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Sample records for beryllium powder consolidation

  1. Advances in beryllium powder consolidation simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reardon, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    A fuzzy logic based multiobjective genetic algorithm (GA) is introduced and the algorithm is used to optimize micromechanical densification modeling parameters for warm isopressed beryllium powder, HIPed copper powder and CIPed/sintered and HIPed tantalum powder. In addition to optimizing the main model parameters using the experimental data points as objective functions, the GA provides a quantitative measure of the sensitivity of the model to each parameter, estimates the mean particle size of the powder, and determines the smoothing factors for the transition between stage 1 and stage 2 densification. While the GA does not provide a sensitivity analysis in the strictest sense, and is highly stochastic in nature, this method is reliable and reproducible in optimizing parameters given any size data set and determining the impact on the model of slight variations in each parameter

  2. Pressurized Anneal of Consolidated Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemir, David Charles (Inventor); Rubio, Edward S. (Inventor); Beck, Jan Bastian (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems and methods for producing a dense, well bonded solid material from a powder may include consolidating the powder utilizing any suitable consolidation method, such as explosive shockwave consolidation. The systems and methods may also include a post-processing thermal treatment that exploits a mismatch between the coefficients of thermal expansion between the consolidated material and the container. Due to the mismatch in the coefficients, internal pressure on the consolidated material during the heat treatment may be increased.

  3. Feasibility demonstration of consolidating porous beryllium/carbon structures. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browning, M.J.; Hoover, G.E.; Mueller, J.J.; Hanes, H.D.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary feasibility study was initiated to determine if porous beryllium structures could be fabricated by consolidating beryllium-coated microballoons into a rigid structure. The target specifications were to coat nominally 1-mm diameter microspheres with 0.5-mil beryllium coatings and then bond into a structure. Because of the very short time period, it was agreeable to use existing or quickly-available materials. The general approach was to apply coatings to carbon or quartz microspheres. Physical vapor deposition and ''snow-balling'' of fine beryllium powder were the two methods investigated. Once the particles were coated, HIP (pressure bonding) and pressureless sintering were to be investigated as methods for consolidating the microballoons. A low level of effort was to be spent to look at means of fabricating an all-carbon structure

  4. Atlas of hot isostatic beryllium powder pressing diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoev, P.I.; Papirov, I.I.; Tikhinskij, G.F.; Vasil'ev, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Diagrams of hot isotopic pressing (HIP) of beryllium powder with different grain size in a wide range of pressing parameters are built by mathematical modeling methods. The HIP diagrams presented are divided into 3 groups: parametric dependencies D=f(P,T); technological HIP diagrams; compacting mechanisms. The created data bank permits to optimise beryllium powder HIP with changing parameters. 4 refs., 23 figs

  5. Beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Nora K.; Jaskula, Brian W.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Schulte, Ruth F.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Beryllium is a mineral commodity that is used in a variety of industries to make products that are essential for the smooth functioning of a modern society. Two minerals, bertrandite (which is supplied domestically) and beryl (which is currently supplied solely by imports), are necessary to ensure a stable supply of high-purity beryllium metal, alloys, and metal-matrix composites and beryllium oxide ceramics. Although bertrandite is the source mineral for more than 90 percent of the beryllium produced globally, industrial beryl is critical for the production of the very high purity beryllium metal needed for some strategic applications. The current sole domestic source of beryllium is bertrandite ore from the Spor Mountain deposit in Utah; beryl is imported mainly from Brazil, China, Madagascar, Mozambique, and Portugal. High-purity beryllium metal is classified as a strategic and critical material by the Strategic Materials Protection Board of the U.S. Department of Defense because it is used in products that are vital to national security. Beryllium is maintained in the U.S. stockpile of strategic materials in the form of hot-pressed beryllium metal powder.Because of its unique chemical properties, beryllium is indispensable for many important industrial products used in the aerospace, computer, defense, medical, nuclear, and telecommunications industries. For example, high-performance alloys of beryllium are used in many specialized, high-technology electronics applications, as they are energy efficient and can be used to fabricate miniaturized components. Beryllium-copper alloys are used as contacts and connectors, switches, relays, and shielding for everything from cell phones to thermostats, and beryllium-nickel alloys excel in producing wear-resistant and shape-retaining high-temperature springs. Beryllium metal composites, which combine the fabrication ability of aluminum with the thermal conductivity and highly elastic modulus of beryllium, are ideal for

  6. Spray drying of beryllium oxide powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulveda, J.L.; Kahler, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Forming of beryllia ceramics through dry pressing requires the agglomeration of the powder through spray drying. To produce high quality fired ceramics it is necessary to disperse/grind the primary powder prior to binder addition. Size reduction of the powder is accomplished using an aqueous system in Vibro-Energy mills (VEM) charged with beryllia media to minimize contamination. Two VEM mills of different size were used to characterize the grinding operation. Details of the grinding kinetics are described within the context of the Macroscopic Population Balance Model approach. Spray drying of the ceramic slurry was accomplished with both a centrifugal atomizer and a two fluid nozzle atomizer. Two different spray dryers were used. Important operating parameters affecting the size distribution of the spray dried powder are discussed

  7. Tantalum powder consolidation, modeling and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingert, S.R.; Vargas, V.D.; Sheinberg, H.C.

    1996-01-01

    A systematic approach was taken to investigate the consolidation of tantalum powders. The effects of sinter time, temperature and ramp rate; hot isostatic pressing (HIP) temperature and time; and powder oxygen content on consolidation density, kinetics, microstructure, crystallographic texture, and mechanical properties have been evaluated. In general, higher temperatures and longer hold times resulted in higher density compacts with larger grain sizes for both sintering and HIP'ing. HIP'ed compacts were consistently higher in density than sintered products. The higher oxygen content powders resulted in finer grained, higher density HIP'ed products than the low oxygen powders. Texture analysis showed that the isostatically processed powder products demonstrated a near random texture. This resulted in isotropic properties in the final product. Mechanical testing results showed that the HIP'ed powder products had consistently higher flow stresses than conventionally produced plates, and the sintered compacts were comparable to the plate material. A micromechanics model (Ashby HIP model) has been employed to predict the mechanisms active in the consolidation processes of cold isostatic pressing (CIP), HIP and sintering. This model also predicts the density of the end product and whether grain growth should be expected under the applied processing conditions

  8. Standard specification for nuclear-grade beryllium oxide powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    This specification defines the physical and chemical requirements of nuclear-grade beryllium oxide (BeO) powder to be used in fabricating nuclear components. This specification does not include requirements for health and safety. It recognizes the material as a Class B poison and suggests that producers and users become thoroughly familiar with and comply to applicable federal, state and local regulations and handling guidelines. Special tests and procedures are given

  9. Reduction of surface erosion caused by helium blistering in sintered beryllium and sintered aluminum powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.K.; Kaminsky, M.

    1976-01-01

    Studies have been conducted to find materials with microstructures which minimize the formation of blisters. A promising class of materials appears to be sintered metal powder with small average grain sizes and low atomic number Z. Studies of the surface erosion of sintered aluminum powder (SAP 895) and of aluminum held at 400 0 C due to blistering by 100 keV helium ions have been conducted and the results are compared to those obtained earlier for room temperature irradiation. A significant reduction of the erosion rate in SAP 895 in comparison to annealed aluminum and SAP 930 is observed. In addition results on the blistering of sintered beryllium powder (type I) irradiated at room temperature and 600 0 C by 100 keV helium ions are given. These results will be compared with those reported recently for vacuum cast beryllium foil and a foil of sintered beryllium powder (type II) which was fabricated differently, than type I. For room temperature irradiation only a few blisters could be observed in sintered beryllium powder type I and type II and they are smaller in size and in number than in vacuum cast beryllium. For irradiation at 600 0 C large scale exfoliation of blisters was observed for vacuum cast beryllium but much less exfoliation was seen for sintered beryllium powder, type I, and type II. The results show a reduction in erosion rate cast beryllium, for both room temperature and 600 0 C

  10. Specification for nuclear-grade beryllium oxide powder

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This specification defines the physical and chemical requirements of nuclear-grade beryllium oxide (BeO) powder to be used in fabricating nuclear components. 1.2 This specification does not include requirements for health and safety. , , It recognizes the material as a Class B poison and suggests that producers and users become thoroughly familiar with and comply to applicable federal, state, and local regulations and handling guidelines. 1.3 Special tests and procedures are given in Annex A1 and Annex A2. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

  11. Control of beryllium powder at a DOE facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langner, G.C.; Creek, K.L.; Castro, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    Beryllium is contained in a number of domestic and national defense items. Although many items might contain beryllium in some manner, few people need worry about the adverse effects caused by exposure to beryllium because it is the inhalable form of beryllium that is most toxic. Chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a granulomas and fibrotic lung disease with long latency, can be developed after inhalation exposures to beryllium. It is a progressive, debilitating lung disease. Its occurrence in those exposed to beryllium has been difficult to predict because some people seem to react to low concentration exposures whereas others do not react to high concentration exposures. Onset of the disease frequently occurs between 15 to 20 years after exposure begins. Some people develop the disease after many years of low concentration exposures but others do not develop CBD even though beryllium is shown to be present in lungs and urine. Conclusions based on these experiences are that their is some immunological dependence of developing CBD in about 3--4% of the exposed population, but the exact mechanism involved has not yet been identified. Acute beryllium disease can occur after a single exposure to a concentration of greater than 0.100 mg/m3 (inhalation exposure); it is characterized by the development of chemical pneumoconiosis, a respiratory disease. The acute effect of skin contact is a dermatitis characterized by itching and reddened, elevated, or fluid-accumulated lesions which appear particularly on the exposed surfaces of the body, especially the face, neck, arms, and hands. Small particles of beryllium that enter breaks in the skin can lead to the development of granulomas and/or open sores that do not heal until the beryllium has been removed. Our interest is only airborne beryllium, which is found in areas that machine or produce beryllium

  12. Elevated temperature stress strain behavior of beryllium powder product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeln, S.P.; Field, R.; Mataya, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    Several grades of beryllium powder product were tested under isothermal conditions in compression over a temperature range of room temperature to 1000 C and a strain rate range from 0.001 s -1 to 1 s -1 . Samples were compressed to a total strain of 1 (64% reduction in height). It is shown that all the grades are strain rate sensitive and that strain rate sensitivity increases with temperature. Yield points were exhibited by some grades up to a temperature of 500 C, and appeared to be primarily dependent on prior thermal history which determined the availability of mobile dislocations. Serrated flow in the form of stress drops was seen in all the materials tested and was most pronounced at 500 C. The appearance and magnitude of the stress drops were dependent on accumulated strain, strain rate, sample orientation, and composition. The flow stress and shape of the flow curves differed significantly from grade to grade due to variations in alloy content, the size and distribution of BeO particles, aging precipitates, and grain size. The ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) was determined for each grade of material and shown to be dependent on composition and thermal treatment. Structure/property relationships are discussed using processing history, microscopy (light and transmission), and property data

  13. Hot isostatic-pressing diagrams for fine-particle beryllium powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoev, P.I.; Papirov, I.I.; Tikhinskij, G.F.; Vasil'ev, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Charts of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) for 4 and 8 μm grain beryllium powders are plotted. Values of thickening rates are calculated and their dependences on HIP pressure and temperature are plotted. It is shown, that the relative density powder at growth of HIP pressure and temperature

  14. Beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In this data sheet the occurrence, ore processing, chemical and physical properties and the uses of beryllium and its alloys is presented. The hazards involved in the use of beryllium and its compounds in the laboratory are discussed with particular reference to its toxicity, carcinogenicity, handling, storage, disposal, fire prevention and the principal health hazards. Further reading is suggested. (UK)

  15. Beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, N.B.

    1980-01-01

    A method for determination of beryllium in minerals and rocks is described. The method comprises microanalysis and trace analysis. Because of the toxidity of beryllium the method is designed for determination of a hitherto unknown small amount, 1-10 nanogram Be. With the optimal amount for determination, 3 ng Be, the relative error of the method is 10%. The description includes an inventory of chemicals and apparatus, also an example of application of the method on the mineral epididymite. In brief, the sample is melted with sodium carbonate and sodium tetra borate; when required the sample in advance is fumed with hydrogen fluoride and sulphuric acid to evaporate silica. The residuum is dissolved in water and hydrogen chloride, upon which the solution is made to volume. In the Ring oven interfering compounds are masked with EDTA. Beryllium is settled with chrome azurol and ammonia. Beryllium is identified and evaluated in comparison with previously produced standards. (author)

  16. Beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, N.B.

    1979-01-01

    A method for determination of beryllium in minerals and rocks is described. The method comprises microanalysis and trace analysis. Because of the toxidity of beryllium the method is designed for determination of a hitherto unknown small amount, 1-10 nanogram Be. With the optimal amount for determination, 3 ng Be, the relative error of the method is 10%. The description includes an inventory of chemicals and apparatus, also an example of application of the method on the mineral epididymite. In brief, the sample is melted with sodium carbonate and sodium tetra borate; when required the sample in advance is fumed with hydrogen fluoride and sulphuric acid to evaporate silica. The residuum is dissolved in water and hydrogen chloride, upon which the solution is made to volume. In the Ring oven interfering compounds are masked with EDTA. Beryllium is settled with chrome azurol and ammonia. Beryllium is identified and evaluated in comparison with previously produced standards. (author)

  17. Application of powder metallurgy beryllium in Beijing spectrometer III beam pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Lifang; Li Xunfeng; Wang Li; Ji Quan; Liu Jianping

    2008-01-01

    According to the requirements of Beijing Spectrometer III (BESIII) beam pipe, the physical properties of several materials were compared and powder metallurgy beryllium was chosen as the material for the central pipe of the BES III beam pipe. Weight-loss method was used to study the corrosion of powder metallurgy beryllium in No. 1 oil for electron discharge machining (EDM-1). The result shows that the anticorrosive property of powder metallurgy beryllium in EDM-1 is high. The corrosion rate, 4.18 x 10 -7 kg· m -2 ·h -1 in initial stage, becomes small with the lapse of the time and stabilizes at 1.54 x 10 -7 kg·m -2 ·h -1 at last. It can be estimated that the powder metallurgy beryllium will be corroded 19.9 μm in the depth in 10 years and it accounts for 3.32% of the smallest thickness of the central pipe, which satisfies the requirements of the BESIII. (authors)

  18. Nanocomposite Thermolectric Materials by High Pressure Powder Consolidation Manufacturing, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to NASA's need to develop advanced nanostructured thermolectric materials, UTRON is proposing an innovative high pressure powder consolidation...

  19. Nanocomposite Thermolectric Materials by High Pressure Powder Consolidation Manufacturing, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to NASA's need to develop advanced nanostructured thermolectric materials, UTRON is proposing an innovative high pressure powder consolidation...

  20. Microstructure Analysis on Beryllium Reflector Blocks of Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Suk Hoon; Jang, Jin Sung; Jeong, Yong Hwan; Han, Chang Hee; Jung, Yang Il; Kim, Tae Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yong Seok; Oh, Kyu Hwan [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    A pure beryllium has a very low mass absorption coefficient: it has been used as the reflector element material in research reactors. The lifetime of beryllium reflector elements usually determined by the swelling: the swelling leads to dimensional change in the reflector frame, which results in bending or cracking of the parts. The mechanical interference in between parts should be avoided; the anisotropy of beryllium also needs to be considered. A beryllium has hexagonal close-pack (HCP) crystal structure, which is inherently anisotropic. It has virtually no ductility in one direction. There are two main aspects in the manufacturing of beryllium which will affect its isotropy, and those are the powder morphology and the consolidation process. Powder metallurgy permits the material to be produced in isotropic and fine-grained form, which overcomes the crystal structure problem by distributing loads in low ductility oriented grains to high ductility oriented grains. There are three representative consolidating methods to make beryllium reflector blocks. Traditionally, most powder-derived grades of beryllium have been consolidated by vacuum hot-pressing (VHP). A column of loose beryllium powder is compacted under vacuum by the pressure of the opposed upper and lower punches, bringing the billet to final density. The VHP process is directional in nature: it contributes to the anisotropy of the material properties. Another consolidating method for beryllium powder is hot isostatic pressing (HIPing), which will enhance its isotropy. During HIPing, The argon gas exerts pressure uniformly in all directions on the can containing the beryllium powder. The HIP process is effective to improve the isotropy of the resulting material as well as refinement of grain sizes. The last consolidating method is hot extrusion (HE). A roughly close packed beryllium is subjected to severe plastic defomation, the grains are refined and the tensile strength is enhanced. Since the material

  1. NMR study of nanophase Al/Al-oxide powder and consolidated composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suits, B.H.; Apte, P.; Wilken, D.E.; Siegel, R.W.

    1994-10-01

    27 Al Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements from aluminum powders and consolidated nanophase aluminum made from those powders are presented. The signals from the metal and surface oxidation are easily separated and are compared before and after consolidation. The results presented indicate that the oxide coating becomes the interface region within the nanophase composite material and that during consolidation the metal has undergone a deformation equivalent to that seen for bulk material under a compressive strain of between 4% and 8%

  2. High-energy, high-rate consolidation of tungsten and tungsten-based composite powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghunathan, S.K.; Persad, C.; Bourell, D.L.; Marcus, H.L. (Center for Materials Science and Engineering, Univ. of Texas, Austin (USA))

    1991-01-20

    Tungsten and tungsten-based heavy alloys are well known for their superior mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. However, unalloyed tungsten is difficult to consolidate owing to its very high melting temperature (3683 K). The additions of small amounts of low-melting elements such as iron, nickel, cobalt and copper, facilitate the powder processing of dense heavy alloys at moderate temperatures. Energetic high-current pulses have been used recently for powder consolidation. In this paper, the use of a homopolar generator as a power source to consolidate selected tungsten and tungsten-based alloys is examined. Various materials were consolidated including unalloyed tungsten, W-Nb, W-Ni, and tungsten heavy alloy with boron carbide. The effect of process parameters such as pressure and specific energy input on the consolidation of different alloy systems is described in terms of microstructure and property relationships. (orig.).

  3. Densification of powder metallurgy billets by a roll consolidation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellman, W. H.; Weinberger, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    Container design is used to convert partially densified powder metallurgy compacts into fully densified slabs in one processing step. Technique improves product yield, lowers costs and yields great flexibility in process scale-up. Technique is applicable to all types of fabricable metallic materials that are produced from powder metallurgy process.

  4. The dominance of thermocicling treatments conditions on microplastic of spheral ground up powder beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivantsov, V.I.

    2003-01-01

    The dominance of thermocicling treatments conditions on structure,electrical resistance,microplastic characteristics and behavior in the microdeformation area of beryllium was investigated. It is established, that TC causes considerable structural changes in beryllium at the upper thermocicling temperature exceeding 523 K. Attached to upper TC temperature less then 523 K it is observed hardening of metal, conditioned by processes of twining and relaxation of micro stresses in overstrained micro volumes. The temperature range of TC determinate the stage evolution of the flow and the deformation hardening at different stages defined by changes in the beryllium structure caused by processing

  5. Mechanical behavior and microstructure properties of titanium powder consolidated by high-pressure torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhilyaev, Alexander P. [Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems, Khalturina 39, Ufa 450001 (Russian Federation); Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic, Plaça de la Ciencia 2, Manresa, Barcelona 08242 (Spain); Research Laboratory for Mechanics of New Nanomaterials, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Polytechnicheskaya 29, St. Petersburg 195251 (Russian Federation); Ringot, Geoffrey [École Nationale Supérieure des Ingénieurs en Arts Chimiques et Technologiques (ENSIACET), National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse (INPT), 31077 Toulouse Cedex 04 (France); Huang, Yi [Materials Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Maria Cabrera, Jose [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica, ETSEIB – Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, Bacelona 08028 (Spain); Langdon, Terence G., E-mail: langdon@usc.edu [Materials Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Departments of Aerospace & Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1453 (United States)

    2017-03-14

    Research was conducted to investigate the potential for consolidating titanium powder using high-pressure torsion (HPT) at room temperature. The nanostructured samples processed by HPT were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show there is a significant refinement of the Ti powder and it consolidates into bulk nanostructured titanium with a mean grain size estimated by TEM as ~200–300 nm and a mean crystallite size measured by XRD as ~20–30 nm. Microhardness measurements and tensile testing show high strength and low ductility after consolidation under a pressure of 6.0 GPa for 5 revolutions. Additional short annealing at a temperature of 300 °C for 10 min leads to a significant enhancement in ductility while maintaining the high strength.

  6. Consolidation of copper and aluminium powders by spark plasma sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiprasad, M.; Atchayakumar, R.; Thiruppathi, K.; Raghuraman, S.

    2016-09-01

    Processing in the powder metallurgy route has emerged as an economical process for the production of near net shaped components with a wide range of desired mechanical properties suitable for various applications of industrial needs. This research work was conducted with an objective of studying the improvisation of density and hardness of Copper-Aluminium alloy prepared by spark plasma sintering. Cu-Al alloy with a composition of 95% copper and 5% aluminium was prepared by SPS process. SPS is a low voltage, DC pulse current activated, pressure-assisted sintering, which enables sintering at lower temperatures and shorter durations. The combination offered by Cu-Al alloy of high strength and high corrosion resistance results their applications under a wide variety of conditions. The density and hardness of the prepared sample were measured by conducting appropriate tests. Apparently, the values of hardness and density of the specimen prepared by SPS seemed to be better than that of conventional sintering. The experimental procedure, testing methodologies and analysis are presented.

  7. Laser shock wave consolidation of nanodiamond powders on aluminum 319

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molian, Pal [Laboratory for Lasers, MEMS, and Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-2161 (United States)], E-mail: molian@iastate.edu; Molian, Raathai; Nair, Rajeev [Laboratory for Lasers, MEMS, and Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-2161 (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A novel coating approach, based on laser shock wave generation, was employed to induce compressive pressures up to 5 GPa and compact nanodiamond (ND) powders (4-8 nm) on aluminum 319 substrate. Raman scattering indicated that the coating consisted of amorphous carbon and nanocrystalline graphite with peaks at 1360 cm{sup -1} and 1600 cm{sup -1} respectively. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a wavy, non-uniform coating with an average thickness of 40 {mu}m and absence of thermal effect on the surrounding material. The phase transition from nanodiamond to other phases of carbon is responsible for the increased coating thickness. Vicker's microhardness test showed hardness in excess of 1000 kg{sub f}/mm{sup 2} (10 GPa) while nanoindentation test indicated much lower hardness in the range of 20 MPa to 2 GPa. Optical surface profilometry traces displayed slightly uneven surfaces compared to the bare aluminum with an average surface roughness (R{sub a}) in the range of 1.5-4 {mu}m depending on the shock wave pressure and type of confining medium. Ball-on-disc tribometer tests showed that the coefficient of friction and wear rate were substantially lower than the smoother, bare aluminum sample. Laser shock wave process has thus aided in the generation of a strong, wear resistant, durable carbon composite coating on aluminum 319 substrate.

  8. Computer simulation of model cohesive powders: Plastic consolidation, structural changes and elasticity under isotropic loads

    OpenAIRE

    Gilabert, Francisco; Roux, Jean-Noël; Castellanos, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    International audience; The quasistatic behavior of a simple 2D model of a cohesive powder under isotropic loads is investigated by Discrete Element simulations. The loose packing states, as studied in a previous paper, undergo important structural changes under growing confining pressure P, while solid fraction \\Phi irreversibly increases by large amounts. The system state goes through three stages, with different forms of the plastic consolidation curve \\Phi(P*), under growing reduced press...

  9. Beryllium chemistry and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Kenneth A

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces beryllium; its history, its chemical, mechanical, and physical properties including nuclear properties. The 29 chapters include the mineralogy of beryllium and the preferred global sources of ore bodies. The identification and specifics of the industrial metallurgical processes used to form oxide from the ore and then metal from the oxide are thoroughly described. The special features of beryllium chemistry are introduced, including analytical chemical practices. Beryllium compounds of industrial interest are identified and discussed. Alloying, casting, powder processing, forming, metal removal, joining and other manufacturing processes are covered. The effect of composition and process on the mechanical and physical properties of beryllium alloys assists the reader in material selection. The physical metallurgy chapter brings conformity between chemical and physical metallurgical processing of beryllium, metal, alloys, and compounds. The environmental degradation of beryllium and its all...

  10. Study of the chemical interaction between the beryllium powders of different particles size and the air in the temperature range 500-1000degC form the viewpoint of ITER safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davydov, D.A. [State Scientific Center of Russian Federation, Moscow (Russian Federation); Konovalov, Y.V.; Gorokhov, V.A.; Levin, V.B.; Chekhlatov, G.M.; Khomutov, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Under an effect of some factors characteristic for the ITER- operating condition a dense beryllium facing plasma can transit into various forms, changing its structural states. As a result of the bombardment of beryllium plasma facing components by ion fluxes, the production of a dust including the particles from a few micrometers to a few millimeters in size is possible. The specific features in the behaviour of various beryllium forms under emergency conditions are of an essential interest from the viewpoint of ITER safety. Some grades of powders of different average particles size (14-31 micron) have been produced in a given study, and their chemical interaction at high temperatures with air (500-1100degC), test duration effects simulating the emergency situation at ITER in the first approximation have been studied. The temperature dependence of beryllium powders (different particles size after disc abrased) interaction with air in the temperature range 500-1000degC at the exposure of 5 hours long for each temperature and kinetic dependence of interaction of these powders with air at 800degC for the exposure from half an hour to 7 hours long were studied. An analysis of granulometric weight fraction in the metallic and oxidized beryllium powders with different particles size has been done by the photosedimentational technique with the instrument `Analysette-20`. Construction of a mathematical model for the chemical interaction of beryllium powders with air at high temperatures have been carried out. (author)

  11. Stereological analysis of structure formation for solid WC-Co alloys in the process of carbide powder consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyavskij, K S

    1986-03-01

    Evolution of particle size distribution in carbide powders of different technological prehistory is studied in the process of their consolidation as a hard alloy. A successive estimate on identical preparations is used to study a structural powder->alloy transition. Temperature dependences of integral measures of the consolidated structure and characteristics of its heterogeneity are studied. It is shown that all studied structural rearrangements: formation of regular alternation of carbide and binding phases, development of particle-phase interfaces, change in size distribution - more intensely proceed in the high-temperature carbide base alloy.

  12. Plasma spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum-silver alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Elliott, K.E.; Jacobson, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary investigation on plasma-spraying of beryllium and a beryllium-aluminum-4% silver alloy was done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Beryllium Atomization and Thermal Spray Facility (BATSF). Spherical Be and Be-Al-4%Ag powders, which were produced by centrifugal atomization, were used as feedstock material for plasma-spraying. The spherical morphology of the powders allowed for better feeding of fine (<38 μm) powders into the plasma-spray torch. The difference in the as-deposited densities and deposit efficiencies of the two plasma-sprayed powders will be discussed along with the effect of processing parameters on the as-deposited microstructure of the Be-Al-4%Ag. This investigation represents ongoing research to develop and characterize plasma-spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum alloys for magnetic fusion and aerospace applications

  13. Plasma spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum-silver alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Elliott, K.E.; Jacobson, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary investigation on plasma-spraying of beryllium and a beryllium-aluminum 4% silver alloy was done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Beryllium Atomization and Thermal Spray Facility (BATSF). Spherical Be and Be-Al-4%Ag powders, which were produced by centrifugal atomization, were used as feedstock material for plasma-spraying. The spherical morphology of the powders allowed for better feeding of fine (<38 μm) powders into the plasma-spray torch. The difference in the as-deposited densities and deposit efficiencies of the two plasma-sprayed powders will be discussed along with the effect of processing parameters on the as-deposited microstructure of the Be-Al-4%Ag. This investigation represents ongoing research to develop and characterize plasma-spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum alloys for magnetic fusion and aerospace applications

  14. Study beryllium microplastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papirov, I.I.; Ivantsov, V.I.; Nikolaenko, A.A.; Shokurov, V.S.; Tuzov, Yu.V.

    2015-01-01

    Microplastic flow characteristics systematically studied for different varieties beryllium. In isostatically pressed beryllium it decreased with increasing particle size of the powder, increasing temperature and increasing the pressing metal purity. High initial values of the limit microelasticity and microflow in some cases are due a high level of internal stresses of thermal origin and over time it can relax slowly. During long-term storage of beryllium materials with high initial resistance values microplastic deformation microflow limit and microflow stress markedly reduced, due mainly to the relaxation of thermal microstrain

  15. Structure and Mechanical Properties of Powdered Quasicrystalline Al94Fe3Cr3 Alloy Consolidated by Quasi-Hydrostatic Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra I. Yurkova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Quasicrystalline Al-based alloys belong to the class of the state-of-the-art metal materials for the application in light engineering constructions, primarily in aviation and the motor transport industry. These materials are commonly made in the form of powders, which is due to the high productivity of powder metallurgy methods. Therefore, the powder consolidation methods are of great importance in the production of products, which is associated with certain difficulties, and consequently, they should be chosen considering not only the quasicrystals’ propensity to brittle fracture but also the metastable nature of the quasicrystalline phases. Certain possibilities in this direction are provided by the quasi-hydrostatic compression method, which can provide a non-trivial combination of strength and ductility properties of materials. Objective. The aim of the paper is to investigate the effect of high pressure under quasi-hydrostatic compression on the formation of structure, phase composition and mechanical properties of the quasicrystalline Al94Fe3Cr3 alloy. Methods. 40 μm Al94Fe3Cr3 alloy quasicrystalline powder was fabricated by water-atomisation technique. Consolidation of quasicrystalline powder was performed by quasi-hydrostatic compression technique in high-pressure cells at room temperature at a pressure of 2.5, 4, and 6 hPa. Structure, phase composition and mechanical characteristics of Al94Fe3Cr3 alloy were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction andmicromechanical tests. Results. Using the phase X-ray analysis and SEM, the content of the quasicrystalline icosahedral phase (i-phase in the Al94Fe3Cr3 alloy structure was completely preserved after its consolidation at different pressures (2.5, 4, and 6 hPa under quasi-hydrostatic compression at room temperature. Despite the high pressure applied in the consolidation process, the morphology of quasicrystalline phase particles located in the a

  16. Nanostructured cobalt powders synthesised by polyol process and consolidated by Spark Plasma Sintering: Microstructure and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellah, F.; Schoenstein, F.; Dakhlaoui-Omrani, A.; Cherif, S.M.; Dirras, G.; Jouini, N., E-mail: jouini@univ-paris13.fr

    2012-07-15

    Bulk nanostructured cobalt was processed using a bottom-up strategy. Nanostructured particle agglomerates of about 50 and 240 nm in diameter were synthesised using a polyol route and subsequently consolidated by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). The microstructure of the starting powders and of the processed bulk samples was studied and characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD patterns of the as-prepared powders showed predominantly a face centred cubic (fcc) crystalline phase, whereas both fcc and hexagonal close packed (hcp) phases were found within the consolidated samples. A sample with the highest relative mass density (94.5%) was obtained from the small powder particles. TEM observations revealed a lamellar substructure with a high density of nanotwins and stacking faults in every grain in the sample with the highest density. Brillouin light scattering (BLS) and quasistatic compression tests were used to investigate the mechanical properties of the consolidated samples. The two techniques yielded Young modulus values of 168 GPa and 130 GPa, respectively, in the sample with the highest density. This sample also exhibited a yield stress higher than 1 GPa after the compression test, which is mainly attributed to the lamellar-like structure occurring in almost every grain of the polycrystalline aggregate. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cobalt nanoparticles produced by the polyol process present mainly the fcc metastable phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bulk nanostructured cobalt is obtained from the nano-particles by Spark Plasma Sintering consolidation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanotwins and stacking faults are present in every grain of the more dense sample. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Yield strength and plastic domain may be varied depending on the nanoparticle size and the porosity of the consolidated material.

  17. Stress relaxation study of water atomized Cu-Cr-Zr powder alloys consolidated by inverse warm extrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poblano-Salas, C.A.; Barceinas-Sanchez, J.D.O.

    2009-01-01

    Stress relaxation testing in compression at high temperature was performed on Cu-Cr-Zr alloys produced by consolidation of water atomized powders. Precipitation and recrystallization were monitored during stress relaxation experiments carried out at an ageing temperature of 723 K. Pre-straining imposed to the Cu-Cr-Zr samples prior to stress relaxation testing resulted in reduced hardness compared to that reported for conventionally-aged alloys; it also resulted in shorter times for achieving maximum strengthening on ageing.

  18. Consolidation of powders of the superconductor YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7-. delta. / by high energy-high rate processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.Y.; Persad, C.; Swinnea, J.S.; Marcus, H.L.; Steinfink, H. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (USA). Center for Materials Science and Engineering)

    1988-01-01

    The consolidation response of powders of the superconducting compound YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7-{delta}/ by itself and admixed with metal powders is reported. The processing approach relies on short duration (powders under applied pressures of 200 MPa to 400 MPa. Powders and fabricated disk concepts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  19. Consolidation processing parameters and alternative processing methods for powder metallurgy Al-Cu-Mg-X-X alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, K. K.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of varying the vacuum degassing parameters on the microstructure and properties of Al-4Cu-1Mg-X-X (X-X = 1.5Li-0.2Zr or 1.5Fe-0.75Ce) alloys processed from either prealloyed (PA) or mechanically alloyed (M) powder, and consolidated by either using sealed aluminum containers or containerless vacuum hot pressing were studied. The consolidated billets were hot extruded to evaluate microstructure and properties. The MA Li-containing alloy did not include Zr, and the MA Fe- and Ce-containing alloy was made from both elemental and partially prealloyed powder. The alloys were vacuum degassed both above and below the solution heat treatment temperature. While vacuum degassing lowered the hydrogen content of these alloys, the range over which the vacuum degassing parameters were varied was not large enough to cause significant changes in degassing efficiency, and the observed variations in the mechanical properties of the heat treated alloys were attributed to varying contributions to strengthening by the sub-structure and the dispersoids. Mechanical alloying increased the strength over that of alloys of similar composition made from PA powder. The inferior properties in the transverse orientation, especially in the Li-containing alloys, suggested deficiencies in degassing. Among all of the alloys processed for this study, the Fe- and Ce-containing alloys made from MA powder possessed better combinations of strength and toughness.

  20. Method for fabricating beryllium structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovis, Jr., Victor M.; Northcutt, Jr., Walter G.

    1977-01-01

    Thin-walled beryllium structures are prepared by plasma spraying a mixture of beryllium powder and about 2500 to 4000 ppm silicon powder onto a suitable substrate, removing the plasma-sprayed body from the substrate and placing it in a sizing die having a coefficient of thermal expansion similar to that of the beryllium, exposing the plasma-sprayed body to a moist atmosphere, outgassing the plasma-sprayed body, and then sintering the plasma-sprayed body in an inert atmosphere to form a dense, low-porosity beryllium structure of the desired thin-wall configuration. The addition of the silicon and the exposure of the plasma-sprayed body to the moist atmosphere greatly facilitate the preparation of the beryllium structure while minimizing the heretofore deleterious problems due to grain growth and grain orientation.

  1. Method for hot pressing beryllium oxide articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Ambrose H.; Godfrey, Jr., Thomas G.; Mowery, Erb H.

    1988-01-01

    The hot pressing of beryllium oxide powder into high density compacts with little or no density gradients is achieved by employing a homogeneous blend of beryllium oxide powder with a lithium oxide sintering agent. The lithium oxide sintering agent is uniformly dispersed throughout the beryllium oxide powder by mixing lithium hydroxide in an aqueous solution with beryllium oxide powder. The lithium hydroxide is converted in situ to lithium carbonate by contacting or flooding the beryllium oxide-lithium hydroxide blend with a stream of carbon dioxide. The lithium carbonate is converted to lithium oxide while remaining fixed to the beryllium oxide particles during the hot pressing step to assure uniform density throughout the compact.

  2. Beryllium production using beryllium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubler, Carlos Henrique

    1993-01-01

    This work presents the beryllium production by thermal decomposition of the ammonium beryllium fluoride, followed by magnesium reduction, obtained in the small pilot plant of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission - Nuclear Engineering Institute

  3. Effect of machining damage on tensile properties of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanafee, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    It is well established that damage introduced at the surface of beryllium during machining operations can lower its mechanical properties. Tensile tests were conducted to illustrate this on beryllium presently being used for parts in the W79 program and similar to the new powder-processed beryllium specified for production (tentative specification MEL 76-001319). The objective of this study is to quantitatively illuminate the importance of controlling machining damage in this particular grade of powder-processed beryllium

  4. European Fusion Programme. ITER task T23: Beryllium characterisation. Progress report. Tensile tests on neutron irradiated and reference beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moons, F.

    1996-02-01

    As part of the European Technology Fusion Programme, the irradiation embrittlement characteristics of the more ductile and isotopic grades of beryllium manufactured by Brush Wellman has been investigated using modern powder production and consolidation techniques . This study was initiated in support of the development and evaluation of beryllium as a neutron multiplier for the solid breeder blanket design concepts proposed for a DEMO fusion power reactor. Four different species of beryllium: S-200 F (vacuum hot pressed, 1.2 wt% BeO), S-200FH (hot isostatic pressed, 0.9 wt% BeO), S-65 (vacuum hot pressed, 0.6 wt% BeO), S-65H (hot isostatic pressed, 0.5 wt% BeO) have been compared. Three batches of the beryllium have been investigated, a neutron batch, a thermal control batch and a reference batch. Neutron irradiation has been performed at temperatures between 175 and 605 degrees Celsius up to a neutron fluence of 2.1 10 25 n.m -2 (E> 1 MeV) or 750 appm He. The results of the tensile tests are summarized

  5. Offshoots from beryllium development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.P.; Sinha, P.K.

    1995-01-01

    The paper briefly presents extraction and processing of beryllium metal as practiced in the beryllium facilities at Turbhe, New Bombay. These facilities have been set up to meet the indigenous requirements of the metal in space and nuclear science programmes. As offshoot of this beryllium development programme has been the development of a number of pyro and powder metallurgical equipment. Indigenous development of these pieces of equipment has been a professionally rewarding experience. Efforts are now on to promote these equipment for industrial use. (author). 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  6. The consolidation of a powder material in conditions of combined influence of different technological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorofeyev V.Yu.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the problems, connected with the formation of a powder material and its surface layers in conditions of chemical thermal treatment and impregnation with melt, combined with the use of mechanical loads at different process stages are examined. The new results of liquid phase influence on compaction of powder preforms, subjected to impregnation, are obtained. The presence of a liquid phase in preform surface layers can also be connected with the change of the materials chemical composition as the result of boronizing, siliconizing or other kinds of chemical thermal treatment.

  7. Beryllium allergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenherr, S.; Pevny, I.

    1989-12-01

    Beryllium is not only a high potent allergen, but also a fotoallergen and can provoke contact allergic reactions, fotoallergic reactions, granulomatous skin reactions, pulmonary granulomatous diseases and sometimes even systemic diseases. The authors present 9 own cases of a patch test positive beryllium allergy, 7 patients with relevant allergy and 5 patients with an allergic contact stomatitis. (author)

  8. Microstructure/processing relationships in high-energy high-rate consolidated powder composites of Nb-stabilized Ti3Al+TiAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad, C.; Lee, B.; Hou, C.; Eliezer, Z.; Marcus, H.L.

    1989-01-01

    A new approach to powder processing is employed in forming titanium aluminide composites. The processing consists of internal heating of a customized powder blend by a fast electrical discharge of a homopolar generator. The high-energy high-rate '1MJ in 1s' pulse permits rapid heating of an electrically conducting powder mixture in a cold wall die. This short time at temperature approach offers the opportunity to control phase transformations and the degree of microstructural coarsening not readily possible with standard powder-processing approaches. This paper describes the consolidation results of titanium aluminide-based powder-composite materials. The focus of this study was the definition of microstructure/processing relationships for each of the composite constituents, first as monoliths and then in composite forms. Non-equilibrium phases present in rapidly solidified TiAl powders are transformed to metastable intermediates en route to the equilibrium gamma phase.

  9. Numerical investigation of FAST powder consolidation of Al2O3 and additive free β-SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J B; Cornwell, C F; Carlson, T; Marsh, C P

    2015-01-01

    In this work we examine ceramic synthesis through powder consolidation and the field assisted sintering technique. In particular, we investigate the sintering of Al 2 O 3 and additive free β−SiC from both an experimental and numerical perspective. For the numerical model, the continuum theory of sintering model is employed, and the densification mechanisms corresponding to power law creep and grain boundary diffusion are considered. Experiments are used for comparison and validation purposes. The results indicate that in general, the densification kinetics simulated by the numerical model compare favorably with the experimental results. Parametric studies involving initial grain size, heating rate, and applied stress are also examined using the numerical model, and confirm many of the expected results from previous research, including increased densification due to higher heating rates, smaller grain sizes, and increased applied loading conditions. (paper)

  10. Consolidation of powders of the oxide superconductor YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/Ox by high energy-high rate processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad, C.; Lee, S.J.; Peterson, D.R.; Swinnea, J.S.; Schmerling, M.

    1988-01-01

    The consolidation response of powders of the superconducting compound YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/Ox is reported. Copper, silver, tin, and Cu-based metallic glass infiltrates have also been employed in preliminary fabricability studies. The processing approach relies on short-duration (< 1s), high-current-density 10000 A/sq.cm, pulse-resistive heating of powders under applied pressures of 200 MPa to 400 MPa. Powders and fabricated disk compacts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical and scanning electron microscopy, and resistivity measurements. X-ray diffraction comparisons of starting powder and consolidated material show retention of the single phase 1-2-3 structure and the development of a preferred orientation. In the consolidated pure YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/0x, Tc onsets of 87K were accompanied by broad transitions. Iodometric analyses indicated oxygen depletion in the as-consolidated disks. Observed oxygen-content profiles across the sample thickness had values 0.11< x <0.35. The variation in the peak processing temperature within the disk was found to correlate with the oxygen content profile.

  11. Structure investigations of some beryllium materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faeldt, I; Lagerberg, G

    1960-05-15

    Metallographic structure, microhardness and texture have been studied on various types of beryllium metal including hot pressed powder, a rolled strip and an extruded tube It was found that beryllium exhibits its highest hardness in directions perpendicular to the basal plane. Good ideas of the prevailing textures were obtained with an ordinary X-ray diffractometer.

  12. Structure investigations of some beryllium materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faeldt, I.; Lagerberg, G.

    1960-05-01

    Metallographic structure, microhardness and texture have been studied on various types of beryllium metal including hot pressed powder, a rolled strip and an extruded tube It was found that beryllium exhibits its highest hardness in directions perpendicular to the basal plane. Good ideas of the prevailing textures were obtained with an ordinary X-ray diffractometer

  13. Microstructure and mechanical properties of air atomized aluminum powder consolidated via spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, G.A. [Dalhousie University, Department of Process Engineering and Applied Science, 1360 Barrington Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3J 1Z1 (Canada); Brochu, M. [McGill University, Mining and Materials Engineering Department, 3610 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 0C5 (Canada); Hexemer, R.L.; Donaldson, I.W. [GKN Sinter Metals LLC, 3300 University Drive, Auburn Hills 48326 (United States); Bishop, D.P., E-mail: Paul.Bishop@dal.ca [Dalhousie University, Department of Process Engineering and Applied Science, 1360 Barrington Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3J 1Z1 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Two air atomized aluminum powders, one of commercial purity and the other magnesium-doped (0.4 wt%), were processed by SPS and conventional PM means. An investigation of SPS processing parameters and their effect on sinter quality were investigated. A comparison with conventionally processed PM counterparts was also conducted. Applied pressure and ultimate processing temperature bore the greatest influence on processing, while heating rate and hold time showed a minor effect. Full density specimens were achieved for both powders under select processing conditions. To compliment this, large (80 mm) and small (20 mm) diameter samples were made to observe possible up-scaling effects, as well as tensile properties. Large samples were successfully processed, albeit with somewhat inferior densities to the smaller counterparts presumably due to the temperature inhomogeneity during processing. An investigation of tensile properties for SPS samples exhibited extensive ductility (∼30%) at high sintering temperatures, while lower temperature SPS samples as well as all PM processed samples exhibited a brittle nature. The measurement of residual oxygen and hydrogen contents showed a significant elimination of both species in SPS samples under certain processing parameters when compared to conventional PM equivalents.

  14. Demonstration of production of tungsten metal powder and its consolidation into shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.; Kishor, J.; Paul, B.; Kain, V.; Dey, G.K.

    2016-01-01

    Tungsten is a strategically important metal used as plasma facing component in fusion reactors, radiation shields in cancer therapy machines, ammunition in defence applications, high speed cutting tools etc. The primary resources or minerals occurring in India contain a very low value (0.25-0.5 wt. %) of tungsten. Mineral beneficiation processes involving crushing, grinding, primary and secondary gravity separation, floatation are essential to produce the ore-concentrate suitable for further processing up to the preparation of the intermediate ammonium para-tungstate (APT). APT was further converted to tungsten tri-oxide (WO_3). Hydrogen reduction of WO_3 producing high purity W metal powder was demonstrated in large scale batches. Densification of W powder was further studied using vacuum hot pressing at 1950°C, and high density W metal plates of 5 mm thickness and 60 mm diameter were produced. The products obtained at every stage were systematically characterized using X-Ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) techniques. (author)

  15. Consolidation & Factors Influencing Sintering Process in Polymer Powder Based Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, M. B.; Elangovan, K.

    2017-08-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) is two decade old technology; where parts are build layer manufacturing method directly from a CAD template. Over the years, AM techniques changes the future way of part fabrication with enhanced intricacy and custom-made features are aimed. Commercially polymers, metals, ceramic and metal-polymer composites are in practice where polymers enhanced the expectations in AM and are considered as a kind of next industrial revolution. Growing trend in polymer application motivated to study their feasibility and properties. Laser sintering, Heat sintering and Inhibition sintering are the most successful AM techniques for polymers but having least application. The presentation gives up selective sintering of powder polymers and listed commercially available polymer materials. Important significant factors for effective processing and analytical approaches to access them are discussed.

  16. High-strength beryllium block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, N.P.; Keith, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    Beryllium billets hot isopressed using fine powder of high purity have exceptionally attractive properties; average tensile ultimate, 0.2% offset yield strength and elongation are 590 MPa, 430 MPa and 4.0% respectively. Properties are attributed to the fine grain size (about 4.0 μm average diameter) and the relatively low levels of BeO present as fine, well-dispersed particles. Dynamic properties, e.g., fracture toughness, are similar to those of standard grade, high-purity beryllium. The modulus of beryllium is retained to very high stress levels, and the microyield stress or precision elastic limit is higher than for other grades, including instrument grades. Limited data for billets made from normal-purity fine powders show similar room temperature properties. (author)

  17. Research of beryllium safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Anderl, R.A.; Dolan, T.J.; Hankins, M.R.; Pawelko, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Beryllium has been identified as a leading contender for the plasma-facing material in ITER. Its use has some obvious advantages, but there are also a number of safety concerns associated with it. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has undertaken a number of studies to help resolve some of these issues. One issue is the response of beryllium to neutron irradiation. We have tested samples irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and are currently preparing to make measurements of the change in mechanical properties of beryllium samples irradiated at elevated temperatures in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) at the INEL. Mechanical tests will be conducted at the irradiation temperatures of 375-550 C. Other experiments address permeation and retention of implanted tritium in plasma-sprayed beryllium. In one test the porosity of the material allowed 0.12% of implanted ions and 0.17% of atoms from background gas pressure to pass through the foil with essentially no delay. For comparison, similar tests on fully dense hot-rolled, vacuum melted or sintered powder foils of high purity beryllium showed only 0.001% of implanting ions to pass through the foil, and then only after a delay of several hours. None of the molecular gas appeared to permeate these latter targets. An implication is that plasma-sprayed beryllium may substantially enhance recycling of tritium to the plasma provided it is affixed to a relatively impermeable substrate. (orig.)

  18. Outside Mainstream Electronic Databases: Review of Studies Conducted in the USSR and Post-Soviet Countries on Electric Current-Assisted Consolidation of Powder Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene G. Grigoryev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews research articles published in the former USSR and post-soviet countries on the consolidation of powder materials using electric current that passes through the powder sample and/or a conductive die-punch set-up. Having been published in Russian, many of the reviewed papers are not included in the mainstream electronic databases of the scientific articles and thus are not known to the scientific community. The present review is aimed at filling this information gap. In the paper, the electric current-assisted sintering techniques based on high- and low-voltage approaches are presented. The main results of the theoretical modeling of the processes of electromagnetic field-assisted consolidation of powder materials are discussed. Sintering experiments and related equipment are described and the major experimental results are analyzed. Sintering conditions required to achieve the desired properties of the sintered materials are provided for selected material systems. Tooling materials used in the electric current-assisted consolidation set-ups are also described.

  19. Beryllium poisonings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alibert, S.

    1959-03-01

    This note reports a bibliographical study of beryllium toxicity. Thus, this bibliographical review addresses and outlines aspects and issues like aetiology, cases of acute poisoning (cutaneous manifestations, pulmonary manifestations), chronic poisoning (cutaneous, pulmonary and bone manifestations), excretion and localisation, and prognosis

  20. Hydrogen transport behavior of beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, R.A.; Hankins, M.R.; Longhurst, G.R.; Pawelko, R.J. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Macaulay-Newcombe, R.G. (Dept. of Engineering Physics, Univ. Hamilton, ON (Canada))

    1992-12-01

    Beryllium is being evaluated for use as a plasma-facing material in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). One concern in the evaluation is the retention and permeation of tritium implanted into the plasma-facing surface. We performed laboratory-scale studies to investigate mechanisms that influence hydrogen transport and retention in beryllium foil specimens of rolled powder metallurgy product and rolled ingot cast beryllium. Specimen characterization was accomplished using scanning electron microscopy. Auger electron spectroscopy, and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) techniques. Hydrogen transport was investigated using ion-beam permeation experiments and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Results indicate that trapping plays a significant role in permeation, re-emission, and retention, and that surface processes at both upstream and downstream surfaces are also important. (orig.).

  1. Corrosion of beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elston, J.; Caillat, R.

    1958-01-01

    Data are reported on the volatilization rate of beryllium oxide in moist air depending on temperature and water vapour concentration. They are concerned with powder samples or sintered shapes of various densities. For sintered samples, the volatilization rate is very low under the following conditions: - temperature: 1300 deg. C, - water vapour concentration in moist air: 25 g/m 3 , - flow rate: 12 I/hour corresponding to a speed of 40 m/hour on the surface of the sample. For calcinated powders (1300 deg. C), grain growth has been observed under a stream of moist air at 1100 deg. C. For instance, grain size changes from 0,5 to at least 2 microns after 500 hours of exposure at this temperature. Furthermore, results data are reported on corrosion of sintered beryllium oxide in pressurized water. At 250 deg. C, under a pressure of 40 kg/cm 2 water is very slightly corrosive; however, internal strains are revealed. Finally, some features on the corrosion in liquid sodium are exposed. (author) [fr

  2. Consolidation of mechanically milled powder mixture of aluminum and quasicrystalline particle; Mechanical milling shita junkessho ryushi / aluminium gokin funmatsu no koka seikeisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuasa, E.; Kawamura, C.; Sugiyama, T. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-15

    A quasi-crystalline Al65Cu20Fe15 powder prepared from alloy cast rapidly solidified by metal-mold casting, and then it was mixed to aluminum powder with various volume fractions by mechanical milling. The powder milled for above 50ks made homogeneous dispersion of quasi-crystalline phase with particle size less than 1{mu}m. The powder was hot-pressed under various conditions and then its features of consolidation were examined by the observation of microstructure and fracture strength in 3-point-bending of the compacts. When the milled powder was hot-pressed at higher compacting temperature than 673K for 3.6ks under pressure of 600MPa, the compact became to dense. Hardness of the obtained compact increases and its fracture strength decreases with increasing volume fraction of quasi-crystalline particles. Intermetallic compound Al7Cu2Fe forms in the interface of aluminum matrix and quasi-crystalline particle. 11 refs., 10 figs.

  3. Method for welding beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O`Leary, R.F.

    1997-04-01

    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. 9 figs.

  4. Method for welding beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O'Leary, R.F.

    1997-01-01

    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. 9 figs

  5. Consolidation of titanium hydride powders during the production of titanium PM parts: The effect of die wall lubricants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Machio, Christopher N

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of die wall lubricants on the cold compaction of titanium hydride powder are studied. Three commonly-used die wall powder metallurgy lubricants – zinc stearate, Acrawax® C dispersion and Mirror Glaze® – are compared. The influence...

  6. Beryllium Science: US-UK agreement on the use of Atomic Energy for mutual defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanafee, J.E. (ed.)

    1988-02-19

    Twenty-seven papers are presented on beryllium supply, production, fabrication, safe handling, analysis, powder technology, and coatings. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (DLC)

  7. Beryllium Science: US-UK agreement on the use of Atomic Energy for mutual defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanafee, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-seven papers are presented on beryllium supply, production, fabrication, safe handling, analysis, powder technology, and coatings. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers

  8. Effect of layer thickness in selective laser melting on microstructure of Al/5 wt.%Fe2O3 powder consolidated parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadbakhsh, Sasan; Hao, Liang

    2014-01-01

    In situ reaction was activated in the powder mixture of Al/5 wt.%Fe2O3 by using selective laser melting (SLM) to directly fabricate aluminium metal matrix composite parts. The microstructural characteristics of these in situ consolidated parts through SLM were investigated under the influence of thick powder bed, 75  μm layer thickness, and 50  μm layer thickness in various laser powers and scanning speeds. It was found that the layer thickness has a strong influence on microstructural outcome, mainly attributed to its impact on oxygen content of the matrix. Various microstructural features (such as granular, coralline-like, and particulate appearance) were observed depending on the layer thickness, laser power, and scanning speed. This was associated with various material combinations such as pure Al, Al-Fe intermetallics, and Al(-Fe) oxide phases formed after in situ reaction and laser rapid solidification. Uniformly distributed very fine particles could be consolidated in net-shape Al composite parts by using lower layer thickness, higher laser power, and lower scanning speed. The findings contribute to the new development of advanced net-shape manufacture of Al composites by combining SLM and in situ reaction process.

  9. Effect of Layer Thickness in Selective Laser Melting on Microstructure of Al/5 wt.%Fe2O3 Powder Consolidated Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Dadbakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ reaction was activated in the powder mixture of Al/5 wt.%Fe2O3 by using selective laser melting (SLM to directly fabricate aluminium metal matrix composite parts. The microstructural characteristics of these in situ consolidated parts through SLM were investigated under the influence of thick powder bed, 75 μm layer thickness, and 50 μm layer thickness in various laser powers and scanning speeds. It was found that the layer thickness has a strong influence on microstructural outcome, mainly attributed to its impact on oxygen content of the matrix. Various microstructural features (such as granular, coralline-like, and particulate appearance were observed depending on the layer thickness, laser power, and scanning speed. This was associated with various material combinations such as pure Al, Al-Fe intermetallics, and Al(-Fe oxide phases formed after in situ reaction and laser rapid solidification. Uniformly distributed very fine particles could be consolidated in net-shape Al composite parts by using lower layer thickness, higher laser power, and lower scanning speed. The findings contribute to the new development of advanced net-shape manufacture of Al composites by combining SLM and in situ reaction process.

  10. Extruded Al-Al2O3 composites formed in situ during consolidation of ultrafine Al powders: Effect of the powder surface area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balog, Martin; Simancik, Frantisek; Walcher, Martin; Rajner, Walter; Poletti, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → 25 gas atomised Al 99.5% powders with particle size 2 O 3 dispersoids. → Compacts showed good thermal stability due to grain pinning of Al 2 O 3 dispersoids. - Abstract: Twenty-five samples of commercially available, gas-atomised Al (99.5%) powders with particle sizes 2 O 3 composites formed in situ during extrusion. The effect of particle size, surface area, oxygen content and atomisation atmosphere of the powder on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the extruded compacts were studied by Brunauer, Emmett, Teller (BET) analysis, hot gas extraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and tensile tests. Thermal stability of the compacts and the individual strengthening mechanisms operating in the compacts were discussed. It was found that the properties of the compacts stemmed from the extraordinary grain boundary strengthening effect of the ultrafine-grained compacts due to their microstructures. The efficiency of the grain boundary strengthening was significantly enhanced by the presence of nano-metric Al 2 O 3 dispersoids introduced in situ. The strength of the compacts was closely related to the surface area of the powder particles. In addition, the entrapped gasses and chemically bonded humidity had a negative effect on the mechanical properties of the compacts.

  11. Fluorimetric method for determination of Beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparacino, N.; Sabbioneda, S.

    1996-10-01

    The old fluorimetric method for the determination of Beryllium, based essentially on the fluorescence of the Beryllium-Morine complex in a strongly alkaline solution, is still competitive and stands the comparison with more modern methods or at least three reasons: in the presence of solid or gaseous samples (powders), the times necessary to finalize an analytic determination are comparable since the stage of the process which lasts the longest is the mineralization of the solid particles containing Beryllium, the cost of a good fluorimeter is by far Inferior to the cost, e. g., of an Emission Spectrophotometer provided with ICP torch and magnets for exploiting the Zeeman effect and of an Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer provided with Graphite furnace; it is possible to determine, fluorimetrically, rather small Beryllium levels (about 30 ng of Beryllium/sample), this potentiality is more than sufficient to guarantee the respect of all the work safety and hygiene rules now in force. The study which is the subject of this publication is designed to the analysis procedure which allows one to reach good results in the determination of Beryllium, chiefly through the control and measurement of the interference effect due to the presence of some metals which might accompany the environmental samples of workshops and laboratories where Beryllium is handled, either at the pure state or in its alloys. The results obtained satisfactorily point out the merits and limits of this analytic procedure

  12. Extruded Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites formed in situ during consolidation of ultrafine Al powders: Effect of the powder surface area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balog, Martin, E-mail: martin.balog@savba.sk [Institute of Materials and Machine Mechanics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia); Simancik, Frantisek [Institute of Materials and Machine Mechanics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia); Walcher, Martin; Rajner, Walter [NMD - New Materials Development GmbH, St. Pantaleon (Austria); Poletti, Cecilia [Institute of Materials Science and Welding, Graz University of Technology, Kopernikusgasse 24/I, A8010 Graz (Austria)

    2011-11-25

    Highlights: {yields} 25 gas atomised Al 99.5% powders with particle size <10 {mu}m were hot extruded. {yields} The strength of compacts was closely related to powder surface area. {yields} Grain boundary strengthening was enhanced by the presence of in situ Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersoids. {yields} Compacts showed good thermal stability due to grain pinning of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersoids. - Abstract: Twenty-five samples of commercially available, gas-atomised Al (99.5%) powders with particle sizes <10 {mu}m were hot extruded into Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites formed in situ during extrusion. The effect of particle size, surface area, oxygen content and atomisation atmosphere of the powder on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the extruded compacts were studied by Brunauer, Emmett, Teller (BET) analysis, hot gas extraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and tensile tests. Thermal stability of the compacts and the individual strengthening mechanisms operating in the compacts were discussed. It was found that the properties of the compacts stemmed from the extraordinary grain boundary strengthening effect of the ultrafine-grained compacts due to their microstructures. The efficiency of the grain boundary strengthening was significantly enhanced by the presence of nano-metric Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersoids introduced in situ. The strength of the compacts was closely related to the surface area of the powder particles. In addition, the entrapped gasses and chemically bonded humidity had a negative effect on the mechanical properties of the compacts.

  13. Beryllium-aluminum alloys for investment castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachtrab, W.T.; Levoy, N.

    1997-01-01

    Beryllium-aluminum alloys containing greater than 60 wt % beryllium are very favorable materials for applications requiring light weight and high stiffness. However, when produced by traditional powder metallurgical methods, these alloys are expensive and have limited applications. To reduce the cost of making beryllium-aluminum components, Nuclear Metals Inc. (NMI) and Lockheed Martin Electronics and Missiles have recently developed a family of patented beryllium-aluminum alloys that can be investment cast. Designated Beralcast, the alloys can achieve substantial weight savings because of their high specific strength and stiffness. In some cases, weight has been reduced by up to 50% over aluminum investment casting. Beralcast is now being used to make thin wall precision investment castings for several advanced aerospace applications, such as the RAH-66 Comanche helicopter and F-22 jet fighter. This article discusses alloy compositions, properties, casting method, and the effects of cobalt additions on strength

  14. Self-Consolidation Mechanism Of Porous Ti-6Al-4V Implant Prototypes Produced By Electro-Discharge-Sintering Of Spherical Ti-6Al-4V Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee W.H.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Electro-Discharge-Sintering (EDS was employed to fabricate Ti-6Al-4V porous implant prototypes from atomized powders (100 – 150 μm, that were subjected to discharges of 0.75 to 2.0 kJ/0.7g-powder from 150, 300, and 450 μF capacitors. Both fully porous and porous-surfaced Ti-6Al-4V compacts with various solid core sizes were self-consolidated in less than 86 – 155 μsec. It is known that EDS can simultaneously produce the pinch pressure to squeeze and deform powder particles and the heat to weld them together. The formation of a solid core in these prototypes depends on the amounts of both the pinch pressure and heat generated during a discharge. The size of the solid core and the thickness of the porous layer can be successfully controlled by manipulating the discharge conditions such as input energy and capacitance.

  15. The beryllium production at Ulba metallurgical plant (Ust-Kamenogrsk, Kazakhstan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvinskykh, E.M.; Savchuk, V.V.; Tuzov, Y.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant (Zavod), Ust-Kamenogorsk, Abay prospect 102 (Kazakhstan)

    1998-01-01

    The Report includes data on beryllium production of Ulba metallurgical plant, located in Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan). Beryllium production is showed to have extended technological opportunities in manufacturing semi-products (beryllium ingots, master alloys, metallic beryllium powders, beryllium oxide) and in production of structural beryllium and its parts. Ulba metallurgical plant owns a unique technology of beryllium vacuum distillation, which allows to produce reactor grades of beryllium with a low content of metallic impurities. At present Ulba plant does not depend on raw materials suppliers. The quantity of stored raw materials and semi-products will allow to provide a 25-years work of beryllium production at a full capacity. The plant has a satisfactory experience in solving ecological problems, which could be useful in ITER program. (author)

  16. Chronic Beryllium Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who are exposed to beryllium will not experience health effects. Studies have shown that on average, 1 – 6 percent of exposed workers develop beryllium sensitization, although the rates can be ...

  17. Porous mandrels provide uniform deformation in hydrostatic powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gripshover, P. J.; Hanes, H. D.

    1967-01-01

    Porous copper mandrels prevent uneven deformation of beryllium machining blanks. The beryllium powder is arranged around these mandrels and hot isostatically pressed to form the blanks. The mandrels are then removed by leaching.

  18. Laser fabrication of beryllium components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanafee, J.E.; Ramos, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    Working with the beryllium industry on commercial applications and using prototype parts, the authors have found that the use of lasers provides a high-speed, low-cost method of cutting beryllium metal, beryllium alloys, and beryllium-beryllium oxide composites. In addition, they have developed laser welding processes for commercial structural grades of beryllium that do not need a filler metal; i.e., autogenous welds were made in commercial structural grades of beryllium by using lasers

  19. Beryllium. Evaluation of beryllium hydroxide industrial processes. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lires, O.A.; Delfino, C.A.; Botbol, J.

    1991-01-01

    This work continues the 'Beryllium' series. It is a historical review of different industrial processes of beryllium hydroxide obtention from beryllium ores. Flowsheats and operative parameters of five plants are provided. These plants (Degussa, Brush Beryllium Co., Beryllium Corp., Murex Ltd., SAPPI) were selected as representative samples of diverse commercial processes in different countries. (Author) [es

  20. The structure, properties and performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Elliott, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma-spray technology is under investigation as a method for producing high thermal conductivity beryllium coatings for use in magnetic fusion applications. Recent investigations have focused on optimizing the plasma-spray process for depositing beryllium coatings on damaged beryllium surfaces. Of particular interest has been optimizing the processing parameters to maximize the through-thickness thermal conductivity of the beryllium coatings. Experimental results will be reported on the use of secondary H 2 gas additions to improve the melting of the beryllium powder and transferred-arc cleaning to improve the bonding between the beryllium coatings and the underlying surface. Information will also be presented on thermal fatigue tests which were done on beryllium coated ISX-B beryllium limiter tiles using 10 sec cycle times with 60 sec cooldowns and an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) relevant divertor heat flux slightly in excess of 5 MW/m 2

  1. (Beryllium). Internal Report No. 137, Jan. 15, 1958; Le beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouret, P; Rigaud, A

    1959-07-01

    After a brief summary of the physical and chemical properties of beryllium, the various chemical treatments which can be applied to beryllium minerals either directly or after a physical enrichment are discussed. These various treatments give either the hydroxide or beryllium salts, from which either beryllium oxide or metallic beryllium can easily be obtained. The purification, analysis and uses of beryllium are also briefly discussed. (author)

  2. Spectrographic determination of impurities in beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula Reino, L.C. de; Lordello, A.R.; Pereira, A.S.A.

    1986-03-01

    A method for the spectrographic determination of Al, B, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mg, NaNi, Si and Zn in nuclear grade beryllium oxide has been developed. The determination of Co, Al, Na and Zn is besed upon a carrier distillation technique. Better results were obtained with 2% Ga 2 O 3 as carrier in beryllium oxide. For the elements B, Cd, Cu, Fe, Cr, Mg, Ni and Si the sample is loaded in a Scribner-Mullin shallow cup electrode, covered with graphite powder and excited in DC arc. The relative standard deviation values for different elements are in the range of 10 to 20%. The method fulfills requirements of precision and sensitivity for specification analysis of nuclear grade beryllium oxide.(Author) [pt

  3. Consolidation of mechanically alloyed nanocrystalline Cu-Nb-ZrO{sub 2} powder by spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eymann, K., E-mail: Konrad.Eymann@tu-dresden.de [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Riedl, T.; Bram, A.; Ruhnow, M.; Boucher, R.; Kirchner, A.; Kieback, B. [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid solution of Cu-Nb was achieved by mechanically alloying Cu, Nb and ZrO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In as-milled state the Cu-Nb-ZrO{sub 2} powders show an average Cu grain size of 16 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanical and electrical properties are studied in dependence of thermal exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compaction at 1000 Degree-Sign C/1 min using SPS increases Cu grain size to 43 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bulk samples reach a maximum IACS of 16% and 98% relative density. - Abstract: This work presents the synthesis of ultra fine grained high-strength Cu-Nb-ZrO{sub 2} bulk samples via mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering. Technologically relevant properties such as density, micro-hardness, and electrical conductivity were studied in terms of the compaction parameters, in particular the sintering temperature and holding time. An optimum process parameter combination has been found T = 950 Degree-Sign C, t = 1 min, and 65 MPa, which yield a micro-hardness of 325 HV, 97.5% relative density, and electrical conductivity of 10% IACS. The dependence of these properties on the compaction parameters is explained by analyzing the microstructure, i.e. grain size, presence and distribution of phases, and porosity, with X-ray diffraction, optical and electron microscopy as well as with an Archimedes densitometer.

  4. Extractive metallurgy of the beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Neusa; Capocchi, Jose Deodoro Trani

    1995-01-01

    A bibliographic review is performed on the beryllium extractive metallurgy. The work describes the main type of ores and processes applied to the metallic beryllium production, beryllium oxide production using fluoride, sulfide and direct chlorination. The thermodynamic consideration are made on beryllium reduction processes, discussing the viability of the beryllium oxide and hallide reduction processes. Under the technological viewpoint, the Cu-Be alloys main production processes are discussed, and the main toxicity problems related with beryllium are mentioned

  5. Higher-performance beryllium materials for aerospace and defense applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsonage, T.B.

    1991-01-01

    A new plant has been tooled for the production of near-net-shape blanks for Be structural components, using both HIP and cold isostatic pressing to consolidate Be powders. Attention is given to blanks for integrally honeycomb-reinforced lightweight mirrors. HIPed materials' ultimate tensile strength is superior to that of vacuum hot-pressed material, due to the finer grain sizes obtainable via P/M powder consolidation, lower consolidation temperatures, and shorter processing cycle. The use of spherical Be powders allows higher packing density than for impact-ground powders, resulting in reduced shrinkage upon consolidation

  6. Analysis of surface contaminants on beryllium and aluminum windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmur, N.F.

    1987-06-01

    An effort has been made to document the types of contamination which form on beryllium window surfaces due to interaction with a synchrotron radiation beam. Beryllium windows contaminated in a variety of ways (exposure to water and air) exhibited surface powders, gels, crystals and liquid droplets. These contaminants were analyzed by electron diffraction, electron energy loss spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and wet chemical methods. Materials found on window surfaces include beryllium oxide, amorphous carbon, cuprous oxide, metallic copper and nitric acid. Aluminum window surface contaminants were also examined

  7. The Cryogenic Properties of Several Aluminum-Beryllium Alloys and a Beryllium Oxide Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamwell, Wayne R.; McGill, Preston B.

    2003-01-01

    Performance related mechanical properties for two aluminum-beryllium (Al-Be) alloys and one beryllium-oxide (BeO) material were developed at cryogenic temperatures. Basic mechanical properties (Le., ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, percent elongation, and elastic modulus were obtained for the aluminum-beryllium alloy, AlBeMetl62 at cryogenic [-195.5"C (-320 F) and -252.8"C (-423"F)I temperatures. Basic mechanical properties for the Be0 material were obtained at cyrogenic [- 252.8"C (-423"F)] temperatures. Fracture properties were obtained for the investment cast alloy Beralcast 363 at cryogenic [-252.8"C (-423"F)] temperatures. The AlBeMetl62 material was extruded, the Be0 material was hot isostatic pressing (HIP) consolidated, and the Beralcast 363 material was investment cast.

  8. METHOD OF BRAZING BERYLLIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, G.S.; Keil, R.W.

    1963-05-21

    A process is described for brazing beryllium metal parts by coating the beryllium with silver (65- 75 wt%)-aluminum alloy using a lithium fluoride (50 wt%)-lithium chloride flux, and heating the coated joint to a temperature of about 700 un. Concent 85% C for about 10 minutes. (AEC)

  9. Preparation of beryllium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, C.B.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for preparing beryllium hydride by the direct reaction of beryllium borohydride and aluminum hydride trimethylamine adduct. Volatile by-products and unreacted reactants are readily removed from the product mass by sublimation and/or evaporation. (U.S.)

  10. The effect of processing parameters on plasma sprayed beryllium for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Jacobson, L.A.; Cowgill, D.F.; Snead, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Plasma spraying is being investigated as a potential coating technique for applying thin (0.1--5mm) layers of beryllium on plasma facing surfaces of blanket modules in ITER and also as an in-situ repair technique for repairing eroded beryllium surfaces in high heat flux divertor regions. High density spray deposits (>98% of theoretical density) of beryllium will be required in order to maximize the thermal conductivity of the beryllium coatings. A preliminary investigation was done to determine the effect of various processing parameters (particle size, particle morphology, secondary gas additions and reduced chamber pressure) on the as-deposited density of beryllium. The deposits were made using spherical beryllium feedstock powder which was produced by centrifugal atomization at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Improvements in the as-deposited densities and deposit efficiencies of the beryllium spray deposits will be discussed along with the corresponding thermal conductivity and outgassing behavior of these deposits

  11. The effect of processing parameters on plasma sprayed beryllium for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Jacobson, L.W.; Cowgill, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    Plasma spraying is being investigated as a potential coating technique for applying thin (0.1-5mm) layers of beryllium on plasma facing surfaces of blanket modules in ITER and also as an in-situ repair technique for repairing eroded beryllium surfaces in high heat flux divertor regions. High density spray deposits (>98% of theoretical density) of beryllium will be required in order to maximize the thermal conductivity of the beryllium coatings. A preliminary investigation was done to determine the effect of various processing parameters (particle size, particle morphology, secondary gas additions and reduced chamber pressure) on the as-deposited density of beryllium. The deposits were made using spherical beryllium feedstock powder which was produced by centrifugal atomization at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Improvements in the as-deposited densities and deposit efficiencies of the beryllium spray deposits will be discussed along with the corresponding thermal conductivity and outgassing behavior of these deposits. (orig.)

  12. High-energy high-rate pulsed-power processing of materials by powder consolidation and by railgun deposition. Technical report (Final), 10 April 1985-10 February 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad, C.; Marcus, H.L.; Weldon, W.F.

    1987-03-31

    This exploratory research program was initiated to investigate the potential of using pulse power sources for powder consolidation, deposition and other high-energy high-rate processing. The characteristics of the high-energy-high-rate (1MJ/s) powder consolidation using megampere current pulses from a homopolar generator, were defined. Molybdenum Alloy TZM, a nickel-based metallic glass, copper/graphite composites, and P/M aluminum alloy X7091 were investigated. The powder-consolidation process produced high densification rates. Density values of 80% to 99% could be obtained with subsecond high-temperature exposure. Specific energy input and applied pressure were controlling process parameters. Time temperature transformation (TTT) concepts underpin a fundamental understanding of pulsed power processing. Inherent control of energy input, and time-to-peak processing temperature developed to be held to short times. Deposition experiments were conducted using an exploding-foil device (EFD) providing an armature feed to railgun mounted in a vacuum chamber. The material to be deposited - in plasma, gas, liquid, or solid state - was accelerated electromagnetically in the railgun and deposited on a substrate. Deposits of a wide variety of single- and multi-specie materials were produced on several types of substrates. In a series of ancillary experiments, pulsed-skin-effect heating and self quenching of metallic conductors was discovered to be a new means of surface modification by high-energy high-rate-processing.

  13. Preparation and properties of beryllium diphosphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brice, J.F.; Gerardin, R.; Zanne, M.; Gleitzer, C.; Aubry, J.

    1975-01-01

    The compound BeP 2 can be obtained by direct action of phosphor on beryllium metal at 800-1000 0 C, and by removal of arsenic with phosphor in the diarsenide BeAs 2 . BeP 2 is a non hygroscopic brown-red powder. The X rays diffraction provide evidence for a quadratic cell with a = 7.08 A and c = 15.06 A. The atomic stacking is diamond type

  14. Corrosion of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.J.; Adolphson, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of beryllium in aqueous and elevated-temperature oxidizing environments has been extensively studied for early-intended use of beryllium in nuclear reactors and in jet and rocket propulsion systems. Since that time, beryllium has been used as a structural material in les corrosive environments. Its primary applications include gyro systems, mirror and reentry vehicle structures, and aircraft brakes. Only a small amount of information has been published that is directly related to the evaluation of beryllium for service in the less severe or normal atmospheric environments associated with these applications. Despite the lack of published data on the corrosion of beryllium in atmospheric environments, much can be deduced about its corrosion behavior from studies of aqueous corrosion and the experiences of fabricators and users in applying, handling, processing, storing, and shipping beryllium components. The methods of corrosion protection implemented to resist water and high-temperature gaseous environments provide useful information on methods that can be applied to protect beryllium for service in future long-term structural applications

  15. Beryllium poisonings; Les intoxications par le beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alibert, S.

    1959-03-15

    This note reports a bibliographical study of beryllium toxicity. Thus, this bibliographical review addresses and outlines aspects and issues like aetiology, cases of acute poisoning (cutaneous manifestations, pulmonary manifestations), chronic poisoning (cutaneous, pulmonary and bone manifestations), excretion and localisation, and prognosis.

  16. Preparation of beryllium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowrance, B.R.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for the preparation of beryllium hydride which comprises pyrolyzing, while in solution in a solvent inert under the reaction conditions, with respect to reactants and products and at a temperature in the range of about 100 0 to about 200 0 C, sufficient to result in the formation of beryllium hydride, a di-t-alkyl beryllium etherate wherein each tertiary alkyl radical contains from 4 to 20 carbon atoms. The pyrolysis is carried out under an atmosphere inert under the reaction conditions, with respect to reactants and products. (U.S.)

  17. Characterization of beryllium foil produced by hot rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittenauer, J.; Nieh, T.G.; Waychunas, G.

    1992-01-01

    Beryllium foil is important for a number of aerospace applications including honeycomb structures and metal-matrix composites. In this study, a method of producing beryllium foil directly from powder or flake is demonstrated. A variety of foils were produced in the thickness range 90-300 μm, free from defects such as pinholes and excessive surface roughness, and exhibiting sufficient formability for honeycomb manufacture. Foil produced directly from powder or flake exhibits crystallographic texture, microstructure, and formability equivalent to foil produced from more massive precursors. (Author)

  18. Characterization of Beryllium Windows for Coherent X-ray Optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Shunji; Yabashi, Makina; Tamasaku, Kenji; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2007-01-01

    Beryllium foils fabricated by several processes were characterized using spatially coherent x rays at 1-km beamline of SPring-8. By thickness dependence of bright x-ray spot density due to Fresnel diffraction from several-micron deficiencies, we found that speckles (bright x-ray spots) were due to voids with densities 103-104 mm-3 in powder foils and ingot foils. Compared with powder and ingot foils, a polished physical-vapor-deposited (PVD) beryllium foil gave highly uniform beams with no speckles. The PVD process eliminates the internal voids in principle and the PVD foil is the best for coherent x-ray applications

  19. Beryllium and copper-beryllium alloys; Beryllium und Kupfer-Beryllium-Legierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, Nikolaus [Materion Brush GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany). Operation and Quality/EH and S

    2017-02-15

    The light metal beryllium is a comparatively rare element, which today is primarily derived from bertrandite. It is mainly used as pure metal or in the form of copper-beryllium alloys, e.g., in automotive industry, aerospace, and electrical components. The wide range of applications is mainly attributed to the extremely high rigidity/density ratio. An overview of the history of the metal, its production, and recycling as well as the properties of CuBe alloys are given.

  20. The immunotoxicity of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    In the disease berylliosis, granulomatous hypersensitivity is the specific immune response to tissue contact with a poorly soluble particle of beryllium compound, mediated through the accumulation and proliferation of reticuloendothelial cells. A review is given of the work accomplished since the 1950's and particularly since the 1970's to elucidate the nature and consequences of this response to beryllium and its compounds. (U.K.)

  1. Preparation of beryllium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, C.R.; Baker, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    Beryllium hydride of high bulk density, suitable for use as a component of high-energy fuels, is prepared by the pyrolysis, in solution in an inert solvent, of a ditertiary-alkyl beryllium. An agitator introduces mechanical energy into the reaction system, during the pyrolysis, at the rate of 0.002 to 0.30 horsepower per gallon of reaction mixture. (U.S.)

  2. Synthesis and mechanical properties of bulk Al{sub 76}Ni{sub 8}Ti{sub 8}Zr{sub 4}Y{sub 4} alloy fabricated by consolidation of mechanically alloyed amorphous powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xinfu; Wang, Kun; Li, Zhendong; Wang, Xingfu; Wang, Dan; Han, Fusheng, E-mail: fshan@issp.ac.cn

    2015-05-25

    Graphical abstract: Different regions indentation morphologies under 50 g load consolidated at 723 K (left), nanohardness of the Al{sub 76}Ni{sub 8}Ti{sub 8}Zr{sub 4}Y{sub 4} alloy as a function consolidation temperature (right). It can be seen from the above figures that the consolidated sample presents white regions, and the microhardness in the white regions is a little lower than the matrix, which could be caused by the difference of the chemical composition and chemical bonding forces between them. Interestingly, the cracks were formed around the indentation periphery in the white regions, which are not shown in the matrix. The nanohardness of the bulk composites increased from 11.16 to 13.27 GPa with the consolidation temperature increasing, mechanical softening was also found in the present alloys. - Highlights: • Bulk amorphous–nanocrystalline Al-based alloys were prepared by HPS process. • The Vickers microhardness of bulk samples is in the range of 945–1177HV0.1. • The nanohardness agrees well with the Vickers hardness testing results. - Abstract: Mechanically alloyed amorphous Al{sub 76}Ni{sub 8}Ti{sub 8}Zr{sub 4}Y{sub 4} (at.%) alloy powder was consolidated by high-pressure sintering process. The influence of the consolidation temperature on the structure and mechanical properties of the consolidated bulk alloys was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Optical microscopy (OM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Vickers Hardness Tester and Nano Indenter. Structural investigations of the bulk materials revealed that most of the amorphous structure was retained after consolidation at 623 K, however, compaction at 723 K and 823 K caused crystallization of the amorphous phase with the appearance of white regions. The results also indicate that application of high pressure affected the crystallization products of the present alloy. Micro mechanical analysis showed that the microhardness of the bulk composites increased from 945HV{sub 0.1} to 1177HV

  3. Assessment of the feasibility and advantages of beryllium recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druyts, F.; Braet, J.; Ooms, L.

    2006-01-01

    purity beryllium that can be used to produce beryllium rods through a powder metallurgy route, which is a mature industrial process. Beryllium rods feed the Rotating Electrode Method to manufacture beryllium pebbles for re-use in the HCPB breeding blanket. The proposed recycling route features a number of remaining uncertainties that need to be resolved, including the development of remote handling techniques and the development and optimisation of the chloride processes. These uncertainties make it impossible to assess the cost of the recycling route at this moment. (author)

  4. Status of beryllium study for fusion in RF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomutov, A.M.; Kupriyanov, I.B.; Markushkin, Yu.E.; Gervash, A.; Kolbasov, B.N.

    2004-01-01

    The main directions of research activities in the field of beryllium application science and technology carried out in Russia during 2001-2003 have been reviewed. The main results of these investigations have been highlighted. First wall and port-limier. The investigation on the actively cooled components with beryllium cladding is under progress objecting on the clarification of their ultimate thermo cycling capabilities. The study of behavior of bulk beryllium and the boundary region of the contact with the cooling structure under the intensive thermo cycling loading and neutron irradiation have been the object of consideration in particular. The works on the optimization and modification of industrial fabrication processes for commercial scaled production of beryllium tile were also under way. The influence of neutron irradiation. The new experimental data on the nuclear properties of several Russian beryllium grades has been obtained. The samples have been subjected to the high neutron dozes. The influence of low temperature (70-200degree C) neutron irradiation on the thermal conductivity has been examined in particular. The interrelations of the helium inventory and temperature of neutron irradiation with tritium release out of irradiated beryllium samples have been analyzed. The beryllium associated safety questions. The experiments on the modeling of normal working conditions and conditions imitating the plasma disruption events in ITER performance scenario have been continued. The new experimental information on the coefficient of pulverization of beryllium and the accumulation of deuterium in beryllium under the action of proton beam has been collected. The dependence of the reaction rate constant for the beryllium oxidation by the water vapor for different conditions has been analyzed. The compact, porous and powder beryllium samples have been tested at the wide range of temperature, pressure and duration of reaction with water vapor. The calculating

  5. Corrosion of beryllium oxide; Corrosion de l'oxyde de beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elston, J; Caillat, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Data are reported on the volatilization rate of beryllium oxide in moist air depending on temperature and water vapour concentration. They are concerned with powder samples or sintered shapes of various densities. For sintered samples, the volatilization rate is very low under the following conditions: - temperature: 1300 deg. C, - water vapour concentration in moist air: 25 g/m{sup 3}, - flow rate: 12 I/hour corresponding to a speed of 40 m/hour on the surface of the sample. For calcinated powders (1300 deg. C), grain growth has been observed under a stream of moist air at 1100 deg. C. For instance, grain size changes from 0,5 to at least 2 microns after 500 hours of exposure at this temperature. Furthermore, results data are reported on corrosion of sintered beryllium oxide in pressurized water. At 250 deg. C, under a pressure of 40 kg/cm{sup 2} water is very slightly corrosive; however, internal strains are revealed. Finally, some features on the corrosion in liquid sodium are exposed. (author)Fren. [French] La volatilisation de l'oxyde de beryllium dans l'air humide est etudiee en fonction de la temperature pour differentes teneurs de vapeur d'eau. Les essais decrits portent sur de l'oxyde de beryllium en poudre ou sur des echantillons d'oxyde de beryllium fritte de differentes densites. Avec un debit d'air de 12 I/h contenant 25 g de vapeur par m{sup 3} correspondant a une vitesse de 40 m/h sur la surface de l'echantillon, la volatilisation des frittes a 1300 deg. C reste tres faible. Sur de la poudre d'oxyde de beryllium calcinee initialement a 1300 deg. C, on observe un grossissement de la taille des grains sous l'influence de l'air humide a 1100 deg. C. Par exemple, elle passe de 0,5 a au moins 2 microns apres 500 heures d'exposition a cette temperature. On donne d'autre part les resultats d'une etude de la corrosion de frittes d'oxyde de beryllium par l'eau, en autoclave. A 250 deg. C, sous une pression de 40 kg/cm{sup 2}, l'action de l'eau reste tres

  6. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flumerfelt, J.F.

    1999-02-12

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization, commercial inert gas atomization, and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

  7. Beryllium coating produced by evaporation-condensation method and some their properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepekin, G.I.; Anisimov, A.B.; Chernikov, A.S.; Mozherinn, S.I.; Pirogov, A.A. [SRI SIA Lutch., Podolsk (Russian Federation)

    1998-01-01

    The method of vacuum evaporation-condensation for deposition of beryllium coatings on metal substrates, considered in the paper, side by side with a plasma-spray method is attractive fon ITER application. In particular this technique may be useful for repair the surface of eroded tiles which is operated in a strong magnetic field. The possibility of deposition of beryllium coatings with the rate of layer growth 0.1-0.2 mm/h is shown. The compatibility of beryllium coating with copper or stainless steel substrate is provided due to intermediate barrier. The results of examination of microstructure, microhardness, porosity, thermal and physical properties and stability under thermal cycling of beryllium materials are presented. The value of thermal expansion coefficient and thermal conductivity of condensed beryllium are approximately the same as for industrial grade material produced by powder mettalurgy technique. However, the condensed beryllium has higher purity (up to 99.9-99.99 % wt.). (author)

  8. JET-ISX-B beryllium limiter experiment safety analysis report and operational safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmonds, P.H.

    1985-09-01

    An experiment to evaluate the suitability of beryllium as a limiter material has been completed on the ISX-B tokamak. The experiment consisted of two phases: (1) the initial operation and characterization in the ISX experiment, and a period of continued operation to the specified surface fluence (10 22 atoms/cm 2 ) of hydrogen ions; and (2) the disassembly, decontamination, or disposal of the ISX facility. During these two phases of the project, the possibility existed for beryllium and/or beryllium oxide powder to be produced inside the vacuum vessel. Beryllium dust is a highly toxic material, and extensive precautions are required to prevent the release of the beryllium into the experimental work area and to prevent the contamination of personnel working on the device. Details of the health hazards associated with beryllium and the appropriate precautions are presented. Also described in appendixes to this report are the various operational safety requirements for the project

  9. Sintering of beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caillat, R.; Pointud, R.

    1955-01-01

    This study had for origin to find a process permitting to manufacture bricks of beryllium oxide of pure nuclear grade, with a density as elevated as possible and with standardized shape. The sintering under load was the technique kept for the manufacture of the bricks. Because of the important toxicity of the beryllium oxide, the general features for the preliminary study of the sintering, have been determined while using alumina. The obtained results will be able to act as general indication for ulterior studies with sintering under load. (M.B.) [fr

  10. CONSOLIDATION AND COMPACTION OF POWDER MIXTURES .3. BINARY-MIXTURES OF DIFFERENT PARTICLE-SIZE FRACTIONS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF CRYSTALLINE LACTOSE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RIEPMA, KA; ZUURMAN, K; BOLHUIS, GK; DEBOER, AH; LERK, CF

    1992-01-01

    Tablets were compacted from a coarse fraction (250-315 mum), a fine fraction (32-45 mum) and from binary blends of a coarse and a fine fraction of different types of crystalline lactose. The results showed differences in consolidation and compaction between the granular lactose types, i.e.,

  11. Spherical rhenium metal powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, T.; Moore, N.; Hamister, M.

    2001-01-01

    The development of a high-density, spherical rhenium powder (SReP) possessing excellent flow characteristics has enabled the use of advanced processing techniques for the manufacture of rhenium components. The techniques that were investigated were vacuum plasma spraying (VPS), direct-hot isostatic pressing (D-HIP), and various other traditional powder metallurgy processing methods of forming rhenium powder into near-net shaped components. The principal disadvantages of standard rhenium metal powder (RMP) for advanced consolidation applications include: poor flow characteristics; high oxygen content; and low and varying packing densities. SReP will lower costs, reduce processing times, and improve yields when manufacturing powder metallurgy rhenium components. The results of the powder characterization of spherical rhenium powder and the consolidation of the SReP are further discussed. (author)

  12. Thermal effects on beryllium mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinswig, S.

    1989-01-01

    Beryllium is probably the most frequently used material for spaceborne system scan mirrors. Beryllium's properties include lightweightedness, high Young's modulus, high stiffness value, high resonance value. As an optical surface, beryllium is usually nickel plated in order to produce a higher quality surface. This process leads to the beryllium mirror acting like a bimetallic device. The mirror's deformation due to the bimetallic property can possibly degrade the performance of the associated optical system. As large space borne systems are designed and as temperature considerations become more crucial in the instruments, the concern about temporal deformation of the scan mirrors becomes a prime consideration. Therefore, two sets of tests have been conducted in order to ascertain the thermal effects on nickel plated beryllium mirrors. These tests are categorized. The purpose of this paper is to present the values of the bimetallic effect on typical nickel plated beryllium mirrors

  13. Technical issues and solutions on ITER first wall beryllium application. Industrial viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwadachi, T.; Uda, M.; Ito, M.; Miyakawa, M.; Ibuki, M.

    2004-01-01

    Beryllium is selected as reference armor material of ITER primary first wall and is joined to the copper alloy heat sink such as CuCrZr or Dispersion Strengthened Copper (DSCu) Various joining technologies have been successfully developed and the manufacturing possibilities of large size first wall panels with beryllium armor has been demonstrated. Based on such results, further technical improvement is needed to reduce manufacturing cost and ensure the reliability of joining in actual size first wall. The technical issues to optimize the fabrication process of beryllium attachment were shown in this paper from an industrial point of view. Determination of the optimum size and the surface qualities of beryllium tiles are important issues in term of the material specification to ensure joining reliability and to reduce cost. The consolidation method and the finish machining methods of beryllium tiles are also critical in terms of material cost. These items should be determined by paying concern to the accommodation of the joining methods. The selections of slitting methods for attached beryllium have a great influence on fabrication cost. In the actual fabrication of beryllium attachment, safety provisions for exposure to beryllium in working environment and the recycling of the waste from the fabrication processes will be concerned sufficiently. (author)

  14. Preparation of a sinterable beryllium oxide through decomposition of beryllium hydroxide (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernier, M.

    1963-01-01

    In the course of the present study, we have attempted to precise the factors which among the ones effective in the course of the preparation of the beryllium hydroxide and oxide and during the sintering have an influence on the final result: the density and homogeneity of the sintered body. Of the several varieties of hydroxides precipitated from a sulfate solution the β-hydroxide only is always contaminated with beryllium sulfate and cannot be purified even by thorough washing. We noticed that those varieties of the hydroxide (gel, α, β) have different decomposition rates; this behaviour is used to identify and even to dose the different species in (α, β) mixtures. The various hydroxides transmit to the resulting oxides the shape they had when precipitated. Accordingly the history of the oxide is revealed by its behaviour during its fabrication and sintering. By comparing the results of the sintering operation with the various measurements performed on the oxide powders we are led to the conclusion that an oxide obtained from beryllium hydroxide is sinterable under vacuum if the following conditions are fulfilled: the particle size must lie between 0.1 and 0.2 μ and the BeSO 4 content of the powder must be less than 0.25 per cent wt (expressed as SO 3 /BeO). The best fitting is obtained with the oxide issued from an α-hydroxide precipitated as very small aggregates and with a low sulfur-content. We have observed that this is also the case for the oxide obtained by direct calcination of beryllium sulfate. (author) [fr

  15. Beryllium. Its minerals. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lires, O.A.; Delfino, C.A.; Botbol, J.

    1990-01-01

    With this work a series of reports begins, under the generic name 'Beryllium', related to several aspects of beryllium technology. The target is to update, with critical sense, current bibliographic material in order to be used in further applications. Some of the most important beryllium ores, the Argentine emplacement of their deposits and world occurrence are described. Argentine and world production, resources and reserves are indicated here as well. (Author) [es

  16. Beryllium Metal Supply Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Carcinogen Assessment Group (U.S. Environmental Protec- tion Agency, 1987). The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health is currently examining...Epidemiology of beryllium intox- ication. Arch. Ind. Hyg. Occup . Med. 4:123-151. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 1987. Health Assessment Document...1957 to 1961. He rejoined the Bureau of Mines in 1961 as the aluminum and bauxite commcdity specialist. In 1973 he became chief of the Division of

  17. Influence of purity level on the mechanical properties of hot isostatically pressed beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odegard, B.C. Jr.

    1979-09-01

    The procurement of a quantity of ultra-pure beryllium powder combined with special handling from powder to billet form resulted in the fabrication of high purity beryllium. The mechanical properties of these billets were contrasted to those of commercial grade billets to determine the influence of impurities and powder processing. The tensile test results show that the strength values are primarily dependent on the grain size in a behavior predictable by the Hall-Petch relationship. Only a fraction of the strength differential can be attributed to metallic impurities in solution. The grain size is controlled by the powder size distribution. The ductility is dominated by both grain size and oxide content. The fine grained, low oxide billets exhibited the highest ductilities. There is evidence to suggest that oxide distribution has a large influence on the ductility. The fracture toughness was highest for the high purity beryllium billets

  18. Beryllium and zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salesse, Marc

    1959-01-01

    Pure beryllium and zirconium, both isolated at about the same date but more than a century ago remained practically unused for eighty years. Fifteen years ago they were released from this state of inactivity by atomic energy, which made them into current metal a with an annual production which runs into tens of tons for the one and thousands for the other. The reasons for this promotion promise well for the future of the two metals, which moreover will probably find additional uses in other branches of industry. The attraction of beryllium and zirconium for atomic energy is easily explained. The curve of figure 1 gives the price per gram of uranium-235 as a function of enrichment: this price increases by about a factor of 3 on passing from natural uranium (0, 7 percent 235 U) to almost pure uranium-235. Because of their tow capture cross-section beryllium and zirconium make it possible, or at least easier, to use natural uranium and they thus enjoy an advantage the extent of which must be calculated for each reactor or fuel element project, but which is generally considerable. It will be seen later that this advantage should be based on figures which are even more favourable that would appear from the simple ratio 3 of the price of pure uranium- 235 contained in natural uranium. Reprint of a paper published in 'Industries Atomiques' - n. 1-2, 1959

  19. Characterization of shocked beryllium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papin P.A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available While numerous studies have investigated the low-strain-rate constitutive response of beryllium, the combined influence of high strain rate and temperature on the mechanical behavior and microstructure of beryllium has received limited attention over the last 40 years. In the current work, high strain rate tests were conducted using both explosive drive and a gas gun to accelerate the material. Prior studies have focused on tensile loading behavior, or limited conditions of dynamic strain rate and/or temperature. Two constitutive strength (plasticity models, the Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW and Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS models, were calibrated using common quasi-static and Hopkinson bar data. However, simulations with the two models give noticeably different results when compared with the measured experimental wave profiles. The experimental results indicate that, even if fractured by the initial shock loading, the Be remains sufficiently intact to support a shear stress following partial release and subsequent shock re-loading. Additional “arrested” drive shots were designed and tested to minimize the reflected tensile pulse in the sample. These tests were done to both validate the model and to put large shock induced compressive loads into the beryllium sample.

  20. Tritium and helium retention and release from irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, R.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Oates, M.A.; Pawelko, R.J. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental effort to anneal irradiated beryllium specimens and characterize them for steam-chemical reactivity experiments. Fully-dense, consolidated powder metallurgy Be cylinders, irradiated in the EBR-II to a fast neutron (>0.1 MeV) fluence of {approx}6 x 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}, were annealed at temperatures from 450degC to 1200degC. The releases of tritium and helium were measured during the heat-up phase and during the high-temperature anneals. These experiments revealed that, at 600degC and below, there was insignificant gas release. Tritium release at 700degC exhibited a delayed increase in the release rate, while the specimen was at 700degC. For anneal temperatures of 800degC and higher, tritium and helium release was concurrent and the release behavior was characterized by gas-burst peaks. Essentially all of the tritium and helium was released at temperatures of 1000degC and higher, whereas about 1/10 of the tritium was released during the anneals at 700degC and 800degC. Measurements were made to determine the bulk density, porosity and specific surface area for each specimen before and after annealing. These measurements indicated that annealing caused the irradiated Be to swell, by as much as 14% at 700degC and 56% at 1200degC. Kr gas adsorption measurements for samples annealed at 1000degC and 1200degC determined specific surface areas between 0.04 m{sup 2}/g and 0.1 m{sup 2}/g for these annealed specimens. The tritium and helium gas release measurements and the specific surface area measurements indicated that annealing of irradiated Be caused a porosity network to evolve and become surface-connected to relieve internal gas pressure. (author)

  1. CONSOLIDATION AND COMPACTION OF POWDER MIXTURES .1. BINARY-MIXTURES OF SAME PARTICLE-SIZE FRACTIONS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF CRYSTALLINE LACTOSE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RIEPMA, KA; LERK, CF; DEBOER, AH; BOLHUIS, GK; KUSSENDRAGER, KD

    1990-01-01

    Binary powder mixtures of four different types of crystalline lactose: alpha-lactose monohydrate, anhydrous alpha-lactose, roller-dried beta-lactose and crystalline beta-lactose, were compressed into tablets. The results showed a proportional intercorrelation of the crushing strength and internal

  2. Development of all-beryllium riveted structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, D.R.; Leslie, W.W.; Miley, D.V.; Nokes, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of a development program aimed at making a full-scale, all-beryllium frustrum by riveted assembly methods. Included are descriptions of the sheet-metal fabrication practices and assembly plans. Results of extensive mechanical testing of both ingot- and powder-source beryllium products that are presented include tensile, notch-tensile, bearing, and shear tests. Although the full-size structure has not been built, examples are given of several conical and cylindrical structures that were made. The largest of these is a 20-in. diameter, 15-in. long cylinder that was roll-formed from one 0.050-in. thick ingot sheet and assembled with 60 countersunk rivets. Tensile testing of riveted flat coupons is also reported as is bulge testing of riveted cylindrical shells. A cost comparison of riveted deep-drawn and powder-source cylinders is made. Results show that when strength and dimensional tolerance requirements are not severe, a riveted assembly approach is warranted. 33 figures, 8 tables

  3. Beryllium. Beryllium oxide, obtention and properties. Pt.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lires, O.A.; Delfino, C.A.; Botbol, J.

    1991-01-01

    As a continuation of the 'Beryllium' series this work reviews several methods of high purity beryllia production. Diverse methods of obtention and purification from different beryllium compounds are described. Some chemical, mechanical and electrical properties related with beryllia obtention methods are summarized. (Author) [es

  4. Measurements of beryllium sputtering yields at JET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jet-Efda Contributors Stamp, M. F.; Krieger, K.; Brezinsek, S.

    2011-08-01

    The lifetime of the beryllium first wall in ITER will depend on erosion and redeposition processes. The physical sputtering yields for beryllium (both deuterium on beryllium (Be) and Be on Be) are of crucial importance since they drive the erosion process. Literature values of experimental sputtering yields show an order of magnitude variation so predictive modelling of ITER wall lifetimes has large uncertainty. We have reviewed the old beryllium yield experiments on JET and used current beryllium atomic data to produce revised beryllium sputtering yields. These experimental measurements have been compared with a simple physical sputtering model based on TRIM.SP beryllium yield data. Fair agreement is seen for beryllium yields from a clean beryllium limiter. However the yield on a beryllium divertor tile (with C/Be co-deposits) shows poor agreement at low electron temperatures indicating that the effect of the higher sputtering threshold for beryllium carbide is important.

  5. Technical Basis for PNNL Beryllium Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Michelle Lynn

    2014-07-09

    The Department of Energy (DOE) issued Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 850, “Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program” (the Beryllium Rule) in 1999 and required full compliance by no later than January 7, 2002. The Beryllium Rule requires the development of a baseline beryllium inventory of the locations of beryllium operations and other locations of potential beryllium contamination at DOE facilities. The baseline beryllium inventory is also required to identify workers exposed or potentially exposed to beryllium at those locations. Prior to DOE issuing 10 CFR 850, Pacific Northwest Nuclear Laboratory (PNNL) had documented the beryllium characterization and worker exposure potential for multiple facilities in compliance with DOE’s 1997 Notice 440.1, “Interim Chronic Beryllium Disease.” After DOE’s issuance of 10 CFR 850, PNNL developed an implementation plan to be compliant by 2002. In 2014, an internal self-assessment (ITS #E-00748) of PNNL’s Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) identified several deficiencies. One deficiency is that the technical basis for establishing the baseline beryllium inventory when the Beryllium Rule was implemented was either not documented or not retrievable. In addition, the beryllium inventory itself had not been adequately documented and maintained since PNNL established its own CBDPP, separate from Hanford Site’s program. This document reconstructs PNNL’s baseline beryllium inventory as it would have existed when it achieved compliance with the Beryllium Rule in 2001 and provides the technical basis for the baseline beryllium inventory.

  6. Doped beryllium lanthanate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Monocrystals of doped beryllium lanthanate, Be 2 Lasub(2-2x)Zsub(2x)O 5 --where Z may be any rare earth, but preferably neodymium, and x may have values between 0.001 and 0.2, but preferably between 0.007 and 0.015-- are recommended as laser hosts. They are softer and may be grown at a lower temperature than Y 3 A1 5 O 12 :Nd (YAG:Nd). Their chemical composition and preparation are described. An example of an optically pumped laser apparatus with this type of monocrystal as laser host is presented

  7. Thermal fatigue of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deksnis, E.; Ciric, D.; Falter, H.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal fatigue life of S65c beryllium castellated to a geometry 6 x 6 x (8-10)mm deep has been tested for steady heat fluxes of 3 MW/m 2 to 5 MW/m 2 and under pulsed heat fluxes (10-20 MW/m 2 ) for which the time averaged heat flux is 5 MW/m 2 . These tests were carried out in the JET neutral beam test facility A test sequence with peak surface temperatures ≤ 600 degrees C produced no visible fatigue cracks. In the second series of tests, with T max ≤ 750 degrees C evidence for fatigue appeared after a minimum of 1350 stress cycles. These fatigue data are discussed in view of the observed lack of thermal fatigue in JET plasma operations with beryllium PFC. JET experience with S65b and S65c is reviewed; recent operations with Φ = 25 MW/m 2 and sustained melting/resolidification are also presented. The need for a failure criterion for finite element analyses of Be PFC lifetimes is discussed

  8. The INEL beryllium multiplication experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.R.; King, J.J.

    1991-03-01

    The experiment to measure the multiplication of 14-MeV neutrons in bulk beryllium has been completed. The experiment consists of determining the ratio of 56 Mn activities induced in a large manganese bath by a central 14-MeV neutron source, with and without a beryllium sample surrounding the source. In the manganese bath method a neutron source is placed at the center of a totally-absorbing aqueous solution of MnSo 4 . The capture of neutrons by Mn produces a 56 Mn activity proportional to the emission rate of the source. As applied to the measurement of the multiplication of 14- MeV neutrons in bulk beryllium, the neutron source is a tritium target placed at the end of the drift tube of a small deuteron accelerator. Surrounding the source is a sample chamber. When the sample chamber is empty, the neutrons go directly to the surrounding MnSO 4 solution, and produce a 56 Mn activity proportional to the neutron emission rate. When the chamber contains a beryllium sample, the neutrons first enter the beryllium and multiply through the (n,2n) process. Neutrons escaping from the beryllium enter the bath and produce a 56 Mn activity proportional to the neutron emission rate multiplied by the effective value of the multiplication in bulk beryllium. The ratio of the activities with and without the sample present is proportional to the multiplication value. Detailed calculations of the multiplication and all the systematic effects were made with the Monte Carlo program MCNP, utilizing both the Young and Stewart and the ENDF/B-VI evaluations for beryllium. Both data sets produce multiplication values that are in excellent agreement with the measurements for both raw and corrected values of the multiplication. We conclude that there is not real discrepancy between experimental and calculated values for the multiplication of neutrons in bulk beryllium. 12 figs., 11 tabs., 18 refs

  9. Self-Consolidation and Surface Modification of Mechanical Alloyed Ti-25.0 at.% Al Powder Mixture by Using an Electro-Discharge Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang S.Y.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrical discharges using a capacitance of 450 μF at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kJ input energies were applied in a N2 atmosphere to obtain the mechanical alloyed Ti3Al powder without applying any external pressure. A solid bulk of nanostructured Ti3Al was obtained as short as 160 μsec by the Electrical discharge. At the same time, the surface has been modified into the form of Ti and Al nitrides due to the diffusion process of nitrogen to the surface. The input energy was found to be the most important parameter to affect the formation of a solid core and surface chemistry of the compact.

  10. Abbreviated machining schedule for fabricating beryllium parts free of surface damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitscher, S.; Capes, J.F.; Leslie, W.W.; Luckow, J.R.; Riegel, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    This study was performed to develop a more economical method of machining damage-free beryllium components at Rocky Flats. The present method involves a 9-pass schedule of lathe turning followed by a chemical etch. Prototype beryllium hemispherical shell parts and cylindrical tensile specimens machined to simulate the parts were utilized in this study. The main investigative methods used to evaluate the amount of machining damage were metallography and tensile tests. It was found that damage-free parts could be produced by carefully controlled machining if the number of machining passes was reduced to 4 or even 3, if followed by the standard etching treatment. These findings were made on Select S-65 grade beryllium, and probably apply to other common grades of powder source beryllium but not necessarily to ingot-source beryllium. It is recommended that the 4-pass schedule becomes the standard method to produce damage-free beryllium derived from powder. Significant savings in time, labor, and equipment can be realized by this change in method without decreasing the quality of the product

  11. Fracture toughness of irradiated beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeston, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The fracture toughness of nuclear grade hot-pressed beryllium upon irradiation to fluences of 3.5 to 5.0 x 10 21 n/cm 2 , E greater than 1 MeV, was determined. Procedures and data relating to a round-robin test contributing to a standard ASTM method for unirradiated beryllium are discussed in connection with the testing of irradiated specimens. A porous grade of beryllium was also irradiated and tested, thereby enabling some discrimination between the models for describing the fracture toughness behavior of porous beryllium. The fracture toughness of unirradiated 2 percent BeO nuclear grade beryllium was 12.0 MPa m/sup 1 / 2 /, which was reduced 60 percent upon irradiation at 339 K and testing at 295 K. The fracture toughness of a porous grade of beryllium was 13.1 MPa m/sup 1 / 2 /, which was reduced 68 percent upon irradiation and testing at the same conditions. Reasons for the reduction in fracture toughness upon irradiation are discussed

  12. Beryllium technology workshop, Clearwater Beach, Florida, November 20, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.

    1991-12-01

    This report discusses the following topics: beryllium in the ITER blanket; mechanical testing of irradiated beryllium; tritium release measurements on irradiated beryllium; beryllium needs for plasma-facing components; thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed beryllium; beryllium research at the INEL; Japanese beryllium research activities for in-pile mockup tests on ITER; a study of beryllium bonding of copper alloy; new production technologies; thermophysical properties of a new ingot metallurgy beryllium product line; implications of beryllium:steam interactions in fusion reactors; and a test program for irradiation embrittlement of beryllium at JET

  13. Beryllium technology workshop, Clearwater Beach, Florida, November 20, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, G.R.

    1991-12-01

    This report discusses the following topics: beryllium in the ITER blanket; mechanical testing of irradiated beryllium; tritium release measurements on irradiated beryllium; beryllium needs for plasma-facing components; thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed beryllium; beryllium research at the INEL; Japanese beryllium research activities for in-pile mockup tests on ITER; a study of beryllium bonding of copper alloy; new production technologies; thermophysical properties of a new ingot metallurgy beryllium product line; implications of beryllium:steam interactions in fusion reactors; and a test program for irradiation embrittlement of beryllium at JET.

  14. Beryllium R and D for blanket application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalle Donne, M.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik; Longhurst, G.R. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls (United States); Kawamura, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    1998-10-01

    The paper describes the main problems and the R and D for the beryllium to be used as neutron multiplier in blankets. As the four ITER partners propose to use beryllium in the form of pebbles for their DEMO relevant blankets (only the Russians consider the porous beryllium option as an alternative) and the ITER breeding blanket will use beryllium pebbles as well, the paper is mainly based on beryllium pebbles. Also the work on the chemical reactivity of fully dense and porous beryllium in contact with water steam is described, due to the safety importance of this point. (orig.) 29 refs.

  15. Beryllium R and D for blanket application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Kawamura, H.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the main problems and the R and D for the beryllium to be used as neutron multiplier in blankets. As the four ITER partners propose to use beryllium in the form of pebbles for their DEMO relevant blankets (only the Russians consider the porous beryllium option as an alternative) and the ITER breeding blanket will use beryllium pebbles as well, the paper is mainly based on beryllium pebbles. Also the work on the chemical reactivity of fully dense and porous beryllium in contact with water steam is described, due to the safety importance of this point. (orig.)

  16. Beryllium R&D for blanket application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donne, M. Dalle; Longhurst, G. R.; Kawamura, H.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F.

    1998-10-01

    The paper describes the main problems and the R&D for the beryllium to be used as neutron multiplier in blankets. As the four ITER partners propose to use beryllium in the form of pebbles for their DEMO relevant blankets (only the Russians consider the porous beryllium option as an alternative) and the ITER breeding blanket will use beryllium pebbles as well, the paper is mainly based on beryllium pebbles. Also the work on the chemical reactivity of fully dense and porous beryllium in contact with water steam is described, due to the safety importance of this point.

  17. Preparation of a sinterable beryllium oxide through decomposition of beryllium hydroxide (1963); Preparation d'un oxyde de beryllium frittable par decomposition de l'hydiloxyde (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernier, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    In the course of the present study, we have attempted to precise the factors which among the ones effective in the course of the preparation of the beryllium hydroxide and oxide and during the sintering have an influence on the final result: the density and homogeneity of the sintered body. Of the several varieties of hydroxides precipitated from a sulfate solution the {beta}-hydroxide only is always contaminated with beryllium sulfate and cannot be purified even by thorough washing. We noticed that those varieties of the hydroxide (gel, {alpha}, {beta}) have different decomposition rates; this behaviour is used to identify and even to dose the different species in ({alpha}, {beta}) mixtures. The various hydroxides transmit to the resulting oxides the shape they had when precipitated. Accordingly the history of the oxide is revealed by its behaviour during its fabrication and sintering. By comparing the results of the sintering operation with the various measurements performed on the oxide powders we are led to the conclusion that an oxide obtained from beryllium hydroxide is sinterable under vacuum if the following conditions are fulfilled: the particle size must lie between 0.1 and 0.2 {mu} and the BeSO{sub 4} content of the powder must be less than 0.25 per cent wt (expressed as SO{sub 3}/BeO). The best fitting is obtained with the oxide issued from an {alpha}-hydroxide precipitated as very small aggregates and with a low sulfur-content. We have observed that this is also the case for the oxide obtained by direct calcination of beryllium sulfate. (author) [French] Au cours de cette etude, nous avons cherche a preciser les facteurs qui, intervenant tout au long de la preparation de l'hydroxyde, puis de l'oxyde de beryllium et enfin du frittage, peuvent avoir une influence sur le resultat final: la densite et l'homogeneite du fritte. Parmi tous les hydroxydes precipites d'une solution de sulfate, seul l'hydroxyde {beta} est toujours fortement pollue par le sulfate

  18. Powder technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agueda, Horacio

    1989-01-01

    Powder technology is experiencing nowadays a great development and has broad application in different fields: nuclear energy, medicine, new energy sources, industrial and home artifacts, etc. Ceramic materials are of daily use as tableware and also in the building industry (bricks, tiles, etc.). However, in machine construction its utilization is not so common. The same happens with metals: powder metallurgy is employed less than traditional metal forming techniques. Both cases deal with powder technology and the forming techniques as far as the final consolidation through sintering processes are very similar. There are many different methods and techniques in the forming stage: cold-pressing, slip casting, injection molding, extrusion molding, isostatic pressing, hot-pressing (which involves also the final consolidation step), etc. This variety allows to obtain almost any desired form no matter how complex it could be. Some applications are very specific as in the case of UO 2 pellets (used as nuclear fuels) but with the same technique and other materials, it is possible to manufacture a great number of different products. This work shows the characteristics and behaviour of two magnetic ceramic materials (ferrites) fabricated in the laboratory of the Applied Research Division of the Bariloche Atomic Center for different purposes. Other materials and products made with the same method are also mentioned. Likewise, densities and shrinkage obtained by different methods of forming (cold-pressing, injection molding, slip casting and extrusion molding) using high-purity alumina (99.5% Al 2 O 3 ). Finally, different applications of such methods are given. (Author) [es

  19. Safe waste management practices in beryllium facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, P.N.; Soundararajan, S.; Sharma, D.N.

    2012-01-01

    Beryllium, an element with the atomic symbol Be, atomic number 4, has very high stiffness to weight ratio and low density. It has good electrical conductive properties with low coefficient of thermal expansion. These properties make the metal beryllium very useful in varied technological endeavours, However, beryllium is recognised as one of the most toxic metals. Revelation of toxic effects of beryllium resulted in institution of stringent health and safety practices in beryllium handling facilities. The waste generated in such facilities may contain traces of beryllium. Any such waste should be treated as toxic waste and suitable safe waste management practices should be adopted. By instituting appropriate waste management practice and through a meticulously incorporated safety measures and continuous surveillance exercised in such facilities, total safety can be ensured. This paper broadly discusses health hazards posed by beryllium and safe methods of management of beryllium bearing wastes. (author)

  20. The nature of beryllium disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    The increasing use of beryllium in modern industry poses a continuing health hazard with a real risk of producing incapacitating disease and even death. Beryllium and its salts are very toxic, even in small doses and may produce lesions in any organ. The majority of cases follow inhalation and may cause either acute or chronic lung disease. Acute pulmonary disease is a form of chemical pneumonitis while the chronic disease is characterised by the production of granulomas and fibrosis. The skin may be affected with the finding of dermatitis, acute or chronic ulceration. Other organs commonly involved include the liver and kidneys. The pathology of beryllium disease is not specific and diagnosis depends on satisfying the following criteria - history of exposure, consistent clinical, radiographic and pathological finding, presence of beryllium in tissue/fluid and evidence of hypersensitivity. Recent development of 'in vitro' tests of hypersensitivity may prove of value in both diagnosis and prevention of disease. Beryllium disease responds to steroid therapy but the only sure treatment is avoidance of exposure. (author)

  1. Cause of pitting in beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kershaw, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    Light microscopy, bare-film radiography, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, electron microprobe and physical testing were used to examine beryllium specimens exhibiting a stratified, pitted, pattern after chemical milling. The objective was to find the cause of this pattern. Specimens were found to have voids in excess of density specification allowances. These voids are attributed, at least in part, to the sublimation of beryllium fluoride during the vacuum hot pressing operation. The origin of the pattern is attributed to these voids and etching out of fines and associated impurities. Hot isostatic pressing with a subsequent heat treatment close residual porosity and dispersed impurities enough to correct the problem

  2. Bioenvironmental Engineering Guide to Beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-26

    Dermal contact with beryllium can result in dermatitis resembling first- or second-degree burns and skin granulomas [7]. Beryllium dust, fume...minute short-term exposure limit (STEL) of 2.0 µg/m3 [§1910.1024(c)(2) & §1926.1124(c)(2)], and added provisions to prevent skin contact [§1910.1024(b...document you want more information, contact the Environmental, Safety, and Occupational Health (ESOH) Service Center at DSN 798-3764, 1-888-232-ESOH (3764

  3. Sand consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spain, H H

    1965-01-21

    In a sand consolidation method in which there is injected a mixture of resin-forming liquids comprising an aryl-hydroxy low molecular weight compound, a water- soluble aldehyde, and a catalyst, an improvement is claimed which comprises diluting the resin-forming liquids with a diluent and with water so that the yield of the resin is sufficient to consolidate the sand particles with the minimum desirable pressure. The diluent may be mutually soluble in water and in the resin-forming liquids, and does not affect the setting time of the polymer. The aldehyde and the aryl-hydroxy compound may be in ratio of 5:1, and the diluent, methyl alcohol, is present in a ratio of 2:1 with reference to the water.

  4. Defense programs beryllium good practice guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herr, M.

    1997-07-01

    Within the DOE, it has recently become apparent that some contractor employees who have worked (or are currently working) with and around beryllium have developed chronic beryllium disease (CBD), an occupational granulomatous lung disorder. Respiratory exposure to aerosolized beryllium, in susceptible individuals, causes an immunological reaction that can result in granulomatous scarring of the lung parenchyma, shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, weight loss, and, ultimately, respiratory failure. Beryllium disease was originally identified in the 1940s, largely in the fluorescent light industry. In 1950, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) introduced strict exposure standards that generally curtailed both the acute and chronic forms of the disease. Beginning in 1984, with the identification of a CBD case in a DOE contractor worker, there was increased scrutiny of both industrial hygiene practices and individuals in this workforce. To date, over 100 additional cases of beryllium-specific sensitization and/or CBD have been identified. Thus, a disease previously thought to be largely eliminated by the adoption of permissible exposure standards 45 years ago is still a health risk in certain workforces. This good practice guide forms the basis of an acceptable program for controlling workplace exposure to beryllium. It provides (1) Guidance for minimizing worker exposure to beryllium in Defense Programs facilities during all phases of beryllium-related work, including the decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of facilities. (2) Recommended controls to be applied to the handling of metallic beryllium and beryllium alloys, beryllium oxide, and other beryllium compounds. (3) Recommendations for medical monitoring and surveillance of workers exposed (or potentially exposed) to beryllium, based on the best current understanding of beryllium disease and medical diagnostic tests available. (4) Site-specific safety procedures for all processes of beryllium that is

  5. Inhalation hazards from machining beryllium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, M.D.; Finch, G.L.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Eidson, A.F.

    1987-01-01

    Beryllium metal has special nuclear and structural properties that make it useful for applications in fission and fusion reactor designs. Unfortunately, concerns for its toxicity have made designers wary of using beryllium metal. The work being reported here was undertaken to characterize the aerosols produced by two very common operations performed during preparation or modification of components for use in reactor systems: sawing and milling of beryllium metal. The study also covered beryllium metal alloys to allow comparison. Information from this study is to enable better assessments of the risk of using beryllium metal in reactor designs

  6. Shock compaction of molybdenum powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, T. J.; Kostka, D.; Vreeland, T., Jr.; Schwarz, R. B.; Kasiraj, P.

    1983-01-01

    Shock recovery experiments which were carried out in the 9 to 12 GPa range on 1.4 distension Mo and appear adequate to compact to full density ( 45 (SIGMA)m) powders were examined. The stress levels, however, are below those calculated to be from 100 to approx. 22 GPa which a frictional heating model predicts are required to consolidate approx. 10 to 50 (SIGMA)m particles. The model predicts that powders that have a distension of m=1.6 shock pressures of 14 to 72 GPa are required to consolidate Mo powders in the 50 to 10 (SIGMA)m range.

  7. Photoluminescence enhancement from GaN by beryllium doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gutiérrez, R.; Ramos-Carrazco, A.; Berman-Mendoza, D.; Hirata, G. A.; Contreras, O. E.; Barboza-Flores, M.

    2016-10-01

    High quality Be-doped (Be = 0.19 at.%) GaN powder has been grown by reacting high purity Ga diluted alloys (Be-Ga) with ultra high purity ammonia in a horizontal quartz tube reactor at 1200 °C. An initial low-temperature treatment to dissolve ammonia into the Ga melt produced GaN powders with 100% reaction efficiency. Doping was achieved by dissolving beryllium into the gallium metal. The powders synthesized by this method regularly consist of two particle size distributions: large hollow columns with lengths between 5 and 10 μm and small platelets in a range of diameters among 1 and 3 μm. The GaN:Be powders present a high quality polycrystalline profile with preferential growth on the [10 1 bar 1] plane, observed by means of X-ray diffraction. The three characteristics growth planes of the GaN crystalline phase were found by using high resolution TEM microscopy. The optical enhancing of the emission in the GaN powder is attributed to defects created with the beryllium doping. The room temperature photoluminescence emission spectra of GaN:Be powders, revealed the presence of beryllium on a shoulder peak at 3.39 eV and an unusual Y6 emission at 3.32eV related to surface donor-acceptor pairs. Also, a donor-acceptor-pair transition at 3.17 eV and a phonon replica transition at 3.1 eV were observed at low temperature (10 K). The well-known yellow luminescence band coming from defects was observed in both spectra at room and low temperature. Cathodoluminescence emission from GaN:Be powders presents two main peaks associated with an ultraviolet band emission and the yellow emission known from defects. To study the trapping levels related with the defects formed in the GaN:Be, thermoluminescence glow curves were obtained using UV and β radiation in the range of 50 and 150 °C.

  8. Optimization of beryllium for fusion blanket applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billone, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    The primary function of beryllium in a fusion reactor blanket is neutron multiplication to enhance tritium breeding. However, because heat, tritium and helium will be generated in and/or transported through beryllium and because the beryllium is in contact with other blanket materials, the thermal, mechanical, tritium/helium and compatibility properties of beryllium are important in blanket design. In particular, tritium retention during normal operation and release during overheating events are safety concerns. Accommodating beryllium thermal expansion and helium-induced swelling are important issues in ensuring adequate lifetime of the structural components adjacent to the beryllium. Likewise, chemical/metallurgical interactions between beryllium and structural components need to be considered in lifetime analysis. Under accident conditions the chemical interaction between beryllium and coolant and breeding materials may also become important. The performance of beryllium in fusion blanket applications depends on fabrication variables and operational parameters. First the properties database is reviewed to determine the state of knowledge of beryllium performance as a function of these variables. Several design calculations are then performed to indicate ranges of fabrication and operation variables that lead to optimum beryllium performance. Finally, areas for database expansion and improvement are highlighted based on the properties survey and the design sensitivity studies

  9. Reactivity test between beryllium and copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, H.; Kato, M.

    1995-01-01

    Beryllium has been expected for using as plasma facing material on ITER. And, copper alloy has been proposed as heat sink material behind plasma facing components. Therefore, both materials must be joined. However, the elementary process of reaction between beryllium and copper alloy does not clear in detail. For example, other authors reported that beryllium reacted with copper at high temperature, but it was not obvious about the generation of reaction products and increasing of the reaction layer. In the present work, from this point, for clarifying the elementary process of reaction between beryllium and copper, the out-of-pile compatibility tests were conducted with diffusion couples of beryllium and copper which were inserted in the capsule filled with high purity helium gas (6N). Annealing temperatures were 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 degrees C, and annealing periods were 100, 300 and 1000h. Beryllium specimens were hot pressed beryllium, and copper specimens were OFC (Oxygen Free Copper)

  10. Galvanic corrosion of beryllium welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.A.; Butt, D.P.; Lillard, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Beryllium is difficult to weld because it is highly susceptible to cracking. The most commonly used filler metal in beryllium welds is Al-12 wt.% Si. Beryllium has been successfully welded using Al-Si filler metal with more than 30 wt.% Al. This filler creates an aluminum-rich fusion zone with a low melting point that tends to backfill cracks. Drawbacks to adding a filler metal include a reduction in service temperature, a lowering of the tensile strength of the weld, and the possibility for galvanic corrosion to occur at the weld. To evaluate the degree of interaction between Be and Al-Si in an actual weld, sections from a mock beryllium weldment were exposed to 0.1 M Cl - solution. Results indicate that the galvanic couple between Be and the Al-Si weld material results in the cathodic protection of the weld and of the anodic dissolution of the bulk Be material. While the cathodic protection of Al is generally inefficient, the high anodic dissolution rate of the bulk Be during pitting corrosion combined with the insulating properties of the Be oxide afford some protection of the Al-Si weld material. Although dissolution of the Be precipitate in the weld material does occur, no corrosion of the Al-Si matrix was observed

  11. Worker Environment Beryllium Characterization Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the conclusion of regular monitoring of occupied buildings at the Nevada Test Site and North Las Vegas facility to determine the extent of beryllium (Be) contamination in accordance with Judgment of Needs 6 of the August 14, 2003, 'Minnema Report.'

  12. Worker Environment Beryllium Characterization Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environment, Safety, Health & Quality

    2009-12-28

    This report summarizes the conclusion of regular monitoring of occupied buildings at the Nevada Test Site and North Las Vegas facility to determine the extent of beryllium (Be) contamination in accordance with Judgment of Needs 6 of the August 14, 2003, “Minnema Report.”

  13. Characterization of a Fe inclusion in beryllium-matrix using auger electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkusk, R.; Moreno, D.; Simca, F.; Yeheskel, O.; Utzmoni, U.

    1991-04-01

    The auger electron spectroscopy techniques was employed to investigate the nature of an inclusion that had been revealed by radiography in a beryllium body produced by the hot isostatic press technique. The investigation's are that the inclusion is composed of several different iron-beryllium intermetallic compounds (BeFe 3 , BeFe 5 , Be 7 Fe). The conclusion drawn is that iron metal impurity was imbedded in the Be powder and that interdiffusion under the process's conditions gave rise to the enlarged inclusion. (author)

  14. Increased effects of machining damage in beryllium observed at high strain rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitscher, S.; Brewer, A.W.; Corle, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    Tensile tests at both low and high strain rates, and also impact shear tests, were performed on a weldable grade powder-source beryllium. Impact energies increased by a factor of 2 to 3 from the as-machined level after etching or annealing. Similar increases in the ductility from machining damage removal were observed from the tensile data at the higher strain rate (10 s -1 ) while an insignificant increase in elongation was measured at the lower strain rate (10 -4 s -1 ). High strain-rate tests appear to be more sensitive and reliable for evaluating machining practice and damage removal methods for beryllium components subjected to sudden loads. 2 tables

  15. OVERVIEW OF BERYLLIUM SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisson, M

    2009-04-01

    Because of its unique properties as a lightweight metal with high tensile strength, beryllium is widely used in applications including cell phones, golf clubs, aerospace, and nuclear weapons. Beryllium is also encountered in industries such as aluminium manufacturing, and in environmental remediation projects. Workplace exposure to beryllium particulates is a growing concern, as exposure to minute quantities of anthropogenic forms of beryllium may lead to sensitization and to chronic beryllium disease, which can be fatal and for which no cure is currently known. Furthermore, there is no known exposure-response relationship with which to establish a 'safe' maximum level of beryllium exposure. As a result, the current trend is toward ever lower occupational exposure limits, which in turn make exposure assessment, both in terms of sampling and analysis, more challenging. The problems are exacerbated by difficulties in sample preparation for refractory forms of beryllium, such as beryllium oxide, and by indications that some beryllium forms may be more toxic than others. This chapter provides an overview of sources and uses of beryllium, health risks, and occupational exposure limits. It also provides a general overview of sampling, analysis, and data evaluation issues that will be explored in greater depth in the remaining chapters. The goal of this book is to provide a comprehensive resource to aid personnel in a wide variety of disciplines in selecting sampling and analysis methods that will facilitate informed decision-making in workplace and environmental settings.

  16. Mechanisms of hydrogen retention in metallic beryllium and beryllium oxide and properties of ion-induced beryllium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberkofler, Martin

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of this thesis laboratory experiments on atomically clean beryllium surfaces were performed. They aim at a basic understanding of the mechanisms occurring upon interaction of a fusion plasma with a beryllium first wall. The retention and the temperature dependent release of implanted deuterium ions are investigated. An atomistic description is developed through simulations and through the comparison with calculations based on density functional theory. The results of these investigations are compared to the behaviour of hydrogen upon implantation into thermally grown beryllium oxide layers. Furthermore, beryllium nitride is produced by implantation of nitrogen into metallic beryllium and its properties are investigated. The results are interpreted with regard to the use of beryllium in a fusion reactor. (orig.)

  17. Beryllium Project: developing in CDTN of uranium dioxide fuel pellets with addition of beryllium oxide to increase the thermal conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Ricardo Alberto Neto; Camarano, Denise das Merces; Miranda, Odair; Grossi, Pablo Andrade; Andrade, Antonio Santos; Queiroz, Carolinne Mol; Gonzaga, Mariana de Carvalho Leal

    2013-01-01

    Although the nuclear fuel currently based on pellets of uranium dioxide be very safe and stable, the biggest problem is that this material is not a good conductor of heat. This results in an elevated temperature gradient between the center and its lateral surface, which leads to a premature degradation of the fuel, which restricts the performance of the reactor, being necessary to change the fuel before its full utilization. An increase of only 5 to 10 percent in its thermal conductivity, would be a significant increase. An increase of 50 percent would be a great improvement. A project entitled 'Beryllium Project' was developed in CDTN - Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, which aimed to develop fuel pellets made from a mixture of uranium dioxide microspheres and beryllium oxide powder to obtain a better heat conductor phase, filling the voids between the microspheres to increase the thermal conductivity of the pellet. Increases in the thermal conductivity in the range of 8.6% to 125%, depending on the level of addition employed in the range of 1% to 14% by weight of beryllium oxide, were obtained. This type of fuel promises to be safer than current fuels, improving the performance of the reactor, in addition to last longer, resulting in great savings. (author)

  18. Thermal fatigue behavior of US and Russian grades of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.D.; Youchison, D.L.; Dombrowski, D.E.; Guiniatouline, R.N.; Kupriynov, I.B.

    1996-01-01

    A novel technique has been used to test the relative low cycle thermal fatigue resistance of different grades of US and Russian beryllium which is proposed as plasma facing armor for fusion reactor first wall, limiter, and divertor components. The 30 KW electron beam test system at Sandia National Laboratories was used to sweep the beam spot along one direction at 1 Hz. This produces a localized temperature ''spike'' of 750 degrees C for each pass of the beam. Large thermal stress in excess of the yield strength are generated due to very high spot heat flux, 250 MW/m 2 . Cyclic plastic strains on the order of 0.6% produced visible cracking on the heated surface in less than 3000 cycles. An in-vacuo fiber optic borescope was used to visually inspect the beryllium surfaces for crack initiation. Grades of US beryllium tested included: S-65C, S-65H, S-200F, S-300F-H, Sr-200, I-400, extruded high purity. HIP'd sperical powder, porous beryllium (94% and 98% dense), Be/30% BeO, Be/60% BeO, and TiBe 12 . Russian grades included: TGP-56, TShGT, DShG-200, and TShG-56. Both the number of cycles to crack initiation, and the depth of crack propagation, were measured. The most fatigue resistant grades were S-65C, DShG-200, TShGT, and TShG-56. Rolled sheet Be(SR-200) showed excellent crack propagation resistance in the plane of rolling, despite early formation of delamination cracks. Only one sample showed no evidence of surface melting, Extruded (T). Metallographic and chemical analyses are provided. Good agreement was found between the measured depth of cracks and a 2-D elastic-plastic finite element stress analysis

  19. Defense programs beryllium good practice guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, M.

    1997-07-01

    Within the DOE, it has recently become apparent that some contractor employees who have worked (or are currently working) with and around beryllium have developed chronic beryllium disease (CBD), an occupational granulomatous lung disorder. Respiratory exposure to aerosolized beryllium, in susceptible individuals, causes an immunological reaction that can result in granulomatous scarring of the lung parenchyma, shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, weight loss, and, ultimately, respiratory failure. Beryllium disease was originally identified in the 1940s, largely in the fluorescent light industry. In 1950, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) introduced strict exposure standards that generally curtailed both the acute and chronic forms of the disease. Beginning in 1984, with the identification of a CBD case in a DOE contractor worker, there was increased scrutiny of both industrial hygiene practices and individuals in this workforce. To date, over 100 additional cases of beryllium-specific sensitization and/or CBD have been identified. Thus, a disease previously thought to be largely eliminated by the adoption of permissible exposure standards 45 years ago is still a health risk in certain workforces. This good practice guide forms the basis of an acceptable program for controlling workplace exposure to beryllium. It provides (1) Guidance for minimizing worker exposure to beryllium in Defense Programs facilities during all phases of beryllium-related work, including the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities. (2) Recommended controls to be applied to the handling of metallic beryllium and beryllium alloys, beryllium oxide, and other beryllium compounds. (3) Recommendations for medical monitoring and surveillance of workers exposed (or potentially exposed) to beryllium, based on the best current understanding of beryllium disease and medical diagnostic tests available. (4) Site-specific safety procedures for all processes of beryllium that is likely to

  20. Belgian research on fusion beryllium waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druyts, F.; Mallants, D.; Sillen, X.; Iseghem, P. Van

    2004-01-01

    Future fusion power plants will generate important quantities of neutron irradiated beryllium. Although recycling is the preferred management option for this waste, this may not be technically feasible for all of the beryllium, because of its radiological characteristics. Therefore, at SCK·CEN, we initiated a research programme aimed at studying aspects of the disposal of fusion beryllium, including waste characterisation, waste acceptance criteria, conditioning methods, and performance assessment. One of the main issues to be resolved is the development of fusion-specific waste acceptance criteria for surface or deep geological disposal, in particular with regard to the tritium content. In case disposal is the only solution, critical nuclides can be immobilised by conditioning the waste. As a first approach to immobilising beryllium waste, we investigated the vitrification of beryllium. Corrosion tests were performed on both metallic and vitrified beryllium to provide source data for performance assessment. Finally, a first step in performance assessment was undertaken. (author)

  1. Beryllium minerals - demand strong for miniaturisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, J.

    1985-01-01

    Beryllium is an essential constituent of over 40 minerals of which two are exploited commercially. Beryl is largely produced in the USSR and China and bertrandite in the U.S.A. Phenacite, from Canada, is also under investigation. The largest extraction plant for the recovery of beryllium in the western world is in Utah, U.S.A. and the company also produces beryllium oxide used in the manufacture of ceramics widely used in the electronics industry and for refractory articles. Beryllium-copper alloys in strip, rod and tube form are produced in the U.S.A., Germany and the U.K. Beryllium ceramics are important because of their high thermal conductivity, electrical insulation, strength and rigidity. The alloys, used as electric connectors, microswitch contacts are important for their high suitability for miniaturisation. The future growth potential for the beryllium industry is in the automotive industries in Europe and Japan. (U.K.)

  2. Consolidated financial statements

    OpenAIRE

    Blaha, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    This work provides basic information about consolidation and consolidated financial statements. In the beginning there are definisions of the members of the group under discussion and their relationship. Hereafter concepts of consolidation, accounting methods and methods of consolidation are discussed. It also compares approach of different accounting systems to consolidation.

  3. Mechanical properties of irradiated beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeston, J.M.; Longhurst, G.R.; Wallace, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    Beryllium is planned for use as a neutron multiplier in the tritium breeding blanket of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). After fabricating samples of beryllium at densities varying from 80 to 100% of the theoretical density, we conducted a series of experiments to measure the effect of neutron irradiation on mechanical properties, especially strength and ductility. Samples were irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to a neutron fluence of 2.6 x 10 25 n/m 2 (E > MeV) at an irradiation temperature of 75deg C. These samples were subsequently compression-tested at room temperature, and the results were compared with similar tests on unirradiated specimens. We found that the irradiation increased the strength by approximately four times and reduced the ductility to approximately one fourth. Failure was generally ductile, but the 80% dense irradiated samples failed in brittle fracture with significant generation of fine particles and release of small quantities of tritium. (orig.)

  4. Mechanical properties of irradiated beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeston, J. M.; Longhurst, G. R.; Wallace, R. S.; Abeln, S. P.

    1992-10-01

    Beryllium is planned for use as a neutron multiplier in the tritium breeding blanket of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). After fabricating samples of beryllium at densities varying from 80 to 100% of the theoretical density, we conducted a series of experiments to measure the effect of neutron irradiation on mechanical properties, especially strength and ductility. Samples were irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to a neutron fluence of 2.6 × 10 25 n/m 2 ( E > 1 MeV) at an irradiation temperature of 75°C. These samples were subsequently compression-tested at room temperature, and the results were compared with similar tests on unirradiated specimens. We found that the irradiation increased the strength by approximately four times and reduced the ductility to approximately one fourth. Failure was generally ductile, but the 80% dense irradiated samples failed in brittle fracture with significant generation of fine particles and release of small quantities of tritium.

  5. MEASUREMENTS OF THE PROPERTIES OF BERYLLIUM FOIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZHAO, Y.; WANG, H.

    2000-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of beryllium at radio frequency (800 MHz) and liquid nitrogen temperature were investigated and measured. This summary addresses a collection of beryllium properties in the literature, an analysis of the anomalous skin effect, the test model, the experimental setup and improvements, MAFIA simulations, the measurement results and data analyses. The final results show that the conductivity of beryllium is not as good as indicated by the handbook, yet very close to copper at liquid nitrogen temperature

  6. New audio applications of beryllium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, M.

    1977-01-01

    The major applications of beryllium metal in the field of audio appliances are for the vibrating cones for the two types of speakers 'TWITTER' for high range sound and 'SQUAWKER' for mid range sound, and also for beryllium cantilever tube assembled in stereo cartridge. These new applications are based on the characteristic property of beryllium having high ratio of modulus of elasticity to specific gravity. The production of these audio parts is described, and the audio response is shown. (author)

  7. Thermal expansion of beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solodukhin, A.V.; Kruzhalov, A.V.; Mazurenko, V.G.; Maslov, V.A.; Medvedev, V.A.; Polupanova, T.I.

    1987-01-01

    Precise measurements of temperature dependence of the coefficient of linear expansion in the 22-320 K temperature range on beryllium oxide monocrystals are conducted. A model of thermal expansion is suggested; the range of temperature dependence minimum of the coefficient of thermal expansion is well described within the frames of this model. The results of the experiment may be used for investigation of thermal stresses in crystals

  8. Tritium behavior in ITER beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.

    1990-10-01

    The beryllium neutron multiplier in the ITER breeding blanket will generate tritium through transmutations. That tritium constitutes a safety hazard. Experiments evaluating tritium storage and release mechanisms have shown that most of the tritium comes out in a burst during thermal ramping. A small fraction of retained tritium is released by thermally activated processes. Analysis of recent experimental data shows that most of the tritium resides in helium bubbles. That tritium is released when the bubbles undergo swelling sufficient to develop porosity that connects with the surface. That appears to occur when swelling reaches about 10--15%. Other tritium appears to be stored chemically at oxide inclusions, probably as Be(OT) 2 . That component is released by thermal activation. There is considerable variation in published values for tritium diffusion through the beryllium and solubility in it. Data from experiments using highly irradiated beryllium from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory showed diffusivity generally in line with the most commonly accepted values for fully dense material. Lower density material, planned for use in the ITER blanket may have very short diffusion times because of the open structure. The beryllium multiplier of the ITER breeding blanket was analyzed for tritium release characteristics using temperature and helium production figures at the midplane generated in support of the ITER Summer Workshop, 1990 in Garching. Ordinary operation, either in Physics or Technology phases, should not result in the release of tritium trapped in the helium bubbles. Temperature excursions above 600 degree C result in large-scale release of that tritium. 29 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Intoxication experiments with beryllium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucurescu, I.; Stan, T.

    1990-01-01

    The changes in the particular number of animals in two groups of 40 rats each subjected to intoxication experiments with beryllium sulphate was investigated. The two investigations had very different characteristics. In the case of chronic intoxication there was a marked lethality over given time intervals. In the case of subacute intoxication the number of animals decreased with time. It was found empirically that this change can be described by an exponential relationship which lends itself to statistical interpretation. (author)

  10. Thermodynamic properties of beryllium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, A.; Lecocq, A.

    1964-01-01

    The study of the hydro-thermal decomposition of beryllium hydroxide has made it possible to determine the free energy of formation and the entropy. The results obtained are in good agreement with the theoretical values calculated from the solubility product of this substance. They give furthermore the possibility of acquiring a better understanding of the BeO-H 2 O-Be (OH) 2 system between 20 and 1500 C. (authors) [fr

  11. Thermal Properties of Beryllium Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Tae Won; Baek, Je Kyun; Jeong, Gwan Yoon; Kim, Ji Hyeon; Sohn, Dong Seong

    2013-01-01

    It is known that the presence of as-fabricated porosity largely affect thermal conductivity of beryllium. Therefore, in this paper we will suggest a new thermal conductivity equation which consider volume fraction and discuss how this can be applied to irradiation induced degradation of thermal conductivity later. This study was performed to develop a new correlation of thermal conductivity of Beryllium. Although there are many factors like BeO contents, impurity level, grain size, and porosity, we assumed porosity will be the dominant factor for thermal conductivity. Therefore, a new correlation which consider volume fraction by applying Maxwell-Eucken equation is developed and this is consistent to some degrees. However, increasing impurity level and decreasing grain size will decrease thermal conductivity. Therefore, we need to consider their effects although we assume BeO contents, impurity, and grain size do not make noticeable effects in the future. Furthermore, thermal conductivity degradation by neutron irradiation should be considered afterward. There are two main factors for the thermal conductivity degradation: the one is defects formed by neutron collisions and the other is helium generated by transmutation of Be. It is known that they make a considerable degradation of conductivity. Beryllium is known there are considerable volume increases by helium accumulation. Therefore, we anticipate our suggested model can be applicable if it has been developed furthermore considering irradiation induced swelling

  12. (Beryllium). Internal Report No. 137, Jan. 15, 1958

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouret, P.; Rigaud, A.

    1959-01-01

    After a brief summary of the physical and chemical properties of beryllium, the various chemical treatments which can be applied to beryllium minerals either directly or after a physical enrichment are discussed. These various treatments give either the hydroxide or beryllium salts, from which either beryllium oxide or metallic beryllium can easily be obtained. The purification, analysis and uses of beryllium are also briefly discussed. (author)

  13. Beryllium dust generation resulting from plasma bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerner, R.; Mays, C.

    1997-01-01

    The beryllium dust resulting from erosion of beryllium samples subjected to plasma bombardment has been measured in PISCES-B. Loose surface dust was found to be uniformly distributed throughout the device and accounts for 3% of the eroded material. A size distribution measurement of the loose surface dust shows an increasing number of particles with decreasing diameter. Beryllium coatings on surfaces with a line of sight view of the target interaction region account for an additional 33% of the eroded beryllium material. Flaking of these surface layers is observed and is thought to play a significant role in dust generation inside the vacuum vessel. (orig.)

  14. Microplasticity in hot-pressed beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plane, D.C.; Bonfield, W.

    1977-01-01

    Closed hysteresis loops measured in the microstrain region of hot pressed, commercially pure, polycrystalline beryllium are correlated with a dislocation - impurity atom, energy dissipating mechanism. (author)

  15. Beryllium thin films for resistor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiet, O.

    1972-01-01

    Beryllium thin films have a protective oxidation resistant property at high temperature and high recrystallization temperature. However, the experimental film has very low temperature coefficient of resistance.

  16. Development of all-beryllium riveted structures. [Frustrum; cylinders; cones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floyd, D. R.; Leslie, W. W.; Miley, D. V.; Nokes, R. W.

    1976-04-20

    Results are presented of a development program aimed at making a full-scale, all-beryllium frustrum by riveted assembly methods. Included are descriptions of the sheet-metal fabrication practices and assembly plans. Results of extensive mechanical testing of both ingot- and powder-source beryllium products that are presented include tensile, notch-tensile, bearing, and shear tests. Although the full-size structure has not been built, examples are given of several conical and cylindrical structures that were made. The largest of these is a 20-in. diameter, 15-in. long cylinder that was roll-formed from one 0.050-in. thick ingot sheet and assembled with 60 countersunk rivets. Tensile testing of riveted flat coupons is also reported as is bulge testing of riveted cylindrical shells. A cost comparison of riveted deep-drawn and powder-source cylinders is made. Results show that when strength and dimensional tolerance requirements are not severe, a riveted assembly approach is warranted. 33 figures, 8 tables. (auth)

  17. Development of Cu-Be bronzes through powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, M.

    2012-01-01

    Copper and copper alloys are the major group of commercial alloy. One of the important copper bronzes is Copper beryllium. This is unique among all engineering alloys. Copper beryllium alloy possesses the highest strength in all the copper base alloys. Development of copper beryllium alloy with powder metallurgy is challenging problem due to toxicity of beryllium dust. Purpose of this project to find out parameters by which copper beryllium with all unique properties should obtained. For this purpose efforts are put on development of alternative to copper beryllium system like copper-tin and copper-aluminum by powder metallurgy route. Different time of milling with uniaxial pressure of about 200 MPa and different sintering temperature according to phase diagram of alloy, with different soaking time is tried. Problems may occur like decrease in density after sintering, breaking of samples by Rockwell A, B and C indenters arid by hammering. Cold iso-static pressing at 300 MPa and sintering at above 900 degree C is used to develop copper beryllium alloy. As quenched samples are heat treated at 260 degree C, 315 degree C and 370 degree C with different soaking time of 30, 90 and 180 minutes to find out optimum time and temperature parameters. . It is observed that at aging at 260 degree C for 180 minutes, aging at 315 degree C for 180 minutes and aging at 370 degree C for 30 minutes produce optimum result. By observing these pellets by SEM, precipitates appeared in peak-aged alloy and bigger precipitates in over-aged alloy. Copper beryllium alloy developed through powder metallurgy has better prospects than other copper bronzes. (author)

  18. Inherent structure features of beryllium and their influence on the performance polycrystalline metal under different conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khomutov, A.M.; Mikhailov, V.S.; Pronin, V.N.; Pakhomov, Ya.D. [State Scientific Center of Russian Federation `A.A. Bochvar All-Russia Research Inst. of Inorganic Materials (VNIINM)`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-01-01

    The anisotropy of physical properties of beryllium single crystals resulting from covalent bonds in crystal lattice leads to significant residual thermal microstresses (RTM) in the polycrystalline metal. It is demonstrated experimentally that there is a simple linear dependence between the magnitude of RTM and the ultimate tensile strength. The factors controlling RTM are analysed and in the framework of powder metallurgy process the technological methods of producing beryllium with the needed properties are recommended. Primarily it is necessary to control the quantity and extent of dispersity of intergranular oxide inclusions and mean grain size in combination with the high degree of macro- and microhomogenity of the structure. The requirements to beryllium microstructure for different operating conditions including neutron fluxes and transient temperature fields are formulated. In the framework of the concept under development one can explain formerly not fully understandable effects, which are characteristic of polycrystalline beryllium such as unexpected Petch-Stro curve, the role of twinning etc., and predict new ones. In particular, it can be possible to expect the growth of ductility of high strength beryllium grades as neutron irradiated. (author)

  19. Beryllium and growth. II. The effect of beryllium on plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoagland, M B

    1952-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to determine whether beryllium could replace magnesium in a growing organism. This was stimulated by the several known growth effects of beryllium in animals and by the fact that beryllium apparently competes with magnesium for animal alkaline phosphatases. The following findings are noted: (1) beryllium can reduce the magnesium requirement of plants by some 60% within a certain range of magnesium deficiency. (2) The residual obligatory magnesium requirements is probably accounted for by chlorophyll since beryllium appears to have no primary effect on chlorophyll or chlorophyll production. (3) The pH of the nutrient solution is critical: at acid pH's, beryllium is highly toxic, and growth increase due to beryllium only appears at initial pH's above 11.2, although this initial pH rapidly falls to neutrality during the experimental period. 22 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  20. Beryllium in aircraft brakes - a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenczak, S.

    1977-01-01

    Beryllium has been in use in aircraft brakes for ten years. During the original design phases of the several aircraft programs using beryllium a number of problems requiring solution confronted the designers. In actual service the solution to these problems performed much better than had been anticipated. A summary is presented. (author)

  1. ICT diagnostic method of beryllium welding quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Lingxia; Wei Kentang; Ye Yunchang

    2002-01-01

    To avoid the interference of high density material for the quality assay of beryllium welding line, a slice by slice scanning method was proposed based upon the research results of the Industrial Computerized Tomography (ICT) diagnostics for weld penetration, weld width, off-centered deviation and weld defects of beryllium-ring welding seam with high density material inside

  2. Investigation of beryllium/steam interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekhonadskikh, A.M.; Vurim, A.D.; Vasilyev, Yu.S.; Pivovarov, O.S. [Inst. of Atomic Energy National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakstan Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan); Shestakov, V.P.; Tazhibayeva, I.L.

    1998-01-01

    In this report program on investigations of beryllium emissivity and transient processes on overheated beryllium surface attacked by water steam to be carried out in IAE NNC RK within Task S81 TT 2096-07-16 FR. The experimental facility design is elaborated in this Report. (author)

  3. Modeling of hydrogen interactions with beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, G.R. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, improved mathematical models are developed for hydrogen interactions with beryllium. This includes the saturation effect observed for high-flux implantation of ions from plasmas and retention of tritium produced from neutronic transmutations in beryllium. Use of the models developed is justified by showing how they can replicated experimental data using the TMAP4 tritium transport code. (author)

  4. Managing health effects of beryllium exposure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Beryllium Alloy Exposures; Committee on Toxicology; National Research Council; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council

    2008-01-01

    ... to its occurrence in exposed people. Despite reduced workplace exposure, chronic beryllium disease continues to occur. In addition, beryllium has been classified as a likely human carcinogen by several agencies, such as the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the National Toxicology Program, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Thos...

  5. Some aspects of beryllium disposal in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shestakov, V.; Chikhray, Y.; Shakhvorostov, Yr.

    2004-01-01

    Historically in Kazakhstan all disposals of used beryllium and beryllium wasted materials were stored and recycled at JSC ''Ulba Metallurgical Plant''. Since Ulba Metallurgical Plant (beside beryllium and tantalum production) is one of the world largest complex producers of fuel for nuclear power plants as well it has possibilities, technologies and experience in processing toxic and radioactive wastes related with those productions. At present time only one operating Kazakhstan research reactors (EWG1M in Kurchatov) contains beryllium made core. The results of current examination of that core allow using it without replacement long time yet (at least for next five-ten years). Nevertheless the problem how to utilize such irradiated beryllium becomes actual issue for Kazakhstan even today. Since Kazakhstan is the member of ITER/DEMO Reactors Projects and is permanently considered as possible provider of huge amount of beryllium for those reactors so that is the reason for starting studies of possibilities of large scale processing/recycling of such disposed irradiated beryllium. It is clear that the Ulba Metallurgical Plant is considered as the best site for it in Kazakhstan. The draft plan how to organize experimental studies of irradiated beryllium disposals in Kazakhstan involving National Nuclear Center, National University (Almaty), JSC ''Ulba Metallurgical Plant'' (Ust-Kamenogorsk) would be presented in this paper as well as proposals to arrange international collaboration in that field through ISTC (International Science Technology Center, Moscow). (author)

  6. The status of beryllium technology for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Longhurst, G.R. E-mail: gx1@inel.gov; Shestakov, V.; Kawamura, H

    2000-12-01

    Beryllium was used for a number of years in the Joint European Torus (JET), and it is planned to be used extensively on the lower heat-flux surfaces of the reduced technical objective/reduced cost international thermonuclear experimental reactor (RTO/RC ITER). It has been included in various forms in a number of tritium breeding blanket designs. There are technical advantages but also a number of safety issues associated with the use of beryllium. Research in a variety of technical areas in recent years has revealed interesting issues concerning the use of beryllium in fusion. Progress in this research has been presented at a series of International Workshops on Beryllium Technology for Fusion. The most recent workshop was held in Karlsruhe, Germany on 15-17 September 1999. In this paper, a summary of findings presented there and their implications for the use of beryllium in the development of fusion reactors are presented.

  7. The status of beryllium technology for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Longhurst, G.R.; Shestakov, V.; Kawamura, H.

    2000-01-01

    Beryllium was used for a number of years in the Joint European Torus (JET), and it is planned to be used extensively on the lower heat-flux surfaces of the reduced technical objective/reduced cost international thermonuclear experimental reactor (RTO/RC ITER). It has been included in various forms in a number of tritium breeding blanket designs. There are technical advantages but also a number of safety issues associated with the use of beryllium. Research in a variety of technical areas in recent years has revealed interesting issues concerning the use of beryllium in fusion. Progress in this research has been presented at a series of International Workshops on Beryllium Technology for Fusion. The most recent workshop was held in Karlsruhe, Germany on 15-17 September 1999. In this paper, a summary of findings presented there and their implications for the use of beryllium in the development of fusion reactors are presented

  8. BERYLLIUM MEASUREMENT IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE WET WIPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youmans-Mcdonald, L.

    2011-02-18

    Analysis for beryllium by fluorescence is now an established method which is used in many government-run laboratories and commercial facilities. This study investigates the use of this technique using commercially available wet wipes. The fluorescence method is widely documented and has been approved as a standard test method by ASTM International and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The procedure involves dissolution of samples in aqueous ammonium bifluoride solution and then adding a small aliquot to a basic hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate fluorescent dye (Berylliant{trademark} Inc. Detection Solution Part No. CH-2) , and measuring the fluorescence. This method is specific to beryllium. This work explores the use of three different commercial wipes spiked with beryllium, as beryllium acetate or as beryllium oxide and subsequent analysis by optical fluorescence. The effect of possible interfering metals such as Fe, Ti and Pu in the wipe medium is also examined.

  9. Beryllium Measurement In Commercially Available Wet Wipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youmans-Mcdonald, L.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis for beryllium by fluorescence is now an established method which is used in many government-run laboratories and commercial facilities. This study investigates the use of this technique using commercially available wet wipes. The fluorescence method is widely documented and has been approved as a standard test method by ASTM International and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The procedure involves dissolution of samples in aqueous ammonium bifluoride solution and then adding a small aliquot to a basic hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate fluorescent dye (Berylliant(trademark) Inc. Detection Solution Part No. CH-2) , and measuring the fluorescence. This method is specific to beryllium. This work explores the use of three different commercial wipes spiked with beryllium, as beryllium acetate or as beryllium oxide and subsequent analysis by optical fluorescence. The effect of possible interfering metals such as Fe, Ti and Pu in the wipe medium is also examined.

  10. Assessment of LANL beryllium waste management documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danna, J.G.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.; Davis, K.D.; Hoevemeyer, S.S.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this report is to determine present status of the preparation and implementation of the various high priority documents required to properly manage the beryllium waste generated at the Laboratory. The documents being assessed are: Waste Acceptance Criteria, Waste Characterization Plan, Waste Certification Plan, Waste Acceptance Procedures, Waste Characterization Procedures, Waste Certification Procedures, Waste Training Procedures and Waste Recordkeeping Procedures. Beryllium is regulated (as a dust) under 40 CFR 261.33 as ''Discarded commercial chemical products, off specification species, container residues and spill residues thereof.'' Beryllium is also identified in the 3rd thirds ruling of June 1, 1990 as being restricted from land disposal (as a dust). The beryllium waste generated at the Laboratory is handled separately because beryllium has been identified as a highly toxic carcinogenic material

  11. Beryllium for fusion application - recent results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomutov, A.; Barabash, V.; Chakin, V.; Chernov, V.; Davydov, D.; Gorokhov, V.; Kawamura, H.; Kolbasov, B.; Kupriyanov, I.; Longhurst, G.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Shestakov, V.

    2002-01-01

    The main issues for the application of beryllium in fusion reactors are analyzed taking into account the latest results since the ICFRM-9 (Colorado, USA, October 1999) and presented at 5th IEA Be Workshop (10-12 October 2001, Moscow Russia). Considerable progress has been made recently in understanding the problems connected with the selection of the beryllium grades for different applications, characterization of the beryllium at relevant operational conditions (irradiation effects, thermal fatigue, etc.), and development of required manufacturing technologies. The key remaining problems related to the application of beryllium as an armour in near-term fusion reactors (e.g. ITER) are discussed. The features of the application of beryllium and beryllides as a neutron multiplier in the breeder blanket for power reactors (e.g. DEMO) in pebble-bed form are described

  12. Beryllium for fusion application - recent results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomutov, A.; Barabash, V.; Chakin, V.; Chernov, V.; Davydov, D.; Gorokhov, V.; Kawamura, H.; Kolbasov, B.; Kupriyanov, I.; Longhurst, G.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Shestakov, V.

    2002-12-01

    The main issues for the application of beryllium in fusion reactors are analyzed taking into account the latest results since the ICFRM-9 (Colorado, USA, October 1999) and presented at 5th IEA Be Workshop (10-12 October 2001, Moscow Russia). Considerable progress has been made recently in understanding the problems connected with the selection of the beryllium grades for different applications, characterization of the beryllium at relevant operational conditions (irradiation effects, thermal fatigue, etc.), and development of required manufacturing technologies. The key remaining problems related to the application of beryllium as an armour in near-term fusion reactors (e.g. ITER) are discussed. The features of the application of beryllium and beryllides as a neutron multiplier in the breeder blanket for power reactors (e.g. DEMO) in pebble-bed form are described.

  13. Beryllium coating on Inconel tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailescu, V.; Burcea, G.; Lungu, C.P.; Mustata, I.; Lungu, A.M.; Rubel, M.; Coad, J.P.; Matthews, G.; Pedrick, L.; Handley, R.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The Joint European Torus (JET) is a large experimental nuclear fusion device. Its aim is to confine and study the behaviour of plasma in conditions and dimensions approaching those required for a fusion reactor. The plasma is created in the toroidal shaped vacuum vessel of the machine in which it is confined by magnetic fields. In preparation for ITER a new ITER-like Wall (ILW) will be installed on Joint European Torus (JET), a wall not having any carbon facing the plasma [1]. In places Inconel tiles are to be installed, these tiles shall be coated with Beryllium. MEdC represented by the National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele, Bucharest and in direct cooperation with Nuclear Fuel Plant Pitesti started to coat Inconel tiles with 8 μm of Beryllium in accordance with the requirements of technical specification and fit for installation in the JET machine. This contribution provides an overview of the principles of manufacturing processes using thermal evaporation method in vacuum and the properties of the prepared coatings. The optimization of the manufacturing process (layer thickness, structure and purity) has been carried out on Inconel substrates (polished and sand blasted) The results of the optimization process and analysis (SEM, TEM, XRD, Auger, RBS, AFM) of the coatings will be presented. Reference [1] Takeshi Hirai, H. Maier, M. Rubel, Ph. Mertens, R. Neu, O. Neubauer, E. Gauthier, J. Likonen, C. Lungu, G. Maddaluno, G. F. Matthews, R. Mitteau, G. Piazza, V. Philipps, B. Riccardi, C. Ruset, I. Uytdenhouwen, R and D on full tungsten divertor and beryllium wall for JET TIER-like Wall Project, 24. Symposium on Fusion Technology - 11-15 September 2006 -Warsaw, Poland. (authors)

  14. Postirradiation examination of beryllium pebbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    Postirradiation examinations of COBRA-1A beryllium pebbles irradiated in the EBR-II fast reactor at neutron fluences which generated 2700--3700 appm helium have been performed. Measurements included density change, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The major change in microstructure is development of unusually shaped helium bubbles forming as highly non-equiaxed thin platelet-like cavities on the basal plane. Measurement of the swelling due to cavity formation was in good agreement with density change measurements

  15. Evaluation of thermal properties of sintered beryllium oxide produced from Indian beryl ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Sathi R.; Ghanwat, S.J.; Patro, P.K.; Syambabu, M.; Mawal, N.E.; Mahata, T.; Sinha, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    Beryllium oxide (BeO) ceramics possess many interesting properties such as good thermal conductivity, high electrical resistivity, high chemical and thermal stability, low dielectric constant, low dielectric loss and low neutron absorption coefficient. These properties lead to its wide use in vacuum electronics technology, nuclear technology, microelectronics and photoelectron technology. The above properties depend on the purity of the material as well as density and microstructure of the sintered body. For high temperature application thermal conductivity and thermal expansion are two important parameters. In the present study, high purity fine BeO powder has been prepared by beryllate route starting with crude beryllium hydroxide. The powder has been sintered at 1550℃ and sintered samples have been evaluated for its thermal properties

  16. Technical issues for beryllium use in fusion blanket applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarville, T.J.; Berwald, D.H.; Wolfer, W.; Fulton, F.J.; Lee, J.D.; Maninger, R.C.; Moir, R.W.; Beeston, J.M.; Miller, L.G.

    1985-01-01

    Beryllium is an excellent non-fissioning neutron multiplier for fusion breeder and fusion electric blanket applications. This report is a compilation of information related to the use of beryllium with primary emphasis on the fusion breeder application. Beryllium resources, production, fabrication, properties, radiation damage and activation are discussed. A new theoretical model for beryllium swelling is presented

  17. Production of beryllium oxide of nuclear purity from beryl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copat, A; Sood, S P

    1984-01-01

    Production of beryllium oxide from beryl by the fluoride process was optimized in this study. Optimum results were obtained using a mixture of sodium hexafluorsilicate and sodium hexafluorferrate as flux and calcinating at 740/sup 0/C for 2 hours. The beryllium concentrate produced was further purified by crystallization as beryllium sulfate to obtain nuclear grade beryllium oxide

  18. Production of beryllium oxide of nuclear purity from beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copat, A.; Sood, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Production of beryllium oxide from beryl by the fluoride process was optimized in this study. Optimum results were obtained using a mixture of sodium hexafluorsilicate and sodium hexafluorferrate as flux and calcinating at 740 0 C for 2 hours. The beryllium concentrate produced was further purified by crystallization as beryllium sulfate to obtain nuclear grade beryllium oxide (Author) [pt

  19. Mechanical properties of irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeston, J.M.; Longhurst, G.R.; Wallace, R.S. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.); Abeln, S.P. (EG and G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States))

    1992-10-01

    Beryllium is planned for use as a neutron multiplier in the tritium breeding blanket of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). After fabricating samples of beryllium at densities varying from 80 to 100% of the theoretical density, we conducted a series of experiments to measure the effect of neutron irradiation on mechanical properties, especially strength and ductility. Samples were irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to a neutron fluence of 2.6 x 10[sup 25] n/m[sup 2] (E > MeV) at an irradiation temperature of 75deg C. These samples were subsequently compression-tested at room temperature, and the results were compared with similar tests on unirradiated specimens. We found that the irradiation increased the strength by approximately four times and reduced the ductility to approximately one fourth. Failure was generally ductile, but the 80% dense irradiated samples failed in brittle fracture with significant generation of fine particles and release of small quantities of tritium. (orig.).

  20. Evaluation of ring shear testing as a characterization method for powder flow in small-scale powder processing equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Søren Vinter; Pedersen, Troels; Allesø, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Powder flow in small-scale equipment is challenging to predict. To meet this need, the impact of consolidation during powder flow characterization, the level of consolidation existing during discharge of powders from a tablet press hopper and the uncertainty of shear and wall friction measurements...... normal stress were approximately 200Pa and 114Pa, respectively, in the critical transition from the converging to the lower vertical section of the hopper. The lower limit of consolidation for the shear and wall friction test was approximately 500Pa and 200Pa, respectively. At this consolidation level......, the wall and shear stress resolution influences the precision of the measured powder flow properties. This study highlights the need for an improved experimental setup which would be capable of measuring the flow properties of powders under very small consolidation stresses with a high shear stress...

  1. Research of flaw assessment methods for beryllium reflector elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Akira; Ito, Masayasu; Takemoto, Noriyuki; Tanimoto, Masataka; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Nakatsuka, Masafumi; Ohara, Hiroshi; Kodama, Mitsuhiro

    2012-02-01

    Reflector elements made from metal beryllium is widely used as neutron reflectors to increase neutron flux in test reactors. When beryllium reflector elements are irradiated by neutron, bending of reflector elements caused by swelling occurs, and beryllium reflector elements must be replaced in several years. In this report, literature search and investigation for non-destructive inspection of Beryllium and experiments for Preliminary inspection to establish post irradiation examination method for research of characteristics of metal beryllium under neutron irradiation were reported. (author)

  2. Preliminary proposal for a beryllium technology program for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    The program was designed to provide the answers to the critical issues of beryllium technology needed in fusion blanket designs. The four tasks are as follows: (1) Beryllium property measurements needed for fusion data base. (2) Beryllium stress relaxation and creep measurements for lifetime modelling calculations. (3) Simplified recycle technique development for irradiated beryllium. (4) Beryllium neutron multiplier measurements using manganese bath absolute calibration techniques

  3. Recommended design correlations for S-65 beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billone, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    The properties of tritium and helium behavior in irradiated beryllium are reviewed, along with the thermal-mechanical properties needed for ITER design analysis. Correlations are developed to describe the performance of beryllium in a fusion reactor environment. While this paper focuses on the use of beryllium as a plasma-facing component (PFC) material, the correlations presented here can also be used to describe the performance of beryllium as a neutron multiplier for a tritium breeding blanket. The performance properties for beryllium are subdivided into two categories: properties which do not change with irradiation damage to the bulk of the material; and properties which are degraded by neutron irradiation. The irradiation-independent properties described within are: thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, thermal expansion, and elastic constants. Irradiation-dependent properties include: yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, plastic tangent modulus, uniform and total tensile elongation, thermal and irradiation-induced creep strength, He-induced swelling and tritium retention/release. The approach taken in developing properties correlations is to describe the behavior of dense, pressed S-65 beryllium -- the material chosen for ITER PFC application -- as a function of temperature. As there are essentially no data on the performance of porous and/or irradiated S-65 beryllium, the degradation of properties with as-fabricated porosity and irradiation are determined from the broad data base on S-200F, as well as other types and grades, and applied to S-65 beryllium by scaling factors. The resulting correlations can be used for Be produced by vacuum hot pressing (VHP) and cold-pressing (CP)/sintering(S)/hot-isostatic-pressing (HIP). The performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium is discussed but not quantified

  4. Beryllium and growth. III. The effect of beryllium on plant phosphatase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoagland, M B

    1952-01-01

    The purpose of the investigations was to correlate the apparent ability of beryllium to substitute for magnesium in plant growth with a specific biochemical effect of the metal. Through association with earlier work on beryllium inhibition of animal alkaline phosphatase, a study was made of the effect of beryllium and other metals upon the activity of a phosphatase derived from tomato leaves. Although only indirect evidence is available that this enzyme system was magnesium-activated, beryllium was found to inhibit reversibly the splitting of GP and ATP. Other metals were also found to be inhibitory but the ATP-ase inhibition - and especially the ratio of P split from GP to P split from ATP - was higher for beryllium than for any other metal studied. The significance of this finding in relation to energy metabolism, growth, and beryllium toxicity is discussed. 12 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  5. Spectrographic measurement of beryllium in the atmosphere; Dosage spectrographique du beryllium dans l'atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artaud, J; Cittanova, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Service d' Analyses et Recherches Chimiques Appliquees, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Crehange, G; Frequelin, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Dir. des Applications Militaires, Service Chimie, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Baudin, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    We describe here a method for the spectrographic determination of beryllium on filters which is valid for amounts varying between 0,01 and 30 {mu}g of beryllium and which is independent of the nature of the beryllium compound involved. This is a flux method (graphite-lithium carbonate mixture), the excitation being by a direct current arc. (author) [French] Nous decrivons ici, une methode de dosage spectrographique de beryllium sur filtre, valable pour des teneurs comprises entre 0,01 et 30 {mu}g de beryllium et independante de la nature du compose de beryllium a doser. C'est une methode de 'flux' (melange graphite-carbonate de lithium) l'excitation etant un arc a courant continu. (auteur)

  6. Metallurgical viewpoints on the brittleness of beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerberg, G

    1960-02-15

    At present the development and use of beryllium metal for structural applications is severely hampered by its brittleness. Reasons for this lack of ductility are reviewed in discussing the deformation behaviour of beryllium in relation to other hexagonal metals. The ease of fracturing in beryllium is assumed to be a consequence of a limited number of deformation modes in combination with high deformation resistance. Models for the nucleation of fracture are suggested. The relation of ductility to elastic constants as well as to grain size, texture and alloying additions is discussed.

  7. THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY BERYLLIUM TECHNOLOGY UPDATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2007-01-01

    A Beryllium Technology Update meeting was held at the Idaho National Laboratory on July 18, 2007. Participants came from the U.S., Japan, and Russia. There were two main objectives of this meeting. One was a discussion of current technologies for beryllium in fission reactors, particularly the Advanced Test Reactor and the Japan Materials Test Reactor, and prospects for material availability in the coming years. The second objective of the meeting was a discussion of a project of the International Science and Technology Center regarding treatment of irradiated beryllium for disposal. This paper highlights discussions held during that meeting and major conclusions reached

  8. Metallurgical viewpoints on the brittleness of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagerberg, G.

    1960-02-01

    At present the development and use of beryllium metal for structural applications is severely hampered by its brittleness. Reasons for this lack of ductility are reviewed in discussing the deformation behaviour of beryllium in relation to other hexagonal metals. The ease of fracturing in beryllium is assumed to be a consequence of a limited number of deformation modes in combination with high deformation resistance. Models for the nucleation of fracture are suggested. The relation of ductility to elastic constants as well as to grain size, texture and alloying additions is discussed

  9. Beryllium health effects in the era of the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, L A

    2001-05-01

    The beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) has revolutionized our approach to the diagnosis, screening, and surveillance of beryllium health effects. Based on the development of a beryllium-specific cell-mediated immune response, the BeLPT has allowed us to define early health effects of beryllium, including beryllium sensitization (BeS), and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) at a subclinical stage. The use of this test as a screening tool has improved our understanding of these health effects. From a number of studies it is apparent that BeS precedes CBD and develops after as little as 9 weeks of beryllium exposure. CBD occurs within 3 months and up to 30 years after initial beryllium exposure. Exposure-response variables have been associated with BeS/CBD, including work as a machinist, chemical or metallurgical operator, laboratory technician, work in ceramics or beryllium metal production, and years of beryllium exposure. Recent studies have found BeS and CBD in workplaces in which the majority of exposures were below the 2 microg/m3 OSHA time-weighted average (TWA). Ideally, the BeLPT would be used in surveillance aimed at defining other risk-related processes, determining exposure variables which predict BeS and CBD, and defining the exposure level below which beryllium health effects do not occur. Unfortunately, the BeLPT can result in false negative tests and still requires an invasive procedure, a bronchoscopy, for the definitive diagnosis of CBD. Thus, research is needed to establish new tests to be used alone or in conjunction with the BeLPT to improve our ability to detect early beryllium health effects.

  10. Combined aging of beryllium bronze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duraev, P.P.; Kaplun, Yu.A.; Pastukhova, Zh.P.; Rakhshtadt, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    This article evaluates the possibility of increasing the resistance of beryllium bronze to small plastic deformations as a result of the application of stepped aging under stress. Low-temperature aging under conditions of bending under a stress of about 100 MPa was applied to alloy BrBNT1, 9Mg at 150, 180, and 210 0 C, high-temperature aging at 300 and 340 0 C under stress and without stress. As a result of applying stepped aging under stress, the elastic limit of the alloy BrBNT1, 9Mg was raised to 900 MPa. Stepped aging under stress has a substantial effect on the relaxation stability of the alloy. The procedure suggested in the article for aging may be used efficiently for treating elastic elements made of other brands of bronze as well

  11. Sandia solidification process: consolidation and characterization. Part I. Consolidation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, J.K.

    1978-05-01

    The consolidation behavior of a complex polycrystalline ceramic nuclear waste form composed of titanates, zeolite, and metallic silicon was studied. Initial solidification takes place by an ion exchange process. The resulting powder exhibits a large surface area, approximately 350 m 2 /g, and several decomposition, crystallization and phase change reactions from room temperature to 1100 0 C. In spite of the large surface area, consolidation by cold pressing and atmospheric sintering to 1100 0 C was not satisfactory. Vacuum hot pressing was found to produce fully dense pellets (less than 1% residual porosity) under very mild conditions, 6.9 MPa (1100 psi) and 1100 0 C. The dominant densification mechanism was viscous flow. Under less than optimum hot pressing conditions, three stages of densification were observed. Initial densification took place by particle rearrangement which was described with a viscous flow model. Second stage densification occurred by a solution-precipitation process controlled by a phase boundary dissolution reaction. In several cases, a third, final densification stage was observed. Detailed studies describe the effects of heating rate, processing temperature, pressure, residence time, atmosphere, composition, heat treatment, and the addition of consolidation aids on the densification behavior. In addition, fully radioactive high level mixed fission product titanate/waste pellets (1.27 cm diameter) were hot pressed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to demonstrate the feasibility of such a process in a remotely operated hot cell. High density uniform pellets were obtained

  12. The adhesive bonding of beryllium structural components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullerton-Batten, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    Where service conditions permit, adhesive bonding is a highly recommendable, reliable means of joining beryllium structural parts. Several important programs have successfully used adhesive bonding for joining structural and non-structural beryllium components. Adhesive bonding minimizes stress concentrations associated with other joining techniques and considerably improves fatigue resistance. In addition, no degradation of base metal properties occur. In many instances, structural joints can be fabricated more cheaply by adhesive bonding or in combination with adhesive bonding than by any other method used alone. An evaluation program on structural adhesive bonding of beryllium sheet components is described. A suitable surface pretreatment for beryllium adherends prior to bonding is given. Tensile shear strength and fatigue properties of FM 1000 and FM 123-5 adhesive bonded joints are reviewed and compared with data obtained from riveted joints of similar geometry. (author)

  13. Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S

    2012-03-29

    This document describes how Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) meets the requirements and management practices of federal regulation 10 CFR 850, 'Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP).' This revision of the LLNL CBDPP incorporates clarification and editorial changes based on lessons learned from employee discussions, observations and reviews of Department of Energy (DOE) Complex and commercial industry beryllium (Be) safety programs. The information is used to strengthen beryllium safety practices at LLNL, particularly in the areas of: (1) Management of small parts and components; and (2) Communication of program status to employees. Future changes to LLNL beryllium activities and on-going operating experience will be incorporated into the program as described in Section S, 'Performance Feedback.'

  14. Experiments on tritium behavior in beryllium, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Nakata, Hirokatsu; Sugai, Hiroyuki; Tanase, Masakazu.

    1990-02-01

    Beryllium has been used as the neutron reflector of material testing reactor and as the neutron multiplier for the fusion reactor lately. To study the tritium behavior in beryllium, we conducted the experiments, i.e., tritium release by recoil or diffusion by using the hot-pressed beryllium which had been produced both tritium and helium by neutron irradiation. From our experiments, we found that (1) amount of tritium production per one cycle irradiation (lasting 22 days) of JMTR is 10 mCi/g, (2) amount of tritium per surface area of hot-pressed beryllium released by recoil is 4 μCi/cm 2 , (3) diffusion coefficient of tritium in a temperature range of 800 ∼1180degC can be expressed with the following equation; D = 8.7 x 10 4 exp(-2.9x10 5 /R/T) cm 2 /s. (author)

  15. Beryllium concentration in pharyngeal tonsils in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Nogaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Power plant dust is believed to be the main source of the increased presence of the element beryllium in the environment which has been detected in the atmospheric air, surface waters, groundwater, soil, food, and cigarette smoke. In humans, beryllium absorption occurs mainly via the respiratory system. The pharyngeal tonsils are located on the roof of the nasopharynx and are in direct contact with dust particles in inhaled air. As a result, the concentration levels of beryllium in the pharyngeal tonsils are likely to be a good indicator of concentration levels in the air. The presented study had two primary aims: to investigate the beryllium concentration in pharyngeal tonsils in children living in southern Poland, and the appropriate reference range for this element in children’s pharyngeal tonsils. Pharyngeal tonsils were extracted from a total of 379 children (age 2–17 years, mean 6.2 ± 2.7 years living in southern Poland. Tonsil samples were mineralized in a closed cycle in a pressure mineralizer PDS 6, using 65% spectrally pure nitric acid. Beryllium concentration was determined using the ICP-AES method with a Perkin Elmer Optima 5300DVTM. The software Statistica v. 9 was used for the statistical analysis. It was found that girls had a significantly greater beryllium concentration in their pharyngeal tonsils than boys. Beryllium concentration varies greatly, mostly according to the place of residence. Based on the study results, the reference value for beryllium in pharyngeal tonsils of children is recommended to be determined at 0.02–0.04 µg/g.

  16. Effect of transient heating loads on beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupriyanov, Igor B.; Porezanov, Nicolay P.; Nikolaev, Georgyi N.; Kurbatova, Liudmila A.; Podkovyrov, Vyacheslav L.; Muzichenko, Anatoliy D.; Zhitlukhin, Anatoliy M.; Khimchenko, Leonid N.; Gervash, Alexander A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the effect of transient plasma loads on beryllium erosion and surface microstructure. • Beryllium targets were irradiated by plasma streams with energy of 0.5–1 MJ/m 2 at ∼250 °C. • Under plasma loads 0.5–1 MJ/m 2 cracking of beryllium surface is rather slight. • Under 0.5 MJ/m 2 the mass loss of Be is no more than 0.2 g/m 2 shot and decreasing with shots number. • Under 1 MJ/m 2 maximum mass loss of beryllium was 3.7 g/m 2 shot and decreasing with shots number. - Abstract: Beryllium will be used as a plasma facing material for ITER first wall. It is expected that erosion of beryllium under transient plasma loads such as the edge-localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions will mainly determine a lifetime of ITER first wall. The results of recent experiments with the Russian beryllium of TGP-56FW ITER grade on QSPA-Be plasma gun facility are presented. The Be/CuCrZr mock-ups were exposed to upto 100 shots by deuterium plasma streams with pulse duration of 0.5 ms at ∼250 °C and average heat loads of 0.5 and 1 MJ/m 2 . Experiments were performed at 250 °C. The evolution of surface microstructure and cracks morphology as well as beryllium mass loss are investigated under erosion process

  17. Semi-solid metal forming of beryllium-reinforced aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haws, W.; Lane, L.; Marder, J.; Nicholas, N.

    1995-01-01

    A Powder Metallurgy (PM) based, Semi-Solid Metal (SSM) forming process has been developed to produce low cost near-net shapes of beryllium-reinforced aluminum alloys. Beryllium acts as a reinforcing additive to the aluminum, in which there is nearly no mutual solid solubility. The modulus of elasticity of the alloy dramatically increases, while the density and thermal expansion coefficient decrease with increasing beryllium content. The material is suitable for complex thermal management and vibration resistance applications, as well as for airborne components which are density and stiffness sensitive. The forming process involves heating a blank of the material to a temperature at which the aluminum is semi-solid and the beryllium is solid. The semi-solid blank is then injected without turbulence into a permanent mold. High quality, near net shape components can be produced which are functionally superior to those produced by other permanent mold processes. Dimensional accuracy is equivalent to or better than that obtained in high pressure die casting. Cost effectiveness is the primary advantage of this technique compared to other forming processes. The advantages and limitations of the process are described. Physical and mechanical property data are presented, as well as directions for future investigation

  18. Age hardening in rapidly solidified and hot isostatically pressed beryllium-aluminum-silver alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, D.H.; McGeorge, A.C.; Jacobson, L.A.; Stanek, P.W.

    1995-01-01

    Three different alloys of beryllium, aluminum and silver were processed to powder by centrifugal atomization in a helium atmosphere. Alloy compositions were, by weight, 50% Be, 47.5% Al, 2.5% Ag, 50% Be, 47% Al, 3% Ag, and 50% Be, 46% Al, 4% Ag. Due to the low solubility of both aluminum and silver in beryllium, the silver was concentrated in the aluminum phase, which appeared to separate from the beryllium in the liquid phase. A fine, continuous composite beryllium-aluminum microstructure was formed, which did not significantly change after hot isostatically pressing at 550 C for one hour at 30,000 psi argon pressure. Samples of HIP material were solution treated at 550 C for one hour, followed by a water quench. Aging temperatures were 150, 175, 200 and 225 C for times ranging from one half hour to 65 hours. Hardness measurements were made using a diamond pyramid indenter with a load of 1 kg. Results indicate that peak hardness was reached in 36--40 hours at 175 C and 12--16 hours at 200 C aging temperature, relatively independent of alloy composition

  19. Beryllium R and D for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Longhurst, G.R.; Shestakov, V.; Kawamura, H.

    2000-01-01

    Beryllium is one of the primary candidates as both plasma-facing material (PFM) and neutron multiplier in the next-step fusion reactors. Both sintered-product blocks and pebbles are considered in fusion reactor designs. Beryllium evaporated on carbon tiles has also been used in Joint European Torus (JET) and may be considered for other designs. Future efforts are directed toward the pebble form of beryllium. Research and evaluations of data are underway to determine the most attractive material processing approaches in terms of fabrication cost and quality; technical issues associated with heat transfer; thermal, mechanical and irradiation stability; safety and tritium release. Beryllium plasma-facing components will require periodic repair or replacement, therefore disposal or recycling of activated and tritiated beryllium will also be a concern. Beryllium as a component of the molten salt, Flibe is also being considered in novel approaches to the plasma-structure interface. This paper deals with the main issues related to the use of Be in a fusion reactor as both neutron multiplier and first wall material. These issues include potential reactions with steam during accidents and the health and environmental aspects of its use, reprocessing and reuse, or disposal

  20. Beryllium R and D for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F. E-mail: francesco.scaffidi@iket.fzk.de; Longhurst, G.R.; Shestakov, V.; Kawamura, H

    2000-11-01

    Beryllium is one of the primary candidates as both plasma-facing material (PFM) and neutron multiplier in the next-step fusion reactors. Both sintered-product blocks and pebbles are considered in fusion reactor designs. Beryllium evaporated on carbon tiles has also been used in Joint European Torus (JET) and may be considered for other designs. Future efforts are directed toward the pebble form of beryllium. Research and evaluations of data are underway to determine the most attractive material processing approaches in terms of fabrication cost and quality; technical issues associated with heat transfer; thermal, mechanical and irradiation stability; safety and tritium release. Beryllium plasma-facing components will require periodic repair or replacement, therefore disposal or recycling of activated and tritiated beryllium will also be a concern. Beryllium as a component of the molten salt, Flibe is also being considered in novel approaches to the plasma-structure interface. This paper deals with the main issues related to the use of Be in a fusion reactor as both neutron multiplier and first wall material. These issues include potential reactions with steam during accidents and the health and environmental aspects of its use, reprocessing and reuse, or disposal.

  1. Tritium release from neutron irradiated beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reactortechnik

    1998-01-01

    One of the most important open issues related to beryllium for fusion applications refers to the kinetics of the tritium release as a function of neutron fluence and temperature. The EXOTIC-7 as well as the `Beryllium` experiments carried out in the HFR reactor in Petten are considered as the most detailed and significant tests for investigating the beryllium response under neutron irradiation. This paper reviews the present status of beryllium post-irradiation examinations performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe with samples from the above mentioned irradiation experiments, trying to elucidate the tritium release controlling processes. In agreement with previous studies it has been found that release starts at about 500-550degC and achieves a maximum at about 700-750degC. The observed release at about 500-550degC is probably due to tritium escaping from chemical traps, while the maximum release at about 700-750degC is due to tritium escaping from physical traps. The consequences of a direct contact between beryllium and ceramics during irradiation, causing tritium implanting in a surface layer of beryllium up to a depth of about 40 mm and leading to an additional inventory which is usually several times larger than the neutron-produced one, are also presented and the effects on the tritium release are discussed. (author)

  2. Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iver E.; Ellis, Timothy W.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Ting, Jason; Terpstra, Robert; Bowman, Robert C.; Witham, Charles K.; Fultz, Brent T.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2000-06-13

    A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

  3. Beryllium electrodeposition on aluminium cathode from chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichkov, I.F.; Novikov, E.A.; Serebryakov, G.A.; Kanashin, Yu.P.; Sardyko, G.N.

    1980-01-01

    Cathodic processes during beryllium deposition on liquid and solid aluminium cathodes are investigated. Mixture of sodium, potassium and beryllium chloride melts served as an lectrolyte. Beryllium ion discharge at the expense of alloy formation takes place at more positive potentials than on an indifferent cathode at low current densities ( in the case of liquid aluminium cathode). Metallographic analysis and measurements of microhardness have shown, that the cathodic product includes two phases: beryllium solid solution in aluminium and metallic beryllium. It is concluded, that aluminium-beryllium alloys with high cathodic yield by current can be obtained by the electrolytic method

  4. Sanitary-hygienic and ecological aspects of beryllium production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvinskykh, E.M.; Savchuk, V.V.; Sidorov, V.L.; Slobodin, D.B.; Tuzov, Y.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant, Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan)

    1998-01-01

    The Report describes An organization of sanitary-hygienic and ecological control of beryllium production at Ulba metallurgical plant. It involves: (1) the consideration of main methods for protection of beryllium production personnel from unhealthy effect of beryllium, (2) main kinds of filters, used in gas purification systems at different process areas, (3) data on beryllium monitoring in water, soil, on equipment. This Report also outlines problems connected with designing devices for a rapid analysis of beryllium in air as well as problems of beryllium production on ecological situation in the town. (author)

  5. Beryllium satellite thrust cone design, manufacture and test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneiter, H.; Chandler, D.

    1977-01-01

    Pre-formed beryllium sheet material has been used in the design, manufacturing and test of a satellite thrust cone structure. Adhesive bonding was used for attachment of aluminium flanges and conical segment lap strips. Difficulties in beryllium structure design such as incompatibilities with aluminium and handling problems are discussed. Testing to optimize beryllium-beryllium and beryllium-aluminium adhesive bonds is described. The completed thrust cone assembly has been subjected to static load testing and the results are presented. A summary of the relative merits of the use of beryllium in satellite structures is given with recommendations for future users. (author)

  6. Beryllium-rich intermediate phases in beryllium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynor, G.V.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a survey of the factors affecting the formation of phases of stoichiometry MBe 5 , M 2 Be 17 , MBe 12 and MBe 13 are presented. Using published information it is shown that the structures adopted at the higher Be:M ratios involve different characteristics from those adopted at lower Be:M ratios. In the ThMn 12 and NaZn 13 structures adopted in the former case dsub(M-Be) > (rsub(M) + rsub(Be)), (where the atomic radii refer to coordination number 12) and the dsub(Be-Be) distances are contracted. In the CaCu 5 structure adopted at composition MBe 5 , dsub(M-Be) < (rsub(M) + rsub(Be)) and interactions between unlike atoms are significant. The structural characteristics, occurrence, and the stabilities of these phases, and of the others mentioned above, are discussed in terms of atomic radius ratios, the position of the M component in the periodic table, and the value of the univalent ionic radius of the M component, taken as a measure of the extension in space of the hard incompressible ionic core. Though the compound-forming characteristics of beryllium are largely dictated by its small atomic diameter, other factors such as the nature of the bonding which can be exerted by the partner atoms are also significant. In particular, the proportions of the volumes of the atoms which are occupied by the hard incompressible ionic cores assume importance. (author)

  7. Thermomechanical testing of beryllium for the JET/ISX-B beryllium limiter experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.D.; Smith, M.F.; Whitley, J.B.; McDonald, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Materials testing of S-65-B beryllium has been conducted in support of the beryllium limiter experiment on the ISX-B tokamak. The S-65-B grade of hot-pressed beryllium was chosen over S-200-E because of its superior strength and ductility at elevated temperatures. The testing has included measurement of tensile and yield strength, ductility, Young's Modulus, thermal conductivity, and specific heat from 50 0 C to 700 0 C. Thermal fatigue testing of a 2.5 cm beryllium cube was conducted using an electron beam to apply a heat flux of 2.5 kw/cm 2 for 0.3 second pulses for 1500 cycles. Results from the tests are compared to elastic-plastic finite element stress calculations. The testing indicates that the ISX-B beryllium limiter should survive the tokamak environment without serious structural failure, although some surface cracking is expected to occur. (author)

  8. Preparation of reactive and refractory metal powders (Paper No. 25)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaram, C.V.; Sharma, B.P.; Krishnan, T.S.

    1979-01-01

    In devising processes for the preparation of refractory and reactive metal powders, one has to reckon with many relevant factors. The choice of specific flowsheets is governed by the characteristics of the metal compounds and the reducing agents, the purity required and achievable in the as-reduced powder, the need for further refining of the metal, the possibilities of chemical/physical/mechanical comminution of the purified metal without contamination, and the end application of the powder metal. Micron size zirconium powder used as trigger material in photo-flash bulbs and detonator compositions, tantalum powder of controlled particle size and high purity for the production of electrolytic capacitors, and beryllium metal powder for the preparation of hot pressed powder metallurgy components are illustrative of the variety of reactive metal powders for industrial applications. The work carried out at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, on the preparation of special metal powders, with particular emphasis on Group IV and V metals and also beryllium is presented. Reduction of metal oxides with alkaline earth metals/hydrides, reduction of metal halides with sodium/magnesium, vacuum arc and electron beam melt purification followed by comminution by hydrogen embrittlement/mechanical comminution are among the processes discussed. (auth.)

  9. Beryllium. Health hazards and their control. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lires, O.A.; Delfino, C.A.; Botbol, J.

    1991-01-01

    In this work (continuation of 'Beryllium' series) health hazards, toxic effects, limits of permissible atmospheric contamination and safe exposure to beryllium are described. Guidelines to the design, control operations and hygienic precautions of the working facilities are given. (Author) [es

  10. 75 FR 80734 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... are used in nuclear weapons as nuclear reactor moderators or reflectors and as nuclear reactor fuel...), grinding, and machine tooling of parts. Inhalation of beryllium particles may cause chronic beryllium...

  11. Mechanical performance of irradiated beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Dalle-Donne, M.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik

    1998-01-01

    For the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) Blanket, which is one of the two reference concepts studied within the European Fusion Technology Programme, the neutron multiplier consists of a mixed bed of about 2 and 0.1-0.2 mm diameter beryllium pebbles. Beryllium has no structural function in the blanket, however microstructural and mechanical properties are important, as they might influence the material behavior under neutron irradiation. The EXOTIC-7 as well as the `Beryllium` experiments carried out in the HFR reactor in Petten are considered as the most detailed and significant tests for investigating it. This paper reviews the present status of beryllium post-irradiation examinations performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe with samples from these irradiation experiments, emphasizing the effects of irradiation of essential material properties and trying to elucidate the processes controlling the property changes. The microstructure, the porosity distribution, the impurity content, the behavior under compression loads and the compatibility of the beryllium pebbles with lithium orthosilicate (Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}) during the in-pile irradiation are presented and critically discussed. Qualitative information on ductility and creep obtained by hardness-type measurements are also supplied. (author)

  12. Experiments on tritium behavior in beryllium, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Hiroshi; Ishizuka, Etsuo; Matsumoto, Mikio; Inada, Seiji; Sezaki, Katsuji; Saito, Minoru; Kato, Mineo.

    1989-06-01

    In JMTR, it was observed that the tritium concentration of the primary coolant increases with the reactor operation at 50 MW. As one of the tritium generation sources, we paid attention to a neutron reflector made of beryllium because the tritium generation rate in the beryllium is bigger than other components in the reactor core. On the other hand, the irradiation test of blanket materials (i.e. tritium breeding materials and neutron multipling materials) are planned for development of the fusion reactor in JMTR and the beryllium will be also irradiated as a neutron multiplier with tritium breeding materials. Therefore, as the irradiated specimens, we used a hot-pressed beryllium disk fabricated by the same method as the neutron reflector or the neutron multiplier and conducted the irradiation tests in JMTR. The purpose of these tests are to clarify the tritium behavior in the hot-pressed beryllium. In this paper, from a viewpoint of the fabrication of capsules for neutron irradiation, the specifications of the irradiated specimens and capsules are summarized. Additionally, the results on the puncture test of the container of the irradiation specimens are described. (author)

  13. Occupational and non-occupational allergic contact dermatitis from beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilaplana, J; Romaguera, C; Grimalt, F [Allergy Department, Dermatological Service Hospital Clinico, Barcelona (Spain)

    1992-01-01

    There are various references to sensitization to beryllium in the literature. Since introducing a patch testing series for patients with suspected sensitization to metals, we have found 3 cases of sensitization to beryllium. Of these 3 cases, we regard the first 2 as having relevant sensitization. Beryllium chloride (1% pet.) was positive in 3 patients and negative in 150 controls. (au).

  14. Occupational and non-occupational allergic contact dermatitis from beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilaplana, J.; Romaguera, C.; Grimalt, F.

    1992-01-01

    There are various references to sensitization to beryllium in the literature. Since introducing a patch testing series for patients with suspected sensitization to metals, we have found 3 cases of sensitization to beryllium. Of these 3 cases, we regard the first 2 as having relevant sensitization. Beryllium chloride (1% pet.) was positive in 3 patients and negative in 150 controls. (au)

  15. Beryllium phonon spectrum from cold neutron measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulat, I.A.

    1979-01-01

    The inelastic coherent scattering of neutrons with the initial energy E 0 =4.65 MeV on the spectrometer according to the time of flight is studied in polycrystalline beryllium. The measurements are made for the scattering angles THETA=15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 deg at 293 K. The phonon spectrum of beryllium, i-e. g(w) is reestablished from the experimental data. The data obtained are compared with the data of model calculations. It is pointed out that the phonon spectrum of beryllium has a bit excessive state density in the energy range from 10 to 30 MeV. It is caused by the insufficient statistical accuracy of the experiment at low energy transfer

  16. Preliminary results for explosion bonding of beryllium to copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, D.J.; Dombrowski, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    This program was undertaken to determine if explosive bonding is a viable technique for joining beryllium to copper substrates. The effort was a cursory attempt at trying to solve some of the problems associated with explosive bonding beryllium and should not be considered a comprehensive research effort. There are two issues that this program addressed. Can beryllium be explosive bonded to copper substrates and can the bonding take place without shattering the beryllium? Thirteen different explosive bonding iterations were completed using various thicknesses of beryllium that were manufactured with three different techniques

  17. Distribution center consolidation games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, F.; Slikker, M.

    2005-01-01

    We study a location-inventory model to analyze the impact of consolidation of distribution centers on facility and inventory costs. We introduce a cooperative game and show that when demand processes are i.i.d. the core is non-empty, i.e., consolidation allows for a stable division of the minimal

  18. Status of beryllium development for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billone, M.C.; Donne, M.D.; Macaulay-Newcombe, R.G.

    1994-05-01

    Beryllium is a leading candidate material for the neutron multiplier of tritium breeding blankets and the plasma facing component of first wall and divertor systems. Depending on the application, the fabrication methods proposed include hot-pressing, hot-isostatic-pressing, cold isostatic pressing/sintering, rotary electrode processing and plasma spraying. Product forms include blocks, tubes, pebbles, tiles and coatings. While, in general, beryllium is not a leading structural material candidate, its mechanical performance, as well its performance with regard to sputtering, heat transport, tritium retention/release, helium-induced swelling and chemical compatibility, is an important consideration in first-wall/blanket design. Differential expansion within the beryllium causes internal stresses which may result in cracking, thereby affecting the heat transport and barrier performance of the material. Overall deformation can result in loading of neighboring structural material. Thus, in assessing the performance of beryllium for fusion applications, it is important to have a good database in all of these performance areas, as well as a set of properties correlations and models for the purpose of interpolation/extrapolation

  19. Method of beryllium implantation in germanium substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagawa, S.; Baba, Y.; Kaneda, T.; Shirai, T.

    1983-01-01

    A semiconductor device is disclosed, as well as a method for manufacturing it in which ions of beryllium are implanted into a germanium substrate to form a layer containing p-type impurity material. There after the substrate is heated at a temperature in the range of 400 0 C. to 700 0 C. to diffuse the beryllium ions into the substrate so that the concentration of beryllium at the surface of the impurity layer is in the order of 10 17 cm- 3 or more. In one embodiment, a p-type channel stopper is formed locally in a p-type germanium substrate and an n-type active layer is formed in a region surrounded by, and isolated from, the channel stopper region. In another embodiment, a relatively shallow p-type active layer is formed at one part of an n-type germanium substrate and p-type guard ring regions are formed surrounding, and partly overlapping said p-type active layer. In a further embodiment, a p-type island region is formed at one part of an n-type germanium substrate, and an n-type region is formed within said p-type region. In these embodiments, the p-type channel stopper region, p-type guard ring regions and the p-type island region are all formed by implanting ions of beryllium into the germanium substrate

  20. ESR investigations of gamma irradiated beryllium ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabikin, Yu.A.; Polyakov, A.I.; Petukhov, Yu.V.; Bitenbaev, M.I.; Zashkvara, O.V.

    2000-01-01

    In this report the result of ESR- investigation of kinetics of radiation paramagnetic defects accumulated in beryllium ceramics under gamma irradiation are presented. The data on quantum yield and destruction rate constants of these defects under ionizing irradiation are obtained. (orig.)

  1. ESR investigations of gamma irradiated beryllium ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryabikin, Yu A; Polyakov, A I; Petukhov, Yu V; Bitenbaev, M I; Zashkvara, O V [Physical-Technical Inst., Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2000-04-01

    In this report the result of ESR- investigation of kinetics of radiation paramagnetic defects accumulated in beryllium ceramics under gamma irradiation are presented. The data on quantum yield and destruction rate constants of these defects under ionizing irradiation are obtained. (orig.)

  2. Beryllium, a material of great promise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Fauconnier, J.P.; Nomine, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Beryllium is one of the lightest metals. It also owns an outstanding combination of physical, mechanical and nuclear properties which gives it a favorable position, compared to more usual materials, in various fields of applications. Constant technological advancements in the elaboration and working up have induced a significant improvement of its ductility and a reduction of the production costs. (Author). 12 refs., 7 figs

  3. Thermophysical properties of solid and liquid beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boivineau, M.; Arles, L.; Vermeulen, J.M.; Thevenin, Th.

    1993-01-01

    A submillisecond resistive heating technique under high pressure (0.12 GPa) has been used to measure selected thermophysical properties of both solid and liquid beryllium. Data have been obtained between room temperature and 2900 K. Results on enthalpy, volume expansion, electrical resistivity, and sound velocity measurements are presented

  4. Critical parameters controlling irradiation swelling in beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinko, V.I.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation effects in beryllium can hardly be explained within a framework of the conventional theory based on the bias concept due to elastic interaction difference (EID) between vacancies and self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) since beryllium belongs to hexagonal close-packed metals where diffusion has been shown to be anisotropic. Diffusional anisotropy difference (DAD) between point defects changes the cavity bias for their absorption and leads to dependence of the dislocation bias on the distribution of dislocations over crystallographic directions. On the other hand, the elastic interaction between point defects and cavities gives rise to the size and gas pressure dependencies of the cavity bias, resulting in new critical quantities for bubble-void transition effects at low temperature irradiation. In the present paper, we develop the concept of the critical parameters controlling irradiation swelling with account of both DAD and EID, and take care of thermal effects as well since they are of major importance for beryllium which has an anomalously low self-diffusion activation energy. Experimental data on beryllium swelling are analyzed on the basis of the present theory. (orig.)

  5. Potential exposures and risks from beryllium-containing products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Henry H; Florig, H Keith

    2002-10-01

    Beryllium is the strongest of the lightweight metals. Used primarily in military applications prior to the end of the Cold War, beryllium is finding new applications in many commercial products, including computers, telecommunication equipment, and consumer and automotive electronics. The use of beryllium in nondefense consumer applications is of concern because beryllium is toxic. Inhalation of beryllium dust or vapor causes a chronic lung disease in some individuals at concentrations as low as 0.01 microg/m3 in air. As beryllium enters wider commerce, it is prudent to ask what risks this might present to the general public and to workers downstream of the beryllium materials industry. We address this question by evaluating the potential for beryllium exposure from the manufacturing, use, recycle, and disposal of beryllium-containing products. Combining a market study with a qualitative exposure analysis, we determine which beryllium applications and life cycle phases have the largest exposure potential. Our analysis suggests that use and maintenance of the most common types of beryllium-containing products do not result in any obvious exposures of concern, and that maintenance activities result in greater exposures than product use. Product disposal has potential to present significant individual risks, but uncertainties concerning current and future routes of product disposal make it difficult to be definitive. Overall, additional exposure and dose-response data are needed to evaluate both the health significance of many exposure scenarios, and the adequacy of existing regulations to protect workers and the public. Although public exposures to beryllium and public awareness and concern regarding beryllium risks are currently low, beryllium risks have psychometric qualities that may lead to rapidly heightened public concern.

  6. Status of beryllium development for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billone, M.C.; Macaulay-Newcombe, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    Beryllium is a leading candidate material for the neutron multiplier of tritium breeding blankets and the plasma-facing component of first-wall and divertor systems. Depending on the application, the fabrication methods proposed include hot-pressing, hot-isostatic-pressing, cold-isostatic-pressing/sintering, rotary electrode processing and plasma spraying. Product forms include blocks, tubes, pebbles, tiles and coatings. While, in general, beryllium is not a leading structural material candidate, its mechanical performance, as well as its performance with regard to sputtering, heat transport, tritium retention/release, helium-induced swelling and chemical compatibility, is an important consideration in first-wall/blanket design. Differential expansion within the beryllium causes internal stresses which may result in cracking, thereby affecting the heat transport and barrier performance of the material. Overall deformation can result in loading of neighboring structural material. Thus, in assessing the performance of beryllium for fusion applications, it is important to have a good database in all of these performance areas, as well as a set of properties correlations and models for the purpose of interpolation/extrapolation.In this current work, the range of anticipated fusion operating conditions is reviewed. The thermal, mechanical, chemical compatibility, tritium retention/release, and helium retention/swelling databases are then reviewed for fabrication methods and fusion operating conditions of interest. Properties correlations and uncertainty ranges are also discussed. In the case of the more complex phenomena of tritium retention/release and helium-induced swelling, fundamental mechanisms and models are reviewed in more detail. Areas in which additional data are needed are highlighted, along with some trends which suggest ways of optimizing the performance of beryllium for fusion applications. (orig.)

  7. LHC Detector Vacuum System Consolidation for Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) in 2013-2014

    CERN Document Server

    Gallilee, M; Cruikshank, P; Gallagher, J; Garion, C; Jimenez, J M; Kersevan, R; Kos, H; Leduc, L; Lepeule, P; Provot, N; Rambeau, H; Veness, R

    2012-01-01

    The LHC has ventured into unchartered territory for Particle Physics accelerators. A dedicated consolidation program is required between 2013 and 2014 to ensure optimal physics performance. The experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, and LHCb, will utilise this shutdown, along with the gained experience of three years of physics running, to make optimisations to their detectors. New vacuum technologies have been developed for the experimental areas, to be integrated during this first phase shutdown. These technologies include bellows, vacuum chambers and ion pumps in aluminium, new beryllium vacuum chambers, and composite mechanical supports. An overview of this first phase consolidation program for the LHC experiments is presented.

  8. Polymer quenched prealloyed metal powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Fleischhauer, Grier; German, Randall M.

    2001-01-01

    A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3 % Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

  9. Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys via rapid solidification technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R.

    1984-01-01

    Aluminum alloys containing 10 to 11.5 wt. pct. of iron and 1.5 to 3 wt. pct. of chromium using the technique of rapid solidification powder metallurgy were studied. Alloys were prepared as thin ribbons (.002 inch thick) rapidly solidified at uniform rate of 10(6) C/second by the melt spinning process. The melt spun ribbons were pulverized into powders (-60 to 400 mesh) by a rotating hammer mill. The powders were consolidated by hot extrusion at a high reduction ratio of 50:1. The powder extrusion temperature was varied to determine the range of desirable processing conditions necessary to yield useful properties. Powders and consolidated alloys were characterized by SEM and optical metallography. The consolidated alloys were evaluated for (1) thermal stability, (2) tensile properties in the range, room temperature to 450 F, and (3) notch toughness in the range, room temperature to 450 F.

  10. Safety handling of beryllium for fusion technology R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Makoto; Terai, Takayuki; Odawara, Osamu; Ashibe, Kusuo; Ohara, Atsushi.

    1992-07-01

    Feasibility of beryllium use as a blanket neutron multiplier, first wall and plasma facing material has been studied for the D-T burning experiment reactors such as ITER. Various experimental work of beryllium and its compounds will be performed under the conditions of high temperature and high energy particle exposure simulating fusion reactor conditions. Beryllium is known as a hazardous substance and its handling has been carefully controlled by various health and safe guidances and/or regulations in many countries. Japanese regulations for hazardous substance provide various guidelines on beryllium for the protection of industrial workers and environment. This report was prepared for the safe handling of beryllium in a laboratory scale experiments for fusion technology R and D such as blanket development. Major items in this report are; (1) Brief review of guidances and regulations in USA, UK and Japan. (2) Safe handling and administration manuals at beryllium facilities in INEL, LANL and JET. (3) Conceptual design study of beryllium handling facility for small to mid-scale blanket R and D. (4) Data on beryllium toxicity, example of clinical diagnosis of beryllium disease, and environmental occurence of beryllium. (5) Personnel protection tools of Japanese Industrial Standard for hazardous substance. (author) 61 refs

  11. Consolidated Lunar Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Consolidated Lunar Atlas is a collection of the best photographic images of the moon, including low-oblique photography, full-moon photography, and tabular and...

  12. Low cycle thermal fatigue testing of beryllium grades for ITER plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.D.; Youchison, D.L.; Dombrowski, D.E.; Guiniatouline, R.N.; Kupriynov, I.B.

    1996-01-01

    A novel technique has been used to test the relative low cycle thermal fatigue resistance of different grades of US and Russian beryllium, which is proposed as plasma facing armor for fusion reactor first wall, limiter, and divertor components. The 30 kW electron beam test system at Sandia National Laboratories was used to sweep the beam spot along one direction at 1 Hz. This produces a localized temperature ''spike'' of 750 degree C for each pass of the beam. Large thermal stresses in excess of the yield strength are generated due to very high spot heat flux, 250 MW/m 2 . Cyclic plastic strains on the order of 0.6% produced visible cracking on the heated surface in less than 3000 cycles. An in-vacuo fiber optic borescope was used to visually inspect the beryllium surfaces for crack initiation. Grades of US beryllium tested included: S-65C, S- 65H, S-200F, S-200F-H, SR-200, I-400, extruded high purity, HIP'd spherical powder, porous beryllium (94% and 98% dense), Be/30% BeO, Be/60% BeO, and TiBe 12 . Russian grades included: TGP-56, TShGT, DShG-200, and TShG-56. Both the number of cycles to crack initiation, and the depth of crack propagation, were measured. The most fatigue resistant grades were S-65C, DShG-200, TShGT, and TShG-56. Rolled sheet Be (SR-200) showed excellent crack propagation resistance in the plane of rolling, despite early formation of delamination cracks. Only one sample showed no evidence of surface melting, Extruded (T). Metallographic and chemical analyses are provided. Good agreement was found between the measured depth of cracks and a 2-D elastic-plastic finite element stress analysis

  13. (YSZ) powders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    109–114. © Indian Academy of Sciences. 109 ... Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India .... pensions of 900°C calcined YSZ powders. .... The sintered density data of the compacts (sintered at.

  14. Toxicokinetics of beryllium following inhalation of beryllium oxide by Beagle dogs. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, G.L.; Haley, P.J.; Hoover, M.D.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Bice, D.E.; Eidson, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    Young adult Beagle dogs inhaled radiolabeled beryllium oxide aerosols ( 7 BeO) prepared at either 500 deg. or 1000 deg. C to achieve one of two initial lung burdens (ILBs) of BeO. After exposure, animals were monitored by whole body counting for 7 Be, and excreta, clinical, and radiographic data were collected. One group of dogs was assigned for serial sacrifice for quantitation of beryllium clearance from lung, translocation to other organs, and histopathologic analysis of lung and lymph nodes. A second group of dogs was subjected to periodic bronchopulmonary lavage for analysis of lymphocyte responsiveness to beryllium. These latter dogs were subsequently re-exposed to the high ILB level of BeO prepared t 500 deg. C. ILBs following the second exposure were higher than that after the first exposure (74 vs. 42 μg BeO/kg, respectively). Except for one dog that exhibited enhanced beryllium retention after the second exposure, patterns of whole body clearance were similar to those observed after the initial exposures to the 500 deg. C-BeO. Analysis of lymphocyte responsiveness to beryllium in the second group of dogs is continuing. (author)

  15. Toxicokinetics of beryllium following inhalation of beryllium oxide by Beagle dogs. III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, G L; Haley, P J; Hoover, M D; Mewhinney, J A; Bice, D E; Eidson, A F

    1988-12-01

    Young adult Beagle dogs inhaled radiolabeled beryllium oxide aerosols ({sup 7}BeO) prepared at either 500 deg. or 1000 deg. C to achieve one of two initial lung burdens (ILBs) of BeO. After exposure, animals were monitored by whole body counting for {sup 7}Be, and excreta, clinical, and radiographic data were collected. One group of dogs was assigned for serial sacrifice for quantitation of beryllium clearance from lung, translocation to other organs, and histopathologic analysis of lung and lymph nodes. A second group of dogs was subjected to periodic bronchopulmonary lavage for analysis of lymphocyte responsiveness to beryllium. These latter dogs were subsequently re-exposed to the high ILB level of BeO prepared t 500 deg. C. ILBs following the second exposure were higher than that after the first exposure (74 vs. 42 {mu}g BeO/kg, respectively). Except for one dog that exhibited enhanced beryllium retention after the second exposure, patterns of whole body clearance were similar to those observed after the initial exposures to the 500 deg. C-BeO. Analysis of lymphocyte responsiveness to beryllium in the second group of dogs is continuing. (author)

  16. Status of material development for lifetime expansion of beryllium reflector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorn, C [Materion Brush Beryllium and Composites, California (United States); Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Kawamura, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai Research and Development Center, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan); Hatano, Y [Univ. of Toyama, Toyama (Japan); Chakrov, P [INP-KNNC, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Kodama, M [Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development Co., Ltd., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Beryllium has been used as the reflector element material in the reactor, specifically S-200F structural grade beryllium manufactured by Materion Brush Beryllium and Composites (former, Brush Wellman Inc.). As a part of the reactor upgrade, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) also has carried out the cooperation experiments to extend the operating lifetime of the beryllium reflector elements. It will first be necessary to determine which of the material's physical, mechanical and chemical properties will be the most influential on that choice. The irradiation testing plans to evaluate the various beryllium grades are also briefly considered and prepared. In this paper, material selection, irradiation test plan and PEI development for lifetime expansion of beryllium are described for material testing reactors. (author)

  17. Characterization of plasma sprayed beryllium ITER first wall mockups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, R.G.; Vaidya, R.U.; Hollis, K.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Material Science and Technology Div.

    1998-01-01

    ITER first wall beryllium mockups, which were fabricated by vacuum plasma spraying the beryllium armor, have survived 3000 thermal fatigue cycles at 1 MW/m{sup 2} without damage during high heat flux testing at the Plasma Materials Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratory in New Mexico. The thermal and mechanical properties of the plasma sprayed beryllium armor have been characterized. Results are reported on the chemical composition of the beryllium armor in the as-deposited condition, the through thickness and normal to the through thickness thermal conductivity and thermal expansion, the four-point bend flexure strength and edge-notch fracture toughness of the beryllium armor, the bond strength between the beryllium armor and the underlying heat sink material, and ultrasonic C-scans of the Be/heat sink interface. (author)

  18. Characterization of Plasma Sprayed Beryllium ITER First Wall Mockups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Richard G.; Vaidya, Rajendra U.; Hollis, Kendall J.

    1997-10-01

    ITER first wall beryllium mockups, which were fabricated by vacuum plasma spraying the beryllium armor, have survived 3000 thermal fatigue cycles at 1 MW/sq m without damage during high heat flux testing at the Plasma Materials Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratory in New Mexico. The thermal and mechanical properties of the plasma sprayed beryllium armor have been characterized. Results are reported on the chemical composition of the beryllium armor in the as-deposited condition, the through thickness and normal to the through thickness thermal conductivity and thermal expansion, the four-point bend flexure strength and edge-notch fracture toughness of the beryllium armor, the bond strength between the beryllium armor and the underlying heat sink material, and ultrasonic C-scans of the Be/heat sink interface

  19. Mechanisms of hydrogen retention in metallic beryllium and beryllium oxide and properties of ion-induced beryllium nitride; Rueckhaltemechanismen fuer Wasserstoff in metallischem Beryllium und Berylliumoxid sowie Eigenschaften von ioneninduziertem Berylliumnitrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberkofler, Martin

    2011-09-22

    In the framework of this thesis laboratory experiments on atomically clean beryllium surfaces were performed. They aim at a basic understanding of the mechanisms occurring upon interaction of a fusion plasma with a beryllium first wall. The retention and the temperature dependent release of implanted deuterium ions are investigated. An atomistic description is developed through simulations and through the comparison with calculations based on density functional theory. The results of these investigations are compared to the behaviour of hydrogen upon implantation into thermally grown beryllium oxide layers. Furthermore, beryllium nitride is produced by implantation of nitrogen into metallic beryllium and its properties are investigated. The results are interpreted with regard to the use of beryllium in a fusion reactor. (orig.)

  20. Study on neutron irradiation behavior of beryllium as neutron multiplier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishitsuka, Etsuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    More than 300 tons beryllium is expected to be used as a neutron multiplier in ITER, and study on the neutron irradiation behavior of beryllium as the neutron multiplier with Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) were performed to get the engineering data for fusion blanket design. This study started as the study on the tritium behavior in beryllium neutron reflector in order to make clear the generation mechanism on tritium of JMTR primary coolant since 1985. These experiences were handed over to beryllium studies for fusion study, and overall studies such as production technology of beryllium pebbles, irradiation behavior evaluation and reprocessing technology have been started since 1990. In this presentation, study on the neutron irradiation behavior of beryllium as the neutron multiplier with JMTR was reviewed from the point of tritium release, thermal properties, mechanical properties and reprocessing technology. (author)

  1. Measuring device for bending of beryllium reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Seiri; Sakamoto, Naoki.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention can measure bending of a beryllium reflector formed in a reactor core of a nuclear reactor by a relatively easy operation. Namely, a sensor portion comprises a long-support that can be inserted to a fuel element-insertion hole disposed in the reactor and a plurality of distance sensors disposed in a longitudinal direction of the support. A supersonic wave sensor which is advantageous in the heat resistance, the size and the accuracy and can conduct measurement in water relatively easily is used as the distance sensors. However, other sensors, instead of the sensor described above, may also be used. The plurality of distance sensors detect the bending amount of the beryllium reflector in the longitudinal direction by such an easy operation of inserting such a sensor portion to the fuel element-insertion hole upon exchange of fuel elements. (I.S.)

  2. Interaction of hydrogen and its isotopes with irradiated beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazhibaeva, I.L.; Shestakov, V.P.; Klepikov, A.Kh.; Pomanenko, O.G.; Chikhraj, E.V.; Kenzhin, E.A.; Zverev, V.V.; Kolbanenkov, A.N.

    2000-01-01

    In the article the results of experiments on hydrogen and its isotopes accumulation and gas-release from irradiated beryllium are presented. The irradiation was conducted at different media and temperatures in the RA and IVG.1M reactors. The measurements were carried out by thermal desorption method. Hydrogen release from beryllium samples saturated at different conditions were calculated. Dependence of hydrogen confinement character in beryllium from grain orientation in the sample, temperature and irradiation rate was revealed

  3. Premelting hcp to bcc Transition in Beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.; Sun, T.; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, P.; Zhang, D.-B.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.

    2017-04-01

    Beryllium (Be) is an important material with wide applications ranging from aerospace components to x-ray equipment. Yet a precise understanding of its phase diagram remains elusive. We have investigated the phase stability of Be using a recently developed hybrid free energy computation method that accounts for anharmonic effects by invoking phonon quasiparticles. We find that the hcp → bcc transition occurs near the melting curve at 0 materials.

  4. Analysis of surface contaminants on beryllium windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmur, N.F.

    1986-12-01

    It is known that various crystalline and liquid compounds form on the downstream surfaces of beryllium windows exposed to air. It is also known that the integrity of such windows may be compromised resulting in leaks through the window. The purpose of this report is to document the occurrences described as they pertain to the NSLS and to analyze, where possible, the various substances formed

  5. Acoustic slow waves and the consolidation transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.L.; Plona, T.J.

    1982-01-01

    We have investigated the ultrasonic properties of unconsolidated (loose) glass beads and of lightly fused (consolidated) glass beads when the pore space is saturated with water. At a frequency of 500 kHz we have observed a single compressional wave in the former whose speed is 1.79 km/s and two distinct compressional waves with speeds 2.81 km/s and 0.96 km/s in the latter. The Biot theory is shown to give an accurate description of this phenomenon. We also analyze the acoustics of low temperature He ii in packed powder superleaks; either the fast wave for unconsolidated systems or the slow wave in a highly consolidated (fused) frame may be considered to be the 4th sound mode. In all such systems, the acoustic properties can be very simply understood by considering the velocities of propagation as continuous functions of the elastic moduli of the solid skeletal frames

  6. Laboratory Powder Metallurgy Makes Tough Aluminum Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royster, D. M.; Thomas, J. R.; Singleton, O. R.

    1993-01-01

    Aluminum alloy sheet exhibits high tensile and Kahn tear strengths. Rapid solidification of aluminum alloys in powder form and subsequent consolidation and fabrication processes used to tailor parts made of these alloys to satisfy such specific aerospace design requirements as high strength and toughness.

  7. Tungsten and tungsten alloys by powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belhadjhamida, A.; German, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Tungsten has a historical link with powder metallurgy and there is continued progress in expanding the available compositions and processing options. This paper starts with an introduction to the history of tungsten powder metallurgy and use this as a basis for analyzing some of the current trends. The literature base in tungsten processing is expanding and includes new alloys, microstructures, and processing routes. A few examples will be emphasize here to produce a frame work for this program, including description of sintering mechanisms for tungsten, liquid phase sintering advances, hot consolidation fundamentals, and options for complex shaping using powder injection modeling. For this base, subsequent presentations will expand on these fundamental advances

  8. Permeation behavior of deuterium implanted into beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Hirofumi; Hayashi, Takumi; O' hira, Shigeru; Nishi, Masataka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-09-01

    Study on Implantation Driven Permeation (IDP) behavior of deuterium through pure beryllium was investigated as a part of the research to predict the tritium permeation through the first wall components ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). The permeation experiments were carried out with two beryllium specimens, one was an unannealed specimen and the other was that annealed at 1173 K. The permeation flux was measured as a function of specimen temperature and incident ion flux. Surface analysis of specimen was also carried out after the permeation experiment. Permeation was observed only with the annealed specimen and no significant permeation was observed with unannealed specimen under the present experimental condition (maximum temperature: 685 K, detection limit: 1x10{sup 13} D atoms/m{sup 2}s). It could be attributed that the intrinsic lattice defects, which act as diffusion preventing site, decreased with the specimen annealing. Based on the result of steady and transient permeation behavior and surface analysis, it was estimated that the deuterium permeation implanted into annealed beryllium was controlled by surface recombination due to the oxide layer on the surface of the permeated side. (author)

  9. Behavior of beryllium pebbles under irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalle-Donne, M.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reactortechnik; Baldwin, D.L.; Gelles, D.S.; Greenwood, L.R.; Kawamura, H.; Oliver, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    Beryllium pebbles are being considered in fusion reactor blanket designs as neutron multiplier. An example is the European `Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Blanket.` Several forms of beryllium pebbles are commercially available but little is known about these forms in response to fast neutron irradiation. Commercially available beryllium pebbles have been irradiated to approximately 1.3 x 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2} (E>1 MeV) at 390degC. Pebbles 1-mm in diameter manufactured by Brush Wellman, USA and by Nippon Gaishi Company, Japan, and 3-mm pebbles manufactured by Brush Wellman were included. All were irradiated in the below-core area of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II in Idaho Falls, USA, in molybdenum alloy capsules containing helium. Post-irradiation results are presented on density change measurements, tritium release by assay, stepped-temperature anneal, and thermal ramp desorption tests, and helium release by assay and stepped-temperature anneal measurements, for Be pebbles from two manufacturing methods, and with two specimen diameters. The experimental results on density change and tritium and helium release are compared with the predictions of the code ANFIBE. (author)

  10. Dynamic behaviour of S200F beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, Dominique

    1991-01-01

    Compression tests have been made on a large scale of strain, strain rate (up to 2000 s -1 ) and temperature (between 20 C and 300 C). From these experiences, we have calculated a constitutive model for beryllium S200F, which can be used by computer codes. Its formulation is not far from Steinberg, Cochran and Guinan's. But in our case, the influences of temperature and strain rate appear clearly within the expression. To validate our equation, we have used it in a computer code. Its extrapolation for higher strain rates is in good agreement with experiments such as Taylor impact tests or plate impact tests (strain rates greater than 10 4 s -1 ). With micrography, we could settle a link between the main strain mode within the material, and the variation of one parameter of the model. Beside the constitutive model, we have shown that shock loaded beryllium behaves in two different ways. If the strain rate is lower than 5.10 6 s -1 , then it is proportional to the squared shock pressure. Beyond, it is a linear function of shock pressure to the power of four. By a spall study on beryllium, we have confirmed that it is excessively fragile. Its fracture is sudden, at a strength near 1 GPa. (author) [fr

  11. Quantitative method of determining beryllium or a compound thereof in a sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Ehler, Deborah S.; John, Kevin D.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Collis, Gavin E.; Minogue, Edel M.; Warner, Benjamin P.

    2010-08-24

    A method of determining beryllium or a beryllium compound thereof in a sample, includes providing a sample suspected of comprising beryllium or a compound thereof, extracting beryllium or a compound thereof from the sample by dissolving in a solution, adding a fluorescent indicator to the solution to thereby bind any beryllium or a compound thereof to the fluorescent indicator, and determining the presence or amount of any beryllium or a compound thereof in the sample by measuring fluorescence.

  12. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site beryllium characterization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrell, D.M.; Miller, J.R.; Allen, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    A site beryllium characterization project was completed at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in 1997. Information from historical reviews, previous sampling surveys, and a new sampling survey were used to establish a more comprehensive understanding of the locations and levels of beryllium contamination in 35 buildings. A feature of the sampling strategy was to test if process knowledge was a good predictor of where beryllium contamination could be found. Results revealed that this technique was effective at identifying where surface contamination levels might exceed the RFETS smear control level but that it was not effective in identifying where low concentrations of beryllium might be found

  13. Formation of cellular structure in beryllium at plastic working

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papirov, I.I.; Nikolaenko, A.A.; Shokurov, V.S.; Pikalov, A.I.

    2013-01-01

    Conditions of cellular structure formation are investigated at various kinds of deformation and heat treatment of beryllium ingots. It is shown that the cellular structure plays the important role in formation of complex of physical mechanical properties of beryllium. Influence of impurity, various conditions of deformation (temperature, squeezing degree) and heat treatments on substructure, texture and mechanical properties of metal is investigated. Optimum conditions of rolling and heat treatments of beryllium are defined. The way of sign-variable cyclic deformation of beryllium ingots is offered for reception quasi-isotropic fine-grained metal. Physical-mechanical properties of ultra fine-grained metal are studied

  14. Effects of Consolidation Stress State on Normally Consolidated Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lade, Poul V.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of consolidation stress state on the stress-strain and strength characteristics has been studied from experiments on undisturbed block samples of a natural, normally consolidated clay known as San Francisco Bay Mud. The results of experiments on K0-consolidated, hollow cylinder specimens...... and on isotropically consolidated, cubical specimens, both tested in triaxial compression and extension, clearly showed the influence of the undisturbed fabric as well as the effect of the initial consolidation stress states. While the K0-consolidated specimens appeared to retain their original fabric and exhibit...

  15. Schemas and memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Dorothy; Langston, Rosamund F; Kakeyama, Masaki; Bethus, Ingrid; Spooner, Patrick A; Wood, Emma R; Witter, Menno P; Morris, Richard G M

    2007-04-06

    Memory encoding occurs rapidly, but the consolidation of memory in the neocortex has long been held to be a more gradual process. We now report, however, that systems consolidation can occur extremely quickly if an associative "schema" into which new information is incorporated has previously been created. In experiments using a hippocampal-dependent paired-associate task for rats, the memory of flavor-place associations became persistent over time as a putative neocortical schema gradually developed. New traces, trained for only one trial, then became assimilated and rapidly hippocampal-independent. Schemas also played a causal role in the creation of lasting associative memory representations during one-trial learning. The concept of neocortical schemas may unite psychological accounts of knowledge structures with neurobiological theories of systems memory consolidation.

  16. Process for soil consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrick, F W; Brandstrom, R I

    1967-01-09

    In this process for the formation of a consolidated aggregate, a mass of solid particles is combined with an aqueous alkaline consolidating compound which forms a gel. This gel consists principally of a mixture of the following: a vegetable polyphenolic material; one of the group of catechins; condensed tannins and extract of the bark of coniferous trees; with 1-10% by weight of formaldehyde; and a catalyst of the group of water-soluble salts of chromium, iron, and aluminum. This catalyst serves to catalyze the reaction of formation of the gel.

  17. The reaction of selected metal powders with Arklone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, C.G.; Hawes, P.M.

    1985-10-01

    Experimental work has been carried out to investigate possible reactions between Arklone 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluroethane and magnesium, beryllium and aluminium powders. Differential Thermal Analysis was used to study small scale samples in the temperature range from -35 to 200 0 C. Larger scale studies were also carried out using pure Arklone and Arklone with water or acids (HCL or HF) as contaminants. Results are reported for metal powders of various particle sizes. The systems studied were all found to be unreactive in conditions which are expected to be encountered in a Decontamination and Disposal Facility. (author)

  18. Deuterium/hydrogen isotope exchange on beryllium and beryllium nitride; Deuterium/Wasserstoff-Isotopenaustausch an Beryllium und Berylliumnitrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dollase, Petra; Eichler, Michael; Koeppen, Martin; Dittmar, Timo; Linsmeier, Christian [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institut fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung - Plasmaphysik (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In the fusion experiments JET and ITER, the first wall is made up of beryllium. The use of nitrogen is discussed for radiative cooling in the divertor. This can react with the surface of the first wall to form beryllium nitride (Be{sub 3}N{sub 2}). The hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium, which react in the fusion reaction to helium and a neutron, are used as fuel. Since the magnetic confinement of the plasma is not perfect, deuterium and tritium ions are also found on the beryllium wall and can accumulate there. This should be avoided due to the radioactivity of tritium. Therefore the isotope exchange with deuterium is investigated to regenerate the first wall. We investigate the isotopic exchange of deuterium and protium in order to have not to work with radioactive tritium. The ion bombardment is simulated with an ion source. With voltages up to a maximum of 5 kV, deuterium and protic hydrogen ions are implanted in polycrystalline Be and Be{sub 3}N{sub 2}. The samples are then analyzed in situ using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Subsequently, samples prepared under the same conditions are characterized ex-situ by means of nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). [German] In den Fusionsexperimenten JET und ITER besteht die erste Wand im Hauptraum aus Beryllium (Be). Zur Strahlungskuehlung im Divertor wird der Einsatz von Stickstoff diskutiert. Dieser kann mit der Oberflaeche der ersten Wand zu Berylliumnitrid (Be{sub 3}N{sub 2}) reagieren. Als Brennstoff werden die Wasserstoffisotope Deuterium und Tritium eingesetzt, die in der Fusionsreaktion zu Helium und einem Neutron reagieren. Da der magnetische Einschluss des Plasmas nicht perfekt ist, treffen auch Deuterium- und Tritiumionen auf die Berylliumwand auf und koennen sich dort anreichern. Das soll aufgrund der Radioaktivitaet von Tritium unbedingt vermieden werden. Daher wird zur Regenerierung der ersten Wand der Isotopenaustausch mit Deuterium untersucht. Wir

  19. Powder diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, M.

    1995-12-31

    the importance of x-ray powder diffraction as an analytical tool for phase identification of materials was first pointed out by Debye and Scherrer in Germany and, quite independently, by Hull in the US. Three distinct periods of evolution lead to ubiquitous application in many fields of science and technology. In the first period, until the mid-1940`s, applications were and developed covering broad categories of materials including inorganic materials, minerals, ceramics, metals, alloys, organic materials and polymers. During this formative period, the concept of quantitative phase analysis was demonstrated. In the second period there followed the blossoming of technology and commercial instruments became widely used. The history is well summarized by Parrish and by Langford and Loueer. By 1980 there were probably 10,000 powder diffractometers in routine use, making it the most widely used of all x-ray crystallographic instruments. In the third, present, period data bases became firmly established and sophisticated pattern fitting and recognition software made many aspects of powder diffraction analysis routine. High resolution, tunable powder diffractometers were developed at sources of synchrotron radiation. The tunability of the spectrum made it possible to exploit all the subtleties of x-ray spectroscopy in diffraction experiments.

  20. Powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, M.

    1995-01-01

    The importance of x-ray powder diffraction as an analytical tool for phase identification of materials was first pointed out by Debye and Scherrer in Germany and, quite independently, by Hull in the US. Three distinct periods of evolution lead to ubiquitous application in many fields of science and technology. In the first period, until the mid-1940's, applications were and developed covering broad categories of materials including inorganic materials, minerals, ceramics, metals, alloys, organic materials and polymers. During this formative period, the concept of quantitative phase analysis was demonstrated. In the second period there followed the blossoming of technology and commercial instruments became widely used. The history is well summarized by Parrish and by Langford and Loueer. By 1980 there were probably 10,000 powder diffractometers in routine use, making it the most widely used of all x-ray crystallographic instruments. In the third, present, period data bases became firmly established and sophisticated pattern fitting and recognition software made many aspects of powder diffraction analysis routine. High resolution, tunable powder diffractometers were developed at sources of synchrotron radiation. The tunability of the spectrum made it possible to exploit all the subtleties of x-ray spectroscopy in diffraction experiments

  1. Powder diffractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucet, J.

    1983-01-01

    The new possibilities openned by the synchrotron radiation in the powder diffractometry techniques are presented. This technique is described in a general manner and some aspects which can be developed with the use of the synchrotron radiation are analyzed. (L.C.) [pt

  2. Sintering of beryllium oxide; Frittage de l'oxyde de beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillat, R; Pointud, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    This study had for origin to find a process permitting to manufacture bricks of beryllium oxide of pure nuclear grade, with a density as elevated as possible and with standardized shape. The sintering under load was the technique kept for the manufacture of the bricks. Because of the important toxicity of the beryllium oxide, the general features for the preliminary study of the sintering, have been determined while using alumina. The obtained results will be able to act as general indication for ulterior studies with sintering under load. (M.B.) [French] Cette etude a eu pour origine la recherche d'un procede permettant de fabriquer industriellement des briques d'oxyde de beryllium nucleaireraent pures, de densite aussi elevee que possible et de forme standardisee. Le frittage sous charge fut la technique retenue pour la fabrication des briques. En raison de la grande toxicite de l'oxyde de beryllium, les caracteristiques generales du frittage, pour l'etude preliminaire, ont ete determine en utilisant de l'alumine. Les resultats obtenus pourront servir d'indication generale pour des etudes ulterieurs avec frittage sous charge. (M.B.)

  3. Beryllium-stimulated neopterin as a diagnostic adjunct in chronic beryllium disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Lisa A; Kittle, Lori A; Mroz, Margaret M; Newman, Lee S

    2003-06-01

    The diagnosis of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) relies on the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) to demonstrate a Be specific immune response. This test has improved early diagnosis, but cannot discriminate beryllium sensitization (BeS) from CBD. We previously found high neopterin levels in CBD patients' serum and questioned whether Be-stimulated neopterin production by peripheral blood cells in vitro might be useful in the diagnosis of CBD. CBD, BeS, Be exposed workers without disease (Be-exp) normal controls and sarcoidosis subjects were enrolled. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMN) were cultured in the presence and absence of beryllium sulfate. Neopterin levels were determined from cell supernatants by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Clinical evaluation of CBD subjects included chest radiography, pulmonary function testing, exercise testing, and the BeLPT. CBD patients produced higher levels of neopterin in both unstimulated and Be-stimulated conditions compared to all other subjects (P workplace screening. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Implanted deuterium retention and release in carbon-coated beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, R.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Pawelko, R.J.; Oates, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Deuterium implantation experiments have been conducted on samples of clean and carbon-coated beryllium. These studies entailed preparation and characterization of beryllium samples coated with carbon thicknesses of 100, 500, and 1000 angstrom. Heat treatment of a beryllium sample coated with carbon to a thickness of approximately 100 angstrom revealed that exposure to a temperature of 400 degrees C under high vacuum conditions was sufficient to cause substantial diffusion of beryllium through the carbon layer, resulting in more beryllium than carbon at the surface. Comparable concentrations of carbon and beryllium were observed in the bulk of the coating layer. Higher than expected oxygen levels were observed throughout the coating layer as well. Samples were exposed to deuterium implantation followed by thermal desorption without exposure to air. Differences were observed in deuterium retention and postimplantation release behavior in the carbon-coated samples as compared with bare samples. For comparable implantation conditions (sample temperature of 400 degrees C and an incident deuterium flux of approximately 6 X 10 19 D/m 2 sec), the quantity of deuterium retained in the bare sample was less than that retained in the carbon-coated samples. Further, the release of the deuterium took place at lower temperatures for the bare beryllium surfaces than for carbon-coated beryllium samples. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  5. Implanted Deuterium Retention and Release in Carbon-Coated Beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderl, R. A.; Longhurst, G. R.; Pawelko, R. J.; Oates, M. A.

    1997-06-01

    Deuterium implantation experiments have been conducted on samples of clean and carbon-coated beryllium. These studies entailed preparation and characterization of beryllium samples coated with carbon thicknesses of 100, 500, and 1000 Å. Heat treatment of a beryllium sample coated with carbon to a thickness of approximately 100 Å revealed that exposure to a temperature of 400°C under high vacuum conditions was sufficient to cause substantial diffusion of beryllium through the carbon layer, resulting in more beryllium than carbon at the surface. Comparable concentrations of carbon and beryllium were observed in the bulk of the coating layer. Higher than expected oxygen levels were observed throughout the coating layer as well. Samples were exposed to deuterium implantation followed by thermal desorption without exposure to air. Differences were observed in deuterium retention and postimplantation release behavior in the carbon-coated samples as compared with bare samples. For comparable implantation conditions (sample temperature of 400°C and an incident deuterium flux of approximately 6 × 1019 D/m2-s), the quantity of deuterium retained in the bare sample was less than that retained in the carbon-coated samples. Further, the release of the deuterium took place at lower temperatures for the bare beryllium surfaces than for carbon-coated beryllium samples.

  6. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850.20 Energy... Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The responsible employer must develop a baseline inventory of the... inventory, the responsible employer must: (1) Review current and historical records; (2) Interview workers...

  7. Reactivity effects due to beryllium poisoning of BR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalcheva, S.; Ponsard, B.; Koonen, E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper illustrates the impact of the poisoning of the beryllium reflector on reactivity variations of the Belgian MTR BR2 in SCK.CEN. Detailed calculations by MCNP-4C of reactivity effects caused by strong neutron absorbers 3 He and 6 Li during reactor operation history are presented. The importance of beryllium poisoning for the accuracy of reactivity predictions is discussed. (authors)

  8. Progress report of preliminary studies of beryllium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, H.C.

    1947-09-01

    This document was prepared in connection with a symposium of beryllium poisoning held at the Saranac Laboratories and describes progress made and a research program aimed at characterizing the toxicity of beryllium. Seven individual papers in this document are separately indexed and cataloged for the database.

  9. Joining of beryllium by braze welding technique: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banaim, P.; Abramov, E. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel); Zalkind, S.; Eden, S.

    1998-01-01

    Within the framework of some applications, there is a need to join beryllium parts to each other. Gas Tungsten Arc Braze Welds were made in beryllium using 0.3 mm commercially Aluminum (1100) shim preplaced at the joint. The welds exhibited a tendency to form microcracks in the Fusion Zone and Heat Affected Zone. All the microcracks were backfilled with Aluminum. (author)

  10. Laser welding of a beryllium/tantalum collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingenfelter, A.C.; Anglin, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the methods utilized in the fabrication of a collimator from 0.001 inch thick beryllium and tantalum foil. The laser welding process proved to be an acceptable method for joining the beryllium in a standing edge joint configuration

  11. Consolidation of W–Ta composites: Hot isostatic pressing and spark and pulse plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, M., E-mail: marta.dias@itn.pt [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Guerreiro, F. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Correia, J.B. [LNEG, Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, Estrada do Paço do Lumiar, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Galatanu, A. [National Institute of Materials Physics, Atomistilor 105 bis Bucharest-Magurele, 077125 Ilfov (Romania); Rosiński, M. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw (Poland); Monge, M.A.; Munoz, A. [Departamento de Física, Univerdidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avd. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Madrid (Spain); Alves, E. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Carvalho, P.A. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); CeFEMA, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Consolidation of W–Ta composites using three techniques: HIP, SPS and PPS. • Comparison of consolidation methods in terms of W–Ta interdiffusion and densification. • Microstructure analysis in terms of oxides formation. - Abstract: Composites consisting of tantalum fiber/powder dispersed in a nanostructured W matrix have been consolidated by spark and pulse plasma sintering as well as by hot isostatic pressing. The microstructural observations revealed that the tungsten–tantalum fiber composites consolidated by hot isostatic pressing and pulse plasma sintering presented a continuous layer of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} phase at the W/Ta interfaces, while the samples consolidated by spark plasma sintering evidenced a Ta + Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} eutectic mixture due to the higher temperature of this consolidation process. Similar results have been obtained for the tungsten–tantalum powder composites. A (W, Ta) solid solution was detected around the prior nanostructured W particles in tungsten–tantalum powder composites consolidated by spark and pulse plasma sintering. Higher densifications were obtained for composites consolidated by hot isostatic pressing and pulse plasma sintering.

  12. Review on the explosive consolidation methods to fabricate tungsten based PFMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shuming, E-mail: wangshuming@ustb.edu.cn; Sun, Chongxiao; Guo, Wenhao; Yan, Qingzhi; Zhou, Zhangjian; Zhang, Yingchun; Shen, Weiping; Ge, Changchun

    2014-12-15

    Tungsten is one of the best candidates for plasma-facing materials in the fusion reactors, owing to its many unique properties. In the development of tungsten-based Plasma Facing Materials/Components (PFMs/PFCs), materials scientists have explored many different, innovative preparation and processing routes to meet the requirement of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Some explosive consolidation technology intrinsic characteristics, which make it suitable for powder metallurgy (powders consolidation) and PFMs production, are the high pressure processing, highly short heating time and can be considered as a highly competitive green technology. In this work, an overview of explosive consolidation techniques applied to fabricate tungsten-based PFMs is presented. Emphasis is given to describe the main characteristics and potentialities of the explosive sintering, explosive consolidation techniques. The aspects presented and discussed in this paper indicate the explosive consolidation processes as a promising and competitive technology for tungsten-based PFMs processing.

  13. Consolidation of tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.D.; Wardwell, R.E.; Abt, S.R.; Staub, W.P.

    1983-09-01

    The integrity of cover systems placed on tailings impoundments will be affected by the potential for differential settlement of the tailings surface. Settlement of the sand fraction will occur relatively rapidly. The slimes will take longer time for consolidation and will produce greater settlement. This report reviews the phenomenon of consolidation for saturated and unsaturated tailings. The effect of load application by cover placement and the extent to which dewatering of tailings will cause consolidation are considered. In addition, the feasibility of inducing consolidation by alternative means and the potential applicability of these methods to tailings impoundments reclamation are discussed. Differential settlement of the tailings will cause tensile strain to be developed in covers. This strain could be large enough to cause cracking within a relatively brittle compacted clay. Dewatering of tailings by drainage can cause settlement even greater than that by placement of a cover material. Dewatering of the tailings would also increase the stability of the tailings surface, thereby enhancing reclamation operations. Consequently, in view of the enhanced surface stability and the fact that a portion of the differential settlement can be accomplished prior to cover placement, dewatering of tailings impoundments during operations may have benefical effects

  14. Consolidating Financial Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Marcia R.

    This publication is designed to be a desktop reference and assist financial officers in both public and independent institutions of higher education in the preparation of consolidated financial statements. Chapter 1 covers generally accepted accounting principles and other accounting literature, and summarizes reporting rules of the Financial…

  15. Protection of air in premises and environment against beryllium aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitkolov, N.Z.; Vishnevsky, E.P.; Krupkin, A.V. [Research Inst. of Industrial and Marine Medicine, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1998-01-01

    First and foremost, the danger of beryllium aerosols concerns a possibility of their inhalation. The situation is aggravated with high biological activity of the beryllium in a human lung. The small allowable beryllium aerosols` concentration in air poses a rather complex and expensive problem of the pollution prevention and clearing up of air. The delivery and transportation of beryllium aerosols from sites of their formation are defined by the circuit of ventilation, that forms aerodynamics of air flows in premises, and aerodynamic links between premises. The causes of aerosols release in air of premises from hoods, isolated and hermetically sealed vessels can be vibrations, as well as pulses of temperature and pressure. Furthermore, it is possible the redispersion of aerosols from dirty surfaces. The effective protection of air against beryllium aerosols at industrial plants is provided by a complex of hygienic measures: from individual means of breath protection up to collective means of the prevention of air pollution. (J.P.N.)

  16. Hydrodynamic instabilities in beryllium targets for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, S. A., E-mail: austinyi@lanl.gov; Simakov, A. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Olson, R. E.; Kline, J. L.; Batha, S. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Salmonson, J. D.; Kozioziemski, B. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Beryllium ablators offer higher ablation velocity, rate, and pressure than their carbon-based counterparts, with the potential to increase the probability of achieving ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)]. We present here a detailed hydrodynamic stability analysis of low (NIF Revision 6.1) and high adiabat NIF beryllium target designs. Our targets are optimized to fully utilize the advantages of beryllium in order to suppress the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities. This results in an implosion that resists breakup of the capsule, and simultaneously minimizes the amount of ablator material mixed into the fuel. We quantify the improvement in stability of beryllium targets relative to plastic ones, and show that a low adiabat beryllium capsule can be at least as stable at the ablation front as a high adiabat plastic target.

  17. Preparation and characterization of beryllium doped organic plasma polymer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusasco, R.; Letts, S.; Miller, P.; Saculla, M.; Cook, R.

    1995-01-01

    We report the formation of beryllium doped plasma polymerized coatings derived from a helical resonator deposition apparatus, using diethylberyllium as the organometaric source. These coatings had an appearance not unlike plain plasma polymer and were relatively stable to ambient exposure. The coatings were characterized by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Coating rates approaching 0.7 μm hr -1 were obtained with a beryllium-to-carbon ratio of 1:1.3. There is also a significant oxygen presence in the coating as well which is attributed to oxidation upon exposure of the coating to air. The XPS data show only one peak for beryllium with the preponderance of the XPS data suggesting that the beryllium exists as BeO. Diethylberyllium was found to be inadequate as a source for beryllium doped plasma polymer, due to thermal decomposition and low vapor recovery rates

  18. Reaction-diffusion modeling of hydrogen in beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wensing, Mirko; Matveev, Dmitry; Linsmeier, Christian [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institut fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung - Plasmaphysik (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Beryllium will be used as first-wall material for the future fusion reactor ITER as well as in the breeding blanket of DEMO. In both cases it is important to understand the mechanisms of hydrogen retention in beryllium. In earlier experiments with beryllium low-energy binding states of hydrogen were observed by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) which are not yet well understood. Two candidates for these states are considered: beryllium-hydride phases within the bulk and surface effects. The retention of deuterium in beryllium is studied by a reaction rate approach using a coupled reaction diffusion system (CRDS)-model relying on ab initio data from density functional theory calculations (DFT). In this contribution we try to assess the influence of surface recombination.

  19. ZIRCONIUM-TITANIUM-BERYLLIUM BRAZING ALLOY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, R.G.; Patriarca, P.; Slaughter, G.M.; Williams, L.C.

    1962-06-12

    A new and improved ternary alloy is described which is of particular utility in braze-bonding parts made of a refractory metal selected from Group IV, V, and VI of the periodic table and alloys containing said metal as a predominating alloying ingredient. The brazing alloy contains, by weight, 40 to 50 per cent zirconium, 40 to 50 per cent titanium, and the balance beryllium in amounts ranging from 1 to 20 per cent, said alloy having a melting point in the range 950 to 1400 deg C. (AEC)

  20. Moessbauer study of iron diffusion in beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepiol, B.; Ruebenbauer, K.; Miczko, B.; Birchall, T.

    1991-01-01

    The broadening of the 14.41 keV Moessbauer line of 57 Fe dure to diffusion of iron atoms in polycrystalline beryllium has been investigated in the temperature range 1123 to 1423 K. The observed broadenings obey the Arrhenius law with activation energy 1.66(10) eV, i.e., lower than that obtained from the corresponding polycrystalline tracer data. The variations of the resonant fraction, second order Doppler shift and quadrupole splitting versus temperature are reported. An average diffusion coefficient has been calculated from the obtained broadenings and compared with the tracer results. (orig.)

  1. Solid state consolidation nanocrystalline copper-tungsten using cold spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Aaron Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sarobol, Pylin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Argibay, Nicolas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Clark, Blythe [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Diantonio, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    It is well known that nanostructured metals can exhibit significantly improved properties compared to metals with conventional grain size. Unfortunately, nanocrystalline metals typically are not thermodynamically stable and exhibit rapid grain growth at moderate temperatures. This severely limits their processing and use, making them impractical for most engineering applications. Recent work has shown that a number of thermodynamically stable nanocrystalline metal alloys exist. These alloys have been prepared as powders using severe plastic deformation (e.g. ball milling) processes. Consolidation of these powders without compromise of their nanocrystalline microstructure is a critical step to enabling their use as engineering materials. We demonstrate solid-state consolidation of ball milled copper-tantalum nanocrystalline metal powder using cold spray. Unfortunately, the nanocrystalline copper-tantalum powder that was consolidated did not contain the thermodynamically stable copper-tantalum nanostructure. Nevertheless, this does this demonstrates a pathway to preparation of bulk thermodynamically stable nanocrystalline copper-tantalum. Furthermore, it demonstrates a pathway to additive manufacturing (3D printing) of nanocrystalline copper-tantalum. Additive manufacturing of thermodynamically stable nanocrystalline metals is attractive because it enables maximum flexibility and efficiency in the use of these unique materials.

  2. Investigations of the ternary system beryllium-carbon-tungsten and analyses of beryllium on carbon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kost, Florian

    2009-01-01

    Beryllium, carbon and tungsten are planned to be used as first wall materials in the future fusion reactor ITER. The aim of this work is a characterization of mixed material formation induced by thermal load. To this end, model systems (layers) were prepared and investigated, which give insight into the basic physical and chemical concepts. Before investigating ternary systems, the first step was to analyze the binary systems Be/C and Be/W (bottom-up approach), where the differences between the substrates PG (pyrolytic graphite) and HOPG (highly oriented pyrolytic graphite) were of special interest. Particularly X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low energy ion scattering (ISS) and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) were used as analysis methods. Beryllium evaporated on carbon shows an island growth mode, whereas a closed layer can be assumed for layer thicknesses above 0.7 nm. Annealing of the Be/C system induces Be 2 C island formation for T≥770 K. At high temperatures (T≥1170 K), beryllium carbide dissociates, resulting in (metallic) beryllium desorption. For HOPG, carbide formation starts at higher temperatures compared to PG. Activation energies for the diffusion processes were determined by analyzing the decreasing beryllium amount versus annealing time. Surface morphologies were characterized using angle-resolved XPS (ARXPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Experiments were performed to study processes in the Be/W system in the temperature range from 570 to 1270 K. Be 2 W formation starts at 670 K, a complete loss of Be 2 W is observed at 1170 K due to dissociation (and subsequent beryllium desorption). Regarding ternary systems, particularly Be/C/W and C/Be/W were investigated, attaching importance to layer thickness (reservoir) variations. At room temperature, Be 2 C, W 2 C, WC and Be 2 W formation at the respective interfaces was observed. Further Be 2 C is forming with increasing annealing temperatures. Depending on the layer

  3. Powder consolidation using cold spray process modeling and emerging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moridi, Atieh

    2017-01-01

    This book first presents different approaches to modeling of the cold spray process with the aim of extending current understanding of its fundamental principles and then describes emerging applications of cold spray. In the coverage of modeling, careful attention is devoted to the assessment of critical and erosion velocities. In order to reveal the phenomenological characteristics of interface bonding, severe, localized plastic deformation and material jet formation are studied. Detailed consideration is also given to the effect of macroscopic defects such as interparticle boundaries and subsequent splat boundary cracking on the mechanical behavior of cold spray coatings. The discussion of applications focuses in particular on the repair of damaged parts and additive manufacturing in various disciplines from aerospace to biomedical engineering. Key aspects include a systematic study of defect shape and the ability of cold spray to fill the defect, examination of the fatigue behavior of coatings for structur...

  4. Nonlinear Finite Strain Consolidation Analysis with Secondary Consolidation Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieqing Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze nonlinear finite strain consolidation with secondary consolidation behavior. On the basis of some assumptions about the secondary consolidation behavior, the continuity equation of pore water in Gibson’s consolidation theory is modified. Taking the nonlinear compressibility and nonlinear permeability of soils into consideration, the governing equation for finite strain consolidation analysis is derived. Based on the experimental data of Hangzhou soft clay samples, the new governing equation is solved with the finite element method. Afterwards, the calculation results of this new method and other two methods are compared. It can be found that Gibson’s method may underestimate the excess pore water pressure during primary consolidation. The new method which takes the secondary consolidation behavior, the nonlinear compressibility, and nonlinear permeability of soils into consideration can precisely estimate the settlement rate and the final settlement of Hangzhou soft clay sample.

  5. Copper-beryllium alloys for technical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    1976-01-01

    Data of physical properties are compiled for the most commonly used copper-beryllium alloys (CuBe 2, CuBe 1.7, CuCoBe, and CuCoAgBe), with emphasis on their temperature dependence and their variation with particular annealing and hardening treatments. The purpose is to provide a reference source and to indicate the versatility of these materials with respect to other copper alloys and to pure copper. The special features of CuBe alloys include high mechanical strength with reasonably high electrical conductivity, as well as good wear and corrosion resistance. For example, CuBe 2 has a yield strength of up to 1200 N/mm 2 , about three times that of pure copper, whilst the electrical conductivity of CuCoBe can be as high as 28 MS/m, nearly half that of pure copper. Typical applications are springs and electrical contacts. The importance of a proper heat treatment is discussed in some detail, notably the metallurgy and effects of low-temperature annealing (precipitation-hardening). A chapter on manufacturing processes covers machining, brazing, welding, and cleaning. This is followed by some remarks on safety precautions against beryllium poisoning. CuBe alloys are commercially available in the form of wires, strips, rods, and bars. Typical dimensions, specifications, a brief cost estimate, and addresses of suppliers are listed. (Author)

  6. Charge-density study of crystalline beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, R F [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA). Dept. of Chemistry

    1977-01-01

    The X-ray structure factors for crystalline beryllium measured by Brown (Phil. Mag. (1972), 26, 1377) have been analyzed with multipole deformation functions for charge-density information. Single exponential radial functions were used for the valence charge density. A valence monopole plus the three harmonics, P/sup 3//sub 5/(cos theta) sin 3phi, P/sub 6/(cos theta) and P/sup 3//sub 7/(cos theta) sin 3phi, provide a least-squares fit to the data with Rsub(w)=0.0081. The superposition of these density functions describes a bonding charge density between Be atoms along the c axis through the tetrahedral vacancy. The results reported here are in qualitative agreement with a recent pseudo-potential calculation of metallic beryllium. The final residuals in the analysis are largest at high sin theta/lambda values. This suggests that core charge deformation is present and/or anharmonic motion of the nuclei is appreciable.

  7. Physical properties of beryllium oxide - Irradiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elston, J.; Caillat, R.

    1958-01-01

    This work has been carried out in view of determining several physical properties of hot-pressed beryllium oxide under various conditions and the change of these properties after irradiation. Special attention has been paid on to the measurement of the thermal conductivity coefficient and thermal diffusivity coefficient. Several designs for the measurement of the thermal conductivity coefficient have been achieved. They permit its determination between 50 and 300 deg. C, between 400 and 800 deg. C. Some measurements have been made above 1000 deg. C. In order to measure the thermal diffusivity coefficient, we heat a perfectly flat surface of a sample in such a way that the heat flux is modulated (amplitude and frequency being adjustable). The thermal diffusivity coefficient is deduced from the variations of temperature observed on several spots. Tensile strength; compressive strength; expansion coefficient; sound velocity and crystal parameters have been also measured. Some of the measurements have been carried out after neutron irradiation. Some data have been obtained on the change of the properties of beryllium oxide depending on the integrated neutron flux. (author) [fr

  8. Status of rod consolidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1985-04-01

    Two of the factors that need to be taken into account with rod consolidation are (1) the effects on rods from their removal from the fuel assembly and (2) the effects on rods as a result of the consolidation process. Potential components of both factors are described in the report. Discussed under (1) are scratches on the fuel rod surfaces, rod breakage, crud, extended burnup, and possible cladding embrittlement due to hydrogen injection at BWRs. Discussed under (2) are the increased water temperature (less than 10 0 C) because of closer packing of the rods, formation of crevices between rods in the close-packed mode, contact with dissimilar metals, and the potential for rapid heating of fuel rods following the loss of water from a spent fuel storage pool. Another factor that plays an important role in rod consolidation is the cost of disposal of the nonfuel-bearing components of the fuel assembly. Also, the dose rate from the components - especially Inconel spacer grids - can affect the handling procedures. Several licensing issues that exist are described. A list of recommendations is provided. 98 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Ion beam assisted deposition of metal-coatings on beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashlykov, I.S.; Tul'ev, V.V.

    2015-01-01

    Thin films were applied on beryllium substrates on the basis of metals (Cr, Ti, Cu and W) with method of the ion-assisted deposition in vacuum. Me/Be structures were prepared using 20 kV ions irradiation during deposition on beryllium neutral fraction generated from vacuum arc plasma. Rutherford back scattering and computer simulation RUMP code were applied to investigate the composition of the modified beryllium surface. Researches showed that the superficial structure is formed on beryllium by thickness ~ 50-60 nm. The covering composition includes atoms of the deposited metal (0.5-3.3 at. %), atoms of technological impurity carbon (0.8-1.8 at. %) and oxygen (6.3-9.9 at. %), atoms of beryllium from the substrate. Ion assisted deposition of metals on beryllium substrate is accompanied by radiation enhanced diffusion of metals, oxygen atoms in the substrate, out diffusion of beryllium, carbon atoms in the deposited coating and sputtering film-forming ions assists. (authors)

  10. Beryllium-copper reactivity in an ITER joining environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odegard, B.C.; Cadden, C.H.; Yang, N.Y.C.

    1998-01-01

    Beryllium-copper reactivity was studied using test parameters being considered for use in the ITER reactor. In this application, beryllium-copper tiles are produced using a low-temperature copper-copper diffusion bonding technique. Beryllium is joined to copper by first plating the beryllium with copper followed by diffusion bonding the electrodeposited (ED) copper to a wrought copper alloy (CuNiBe) at 450 C, 1-3 h using a hot isostatic press (HIP). In this bonded assembly, beryllium is the armor material and the CuNiBe alloy is the heat sink material. Interface temperatures in service are not expected to exceed 350 C. For this study, an ED copper-beryllium interface was subjected to diffusion bonding temperatures and times to study the reaction products. Beryllium-copper assemblies were subjected to 350, 450 and 550 C for times up to 200 h. Both BeCu and Be 2 Cu intermetallic phases were detected using scanning electron microscopy and quantitative microprobe analysis. Growth rates were determined experimentally for each phase and activation energies for formation were calculated. The activation energies were 66 mol and 62 kJ mol -1 for the BeCu and Be 2 Cu, respectively. Tensile bars were produced from assemblies consisting of coated beryllium (both sides) sandwiched between two blocks of Hycon-3. Tensile tests were conducted to evaluate the influence of these intermetallics on the bond strength. Failure occurred at the beryllium-copper interface at fracture strengths greater than 300 MPa for the room-temperature tests. (orig.)

  11. Historical perspectives on the uses and health risks of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preuss, O.P.

    1985-01-01

    Unawareness of the health risks of beryllium resulted in a decade of unmitigated exposure of several thousand workers and numerous cases of beryllium disease in employees and nearby residents. Subsequent adoption of exposure limits and their implementation with effective technical controls reduced the occurrence of new cases, which were mainly due to accidental exposures, to a minimum. The fact that continuously growing production and consumption did not alter this trend demonstrates the effectiveness of the present threshold limit value. It shows that the potential health hazard can be well contained and that beryllium can be produced and fabricated without undue risk to employees or the general public

  12. About kinetics of paramagnetic radiation malformations in beryllium ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, A.I.; Ryabinkin, Yu.A.; Zashkvara, O.V.; Bitenbaev, M.I.; Petukhov, Yu.V.

    1999-01-01

    This paper [1] specifies that γ-radiation of the beryllium-oxide-based ceramics results in development of paramagnetic radiation malformations emerging the ESR spectrum in form of doublet with the splitting rate of oestrasid Δ∼1.6 and g-factor of 2.008. This report presents evaluation outcomes of dependence of paramagnetic radiation malformations concentration in beryllium ceramics on gamma-radiation dose ( 60 Co) within the range of 0-100 Mrad. Total paramagnetic parameters of beryllium ceramics in the range 0-100 Mrad of gamma-radiation dose varied slightly, and were specified by the first type of paramagnetic radiation malformations

  13. Evaluation of the hazard associated with fabricating beryllium copper alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senn, T.J.

    1977-01-01

    Beryllium-copper alloys should be considered toxic materials and proper controls must be used when they are machined, heated, or otherwise fabricated. Air samples should be taken for each type of fabrication to determine the worker's exposure and the effectiveness of the controls in use. It has been shown that aerosols containing beryllium are generated during the four methods of fabrication tested, and that these aerosols can be reduced through local exhaust to undetectable levels. Considering the acute, chronic and possibly carcinogenic effects of exposure to beryllium, effective controls should be required because they are feasible both technologically and economically. The health hazards and control measures are reviewed

  14. Novel plasma source for safe beryllium spectral line studies in the presence of beryllium dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, B. D.; Vinić, M.; Gavrilović Božović, M. R.; Ivković, M.

    2018-05-01

    Plasma source for beryllium spectral line studies in the presence of beryllium dust particles was realised. The guideline during construction was to prevent exposure to formed dust, considering the toxicity of beryllium. Plasma source characterization through determination of optimal working conditions is described. The necessary conditions for Be spectral line appearance and optimal conditions for line shape measurements are found. It is proven experimentally that under these conditions dust appears coincidently with the second current maximum. The electron density measured after discharge current maximum is determined from the peak separation of the hydrogen Balmer beta spectral line, and the electron temperature is determined from the ratios of the relative intensities of Be spectral lines emitted from successive ionized stages of atoms. Maximum values of electron density and temperature are measured to be 9.3 × 1022 m-3 and 16 800 K, respectively. Construction details and testing of the BeO discharge tube in comparison with SiO2 and Al2O3 discharge tubes are also presented in this paper.

  15. Real-time monitoring of airborne beryllium, at OSHA limit levels, by time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radziemski, L.J.; Loree, T.R.; Cremers, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    Real-time detection of beryllium particulate is being investigated by the new technique of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. For beryllium detection we monitor the 313.1-nm feature of once ionized beryllium (Be II). Numerous publications describe the technique, our beryllium results, and other applications. Here we summarize the important points and describe our experiments with beryllium

  16. Investigation of the ion beryllium surface interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseva, M.I.; Birukov, A.Yu.; Gureev, V.M.

    1995-01-01

    The self -sputtering yield of the Be was measured. The energy dependence of the Be self-sputtering yield agrees well with that calculated by W. Eckstein et. al. Below 770 K the self-sputtering yield is temperature independent; at T irr .> 870 K it increases sharply. Hot-pressed samples at 370 K were implanted with monoenergetic 5 keV hydrogen ions and with a stationary plasma (flux power ∼ 5 MW/m 2 ). The investigation of hydrogen behavior in beryllium shows that at low doses hydrogen is solved, but at doses ≥ 5x10 22 m -2 the bubbles and channels are formed. It results in hydrogen profile shift to the surface and decrease of its concentration. The sputtering results in further concentration decrease at doses > 10 25 m -2

  17. Polarizabilities of the beryllium clock transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitroy, J.

    2010-01-01

    The polarizabilities of the three lowest states of the beryllium atom are determined from a large basis configuration interaction calculation. The polarizabilities of the 2s 2 1 S e ground state (37.73a 0 3 ) and the 2s2p 3 P 0 o metastable state (39.04a 0 3 ) are found to be very similar in size and magnitude. This leads to an anomalously small blackbody radiation shift at 300 K of -0.018(4) Hz for the 2s 2 1 S e -2s2p 3 P 0 o clock transition. Magic wavelengths for simultaneous trapping of the ground and metastable states are also computed.

  18. Primordial beryllium as a big bang calorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospelov, Maxim; Pradler, Josef

    2011-03-25

    Many models of new physics including variants of supersymmetry predict metastable long-lived particles that can decay during or after primordial nucleosynthesis, releasing significant amounts of nonthermal energy. The hadronic energy injection in these decays leads to the formation of ⁹Be via the chain of nonequilibrium transformations: Energy(h)→T, ³He→⁶He, ⁶Li→⁹Be. We calculate the efficiency of this transformation and show that if the injection happens at cosmic times of a few hours the release of O(10 MeV) per baryon can be sufficient for obtaining a sizable ⁹Be abundance. The absence of a plateau structure in the ⁹Be/H abundance down to a O(10⁻¹⁴) level allows one to use beryllium as a robust constraint on new physics models with decaying or annihilating particles.

  19. Electron-beam fusion welding of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, R.P.; Dixon, R.D.; Liby, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    Ingot-sheet beryllium (Be) having three different chemistries and three different thicknesses was fusion-welded by the electron-beam process. Several different preheats were used to obtain 100% penetration and crack-free welds. Cracking susceptability was found to be related to aluminum (Al) content; the higher Al-content material was most susceptable. However, adequate preheat allowed full penetration and crack-free welds to be made in all materials tested. The effect of a post-weld heat treatment on the mechanical properties of these compositions was also determined. The heat treatment produced no significant effect on the ultimate tensile strength. However, the yield strength was decreased and the ductility was increased. These changes are attributed to the formation of AlFeBe 4 and FeBe 11

  20. Preparation of selenium coatings onto beryllium foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erikson, E.D.; Tassano, P.L.; Reiss, R.H.; Griggs, G.E.

    1984-09-01

    A technique for preparing selenium films onto 50.8 microns thick beryllium foils is described. The selenium was deposited in vacuum from a resistance heated evaporation source. Profilometry measurements of the coatings indicate deposit thicknesses of 5.5, 12.9, 37.5, 49.8 and 74.5 microns. The control of deposition rate and of coating thickness was facilitated using a commercially available closed-loop programmable thin film controller. The x-ray transmission of the coated substrates was measured using a tritiated zirconium source. The transmissivities of the film/substrate combination are presented for the range of energies from 4 to 20 keV. 15 references, 3 figures

  1. Electron microscope study of irradiated beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisson, A.A.

    1965-06-01

    The beryllium oxide is studied first by fractography, before and after irradiation, using sintered samples. The fractures are examined under different aspects. The higher density sintered samples, with transgranular fractures are the most interesting for a microscopic study. It is possible to mark the difference between the 'pores' left by the sintering process and the 'bubbles' of gases that can be produced by former thermal treatments. After irradiation, the grain boundaries are very much weakened. By annealing, it is possible to observe the evolution of the gases produced by the reaction (n, 2n) and (n. α) and gathered on the grain boundaries. The irradiated beryllium oxide is afterwards studied by transmission. For that, a simple method has been used: little chips of the crushed material are examined. Clusters of point defects produced by neutrons are thus detected in crystals irradiated at the three following doses: 6 x 10 19 , 9 x 10 19 and 2 x 10 20 n f cm -2 at a temperature below 100 deg. C. For the irradiation at 6 x 10 19 n f cm -2 , the defects are merely visible, but at 2 x l0 20 n f cm -2 the crystals an crowded with clusters and the Kikuchi lines have disappeared from the micro-diffraction diagrams. The evolution of the clusters into dislocation loops is studied by a series of annealings. The activation energy (0,37 eV) calculated from the annealing curves suggests that it must be interstitials that condense into dislocation loops. Samples irradiated at high temperatures (650, 900 and 1100 deg. C) are also studied. In those specimens the size of the loops is not the same as the equilibrium size obtained after out of pile annealing at the same temperature. Those former loops are more specifically studied and their Burgers vector is determined by micro-diffraction. (author) [fr

  2. Consolidated fuel reprocessing program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    A survey of electrochemical methods applications in fuel reprocessing was completed. A dummy fuel assembly shroud was cut using the remotely operated laser disassembly equipment. Operations and engineering efforts have continued to correct equipment operating, software, and procedural problems experienced during the previous uranium compaigns. Fuel cycle options were examined for the liquid metal reactor fuel cycle. In high temperature gas cooled reactor spent fuel studies, preconceptual designs were completed for the concrete storage cask and open field drywell storage concept. These and other tasks operating under the consolidated fuel reprocessing program are examined.

  3. New facility for post irradiation examination of neutron irradiated beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    Beryllium is expected as a neutron multiplier and plasma facing materials in the fusion reactor, and the neutron irradiation data on properties of beryllium up to 800 degrees C need for the engineering design. The acquisition of data on the tritium behavior, swelling, thermal and mechanical properties are first priority in ITER design. Facility for the post irradiation examination of neutron irradiated beryllium was constructed in the hot laboratory of Japan Materials Testing Reactor to get the engineering design data mentioned above. This facility consist of the four glove boxes, dry air supplier, tritium monitoring and removal system, storage box of neutron irradiated samples. Beryllium handling are restricted by the amount of tritium;7.4 GBq/day and 60 Co;7.4 MBq/day

  4. Deuterium permeation and diffusion in high-purity beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, E.; Riehm, M.P.; Thompson, D.A.; Smeltzer, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    The permeation rate of deuterium through high-purity beryllium membranes was measured using the gas-driven permeation technique. The time-dependent and the steady-state deuterium flux data were analyzed and the effective diffusivities of the samples were determined. Using multilayer permeation theory the effects of surface oxide were eliminated and the diffusion coefficients of the bulk beryllium determined. The diffusion parameters obtained for the extra-grade beryllium samples (99.8%) are D 0 =6.7x10 -9 m 2 /s and E D =28.4 kJ/mol. For the high-grade beryllium samples (99%) the parameters are D 0 =8.0x10 -9 m 2 /s and E D =35.1 kJ/mol. (orig.)

  5. Deuterium permeation and diffusion in high purity beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, E.

    1990-05-01

    The permeation rate of deuterium through high-purity beryllium membranes was measured using the gas-driven permeation technique. The time-dependent and the steady-state deuterium flux data were analyzed and the effective diffusivities of the samples were determined. A multilayer permeation theory was used in order to eliminate the surface oxide effects and the diffusion coefficients of the bulk beryllium were determined. The diffusion parameters obtained for the extra-grade beryllium samples (99.8%) are D 0 = 6.7 x 10 -9 [m 2 /s] and E D = 28.4 [KJ/mol]; and for the high-grade beryllium samples (99%) the parameters are D 0 = 8.0 x 10 -9 [m 2 /s] and E D = 35.1 [KJ/mol

  6. Spectrochemical determination of beryllium and lithium in stream sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallimore, D.L.; Hues, A.D.; Palmer, B.A.; Cox, L.E.; Simi, O.R.; Bieniewski, T.M.; Steinhaus, D.W.

    1979-11-01

    A spectrochemical method was developed to analyze 200 or more samples of stream sediments per day for beryllium and lithium. One part of ground stream sediment is mixed with two parts graphite-SiO 2 buffer, packed into a graphite electrode, and excited in a direct-current arc. The resulting emission goes to a 3.4-m, direct-reading, Ebert spectrograph. A desk-top computer system is used to record and process the signals, and to report the beryllium and lithium concentrations. The limits of detection are 0.2 μg/g for beryllium and 0.5 μg/g for lithium. For analyses of prepared reference materials, the relative standard deviations were 16% for determining 0.2 to 100 μg/g of beryllium and 15% for determining 0.5 to 500 μg/g of lithium. A correction is made for vanadium interference

  7. Electropolishing or chemical milling of beryllium to remove machining defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helms, J.R.

    1975-12-01

    The techniques of electropolishing and chemical milling to remove machine damage from beryllium are compared. Both techniques are found to be effective; chemical milling is recommended because it is easier to use and control

  8. Beryllium brazing considerations in CANDU fuel bundle manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmsen, J.; Pant, A.; Lewis, B.J.; Thompson, W.T.

    2010-01-01

    'Full text:' Appendages of CANDU fuel bundle elements are currently joined to zircaloy sheaths by vacuum beryllium brazing. Ongoing environmental and workplace concerns about beryllium combined with the continuous efforts by Cameco Fuel Manufacturing in its improvement process, initiated this study to find a substitute for pure beryllium. The presentation will review the necessary functionality of brazing alloy components and short list a series of alloys with the potential to duplicate the performance of pure beryllium. Modifications to current manufacturing processes based on in-plant testing will be discussed in relation to the use of these alloys. The presentation will conclude with a summary of the progress to date and further testing expected to be necessary.

  9. Health effects of beryllium exposure: a literature review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Beryllium Alloy Exposures, Committee on Toxicology, National Research Council

    2007-01-01

    Beryllium is an important metal that is used in a number of industries-including the defense, aerospace, automotive, medical, and electronics industries-because of its exceptional strength, stability...

  10. Phosphorus-containing azo compounds as analytical reagents for beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisenko, N.F.; Dolzhnikova, E.N.; Petrova, G.S.; Tsvetkov, E.N.; Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel'skij Inst. Khimicheskikh Reaktivov i Osobo Chistykh Veshchestv, Moscow; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Ehlementoorganicheskikh Soedinenij)

    1979-01-01

    The interaction of beryllium with six new azocompounds based on chromotropic or R-acids and o-aminophenyl-phenylphosphonic acids is studied. A sharp difference in the detection limit for beryllium by the two groups of compounds is found. Azoderivatives based on chromotropic acid are promising agent for beryllium due to sufficiently high selectivity. The introduction of the methyl-group into the o-position of the phosphorus-containing group improves the analytical properties of agents. Techniques are developed for the determination of beryllium in bronze, sewage water and in an artificial mixture using a sodium salt of 1.8-dioxi-2 [2' - (oxi- (o-methylphenyl)-phosphenyl)-phenilazo]-naphtalene-3.6-disulfoacid

  11. Beryllium armour produced by evaporation-condensation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimov, A.; Frolov, V.; Moszherin, S.; Pepekin, G.; Pirogov, A.; Komarov, V.; Mazul, I.

    1997-01-01

    Beryllium, as armour material for ITER plasma facing components, has a limited erosion lifetime. In order to repair the surface of eroded tiles in-situ, Be-deposition technologies are under consideration. One of them uses the physical vapour deposition of beryllium on copper or beryllium substrate produced by a hot Be-target placed in the vicinity of this substrate. Three different options for using this technology for ITER Be-armour application are considered. The first option is the repair in-situ of eroded Be-tiles. The second option suggests the use of this technology to provide the joining of Be to Cu-substrate. The third option assumes the use of evaporated-condensed beryllium as a bulk tile material bonded to copper substrate by conventional joining (Brazing et al.) techniques. The first results and prospects of these approaches are presented below. (orig.)

  12. Development of intergranular thermal residual stresses in beryllium during cooling from processing temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)], E-mail: dbrown@lanl.gov; Sisneros, T.A.; Clausen, B.; Abeln, S.; Bourke, M.A.M.; Smith, B.G.; Steinzig, M.L.; Tome, C.N.; Vogel, S.C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    The intergranular thermal residual stresses in texture-free solid polycrystalline beryllium were determined by comparison of crystallographic lattice parameters in solid and powder samples measured by neutron diffraction during cooling from 800 deg. C. The internal stresses are not significantly different from zero >575 deg. C and increase nearly linearly <525 deg. C. At room temperature, the c axis of an average grain is under {approx}200 MPa of compressive internal stress, and the a axis is under 100 MPa of tensile stress. For comparison, the stresses have also been calculated using an Eshelby-type polycrystalline model. The measurements and calculations agree very well when temperature dependence of elastic constants is accounted for, and no plastic relaxation is allowed in the model.

  13. Investigation of anisotropy in EPR spectra of radiation defects in irradiated beryllium ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, A.I.; Ryabikin, Yu.A.; Zashkvara, O. V.; Bitenbaev, M.I.; Petukhov, Yu. V.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In this work results of analysis of anisotropy and hyperfine structure in EPR spectra of paramagnetic defects in irradiated samples of beryllium ceramics are presented. To explain peculiarities in a shape and parameters of the EPR spectrum hyperfine structure in beryllium ceramics, we have analyzed several versions of model representations for the radiation-induced paramagnetic defects uniformly distributed in a sample as well as for cluster defects which hyperfine structure is determined by interactions between electrons and nuclei of impurity atoms (S=1/2) and which are characterized by anisotropy in the g factors. Calculations of a shape of the uniformly widened EPR spectra are carried out by the model of random interactions between electron spins. The EPR spectra, widened at the expense of anisotropy in the g factors, are calculated by the following equation: g(Δ)=[2(ω-ω 0 )+α] -1/2 , where ω 0 =γH 0 , α is the quantify proportional to the anisotropy shift. To describe wings of spectral lines, where the equation doesn't work, we use the Gaussian function. To determine the frequency of precession of electron spins packages with local concentration N loc , the following expression is used: ω=ω 0 +1/2α(3cos 2 θ-1), where θ is an angle between the symmetry axis and the direction of the external magnetic field. It is shown that the best agreement between the calculated and experimental EPR spectra is observed with the following computational model: paramagnetic radiation defects are distributed uniformly over a ceramics sample, and the g factors of its EPR spectra have the anisotropy typical for dipole-dipole interaction in powder samples. By results of the data we obtained, it's clear that in future we'll need in more detailed information than that published in scientific journals about formation of the paramagnetic defect EPR spectra structure in beryllium oxides and ceramics at the expense of resonance line hyperfine splitting on atoms of

  14. Investigation of anisotropy in EPR spectra of radiation defects in irradiated beryllium ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, A I; Ryabikin, Yu A; Zashkvara, O V; Bitenbaev, M I; Petukhov, Yu V [Inst. of Physics and Technology, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2004-07-01

    Full text: In this work results of analysis of anisotropy and hyperfine structure in EPR spectra of paramagnetic defects in irradiated samples of beryllium ceramics are presented. To explain peculiarities in a shape and parameters of the EPR spectrum hyperfine structure in beryllium ceramics, we have analyzed several versions of model representations for the radiation-induced paramagnetic defects uniformly distributed in a sample as well as for cluster defects which hyperfine structure is determined by interactions between electrons and nuclei of impurity atoms (S=1/2) and which are characterized by anisotropy in the g factors. Calculations of a shape of the uniformly widened EPR spectra are carried out by the model of random interactions between electron spins. The EPR spectra, widened at the expense of anisotropy in the g factors, are calculated by the following equation: g({delta})=[2({omega}-{omega}{sub 0})+{alpha}]{sup -1/2}, where {omega}{sub 0}={gamma}H{sub 0}, {alpha} is the quantify proportional to the anisotropy shift. To describe wings of spectral lines, where the equation doesn't work, we use the Gaussian function. To determine the frequency of precession of electron spins packages with local concentration N{sub loc}, the following expression is used: {omega}={omega}{sub 0}+1/2{alpha}(3cos{sup 2}{theta}-1), where {theta} is an angle between the symmetry axis and the direction of the external magnetic field. It is shown that the best agreement between the calculated and experimental EPR spectra is observed with the following computational model: paramagnetic radiation defects are distributed uniformly over a ceramics sample, and the g factors of its EPR spectra have the anisotropy typical for dipole-dipole interaction in powder samples. By results of the data we obtained, it's clear that in future we'll need in more detailed information than that published in scientific journals about formation of the paramagnetic defect EPR spectra structure in

  15. Data Needs for Erosion and Tritium Retention in Beryllium Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braams, B.J.

    2011-07-01

    A Consultants' Meeting was held at IAEA Headquarters 30-31 May 2011 with the aim to provide advice about the scope and aims of a planned IAEA coordinated research project on erosion and tritium retention in beryllium plasma-facing materials and about other activities of the A+M Data Unit in the area of plasma interaction with beryllium surfaces. The present report contains the proceedings, recommendations and conclusions of that Consultants' Meeting. (author)

  16. Consolidation and Disclosure of SPE

    OpenAIRE

    中野, 貴之

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss what kinds of information are demanded by the users of financial statements and what kinds of problems plague the companies using SPE (special purpose equity), while considering the actual situations of the consolidation and disclosure of SPE in Japan. At present, there is the trend of consolidating a broad range of SPE in Japan, etc., but some users of financial statements point out that it became difficult to understand consolidated financial stat...

  17. Impurities effect on the swelling of neutron irradiated beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donne, M.D.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F.

    1995-01-01

    An important factor controlling the swelling behaviour of fast neutron irradiated beryllium is the impurity content which can strongly affect both the surface tension and the creep strength of this material. Being the volume swelling of the old beryllium (early sixties) systematically higher than that of the more modem one (end of the seventies), a sensitivity analysis with the aid of the computer code ANFIBE (ANalysis of Fusion Irradiated BEryllium) to investigate the effect of these material properties on the swelling behaviour of neutron irradiated beryllium has been performed. Two sets of experimental data have been selected: the first one named Western refers to quite recently produced Western beryllium, whilst the second one, named Russian refers to relatively old (early sixties) Russian beryllium containing a higher impurity rate than the Western one. The results obtained with the ANFIBE Code were assessed by comparison with experimental data and the used material properties were compared with the data available in the literature. Good agreement between calculated and measured values has been found

  18. Thermogravimetric analysis of the beryllium/steam reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druyts, Frank E-mail: fdruyts@sckcen.be; Iseghem, Pierre van

    2000-11-01

    In view of the safety assessment of new fusion reactor designs, kinetic data are needed on the beryllium/steam reaction. Therefore, thermogravimetric analysis was used to determine the reactivity of beryllium in steam as a function of temperature, irradiation history and porosity of the samples. To this purpose, reference unirradiated S-200 VHP beryllium samples were compared with specimens irradiated in the BR2 reactor up to fast neutron fluences (E>1 MeV) of respectively 1.6x10{sup 21} n cm{sup -2} (resulting in a helium content of 300 appm He and a theoretical density of 99.9%) and 4x10{sup 22} n cm{sup -2} (21000 appm He, 97.2% theoretical density). Kinetics were parabolic for all tested beryllium types at 600 deg. C. At 700 deg. C, kinetics were parabolic for the unirradiated and irradiated 99.9% dense beryllium, and accelerating/linear for the irradiated 97.2% material. At 800 deg. C, all samples showed accelerating/linear behaviour. There was no influence of porosity on the reaction rate of beryllium in steam within the limited investigated density range, except at 700 deg. C, where the measured reaction rate for the irradiated 97.2% dense samples is an order of magnitude higher than for the irradiated 99.9% dense specimens.

  19. Status of beryllium R and D in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, H.; Ishida, K.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, several R and D program of beryllium for fusion are being promoted in Japan and community of beryllium study is growing up. In the R and D area of beryllium for solid breeding blanket, major subjects are beryllide application for prototype reactor, lifetime evaluation of neutron multiplier, impurity effect of beryllium and recycling of irradiated beryllium. Especially, the study of beryllide application has significant progress in these two years. The basic properties such as tritium inventory, oxidation behavior, steam interaction for stoichiometric Be 12 Ti fabricated by HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing) have been studied and some advantages against beryllium were made clear. For manufacturing technology development, phase diagram and ductility improvement have been studied. And, Be 12 Ti pebbles with the improved microstructure were successfully fabricated by Rotating Electrode Process. In order to enhance the R and D activities, the R and D network consisted of industries, universities and laboratories in all Japan have been organized. Many collaboration and information exchange strongly promotes the R and D and some projects for commercial application have been launched form these activities. Also international collaborative project such as IEA and ISTC have been launched or planned. Recent result of R and D in Japan is described on this paper. (author)

  20. Tensile behavior change depending on the microstructure of a Fe-Cu alloy produced from rapidly solidified powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakisawa, Hideki; Minagawa, Kazumi; Halada, Kohmei

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between consolidating temperature and the tensile behavior of iron alloy produced from Fe-Cu rapidly solidified powder is investigated. Fe-Cu powder fabricated by high-pressure water atomization was consolidated by heavy rolling at 873-1273 K. Microstructural changes were observed and tensile behavior was examined. Tensile behavior varies as the consolidating temperature changes, and these temperature-dependent differences depend on the morphology of the microstructure on the order of micrometers. The sample consolidated at 873 K shows a good strength/elongation balance because the powder microstructure and primary powder boundaries are maintained. The samples consolidated at the higher temperatures have a microstructure of recrystallized grains, and these recrystallized samples show the conventional relationship between tensile behavior and grain size in ordinal bulk materials

  1. Synthesis, Consolidation and Characterization of Sol-gel Derived Tantalum-Tungsten Oxide Thermite Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes, O [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Energetic composite powders consisting of sol-gel (SG) derived nanostructured tungsten oxide were produced with various amounts of micrometer-scale tantalum fuel metal. Such energetic composite powders were ignition-tested and results show that the powders are not sensitive to friction, spark and/or impact ignition. Initial consolidation experiments, using the High Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HPSPS) technique, on the SG derived nanostructured tungsten oxide produced samples with higher relative density than can be achieved with commercially available tungsten oxide. The SG derived nanostructured tungsten oxide with immobilized tantalum fuel metal (Ta - WO3) energetic composite was consolidated to a density of 9.17 g·cm-3 or 93% relative density. In addition, those samples were consolidated without significant pre-reaction of the constituents, thus retaining their stored chemical energy.

  2. Consolidated Copayment Processing Center (CCPC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Consolidated Copayment Processing Center (CCPC) database contains Veteran patient contact and billing information in order to support the printing and mailing of...

  3. Ultrasonic hot powder compaction of Ti-6Al-4V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Rezvan; Abdullah, Amir; Alizadeh, Yunes

    2017-07-01

    Power ultrasonic has been recently employed in a wide variety of manufacturing processes among which ultrasonic assisted powder compaction is a promising powder materials processing technique with significant industrial applications. The products manufactured by the powder metallurgy commonly consist of residual porosities, material impurities, structural non-homogeneities and residual stress. In this paper, it is aimed to apply power ultrasonic to the hot consolidation process of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy powder in order to improve mechanical properties. To do this, the effects of ultrasonic power and process temperature and pressure were considered and then deeply studied through a series of experiments. It was shown that the addition of ultrasonic vibration leads to a significant improvement in the consolidation performance and the mechanical strength of the fabricated specimens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of reduced oxygen content powder on the impact toughness of 316 steel powder joined to 316 steel by low temperature HIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Anders; Sundstroem, Johan; Peacock, Alan

    2005-01-01

    During the manufacture of the blanket modules, 316L steel powder is simultaneously consolidated and joined to tubes and blocks of 316L materials by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The high processing temperature can detrimentally increase the grain size of the water-cooling tubes in the structure and the blocks reducing their strength. It is well known [L. Arnberg, A. Karlsson, Influence of powder surface oxidation on some properties of a HIPed martensitic chromium steel, Int. J. Powder Metall. 24 (2) (1988) 107-112] that surface oxides on the powder particles negatively influence the impact toughness of material and joints consolidated in this way. At a high HIP temperature, the oxides are at least partly transformed, thereby improving the impact toughness [L. Nyborg, I. Olefjord, Surface analysis of PM martensitic steel before and after consolidation. Part 2. Surface analysis of compacted material, Powder Metall. 31 (1) (1988) 40-44]. In order to get acceptable mechanical properties of materials produced at a low HIP temperature, the oxygen content on the powder surfaces needs to be reduced. In order to study the effect of reducing the powder oxygen content, it was reduced and the results were compared to those of specimens with ordinary oxygen content. The effect on the impact toughness and the tensile strength of low temperature (1020 and 1060 deg. C) HIP joints between steel blocks and powder consolidated material with low and ordinary oxygen content was measured

  5. Exposure and genetics increase risk of beryllium sensitisation and chronic beryllium disease in the nuclear weapons industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Michael V; Martyny, John W; Mroz, Margaret M; Silveira, Lori J; Strand, Matt; Cragle, Donna L; Tankersley, William G; Wells, Susan M; Newman, Lee S; Maier, Lisa A

    2011-11-01

    Beryllium sensitisation (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) are caused by exposure to beryllium with susceptibility affected by at least one well-studied genetic host factor, a glutamic acid residue at position 69 (E69) of the HLA-DPβ chain (DPβE69). However, the nature of the relationship between exposure and carriage of the DPβE69 genotype has not been well studied. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between DPβE69 and exposure in BeS and CBD. Current and former workers (n=181) from a US nuclear weapons production facility, the Y-12 National Security Complex (Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA), were enrolled in a case-control study including 35 individuals with BeS and 19 with CBD. HLA-DPB1 genotypes were determined by PCR-SSP. Beryllium exposures were assessed through worker interviews and industrial hygiene assessment of work tasks. After removing the confounding effect of potential beryllium exposure at another facility, multivariate models showed a sixfold (OR 6.06, 95% CI 1.96 to 18.7) increased odds for BeS and CBD combined among DPβE69 carriers and a fourfold (OR 3.98, 95% CI 1.43 to 11.0) increased odds for those exposed over an assigned lifetime-weighted average exposure of 0.1 μg/m(3). Those with both risk factors had higher increased odds (OR 24.1, 95% CI 4.77 to 122). DPβE69 carriage and high exposure to beryllium appear to contribute individually to the development of BeS and CBD. Among workers at a beryllium-using facility, the magnitude of risk associated with either elevated beryllium exposure or carriage of DPβE69 alone appears to be similar.

  6. Beryllium data base for in-pile mockup test on blanket of fusion reactor, (1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Hiroshi; Ishitsuka, Etsuo (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment); Sakamoto, Naoki; Kato, Masakazu; Takatsu, Hideyuki.

    1992-11-01

    Beryllium has been used in the fusion blanket designs with ceramic breeder as a neutron multiplier to increase the net tritium breeding ratio (TBR). The properties of beryllium, that is physical properties, chemical properties, thermal properties, mechanical properties, nuclear properties, radiation effects, etc. are necessary for the fusion blanket design. However, the properties of beryllium have not been arranged for the fusion blanket design. Therefore, it is indispensable to check and examine the material data of beryllium reported previously. This paper is the first one of the series of papers on beryllium data base, which summarizes the reported material data of beryllium. (author).

  7. Powder-metallurgy superalloy strengthened by a secondary gamma phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotval, P. S.

    1971-01-01

    Description of experiments in which prealloyed powders of superalloy compositions were consolidated by extrusion after the strengthening by precipitation of a body-centered tetragonal gamma secondary Ni3 Ta phase. Thin foil electron microscopy showed that the mechanical properties of the resultant powder-metallurgy product were correlated with its microstructure. The product exhibited high strength at 1200 F without loss of ductility, after thermomechanical treatment and aging.

  8. Consolidated fuel reprocessing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuban, D.P.; Noakes, M.W.; Bradley, E.C.

    1987-01-01

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) System consists of three major components: the ASM slave, the dual arm master controller or master, and the control system. The ASM is a remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program of (CFRP). This new manipulator addresses requirements of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing with emphasis on force reflection, remote maintainability, and reliability. It uses an all-gear force transmission system. The master arms were designed as a kinematic replica of ASM and use cable force transmission. Special digital control algorithms were developed to improve the system performance. The system is presently operational and undergoing evaluation. Preliminary testing has been completed and is reported. The system is now undergoing commercialization by transferring the technology to the private sector

  9. Consolidating Social Media Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Munar, Ana Maria; Larson, Mia

    2014-01-01

    This study revisits and integrates the insights of recent studies on emergent social media strategies deployed by destination and event management organisations. In a comparative analysis Munar (2012) identified four generic approaches pursued by national tourism boards in the Nordic region, while...... Gyimóthy & Larson (2014) portrayed three digital value co-creation strategies deployed by festival social media. Both frameworks provided novel analytical typologies which identified a series of categories (mimetic, analytic, immersion, advertising and insourcing, crowdsourcing and community consolidation......). This paper discusses the complementary nature of these conceptual proposals and advances an integrated conceptual framework of social media strategies. Based on the empirical findings of a case study that revisits evolving digital and social media strategies of European DMOs this paper maps the dynamics...

  10. Powder Metallurgy characteristics and application: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.

    2005-01-01

    Powder metallurgy process (P/M) is a near-net or net-shape manufacturing process that combines the features of shape making technology of powder compaction with the development of final material and design properties (physical and mechanical) during subsequent densification or consolidation processes, e.g. sintering. It utilizes the metal powder or powders of metal alloys. In this paper, the major historical developments in P/M are reviewed and discussed. The main parameters involved in the process and their effects on the product characteristics are presented and discussed, which include: powders and methods of their production, particle size and shape, compressibility and additives, sintering temperature and time and finishing processes. The advantages and limitations of powder metallurgy are also presented and discussed. Finally, applications and future developments of the process are outlined and discussed. (author)

  11. Emerging Applications Using Magnesium Alloy Powders: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Rajiv; Madan, Deepak

    The use of powder metallurgy offers a potential processing route based on tailored compositions and unique microstructures to achieve high performance in magnesium alloys. This paper highlights recent advances in the production, qualification, and characterization of gas atomized AZ91E, WE43 and Elektron21 alloy powders. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to understand the bulk and surface structure of the atomized powder. The potential for using these magnesium alloy powders for emerging applications involves establishing compatibility with viable consolidation processes such as cold spray, laser assisted deposition, forging and extrusion. This study summarizes the preliminary results for various ongoing investigations using WE43 powder as an example. Results show that powder metallurgy processed WE43 results in comparable properties to those obtained from cast and wrought and offers potential for improvement.

  12. Consolidated clinical microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautter, Robert L; Thomson, Richard B

    2015-05-01

    The manner in which medical care is reimbursed in the United States has resulted in significant consolidation in the U.S. health care system. One of the consequences of this has been the development of centralized clinical microbiology laboratories that provide services to patients receiving care in multiple off-site, often remote, locations. Microbiology specimens are unique among clinical specimens in that optimal analysis may require the maintenance of viable organisms. Centralized laboratories may be located hours from patient care settings, and transport conditions need to be such that organism viability can be maintained under a variety of transport conditions. Further, since the provision of rapid results has been shown to enhance patient care, effective and timely means for generating and then reporting the results of clinical microbiology analyses must be in place. In addition, today, increasing numbers of patients are found to have infection caused by pathogens that were either very uncommon in the past or even completely unrecognized. As a result, infectious disease specialists, in particular, are more dependent than ever on access to high-quality diagnostic information from clinical microbiology laboratories. In this point-counterpoint discussion, Robert Sautter, who directs a Charlotte, NC, clinical microbiology laboratory that provides services for a 40-hospital system spread over 3 states in the southeastern United States explains how an integrated clinical microbiology laboratory service has been established in a multihospital system. Richard (Tom) Thomson of the NorthShore University HealthSystem in Evanston, IL, discusses some of the problems and pitfalls associated with large-scale laboratory consolidation. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Dry rod consolidation technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, T.L.; Schoonen, D.H.; Feldman, E.M.; Fisher, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is funding a program to consolidate commercial spent fuel for testing in dry storage casks and to develop technology that will be fed into other OCRWM programs, e.g., Prototypical Consolidation Demonstration Program (PCDP). The program is being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by the INEL Operating Contractor EG and G Idaho, Inc. Hardware and software have been designed and fabricated for installation in a hot cell adjacent to the Test Area North (TAN) Hot Shop Facility. This equipment is used to perform dry consolidation of commercial spent fuel from the Virginia Power (VP) Cooperative Agreement Spent Fuel Storage Cask (SFSC) Demonstration Program and assemblies that had previously been stored at the Engine Maintenance and Disassembly (EMAD) facility in Nevada. Consolidation is accomplished by individual, horizontal rod pulling. A computerized semiautomatic control system with operator involvement is utilized to conduct consolidation operations. During consolidation operations, data is taken to characterize this technology. Still photo, video tape, and other documentation will be generated to make developed information available to interested parties. Cold checkout of the hardware and software was completed in September of 1986. Following installation in the hot cell, consolidation operations begins in May 1987. Resulting consolidated fuel will be utilized in the VP Cooperative Agreement SFSC Program

  14. Dry rod consolidation technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, T.L.; Schoonen, D.H.; Fisher, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is funding a Program to consolidate commercial spent fuel for testing in dry storage casks and to develop technology that will be fed into other OCRWM Programs, e.g., Prototypical Consolidation Demonstration Program. The Program is being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by the Operating Contractor, EGandG Idaho, Inc. Hardware and software have been designed and fabricated for installation in a hot cell adjacent to the Test Area North (TAN) Hot Shop Facility. This equipment will be used to perform dry consolidation of commercial spent fuel from the Virginia Power (VP) Cooperative Agreement Spent Fuel Storage Cask (SPSC) Demonstration Program and assemblies that had previously been stored at the Engine Maintenance and Disassembly (EMAD) facility in Nevada. Consolidation will be accomplished by individual, horizontal rod pulling. A computerized semi-automatic control system with operator involvement will be utilized to conduct consolidation operations. Special features have been incorporated in the design to allow crud collection and measurement of rod pulling forces. During consolidation operations, data will be taken to characterize this technology. Still photo, video tape, and other documentation will be generated to make developed information available to interested parties. Cold checkout of the hardware and software will complete in September of 1986. Following installation in the hot cell, consolidation operations will begin in January 1987. Resulting consolidated fuel will be utilized in the VP Cooperative Agreement SFSC Program

  15. The Financial Effects of Consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streifel, James S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examination of 19 school district consolidations in 10 states, 1980-84, revealed that, of 6 expenditure categories, only administration showed significant savings 3 years after consolidation, when compared to changes in state average costs during that period. Changes in other expenditure categories varied widely among districts. Contains 22…

  16. Guide to Direct Consolidation Loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    Intended for financial aid counselors, this document provides guidelines to the Federal Direct Consolidation Loan Program for borrowers who are in school, as well as those in repayment, or in default. An introductory section explains the basics of the consolidated loan program, loan categories, and interest rates. Next, standards for borrower…

  17. District Consolidation: Rivals Coming Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mart, Dan

    2011-01-01

    District consolidation is a highly emotional process. One key to success is sticking to the facts. In Iowa, school districts facing financial difficulties or enrollment concerns do not have to move directly to consolidation. In many cases, districts begin by developing sharing agreements. These sharing agreements may start with simple sharing of…

  18. Proton irradiation effects on beryllium – A macroscopic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simos, Nikolaos, E-mail: simos@bnl.gov [Nuclear Sciences & Technology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 11973 (United States); Elbakhshwan, Mohamed [Nuclear Sciences & Technology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 11973 (United States); Zhong, Zhong [Photon Sciences, NSLS II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 11973 (United States); Camino, Fernando [Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 11973 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Beryllium, due to its excellent neutron multiplication and moderation properties, in conjunction with its good thermal properties, is under consideration for use as plasma facing material in fusion reactors and as a very effective neutron reflector in fission reactors. While it is characterized by unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section it suffers, however, from irradiation generated transmutation gases such as helium and tritium which exhibit low solubility leading to supersaturation of the Be matrix and tend to precipitate into bubbles that coalesce and induce swelling and embrittlement thus degrading the metal and limiting its lifetime. Utilization of beryllium as a pion production low-Z target in high power proton accelerators has been sought both for its low Z and good thermal properties in an effort to mitigate thermos-mechanical shock that is expected to be induced under the multi-MW power demand. To assess irradiation-induced changes in the thermal and mechanical properties of Beryllium, a study focusing on proton irradiation damage effects has been undertaken using 200 MeV protons from the Brookhaven National Laboratory Linac and followed by a multi-faceted post-irradiation analysis that included the thermal and volumetric stability of irradiated beryllium, the stress-strain behavior and its ductility loss as a function of proton fluence and the effects of proton irradiation on the microstructure using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The mimicking of high temperature irradiation of Beryllium via high temperature annealing schemes has been conducted as part of the post-irradiation study. This paper focuses on the thermal stability and mechanical property changes of the proton irradiated beryllium and presents results of the macroscopic property changes of Beryllium deduced from thermal and mechanical tests.

  19. Bonding prediction in friction stir consolidation of aluminum alloys: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffari, Dario; Reynolds, Anthony P.; Li, Xiao; Fratini, Livan

    2018-05-01

    Friction Stir Consolidation (FSC) is a solid-state process that results in consolidation of metal powders or chips producing solid billet through severe plastic deformation and the solid-state bonding phenomena. This process can be used both for primary production and for metal scrap recycling. During the FSC process, a rotating die is plunged into a hollow chamber containing the finely divided, unconsolidated material to be processed. In this paper, a FEM numerical model for the prediction of the quality of the consolidated billet is presented. In particular, a dedicated bonding criterion that takes into account the peculiar process mechanics of this innovative technology is proposed.

  20. The effect of reduced oxygen content powder on the impact toughness of 316 steel powder joined to 316 steel by low temperature HIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Anders; Sundstroem, Johan

    2004-11-01

    During the manufacture of the blanket modules, 316L steel powder is simultaneously consolidated and joined to tubes and blocks of 316L materials by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP). The high processing temperature can detrimentally increase the grain size of the water cooling tubes in the structure and the blocks reducing their strength. It is well known that surface oxides on the powder particles negatively influence the impact toughness of material and joints consolidated in this way. By increasing the consolidation temperature the metallurgical bonding is improved, due to a redistribution of oxygen within the oxide layer towards more discrete oxide particles. In order to get acceptable mechanical properties of materials produced at a low HIP temperature the oxygen content on the powder surfaces needs to be reduced. The aim of this new techniques to reduce the oxygen content of the metal powder. The influence on Charpy impact energy and tensile strength were demonstrated

  1. Vapor pressure and thermodynamics of beryllium carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinehart, G.H.; Behrens, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    The vapor pressure of beryllium carbide has been measured over the temperature range 1388 to 1763 K using Knudsen-effusion mass spectrometry. Vaporization occurs incongruently according to the reaction Be 2 C(s) = 2Be(g) + C(s). The equilibrium vapor pressure above the mixture of Be 2 C and C over the experimental temperature range is (R/J K -1 mol -1 )ln(p/Pa) = -(3.610 +- 0.009) x 10 5 (K/T) + (221.43 +- 1.06). The third-law enthalpy change for the above reaction obtained from the present vapor pressures is ΔH 0 (298.15 K) = (740.5 +- 0.1) kJ mol -1 . The corresponding second-law result is ΔH 0 (298.15 K) = (732.0 +- 1.8) kJ mol -1 . The enthalpy of formation for Be 2 C(s) calculated from the present third-law vaporization enthalpy and the enthalpy of formation of Be(g) is ΔH 0 sub(f)(298.15 K) = -(92.5 +- 15.7) kJ mol -1 . (author)

  2. Microstructural study of hydrogen-implanted beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagin, S.P.; Chakrov, P.V.; Utkelbayev, B.D.

    1998-01-01

    Hot pressed beryllium (TGP-56) was implanted by 650 keV H + ions to a dose of 6.7 x 10 16 cm -2 at a temperature below 50 C. TEM examinations were performed both at as-irradiated specimens and after post-irradiation annealings at 400-600 C for 15 min. After irradiation, a high density of ''black dot'' defects with a size of about 5 nm is observed in the straggling zone, some of which are resolved as small dislocation loops. During post-irradiation annealing, growth of dislocation loops and oriented gas-filled bubbles are observed in the damaged zone. The bubbles are strongly elongated along the left angle 0001 right angle direction, and their sidelong facts lie along {1-100} planes. These facets have a regular ''toothed'' surface with ''tooth'' facets on {1-100} planes. The size of the ''teeth'' increases with annealing temperature, as well as the total volume of bubbles, with their length growing faster than their width. (orig.)

  3. Beryllium application in ITER plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffray, A.R.; Federici, G.; Barabash, V.; Cardella, A.; Jakeman, R.; Ioki, K.; Janeschitz, G.; Parker, R.; Tivey, R.; Pacher, H.D.; Wu, C.H.; Bartels, H.W.

    1997-01-01

    Beryllium is a candidate armour material for the in-vessel components of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), namely the primary first wall, the limiter, the baffle and the divertor. However, a number of issues arising from the performance requirements of the ITER plasma facing components (PFCs) must be addressed to better assess the attractiveness of Be as armour for these different components. These issues include heat loading limits arising from temperature and stress constraints under steady state conditions, armour lifetime including the effects of sputtering erosion as well as vaporisation and loss of melt during disruption events, tritium retention and permeation, and chemical hazards, in particular with respect to potential Be/steam reaction. Other issues such as fabrication and the possibility of in-situ repair are not performance-dependent but have an important impact on the overall assessment of Be as PFC armour. This paper describes the present view on Be application for ITER PFCs. The key issues are discussed including an assessment of the current level of understanding based on analysis and experimental data; and on-going activities as part of the ITER EDA R and D program are highlighted. (orig.)

  4. Steam-chemical reactivity for irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, R.A.; McCarthy, K.A.; Oates, M.A.; Petti, D.A.; Pawelko, R.J.; Smolik, G.R. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation to determine the influence of neutron irradiation effects and annealing on the chemical reactivity of beryllium exposed to steam. The work entailed measurements of the H{sub 2} generation rates for unirradiated and irradiated Be and for irradiated Be that had been previously annealed at different temperatures ranging from 450degC to 1200degC. H{sub 2} generation rates were similar for irradiated and unirradiated Be in steam-chemical reactivity experiments at temperatures between 450degC and 600degC. For irradiated Be exposed to steam at 700degC, the chemical reactivity accelerated rapidly and the specimen experienced a temperature excursion. Enhanced chemical reactivity at temperatures between 400degC and 600degC was observed for irradiated Be annealed at temperatures of 700degC and higher. This reactivity enhancement could be accounted for by the increased specific surface area resulting from development of a surface-connected porosity in the irradiated-annealed Be. (author)

  5. The unusual properties of beryllium surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpf, R.; Hannon, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    Be is a ''marginal metal.'' The stable phase, hcp-Be, has a low Fermi-level density of states and very anisotropic structural and elastic properties, similar to a semiconductor's. At the Be(0001) surface, surface states drastically increase the Fermi-level density of states. The different nature of bonding in bulk-Be and at the Be(0001) surface explains the large outward relaxation. The presence of surface states causes large surface core-level shifts by inducing a higher electrostatic potential in the surface layers and by improving the screening at the surface. The authors experimental and theoretical investigations of atomic vibrations at the Be(0001) surface demonstrate clearly that Be screening of atomic motion by the surface states makes the surface phonon dispersion fundamentally different from that of the bulk. Properties of Be(0001) are so different from those of the bulk that the surface can be considered a new ''phase'' of beryllium with unique electronic and structural characteristics. For comparison they also study Be(11 bar 20), a very open surface without important surface states. Be(11 bar 20) is the only clean s-p metal surface known to reconstruct (1 x 3 missing row reconstruction)

  6. Beryllium parabolic refractive x-ray lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengeler, B.; Schroer, C.G.; Kuhlmann, M.; Benner, B.; Guenzler, T.F.; Kurapova, O.; Somogyi, A.; Snigirev, A.; Snigireva, I.

    2004-01-01

    Parabolic refractive x-ray lenses are novel optical components for the hard x-ray range from about 5 keV to about 120 keV. They focus in both directions. They are compact, robust, and easy to align and to operate. They can be used like glass lenses are used for visible light, the main difference being that the numerical aperture N.A. is much smaller than 1 (of order 10-4 to 10-3). Their main applications are in micro- and nanofocusing, in imaging by absorption and phase contrast and in fluorescence mode. In combination with tomography they allow for 3-dimensional imaging of opaque media with submicrometer resolution. Finally, they can be used in speckle spectroscopy by means of coherent x-ray scattering. Beryllium as lens material strongly enhances the transmission and the field of view as compared to aluminium. With increased N.A. the lateral resolution is also considerably improved with Be lenses. References to a number of applications are given

  7. Validation of cleaning method for various parts fabricated at a Beryllium facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Cynthia M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated and documented a cleaning process that is used to clean parts that are fabricated at a beryllium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of evaluating this cleaning process was to validate and approve it for future use to assure beryllium surface levels are below the Department of Energy’s release limits without the need to sample all parts leaving the facility. Inhaling or coming in contact with beryllium can cause an immune response that can result in an individual becoming sensitized to beryllium, which can then lead to a disease of the lungs called chronic beryllium disease, and possibly lung cancer. Thirty aluminum and thirty stainless steel parts were fabricated on a lathe in the beryllium facility, as well as thirty-two beryllium parts, for the purpose of testing a parts cleaning method that involved the use of ultrasonic cleaners. A cleaning method was created, documented, validated, and approved, to reduce beryllium contamination.

  8. Controlling Beryllium Contaminated Material And Equipment For The Building 9201-5 Legacy Material Disposition Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, T.D.; Easterling, S.D.

    2010-01-01

    This position paper addresses the management of beryllium contamination on legacy waste. The goal of the beryllium management program is to protect human health and the environment by preventing the release of beryllium through controlling surface contamination. Studies have shown by controlling beryllium surface contamination, potential airborne contamination is reduced or eliminated. Although there are areas in Building 9201-5 that are contaminated with radioactive materials and mercury, only beryllium contamination is addressed in this management plan. The overall goal of this initiative is the compliant packaging and disposal of beryllium waste from the 9201-5 Legacy Material Removal (LMR) Project to ensure that beryllium surface contamination and any potential airborne release of beryllium is controlled to levels as low as practicable in accordance with 10 CFR 850.25.

  9. Beryllium processing technology review for applications in plasma-facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Jacobson, L.A.; Stanek, P.W.

    1993-07-01

    Materials research and development activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), i.e., the next generation fusion reactor, are investigating beryllium as the first-wall containment material for the reactor. Important in the selection of beryllium is the ability to process, fabricate and repair beryllium first-wall components using existing technologies. Two issues that will need to be addressed during the engineering design activity will be the bonding of beryllium tiles in high-heat-flux areas of the reactor, and the in situ repair of damaged beryllium tiles. The following review summarizes the current technology associated with welding and joining of beryllium to itself and other materials, and the state-of-the-art in plasma-spray technology as an in situ repair technique for damaged beryllium tiles. In addition, a review of the current status of beryllium technology in the former Soviet Union is also included

  10. Beryllium processing technology review for applications in plasma-facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, R.G.; Jacobson, L.A.; Stanek, P.W.

    1993-07-01

    Materials research and development activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), i.e., the next generation fusion reactor, are investigating beryllium as the first-wall containment material for the reactor. Important in the selection of beryllium is the ability to process, fabricate and repair beryllium first-wall components using existing technologies. Two issues that will need to be addressed during the engineering design activity will be the bonding of beryllium tiles in high-heat-flux areas of the reactor, and the in situ repair of damaged beryllium tiles. The following review summarizes the current technology associated with welding and joining of beryllium to itself and other materials, and the state-of-the-art in plasma-spray technology as an in situ repair technique for damaged beryllium tiles. In addition, a review of the current status of beryllium technology in the former Soviet Union is also included.

  11. High heat flux tests on beryllium and beryllium-copper joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roedig, M.; Duwe, R.; Linke, J.; Schuster, A.

    1997-01-01

    A large test program has been set up to evaluate the performance of beryllium as a plasma facing material for the divertor in thermonuclear fusion devices. Simulation of steady state heat loads of 5 MWm -2 and above on actively cooled divertor modules, and off-normal plasma conditions with energy densities in the range 1-7 MJm -2 , have been investigated. Thermal shock tests were carried out with the ITER reference grade S65-C and several Russian grades of beryllium. At incident energies up to 7 MJm -2 the best erosion behaviour is observed for S65-C and for TGP-56. Steady state heating tests with actively cooled Be/Cu mock-ups were performed at incident powers of up to 5.8 MWm -2 . All samples investigated in these tests did not show any indications of failure. A Be/Cu mock-ups with Incusil braze was loaded in thermal fatigue up to 500 cycles at an incident power of 4.8 MWm -2 . Up to the end of the experiment no temperature increase of the surface and no indication of failure was observed. (orig.)

  12. Spectrographic determination of beryllium in the atmosphere; Dosage spectrographique du beryllium dans l'atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soudain, G; Morawek, T [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Since the apparatus for continuous determination of beryllium is not yet perfect, a discontinuous method has been developed. The air to be analysed is filtered, and the dust laden filter is dissolved in a mixture of sulphuric and nitric acid. The pH and the conductivity of the solution obtained were adjusted to standard values, and it was then analysed spectro-graphically by the rotating sector method. Up to 0.01 x 10{sup 6} of Be per cm{sup 3} of solution can be detected. The precision is of the order of 10 per cent. (author) [French] Les appareils de dosage du beryllium en continu n'etant pas encore suffisamment au point, on a elabore une methode discontinue. L'air a analyser est filtre et le filtre charge de poussieres est mis en solution par une attaque sulfo-nitrique. La solution obtenue est normalisee par ajustage de son PH et de sa conductivite puis analysee spectrographiquement par la methode du disque tournant. On peut detecter jusqu'a 0,01.10{sup 6} de Be par cm{sup 3} de solution. La precision est de l'ordre de 10 pour cent. (auteur)

  13. Erosion of beryllium under ITER – Relevant transient plasma loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupriyanov, I.B.; Nikolaev, G.N.; Kurbatova, L.A.; Porezanov, N.P.; Podkovyrov, V.L.; Muzichenko, A.D.; Zhitlukhin, A.M.; Gervash, A.A.; Safronov, V.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the erosion, mass loss/gain and surface structure evolution of Be/CuCrZr mock-ups, armored with beryllium of TGP-56FW grade after irradiation by deuterium plasma heat load of 0.5 MJ/m 2 at 250 °C and 500 °C. • Beryllium mass loss/erosion under plasma heat load at 250 °C is rather small (no more than 0.2 g/m 2 shot and 0.11 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 40 shots) and tends to decrease with increasing number of shots. • Beryllium mass loss/erosion under plasma heat load at 500 °C is much higher (∼2.3 g/m 2 shot and 1.2 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 10 shot) and tends to decrease with increasing the number of shots (∼0.26 g/m 2 pulse and 0.14 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 100 shot). • Beryllium erosion value derived from the measurements of profile of irradiated surface is much higher than erosion value derived from mass loss data. - Abstract: Beryllium will be used as a armor material for the ITER first wall. It is expected that erosion of beryllium under transient plasma loads such as the edge-localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions will mainly determine a lifetime of the ITER first wall. This paper presents the results of recent experiments with the Russian beryllium of TGP-56FW ITER grade on QSPA-Be plasma gun facility. The Be/CuCrZr mock-ups were exposed to up to 100 shots by deuterium plasma streams (5 cm in diameter) with pulse duration of 0.5 ms and heat loads range of 0.2–0.5 MJ/m 2 at different temperature of beryllium tiles. The temperature of Be tiles has been maintained about 250 and 500 °C during the experiments. After 10, 40 and 100 shots, the beryllium mass loss/gain under erosion process were investigated as well as evolution of surface microstructure and cracks morphology

  14. Erosion of beryllium under ITER – Relevant transient plasma loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriyanov, I.B., E-mail: igkupr@gmail.com [A.A. Bochvar High Technology Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Rogova St. 5a, 123060 Moscow (Russian Federation); Nikolaev, G.N.; Kurbatova, L.A.; Porezanov, N.P. [A.A. Bochvar High Technology Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Rogova St. 5a, 123060 Moscow (Russian Federation); Podkovyrov, V.L.; Muzichenko, A.D.; Zhitlukhin, A.M. [TRINITI, Troitsk, Moscow reg. (Russian Federation); Gervash, A.A. [Efremov Research Institute, S-Peterburg (Russian Federation); Safronov, V.M. [Project Center of ITER, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • We study the erosion, mass loss/gain and surface structure evolution of Be/CuCrZr mock-ups, armored with beryllium of TGP-56FW grade after irradiation by deuterium plasma heat load of 0.5 MJ/m{sup 2} at 250 °C and 500 °C. • Beryllium mass loss/erosion under plasma heat load at 250 °C is rather small (no more than 0.2 g/m{sup 2} shot and 0.11 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 40 shots) and tends to decrease with increasing number of shots. • Beryllium mass loss/erosion under plasma heat load at 500 °C is much higher (∼2.3 g/m{sup 2} shot and 1.2 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 10 shot) and tends to decrease with increasing the number of shots (∼0.26 g/m{sup 2} pulse and 0.14 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 100 shot). • Beryllium erosion value derived from the measurements of profile of irradiated surface is much higher than erosion value derived from mass loss data. - Abstract: Beryllium will be used as a armor material for the ITER first wall. It is expected that erosion of beryllium under transient plasma loads such as the edge-localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions will mainly determine a lifetime of the ITER first wall. This paper presents the results of recent experiments with the Russian beryllium of TGP-56FW ITER grade on QSPA-Be plasma gun facility. The Be/CuCrZr mock-ups were exposed to up to 100 shots by deuterium plasma streams (5 cm in diameter) with pulse duration of 0.5 ms and heat loads range of 0.2–0.5 MJ/m{sup 2} at different temperature of beryllium tiles. The temperature of Be tiles has been maintained about 250 and 500 °C during the experiments. After 10, 40 and 100 shots, the beryllium mass loss/gain under erosion process were investigated as well as evolution of surface microstructure and cracks morphology.

  15. Preparation of copper-beryllium alloys from Indian beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, C.M.; Sharma, B.P.; Subba Rao, K.S.; Rajadhyaksha, M.G.; Sundaram, C.V.

    1975-01-01

    The report presents the results of laboratory scale investigations on the preparation of copper-beryllium and aluminium-beryllium master alloys starting from Indian beryl and adopting the fluoride process. The flow-sheet involves : (1) conversion of the Be-values in beryl into water soluble sodium beryllium fluoride (2) preparation of beryllium hydroxide by alkali treatment of aqueous Na 2 BeF 4 (3) conversion of Be(OH) 2 to (NH 4 ) 2 BeF 4 by treatment with NH 4 HF 2 (4) thermal decomposition of (NH 4 ) 2 BeF 4 to BeF 2 and (5) magnesium reduction of BeF 2 (with the addition of copper/aluminium) to obtain beryllium alloys. The method has been successfully employed for the preparation of Cu-Be master alloys containing about 8% Be and free of Mg on a 200 gm scale. An overall Be-recovery of about 80% has been achieved. Al-8% Be master alloys have also been prepared by this method. Toxicity and health hazards associated with Be are discussed and the steps taken to ensure safe handling of Be are described. (author)

  16. Compatibility of stainless steels and lithiated ceramics with beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, T.; Fauvet, P.; Sannier, J.

    1988-07-01

    The introduction of beryllium as a neutron multiplier in ceramic blankets of thermonuclear fusion reactors may give rise to the following compatibility problems: (i) oxidation of Be by ceramics (lithium aluminate and silicates) or by water vapour; (ii) interaction between beryllium and austenitic and martensitic steels. The studies were done in contact tests under vacuum and in tests under wet sweeping helium. The contact tests under vacuum have revealed that the interaction of beryllium with ceramics seems to be low up to 700°C, the interaction of beryllium with steels is significant and is characterized by the formation of a diffusion layer and of a brittle Be-Fe-Ni compound. With type 316 L austenitic steel, this interaction appears quite large at 600°C whereas it is noticeable only at 700°C with martensitic steels. The experiments carried out with sweeping wet helium at 600°C have evidenced a slight oxidation of beryllium due to water vapour which can be enhanced in the front of uncompletely dehydrated ceramics.

  17. Preparation of copper-beryllium alloys from Indian beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, C.M.; Sharma, B.P.; Subba Rao, K.S.; Rajadhyaksha, M.G.; Sundaram, C.V.

    1975-01-01

    The paper presents the results of laboratory-scale investigations on the preparation of copper-beryllium and aluminium beryllium master alloys starting from Indian beryl and adopting the fluoride process. The flowsheet involves: (1) conversion of the Be-values in beryl into water soluble sodium beryllium fluoride, (2) preparation of beryllium hydroxide by alkali treatment of aqueous Na 2 BeF 4 (3) conversion of Be(OH) 2 to (NH 4 ) 2 BeF 4 by treatment with NH 4 HF 2 (4) thermal decomposition of (NH 4 ) 2 BeF 4 to BeF 2 and (5) magnesium reduction of BeF 2 (without/with) the addition of copper/aluminium to obtain beryllium metal/alloys. The method has been successfully employed for the preparation of Cu-Be master alloys containing about 8% Be and free of Mg on a 200 gm scale. A1-80% Be master alloys have also been prepared by this method. Toxicity and health hazards associated with Be are discussed and the steps taken to ensure safe handling of Be are described. (author)

  18. Erosion of beryllium under ITER - Relevant transient plasma loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupriyanov, I. B.; Nikolaev, G. N.; Kurbatova, L. A.; Porezanov, N. P.; Podkovyrov, V. L.; Muzichenko, A. D.; Zhitlukhin, A. M.; Gervash, A. A.; Safronov, V. M.

    2015-08-01

    Beryllium will be used as a armor material for the ITER first wall. It is expected that erosion of beryllium under transient plasma loads such as the edge-localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions will mainly determine a lifetime of the ITER first wall. This paper presents the results of recent experiments with the Russian beryllium of TGP-56FW ITER grade on QSPA-Be plasma gun facility. The Be/CuCrZr mock-ups were exposed to up to 100 shots by deuterium plasma streams (5 cm in diameter) with pulse duration of 0.5 ms and heat loads range of 0.2-0.5 MJ/m2 at different temperature of beryllium tiles. The temperature of Be tiles has been maintained about 250 and 500 °C during the experiments. After 10, 40 and 100 shots, the beryllium mass loss/gain under erosion process were investigated as well as evolution of surface microstructure and cracks morphology.

  19. Structure/property relationships in multipass GMA welding of beryllium.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochanadel, P. W. (Patrick W.); Hults, W. L. (William L.); Thoma, D. J. (Dan J.); Dave, V. R. (Vivek R.); Kelly, A. M. (Anna Marie); Pappin, P. A. (Pallas A.); Cola, M. J. (Mark J.); Burgardt, P. (Paul)

    2001-01-01

    Beryllium is an interesting metal that has a strength to weight ratio six times that of steel. Because of its unique mechanical properties, beryllium is used in aerospace applications such as satellites. In addition, beryllium is also used in x-ray windows because it is nearly transparent to x-rays. Joining of beryllium has been studied for decades (Ref.l). Typically joining processes include braze-welding (either with gas tungsten arc or gas metal arc), soldering, brazing, and electron beam welding. Cracking which resulted from electron beam welding was recently studied to provide structure/property relationships in autogenous welds (Ref. 2). Braze-welding utilizes a welding arc to melt filler, and only a small amount of base metal is melted and incorporated into the weld pool. Very little has been done to characterize the braze-weld in terms of the structure/property relationships, especially with reference to multipass welding. Thus, this investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effects of multiple passes on microstructure, weld metal composition, and resulting material properties for beryllium welded with aluminum-silicon filler metal.

  20. The results of medical surveillance of beryllium production personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koviazin, A.; Urikh, A.; Kovianzina, L.

    2004-01-01

    The report presents results of surveillance of 1836 workers of beryllium production of Ulba Metallurgical Plant JSC with the acute and chronic forms of occupation diseases for 52 years of its operation. The dependence of acute and chronic occupation lesions on the protection degree is shown. It has been found out that, the risk of getting an occupation disease increases sharply at the moments of experimental works and at the time of reconstruction and some other extreme conditions in the production, that is supported by fixed lesions of eye mucous coat, skin and lung lesions. In this case, the readiness of people for their work in deleterious conditions and their personal responsibility for following the regulations of safety occupational standards plays a definite role. Therefore, the issues of protection are of paramount importance in prophylaxis both of acute and chronic exposure to beryllium. An influence of duration of service and occupation on chronic beryllium diseases is shown. A parallel between the lung beryllium disease and skin lesions by insoluble beryllium compounds is drawn for the first time. (author)

  1. Report of a technical evaluation panel on the use of beryllium for ITER plasma facing material and blanket breeder material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrickson, M.A. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Manly, W.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dombrowski, D.E. [Brush Wellman, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    Beryllium because of its low atomic number and high thermal conductivity, is a candidate for both ITER first wall and divertor surfaces. This study addresses the following: why beryllium; design requirements for the ITER divertor; beryllium supply and unirradiated physical/mechanical property database; effects of irradiation on beryllium properties; tritium issues; beryllium health and safety; beryllium-coolant interactions and safety; thermal and mechanical tests; plasma erosion of beryllium; recommended beryllium grades for ITER plasma facing components; proposed manufacturing methods to produce beryllium parts for ITER; emerging beryllium materials; proposed inspection and maintenance techniques for beryllium components and coatings; time table and costs; and the importance of integrating materials and manufacturing personnel with designers.

  2. Report of a technical evaluation panel on the use of beryllium for ITER plasma facing material and blanket breeder material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrickson, M.A.; Manly, W.D.; Dombrowski, D.E.

    1995-08-01

    Beryllium because of its low atomic number and high thermal conductivity, is a candidate for both ITER first wall and divertor surfaces. This study addresses the following: why beryllium; design requirements for the ITER divertor; beryllium supply and unirradiated physical/mechanical property database; effects of irradiation on beryllium properties; tritium issues; beryllium health and safety; beryllium-coolant interactions and safety; thermal and mechanical tests; plasma erosion of beryllium; recommended beryllium grades for ITER plasma facing components; proposed manufacturing methods to produce beryllium parts for ITER; emerging beryllium materials; proposed inspection and maintenance techniques for beryllium components and coatings; time table and costs; and the importance of integrating materials and manufacturing personnel with designers

  3. Experimental studies and modeling of processes of hydrogen isotopes interaction with beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazhibaeva, I.L.; Chikhray, Y.V.; Romanenko, O.G.; Klepikov, A.Kh.; Shestakov, V.P.; Kulsartov, T.V. [Science Research Inst. of Experimental and Theoretical Physics of Kazakh State Univ., Almaty (Kazakhstan); Kenzhin, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this work was to clarify the surface beryllium oxide influence on hydrogen-beryllium interaction characteristics. Analysis of experimental data and modeling of processes of hydrogen isotopes accumulation, diffusion and release from neutron irradiated beryllium was used to achieve this purpose as well as the investigations of the changes of beryllium surface element composition being treated by H{sup +} and Ar{sup +} plasma glowing discharge. (author)

  4. Foundations of powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libenson, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Consideration is being given to physicochemical foundations and technology of metal powders, moulding and sintering of bars, made of them or their mixtures with nonmetal powders. Data on he design of basic equipment used in the processes of powder metallurgy and its servicing are presented. General requirements of safety engineering when fabricating metal powders and products of them are mentioned

  5. Consolidating NASA's Arc Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboni, John A.; Gokcen, Tahir; Hui, Frank C. L.; Graube, Peter; Morrissey, Patricia; Lewis, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the consolidation of NASA's high powered arc-jet testing at a single location. The existing plasma arc-jet wind tunnels located at the Johnson Space Center were relocated to Ames Research Center while maintaining NASA's technical capability to ground-test thermal protection system materials under simulated atmospheric entry convective heating. The testing conditions at JSC were reproduced and successfully demonstrated at ARC through close collaboration between the two centers. New equipment was installed at Ames to provide test gases of pure nitrogen mixed with pure oxygen, and for future nitrogen-carbon dioxide mixtures. A new control system was custom designed, installed and tested. Tests demonstrated the capability of the 10 MW constricted-segmented arc heater at Ames meets the requirements of the major customer, NASA's Orion program. Solutions from an advanced computational fluid dynamics code were used to aid in characterizing the properties of the plasma stream and the surface environment on the calorimeters in the supersonic flow stream produced by the arc heater.

  6. Consolidated Financial Statements

    OpenAIRE

    Kolářová, Pavla

    2014-01-01

    Diplomová práce se zabývá problematikou konsolidace účetní závěrky. Práce je členěna na dvě části. První část je zaměřena na sestavení konsolidované účetní závěrky za českou část skupiny podniků. Druhá část se zabývá analýzou výkonnosti sestavené konsolidované účetní závěrky a jednotlivých společností finančními ukazateli. Práce rovněž obsahuje návrhy na zlepšení ekonomické situace holdingu či jednotlivých společností. Master's thesis deals with the consolidation of the financial statement...

  7. Melting of Uranium Metal Powders with Residual Salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin-Mok Hur; Dae-Seung Kang; Chung-Seok Seo

    2007-01-01

    The Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process (ACP) of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute focuses on the conditioning of Pressurized Water Reactor spent oxide nuclear fuel. After the oxide reduction step of the ACP, the resultant metal powders containing ∼ 30 wt% residual LiCl-Li 2 O should be melted for a consolidation of the fine metal powders. In this study, we investigated the melting behaviors of uranium metal powders considering the effects of a LiCl-Li 2 O residual salt. (authors)

  8. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's beryllium control program for high-explosive test firing bunkers and tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    This detailed report on Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's control program to minimize beryllium levels in Laboratory workplaces includes an outline of beryllium surface, soil, and air levels and an 11-y summary of sampling results from two high-use, high-explosive test firing bunkers. These sampling data and other studies demonstrate that the beryllium control program is funcioning effectively

  9. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's beryllium control program for high-explosive test firing bunkers and tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    This report on the control program to minimize beryllium levels in Laboratory workplaces includes an outline of beryllium surface, soil, and air levels and an 11-y summary of sampling results from two high-use, high-explosive test firing bunkers. These sampling data and other studies demonstrate that the beryllium control program is functioning effectively

  10. The Effect Of Beryllium Interaction With Fast Neutrons On the Reactivity Of ETRR-2 Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, M.; El Messiry, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of beryllium interactions with fast neutrons is studied for Etrr 2 research reactors. Isotope build up inside beryllium blocks is calculated under different irradiation times. a new model for the Etrr 2 research reactor is designed using MCNP code to calculate the reactivity and flux change of the reactor due to beryllium poison

  11. Fundamentals of powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.H.; Qureshi, K.A.; Minhas, J.I.

    1988-01-01

    This book is being presented to introduce the fundamentals of technology of powder metallurgy. An attempt has been made to present an overall view of powder metallurgy technology in the first chapter, whereas chapter 2 to 8 deal with the production of metal powders. The basic commercial methods of powder production are briefly described with illustrations. Chapter 9 to 12 describes briefly metal powder characteristics and principles of testing, mixing, blending, conditioning, compaction and sintering. (orig./A.B.)

  12. The uses and adverse effects of beryllium on health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Ross G.; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2009-01-01

    published in sources unobtainable through requests at the British Library, and some had no impact factor and were excluded. Conclusion: Beryllium has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being. Measures needed to be taken to prevent hazardous exposure to this element, making its......Context: This review describes the health effects of beryllium exposure in the workplace and the environment. Aim: To collate information on the consequences of occupational and environmental exposure to beryllium on physiological function and well being. Materials and Methods: The criteria used...... tabulated. Years 2001-10 gave the greatest match (45.9%) for methodological parameters, followed by 27.71% for 1991-2000. Years 1971-80 and 1981-90 were not significantly different in the information published and available whereas years 1951-1960 showed a lack of suitable articles. Some articles were...

  13. On modeling of beryllium molten depths in simulated plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsotridis, G.; Rother, H.

    1996-01-01

    Plasma-facing components in tokamak-type fusion reactors are subjected to intense heat loads during plasma disruptions. The influence of high heat fluxes on the depth of heat-affected zones of pure beryllium metal and beryllium containing very low levels of surface active impurities is studied by using a two-dimensional transient computer model that solves the equations of motion and energy. Results are presented for a range of energy densities and disruption times. Under certain conditions, impurities, through their effect on surface tension, create convective flows and hence influence the flow intensities and the resulting depths of the beryllium molten layers during plasma disruptions. The calculated depths of the molten layers are also compared with other mathematical models that are based on the assumption that heat is transported through the material by conduction only. 32 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  14. On kinetics of paramagnetic radiation defects accumulation in beryllium ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, A.I.; Ryabikin, Yu.A.; Zashkvara, O.V.; Bitenbaev, M.I.; Petykhov, Yu.V.

    1999-01-01

    Results of paramagnetic radiation defects concentration dependence study in beryllium ceramics from gamma-irradiation dose ( 60 Co) within interval 0-100 Mrem are cited. Obtained dose dependence has form of accumulation curve with saturation typical of for majority of solids (crystals, different polymers, organic substances and others) , in which under irradiation occur not only formation of paramagnetic radiation defects, but its destruction due to recombination and interaction with radiation fields. Analysis of accumulation curve by the method of distant asymptotics allows to determine that observed in gamma-irradiated beryllium ceramics double line of electron spin resonance is forming of two types of paramagnetic radiation defects. It was defined, that sum paramagnetic characteristics of beryllium ceramics within 1-100 Mrad gamma- irradiation dose field change insignificantly and define from first type of paramagnetic radiation defects

  15. Ab Initio Simulation Beryllium in Solid Molecular Hydrogen: Elastic Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Carlo L.; Perlado, Jose M.

    2016-03-01

    In systems of inertial confinement fusion targets Deuterium-Tritium are manufactured with a solid layer, it must have specific properties to increase the efficiency of ignition. Currently there have been some proposals to model the phases of hydrogen isotopes and hence their high pressure, but these works do not allow explaining some of the structures present at the solid phase change effect of increased pressure. By means of simulation with first principles methods and Quantum Molecular Dynamics, we compare the structural difference of solid molecular hydrogen pure and solid molecular hydrogen with beryllium, watching beryllium inclusion in solid hydrogen matrix, we obtain several differences in mechanical properties, in particular elastic constants. For C11 the difference between hydrogen and hydrogen with beryllium is 37.56%. This may produce a non-uniform initial compression and decreased efficiency of ignition.

  16. Extraction of beryllium sulfate by a long chain amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etaix, E.S.

    1968-01-01

    The extraction of sulfuric acid in aqueous solution by a primary amine in benzene solution, 3-9 (diethyl) - 6-amino tri-decane (D.E.T. ) - i.e., with American nomenclature 1-3 (ethyl-pentyl) - 4-ethyl-octyl amine (E.P.O.) - has made it possible to calculate the formation constants of alkyl-ammonium sulfate and acid sulfate. The formula of the beryllium and alkyl-ammonium sulfate complex formed in benzene has next been determined, for various initial acidity of the aqueous solution. Lastly, evidence has been given of negatively charged complexes of beryllium and sulfate in aqueous solution, through the dependence of the aqueous sulfate ions concentration upon beryllium extraction. The formation constant of these anionic complexes has been evaluated. (author) [fr

  17. Corrosion of beryllium exposed to celotex and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.A.; Butt, D.P.; Lillard, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Celotex is a commercial rigid cellulose fiberboard product primarily used in the building construction industry. Currently celotex is being used as a packing material in AL-R8 containers. Ion chromatography of celotex packing material at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has indicated that this material contains aggressive anions, including chloride, which may accelerate corrosion. It is well known that beryllium is susceptible to pitting corrosion when exposed to chloride containing environments. Levy noted pitting in beryllium at the open circuit potential when exposed to 0.1 M NaCl solution. This investigation attempts to evaluate the potential risk of accelerated beryllium corrosion from celotex and water which may occur naturally when celotex dust comes into contact with moisture from the atmosphere

  18. Neutron irradiation behavior of ITER candidate beryllium grades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriyanov, I.B.; Gorokhov, V.A.; Nikolaev, G.N. [A.A.Bochvar All-Russia Scientific Research Inst. of Inorganic Materials (VNIINM), Moscow (Russian Federation); Melder, R.R.; Ostrovsky, Z.E.

    1998-01-01

    Beryllium is one of the main candidate materials both for the neutron multiplier in a solid breeding blanket and for the plasma facing components. That is why its behaviour under the typical for fusion reactor loading, in particular, under the neutron irradiation is of a great importance. This paper presents mechanical properties, swelling and microstructure of six beryllium grades (DshG-200, TR-30, TshG-56, TRR, TE-30, TIP-30) fabricated by VNIINM, Russia and also one - (S-65) fabricated by Brush Wellman, USA. The average grain size of the beryllium grades varied from 8 to 25 {mu}m, beryllium oxide content was 0.8-3.2 wt. %, initial tensile strength was 250-680 MPa. All the samples were irradiated in active zone of SM-3 reactor up to the fast neutron fluence (5.5-6.2) {center_dot} 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} (2.7-3.0 dpa, helium content up to 1150 appm), E > 0.1 MeV at two temperature ranges: T{sub 1} = 130-180degC and T{sub 2} = 650-700degC. After irradiation at 130-180degC no changes in samples dimensions were revealed. After irradiation at 650-700degC swelling of the materials was found to be in the range 0.1-2.1 %. Beryllium grades TR-30 and TRR, having the smallest grain size and highest beryllium oxide content, demonstrated minimal swelling, which was no more than 0.1 % at 650-700degC and fluence 5.5 {center_dot} 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}. Tensile and compression test results and microstructure parameters measured before and after irradiation are also presented. (author)

  19. Modeling tritium processes in plasma-facing beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Anderl, R.A.; Dolan, T.J.; Mulock, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we present techniques and recommended parameters for modeling tritium implantation, trapping and release, and permeation, in beryllium-clad structures adjacent to the plasma. Among the features that should be considered are the effects of surface films, the mobility of beryllium through those films, damage caused by ion implantation, especially in regions where pitting may be expected, and bubble formation. Tritium transport parameters recommended are based on fits with experimental data and available theory. Estimates of inventories in ITER using these parameters are also given. 31 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  20. CHAPTER 7. BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS BY NON-PLASMA BASED METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, A

    2009-04-20

    The most common method of analysis for beryllium is inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). This method, along with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), is discussed in Chapter 6. However, other methods exist and have been used for different applications. These methods include spectroscopic, chromatographic, colorimetric, and electrochemical. This chapter provides an overview of beryllium analysis methods other than plasma spectrometry (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry or mass spectrometry). The basic methods, detection limits and interferences are described. Specific applications from the literature are also presented.

  1. Factors influencing the creep strength of hot pressed beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, D.; Crooks, D.D.

    1975-01-01

    The parameters controlling the creep strength of hot pressed beryllium block have been determined. Creep strength was improved by a high initial dislocation density, a coarse grain size, and a low impurity content. The impurities most detrimental to creep strength were found to be aluminum, magnesium, and silicon. A uniform distribution of BeO was found to give creep strength which was inferior to a grain boundary distribution. The creep strength of very high purity, hot isostatically pressed beryllium was found to compare favorably with that of other more commonly used high temperature metals

  2. Beryllium for first wall, limiter and divertor - a literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, A.; Smid, I.; Kny, E.

    1994-01-01

    A survey of the topical literature on beryllium as material for plasma interactive components in future fusion devices is given. The radiation damage which can be expected as a result of the neutron irradiation from ignited tokamak plasma is discussed. The response to high heat fluxes and simulation experiments in different test facilities are referred. Another focus will be on the material properties literature data, on joining techniques and on compatibility with other materials. The performance of a beryllium coated first wall at JET is reported. Some relevant literature on other candidate materials for plasma interactive components shall be considered

  3. Method for removal of beryllium contamination from an article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simandl, Ronald F.; Hollenbeck, Scott M.

    2012-12-25

    A method of removal of beryllium contamination from an article is disclosed. The method typically involves dissolving polyisobutylene in a solvent such as hexane to form a tackifier solution, soaking the substrate in the tackifier to produce a preform, and then drying the preform to produce the cleaning medium. The cleaning media are typically used dry, without any liquid cleaning agent to rub the surface of the article and remove the beryllium contamination below a non-detect level. In some embodiments no detectible residue is transferred from the cleaning wipe to the article as a result of the cleaning process.

  4. Measurements of fusion neutron multiplication in spherical beryllium shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giese, H.; Kappler, F.; Tayama, R.; Moellendorff, U. von; Alevra, A.; Klein, H.

    1996-01-01

    New results of spherical-shell transmission measurements with 14-MeV neutrons on pure beryllium shells up to 17 cm thick are reported. The spectral flux above 3 MeV was measured using a liquid scintillation detector. At 17 cm thickness, also the total neutron multiplication was measured using a Bonner sphere system. The results agree well with calculations using beryllium nuclear data from the EFF-1 or the ENDF/B-Vi library. (author). 23 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  5. CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS UNDER IFRS

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor; Calotă Traian-Ovidiu

    2013-01-01

    This article is focuses on accounting consolidation techniques and the preparation of consolidation worksheets for the components of financial statements (statement of comprehensive income, statement of changes in equity, and financial position). The presented group includes parent company, two subsidiaries (only one fully controlled by the parent company) and a jointly controlled entity. The financial statements are presented under the following standards IFRS 3 Business Combination, IAS 27 ...

  6. Extraction of beryllium sulfate by a long chain amine; Extraction du sulfate de beryllium par une amine a longue chaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etaix, E S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    The extraction of sulfuric acid in aqueous solution by a primary amine in benzene solution, 3-9 (diethyl) - 6-amino tri-decane (D.E.T. ) - i.e., with American nomenclature 1-3 (ethyl-pentyl) - 4-ethyl-octyl amine (E.P.O.) - has made it possible to calculate the formation constants of alkyl-ammonium sulfate and acid sulfate. The formula of the beryllium and alkyl-ammonium sulfate complex formed in benzene has next been determined, for various initial acidity of the aqueous solution. Lastly, evidence has been given of negatively charged complexes of beryllium and sulfate in aqueous solution, through the dependence of the aqueous sulfate ions concentration upon beryllium extraction. The formation constant of these anionic complexes has been evaluated. (author) [French] L'etude de l'extraction de l'acide sulfurique en solution aqueuse par une amine primaire en solution dans le benzene, le diethyl-3,9 amino-6 tridecane (D.E.T.) - autre nom americain 1-3 (ethylpentyl) - 4-ethyloctylamine (E.P.O.) a permis de calculer les constantes de formation du sulfate et de l'hydrogenosulfate d'alkyl-ammonium. La formule du complexe de sulfate de beryllium et d'alkyl-ammonium forme en solution benzenique a ete ensuite determinee pour diverses acidites initiales de la solution aqueuse. Enfin, l'influence de la concentration des ions sulfate de la phase aqueuse sur l'extraction du beryllium a mis en evidence la formation en solution aqueuse de complexes anioniques de sulfate et de beryllium dont la constante de formation a ete evaluee. (auteur)

  7. Extraction of beryllium sulfate by a long chain amine; Extraction du sulfate de beryllium par une amine a longue chaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etaix, E.S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    The extraction of sulfuric acid in aqueous solution by a primary amine in benzene solution, 3-9 (diethyl) - 6-amino tri-decane (D.E.T. ) - i.e., with American nomenclature 1-3 (ethyl-pentyl) - 4-ethyl-octyl amine (E.P.O.) - has made it possible to calculate the formation constants of alkyl-ammonium sulfate and acid sulfate. The formula of the beryllium and alkyl-ammonium sulfate complex formed in benzene has next been determined, for various initial acidity of the aqueous solution. Lastly, evidence has been given of negatively charged complexes of beryllium and sulfate in aqueous solution, through the dependence of the aqueous sulfate ions concentration upon beryllium extraction. The formation constant of these anionic complexes has been evaluated. (author) [French] L'etude de l'extraction de l'acide sulfurique en solution aqueuse par une amine primaire en solution dans le benzene, le diethyl-3,9 amino-6 tridecane (D.E.T.) - autre nom americain 1-3 (ethylpentyl) - 4-ethyloctylamine (E.P.O.) a permis de calculer les constantes de formation du sulfate et de l'hydrogenosulfate d'alkyl-ammonium. La formule du complexe de sulfate de beryllium et d'alkyl-ammonium forme en solution benzenique a ete ensuite determinee pour diverses acidites initiales de la solution aqueuse. Enfin, l'influence de la concentration des ions sulfate de la phase aqueuse sur l'extraction du beryllium a mis en evidence la formation en solution aqueuse de complexes anioniques de sulfate et de beryllium dont la constante de formation a ete evaluee. (auteur)

  8. The Synthesis of Nanostructured WC-Based Hardmetals Using Mechanical Alloying and Their Direct Consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Al-Aqeeli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten carbide- (WC- based hardmetals or cemented carbides represent an important class of materials used in a wide range of industrial applications which primarily include cutting/drilling tools and wear resistant components. The introduction and processing of nanostructured WC-based cemented carbides and their subsequent consolidation to produce dense components have been the subject of several investigations. One of the attractive means of producing this class of materials is by mechanical alloying technique. However, one of the challenging issues in obtaining the right end-product is the possible loss of the nanocrystallite sizes due to the undesirable grain growth during powder sintering step. Many research groups have engaged in multiple projects aiming at exploring the right path of consolidating the nanostructured WC-based powders without substantially loosing the attained nanostructure. The present paper highlights some key issues related to powder synthesis and sintering of WC-based nanostructured materials using mechanical alloying. The path of directly consolidating the powders using nonconventional consolidation techniques will be addressed and some light will be shed on the advantageous use of such techniques. Cobalt-bonded hardmetals will be principally covered in this work along with an additional exposure of the use of other binders in the WC-based hardmetals.

  9. 75 FR 32555 - Consolidated Audit Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Part II Securities and Exchange Commission 17 CFR Part 242 Consolidated Audit Trail; Proposed Rule... 3235-AK51 Consolidated Audit Trail AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule... a consolidated order tracking system, or consolidated audit trail, with respect to the trading of...

  10. Forming of porous mullite green bodies by albumin thermal consolidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval, M.L.; Tomba Martinez, A.G.; Camerucci, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Pre-firing mullite microstructures developed by a new thermal consolidation method using globular proteins as foaming and consolidator/binders were analyzed. Commercial available powders of mullite (Baikowski) and bovine serum albumin (BSA, Aldricht) were employed. Stable aqueous suspensions (40 vol.%) of mullite- BSA (10 vol.%) were foamed (2300 rpm, 10 min) at: I) room temperature; II) 68 deg C, temperature slightly lower to the gelling 'onset' TG"0, and III) 68 deg C with the addition of 2 wt.% of methylcellulose. Green disks were prepared by pouring of foamed suspensions into pre-heated metal molds (70 deg C), thermal gelling (80 °C, 3h) and drying (50 °C, 12h). Previously, the developed foams were characterized and their rheological properties were determined as a function of temperature (TG"0). The characterization of the pre-firing microstructures were carried out by measurements of porosity (>80%) and microstructural analysis in fracture surface by SEM. (author)

  11. The development of beryllium plasma spray technology for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Elliott, K.E.; Hollis, K.J.; Watson, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Over the past five years, four international parties, which include the European Communities, Japan, the Russian Federation and the United States, have been collaborating on the design and development of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the next generation magnetic fusion energy device. During the ITER Engineering Design Activity (EDA), beryllium plasma spray technology was investigated by Los Alamos National Laboratory as a method for fabricating and repairing and the beryllium first wall surface of the ITER tokamak. Significant progress has been made in developing beryllium plasma spraying technology for this application. Information will be presented on the research performed to improve the thermal properties of plasma sprayed beryllium coatings and a method that was developed for cleaning and preparing the surface of beryllium prior to depositing plasma sprayed beryllium coatings. Results of high heat flux testing of the beryllium coatings using electron beam simulated ITER conditions will also be presented

  12. Reducing the cost of S-65C grade beryllium for ITER first wall applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaczynski, D.; Sato, K.; Savchuk, V.V.; Shestakov, V.P.

    2004-01-01

    Beryllium is the current material of choice for plasma-facing components in ITER. The present design is for 10 mm thick beryllium tiles bonded to an actively cooled copper substrate. Brush Wellman grade S65C beryllium is preferred grade off beryllium for these tiles. S65C has the best resistance to low-cycle thermal fatigue than any other beryllium grad in the world. S65C grade beryllium has been successfully deployed in fusion reactors for more than two decades, most recently in the JET reactor. This paper will detail a supply chain to produce the most cost-effective S65C plasma facing components for ITER. This paper will also propose some future work too demonstrate the best technology for bonding beryllium to copper. (author)

  13. Movement of liquid beryllium during melt events in JET with ITER-like wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergienko, G; Huber, A; Brezinsek, S; Coenen, J W; Mertens, Ph; Philipps, V; Samm, U; Arnoux, G; Matthews, G F; Nunes, I; Riccardo, V; Sirinelli, A; Devaux, S

    2014-01-01

    The ITER-like wall recently installed in JET comprises solid beryllium limiters and a combination of bulk tungsten and tungsten-coated carbon fibre composite divertor tiles without active cooling. During a beryllium power handling qualification experiment performed in limiter configuration with 5 MW neutral beam injection input power, accidental beryllium melt events, melt layer motion and splashing were observed locally on a few beryllium limiters in the plasma contact areas. The Lorentz force is responsible for the observed melt layer movement. To move liquid beryllium against the gravity force, the current flowing from the plasma perpendicularly to the limiter surface must be higher than 6 kA m −2 . The thermo-emission current at the melting point of beryllium is much lower. The upward motion of the liquid beryllium against gravity can be due to a combination of the Lorentz force from the secondary electron emission and plasma pressure force. (paper)

  14. Status of the beryllium replacement project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimayuga, I. [Atomic Energy of Canada, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Corcoran, E. [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Daniels, T. [Ontario Power Generation, Pickering, Ontario (Canada); Harmsen, J. [Cameco Fuel Manufacturing Inc., Port Hope, Ontario (Canada); Lu, E. [Bruce Power, Tiverton, Ontario (Canada); Onderwater, T.; Palleck, S. [General Electric- Hitachi, Wilmington, North Carolina (United States); Pant, A. [Cameco Fuel Manufacturing Inc., Port Hope, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Currently, beryllium (Be) is used as the filler metal for brazing appendages on the sheaths of CANDU® fuel elements. Because of its toxicity, occupational exposure limits for Be are being reduced to very low levels, resulting in significant challenges to CANDU® fuel fabricators. The CANDU® Owners Group (COG) initiated a test program to identify a filler material to replace Be and confirm that the brazed joints meet the established technical requirements for CANDU® fuel. Together with eliminating health risks associated with the use of Be, the industry needs to be assured that continuation of fuel supply remains unaffected and that fuel fabrication processes continue to comply with health and safety standards. A literature survey of studies on brazing and joining of Zircaloy identified potential filler materials that can meet or exceed existing design requirements of the brazed joint, including the required mechanical, microstructural, corrosion resistance, and irradiation properties equivalent to those obtained with Be as braze material. Candidate materials were evaluated against several criteria, including manufacturability, melting point, wettability, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, effect on neutron economy, potential activation products, and interaction with fuel channels and other related disciplines. This exercise resulted in a list of promising candidate materials that were recommended for the first phase of testing. These materials include stainless steel (304 or 316), Al-Si, Ni-P, and Zr-Mn alloys. To allow a CANDU® utility have sufficient confidence in considering implementation of a different braze filler material, a Be Replacement Test Program, involving out-reactor and in-reactor tests, is being undertaken as a collaborative endeavour by the Canadian nuclear industry. The out-reactor tests consist of: a constructability assessment to determine the material’s suitability with current fuel manufacturing methods; evaluation of

  15. Irradiation effects on aluminium and beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieth, M.

    1992-01-01

    ductility of 1.6%. Besides, due to the effects of embrittlement and swelling induced by irradiation, the HFR beryllium reflector elements had to be replaced after more than 25 years of operation. Operational and practical experiences with these reflector elements are commented, as well as main engineering features of the new reflector elements: upper-end fittings of both filler element and insert in stainless steel, no radially drilled holes and no roll pins

  16. Beryllium research on FFHR molten salt blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terai, T.; Tanaka, S.; Sze, D.-K.

    2000-01-01

    Force-free helical reactor, FFHR, is a demo-relevant heliotron-type D-T fusion reactor based on the great amount of R and D results obtained in the LHD project. Since 1993, collaboration works have made great progress in design studies of FFHR with standing on the major advantage of current-less steady operation with no dangerous plasma disruptions. There are two types of reference designs, FFHR-1 and FFHR-2, where molten Flibe (LiF-BeF2) is utilized as tritium breeder and coolant. In this paper, we present the outline of FFHR blanket design and some related R and D topics focusing on Be utilization. Beryllium is used as a neutron multiplier in the design and Be pebbles are placed in the front part of the tritium breeding zone. In a Flibe blanket, HF (TF) generated due to nuclear transmutation will be a problem because of its corrosive property. Though nickel-based alloys are thought to be intact in such a corrosive environment, FFHR blanket design does not adopt the alloys because of their induced radioactivity. The present candidate materials for the structure are low-activated ferritic steel (JLF-1), V-4Cr-4Ti, etc. They are capable to be corroded by HF in the operation condition, and Be is expected to work as a reducing agent in the system as well. Whether Be pebbles placed in a Flibe flow can work well or not is a very important matter. From this point, Be solubility in Flibe, reaction rate of the Redox reaction with TF in the liquid and on the surface of Be pebbles under irradiation, flowing behavior of Flibe through a Be pebble bed, etc. should be investigated. In 1997, in order to establish more practical and new data bases for advanced design works, we started a collaboration work of R and D on blanket engineering, where the Be research above mentioned is included. Preliminary dipping-test of Be sheets and in-situ tritium release experiment from Flibe with Be sheets have got started. (orig.)

  17. Codeposition of deuterium ions with beryllium oxide at elevated temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Markin, A V; Gorodetsky, A E; Negodaev, M A; Rozhanskii, N V; Scaffidi-Argentina, F; Werle, H; Wu, C H; Zalavutdinov, R K; Zakharov, A P

    2000-01-01

    Deuterium-loaded BeO films were produced by sputtering the beryllium target with 10 keV Ne ions in D sub 2 gas at a pressure of approximately 1 Pa. The sputtered beryllium reacts - on the substrate surface - with the residual oxygen, thus forming a beryllium oxide layer. Biasing the substrate negatively with respect to the target provides the simultaneous bombardment of the growing film surface with D ions formed by Ne-D sub 2 collisions. Substrate potential governs the maximum energy of ions striking the growing film surface while its size governs the flux density. According to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) data, the beryllium is deposited in the form of polycrystalline hcp-BeO layers with negligible (about 1 at.%) carbon and neon retention. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) data shows a strong deuterium bonding, with a desorption peak at 950 K, in the films deposited at -50 and -400 V substrate potentia...

  18. Thermal cycling tests of actively cooled beryllium copper joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedig, M.; Duwe, R.; Linke, J.; Schuster, A.; Wiechers, B. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    1998-01-01

    Screening tests (steady state heating) and thermal fatigue tests with several kinds of beryllium-copper joints have been performed in an electron beam facility. Joining techniques under investigation were brazing with silver containing and silver-free braze materials, hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and diffusion bonding (hot pressing). Best thermal fatigue performance was found for the brazed samples. (author)

  19. Investigation of fracture in pressurized gas metal arc welded beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiple, C.R.; Merlini, R.J.; Adams, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    Premature failures during proof testing of pressurized-gas-metal-arc (PGMA) welded beryllium assemblies were investigated. The failures were almost entirely within the beryllium (a forming grade, similar to HP-10 or S-240), close to and parallel to the weld interface. The aluminum-silicon weld filler metal deposit was not centered in the weld groove in the failed assemblies, and failure occurred on the side of the weld opposite the bias in the weld deposit. Tensile tests of welded samples demonstrated that the failures were unrelated to residual machining damage from cutting the weld groove, and indicated small lack-of-fusion areas near the weld start to be the most likely origin of the failures. Acoustic emission was monitored during tensile tests of the welds. The majority of acoustic emission was probably from crack propagation through the weld filler metal. Tensile bars cut from the region of the weld start behaved differently; they failed at lower loads and exhibited an acoustic emission behavior believed to be from cracking in the weld metal-beryllium interface. Improvement in the quality of these and similar beryllium welds can therefore most likely be made by centering the weld deposit and reducing the size of the weld start defect. 21 fig

  20. Influence of impurities in Beryllium on tritium breeding ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, M.; Ochiai, K.; Verzilov, Y.; Ito, M.; Wada, M.; Nishitani, T.

    2004-01-01

    Several neutronics experiments simulating fusion blankets have been conducted with 14 MeV neutron source to assess the reliability of nuclear analysis codes. However, the analyses have not always presented good agreements so far between calculated and measured tritium production rates. One of the reasons was considered as impurities in beryllium which has negligibly small neutron absorption cross section in low energy range. Chemical compositions of beryllium were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) method, and a pulsed neutron decay experiment discovered that the macroscopic neutron absorption cross section for beryllium medium may be about 30% larger than the value calculated by the data specified by manufacturing company. The influence of the impurities on the calculations was studied on the basis of the fusion DEMO-reactor blanket design. As a result of the study, it was made clear that the impurities affect the local tritium production rates when the size of beryllium medium is more than 20-30 mean free paths (30-40 cm) in thickness. In case of some blanket designs that meet the above condition, the effect on tritium breeding ratio may become as large as about 4%. (author)

  1. Influence of impurities in Beryllium on tritium breeding ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, M; Ochiai, K; Verzilov, Y; Ito, M; Wada, M; Nishitani, T [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2004-03-01

    Several neutronics experiments simulating fusion blankets have been conducted with 14 MeV neutron source to assess the reliability of nuclear analysis codes. However, the analyses have not always presented good agreements so far between calculated and measured tritium production rates. One of the reasons was considered as impurities in beryllium which has negligibly small neutron absorption cross section in low energy range. Chemical compositions of beryllium were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) method, and a pulsed neutron decay experiment discovered that the macroscopic neutron absorption cross section for beryllium medium may be about 30% larger than the value calculated by the data specified by manufacturing company. The influence of the impurities on the calculations was studied on the basis of the fusion DEMO-reactor blanket design. As a result of the study, it was made clear that the impurities affect the local tritium production rates when the size of beryllium medium is more than 20-30 mean free paths (30-40 cm) in thickness. In case of some blanket designs that meet the above condition, the effect on tritium breeding ratio may become as large as about 4%. (author)

  2. The experience in production of composite refraction lenses from beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, A. A.; Zabrodin, A. V.; Gorlevskiy, V. V.; Sheverdyaev, M. S.; Lizunov, A. V.; Brylev, D. A.; Anikin, A. S.; Klykov, S. S.; Kozlova, E. V.; Lesina, I. G.; Nebera, A. L.; Morozov, I. A.; Demin, A. V. [Bochvar High-Technology Research Institute of Inorganic Materials (Russian Federation); Buzmakov, A. V.; Dymshicz, Yu. M.; Volkov, V. V.; Zhigalina, O. M.; Konarev, P. V.; Khmelenin, D. N.; Seregin, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics,” (Russian Federation); and others

    2017-01-15

    The choice of beryllium-based material for the use in X-ray optics has been substantiated based on electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction data. The first results of applying refraction lenses made of this material are reported.

  3. TEM study of impurity segregations in beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimenkov, M., E-mail: michael.klimenkov@kit.edu [Institute for Applied Materials – Applied Materials Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Chakin, V.; Moeslang, A. [Institute for Applied Materials – Applied Materials Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Rolli, R. [Institute for Applied Materials – Materials and Biomechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Beryllium is planned to be used as a neutron multiplier in the Helium-cooled Pebble Bed European concept of a breeding blanket of demonstration power reactor DEMO. In order to evaluate the irradiation performance, individual pebbles and constrained pebble beds were neutron-irradiated at temperatures typical of fusion blankets. Beryllium pebbles 1 mm in diameter produced by the rotating electrode method were subjected to a TEM study before and after irradiation at High Flux Reactor, Petten, Netherlands at 861 K. The grain size varied in a wide range from sub-micron size up to several tens of micrometers, which indicated formation bimodal grain size distribution. Based on the application of combined electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy methods, we suggest that impurity precipitates play an important role in controlling the mechanical properties of beryllium. The impurity elements were present in beryllium at a sub-percent concentration form beryllide particles of a complex (Fe/Al/Mn/Cr)B composition. These particles are often ordered along dislocations lines, forming several micron-long chains. It can be suggested that fracture surfaces often extended along these chains in irradiated material.

  4. Quantifying design trade-offs of beryllium targets on NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, S. A.; Zylstra, A. B.; Kline, J. L.; Loomis, E. N.; Kyrala, G. A.; Shah, R. C.; Perry, T. S.; Kanzleiter, R. J.; Batha, S. H.; MacLaren, S. A.; Ralph, J. E.; Masse, L. P.; Salmonson, J. D.; Tipton, R. E.; Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.

    2017-10-01

    An important determinant of target performance is implosion kinetic energy, which scales with the capsule size. The maximum achievable performance for a given laser is thus related to the largest capsule that can be imploded symmetrically, constrained by drive uniformity. A limiting factor for symmetric radiation drive is the ratio of hohlraum to capsule radii, or case-to-capsule ratio (CCR). For a fixed laser energy, a larger hohlraum allows for driving bigger capsules symmetrically at the cost of reduced peak radiation temperature (Tr). Beryllium ablators may thus allow for unique target design trade-offs due to their higher ablation efficiency at lower Tr. By utilizing larger hohlraum sizes than most modern NIF designs, beryllium capsules thus have the potential to operate in unique regions of the target design parameter space. We present design simulations of beryllium targets with a large CCR = 4.3 3.7 . These are scaled surrogates of large hohlraum low Tr beryllium targets, with the goal of quantifying symmetry tunability as a function of CCR. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52- 06NA25396, and by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. Morphing ab initio potential energy curve of beryllium monohydride

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špirko, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 330, Dec (2016), s. 89-95 ISSN 0022-2852 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : beryllium monohydride * potential energy function * reduced potential * homotopic morphing Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.618, year: 2016

  6. High dose neutron irradiation damage in beryllium as blanket material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakin, V.P. E-mail: fae@niiar.ru; Kazakov, V.A.; Teykovtsev, A.A.; Pimenov, V.V.; Shimansky, G.A.; Ostrovsky, Z.E.; Suslov, D.N.; Latypov, R.N.; Belozerov, S.V.; Kupriyanov, I.B. E-mail: vniinm.400@g23.relkom.ru

    2001-11-01

    The paper presents the investigation results of beryllium products that operated in the SM and BOR-60 reactors up to neutron doses of 2.8x10{sup 22} and 8.0x10{sup 22} cm{sup -2} (E>1 MeV), respectively. The calculated and experimental data are given on helium and tritium accumulation, swelling, micro-hardness and thermal conductivity. The microstructural investigation results of irradiated beryllium are also presented. It is shown that the rate of helium and tritium accumulation in beryllium in the SM and BOR-60 reactors is high enough, which is of interest from the viewpoint of modeling the working conditions of the DEMO fusion reactor. Swelling of beryllium at irradiation temperature of 70-150 deg. C and neutron fluence of 2.8x10{sup 22} cm{sup -2} (E>1 MeV) makes up 0.8-1.5%, at 400 deg. C and fluence of 8x10{sup 22} cm{sup -2} (E>1 MeV)-3.2-5.0%. Irradiation hardening and decrease of thermal conductivity strongly depend on the irradiation temperature and are more significant at reduced temperatures. All results presented in the paper were analyzed with due account of the supposed working parameters of the DEMO fusion reactor blanket.

  7. High dose neutron irradiation damage in beryllium as blanket material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakin, V.P.; Kazakov, V.A.; Teykovtsev, A.A.; Pimenov, V.V.; Shimansky, G.A.; Ostrovsky, Z.E.; Suslov, D.N.; Latypov, R.N.; Belozerov, S.V.; Kupriyanov, I.B.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents the investigation results of beryllium products that operated in the SM and BOR-60 reactors up to neutron doses of 2.8x10 22 and 8.0x10 22 cm -2 (E>1 MeV), respectively. The calculated and experimental data are given on helium and tritium accumulation, swelling, micro-hardness and thermal conductivity. The microstructural investigation results of irradiated beryllium are also presented. It is shown that the rate of helium and tritium accumulation in beryllium in the SM and BOR-60 reactors is high enough, which is of interest from the viewpoint of modeling the working conditions of the DEMO fusion reactor. Swelling of beryllium at irradiation temperature of 70-150 deg. C and neutron fluence of 2.8x10 22 cm -2 (E>1 MeV) makes up 0.8-1.5%, at 400 deg. C and fluence of 8x10 22 cm -2 (E>1 MeV)-3.2-5.0%. Irradiation hardening and decrease of thermal conductivity strongly depend on the irradiation temperature and are more significant at reduced temperatures. All results presented in the paper were analyzed with due account of the supposed working parameters of the DEMO fusion reactor blanket

  8. Identification of an abnormal beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frome, Edward L.; Newman, Lee S.; Cragle, Donna L.; Colyer, Shirley P.; Wambach, Paul F.

    2003-01-01

    The potential hazards from exposure to beryllium or beryllium compounds in the workplace were first reported in the 1930s. The tritiated thymidine beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) is an in vitro blood test that is widely used to screen beryllium exposed workers in the nuclear industry for sensitivity to beryllium. The clinical significance of the BeLPT was described and a standard protocol was developed in the late 1980s. Cell proliferation is measured by the incorporation of tritiated thymidine into dividing cells on two culture dates and using three concentrations of beryllium sulfate. Results are expressed as a 'stimulation index' (SI) which is the ratio of the amount of tritiated thymidine (measured by beta counts) in the simulated cells divided by the counts for the unstimulated cells on the same culture day. Several statistical methods for use in the routine analysis of the BeLPT were proposed in the early 1990s. The least absolute values (LAV) method was recommended for routine analysis of the BeLPT. This report further evaluates the LAV method using new data, and proposes a new method for identification of an abnormal or borderline test. This new statistical-biological positive (SBP) method reflects the clinical judgment that: (i) at least two SIs show a 'positive' response to beryllium; and (ii) that the maximum of the six SIs must exceed a cut-point that is determined from a reference data set of normal individuals whose blood has been tested by the same method in the same serum. The new data is from the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge (Y-12) and consists of 1080 workers and 33 non-exposed control BeLPTs (all tested in the same serum). Graphical results are presented to explain the statistical method, and the new SBP method is applied to the Y-12 group. The true positive rate and specificity of the new method were estimated to be 86% and 97%, respectively. An electronic notebook that is accessible via the Internet was used in

  9. Hanford Site Beryllium Program: Past, Present, and Future - 12428

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Mark [CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Garcia, Pete [U.S. Department of Energy - Richland Office, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Goeckner, Julie [U.S. Department of Energy - HQ, EMCBC, Cincinnati, Ohio 45202 (United States); Millikin, Emily [Washington Closure Hanford, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Stoner, Mike [Mission Support Alliance, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a long history of beryllium use because of the element's broad application to many nuclear operations and processes. At the Hanford Site beryllium alloy was used to fabricate parts for reactors, including fuel rods for the N-Reactor during plutonium production. Because of continued confirmed cases of chronic beryllium disease (CBD), and data suggesting CBD occurs at exposures to low-level concentrations, the DOE decided to issue a rule to further protect federal and contractor workers from hazards associated with exposure to beryllium. When the beryllium rule was issued in 1999, each of the Hanford Site contractors developed a Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) and initial site wide beryllium inventories. A new site-wide CBDPP, applicable to all Hanford contractors, was issued in May, 2009. In the spring of 2010 the DOE Headquarters Office of Health, Safety, and Security (HSS) conducted an independent inspection to evaluate the status of implementation of the Hanford Site Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP). The report identified four Findings and 12 cross-cutting Opportunities for Improvement (OFIs). A corrective action plan (CAP) was developed to address the Findings and crosscutting OFIs. The DOE directed affected site contractors to identify dedicated resources to participate in development of the CAP, along with involving stakeholders. The CAP included general and contractor-specific recommendations. Following initiation of actions to implement the approved CAP, it became apparent that additional definition of product deliverables was necessary to assure that expectations were adequately addressed and CAP actions could be closed. Consequently, a supplement to the original CAP was prepared and transmitted to DOE-HQ for approval. Development of the supplemental CAP was an eight month effort. From the onset a core group of CAP development members were identified to develop a mechanism

  10. Status of rod consolidation, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    It is estimated that the spent fuel storage pools at some domestic light-water reactors will run out of space before 2003, the year that the US Department of Energy currently predicts it will have a repository available. Of the methods being studied to alleviate the problem, rod consolidation is one of the leading candidates for achieving more efficient use of existing space in spent fuel storage pools. Rod consolidation involves mechanically removing all the fuel rods from the fuel assembly hardware (i.e., the structural components) and placing the fuel rods in a close-packed array in a canister without space grids. A typical goal of rod consolidation systems is to insert the fuel rods from two fuel assemblies into a canister that has the same exterior dimensions as one standard fuel assembly (i.e., to achieve a consolidation or compaction ratio of 2:1) and to compact the nonfuel-bearing structural components from those two fuel assemblies by a factor of 10 to 20. This report provides an overview of the current status of rod consolidation in the United States and a small amount of information on related activities in other countries. 85 refs., 36 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Investigation of the glide modes of single crystals of beryllium; Etude des modes de glissement de monocristaux de beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnier, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-05-01

    The flow characteristics of single crystals of beryllium specially oriented for slip along a single plane and a single direction have been thoroughly investigated. The elastic limit and the strain hardening in basal glide have been investigated in the temperature range (-195 deg. C, 400 deg. C) in tension as well as in compression. Observation of the slip lines and of the dislocation configurations have also been made in addition to the mechanical tests. The prismatic slip has been studied in greater detail: tensile tests have been performed on specimens carefully oriented at different temperatures, strain rates and with varying orientations of the basal and of the prism planes. Tests have also been made in the micro-strain range; the slip lines and the dislocation arrangements were observed in detail. The very unusual variation of the elastic limit with temperature is not due to impurities but to a cross slip mechanism. A model of dislocation locking is proposed to account for the experimental results. This mechanism assumes that the a-bar dislocations may also dissociate on the prism planes [101-bar 0]. Various possible dissociations are suggested, the most probable of which corresponds to the phase transformation: Hexagonal close packed to body centered cubic. This proposal can be extended to account for the relative ease of glide on the different systems in the hexagonal close packed metals. (author) [French] L' ecoulement de monocristaux de berylliurn deformes en glissement basal et en glissement prismatique a ete etudie sur des echantillons orientes de maniere a favoriser au maximum la deformation suivant une seule direction d'un seul systeme de glissement. L'influence de la temperature sur la limite elastique et la consolidation en glissement basal a ete etudie depuis -195 deg. C jusqu' 400 deg. C sur des echantillons deformes en tension et sur d'autres deformes en compression. Ces essais mecaniques ont ete completes par l'observation des lignes de

  12. Consolidation of Hierarchy-Structured Nanopowder Agglomerates and Its Application to Net-Shaping Nanopowder Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jai-Sung; Choi, Joon-Phil; Lee, Geon-Yong

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on our recent investigations on the consolidation of hierarchy-structured nanopowder agglomerates and related applications to net-shaping nanopowder materials. Understanding the nanopowder agglomerate sintering (NAS) process is essential to processing of net-shaped nanopowder materials and components with small and complex shape. The key concept of the NAS process is to enhance material transport through controlling the powder interface volume of nanopowder agglomerates. Based upon this concept, we have suggested a new idea of full density processing for fabricating micro-powder injection molded part using metal nanopowder agglomerates produced by hydrogen reduction of metal oxide powders. Studies on the full density sintering of die compacted- and powder injection molded iron base nano-agglomerate powders are introduced and discussed in terms of densification process and microstructure. PMID:28788317

  13. Consolidation of Hierarchy-Structured Nanopowder Agglomerates and Its Application to Net-Shaping Nanopowder Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geon-Yong Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview on our recent investigations on the consolidation of hierarchy-structured nanopowder agglomerates and related applications to net-shaping nanopowder materials. Understanding the nanopowder agglomerate sintering (NAS process is essential to processing of net-shaped nanopowder materials and components with small and complex shape. The key concept of the NAS process is to enhance material transport through controlling the powder interface volume of nanopowder agglomerates. Based upon this concept, we have suggested a new idea of full density processing for fabricating micro-powder injection molded part using metal nanopowder agglomerates produced by hydrogen reduction of metal oxide powders. Studies on the full density sintering of die compacted- and powder injection molded iron base nano-agglomerate powders are introduced and discussed in terms of densification process and microstructure.

  14. Magnetic properties of ultrafine-grained cobalt samples obtained from consolidated nanopowders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellah, F.; Cherif, S.M.; Schoenstein, F.; Jouini, N.; Dirras, G. [LSPM (CNRS-UPR 3407), Universite Paris 13, 99 av. J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Bouziane, K. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, Al-Khodh 123 (Oman)

    2011-08-15

    Co powders having nominal average particle size of 50 and 240 nm were synthesized using a polyol method and then consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) or the emerging spark plasma sintering (SPS) compaction processes. Bulk polycrystalline aggregates were obtained, having average grain sizes of about 200 and 300 nm, respectively. It is found that both nanoparticles and consolidated samples exhibit a soft ferromagnetic behavior. The magnetization reversal likely occurs by nucleation/propagation process. However, a curling process can be involved in the magnetization reversal for the smaller particles. The dynamic measurements provide for the consolidated samples magnetic parameters corresponding to bulk cobalt with vanishing anisotropy. The contribution of the intergranular region is found to be negligible. We can infer that the used consolidation routes insure a good magnetic interfacial contact between the particles. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase III of the Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod Consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase II Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase III effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. Volume IV provides the Operating and Maintenance Manual for the Prototypical Rod Consolidation System that was installed at the Cold Test Facility. This document, Book 1 of Volume IV, discusses: Process overview functional descriptions; Control system descriptions; Support system descriptions; Maintenance system descriptions; and Process equipment descriptions

  16. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase III of the Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod Consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase II Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase III effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. Volume IV provides the Operating and Maintenance Manual for the Prototypical Rod Consolidation System that was installed at the Cold Test Facility. This document, Book 4 of Volume IV, discusses: Off-normal operating and recovery procedures; Emergency response procedures; Troubleshooting procedures; and Preventive maintenance procedures

  17. Low-Cobalt Powder-Metallurgy Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harf, F. H.

    1986-01-01

    Highly-stressed jet-engine parts made with less cobalt. Udimet 700* (or equivalent) is common nickel-based superalloy used in hot sections of jet engines for many years. This alloy, while normally used in wrought condition, also gas-atomized into prealloyed powder-metallurgy (PM) product. Product can be consolidated by hot isostatically pressing (HIPPM condition) and formed into parts such as turbine disk. Such jet-engine disks "see" both high stresses and temperatures to 1,400 degrees F (760 degrees C).

  18. Conceptual Design for Consolidation TCAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Two alternate Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) designs have been developed for the Tritium Facility Modernization and Consolidation (TFM and C) Project. The alternate designs were developed to improve upon the existing Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) TCAP design and to eliminate the use of building distributed hot and cold nitrogen system.A brief description of TCAP theory and modeling is presented, followed by an overview of the design criteria for the Isotope Separation System (ISS). Both designs are described in detail, along with a generic description of the complete TCAP system. A design is recommend for the Consolidation Project, and a development plan for both designs is proposed

  19. Theoretical Consolidation of Acoustic Dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiano, M. J.; Zoladz, T. F.

    2012-01-01

    In many engineering problems, the effects of dissipation can be extremely important. Dissipation can be represented by several parameters depending on the context and the models that are used. Some examples of dissipation-related parameters are damping ratio, viscosity, resistance, absorption coefficients, pressure drop, or damping rate. This Technical Memorandum (TM) describes the theoretical consolidation of the classic absorption coefficients with several other dissipation parameters including linearized resistance. The primary goal of this TM is to theoretically consolidate the linearized resistance with the absorption coefficient. As a secondary goal, other dissipation relationships are presented.

  20. Dreaming and offline memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Erin J

    2014-03-01

    Converging evidence suggests that dreaming is influenced by the consolidation of memory during sleep. Following encoding, recently formed memory traces are gradually stabilized and reorganized into a more permanent form of long-term storage. Sleep provides an optimal neurophysiological state to facilitate this process, allowing memory networks to be repeatedly reactivated in the absence of new sensory input. The process of memory reactivation and consolidation in the sleeping brain appears to influence conscious experience during sleep, contributing to dream content recalled on awakening. This article outlines several lines of evidence in support of this hypothesis, and responds to some common objections.

  1. Investigations of the ternary system beryllium-carbon-tungsten and analyses of beryllium on carbon surfaces; Untersuchung des ternaeren Systems Beryllium-Kohlenstoff-Wolfram und Betrachtungen von Beryllium auf Kohlenstoffoberflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, Florian

    2009-05-25

    Beryllium, carbon and tungsten are planned to be used as first wall materials in the future fusion reactor ITER. The aim of this work is a characterization of mixed material formation induced by thermal load. To this end, model systems (layers) were prepared and investigated, which give insight into the basic physical and chemical concepts. Before investigating ternary systems, the first step was to analyze the binary systems Be/C and Be/W (bottom-up approach), where the differences between the substrates PG (pyrolytic graphite) and HOPG (highly oriented pyrolytic graphite) were of special interest. Particularly X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low energy ion scattering (ISS) and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) were used as analysis methods. Beryllium evaporated on carbon shows an island growth mode, whereas a closed layer can be assumed for layer thicknesses above 0.7 nm. Annealing of the Be/C system induces Be{sub 2}C island formation for T{>=}770 K. At high temperatures (T{>=}1170 K), beryllium carbide dissociates, resulting in (metallic) beryllium desorption. For HOPG, carbide formation starts at higher temperatures compared to PG. Activation energies for the diffusion processes were determined by analyzing the decreasing beryllium amount versus annealing time. Surface morphologies were characterized using angle-resolved XPS (ARXPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Experiments were performed to study processes in the Be/W system in the temperature range from 570 to 1270 K. Be{sub 2}W formation starts at 670 K, a complete loss of Be{sub 2}W is observed at 1170 K due to dissociation (and subsequent beryllium desorption). Regarding ternary systems, particularly Be/C/W and C/Be/W were investigated, attaching importance to layer thickness (reservoir) variations. At room temperature, Be{sub 2}C, W{sub 2}C, WC and Be{sub 2}W formation at the respective interfaces was observed. Further Be{sub 2}C is forming with increasing annealing temperatures

  2. Mixing of zeolite powders and molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, C.; Zyryanov, V.N.; Lewis, M.A.; Ackerman, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Transuranics and fission products in a molten salt can be incorporated into zeolite A by an ion exchange process and by a batch mixing or blending process. The zeolite is then mixed with glass and consolidated into a monolithic waste form for geologic disposal. Both processes require mixing of zeolite powders with molten salt at elevated temperatures (>700 K). Complete occlusion of salt and a uniform distribution of chloride and fission products are desired for incorporation of the powders into the final waste form. The relative effectiveness of the blending process was studied over a series of temperature, time, and composition profiles. The major criteria for determining the effectiveness of the mixing operations were the level and uniformity of residual free salt in the mixtures. High operating temperatures (>775 K) improved salt occlusion. Reducing the chloride levels in the mixture to below 80% of the full salt capacity of the zeolite significantly reduced the free salt level in the final product

  3. Powder metallurgy bearings for advanced rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, J. N.; Killman, B. J.; Munson, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    Traditional ingot metallurgy was pushed to the limit for many demanding applications including antifriction bearings. New systems require corrosion resistance, better fatigue resistance, and higher toughness. With conventional processing, increasing the alloying level to achieve corrosion resistance results in a decrease in other properties such as toughness. Advanced powder metallurgy affords a viable solution to this problem. During powder manufacture, the individual particle solidifies very rapidly; as a consequence, the primary carbides are very small and uniformly distributed. When properly consolidated, this uniform structure is preserved while generating a fully dense product. Element tests including rolling contact fatigue, hot hardness, wear, fracture toughness, and corrosion resistance are underway on eleven candidate P/M bearing alloys and results are compared with those for wrought 440C steel, the current SSME bearing material. Several materials which offer the promise of a significant improvement in performance were identified.

  4. Temperature-strain rate dependence of mechanical properties of a beryllium of the DShG-200 brand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomutov, A.M.; Gorokhov, V.A.; Mikhailov, V.S.; Nikolaev, G.N.; Timofeev, R.Yu.; Chernov, V.M.

    2000-01-01

    Beryllium preforms of the DShG-200 brand of improved quality were manufactured by the method of a powder metallurgy and the mechanical tests on tension in longitudinal and transversal directions in temperature range 20-600 C and strain rates of 0,02 - 20 mm/min were held. It was shown, that at an alteration of strain rate within the indicated limits the values of stresses of flow and of the relative elongation can vary by several times. Comparison testing for tension by the Russian and American procedures (GOST and ASTM) was made. The obtained results can be beneficial at calculations of thermal stresses originating in fusion reactors (FR). (orig.)

  5. Structure and soft magnetic properties of the bulk samples prepared by compaction of the mixtures of Co-based and Fe-based powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuezer, J.; Bednarcik, J.; Kollar, P.; Roth, S.

    2007-01-01

    Ball milling of CoFeZrB ribbons and subsequent compaction of the resulting powders were used to prepare bulk amorphous samples. Further, two sets of powder samples were prepared by cryomilling of FeCuNbMoSiB alloy in amorphous and nanocrystalline state. Amorphous and nanocrystalline FeCuNbMoSiB powders were blended with CoFeZrB powder at different concentrations. Such powder mixtures were consolidated and several bulk nanocomposites have been synthesized. An addition of nanocrystalline or amorphous FeCuNbMoSiB powder to amorphous CoFeZrB powder caused a decrease of the magnetostriction of the resultant bulk samples, while the coercivity shows an opposite behavior. Our results show that the powder consolidation by hot pressing is an alternative method for the preparation of bulk metallic glasses, which are difficult to prepare by casting methods

  6. Synaptic consolidation across multiple timescales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorric Ziegler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The brain is bombarded with a continuous stream of sensory events, but retains only a small subset in memory. The selectivity of memory formation prevents our memory from being overloaded with irrelevant items that would rapidly bring the brain to its storage limit; moreover, selectivity also prevents overwriting previously formed memories with new ones. Memory formation in the hippocampus, as well as in other brain regions, is thought to be linked to changes in the synaptic connections between neurons. In this view, sensory events imprint traces at the level of synapses that reflect potential memory items. The question of memory selectivity can therefore be reformulated as follows: what are the reasons and conditions that some synaptic traces fade away whereas others are consolidated and persist? Experimentally, changes in synaptic strength induced by 'Hebbian' protocols fade away over a few hours (early long-term potentiation or e-LTP, unless these changes are consolidated. The experiments and conceptual theory of synaptic tagging and capture (STC provide a mechanistic explanation for the processes involved in consolidation. This theory suggests that the initial trace of synaptic plasticity sets a tag at the synapse, which then serves as a marker for potential consolidation of the changes in synaptic efficacy. The actual consolidation processes, transforming e-LTP into late LTP (l-LTP, require the capture of plasticity-related proteins (PRP. We translate the above conceptual model into a compact computational model that accounts for a wealth of in vitro data including experiments on cross-tagging, tag-resetting and depotentiation. A central ingredient is that synaptic traces are described with several variables that evolve on different time scales. Consolidation requires the transmission of information from a 'fast' synaptic trace to a 'slow' one through a 'write' process, including the formation of tags and the production of PRP for the

  7. Food powders flowability characterization: theory, methods, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, Pablo; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V

    2010-01-01

    Characterization of food powders flowability is required for predicting powder flow from hoppers in small-scale systems such as vending machines or at the industrial scale from storage silos or bins dispensing into powder mixing systems or packaging machines. This review covers conventional and new methods used to measure flowability in food powders. The method developed by Jenike (1964) for determining hopper outlet diameter and hopper angle has become a standard for the design of bins and is regarded as a standard method to characterize flowability. Moreover, there are a number of shear cells that can be used to determine failure properties defined by Jenike's theory. Other classic methods (compression, angle of repose) and nonconventional methods (Hall flowmeter, Johanson Indicizer, Hosokawa powder tester, tensile strength tester, powder rheometer), used mainly for the characterization of food powder cohesiveness, are described. The effect of some factors preventing flow, such as water content, temperature, time consolidation, particle composition and size distribution, is summarized for the characterization of specific food powders with conventional and other methods. Whereas time-consuming standard methods established for hopper design provide flow properties, there is yet little comparative evidence demonstrating that other rapid methods may provide similar flow prediction.

  8. Evaluation of powder metallurgy superalloy disk materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop nickel-base superalloy disk material using prealloyed powder metallurgy techniques. The program included fabrication of test specimens and subscale turbine disks from four different prealloyed powders (NASA-TRW-VIA, AF2-1DA, Mar-M-432 and MERL 80). Based on evaluation of these specimens and disks, two alloys (AF2-1DA and Mar-M-432) were selected for scale-up evaluation. Using fabricating experience gained in the subscale turbine disk effort, test specimens and full scale turbine disks were formed from the selected alloys. These specimens and disks were then subjected to a rigorous test program to evaluate their physical properties and determine their suitability for use in advanced performance turbine engines. A major objective of the program was to develop processes which would yield alloy properties that would be repeatable in producing jet engine disks from the same powder metallurgy alloys. The feasibility of manufacturing full scale gas turbine engine disks by thermomechanical processing of pre-alloyed metal powders was demonstrated. AF2-1DA was shown to possess tensile and creep-rupture properties in excess of those of Astroloy, one of the highest temperature capability disk alloys now in production. It was determined that metallographic evaluation after post-HIP elevated temperature exposure should be used to verify the effectiveness of consolidation of hot isostatically pressed billets.

  9. Experience of beryllium blocks operation in the SM and MIR nuclear reactors useful for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakin, V.P.; Melder, R.R.; Belozerov, S.V.

    2004-01-01

    The results are presented concerning the examinations of state of beryllium blocks after the completion of their operation in the SM and MIR reactors. Both cracks and more significant mechanical damages are revealed in the irradiated beryllium blocks. Under neutron irradiation of beryllium radiation degradation of its physical and mechanical properties occurs. It shows itself in embrittlement, decrease of brittle strength level as well in worsening of thermal conductivity that leads to increase of thermal stresses into beryllium block. Under irradiation it takes place damage of beryllium microstructure, in particular, formation of radiation defects occurs in the form of dislocation loops and great amount of helium atoms. Optimization of beryllium radioactive waste storage is related to their preliminary surface and volumetric decontamination. (author)

  10. 5. IEA International workshop on beryllium technology for fusion. Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The collection includes the abstracts of reports presented to the 5-th IEA international workshop on beryllium technology for fusion. The themes of reports are as follows: status of beryllium technology for fusion in Russia; manufacturing and testing of Be armoured first wall mock-up for ITER; development of the process of diffusion welding of metals stainless steel-copper-beryllium into a single composite; some features of beryllium-laser beam interaction; the effect of irradiation dose on tritium and helium release from neutron irradiated beryllium; thermal properties of neutron irradiated Be{sub 12}Ti. The results of investigating the mechanical properties variation and swelling of beryllium under high temperature neutron irradiation are presented.

  11. 5. IEA International workshop on beryllium technology for fusion. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The collection includes the abstracts of reports presented to the 5-th IEA international workshop on beryllium technology for fusion. The themes of reports are as follows: status of beryllium technology for fusion in Russia; manufacturing and testing of Be armoured first wall mock-up for ITER; development of the process of diffusion welding of metals stainless steel-copper-beryllium into a single composite; some features of beryllium-laser beam interaction; the effect of irradiation dose on tritium and helium release from neutron irradiated beryllium; thermal properties of neutron irradiated Be 12 Ti. The results of investigating the mechanical properties variation and swelling of beryllium under high temperature neutron irradiation are presented [ru

  12. A perfomance assesment of a 2 axis scanning mirror galvanometer for powder bed fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Bue; Andersen, Sebastian Aagaard; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2017-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing by powder bed fusion allows production of high strength parts with complex features, not possible through conventional manufacturing. To experiment and test current theory within laser processing of metal powder, an open and customizable laser scanner platform is developed...... and constructed. The platform seeks to fully support and enable the laser driven process of selective consolidation metal powder, as most industrially available powder bed fusion machine tools are closed and proprietary systems. This allows the machine tool manufacturer to strictly control how the system is used...

  13. Freeze drying vs microwave drying–methods for synthesis of sinteractive thoria powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annie, D.; Chandramouli, V. [Materials Chemistry Division, Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 602103 (India); Anthonysamy, S., E-mail: sas@igcar.gov.in [Materials Chemistry Division, Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 602103 (India); Ghosh, Chanchal; Divakar, R. [Materials Synthesis and Structural Characterization Division, Materials and Metallurgy Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 602103 (India)

    2017-02-15

    Thoria powders were synthesized by oxalate precipitation from an aqueous solution of the nitrate. The filtered precipitates were freeze dried or microwave dried before being calcined at 1073 K. The thoria powders obtained were characterized for crystallite size, specific surface area, bulk density, particle size distribution and residual carbon. Microstructure of the product was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Sinterability of the synthesized powders was studied by measuring the density of the sintered compacts. Powders that can be consolidated and sintered to densities ∼96% theoretical density (TD) at 1773 K were obtained.

  14. Development of the NBS beryllium isotopic standard reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inn, K.G.W; Fassett, J.D.; Coursey, B.M.; Walker, R.L.; Raman, S.

    1987-01-01

    The National Bureau of Standards, in conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry community, is in the process of developing a beryllium isotopic solution Standard Reference Material. The master 10 Be/ 9 Be solution was characterized isotopically by resonance-ionization and secondary-ion mass-spectrometric-based techniques, and radioactivity measurements were by liquid scintillation counting. The master solution was gravimetrically diluted with 9 Be to a final 10 Be/ 9 Be atomic ratio of 3 x 10 -11 . The preliminary data indicate a half life for 10 Be of 1.3 million years, and AMS measurements are within 10% of the known beryllium isotopic ratio

  15. Multiscale modelling of hydrogen behaviour on beryllium (0001 surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Stihl

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Beryllium is proposed to be a neutron multiplier and plasma facing material in future fusion devices. Therefore, it is crucial to acquire an understanding of the microscopic mechanisms of tritium accumulation and release as a result of transmutation processes that Be undergoes under neutron irradiation. A multiscale simulation of ad- and desorption of hydrogen isotopes on the beryllium (0001 surface is developed. It consists of ab initio calculations of certain H adsorption configurations, a suitable cluster expansion approximating the energies of arbitrary configurations, and a kinetic Monte Carlo method for dynamic simulations of adsorption and desorption. The processes implemented in the kinetic Monte Carlo simulation are deduced from further ab initio calculations comprising both, static relaxation as well as molecular dynamics runs. The simulation is used to reproduce experimental data and the results are compared and discussed. Based on the observed results, proposals for a refined model are made.

  16. Response of porous beryllium to static and dynamic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isbell, W.M.; Walton, O.R.; Ree, F.H.

    1977-07-01

    Previous investigstions of the mechanical response of porous materials to dynamic loading have been extended to include the shock wave response of a brittle metal. The complex response of berylliums of 85 to 90 percent porosity in two initial conditions has been examined in a theoretical and experimental program to be described. The study has resulted in the development of constitutive relations placed in hydrocodes which are capable of accurately predicting wave propagation in the berylliums. A comprehensive set of static (0 to 4 Gpa) and dynamic (0 to 35 Gpa) experiments was performed to measure the behavior of these brittle, porous materials to imposed loads. The results of the experiments guided a modeling effort which added several new features to previous models, including deviatoric stresses, porosity-dependent relaxation time of pore closure, elastic-plastic reopening of pores, and improved compaction functions.

  17. Status of RF beryllium characterization for ITER Fist Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupriyanov, I. B.; Nikolaev, G. N.; Roedig, M.; Gervash, A. А.; Linke, I. J.; Kurbatova, L. A.; Perevalov, S. I.; Giniyatulin, R. N.

    2011-10-01

    The status of RF R&D activities in production and characterization of TGP-56FW beryllium grade is presented. The results of metallographic studies of microstructure and cracks morphology are reported for full-scale Be tiles (56 × 56 × 10 mm) subjected to VDE simulation tests in TSEFEY-M testing facility (VDE-10 MJ/m 2 during 0.1 s, 1 shot ) and following low cycle thermal fatigue tests (500 thermal cycles at 1.5 MW/m 2). First results of plasma disruption tests ( E = 1.2-5 MJ/m 2, 5 ms), which were obtained during the realization of Thermal Shock/VDE Qualification program of RF beryllium in JUDITH-1 facility, are also discussed.

  18. Status of RF beryllium characterization for ITER Fist Wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupriyanov, I.B.; Nikolaev, G.N.; Roedig, M.; Gervash, A.A.; Linke, I.J.; Kurbatova, L.A.; Perevalov, S.I.; Giniyatulin, R.N.

    2011-01-01

    The status of RF R and D activities in production and characterization of TGP-56FW beryllium grade is presented. The results of metallographic studies of microstructure and cracks morphology are reported for full-scale Be tiles (56 x 56 x 10 mm) subjected to VDE simulation tests in TSEFEY-M testing facility (VDE-10 MJ/m 2 during 0.1 s, 1 shot) and following low cycle thermal fatigue tests (500 thermal cycles at 1.5 MW/m 2 ). First results of plasma disruption tests (E = 1.2-5 MJ/m 2 , 5 ms), which were obtained during the realization of Thermal Shock/VDE Qualification program of RF beryllium in JUDITH-1 facility, are also discussed.

  19. Gravimetric determination of beryllium in the presence of transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozova, S.S.; Nikitina, L.V.; Dyatlova, N.M.; Serebryakova, G.V.; Vol'nyagina, A.N.

    1976-01-01

    A new organic reagent, nitrolotrimethylphosphonic acid (H 6 L), is proposed for gravimetric determination of beryllium. This complexone forms with Be hardly soluble complexes in a wide pH range. The separated complex has a composition Be 5 (HL) 2 x10H 2 O. To elucidate the possibility of determining Be in the presence of transition metals, often accompanying beryllium in alloys, interaction of cations of these metals with H 6 L at different pH has been studied potentiometrically. It has been established that at pH=1.1 in the presence of masking reagent (diethylentriaminopentacetic acid) Be can be determined when zinc, copper, chromium, cobalt, nickel, iron, manganese and cadmium are present. Gravimetric method of determining Be with the help of H 6 L has been developed. The weight form is obtained by drying the precipitate which reduces considerably the time of analysis and the error of determination

  20. Response of porous beryllium to static and dynamic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isbell, W.M.; Walton, O.R.; Ree, F.H.

    1977-07-01

    Previous investigstions of the mechanical response of porous materials to dynamic loading have been extended to include the shock wave response of a brittle metal. The complex response of berylliums of 85 to 90 percent porosity in two initial conditions has been examined in a theoretical and experimental program to be described. The study has resulted in the development of constitutive relations placed in hydrocodes which are capable of accurately predicting wave propagation in the berylliums. A comprehensive set of static (0 to 4 Gpa) and dynamic (0 to 35 Gpa) experiments was performed to measure the behavior of these brittle, porous materials to imposed loads. The results of the experiments guided a modeling effort which added several new features to previous models, including deviatoric stresses, porosity-dependent relaxation time of pore closure, elastic-plastic reopening of pores, and improved compaction functions

  1. Examination of respiratory tract in workers occupationally exposed to beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cianciara, M.; Swiatkowski, J.

    1989-01-01

    In a group (30) occupationally exposed to beryllium below the Maximum Allowed Concentration, deviations from the norm were found in 13% of chest x rays and impairments of lung ventilatory reserves in 46%. The low intensity and non-specific character of the changes did not allow confirmation of connection with occupational exposure. Radiological examination of the lungs, expanded functional testing of the respiratory system and measurements of blood gases are recommended to identify workers with respiratory changes at an early stage. (UK)

  2. Solid state bonding of beryllium to copper and vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, D.R.; Liby, A.L.; Weaver, W.

    1993-01-01

    The intent of this effort was to demonstrate that ingot metallurgy (IM) beryllium (Be) can be bonded to dissimilar metals such as copper (Cu) or vanadium (V) at low temperatures by using silver (Ag) as a bonding aid. It is hoped that success at the coupon stage will stimulate more extensive studies of the mechanical and thermal integrity of such joints, leading ultimately to use of this technology to fabricate first wall structures for ITER. (orig.)

  3. Beryllium isotopes in cosmic radiation measured with plastic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, K.; Enge, W.; Beaujean, R.

    1976-01-01

    Plastic stacks consisting of Daicel cellulose nitrate and Kodak cellulose nitrate were flown from Fort Churchill, Canada in 1971 for the study of isotopic components of light nuclei, especially beryllium, in primary cosmic rays. Tracks found in these detectors were analysed for charge and mass identification; the ratio between Be 7 and total Be is obtained as 0.64 +- 0.25 at detector level. (orig.) [de

  4. Pre-melting hcp to bcc Transition in Beryllium

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Y.; Sun, T.; Zhang, Ping.; Zhang, P.; Zhang, D. -B.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.

    2017-01-01

    Beryllium (Be) is an important material with wide applications ranging from aerospace components to X-ray equipments. Yet a precise understanding of its phase diagram remains elusive. We have investigated the phase stability of Be using a recently developed hybrid free energy computation method that accounts for anharmonic effects by invoking phonon quasiparticles. We find that the hcp to bcc transition occurs near the melting curve at 0

  5. Photoneutron cross sections for D2O and beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowsher, H.F.; Woods, F.J.; Baumann, N.P.

    1975-01-01

    The photodissociation cross section by 24 Na gamma rays was measured for deuterium in order to resolve a discrepancy between earlier measurements (1.43 to 1.59 millibarns) and a more recently reported one (1.34 mb). The measurement of the beryllium (γ,n) cross section for 24 Na gamma rays was also included as a check. Results for deuterium (1.54 mb) are in agreement with the earlier values

  6. Some implications of accurate thermal parameters for beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, D.M.; Whitehurst, F.W.

    1981-01-01

    Authoritative values for the parameters of harmonic thermal motion have been used as criteria for various least-squares refinements of the structure model for beryllium metal. A change in the absolute scale of Brown [Philos. Mag. (1972), 26, 1377-1394] improves the correspondence of the associated data with the true thermal parameters. Contraction of the core-electron distribution upon bonding is a possible implication of the rescaled data. (Auth.)

  7. Presence of Beryllium (Be) in urban soils: human health risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A.; Gonzalez, M. J.; Lobo, M. C.

    2009-07-01

    Berylium (Be) is, together with As, Cd, Hg, Pb and Ti, one of the trace elements more toxic for human being (Vaessen) and Szteke, 2000; Yaman and Avci, 2006), but in spite of the exponential increment of its applications during the last decades, surprisingly there isn't hardly information about its presence and environmental distribution. The aim of this work is to evaluate the presence of Beryllium in urban soils in Alcala de Henares, (Madrid Spain).

  8. Consolidated results 2000. Forecasts 2001; Resultats consolides 2000. Perspectives 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document presents an economic analysis of the Group Gaz De France consolidated results for the year 2000. The main topics are the evolution of the energy market, the great economic growth for the five businesses of the Group (exploration-production, trade, transport, distribution and services), financial results affected by the supply costs increase, the position reinforcement among the gas leaders in Europe and the highlights of 2000. (A.L.B.)

  9. Detail analysis of fusion neutronics benchmark experiment on beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, Chikara; Ochiai, Kentaro; Takakura, Kosuke; Ohnishi, Seiki; Kondo, Keitaro; Wada, Masayuki; Sato, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    Our previous analysis of the integral experiments (in situ and TOF experiments) on beryllium with DT neutrons at JAEA/FNS pointed out two problems by using MCNP4C and the latest nuclear data libraries; one was a strange larger neutron peak around 12 MeV appearing in the TOF experiment analysis with JEFF-3.1 and the other was an overestimation on law energy neutrons in the in situ experiment analyses with all the nuclear data libraries. We investigated reasons for these problems in detail. It was found out that the official ACE file MCJEFF3.1 of JEFF-3.1 had an inconsistency with the original JEFF-3.1, which caused the strange larger neutron peak around 12 MeV in the TOF experiment analysis. We also found out that the calculated thermal neutron peak was probably too large in the in situ experiment. On trial we examined influence of the thermal neutron scattering law data of beryllium metal in ENDF/B-VI. The result pointed out that the coherent elastic scattering cross-section data in the thermal neutron scattering law data of beryllium metal were probably too large.

  10. Zone-refining of beryllium(II) acetylacetonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Isao; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Ueno, Keihei

    1975-01-01

    Zone melting was applied to bis (acetylacetonato) beryllium(II), Be(AA) 2 , to remove trace metal constiutents. The effective distribution coefficient, k, of a minor component measured in a binary mixture with the majority of Be(AA) 2 , fell in the range of 0.4 to 0.8, while the value obtained in a multiple component mixture fell in the range of 0.8 to 0.9 except Zn(II)- and Ni(II) chelates. Cr(AA) 3 was concentrated upward in the direction of the zone travelling, and similar results were obtained with Cu(II)-, Co(III)- Fe(III)- and Al(III) acetylacetonates, while Zn(II)-, Ni(II)- and Mn(III) chelates were fractionated in the both ends of the column. On the other hand, when the zone was moved downward, the minor components were concentrated in the lower end of a column. Efficiency in zone refining was compared to each other between the upward- and downward zone travelling modes on the crude beryllium acetylacetonates obtained from a commercial reagent of beryllium nitrate, and the latter mode was found more effective in the concentration of trace components. Discussion was given on possible mechanisms resulting in the difference in the refining efficiency. (author)

  11. Investigation of the beryllium ion-surface interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guseva, M.I. [Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Birukov, A.Yu. [Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Gureev, V.M. [Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Daneljan, L.S. [Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Korshunov, S.N. [Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Martynenko, Yu.V. [Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Moskovkin, P.S. [Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Sokolov, Yu.A. [Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Stoljarova, V.G. [Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Kulikauskas, V.S. [M.V. Lomonosov University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zatekin, V.V. [M.V. Lomonosov University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-10-01

    The energy and temperature dependence of self-sputtering yields of beryllium were measured. The energy dependence of the beryllium self-sputtering yield agrees well with that calculated by Eckstein et al. Below 770 K the self-sputtering yields are temperature independent; at T{sub irr.}>870 K the yield increases steeply. Beryllium samples were implanted at 370 K with monoenergetic 5 keV hydrogen ions and with a stationary hydrogen plasma power flux of about 5 MW/m{sup 2}. In the fluence range of 5 x 10{sup 22}-1.5 x 10{sup 25} m{sup -2} the depth profile is shifted towards the surface with increasing fluence and the concentration of trapped hydrogen atoms is reduced from 3.3 x 10{sup 21} to 7.4 x 10{sup 20} m{sup -2}. About 95% of the trapped hydrogen is located within bubbles and only {proportional_to}5% is trapped as atoms. With increasing implantation fluence the bubbles coalesce, producing channels through which hydrogen escapes. (orig.).

  12. A diethylhydroxylaminate based mixed lithium/beryllium aggregate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Raphael J.F. [Paris-Lodron Universitaet Salzburg (Austria). Fachbereich fuer Materialwissenschaften und Physik; Jana, Surajit [Asansol Girls College, West-Bengal (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Froehlich, Roland [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Organisch-Chemisches Inst.; Mitzel, Norbert W. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Anorganische Chemie und Strukturchemie

    2015-07-01

    A mixed lithium/beryllium diethylhydroxylaminate compound containing {sup n}butyl beryllium units of total molecular composition {sup n}Be(ONEt{sub 2}){sub 2} [(LiONEt{sub 2}){sup 2} {sup n}BuBeONEt{sub 2}]{sub 2} (1) was isolated from a reaction mixture of {sup n}butyl lithium, N,N-diethylhydroxylamine and BeCl{sub 2} in diethylether/thf. The crystal structure of 1 has been determined by X-ray diffraction. The aggregate is composed of two ladder-type subunits connected in a beryllium-centered distorted tetrahedron of four oxygen atoms. Only the lithium atoms are engaged in coordination with the nitrogen donor atoms. The DFT calculations support the positional occupation determined for Li and Be in the crystal structure. The DFT and the solid-state structure are in excellent agreement, indicating only weak intermolecular interactions in the solid state. Structural details of metal atom coordination are discussed.

  13. Test of a beryllium limiter in the tokamak UNITOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackmann, J.; Uhlenbusch, J.

    1984-01-01

    Beryllium rail limiters are inserted into the tokamak UNITOR to study the compatibility of this material with the plasma. The power load onto the limiter surface is 1-2 kW/cm 2 during the plasma pulse length of 50 ms duration. The concentration of heavy (Cr) and light (O) impurities is monitored by means of spectroscopy. In comparison with other materials tested likewise (graphite, Ni, Al 2 O 3 , TiC, SiC, SS) the Be-experiments have shown the following improvements: (a) the concentration of heavy impurities is considerably reduced, (b) this reduction is preserved if the poloidal Be-limiters are retracted from the plasma, (c) the plasma resistivity is diminished, (d) the occurrence of disruptions decreases. A total amount of 6 mg beryllium was found distributed on the inner torus wall after 1500 shots. The decontamination of the apparatus was performed without major problems. Only very little volatile Be-dust was detected, and peripheric parts (pumps, mass spectrometer etc.) were not contaminated. The beryllium released from the limiters was found to be entirely deposited on the torus wall mainly in the vicinity of the limiters. (orig.)

  14. Boron nitride protective coating of beryllium window surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmuer, N.F.

    1991-12-01

    The use of beryllium windows on white synchrotron radiation beamlines is constrained by the fact that the downstream surfaces of these windows should not be exposed to ambient atmosphere. They should, rather, be protected by a tail-piece under vacuum or containing helium atmosphere. This tailpiece is typically capped by Kapton (3M Corporation, St. Paul, MN) or aluminum foil. The reason for such an arrangement is due to the health risk associated with contaminants (BeO) which from on the exposed beryllium window surfaces and due to possible loss of integrity of the windows. Such a tail-piece may, however, add unwanted complications to the beamline in the form of vacuum pumps or helium supplies and their related monitoring systems. The Kapton windows may burn through in the case of high intensity beams and lower energy radiation may be absorbed in the case of aluminum foil windows. A more ideal situation would be to provide a coating for the exposed beryllium window surface, sealing it off from the atmosphere, thus preventing contamination and/or degradation of the window, and eliminating the need for helium or vacuum equipment

  15. Strength-ductility relationships in intermediate purity hot-pressed beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonehouse, A.J.; Bielawski, C.A.; Paine, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    The strength of vacuum hot-pressed, intermediate purity beryllium may be substantially increased without sacrifice of the strain capacity of the present grade (S-65) through decrease in the average grain size. Tensile strength of 517 MPa, 0.2% offset yield strength of 414 MPa with minimum 3% tensile elongation in all test directions could be commercially achieved. The tangent modulus of such material is quite attractive and suffers only about 10% degradation from room temperature to 260 0 C. The tangent modulus is dramatically enhanced by the presence of a yield point. The ductility of the materials studied did not appear to be affected by the BeO content across the range of 0.5 to 2.0% using nominal -44 to -15 μm powder particle sizes. All fine-grained pressings exhibited yield points in the as-pressed condition. Either full-density or sub-density hot-pressed billets given a hot isostatic pressing treatment without the use of cans showed only slight yield points after the HIP treatment with essentially the same strength and ductility factors as in the pressed condition. A plot of grain size vs yield strength in the as-pressed condition projects to an intercept with the fracture strength line at about 3 μm grain size. A similar plot after the HIP treatment shows a yield strength line parallel to the fracture strength line with no projected intercept predicting a completely brittle material. (author)

  16. Common consolidated corporate tax base: grouping and consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuše Nerudová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available After the ten years of work and discussion of the proposal the European Commission has published the proposal of CCCTB directive on 16th March, 2011. This proposal can be considered as unique, for the European Commission is suggesting totally new system of corporate taxation. The aim of the paper is to research the rules for consolidation and grouping suggested in the proposal of CCCTB directive, to identify the possible conflict situations and to suggest the possible solution. The focuses on the provisions regarding the conditions for consolidation and grouping, comprised in chapter IX, Art. 54–60. In that area has been identified, that even though the provisions seem to be clear, their practical application can in some situations lead to double interpretation, mainly with respect to the fact that individual member states are responsible for the implementation of the directive and also national tax administrators and national courts are going to interpret the provisions of the directive. Therefore even though the fact that suggested system is unique and addresses a lot of problems which are facing companies running business on the internal market, the provisions regarding the consolidation rules and rules for group formatting may still lead not to unified interpretation. In that respect, some of the rules should be more specific in order to ensure unified interpretation.

  17. 77 FR 45721 - Consolidated Audit Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... maintain a consolidated order tracking system, or consolidated audit trail, with respect to the trading of... With a Consolidated Audit Trail 3. Large Trader Reporting System Rule B. Summary of Proposed Rule 613 C... Authority (``FINRA'') and some of the exchanges currently maintain their own separate audit trail systems...

  18. SAF line powder operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederickson, J.R.; Horgos, R.M.

    1983-10-01

    An automated nuclear fuel fabrication line is being designed for installation in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) near Richland, Washington. The fabrication line will consist of seven major process systems: Receiving and Powder Preparation; Powder Conditioning; Pressing and Boat Loading; Debinding, Sintering, and Property Adjustment; Boat Transport; Pellet Inspection and Finishing; and Pin Operations. Fuel powder processing through pellet pressing will be discussed in this paper

  19. Two layer powder pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, H.

    1979-01-01

    First, significance and advantages of sintered materials consisting of two layers are pointed out. By means of the two layer powder pressing technique metal powders are formed resulting in compacts with high accuracy of shape and mass. Attributes of basic powders, different filling methods and pressing techniques are discussed. The described technique is supposed to find further applications in the field of two layer compacts in the near future

  20. Operation whey powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, E.

    1987-01-01

    The odyssey of the contaminated whey powder finally has come to an end, and the 5000 tonnes of whey now are designated for decontamination by means of an ion exchange technique. The article throws light upon the political and economic reasons that sent the whey powder off on a chaotic journey. It is worth mentioning in this context that the natural radioactivity of inorganic fertilizers is much higher than that of the whey powder in question. (HP) [de

  1. CFD Simulation on Cooling Down of Beryllium Filters for Neutron Conditioning for Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azraf Azman; Shahrir Abdullah; Mohd Rizal Mamat

    2011-01-01

    The cryogenic system for cooling Beryllium filter utilizing liquid nitrogen was designed, fabricated, tested and installed at SANS instrument of TRIGA MARK II PUSPATI research reactor. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was used to predict the cooling performance of the beryllium for optimization of neutron beam resolution and transmission. This paper presents the transient CFD results of temperature distributions via the thermal link to the beryllium and simulation of heat flux. The simulation data are also compared with the experimental results for the cooling time and distribution to the beryllium. (author)

  2. Method of crude ore defluoridation in hydrometallurgy of beryllium, affording fluorosilicic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samojlov, V.I.; Borsuk, A.N.; Zherin, I.I.

    2006-01-01

    Results of laboratory and industrial tests conducted at Ul'ba Metallurgical Plant on leaching bertrandite - phenacite - fluorite flotation concentrate containing ∼4 wt. % beryllium in a rotary furnace using sulfuric acid are presented. The technology is shown to provide a 7.8% reduction in the net cost of beryllium production (1 kg) in the form of technical-grade Be(OH) 2 by obviating the need of smelting beryllium concentrates and alkali fluxes. Besides, the technology permits concomitant production of H 2 SiF 6 , its commercial sales promoting a 17.6% reduction in beryllium production net cost [ru

  3. Testing of beryllium marker coatings in PISCES-B for the JET ITER-like wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widdowson, A.; Baldwin, M.J.; Coad, J.P.; Doerner, R.P.; Hanna, J.; Hole, D.E.; Matthews, G.F.; Rubel, M.; Seraydarian, R.; Xu, H.

    2009-01-01

    Beryllium has been chosen as the first wall material for ITER. In order to understand the issues of material migration and tritium retention associated with the use of beryllium, a largely beryllium first wall will be installed in JET. As part of the JET ITER-like wall, beryllium tiles with marker coatings are proposed as a diagnostic tool for studying the erosion and deposition of beryllium around the vessel. The nominal structure for these coatings is a ∼10 μm beryllium surface layer separated from the beryllium tile by a 2-3 μm metallic inter-layer. Two types of coatings are tested here; one with a nickel inter-layer and one with a copper/beryllium mixed inter-layer. The coating samples were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering at General Atomics and were exposed to deuterium plasma in PISCES-B. The results of this testing show that the beryllium/nickel marker coating would be suitable for installation in JET.

  4. The beryllium quandary: will the lower exposure limits spur new developments in sampling and analysis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisson, Michael

    2013-06-03

    At the time this article was written, new rulemakings were under consideration at OSHA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that would propose changes to occupational exposure limits for beryllium. Given these developments, it’s a good time to review the tools and methods available to IHs for assessing beryllium air and surface contamination in the workplace—what’s new and different, and what’s tried and true. The article discusses limit values and action levels for beryllium, problematic aspects of beryllium air sampling, sample preparation, sample analysis, and data evaluation.

  5. Using Fast Hot Shock Wave Consolidation Technology to Produce Superconducting MgB2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Gegechkori

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The original hot shock wave assisted consolidation method combining high temperature was applied with the two-stage explosive process without any further sintering to produce superconducting materials with high density and integrity. The consolidation of MgB2 billets was performed at temperatures above the Mg melting point and up to 1000oC in partially liquid condition of Mg-2B blend powders. The influence of the type of boron (B isotope in the composition on critical temperature and superconductive properties was evaluated. An example of a hybrid Cu-MgB2–Cu superconducting tube is demonstrated and conclusions are discussed.

  6. Mechanical alloying nanotechnology, materials science and powder metallurgy

    CERN Document Server

    El-Eskandarany, M Sherif

    2015-01-01

    This book is a detailed introduction to mechanical alloying, offering guidelines on the necessary equipment and facilities needed to carry out the process and giving a fundamental background to the reactions taking place. El-Eskandarany, a leading authority on mechanical alloying, discusses the mechanism of powder consolidations using different powder compaction processes. A new chapter will also be included on thermal, mechanically-induced and electrical discharge-assisted mechanical milling. Fully updated to cover recent developments in the field, this second edition also introduces new a

  7. Pharmaceutical powder compaction technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Çelik, Metin

    2011-01-01

    ... through the compaction formulation process and application. Compaction of powder constituents both active ingredient and excipients is examined to ensure consistent and reproducible disintegration and dispersion profiles...

  8. Behavior of porous beryllium under thermomechanical loading. Part 6. Effect of pressure on the microstructure of plasma-sprayed beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanafee, J.E.; Snell, E.O.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of pressure and specimen preparation on the microstructure of two grades of porous plasma-sprayed beryllium were determined. One grade, P-1, was sintered after spraying while the other grade, P-10, was tested in the as-sprayed condition. the principal microstructural characteristics studied were grain size: grain morphology, and void distribution and size. It was found that machining can readily cause a significant dense surface layer on the porous beryllium specimens, and that the dense surface layer can be removed by etching. There was substantial difference in microstructure between the P-1 sintered and P-10 unsintered specimens both before and after being subjected to shock waves and static compression. (U.S.)

  9. Melt-drop technique for the production of high-purity metal powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldinger, F.; Linck, E.; Claussen, N.

    1977-01-01

    The production of high-purity powders of metals and alloys such as beryllium, titanium alloys, or superalloys is a problem. Oxidation of these materials cannot be avoided. Oxidation occurs in inert gases and even in reducing atmospheres when any gas impurities are present. Therefore, the powder production of these materials has to be performed either in high vacuum or at least in a static atmosphere of inert gas purified immediately before coming into contact with the disintegrating material. These requirements are very well met by the melt-drop technique presented in this paper, especially for coarse powders which must not necessarily be cold-workable. This is true, for example, for superalloys where high-temperature applications require large grain sizes; or in titanium alloys because the final microstructure will be achieved by a thermomechanical treatment. In the case of beryllium and beryllium alloys, where grain sizes <5 μm are desired, further milling is necessary. But the melt-drop technique offers a simple and clean method directly from the purifying process of vacuum melting. In melt-drop processes a liquid metal flows through a nozzle at the bottom of a crucible or the melt is just poured through a sieve. The theory of disintegration of a liquid jet into droplets, dates back to the 19th century. More recent investigations attempted to produce uniformly sized droplets by applying a capillary wave of given wave length to the jet. But this has been done only with non-metallic materials. Evidence is presented to prove the theory and show that this concept is applicable to the production of metal powders with controlled particle size

  10. Introduction to beryllium: uses, regulatory history, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolanz, M E

    2001-05-01

    Beryllium is an ubiquitous element in the environment, and it has many commercial applications. Because of its strength, electrical and thermal conductivity, corrosion resistance, and nuclear properties, beryllium products are used in the aerospace, automotive, energy, medical, and electronics industries. What eventually came to be known as chronic beryllium disease (CBD) was first identified in the 1940s, when a cluster of cases was observed in workers from the fluorescent light industry. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission recommended the first 8-hour occupational exposure limit (OEL) for beryllium of 2.0 microg/m3 in 1949, which was later reviewed and accepted by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and the vast majority of countries and standard-setting bodies worldwide. The 2.0 microg/m3 standard has been in use by the beryllium industry for more than 50 years and has been considered adequate to protect workers against clinical CBD. Recently, improved diagnostic techniques, including immunological testing and safer bronchoscopy, have enhanced our ability to identify subclinical CBD cases that would have formerly remained unidentified. Some recent epidemiological studies have suggested that some workers may develop CBD at exposures less than 2.0 microg/m3. ACGIH is currently reevaluating the adequacy of the current 2.0 microg/m3 guideline, and a plethora of research initiatives are under way to provide a better understanding of the cause of CBD. The research is focusing on the risk factors and exposure metrics that could be associated with CBD, as well as on efforts to better characterize the natural history of CBD. There is growing evidence that particle size and chemical form may be important factors that influence the risk of developing CBD. These research efforts are

  11. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 2 discusses the following topics: Fuel Rod Extraction System Test Results and Analysis Reports and Clamping Table Test Results and Analysis Reports

  12. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 1 discusses the following topics: the background of the project; test program description; summary of tests and test results; problem evaluation; functional requirements confirmation; recommendations; and completed test documentation for tests performed in Phase 3

  13. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 9 discusses the following topics: Integrated System Normal Operations Test Results and Analysis Report; Integrated System Off-Normal Operations Test Results and Analysis Report; and Integrated System Maintenance Operations Test Results and Analysis Report

  14. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 8 discusses Control System SOT Tests Results and Analysis Report. This is a continuation of Book 7

  15. Method for consolidating incompetent formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlich, J.P.; Calvert, D.G.

    1965-02-23

    An incompetent formation is consolidated and left permeable by first injecting a solidifiable liquid resin, and following this by an organic liquid to set the resin. The liquid resin used may be 3 (glycidyloxy) propyl trimethoxysilane in sufficient concentration to considerably increase the compressive strength of the consolidated zone. The silane may be used in a ratio of between 0.5 and 5% of the total volume of the liquid resin. The liquid resin used may be a phenol-formaldehyde condensation product dispersed in an aliphatic alcohol with from 1 to 4 carbon atoms. The liquid resin used may be an epoxy containing a hardener. The resin may be displaced into the formation by a liquid hydrocarbon. (5 claims)

  16. To Replay, Perchance to Consolidate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Genzel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available After a memory is formed, it continues to be processed by the brain. These "off-line" processes consolidate the memory, leading to its enhancement and to changes in memory circuits. Potentially, these memory changes are driven by off-line replay of the pattern of neuronal activity present when the memory was being formed. A new study by Dhaksin Ramanathan and colleagues, published in PLOS Biology, demonstrates that replay occurs predominately after the acquisition of a new motor skill and that it is related to changes in memory performance and to the subsequent changes in memory circuits. Together, these observations reveal the importance of neuronal replay in the consolidation of novel motor skills.

  17. Fast high-temperature consolidation of Oxide-Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels: process, microstructure, precipitation, properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulnat, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    This work aims to lighten the understanding of the behavior of a class of metallic materials called Oxide-Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels. ODS steels are produced by powder metallurgy with various steps including atomization, mechanical alloying and high-temperature consolidation. The consolidation involves the formation of nanoparticles in the steel and various evolutions of the microstructure of the material that are not fully understood. In this thesis, a novel consolidation technique assisted by electric field called 'Spark Plasma Sintering' (SPS) or 'Field-Assisted Sintering Technique' (FAST) was assessed. Excellent mechanical properties were obtained by SPS, comparable to those of conventional hot isostatic pressed (HIP) materials but with much shorter processing time. Also, a broad range of microstructures and thus of tensile strength and ductility were obtained by performing SPS on either milled or atomized powder at different temperatures. However, SPS consolidation failed to avoid heterogeneous microstructure composed of ultrafine-grained regions surrounded by micron grains despite of the rapid consolidation kinetics. A multi-scale characterization allowed to understand and model the evolution of this complex microstructure. An analytical evaluation of the contributing mechanisms can explain the appearance of the complex grain structure and its thermal stability during further heat treatments. Inhomogeneous distribution of plastic deformation in the powder is argued to be the major cause of heterogeneous recrystallization and further grain growth during hot consolidation. Even if increasing the solute content of yttrium, titanium and oxygen does not impede abnormal growth, it permits to control the fraction and the size of the retained ultrafine grains, which is a key-factor to tailor the mechanical properties. Since precipitation through grain boundary pinning plays a significant role on grain growth, a careful

  18. Consolidation of renders and plasters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    van Hees, R.; Veiga, R.; Slížková, Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2017), s. 50-65 ISSN 1359-5997 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : consolidants * plasters * requirements * selection * assessment Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 2.607, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1617/s11527-016-0894-5

  19. Consolidated results 2000. Forecasts 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document presents an economic analysis of the Group Gaz De France consolidated results for the year 2000. The main topics are the evolution of the energy market, the great economic growth for the five businesses of the Group (exploration-production, trade, transport, distribution and services), financial results affected by the supply costs increase, the position reinforcement among the gas leaders in Europe and the highlights of 2000. (A.L.B.)

  20. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-05

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of ternary mixtures consisting of: Ni powder, Cu powder, and Al powder, Ni powder, Cr powder, and Al powder; Ni powder, W powder and Al powder; Ni powder, V powder, and Al powder; Ni powder, Mo powder, and Al powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.