foster, D. Jr.; Box, W.D.

    1992-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing a microwave heating process to remove radiologically contaminated surface layers from concrete. The microwave energy is directed at the concrete surface and heats the concrete and free water present in the concrete matrix. Continued heating produces steam-pressure-induced mechanical stresses that cause the concrete surface to burst. The concrete particles from this steam explosion are small enough to be removed by a vacuum system, yet less than 1% of the debris is small enough to pose an airborne contamination hazard. The first phase of this program has demonstrated reliable removal of noncontaminated concrete surfaces at frequencies of 2.45 GHz and 10.6 GHz. Continuous concrete removal rates of 1.07 cm 3 /s with 5.2 kW of 2.45.-GHz power and 2.11 cm 3 /s with 3.6 kW of 10.6-GHz power have been demonstrated. Figures-of-merit for microwave removal of concrete have been calculated to be 0.21 cm 3 /s/kW at 2.45 GHz and 0.59 cm 3 /s/kW at 10.6 GHz. The amount of concrete removed in a single pass can be controlled by choosing the frequency and power of the microwave system

  17. Occupational and non-occupational allergic contact dermatitis from beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilaplana, J; Romaguera, C; Grimalt, F [Allergy Department, Dermatological Service Hospital Clinico, Barcelona (Spain)

    1992-01-01

    There are various references to sensitization to beryllium in the literature. Since introducing a patch testing series for patients with suspected sensitization to metals, we have found 3 cases of sensitization to beryllium. Of these 3 cases, we regard the first 2 as having relevant sensitization. Beryllium chloride (1% pet.) was positive in 3 patients and negative in 150 controls. (au).

  18. Occupational and non-occupational allergic contact dermatitis from beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilaplana, J.; Romaguera, C.; Grimalt, F.

    1992-01-01

    There are various references to sensitization to beryllium in the literature. Since introducing a patch testing series for patients with suspected sensitization to metals, we have found 3 cases of sensitization to beryllium. Of these 3 cases, we regard the first 2 as having relevant sensitization. Beryllium chloride (1% pet.) was positive in 3 patients and negative in 150 controls. (au)

  19. Suitability of artificial sweeteners as indicators of raw wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Hu, Jiangyong; Li, Jinhua; Ong, Say Leong

    2014-01-01

    There is no quantitative data on the occurrence of artificial sweeteners in the aquatic environment in Southeast Asian countries, particularly no information on their suitability as indicators of raw wastewater contamination on surface water and groundwater. This study provided the first quantitative information on the occurrence of artificial sweeteners in raw wastewater, surface water and groundwater in the urban catchment area in Singapore. Acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin, and sucralose were ubiquitous in raw wastewater samples at concentrations in the range of ng/L-μg/L, while other sweeteners were not found or found only in a few of the raw wastewater samples. Residential and commercial effluents were demonstrated to be the two main sources of artificial sweeteners entering the municipal sewer systems. Relatively higher concentrations of the detected sweeteners were frequently found in surface waters at the sampling sites located in the residential/commercial areas. No significant difference in the concentrations of the detected sweeteners in surface water or groundwater was noted between wet and dry weather conditions (unpaired T-test, p> 0.05). Relatively higher concentrations and detection frequencies of acesulfame, cyclamate and saccharin in surface water samples were observed at the potentially impacted sampling sites, while these sweeteners were absent in most of the background surface water samples. Similarly, acesulfame, cyclamate, and saccharin were found in most groundwater samples at the monitoring well (GW6), which is located close to known leaking sewer segment; whereas these were absent in the background monitoring well, which is located in the catchment with no known wastewater sources. Taken together, the results suggest that acesulfame, cyclamate, and saccharin can be used as potential indicators of raw wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Beryllium phonon spectrum from cold neutron measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulat, I.A.

    1979-01-01

    The inelastic coherent scattering of neutrons with the initial energy E 0 =4.65 MeV on the spectrometer according to the time of flight is studied in polycrystalline beryllium. The measurements are made for the scattering angles THETA=15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 deg at 293 K. The phonon spectrum of beryllium, i-e. g(w) is reestablished from the experimental data. The data obtained are compared with the data of model calculations. It is pointed out that the phonon spectrum of beryllium has a bit excessive state density in the energy range from 10 to 30 MeV. It is caused by the insufficient statistical accuracy of the experiment at low energy transfer

  1. Spectrographic determination of impurities in beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula Reino, L.C. de; Lordello, A.R.; Pereira, A.S.A.

    1986-03-01

    A method for the spectrographic determination of Al, B, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mg, NaNi, Si and Zn in nuclear grade beryllium oxide has been developed. The determination of Co, Al, Na and Zn is besed upon a carrier distillation technique. Better results were obtained with 2% Ga 2 O 3 as carrier in beryllium oxide. For the elements B, Cd, Cu, Fe, Cr, Mg, Ni and Si the sample is loaded in a Scribner-Mullin shallow cup electrode, covered with graphite powder and excited in DC arc. The relative standard deviation values for different elements are in the range of 10 to 20%. The method fulfills requirements of precision and sensitivity for specification analysis of nuclear grade beryllium oxide.(Author) [pt

  2. Innovative technology for expedited site remediation of extensive surface and subsurface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audibert, J.M.E.; Lew, L.R.

    1994-01-01

    Large scale surface and subsurface contamination resulted from numerous releases of feed stock, process streams, waste streams, and final product at a major chemical plant. Soil and groundwater was contaminated by numerous compounds including lead, tetraethyl lead, ethylene dibromide, ethylene dichloride, and toluene. The state administrative order dictated that the site be investigated fully, that remedial alternative be evaluated, and that the site be remediated within a year period. Because of the acute toxicity and extreme volatility of tetraethyl lead and other organic compounds present at the site and the short time frame ordered by the regulators, innovative approaches were needed to carry out the remediation while protecting plant workers, remediation workers, and the public

  3. Evaluation of wastewater contaminant transport in surface waters using verified Lagrangian sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antweiler, Ronald C.; Writer, Jeffrey H.; Murphy, Sheila F.

    2014-01-01

    Contaminants released from wastewater treatment plants can persist in surface waters for substantial distances. Much research has gone into evaluating the fate and transport of these contaminants, but this work has often assumed constant flow from wastewater treatment plants. However, effluent discharge commonly varies widely over a 24-hour period, and this variation controls contaminant loading and can profoundly influence interpretations of environmental data. We show that methodologies relying on the normalization of downstream data to conservative elements can give spurious results, and should not be used unless it can be verified that the same parcel of water was sampled. Lagrangian sampling, which in theory samples the same water parcel as it moves downstream (the Lagrangian parcel), links hydrologic and chemical transformation processes so that the in-stream fate of wastewater contaminants can be quantitatively evaluated. However, precise Lagrangian sampling is difficult, and small deviations – such as missing the Lagrangian parcel by less than 1 h – can cause large differences in measured concentrations of all dissolved compounds at downstream sites, leading to erroneous conclusions regarding in-stream processes controlling the fate and transport of wastewater contaminants. Therefore, we have developed a method termed “verified Lagrangian” sampling, which can be used to determine if the Lagrangian parcel was actually sampled, and if it was not, a means for correcting the data to reflect the concentrations which would have been obtained had the Lagrangian parcel been sampled. To apply the method, it is necessary to have concentration data for a number of conservative constituents from the upstream, effluent, and downstream sites, along with upstream and effluent concentrations that are constant over the short-term (typically 2–4 h). These corrections can subsequently be applied to all data, including non-conservative constituents. Finally, we

  4. Evaluation of wastewater contaminant transport in surface waters using verified Lagrangian sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antweiler, Ronald C; Writer, Jeffrey H; Murphy, Sheila F

    2014-02-01

    Contaminants released from wastewater treatment plants can persist in surface waters for substantial distances. Much research has gone into evaluating the fate and transport of these contaminants, but this work has often assumed constant flow from wastewater treatment plants. However, effluent discharge commonly varies widely over a 24-hour period, and this variation controls contaminant loading and can profoundly influence interpretations of environmental data. We show that methodologies relying on the normalization of downstream data to conservative elements can give spurious results, and should not be used unless it can be verified that the same parcel of water was sampled. Lagrangian sampling, which in theory samples the same water parcel as it moves downstream (the Lagrangian parcel), links hydrologic and chemical transformation processes so that the in-stream fate of wastewater contaminants can be quantitatively evaluated. However, precise Lagrangian sampling is difficult, and small deviations - such as missing the Lagrangian parcel by less than 1h - can cause large differences in measured concentrations of all dissolved compounds at downstream sites, leading to erroneous conclusions regarding in-stream processes controlling the fate and transport of wastewater contaminants. Therefore, we have developed a method termed "verified Lagrangian" sampling, which can be used to determine if the Lagrangian parcel was actually sampled, and if it was not, a means for correcting the data to reflect the concentrations which would have been obtained had the Lagrangian parcel been sampled. To apply the method, it is necessary to have concentration data for a number of conservative constituents from the upstream, effluent, and downstream sites, along with upstream and effluent concentrations that are constant over the short-term (typically 2-4h). These corrections can subsequently be applied to all data, including non-conservative constituents. Finally, we show how data

  5. Advanced LWIR hyperspectral sensor for on-the-move proximal detection of liquid/solid contaminants on surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblin, Jay P.; Dixon, John; Dupuis, Julia R.; Cosofret, Bogdan R.; Marinelli, William J.

    2017-05-01

    Sensor technologies capable of detecting low vapor pressure liquid surface contaminants, as well as solids, in a noncontact fashion while on-the-move continues to be an important need for the U.S. Army. In this paper, we discuss the development of a long-wave infrared (LWIR, 8-10.5 μm) spatial heterodyne spectrometer coupled with an LWIR illuminator and an automated detection algorithm for detection of surface contaminants from a moving vehicle. The system is designed to detect surface contaminants by repetitively collecting LWIR reflectance spectra of the ground. Detection and identification of surface contaminants is based on spectral correlation of the measured LWIR ground reflectance spectra with high fidelity library spectra and the system's cumulative binary detection response from the sampled ground. We present the concepts of the detection algorithm through a discussion of the system signal model. In addition, we present reflectance spectra of surfaces contaminated with a liquid CWA simulant, triethyl phosphate (TEP), and a solid simulant, acetaminophen acquired while the sensor was stationary and on-the-move. Surfaces included CARC painted steel, asphalt, concrete, and sand. The data collected was analyzed to determine the probability of detecting 800 μm diameter contaminant particles at a 0.5 g/m2 areal density with the SHSCAD traversing a surface.

  6. Surface tailored organobentonite enhances bacterial proliferation and phenanthrene biodegradation under cadmium co-contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Asit; Biswas, Bhabananda; Sarkar, Binoy; Patra, Ashok K.; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Co-contamination of soil and water with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and heavy metals makes biodegradation of the former extremely challenging. Modified clay-modulated microbial degradation provides a novel insight in addressing this issue. This study was conducted to evaluate the growth and phenanthrene degradation performance of Mycobacterium gilvum VF1 in the presence of a palmitic acid (PA)-grafted Arquad® 2HT-75-based organobentonite in cadmium (Cd)-phenanthrene co-contaminated water. The PA-grafted organobentonite (ABP) adsorbed a slightly greater quantity of Cd than bentonite at up to 30 mg L"−"1 metal concentration, but its highly negative surface charge imparted by carboxylic groups indicated the potential of being a significantly superior adsorbent of Cd at higher metal concentrations. In systems co-contained with Cd (5 and 10 mg L"−"1), the Arquad® 2HT-75-modified bentonite (AB) and PA-grafted organobentonite (ABP) resulted in a significantly higher (72–78%) degradation of phenanthrene than bentonite (62%) by the bacterium. The growth and proliferation of bacteria were supported by ABP which not only eliminated Cd toxicity through adsorption but also created a congenial microenvironment for bacterial survival. The macromolecules produced during ABP–bacteria interaction could form a stable clay-bacterial cluster by overcoming the electrostatic repulsion among individual components. Findings of this study provide new insights for designing clay modulated PAH bioremediation technologies in mixed-contaminated water and soil. - Highlights: • Surface tailored organobentonite synthesised and characterised • Modified clay adsorbs Cd and reduces toxicity to Mycobacterium gilvum. • It creates congenial microenvironment for bacterial survival. • It enhances phenanthrene biodegradation in metal co-contaminated condition.

  7. Surface tailored organobentonite enhances bacterial proliferation and phenanthrene biodegradation under cadmium co-contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Asit [Future Industries Institute (formerly Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation), University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal (India); Biswas, Bhabananda [Future Industries Institute (formerly Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation), University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), ACT Building, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Sarkar, Binoy, E-mail: binoy.sarkar@unisa.edu.au [Future Industries Institute (formerly Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation), University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), ACT Building, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Patra, Ashok K. [Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal (India); Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: ravi.naidu@newcastle.edu.au [Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), ACT Building, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Global Centre for Environmental Remediation (GCER), Faculty of Science and Information Technology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2016-04-15

    Co-contamination of soil and water with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and heavy metals makes biodegradation of the former extremely challenging. Modified clay-modulated microbial degradation provides a novel insight in addressing this issue. This study was conducted to evaluate the growth and phenanthrene degradation performance of Mycobacterium gilvum VF1 in the presence of a palmitic acid (PA)-grafted Arquad® 2HT-75-based organobentonite in cadmium (Cd)-phenanthrene co-contaminated water. The PA-grafted organobentonite (ABP) adsorbed a slightly greater quantity of Cd than bentonite at up to 30 mg L{sup −1} metal concentration, but its highly negative surface charge imparted by carboxylic groups indicated the potential of being a significantly superior adsorbent of Cd at higher metal concentrations. In systems co-contained with Cd (5 and 10 mg L{sup −1}), the Arquad® 2HT-75-modified bentonite (AB) and PA-grafted organobentonite (ABP) resulted in a significantly higher (72–78%) degradation of phenanthrene than bentonite (62%) by the bacterium. The growth and proliferation of bacteria were supported by ABP which not only eliminated Cd toxicity through adsorption but also created a congenial microenvironment for bacterial survival. The macromolecules produced during ABP–bacteria interaction could form a stable clay-bacterial cluster by overcoming the electrostatic repulsion among individual components. Findings of this study provide new insights for designing clay modulated PAH bioremediation technologies in mixed-contaminated water and soil. - Highlights: • Surface tailored organobentonite synthesised and characterised • Modified clay adsorbs Cd and reduces toxicity to Mycobacterium gilvum. • It creates congenial microenvironment for bacterial survival. • It enhances phenanthrene biodegradation in metal co-contaminated condition.

  8. Visible-light system for detecting doxorubicin contamination on skin and surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Raalte, J; Rice, C; Moss, C E

    1990-05-01

    A portable system that uses fluorescence stimulated by visible light to identify doxorubicin contamination on skin and surfaces was studied. When activated by violet-blue light in the 465-nm range, doxorubicin fluoresces, emitting orange-red light in the 580-nm range. The light source to stimulate fluorescence was a slide projector with a filter to selectively pass short-wave (blue) visible light. Fluorescence was both observed visually with viewing spectacles and photographed. Solutions of doxorubicin in sterile 0.9% sodium chloride injection were prepared in nine standard concentrations ranging from 2 to 0.001 mg/mL. Droplets of each admixture were placed on stainless steel, laboratory coat cloth, pieces of latex examination glove, bench-top absorbent padding, and other materials on which antineoplastics might spill or leak. These materials then were stored for up to eight weeks and photographed weekly. The relative ability of water, household bleach, hydrogen peroxide solution, and soap solution to deactivate doxorubicin was also measured. Finally, this system was used to inspect the antineoplastic-drug preparation and administration areas of three outpatient cancer clinics for doxorubicin contamination. Doxorubicin fluorescence was easily detectable with viewing spectacles when a slide projector was used as the light source. The photographic method was sensitive for doxorubicin concentrations from 2.0 to 0.001 mg/mL. Immersion of study materials in bleach for one minute eliminated detectable fluorescence. Doxorubicin contamination is detectable for at least eight weeks in the ambient environment. Probable doxorubicin contamination was detected in two of the three clinics surveyed. A safe, portable system that uses fluorescence stimulated by visible light is a sensitive method for detecting doxorubicin on skin and surfaces.

  9. Clostridium difficile from food and surface samples in a Belgian nursing home: an unlikely source of contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, C; Korsak, N; Taminiau, B; Avesani, V; Van Broeck, J; Brach, P; Delmée, M; Daube, G

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the contamination of foods and surfaces with Clostridium difficile in a single nursing home. C. difficile PCR-ribotype 078 was found in one food sample and in none of the tested surfaces. These results indicate that food and surfaces are an unlikely source of C. difficile infection in this setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Verification of surface contamination density standard using clearance automatic laser inspection system for objects from a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Michiya; Ogino, Haruyuki; Ichiji, Takeshi; Hattori, Takatoshi

    2008-01-01

    In the clearance level inspection in Japan, it is necessary to indicate that the activity level of the target object must be less than not only the clearance levels, but also the surface contamination density standards. The classification measurements for these two standards have been performed separately, and the GM survey meters based on beta-ray measurement have mainly been used for surface contamination density measurement so far. Recently the Clearance Automatic Laser Inspection System, named CLALIS, has been developed to estimate the low-level activity concentration. This system consists of 3-dimensional laser scanner for shape measurement and eight large NE102A plastic scintillation detectors for gamma-ray measurement, and it has been clarified that the CLALIS has adequate detection ability for clearance measurement of both metal scraps and concrete debris. In this study, we compared the surface contamination densities for a number of actual contaminated and non-contaminated objects generated inside from the radiation controlled area at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power station by using the CLALIS and the GM survey meter. As a result, since CLALIS could detect the surface contamination as well as the GM survey meter for all measurement targets, it was revealed that CLALIS can rationally achieve clearance level inspection in a single radiation measurement. The practicality of CLALIS in view of the detection limit and processing time was discussed by comparison with the usual radiation monitors for surface contamination measurement. (author)

  11. Integrated modelling for assessing the risk of groundwater contaminants to human health and surface water ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Rasmussen, Jes; Funder, Simon G.

    2010-01-01

    for evaluating the impact of a TCE groundwater plume, located in an area with protected drinking water interests, to human health and surface water ecosystems. This is accomplished by coupling the system dynamicsbased decision support system CARO-Plus to the aquatic ecosystem model AQUATOX via an analytical......The practical implementation of the European Water Framework Directive has resulted in an increased focus on the groundwater-surface water interaction zone. A gap exists with respect to preliminary assessment methodologies that are capable of evaluating and prioritising point sources...... volatilisation model for the stream. The model is tested on a Danish case study involving a 750 m long TCE groundwater plume discharging into a stream. The initial modelling results indicate that TCE contaminant plumes with μgL-1 concentrations entering surface water systems do not pose a significant risk...

  12. Contamination by urban superficial runoff: accumulated heavy metals on a road surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alfonso Zafra Mejía

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying the behaviour of accumulated contamination on urban surfaces is important in designing control methods minimising the impacts of surface runoff on the environment. This paper presents data regarding the sediment collected on the surface of an urban road in the city of Torrelavega in northern Spain during a period of 65 days during which 132 samples were collected. Two types of sediment collection samples were obtained: vacuumed dry samples (free load and those swept up following vacuuming (fixed load. The results showed that heavy metal concentration in the collected sediment (Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd was inversely proportional to particle diameter. High heavy metal concentrations were found in the smaller fraction (63 pm. Regression equations were calculated for heavy metal concentration regarding particle diameter. Large heavy metal loads were found in the larger fraction (125 pm. The results provide information for analysing runoff water quality in urban areas and designing treatment strategies.

  13. Effectiveness of disinfection with alcohol 70% (w/v of contaminated surfaces not previously cleaned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Uchikawa Graziano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the disinfectant effectiveness of alcohol 70% (w/v using friction, without previous cleaning, on work surfaces, as a concurrent disinfecting procedure in Health Services. METHOD: An experimental, randomized and single-blinded laboratory study was undertaken. The samples were enamelled surfaces, intentionally contaminated with Serratia marcescens microorganisms ATCC 14756 106 CFU/mL with 10% of human saliva added, and were submitted to the procedure of disinfection WITHOUT previous cleaning. The results were compared to disinfection preceded by cleaning. RESULTS: There was a reduction of six logarithms of the initial microbial population, equal in the groups WITH and WITHOUT previous cleaning (p=0.440 and a residual microbial load ≤ 102 CFU. CONCLUSION: The research demonstrated the acceptability of the practice evaluated, bringing an important response to the area of health, in particular to Nursing, which most undertakes procedures of concurrent cleaning /disinfecting of these work surfaces.

  14. Effectiveness of disinfection with alcohol 70% (w/v of contaminated surfaces not previously cleaned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Uchikawa Graziano

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the disinfectant effectiveness of alcohol 70% (w/v using friction, without previous cleaning, on work surfaces, as a concurrent disinfecting procedure in Health Services. METHOD: An experimental, randomized and single-blinded laboratory study was undertaken. The samples were enamelled surfaces, intentionally contaminated with Serratia marcescens microorganisms ATCC 14756 106 CFU/mL with 10% of human saliva added, and were submitted to the procedure of disinfection WITHOUT previous cleaning. The results were compared to disinfection preceded by cleaning. RESULTS: There was a reduction of six logarithms of the initial microbial population, equal in the groups WITH and WITHOUT previous cleaning (p=0.440 and a residual microbial load ≤ 102 CFU. CONCLUSION: The research demonstrated the acceptability of the practice evaluated, bringing an important response to the area of health, in particular to Nursing, which most undertakes procedures of concurrent cleaning /disinfecting of these work surfaces.

  15. Optical Interferometry with Flexible Coherent Fiber Bundle for Measuring Deposits or Contamination on Surfaces and Inside Tubes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new measuring/cleaning method for closed surfaces (pipes) applicable to removing contaminants (oil films, fungus, rust) from NASA instruments and spacecraft is...

  16. Analysis of body surface radiological contamination for inbound people from Japan to China during the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Long; Ma Weidong; Lei Cuiping; Chen Huifang; Li Yuwen; Liu Ying

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the radiological contamination of body surface for inbound people from Japan to China during Fukushima nuclear accident. Methods: According to The guidance for radiological contamination management for body surface issued by Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, for people evacuated from Japan, the body surface monitoring of radiological contamination was performed by the related agencies in main provinces and cities in China. The monitoring data were collected, analyzed and reported to Ministry of Health. Results: A total of 432 persons were checked. The monitoring results of 429 cases were close to the background level, while those of three persons were higher than the background level. Conclusions: In general,the detected results were as low as the background level. The radiological contamination monitoring of body surface for people from Japan could provide scientific data to relax the horror and panic among them. (authors)

  17. An Immunoassay for Quantification of Contamination by Raw Meat Juice on Food Contact Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fur-Chi; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Edgar

    2016-11-01

    Raw chicken products often are contaminated with Salmonella and Campylobacter , which can be transmitted from packages to contact surfaces. Raw meat juices from these packages also provide potential media for cross-contamination. There are limited quantitative data on the levels of consumer exposure to raw meat juice during shopping for and handling of chicken products. An exposure assessment is needed to quantify the levels of transmission and to assess the risk. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and validated for quantitative detection of raw meat juice on hands and various food contact surfaces. Analytical procedures were designed to maximize the recovery of raw meat juice from various surfaces: hands, plastic, wood, stainless steel, laminated countertops, glass, and ceramics. The ELISA was based on the detection of a soluble muscle protein, troponin I (TnI), in the raw meat juice. The assay can detect levels as low as 1.25 ng of TnI, which is equivalent to less than 1 μl of the raw meat juice. The concentrations of TnI in the raw meat juices from 10 retail chicken packages, as determined by ELISA, were between 0.46 and 3.56 ng/μl, with an average of 1.69 ng/μl. The analytical procedures, which include swabbing, extraction, and concentration, enable the detection of TnI from various surfaces. The recoveries of raw meat juice from surfaces of hands were 92%, and recoveries from other tested surfaces were from 55% on plastic cutting boards to 75% on laminated countertops. The ELISA developed has been used for monitoring the transfer of raw meat juice during shopping for and handling of raw chicken products in our studies. The assay also can be applied to other raw meat products, such as pork and beef.

  18. Modelling of radiation impact on ITER Beryllium wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, I. S.; Janeschitz, G.

    2009-04-01

    In the ITER H-Mode confinement regime, edge localized instabilities (ELMs) will perturb the discharge. Plasma lost after each ELM moves along magnetic field lines and impacts on divertor armour, causing plasma contamination by back propagating eroded carbon or tungsten. These impurities produce enhanced radiation flux distributed mainly over the beryllium main chamber wall. The simulation of the complicated processes involved are subject of the integrated tokamak code TOKES that is currently under development. This work describes the new TOKES model for radiation transport through confined plasma. Equations for level populations of the multi-fluid plasma species and the propagation of different kinds of radiation (resonance, recombination and bremsstrahlung photons) are implemented. First simulation results without account of resonance lines are presented.

  19. Modelling of radiation impact on ITER Beryllium wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landman, I.S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM, FUSION, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)], E-mail: igor.landman@ihm.fzk.de; Janeschitz, G. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM, FUSION, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-04-30

    In the ITER H-Mode confinement regime, edge localized instabilities (ELMs) will perturb the discharge. Plasma lost after each ELM moves along magnetic field lines and impacts on divertor armour, causing plasma contamination by back propagating eroded carbon or tungsten. These impurities produce enhanced radiation flux distributed mainly over the beryllium main chamber wall. The simulation of the complicated processes involved are subject of the integrated tokamak code TOKES that is currently under development. This work describes the new TOKES model for radiation transport through confined plasma. Equations for level populations of the multi-fluid plasma species and the propagation of different kinds of radiation (resonance, recombination and bremsstrahlung photons) are implemented. First simulation results without account of resonance lines are presented.

  20. Deposition of selenium coatings on beryllium foils. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erikson, E.D.; Tassano, P.L.; Reiss, R.H.; Griggs, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    A technique for preparing selenium films on 50.8 micrometers thick beryllium foils is described. The selenium was deposited in vacuum from a resistance heated evaporation source. A water-cooled enclosure was used to minimize contamination of the vacuum system and to reduce the exposure of personnel to toxic and obnoxious materials. Profilometry measurements of the coatings indicated selenium thicknesses of 5.5, 12.9, 37.5, 49.8 and 74.5 micrometers. The control of deposition rate and of coating thickness was facilitated using a commercially available closed-loop programmable deposition controller. The x-ray transmission of the coated substrates was measured using a tritiated zirconium source. The transmissivities of the film/substrate combination are presented for the range of energies from 4 to 20 keV

  1. Comparative evaluations of surface contamination detectors calibration with radioactive sources - used in the Goiania accident, and standard sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, P.H.B.; Marecha, M.H.H.

    1997-01-01

    The construction of Cs-137 standard flat sources for calibration of surface contamination detectors, used in the Goiania accident in 1987, is described and the procedures adopted are reported. At that time, standard sources were not available. Nowadays the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria has standard sources acquired from Amersham which are used as calibration standards for surface contamination detectors. Comparative evaluations between the standard flat sources constructed for the accident and the calibrated ones are presented

  2. Design and fabrication of a beryllium limiter for ISX-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmonds, P.H.; Watson, R.D.; Smith, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    A movable, temperature-controlled, beryllium rail limiter has been used in the Impurity Study Experiment (ISX-B) tokamak at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The purpose of the experiment was to evaluate the suitability of the material for installation on the Joint European Torus (JET) experiment. The limiter was designed for a surface temperature rise of 600 0 C for each tokamak shot. This rise corresponds to a heat flux to the limiter surface of approximately 2.1 to 2.4 kW/cm 2 for 0.3 s. The experimental test was expected to require a lifetime of approximately 3000 neutral beam-heated plasma discharges to meet the planned surface fluence of 10 22 hydrogen ions per cm 2 . A temperature control system was used to maintain the base-plate temperature of the limiter at about 200 0 C. Normal plasma radius was 24 cm. The experimental results indicate that the beryllium limiter functions normally unless brought to melting point, when evaporated beryllium covers the liner walls, gettering the discharge. Under these conditions beryllium was the dominant impurity

  3. Position-sensitive radiation monitoring (surface contamination monitor). Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The Shonka Research Associates, Inc. Position-Sensitive Radiation Monitor both detects surface radiation and prepares electronic survey map/survey report of surveyed area automatically. The electronically recorded map can be downloaded to a personal computer for review and a map/report can be generated for inclusion in work packages. Switching from beta-gamma detection to alpha detection is relatively simple and entails moving a switch position to alpha and adjusting the voltage level to an alpha detection level. No field calibration is required when switching from beta-gamma to alpha detection. The system can be used for free-release surveys because it meets the federal detection level sensitivity limits requires for surface survey instrumentation. This technology is superior to traditionally-used floor contamination monitor (FCM) and hand-held survey instrumentation because it can precisely register locations of radioactivity and accurately correlate contamination levels to specific locations. Additionally, it can collect and store continuous radiological data in database format, which can be used to produce real-time imagery as well as automated graphics of survey data. Its flexible design can accommodate a variety of detectors. The cost of the innovative technology is 13% to 57% lower than traditional methods. This technology is suited for radiological surveys of flat surfaces at US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) sites or similar public or commercial sites

  4. Purification of fuel and nitrate contaminated ground water using a free water surface constructed wetland plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machate, T.; Heuermann, E.; Schramm, K.W.; Kettrup, A.

    1999-10-01

    Contaminated ground water from a former coke plant site was purified in a free water surface (FWS) constructed wetland plant during a 3-mo short-term experiment. The pilot plant (total surface area 27 m{sup 2}) was filled with a 1 m thick lava-gravel substrate planted with cattail (Typha spp.) and bulrush (Scirpus lacustrls). Major contaminants were low to moderate concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, BTEX, nitrate, and nitrite. The wetland was dosed at hydraulic loading rates of q{sub A} = 4.8 and 9.6 cm d{sup {minus}1} with a hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 13.7 and 6.8 d. The surface removal rates of PAH were between 98.8 and 1914 mg m{sup {minus}2} d{sup {minus}1}. Efficiency was always {gt}99%. Extraction of lava gravel showed that approx. 0.4% of the applied PAH were retained on the substratum. The ratio of {Sigma}2,3-ring PAH and {Sigma}4,5,6-ring PAH showed a shift from 1:0.11 in water to 1:2.5 in lava. The removal of BTEX was {gt}99%, but might be in part due to volatilization. The efficiency in the removal of nitrate was 91% and of nitrite was 97%. Purification performance was not influenced by hydraulic loading rates or after die-back of the macrophytes.

  5. Removal of carbon contaminations by RF plasma generated reactive species and subsequent effects on optical surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, P. K., E-mail: praveenyadav@rrcat.gov.in; Rai, S. K.; Modi, M. H.; Nayak, M.; Lodha, G. S. [Indus Synchrotron Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013 (India); Kumar, M.; Chakera, J. A.; Naik, P. A. [Laser Plasma Laboratory, Laser Plasma Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Carbon contamination on optical elements is a serious issue in synchrotron beam lines for several decades. The basic mechanism of carbon deposition on optics and cleaning strategies are not fully understood. Carbon growth mechanism and optimized cleaning procedures are worldwide under development stage. Optimized RF plasma cleaning is considered an active remedy for the same. In present study carbon contaminated optical test surfaces (carbon capped tungsten thin film) are exposed for 30 minutes to four different gases, rf plasma at constant power and constant dynamic pressure. Structural characterization (thickness, roughness and density) of virgin samples and plasma exposed samples was done by soft x-ray (λ=80 Å) reflectivity measurements at Indus-1 reflectivity beam line. Different gas plasma removes carbon with different rate (0.4 to 0.65 nm /min). A thin layer 2 to 9 nm of different roughness and density is observed at the top surface of tungsten film. Ar gas plasma is found more suitable for cleaning of tungsten surface.

  6. Position-sensitive radiation monitoring (surface contamination monitor). Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-06-01

    The Shonka Research Associates, Inc. Position-Sensitive Radiation Monitor both detects surface radiation and prepares electronic survey map/survey report of surveyed area automatically. The electronically recorded map can be downloaded to a personal computer for review and a map/report can be generated for inclusion in work packages. Switching from beta-gamma detection to alpha detection is relatively simple and entails moving a switch position to alpha and adjusting the voltage level to an alpha detection level. No field calibration is required when switching from beta-gamma to alpha detection. The system can be used for free-release surveys because it meets the federal detection level sensitivity limits requires for surface survey instrumentation. This technology is superior to traditionally-used floor contamination monitor (FCM) and hand-held survey instrumentation because it can precisely register locations of radioactivity and accurately correlate contamination levels to specific locations. Additionally, it can collect and store continuous radiological data in database format, which can be used to produce real-time imagery as well as automated graphics of survey data. Its flexible design can accommodate a variety of detectors. The cost of the innovative technology is 13% to 57% lower than traditional methods. This technology is suited for radiological surveys of flat surfaces at US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) sites or similar public or commercial sites.

  7. Vacuum hot-pressed beryllium and TiC dispersion strengthened tungsten alloy developments for ITER and future fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiang, E-mail: xliu@swip.ac.cn [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China); Chen, Jiming; Lian, Youyun; Wu, Jihong; Xu, Zengyu; Zhang, Nianman; Wang, Quanming; Duan, Xuro [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China); Wang, Zhanhong; Zhong, Jinming [Northwest Rare Metal Material Research Institute, CNMC, Ningxia Orient Group Co. Ltd.,No.119 Yejin Road, Shizuishan City, Ningxia,753000 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Beryllium and tungsten have been selected as the plasma facing materials of the ITER first wall (FW) and divertor chamber, respectively. China, as a participant in ITER, will share the manufacturing tasks of ITER first-wall mockups with the European Union and Russia. Therefore ITER-grade beryllium has been developed in China and a kind of vacuum hot-pressed (VHP) beryllium, CN-G01, was characterized for both physical, and thermo-mechanical properties and high heat flux performance, which indicated an equivalent performance to U.S. grade S-65C beryllium, a reference grade beryllium of ITER. Consequently CN-G01 beryllium has been accepted as the armor material of ITER-FW blankets. In addition, a modification of tungsten by TiC dispersion strengthening was investigated and a W–TiC alloy with TiC content of 0.1 wt.% has been developed. Both surface hardness and recrystallization measurements indicate its re-crystallization temperature approximately at 1773 K. Deuterium retention and thermal desorption behaviors of pure tungsten and the TiC alloy were also measured by deuterium ion irradiation of 1.7 keV energy to the fluence of 0.5–5 × 10{sup 18} D/cm{sup 2}; a main desorption peak at around 573 K was found and no significant difference was observed between pure tungsten and the tungsten alloy. Further characterization of the tungsten alloy is in progress.

  8. Preliminary results for explosion bonding of beryllium to copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, D.J.; Dombrowski, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    This program was undertaken to determine if explosive bonding is a viable technique for joining beryllium to copper substrates. The effort was a cursory attempt at trying to solve some of the problems associated with explosive bonding beryllium and should not be considered a comprehensive research effort. There are two issues that this program addressed. Can beryllium be explosive bonded to copper substrates and can the bonding take place without shattering the beryllium? Thirteen different explosive bonding iterations were completed using various thicknesses of beryllium that were manufactured with three different techniques

  9. Laser assisted decontamination of metal surface: Evidence of increased surface absorptivity due to field enhancement caused by transparent/semi-transparent contaminant particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilaya, J. Padma; Biswas, Dhruba J.

    2010-01-01

    Small signal absorption measurements of the incident coherent radiation by the metal surface have revealed an increase in the absorption by the surface in presence of transparent/semi-transparent particulates on it. This effect, identified as field enhanced surface absorption, has been found to increase with reduction in the average particulate size. Consequently higher laser assisted removal efficiency of contamination from a metal surface has been observed for smaller contaminant particulates. These measurements have been carried out utilizing coherent radiations of two different wavelengths so chosen that for one the particulates are totally transparent while for the other they are partially transparent.

  10. Application of autonomous robotics to surveillance of waste storage containers for radioactive surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, F.J.; Beckerman, M.; Butler, P.L.; Jones, J.P.; Reister, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a proof-of-principal demonstration performed with the HERMIES-III mobile robot to automate the inspection of waste storage drums for radioactive surface contamination and thereby reduce the human burden of operating a robot and worker exposure to potentially hazardous environments. Software and hardware for the demonstration were developed by a team consisting of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Universities of Florida, Michigan, Tennessee, and Texas. Robot navigation, machine vision, manipulator control, parallel processing and human-machine interface techniques developed by the team were demonstrated utilizing advanced computer architectures. The demonstration consists of over 100,000 lines of computer code executing on nine computers

  11. Comparison of surface contamination monitors for in vivo measurement of {sup 131}I in thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, S.M.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Dantas, B.M., E-mail: salomao.marques@ymail.com [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The routine handling of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine represents a significant risk of internal exposure to the staff. The IAEA recommends the implementation of monitoring plans for all workers subject to a risk of exposures above 1 mSv per year. However, in Brazil, such recommendation is practically unfeasible due to the lack of a sufficient number of qualified internal dosimetry services over the country. This work presents an alternative based on a simple and inexpensive methodology aimed to perform in-vivo monitoring of {sup 131}I in thyroid using portable surface contamination probes. All models evaluated showed suitable sensitivity for such application. (author)

  12. Surface Water Contamination and Los Alamos National Laboratory's Holistic Approach to Mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzman, D.; Veenis, S.; Reneau, S.

    2009-01-01

    A sediment and contaminant transport mitigation project is being implemented at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This effort is driven by a requirement from State of New Mexico regulators and is also in concert with efforts underway to support a surface-water diversion project by a Santa Fe, NM, public water utility. The effort is being implemented in a large geomorphically and hydrologically complex watershed. Rather than simply attempting to trap sediment in a retention basin, this effort uses a watershed-scale holistic approach with intent to promote watershed healing. (authors)

  13. Ion bombardment induced surface topography modification of clean and contaminated single crystal Cu and Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, G.W.; Kiriakides, G.; Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Among the several factors which lead to depth resolution deterioration during sputter profiling, surface morphological modification resulting from local differences of sputtering rate can be important. This paper reports the results of direct scanning, electron microscopic studies obtained quasi-dynamically during increasing fluence ion bombardment of the evolution of etch pit structures on Si and Cu, and how such elaboration may be suppressed. It also reports on the elaboration of contaminant-induced cone generation for different ion species bombardment. The influence of such etch pit and cone generation on achievable depth resolution is assessed. (author)

  14. Comparison of surface contamination monitors for in vivo measurement of 131I in thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, S.M.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Dantas, B.M.

    2015-01-01

    The routine handling of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine represents a significant risk of internal exposure to the staff. The IAEA recommends the implementation of monitoring plans for all workers subject to a risk of exposures above 1 mSv per year. However, in Brazil, such recommendation is practically unfeasible due to the lack of a sufficient number of qualified internal dosimetry services over the country. This work presents an alternative based on a simple and inexpensive methodology aimed to perform in-vivo monitoring of 131 I in thyroid using portable surface contamination probes. All models evaluated showed suitable sensitivity for such application. (author)

  15. The accuracy of surface-contamination measurements; survey of UK hospitals, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    In response to a number of concerns expressed at both national and international levels, the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) conducted a survey of UK hospitals and associated Regional Radiation Protection Services. Sources of surface contamination were distributed and participants were requested to measure these and interpret the relevant responses in terms of emission and activity per unit area. The analysis of the returns demonstrates that the vast majority of results was significantly in error and that the quality of radiation protection may be impaired. (author)

  16. A model to determine the radiological implications of non-fixed radioactive contamination on the surfaces of packages and conveyances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.S.; Warner Jones, S.M.; Lizot, M.T.; Perrin, M.L.; Thierfeld, S.; Schroedl, E.; Schwarz, G.; Rawl, R.; Munakata, M.; Hirose, M.

    2004-01-01

    The surfaces of packages and conveyances used to transport radioactive materials can sometimes become contaminated with radioactive material. This usually occurs as a result of the transfer of radioactive material from areas in which these packages and conveyances are handled. This contamination may subsequently be transferred to transport equipment, workers and to areas accessible to the public. This can represent a significant radiation safety issue that requires careful management. The current regulatory limits for non-fixed contamination on packages and conveyances have been in use for over 40 years, and are based on a simple exposure model. However, the bases on which these limits were derived have been subject to changes, as a result of successive revisions of international recommendations. In recognition of this need for a review and analysis of the current contamination limits an IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on the ''Radiological Aspects of Package and Conveyance Non-Fixed Contamination'' was initiated to review the scientific basis for the current regulatory limits for surface contamination. The CRP was also to develop guidance material for evaluating the radiological significance of surface contamination to workers and the public in light of state-of-the-art research, technical developments and current transport practices. The specific objectives of the work undertaken within this multi-national CRP were, in accordance with the terms of reference: To ensure that appropriate models exist for all package types including consideration of the aspects pertinent for assessing and revising a surface contamination model for transport. To collect - where possible - contamination, operational and dosimetric data to ensure modelling consistency. To use models for assessing the limitations and optimisation of radiation doses incurred in transport operations, and to consider preventive methods for package and conveyance contamination

  17. A Review of Removable Surface Contamination on Radioactive Materials Transportation Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Jr, W. E.; Watson, E. C.; Murphy, D. W.; Harrer, B. J.; Harty, R.; Aldrich, J. M.

    1981-05-01

    This report contains the results of a study sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) of removable surface contamination on radioactive materials transportation containers. The purpose of the study is to provide information to the NRC during their review of existing regulations. Data was obtained from both industry and literature on three major topics: 1) radiation doses, 2) economic costs, and 3) contamination frequencies. Containers for four categories of radioactive materials are considered including radiopharmaceuticals, industrial sources, nuclear fuel cycle materials, and low-level radioactive waste. Assumptions made in this study use current information to obtain realistic yet conservative estimates of radiation dose and economic costs. Collective and individual radiation doses are presented for each container category on a per container basis. Total doses, to workers and the public, are also presented for spent fuel cask and low-level waste drum decontamination. Estimates of the additional economic costs incurred by lowering current limits by factors of 10 and 100 are presented. Current contamination levels for each category of container are estimated from the data collected. The information contained in this report is designed to be useful to the NRC in preparing their recommendations for new regulations.

  18. Simple surface foam application enhances bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil in cold conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Jongshin; Kim, Jaisoo

    2015-04-09

    Landfarming of oil-contaminated soil is ineffective at low temperatures, because the number and activity of micro-organisms declines. This study presents a simple and versatile technique for bioremediation of diesel-contaminated soil, which involves spraying foam on the soil surface without additional works such as tilling, or supply of water and air. Surfactant foam containing psychrophilic oil-degrading microbes and nutrients was sprayed twice daily over diesel-contaminated soil at 6 °C. Removal efficiencies in total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) at 30 days were 46.3% for landfarming and 73.7% for foam-spraying. The first-order kinetic biodegradation rates for landfarming and foam-spraying were calculated as 0.019 d(-1) and 0.044 d(-1), respectively. Foam acted as an insulating medium, keeping the soil 2 °C warmer than ambient air. Sprayed foam was slowly converted to aqueous solution within 10-12h and infiltrated the soil, providing microbes, nutrients, water, and air for bioaugmentation. Furthermore, surfactant present in the aqueous solution accelerated the dissolution of oil from the soil, resulting in readily biodegradable aqueous form. Significant reductions in hydrocarbon concentration were simultaneously observed in both semi-volatile and non-volatile fractions. As the initial soil TPH concentration increased, the TPH removal rate of the foam-spraying method also increased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Nickel, Lead and Zinc Contamination in the Surface Sediments of Agh Gel Wetland, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Sobhan Ardakani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Due to the increased human activities around the Agh Gel wetland, this study aimed to measured accumulations of heavy metals (Ni, Pb and Zn in the surface sediment samples taken from this wetland. Materials & Methods: Samples were taken from 10 stations and exposed to bulk digestion and chemical partitioning. Finally, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations were monitored with ICP-OES in the sediments. Also, geo-accumulation index, contamination factor and pollution load index were used to evaluate the magnitude of contaminants in the sediment profile. Results: The results showed, the average of metal concentration in samples (mg kg-1 wet weight were 34.20±3.58 for Ni, 25.37±2.52 for Pb and 127.20±15.21 for Zn, respectively. Therefore, the pattern of metal concentrations in sediment was determined as Zinc>Nickel >Lead. According to the mean I-geo values, sediments' qualities are classified as unpolluted category for Ni and Pb. Also, sediment's quality is classified as unpolluted to moderately polluted for Zn. The CF values for all elements are classified as moderate contamination. The PLI values indicated that metal pollution exists for all sampling stations. Conclusions: The obtained results indicated that the Agh Gel wetland has a potential to threaten by chemical pollutants such as agricultural effluent. So, in order to preserve the environment of the Agh Gel wetland from deterioration, monitoring of water and sediment qualities is recommended periodically.

  20. Fractal study of Ni-Cr-Mo alloy for dental applications: effect of beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eftekhari, Ali

    2003-12-30

    Different Ni-based alloys with various compositions were prepared by varying the amounts of beryllium. Effect of the amount of beryllium added to the alloy on its corrosion in an electrolyte solution of artificial saliva was investigated. Fractal dimension was used as a quantitative factor for surface analysis of the alloys before and after storage in the artificial salvia. The fractal dimensions of the electrode surfaces were determined by means of the most reliable method in this context viz. time dependency of the diffusion-limited current for a system involving 'diffusion towards electrode surface'. The results showed that increase of the beryllium amount in the alloy composition significantly increases the alloy corrosion. It is accompanied by increase of the fractal dimension and roughness of the electrode surface, whereas a smooth and shiny surface is required for dentures. From the methodology point of view, the approach utilized for fractal analysis of the alloy surfaces (Au-masking of metallic surfaces) is a novel and efficient method for study of denture surfaces. Generally, this approach is of interest for corrosion studies of different metals and alloys, particularly where changes in surface structure have a significant importance.