WorldWideScience

Sample records for beryllium lymphocyte proliferation

  1. Identification of an abnormal beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential hazards from exposure to beryllium or beryllium compounds in the workplace were first reported in the 1930s. The tritiated thymidine beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) is an in vitro blood test that is widely used to screen beryllium exposed workers in the nuclear industry for sensitivity to beryllium. The clinical significance of the BeLPT was described and a standard protocol was developed in the late 1980s. Cell proliferation is measured by the incorporation of tritiated thymidine into dividing cells on two culture dates and using three concentrations of beryllium sulfate. Results are expressed as a 'stimulation index' (SI) which is the ratio of the amount of tritiated thymidine (measured by beta counts) in the simulated cells divided by the counts for the unstimulated cells on the same culture day. Several statistical methods for use in the routine analysis of the BeLPT were proposed in the early 1990s. The least absolute values (LAV) method was recommended for routine analysis of the BeLPT. This report further evaluates the LAV method using new data, and proposes a new method for identification of an abnormal or borderline test. This new statistical-biological positive (SBP) method reflects the clinical judgment that: (i) at least two SIs show a 'positive' response to beryllium; and (ii) that the maximum of the six SIs must exceed a cut-point that is determined from a reference data set of normal individuals whose blood has been tested by the same method in the same serum. The new data is from the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge (Y-12) and consists of 1080 workers and 33 non-exposed control BeLPTs (all tested in the same serum). Graphical results are presented to explain the statistical method, and the new SBP method is applied to the Y-12 group. The true positive rate and specificity of the new method were estimated to be 86% and 97%, respectively. An electronic notebook that is accessible via the Internet was used in

  2. Results of the analysis of the blood lymphocyte proliferation test data from the National Jewish Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    From, E.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Mathematical Sciences Section; Newman, L.S.; Mroz, M.M. [National Jewish Center for Immunology and Respiratory Medicine, Denver, CO (United States)

    1997-03-01

    A new approach to the analysis of the blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT) was presented to the Committee to Accredit Beryllium Sensitization Testing-Beryllium Industry Scientific Advisory Committee in April, 1994. Two new outlier resistant methods were proposed for the analysis of the blood LPT and compared with the approach then in use by most labs. The National Jewish Center (NJC) agreed to provide data from a study that was underway at that time. Three groups of LPT data are considered: (1) a sample of 168 beryllium exposed (BE) workers and 20 nonexposed (NE) persons; (2) 25 unacceptable LPTs, and (3) 32 abnormal LPTs for individuals known to have chronic beryllium disease (CBD). The LAV method described in ORNL-6818 was applied to each LPT. Graphical and numerical summaries similar to those presented for the ORISE data are given. Three methods were used to identify abnormal LPTs. All three methods correctly identified the 32 known CBD cases as abnormal.

  3. Giardia induces proliferation and interferon γ production by intestinal lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Ebert, E

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Murine intraepithelial lymphocytes kill Giardia lambia; responses of human intestinal lymphocytes to this parasite are unknown. 
AIMS—To examine giardia induced proliferation, interferon γ production, migration, and cytotoxicity by lymphocytes from the human intestine and peripheral blood. 
METHODS—Giardia were added to intraepithelial lymphocytes, lamina propria lymphocytes, and peripheral blood lymphocytes, obtained from jejunal mucosa and blood of otherwise ...

  4. Effect of pyrimethamine and sulphadoxine on human lymphocyte proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I C; Odum, Niels; Theander, T G

    1986-01-01

    concentrations 10 times higher than serum values obtained in clinical practice inhibited lymphocyte proliferation irreversibly. PYR in concentrations corresponding to clinical practice quickly and irreversibly suppressed the proliferation of PWM-stimulated cells, and more slowly the proliferation of PPD....... Sulphadoxine (SDX), added in vitro, had no effect on the lymphocytes, while SDX plus PYR had the same effect as PYR alone. Oral intake of SDX plus PYR (Fansidar) also blocked the thymidine synthesis of mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes. The possible consequences of the findings for the use of PYR in malaria...

  5. Lymphocytes in patients with psoriasis promote proliferation of keratinocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG An-mei; ZHONG Ren-qian; CHEN Sun-xiao; ZHOU Ye; KONG Xian-tao

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the effect of lymphocytes on proliferation of keratinocytes in patients with psoriasis. Methods: Lymphocytes in lesion and peripheral blood were isolated and amplified, then cultured together with normal keratinocytes. By MTT method, the living cells were quantified in the mixed culture.Results: Compared with normal controls, lymphocytes from lesion and peripheral blood of psoriasis both promote the proliferation of keratinocytes (P<0. 01 and P<0. 05 respectively). The concentrations of IL-2 and IFN-γ in the mixture of lesion lymphocytes and keratinocytes were significantly higher than that of controls.Tripterygium glycosides inhibited this promotion. Conclusion: Lymphocytes in patients with psoriasis (mainly Thl cell) play an important role in proliferation of keratinocytes. This psoriasis cell model is useful for studies on signal transduction in psoriasis.

  6. C1-esterase inhibitor blocks T lymphocyte proliferation and cytotoxic T lymphocyte generation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Holst; Bregenholt, S; Nording, J A;

    1998-01-01

    beta2m in nanomolar amounts to a one-way allogenic mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) increased the endogenous production of IL-2 and the generation of allo-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. C1-inh was purified from fresh human plasma and added to human or murine MLC and mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte...... cultures grown in the presence of complement-inactivated serum. Read-outs were cell proliferation, lymphokine production and development of T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. We found that addition of C1-inh to MLC and mitogen-exposed murine and human lymphocyte cultures inhibited proliferation, the development...

  7. Effect of chloroquine on human lymphocyte proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Flachs, H

    1986-01-01

    The effect of chloroquine on human blood mononuclear cells was studied. High concentrations of chloroquine in vitro profoundly suppressed the proliferation of mitogen- and antigen-stimulated cells, as indicated by decreased 14C-thymidine incorporation. Lower concentrations of chloroquine increase...

  8. Effect of oral proguanil on human lymphocyte proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Flachs, H

    1986-01-01

    In vitro studies have indicated that the antifolates pyrimethamine [4, 6] and cycloguanil (the active metabolite of proguanil) suppress the proliferation of stimulated human lymphocytes; proguanil has no effect [2]. During the early growth phase of the cells, 14C-thymidine (14C-TdR) incorporation...... proguanil on human lymphocytes, the present study was undertaken. Little information is available about the serum levels of proguanil and cycloguanil following ingestion of prophylactic doses [8]. Therefore, the serum concentrations of proguanil and cycloguanil were estimated, to allow comparison with...

  9. Taurine and proliferation of lymphocytes in physically restrained rats

    OpenAIRE

    Fazzino Fili; Obregón Francisco; Lima Lucimey

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Taurine is present in lymphocytes and seems to modulate certain immune cell functions. Among the effects of taurine on these cells are protection against antioxidants and regulation of inflammatory aspects of the immune response. Stress affects antigen presentation, traffic and proliferation of leukocytes, as well as antibody and cytokine secretion. The purposes of this study were to explore the possible direct effects of taurine concentrations on lymphoproliferation and i...

  10. Advances in Identifying Beryllium Sensitization and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kowalski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Beryllium is a lightweight metal with unique qualities related to stiffness, corrosion resistance, and conductivity. While there are many useful applications, researchers in the 1930s and l940s linked beryllium exposure to a progressive occupational lung disease. Acute beryllium disease is a pulmonary irritant response to high exposure levels, whereas chronic beryllium disease (CBD typically results from a hypersensitivity response to lower exposure levels. A blood test, the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT, was an important advance in identifying individuals who are sensitized to beryllium (BeS and thus at risk for developing CBD. While there is no true "gold standard" for BeS, basic epidemiologic concepts have been used to advance our understanding of the different screening algorithms.

  11. Epithelial cell proliferation and glandular atrophy in lymphocytic gastritis: Effect of H pylori treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkinen, Johanna M; Niemelä, Seppo; Kerola, Tuomo; Lehtola, Juhani; Karttunen, Tuomo J

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Lymphocytic gastritis is commonly associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. The presence of glandular atrophy and foveolar hyperplasia in lymphocytic gastritis suggests abnormalities in cell proliferation and differentiation, forming a potential link with the suspected association with gastric cancer. Our aim was to compare epithelial proliferation and morphology in H pylori associated lymphocytic gastritis and H pylori gastritis without features of lymphocytic gastritis, and to eva...

  12. Effects of low dose oxymatrine on mouse lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by Con A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Luo-si; WU Bin; LI Jian-guo; XIE Hong-fu; ZHANG Yang-de; CONG Ling; SHI Jun

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of low dose Oxymatrine (OMT) on mouse lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by Con A making use of fluorescence dyestuff CFDA-SE. Methods CFDA-SE staining and flow cytometry were used to detect the fluorescence intensity of lymphocytes after stimulated by polyclonal stimulators Con A and OMT. Then, related software was used to analyze the effects of OMT on mouse lymphocyte proliferation.Results After cultured for 48 h, CFSE fluorescence could be detected by cytometer, filial generation peaks did not appear in control group, which indicated that lymphocytes did not proliferate. Three peaks were obviously detected in Con A group which indicated that Lymphocytes divided after 48 h stimulated by Con A compared with the halving of the fluorescence intensity of control group. In groups with Con A and OMT treated, Primary generation peaks are all lower while filial generation peaks are significantly higher than groups with Con A treated only. This indicated OMT obviously promote lymphocyte proliferation. After cultured for 72 h, the fluorescence intensity changes between all groups are consistent with those of cultured for 48 h. Analyzed with CELLQuest software, it is shown that OMT could promote lymphocyte proliferation in 16, 8, 4 and 2μg/mL respectively. Conclusions 1) CFDA-SEdyeing and flow cytometer were both reliable tools to analyze lymphocyte proliferation; 2) lower dosage of OMTcould promote the proliferation of lymphocyte as a immunopotentiator.

  13. Lymphocyte Redox Imbalance and Reduced Proliferation after a Single Session of High Intensity Interval Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossige-Gomes, Rosalina; Costa, Karine Beatriz; Ottone, Vinícius de Oliveira; Magalhães, Flávio de Castro; Amorim, Fabiano Trigueiro; Rocha-Vieira, Etel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is sufficient to alter lymphocyte function and redox status. Sixteen young healthy men underwent a HIIT session on a cycloergometer, consisting of eight bouts of 1 min at 90–100% of peak power, with 75 seconds of active recovery at 30 W between bouts. Venous blood was collected before, immediately after, and 30 minutes after the HIIT session. In response to Staphylococcus aureus superantigen B (SEB) stimulation, lymphocyte proliferation decreased and the IL-2 concentration increased after the HIIT session. However, the HIIT session had no effect on lymphocyte proliferation or IL-2 response to phytohemagglutinin stimulation. The HIIT session also induced lymphocyte redox imbalance, characterized by an increase in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and a decrease in the activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase. Lymphocyte viability was not affected by the HIIT session. The frequencies of CD25+ and CD69+ T helper and B lymphocytes in response to superantigen stimulation were lower after exercise, suggesting that superantigen-induced lymphocyte activation was reduced by HIIT. However, HIIT also led to a reduction in the frequency of CD4+ and CD19+ cells, so the frequencies of CD25+ and CD69+ cells within the CD4 and CD19 cell populations were not affected by HIIT. These data indicate that the reduced lymphocyte proliferation observed after HIIT is not due to reduced early lymphocyte activation by superantigen. Our findings show that an acute HIIT session promotes lymphocyte redox imbalance and reduces lymphocyte proliferation in response to superantigenic, but not to mitogenic stimulation. This observation cannot be explained by alteration of the early lymphocyte activation response to superantigen. The manner in which lymphocyte function modulation by an acute HIIT session can affect individual immunity and susceptibility to infection is important

  14. Lymphocyte Redox Imbalance and Reduced Proliferation after a Single Session of High Intensity Interval Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossige-Gomes, Rosalina; Costa, Karine Beatriz; Ottone, Vinícius de Oliveira; Magalhães, Flávio de Castro; Amorim, Fabiano Trigueiro; Rocha-Vieira, Etel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is sufficient to alter lymphocyte function and redox status. Sixteen young healthy men underwent a HIIT session on a cycloergometer, consisting of eight bouts of 1 min at 90-100% of peak power, with 75 seconds of active recovery at 30 W between bouts. Venous blood was collected before, immediately after, and 30 minutes after the HIIT session. In response to Staphylococcus aureus superantigen B (SEB) stimulation, lymphocyte proliferation decreased and the IL-2 concentration increased after the HIIT session. However, the HIIT session had no effect on lymphocyte proliferation or IL-2 response to phytohemagglutinin stimulation. The HIIT session also induced lymphocyte redox imbalance, characterized by an increase in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and a decrease in the activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase. Lymphocyte viability was not affected by the HIIT session. The frequencies of CD25+ and CD69+ T helper and B lymphocytes in response to superantigen stimulation were lower after exercise, suggesting that superantigen-induced lymphocyte activation was reduced by HIIT. However, HIIT also led to a reduction in the frequency of CD4+ and CD19+ cells, so the frequencies of CD25+ and CD69+ cells within the CD4 and CD19 cell populations were not affected by HIIT. These data indicate that the reduced lymphocyte proliferation observed after HIIT is not due to reduced early lymphocyte activation by superantigen. Our findings show that an acute HIIT session promotes lymphocyte redox imbalance and reduces lymphocyte proliferation in response to superantigenic, but not to mitogenic stimulation. This observation cannot be explained by alteration of the early lymphocyte activation response to superantigen. The manner in which lymphocyte function modulation by an acute HIIT session can affect individual immunity and susceptibility to infection is important

  15. Chromosome radiosensitivity and kinetics of proliferation of peripheral lymphocytes in individuals with aneuploid karyotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimentally investigated was the radiosensitivity of chromosomes and the kinetics of the proliferation of peripheral lymphocytes in patients with aneuploid (DS and TS) and normal karyotype irradiated in vitro in the Go stage of the cell cycle. Trisomic lymphocytes were found to proliferate more rapidly in the in vitro culture and to be more sensitive than diploid cell populations. In monosomic lymphocytes in Turner syndrome patients, the proliferation and incidence of chromosomal abberations was similar to the disomic lines in Down's syndrome patients and in Turner syndrome patients, and to that found in persons with a normal karyotype. The results of the experiment show that there is a relationship between the proliferation rate of peripheral lymphocytes cultures in vitro and the radiosensivity of chromosomes. (author). 1 tab., 3 figs., 11 refs

  16. Effect of gamma-ray irradiation on cord blood lymphocyte proliferation and NK cell activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the effects of gamma-ray irradiation on cord blood lymphocyte proliferation and NK cell activity. Methods: Freshly isolated mononuclear cells from human cord blood were irradiated with different doses (0.248-15.872 Gy) of gamma-rays. The lymphocyte proliferation and NK cell activity were measured using 3H-TdR incorporation assay and 3H-TdR release assay, respectively. Results: In dose range of 0.248-15.872 Gy, lymphocyte proliferation was inhibited and the inhibition rate was positively correlated with the irradiation dose(r=0.839, P<0.05). Lymphocyte proliferation was not found in dose range of 3.968-15.872 Gy. Irradiation doses from 0.248 to 1.984 Gy could enhance NK cell activity. The activity of NK cells was reserved after irradiated with 3.968 Gy. Within the dose range of 5.952-15.872 Gy, NK cell activity was significantly inhibited. Conclusion: Lymphocyte proliferation is inhibited and the activity of NK cell is reserved when irradiated with the dose of 3.968 Gy gamma-rays. So if the lymphocytes are irradiated with such a dose before donor lymphocytes infusion or mix-cord blood transplantation, the effect of graft versus host disease (GVHD) could be decreased whereas the effect of graft versus leukemia (GVL) reaction could be reserved simultaneously during adoptive cellular immunotherapy. (authors)

  17. DMPD: Induction of proliferation and cytokine production in human T lymphocytes bylipopolysaccharide (LPS). [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 11090938 Induction of proliferation and cytokine production in human T lymphocytes ... (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Induction of proliferation and cytokine production in human T lymphocyte...and cytokine production in human T lymphocytes bylipopolysaccharide (LPS). Authors Ulmer AJ, Flad H, Rietsch

  18. [Cordyceps sinensis enhances lymphocyte proliferation and CD markers expression in simulated microgravity environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Tong; Li, Jun-Jie; Du, Zhi-Yan; Duan, Cui-Mi; Wang, Yan-Meng; Wang, Chang-Yong; Song, Jing-Ping; Wang, Lin-Jie; Li, Ying-Hui; Wang, Yan

    2012-10-01

    This study was aimed to explore the effect of cordyceps sinensis enhancing lymphocyte proliferation and surface CD marker expression in simulated microgravity environment. The splenic lymphocytes were separated from mice and cultured in the rotary cell culture system simulated microgravity environment. The cells were treated with different concentration of cordyceps sinensis solution (0, 6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50 µg/ml) for 24, 48 and 72 h respectively, then the cells were harvested, and analyzed for cell proliferation and the expression of cell surface markers (CD4 and CD8). The results showed that under simulated microgravity environment, the lymphocyte proliferation was inhibited. When the concentration of cordyceps sinensis was 25 or 50 µg/ml, the lymphocyte proliferation, CD4 and CD8 expressions all increased, but 50 µg/ml cordyceps sinensis could inhibit the proliferation ability with the time prolonging. It is concluded that the suitable concentration of cordyceps sinensis displayed the ability to enhance the lymphocyte proliferation and CD marker expression in simulated microgravity environment. These results may be valuable for screening drugs which can be potentially against immunosuppression under simulated microgravity. PMID:23114150

  19. Epithelial cell proliferation and glandular atrophy in lymphocytic gastritis: Effect of H pylori treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Johanna M. Makinen; Seppo Niemela; Tuomo Kerola; Juhani Lehtola; Tuomo J. Karttunen

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Lymphocytic gastritis is commonly ass ociated with Helicobacter pylori infection. The presence of glandular atrophy and foveolar hyperplasia in lymphocytic gastritis suggests abnormalities in cell proliferation and differentiation,forming a potential link with the suspected association with gastric cancer. Our aim was to compare epithelial cell proliferation and morphology in H pylori associated lymphocytic gastritis and H pylori gastritis without features of lymphocytic gastritis,and to evaluate the effect of H pylori treatment.METHODS: We studied 14 lymphocytic gastritis patients with H pylori infection. For controls, we selected 14 matched dyspeptic patients participating in another treatment trial whose H pylori infection had successfully been eradicated.Both groups were treated with a triple therapy and followed up with biopsies for 6-18 months (patients) or 3 months (controls). Blinded evaluation for histopathological features was carried out. To determine the cell proliferation index,the sections were labeled with Ki-67 antibody.RESULTS: Before treatment, lymphocytic gastritis was characterized by foveolar hyperplasia (P=0.001) and glandular atrophy in the body (P=0.008), and increased proliferation in both the body (P=0.001) and antrum (P=0.002). Proliferation correlated with foveolar hyperplasia and inflammation activity. After eradication therapy, the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes decreased in the body (P=0.004)and antrum (P=0.065), remaining higher than in controls (P<0.001). Simultaneously, the proliferation index decreased in the body from 0.38 to 0.15 (P=0.043), and in the antrum from 0.34 to 0.20 (P=0.069), the antral index still being higher in lymphocytic gastritis than in controls (P=0.010).Foveolar hyperplasia and glandular atrophy in the body improved (P=0.021), reaching the non-LG level.CONCLUSION: In lymphocytic gastritis, excessive epithelial cell proliferation is predominantly present in the body, where it associates with

  20. Effects of environmental stressors on lymphocyte proliferation in Florida manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Cathy J; Luer, Carl A; Noyes, David R

    2005-02-10

    The health of many Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is adversely affected each year by exposure to cold weather or harmful algal blooms (red tide; Karenia brevis). Exposures can be sublethal, resulting in stressed animals that are rescued and taken to authorized facilities for rehabilitation, or lethal if exposures are prolonged or unusually severe. To investigate whether sublethal environmental exposures can impair immune function in manatees, rendering animals vulnerable to disease or death, mitogen-induced proliferation was assessed in lymphocytes from manatees exposed to cold temperatures (N=20) or red tide (N=19) in the wild, and compared to lymphocyte responses from healthy free-ranging manatees (N=32). All animals sampled for this study were adults. Lymphocytes were stimulated in vitro with either concanavalin A (ConA) or phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and proliferation was assessed after 96 h using incorporation of the thymidine analog, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), into newly synthesized DNA. Proliferation of lymphocytes from manatees rescued from exposure to red tide or cold-stress was approximately one-third that of lymphocytes from healthy free-ranging manatees. To examine the direct effects of red tide toxins on lymphocyte function, mitogen-induced proliferation was assessed following co-culture of lymphocytes with K. brevis toxin extracts. Stimulation indices decreased with increasing toxin concentration, with a significant decrease in proliferation occurring in the presence of 400 ng red tide toxins/ml. When lymphocytes from cold-stressed manatees were co-cultured with red tide toxin extracts, proliferative responses were reduced even further, suggesting multiple stressors may have synergistic effects on immune function in manatees. PMID:15621310

  1. Charybdotoxin inhibits proliferation and interleukin 2 production in human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Price, M; Lee, S. C.; Deutsch, C.

    1989-01-01

    We demonstrate that blockade of the lymphocyte voltage-gated K+ channel by charybdotoxin (CTX) inhibits lymphocyte mitogenesis. Charybdotoxin blocks conductance with a Ki of 0.3 nM and inhibits mitogen- and antigen-stimulated proliferation with a Ki of 0.5 nM. As opposed to the other blockers of the lymphocyte K+ channel, the inhibition of mitogenesis by CTX can be overcome selectively by exogenous recombinant interleukin 2 (IL-2); endogenous levels of IL-2 in the culture supernatants of stim...

  2. Effect of ciprofloxacin on mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation.

    OpenAIRE

    Gollapudi, S V; Prabhala, R H; Thadepalli, H

    1986-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin was tested for its inhibitory or stimulatory effects on concanavalin A- and phytohemagglutinin-stimulated proliferation (measured by [3H]thymidine uptake) of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and murine splenocytes. Ciprofloxacin did not diminish or enhance mononuclear cell proliferation at concentrations of 5 to 125 micrograms/ml. Further, the proliferative response of splenocytes of mice previously treated with ciprofloxacin (40 mg/kg, twice daily for 5 days) was essent...

  3. Lamprey buccal gland secretory protein-2 (BGSP-2 inhibits human T lymphocyte proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing SUN, Shuiyan YU, Zhuang XUE, Cenjie LIU, Yu WU, Xin LIU, Qingwei LI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Lamprey is a representative of the agnathans, the most ancient class of vertebrates. Parasitic lampreys secrete anticoagulant from their buccal glands and prevent blood coagulation of host fishes. We identified a buccal gland secretory protein-2 (BGSP-2 from a buccal gland cDNA library of Lampetra japonica. The full-length BGSP-2 gene was cloned and the recombinant BGSP-2 protein was generated. The role of BGSP-2 on lymphocyte proliferation was studied by examining its effects on human T lymphocytes. We found that lamprey BGSP-2 was able to effectively block the proliferation of T cells in vitro by inducing G1/S cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, it inhibited the proliferation of human T lymphocytes stimulated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA at a minimum concentration of 0.1μg/ml. Our data suggest that lamprey BGSP-2 is able to block the mitosis of human T lymphocytes at the G1/S point, and has the potential of anti-proliferative effect on PHA-activated T lymphocytes [Current Zoology 56 (2: 252–258, 2010].

  4. Extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields increase cell proliferation in lymphocytes from young and aged subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the in vitro exposure to extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on the proliferation of human lymphocytes from 24 young and 24 old subjects was studied. The exposure to PEMFs during a 3-days culture period or during the first 24 hours was able to increase phytohaemagglutinin-induced lymphocyte proliferation in both groups. Such effect was greater in lymphocytes from old people which showed a markedly reduced proliferative capability and, after PEMF exposure, reached values of 3H-TdR incorporation similar to those of young subjects. The relevance of these data for the understanding and the reversibility of the proliferative defects in cells from aged subjects and for the assessment of risk related to the environmental exposure to PEMFs has to be considered

  5. CORRECTION OF NEUTROPENIA BY GM-CSF IN PATIENTS WITH A LARGE GRANULAR LYMPHOCYTE-PROLIFERATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MULDER, AB; DEWOLF, JTM; SMIT, JW; VANOOSTVEEN, JW; VELLENGA, E

    1992-01-01

    The in vivo and in vitro effects of GM-CSF were tested in four patients with large granular lymphocyte proliferation (LGLP) and severe granulocytopenia. All patients had an increased percentage of LGL cells (> 20%), whereas 3/4 patients demonstrated rearranged T-cell-receptor genes. An effect on the

  6. Lymphocyte proliferation in Peyer's patches of Giardia muris-infected mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, D R

    1990-01-01

    Gastrointestinal immune events in giardiasis are important in controlling infection. In this study, Peyer's patch lymphocytes from mice infected with Giardia muris developed specific, proliferative responses to G. muris antigen. This proliferation correlated with clearance of infection. Further understanding of the gut immune response will be helpful in developing immunoprophylactic strategies in the control of giardiasis.

  7. Effect of catecholamines and thermal exposure on lymphocyte proliferation, IL-1α & β in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Upadhyay

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of catecholamines (epinephrine/norepinephrine and thermal exposure on in vitro buffalo Lymphocyte Proliferation (LP apparently healthy 2- 2 1/2 years old Murrah buffalo heifers maintained as per the standard feeding and management practices were selected from Institute herd. Jugular blood was collected in the forenoon on the day of experiment and processed for Total Leucocyte Count (TLC and Differential Leucocyte Count (DLC. Lymphocyte proliferation assays were performed using whole blood and cells were incubated with epinephrine and norepinephrine (1, 1.5,2 ng/ml at 37oC with 5% CO2. Cells were counted after 72 hrs of incubation and Lymphocyte Proliferation Index (LPI was calculated. Thermal stress effect on the cultures was observed after exposure at 45oC for 4 hr after 72hrs of incubation. The cells were separated from media and media was used for analysis of IL-1α & 1β by ELISA kit. Lymphocyte proliferation Index decreased in responses to Epinephrine and Norepinephrine (P<0.01. Concentration of epinephrine and norepinephrine (1, 1.5,2 ng /ml had no distinguishable effect on LPI. IL-1α & IL-1β levels when compared with control in supernatant (exposed to 45°C were low (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between LPI and IL-1α (r=0.80; P<0.01 and between LPI and IL-1β (r=0.78; P<0.05. The study indicated that lymphocyte proliferation in vitro and IL-1α & β levels were affected by catecholamines and thermal exposure. Further the levels of catecholamines had significant (P<0.01 negative effect on LPI indicating that catecholamines levels modulate immunity through IL-1α and IL-1β in buffaloes.

  8. Endothelial cells promote the proliferation of lymphocytes partly through the Wnt pathway via LEF-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The function of T cells and B cells is to recognize specific 'non-self' antigens, during a process known as antigen presentation. Once they have identified an invader, the cells generate specific responses that are tailored to maximally eliminate specific pathogens or pathogen-infected cells. Endothelial cells (ECs) can trigger the activation of T cells through their class I and class II MHC molecules. In this study, we examined the effect of ECs on the proliferation of lymphocytes. We report that the proliferation of T and B cells can be improved by interaction with ECs. LEF-1 is one of the main molecular mediators in this process, and the inhibition of LEF-1 induces apoptosis. These results suggest that LEF-1 modulates positively the proliferation of lymphocytes induced by their interaction with ECs.

  9. Serine leucocyte proteinase inhibitor-treated monocyte inhibits human CD4(+) lymphocyte proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrieri, Diego; Tateosian, Nancy L; Maffía, Paulo C; Reiteri, Romina M; Amiano, Nicolás O; Costa, María J; Villalonga, Ximena; Sanchez, Mercedes L; Estein, Silvia M; Garcia, Verónica E; Sallenave, Jean-Michel; Chuluyan, Héctor E

    2011-08-01

    Serine leucocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) is the main serine proteinase inhibitor produced by epithelial cells and has been shown to be a pleiotropic molecule with anti-inflammatory and microbicidal activities. However, the role of SLPI on the adaptive immune response is not well established. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of SLPI on lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were treated with mitogens plus SLPI and proliferation was assessed by [(3) H]thymidine uptake. The SLPI decreased the lymphocyte proliferation induced by interleukin-2 (IL-2) or OKT3 monoclonal antibodies in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition was not observed when depleting monocytes from the PBMC and it was restored by adding monocytes and SLPI. SLPI-treated monocyte slightly decreased MHC II and increased CD18 expression, and secreted greater amounts of IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 in the cell culture supernatants. SLPI-treated monocyte culture supernatant inhibited the CD4(+) lymphocyte proliferation but did not affect the proliferation of CD8(+) cells. Moreover, IL-2 increased T-bet expression and the presence of SLPI significantly decreased it. Finally, SLPI-treated monocyte culture supernatant dramatically decreased interferon-γ but increased IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 in the presence of IL-2-treated T cells. Our results demonstrate that SLPI target monocytes, which in turn inhibit CD4 lymphocyte proliferation and T helper type 1 cytokine secretion. Overall, these results suggest that SLPI is an alarm protein that modulates not only the innate immune response but also the adaptive immune response. PMID:21574992

  10. Serine leucocyte proteinase inhibitor-treated monocyte inhibits human CD4+ lymphocyte proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrieri, Diego; Tateosian, Nancy L; Maffía, Paulo C; Reiteri, Romina M; Amiano, Nicolás O; Costa, María J; Villalonga, Ximena; Sanchez, Mercedes L; Estein, Silvia M; Garcia, Verónica E; Sallenave, Jean-Michel; Chuluyan, Héctor E

    2011-01-01

    Serine leucocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) is the main serine proteinase inhibitor produced by epithelial cells and has been shown to be a pleiotropic molecule with anti-inflammatory and microbicidal activities. However, the role of SLPI on the adaptive immune response is not well established. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of SLPI on lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were treated with mitogens plus SLPI and proliferation was assessed by [3H]thymidine uptake. The SLPI decreased the lymphocyte proliferation induced by interleukin-2 (IL-2) or OKT3 monoclonal antibodies in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition was not observed when depleting monocytes from the PBMC and it was restored by adding monocytes and SLPI. SLPI-treated monocyte slightly decreased MHC II and increased CD18 expression, and secreted greater amounts of IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 in the cell culture supernatants. SLPI-treated monocyte culture supernatant inhibited the CD4+ lymphocyte proliferation but did not affect the proliferation of CD8+ cells. Moreover, IL-2 increased T-bet expression and the presence of SLPI significantly decreased it. Finally, SLPI-treated monocyte culture supernatant dramatically decreased interferon-γ but increased IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 in the presence of IL-2-treated T cells. Our results demonstrate that SLPI target monocytes, which in turn inhibit CD4 lymphocyte proliferation and T helper type 1 cytokine secretion. Overall, these results suggest that SLPI is an alarm protein that modulates not only the innate immune response but also the adaptive immune response. PMID:21574992

  11. Piperine from black pepper inhibits activation-induced proliferation and effector function of T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucette, Carolyn D; Rodgers, Gemma; Liwski, Robert S; Hoskin, David W

    2015-11-01

    Piperine is a major alkaloid component of black pepper (Piper nigrum Linn), which is a widely consumed spice. Here, we investigated the effect of piperine on mouse T lymphocyte activation. Piperine inhibited polyclonal and antigen-specific T lymphocyte proliferation without affecting cell viability. Piperine also suppressed T lymphocyte entry into the S and G2 /M phases of the cell cycle, and decreased expression of G1 -associated cyclin D3, CDK4, and CDK6. In addition, piperine inhibited CD25 expression, synthesis of interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, and IL-17A, and the generation of cytotoxic effector cells. The inhibitory effect of piperine on T lymphocytes was associated with hypophosphorylation of Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and inhibitor of κBα, but not ZAP-70. The ability of piperine to inhibit several key signaling pathways involved in T lymphocyte activation and the acquisition of effector function suggests that piperine might be useful in the management of T lymphocyte-mediated autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disorders. PMID:25900378

  12. Effects of Euphorbia milii latex on mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.F. Delgado

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The crude latex of "Crown-of-Thorns" (Euphorbia milii var hislopii, syn E.splendens is a potent plant molluscicide. For this reason, toxicological studies have been performed to evaluate the health risks posed by its use in schistosomiasis control programs. The present study is part of a more comprehensive immunotoxicological evaluation of this molluscicide. Here, we investigated the effects of E. milii latex on the proliferation of human lymphocytes in vitro. Lyophilized latex of E. milii (0, 0.5, 5, 25 and 50 µg/ml was incubated with whole blood in the presence of proliferation stimulators, i.e. lectins (phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A and pokeweed mitogen, as well as with human monoclonal antibody against CD3 and tetanus toxoid. Cell proliferation was measured by ³H-thymidine incorporation, and the effects of latex on mitogen-induced cell proliferation were compared to the effects of 10 ng/ml of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA. Results showed that mitogen-induced cell proliferation was markedly enhanced by E. milii latex. This synergistic effect of latex on mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation may be due to the presence of TPA-like phorbol esters and/or to mitogenic plant lectins.

  13. The role of glutathione in lymphocyte activation and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of this work was to establish the requirement for GSH and cystine during the activation and proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In the author's initial experiments the intracellular GSH content of PBMC was altered by continuous culture or pretreatment with BSO, a specific inhibitor of GSH synthesis. His results demonstrate that, continuous culture of mitogen stimulated PBMC in the presence of BSO inhibited entry into S-phase of the cell cycle and produced a simultaneous decrease in intracellular GSH. The influence of BSO on early activation events were determined by BSO pretreatment. Extensive depletion (>90%) of the intracellular GSH level prior to mitogenic stimulation did not impair the ability of these cells to produce IL-2 and express IL-2R, indicating that GSH may not be involved in the generation and response to early activation signals. Furthermore, the removal of BSO from these cultures rapidly reversed its inhibitory effects on DNA and GSH synthesis. Cystine transport activities and metabolism by PBMC were characterized in order to examine its contributions to intracellular GSH and early activation proteins. In spite of the ability of cystine to sustain the proliferative response of PBMC, differences in the kinetics of cystine and cysteine uptake indicated that separate transport systems may be operational. Treatment with 2ME enhanced cystine uptake, but lowered the proliferative responses of these cells. Metabolic studies with [35S] cystine demonstrated that mitogen stimulation of PBMC enhance cystine uptake

  14. Lymphocyte Proliferation Response to S Antigen in Patients with Uveitis and Optic Neuritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PeixianRen; XiuzhenYan

    1995-01-01

    Purpose:To evaluate the autoimmunity which may play a major role in the etiolo-gy of certain forms of uveitis and optic neuritis.Methods:lymphocyte proliferation response to retinal soluble antigen in vitro by gy of certain forms of uveitis and optic neuritis.Methods:Lymphocyte proliferation response toretinal soluble antigen in vitro by incoperation3H-thymidine withDNA was tested in 115patients with anterior u-veitis,posterior/pan-uveitis,optic neuritis,and 50volunteers with unrelated diseases such as congenital ptosis,strabismus,or completely healthy persons as control.Results:The positive rate of lymphocyte stimulation was34%(18/53)in anteri-or uveitis,41.5%(17/41)in posterior/pan-uveitis,and57.1%(12/21)in optic euritis,The results in the experimental groups were significantly different from those of the control group(x2=14.76,P<0.05,x2=19.14P<0.005,x2=26.38,P<0.005,respectively).Conclusion:The autoimmunity plays a role in the patogenesis in certain forms of uveitis and optic neuritis,Such immune responses may be secondary to the expo-sition or release of retinal antigens by various causes,leading to activation or augmentation of meager or low-affinity S antigen specific lymphocytes which may preexist in the circulation and starting the pathogenic autoimmune process.Eye Science 1995;11:120-123.

  15. Suppression of lymphocyte proliferation by marijuana components is related to cell number and cell source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, T.; Pross, S.; Newton, C.; Friedman, H.

    1986-03-05

    Conflicting reports have appeared concerning the effect of marijuana components on immune responsiveness. The authors have observed that the effect of cannabinoids on lymphocyte proliferation varied with both the concentration of the drug and the mitogen used. They now report that at a constant concentration of drug, the cannabinoid effect varied from no effect to suppression depending upon the number of cells in culture and the organ source of the cells. Dispersed cell suspensions of mouse lymph node, spleen, and thymus were prepared and cultured at varying cell numbers with either delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol or 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and various mitogens. Lymphocyte proliferation was analyzed by /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation. T-lymphocyte mitogen responses in cultures containing high cell numbers were unaffected by the cannabinoids but as cell numbers were reduced a suppression of the response was observed. Furthermore, thymus cells were considerably more susceptible to cannabinoid suppression than cells from either lymph node or spleen. These results suggest that certain lymphocyte subpopulations are more sensitive to cannabinoid suppression and that in addition to drug concentration other variables such as cell number and cell source must be considered when analyzing cannabinoid effects.

  16. Suppression of lymphocyte proliferation by marijuana components is related to cell number and cell source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conflicting reports have appeared concerning the effect of marijuana components on immune responsiveness. The authors have observed that the effect of cannabinoids on lymphocyte proliferation varied with both the concentration of the drug and the mitogen used. They now report that at a constant concentration of drug, the cannabinoid effect varied from no effect to suppression depending upon the number of cells in culture and the organ source of the cells. Dispersed cell suspensions of mouse lymph node, spleen, and thymus were prepared and cultured at varying cell numbers with either delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol or 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and various mitogens. Lymphocyte proliferation was analyzed by 3H-thymidine incorporation. T-lymphocyte mitogen responses in cultures containing high cell numbers were unaffected by the cannabinoids but as cell numbers were reduced a suppression of the response was observed. Furthermore, thymus cells were considerably more susceptible to cannabinoid suppression than cells from either lymph node or spleen. These results suggest that certain lymphocyte subpopulations are more sensitive to cannabinoid suppression and that in addition to drug concentration other variables such as cell number and cell source must be considered when analyzing cannabinoid effects

  17. Effects of Euphorbia milii latex on mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    I.F. Delgado; Paumgartten, F. J. R.

    2014-01-01

    The crude latex of "Crown-of-Thorns" (Euphorbia milii var hislopii, syn E.splendens) is a potent plant molluscicide. For this reason, toxicological studies have been performed to evaluate the health risks posed by its use in schistosomiasis control programs. The present study is part of a more comprehensive immunotoxicological evaluation of this molluscicide. Here, we investigated the effects of E. milii latex on the proliferation of human lymphocytes in vitro. Lyophilized latex of E. milii (...

  18. In vitro lymphocyte proliferation response to therapeutic insulin components. Evidence for genetic control by the human major histocompatibility complex.

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, D L; Mendell, N; Kahn, C R; Johnson, A H; Rosenthal, A

    1983-01-01

    Genes in the major histocompatibility complex of mice and guinea pigs control immunologic responsiveness to insulins from other animal species. In order to determine if similar genetic control exists in man, we have examined lymphocyte proliferation responses to components of therapeutic insulins by employing lymphocytes from diabetic patients that receive insulin. Distinct groups of individuals demonstrated positive lymphocyte proliferative responses to beef insulin, beef and pork insulin, b...

  19. Flow Cytometric Analysis of Leishmania Reactive CD4+/CD8+ Lymphocyte Proliferation in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Keshavarz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Determination of the division history of T cells in vitro is helpful in the study of effector mechanisms against infections. Technique described here uses the intracellular fluorescent label carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE to monitor the proliferation. Methods: In a cross sectional study, blood samples were collected from 7 volunteers with history of cutaneous leishmania­sis (CL and one healthy control from endemic areas in Isfahan province who referred to the Center for Research and Training in Skin Diseases and Leprosy (CRTSDL, then CD4+/CD8+ lymphocytes and CD14+ monocytes were isolated from peri­pheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC using mAbs and magnetic nanoparticles. CFSE labeled CD4+ or CD8+ lympho­cytes cultured with autologous monocytes in the presence of PHA, SLA, live Leishmania major or as control with­out sti­mulation. Cells were harvested after 7 days and were analyzed using flow cytometry. Results: Five consecutive divisions were monitored separately. Stimulation of CD4+ or CD8+ lymphocytes from CL sub­jects with SLA showed a significant difference in proliferation comparing with unstimulated cells (P< 0.05. The signifi­cant difference in the percentages of CD4+ cells stimulated with SLA was revealed at different divisions for each subject. In CD8+ lymphocyte, significant stronger stimulation of SLA was evident later in the proliferation process. The mean number of divisions in both CD4+/CD8+ lymphocytes stimulated with SLA was significantly greater than when stimulated with live L. major (P=0.007 / P=0.012, respectively Conclusion: The percentage of divided cells might be calculated separately in each division. The cells remained active following CFSE staining and there is possibility of functional analysis simultaneously.

  20. The immunosuppressive effect of gossypol in mice is mediated by inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation and by induction of cell apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-bin XU; Li-hui XU; Hong-song LU; Dong-yun OUYANG; Huan-jing SHI; Jing-fang DI; Xian-hui HE

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the immunosuppressive effect of gossypol in mice both in vitro and in vivo.Methods: The in vitro effect of gossypol on the proliferation of lymphocytes isolated from lymph nodes of BALB/c mice was determined by CFSE staining and by an MTS assay. Lymphocyte activation and lymphoblastic transformation were evaluated with immunostaining. Cell apoptosis was detected by Annexin-V and Hoechst 33342 staining. The in vivo immunosuppressive effect of gossypol on the DTH reaction was evaluated using a mouse DTH model induced by 2,4-dinitro-1-fluorobenzene (DNFB). The thickness of the ears was measured, and the histological changes of the mouse auricles were observed after hematoxylin-eosin staining. The proliferation capacity of lymphocytes from DTH mice was also assayed.Results: In vitro, gossypol could significantly inhibit the proliferation of mouse lymphocytes stimulated with phorbol ester plus ionomycin in a dose-dependent manner. Although the expression of the early activation antigen CD69 was not affected, the lymphoblastic transformation of both T and B lymphocyte subsets was significantly suppressed by gossypol.Moreover, gossypol could induce apoptosis of lymphocytes, and the effect was time- and dose-dependent. In vivo, the DTH reaction in mice was markedly alleviated by gossypol injected intraperitoneally. Lymphocytes from drug-treated DTH mice had a reduced proliferation capacity as compared with lymphocytes from untreated DTH mice. Gossypol treatment also markedly reduced the number of infiltrated lymphocytes in the auricles of DTH mice. Conclusion: Gossypol exhibited immunosuppressive effects in mice, probably by inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation and by induction of cell apoptosis.

  1. IMMUNOMODULATION OF SYNTHESIZED POLYMERS CONTAINING PHOSPHORUS IN THE BACKBONE —EFFECT ON THE PROLIFERATION OF LYMPHOCYTES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuoRenxi; WangJun; 等

    1997-01-01

    The immunomodulation of several Charged synthetic polymers containing phosphorus in the backbone was studied in vitro through examining their inhibition or promotion effect on the proliferatioin of both T and B lymphocytes,It is found that polymers based on long chain alkyl ester of tyrosine exhibit immunomodulative activity.Negatively charged polymers show stimulative activity on LPS-induced B lymphocytes proliferation.Positively charged polymers exhibit inhibitory activity on both Con A-induced T lymphocytes and LPS-induced B lymplhyocytes proliferation.

  2. Lymphocyte reactivity in normal and malignant cell proliferation against a phylogenetically conserved antigen in fetal extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, G; Schlott, B; Gryschek, G; Albrecht, S; Reinhöfer, J; Matthes, E; von Broen, B

    1984-04-01

    Lymphocyte reactivity to 3-M KCl extracts from fetuses of different species of origin was shown by the macrophage electrophoretic mobility (MEMB) and/or the leukocyte migration inhibition tests in tumor-bearing mice and humans. In chemical carcinogenesis, reactivity was detectable before tumors developed. Six weeks after sc injection of 1,000 micrograms benzo[a]pyrene [(BP) CAS: 50-32-8] into XVII/Bln mice, the MEMB test became positive. The latent period was 15 weeks after 1.0 micrograms BP, indicating a dose-response relationship of the phenomenon. Painting of mouse skin with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene [(DMBA) CAS: 57-97-6], croton oil (CAS: 8001-28-3), or benzene (CAS: 71-43-2) had the same sensitizing effect as BP. In contrast to the strong carcinogens BP and DMBA that caused lymphocyte reactivity to persist until tumors developed, benzene and the promoter croton oil induced only a transient effect. Termination of treatment abolished reactivity within 12 weeks. Lymphocyte reactivity to fetal extract in normal cell proliferation was evident from the fact that two-thirds-hepatectomized rats and BCG-treated mice became MEMB-positive. In hepatectomized rats the effect was reversible according to the completion of liver regeneration. Lymphocytes from tumor-bearing mice reacted with mouse and human fetal extract as well as with extracts from different developmental stages of frogs and fish. Fetal extracts were assumed to contain a phylogenetically conserved antigen. PMID:6584664

  3. Boron Induces Lymphocyte Proliferation and Modulates the Priming Effects of Lipopolysaccharide on Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indusmita Routray

    Full Text Available Chemical mediators of inflammation (CMI are important in host defense against infection. The reduced capacity of host to induce the secretion of these mediators following infection is one of the factors in host susceptibility to infection. Boron, which has been suggested for its role in infection, is reported in this study to increase lymphocyte proliferation and the secretion of CMI by the lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages in BALB/c mice. Boron was administered to mice orally as borax at different doses for 10 consecutive days, followed by the stimulation of animals with ovalbumin and isolation of splenocytes for proliferation assay. The lymphocyte subsets were determined by flow cytometry in spleen cell suspension. The mediators of inflammation, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and nitric oxide (NO, were measured in culture supernatant of LPS-primed macrophages isolated from borax treated mice. TNF and ILs were measured by ELISA. NO was determined by Griess test. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in macrophages was studied by confocal microscopy. Results showed a significant increase in T and B cell populations, as indicated by an increase in CD4 and CD19, but not CD8, cells. Boron further stimulated the secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, NO and the expression of iNOS by the LPS-primed macrophages. The effect was dose dependent and most significant at a dose level of 4.6 mg/kg b. wt. Taken together, the study concludes that boron at physiological concentration induces lymphocyte proliferation and increases the synthesis and secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators by the LPS-primed macrophages, more specifically the M1 macrophages, possibly acting through Toll-like receptor. The study implicates boron as a regulator of the immune and inflammatory reactions and macrophage polarization, thus playing an important role in augmenting host defense against infection, with possible role in cancer and other diseases.

  4. Boron Induces Lymphocyte Proliferation and Modulates the Priming Effects of Lipopolysaccharide on Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routray, Indusmita; Ali, Shakir

    2016-01-01

    Chemical mediators of inflammation (CMI) are important in host defense against infection. The reduced capacity of host to induce the secretion of these mediators following infection is one of the factors in host susceptibility to infection. Boron, which has been suggested for its role in infection, is reported in this study to increase lymphocyte proliferation and the secretion of CMI by the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peritoneal macrophages in BALB/c mice. Boron was administered to mice orally as borax at different doses for 10 consecutive days, followed by the stimulation of animals with ovalbumin and isolation of splenocytes for proliferation assay. The lymphocyte subsets were determined by flow cytometry in spleen cell suspension. The mediators of inflammation, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and nitric oxide (NO), were measured in culture supernatant of LPS-primed macrophages isolated from borax treated mice. TNF and ILs were measured by ELISA. NO was determined by Griess test. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in macrophages was studied by confocal microscopy. Results showed a significant increase in T and B cell populations, as indicated by an increase in CD4 and CD19, but not CD8, cells. Boron further stimulated the secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, NO and the expression of iNOS by the LPS-primed macrophages. The effect was dose dependent and most significant at a dose level of 4.6 mg/kg b. wt. Taken together, the study concludes that boron at physiological concentration induces lymphocyte proliferation and increases the synthesis and secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators by the LPS-primed macrophages, more specifically the M1 macrophages, possibly acting through Toll-like receptor. The study implicates boron as a regulator of the immune and inflammatory reactions and macrophage polarization, thus playing an important role in augmenting host defense against infection, with possible role in cancer and other diseases. PMID:26934748

  5. Effect of praziquantel on human lymphocyte proliferation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odum, Niels; Theander, T G; Bygbjerg, I C

    1984-01-01

    The antischistosomal drugs tartar emetic and niridazole exert immunosuppression both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study the influence of praziquantel (Biltricide), a potent schistosomicidal drug, on human lymphocyte proliferation in vitro was investigated. Praziquantel 80 micrograms....../ml significantly reduced thymidine incorporation by human blood mononuclear cells stimulated with mitogens and antigens, whereas no effect could be detected in concentrations below 40 micrograms/ml. Thus, praziquantel, in concentrations as high as 30 times the peak serum concentration during therapy, has no...

  6. 2-Methoxyestradiol Alleviates Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis by Inhibiting Lymphocytes Proliferation and T Cell Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Linxinyu; Yang, Tianshu; Su, Shaobo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the effect of 2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2) on experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) and the mechanism. Method. C57BL/6 male mice were used to establish the EAU model. 2ME2 was abdominal administrated in D0–D13, D0–D6, and D7–D13 and control group was given vehicle from D0–D13. At D14, pathological severity was scored. Lymphocyte reaction was measured using MTT assay. T cell differentiation in draining lymph nodes and eye-infiltrating cells was tested by flow cytometry. Proinflammatory cytokines production from lymphocytes was determined by ELISA. Result. The disease scores from 2ME2 D0–D13, 2ME2 D0–D6, 2ME2 D7–D13, and vehicle groups were 0.20 ± 0.12, 1.42 ± 0.24, 2.25 ± 0.32, and 2.42 ± 0.24. Cells from all 2ME2 treated groups responded weaker than control (p EAU progression and presented a better effect at priming phase. The possible mechanism could be the inhibitory impact on IRBP specific lymphocyte proliferation and Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation. PMID:27243036

  7. Effect of propolis on mitotic and cellular proliferation indices in human blood lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoro, A.; Almonacid, M.; Villaescusa, J. [Valencia Hospital Univ. la Fe, Servicio de Proteccion Radiologica (Spain); Barquinero, J. [Barcelona Univ. Autonom, Servicio de Dosimetria Biologica, Unidad de Antropologia, Dept. de Biologia Animal, Vegetal y Ecologia, barcelona (Spain); Barrios, L. [Barcelona Univ. Autonoma, Dept. de Biologia Celular y Fisiologia. Unidad de Biologia Celular (Spain); Verdu, G. [Valencia Univ. Politecnica, Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear (Spain); Perez, J. [Hospital la Fe, Seccion de Radiofisica, Servicio de Radioterapia, valencia (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    The study of the frequency of chromosomal aberrations per cell is the tool used in Biological dosimetry studies. Using dose-effect calibration curve obtained in our laboratory, we can evaluate the radioprotector effect of the EEP (ethanolic extract of propolis) in cultures in vitro. Propolis is the generic name for resinous substance collected by honeybees. The results showed a reduction in chromosomal aberrations's frequency of up to 50 %. The following study consisted of analyzing human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to 2 Gy {gamma} rays, in presence and absence of EEP, the change in the frequency of chromosome aberrations was analysed with biological dosimetry. The protection against the formation of dicentric and ring was dose-dependent, but there seemed to be a maximum protection, i.e. a further increase in the concentration of EEP does not show additional protection. This work studies the effect of the EEP of the cellular cycle using the mitotic and cellular proliferation index, as an alternative for the screening cytostatic activity. The results indicate that the lymphocytes which were cultures in presence of EEP exhibited a significant and dependent-concentration decrease in mitotic index and proliferation kinetics. The possible mechanisms involved in the radioprotective influence of EEP are discussed. (authors)

  8. A new lymphocyte proliferation assay for potency determination of bovine tuberculin PPDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohr, Christina; Kaufmann, Eva; Battenfeld, Sibylle; Duchow, Karin; Cussler, Klaus; Balks, Elisabeth; Bastian, Max

    2015-01-01

    The tuberculin skin test is the method of choice for tuberculosis surveillance in livestock ruminants. The exact definition of the biological activity of bovine tuberculin purified protein derivatives (bovine tuberculin PPDs) is essential for the reliability of a test system. PPDs consist of heterogeneous mixtures of mycobacterial antigens, making it difficult to determine their potency in vitro. The commonly used batch potency test is therefore based on the evaluation of skin reactions in mycobacteria-sensitized guinea pigs. Aim of the present study was to test an alternative in vitro method that reliably quantifies tuberculin PPD potency. This novel approach may prevent animal distress in the future. To this end a flow cytometry-based lymphocyte proliferation assay using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from sensitized guinea pigs was established. Potency estimates for individual PPD preparations were calculated in comparison to an international standard. The comparison with results obtained from the guinea pig skin test revealed that the lymphocyte proliferation assay is more precise but results in systematically higher potency estimates. However, with a manufacturer specific correction factor a correlation of over 85% was achieved, highlighting the potential of this in vitro method to replace the current guinea pig skin test. PMID:25935213

  9. Effect of propolis on mitotic and cellular proliferation indices in human blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the frequency of chromosomal aberrations per cell is the tool used in Biological dosimetry studies. Using dose-effect calibration curve obtained in our laboratory, we can evaluate the radioprotector effect of the EEP (ethanolic extract of propolis) in cultures in vitro. Propolis is the generic name for resinous substance collected by honeybees. The results showed a reduction in chromosomal aberrations's frequency of up to 50 %. The following study consisted of analyzing human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to 2 Gy γ rays, in presence and absence of EEP, the change in the frequency of chromosome aberrations was analysed with biological dosimetry. The protection against the formation of dicentric and ring was dose-dependent, but there seemed to be a maximum protection, i.e. a further increase in the concentration of EEP does not show additional protection. This work studies the effect of the EEP of the cellular cycle using the mitotic and cellular proliferation index, as an alternative for the screening cytostatic activity. The results indicate that the lymphocytes which were cultures in presence of EEP exhibited a significant and dependent-concentration decrease in mitotic index and proliferation kinetics. The possible mechanisms involved in the radioprotective influence of EEP are discussed. (authors)

  10. Molecular evidence of inefficient transduction of proliferating human B lymphocytes by VSV-pseudotyped HIV-1-derived lentivectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentiviral vectors are attractive tools to transduce dividing and nondividing cells. Human tonsillar B lymphocytes have been purified and induced to proliferate by the addition of anti-CD40 + IL-4 or anti-CD40 + anti-μ signals and transduced at high MOI with a VSV pseudotyped lentivector carrying the eGFP gene under the control of the PGK promoter. Parallel cultures of PHA-stimulated T lymphocytes containing a comparable amount of cycling cells during the infection reached over 70% eGFP transduction. By contrast, only less than 3% B lymphocytes became eGFP positive after 7 days from transduction. Molecular analysis of the viral life cycle shows that cytoplasmic retrotranscribed cDNA and nuclear 2LTR circles are detectable at lower levels and for a shorter period of time in proliferating B cells with respect to proliferating T lymphocytes. Moreover, FACS-sorted eGFP-positive and negative B cell populations were both positive for the presence of retrotranscribed cDNA and 2LTR circles nuclear forms. By contrast, nested Alu-LTR PCR allowed us to detect an integrated provirus in FACS-sorted eGFP-positive cells only. Together with the demonstration that infection in saturation conditions led to an increase in the percentage of transduced cells (reaching 9%), these findings suggest that in proliferating B lymphocytes, lentiviral transduction is an inefficient process blocked at the early steps of the viral life cycle possibly involving partially saturable restriction factors

  11. Ambiguous nucleus regulates the proliferation and percentage of T lymphocytes in peripheral blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wang; Wei Chen; Yingwu Mei; Bin Guo; Zhanqing Yang; Shoupeng Fu; Zhanpeng Yue; Juxiong Liu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the immunomodulatory role of the unilateral ambiguous nucleus (Amb). We performed electrical stimulation of the unilateral Amb, electrical stimulation of the left parietal cortex and the lateral hypothalamus following unilateral Amb lesion, as well as microinjection of acetylcholine chloride and hemicholine-3 into the unilateral Amb, and electrical stimulation of the unilateral Amb after injection of atropine, mecamylamine, propranolol, and phentolamine. Results showed that the number and proliferation of peripheral blood T lymphocytes were increased after electrical stimulation of the unilateral Amb. The cholinergic neurons in the Amb released choline substances to alter cellular immunity, thus confirming that the Amb mediates the neuro-immunomodulatory process.

  12. Functional role of HLA class I cell-surface molecules in human T-lymphocyte activation and proliferation.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, D S; Nowell, P C; Kornbluth, J

    1986-01-01

    This investigation addressed the role of major histocompatibility complex-encoded class I molecules in the activation and proliferation of human lymphocytes. We studied the effect of antibodies specific for HLA-A and HLA-B locus gene products on mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) subpopulations. Three individually derived, well-characterized anti-HLA class I monoclonal antibodies were demonstrated to inhibit the proliferation of human PBMC stimulated by either OKT3 or...

  13. Effects of dietary fish oil and vitamin E supplementation on canine lymphocyte proliferation evaluated using a flow cytometric technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Casey J; Dietrich, Marilyn A; Horohov, David W; Bauer, John E; Hosgood, Giselle; Mauldin, Glenna E

    2007-10-15

    Lymphocyte proliferation and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) production of PGE(2) were assayed in 15 healthy dogs fed a basal diet supplemented with either sunflower oil (Group Sunflower oil), sunflower oil and menhaden fish oil (Group Fish oil), or sunflower oil and menhaden fish oil plus alpha-tocopherol acetate for 12 weeks (Group Fish oil + E). Lymphocyte proliferation was determined by a flow cytometric technique utilizing the fluorochrome carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE). The PBMC supernatant PGE(2) concentration was assayed using a competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay. Group Fish oil had a significant decrease in lymphocyte proliferation at week 12. PBMC production of PGE(2) was decreased in all three groups but only significantly reduced in groups receiving fish oil supplementation. Based on these results, this level of fish oil supplementation appears to suppress the lymphoproliferative response in healthy, young dogs but this response can be attenuated by high levels of dietary vitamin E supplementation. Furthermore, fish oil-induced reduction in lymphocyte proliferation appears to manifest through a PGE(2)-independent mechanism and is not associated with increased lipid peroxidation. PMID:17658617

  14. Interactions of Prednisolone and Other Immunosuppressants Used in Dual Treatment of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in Lymphocyte Proliferation Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal, Mohamed A.; Jusko, William J.

    2004-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease primarily affecting women. Currently, systemic lupus erythematosus therapy is suboptimal due to adverse effects of immunosuppressants, particularly corticosteroids. This study determines the single effects of prednisolone, dehydroepiandrosterone, bromocriptine, tamoxifen, mycophenolic acid, 2-chloro-2′-deoxyadenosine, azathioprine, and chloroquine on lectin-stimulated proliferation of human T lymphocytes, as well as determining whether the...

  15. Inhibition of human lymphocyte proliferation and cleavage of interleukin-2 by Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theander, T G; Kharazmi, A; Pedersen, B K;

    1988-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa alkaline protease (AP) and elastase (ELA) on human lymphocyte function. AP at 50 micrograms/ml and ELA at 12 micrograms/ml caused a 50% inhibition of phytohemagglutinin-induced proliferation. There was no difference in th...... cleavage of IL-2....

  16. Effect of cholinomimetics and adrenomimetics on proliferation of mouse B lymphocytes during primary immune response to protein antigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ado, A.D.; Dontsov, V.I.; Gol' dshtein, M.M.

    1985-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the effect of neurotransmitters on proliferation of B lymphocytes induced by specific antigen. Experiments were carried out on female mice. To estimate proliferative activity, lymphocytes enriched with B cells were incubated in medium 199 for 2 h at 37 degrees C in a dose of 2.10/sup 6/-5.10/sup 6/ cells with 2 microCi of /sup 3/H-(methyl)-thymidine. The effect of acetylcholine on incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine into B lymphocytes of mice immunized with different doses of antigen during culture is shown. Discordance of effects of adrenalin and acetylcholine on incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine into B lymphocytes of mice immunized with different doses of ovalbumin is also shown.

  17. Laser modulation of human immune system: inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation by a gallium-arsenide laser at low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cultured human lymphocytes were subjected to irradiation with a gallium-arsenide laser at energy fluence varying from 2.17 to 651 mJ/cm2, and the cell proliferation was assessed by [3H]thymidine incorporation. Both mitogenic proliferation in response to phytohemagglutinin and spontaneous cell proliferation were markedly inhibited by the laser irradiation at energy fluence as low as 10.85 mJ/cm2. Similarly, the functional response of cells to antigen stimulation in a one-way mixed-lymphocyte reaction was also diminished as a result of laser irradiation. The results indicate that laser irradiation at low energy can interfere with immune system in vitro, and similar modulation could potentially occur in human subjects exposed to laser irradiation in vivo

  18. Lymphocyte proliferation in old and young humans as measured by flow cytometry: effect of 3H-thymidine on cell cycle kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have compared the proliferation of lymphocytes from old and young humans in response to PHA using flow cytometry. Our results suggest that lymphocytes from old persons are more sensitive to 3H-induced damage than lymphocytes from young persons. This difference in sensitivity, however, does not totally account for the observed differences in 3H-Tdr incorporation by lymphocytes from young and old donors. We have observed, using flow cytometry that fewer lymphocytes from old donors respond to stimulation by PHA. Those lymphocytes which do respond, however, traverse the cell cycle at comparable rates to responding lymphocytes from young donors. Perhaps the most intriguing and unexpected finding is the increased heterogeneity of DNA content in lymphocytes from old donors as evidenced by an increase in the coefficient of variation of DNA content. An excess or shortage of DNA might contribute to the lower level of response to PHA observed in lymphocyte cultures from old donors

  19. Development of Biomarkers for Chronic Beryllium Disease in Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Terry

    2013-01-25

    Beryllium is a strategic metal, indispensable for national defense programs in aerospace, telecommunications, electronics, and weaponry. Exposure to beryllium is an extensively documented occupational hazard that causes irreversible, debilitating granulomatous lung disease in as much as 3 - 5% of exposed workers. Mechanistic research on beryllium exposure-disease relationships has been severely limited by a general lack of a sufficient CBD animal model. We have now developed and tested an animal model which can be used for dissecting dose-response relationships and pathogenic mechanisms and for testing new diagnostic and treatment paradigms. We have created 3 strains of transgenic mice in which the human antigen-presenting moiety, HLA-DP, was inserted into the mouse genome. Each mouse strain contains HLA-DPB1 alleles that confer different magnitude of risk for chronic beryllium disease (CBD): HLA-DPB1*0401 (odds ratio = 0.2), HLA-DPB1*0201 (odds ratio = 15), HLA-DPB1*1701 (odds ratio = 240). Our preliminary work has demonstrated that the *1701 allele, as predicted by human studies, results in the greatest degree of sensitization in a mouse ear swelling test. We have also completed dose-response experiments examining beryllium-induced lung granulomas and identified susceptible and resistant inbred strains of mice (without the human transgenes) as well as quantitative trait loci that may contain gene(s) that modify the immune response to beryllium. In this grant application, we propose to use the transgenic and normal inbred strains of mice to identify biomarkers for the progression of beryllium sensitization and CBD. To achieve this goal, we propose to compare the sensitivity and accuracy of the lymphocyte proliferation test (blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) with the ELISPOT test in the three HLA-DP transgenic mice strains throughout a 6 month treatment with beryllium particles. Because of the availability of high-throughput proteomics, we will also identify

  20. Antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferation as a marker of immune response in guinea pigs with sustained Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszczyk, Eliza; Walencka, Maria; Rudnicka, Karolina; Matusiak, Agnieszka; Rudnicka, Wiesława; Chmiela, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) bacteria are human pathogens causing symptomatic gastritis, peptic ulcer or gastric cancer. Little is known about the kinetics of immune responses in H. pylori infected patients because the initial moment of infection has not been identified. Various animal models are used to investigate the immune processes related to H. pylori infection. In this study we checked whether H. pylori infection in guinea pigs, mimicking natural H. pylori infection in humans, resulted in the development of specific immune responses to H. pylori antigens by measuring the proliferation of lymphocytes localized in mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen and peripheral blood. The maturity of macrophages and cytokines, delivered by monocyte-macrophage lineage or lymphocytes, were considered as mediators, which might influence the lymphocyte blastogenic response. The obtained results showed the activation of T cells localized in mesenteric lymph nodes by H. pylori antigens in H. pylori infected guinea pigs four weeks postinfection. The blastogenic activity of lymphocytes was shaped by their interaction with antigen presenting cells, which were present in the cell cultures during the whole culture period. Moreover, the balance between cytokines derived from adherent leukocytes including interleukin 8--IL-8 as well as interferon gamma--IFN-γ, and transforming growth factor beta--TGF-β delivered by lymphocytes, was probably important for the successful proliferation of lymphocytes. The H. pylori specific lymphocytes were not propagated in peripheral blood and spleen of H. pylori infected animals. The modulation of immunocompetent cells by H. pylori antigens or their different distribution cannot be excluded. PMID:24918491

  1. Hydrogen Sulfide Inhibits Abnormal Proliferation of Lymphocytes via AKT/GSK3β Signal Pathway in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfang Han

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: The abnormal activation of the AKT/GSK3β signal pathway in lymphocytes from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE patients plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Recently Hydrogen sulfide (H2S has been recognized as a crucial gaseous signaling molecule, involved in regulation of cell proliferation. However, the role of H2S in regulating the abnormal activation of lymphocytes from SLE patients has not been established. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of H2S on lymphocytes and to explore the mechanisms involved. Methods: The lymphocytes were isolated from SLE patients with or without renal disease and healthy controls. The cells were treated as indicated in each experiment. Cell viability was analyzed by CCK-8. Cell cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometry. Western blot was used to detect the expression of phosphorylated AKT (ser473, GSK3β (ser9 and CDK2, p27Kip1 and p21WAF1/CIP1. Results: Our findings showed that proliferation of lymphocytes was stimulated following treatment with NaHS (a H2S donor at low NaHS concentrations (2mM. Similar results were observed using GYY4137, which is a slow-releasing H2S donor. Pretreatment of lymphocytes from SLE patients with NaHS at high concentrations prior to exposure to phytohemagglutinin (PHA significantly attenuated proliferation, evidenced by decrease in cell viability and S phase distribution of cell cycle. Pretreatment with NaHS decreased PHA-induced expression of CDK2, phosphorylation levels of AKT (ser473 and GSK3β (ser9 and increased the expression of p27Kip1 and p21WAF1/CIP1. Moreover, pretreatment with NaHS blunted the stimulation of SLE lymphocyte proliferation by GSK3β inhibitor lithium chloride. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that H2S inhibits the abnormal activation of lymphocytes from SLE patients throuqh the AKT/GSK3β signal pathway.

  2. Nonspecific activation of murine lymphocytes. IV. Proliferation of a distinct, late maturing lymphocyte subpopulation induced by 2-mercaptoethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lymphocyte subpopulations that are activated by 2-ME, LPS, poly IC, and PPD were studied in terms of their maturational characteristics. Attempts to stimulate hepatic and splenic lymphoid cells from mice of different ages with these mitogens demonstrated a well ordered sequence for the emergency of mitogen responsiveness in C3H mice: reactivity to LPS and Poly IC was observed early in maturation and was followed by that to PPD, and finally by the development of responsiveness to 2-ME. The same sequence appeared when the mitogen responsiveness of lethally irradiated, fetal liver-reconstituted syngeneic adult recipients was examined. The mitogenic action of 2-ME was dissociated from its ability to enhance lymphocyte reactivity to other mitogens in mice too young to respond to 2-ME as a mitogen. Experiments in which additivity of responses was assayed by adding mitogens to culture singly or conjointly indicated that LPS and Poly IC activate nearly identical B lymphocyte subpopulations, whereas PPD stimulates a subset of cells distinct from that which is responsive to the former two mitogens. The mitogen responsiveness of CBA/N mice, relative to normal CBA/WEHI mice, was shown to decrease as a function of the maturity of the subpopulation of lymphocytes activated. The CBA/N mouse was shown to be unresponsive to stimulation by 2-ME

  3. Activation and proliferation of lymphocytes and other mammalian cells in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogoli, A.; Cogoli-Greuter, M.

    1997-01-01

    The experimental findings reviewed in this chapter support the following conclusions: Proliferation. Human T-lymphocytes, associated with monocytes as accessory cells, show dramatic changes in the centrifuge, in the clinostat and in space. In free-floating cells the mitogenic response is depressed by 90% in microgravity, whereas in cells attached to a substratum activation is enhanced by 100% compared to 1-G ground and inflight controls. The duration of phase G1 of the mitotic cycle of HeLa cells is reduced in hypergravity, resulting in an increased proliferation rate. Other systems like Friend cells and WI38 human embryonic lung cells do not show significant changes. Genetic expression and signal transduction. T-lymphocytes and monocytes show important changes in the expression of cytokines like interleukin-1, interleukin-2, interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor. The data from space experiments in Spacelab, Space Shuttle mid-deck, and Biokosmos have helped to clarify certain aspects of the mechanism of T-cell activation. Epidermoid A431 cells show changes in the genetic expression of the proto-oncogenes c-fos and c-jun in the clinostat and in sounding rockets. Membrane function, in particular the binding of ligates as first messengers of a signal, is not changed in most of the cell systems in microgravity. Morphology and Mortility. Free cells, lymphocytes in particular, are able to move and form aggregates in microgravity, indicating that cell-cell contacts and cell communications do take place in microgravity. Dramatic morphological and ultrastructural changes are not detected in cells cultured in microgravity. Important experiments with single mammalian cells, including immune cells, were carried out recently in three Spacelab flights, (SL-J, D-2, and IML-2 in 1992, 1993, and 1994, respectively). The results of the D-2 mission have been published in ref. 75; those of the IML-2 mission in ref. 76. Finally, many cell biology experiments in space have suffered

  4. Lymphocyte proliferation to mycobacterial antigens is detectable across a spectrum of HIV-associated tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakari Muhammad

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying novel TB diagnostics is a major public health priority. We explored the diagnostic characteristics of antimycobacterial lymphocyte proliferation assays (LPA in HIV-infected subjects with latent or active TB. Methods HIV-infected subjects with bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG scars and CD4 counts ≥ 200 cells/mm3 entering a TB booster vaccine trial in Tanzania had baseline in vivo and in vitro immune tests performed: tuberculin skin tests (TST, LPA and five day assays of interferon gamma (IFN-γ release. Assay antigens were early secreted antigenic target 6 (ESAT-6, antigen 85 (Ag85, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole cell lysate (WCL. Subjects were screened for active TB at enrollment by history, exam, sputum smear and culture. We compared antimycobacterial immune responses between subjects with and without latent or active TB at enrollment. Results Among 1885 subjects screened, 635 had latent TB and 13 had active TB. Subjects with latent TB were more likely than subjects without TB to have LPA responses to ESAT-6 (13.2% vs. 5.5%, P Conclusion Lymphoproliferative responses to mycobacteria are detectable during HIV-associated active TB, and are less sensitive but more specific than TST. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00052195.

  5. Nuclear Phosphoproteomic Screen Uncovers ACLY as Mediator of IL-2-induced Proliferation of CD4+ T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinalde, Nerea; Mitxelena, Jone; Sánchez-Quiles, Virginia; Akimov, Vyacheslav; Aloria, Kerman; Arizmendi, Jesus M; Zubiaga, Ana M; Blagoev, Blagoy; Kratchmarova, Irina

    2016-06-01

    Anti-cancer immunotherapies commonly rely on the use of interleukin-2 (IL-2) to promote the expansion of T lymphocytes. IL-2- dependent proliferation is the culmination of a complex network of phosphorylation-driven signaling events that impact on gene transcription through mechanisms that are not clearly understood. To study the role of IL-2 in the regulation of nuclear protein function we have performed an unbiased mass spectrometry-based study of the nuclear phosphoproteome of resting and IL-2-treated CD4(+) T lymphocytes. We detected 8521distinct phosphosites including many that are not yet reported in curated phosphorylation databases. Although most phosphorylation sites remained unaffected upon IL-2 treatment, 391 sites corresponding to 288 gene products showed robust IL-2-dependent regulation. Importantly, we show that ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY) is a key phosphoprotein effector of IL-2-mediated T-cell responses. ACLY becomes phosphorylated on serine 455 in T lymphocytes upon IL-2-driven activation of AKT, and depletion or inactivation of ACLY compromises IL-2-promoted T-cell growth. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that ACLY is required for enhancing histone acetylation levels and inducing the expression of cell cycle regulating genes in response to IL-2. Thus, the metabolic enzyme ACLY emerges as a bridge between cytokine signaling and proliferation of T lymphocytes, and may be an attractive candidate target for the development of more efficient anti-cancer immunotherapies. PMID:27067055

  6. A Novel Natural Product, KL-21, Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysun Adan Gökbulut

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aims of this study were to examine the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of KL-21, a novel plant product (produced by Naturin Natural Products, İzmir, Turkey, on 232B4 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL cells and to determine the cytotoxic effects on healthy BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells. METHODS: The cytotoxic effect of KL-21 was determined by MTT cell proliferation assay. Changes in caspase-3 enzyme activity were measured using the caspase-3 colorimetric assay. Changes in mitochondrial membrane potential were determined using the JC-1 dye-based method. Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining was performed to measure the apoptotic cell population. Effects of KL-21 on cell cycle profiles of CLL cells were investigated by flow cytometry. RESULTS: We detected time- and concentration-dependent increases in the cytotoxic effect of KL-21 on 232B4 CLL cells. However, we also showed that, especially at higher concentrations, KL-21 was less cytotoxic towards BEAS-2B healthy cells than towards CLL cells. Annexin-V/PI double staining results showed that the apoptotic cell population increased in 232B4 cells. Increasing concentrations of KL-21 increased caspase-3 enzyme activity and induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. KL-21 administration resulted in small increases in the percentage of the cells in the G0/G1 phase while it decreased the S phase cell population up to 1 mg/mL. At the highest concentration, most of the cells accumulated in the G0/G1 phase. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: KL-21 has a growth-inhibitory effect on 232B4 CLL cells. KL-21 causes apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G0/G1.

  7. Beryllium allergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium is not only a high potent allergen, but also a fotoallergen and can provoke contact allergic reactions, fotoallergic reactions, granulomatous skin reactions, pulmonary granulomatous diseases and sometimes even systemic diseases. The authors present 9 own cases of a patch test positive beryllium allergy, 7 patients with relevant allergy and 5 patients with an allergic contact stomatitis. (author)

  8. Effects of synthetic and naturally occurring flavonoids on mitogen-induced proliferation of human peripheral-blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Examination was made of the effects of 17 synthetic and naturally occurring flavonoids on human lymphocyte proliferation in the presence of concanavalin A as a mitogen. Twelve of the flavonoids examined were mono-hydroxy of methoxy derivatives. The mitogen-induced response of lymphocytes was evaluated from the extent of the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into cells in vitro. All the compounds showed inhibitory effects; 4.5-77.7% of [3H] thymidine incorporation was blocked by an 1.0 μg/ml concentration. The viability of lymphocytes before and after treatment, as assessed by a dye exclusion test, indicated no change, and thus the flavonoids may inhibit DNA synthesis. The flavonoids possessing 5-hydroxyl, 5-methoxyl and 6-methoxyl groups, and those with cyclohexyl instead of phenyl substituent (i.e. 2-cyclohexyl-benzopyran-4-one), showed the greatest inhibition. The inhibitory effect of any one of them was less than one half that of prednisolone, but essentially the same or somewhat exceeding that of bredinine of azathioprine. It would thus appear that the well-known anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoids may possibly arise in part from the inhibition of the proliferative response of lymphocytes

  9. Effects of synthetic and naturally occurring flavonoids on mitogen-induced proliferation of human peripheral-blood lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, Toshihiko; Oka, Kitaro; Kawashima, Etsuko; Akiba, Mitsuo (Tokyo College of Pharmacy (Japan))

    1989-01-01

    Examination was made of the effects of 17 synthetic and naturally occurring flavonoids on human lymphocyte proliferation in the presence of concanavalin A as a mitogen. Twelve of the flavonoids examined were mono-hydroxy of methoxy derivatives. The mitogen-induced response of lymphocytes was evaluated from the extent of the incorporation of ({sup 3}H)thymidine into cells in vitro. All the compounds showed inhibitory effects; 4.5-77.7% of ({sup 3}H) thymidine incorporation was blocked by an 1.0 {mu}g/ml concentration. The viability of lymphocytes before and after treatment, as assessed by a dye exclusion test, indicated no change, and thus the flavonoids may inhibit DNA synthesis. The flavonoids possessing 5-hydroxyl, 5-methoxyl and 6-methoxyl groups, and those with cyclohexyl instead of phenyl substituent (i.e. 2-cyclohexyl-benzopyran-4-one), showed the greatest inhibition. The inhibitory effect of any one of them was less than one half that of prednisolone, but essentially the same or somewhat exceeding that of bredinine of azathioprine. It would thus appear that the well-known anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoids may possibly arise in part from the inhibition of the proliferative response of lymphocytes.

  10. The ibrutinib B-cell proliferation inhibition is potentiated in vitro by dexamethasone: Application to chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Delphine; Catallo, Régine; Chebel, Amel; Baseggio, Lucile; Michallet, Anne-Sophie; Roualdes, Olivier; Magaud, Jean-Pierre; Salles, Gilles; Ffrench, Martine

    2016-08-01

    New B-cell receptor-targeted therapies such as ibrutinib, a Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, are now proposed for lymphoid pathologies. The putative benefits of its combination with glucocorticoids were evaluated here. We compared the effects of dexamethasone (DXM), ibrutinib and their in vitro combination on proliferation and metabolic stress markers in stimulated normal B-lymphocytes and in malignant lymphocytes from chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients. In both cellular models, cell cycle progression was globally inhibited by DXM and/or ibrutinib. This inhibition was significantly amplified by DXM addition to ibrutinib and was related to a significant decrease in the expression of the cell cycle regulatory proteins CDK4 and cyclin E. Apoptosis increased especially with DXM/ibrutinib combination and was associated with a significant decrease in Mcl-1 expression. Treatment effects on metabolic stress were evaluated by DNA damage recognition after 53BP1 foci labeling. The percentage of cells with more than five 53BP1 foci decreased significantly with ibrutinib in normal and CLL lymphocytes. This decrease was strongly reinforced, in CLL, by DXM addition. Our data indicated that, in vitro, DXM potentiated antiproliferative effects of ibrutinib and decreased DNA damage in lymphoid B-cells. Thus their combination may be proposed for CLL treatment. PMID:27235717

  11. Beryllium-induced immune response in C3H mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies conducted at ITRI over the past several years have investigated whether Beagle dogs, monkeys, and mice are suitable models for human chronic beryllium-induced lung disease (CBD). Recent studies have focused on the histopathological and immunopathological changes occurring in A/J and C3H/HeJ mice acutely exposed by inhalation to Be metal. Lung lesions in both strains of mice included focal lymphocyte aggregates comprised primarily of B lymphocytes and lesser amounts of T-helper lymphocytes and microgranulomas consisting chiefly of macrophages and T-helper lymphocytes. The distribution of proliferating cells within the microgranulomas was similar to the distribution of T-helper cells. These results strongly suggested that A/J and C3H/HeJ mice responded to inhaled Be metal in a fashion similar to humans in terms of pulmonary lesions and the apparent in situ proliferation of T-helper cells. Results of these studies confirm lymphocyte involvement in the pulmonary response to inhaled Be metal

  12. Beryllium-induced immune response in C3H mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, J.M.; Bice, D.E.; Nikula, K.J. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Studies conducted at ITRI over the past several years have investigated whether Beagle dogs, monkeys, and mice are suitable models for human chronic beryllium-induced lung disease (CBD). Recent studies have focused on the histopathological and immunopathological changes occurring in A/J and C3H/HeJ mice acutely exposed by inhalation to Be metal. Lung lesions in both strains of mice included focal lymphocyte aggregates comprised primarily of B lymphocytes and lesser amounts of T-helper lymphocytes and microgranulomas consisting chiefly of macrophages and T-helper lymphocytes. The distribution of proliferating cells within the microgranulomas was similar to the distribution of T-helper cells. These results strongly suggested that A/J and C3H/HeJ mice responded to inhaled Be metal in a fashion similar to humans in terms of pulmonary lesions and the apparent in situ proliferation of T-helper cells. Results of these studies confirm lymphocyte involvement in the pulmonary response to inhaled Be metal.

  13. Effect of synthetic agonists of toll-like receptor 9 on canine lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im Hof, Michelle; Williamson, Lina; Summerfield, Artur; Balmer, Vreni; Dutoit, Virginie; Kandimalla, Ekambar R; Yu, Dong; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Doherr, Marcus G; Peel, John; Roosje, Petra J

    2008-07-15

    Synthetic agonists of TLR9 containing novel DNA structures and R'pG (wherein R=1-(2'-deoxy-beta-d-ribofuranosyl)-2-oxo-7-deaza-8-methyl-purine) motifs, referred to as immune modulatory oligonucleotides (IMOs), have been shown to stimulate T(H)-1-type-immune responses and potently reverse allergen-induced T(H)-2 responses to T(H)-1 responses in vitro and in vivo in mice. In order to investigate the immunomodulatory potential of IMOs in dogs, canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy dogs were stimulated with three different IMOs and a control IMO, alone or in combination with concanavalin A (ConA). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used as a positive control for B lymphocyte activation. Carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester and phenotype staining was used to tag proliferating T and B lymphocytes (CD5(+) and CD21(+)) by flow cytometry. Real-time PCR and ELISA were processed to assay cytokine production of IFN-gamma, IL-10, TGF-beta, IL-6 and IL-10. Like LPS, IMOs alone induced neither proliferation of CD5(+) T cells nor CD21(+) B cells, but both LPS and IMO had the capacity to co-stimulate ConA and induced proliferation of B cells. In combination with ConA, one of the IMOs (IMO1) also induced proliferation of T cells. IMO1 also significantly enhanced the expression of IFN-gamma on the mRNA and protein level in canine PBMC, whereas expression of IL-10, TGF-beta and IL-4 mRNAs was not induced by any of the IMOs. These results indicate that in canine PBMC from healthy dogs, IMO1 was able to induce a T(H)-1 immune response including T- and B-cell proliferation. PMID:18452997

  14. Late A-bomb effects on proliferation and mitotic inhibition of T- and B-lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate late effects of ionization radiation and aging on T- and B-lymphocytes, mitotic ability of T- and B-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of 266 A-bomb survivors was examined by determining the incorporation of [3H]-thymidine. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) were used as inducers. Furthermore, mitotic inhibition of lymphocytes induced by a lymphatic inhibitor which was in part prepared from ulex seed extracts (USE) was examined. A decreased reaction of peripheral lymphocytes to PHA was seen in men exposed to 100-199 rad; a decreased reaction to PWM was seen in women exposed to more than 200 rad. According to the age group at examination, these decreased reactions were remarkable in men aged 60 years or younger and women aged 60 years or older. Among men less than 60-year-old exposed to 100-199 rad, PWM-induced mitosis of lymphocytes tended to be inhibited remarkably by USE. These results suggest the involvement of late A-bomb effects in mitotic regulation of T- and B-lymphocytes of aged A-bomb survivors. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. Strong additive effect of calcitriol and cyclosporine A on lymphocyte proliferation in vitro and rat liver allotransplantations in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ai-bin; ZHENG Shu-sen

    2006-01-01

    Background Vitamin D3 and its metabolites have been found to exert immunosuppressive effects both in vivo and in vitro. We investigated the synergistic effect of calcitriol and cyclosporine A (CsA) on lymphocyte proliferation in vitro and graft rejection following rat liver allotransplantations in vivo.Methods Alloantigen driven, human peripheral mononuclear cells' proliferation and cytokine production capacity were tested in the presence or absence of various concentrations of calcitriol or CsA. In vivo, liver allografts were transplanted in a high responder strain combination (SD to Wistar) rats and combination of subtherapeutical dose of CsA and calcitriol was administered in recipients, whereas the control recipients received single or no immunosuppressant. Proliferation of splenocyte from recipient was tested with mixed lymphocyte reaction. Serum interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) concentrations were measured with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.Results Combined medication of 10-9 mol/L calcitriol and 100 ng/ml CsA inhibited human peripheral mononuclear cells' proliferation to alloantigen and the production of IL-2 and IFN-γ but promoted that of IL-4and IL-10. Similarly, combination of 250 ng· kg-1 · d-1 calcitriol and 1.0 mg · kg-1 · d-1 CsA showed an additive effect in liver transplant model. It restrained splenocyte proliferation to alloantigen from donor and significantly reduced serum concentration of IL-2 and IFN-γ in recipients. Consequently, allograft rejection in combined medication group was minor (median William's grade was 1.0 vs 3.0 in combined medication group and in the control group, P<0.05) and the recipients' survival was evidently prolonged [(93.7±5.8) days vs (12.6±1.4) days in combined medication group and in the control group, P<0.01].Conclusion A combination of calcitriol and CsA has an additive effect on limiting lymphocyte proliferation and prolonging liver graft survival. With its additional

  16. Telomerase activity is spontaneously increased in lymphocytes from patients with atopic dermatitis and correlates with cellular proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Kehuai; Volke, Anne Rehné; Lund, Marianne;

    1999-01-01

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme involved with cellular proliferation and cellular senescence. The aim of the present study was to investigate telomerase activity in lymphocytes from patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and to observe its regulation of cellular proliferation. Peripheral...... staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) (0.1 microg/ml). Telomerase activity was measured by the telomeric repeat amplification protocol-based telomerase polymerase chain reaction enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at 0 and 72 h of incubation. In addition, DNA synthesis of the cells was assayed using 3H......-thymidine incorporation. We found that telomerase activity in non-stimulated PBMC from patients with AD was significantly up-regulated without any stimulation during the 72 h of in vitro incubation. The most potent stimulator of telomerase activity was SEA, followed by anti-CD3 plus IL-2, anti-CD3 alone, and PPD. IL-2...

  17. Interaction between Cl- channels and CRAC-related Ca2+ signaling during T lymphocyte activation and proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan-lei WANG; Yan QIAN; Qin-ying QIU; Xiu-jian LAN; Hua HE; Yong-yuan GUAN

    2006-01-01

    Aim:To test the hypothesis that Cl- channel blockers affect T cell proliferation through Ca2+-release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) signaling and examine the effects of the combination of a CRAC channel blocker and a Cl- channel blocker on concanavalin A (ConA;5 mg/mL) -induced Ca2+ signaling,gene expression and cellular proliferation in human peripheral T lymphocytes.Methods:[3H]Thymidine incorporation,Fura-2 fluorescent probe,RNase protection assay,and reverse transcription.polymerase chain reaction were used.Results:The Cl- channel blocker 4,4'-diisothiocvanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) inhibited ConA-induced Ca2+influx.interleukin-2 mRNA expression and T lymphocyte proliferation in a concentration.dependent manner,and also enhanced the inhibitory effects of 1-{beta-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propoxyl]-4-methoxyphenethyl}-1H-imidazole (SK&F96365) on the above key events during T cell activation.A combination ofDIDS (1μmol/L) and SK&F96365 (1μmol/L) significantly diminished ConA-induced ClC-3 mRNA expression by 64%,whereas DIDS (1μmol/L) or SK&F96365 (1μmol/L) alone decreased ConA-induced ClC-3 mRNA expression by only 16% and 9%.respectively.Conclusion:These results suggest that there is an interaction between CRAC-mediated Ca2+ signaling and DIDS-sensitive C1-channels during ConA-induced T cell activation and proliferation.Moreover,the DIDS-sensitive Cl-channels may be related to the ClC-3 Cl- channels.

  18. Beryllium Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Beryllium Toxicity Patient Education Care Instruction Sheet ... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Page last reviewed: May 23, 2008 Page ...

  19. Effect of thapsigargin on cytoplasmic Ca2+ and proliferation of human lymphocytes in relation to AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharff, O; Foder, B; Thastrup, Ole;

    1988-01-01

    The tumor-promoting sesquiterpene lactone, thapsigargin, induced a dose-dependent increase of the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([ Ca2+]i) in human lymphocytes from a resting level between 100 and 150 nM up to about 1 microM. Half-maximum response was found at about 1 nM of thapsigargin, full...

  20. Alkylglycerols modulate the proliferation and differentiation of non-specific agonist and specific antigen-stimulated splenic lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linxi Qian

    Full Text Available Alkylglycerols (AKGs are ether-linked glycerols derived from shark liver oil and found in small amounts in human milk. Previous studies showed that oral AKGs administration significantly increased the immune response in mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro immunomodulatory effect of AKGs on stimulating splenic lymphocyte responses. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg. Splenic B cells were purified and stimulated with anti-BCR and anti-CD38. Meanwhile, splenic CD4+ T cells were purified and stimulated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28. For antigen specific stimulation, the purified CD4+ T cells were cocultured with HBsAg -pulsed dendritic cells. The stimulated lymphocytes were treated with different concentrations of AKGs. The cell proliferation was assessed by [3H]-thymidine incorporation assay. The maturation of B cells was assessed by examining the germline (GL transcription of IgG (γ1 mRNA expression, and the surface expressions of CD80/CD86 markers were examined by flow cytometry analysis. Th1/Th2 polarity was assessed by T-BET (Th1/GATA-3 (Th2 flow cytometry assay and by characteristic cytokines ELISA assay (TNF-α and IFN-γ for Th1; IL-4 and IL-10 for Th2. It was found that AKGs significantly increased the BCR/CD38 -stimulated B cell proliferation. The T cell proliferation in response to CD3/CD28 or specific antigen stimulation was also increased by AKGs. The transcriptional level of IgG (γ1 and the expressions of CD80/CD86 molecules were markedly increased by AKGs in BCR/CD38 -stimulated B cells. Meanwhile, the results showed that AKGs increased the expression of T-BET transcriptional factor and the production of Th1 cytokines (TNF-α and IFN-γ upon CD3/CD28 stimulation; whereas, levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10 were decreased by AKGs. Our study demonstrated that AKGs can modulate immune responses by boosting the proliferation and maturation of murine lymphocytes in vitro.

  1. Alkylglycerols modulate the proliferation and differentiation of non-specific agonist and specific antigen-stimulated splenic lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Linxi; Zhang, Mingshun; Wu, Shengmei; Zhong, Yan; Van Tol, Eric; Cai, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Alkylglycerols (AKGs) are ether-linked glycerols derived from shark liver oil and found in small amounts in human milk. Previous studies showed that oral AKGs administration significantly increased the immune response in mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro immunomodulatory effect of AKGs on stimulating splenic lymphocyte responses. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Splenic B cells were purified and stimulated with anti-BCR and anti-CD38. Meanwhile, splenic CD4+ T cells were purified and stimulated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28. For antigen specific stimulation, the purified CD4+ T cells were cocultured with HBsAg -pulsed dendritic cells. The stimulated lymphocytes were treated with different concentrations of AKGs. The cell proliferation was assessed by [3H]-thymidine incorporation assay. The maturation of B cells was assessed by examining the germline (GL) transcription of IgG (γ1) mRNA expression, and the surface expressions of CD80/CD86 markers were examined by flow cytometry analysis. Th1/Th2 polarity was assessed by T-BET (Th1)/GATA-3 (Th2) flow cytometry assay and by characteristic cytokines ELISA assay (TNF-α and IFN-γ for Th1; IL-4 and IL-10 for Th2). It was found that AKGs significantly increased the BCR/CD38 -stimulated B cell proliferation. The T cell proliferation in response to CD3/CD28 or specific antigen stimulation was also increased by AKGs. The transcriptional level of IgG (γ1) and the expressions of CD80/CD86 molecules were markedly increased by AKGs in BCR/CD38 -stimulated B cells. Meanwhile, the results showed that AKGs increased the expression of T-BET transcriptional factor and the production of Th1 cytokines (TNF-α and IFN-γ) upon CD3/CD28 stimulation; whereas, levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) were decreased by AKGs. Our study demonstrated that AKGs can modulate immune responses by boosting the proliferation and maturation of murine lymphocytes in vitro. PMID

  2. Self DNA from lymphocytes that have undergone activation-induced cell death enhances murine B cell proliferation and antibody production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Lu

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is characterized by prominent autoinflammatory tissue damage associated with impaired removal of dying cells and DNA. Self DNA-containing immune complexes are able to activate both innate and adaptive immune responses and play an important role in the maintenance and exacerbation of autoimmunity in SLE. In this study, we used DNA from lymphocytes that have undergone activation-induced cell death (ALD-DNA and analyzed its role on the activation and differentiation of B cells from normal BALB/c mice as well as lupus-prone MRL+/+ and MRL/lpr mice. We found that ALD-DNA directly increased the expression of costimulatory molecules and the survival of naïve B cells in vitro. Although ALD-DNA alone had little effect on the proliferation of naïve B cells, it enhanced LPS-activated B cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. In addition, ALD-DNA increased plasma cell numbers and IgG production in LPS-stimulated cultures of naïve B cells, in part via enhancing IL-6 production. Importantly, B cells from lupus mice were hyperresponsive to ALD-DNA and/or LPS relative to normal control B cells in terminal plasma cell differentiation, as evidenced by increases in CD138+ cell numbers, IgM production, and mRNA levels of B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1 and the X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1. Furthermore, ALD-DNA enhanced CD40-activated naïve B cell proliferation. Collectively, these data indicate that self DNA can serve as a DAMP (damage-associated molecular pattern that cooperates with signals from both innate and adaptive immunity to promote polyclonal B cell activation, a common characteristic of autoimmune diseases.

  3. Long-term follow-up of beryllium sensitized workers from a single employer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis Anne M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Up to 12% of beryllium-exposed American workers would test positive on beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT screening, but the implications of sensitization remain uncertain. Methods Seventy two current and former employees of a beryllium manufacturer, including 22 with pathologic changes of chronic beryllium disease (CBD, and 50 without, with a confirmed positive test were followed-up for 7.4 +/-3.1 years. Results Beyond predicted effects of aging, flow rates and lung volumes changed little from baseline, while DLCO dropped 17.4% of predicted on average. Despite this group decline, only 8 subjects (11.1% demonstrated physiologic or radiologic abnormalities typical of CBD. Other than baseline status, no clinical or laboratory feature distinguished those who clinically manifested CBD at follow-up from those who did not. Conclusions The clinical outlook remains favorable for beryllium-sensitized individuals over the first 5-12 years. However, declines in DLCO may presage further and more serious clinical manifestations in the future. These conclusions are tempered by the possibility of selection bias and other study limitations.

  4. Clinical approach to chronic beryllium disease and other nonpneumoconiotic interstitial lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Lisa A

    2002-10-01

    Exposures in the workplace result in a diverse set of diseases ranging from the pneumoconiosis to other interstitial lung diseases to acute lung injury. Physician awareness of the potential disease manifestations associated with specific exposures is important in defining these diseases and in preventing additional disease. Most occupational diseases mimic other forms of lung disease, including pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and bronchiolitis. A "sarcoidosis"-like syndrome, usually limited to the lungs, may result from exposure to bioaerosols and a number of metals. Exposure to beryllium in the workplace produces a granulomatous lung disease clinically indistinguishable from sarcoidosis, chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Beryllium's ability to produce a beryllium-specific immune response is used in the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests to confirm a diagnosis of CBD and exclude sarcoidosis. Exposure to other metals must also be considered in the differential diagnosis of sarcoidosis. When an individual presents acutely with ARDS or acute lung injury, an acute inhalational exposure must be considered. Exposure to a number of irritant substances at high levels may cause a "chemical pneumonitis" or acute lung injury, depending on the solubility and physicochemical properties of the substance. Some of the most notable agents include nitrogen and sulfur oxides, phosgene, and smoke breakdown products. Ingestion of paraquat may also result in an ARDS syndrome, with pulmonary fibrosis eventually resulting. Bronchiolitis is a rare manifestation of inhalational exposures but must also be considered in the clinical evaluation of inhalational exposure. PMID:12362066

  5. Role of Campylobacter jejuni gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase on epithelial cell apoptosis and lymphocyte proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Floch, Pauline; Pey, Vincent; Castroviejo, Michel; Dupuy, Jean William; Bonneu, Marc; de la Guardia, Anaïs Hocès; Pitard, Vincent; Mégraud, Francis; Lehours, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Background A gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) is produced by up to 31% of strains of Campylobacter jejuni isolates. C. jejuni GGT is close to Helicobacter pylori GGT suggesting a conserved activity but unlike the latter, C. jejuni GGT has not been studied extensively. In line with the data available for H. pylori, our objectives were to purify C. jejuni GGT from the bacteria, and to evaluate its inhibitory and proapoptotic activities on epithelial cells and human lymphocytes. Methods C. je...

  6. Lymphocyte Redox Imbalance and Reduced Proliferation after a Single Session of High Intensity Interval Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Tossige-Gomes, Rosalina; Costa, Karine Beatriz; Ottone, Vinícius de Oliveira; Magalhães, Flávio de Castro; Amorim, Fabiano Trigueiro; Rocha-Vieira, Etel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is sufficient to alter lymphocyte function and redox status. Sixteen young healthy men underwent a HIIT session on a cycloergometer, consisting of eight bouts of 1 min at 90–100% of peak power, with 75 seconds of active recovery at 30 W between bouts. Venous blood was collected before, immediately after, and 30 minutes after the HIIT session. In response to Staphylococcus aureus superantigen B (SEB) st...

  7. Heightened BTK-dependent cell proliferation in unmutated chronic lymphocytic leukemia confers increased sensitivity to ibrutinib

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Ailin; Lu, Pin; Galanina, Natalie; Nabhan, Chadi; Smith, Sonali M.; Coleman, Morton; Wang, Y. Lynn

    2015-01-01

    In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), patients with unmutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene (UM-CLL) have worse outcomes than mutated CLL (M-CLL) following chemotherapy or chemoimmunotherapy. However, in the era of BCR-targeted therapies, the adverse prognostic impact of unmutated IGHV seems to be diminishing, and there are clinical datasets showing unexpected improved responses in UM-CLL. We investigated the biological differences of BTK activity between these subgroups an...

  8. Novel T lymphocyte proliferation assessment using whole mouse cryo-imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttisarnwattana, Patiwet; Raza, Syed A.; Eid, Saada; Cooke, Kenneth R.; Wilson, David L.

    2014-03-01

    New imaging technologies enable one to assess T-cell proliferation, an important feature of the immunological response. However, none of the traditional imaging modalities allow one to examine quantiatively T-cell function with microscopic resolution and single cell sensitivity over an entire mouse. To address this need, we established T-cells proliferation assays using 3D microscopic cryo-imaging. Assays include: (1) biodistribution of T-cells, (2) secondary lymphoid organ (SLO) volume measurement, (3) carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) dilution per cell as cells divide. To demonstrate the application, a graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) model was used. 3D visualization show that T-cells specifically homed to the SLOs (spleen and lymph nodes) as well as GVHD target organs (such as GI-tract, liver, skin and thymus).The spleen was chosen as representative of the SLOs. For spleen size analysis, volumes of red and white pulp were measured. Spleen volumes of the allogeneic mice (with GVHD) were significantly larger than those of the syngeneic mice (without GVHD) at 72 to 120 hours post-transplant. For CFSE dilution approach, we employed color-coded volume rendering and probability density function (PDF) of single cell intensity to assess T-cell proliferation in the spleen. As compared to syngeneic T-cells, the allogeneic T-cells quickly aggregated in the spleen as indicated by increasing of CFSE signal over the first 48 hours. Then they rapidly proliferated as evidenced by reduced CFSE intensity (at 48-96 hours). Results suggest that assays can be used to study GVHD treatments using T-cell proliferation and biodistibution as assays. In summary, this is the first time that we are able to track and visualize T-cells in whole mouse with single cell sensitivity. We believe that our technique can be an alternative choice to traditional in vitro immunological proliferation assays by providing assessment of proliferation in an in vivo model.

  9. Damage of Splenic T Lymphocyte Proliferation and Differentiation and Its Normalization by Electroacupuncture in Morphine-Dependent Mice Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yu Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous paper we reported that electroacupuncture (EA could suppress opioid withdrawal syndrome and increase the appetite, sleep, and body weight in heroin addicts or morphine dependent animals. Considering that opioids were known to inhibit immune function, the present study was designed to observe whether EA could modulate the immune status of morphine dependent and withdrawal mice. We found that chronic morphine-induced decrease of splenic T lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2 production can be significantly raised by 2 Hz EA, and the fluctuation of CD4+/CD8+ ratio was also run to the baseline level by the EA. These findings indicated that chronic morphine exposure-induced immune dysfunction in mice could be normalized by 2 Hz EA.

  10. In vitro demonstration of a fundamental difference in the proliferation of murine and human bone marrow and lymphocytes following ultraviolet irradiation: relevance to bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of rodent allogeneic donor marrow and splenocyte grafts to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has been shown to permit durable engraftment at doses that abolish graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and graft rejection. We have compared both murine and human alloreactive and mitogen induced lymphoid responses and bone marrow proliferation in mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC), phytomagglutinin (PHA)-induced proliferation and colony-forming unit granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) assays using germicidal UVC (200-290 nm), broadband and narrowband UVB (290-320 nm) and UVA (320-400 nm) sources. Our data show a wavelength and dose-dependent reduction in lymphoid proliferation in the mouse with CFU-GM survival of 50-75% of control at doses required to abolish allogeneic lymphocyte responses for all lamps. In contrast, human lymphocyte responses are more resistant to UVC with CFU-GM proliferation reduced to zero when allostimulation is abolished. Mitogen-induced lymphoid responses show a similar wavelength-dependent sensitivity. Abolition of response in MLC using UV-irradiated stimulator cells was less sensitive than proliferation with UV-irradiated responder cells at all wavelengths in both species. With all sources, murine CFU-GM proliferation is less susceptible to UVR than human marrow at doses required to abolish lymphoid responses. (Author)

  11. CD8+ T lymphocyte expansion, proliferation and activation in dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Andréia Manso; Carvalho, Karina Inacio; Rosa, Daniela Santoro; Villas-Boas, Lucy Santos; da Silva, Wanessa Cardoso; Rodrigues, Célia Luiza de Lima; Oliveira, Olímpia Massae Nakasone Peel Furtado; Levi, José Eduardo; Araújo, Evaldo Stanislau Affonso; Pannuti, Claudio Sergio; Luna, Expedito José Albuquerque; Kallas, Esper George

    2015-02-01

    Dengue fever induces a robust immune response, including massive T cell activation. The level of T cell activation may, however, be associated with more severe disease. In this study, we explored the level of CD8+ T lymphocyte activation in the first six days after onset of symptoms during a DENV2 outbreak in early 2010 on the coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. Using flow cytometry we detected a progressive increase in the percentage of CD8+ T cells in 74 dengue fever cases. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 30 cases were thawed and evaluated using expanded phenotyping. The expansion of the CD8+ T cells was coupled with increased Ki67 expression. Cell activation was observed later in the course of disease, as determined by the expression of the activation markers CD38 and HLA-DR. This increased CD8+ T lymphocyte activation was observed in all memory subsets, but was more pronounced in the effector memory subset, as defined by higher CD38 expression. Our results show that most CD8+ T cell subsets are expanded during DENV2 infection and that the effector memory subset is the predominantly affected sub population. PMID:25675375

  12. Cytotoxicity and Inhibition of Lymphocyte Proliferation of Fasciculatin, a Linear Furanosesterterpene Isolated from Ircinia variabilis Collected from the Atlantic Coast of Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Herz

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Fasciculatin, a furanosesterterpene isolated from the marine sponge Ircinia variabilis from the Atlantic Coast of Morocco, has been evaluated for its influence on a mitogen-induced proliferation of human lymphocytes and growth of human tumor cell lines.

  13. Structural and evolutionary implications of the packaging of DNA for differentiation and proliferation in the lymphocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, J G; Brown, D L; Chaly, N; Greer, W L; Prasad, K V; Severini, A; Sahai, B M

    1987-01-01

    During the differentiation of the clonally distributed lymphocytes of mouse and man into mature resting B and T cells, their DNA becomes tightly packed into dense heterochromatin masses and exhibits very little transcriptional activity; it also becomes extensively nicked, containing some 3000-4000 single-strand breaks per diploid genome. The nuclear matrix is sparse and poorly organized and there are but trace amounts of the matrix-linked enzyme DNA topoisomerase II; the nucleus of these small cells is surrounded by a thin rim of cytoplasm. The resting cell can thus be considered (by analogy to a sperm cell) as a vector for transporting tightly packed and relatively inert genetic information to all parts of the body. When the lymphocyte is stimulated to enter a proliferative cycle by binding of appropriately presented antigen or mitogen to relevant membrane receptors, the cell enlarges, due to increased synthesis of protein; the dense heterochromatin is pulled out into very small clumps, as a result of an enormous growth in size as well as complexity of the nuclear matrix, and a great increase in transcriptional activity occurs. We have identified four nuclear matrix antigens that are very widely conserved in the evolution of eucaryotes and that occupy distinctive domains in interphase nuclei. Of particular interest is antigen P1, detected in organisms ranging from algae to mammals. By virtue of its location at the interface between nuclear envelope and chromatin, we propose that it plays a major and evolutionarily conserved role in chromatin organization and orientation in all eucaryotic cell types.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2834558

  14. Peripheral T-lymphocytes express WNT7A and its restoration in leukemia-derived lymphoblasts inhibits cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochoa-Hernández Alejandra B

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background WNT7a, a member of the Wnt ligand family implicated in several developmental processes, has also been reported to be dysregulated in some types of tumors; however, its function and implication in oncogenesis is poorly understood. Moreover, the expression of this gene and the role that it plays in the biology of blood cells remains unclear. In addition to determining the expression of the WNT7A gene in blood cells, in leukemia-derived cell lines, and in samples of patients with leukemia, the aim of this study was to seek the effect of this gene in proliferation. Methods We analyzed peripheral blood mononuclear cells, sorted CD3 and CD19 cells, four leukemia-derived cell lines, and blood samples from 14 patients with Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, and 19 clinically healthy subjects. Reverse transcription followed by quantitative Real-time Polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR analysis were performed to determine relative WNT7A expression. Restoration of WNT7a was done employing a lentiviral system and by using a recombinant human protein. Cell proliferation was measured by addition of WST-1 to cell cultures. Results WNT7a is mainly produced by CD3 T-lymphocytes, its expression decreases upon activation, and it is severely reduced in leukemia-derived cell lines, as well as in the blood samples of patients with ALL when compared with healthy controls (p ≤0.001. By restoring WNT7A expression in leukemia-derived cells, we were able to demonstrate that WNT7a inhibits cell growth. A similar effect was observed when a recombinant human WNT7a protein was used. Interestingly, restoration of WNT7A expression in Jurkat cells did not activate the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report evidencing quantitatively decreased WNT7A levels in leukemia-derived cells and that WNT7A restoration in T-lymphocytes inhibits cell proliferation. In addition, our results also support the possible

  15. Peripheral T-lymphocytes express WNT7A and its restoration in leukemia-derived lymphoblasts inhibits cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WNT7a, a member of the Wnt ligand family implicated in several developmental processes, has also been reported to be dysregulated in some types of tumors; however, its function and implication in oncogenesis is poorly understood. Moreover, the expression of this gene and the role that it plays in the biology of blood cells remains unclear. In addition to determining the expression of the WNT7A gene in blood cells, in leukemia-derived cell lines, and in samples of patients with leukemia, the aim of this study was to seek the effect of this gene in proliferation. We analyzed peripheral blood mononuclear cells, sorted CD3 and CD19 cells, four leukemia-derived cell lines, and blood samples from 14 patients with Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and 19 clinically healthy subjects. Reverse transcription followed by quantitative Real-time Polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis were performed to determine relative WNT7A expression. Restoration of WNT7a was done employing a lentiviral system and by using a recombinant human protein. Cell proliferation was measured by addition of WST-1 to cell cultures. WNT7a is mainly produced by CD3 T-lymphocytes, its expression decreases upon activation, and it is severely reduced in leukemia-derived cell lines, as well as in the blood samples of patients with ALL when compared with healthy controls (p ≤0.001). By restoring WNT7A expression in leukemia-derived cells, we were able to demonstrate that WNT7a inhibits cell growth. A similar effect was observed when a recombinant human WNT7a protein was used. Interestingly, restoration of WNT7A expression in Jurkat cells did not activate the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway. To our knowledge, this is the first report evidencing quantitatively decreased WNT7A levels in leukemia-derived cells and that WNT7A restoration in T-lymphocytes inhibits cell proliferation. In addition, our results also support the possible function of WNT7A as a tumor suppressor gene as well as a therapeutic

  16. Protein tyrosine kinase inhibition and cell proliferation: is the [3H]-thymidine uptake assay representative of the T-lymphocyte proliferation rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinozzi, F; Pagliacci, M C; Agea, E; Migliorati, G; Riccardi, C; Bertotto, A; Nicoletti, I

    1995-01-01

    T-cell growth is controlled to a large degree by extracellular signals that bind to specific receptors on the surface of cells. A number of these receptors have intrinsic protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity. Their action on second messenger generation, and thus on cell proliferation, has been indirectly demonstrated by the decrease in [3H]-thymidine (TdR) uptake that follows co-stimulation of T-cells with mitogens and PTK inhibitors such as genistein (GEN). In this paper we report that the [3H]-TdR uptake assay is not a valid and reliable tool for investigating the proliferative activity of certain T-cell lines. In fact, a concomitant assessment of both [3H]-TdR uptake and cell cycle progression demonstrated that GEN is able to block G2/M progression of Jurkat T-lymphocytes even at doses (5 micrograms/ml) that do not influence [3H]-TdR uptake. Pretreatment with sodium o-vanadate (100 nM) could not reverse the GEN-related cell cycle perturbation, but was able to restore optimal [3H]-TdR uptake. Finally, GEN treatment was able to induce concentration-dependent apoptotic cell death of Jurkat T-cells. The control of cell activation, proliferation and programmed cell death is undoubtedly influenced by receptor-associated PTKs. The final effect on cell survival is almost entirely dependent on the activation state of the cell. The [3H]-TdR uptake assay seems to be inadequate for a correct interpretation of the expected results. PMID:7655707

  17. Human hepatitis B viral e antigen and its precursor P20 inhibit T lymphocyte proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purvina, Maija; Hoste, Astrid; Rossignol, Jean-Michel [Universite de Versailles-Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Laboratoire de Genetique et Biologie Cellulaire, EA 4589, 45 avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Lagaudriere-Gesbert, Cecile, E-mail: cecile.lagaudriere-gesbert@u-psud.fr [Universite de Versailles-Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Laboratoire de Genetique et Biologie Cellulaire, EA 4589, 45 avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer P20, precursor of the HBeAg, interacts with the cellular protein gC1qR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBeAg and P20 bind to T cell surface and inhibit mitogen-induced T cell division. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBeAg and P20 inhibition of T cell proliferation is gC1qR and IL-1RAcP-independent. -- Abstract: The hepatitis B virus (HBV) Precore protein is processed through the secretory pathway directly as HBeAg or with the generation of an intermediate (P20). Precore gene has been shown to be implicated in viral persistence, but the functions of HBeAg and its precursors have not been fully elucidated. We show that the secreted proteins HBeAg and P20 interact with T cell surface and alter Kit-225 and primary T cells proliferation, a process which may facilitate the establishment of HBV persistence. Our data indicate that the N-terminal end of Precore is important for these inhibitory effects and exclude that they are dependent on the association of HBeAg and P20 with two characterized cell surface ligands, the Interleukin-1 Receptor Accessory Protein and gC1qR (present study).

  18. Human hepatitis B viral e antigen and its precursor P20 inhibit T lymphocyte proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► P20, precursor of the HBeAg, interacts with the cellular protein gC1qR. ► HBeAg and P20 bind to T cell surface and inhibit mitogen-induced T cell division. ► HBeAg and P20 inhibition of T cell proliferation is gC1qR and IL-1RAcP-independent. -- Abstract: The hepatitis B virus (HBV) Precore protein is processed through the secretory pathway directly as HBeAg or with the generation of an intermediate (P20). Precore gene has been shown to be implicated in viral persistence, but the functions of HBeAg and its precursors have not been fully elucidated. We show that the secreted proteins HBeAg and P20 interact with T cell surface and alter Kit-225 and primary T cells proliferation, a process which may facilitate the establishment of HBV persistence. Our data indicate that the N-terminal end of Precore is important for these inhibitory effects and exclude that they are dependent on the association of HBeAg and P20 with two characterized cell surface ligands, the Interleukin-1 Receptor Accessory Protein and gC1qR (present study).

  19. Method for welding beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O`Leary, R.F.

    1995-12-31

    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. Beryllium parts made using this method can be used as structural components in aircraft, satellites and space applications.

  20. Triptolide inhibits proliferation of Epstein–Barr virus-positive B lymphocytes by down-regulating expression of a viral protein LMP1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Heng [Department of Pathogen Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Guo, Wei [Department of Pathology and Physiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Long, Cong; Wang, Huan; Wang, Jingchao [Department of Pathogen Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Sun, Xiaoping, E-mail: xsun6@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pathogen Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2015-01-16

    Highlights: • Triptolide inhibits proliferation of EBV-positive lymphoma cells in vitro and in vivo. • Triptolide reduces expression of LMP1 by decreasing its transcription level. • Triptolide inhibits ED-L1 promoter activity. - Abstract: Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infects various types of cells and mainly establishes latent infection in B lymphocytes. The viral latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) plays important roles in transformation and proliferation of B lymphocytes infected with EBV. Triptolide is a compound of Tripterygium extracts, showing anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and anti-cancer activities. In this study, it is determined whether triptolide inhibits proliferation of Epstein–Barr virus-positive B lymphocytes. The CCK-8 assays were performed to examine cell viabilities of EBV-positive B95-8 and P3HR-1 cells treated by triptolide. The mRNA and protein levels of LMP1 were examined by real time-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The activities of two LMP1 promoters (ED-L1 and TR-L1) were determined by Dual luciferase reportor assay. The results showed that triptolide inhibited the cell viability of EBV-positive B lymphocytes, and the over-expression of LMP1 attenuated this inhibitory effect. Triptolide decreased the LMP1 expression and transcriptional levels in EBV-positive B cells. The activity of LMP1 promoter ED-L1 in type III latent infection was strongly suppressed by triptolide treatment. In addition, triptolide strongly reduced growth of B95-8 induced B lymphoma in BALB/c nude mice. These results suggest that triptolide decreases proliferation of EBV-induced B lymphocytes possibly by a mechanism related to down-regulation of the LMP1 expression.

  1. Triptolide inhibits proliferation of Epstein–Barr virus-positive B lymphocytes by down-regulating expression of a viral protein LMP1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Triptolide inhibits proliferation of EBV-positive lymphoma cells in vitro and in vivo. • Triptolide reduces expression of LMP1 by decreasing its transcription level. • Triptolide inhibits ED-L1 promoter activity. - Abstract: Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infects various types of cells and mainly establishes latent infection in B lymphocytes. The viral latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) plays important roles in transformation and proliferation of B lymphocytes infected with EBV. Triptolide is a compound of Tripterygium extracts, showing anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and anti-cancer activities. In this study, it is determined whether triptolide inhibits proliferation of Epstein–Barr virus-positive B lymphocytes. The CCK-8 assays were performed to examine cell viabilities of EBV-positive B95-8 and P3HR-1 cells treated by triptolide. The mRNA and protein levels of LMP1 were examined by real time-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The activities of two LMP1 promoters (ED-L1 and TR-L1) were determined by Dual luciferase reportor assay. The results showed that triptolide inhibited the cell viability of EBV-positive B lymphocytes, and the over-expression of LMP1 attenuated this inhibitory effect. Triptolide decreased the LMP1 expression and transcriptional levels in EBV-positive B cells. The activity of LMP1 promoter ED-L1 in type III latent infection was strongly suppressed by triptolide treatment. In addition, triptolide strongly reduced growth of B95-8 induced B lymphoma in BALB/c nude mice. These results suggest that triptolide decreases proliferation of EBV-induced B lymphocytes possibly by a mechanism related to down-regulation of the LMP1 expression

  2. Effects of the protein kinase C stimulant bryostatin 1 on the proliferation and colony formation of irradiated human T-lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The protein kinase C stimulant bryostatin 1 (Bryo) was used in examining human peripheral blood T-lymphocyte radiosensitivities in proliferation assays. Bryo was similar to PMA in inducing T-cell proliferation by the CD3, CD28 and CD69 pathways. No difference in radiosensitivities was observed in T-cells stimulated by the three independent surface antigen-mediated activation pathways. CD3 was chosen as the second signal for comparing the potencies of the three different first signals Bryo, phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate (PMA), and interleukin 2 (IL-2) in stimulating T-cell proliferation and in maintaining this response after radiation. Though there were radioresponse differences among various individuals, the irradiated lymphocytes consistently showed significantly greater proliferation when treated with Bryo or PMA than with IL-2. These results support the important tole of protein kinase C in T-cell radiation responses, and suggest a potential role for Bryo in enhancing T-lymphocyte survival during radiation therapy. (author)

  3. Recombinant human B7-H4 expressed in Escherichia coli inhibits T lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2 secretion in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-xiang MAO; Xue-guang ZHANG; Yong-Jing CHEN; Van GE; Hong-bing MA; Jian-feng YU; Hong-ya WU; Yu-min HU; Qin WANG; Qin SHI

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To explore the biofunctions of human B7-H4 generated from prokaryotic system. Methods: The gene of human B7-H4 extracellular region (IgⅤ-like and IgC-like domains) was obtained by PCR from human cDNA FLJ22418 and then inserted into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-5X-3 expressing glutathione. r-transferase (GST) fusion protein. After being identified by restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing, the recombinant vector was transferred into host strain E coli BL21-RIL(DE3). A 47 kDa fusion protein (GST/hB7-H4) was induced by isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) and purified by standard methods reported in the prokaryotic system. The inhibitory effect of GST/hB7-H4 on proliferation of T cells was observed in vitro by CD3mAb activated T-cell cultur-ing system and [3H]-thymidine incorporation assay. The concentrations of interleukin-2 and iterferon-g in the supernatants of T cells were determined by ELISA. Results: We successfully constructed the method for high-level expression and purification of the hB7-H4 extracellular domain as GST fusion protein from E coli. The GST/hB7-H4 fusion protein produced in bacteria had obvious biological activity to inhibit T-lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2 secretion. Conclusion: The prokaryote expression system could be used to generate hB7-H4 protein with natural spatial conformations and biological functions, which provided an efficient and economical way for the preparation of this target protein.

  4. Method for welding beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O`Leary, R.F.

    1997-04-01

    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. 9 figs.

  5. Intrathymic lymphopoiesis: stromal cell-associated proliferation of T cells is independent of lymphocyte genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyewski, B A; Travis, M; Kaplan, H S

    1984-09-01

    We analyzed the genetic restriction of direct cell-cell interactions between thymocytes and a) cortical epithelial cells, b) macrophages, and c) medullary dendritic cells in the mouse thymus. Thymectomized (C3H X C57BL/Ka)F1 hybrid mice were doubly grafted with P1 and P2 neonatal thymus grafts, were lethally irradiated, and were reconstituted with a mixture of P1 and P2 bone marrow cells which differed in the Thy-1 locus. The contributions of both parental inocula to the composition of the free and stromal cell-associated T cell compartments were analyzed separately in thymic grafts of each parental strain. The lymphoid composition in both compartments essentially reflected the peripheral T cell-chimerism in the host. The development of lymphostromal complexes was not restricted by the genotype of the partner cells. Statistical analysis of the distributions of P1 and P2 T cells among free thymocytes and within individual lymphostromal complexes, however, suggests that the T cells of an individual complex are the progeny of oligoclonal proliferation. Thus, both epithelial cells and bone marrow-derived stromal cells seem to be involved in different stages of intrathymic lymphopoiesis. PMID:6611364

  6. Interleukin 2 (IL 2) up-regulates its own receptor on a subset of human unprimed peripheral blood lymphocytes and triggers their proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several reports indicate that human peripheral blood lymphoctyes (PBL) seeded in culture with purified or recombinant interleukin 2 (IL 2) immediately after separation from the blood display a substantial level of proliferation at day 5 or 6, even in the absence of any activating signal. The spontaneously IL 2 proliferating cells are large lymphocytes, and they co-purify on a Percoll gradient in the large granular lymphocytes (third (LGL) fraction) together with the natural killer (NK) activity. When LGL were separated into NKH1 (an NK-specific surface marker)-positive and NKH1-negative cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), proliferating cells were mainly found in the NKH1-negative fraction. On the contrary, when cells from Percoll fraction 3 were separated into OKT3-negative and positive cells, the majority of the proliferating cells was found in the OKT3-positive cells. These results indicate that spontaneously IL 2 proliferating (SIP) cells most probably belong to the T cell lineage, but are distinct from NK cells. Additional analysis of Il 2 receptor induced in culture with IL 2 was performed by [125I]anti-TAC binding and by [3H]Il 2 binding. Scatchard analysis of [3H]IL 2 binding, in the range of concentrations leading to the detection of high-affinity binding sites, showed an affinity constant similar to that of conventional phytohemagglutinin blasts. The results indicate that SIP cells are preactivated cells circulating in the blood. They are large cells and represent a very small proportion of circulating lymphocytes (0.3%). They express a subliminar amount of IL 2 receptor. Cultivated in the presence of IL 2, IL 2 receptor expression is enhanced to a detectable level, and the SIP cells begin to proliferate. These SIP cells could be activated T cells in the course of a current immune response or memory T cells present in every normal individual

  7. β1-Adrenoceptor autoantibodies from DCM patients enhance the proliferation of T lymphocytes through the β1-AR/cAMP/PKA and p38 MAPK pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhui Du

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autoantibodies against the second extracellular loop of the β(1-adrenergic receptor (β(1-AA not only contribute to increased susceptibility to heart failure, but also play a causative role in myocardial remodeling through their sympathomimetic-like effects that are induced upon binding to the β(1-adrenergic receptor. However, their role in the function of T lymphocytes has never been previously investigated. Our present study was designed to determine whether β(1-AA isolated from the sera of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM patients caused the proliferation of T cells and the secretion of cytokines. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 95 DCM patients as well as 95 healthy subjects, and β(1-AA was detected using ELISA. The CD3(+T lymphocytes were selected separately through flow cytometry and the effect of β(1-AA on T lymphocyte proliferation was examined by CCK-8 kits and CFSE assay. Western blotting was used to analyze the expressions of phospho-VASP and phospho-p38 MAPK. RESULTS: β(1-AA enhanced the proliferation of T lymphocytes. This effect could be blocked by the selective β(1-adrenergic receptor antagonist metoprolol, PKA inhibitor H89, and p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. Furthermore, the expression of the phosphorylated forms of phospho-VASP and phospho-p38 MAPK were markedly increased in the presence of β(1-AA. β(1-AA also inhibited the secretion of interferon-γ (IFN-γ while promoting an increase in interleukin-4 (IL-4 levels. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that β(1-AA isolated from DCM patients binds to β(1-AR on the surface of T cells, causing changes in T-cell proliferation and secretion through the β(1-AR/cAMP/PKA and p38 MAPK pathways.

  8. Chronic Beryllium Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an immune response or “allergy” to beryllium metal, ceramic or alloy, termed beryllium sensitization (BeS). Beryllium sensitization occurs after ... Mroz MM, Newman LS. Beryllium disease screening in ceramics industry: Blood test ... at a metal, alloy and oxide production plant. Occup Environ Med 1997; ...

  9. Effects of an illicit cocktail on serum immunoglobulins, lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine gene expression in the veal calf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the European Union level, the use of growth promoters (GPs) in cattle and other food-producing species is forbidden; nonetheless, the illicit use of anabolic hormones, β-agonists and corticosteroids, often administered in cocktails at lower concentrations to overcome control procedures, is still of public concern. The immune system (IS) is a multicomponent system that provide a coordinated response toward infectious diseases, not self-neoplasms and xenobiotics; in this respect, some GPs have been proved able to cause both morphological alterations in lymphoid organs and a modulating effect upon some immunological parameters. Therefore, in the present study the effects of an illicit cocktail upon the cattle IS functions were investigated by using some common endpoints adopted for the IS testing in humans. Twelve cross-bred male veal calves were divided in two experimental groups (n = 6); the first group was administered a cocktail of 17β-oestradiol (10 mg, 3 im injections at 17 days intervals), clenbuterol (20 μg kg-1, per os for 40 days) and dexamethasone (4 mg per os for 6 days and, then, 5 mg for further 6 days) for a total of 55 days. The second one was used as control. Blood sampling were taken at T0 and after 15 (T1), 34 (T2), 48 (T3) days as well as the day before slaughtering (T4). Immune endpoints considered were the thymus weight, the serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and M (IgM) levels, the lymphocyte proliferation assay and the lymphocyte interleukins 1β and 8, tumour necrosis factor α and interferon γ (IFN-γ) gene expression levels. The administration of the illicit cocktail resulted in: (a) a reduction (P 1, whereas in the second part of the study increasing levels (P 2 and T4 for IgM and IgG, respectively) were recorded; (c) an overall reduction (P 1; in phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated cells, such a decrease was delayed up to T2 (P 1 and T2. Taken together, present data suggest that GPs, even given in cocktails at sub-therapeutic dosages, can

  10. Immature dendritic cells generated from cryopreserved human monocytes show impaired ability to respond to LPS and to induce allogeneic lymphocyte proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Ferreira Silveira

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells play a key role in the immune system, in the sensing of foreign antigens and triggering of an adaptive immune response. Cryopreservation of human monocytes was investigated to understand its effect on differentiation into immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (imdDCs, the response to inflammatory stimuli and the ability to induce allogeneic lymphocyte proliferation. Cryopreserved (crp-monocytes were able to differentiate into imdDCs, albeit to a lesser extent than freshly (frh-obtained monocytes. Furthermore, crp-imdDCs had lower rates of maturation and cytokine/chemokine secretion in response to LPS than frh-imdDCs. Lower expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (at 24 and 48 h and higher susceptibility to apoptosis in crp-imdDCs than in fresh cells would account for the impaired maturation and cytokine/chemokine secretion observed. A mixed leukocyte reaction showed that lymphocyte proliferation was lower with crp-imdDCs than with frh-imdDCs. These findings suggested that the source of monocytes used to generate human imdDCs could influence the accuracy of results observed in studies of the immune response to pathogens, lymphocyte activation, vaccination and antigen sensing. It is not always possible to work with freshly isolated monocytes but the possible effects of freezing/thawing on the biology and responsiveness of imdDCs should be taken into account.

  11. Optimized choice of method for determining proliferation response of peripheral lymphocytes to mitogens in low dose irradiation with cyclotron fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heparinized venous blood sampled from seven donors was irradiated with doses of 0.1; 0.25; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0 and 3.0 Gy of fast neutrons of a mean energy of 7.6 MeV using the U 120 M isochronous cyclotron. A non-irradiated control sample was also prepared. A lymphoblastic transformation test was conducted with both the intact and irradiated samples. The samples were cultivated in the RPMI-1640 medium with and without a mitogen addition, this in five time variants, viz., for 48, 72, 90, 96 and 120 hours. The proliferation was monitored of lymphocytes stimulated with mitogens PHA, CON-A and PWM in dependence on the time of cultivation and on the radiation dose. The dose dependent relative response was also studied of the irradiated lymphocytes. (E.J.). 8 figs., 1 tab., 18 refs

  12. Sublethal red tide toxin exposure in free-ranging manatees (Trichechus manatus) affects the immune system through reduced lymphocyte proliferation responses, inflammation, and oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Sublethal brevetoxin exposure affects manatee immune function. • Plasma brevetoxin levels correlate with oxidative stress in rescued manatees. • Brevetoxin exposure affects lymphocyte proliferation in rescued manatees. • Plasma brevetoxin concentrations ranged from 0 to 19 ng PbTx-3 eq/mL. - Abstract: The health of many Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is adversely affected by exposure to blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis blooms are common in manatee habitats of Florida’s southwestern coast and produce a group of cyclic polyether toxins collectively referred to as red tide toxins, or brevetoxins. Although a large number of manatees exposed to significant levels of red tide toxins die, several manatees are rescued from sublethal exposure and are successfully treated and returned to the wild. Sublethal brevetoxin exposure may potentially impact the manatee immune system. Lymphocyte proliferative responses and a suite of immune function parameters in the plasma were used to evaluate effects of brevetoxin exposure on health of manatees rescued from natural exposure to red tide toxins in their habitat. Blood samples were collected from rescued manatees at Lowry Park Zoo in Tampa, FL and from healthy, unexposed manatees in Crystal River, FL. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) isolated from whole blood were stimulated with T-cell mitogens, ConA and PHA. A suite of plasma parameters, including plasma protein electrophoresis profiles, lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen (ROS/RNS) species, was also used to assess manatee health. Significant decreases (p < 0.05) in lymphocyte proliferation were observed in ConA and PHA stimulated lymphocytes from rescued animals compared to non-exposed animals. Significant correlations were observed between oxidative stress markers (SOD, ROS/RNS) and plasma brevetoxin concentrations. Sublethal exposure to brevetoxins in the

  13. Sublethal red tide toxin exposure in free-ranging manatees (Trichechus manatus) affects the immune system through reduced lymphocyte proliferation responses, inflammation, and oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Catherine J., E-mail: cjwalsh@mote.org [Marine Immunology Program, Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, FL 34236 (United States); Butawan, Matthew, E-mail: mattbutawan@outlook.com [Marine Immunology Program, Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, FL 34236 (United States); Yordy, Jennifer, E-mail: jennifer.e.balmer@gmail.com [Marine Immunology Program, Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, FL 34236 (United States); Ball, Ray, E-mail: Ray.Ball@lowryparkzoo.com [Lowry Park Zoo, 1101 W Sligh Ave, Tampa, FL 33604 (United States); Flewelling, Leanne, E-mail: Leanne.Flewelling@MyFWC.com [Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 100 8th Ave SE, St. Petersburg, FL 33701 (United States); Wit, Martine de, E-mail: Martine.deWit@MyFWC.com [Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 100 8th Ave SE, St. Petersburg, FL 33701 (United States); Bonde, Robert K., E-mail: rbonde@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Sirenia Project, 7920 NE 71st Street, Gainesville, FL 32653 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Sublethal brevetoxin exposure affects manatee immune function. • Plasma brevetoxin levels correlate with oxidative stress in rescued manatees. • Brevetoxin exposure affects lymphocyte proliferation in rescued manatees. • Plasma brevetoxin concentrations ranged from 0 to 19 ng PbTx-3 eq/mL. - Abstract: The health of many Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is adversely affected by exposure to blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis blooms are common in manatee habitats of Florida’s southwestern coast and produce a group of cyclic polyether toxins collectively referred to as red tide toxins, or brevetoxins. Although a large number of manatees exposed to significant levels of red tide toxins die, several manatees are rescued from sublethal exposure and are successfully treated and returned to the wild. Sublethal brevetoxin exposure may potentially impact the manatee immune system. Lymphocyte proliferative responses and a suite of immune function parameters in the plasma were used to evaluate effects of brevetoxin exposure on health of manatees rescued from natural exposure to red tide toxins in their habitat. Blood samples were collected from rescued manatees at Lowry Park Zoo in Tampa, FL and from healthy, unexposed manatees in Crystal River, FL. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) isolated from whole blood were stimulated with T-cell mitogens, ConA and PHA. A suite of plasma parameters, including plasma protein electrophoresis profiles, lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen (ROS/RNS) species, was also used to assess manatee health. Significant decreases (p < 0.05) in lymphocyte proliferation were observed in ConA and PHA stimulated lymphocytes from rescued animals compared to non-exposed animals. Significant correlations were observed between oxidative stress markers (SOD, ROS/RNS) and plasma brevetoxin concentrations. Sublethal exposure to brevetoxins in the

  14. An Experimental Study on the Role of Nuclear Factor-κB in the Signal Conduction of Protein Kinase C Regulating the Proliferation and Apoptosis of T Lymphocytes in Asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊维宁; 徐永健; 张珍祥; 王孝养

    2004-01-01

    To explore the role of nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) in the signal pathway of protein kinase C (PKC) regulating the proliferation and apoptosis of T lymphocytes in asthma. T lymphocytes were isolated from the asthmatic model of guinea pigs and the asthmatic patients. Either the T cells stimulated with PMA alone or those stimulated with PMA together with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) were incubated for 1 and 24 h. The proliferation of and the presence of NF-κB in the cells incubated for 1 h were observed by MTT and immunohistochemical staining, respectivelyAnd the cells incubated for 24 h were observed for the apoptosis by TUNEL. All the assays were paralleled with controls, and all the data were analyzedstatistically with the software SAS. The percentage of cells of nuclear positive staining of NF-scB and the proliferation of T lymphocytes from asthmatic guinea pigs and asthmatic patients stimulated with PMA were significantly higher than those of T lymphocytes from asthmatic guinea pigs and asthmatic patients stimulated without PMA respectively ( P < 0.01 ) and those of T lymphocytes from normal control guinea pigs and normal control persons stimulated with PMA respectively ( P < 0.01 ), and were significantly reduced by PDTC (P < 0.01 ). The apoptosis index of T lymphocytes from asthmatic guinea pigs and asthmatic patients stimulated with PMA were significantly lower than those of T lymphocytes from asthmatic guinea pigs and asthmatic patients stimulated without PMA respectively ( P < 0.01 ) and those of T lymphocytes from normal control guine apigs and normal control persons stimulated with PMA respectively ( P < 0.01 ), and were significantly induced by PDTC ( P< 0.01 ). There were good positive correlation between the percentage of cells of nuclear staining of NF-κB ofT lymphocytes and the proliferation of T lymphocytes ( r = 0.51-0.72, P < 0.001 ), and also good negative correlation between the percentage of cells of nuclear staining of NF-scB and the

  15. Beryllium facilities in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to its unique combination of physical, mechanical, thermal and nuclear properties, beryllium is indispensable for many applications in the fields of nuclear and space sciences. Beryllia and copper beryllium alloys have also found extensive applications in the electrical and electronic industries. Beryllium facilities at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) have been set up to meet indigenous requirements for these materials. Besides developing beryllium technology, the project team has also designed and developed a number of special purpose equipment. (Author)

  16. In-vitro immunosuppression of canine T-lymphocyte-specific proliferation with dexamethasone, cyclosporine, and the active metabolites of azathioprine and leflunomide in a flow-cytometric assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafe, Laura A; Dodam, John R; Reinero, Carol R

    2014-07-01

    A high rate of mortality, expense, and complications of immunosuppressive therapy in dogs underscores the need for optimization of drug dosing. The purpose of this study was to determine, using a flow-cytometric assay, the 50% T-cell inhibitory concentration (IC50) of dexamethasone, cyclosporine, and the active metabolites of azathioprine (6-mercaptopurine) and leflunomide (A77 1726) in canine lymphocytes stimulated with concanavalin A (Con A). Whole blood was collected from 5 privately owned, healthy dogs of various ages, genders, and breeds. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells, obtained by density-gradient separation, were cultured for 72 h with Con A, a fluorochrome-tagged cell proliferation dye, and various concentrations of dexamethasone (0.1, 1, 10, 100, 1000, and 10 000 μM), cyclosporine (0.2, 2, 10, 20, 30, 40, 80, and 200 ng/mL), 6-mercaptopurine (0.5, 2.5, 50, 100, 250, and 500 μM), and A77 1726 (1, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 200 μM). After incubation, the lymphocytes were labeled with propidium iodide and an antibody against canine CD5, a pan T-cell surface marker. Flow cytometry determined the percentage of live, proliferating T-lymphocytes incubated with or without immunosuppressants. The mean (± standard error) IC50 was 3460 ± 1900 μM for dexamethasone, 15.8 ± 2.3 ng/mL for cyclosporine, 1.3 ± 0.4 μM for 6-mercaptopurine, and 55.6 ± 22.0 μM for A77 1722. Inhibition of T-cell proliferation by the 4 immunosuppressants was demonstrated in a concentration-dependent manner, with variability between the dogs. These results represent the initial steps to tailor this assay for individual immunosuppressant protocols for dogs with immune-mediated disease. PMID:24982547

  17. Regulatory T cells generated during cytomegalovirus in vitro stimulation of mononuclear cells from HIV-infected individuals on HAART correlate with decreased lymphocyte proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HIV-infected patients fail to fully recover cell-mediated immunity despite HAART. To identify regulatory factors, we studied the phenotype and function of in vitro cytomegalovirus (CMV)-stimulated T cells from HAART recipients. CFSE-measured proliferation showed CD4+ and CD8+ cells dividing in CMV-stimulated cultures. Compared with healthy controls, CMV-stimulated lymphocytes from HAART recipients had lower 3H-thymidine incorporation; lower IFNγ and TNFα production; higher CD4+CD27-CD28- and CD8+CD27-CD28- frequencies; lower CD4+CD25hi; and higher FoxP3 expression in CD8+CD25hi cells. CMV-specific proliferation correlated with higher IFNγ, TNFα and IL10 levels and higher CD4+perforin+ and CD8+perforin+ frequencies. Decreased proliferation correlated with higher CD4+CD27-CD28- frequencies and TGFβ1 production, which also correlated with each other. Anti-TGFβ1 neutralizing antibodies restored CMV-specific proliferation in a dose-dependent fashion. In HIV-infected subjects, decreased proliferation correlated with higher CMV-stimulated CD8+CD25hi frequencies and their FoxP3 expression. These data indicate that FoxP3- and TGFβ1-expressing regulatory T cells contribute to decreased immunity in HAART recipients

  18. Laminin-8 (alpha4beta1gamma1) is synthesized by lymphoid cells, promotes lymphocyte migration and costimulates T cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geberhiwot, T; Assefa, D; Kortesmaa, J; Ingerpuu, S; Pedraza, C; Wondimu, Z; Charo, J; Kiessling, R; Virtanen, I; Tryggvason, K; Patarroyo, M

    2001-01-01

    Laminins are a growing family of large heterotrimeric proteins with cell adhesive and signalling functions. They are major components of basement membranes and are found in many organs, including the vasculature and other compartments of bone marrow, thymus, lymph nodes and spleen. However, expression, recognition and use of laminin isoforms by lymphoid cells are poorly understood. In the present study, lymphoid T cells (Jurkat) were found to synthesize laminin alpha4, beta1 and gamma1 mRNAs and polypeptides and to assemble the chains into laminin-8. Lymphoblastoid B (NAD-20) cells, lymphoid NK (NKL) cells and blood lymphocytes also contained laminin-8 and, after cell permeabilization, practically all blood lymphocytes reacted with mAbs to laminin beta1 and gamma1 chains. Following stimulation, blood lymphocytes secreted laminin-8, and this laminin isoform, but not laminin-10/11(alpha5beta1gamma1/alpha5beta2gamma1), promoted chemokine-induced migration of the cells. In an activation-dependent manner, purified blood CD4 T cells adhered to immobilized laminin-8 and laminin-10/11 by using alpha6beta1 integrin, but minimally to laminin-1 (alpha1beta1gamma1). Accordingly, laminin-8 and laminin-10/11, but not laminin-1, strongly costimulated proliferation of the T cells via the same integrin. Thus, lymphoid cells are able to synthesize and secrete complete laminin molecules. In addition, synthesis of laminin-8 and recognition of laminin-8 and -10/11 by lymphocytes indicate relevance of these laminin isoforms in lymphocyte physiology. PMID:11148143

  19. Beryllium chemistry and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Kenneth A

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces beryllium; its history, its chemical, mechanical, and physical properties including nuclear properties. The 29 chapters include the mineralogy of beryllium and the preferred global sources of ore bodies. The identification and specifics of the industrial metallurgical processes used to form oxide from the ore and then metal from the oxide are thoroughly described. The special features of beryllium chemistry are introduced, including analytical chemical practices. Beryllium compounds of industrial interest are identified and discussed. Alloying, casting, powder processing, forming, metal removal, joining and other manufacturing processes are covered. The effect of composition and process on the mechanical and physical properties of beryllium alloys assists the reader in material selection. The physical metallurgy chapter brings conformity between chemical and physical metallurgical processing of beryllium, metal, alloys, and compounds. The environmental degradation of beryllium and its all...

  20. Beryllium. Evaluation of beryllium hydroxide industrial processes. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work continues the 'Beryllium' series. It is a historical review of different industrial processes of beryllium hydroxide obtention from beryllium ores. Flowsheats and operative parameters of five plants are provided. These plants (Degussa, Brush Beryllium Co., Beryllium Corp., Murex Ltd., SAPPI) were selected as representative samples of diverse commercial processes in different countries. (Author)

  1. Nuclear Phosphoproteomic Screen Uncovers ACLY as Mediator of IL-2-induced Proliferation of CD4+ T lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osinalde, Nerea; Mitxelena, Jone; Sánchez-Quiles, Virginia;

    2016-01-01

    clearly understood. To study the role of IL-2 in the regulation of nuclear protein function we have performed an unbiased mass spectrometry-based study of the nuclear phosphoproteome of resting and IL-2-treated CD4(+) T lymphocytes. We detected 8521distinct phosphosites including many that are not yet...

  2. Effects of PCBs and PBDEs on thyroid hormone, lymphocyte proliferation, hematology and kidney injury markers in residents of an e-waste dismantling area in Zhejiang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Peiwei, E-mail: pwxu@cdc.zj.cn; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Gangqiang, E-mail: gqding@cdc.zj.cn; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhijian; Han, Jianlong; Wang, Xiaofeng, E-mail: zjcdcwxf@gmail.com

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are two typical categories of contaminants released from e-waste dismantling environments. In China, the body burdens of PCBs and PBDEs are associated with abnormal thyroid hormones in populations from e-waste dismantling sites, but the results are limited and contradictory. In this study, we measured the serum levels of PCBs and PBDEs and the thyroid hormone free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in 40 residents in an e-waste dismantling area and in 15 residents in a control area. Additionally, we also measured some lymphocyte proliferation indexes, hematologic parameters and kidney injury markers, including white blood cells, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, hemoglobin, platelets, serum creatinine and beta 2-microglobulin (β{sub 2}-MG). The results indicated that the mean level of ΣPCBs in the exposure group was significantly higher than that in the control group (964.39 and 67.98 ng g{sup −1}, p < 0.0001), but the mean level of ΣPBDEs in the exposure group was not significantly higher than that in the controls (139.32 vs. 75.74 ng g{sup −1}, p > 0.05). We determined that serum levels of FT3, FT4, monocytes and lymphocytes were significantly lower, whereas the levels of neutrophils, hemoglobin, platelets and serum creatinine were significantly higher in the exposed group (p < 0.05). The mean level of ΣPCBs was negatively correlated with levels of FT3, FT4, monocytes and lymphocytes (p < 0.05) and positively correlated with levels of neutrophils, hemoglobin, serum creatinine and β{sub 2}-MG (p < 0.05). Additionally, the mean level of ΣPBDEs was positively correlated with levels of white blood cells, hemoglobin and platelets (p < 0.05). Our data suggest that exposure to an e-waste dismantling environment may increase the body burdens of PCBs and the specific PBDEs congeners in native residents and that the contaminants released

  3. Effects of PCBs and PBDEs on thyroid hormone, lymphocyte proliferation, hematology and kidney injury markers in residents of an e-waste dismantling area in Zhejiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are two typical categories of contaminants released from e-waste dismantling environments. In China, the body burdens of PCBs and PBDEs are associated with abnormal thyroid hormones in populations from e-waste dismantling sites, but the results are limited and contradictory. In this study, we measured the serum levels of PCBs and PBDEs and the thyroid hormone free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in 40 residents in an e-waste dismantling area and in 15 residents in a control area. Additionally, we also measured some lymphocyte proliferation indexes, hematologic parameters and kidney injury markers, including white blood cells, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, hemoglobin, platelets, serum creatinine and beta 2-microglobulin (β2-MG). The results indicated that the mean level of ΣPCBs in the exposure group was significantly higher than that in the control group (964.39 and 67.98 ng g−1, p < 0.0001), but the mean level of ΣPBDEs in the exposure group was not significantly higher than that in the controls (139.32 vs. 75.74 ng g−1, p > 0.05). We determined that serum levels of FT3, FT4, monocytes and lymphocytes were significantly lower, whereas the levels of neutrophils, hemoglobin, platelets and serum creatinine were significantly higher in the exposed group (p < 0.05). The mean level of ΣPCBs was negatively correlated with levels of FT3, FT4, monocytes and lymphocytes (p < 0.05) and positively correlated with levels of neutrophils, hemoglobin, serum creatinine and β2-MG (p < 0.05). Additionally, the mean level of ΣPBDEs was positively correlated with levels of white blood cells, hemoglobin and platelets (p < 0.05). Our data suggest that exposure to an e-waste dismantling environment may increase the body burdens of PCBs and the specific PBDEs congeners in native residents and that the contaminants released from e-waste may

  4. Beryllium: genotoxicity and carcinogenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium (Be) has physical-chemical properties, including low density and high tensile strength, which make it useful in the manufacture of products ranging from space shuttles to golf clubs. Despite its utility, a number of standard setting agencies have determined that beryllium is a carcinogen. Only a limited number of studies, however, have addressed the underlying mechanisms of the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of beryllium. Importantly, mutation and chromosomal aberration assays have yielded somewhat contradictory results for beryllium compounds and whereas bacterial tests were largely negative, mammalian test systems showed evidence of beryllium-induced mutations, chromosomal aberrations, and cell transformation. Although inter-laboratory differences may play a role in the variability observed in genotoxicity assays, it is more likely that the different chemical forms of beryllium have a significant effect on mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Because workers are predominantly exposed to airborne particles which are generated during the machining of beryllium metal, ceramics, or alloys, testing of the mechanisms of the mutagenic and carcinogenic activity of beryllium should be performed with relevant chemical forms of beryllium

  5. Sublethal red tide toxin exposure in free-ranging manatees (Trichechus manatus) affects the immune system through reduced lymphocyte proliferation responses, inflammation, and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Catherine J; Butawan, Matthew; Yordy, Jennifer; Ball, Ray; Flewelling, Leanne; de Wit, Martine; Bonde, Robert K

    2015-04-01

    The health of many Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is adversely affected by exposure to blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis blooms are common in manatee habitats of Florida's southwestern coast and produce a group of cyclic polyether toxins collectively referred to as red tide toxins, or brevetoxins. Although a large number of manatees exposed to significant levels of red tide toxins die, several manatees are rescued from sublethal exposure and are successfully treated and returned to the wild. Sublethal brevetoxin exposure may potentially impact the manatee immune system. Lymphocyte proliferative responses and a suite of immune function parameters in the plasma were used to evaluate effects of brevetoxin exposure on health of manatees rescued from natural exposure to red tide toxins in their habitat. Blood samples were collected from rescued manatees at Lowry Park Zoo in Tampa, FL and from healthy, unexposed manatees in Crystal River, FL. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) isolated from whole blood were stimulated with T-cell mitogens, ConA and PHA. A suite of plasma parameters, including plasma protein electrophoresis profiles, lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen (ROS/RNS) species, was also used to assess manatee health. Significant decreases (p<0.05) in lymphocyte proliferation were observed in ConA and PHA stimulated lymphocytes from rescued animals compared to non-exposed animals. Significant correlations were observed between oxidative stress markers (SOD, ROS/RNS) and plasma brevetoxin concentrations. Sublethal exposure to brevetoxins in the wild impacts some immune function components, and thus, overall health, in the Florida manatee. PMID:25678466

  6. Regulation of human lymphocyte activation by alphafetoprotein. Evidence for selective suppression of Ia-associated T-cell proliferation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The immunoregulatory effects of purified human fetal- and hepatoma-derived AFP have been evaluated on allogenic and autologous mixed lymphocyte reactions (AMLR). In striking contrast to the weak or negligible inhibitory effect on allogeneic reactions, the relatively vigorous proliferative activity of normal human T lymphocytes responding to irradiated autologous non-T stimulator cells was found to be highly sensitive to AFP-mediated suppression. Thus, the addition of purified AFP to AMLRs in concentrations that can be considered physiological with respect to the levels normally detected in fetal and newborn sera reduced the proliferative response by as much as 80 to 90 per cent of control responses occuring in the presence of equivalent amounts of albumin. Consistent immunosuppressive effects were observed in tests with six individually isolated preparations of AFP and no significant differences were evident in the inhibitory potency of fetal versus hepatoma AFP. AMLRs were also shown here to be more susceptible than allogeneic reactions to the blocking effect of anti-Ia antibodies. Therefore, on the basis of our present findings we suggest that an important, and perhaps primary function of AFP may be to control Ia-associated autoreactive T cell proliferation during early ontogeny. Consistent with this reasoning is our finding that most of the strong immunosuppressive action of cord serum on AMLR is abrogated by the selective removal of AFP. (Auth.)

  7. CD19 LYMPHOCYTE PROLIFERATION INDUCED BY Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis IN C57BL/6 MICE EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED WITH Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    RIBEIRO, Claudia de Mello; ZORGI, Nahiara Esteves; MEIRELES, Luciana Regina; GARCIA, João Luis; de ANDRADE, Heitor Franco

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is frequently acquired through the oral route by the ingestion of cysts or oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii. Once ingested, the parasites penetrate the intestinal epithelial cells and rapidly disseminate to all organs in the host. During T. gondii infection, the intestinal microbiota plays an important role in stimulating a protective immune response against the parasite. In this sense the use of probiotics is worthy of note since they are live microorganisms that have beneficial effects on the host through stimulation of the immune response that can be important in the control of T. gondii proliferation and dissemination in the host. In the present study, the action of the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis was investigated in C57BL/6 mice infected with oocysts of ME49 strain of T. gondii. The probiotic had an immunomodulatory action, inducing CD19 lymphocyte proliferation and consequently increasing anti-T. gondii antibody level.Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactisprovided protection in supplemented mice, compared to the control group. In addition, supplemented animals had milder inflammatory process in the small intestine, indicating that the probiotic protects the intestinal mucosa during infection with T. gondii. It was concluded that the probioticB. animalis subsp. lactis induces humoral immune response capable of providing protection against T. gondii infection. PMID:27074320

  8. Sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Elephantopus scaber L. inhibits human lymphocyte proliferation and the growth of tumour cell lines and induces apoptosis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geetha, B S; Nair, Mangalam S; Latha, P G; Remani, P

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to isolate the compounds responsible for the cytotoxic properties of South Indian Elephantopus scaber L. and further investigate their effects on quiescent and proliferating cells. Bioassay-guided isolation of the whole plant of chloroform extract of South Indian Elephantopus scaber afforded the known sesquiterpene lactone, deoxyelephantopin, and isodeoxyelephantopin whose structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. These compounds caused a dose dependent reduction in the viability of L-929 tumour cells in 72 h culture (IC(50) value of 2.7 μg/mL and 3.3 μg/mL) by the cell viability assay. Both the compounds act selectively on quiescent and PHA-stimulated proliferating human lymphocytes and inhibited tritiated thymidine incorporation into cellular DNA of DLA tumour cells. The compound deoxyelephantopin at a concentration of 3 μg/mL caused maximum apoptotic cells. It also exhibited significant in vivo antitumour efficacy against DLA tumour cells. The results, therefore, indicate that the antiproliferative property of deoxyelephantopin and isodeoxyelephantopin could be used in regimens for treating tumors with extensive proliferative potencies. PMID:22500104

  9. Sesquiterpene Lactones Isolated from Elephantopus scaber L. Inhibits Human Lymphocyte Proliferation and the Growth of Tumour Cell Lines and Induces Apoptosis In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Geetha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to isolate the compounds responsible for the cytotoxic properties of South Indian Elephantopus scaber L. and further investigate their effects on quiescent and proliferating cells. Bioassay-guided isolation of the whole plant of chloroform extract of South Indian Elephantopus scaber afforded the known sesquiterpene lactone, deoxyelephantopin, and isodeoxyelephantopin whose structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. These compounds caused a dose dependent reduction in the viability of L-929 tumour cells in 72 h culture (IC50 value of 2.7 μg/mL and 3.3 μg/mL by the cell viability assay. Both the compounds act selectively on quiescent and PHA-stimulated proliferating human lymphocytes and inhibited tritiated thymidine incorporation into cellular DNA of DLA tumour cells. The compound deoxyelephantopin at a concentration of 3 μg/mL caused maximum apoptotic cells. It also exhibited significant in vivo antitumour efficacy against DLA tumour cells. The results, therefore, indicate that the antiproliferative property of deoxyelephantopin and isodeoxyelephantopin could be used in regimens for treating tumors with extensive proliferative potencies.

  10. Beryllium Manufacturing Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, A

    2006-06-30

    This report is one of a number of reports that will be combined into a handbook on beryllium. Each report covers a specific topic. To-date, the following reports have been published: (1) Consolidation and Grades of Beryllium; (2) Mechanical Properties of Beryllium and the Factors Affecting these Properties; (3) Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of Beryllium; (4) Joining of Beryllium; (5) Atomic, Crystal, Elastic, Thermal, Nuclear, and other Properties of Beryllium; and (6) Beryllium Coating (Deposition) Processes and the Influence of Processing Parameters on Properties and Microstructure. The conventional method of using ingot-cast material is unsuitable for manufacturing a beryllium product. Beryllium is a highly reactive metal with a high melting point, making it susceptible to react with mold-wall materials forming beryllium compounds (BeO, etc.) that become entrapped in the solidified metal. In addition, the grain size is excessively large, being 50 to 100 {micro}m in diameter, while grain sizes of 15 {micro}m or less are required to meet acceptable strength and ductility requirements. Attempts at refining the as-cast-grain size have been unsuccessful. Because of the large grain size and limited slip systems, the casting will invariably crack during a hot-working step, which is an important step in the microstructural-refining process. The high reactivity of beryllium together with its high viscosity (even with substantial superheat) also makes it an unsuitable candidate for precision casting. In order to overcome these problems, alternative methods have been developed for the manufacturing of beryllium. The vast majority of these methods involve the use of beryllium powders. The powders are consolidated under pressure in vacuum at an elevated temperature to produce vacuum hot-pressed (VHP) blocks and vacuum hot-isostatic-pressed (HIP) forms and billets. The blocks (typically cylindrical), which are produced over a wide range of sizes (up to 183 cm dia. by 61

  11. Beryllium development programme in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India has fairly large deposits of beryl. The requirement of beryllium and copper-beryllium alloys in space and electronic industries has provided the incentive for the setting up of an indigenous base for the development of beryllium process metallurgy. The paper presents the developmental work carried out, in the Metallurgy Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, on the preparation of beryllium metal and its alloys starting from Indian beryl. A laboratory facility incorporating essential precautionary measures has been set up for the safe handling of beryllium and its compounds. Based on the laboratory investigations a flow-sheet suitable to Indian conditions has been developed. The flow-sheet involves preparation of anhydrous beryllium fluoride from beryl through the silico-fluoride route, magnesiothermic reduction of beryllium fluoride for the production of beryllium metal or its master alloy with copper or aluminium, and fabrication of beryllium metal. (author)

  12. Stimulation of AIDS lymphocytes with calcium ionophore (A23187) and phorbol ester (PMA): studies of cytoplasmic free Ca, IL-2 receptor expression, IL-2 production, and proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B; Moller, J; Langhoff, E;

    1989-01-01

    We have studied whether the decreased lymphocyte proliferative responses of AIDS lymphocytes to stimulation by mitogens and antigens may be overcome when challenged with a combination of calcium ionophore A23187 and phorbol ester PMA. Comparison of the proliferative response of lymphocytes from...

  13. Estudo da proliferação linfocitária em pacientes sensibilizados ao níquel Study on lymphocyte proliferation in nickel sensitive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Galli Sanchez

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O diagnóstico da alergia ao níquel é estabelecido com a realização do teste de contato. OBJETIVO: Desenvolver um método diagnóstico mais sensível e específico. CASUÍSTICAS E MÉTODOS: Dezenove pacientes com teste de contato positivo para o níquel e 25 controles foram submetidos ao teste da proliferação linfocitária. As células mononucleadas foram isoladas do sangue venoso periférico e cultivadas em triplicatas, em placas de cultura (2x10(5 células/orifício com: meio de cultura apenas; sulfato de níquel (156,25; 78,13; 19,53; 9,77 e 2,44µM e concentrações ideais do antígeno Candida albicans e dos mitógenos pokeweed, fito-hemaglutinina A e anticorpo anti-CD3 (OKT3. Timidina tritiada foi adicionada às placas, a radioatividade incorporada pelas células medida e os resultados expressos pelo índice de estimulação (IE. RESULTADOS: A resposta proliferativa dos linfócitos dos casos foi superior à dos controles em todas as concentrações de níquel testadas. Considerando teste positivo para níquel quando IE > 3, nenhum dos controles e 16 (84,21% dos casos apresentaram teste positivo em pelo menos uma das cinco concentrações usadas. As respostas à Candida albicans e aos mitógenos foram semelhantes nos casos e controles, demonstrando a integridade da imunidade celular em ambos os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: O teste da proliferação linfocitária mostra-se útil no diagnóstico da alergia ao níquel.BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of nickel sensitivity is made by epicutaneous patch testing. OBJECTIVE: To develop a more sensitive and specific test. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Nineteen patients with positive patch test reactions to nickel and 25 controls were submitted to lymphocyte proliferation test. Mononuclear cells were isolated from peripheral venous blood and cultivated in triplicate in culture plates (2x10(5 cells/well with: culture medium only, nickel sulfate (156.25; 78.13; 19.53; 9.77 and 2.44µM and optimal

  14. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A enhances indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression by dendritic cells and subsequently impacts lymphocyte proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cavalheiro Marti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are antigen (Ag-presenting cells that activate and stimulate effective immune responses by T cells, but can also act as negative regulators of these responses and thus play important roles in immune regulation. Pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF has been shown to cause defective DC differentiation and maturation. Previous studies have demonstrated that the addition of VEGF to DC cultures renders these cells weak stimulators of Ag-specific T cells due to the inhibitory effects mediated by VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1 and/or VEGFR2 signalling. As the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO is recognised as an important negative regulator of immune responses, this study aimed to investigate whether VEGF affects the expression of IDO by DCs and whether VEGF-matured DCs acquire a suppressor phenotype. Our results are the first to demonstrate that VEGF increases the expression and activity of IDO in DCs, which has a suppressive effect on Ag-specific and mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. These mechanisms have broad implications for the study of immunological responses and tolerance under conditions as diverse as cancer, graft rejection and autoimmunity.

  15. Statistical methods for the analysis of a screening test for chronic beryllium disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frome, E.L.; Neubert, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Mathematical Sciences Section; Smith, M.H.; Littlefield, L.G.; Colyer, S.P. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States). Medical Sciences Div.

    1994-10-01

    The lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT) is a noninvasive screening procedure used to identify persons who may have chronic beryllium disease. A practical problem in the analysis of LPT well counts is the occurrence of outlying data values (approximately 7% of the time). A log-linear regression model is used to describe the expected well counts for each set of test conditions. The variance of the well counts is proportional to the square of the expected counts, and two resistant regression methods are used to estimate the parameters of interest. The first approach uses least absolute values (LAV) on the log of the well counts to estimate beryllium stimulation indices (SIs) and the coefficient of variation. The second approach uses a resistant regression version of maximum quasi-likelihood estimation. A major advantage of the resistant regression methods is that it is not necessary to identify and delete outliers. These two new methods for the statistical analysis of the LPT data and the outlier rejection method that is currently being used are applied to 173 LPT assays. The authors strongly recommend the LAV method for routine analysis of the LPT.

  16. The natural history of beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, L. S.; Lloyd, J.; Daniloff, E.

    1996-01-01

    With the advent of in vitro immunologic testing, we can now detect exposed individuals who are sensitized to beryllium and those who have chronic beryllium disease (CBD) with lung pathology and impairment. Earlier detection and more accurate diagnostic tools raise new questions about the natural history of sensitization and granulomatous disease. Preliminary data suggest that early detection identifies people who are sensitized to beryllium and that these individuals are at risk for progressi...

  17. Reprocessing technology development for irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, H.; Sakamoto, N. [Oarai Research Establishment, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Tatenuma, K. [KAKEN Co., Ibaraki-ken (Japan)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    At present, beryllium is under consideration as a main candidate material for neutron multiplier and plasma facing material in a fusion reactor. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the beryllium reprocessing technology for effective resource use. And, we have proposed reprocessing technology development on irradiated beryllium used in a fusion reactor. The preliminary reprocessing tests were performed using un-irradiated and irradiated beryllium. At first, we performed beryllium separation tests using un-irradiated beryllium specimens. Un-irradiated beryllium with beryllium oxide which is a main impurity and some other impurities were heat-treated under chlorine gas flow diluted with Ar gas. As the results high purity beryllium chloride was obtained in high yield. And it appeared that beryllium oxide and some other impurities were removed as the unreactive matter, and the other chloride impurities were separated by the difference of sublimation temperature on beryllium chloride. Next, we performed some kinds of beryllium purification tests from beryllium chloride. And, metallic beryllium could be recovered from beryllium chloride by the reduction with dry process. In addition, as the results of separation and purification tests using irradiated beryllium specimens, it appeared that separation efficiency of Co-60 from beryllium was above 96%. It is considered that about 4% Co-60 was carried from irradiated beryllium specimen in the form of cobalt chloride. And removal efficiency of tritium from irradiated beryllium was above 95%.

  18. Beryllium. Its minerals. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With this work a series of reports begins, under the generic name 'Beryllium', related to several aspects of beryllium technology. The target is to update, with critical sense, current bibliographic material in order to be used in further applications. Some of the most important beryllium ores, the Argentine emplacement of their deposits and world occurrence are described. Argentine and world production, resources and reserves are indicated here as well. (Author)

  19. Joining of Beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, A

    2006-02-01

    A handbook dealing with the many aspects of beryllium that would be important for the users of this metal is currently being prepared. With an introduction on the applications, advantages and limitations in the use of this metal the following topics will be discussed in this handbook: physical, thermal, and nuclear properties; extraction from the ores; purification and casting of ingots; production and types of beryllium powders; consolidation methods, grades, and properties; mechanical properties with emphasis on the various factors affecting these properties; forming and mechanical working; welding, brazing, bonding, and fastening; machining; powder deposition; corrosion; health aspects; and examples of production of components. This report consists of ''Section X--Joining'' from the handbook. The prefix X is maintained here for the figures, tables and references. In this section the different methods used for joining beryllium and the advantages, disadvantages and limitations of each are presented. The methods discussed are fusion welding, brazing, solid state bonding (diffusion bonding and deformation bonding), soldering, and mechanical fastening. Since beryllium has a high affinity for oxygen and nitrogen with the formation of oxides and nitrides, considerable care must be taken on heating the metal, to protect it from the ambient atmosphere. In addition, mating surfaces must be cleaned and joints must be designed to minimize residual stresses as well as locations for stress concentration (notch effects). In joining any two metals the danger exists of having galvanic corrosion if the part is subjected to moisture or to any type of corroding environment. This becomes a problem if the less noble (anodic) metal has a significantly smaller area than the more noble (cathodic) metal since the ions (positive charges) from the anodic (corroding) metal must correspond to the number of electrons (negative charges) involved at the cathode. Beryllium

  20. Beryllium. Beryllium oxide, obtention and properties. Pt.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a continuation of the 'Beryllium' series this work reviews several methods of high purity beryllia production. Diverse methods of obtention and purification from different beryllium compounds are described. Some chemical, mechanical and electrical properties related with beryllia obtention methods are summarized. (Author)

  1. Plasma spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum-silver alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary investigation on plasma-spraying of beryllium and a beryllium-aluminum 4% silver alloy was done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Beryllium Atomization and Thermal Spray Facility (BATSF). Spherical Be and Be-Al-4%Ag powders, which were produced by centrifugal atomization, were used as feedstock material for plasma-spraying. The spherical morphology of the powders allowed for better feeding of fine (<38 μm) powders into the plasma-spray torch. The difference in the as-deposited densities and deposit efficiencies of the two plasma-sprayed powders will be discussed along with the effect of processing parameters on the as-deposited microstructure of the Be-Al-4%Ag. This investigation represents ongoing research to develop and characterize plasma-spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum alloys for magnetic fusion and aerospace applications

  2. Evaluation of hemocomponents irradiators in the Banco de Sangre of the Hospital Mexico by means of rate determination of the hemolysis and of the proliferation lymphocyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The graft disease versus inn-keeper associated to transfusion (EIVH AT) happens with the transfusion of viable lymphocytes to a allogeneic recipient, which is unable to produce an immune effective response against the graft. The irradiation range of the hemocomponents, to dose of 2500 cGy, eliminates the proliferative capacity of the lymphocyte. In Costa Rica, the irradiated transfusional component has been assumed as an assurance for the patient, though the process unactivation lymphocyte by irradiation has never been evaluated. This research tries to evaluate the efficiency of the process of irradiation of hemocomponents of the Banco de Sangre del Hospital Mexico, with preventive purposes of EIVH AT, and also, to determine if this process alters in an immediate way the erythrocyte component. (Author)

  3. Suppressor cell hyperactivity relative to allogeneic lymphocyte proliferation as a manifestation of defective T-T-cell interactions in systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors study the state of immunoregulatory process in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus at the T-T-cell interaction level and seek to test the possibility of the pharmacological modulation of this process. The proliferative activity of mononuclear lymphocytes, extracted from the blood of ten lupus patients, was assessed by measuring the incorporation of tritiated thymidine into cultures stimulated by phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin, and theophylline. The comparative effects of each of these agents on the immunoregulatory and proliferative activity of the lymphocytes are reported

  4. Technical Basis for PNNL Beryllium Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Michelle Lynn

    2014-07-09

    The Department of Energy (DOE) issued Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 850, “Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program” (the Beryllium Rule) in 1999 and required full compliance by no later than January 7, 2002. The Beryllium Rule requires the development of a baseline beryllium inventory of the locations of beryllium operations and other locations of potential beryllium contamination at DOE facilities. The baseline beryllium inventory is also required to identify workers exposed or potentially exposed to beryllium at those locations. Prior to DOE issuing 10 CFR 850, Pacific Northwest Nuclear Laboratory (PNNL) had documented the beryllium characterization and worker exposure potential for multiple facilities in compliance with DOE’s 1997 Notice 440.1, “Interim Chronic Beryllium Disease.” After DOE’s issuance of 10 CFR 850, PNNL developed an implementation plan to be compliant by 2002. In 2014, an internal self-assessment (ITS #E-00748) of PNNL’s Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) identified several deficiencies. One deficiency is that the technical basis for establishing the baseline beryllium inventory when the Beryllium Rule was implemented was either not documented or not retrievable. In addition, the beryllium inventory itself had not been adequately documented and maintained since PNNL established its own CBDPP, separate from Hanford Site’s program. This document reconstructs PNNL’s baseline beryllium inventory as it would have existed when it achieved compliance with the Beryllium Rule in 2001 and provides the technical basis for the baseline beryllium inventory.

  5. Beryllium coprecipitation with iron hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coprecipitation and sorption are studied of beryllium with hydroxide of Fe(3) in solutions of NH4NO3, KNO3, NH4HCO3, and H2O2 over a wide range of pH of the medium. The conditions are found for concentrating and separating beryllium from the carrier within definite ranges of pH of the medium

  6. 苜蓿多糖对小鼠淋巴细胞增殖和NK细胞活性影响的研究%Research of the Effect of Alfalfa Polysaccharides on Mice Spleen Lymphocytes Proliferation and NK Cell Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敬双; 刘英姿; 唐雨顺; 王云浩; 吴宗澄; 于洋

    2012-01-01

    为了探讨苜蓿多糖对小鼠免疫功能的影响,从苜蓿中提取苜蓿多糖,通过体外苜蓿多糖对淋巴细胞增殖和NK细胞活性影响的研究,初步确定其免疫调节活性.采用MTT法,检测苜蓿多糖对正常Balb/c小鼠体外脾淋巴细胞增殖的影响和NK细胞对K562细胞杀伤活性的影响.结果表明:苜蓿多糖可以单一刺激促进小鼠脾淋巴细胞的增殖,可以协同ConA刺激T细胞增殖,或协同LPS刺激B细胞增殖,提示苜蓿多糖能够调节机体的细胞免疫和体液免疫功能;苜蓿多糖可以显著地增强NK细胞对K562靶细胞的杀伤活性,提示苜蓿多糖能显著地增强机体非特异性免疫功能.因此,说明苜蓿多糖具有很好的免疫调节效果.%In order to discuss the effect of alfalfa polysaccharides on mice immuno function, alfalfa polysaccharides were extracted from alfalfa, and the research of how lymphopoiesis were affected by alfalfa polysaccharides were set up to determine its immunoregulatory activity. MMT assay were adopted to detect the effect of alfalfa polysaccharides on the proliferation of normal Balb/c mice spleen lymphocytes in vitro as well as the cytotoxicity NK cell to K562 cell. The results indicated that, alfalfa polysaccharides could be activated to enhance the proliferation of mice spleen lymphocytes singly and stimulate T lymphocyte proliferation cooperated with ConA or stimulate B lymphocyte cooperated with LPS, which pointed that the organism' s cellular immunity and humoral immunity function could be regulated by alfalfa polysaccharides; alfalfa polysaccharides could significantly strengthen the killing activity of NK cell to K526 target cell, which indicated that alfalfa polysaccharides could markedly boost organism' s nonspecific immuno function. Consequently, alfalfa polysaccharides possess impressive immuno regulatory function.

  7. Thermal fatigue of beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deksnis, E.; Ciric, D.; Falter, H. [JET Joint undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Thermal fatigue life of S65c beryllium castellated to a geometry 6 x 6 x (8-10)mm deep has been tested for steady heat fluxes of 3 MW/m{sup 2} to 5 MW/m{sup 2} and under pulsed heat fluxes (10-20 MW/m{sup 2}) for which the time averaged heat flux is 5 MW/m{sup 2}. These tests were carried out in the JET neutral beam test facility A test sequence with peak surface temperatures {le} 600{degrees}C produced no visible fatigue cracks. In the second series of tests, with T{sub max} {le} 750{degrees}C evidence for fatigue appeared after a minimum of 1350 stress cycles. These fatigue data are discussed in view of the observed lack of thermal fatigue in JET plasma operations with beryllium PFC. JET experience with S65b and S65c is reviewed; recent operations with {Phi} = 25 MW/m{sup 2} and sustained melting/resolidification are also presented. The need for a failure criterion for finite element analyses of Be PFC lifetimes is discussed.

  8. The selective adherence of lymphoblasts to antigenic cell monolayers. A method for determining the specificity of lymphocytes proliferating in response to histocompatibility antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specificity and intensity of the immune response of rat lymph nodes draining a skin allograft were examined by exploiting a monolayer of donor-type thoracic duct lymphocytes as an immunoabsorbent. Stable monolayers were produced by attaching lymphocytes from different strains of rat to Petri dishes pretreated with poly-L-lysine. The responding lymph node cells were labelled in vitro with [3H]thymidine, incubated on the monolayer and mechanically separated into non-adherent and adherent fractions. The radioactivity associated with the adherent fraction was 7-8 times greater when the monolayer displayed the immunizing major histocompatibility antigens than when syngeneic or 'third party' monolayers were used. The non-specific adherence to syngeneic monolayers was low and consistent. Immunization to minor histocompatibility antigens may also be studied by this method. (Auth.)

  9. Immunogenic DNA-related factors. Nucleosomes spontaneously released from normal murine lymphoid cells stimulate proliferation and immunoglobulin synthesis of normal mouse lymphocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, D. A.; Morrison, B; VandenBygaart, P

    1990-01-01

    The cell-free supernatants of normal spleen and thymus lymphocytes in short-term culture release low molecular weight (LMW) DNA protein molecules that have an immunoproliferative effect (polyclonal B cell activation) in vitro. We have determined that the protein-LMW DNA complexes responsible for these effects are nucleosomal constituents of chromatin, since the mitogenically active fractions of these cell-free supernatants contain the constituents of core histones (H3, H2A, H2B, H4) together ...

  10. Cell kinetic effects of incorporated 3H-thymidine on proliferating human lymphocytes: flow cytometric analysis using the DNA/nuclear protein method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes incorporating high concentrations of 3H-thymidine accumulate in G2 and show a consequent reduction in the number of cells entering M (division delay). The simultaneous flow cytometric analysis of DNA content (propidium iodide fluorescence) and nuclear protein content (fluorescein isothiocyanate fluorescence) allows for the accurate quantitation of these events; G2 and M are separated in the bivariate distributions. A good correlation was observed between mitotic indices, quantitated by manually counting mitotic cells, and integration of the M area in DNA/nuclear protein histograms. Moreover, significant differences in G2 nuclear protein levels were found between untreated and 3H-thymidine-treated lymphocytes. In order to characterize this effect, G2 was empirically divided into low nuclear protein (G2A) and high nuclear protein (G2B) compartments. 3H-thymidine caused an initial accumulation of lymphocytes in G2A, followed within 3-6 h by a gradual movement of some cells into G2B, with a subsequent accumulation of cells in G2B. The results suggest that the distribution of cells in G2 (G2A and G2B), the average nuclear protein content of G2B cells, and the proportion of cells in M are parameters that when used in combination provide a unique description of radiobiological effects

  11. Beryllium usage in fusion blankets and beryllium data needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing numbers of designers are choosing beryllium for fusion reactor blankets because it, among all nonfissile materials, produces the highest number (2.5 neutron in an infinite media) of neutrons per 14-MeV incident neutron. In amounts of about 20 cm of equivalent solid density, it can be used to produce fissile material, to breed all the tritium consumed in ITER from outboard blankets only, and in designs to produce Co-60. The problem is that predictions of neutron multiplication in beryllium are off by some 10 to 20% and appear to be on the high side, which means that better multiplication measurements and numerical methods are needed. The n,2n reactions result in two helium atoms, which cause radiation damage in the form of hardening at low temperatures (300/degree/C). The usual way beryllium parts are made is by hot pressing the powder. A lower cost method is to cold press and then sinter. There is no radiation damage data on this form of beryllium. The issues of corrosion, safety relative to the release of the tritium built-up inside beryllium, and recycle of used beryllium are also discussed. 10 figs

  12. Characterization of shocked beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Explosively driven arrested beryllium experiments were performed with post mortem characterization to evaluate the failure behaviors. The test samples were encapsulated in an aluminum assembly that was large relative to the sample, and the assembly features both axial and radial momentum traps. The sample carrier was inserted from the explosively-loaded end and has features to lock the carrier to the surrounding cylinder using the induced plastic flow. Calculations with Lagrangian codes showed that the tensile stresses experienced by the Be sample were below the spall stress. Metallographic characterization of the arrested Be showed radial cracks present in the samples may have been caused by bending moments. Fractography showed the fractures propagated from the side of the sample closest to the explosives, the side with the highest tensile stress. There was evidence that the fractures may have propagated from the circumferential crack outward and downward radially.

  13. Effect of Benzene on Proliferation and Apoptosis of Splenic Lymphocytes in Mother Generation and Offspring Mice%苯对母鼠和子鼠脾淋巴细胞的增殖与凋亡影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    旷亦乐; 李纯颖; 杨双波; 李紫; 吴成秋

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of benzene on proliferation and apoptceis of splenic lymphocytes in mother generation and offspring mice. Methods Forty pregnant mice were divided averagely into 4 groups at random. From the 7th day after pregnancy, each of group was exposed to benzene vapour until to parturition (0.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 mg/m3,respectively), 2 hours par day. At the 1st and 7th days after parturition, 5 mother generation mice end 5 offspring mice of each group were killed to detect the proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of splenic lymphocytes in mother generation and offspring mice by MTT assay and flow cytometric analysis. Results During the 1st day and 7th day after parturition, the proliferation of splenic lymphocytes of mother generation and offspring mice in the middle - and high - concentration of benzene groups was inhibited significantly in a concentration-dependent manner (P<O. 05). The cell cycle of splenic lymphocytes of mother generation and offspring mice was blocked in G0/G1 phase in the middle - and high - concentration of benzene groups. The quantity of splenic lymphocytes apoptosis was increased significantly in a concentration- dependent manner in each benzene group (P < 0.05). Conclusion Benzene exposure during pregnancy can damage the immunological function of mother generation mice and offspring mice.%目的 探讨妊娠期接触苯对母鼠及其子鼠免疫功能的影响.方法 40只孕鼠被随机等分为空气对照组和5.0、10.0、15.0 mg/m3三个不同浓度的苯染毒组,各组从孕7 d开始,连续染毒至分娩,每天染毒2 h.分别在分娩后的1 d及7 d,每组取5只母鼠和5只子鼠处死,取脾制备脾淋巴细胞;检测母鼠和子鼠脾淋巴细胞增殖力、细胞周期及细胞凋亡.结果 在分娩后1 d及7 d,中、高浓度苯染毒组母鼠及子鼠的脾淋巴细胞增殖力均低于对照组(P<0.05),并有明显的剂量-效应关系(P<0.05);子鼠与母鼠的淋巴细胞增殖抑制

  14. Evaluation of the potential immunotoxicity of 3-monochloro-1,2-propanediol in Balb/c mice I. Effect on antibody forming cell, mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation, splenic subset, and natural killer cell activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3-Monochloro-1,2-propanediol (MCPD) is a well-known by-product of acid-hydrolyzed soy sauce during its manufacturing process. MCPD has been reported genotoxic in vitro, and reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity in rats. However, no previous studies have investigated MCPD-induced alterations in the immune system. In the present study, MCPD was administered by gavage for 14 days at 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg per day to female Balb/c mice. The antibody-mediated immune response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was assessed using the antibody-forming cell (AFC) assay, and splenic cell phenotypes were quantified by flow cytometry. Hematological and histopathological changes were assessed. Mitogen-stimulated spleen lymphocyte proliferation and natural killer (NK) cell activity were evaluated. The T-lymphocyte blastogenesis by concanavalin A (Con A) or anti-CD3 and B-lymphocyte blastogenesis by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were not significantly changed. There were no significant changes in the hematological and histopathological findings of MCPD-treated mice. However, the significant decrease in thymus weight was observed in 100 mg dose group, even though that did not change body weight gain. The cellularities of spleen and thymus were significantly reduced in high-dose group. Exposure to high dose of MCPD decreased the AFC response to SRBC in mice. There was a significant decrease in NK cell activity of mice treated with high dose of MCPD. These results indicate that MCPD could modulate the immune function in Balb/c mice

  15. Beryllium technology workshop, Clearwater Beach, Florida, November 20, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the following topics: beryllium in the ITER blanket; mechanical testing of irradiated beryllium; tritium release measurements on irradiated beryllium; beryllium needs for plasma-facing components; thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed beryllium; beryllium research at the INEL; Japanese beryllium research activities for in-pile mockup tests on ITER; a study of beryllium bonding of copper alloy; new production technologies; thermophysical properties of a new ingot metallurgy beryllium product line; implications of beryllium:steam interactions in fusion reactors; and a test program for irradiation embrittlement of beryllium at JET

  16. Processing Irradiated Beryllium For Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. J. Tranter; R. D. Tillotson; N. R. Mann; G. R. Longhurst

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a process for decontaminating irradiated beryllium that will allow it to be disposed of through normal radwaste channels. Thus, the primary objectives of this ongoing study are to remove the transuranic (TRU) isotopes to less than 100 nCi/g and remove {sup 60}Co, and {sup 137}Cs, to levels that will allow the beryllium to be contact handled. One possible approach that appears to have the most promise is aqueous dissolution and separation of the isotopes by selected solvent extraction followed by precipitation, resulting in a granular form for the beryllium that may be fixed to prevent it from becoming respirable and therefore hazardous. Beryllium metal was dissolved in nitric and fluorboric acids. Isotopes of {sup 241}Am, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 85}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs were then added to make a surrogate beryllium waste solution. A series of batch contacts was performed with the spiked simulant using chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD) and polyethylene glycol diluted with sulfone to extract the isotopes of Cs and Sr. Another series of batch contacts was performed using a combination of octyl (phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) in tributyl phosphate (TBP) diluted with dodecane for extracting the isotopes of Pu and Am. The results indicate that greater than 99.9% removal can be achieved for each isotope with only three contact stages.

  17. Utilization of the ex vivo LLNA: BrdU-ELISA to distinguish the sensitizers from irritants in respect of 3 end points-lymphocyte proliferation, ear swelling, and cytokine profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arancioglu, Seren; Ulker, Ozge Cemiloglu; Karakaya, Asuman

    2015-01-01

    Dermal exposure to chemicals may result in allergic or irritant contact dermatitis. In this study, we performed ex vivo local lymph node assay: bromodeoxyuridine-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (LLNA: BrdU-ELISA) to compare the differences between irritation and sensitization potency of some chemicals in terms of the 3 end points: lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine profiles (interleukin 2 [IL-2], interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-4, IL-5, IL-1, and tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α]), and ear swelling. Different concentrations of the following well-known sensitizers and irritant chemicals were applied to mice: dinitrochlorobenzene, eugenol, isoeugenol, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), and croton oil. According to the lymph node results; the auricular lymph node weights and lymph node cell counts increased after application of both sensitizers and irritants in high concentrations. On the other hand, according to lymph node cell proliferation results, there was a 3-fold increase in proliferation of lymph node cells (stimulation index) for sensitizer chemicals and SLS in the applied concentrations; however, there was not a 3-fold increase for croton oil and negative control. The SLS gave a false-positive response. Cytokine analysis demonstrated that 4 cytokines including IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-5 were released in lymph node cell cultures, with a clear dose trend for sensitizers whereas only TNF-α was released in response to irritants. Taken together, our results suggest that the ex vivo LLNA: BrdU-ELISA method can be useful for discriminating irritants and allergens. PMID:25563296

  18. Status of beryllium materials for fusion application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible use of beryllium as a material for fusion reactors is discussed. Based on the results of recent Russian elaborations, which were not covered previously in the scientific literature, an attempt of complex analysis of the techniques of using beryllium is made. The specific requirements on beryllium as a protective material for first wall and divertor are considered. Also the possibility of creating a fusion grade of beryllium is discussed and an optimum strategy is suggested. (orig.)

  19. Spectrographic measurement of beryllium in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe here a method for the spectrographic determination of beryllium on filters which is valid for amounts varying between 0,01 and 30 μg of beryllium and which is independent of the nature of the beryllium compound involved. This is a flux method (graphite-lithium carbonate mixture), the excitation being by a direct current arc. (author)

  20. Neutron irradiation of beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelles, D.S.; Ermi, R.M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Tsai, H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Seven subcapsules from the FFTF/MOTA 2B irradiation experiment containing 97 or 100% dense sintered beryllium cylindrical specimens in depleted lithium have been opened and the specimens retrieved for postirradiation examination. Irradiation conditions included 370 C to 1.6 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}, 425 C to 4.8 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}, and 550 C to 5.0 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}. TEM specimens contained in these capsules were also retrieved, but many were broken. Density measurements of the cylindrical specimens showed as much as 1.59% swelling following irradiation at 500 C in 100% dense beryllium. Beryllium at 97% density generally gave slightly lower swelling values.

  1. Dasatinib inhibits proliferation and activation of CD8+ T-lymphocytes by down-regulation of the T-cell receptor signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Fei, Fei

    2007-01-01

    The novel Src/Abl inhibitor dasatinib (BMS-354825) is a promising therapeutic agent with imatinib-resistant BCR-ABL mutations in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) or Ph-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, little is known about its effects on T-cell function, especially for patients undergoing allogeneic transplantation for leukemia. Here, we demonstrate that dasatinib at a concentration of 5 nM to 250 nM inhibits the proliferation and activation of CD8+ T-lymp...

  2. Defense programs beryllium good practice guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the DOE, it has recently become apparent that some contractor employees who have worked (or are currently working) with and around beryllium have developed chronic beryllium disease (CBD), an occupational granulomatous lung disorder. Respiratory exposure to aerosolized beryllium, in susceptible individuals, causes an immunological reaction that can result in granulomatous scarring of the lung parenchyma, shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, weight loss, and, ultimately, respiratory failure. Beryllium disease was originally identified in the 1940s, largely in the fluorescent light industry. In 1950, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) introduced strict exposure standards that generally curtailed both the acute and chronic forms of the disease. Beginning in 1984, with the identification of a CBD case in a DOE contractor worker, there was increased scrutiny of both industrial hygiene practices and individuals in this workforce. To date, over 100 additional cases of beryllium-specific sensitization and/or CBD have been identified. Thus, a disease previously thought to be largely eliminated by the adoption of permissible exposure standards 45 years ago is still a health risk in certain workforces. This good practice guide forms the basis of an acceptable program for controlling workplace exposure to beryllium. It provides (1) Guidance for minimizing worker exposure to beryllium in Defense Programs facilities during all phases of beryllium-related work, including the decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of facilities. (2) Recommended controls to be applied to the handling of metallic beryllium and beryllium alloys, beryllium oxide, and other beryllium compounds. (3) Recommendations for medical monitoring and surveillance of workers exposed (or potentially exposed) to beryllium, based on the best current understanding of beryllium disease and medical diagnostic tests available. (4) Site-specific safety procedures for all processes of beryllium that is

  3. Cryogenic Properties of Aluminum Beryllium and Beryllium Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamwell, Wayne R.; McGill, Preston B.

    2003-01-01

    Ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation were obtained for the aluminum-beryllium alloy, AlBeMetl62 (38%Al-62%Be), at cryogenic (-195.5 C (-320 F) and (-252.8 C) (-423 F)) temperatures, and for an optical grade beryllium, O-30H (99%Be), at -252.8 C. AlBeMetl62 material was purchased to the requirements of SAE-AMS7912, "Aluminum-Beryllium Alloy, Extrusions." O-30H material was purchased to the requirements of Brush Wellman Inc. specification O-30H Optical Grade Beryllium. The ultimate tensile and yield strengths for extruded AlBeMetl62 material increased with decreasing temperature, and the percent elongation decreased with decreasing temperature. Design properties for the ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and percent elongation for extruded AlBeMetl62 were generated. It was not possible to distinguish a difference in the room and cryogenic ultimate strength for the hot isostatically pressed (HIP'ed) O-30H material. The O30H elongation decreased with decreasing temperature.

  4. Cryogenic Properties of Aluminum-Beryllium and Beryllium Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamwell, Wayne R.; McGill, Preston B.

    2003-01-01

    Ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation were obtained for the aluminum- beryllium alloy, AlBeMetl62 (38%Al-62%Be), at cryogenic (-195.5 C (-32O F) and (- 252.8 C) (-423 F)) temperatures, and for an optical grade beryllium, O-30H (99%Be), at -252.8 C. AlBeMet162 material was purchased to the requirements of SAE- AMs7912, "Aluminum-Beryllium Alloy, Extrusions". O-30H material was purchased to the requirements of Brush Wellman Inc. specification O-30H Optical Grade Beryllium. The ultimate tensile and yield strengths for extruded AlBeMet162 material increased with decreasing temperature, and the percent elongation decreased with decreasing temperature. Design properties for the ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and percent elongation for extruded AlBeMetl62 were generated. It was not possible to distinguish a difference in the room and cryogenic ultimate strength for the hot isostatically pressed (HIP'ed) O-30H material. The O-30H elongation decreased with decreasing temperature.

  5. Evaluación de la inmunidad celular en caninos: prueba de proliferación de linfocitos in vitro Evaluation of cellular immunity in dogs: in vitro lymphocyte proliferation test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G Ramayo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La prueba de proliferación de linfocitos inducida por mitógenos in vitro se utiliza para evaluar la inmunidad celular. En el presente trabajo, se comparan los resultados obtenidos con el método tradicional, que utiliza linfocitos purificados para el cultivo y la captación de timidina tritiada como método de medición de la proliferación (LP- ³H, con otras dos metodologías: el uso de sangre entera con revelado por captación de timidina tritiada (SE-³H y el uso de linfocitos purificados con revelado por ensayo colorimétrico con MTT (LP-MTT. Se trabajó sobre muestras de 12 caninos clínicamente sanos que fueron procesadas por las tres metodologías. Se utilizó Concanavalina A como mitógeno y el Indice de Estimulación (IE como expresión de los resultados. El método de SE-³H arrojó valores de IE significativamente mayores que la técnica clásica, por lo que resultaría útil para evaluar la proliferación linfocitaria en caninos en nuestras condiciones de trabajo. El método de LP-MTT mostró valores de IE significativamente menores, por lo que se requieren más estudios para evaluar su posible uso en la medición de la funcionalidad linfocitaria. Sobre la base de los resultados obtenidos se estableció un rango normal de valores de IE para cada método.In vitro mitogen induced lymphocyte proliferation test is widely used for evaluation of cellmediated immunity. In the present work, we compare the results of the traditional method, which uses gradient isolated lymphocytes as the source of cells for the culture and tritiated thymidine incorporation to measure proliferative response (LP- ³H, with other two methods: culture of whole blood and proliferation measure with ³H- thymidine (SE-³H, and culture of isolated lymphocytes and proliferation evaluation with a colorimetric assay using MTT (LP-MTT. Blood samples of twelve adult, healthy dogs were processed by the three mentioned methods, using Concanavalin- A as mitogen and the

  6. A role for cell adhesion in beryllium-mediated lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong-geller, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a debilitating lung disorder in which exposure to the lightweight metal beryllium (Be) causes the accumulation of beryllium-specific CD4+ T cells in the lung and formation of noncaseating pulmonary granulomas. Treatment for CBD patients who exhibit progressive pulmonary decline is limited to systemic corticosteroids, which suppress the severe host inflammatory response. Studies in the past several years have begun to highlight cell-cell adhesion interactions in the development of Be hypersensitivity and CBD. In particular, the high binding affinity between intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (I-CAM1) on lung epithelial cells and the {beta}{sub 2} integrin LFA-1 on migrating lymphocytes and macrophages regulates the concerted rolling of immune cells to sites of inflammation in the lung. In this review, we discuss the evidence that implicates cell adhesion processes in onset of Be disease and the potential of cell adhesion as an intervention point for development of novel therapies.

  7. Proliferation induced by Plasmodium falciparum antigen and interleukin-2 production by lymphocytes isolated from malaria-immune individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theander, T G; Bygbjerg, I C; Jepsen, S; Svenson, M; Kharazmi, A; Larsen, P B; Bendtzen, K

    1986-01-01

    -immune individuals, the proliferative response and the interleukin-2 (IL-2) production of SPAg-activated mononuclear cells (MNCs) from individuals unexposed, sensitized, and immune to malaria were measured. It was found that MNC isolated from malaria-immune individuals proliferated in response to SPAg and that this...... activation resulted in measurable IL-2 production in 5 of 10 MNC cultures. MNC isolates from most unexposed individuals did not respond to SPAg. To establish which cells responded to SPAg, different subpopulations of MNCs were tested. Only T helper cells were found to respond, and they responded only when...... cocultured with monocytes. The finding of parasite-specific T helper cells in the blood of malaria-immune individuals and the fact that some of these cells were able to produce IL-2 in vitro support the hypothesis that in malaria the cellular part of the protective immune response is initiated by immune T...

  8. Reactivity test between beryllium and copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Kato, M. [NGK Insulators, Ltd., Aichi-ken (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Beryllium has been expected for using as plasma facing material on ITER. And, copper alloy has been proposed as heat sink material behind plasma facing components. Therefore, both materials must be joined. However, the elementary process of reaction between beryllium and copper alloy does not clear in detail. For example, other authors reported that beryllium reacted with copper at high temperature, but it was not obvious about the generation of reaction products and increasing of the reaction layer. In the present work, from this point, for clarifying the elementary process of reaction between beryllium and copper, the out-of-pile compatibility tests were conducted with diffusion couples of beryllium and copper which were inserted in the capsule filled with high purity helium gas (6N). Annealing temperatures were 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700{degrees}C, and annealing periods were 100, 300 and 1000h. Beryllium specimens were hot pressed beryllium, and copper specimens were OFC (Oxygen Free Copper).

  9. Worker Environment Beryllium Characterization Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the conclusion of regular monitoring of occupied buildings at the Nevada Test Site and North Las Vegas facility to determine the extent of beryllium (Be) contamination in accordance with Judgment of Needs 6 of the August 14, 2003, 'Minnema Report.'

  10. Worker Environment Beryllium Characterization Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environment, Safety, Health & Quality

    2009-12-28

    This report summarizes the conclusion of regular monitoring of occupied buildings at the Nevada Test Site and North Las Vegas facility to determine the extent of beryllium (Be) contamination in accordance with Judgment of Needs 6 of the August 14, 2003, “Minnema Report.”

  11. OVERVIEW OF BERYLLIUM SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisson, M

    2009-04-01

    Because of its unique properties as a lightweight metal with high tensile strength, beryllium is widely used in applications including cell phones, golf clubs, aerospace, and nuclear weapons. Beryllium is also encountered in industries such as aluminium manufacturing, and in environmental remediation projects. Workplace exposure to beryllium particulates is a growing concern, as exposure to minute quantities of anthropogenic forms of beryllium may lead to sensitization and to chronic beryllium disease, which can be fatal and for which no cure is currently known. Furthermore, there is no known exposure-response relationship with which to establish a 'safe' maximum level of beryllium exposure. As a result, the current trend is toward ever lower occupational exposure limits, which in turn make exposure assessment, both in terms of sampling and analysis, more challenging. The problems are exacerbated by difficulties in sample preparation for refractory forms of beryllium, such as beryllium oxide, and by indications that some beryllium forms may be more toxic than others. This chapter provides an overview of sources and uses of beryllium, health risks, and occupational exposure limits. It also provides a general overview of sampling, analysis, and data evaluation issues that will be explored in greater depth in the remaining chapters. The goal of this book is to provide a comprehensive resource to aid personnel in a wide variety of disciplines in selecting sampling and analysis methods that will facilitate informed decision-making in workplace and environmental settings.

  12. Beryllium - A Unique Material in Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium, due to its unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section characteristics, has been used successfully as a neutron reflector for three generations of nuclear test reactors at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), the largest test reactor in the world, has utilized five successive beryllium neutron reflectors and is scheduled for continued operation with a sixth beryllium reflector. A high radiation environment in a test reactor produces radiation damage and other changes in beryllium. These changes necessitate safety analysis of the beryllium, methods to predict performance, and appropriate surveillances. Other nuclear applications also utilize beryllium. Beryllium, given its unique atomic, physical, and chemical characteristics, is widely used as a ''window'' for x-rays and gamma rays. Beryllium, intimately mixed with high-energy alpha radiation emitters has been successfully used to produce neutron sources. This paper addresses operational experience and methodologies associated with the use of beryllium in nuclear test reactors and in ''windows'' for x-rays and gamma rays. Other nuclear applications utilizing beryllium are also discussed

  13. 糖酵解抑制剂3-溴丙酮酸对异基因小鼠混合培养脾细胞增殖的影响及其机制初步研究%Effect of glycolytic inhibitor 3-BrPA on the proliferation and apoptosis of mouse splenic lymphocytes in mixed lymphocytes culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周睿卿; 王静; 邱大发; 牛晓敏; 郭子文; 何慧清; 许晓军

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of glycolytic inhibitor 3-Bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) on the proliferation and apoptosis of mouse spleen lymphocytes and explore its mechanism.Methods An one-way mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) system was established,including BALB/c mouse spleen cells (H-2d) as stimulator and C57BL/6 mouse spleen cells (H-2b) as responder.With treatment of 3-BrPA at different concentrations (0-200 μmol/L),lymphocyte proliferation capacity was detected by the CCK-8 method,the expression of CD3,CD4,and CD8 by flow cytometry,and the concentrations of cytokine interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-γ in the supernatant by ELISA.Results At a middle or high dose (over 20 μmol/L),3-BrPA displayed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on lymphocyte proliferation in the MLC system.The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) were 48.6,41.2,and 41.9 μmol/L after 24,36,and 48 h culture,respectively.With treatment of 50 μmol/L 3-BrPA,the IFN-γ level [(164.25±20.14) ng/L] was significantly lower,compared with control [(277.61 ± 18.46) ng/L].The IL-4 level [(31.06 ± 6.06)ng/L] was significantly higher,compared with control [(28.64 ± 3.97) ng/L].Consequently,the IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio decreased significantly.Conclusions These results indicate that 3-BrPA had a significant inhibitory effect on the proliferation of mouse spleen lymphocytes cultured in MLC system,accompanied with the Th2-biased secretion of cytokines.%目的 研究糖酵解抑制剂3-溴丙酮酸(3-BrPA)对单向混合培养的异基因小鼠脾细胞增殖的影响及其机制.方法 以BALB/c(H-2d)小鼠脾细胞为刺激细胞,以C57BL/6(H-2b)小鼠脾细胞为反应细胞,建立单向混合淋巴细胞培养(MLC)体系,给予不同浓度3-BrPA(0~200 μmol/L)处理后,采用CCK-8法检测淋巴细胞增殖活性,流式细胞术检测MLC体系中反应细胞CD3、CD4、CD8等表面标志表达,ELISA法检测MLC体系上清中IL-4、IFN-γ等细胞因子水平.结果 CCK-8检测结果显示,高浓度(20

  14. Defense programs beryllium good practice guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, M.

    1997-07-01

    Within the DOE, it has recently become apparent that some contractor employees who have worked (or are currently working) with and around beryllium have developed chronic beryllium disease (CBD), an occupational granulomatous lung disorder. Respiratory exposure to aerosolized beryllium, in susceptible individuals, causes an immunological reaction that can result in granulomatous scarring of the lung parenchyma, shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, weight loss, and, ultimately, respiratory failure. Beryllium disease was originally identified in the 1940s, largely in the fluorescent light industry. In 1950, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) introduced strict exposure standards that generally curtailed both the acute and chronic forms of the disease. Beginning in 1984, with the identification of a CBD case in a DOE contractor worker, there was increased scrutiny of both industrial hygiene practices and individuals in this workforce. To date, over 100 additional cases of beryllium-specific sensitization and/or CBD have been identified. Thus, a disease previously thought to be largely eliminated by the adoption of permissible exposure standards 45 years ago is still a health risk in certain workforces. This good practice guide forms the basis of an acceptable program for controlling workplace exposure to beryllium. It provides (1) Guidance for minimizing worker exposure to beryllium in Defense Programs facilities during all phases of beryllium-related work, including the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities. (2) Recommended controls to be applied to the handling of metallic beryllium and beryllium alloys, beryllium oxide, and other beryllium compounds. (3) Recommendations for medical monitoring and surveillance of workers exposed (or potentially exposed) to beryllium, based on the best current understanding of beryllium disease and medical diagnostic tests available. (4) Site-specific safety procedures for all processes of beryllium that is likely to

  15. 对苯二胺对小鼠淋巴细胞的增殖效应及其皮肤致敏性研究%STUDY ON EFFECT OF PARAPHENYLENEDIAMINE ON LYMPHOCYTES PROLIFERATION IN MICE AND SKIN SENSITIZATION POTENCY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何国群; 郑穗生; 谢晓萍; 李庆; 古梅英; 谭小华; 张龙杰

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To study the effects of paraphenylenediamine on lymphocytes proliferation in mice and skin sen-sitization potency. [Methods] Mice were treated with 0.3%, 1.0%, 3.0% and 6.0% paraphenylenediamine (PPD) and four hair dyes contained 0%, 1.5%, 3.0% and 6.0% PPD at the dorsum of each ear once daily for three consecutive days. At the forth day, the mice were injected intraperitoneally with BrdU. At the fifth day, they were sacrificed and the draining auricular nodes were excised and weighed. Single lymphocytes suspensions of lymph node cells were prepared and lymphocytes number were counted. Used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure the level of BrdU incorporation. Skin sensitiza-tion test in guinea pigs were executed to four hair dyes contained 0%, 1.5%, 3.0% and 6.0% of PPD. [Results] Comparedwith the vehicle-treated control group, the node weight, lymphocytes number and BrdU label index of the mice treated with PPD or hair dyes contained various concentration PPD were significantly increased. 3.0% and 6.0% of PPD and hair dyes contained 3.0% and 6.0% of PPD showed positive responses; Hair dyes contained 3.0% and 6.0% of PPD were classified as weak and mild sensitizers in skin sensitization test in guinea pig. [Conclusion] Lymphocyte proliferation can be caused by PPD in skin contact. Hair dyes contained 3.0% and 6.0% of PPD have skin sensitization potency.%[目的]探讨不同浓度对苯二胺原科和含对苯二胺的染发剂经皮肤接触对实验动物淋巴细胞的免疫效应和皮肤致敏作用.[方法]取浓度为0.3%、1.0%、3.0%、6.0%的对苯二胺原料和含对苯二胺为0%、1.5%、3.0%、6.0%的染发剂涂抹于小鼠耳背,连续3d,d4小鼠腹腔注射BrdU,d5摘取小鼠耳部淋巴结,制取单细胞悬液并计算淋巴细胞数,采用ELISA技术测定BrdU标记指数;取含对苯二胺为0%、1.5%、3.0%、6.0%的染发剂进行豚鼠皮肤变态反应实验.[结果]与阴性(溶剂

  16. Compatibility problems with beryllium in ceramic blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compatibility of beryllium with structural materials (316L austenitic steel and 1.4914 martensitic steel) and with tritium breeding ceramics (lithium aluminate or silicate) has been studied in contact tests between 550 C and 700 C and for durations reaching 3000 hours. Beryllium-ceramic interaction is negligeable in all the temperature range with aluminate and up to 600 C with silicates. On the other hand, noticeable interaction is observed between beryllium and 316L steel at 580 C and above. Beryllium interaction with 1.4914 steel is visible only at 650 C and above and its amplitude is lower than 316L steel one. In these two cases, the superficial layer is brittle, and adherent to the steel. Comparison between beryllium - 0.4 wt% calcium alloy and beryllium at 700 C shows that interaction with steels or ceramics is qualitatively the same but slightly weaker. (author). 6 refs.; 6 figs.; 3 tabs

  17. Belgian research on fusion beryllium waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Future fusion power plants will generate important quantities of neutron irradiated beryllium. Although recycling is the preferred management option for this waste, this may not be technically feasible for all of the beryllium, because of its radiological characteristics. Therefore, at SCK·CEN, we initiated a research programme aimed at studying aspects of the disposal of fusion beryllium, including waste characterisation, waste acceptance criteria, conditioning methods, and performance assessment. One of the main issues to be resolved is the development of fusion-specific waste acceptance criteria for surface or deep geological disposal, in particular with regard to the tritium content. In case disposal is the only solution, critical nuclides can be immobilised by conditioning the waste. As a first approach to immobilising beryllium waste, we investigated the vitrification of beryllium. Corrosion tests were performed on both metallic and vitrified beryllium to provide source data for performance assessment. Finally, a first step in performance assessment was undertaken. (author)

  18. Thermodynamic properties of beryllium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the hydro-thermal decomposition of beryllium hydroxide has made it possible to determine the free energy of formation and the entropy. The results obtained are in good agreement with the theoretical values calculated from the solubility product of this substance. They give furthermore the possibility of acquiring a better understanding of the BeO-H2O-Be (OH)2 system between 20 and 1500 C. (authors)

  19. Current Treatment of Chronic Beryllium Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sood, Akshay

    2009-01-01

    The current mainstay of management of chronic beryllium disease involves cessation of beryllium exposure and use of systemic corticosteroids. However, there are no randomized controlled trials to assess the effect of these interventions on the natural history of this disease. Despite this limitation, it is prudent to remove patients with chronic beryllium disease from further exposure and consider treating progressive disease early with long-term corticosteroids. The effect of treatment shoul...

  20. MEASUREMENTS OF THE PROPERTIES OF BERYLLIUM FOIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical conductivity of beryllium at radio frequency (800 MHz) and liquid nitrogen temperature were investigated and measured. This summary addresses a collection of beryllium properties in the literature, an analysis of the anomalous skin effect, the test model, the experimental setup and improvements, MAFIA simulations, the measurement results and data analyses. The final results show that the conductivity of beryllium is not as good as indicated by the handbook, yet very close to copper at liquid nitrogen temperature

  1. New audio applications of beryllium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major applications of beryllium metal in the field of audio appliances are for the vibrating cones for the two types of speakers 'TWITTER' for high range sound and 'SQUAWKER' for mid range sound, and also for beryllium cantilever tube assembled in stereo cartridge. These new applications are based on the characteristic property of beryllium having high ratio of modulus of elasticity to specific gravity. The production of these audio parts is described, and the audio response is shown. (author)

  2. The beryllium "double standard" standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egilman, David S; Bagley, Sarah; Biklen, Molly; Golub, Alison Stern; Bohme, Susanna Rankin

    2003-01-01

    Brush Wellman, the world's leading producer and supplier of beryllium products, has systematically hidden cases of beryllium disease that occurred below the threshold limit value (TLV) and lied about the efficacy of the TLV in published papers, lectures, reports to government agencies, and instructional materials prepared for customers and workers. Hypocritically, Brush Wellman instituted a zero exposure standard for corporate executives while workers and customers were told the 2 microgram standard was "safe." Brush intentionally used its workers as "canaries for the plant," and referred to them as such. Internal documents and corporate depositions indicate that these actions were intentional and that the motive was money. Despite knowledge of the inadequacy of the TLV, Brush has successfully used it as a defense against lawsuits brought by injured workers and as a sales device to provide reassurance to customers. Brush's policy has reaped an untold number of victims and resulted in mass distribution of beryllium in consumer products. Such corporate malfeasance is perpetuated by the current market system, which is controlled by an organized oligopoly that creates an incentive for the neglect of worker health and safety in favor of externalizing costs to victimized workers, their families, and society at large. PMID:14758859

  3. Effects of irradiation on normal human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the normal human blood was exposured to 60Co gamma-rays, neutrons and X-ray with different doses, the human lymphocytes induced by PHA, ConA, LPS and PWM were cultured in vitro. The proliferation and differentiation kinetics of human lymphocytes were studied by using 3H-TdR, 14C-UR and 14C-valine incorporation technique. The irradiation inhibition on syntheses of DNA, RNA and protein was observed. The results from the experiments showed: (1) The proliferation and differentiation of human lymphocytes, different lymphocytes subgroups, induced by various mitogens were different. (2) The injury effects of irradiation on synthese of DNA and protein in the lymphocytes stimulated with ConA and PHA were greater than that in the lymphocytes induced by LPS and PWM. (3) The injury effect of lymphocytes irradiated by neutrons was greater than that lymphocytes irradiated by gamma-rays and X-rays. (4) In the irradiated human lymphocytes subgroups induced by various mitogens, the more ability of repairing broken DNA strand subgroup had, the more strong resistance to irradiation it was

  4. Recommended design correlations for S-65 beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of tritium and helium behavior in irradiated beryllium are reviewed, along with the thermal-mechanical properties needed for ITER design analysis. Correlations are developed to describe the performance of beryllium in a fusion reactor environment. While this paper focuses on the use of beryllium as a plasma-facing component (PFC) material, the correlations presented here can also be used to describe the performance of beryllium as a neutron multiplier for a tritium breeding blanket. The performance properties for beryllium are subdivided into two categories: properties which do not change with irradiation damage to the bulk of the material; and properties which are degraded by neutron irradiation. The approach taken in developing properties correlations is to describe the behavior of dense, pressed S-65 beryllium as a function of temperature. As there are essentially no data on the performance of porous and/or irradiated S-65 beryllium, the degradation of properties with as-fabricated porosity and irradiation are determined form the broad data base on S-200F, as well as other types and grades, and applied to S-65 beryllium by scaling factors. The resulting correlations can be used for Be produced by vacuum hot pressing (VHP) and cold-pressing (CP)/sintering(S)/hot-isostatic-pressing(HIP). The performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium is discussed but not quantified

  5. (Beryllium). Internal Report No. 137, Jan. 15, 1958

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief summary of the physical and chemical properties of beryllium, the various chemical treatments which can be applied to beryllium minerals either directly or after a physical enrichment are discussed. These various treatments give either the hydroxide or beryllium salts, from which either beryllium oxide or metallic beryllium can easily be obtained. The purification, analysis and uses of beryllium are also briefly discussed. (author)

  6. ICT diagnostic method of beryllium welding quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To avoid the interference of high density material for the quality assay of beryllium welding line, a slice by slice scanning method was proposed based upon the research results of the Industrial Computerized Tomography (ICT) diagnostics for weld penetration, weld width, off-centered deviation and weld defects of beryllium-ring welding seam with high density material inside

  7. Some aspects of beryllium disposal in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically in Kazakhstan all disposals of used beryllium and beryllium wasted materials were stored and recycled at JSC ''Ulba Metallurgical Plant''. Since Ulba Metallurgical Plant (beside beryllium and tantalum production) is one of the world largest complex producers of fuel for nuclear power plants as well it has possibilities, technologies and experience in processing toxic and radioactive wastes related with those productions. At present time only one operating Kazakhstan research reactors (EWG1M in Kurchatov) contains beryllium made core. The results of current examination of that core allow using it without replacement long time yet (at least for next five-ten years). Nevertheless the problem how to utilize such irradiated beryllium becomes actual issue for Kazakhstan even today. Since Kazakhstan is the member of ITER/DEMO Reactors Projects and is permanently considered as possible provider of huge amount of beryllium for those reactors so that is the reason for starting studies of possibilities of large scale processing/recycling of such disposed irradiated beryllium. It is clear that the Ulba Metallurgical Plant is considered as the best site for it in Kazakhstan. The draft plan how to organize experimental studies of irradiated beryllium disposals in Kazakhstan involving National Nuclear Center, National University (Almaty), JSC ''Ulba Metallurgical Plant'' (Ust-Kamenogorsk) would be presented in this paper as well as proposals to arrange international collaboration in that field through ISTC (International Science Technology Center, Moscow). (author)

  8. Metastable defects in beryllium oxide crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metastable luminescence centers of regular lattice are investigated in binary beryllium oxide crystals. Beryllium oxide hexagonal crystals are the simplest among low-symmetry oxide scintillators and serve as a model system. The anisotropy of energy transformation and transfer is analyzed

  9. Investigation of beryllium/steam interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekhonadskikh, A.M.; Vurim, A.D.; Vasilyev, Yu.S.; Pivovarov, O.S. [Inst. of Atomic Energy National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakstan Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan); Shestakov, V.P.; Tazhibayeva, I.L.

    1998-01-01

    In this report program on investigations of beryllium emissivity and transient processes on overheated beryllium surface attacked by water steam to be carried out in IAE NNC RK within Task S81 TT 2096-07-16 FR. The experimental facility design is elaborated in this Report. (author)

  10. Modeling of hydrogen interactions with beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, G.R. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, improved mathematical models are developed for hydrogen interactions with beryllium. This includes the saturation effect observed for high-flux implantation of ions from plasmas and retention of tritium produced from neutronic transmutations in beryllium. Use of the models developed is justified by showing how they can replicated experimental data using the TMAP4 tritium transport code. (author)

  11. Assessment of LANL beryllium waste management documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to determine present status of the preparation and implementation of the various high priority documents required to properly manage the beryllium waste generated at the Laboratory. The documents being assessed are: Waste Acceptance Criteria, Waste Characterization Plan, Waste Certification Plan, Waste Acceptance Procedures, Waste Characterization Procedures, Waste Certification Procedures, Waste Training Procedures and Waste Recordkeeping Procedures. Beryllium is regulated (as a dust) under 40 CFR 261.33 as ''Discarded commercial chemical products, off specification species, container residues and spill residues thereof.'' Beryllium is also identified in the 3rd thirds ruling of June 1, 1990 as being restricted from land disposal (as a dust). The beryllium waste generated at the Laboratory is handled separately because beryllium has been identified as a highly toxic carcinogenic material

  12. Beryllium for fusion application - recent results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomutov, A.; Barabash, V.; Chakin, V.; Chernov, V.; Davydov, D.; Gorokhov, V.; Kawamura, H.; Kolbasov, B.; Kupriyanov, I.; Longhurst, G.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Shestakov, V.

    2002-12-01

    The main issues for the application of beryllium in fusion reactors are analyzed taking into account the latest results since the ICFRM-9 (Colorado, USA, October 1999) and presented at 5th IEA Be Workshop (10-12 October 2001, Moscow Russia). Considerable progress has been made recently in understanding the problems connected with the selection of the beryllium grades for different applications, characterization of the beryllium at relevant operational conditions (irradiation effects, thermal fatigue, etc.), and development of required manufacturing technologies. The key remaining problems related to the application of beryllium as an armour in near-term fusion reactors (e.g. ITER) are discussed. The features of the application of beryllium and beryllides as a neutron multiplier in the breeder blanket for power reactors (e.g. DEMO) in pebble-bed form are described.

  13. BERYLLIUM MEASUREMENT IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE WET WIPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youmans-Mcdonald, L.

    2011-02-18

    Analysis for beryllium by fluorescence is now an established method which is used in many government-run laboratories and commercial facilities. This study investigates the use of this technique using commercially available wet wipes. The fluorescence method is widely documented and has been approved as a standard test method by ASTM International and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The procedure involves dissolution of samples in aqueous ammonium bifluoride solution and then adding a small aliquot to a basic hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate fluorescent dye (Berylliant{trademark} Inc. Detection Solution Part No. CH-2) , and measuring the fluorescence. This method is specific to beryllium. This work explores the use of three different commercial wipes spiked with beryllium, as beryllium acetate or as beryllium oxide and subsequent analysis by optical fluorescence. The effect of possible interfering metals such as Fe, Ti and Pu in the wipe medium is also examined.

  14. Postirradiation examination of beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Postirradiation examinations of COBRA-1A beryllium pebbles irradiated in the EBR-II fast reactor at neutron fluences which generated 2700--3700 appm helium have been performed. Measurements included density change, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The major change in microstructure is development of unusually shaped helium bubbles forming as highly non-equiaxed thin platelet-like cavities on the basal plane. Measurement of the swelling due to cavity formation was in good agreement with density change measurements.

  15. Technical issues for beryllium use in fusion blanket applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium is an excellent non-fissioning neutron multiplier for fusion breeder and fusion electric blanket applications. This report is a compilation of information related to the use of beryllium with primary emphasis on the fusion breeder application. Beryllium resources, production, fabrication, properties, radiation damage and activation are discussed. A new theoretical model for beryllium swelling is presented

  16. Gas retention in irradiated beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helium (an inert gas) with low solubility in beryllium is trapped in irradiated beryllium at low temperatures (22 n/cm2 (E > 1 MeV). In these samples the calculated helium generated was ∼ 14,000 appm. They are described in terms of swelling, annealing, microstructure, and helium bubble behavior (size, density and mobility). A second sample was irradiated to ∼5 x 1022 n/cm2 (E > 1 MeV). In that one the calculated helium and tritium generated were ∼24,000 appm He and ∼3720 appm, and tritium content was examined in a dissolution experiment. Most of the tritium was released as gas to the glovebox indicating the generated tritium was retained in the helium bubbles. In a third set of experiments a specimen was examined by annealing at a succession of temperatures to more than 600 degree C for tritium release. In the temperature range of 300--500 degree C little release (0.01--0.4%) occurred, but there was a massive release at just over 600 degree C. Theories of swelling appear to adequately describe bubble behavior with breakaway release occurring at high helium contents and at large bubble diameters. 8 refs., 6 figs

  17. Fluorimetric method for determination of Beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The old fluorimetric method for the determination of Beryllium, based essentially on the fluorescence of the Beryllium-Morine complex in a strongly alkaline solution, is still competitive and stands the comparison with more modern methods or at least three reasons: in the presence of solid or gaseous samples (powders), the times necessary to finalize an analytic determination are comparable since the stage of the process which lasts the longest is the mineralization of the solid particles containing Beryllium, the cost of a good fluorimeter is by far Inferior to the cost, e. g., of an Emission Spectrophotometer provided with ICP torch and magnets for exploiting the Zeeman effect and of an Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer provided with Graphite furnace; it is possible to determine, fluorimetrically, rather small Beryllium levels (about 30 ng of Beryllium/sample), this potentiality is more than sufficient to guarantee the respect of all the work safety and hygiene rules now in force. The study which is the subject of this publication is designed to the analysis procedure which allows one to reach good results in the determination of Beryllium, chiefly through the control and measurement of the interference effect due to the presence of some metals which might accompany the environmental samples of workshops and laboratories where Beryllium is handled, either at the pure state or in its alloys. The results obtained satisfactorily point out the merits and limits of this analytic procedure

  18. Recommended design correlations for S-65 beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of tritium and helium behavior in irradiated beryllium are reviewed, along with the thermal-mechanical properties needed for ITER design analysis. Correlations are developed to describe the performance of beryllium in a fusion reactor environment. While this paper focuses on the use of beryllium as a plasma-facing component (PFC) material, the correlations presented here can also be used to describe the performance of beryllium as a neutron multiplier for a tritium breeding blanket. The performance properties for beryllium are subdivided into two categories: properties which do not change with irradiation damage to the bulk of the material; and properties which are degraded by neutron irradiation. The irradiation-independent properties described within are: thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, thermal expansion, and elastic constants. Irradiation-dependent properties include: yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, plastic tangent modulus, uniform and total tensile elongation, thermal and irradiation-induced creep strength, He-induced swelling and tritium retention/release. The approach taken in developing properties correlations is to describe the behavior of dense, pressed S-65 beryllium -- the material chosen for ITER PFC application -- as a function of temperature. As there are essentially no data on the performance of porous and/or irradiated S-65 beryllium, the degradation of properties with as-fabricated porosity and irradiation are determined from the broad data base on S-200F, as well as other types and grades, and applied to S-65 beryllium by scaling factors. The resulting correlations can be used for Be produced by vacuum hot pressing (VHP) and cold-pressing (CP)/sintering(S)/hot-isostatic-pressing (HIP). The performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium is discussed but not quantified

  19. Recommended design correlations for S-65 beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billone, M.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The properties of tritium and helium behavior in irradiated beryllium are reviewed, along with the thermal-mechanical properties needed for ITER design analysis. Correlations are developed to describe the performance of beryllium in a fusion reactor environment. While this paper focuses on the use of beryllium as a plasma-facing component (PFC) material, the correlations presented here can also be used to describe the performance of beryllium as a neutron multiplier for a tritium breeding blanket. The performance properties for beryllium are subdivided into two categories: properties which do not change with irradiation damage to the bulk of the material; and properties which are degraded by neutron irradiation. The irradiation-independent properties described within are: thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, thermal expansion, and elastic constants. Irradiation-dependent properties include: yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, plastic tangent modulus, uniform and total tensile elongation, thermal and irradiation-induced creep strength, He-induced swelling and tritium retention/release. The approach taken in developing properties correlations is to describe the behavior of dense, pressed S-65 beryllium -- the material chosen for ITER PFC application -- as a function of temperature. As there are essentially no data on the performance of porous and/or irradiated S-65 beryllium, the degradation of properties with as-fabricated porosity and irradiation are determined from the broad data base on S-200F, as well as other types and grades, and applied to S-65 beryllium by scaling factors. The resulting correlations can be used for Be produced by vacuum hot pressing (VHP) and cold-pressing (CP)/sintering(S)/hot-isostatic-pressing (HIP). The performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium is discussed but not quantified.

  20. Research of flaw assessment methods for beryllium reflector elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reflector elements made from metal beryllium is widely used as neutron reflectors to increase neutron flux in test reactors. When beryllium reflector elements are irradiated by neutron, bending of reflector elements caused by swelling occurs, and beryllium reflector elements must be replaced in several years. In this report, literature search and investigation for non-destructive inspection of Beryllium and experiments for Preliminary inspection to establish post irradiation examination method for research of characteristics of metal beryllium under neutron irradiation were reported. (author)

  1. Preliminary proposal for a beryllium technology program for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program was designed to provide the answers to the critical issues of beryllium technology needed in fusion blanket designs. The four tasks are as follows: (1) Beryllium property measurements needed for fusion data base. (2) Beryllium stress relaxation and creep measurements for lifetime modelling calculations. (3) Simplified recycle technique development for irradiated beryllium. (4) Beryllium neutron multiplier measurements using manganese bath absolute calibration techniques

  2. Iron-containing phases in commercial beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of hot and cold rolling with subsequent heat treatment on the interrelation of iron-containing phases and texture in commercial beryllium is considered. Using the Moessbauer microscopy it has been established that iron impurities are present both in solid solution and in the composition of intermetallide AlFeBe4 the texture for iron solid solution in beryllium is determined. Beryllium quenching results in nearly complete disappearance of intermetallic phase and iron transfers into substitutional solid solution. Further cold rolling does not result in any phase transformation

  3. Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S

    2012-03-29

    This document describes how Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) meets the requirements and management practices of federal regulation 10 CFR 850, 'Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP).' This revision of the LLNL CBDPP incorporates clarification and editorial changes based on lessons learned from employee discussions, observations and reviews of Department of Energy (DOE) Complex and commercial industry beryllium (Be) safety programs. The information is used to strengthen beryllium safety practices at LLNL, particularly in the areas of: (1) Management of small parts and components; and (2) Communication of program status to employees. Future changes to LLNL beryllium activities and on-going operating experience will be incorporated into the program as described in Section S, 'Performance Feedback.'

  4. Nitrogen reactivity toward beryllium: surface reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouche, A

    2013-06-01

    Recent experiments with nitrogen as a seeding gas in fusion plasma devices together with the option of using beryllium as an armor material in the future ITER tokamak (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) have raised new interest in the interactions of beryllium surfaces with nitrogen (atomic or molecular). The strong reactivity of nitrogen implies the formation of beryllium nitrite and, in conjunction with oxygen and other possible impurities, experimentalists have to consider the probability of generating various complex moieties such as imine, amine or oxyamine, and amide radicals. This chemistry would obviously dramatically perturb the plasma, and quantum investigations can be of great predictive help. Nitrogen adsorption on beryllium basal surfaces is investigated through quantum density functional theory. Different situations are examined: molecular or atomic nitrogen reactions; nitride radical adsorption or formation on surfaces; hydrogen retention on surfaces; combined nitrogen/oxygen reactivity and hydrogen retention. A tentative comparison with experiment is also proposed. PMID:23594802

  5. Lithium-Beryllium-Boron : Origin and Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Vangioni-Flam, Elisabeth; Casse, Michel; Audouze, Jean

    1999-01-01

    The origin and evolution of Lithium-Beryllium-Boron is a crossing point between different astrophysical fields : optical and gamma spectroscopy, non thermal nucleosynthesis, Big Bang and stellar nucleosynthesis and finally galactic evolution. We describe the production and the evolution of Lithium-Beryllium-Boron from Big Bang up to now through the interaction of the Standard Galactic Cosmic Rays with the interstellar medium, supernova neutrino spallation and a low energy component related to...

  6. Beryllium concentration in pharyngeal tonsils in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Nogaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Power plant dust is believed to be the main source of the increased presence of the element beryllium in the environment which has been detected in the atmospheric air, surface waters, groundwater, soil, food, and cigarette smoke. In humans, beryllium absorption occurs mainly via the respiratory system. The pharyngeal tonsils are located on the roof of the nasopharynx and are in direct contact with dust particles in inhaled air. As a result, the concentration levels of beryllium in the pharyngeal tonsils are likely to be a good indicator of concentration levels in the air. The presented study had two primary aims: to investigate the beryllium concentration in pharyngeal tonsils in children living in southern Poland, and the appropriate reference range for this element in children’s pharyngeal tonsils. Pharyngeal tonsils were extracted from a total of 379 children (age 2–17 years, mean 6.2 ± 2.7 years living in southern Poland. Tonsil samples were mineralized in a closed cycle in a pressure mineralizer PDS 6, using 65% spectrally pure nitric acid. Beryllium concentration was determined using the ICP-AES method with a Perkin Elmer Optima 5300DVTM. The software Statistica v. 9 was used for the statistical analysis. It was found that girls had a significantly greater beryllium concentration in their pharyngeal tonsils than boys. Beryllium concentration varies greatly, mostly according to the place of residence. Based on the study results, the reference value for beryllium in pharyngeal tonsils of children is recommended to be determined at 0.02–0.04 µg/g.

  7. Tritium release from neutron irradiated beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reactortechnik

    1998-01-01

    One of the most important open issues related to beryllium for fusion applications refers to the kinetics of the tritium release as a function of neutron fluence and temperature. The EXOTIC-7 as well as the `Beryllium` experiments carried out in the HFR reactor in Petten are considered as the most detailed and significant tests for investigating the beryllium response under neutron irradiation. This paper reviews the present status of beryllium post-irradiation examinations performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe with samples from the above mentioned irradiation experiments, trying to elucidate the tritium release controlling processes. In agreement with previous studies it has been found that release starts at about 500-550degC and achieves a maximum at about 700-750degC. The observed release at about 500-550degC is probably due to tritium escaping from chemical traps, while the maximum release at about 700-750degC is due to tritium escaping from physical traps. The consequences of a direct contact between beryllium and ceramics during irradiation, causing tritium implanting in a surface layer of beryllium up to a depth of about 40 mm and leading to an additional inventory which is usually several times larger than the neutron-produced one, are also presented and the effects on the tritium release are discussed. (author)

  8. 模拟微重力环境下虫草多糖促进淋巴细胞增殖和CD分子表达的实验研究%Cordyceps Sinensis Enhances Lymphocyte Proliferation and CD Markers Expression in Simulated Microgravity Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝彤; 王妍; 李俊杰; 杜芝燕; 段翠密; 王滟濛; 王常勇; 宋锦苹; 王林杰; 李莹辉

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed to explore the effect of cordyceps sinensis enhancing lymphocyte proliferation and surface CD marker expression in simulated microgravity environment. The splenic lymphocytes were separated from mice and cultured in the rotary cell culture system simulated microgravity environment. The cells were treated with different concentration of cordyceps sinensis solution (0, 6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50 μg/ml) for 24, 48 and 72 h respectively, then the cells were harvested, and analyzed for cell proliferation and the expression of cell surface markers(CD4 and CD8). The results showed that under simulated microgravity environment, the lymphocyte proliferation was inhibited. When the concentration of cordyceps sinensis was 25 or 50 μg/ml, the lymphocyte proliferation, CD4 and CD8 expressions all increased, but 50 μg/ml cordyceps sinensis could inhibit the proliferation ability with the time prolonging. It is concluded that the suitable concentration of cordyceps sinensis displayed the ability to enhance the lymphocyte proliferation and CD marker expression in simulated microgravity environment. These results may be valuable for screening drugs which can be potentially against immunosuppression under simulated microgravity.%本研究旨在探索旋转式细胞培养系统(RCCS)模拟微重力环境下虫草多糖促进淋巴细胞增殖和表面CD分子表达的作用.体外分离培养小鼠脾淋巴细胞,在RCCS模拟微重力环境中分别添加6.25、12.5、25和50 μg/ml的虫草多糖溶液培养,在24、48和72 h检测虫草多糖对淋巴细胞增殖及表面CD分子表达的作用.结果表明,模拟微重力环境抑制了淋巴细胞的增殖能力,25和50 μg/ml虫草多糖对淋巴细胞的增殖和CD4、CD8的表达均具有促进作用,但50μg/ml虫草多糖促进淋巴细胞增殖的作用随对间延长变为抑制作用.结论:适宜浓度范围内的虫草多糖具有对抗模拟微重力环境下淋巴细胞增殖能力下降和表

  9. Sanitary-hygienic and ecological aspects of beryllium production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvinskykh, E.M.; Savchuk, V.V.; Sidorov, V.L.; Slobodin, D.B.; Tuzov, Y.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant, Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan)

    1998-01-01

    The Report describes An organization of sanitary-hygienic and ecological control of beryllium production at Ulba metallurgical plant. It involves: (1) the consideration of main methods for protection of beryllium production personnel from unhealthy effect of beryllium, (2) main kinds of filters, used in gas purification systems at different process areas, (3) data on beryllium monitoring in water, soil, on equipment. This Report also outlines problems connected with designing devices for a rapid analysis of beryllium in air as well as problems of beryllium production on ecological situation in the town. (author)

  10. Beryllium colorimetric detection for high speed monitoring of laboratory environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tammy P; Sauer, Nancy N

    2002-08-01

    The health consequences of beryllium (Be2+) exposure can be severe. Beryllium is responsible for a debilitating and potentially fatal lung disease, chronic beryllium disease (CBD) resulting from inhalation of beryllium particles. The US Code of Federal Register (CFR), 10 CFR 850, has established a limit of 0.2 microg beryllium/100 cm(2) as the maximum amount of beryllium allowable on surfaces to be released from beryllium work areas in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The analytical technique described herein reduces the time and cost of detecting beryllium on laboratory working surfaces substantially. The technique provides a positive colorimetric response to the presence of beryllium on a 30.5 cm x 30.5 cm (1 ft(2)) surface at a minimum detection of 0.2 microg/100 cm(2). The method has been validated to provide positive results for beryllium in the presence of excess iron, calcium, magnesium, copper, nickel, chromium and lead at concentrations 100 times that of beryllium and aluminum and uranium (UO2(2+)) at lesser concentrations. The colorimetric detection technique has also been validated to effectively detect solid forms of beryllium including Be(OH)2, BeCl2, BeSO4, beryllium metal and BeO. PMID:12137989

  11. Beryllium. Health hazards and their control. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work (continuation of 'Beryllium' series) health hazards, toxic effects, limits of permissible atmospheric contamination and safe exposure to beryllium are described. Guidelines to the design, control operations and hygienic precautions of the working facilities are given. (Author)

  12. Mechanical performance of irradiated beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Dalle-Donne, M.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik

    1998-01-01

    For the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) Blanket, which is one of the two reference concepts studied within the European Fusion Technology Programme, the neutron multiplier consists of a mixed bed of about 2 and 0.1-0.2 mm diameter beryllium pebbles. Beryllium has no structural function in the blanket, however microstructural and mechanical properties are important, as they might influence the material behavior under neutron irradiation. The EXOTIC-7 as well as the `Beryllium` experiments carried out in the HFR reactor in Petten are considered as the most detailed and significant tests for investigating it. This paper reviews the present status of beryllium post-irradiation examinations performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe with samples from these irradiation experiments, emphasizing the effects of irradiation of essential material properties and trying to elucidate the processes controlling the property changes. The microstructure, the porosity distribution, the impurity content, the behavior under compression loads and the compatibility of the beryllium pebbles with lithium orthosilicate (Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}) during the in-pile irradiation are presented and critically discussed. Qualitative information on ductility and creep obtained by hardness-type measurements are also supplied. (author)

  13. Comparison of the effects of polysaccharides from wood-cultured and bag-cultured Ganoderma lucidum on murine spleen lymphocyte proliferation in vitro%段木栽培及袋栽灵芝多糖对体外培养小鼠脾淋巴细胞增殖活性的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹立珍; 林志彬

    2003-01-01

    目的比较段木栽培灵芝多糖(wood-cultured Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides, Gl-PS-WC) 及袋栽灵芝多糖(bag-cultured Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides, Gl-PS-BC)对体外培养小鼠脾淋巴细胞增殖活性的影响,探讨袋栽灵芝多糖替代段木栽培灵芝多糖的可能性. 方法检测两种灵芝多糖对混合淋巴细胞培养(MLC)反应的影响;观察对刀豆蛋白A (Con A)、细菌脂多糖(LPS)诱导淋巴细胞增殖的影响以及对环孢素A (CsA)、丝裂霉素C(Mit C)、足叶乙苷(VP-16) 等抑制MLC反应的影响.结果当质量浓度为0.2~12.8 mg*L-1时,两种灵芝多糖均可促进MLC反应,增强Con A或LPS诱导的淋巴细胞增殖,并拮抗CsA, Mit C或VP-16对MLC反应的抑制作用.未发现两种多糖之间有显著性差异.结论 Gl-PS-WC及Gl-PS-BC对体外培养脾淋巴细胞的增殖活性有类似作用.%Aim To compare the influences of wood-cultured Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS-WC) and bag-cultured Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS-BC) on the proliferation activities of murine spleen lymphocytes in vitro, and investigate whether Gl-PS-BC can be substituted for Gl-PS-WC. Methods Mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) reaction, lymphocyte proliferation induced by concanavalin A (Con A, 1 mg*L-1) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5 mg*L-1), MLC reactions inhibited by immunosuppressive drugs, cyclosporine A (CsA, 0.1 mg*L-1), mitomycin (Mit C, 0.1 mg*L-1), or antitumor drug, etoposide (VP-16, 0.1 mg*L-1), were detected in the presence or absence of Gl-PS-WC and Gl-PS-BC in the concentration range of 0.2-12.8 mg*L-1. Results Two kinds of polysaccharides were shown to promote MLC in the range of 0.2-12.8 mg*L-1, increase lymphocyte proliferation induced by Con A or LPS and antagonize the inhibitory effects of CsA, Mit C or VP-16 on MLC. No significant difference was observed between these two kinds of polysaccharides in selected concentrations. Conclusion Gl-PS-WC and Gl-PS-BC showed similar effects

  14. 75 FR 80734 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) (63 FR 66940). After considering the comments received, DOE... CFR Part 850 RIN 1992-AA39 Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program AGENCY: Office of Health... beryllium disease prevention program. The Department solicits comment and information on the...

  15. Spectrographic determination of impurities in beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the spectrographic determination of Al, B, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mg, NaNi, Si and Zn in nuclear grade beryllium oxide has been developed. The determination of Co, Al, Na and Zn is besed upon a carrier distillation technique. Better results were obtained with 2% Ga2O3 as carrier in beryllium oxide. For the elements B, Cd, Cu, Fe, Cr, Mg, Ni and Si the sample is loaded in a Scribner-Mullin shallow cup electrode, covered with graphite powder and excited in DC arc. The relative standard deviation values for different elements are in the range of 10 to 20%. The method fulfills requirements of precision and sensitivity for specification analysis of nuclear grade beryllium oxide.(Author)

  16. Low-temperature solubility of copper in beryllium, in beryllium--aluminum, and in beryllium--silicon using ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion implantation and ion backscattering analysis have been used to measure the solubility of copper in beryllium over the temperature range 593 to 1023 K, and to determine the effect on the copper solubility of aluminum and silicon impurities. The binary data extend 280 K lower in temperature than previous results, while the ternary measurements are unique. The information is pertinent to the use of copper for solution strengthening of beryllium. Diffusion couples were formed by ion implantation of copper into single-crystal beryllium at room temperature, followed where appropriate by implantation of aluminum or silicon. The samples were then annealed isothermally, and the time-evolution of the composition-vs-depth profile, determined by ion backscattering analysis, yielded the solubility of copper. Measurements at exceptionally low temperatures were facilitated by the short diffusion distances, approximately equal to 0.1 mu m, and the use of neon irradiation to accelerate diffusion. The resulting binary data for the solubility C0 of copper in beryllium merge smoothly into previous results at higher temperatures. The combined data, covering the temperature range 593 to 1373 K, are well described by C0 = (12.6 at. pct) . exp (-842 K/T). In the ternary regime, the effects of aluminum and silicon on the solubility of copper were found to be small

  17. Preliminary results for explosion bonding of beryllium to copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, D.J. [Northwest Technical Industries, Inc., Sequim, WA (United States); Dombrowski, D.E. [Brush Wellman, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This program was undertaken to determine if explosive bonding is a viable technique for joining beryllium to copper substrates. The effort was a cursory attempt at trying to solve some of the problems associated with explosive bonding beryllium and should not be considered a comprehensive research effort. There are two issues that this program addressed. Can beryllium be explosive bonded to copper substrates and can the bonding take place without shattering the beryllium? Thirteen different explosive bonding iterations were completed using various thicknesses of beryllium that were manufactured with three different techniques.

  18. Investigation on the pulmonary effects of intermetallic beryllium compounds. Final report, January 1, 1976-December 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stemmer, K. L.

    1978-12-01

    The pulmonary response to the exposure to tantalum and niobium beryllide, and a copper beryllium alloy was investigated. The findings were compared to beryllium metal as positive control. 2.5 or 0.5 mg as beryllium were given to rats by intratracheal intubation. At 30, 60, and 90 days after exposure the response was similar with each material. There was inflammatory infiltrate by lymphocytes, macrophage accumulation, and beginning fibrosis of the terminal bronchioles. Epithelial hyperplasia occurred at, or after, 90 days. Niobium beryllide had a unique granulomatous lesion which was similar to human berylliosis. After 15 months, 8 squamous cell carcinomas and 1 adenocarcinoma were found in rats exposed to beryllium metal. No neoplasms were seen with the other materials. Solubility studies in saline and serum were conducted with the same materials. Niobium beryllide had a significantly lower solubility, namely, 0.04 in saline and 0.06 micrograms per milliliter in serum. The copper alloy was even lower at 0.02 in saline and 0.01 micrograms per milliliter in serum.

  19. DEXAMETHASONE DIFFERENTIALLY DOWN-REGULATES L-SELECTIN (CD62L) EXPRESSION BY BOVINE LYMPHOCYTE SUBSETS IN VIVO AND DEPLETES THE INTESTINAL MUCOSA OF INTRAEPITHELIAL GAMMA DELTA CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A hallmark of immune modulation by dexamethasone (DEX) is the suppression of lymphocyte proliferation. DEX also alters the expression of adhesion molecules on bovine lymphocytes. Although intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) mainly are non-proliferating cells, we hypothesized that DEX treatment of ca...

  20. Potential exposures and risks from beryllium-containing products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Henry H; Florig, H Keith

    2002-10-01

    Beryllium is the strongest of the lightweight metals. Used primarily in military applications prior to the end of the Cold War, beryllium is finding new applications in many commercial products, including computers, telecommunication equipment, and consumer and automotive electronics. The use of beryllium in nondefense consumer applications is of concern because beryllium is toxic. Inhalation of beryllium dust or vapor causes a chronic lung disease in some individuals at concentrations as low as 0.01 microg/m3 in air. As beryllium enters wider commerce, it is prudent to ask what risks this might present to the general public and to workers downstream of the beryllium materials industry. We address this question by evaluating the potential for beryllium exposure from the manufacturing, use, recycle, and disposal of beryllium-containing products. Combining a market study with a qualitative exposure analysis, we determine which beryllium applications and life cycle phases have the largest exposure potential. Our analysis suggests that use and maintenance of the most common types of beryllium-containing products do not result in any obvious exposures of concern, and that maintenance activities result in greater exposures than product use. Product disposal has potential to present significant individual risks, but uncertainties concerning current and future routes of product disposal make it difficult to be definitive. Overall, additional exposure and dose-response data are needed to evaluate both the health significance of many exposure scenarios, and the adequacy of existing regulations to protect workers and the public. Although public exposures to beryllium and public awareness and concern regarding beryllium risks are currently low, beryllium risks have psychometric qualities that may lead to rapidly heightened public concern. PMID:12442995

  1. Magnesium Cermets and Magnesium-Beryllium Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes some results of work on the development of magnesium-magnesium oxide cermets and of super heat-resistant magnesiumberyllium alloys produced by powder metallurgical methods. The introduction of even a minute quantity of finely dispersed magnesium oxide into magnesium results in a strengthening of the material, the degree of which increases with increased magnesium oxide concentration, although variation of this concentration within the limits of 0.3 to 5 wt.% has a comparatively slight effect on the corresponding variation in the short-term strength over the whole range of temperatures investigated. At 20oC, in the case of the cermets, σβ = 28 to 31 kg/mm2 and δ = 3 .5 to 4.5%; at 500oC σβ = 2.6 to 3.2 kg/mm2 and δ =30 to 40%. The positive effect of the finely dispersed oxide phase is particularly evident in protracted tests. For magnesium cermets, σ (300)/100 = 2.2 kg/mm2. Characteristic of the mixtures is the high thermal stability of the strength properties, linked chiefly with the thermodynamic stability of the strength-giving oxide phase in the metal matrix. The use of powder metallurgical methods has yielded super heat-resistant magnesium-beryllium alloys containing heightened concentrations of beryllium (PMB alloys). In their strength characteristics PMB alloys are close to Mg-MgO cermets, but the magnesium-beryllium alloys have a degree and duration of resistance to high temperature oxidation which exceeds the corresponding qualities of the magnesium alloys at present known. Thus, in air of 580oC, PMB alloys with 2 to 5% beryllium maintain a high resistance to oxidation for a period of over 12000 to 14000 h. This long-term heat resistance is chiefly a result of the amount of beryllium in the alloy, and increases with increasing beryllium content. PMB alloys are also marked by high resistance to short bursts of overheating. Magnesium cermets and magnesium-beryllium alloys, with their enhanced high-temperature stability, are capable

  2. Status of beryllium development for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium is a leading candidate material for the neutron multiplier of tritium breeding blankets and the plasma-facing component of first-wall and divertor systems. Depending on the application, the fabrication methods proposed include hot-pressing, hot-isostatic-pressing, cold-isostatic-pressing/sintering, rotary electrode processing and plasma spraying. Product forms include blocks, tubes, pebbles, tiles and coatings. While, in general, beryllium is not a leading structural material candidate, its mechanical performance, as well as its performance with regard to sputtering, heat transport, tritium retention/release, helium-induced swelling and chemical compatibility, is an important consideration in first-wall/blanket design. Differential expansion within the beryllium causes internal stresses which may result in cracking, thereby affecting the heat transport and barrier performance of the material. Overall deformation can result in loading of neighboring structural material. Thus, in assessing the performance of beryllium for fusion applications, it is important to have a good database in all of these performance areas, as well as a set of properties correlations and models for the purpose of interpolation/extrapolation.In this current work, the range of anticipated fusion operating conditions is reviewed. The thermal, mechanical, chemical compatibility, tritium retention/release, and helium retention/swelling databases are then reviewed for fabrication methods and fusion operating conditions of interest. Properties correlations and uncertainty ranges are also discussed. In the case of the more complex phenomena of tritium retention/release and helium-induced swelling, fundamental mechanisms and models are reviewed in more detail. Areas in which additional data are needed are highlighted, along with some trends which suggest ways of optimizing the performance of beryllium for fusion applications. (orig.)

  3. Safety handling of beryllium for fusion technology R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feasibility of beryllium use as a blanket neutron multiplier, first wall and plasma facing material has been studied for the D-T burning experiment reactors such as ITER. Various experimental work of beryllium and its compounds will be performed under the conditions of high temperature and high energy particle exposure simulating fusion reactor conditions. Beryllium is known as a hazardous substance and its handling has been carefully controlled by various health and safe guidances and/or regulations in many countries. Japanese regulations for hazardous substance provide various guidelines on beryllium for the protection of industrial workers and environment. This report was prepared for the safe handling of beryllium in a laboratory scale experiments for fusion technology R and D such as blanket development. Major items in this report are; (1) Brief review of guidances and regulations in USA, UK and Japan. (2) Safe handling and administration manuals at beryllium facilities in INEL, LANL and JET. (3) Conceptual design study of beryllium handling facility for small to mid-scale blanket R and D. (4) Data on beryllium toxicity, example of clinical diagnosis of beryllium disease, and environmental occurence of beryllium. (5) Personnel protection tools of Japanese Industrial Standard for hazardous substance. (author) 61 refs

  4. Control of beryllium powder at a DOE facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium is contained in a number of domestic and national defense items. Although many items might contain beryllium in some manner, few people need worry about the adverse effects caused by exposure to beryllium because it is the inhalable form of beryllium that is most toxic. Chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a granulomas and fibrotic lung disease with long latency, can be developed after inhalation exposures to beryllium. It is a progressive, debilitating lung disease. Its occurrence in those exposed to beryllium has been difficult to predict because some people seem to react to low concentration exposures whereas others do not react to high concentration exposures. Onset of the disease frequently occurs between 15 to 20 years after exposure begins. Some people develop the disease after many years of low concentration exposures but others do not develop CBD even though beryllium is shown to be present in lungs and urine. Conclusions based on these experiences are that their is some immunological dependence of developing CBD in about 3--4% of the exposed population, but the exact mechanism involved has not yet been identified. Acute beryllium disease can occur after a single exposure to a concentration of greater than 0.100 mg/m3 (inhalation exposure); it is characterized by the development of chemical pneumoconiosis, a respiratory disease. The acute effect of skin contact is a dermatitis characterized by itching and reddened, elevated, or fluid-accumulated lesions which appear particularly on the exposed surfaces of the body, especially the face, neck, arms, and hands. Small particles of beryllium that enter breaks in the skin can lead to the development of granulomas and/or open sores that do not heal until the beryllium has been removed. Our interest is only airborne beryllium, which is found in areas that machine or produce beryllium

  5. Atg5 Is Essential for the Development and Survival of Innate Lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Timothy E; Geary, Clair D; Weizman, Orr-El; Geiger, Theresa L; Rapp, Moritz; Dorn, Gerald W; Overholtzer, Michael; Sun, Joseph C

    2016-05-31

    Autophagy is an essential cellular survival mechanism that is required for adaptive lymphocyte development; however, its role in innate lymphoid cell (ILC) development remains unknown. Furthermore, the conditions that promote lymphocyte autophagy during homeostasis are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that Atg5, an essential component of the autophagy machinery, is required for the development of mature natural killer (NK) cells and group 1, 2, and 3 innate ILCs. Although inducible ablation of Atg5 was dispensable for the homeostasis of lymphocyte precursors and mature lymphocytes in lymphoreplete mice, we found that autophagy is induced in both adaptive and innate lymphocytes during homeostatic proliferation in lymphopenic hosts to promote their survival by limiting cell-intrinsic apoptosis. Induction of autophagy through metformin treatment following homeostatic proliferation increased lymphocyte numbers through an Atg5-dependent mechanism. These findings highlight the essential role for autophagy in ILC development and lymphocyte survival during lymphopenia. PMID:27210760

  6. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions patients recognize vaccine antigens in the presence of activated dendritic cells, and produced high levels of CD8 + IFNγ + T cells and low levels of IL-2 when induced to proliferate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández-Montes Jorge

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most infections with human papillomavirus (HPV are resolved without clinical intervention, but a minority evolves into chronic lesions of distinct grades, including cervical-uterine cancer. It is known that in most cases the immune system mediates elimination of HPV infection. However, the mechanism of immune evasion leading to HPV persistence and development of early cervical lesions is not fully understood. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the potential of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL from low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL patients to be activated ex-vivo by vaccine antigens, the participation of cytotoxic lymphocytes and regulatory T cells, and to determine the secretion of Th1 and Th2 cytokines mediated by stimulation of T cell receptors. Results We found that PBL from LSIL patients showed a significantly lower proliferation rate to vaccine antigens as compared to that of healthy donors, even though there was not a difference in the presence of antibodies to those antigens in sera from both groups. We did not find differences in either the frequency of CD4 + CD25 + FoxP3+ in PBL, or the levels of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 in plasma or conditioned media from PBL incubated with TcR agonists in vitro, between the two groups. However, we detected a lower production of IL-2 and a higher proportion of CD8 + IFNγ + cells in PBL from LSIL patients as compared with PBL from normal donors. We also observed that PBL from patients infected by HPV-16 and −18 were not able to proliferate in the presence of soluble HPV antigens added to the culture; however, a high level of proliferation was attained when these antigens were presented by activated dendritic cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that the immunodeficiency reported in LSIL patients could be due to the inability of specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes that for some unknown reason are present but unable to mount a response when

  7. Lymphocyte Functions in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellis, Neal R.; Risin, Diane; Sundaresan, A.; Cooper, D.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    To understand the mechanism of immunity impairment in space it is important to analyze the direct effects of space-related conditions on different lymphocytes functions. Since 1992, we are investigating the effect of modeled and true microgravity (MG) on numerous lymphocyte functions. We had shown that modeled (MMG) and true microgravity inhibit lymphocyte locomotion through type I collagen. Modeled microgravity also suppresses polyclonal and antigen-specific lymphocyte activation. Polyclonal activation of lymphocytes prior to exposure to MMG abrogates the MG-induced inhibition of lymphocyte locomotion. The relationship between activation deficits and the loss of locomotion in MG was investigated using PKC activation by phorbol ester (PMA) and calcium ionophore (ionomycin). Direct activation of PKC by PMA substantially restored the MMG-inhibited lymphocyte locomotion and PHA-induced lymphocyte activation lonomycin by itself did not restore either locomotion or activation of the lymphocytes, indicating that these changes are not related to the impairment in the calcium flux in MMG. Treatment of lymphocytes with PMA before exposure to MMG prevented the loss of locomotion. It was observed that DNA synthesis is not necessary for restoration of locomotion since mitomicin C treated and untreated cells recovered their locomotion to the same level after PKC activation. Our recent data indicate that microgravity may selectively effect the expression of novel Ca2+ independent isoforms of PKC, in particularly PKC sigma and delta. This provides a new insight in understanding of the mechanisms of MG-sensitive cellular functions.

  8. Study on neutron irradiation behavior of beryllium as neutron multiplier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishitsuka, Etsuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    More than 300 tons beryllium is expected to be used as a neutron multiplier in ITER, and study on the neutron irradiation behavior of beryllium as the neutron multiplier with Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) were performed to get the engineering data for fusion blanket design. This study started as the study on the tritium behavior in beryllium neutron reflector in order to make clear the generation mechanism on tritium of JMTR primary coolant since 1985. These experiences were handed over to beryllium studies for fusion study, and overall studies such as production technology of beryllium pebbles, irradiation behavior evaluation and reprocessing technology have been started since 1990. In this presentation, study on the neutron irradiation behavior of beryllium as the neutron multiplier with JMTR was reviewed from the point of tritium release, thermal properties, mechanical properties and reprocessing technology. (author)

  9. Status of material development for lifetime expansion of beryllium reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium has been used as the reflector element material in the reactor, specifically S-200F structural grade beryllium manufactured by Materion Brush Beryllium and Composites (former, Brush Wellman Inc.). As a part of the reactor upgrade, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) also has carried out the cooperation experiments to extend the operating lifetime of the beryllium reflector elements. It will first be necessary to determine which of the material's physical, mechanical and chemical properties will be the most influential on that choice. The irradiation testing plans to evaluate the various beryllium grades are also briefly considered and prepared. In this paper, material selection, irradiation test plan and PEI development for lifetime expansion of beryllium are described for material testing reactors. (author)

  10. Characterization of plasma sprayed beryllium ITER first wall mockups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, R.G.; Vaidya, R.U.; Hollis, K.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Material Science and Technology Div.

    1998-01-01

    ITER first wall beryllium mockups, which were fabricated by vacuum plasma spraying the beryllium armor, have survived 3000 thermal fatigue cycles at 1 MW/m{sup 2} without damage during high heat flux testing at the Plasma Materials Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratory in New Mexico. The thermal and mechanical properties of the plasma sprayed beryllium armor have been characterized. Results are reported on the chemical composition of the beryllium armor in the as-deposited condition, the through thickness and normal to the through thickness thermal conductivity and thermal expansion, the four-point bend flexure strength and edge-notch fracture toughness of the beryllium armor, the bond strength between the beryllium armor and the underlying heat sink material, and ultrasonic C-scans of the Be/heat sink interface. (author)

  11. Mechanisms of hydrogen retention in metallic beryllium and beryllium oxide and properties of ion-induced beryllium nitride; Rueckhaltemechanismen fuer Wasserstoff in metallischem Beryllium und Berylliumoxid sowie Eigenschaften von ioneninduziertem Berylliumnitrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberkofler, Martin

    2011-09-22

    In the framework of this thesis laboratory experiments on atomically clean beryllium surfaces were performed. They aim at a basic understanding of the mechanisms occurring upon interaction of a fusion plasma with a beryllium first wall. The retention and the temperature dependent release of implanted deuterium ions are investigated. An atomistic description is developed through simulations and through the comparison with calculations based on density functional theory. The results of these investigations are compared to the behaviour of hydrogen upon implantation into thermally grown beryllium oxide layers. Furthermore, beryllium nitride is produced by implantation of nitrogen into metallic beryllium and its properties are investigated. The results are interpreted with regard to the use of beryllium in a fusion reactor. (orig.)

  12. Plasma cleaning of beryllium coated mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, L.; Marot, L.; Steiner, R.; Newman, M.; Widdowson, A.; Ivanova, D.; Likonen, J.; Petersson, P.; Pintsuk, G.; Rubel, M.; Meyer, E.; Contributors, JET

    2016-02-01

    Cleaning systems of metallic first mirrors are needed in more than 20 optical diagnostic systems from ITER to avoid reflectivity losses. Currently, plasma sputtering is considered as one of the most promising techniques to remove deposits coming from the main wall (mainly beryllium and tungsten). This work presents the results of plasma cleaning of rhodium and molybdenum mirrors exposed in JET-ILW and contaminated with typical tokamak elements (including beryllium and tungsten). Using radio frequency (13.56 MHz) argon or helium plasma, the removal of mixed layers was demonstrated and mirror reflectivity improved towards initial values. The cleaning was evaluated by performing reflectivity measurements, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ion beam analysis.

  13. Computer simulation of electronic excitations in beryllium

    CERN Document Server

    Popov, A V

    2016-01-01

    An effective method for the quantitative description of the electronic excited states of polyatomic systems is developed by using computer technology. The proposed method allows calculating various properties of matter at the atomic level within the uniform scheme. A special attention is paid to the description of beryllium atoms interactions with the external fields, comparable by power to the fields in atoms, molecules and clusters.

  14. Low cycle thermal fatigue testing of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel technique has been used to test the relative low cycle thermal fatigue resistance of different grades of US and Russian beryllium, which is proposed as plasma facing armor for fusion reactor first wall, limiter and divertor components. The 30 kW electron beam test system at Sandia National Laboratories was used to sweep the beam spot along one direction at 1 Hz. This produces a localized temperature ''spike'' of 750 C for each pass of the beam. Large thermal stresses in excess of the yield strength are generated, due to very high spot heat flux, 25 MWm-2. Cyclic plastic strains on the order of 0.6% produced visible cracking on the heated surface in less than 3000 cycles. An in-vacuo fiber optic borescope was used to visually inspect the beryllium surfaces for crack initiation. Grades of US beryllium tested included: S-65C, S-65H, S-200F, S200F-H, SR-200, I-400, extruded high purity, HIP'd spherical powder, porous beryllium (94 and 98% dense), Be/30%, BeO, Be/60% BeO, and TiBe12. Russian grades included: TPG-56, TShGT, DShG-200, and TSHG-56. Both thenumber of cycles tocrack initiation and the depth of crack propagation, were measured. The most fatigue resistant grades were S-65C, DShG-200, TShGT and TShG-56. Rolled sheet Be (SR-200) showed excellent crack propagation resistance in the plane of rolling, despite early formation of delamination cracks. Only one sample showed no evidence of surface melting, Extruded (T). Metallographic and chemical analyses are provided. Good agreement was found between the measured depth of cracks and a 2-D elastic-plastic finite element stress analysis. (orig.)

  15. 亚甲蓝光化学作用抑制淋巴细胞增殖及其细胞因子分泌活性的研究%Inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine secretion using methylene blue photochemical treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张博; 黄宇闻; 王莉; 莫琴; 王迅; 钱开诚

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨亚甲蓝光化学法对淋巴细胞的增殖活性及细胞因子分泌活性的抑制作用,分析该方法对淋巴细胞的灭活作用.方法 实验分为实验组(n=3):从全血中分离淋巴细胞,将其悬浮于亚甲蓝终浓度为3μmol/L的PBS缓冲液中,注入PVC小袋内(660 nm处透光率为64%),于35 000lux光照度的荧光下照射50 min;光照组(n=3):相同来源的淋巴细胞重悬于不合亚甲蓝的PBS缓冲液中,将其注入PVC小袋内并于35 000 lux光照度的荧光下照射50 min;对照组(n=3):为相同来源、重悬于不含亚甲蓝的PBS缓冲液中且不接受光照处理的淋巴细胞.以植物血凝素(PHA)同时刺激3组细胞,用CCK-8细胞增殖检测试剂盒检测淋巴细胞增殖活性,计算亚甲蓝光化学处理对淋巴细胞的增殖抑制率;细胞因子分泌活性采用酶联免疫试剂盒检测;显微镜观察细胞形态及增殖集落.结果 与对照组比较,实验组(亚甲蓝光化学处理)培养3、4、5 d后对PHA刺激的增殖抑制率分别为89.31%,100%及94.39%,其TNF-α、IFN-γ、IL-10的分泌量均较对照及光照组有极明显的降低(P<0.05);IL-4的分泌量较光照组显著降低(P<0.01);镜下照片显示,实验组经PHA刺激后仅有少量细胞集丛,与对照组及光照组增殖集落相比增殖抑制效应明显.结论 亚甲蓝光化学法可有效抑制淋巴细胞的增殖活性及细胞因子分泌活性,提示该方法预防输血相关的移植物抗宿主病(TA-GvHD)的有效性与可行性.%Objective To study the inhibitive effects of methylene blue photochemical treatment ( MB + L)on lympho cyte proliferation and cytokine secretion. Methods Lymphocytes separated from whole blood were suspended in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). For experimental group, methylene blue (MB)was mixed with cell suspensions in a final concentration of 3 μM. The mixture was transferred into PVC bags and exposed to visible light with illuminance of 35 000 lux for 50

  16. Dynamic behaviour of S200F beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compression tests have been made on a large scale of strain, strain rate (up to 2000 s-1) and temperature (between 20 C and 300 C). From these experiences, we have calculated a constitutive model for beryllium S200F, which can be used by computer codes. Its formulation is not far from Steinberg, Cochran and Guinan's. But in our case, the influences of temperature and strain rate appear clearly within the expression. To validate our equation, we have used it in a computer code. Its extrapolation for higher strain rates is in good agreement with experiments such as Taylor impact tests or plate impact tests (strain rates greater than 104 s-1). With micrography, we could settle a link between the main strain mode within the material, and the variation of one parameter of the model. Beside the constitutive model, we have shown that shock loaded beryllium behaves in two different ways. If the strain rate is lower than 5.106 s-1, then it is proportional to the squared shock pressure. Beyond, it is a linear function of shock pressure to the power of four. By a spall study on beryllium, we have confirmed that it is excessively fragile. Its fracture is sudden, at a strength near 1 GPa. (author)

  17. Permeation behavior of deuterium implanted into beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study on Implantation Driven Permeation (IDP) behavior of deuterium through pure beryllium was investigated as a part of the research to predict the tritium permeation through the first wall components ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). The permeation experiments were carried out with two beryllium specimens, one was an unannealed specimen and the other was that annealed at 1173 K. The permeation flux was measured as a function of specimen temperature and incident ion flux. Surface analysis of specimen was also carried out after the permeation experiment. Permeation was observed only with the annealed specimen and no significant permeation was observed with unannealed specimen under the present experimental condition (maximum temperature: 685 K, detection limit: 1x1013 D atoms/m2s). It could be attributed that the intrinsic lattice defects, which act as diffusion preventing site, decreased with the specimen annealing. Based on the result of steady and transient permeation behavior and surface analysis, it was estimated that the deuterium permeation implanted into annealed beryllium was controlled by surface recombination due to the oxide layer on the surface of the permeated side. (author)

  18. Interaction of nitrogen ions with beryllium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobes, Katharina [Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, Association EURATOM ÖAW, Vienna (Austria); Köppen, Martin [Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Oberkofler, Martin [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lungu, Cristian P.; Porosnicu, Corneliu [National Institute for Laser, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Höschen, Till; Meisl, Gerd [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Linsmeier, Christian [Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Aumayr, Friedrich, E-mail: aumayr@iap.tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, Association EURATOM ÖAW, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of energetic nitrogen projectiles with a beryllium surface is studied using a highly sensitive quartz crystal microbalance technique. The overall mass change rate of the beryllium sample under N{sub 2}{sup +} ion impact at an ion energy of 5000 eV (i.e. 2500 eV per N) is investigated in situ and in real-time. A strong dependency of the observed mass change rate on the nitrogen fluence (at constant flux) is found and can be attributed to the formation of a nitrogen-containing mixed material layer within the ion penetration depth. The presented data elucidate the dynamics of the interaction process and the surface saturation with increasing nitrogen fluence in a unique way. Basically, distinct interaction regimes can be discriminated, which can be linked to the evolution of the surface composition upon nitrogen impact. Steady state surface conditions are obtained at a total cumulative nitrogen fluence of ∼80 × 10{sup 16} N atoms per cm{sup 2}. In dynamic equilibrium, the interaction is marked by continuous surface erosion. In this case, the observed total sputtering yield becomes independent from the applied nitrogen fluence and is of the order of 0.4 beryllium atoms per impinging nitrogen atom.

  19. Behavior of beryllium pebbles under irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalle-Donne, M.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reactortechnik; Baldwin, D.L.; Gelles, D.S.; Greenwood, L.R.; Kawamura, H.; Oliver, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    Beryllium pebbles are being considered in fusion reactor blanket designs as neutron multiplier. An example is the European `Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Blanket.` Several forms of beryllium pebbles are commercially available but little is known about these forms in response to fast neutron irradiation. Commercially available beryllium pebbles have been irradiated to approximately 1.3 x 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2} (E>1 MeV) at 390degC. Pebbles 1-mm in diameter manufactured by Brush Wellman, USA and by Nippon Gaishi Company, Japan, and 3-mm pebbles manufactured by Brush Wellman were included. All were irradiated in the below-core area of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II in Idaho Falls, USA, in molybdenum alloy capsules containing helium. Post-irradiation results are presented on density change measurements, tritium release by assay, stepped-temperature anneal, and thermal ramp desorption tests, and helium release by assay and stepped-temperature anneal measurements, for Be pebbles from two manufacturing methods, and with two specimen diameters. The experimental results on density change and tritium and helium release are compared with the predictions of the code ANFIBE. (author)

  20. Quantitative method of determining beryllium or a compound thereof in a sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Ehler, Deborah S.; John, Kevin D.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Collis, Gavin E.; Minogue, Edel M.; Warner, Benjamin P.

    2010-08-24

    A method of determining beryllium or a beryllium compound thereof in a sample, includes providing a sample suspected of comprising beryllium or a compound thereof, extracting beryllium or a compound thereof from the sample by dissolving in a solution, adding a fluorescent indicator to the solution to thereby bind any beryllium or a compound thereof to the fluorescent indicator, and determining the presence or amount of any beryllium or a compound thereof in the sample by measuring fluorescence.

  1. Ibrutinib (PCI-32765) in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Nitin; O’Brien, Susan

    2013-01-01

    B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling is essential for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cell survival. Many kinases in the BCR signaling pathway are currently being studied as potential therapeutic targets. These include Lyn, Syk, PI3 and Bruton tyrosine (BTK). Ibrutinib (PCI-32765) is a novel first-in-class selective inhibitor of BTK. Preclinical evidence suggests that ibrutinib inhibits CLL cell survival and proliferation. In addition, it also affects CLL cell migration and homing. Early clinic...

  2. Effect of antimalarial drugs on stimulation and interleukin 2 production of human lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I C; Svenson, M; Theander, T G;

    1987-01-01

    Effect of pyrimethamine, an antimalarial antifolate, and of mefloquine, chloroquine, and quinine, which belong to the quinoline group of antimalarials, on proliferation and interleukin 2 (IL-2) production of human lymphocytes was studied in vitro. Pyrimethamine at concentrations above therapeutic...... action on human mononuclear cells of the various antimalarial drugs and the potential adverse effects of antimalarial chemotherapy are discussed....... at concentrations twice as high as those required to suppress lymphocyte proliferation. Addition of exogenous IL-2 only partially reversed the suppressive effect on lymphocyte proliferation. Delayed addition of the quinolines decreased their suppressive effect, but not completely. The mechanisms of...

  3. Functional inactivation of lymphocytes by methylene blue with visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Cheng, Zhenzhen; Mo, Qin; Wang, Li; Wang, Xun; Wu, Xiaofei; Jia, Yao; Huang, Yuwen

    2015-10-01

    Transfusion of allogeneic white blood cells (WBCs) may cause adverse reactions in immunocompromised recipients, including transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD), which is often fatal and incurable. In this study, the in vitro effect of methylene blue with visible light (MB + L) treatment on lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production was measured to investigate whether MB + L can be used to prevent immune reactions that result from transfused lymphocytes. WBCs and 3 μM of MB were mixed and transferred into medical PVC bags, which were then exposed to visible light. Gamma irradiation was conducted as a parallel positive control. The cells without treatment were used as untreated group. All the groups were tested for the ability of cell proliferation and cytokine production upon stimulation. After incubation with mitogen phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or plate-bound anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28, the proliferation of MB + L/gamma-irradiation treated lymphocytes was significantly inhibited (P cells (73.77% ± 28.75% vs. 44.72% ± 38.20%). MB + L treated cells incubated up to 7 days with PHA also showed no significant proliferation. The levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-1β present in the supernatant of MB + L treated lymphocytes upon stimulation were significantly lower than those of untreated lymphocytes. These results demonstrated that MB + L treatment functionally and irreversibly inactivated lymphocytes by inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation and the production of cytokines. MB + L treatment might be a promising method for the prevention of adverse immune responses caused by WBCs. PMID:26295729

  4. Increased Production of Lysozyme Associated with Bacterial Proliferation in Barrett's Esophagitis, Chronic Gastritis, Gluten-induced Atrophic Duodenitis (Celiac Disease), Lymphocytic Colitis, Collagenous Colitis, Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Carlos A

    2015-12-01

    The mucosa of the esophagus, the stomach, the small intestine, the large intestine and rectum are unremittingly challenged by adverse micro-environmental factors, such as ingested pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria, and harsh secretions with digestive properties with disparate pH, as well as bacteria and secretions from upstream GI organs. Despite the apparently inauspicious mixture of secretions and bacteria, the normal GI mucosa retains a healthy state of cell renewal. To by-pass the tough microenvironment, the epithelia of the GI react by speeding-up cell exfoliation, by increasing peristalsis, eliminating bacteria through secretion of plasma cell-immunoglobulins and by increasing production of natural antibacterial enzymes (lysozyme) and host defense peptides (defensin-5). Lysozyme was recently found up-regulated in Barrett's esophagitis, in chronic gastritis, in gluten-induced atrophic duodenitis (celiac disease), in collagenous colitis, in lymphocytic colitis and in Crohn's colitis. This up-regulation is a response directed towards the special types of bacteria thriving in the microenvironment in each of the aforementioned clinical inflammatory maladies. The purpose of that up-regulation is to protect the mucosa affected by the ongoing chronic inflammation. Bacterial antibiotic resistance continues to exhaust our supply of effective antibiotics. The future challenge is how to solve the increasing menace of bacterial resistance to anti-bacterial drugs. Further research on natural anti-bacterial enzymes such as lysozyme, appears mandatory. PMID:26637845

  5. Analysis of IL-2-like factor in lymphocyte culture supernatant of olive flounder, Paralichthys oliveaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Riqin; ZHANG Peijun; LI Jun; XU Yongli

    2005-01-01

    To study immune mechanism of fish lymphocyte we performed a proliferation assay and ELISA using monoclonal antibody against human IL-2. The result showed that an interleukin-2 (IL-2)-like factor was detected in the supernatant of plant haemoglutinin (PHA)-stimulated lymphocyte culture from peripheral blood,spleen and head kidney of olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The quantities of IL-2-1ike factor in the supematant from different lymphoid tissues were quite different. The IL-2 like factor in the supernatant from cultured head kidney lymphocytes was much higher than those of peripheral blood lymphocytes and spleen lymphocytes (P<0.01). The IL-2 activity was found in either mouse thymocyte proliferation assay or flounder head kidney lymphocyte proliferation assay and shown to have obvious enhancing effect on proliferation of the above two types of cell. The recombinant human IL-2 (rhIL-2) was able to stimulate flounder thymocyte proliferation and used to detect the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) on the surface of flounder lymphocyte. The cross-reaction between the lymphocytes of flounder peripheral blood and CD25(IL-2R) was detected with flow cytometry and shown that the percentage of CD25-positive cell in peripheral blood was 7.74± 0.67%.

  6. Lymphocyte cytosolic protein 1 regulates proliferation of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells%淋巴细胞溶质蛋白1调控弥漫性大B细胞淋巴瘤细胞的增殖初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张竹红; 田亚平

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the biological significance of lymphocyte cytosolic protein 1 (LCP1) expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cells and its effect on proliferation of DLBCL cells. Methods Expression of LCP1 in healthy human B lymphoblastoid cells and various DLBCL cells was detected by Western blot. Over-expressed LCP1 was silenced in DLBCL cell line OCI-LY19. Vitality of the cells was tested with a CCK8 kit. Effect of LCP1 on cell cycle of OCI-LY19 cells was observed with PI staining. Results The expression level of LCP1 was significantly higher in DLBCL cells than in healthy human B lymphoblastoid cells. The vitality of OCI-LY19 cells decreased and the progressive cell sycle of OCI-LY19 cells was inhibited after LCP1 was silenced. Conclusion LCP1 is closely related with the proliferation of DLBCL cells and is an important biological marker for DLBCL.%目的:探索弥漫性大B细胞淋巴瘤中淋巴细胞溶质蛋白1(lymphocyte cytosolic protein 1,LCP1)表达的生物学意义及对细胞增殖的影响。方法用Wstern Blot的方法观察LCP1在正常人B淋巴母细胞系和多种弥漫性大B细胞淋巴瘤细胞系中的表达情况;进而在高表达LCP1的弥漫性大B细胞淋巴瘤(diffuse large B-cell lymphom,DLBCL)细胞系OCI-LY19中将其沉默,使用CCK8试剂盒检测其对细胞活力的影响;并用PI染色的方法检测LCP1对OCI-LY19细胞的细胞周期的影响。结果 LCP1在DLBCL细胞中的表达量明显高于正常人B淋巴母细胞系,沉默LCP1后发现OCI-LY19细胞活力下降,且细胞周期进展明显被抑制。结论 LCP1与DLBCL细胞增殖密切相关,提示其是一个重要DLBCL生物标记。

  7. Induction of endothelial cell proliferation and von Willebrand factor expression and secretion by leukemic plasma of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia before and after inhibition of NF-κB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Minoo; Mohsen Razavi, Seyed; Hayat, Parisa

    2016-09-01

    Although certain evidence has indicated a role for angiogenesis in the pathophysiology of hematopoietic malignancies, its role in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) prognosis is yet to be defined. To our knowledge, the effects of CLL plasma on cell culture have not been addressed. Therefore, we investigated the effects of CLL plasma on cell cycle regulation and von Willebrand factor (vWF) secretion, and expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cell cultures (HUVECs). Since nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factor has been a therapeutic target for treatment of cancer, we inhibited NF-κB using small interfering RNA to clarify if there is a role for this factor in probable effects. The cells were treated with the plasma of patients with CLL. Subsequently, cell cycle phase distribution, vWF secretion, expression, and storage were detected using ELISA, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemical staining. In addition, NF-κB was inhibited using small interfering RNA. Plasma treatment promoted cell cycle progression by decreasing the cell number in G1 phase, while increasing the cell number in S phase and G2M phase. A significant increase of vWF expression, secretion, and storage was found, associated with the vWF levels of patients' plasma. We found that induction of cell cycle promotion, but not vWF expression and secretion, was partially suppressed by this inhibition. We found that endothelial cell cycle and vWF expression and secretion affected by CLL plasma and NF-κB play a role in the former. These findings would be useful for understanding the prognostic importance of plasma angiogenic factor levels in CLL. PMID:27472040

  8. Experiments on studying beryllium - steam interaction, determination of oxidated beryllium emissivity factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents results of beryllium emissivity factor measurements within 700-1300 K temperature range. The tests were conducted at Institute of Atomic Energy of the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan to receive experimental data for verification of calculation programs describing an accident involving water coolant discharge into ITER reactor vacuum cavity. (author)

  9. Effect of oxaliplatin combined with effector T lymphocyte induced by exosome on inhibiting proliferation of HepG2 cell%奥沙利铂联合Exosome诱导的效应性T细胞抑制HepG2细胞增殖的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹薇薇; 余少培; 晏真明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of oxaliplatin (OXA) combined with the effector T lymphocytes activated by exosome pulsed HepG2 cells' whole lysates on inhibiting proliferation of HepG2 cells. Methods Mononuclear cells and T lymphocytes were isolated from peripheral blood of healthy people. Dendritic cells ( DCs) were derived from mononuclear cells by the culture method of GM-CSF + IL-4. Whole cell lysates of HepG2 cells were extracted by freeze thawing method,then the monocyte-derived DCs were sensitized with this cellular antigen. Bubsequently,exosomes were prepared from the supernatants oi the DCs by ultracentrifugation and observed by transmission electron microscopy. Alter 1 lymphocytes were incubated with sensitized DCs or sensitized exosomes,the effects on promoting 1 lym-phocyte proliferation were detected by MTT method and the concentrations of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 , IL-10,IFN-γ, and TNF-a were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in different culture enviroments. At last,the ability oi different concentration OXA (2.5,5.0,10.0 mg·L-1) combined with sensitized T cells to kill HepG2 cells were checked by MTT methods,respectively. Results Compared with unsensitized DC and its exosomes ,the DCs and its exosomes pulsed whole cell lysates of HepG2 cells could significantly stimulate T cells proliferation and secrete Thl type cytokines including IL-lp, IL-2, IL-4,IL-6, IL-10,IFN-7 and TNF-a. All of senstitized T cells group, OXA groups and the combined groups obviously inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells, and the killing rate of activitaed T cells + 10 mg·L-1 OXA group was highest. However,there was no statistical difference for the killing rate between activita-ed T cells + 10 mg·L-1 OXA group and activitaed T cells + 5 mg·L-1OXA group. Conclusion The exosomes that are secreted by DCs sensitized by HepG2 cells whole lysates can stimulate T cells and make it turn to be anti-cancer cytotoxcity T cells (CTLs) . And then

  10. Ionization energies of beryllium in strong magnetic fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUANXiao-xu; ZHANGYue-xia

    2004-01-01

    We have develop an effective frozen core approximation to calculate energy levels and ionization enegies of the beryllium atom in magnetic field strengths up to 2.35 × 105T. Systematic improvement over the Hartree-Fock results for the beryllium low-lying states has been accomplished.

  11. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850.20 Energy... Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The responsible employer must develop a baseline inventory of the... inventory, the responsible employer must: (1) Review current and historical records; (2) Interview...

  12. Joining of beryllium by braze welding technique: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banaim, P.; Abramov, E. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel); Zalkind, S.; Eden, S.

    1998-01-01

    Within the framework of some applications, there is a need to join beryllium parts to each other. Gas Tungsten Arc Braze Welds were made in beryllium using 0.3 mm commercially Aluminum (1100) shim preplaced at the joint. The welds exhibited a tendency to form microcracks in the Fusion Zone and Heat Affected Zone. All the microcracks were backfilled with Aluminum. (author)

  13. p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in beryllium-induced dendritic cell activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Huang, Z.; Gillespie, M.; Mroz, P.M.; Maier, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) play a role in the regulation of immune responses to haptens, which in turn impact DC maturation. Whether beryllium (Be) is able to induce DC maturation and if this occurs via the MAPK pathway is not known. Primary monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) models were generated from Be non-exposed healthy volunteers as a non-sensitized cell model, while PBMCs from BeS (Be sensitized) and CBD (chronic beryllium disease) were used as disease models. The response of these cells to Be was evaluated. The expression of CD40 was increased significantly (pBeS and CBD subjects, SB203580 downregulated Be-stimulated proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, and decreased Be-stimulated TNF-α and IFNγ cytokine production. Taken together, this study suggests that Be-induces non-sensitized Glu69+ DCs maturation, and that p38MAPK signaling is important in the Be-stimulated DCs activation as well as subsequent T cell proliferation and cytokine production in BeS and CBD. In total, the MAPK pathway may serve as a potential therapeutic target for human granulomatous lung diseases. PMID:25454621

  14. Preparation and characterization of beryllium doped organic plasma polymer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the formation of beryllium doped plasma polymerized coatings derived from a helical resonator deposition apparatus, using diethylberyllium as the organometaric source. These coatings had an appearance not unlike plain plasma polymer and were relatively stable to ambient exposure. The coatings were characterized by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Coating rates approaching 0.7 μm hr-1 were obtained with a beryllium-to-carbon ratio of 1:1.3. There is also a significant oxygen presence in the coating as well which is attributed to oxidation upon exposure of the coating to air. The XPS data show only one peak for beryllium with the preponderance of the XPS data suggesting that the beryllium exists as BeO. Diethylberyllium was found to be inadequate as a source for beryllium doped plasma polymer, due to thermal decomposition and low vapor recovery rates

  15. Protection of air in premises and environment against beryllium aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitkolov, N.Z.; Vishnevsky, E.P.; Krupkin, A.V. [Research Inst. of Industrial and Marine Medicine, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1998-01-01

    First and foremost, the danger of beryllium aerosols concerns a possibility of their inhalation. The situation is aggravated with high biological activity of the beryllium in a human lung. The small allowable beryllium aerosols` concentration in air poses a rather complex and expensive problem of the pollution prevention and clearing up of air. The delivery and transportation of beryllium aerosols from sites of their formation are defined by the circuit of ventilation, that forms aerodynamics of air flows in premises, and aerodynamic links between premises. The causes of aerosols release in air of premises from hoods, isolated and hermetically sealed vessels can be vibrations, as well as pulses of temperature and pressure. Furthermore, it is possible the redispersion of aerosols from dirty surfaces. The effective protection of air against beryllium aerosols at industrial plants is provided by a complex of hygienic measures: from individual means of breath protection up to collective means of the prevention of air pollution. (J.P.N.)

  16. Polarizabilities of the beryllium clock transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polarizabilities of the three lowest states of the beryllium atom are determined from a large basis configuration interaction calculation. The polarizabilities of the 2s21Se ground state (37.73a03) and the 2s2p 3P0o metastable state (39.04a03) are found to be very similar in size and magnitude. This leads to an anomalously small blackbody radiation shift at 300 K of -0.018(4) Hz for the 2s21Se-2s2p 3P0o clock transition. Magic wavelengths for simultaneous trapping of the ground and metastable states are also computed.

  17. Chromosome instability and global gene expression patterns in proliferating human T-lymphocytes after low dose rate γ-irradiation, and genetic instability in cells from in vivo radiation-exposed persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromosomal instability (Cl), and radiation induced Cl in particular, as well as in a wider sense, genomic instability, has been of great interest lately, as it provides an explanation for the occurrence of multiple mutations during transformation of a normal cell to a malignant tumor cell. To explore this phenomenon, we developed an in vitro system to study the long term, cytogenetic effects of ionizing radiation in human T-lymphocytes. Irradiated or non-irradiated T-cells were grown for up to two months as monoclonal or bulk cell cultures in medium enriched with T-cell growth factors. Analysis of G-banded karyotypes at different time intervals demonstrated clonal aberrations in 65% of the clones derived from irradiated cells, and in only 5% of the clones from non-irradiated cells. Delayed occurrence of de novo aberrations, and a progressive development of subclones with karyotypic abnormalities of increasing complexity, was observed many cell generations after the radiation exposure. Moreover, cells exposed to γ-radiation at a low dose rate (LDR, 0.024 Gy h-1) for 5 days in G0-phase, e.g. a dose that gives the cells time to repair between subsequent hits, also demonstrated CI. Following a radiological accident in Estonia 1994, we studied the possible induction of CI in vivo. Both long term bulk cultures and single cell clones were established from one high and three low exposed persons, as well as control individuals from Estonia. Compared to our historical Swedish controls, we found CI to occur in both bulk cultures and clones, and the aberrations were more complex in the exposed individuals than in the controls, indicating that the aberrations were caused by the irradiation. However, due to the high frequency of CI in the Estonian controls, no conclusion with regard to chromosomal instability in vivo could be drawn from the study. In order to trace factors that induce and maintain the chromosomal instability, and clarify which steps are affected in the

  18. Myelin-phagocytosing macrophages modulate autoreactive T cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellings Niels

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS in which macrophages play a central role. Initially, macrophages where thought to be merely detrimental in MS, however, recent evidence suggests that their functional phenotype is altered following myelin phagocytosis. Macrophages that have phagocytosed myelin may be less inflammatory and may exert beneficial effects. The presence of myelin-containing macrophages in CNS-draining lymph nodes and perivascular spaces of MS patients suggests that these cells are ideally positioned to exert an immune regulatory role. Therefore we evaluated in this study the effect of myelin-phagocytosing macrophages on lymphocyte reactivity. Methods Thioglycolate-elicited rat peritoneal macrophages were loaded with myelin and cocultured with myelin-basic protein (MBP or ovalbumin (OVA reactive lymphocytes. Lymphocyte proliferation was determined by CFSE-labeling. The role of nitric oxide in regulating lymphocyte proliferation was assessed by addition of an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase to the coculture. In vivo immune regulation was investigated by treating MBP- and OVA-immunized animals subcutaneously with myelin. Cognate antigen specific lymphocyte proliferation and nitric oxide production were determined 9d post-immunization. Results In this study we demonstrate that myelin-phagocytosing macrophages inhibit TCR-triggered lymphocyte proliferation in an antigen-independent manner. The observed immune suppression is mediated by an increase in NO production by myelin-phagocytosing macrophages upon contact with lymphocytes. Additionally, myelin delivery to primarily CD169+ macrophages in popliteal lymph nodes of OVA-immunized animals results in a reduced cognate antigen specific proliferation. In contrast to OVA-immunized animals, lymphocytes from MBP-immunized animals displayed an increased proliferation after stimulation

  19. Status of beryllium study for fusion in RF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main directions of research activities in the field of beryllium application science and technology carried out in Russia during 2001-2003 have been reviewed. The main results of these investigations have been highlighted. First wall and port-limier. The investigation on the actively cooled components with beryllium cladding is under progress objecting on the clarification of their ultimate thermo cycling capabilities. The study of behavior of bulk beryllium and the boundary region of the contact with the cooling structure under the intensive thermo cycling loading and neutron irradiation have been the object of consideration in particular. The works on the optimization and modification of industrial fabrication processes for commercial scaled production of beryllium tile were also under way. The influence of neutron irradiation. The new experimental data on the nuclear properties of several Russian beryllium grades has been obtained. The samples have been subjected to the high neutron dozes. The influence of low temperature (70-200degree C) neutron irradiation on the thermal conductivity has been examined in particular. The interrelations of the helium inventory and temperature of neutron irradiation with tritium release out of irradiated beryllium samples have been analyzed. The beryllium associated safety questions. The experiments on the modeling of normal working conditions and conditions imitating the plasma disruption events in ITER performance scenario have been continued. The new experimental information on the coefficient of pulverization of beryllium and the accumulation of deuterium in beryllium under the action of proton beam has been collected. The dependence of the reaction rate constant for the beryllium oxidation by the water vapor for different conditions has been analyzed. The compact, porous and powder beryllium samples have been tested at the wide range of temperature, pressure and duration of reaction with water vapor. The calculating

  20. Assessment of the feasibility and advantages of beryllium recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes a generic route for the recycling of beryllium from fusion reactors, based on critical issues associated with beryllium pebbles after their service life in the HCPB breeding blanket. These critical issues are the high tritium inventory, the presence of long-lived radionuclides (among which transuranics due to traces of uranium in the base metal), and the chemical toxicity of beryllium. On the basis of the chemical and radiochemical characteristics of the neutron irradiated beryllium pebbles, we describe a possible recycling route. The first step is the detritiation of the material. This can be achieved by heating the pebbles to 800 oC under an argon flow. The argon gas avoids oxidation of the beryllium, and at the proposed temperature the tritium inventory is readily released from the pebbles. In a second step, the released tritium can be oxidised on a copper oxide bed to produce tritiated water, which is consistent with the current international strategy to convert all kinds of tritiated waste into tritiated water, which can subsequently be treated in a water detritiation plant. Removal of radionuclides from the beryllium pebbles may be achieved by several types of chloride processes. The first step is to pass chlorine gas (in an argon flow) over the pebbles, thus yielding volatile BeCl2. This beryllium chloride can then be purified by fractional distillation. As a small fraction of the beryllium chloride contains the long-lived 10Be isotope, 10BeCl2 has to be separated from 9BeCl2, which could be achieved by centrifugal techniques. The product can then be reduced to obtain high-purity metallic beryllium. Two candidate reduction methods were identified: fused salt electrolysis and thermal decomposition. Both these methods require laboratory parametric studies to maximise the yield and achieve a high purity metal, before either process can be upgraded to a larger scale. The eventual product of the chloride reduction process must be a high purity

  1. Physical properties of beryllium oxide - Irradiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has been carried out in view of determining several physical properties of hot-pressed beryllium oxide under various conditions and the change of these properties after irradiation. Special attention has been paid on to the measurement of the thermal conductivity coefficient and thermal diffusivity coefficient. Several designs for the measurement of the thermal conductivity coefficient have been achieved. They permit its determination between 50 and 300 deg. C, between 400 and 800 deg. C. Some measurements have been made above 1000 deg. C. In order to measure the thermal diffusivity coefficient, we heat a perfectly flat surface of a sample in such a way that the heat flux is modulated (amplitude and frequency being adjustable). The thermal diffusivity coefficient is deduced from the variations of temperature observed on several spots. Tensile strength; compressive strength; expansion coefficient; sound velocity and crystal parameters have been also measured. Some of the measurements have been carried out after neutron irradiation. Some data have been obtained on the change of the properties of beryllium oxide depending on the integrated neutron flux. (author)

  2. Beryllium containing plasma interactions with ITER materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A beryllium-seeded deuterium plasma is used in PISCES-B to investigate mixed-material erosion and redeposition properties of ITER relevant divertor materials. The beryllium containing plasma simulates the erosion of first wall material into the ITER sol plasma and its subsequent flow toward the carbon divertor plates. The experiments are designed to quantify the behavior of plasma created mixed Be/C and Be/W surfaces. Developing an understanding of the mixed material surface behavior is crucial to accurately predicting the tritium accumulation rate within the ITER vacuum vessel. The temporal evolution of the plasma interactions with the various mixed surfaces are examined to better understand the fundamental mechanisms in play at the surface and to allow scaling of these results to the conditions expected in the ITER divertor. A new periodic heat pulse deposition system is also installed on PISCES-B to simulate the transient temperature excursions of surfaces expected to occur in the ITER divertor during ELMs and other off-normal events. These periodically applied heat pulses allow us to study the effects of transient power loading on the formation, stability and tritium content of mixed-material surfaces that are created during the experiments. (author)

  3. Fluorimetric method for determination of Beryllium; Determinazione fluorimetrica del berillio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparacino, N.; Sabbioneda, S. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Saluggia, Vercelli (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1996-10-01

    The old fluorimetric method for the determination of Beryllium, based essentially on the fluorescence of the Beryllium-Morine complex in a strongly alkaline solution, is still competitive and stands the comparison with more modern methods or at least three reasons: in the presence of solid or gaseous samples (powders), the times necessary to finalize an analytic determination are comparable since the stage of the process which lasts the longest is the mineralization of the solid particles containing Beryllium, the cost of a good fluorimeter is by far Inferior to the cost, e. g., of an Emission Spectrophotometer provided with ICP torch and magnets for exploiting the Zeeman effect and of an Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer provided with Graphite furnace; it is possible to determine, fluorimetrically, rather small Beryllium levels (about 30 ng of Beryllium/sample), this potentiality is more than sufficient to guarantee the respect of all the work safety and hygiene rules now in force. The study which is the subject of this publication is designed to the analysis procedure which allows one to reach good results in the determination of Beryllium, chiefly through the control and measurement of the interference effect due to the presence of some metals which might accompany the environmental samples of workshops and laboratories where Beryllium is handled, either at the pure state or in its alloys. The results obtained satisfactorily point out the merits and limits of this analytic procedure.

  4. In vitro responsiveness of lymphocytes to phytohemmagglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M L; Rommo, N; House, D; Harder, S

    1978-01-01

    Peripheral blood lymphocytes from 20 human subjects exposed to 784 microgram/m3 ozone for 4 hours, and from 11 subjects exposed to clean air for the same length of time were studied for in vitro responsiveness to phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Thymus-derived (T) lymphocyte response to PHA (normal response is proliferation of lymphocytes) was significantly suppressed (P less than .01) in samples obtained immediately after subjects' exposure to ozone. Recovery of response occurred 2 weeks postexposure. Responses were unchanged in subjects exposed to clean air. Existing studies suggest that ozone exposure may generate free radicals or other reactive molecules or both, that could be responsible for immediate changes in metabolic events leading to blockage or inhibition of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis in T lymphocytes as shown in this study. It is possible that some prerequisite to active cell metabolism such as ribonucleic acid (RNA) may be impaired by ozone exposure. The significance of the suppression of T-cell response noted in this study is that: (1) if continuous exposures to ozone are shown to induce an immunosuppressed state for a significant time period, an important factor in carcinogenesis might be elucidated; (2) immunosuppression may cause a progression of an already present tumor; (3) immunosuppression may enable endogenous latent infections such as tuberculosis to reactivate; and (4) immunosuppression may explain in part the relationship between chronic oxidant air pollution and influenza-like illnesses in population. PMID:646458

  5. Proliferation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report gives an overview of different aspects related to safeguards of fissile materials. Existing treaties including the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and the Tlatelolco and the Rarotonga Treaties are discussed. An overview of safeguards systems for the control of fissile materials as well as the role of various authorities is given. An overall overview of proliferation risks, the physical protection of fissile materials and the trade in fissile materials is given. Finally, the status in problem countries and de facto nuclear weapon states is discussed

  6. Estimation of the tritium production and inventory in beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium has been proposed as a candidate material for the neutron multiplier in fusion blanket designs. Tritium will be produced and will accumulate in beryllium under neutron irradiation. The tritium production and inventories under 1.5 and 3.0GW fusion power operation were calculated for a layered pebble bed blanket with lithium oxide (Li2O) breeder and beryllium (Be) multiplier. Neutronics calculations were carried out using the one-dimensional transport code ANISN, and the tritium production due to direct reaction of 9Be(n,T)7Li and the two-step reactions 9Be(n,α)6Li(n,α)Twas taken into account. The tritium production due to the two-step reaction was calculated to be 50% of the total tritium production after 1 year full power operation (FPY). The tritium inventory was estimated by considering three kinetic parameters, the permeability from the breeder region, diffusivity in a beryllium matrix, and solubility. Tritium permeation from the breeder region to the beryllium region through a 316SS wall was as much as 3gh-1, which is 30% of the tritium production (9.6gh-1) in the breeder region. Using the diffusion coefficient of beryllium with no oxide layer on its surface, the total tritium inventory was calculated to be 7gFPY-1, mainly owing to solubility. The content of beryllium oxide significantly affects the effective diffusion coefficient. Using a diffusion coefficient for beryllium with beryllium oxide layer on its surface, the tritium inventory was found to be equal to the amount produced. (orig.)

  7. Effects of Transgenic Soybean Feed on Proliferation of Spleen Lymphocyte in Male Mice%抗草甘膦转基因大豆饲料对雄性小鼠脾淋巴细胞体外增殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芦春斌; 张伟; 刘标

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there have been a notable concerns on the safety of genetically modified( GM) foods, especially transgenic soybean. To evaluate effects of soybean on immunological function and possible genetic effects for progeny in male mice, male Kunming mice were fed with glyphosate feed for short-term of 30 and long-term of 90 days. Cell proliferation of spleen lymphocyte was analyzed with MTT assay. The sampling time was 0,2,7,14 and 30 day. For progeny test,male mice and female fed with transgenic soybean feed were mated and produced progeny F,. There were no significant adverse effects on cell proliferation of spleen for parent mice at different time during 30 day feeding trial ( P > 0.05). It was also showed that cell proliferation of spleen was not affected for long-term of 90 days. For progeny, no adverse effect on cell proliferation of spleen was found both for 30 and 90 days. It was showed that there was no significant adverse effect on cell proliferation of spleen for parent and progeny male mice during 30 and 90 day feeding trial of transgenic soybean. There was no possible potential of genetic toxicology in male mice fed with transgenic soybean.%以雄性昆明鼠为动物模型,对亲本(F0)和子一代(F1)短期(30 d)及长期(90d)喂食抗草甘膦转基因大豆饲料后,取其脾脏,MTT法检测脾淋巴细胞增殖情况.结果表明:短期喂食实验过程中,在0、2、7、14和30 d取样时,转基因大豆饲料对亲本(F0)实验的雄性小鼠脾脏淋巴细胞体外增殖均无显著性影响(P>0.05),在长期(90 d)喂食实验过程中,抗草甘膦转基因大豆饲料对亲本(F0)小鼠脾脏淋巴细胞体外增殖也无显著影响(P>0.05).同样,在30 d的短期和90d的长期喂食实验过程中,抗草甘膦转基因大豆饲料对子一代(F1)雄性小鼠脾脏淋巴细胞体外增殖也均无显著抑制作用(P>0.05).表明短期(30 d)及长期(90d)喂食含抗草甘膦转基因大豆饲料对亲本及子一代雄性小

  8. Development of Beryllium Vacuum Chamber Technology for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Veness, R; Dorn, C

    2011-01-01

    Beryllium is the material of choice for the beam vacuum chambers around collision points in particle colliders due to a combination of transparency to particles, high specific stiffness and compatibility with ultra-high vacuum. New requirements for these chambers in the LHC experiments have driven the development of new methods for the manufacture of beryllium chambers. This paper reviews the requirements for experimental vacuum chambers. It describes the new beryllium technology adopted for the LHC and experience gained in the manufacture and installation.

  9. Analysis of surface contaminants on beryllium and aluminum windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effort has been made to document the types of contamination which form on beryllium windows surfaces due to interaction with a synchrotron radiation beam. Beryllium windows contaminated in a variety of ways (exposure to water and air) exhibited surface powders, gels, crystals and liquid droplets. These contaminants were analyzed by electron diffraction, electron energy loss spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and wet chemical methods. Materials found on window surfaces include beryllium oxide, amorphous carbon, cuprous oxide, metallic copper and nitric acid. Aluminum window surface contaminants were also examined. (orig.)

  10. Beryllium Health and Safety Committee Data Reporting Task Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, D H

    2007-02-21

    On December 8, 1999, the Department of Energy (DOE) published Title 10 CFR 850 (hereafter referred to as the Rule) to establish a chronic beryllium disease prevention program (CBDPP) to: {sm_bullet} reduce the number of workers currently exposed to beryllium in the course of their work at DOE facilities managed by DOE or its contractors, {sm_bullet} minimize the levels of, and potential for, expos exposure to beryllium, and {sm_bullet} establish medical surveillance requirements to ensure early detection of the disease.

  11. Cosmis Lithium-Beryllium-Boron Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangioni-Flam, E.; Cassé, M.

    Light element nucleosynthesis is an important chapter of nuclear astrophysics. Specifically, the rare and fragile light nuclei Lithium, Beryllium and Boron (LiBeB) are not generated in the normal course of stellar nucleosynthesis (except Lithium-7) and are, in fact, destroyed in stellar interiors. This characteristic is reflected in the low abundance of these simple species. Up to recently, the most plausible interpretation was that galactic cosmic rays (GCR) interact with interstellar CNO to form LiBeB. Other origins have been also identified, primordial and stellar (Lithium-7) and supernova neutrino spallation (Lithium-7 and Boron-11). In contrast, Beryllium-9, Boron-10 and Lithium-6 are pure spallative products. This last isotope presents a special interest since the Lithium-7/Lithium-6 ratio has been measured in a few halo stars offering a new constraint on the early galactic evolution. However, in the nineties, new observations prompted astrophysicists to reassess the question. Optical measurements of the beryllium and boron abundances in halo stars have been achieved by the 10 meters KECK telescope and the Hubble Space Telescope. These observations indicate a quasi linear correlation between Be and B vs Fe, at least at low metallicity, unexpected on the basis of GCR scenario, predicting a quadratic relationship. As a consequence, the origin and the evolution of the LiBeB nuclei has been revisited. This linearity implies the acceleration of C and O nuclei freshly synthesized and their fragmentation on the the interstellar Hydrogen and Helium. Wolf-Rayet stars and supernovae via the shock waves induced, are the best candidates to the acceleration of their own material enriched into C and O; so LiBeB is produced independently of the Interstellar Medium chemical composition. Moreover, neutrinos emitted by the newly born neutron stars interacting with the C layer of the supernova could produce specifically Lithium-7 and Boron-11. This process is supported by the

  12. Handling Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Laszlo

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The ethics of the chemist identify with those of the citizen, in principle. The observed perversions, such as proliferation of chemicals, stem from the values of a chemical community closed upon itself, and from the attendant identification of a mere know-how with a science. The epistemic degradation produces moral indifference.

  13. Stellar abundances of beryllium and CUBES

    CERN Document Server

    Smiljanic, R

    2014-01-01

    Stellar abundances of beryllium are useful in different areas of astrophysics, including studies of the Galactic chemical evolution, of stellar evolution, and of the formation of globular clusters. Determining Be abundances in stars is, however, a challenging endeavor. The two Be II resonance lines useful for abundance analyses are in the near UV, a region strongly affected by atmospheric extinction. CUBES is a new spectrograph planned for the VLT that will be more sensitive than current instruments in the near UV spectral region. It will allow the observation of fainter stars, expanding the number of targets where Be abundances can be determined. Here, a brief review of stellar abundances of Be is presented together with a discussion of science cases for CUBES. In particular, preliminary simulations of CUBES spectra are presented, highlighting its possible impact in investigations of Be abundances of extremely metal-poor stars and of stars in globular clusters.

  14. Beryllium reflector elements for PARR-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LEU fuel of PARR-1 was designed for a discharge burnup of 35% of initial /sup 235/U loading. Recently some of the fuel elements have been discharged from the PARR-1 core after attaining the burnup closed to the design value. These fuel elements were discharged due to diminished excess reactivity although they were physically intact. After satisfactory performance of these fuel elements there has been a desire to explore the possibility of enhancing the discharge burnup by boosting up the core reactivity. Use of better reflector elements is one of the methods to obtain this goal. In this report properties of various reflector elements have been compared and it is found that use of Beryllium metal reflector elements may be a promising choice for this purpose. (author)

  15. Investigation of the ion beryllium surface interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guseva, M.I.; Birukov, A.Yu.; Gureev, V.M. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The self -sputtering yield of the Be was measured. The energy dependence of the Be self-sputtering yield agrees well with that calculated by W. Eckstein et. al. Below 770 K the self-sputtering yield is temperature independent; at T{sub irr}.> 870 K it increases sharply. Hot-pressed samples at 370 K were implanted with monoenergetic 5 keV hydrogen ions and with a stationary plasma (flux power {approximately} 5 MW/m{sup 2}). The investigation of hydrogen behavior in beryllium shows that at low doses hydrogen is solved, but at doses {ge} 5x10{sup 22} m{sup -2} the bubbles and channels are formed. It results in hydrogen profile shift to the surface and decrease of its concentration. The sputtering results in further concentration decrease at doses > 10{sup 25}m{sup -2}.

  16. Advances in beryllium powder consolidation simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fuzzy logic based multiobjective genetic algorithm (GA) is introduced and the algorithm is used to optimize micromechanical densification modeling parameters for warm isopressed beryllium powder, HIPed copper powder and CIPed/sintered and HIPed tantalum powder. In addition to optimizing the main model parameters using the experimental data points as objective functions, the GA provides a quantitative measure of the sensitivity of the model to each parameter, estimates the mean particle size of the powder, and determines the smoothing factors for the transition between stage 1 and stage 2 densification. While the GA does not provide a sensitivity analysis in the strictest sense, and is highly stochastic in nature, this method is reliable and reproducible in optimizing parameters given any size data set and determining the impact on the model of slight variations in each parameter

  17. Geochemistry of beryllium in Bulgarian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskenazy, Greta M. [Geology Department, University of Sofia ' St. Kl. Ohridski' , Tzar Osvoboditel 15, Sofia 1504 (Bulgaria)

    2006-04-03

    The beryllium content of about 3000 samples (coal, coaly shales, partings, coal lithotypes, and isolated coalified woods) from 16 Bulgarian coal deposits was determined by atomic emission spectrography. Mean Be concentrations in coal show great variability: from 0.9 to 35 ppm for the deposits studied. There was no clear-cut relationship between Be content and rank. The following mean and confidence interval Be values were measured: lignites, 2.6+/-0.8 ppm; sub-bituminous coals, 8.2+/-3.3 ppm; bituminous coals, 3.0+/-1.2 ppm; and anthracites, 19+/-9.0 ppm. The Be contents in coal and coaly shales for all deposits correlated positively suggesting a common source of the element. Many samples of the coal lithotypes vitrain and xylain proved to be richer in Be than the hosting whole coal samples as compared on ash basis. Up to tenfold increase in Be levels was routinely recorded in fusain. The ash of all isolated coalified woods was found to contain 1.1 to 50 times higher Be content relative to its global median value for coal inclusions. Indirect evidence shows that Be occurs in both organic and inorganic forms. Beryllium is predominantly organically bound in deposits with enhanced Be content, whereas the inorganic form prevails in deposits whose Be concentration approximates Clarke values. The enrichment in Be exceeding the coal Clarke value 2.4 to 14.5 times in some of the Bulgarian deposits is attributed to subsynchronous at the time of coal deposition hydrothermal and volcanic activity. (author)

  18. Electron microscope study of irradiated beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beryllium oxide is studied first by fractography, before and after irradiation, using sintered samples. The fractures are examined under different aspects. The higher density sintered samples, with transgranular fractures are the most interesting for a microscopic study. It is possible to mark the difference between the 'pores' left by the sintering process and the 'bubbles' of gases that can be produced by former thermal treatments. After irradiation, the grain boundaries are very much weakened. By annealing, it is possible to observe the evolution of the gases produced by the reaction (n, 2n) and (n. α) and gathered on the grain boundaries. The irradiated beryllium oxide is afterwards studied by transmission. For that, a simple method has been used: little chips of the crushed material are examined. Clusters of point defects produced by neutrons are thus detected in crystals irradiated at the three following doses: 6 x 1019, 9 x 1019 and 2 x 1020 nf cm-2 at a temperature below 100 deg. C. For the irradiation at 6 x 1019 nf cm-2, the defects are merely visible, but at 2 x l020 nf cm-2 the crystals an crowded with clusters and the Kikuchi lines have disappeared from the micro-diffraction diagrams. The evolution of the clusters into dislocation loops is studied by a series of annealings. The activation energy (0,37 eV) calculated from the annealing curves suggests that it must be interstitials that condense into dislocation loops. Samples irradiated at high temperatures (650, 900 and 1100 deg. C) are also studied. In those specimens the size of the loops is not the same as the equilibrium size obtained after out of pile annealing at the same temperature. Those former loops are more specifically studied and their Burgers vector is determined by micro-diffraction. (author)

  19. Age hardening in beryllium-aluminum-silver alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three different alloys of beryllium-aluminum-silver were processed to powder by centrifugal atomization in a helium atmosphere. Alloy compositions were, by weight percent, Be-47.5Al-2.5Ag, Be-47Al-3Ag, and Be-46Al-4Ag. Due to the low solubility of both aluminum and silver in beryllium, the silver was concentrated in the aluminum phase, which separates from the beryllium in the liquid phase. A fine, continuous composite beryllium-aluminum microstructure was formed, which did not significantly change after hot isostatic pressing. Samples of hot isostatically pressed material were solution treated at 550 C for 1 h, followed by a water quench. Aging temperatures were 150, 175, 200, and 225 C for times ranging from half an hour to 65 h. Results indicate that peak hardness was reached in 36--40 h at 175 C and 12--16 h at 200 C aging temperature, relatively independent of alloy composition

  20. Design alternatives for cryogenic beryllium windows in an ICF cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose three backup design options for the cryogenic beryllium windows in a cryostat. The first, a beryllium flange option, reduces peak tensile stresses to 1/3 of that in the original design. The second, a fiberglass flange option, reduces peak tensile stresses to 1/2 of that in the original design and is also low cost. A third option, replacing the beryllium windows with spherical Mylar caps, would require a development program. Even though Mylar has been used previously at cryogenic temperature, this option is still considered unreliable. The near-zero ductility of beryllium at cryogenic temperature makes the reduction of peak tensile stresses particularly desirable. The orginal window design did function satisfactorily and the backup options were not needed. However, these options remain open for possible incorporation in future cryostat designs

  1. New facility for post irradiation examination of neutron irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Kawamura, Hiroshi [Oarai Research Establishment, Ibaraki-Ken (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Beryllium is expected as a neutron multiplier and plasma facing materials in the fusion reactor, and the neutron irradiation data on properties of beryllium up to 800{degrees}C need for the engineering design. The acquisition of data on the tritium behavior, swelling, thermal and mechanical properties are first priority in ITER design. Facility for the post irradiation examination of neutron irradiated beryllium was constructed in the hot laboratory of Japan Materials Testing Reactor to get the engineering design data mentioned above. This facility consist of the four glove boxes, dry air supplier, tritium monitoring and removal system, storage box of neutron irradiated samples. Beryllium handling are restricted by the amount of tritium;7.4 GBq/day and {sup 60}Co;7.4 MBq/day.

  2. Beryllium nitride thin film grown by reactive laser ablation

    OpenAIRE

    G. Soto; Diaz, J.A.; Machorro, R.; Reyes-Serrato, A.; de la Cruz, W.

    2001-01-01

    Beryllium nitride thin films were grown on silicon substrates by laser ablating a beryllium foil in molecular nitrogen ambient. The composition and chemical state were determined with Auger (AES), X-Ray photoelectron (XPS) and energy loss (EELS) spectroscopies. A low absorption coefficient in the visible region, and an optical bandgap of 3.8 eV, determined by reflectance ellipsometry, were obtained for films grown at nitrogen pressures higher than 25 mTorr. The results show that the reaction ...

  3. Beryllium foils for windows in counter of nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the optimization of the main structural characteristics (grain structure, texture, dislocation substructure) are defined modes of deformation and heat treatment of beryllium foils (purity > 99.95%), providing their excellent mechanical properties and optimized modes of deformation and heat treatment. Analyzed various technological methods rolling foils to their rational use for the practical implementation of the results of the study. It is shown that the strength and plastic properties of the foils beryllium higher than that of similar foils foreign manufacture

  4. [Effect of lentinan against immunosuppression of lymphocytes cultured in simulated microgravity environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Tong; Wang, Yan-Meng; Li, Jun-Jie; Du, Zhi-Yan; Duan, Cui-Mi; Wang, Chang-Yong; Song, Jing-Ping; Wang, Lin-Jie; Li, Ying-Hui; Wang, Yan

    2012-02-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of lentinan on the immune function of splenic lymphocytes in rotary cell culture system (RCCS) microgravity environment. The splenic lymphocytes from mice were separated and cultured in the normal gravity and the microgravity environments. The cells were treated with lentinan solution (0, 10, 20 and 40 µg/ml). After incubated with lentinan for indicated times (24, 48 and 72 h), the cell proliferation, secretion of cytokine and the expression of cell surface markers were detected by MTT method, ELISA and flow cytometry respectively. The results indicated that lentinan of above mentioned concentrations did not obviously promote the lymphocyte proliferation, but increased the secretion of IL-2 and IFN-γ and enhanced the expression of lymphocyte surface markers CD4 and CD8 in microgravity environment. It is concluded that lentinan has the ability to enhance the lymphocyte immune function in microgravity environment. PMID:22391193

  5. The beryllium production at Ulba metallurgical plant (Ust-Kamenogrsk, Kazakhstan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvinskykh, E.M.; Savchuk, V.V.; Tuzov, Y.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant (Zavod), Ust-Kamenogorsk, Abay prospect 102 (Kazakhstan)

    1998-01-01

    The Report includes data on beryllium production of Ulba metallurgical plant, located in Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan). Beryllium production is showed to have extended technological opportunities in manufacturing semi-products (beryllium ingots, master alloys, metallic beryllium powders, beryllium oxide) and in production of structural beryllium and its parts. Ulba metallurgical plant owns a unique technology of beryllium vacuum distillation, which allows to produce reactor grades of beryllium with a low content of metallic impurities. At present Ulba plant does not depend on raw materials suppliers. The quantity of stored raw materials and semi-products will allow to provide a 25-years work of beryllium production at a full capacity. The plant has a satisfactory experience in solving ecological problems, which could be useful in ITER program. (author)

  6. Beryllium pressure vessels for creep tests in magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium has interesting applications in magnetic fusion experimental machines and future power-producing fusion reactors. Chief among the properties of beryllium that make these applications possible is its ability to act as a neutron multiplier, thereby increasing the tritium breeding ability of energy conversion blankets. Another property, the behavior of beryllium in a 14-MeV neutron environment, has not been fully investigated, nor has the creep behavior of beryllium been studied in an energetic neutron flux at thermodynamically interesting temperatures. This small beryllium pressure vessel could be charged with gas to test pressures around 3, 000 psi to produce stress in the metal of 15,000 to 20,000 psi. Such stress levels are typical of those that might be reached in fusion blanket applications of beryllium. After contacting R. Powell at HEDL about including some of the pressure vessels in future test programs, we sent one sample pressure vessel with a pressurizing tube attached (Fig. 1) for burst tests so the quality of the diffusion bond joints could be evaluated. The gas used was helium. Unfortunately, budget restrictions did not permit us to proceed in the creep test program. The purpose of this engineering note is to document the lessons learned to date, including photographs of the test pressure vessel that show the tooling necessary to satisfactorily produce the diffusion bonds. This document can serve as a starting point for those engineers who resume this task when funds become available

  7. Impurities effect on the swelling of neutron irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donne, M.D.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F. [Institut fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    An important factor controlling the swelling behaviour of fast neutron irradiated beryllium is the impurity content which can strongly affect both the surface tension and the creep strength of this material. Being the volume swelling of the old beryllium (early sixties) systematically higher than that of the more modem one (end of the seventies), a sensitivity analysis with the aid of the computer code ANFIBE (ANalysis of Fusion Irradiated BEryllium) to investigate the effect of these material properties on the swelling behaviour of neutron irradiated beryllium has been performed. Two sets of experimental data have been selected: the first one named Western refers to quite recently produced Western beryllium, whilst the second one, named Russian refers to relatively old (early sixties) Russian beryllium containing a higher impurity rate than the Western one. The results obtained with the ANFIBE Code were assessed by comparison with experimental data and the used material properties were compared with the data available in the literature. Good agreement between calculated and measured values has been found.

  8. Cyclophosphamide, Alvocidib, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With High Risk B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-10

    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  9. Chemokines, lymphocytes, and HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farber J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemokines are members of a family of more than 30 human cytokines whose best-described activities are as chemotactic factors for leukocytes and that are presumed to be important in leukocyte recruitment and trafficking. While many chemokines can act on lymphocytes, the roles of chemokines and their receptors in lymphocyte biology are poorly understood. The recent discoveries that chemokines can suppress infection by HIV-1 and that chemokine receptors serve, along with CD4, as obligate co-receptors for HIV-1 entry have lent urgency to studies on the relationships between chemokines and lymphocytes. My laboratory has characterized Mig and Crg-2/IP-10, chemokines that are induced by IFN-g and that specifically target lymphocytes, particularly activated T cells. We have demonstrated that the genes for these chemokines are widely expressed during experimental infections in mice with protozoan and viral pathogens, but that the patterns of mig and crg-2 expression differed, suggesting non-redundant roles in vivo. Our related studies to identify new chemokine receptors from activated lymphocytes resulted in the cloning of STRL22 and STRL33. We and others have shown that STRL22 is a receptor for the CC chemokine MIP-3a, and STRL22 has been re-named CCR6. Although STRL33 remains an orphan receptor, we have shown that it can function as a co-receptor for HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, and that it is active with a broader range of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins than the major co-receptors described to date. The ability of STRL33 to function with a wide variety of envelope glycoproteins may become particularly important if therapies are instituted to block other specific co-receptors. We presume that investigations into the roles of chemokines and their receptors in lymphocyte biology will provide information important for understanding the pathogenesis of AIDS and for manipulating immune and inflammatory responses for clinical benefit

  10. Spontaneous release of interleukin 2 by lung T lymphocytes in active pulmonary sarcoidosis is primarily from the Leu3+DR+ T cell subset.

    OpenAIRE

    Saltini, C; Spurzem, J. R.; Lee, J J; Pinkston, P; Crystal, R G

    1986-01-01

    The inflammation within the lower respiratory tract of individuals with pulmonary sarcoidosis is dominated by large numbers of helper T lymphocytes that proliferate and spontaneously release interleukin 2 (IL-2). To identify the lymphocyte subpopulation that releases IL-2 in this disorder, lung lymphocytes recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage were characterized using the monoclonal antibodies Leu4 (T lymphocyte), Leu3 (helper/inducer), Leu2 (suppressor/cytotoxic), and anti-HLA-DR, and separate...

  11. Beryllium data base for in-pile mockup test on blanket of fusion reactor, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium has been used in the fusion blanket designs with ceramic breeder as a neutron multiplier to increase the net tritium breeding ratio (TBR). The properties of beryllium, that is physical properties, chemical properties, thermal properties, mechanical properties, nuclear properties, radiation effects, etc. are necessary for the fusion blanket design. However, the properties of beryllium have not been arranged for the fusion blanket design. Therefore, it is indispensable to check and examine the material data of beryllium reported previously. This paper is the first one of the series of papers on beryllium data base, which summarizes the reported material data of beryllium. (author)

  12. Stages of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ALL Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Chronic ...

  13. What Is Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... White blood cells help the body fight infections. Lymphocytes These are the main cells that make up ... B cells) and T lymphocytes (T cells). B lymphocytes: B lymphocytes protect the body from invading germs ...

  14. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Torigoe, Toshihiko; Inoda, Satoko; Morita, Rena; Kochin, Vitaly; Sato, Noriyuki

    2012-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs)/cancer-initiating cells (CICs) are characterized as a small population of cancer cells that have high tumor-initiating ability. CSCs/CICs are resistant to several cancer therapies, and eradication of CSCs/CICs is essential to cure cancer. How can we eradicate CSCs/CICs? Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) might be a promising answer.

  15. Chemokine regulation in response to beryllium exposure in human peripheral blood mononuclear and dendritic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to beryllium (Be) induces a delayed-type hypersensitivity immune reaction in the lungs of susceptible individuals, which leads to the onset of Be sensitivity and Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD). Although some mechanistic aspects of CBD have begun to be characterized, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which Be activates the host immune response. To gain insight into the cellular response to Be exposure, we have performed global microarray analysis using a mixture of peripheral blood mononuclear and dendritic cells (PBMC/DCs) from a non-CBD source to identify genes that are specifically upregulated in response to BeSO4 stimulation, compared to a control metal salt, Al2(SO4)3. We identified a number of upregulated immunomodulatory genes, including several chemokines in the MIP-1 and GRO families. Using PBMC/DCs from three different donors, we demonstrate that BeSO4 stimulation generally exhibits an increased rate of both chemokine mRNA transcription and release compared to Al2(SO4)3 exposure, although variations among the individual donors do exist. We show that MIP-1α and MIP-1β neutralizing antibodies can partially inhibit the ability of BeSO4 to stimulate cell migration of PBMC/DCs in vitro. Finally, incubation of PBMC/DCs with BeSO4 altered the binding of the transcription factor RUNX to the MIP-1α promoter consensus sequence, indicating that Be can regulate chemokine gene activation. Taken together, these results suggest a model in which Be stimulation of PBMC/DCs can modulate the expression and release of different chemokines, leading to the migration of lymphocytes to the lung and the formation of a localized environment for development of Be disease in susceptible individuals

  16. The unusual properties of beryllium surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Be is a ''marginal metal.'' The stable phase, hcp-Be, has a low Fermi-level density of states and very anisotropic structural and elastic properties, similar to a semiconductor's. At the Be(0001) surface, surface states drastically increase the Fermi-level density of states. The different nature of bonding in bulk-Be and at the Be(0001) surface explains the large outward relaxation. The presence of surface states causes large surface core-level shifts by inducing a higher electrostatic potential in the surface layers and by improving the screening at the surface. The authors experimental and theoretical investigations of atomic vibrations at the Be(0001) surface demonstrate clearly that Be screening of atomic motion by the surface states makes the surface phonon dispersion fundamentally different from that of the bulk. Properties of Be(0001) are so different from those of the bulk that the surface can be considered a new ''phase'' of beryllium with unique electronic and structural characteristics. For comparison they also study Be(11 bar 20), a very open surface without important surface states. Be(11 bar 20) is the only clean s-p metal surface known to reconstruct (1 x 3 missing row reconstruction)

  17. Beryllium Abundances of Solar-Analog Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, Yoichi; Honda, Satoshi; Kawanomoto, Satoshi; Ando, Hiroyasu; Sakurai, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    An extensive beryllium abundance analysis was conducted for 118 solar analogs (along with 87 FGK standard stars) by applying the spectrum synthesis technique to the near-UV region comprising the Be II line at 3131.066 A, in an attempt to investigate whether Be suffers any depletion such as the case of Li showing a large diversity. We found that, while most of these Sun-like stars are superficially similar in terms of their A(Be) (Be abundances) around the solar value within ~ +/- 0.2dex, 4 out of 118 samples turned out strikingly Be-deficient (by more than ~2 dex) and these 4 stars belong to the group of lowest v_e sin i (projected rotation velocity). Moreover, even for the other majority showing an apparent similarity in Be, we can recognize a tendency that A(Be) gradually increases with an increase in v_e sin i. These observational facts suggest that any solar analog star (including the Sun) generally suffers some kind of Be depletion during their lives, where the rotational velocity (or the angular momentu...

  18. Interaction of beryllium and hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been considered that in the plasma nuclear fusion experimental devices of magnetic field confinement type, in order to reduce the energy loss due to bremsstrahlung, the use of the plasma-facing materials (PFM) of low atomic number like carbon is indispensable at present. Attention is paid to beryllium which is one of the PFMs, and its effectiveness was rocognized by the practical use in JET. When Be is considered as a PFM, it is necessary to accumulate many data on the diffusion, dissolution, permeation and surface recoupling of hydrogen isotopes, which regulate the recycling and inventory of deuterium and tritium fuel, and the relation of these factors with the physical and chemical states of Be. In this research, as the first phase of understanding the characteristics of Be as a PFM, the change of the surface condition by heating Be was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the chemical form of the Be-related substances emitted from the surface by argon or deuterium ion sputtering and their thermal behavior were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The sample, the measurement and the results are reported. The diversified secondary ions of Be, Be cluster, Be oxide, hydroxide, hydride and deuteride were observed by the measurement, and their features are shown. (K.I.)

  19. Electronic band structure of beryllium oxide

    CERN Document Server

    Sashin, V A; Kheifets, A S; Ford, M J

    2003-01-01

    The energy-momentum resolved valence band structure of beryllium oxide has been measured by electron momentum spectroscopy (EMS). Band dispersions, bandwidths and intervalence bandgap, electron momentum density (EMD) and density of occupied states have been extracted from the EMS data. The experimental results are compared with band structure calculations performed within the full potential linear muffin-tin orbital approximation. Our experimental bandwidths of 2.1 +- 0.2 and 4.8 +- 0.3 eV for the oxygen s and p bands, respectively, are in accord with theoretical predictions, as is the s-band EMD after background subtraction. Contrary to the calculations, however, the measured p-band EMD shows large intensity at the GAMMA point. The measured full valence bandwidth of 19.4 +- 0.3 eV is at least 1.4 eV larger than the theory. The experiment also finds a significantly higher value for the p-to-s-band EMD ratio in a broad momentum range compared to the theory.

  20. Development of Interatomic Potentials for Beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: To be able to benefit from fusion as a clean and safe power source, we need a comprehensive understanding of the dynamic region of a fusion reactor. Knowing the interplay between the fuel plasma and the reactor components, such as the first wall and the divertor, one can minimize the resulting degradation. The atom-level mechanisms behind the reactions, (e.g. erosion and redeposition) are, however, not accessible to experiments. Hence, computational methods, including molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, are needed. The interactions in a system of particles are within MD described by an interatomic potential. The study of reactor processes requires models for the mixed interaction between the first wall and divertor materials beryllium, carbon and tungsten, as well as for the interaction of these with hydrogen. The absence of proper models for the Be system motivated us to develop potentials for pure Be, Be-C, Be-W and Be-H. We present a Tersoff-like bond order potential for pure Be and the same formalism applied to Be-C and Be-H. The performance of the potentials is discussed and an outlook for the remaining potential is also given. (authors)

  1. Lightweight beryllium wins wings as real heavyweight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of Be materials with improved strength and ductility levels is possible by exploitation of new consolidation techniques, such as cold and hot isostatic pressing and plasma spraying followed by sintering. Working the vacuum hot pressed billet by cross-rolling or extruding and by forging improves the mechanical properties. The valuable contributions of Be in aerospace and nuclear applications are considered. SNAP-8 and SNAP-10A applications, replacement of an Al alloy on the Minuteman spacer ring by Be, aircraft (flight testing of F-4 Phantom with a Be rudder and actual structural application of Be wrought mill product in F-14 Tomcat) and communication satellite (despin platforms, spinning arms, russ structures) applications are discussed together with instrument applications (guidance systems for Saturn V, Minuteman and the Boeing 747, proportional counters for space-oriented x-ray experiments), Be applications in lunar explorations, expanding use of Be in space applications as a mirror blank material and Be disks for the brakes of giant aircraft. Beryllium has the highest specific heat of all structural metals and it shows chemical inertness to many of the common ocket propellants and their combustion products. Its handicaps are high cost and poor impact behavior. (U.S.)

  2. Steam-chemical reactivity for irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, R.A.; McCarthy, K.A.; Oates, M.A.; Petti, D.A.; Pawelko, R.J.; Smolik, G.R. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation to determine the influence of neutron irradiation effects and annealing on the chemical reactivity of beryllium exposed to steam. The work entailed measurements of the H{sub 2} generation rates for unirradiated and irradiated Be and for irradiated Be that had been previously annealed at different temperatures ranging from 450degC to 1200degC. H{sub 2} generation rates were similar for irradiated and unirradiated Be in steam-chemical reactivity experiments at temperatures between 450degC and 600degC. For irradiated Be exposed to steam at 700degC, the chemical reactivity accelerated rapidly and the specimen experienced a temperature excursion. Enhanced chemical reactivity at temperatures between 400degC and 600degC was observed for irradiated Be annealed at temperatures of 700degC and higher. This reactivity enhancement could be accounted for by the increased specific surface area resulting from development of a surface-connected porosity in the irradiated-annealed Be. (author)

  3. Beryllium abundances in stars hosting giant planets

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, N C; Israelian, G; Mayor, M; Rebolo, R; García-Gíl, A; Pérez de Taoro, M R; Randich, S

    2002-01-01

    We have derived beryllium abundances in a wide sample of stars hosting planets, with spectral types in the range F7V-K0V, aimed at studying in detail the effects of the presence of planets on the structure and evolution of the associated stars. Predictions from current models are compared with the derived abundances and suggestions are provided to explain the observed inconsistencies. We show that while still not clear, the results suggest that theoretical models may have to be revised for stars with Teff<5500K. On the other hand, a comparison between planet host and non-planet host stars shows no clear difference between both populations. Although preliminary, this result favors a ``primordial'' origin for the metallicity ``excess'' observed for the planetary host stars. Under this assumption, i.e. that there would be no differences between stars with and without giant planets, the light element depletion pattern of our sample of stars may also be used to further investigate and constraint Li and Be deple...

  4. Culture of normal human blood cells in a diffusion chamber system II. Lymphocyte and plasma cell kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normal human blood leukocytes were cultured in Millipore diffusion chambers implanted into the peritoneal cavities of irradiated mice. The evaluation of survival and proliferation kinetics of cells in lymphyocytic series suggested that the lymphoid cells are formed from transition of small and/or large lymphocytes, and the lymphoblasts from the lymphoid cells. There was also evidence indicating that some of the cells in these two compartments are formed by proliferation. The evaluation of plasmacytic series suggested that the plasma cells are formed from plasmacytoid-lymphocytes by transition, and the latter from the transition of lymphocytes. In addition, relatively a small fraction of cells in these two compartments are formed by proliferation. mature plasma cells do not and immature plasma cells do proliferate. Estimation of magnitude of plasma cells formed in the cultures at day 18 indicated that at least one plasma cell is formed for every 6 normal human blood lymphocytes introduced into the culture

  5. Changes in phospholipid metabolism during B lymphocyte activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phospholipid metabolism in murine B lymphocytes stimulated with anti-Ig bound to Sepharose has been examined. T cell-depleted splenic B lymphocytes cultured with Sepharose-coupled, affinity-purified goat anti-mouse Ig (GAMIg) increased the incorporation of 32PO4 into phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylinositol within 3 hr and increased [3H]-thymidine uptake at 48 hr. No increase in labeling was observed in phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, or phosphatidylserine. Based on both negative and positive selection procedures, it was demonstrated that these responses occurred in B lymphocytes. In contrast to the thymidine uptake response did not require the presence of accessory cells or exogenous cytokines. The same selective changes in phospholipid metabolism were observed in neoplastic B lymphocytes (BCL1) after treatment with Sepharose anti-μ, but not with Sepharose anti-Ia or Sepharose normal Ig. The dose-response relationships of 32PO4 incorporation into phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylinositol and [3H] thymidine uptake were nearly identical in BCL1 cells. The results of these experiments indicate that interaction B lymphocytes with insolubilized anti-Ig results in prompt and selective changes in phospholipid metabolism that appear to be correlated with B lymphocyte proliferation

  6. Scaling Aspects of Lymphocyte Trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    Perelson, Alan S.; Wiegel, Frederik W.

    2008-01-01

    We consider the long lived pool of B and T cells that recirculate through blood, tissues and the lymphatic system of an animal with body mass M. We derive scaling rules (allometric relations) for: (1) the rate of production of mature lymphocytes; (2) the accumulation of lymphocytes in the tissues; (3) the flux of lymphocytes through the lymphatic system; (4) the number of lymph nodes, (5) the number of lymphocytes per clone within a lymph node, and (6) the total number of lymphocytes within a...

  7. A Report on the Validation of Beryllium Strength Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Derek Elswick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-05

    This report discusses work on validating beryllium strength models with flyer plate and Taylor rod experimental data. Strength models are calibrated with Hopkinson bar and quasi-static data. The Hopkinson bar data for beryllium provides strain rates up to about 4000 per second. A limitation of the Hopkinson bar data for beryllium is that it only provides information on strain up to about 0.15. The lack of high strain data at high strain rates makes it difficult to distinguish between various strength model settings. The PTW model has been calibrated many different times over the last 12 years. The lack of high strain data for high strain rates has resulted in these calibrated PTW models for beryllium exhibiting significantly different behavior when extrapolated to high strain. For beryllium, the α parameter of PTW has recently been calibrated to high precision shear modulus data. In the past the α value for beryllium was set based on expert judgment. The new α value for beryllium was used in a calibration of the beryllium PTW model by Sky Sjue. The calibration by Sjue used EOS table information to model the temperature dependence of the heat capacity. Also, the calibration by Sjue used EOS table information to model the density changes of the beryllium sample during the Hopkinson bar and quasi-static experiments. In this paper, the calibrated PTW model by Sjue is compared against experimental data and other strength models. The other strength models being considered are a PTW model calibrated by Shuh- Rong Chen and a Steinberg-Guinan type model by John Pedicini. The three strength models are used in a comparison against flyer plate and Taylor rod data. The results show that the Chen PTW model provides better agreement to this data. The Chen PTW model settings have been previously adjusted to provide a better fit to flyer plate data, whereas the Sjue PTW model has not been changed based on flyer plate data. However, the Sjue model provides a reasonable fit to

  8. Erosion of beryllium under ITER – Relevant transient plasma loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriyanov, I.B., E-mail: igkupr@gmail.com [A.A. Bochvar High Technology Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Rogova St. 5a, 123060 Moscow (Russian Federation); Nikolaev, G.N.; Kurbatova, L.A.; Porezanov, N.P. [A.A. Bochvar High Technology Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Rogova St. 5a, 123060 Moscow (Russian Federation); Podkovyrov, V.L.; Muzichenko, A.D.; Zhitlukhin, A.M. [TRINITI, Troitsk, Moscow reg. (Russian Federation); Gervash, A.A. [Efremov Research Institute, S-Peterburg (Russian Federation); Safronov, V.M. [Project Center of ITER, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • We study the erosion, mass loss/gain and surface structure evolution of Be/CuCrZr mock-ups, armored with beryllium of TGP-56FW grade after irradiation by deuterium plasma heat load of 0.5 MJ/m{sup 2} at 250 °C and 500 °C. • Beryllium mass loss/erosion under plasma heat load at 250 °C is rather small (no more than 0.2 g/m{sup 2} shot and 0.11 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 40 shots) and tends to decrease with increasing number of shots. • Beryllium mass loss/erosion under plasma heat load at 500 °C is much higher (∼2.3 g/m{sup 2} shot and 1.2 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 10 shot) and tends to decrease with increasing the number of shots (∼0.26 g/m{sup 2} pulse and 0.14 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 100 shot). • Beryllium erosion value derived from the measurements of profile of irradiated surface is much higher than erosion value derived from mass loss data. - Abstract: Beryllium will be used as a armor material for the ITER first wall. It is expected that erosion of beryllium under transient plasma loads such as the edge-localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions will mainly determine a lifetime of the ITER first wall. This paper presents the results of recent experiments with the Russian beryllium of TGP-56FW ITER grade on QSPA-Be plasma gun facility. The Be/CuCrZr mock-ups were exposed to up to 100 shots by deuterium plasma streams (5 cm in diameter) with pulse duration of 0.5 ms and heat loads range of 0.2–0.5 MJ/m{sup 2} at different temperature of beryllium tiles. The temperature of Be tiles has been maintained about 250 and 500 °C during the experiments. After 10, 40 and 100 shots, the beryllium mass loss/gain under erosion process were investigated as well as evolution of surface microstructure and cracks morphology.

  9. Controlling Beryllium Contaminated Material And Equipment For The Building 9201-5 Legacy Material Disposition Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, T. D.; Easterling, S. D.

    2010-10-01

    This position paper addresses the management of beryllium contamination on legacy waste. The goal of the beryllium management program is to protect human health and the environment by preventing the release of beryllium through controlling surface contamination. Studies have shown by controlling beryllium surface contamination, potential airborne contamination is reduced or eliminated. Although there are areas in Building 9201-5 that are contaminated with radioactive materials and mercury, only beryllium contamination is addressed in this management plan. The overall goal of this initiative is the compliant packaging and disposal of beryllium waste from the 9201-5 Legacy Material Removal (LMR) Project to ensure that beryllium surface contamination and any potential airborne release of beryllium is controlled to levels as low as practicable in accordance with 10 CFR 850.25.

  10. Validation of cleaning method for various parts fabricated at a Beryllium facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Cynthia M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated and documented a cleaning process that is used to clean parts that are fabricated at a beryllium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of evaluating this cleaning process was to validate and approve it for future use to assure beryllium surface levels are below the Department of Energy’s release limits without the need to sample all parts leaving the facility. Inhaling or coming in contact with beryllium can cause an immune response that can result in an individual becoming sensitized to beryllium, which can then lead to a disease of the lungs called chronic beryllium disease, and possibly lung cancer. Thirty aluminum and thirty stainless steel parts were fabricated on a lathe in the beryllium facility, as well as thirty-two beryllium parts, for the purpose of testing a parts cleaning method that involved the use of ultrasonic cleaners. A cleaning method was created, documented, validated, and approved, to reduce beryllium contamination.

  11. Beryllium processing technology review for applications in plasma-facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials research and development activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), i.e., the next generation fusion reactor, are investigating beryllium as the first-wall containment material for the reactor. Important in the selection of beryllium is the ability to process, fabricate and repair beryllium first-wall components using existing technologies. Two issues that will need to be addressed during the engineering design activity will be the bonding of beryllium tiles in high-heat-flux areas of the reactor, and the in situ repair of damaged beryllium tiles. The following review summarizes the current technology associated with welding and joining of beryllium to itself and other materials, and the state-of-the-art in plasma-spray technology as an in situ repair technique for damaged beryllium tiles. In addition, a review of the current status of beryllium technology in the former Soviet Union is also included

  12. The structure, properties and performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma-spray technology is under investigation as a method for producing high thermal conductivity beryllium coatings for use in magnetic fusion applications. Recent investigations have focused on optimizing the plasma-spray process for depositing beryllium coatings on damaged beryllium surfaces. Of particular interest has been optimizing the processing parameters to maximize the through-thickness thermal conductivity of the beryllium coatings. Experimental results will be reported on the use of secondary H2 gas additions to improve the melting of the beryllium powder and transferred-arc cleaning to improve the bonding between the beryllium coatings and the underlying surface. Information will also be presented on thermal fatigue tests which were done on beryllium coated ISX-B beryllium limiter tiles using 10 sec cycle times with 60 sec cooldowns and an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) relevant divertor heat flux slightly in excess of 5 MW/m2

  13. Beryllium processing technology review for applications in plasma-facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, R.G.; Jacobson, L.A.; Stanek, P.W.

    1993-07-01

    Materials research and development activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), i.e., the next generation fusion reactor, are investigating beryllium as the first-wall containment material for the reactor. Important in the selection of beryllium is the ability to process, fabricate and repair beryllium first-wall components using existing technologies. Two issues that will need to be addressed during the engineering design activity will be the bonding of beryllium tiles in high-heat-flux areas of the reactor, and the in situ repair of damaged beryllium tiles. The following review summarizes the current technology associated with welding and joining of beryllium to itself and other materials, and the state-of-the-art in plasma-spray technology as an in situ repair technique for damaged beryllium tiles. In addition, a review of the current status of beryllium technology in the former Soviet Union is also included.

  14. Inhibitory effect of arctigenin on lymphocyte activation stimulated with PMA/ionomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cheng-Hong; Lai, Xin-Qiang; Zhang, Li; Yao, Jing-Chun; Guan, Yong-Xia; Pan, Li-Hong; Yan, Ying

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of arctigenin (Arc) on the cell activation, cytokines expression, proliferation, and cell-cycle distribution of mouse T lymphocytes. Mouse lymphocytes were prepared from lymph node and treated with Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)/Ionimycin (Ion) and/or Arc. CD69, CD25, cytokines, proliferation and cell cycle were assayed by flow cytometry. The results showed that, at concentrations of less than 1.00 micromol x L(-1), Arc expressed non-obvious cell damage to cultured lymphocytes, however, it could significantly down-regulate the expression of CD69 and CD25, as well as TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 on PMA/Ion stimulated lymphocytes. At the same time, Arc could also inhibit the proliferation of PMA/Ion-activated lymphocytes and exhibited lymphocyte G 0/G1 phase cycle arrest. These results suggest that Arc possesses significant anti-inflammatory effects that may be mediated through the regulation of cell activation, cytokines expression and cell proliferation. PMID:24974465

  15. The results of medical surveillance of beryllium production personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents results of surveillance of 1836 workers of beryllium production of Ulba Metallurgical Plant JSC with the acute and chronic forms of occupation diseases for 52 years of its operation. The dependence of acute and chronic occupation lesions on the protection degree is shown. It has been found out that, the risk of getting an occupation disease increases sharply at the moments of experimental works and at the time of reconstruction and some other extreme conditions in the production, that is supported by fixed lesions of eye mucous coat, skin and lung lesions. In this case, the readiness of people for their work in deleterious conditions and their personal responsibility for following the regulations of safety occupational standards plays a definite role. Therefore, the issues of protection are of paramount importance in prophylaxis both of acute and chronic exposure to beryllium. An influence of duration of service and occupation on chronic beryllium diseases is shown. A parallel between the lung beryllium disease and skin lesions by insoluble beryllium compounds is drawn for the first time. (author)

  16. Preparation of copper-beryllium alloys from Indian beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents the results of laboratory scale investigations on the preparation of copper-beryllium and aluminium-beryllium master alloys starting from Indian beryl and adopting the fluoride process. The flow-sheet involves : (1) conversion of the Be-values in beryl into water soluble sodium beryllium fluoride (2) preparation of beryllium hydroxide by alkali treatment of aqueous Na2BeF4 (3) conversion of Be(OH)2 to (NH4)2BeF4 by treatment with NH4HF2 (4) thermal decomposition of (NH4)2BeF4 to BeF2 and (5) magnesium reduction of BeF2 (with the addition of copper/aluminium) to obtain beryllium alloys. The method has been successfully employed for the preparation of Cu-Be master alloys containing about 8% Be and free of Mg on a 200 gm scale. An overall Be-recovery of about 80% has been achieved. Al-8% Be master alloys have also been prepared by this method. Toxicity and health hazards associated with Be are discussed and the steps taken to ensure safe handling of Be are described. (author)

  17. Report of a technical evaluation panel on the use of beryllium for ITER plasma facing material and blanket breeder material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium because of its low atomic number and high thermal conductivity, is a candidate for both ITER first wall and divertor surfaces. This study addresses the following: why beryllium; design requirements for the ITER divertor; beryllium supply and unirradiated physical/mechanical property database; effects of irradiation on beryllium properties; tritium issues; beryllium health and safety; beryllium-coolant interactions and safety; thermal and mechanical tests; plasma erosion of beryllium; recommended beryllium grades for ITER plasma facing components; proposed manufacturing methods to produce beryllium parts for ITER; emerging beryllium materials; proposed inspection and maintenance techniques for beryllium components and coatings; time table and costs; and the importance of integrating materials and manufacturing personnel with designers

  18. Report of a technical evaluation panel on the use of beryllium for ITER plasma facing material and blanket breeder material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrickson, M.A. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Manly, W.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dombrowski, D.E. [Brush Wellman, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    Beryllium because of its low atomic number and high thermal conductivity, is a candidate for both ITER first wall and divertor surfaces. This study addresses the following: why beryllium; design requirements for the ITER divertor; beryllium supply and unirradiated physical/mechanical property database; effects of irradiation on beryllium properties; tritium issues; beryllium health and safety; beryllium-coolant interactions and safety; thermal and mechanical tests; plasma erosion of beryllium; recommended beryllium grades for ITER plasma facing components; proposed manufacturing methods to produce beryllium parts for ITER; emerging beryllium materials; proposed inspection and maintenance techniques for beryllium components and coatings; time table and costs; and the importance of integrating materials and manufacturing personnel with designers.

  19. Experimental studies and modeling of processes of hydrogen isotopes interaction with beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazhibaeva, I.L.; Chikhray, Y.V.; Romanenko, O.G.; Klepikov, A.Kh.; Shestakov, V.P.; Kulsartov, T.V. [Science Research Inst. of Experimental and Theoretical Physics of Kazakh State Univ., Almaty (Kazakhstan); Kenzhin, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this work was to clarify the surface beryllium oxide influence on hydrogen-beryllium interaction characteristics. Analysis of experimental data and modeling of processes of hydrogen isotopes accumulation, diffusion and release from neutron irradiated beryllium was used to achieve this purpose as well as the investigations of the changes of beryllium surface element composition being treated by H{sup +} and Ar{sup +} plasma glowing discharge. (author)

  20. Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 infection drives spontaneous proliferation of natural killer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, Philip J; Hirschkorn, Dale F.; DeVita, Deborah A.; Lee, Tzong-Hae; Murphy, Eedward L

    2010-01-01

    Most human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infected subjects remain asymptomatic throughout their lives, with a few individuals developing HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) or adult T cell leukemia. Lymphocytes from about half of HTLV-1 infected subjects spontaneously proliferate in vitro, and how this phenomenon relates to symptomatic disease outcome and viral burden is poorly understood. Spontaneous proliferation was measured in lymphocyte subsets, an...

  1. Arctigenin from Arctium lappa inhibits interleukin-2 and interferon gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Shwu-Fen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arctium lappa (Niubang, a Chinese herbal medicine, is used to treat tissue inflammation. This study investigates the effects of arctigenin (AC, isolated from A. lappa, on anti-CD3/CD28 Ab-stimulated cell proliferation and cytokine gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes. Methods Cell proliferation was determined with enzyme immunoassays and the tritiated thymidine uptake method. Cytokine production and gene expression were analyzed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results AC inhibited primary human T lymphocytes proliferation activated by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Cell viability test indicated that the inhibitory effects of AC on primary human T lymphocyte proliferation were not due to direct cytotoxicity. AC suppressed interleukin-2 (IL-2 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ production in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, AC decreased the IL-2 and IFN-γ gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes induced by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Reporter gene analyses revealed that AC decreased NF-AT-mediated reporter gene expression. Conclusion AC inhibited T lymphocyte proliferation and decreased the gene expression of IL-2, IFN-γ and NF-AT.

  2. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's beryllium control program for high-explosive test firing bunkers and tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report on the control program to minimize beryllium levels in Laboratory workplaces includes an outline of beryllium surface, soil, and air levels and an 11-y summary of sampling results from two high-use, high-explosive test firing bunkers. These sampling data and other studies demonstrate that the beryllium control program is functioning effectively

  3. Estimation of beryllium ground state energy by Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum Monte Carlo method represent a powerful and broadly applicable computational tool for finding very accurate solution of the stationary Schrödinger equation for atoms, molecules, solids and a variety of model systems. Using variational Monte Carlo method we have calculated the ground state energy of the Beryllium atom. Our calculation are based on using a modified four parameters trial wave function which leads to good result comparing with the few parameters trial wave functions presented before. Based on random Numbers we can generate a large sample of electron locations to estimate the ground state energy of Beryllium. Our calculation gives good estimation for the ground state energy of the Beryllium atom comparing with the corresponding exact data

  4. Ab Initio Simulation Beryllium in Solid Molecular Hydrogen: Elastic Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Carlo L.; Perlado, Jose M.

    2016-03-01

    In systems of inertial confinement fusion targets Deuterium-Tritium are manufactured with a solid layer, it must have specific properties to increase the efficiency of ignition. Currently there have been some proposals to model the phases of hydrogen isotopes and hence their high pressure, but these works do not allow explaining some of the structures present at the solid phase change effect of increased pressure. By means of simulation with first principles methods and Quantum Molecular Dynamics, we compare the structural difference of solid molecular hydrogen pure and solid molecular hydrogen with beryllium, watching beryllium inclusion in solid hydrogen matrix, we obtain several differences in mechanical properties, in particular elastic constants. For C11 the difference between hydrogen and hydrogen with beryllium is 37.56%. This may produce a non-uniform initial compression and decreased efficiency of ignition.

  5. Measurement of the ultracold neutron loss coefficient in beryllium powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultracold neutron (UCN) reflection from beryllium powder at different slab thicknesses and different packing densities is measured. The reduced UCN loss coefficient η=(1.75±0.35)x10-4 for thermally untreated beryllium is extracted from experimental data. The formerly obtained experimental results on UCN reflection from beryllium after high temperature annealing are reconsidered. The loss coefficient η at room temperature in this case is obtained to be (6.4±2.5)x10-5, which is an order of magnitude higher than the theoretical one. The extraction of the loss coefficient from the experimental data is based on the modified diffusion theory where albedo reflection depends on packing density

  6. Estimation of beryllium ground state energy by Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabir, K. M. Ariful [Department of Physical Sciences, School of Engineering and Computer Science, Independent University, Bangladesh (IUB) Dhaka (Bangladesh); Halder, Amal [Department of Mathematics, University of Dhaka Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2015-05-15

    Quantum Monte Carlo method represent a powerful and broadly applicable computational tool for finding very accurate solution of the stationary Schrödinger equation for atoms, molecules, solids and a variety of model systems. Using variational Monte Carlo method we have calculated the ground state energy of the Beryllium atom. Our calculation are based on using a modified four parameters trial wave function which leads to good result comparing with the few parameters trial wave functions presented before. Based on random Numbers we can generate a large sample of electron locations to estimate the ground state energy of Beryllium. Our calculation gives good estimation for the ground state energy of the Beryllium atom comparing with the corresponding exact data.

  7. Elemental composition in sealed plutonium–beryllium neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five sealed plutonium–beryllium (PuBe) neutron sources from various manufacturers were disassembled. Destructive chemical analyses for recovered PuBe materials were conducted for disposition purposes. A dissolution method for PuBe alloys was developed for quantitative plutonium (Pu) and beryllium (Be) assay. Quantitation of Be and trace elements was performed using plasma based spectroscopic instruments, namely inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Pu assay was accomplished by an electrochemical method. Variations in trace elemental contents among the five PuBe sources are discussed. - Highlights: • A destructive chemical analysis of the PuBe neutron sources includes the solubilization and digestion of the PuBe alloy material. • Plutonium was assayed by an electrochemical method. • Beryllium assay and trace elemental contents were determined by ICP instruments. • A large variation in trace elemental composition was observed among the five PuBe source materials

  8. Extraction of beryllium sulfate by a long chain amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction of sulfuric acid in aqueous solution by a primary amine in benzene solution, 3-9 (diethyl) - 6-amino tri-decane (D.E.T. ) - i.e., with American nomenclature 1-3 (ethyl-pentyl) - 4-ethyl-octyl amine (E.P.O.) - has made it possible to calculate the formation constants of alkyl-ammonium sulfate and acid sulfate. The formula of the beryllium and alkyl-ammonium sulfate complex formed in benzene has next been determined, for various initial acidity of the aqueous solution. Lastly, evidence has been given of negatively charged complexes of beryllium and sulfate in aqueous solution, through the dependence of the aqueous sulfate ions concentration upon beryllium extraction. The formation constant of these anionic complexes has been evaluated. (author)

  9. Photochemical Behavior of Beryllium Complexes with Subporphyrazines and Subphthalocyanines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Campillo, M Merced; Lamsabhi, Al Mokhtar; Mó, Otilia; Yáñez, Manuel

    2016-07-14

    Structures of beryllium subphthalocyanines and beryllium subporphyrazines complexes with different substituents are explored for the first time. Their photochemical properties are studied using time-dependent density functional theory calculations and compared to boron-related compounds for which their photochemical activity is already known. These beryllium compounds were found to be thermodynamically stable in a vacuum and present features similar to those of boron-containing analogues, although the nature of bonding between the cation and the macrocycle presents subtle differences. Most important contributions to the main peak in the Q-band region arise from HOMO to LUMO transitions in the case of subphthalocyanines and alkyl subporphyrazine complexes, whereas a mixture of that contribution and a HOMO-2 to LUMO contribution are present in the case of thioalkyl subporphyrazines. The absorption in the visible region could make these candidates suitable for photochemical devices if combined with appropriate donor groups. PMID:26812068

  10. Beryllium Abundances in Solar Mass Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugler, J. A.; Boesgaard, A. M.

    2008-08-01

    Light element abundance analysis allows for a deeper understanding of the chemical composition of a star beneath its surface. Beryllium provides a probe down to 3.5×106 K, where it fuses with protons. In this study, Be abundances were determined for 52 F and G dwarfs selected from a sample of local thin disc stars. These stars were selected by mass to range from 0.9 to 1.1 M⊙. They have effective temperatures from 5600 to 6400 K, and their metallicities [Fe/H]=-0.65 to +0.11. The data were taken with the Keck HIRES instrument and the Gecko spectrograph on the Canada France Hawaii Telescope. The abundances were calculated via spectral synthesis and were analyzed to investigate the Be abundance as a function of age, temperature, metallicity, and its relation to the lithium abundance for this narrow mass range. Be is found to decrease linearly with metallicity down to [Fe/H]˜-4.0 with slope 0.86 ± 0.02. The relation of the Be abundance to effective temperature is dependent upon metallicity, but when metallicity effects are taken into account, there is a spread ˜1.2 dex. We find a 1.5 dex spread in A(Be) when plotted against age, with the largest spread occurring from 6-8 Gyr. The relation with Li is found to be linear with slope 0.36 ± 0.06 for the temperature regime of 5900-6300 K.

  11. Neutron irradiation behavior of ITER candidate beryllium grades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriyanov, I.B.; Gorokhov, V.A.; Nikolaev, G.N. [A.A.Bochvar All-Russia Scientific Research Inst. of Inorganic Materials (VNIINM), Moscow (Russian Federation); Melder, R.R.; Ostrovsky, Z.E.

    1998-01-01

    Beryllium is one of the main candidate materials both for the neutron multiplier in a solid breeding blanket and for the plasma facing components. That is why its behaviour under the typical for fusion reactor loading, in particular, under the neutron irradiation is of a great importance. This paper presents mechanical properties, swelling and microstructure of six beryllium grades (DshG-200, TR-30, TshG-56, TRR, TE-30, TIP-30) fabricated by VNIINM, Russia and also one - (S-65) fabricated by Brush Wellman, USA. The average grain size of the beryllium grades varied from 8 to 25 {mu}m, beryllium oxide content was 0.8-3.2 wt. %, initial tensile strength was 250-680 MPa. All the samples were irradiated in active zone of SM-3 reactor up to the fast neutron fluence (5.5-6.2) {center_dot} 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} (2.7-3.0 dpa, helium content up to 1150 appm), E > 0.1 MeV at two temperature ranges: T{sub 1} = 130-180degC and T{sub 2} = 650-700degC. After irradiation at 130-180degC no changes in samples dimensions were revealed. After irradiation at 650-700degC swelling of the materials was found to be in the range 0.1-2.1 %. Beryllium grades TR-30 and TRR, having the smallest grain size and highest beryllium oxide content, demonstrated minimal swelling, which was no more than 0.1 % at 650-700degC and fluence 5.5 {center_dot} 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}. Tensile and compression test results and microstructure parameters measured before and after irradiation are also presented. (author)

  12. Herpesvirus sylvilagus infects both B and T lymphocytes in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramp, W J; Medveczky, P; Mulder, C; Hinze, H C; Sullivan, J L

    1985-10-01

    Herpesvirus sylvilagus infection of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) was studied as a model of herpesvirus-induced lymphoproliferative disorders. Leukocytosis, splenomegaly, proliferation of T cells and virus production by lymphocytes characterized this infectious mononucleosis-like disease. Approximately two copies of circular herpesvirus sylvilagus genomes per cell were detected in spleen cells at 2 weeks postinfection, and circular genomes could still be observed after 4 months. Circular viral genomes were found in both B and T lymphocytes. Small amounts of linear viral DNA (0.1 to 0.3 copies per cell) were also detected in both B and T cells. These results indicated that the virus did not replicate in the majority of lymphocytes in vivo. Herpesvirus sylvilagus infection in cottontail rabbits could be useful as a model for studying the complex virus-host relationships of lymphotropic herpesviruses and perhaps as an animal model for Epstein-Barr virus infection in humans. PMID:2993667

  13. D-ribose inhibits DNA repair synthesis in human lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zunica, G.; Marini, M.; Brunelli, M.A.; Chiricolo, M.; Franceschi, C.

    1986-07-31

    D-ribose is cytotoxic for quiescent human lymphocytes and severely inhibits their PHA-induced proliferation at concentrations (25-50 mM) at which other simple sugars are ineffective. In order to explain these effects, DNA repair synthesis was evaluated in PHA-stimulated human lymphocytes treated with hydroxyurea and irradiated. D-ribose, in contrast to other reducing sugars, did not induce repair synthesis and therefore did not apparently damage DNA in a direct way, although it markedly inhibited gamma ray-induced repair. Taking into account that lymphocytes must rejoin physiologically-formed DNA strand breaks in order to enter the cell cycle, we suggest that D-ribose exerts its cytotoxic activity by interfering with metabolic pathways critical for the repair of DNA breaks.

  14. CHAPTER 7. BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS BY NON-PLASMA BASED METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, A

    2009-04-20

    The most common method of analysis for beryllium is inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). This method, along with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), is discussed in Chapter 6. However, other methods exist and have been used for different applications. These methods include spectroscopic, chromatographic, colorimetric, and electrochemical. This chapter provides an overview of beryllium analysis methods other than plasma spectrometry (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry or mass spectrometry). The basic methods, detection limits and interferences are described. Specific applications from the literature are also presented.

  15. The uses and adverse effects of beryllium on health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Ross G.; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2009-01-01

    the current review for selecting articles were adopted from proposed criteria in The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Articles were classified based on acute and chronic exposure and toxicity of beryllium. Results: The proportions of utilized and nonutilized...... articles were published in sources unobtainable through requests at the British Library, and some had no impact factor and were excluded. Conclusion: Beryllium has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being. Measures needed to be taken to prevent hazardous exposure to this element...

  16. Method for removal of beryllium contamination from an article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simandl, Ronald F.; Hollenbeck, Scott M.

    2012-12-25

    A method of removal of beryllium contamination from an article is disclosed. The method typically involves dissolving polyisobutylene in a solvent such as hexane to form a tackifier solution, soaking the substrate in the tackifier to produce a preform, and then drying the preform to produce the cleaning medium. The cleaning media are typically used dry, without any liquid cleaning agent to rub the surface of the article and remove the beryllium contamination below a non-detect level. In some embodiments no detectible residue is transferred from the cleaning wipe to the article as a result of the cleaning process.

  17. Radiation Damage of Beryllium Reflector for Research Reactor Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Suk Hoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Beryllium is considered as a reflector material for the research reactor. The neutron fluence results in significant damage of material structure and corresponding degradation of physical.mechanical properties. In this study, the proton radiation damage of the beryllium grade manufactured by hot extrusion was investigated to emulate the effect of neutron radiation. The samples were irradiated by protons at room temperature; the acceleration voltage, and the proton amounts were 120keV, and 2.0 Χ 10{sup 18} ions/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The neutron irradiation experiment also have been conducted in HANARO, their results will be discussed in terms of swelling, and microstructure evolution.

  18. Curcumin and Cholecalciferol in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage 0-II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

  19. Radiosensitivity of peripheral blood lymphocytes in autoimmune disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proliferation of peripheral blood lymphocytes, cultured with Con A, can be inhibited by ionizing radiation. Lymphocytes from patients with conditions associated with autoimmunity, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and polymyositis, are more radiosensitive than those from healthy volunteers or patients with conditions not associated with autoimmunity. Nuclear material isolated from the lymphocytes of patients with autoimmune diseases is, on average, lighter in density than the nuclear material from most healthy controls. This difference in density is not related to increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation but the degree of post-irradiation change in density (lightening) is proportional to the initial density, i.e. more dense nuclear material always shows a greater upward shift after radiation. The recovery of pre-irradiation density of nuclear material, 1 h after radiation exposure, taken as an indication of DNA repair, correlates with the radiosensitivity of lymphocyte proliferation (Con A response); failure to return to pre-irradiation density being associated with increased sensitivity of proliferative response. These results require extension but, taken with previously reported studied of the effects of DNA methylating agents, support the idea that DNA damage and its defective repair could be important in the aetio-pathogenesis of autoimmune disease. (author)

  20. Herpesvirus sylvilagus infects both B and T lymphocytes in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Kramp, W J; Medveczky, P; Mulder, C; Hinze, H C; Sullivan, J L

    1985-01-01

    Herpesvirus sylvilagus infection of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) was studied as a model of herpesvirus-induced lymphoproliferative disorders. Leukocytosis, splenomegaly, proliferation of T cells and virus production by lymphocytes characterized this infectious mononucleosis-like disease. Approximately two copies of circular herpesvirus sylvilagus genomes per cell were detected in spleen cells at 2 weeks postinfection, and circular genomes could still be observed after 4 months. ...

  1. The invasive chytrid fungus of amphibians paralyzes lymphocyte responses

    OpenAIRE

    Fites, J. Scott; Ramsey, Jeremy P.; Holden, Whitney M.; Collier, Sarah P.; Sutherland, Danica M.; Reinert, Laura K.; Gayek, A. Sophia; Dermody, Terence S.; Aune, Thomas M.; Oswald-Richter, Kyra; Rollins-Smith, Louise A.

    2013-01-01

    The chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, causes chytridiomycosis and is a major contributor to global amphibian declines. Although amphibians have robust immune defenses, clearance of this pathogen is impaired. Because inhibition of host immunity is a common survival strategy of pathogenic fungi, we hypothesized that B. dendrobatidis evades clearance by inhibiting immune functions. We found that B. dendrobatidis cells and supernantants impaired lymphocyte proliferation and induced ...

  2. Theileria parva infection induces autocrine growth of bovine lymphocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbelaere, D A; Coquerelle, T M; Roditi, I J; Eichhorn, M; Williams, R O

    1988-01-01

    Bovine lymphocytes infected with the parasite Theileria parva continuously secrete a growth factor that is essential for their proliferation in vitro and also constitutively express interleukin 2 receptors on their surface. Dilution of the secreted growth factor, caused by culturing cells at low density, results in retardation of culture growth. Human recombinant interleukin 2, however, effectively substitutes for the diluted growth factor by restoring normal growth rates and also allows Thei...

  3. Modulation of interleukin 2 receptor expression on normal human lymphocytes by thymic hormones.

    OpenAIRE

    Sztein, M B; Serrate, S A; Goldstein, A. L.

    1986-01-01

    The expression of interleukin 2 receptors (IL-2R) is a critical step leading to normal lymphocyte proliferation. Since thymosin fraction 5 (TF5), a thymic hormone preparation, enhances lymphoproliferative responses of human cells, we examined the effects of TF5 on the expression of IL-2R on mitogen-stimulated human lymphocytes. TF5 significantly increased the percentage and antigen density of cells expressing IL-2R after stimulation with an optimal concentration of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) wh...

  4. CD4+ lymphocytes control gut epithelial apoptosis and mediate survival in sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Stromberg, Paul E.; Woolsey, Cheryl A.; Clark, Andrew T.; Clark, Jessica A.; Turnbull, Isaiah R.; McConnell, Kevin W.; Chang, Katherine C.; Chung, Chun-Shiang; Ayala., Alfred; Buchman, Timothy G; Hotchkiss, Richard S.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2009-01-01

    Lymphocytes help determine whether gut epithelial cells proliferate or differentiate but are not known to affect whether they live or die. Here, we report that lymphocytes play a controlling role in mediating gut epithelial apoptosis in sepsis but not under basal conditions. Gut epithelial apoptosis is similar in unmanipulated Rag-1−/− and wild-type (WT) mice. However, Rag-1−/− animals have a 5-fold augmentation in gut epithelial apoptosis following cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) compared ...

  5. Circulating Ki67 positive lymphocytes in multiple myeloma and benign monoclonal gammopathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel-Garcia, A; Matutes, E.; Tarin, F; Garcia-Talavera, J; Miguel-Sosa, A; Carbonell, F.; Catovsky, D.

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To estimate the proportion and nature of the proliferating (Ki67+) circulating lymphocytes in a series of patients with multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS) and to correlate this with other clinical and laboratory parameters, using blood from healthy adults as a control. To investigate the extent to which the B and T lymphoid components are involved in progression and/or control of disease. METHODS--Blood lymphocytes from 15 patients with multiple my...

  6. Quiescent human lymphocytes do not contain DNA strand breaks detectable by alkaline elution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of qualitative assays, quiescent lymphocytes have previously been reported to have numerous DNA strand breaks, which are thought to be repaired after mitogenic stimulation by a process associated with poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Using alkaline elution, a very sensitive assay for quantifying DNA single-strand breakage, the authors found no evidence for a high frequency of DNA strand breaks in unstimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes. No differences in elution profiles were observed between unstimulated lymphocytes and lymphocytes 4 or 48 h after addition of the mitogen phytohemagglutinin (PHA). In contrast to reported studies of mouse splenic lymphocytes, they found that human lymphocytes were able to replicate and divide in the presence of the ADP-ribosylation inhibitor. Human lymphocytes were also capable of proliferating n nicotinamide-free medium, with or without 3AB, indicating that ADP-ribosylation is not a requirement for lymphocyte differentiation. They therefore consider it unlikely that peripheral human lymphocytes contain significant numbers of strand breaks that play any role in their stimulation of differentiation in response to PHA

  7. Lymphocyte Trafficking to Mucosal Tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikhak, Zamaneh; Agace, William Winston; Luster, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Lymphocytes are the key cells of the adaptive immune system that provide antigen-specific responses tailored to the context of antigen exposure. Through cytokine release and antibody production, lymphocytes orchestrate and amplify the recruitment and function of other immune cells and contribute to...... host defense against invading pathogens and the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. Lymphocyte function is critically dependent on their ability to traffic into the correct anatomic locations at the appropriate times. This process is highly regulated and requires that lymphocytes interact with...

  8. Status of the beryllium replacement project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, beryllium (Be) is used as the filler metal for brazing appendages on the sheaths of CANDU® fuel elements. Because of its toxicity, occupational exposure limits for Be are being reduced to very low levels, resulting in significant challenges to CANDU® fuel fabricators. The CANDU® Owners Group (COG) initiated a test program to identify a filler material to replace Be and confirm that the brazed joints meet the established technical requirements for CANDU® fuel. Together with eliminating health risks associated with the use of Be, the industry needs to be assured that continuation of fuel supply remains unaffected and that fuel fabrication processes continue to comply with health and safety standards. A literature survey of studies on brazing and joining of Zircaloy identified potential filler materials that can meet or exceed existing design requirements of the brazed joint, including the required mechanical, microstructural, corrosion resistance, and irradiation properties equivalent to those obtained with Be as braze material. Candidate materials were evaluated against several criteria, including manufacturability, melting point, wettability, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, effect on neutron economy, potential activation products, and interaction with fuel channels and other related disciplines. This exercise resulted in a list of promising candidate materials that were recommended for the first phase of testing. These materials include stainless steel (304 or 316), Al-Si, Ni-P, and Zr-Mn alloys. To allow a CANDU® utility have sufficient confidence in considering implementation of a different braze filler material, a Be Replacement Test Program, involving out-reactor and in-reactor tests, is being undertaken as a collaborative endeavour by the Canadian nuclear industry. The out-reactor tests consist of: a constructability assessment to determine the material’s suitability with current fuel manufacturing methods; evaluation of

  9. Irradiation effects on aluminium and beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    .6%. Besides, due to the effects of embrittlement and swelling induced by irradiation, the HFR beryllium reflector elements had to be replaced after more than 25 years of operation. Operational and practical experiences with these reflector elements are commented, as well as main engineering features of the new reflector elements: upper-end fittings of both filler element and insert in stainless steel, no radially drilled holes and no roll pins

  10. Vorinostat, Fludarabine Phosphate, Cyclophosphamide, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-04

    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  11. Radiosensitivities of sensitized lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunization of mice with cell antigens such as allogeneic tumor cells or xenogeneic erythrocytes raises a variety of immune reactions mediated by T lymphocytes: i.e. delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH), cytotoxicity, and antibody production. The radiosensitivities of these reactions were examined in mice exposed to 600 R x-irradiation a few hours before or after immunization. 1) DTH to xenogeneic erythrocytes, as demonstrated by footpad reaction, was not suppressed by irradiation 3 h before or after immunization. DTH to allogeneic tumor cells, as demonstrated by a migration inhibition test, hardly developed in mice that had been irradiated before or after immunization. It may have belonged to distinct types of delayed reactions which were mediated by distinct subpopulations of T lymphocytes. 2) Cytotoxicity against allogeneic cells and xenogeneic erythrocytes showed almost the same radiosensitivity. It was scarcely detected in mice that had been irradiated before immunization. However, a low but definite degree of cytotoxicity was detected in mice that had been irradiated only a few hours after immunization. Solubilized allogeneic cells instead of native cells were used as immunizing antigens. It was also possible for precursor cells with cytotoxicity to acquire a radioresistant nature by immunization of solubilized antigens, but native cells were required as stimulation for radioresistant precursor cells to differentiated into nature cytotoxic effector cells. 3) Antibody production against xenogeneic erythrocytes or allogeneic cells was almost completely depleted in mice that had been irradiated before or after immunization. It is possible that antibody production essentially requires cell division and clonal expansion of B lymphocytes. (Bell, E.)

  12. Tritium release from beryllium discs and lithium ceramics irradiated in the SIBELIUS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SIBELIUS experiment was designed to obtain information on the compatibility between beryllium and ceramics, as well as beryllium and steel, in a neutron environment. This experiment comprised irradiation of eight capsules, seven of which were independently purged with a He/0.1% H2 gas mixture. Four capsules were used to examine beryllium/ceramic (Li2O, LiAlO2, Li4SiO4, and Li2ZrO3) and beryllium/steel (Types 316L and 1.4914) compacts. Isothermal anneal experiments have been run on representative beryllium and ceramic disks from each of the four capsules at 550 degrees C to 850 degrees C in steps of 100 degrees C. The results indicate that tritium release from the beryllium did not exhibit burst release behavior, as previously reported, but rather a progressive release with increasing temperature. Generally, ∼99% of the tritium was released by 850 degrees C. Tritium release from the ceramic discs was quite similar to the behavior shown in other dynamic tritium release experiments on lithium ceramics. The tritium content in beryllium discs adjacent to a steel sample was found to be significantly lower than that found in a beryllium disc adjacent to a ceramic sample. Recoil of tritium from the ceramic into the beryllium appears to be the source of tritium entering the beryllium, probably residing in the beryllium oxide layer

  13. Beryllium solubility in occupational airborne particles: Sequential extraction procedure and workplace application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousset, Davy; Durand, Thibaut

    2016-01-01

    Modification of an existing sequential extraction procedure for inorganic beryllium species in the particulate matter of emissions and in working areas is described. The speciation protocol was adapted to carry out beryllium extraction in closed-face cassette sampler to take wall deposits into account. This four-step sequential extraction procedure aims to separate beryllium salts, metal, and oxides from airborne particles for individual quantification. Characterization of the beryllium species according to their solubility in air samples may provide information relative to toxicity, which is potentially related to the different beryllium chemical forms. Beryllium salts (BeF(2), BeSO(4)), metallic beryllium (Bemet), and beryllium oxide (BeO) were first individually tested, and then tested in mixtures. Cassettes were spiked with these species and recovery rates were calculated. Quantitative analyses with matched matrix were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Method Detection Limits (MDLs) were calculated for the four matrices used in the different extraction steps. In all cases, the MDL was below 4.2 ng/sample. This method is appropriate for assessing occupational exposure to beryllium as the lowest recommended threshold limit values are 0.01 µg.m(-3) in France([) (1) (]) and 0.05 µg.m(-3) in the USA.([ 2 ]) The protocol was then tested on samples from French factories where occupational beryllium exposure was suspected. Beryllium solubility was variable between factories and among the same workplace between different tasks. PMID:26327570

  14. Comparison of elevated temperature properties of HIP'd impact ground beryllium (S-65-H) and HIP'd gas atomized (GA) beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusion designers have been limited to simple tensile properties and physical properties for modern beryllium grades. The work reported here expands the elevated temperature database to more complicated mechanical tests. The elevated temperature (ambient to 648 C) thermomechanical properties of two beryllium grades made by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) are compared: S-65H (made from impact ground powder) and GA (made from gas atomized powder). Successful measurements of elevated temperature smooth and notched fatigue were made for the first time on modern beryllium grades. Valid beryllium KIC fracture toughness results were obtained for the first time at temperatures above room temperature. Elevated temperature creep, and tensile are also presented. (orig.)

  15. Reducing the cost of S-65C grade beryllium for ITER first wall applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium is the current material of choice for plasma-facing components in ITER. The present design is for 10 mm thick beryllium tiles bonded to an actively cooled copper substrate. Brush Wellman grade S65C beryllium is preferred grade off beryllium for these tiles. S65C has the best resistance to low-cycle thermal fatigue than any other beryllium grad in the world. S65C grade beryllium has been successfully deployed in fusion reactors for more than two decades, most recently in the JET reactor. This paper will detail a supply chain to produce the most cost-effective S65C plasma facing components for ITER. This paper will also propose some future work too demonstrate the best technology for bonding beryllium to copper. (author)

  16. Reduced lymphocyte activation in space - Role of cell-substratum interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmuender, F. K.; Kiess, M.; Lee, J.; Cogoli, A.; Sonnenfeld, G.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of substratum adhesiveness on lymphocyte responsiveness was investigated by reducing and blocking cell adhesion with poly-HEMA in a simple on ground system. Cells grown on medium thick and thick poly-HEMA films were rounded in shape and displayed no signs of spreading. By contrast, on tissue culture plastic and very thin poly-HEMA films, they showed clear signs of spreading. The mitogenic response of lymphocytes grown on thick poly-HEMA films was reduced by up to 68 percent of the control (tissue culture plastic). Interferon gamma production was virtually nil when the cells were grown on the least adhesive substratum. These results show that activated lymphocytes need to anchor and spread prior to achieving an optimal proliferation response. It is concluded that decreased lymphocyte adhesion could contribute to the depressed in vitro lymphocyte responsiveness found in the microgravity conditions of space flight.

  17. Reduced lymphocyte activation in space: Role of cell-substratum interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmuender, Felix K.; Kiess, M.; Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Lee, J.; Cogoli, Augusto

    1990-01-01

    The effect of substratum adhesiveness on lymphocyte responsiveness was investigated by reducing and blocking cell adhesion with poly-HEMA (poly (2-Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate)) in a simple on ground system. Cells grown on medium thick and thick poly-HEMA films were rounded in shape and displayed no signs of spreading. By contrast, on tissue culture plastic and very thin poly-HEMA films, they showed clear signs of spreading. The mitogenic response of lymphocytes grown on thick poly-HEMA films was reduced by up to 68 percent of the control (tissue culture plastic). Interferon gamma production was virtually nil when the cells were grown on the least adhesive substratum. These results show that activated lymphocytes need to anchor and spread prior to achieving an optimal proliferation response. It is concluded that decreased lymphocyte adhesion could contribute to the depressed in vitro lymphocyte responsiveness found in the microgravity conditions of space flight.

  18. Different expression patterns of TRP genes in murine B and T lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prolonged increase in the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) is essential for lymphocyte activation that includes cell proliferation and differentiation. This increase in [Ca2+]i results from Ca2+ release from the intracellular store and the subsequent Ca2+ influx from the extracellular environment via calcium channels located on the plasma membrane. Although transient receptor potential (TRP) channels have been reported to play important roles in the [Ca2+]i increase in lymphocytes, the function of these channels in lymphocyte activation remains unknown. Here, we report the comprehensive expression profile of TRP channel gene families including TRPC, TRPV, and TRPM in the murine immune system. RT-PCR analysis revealed different expression patterns of the TRP channel genes in B and T lymphocytes isolated from the spleen. Therefore, our results provide an appropriate reference of TRP gene expression in murine lymphocytes

  19. Rituximab for the treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Gentile

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available M Gentile, E Vigna, C Mazzone, E Lucia, AG Recchia, L Morabito2, MG Bisconte, C Gentile, F Morabito1UOC di Ematologia, Azienda Ospedaliera di Cosenza, Italy; 2Servicio de Hematología y Hemoterapia, Hospital Universitario de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainAbstract: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is a lymphoproliferative disorder that originates from antigen-experienced B lymphocytes that do not die and hence accumulate due to external survival signals or undergo apoptosis and are replenished by proliferating precursors. These neoplastic lymphocytes exhibit a characteristic immunophenotype of CD5+/CD19+/CD20+/HLA-DR+/CD23+/sIgdim. Thus, the CD20 antigen has been an appealing target for therapy. The introduction of the monoclonal antibody rituximab (anti-CD20 enabled an outstanding advance in CLL treatment. The introduction of this monoclonal antibody into chemotherapy regimens has dramatically improved complete response rates and progression-free survival in patients with both untreated and relapsed CLL. Although only preliminary data from phase III confirmatory trials have been reported, the FCR regimen, which combines fludarabine and cyclophosphamide with rituximab, is currently the most effective treatment regimen for CLL patients, and has also been demonstrated to significantly improve overall survival . The success of rituximab and the identification of other CLL lymphocyte surface antigens have spurred the development of a multitude of monoclonal antibodies targeting distinct proteins and epitopes in an attempt to target CLL cells more effectively.Keywords: rituximab, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, chemotherapy

  20. TEM study of impurity segregations in beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimenkov, M., E-mail: michael.klimenkov@kit.edu [Institute for Applied Materials – Applied Materials Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Chakin, V.; Moeslang, A. [Institute for Applied Materials – Applied Materials Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Rolli, R. [Institute for Applied Materials – Materials and Biomechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Beryllium is planned to be used as a neutron multiplier in the Helium-cooled Pebble Bed European concept of a breeding blanket of demonstration power reactor DEMO. In order to evaluate the irradiation performance, individual pebbles and constrained pebble beds were neutron-irradiated at temperatures typical of fusion blankets. Beryllium pebbles 1 mm in diameter produced by the rotating electrode method were subjected to a TEM study before and after irradiation at High Flux Reactor, Petten, Netherlands at 861 K. The grain size varied in a wide range from sub-micron size up to several tens of micrometers, which indicated formation bimodal grain size distribution. Based on the application of combined electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy methods, we suggest that impurity precipitates play an important role in controlling the mechanical properties of beryllium. The impurity elements were present in beryllium at a sub-percent concentration form beryllide particles of a complex (Fe/Al/Mn/Cr)B composition. These particles are often ordered along dislocations lines, forming several micron-long chains. It can be suggested that fracture surfaces often extended along these chains in irradiated material.

  1. Estimation on tritium production and inventory in beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium has been proposed as a candidate material for neutron multiplier on fusion blanket design, tritium will be produced and accumulated in beryllium during neutron irradiation. It is very important to estimate the tritium inventory on blanket design. Tritium production and inventory under 3.0 GW fusion power were calculated for the layered pebble bed blanket, with Li2O breeder and beryllium multiplier. Neutronics calculations were carried out by one-dimensional transport code, ANISN and tritium production was calculated by direct reaction of 9Be(n,T)7Li and two-step reactions of 9Be(n,α)6Li(n,α)T. At the position near first wall, the direct reaction occupied the majority of tritium production. However, at the position of the mid-depth, contribution of the two-step reaction was included the production from neutron slow down by beryllium itself. The ratio accounting for 50% of total tritium production of two-step reaction production over whole blanket for one year full power operation (FPY) was resulted

  2. Beryllium abundances in stars with planets:Extending the sample

    CERN Document Server

    Gálvez-Ortiz, M C; Hernández, J I González; Israelian, G; Santos, N C; Rebolo, R; Ecuvillon, A

    2011-01-01

    Context: Chemical abundances of light elements as beryllium in planet-host stars allow us to study the planet formation scenarios and/or investigate possible surface pollution processes. Aims: We present here an extension of previous beryllium abundance studies. The complete sample consists of 70 stars hosting planets and 30 stars without known planetary companions. The aim of this paper is to further assess the trends found in previous studies with less number of objects. This will provide more information on the processes of depletion and mixing of light elements in the interior of late type stars, and will provide possible explanations for the abundance differences between stars that host planets and "single" stars. Methods: Using high resolution UVES spectra, we measure beryllium abundances of 26 stars that host planets and 1 "single" star mainly using the \\lambda 3131.065 A Be II line, by fitting synthetic spectra to the observational data. We also compile beryllium abundance measurements of 44 stars hos...

  3. TEM study of impurity segregations in beryllium pebbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenkov, M.; Chakin, V.; Moeslang, A.; Rolli, R.

    2014-12-01

    Beryllium is planned to be used as a neutron multiplier in the Helium-cooled Pebble Bed European concept of a breeding blanket of demonstration power reactor DEMO. In order to evaluate the irradiation performance, individual pebbles and constrained pebble beds were neutron-irradiated at temperatures typical of fusion blankets. Beryllium pebbles 1 mm in diameter produced by the rotating electrode method were subjected to a TEM study before and after irradiation at High Flux Reactor, Petten, Netherlands at 861 K. The grain size varied in a wide range from sub-micron size up to several tens of micrometers, which indicated formation bimodal grain size distribution. Based on the application of combined electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy methods, we suggest that impurity precipitates play an important role in controlling the mechanical properties of beryllium. The impurity elements were present in beryllium at a sub-percent concentration form beryllide particles of a complex (Fe/Al/Mn/Cr)B composition. These particles are often ordered along dislocations lines, forming several micron-long chains. It can be suggested that fracture surfaces often extended along these chains in irradiated material.

  4. Influence of impurities in Beryllium on tritium breeding ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several neutronics experiments simulating fusion blankets have been conducted with 14 MeV neutron source to assess the reliability of nuclear analysis codes. However, the analyses have not always presented good agreements so far between calculated and measured tritium production rates. One of the reasons was considered as impurities in beryllium which has negligibly small neutron absorption cross section in low energy range. Chemical compositions of beryllium were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) method, and a pulsed neutron decay experiment discovered that the macroscopic neutron absorption cross section for beryllium medium may be about 30% larger than the value calculated by the data specified by manufacturing company. The influence of the impurities on the calculations was studied on the basis of the fusion DEMO-reactor blanket design. As a result of the study, it was made clear that the impurities affect the local tritium production rates when the size of beryllium medium is more than 20-30 mean free paths (30-40 cm) in thickness. In case of some blanket designs that meet the above condition, the effect on tritium breeding ratio may become as large as about 4%. (author)

  5. Thermal cycling tests of actively cooled beryllium copper joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Screening tests (steady state heating) and thermal fatigue tests with several kinds of beryllium-copper joints have been performed in an electron beam facility. Joining techniques under investigation were brazing with silver containing and silver-free braze materials, hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and diffusion bonding (hot pressing). Best thermal fatigue performance was found for the brazed samples. (author)

  6. Extraction of lead and beryllium from a firing site soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) program is being implemented at LANL to conduct tests for evaluating the stability of the nation's aging nuclear stockpile. In order to reduce impact on the environment, containment of the non-fissile explosives tests is being phased in. The resulting shot debris can contain a mix of depleted uranium, lead, and beryllium. We are developing a treatment scheme to separate the radioactive and RCRA-hazardous components in order to recover the uranium, re-use some materials in future shots, and minimize waste for disposal. Our experience using a proprietary water soluble polymer to extract lead from contaminated soil to below TCLP levels has been extended to a surrogate soil from an open-air firing site that contains both lead and beryllium. Results for lead removal from this soil by dendrimers and molecular chelators will also be shown. Because of the potentially severe inhalation hazard associated with beryllium, the fate of this metal in our treatment scheme has been investigated, as well as extraction of beryllium using a variety of chemical agents

  7. Correlation of acoustic emission and dislocation damping in beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a study of the acoustic emission generated in beryllium during tensile deformation, there is substantial evidence showing that the burst rate peak at yield is due to the generation of new dislocations and the burst rate peak at higher strains is due to the breakaway of dislocation line segments from deformation produce pins

  8. Biogeochemistry of beryllium in a forested catchment, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Skřivan, Petr; Vach, Marek; Filippi, Michal

    Edinburg : University of Edinburg, 2003. s. 94. [International Symposium on Environmental Geochemistry.. 07.09.2003-11.09.2003, Edinburg] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAB3013203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : biogeochemistry * experimental catchment * beryllium Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry

  9. Thermal cycling tests of actively cooled beryllium copper joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedig, M.; Duwe, R.; Linke, J.; Schuster, A.; Wiechers, B. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    1998-01-01

    Screening tests (steady state heating) and thermal fatigue tests with several kinds of beryllium-copper joints have been performed in an electron beam facility. Joining techniques under investigation were brazing with silver containing and silver-free braze materials, hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and diffusion bonding (hot pressing). Best thermal fatigue performance was found for the brazed samples. (author)

  10. Beryllium Wipe Sampling (differing methods - differing exposure potentials)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, Kent

    2005-03-09

    This research compared three wipe sampling techniques currently used to test for beryllium contamination on room and equipment surfaces in Department of Energy facilities. Efficiencies of removal of beryllium contamination from typical painted surfaces were tested by wipe sampling without a wetting agent, with water-moistened wipe materials, and by methanol-moistened wipes. Analysis indicated that methanol-moistened wipe sampling removed about twice as much beryllium/oil-film surface contamination as water-moistened wipes, which removed about twice as much residue as dry wipes. Criteria at 10 CFR 850.30 and .31 were established on unspecified wipe sampling method(s). The results of this study reveal a need to identify criteria-setting method and equivalency factors. As facilities change wipe sampling methods among the three compared in this study, these results may be useful for approximate correlations. Accurate decontamination decision-making depends on the selection of appropriate wetting agents for the types of residues and surfaces. Evidence for beryllium sensitization via skin exposure argues in favor of wipe sampling with wetting agents that provide enhanced removal efficiency such as methanol when surface contamination includes oil mist residue.

  11. Effect of Excessive Iodine on Immune Function of Lymphocytes and Intervention with Selenium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiaoyi; LIU Liegang; YAO Ping; YU Dong; HAO Liping; SUN Xiufa

    2007-01-01

    In order to study the effect of excessive iodine on immune function of lymphocytes and the role of selenium supplementation with excessive iodine intake, the changes of T lymphocyte number, ratio of subsets, activity of natural killer (NK) cells and lymphocytes proliferation response were investigated. 150 female BALB/C mice were randomly divided into 5 groups in terms of their body weight (n=30 in each group), and 10 of each group were taken as one batch for test. Mice in the 5 groups were orally administrated with iodine 0 (group Ⅰ ), 1500 (group Ⅱ), 3000 (group Ⅲ),6000 μg/L (group Ⅳ), iodine 6000 μg/L plus selenium 0.3 mg/L (group Ⅴ) respectively for 30 days.Lymphocyte proliferation response, CD4+/CD8+, Th1/Th2 and the activity of NK cells were measured. CD4+/CD8+ was significantly lower, while lymphocyte proliferation response stronger, and Th1/Th2 and the activity of NK cells significantly higher in group Ⅳ than in group Ⅰ (P<0.01).There was no significant difference in all indexes between group Ⅴ and group Ⅰ (P>0.05). It was suggested that excessive iodine as exogenous chemical materials can induce disorders of T lymphocyte immune function in mice. 0.3 mg/L selenium supplementation can protect mice against toxicity induced by 6000 μg/L iodine.

  12. Metal-specific lymphocytes: biomarkers of sensitivity in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stejskal, Vera DM; Danersund, Antero; Lindvall, Anders; Hudecek, Romuald; Nordman, Veronica; Yaqob, Amer; Mayer, Wolfgang; Bieger, Wilfried; Lindh, Ulf

    1999-01-01

    Many patients attribute their health problems to amalgam and other dental metals. In genetically susceptible indviduals, mercury and gold may function as haptens and elicit allergic and autoimmune reactions. The frequency of metal-induced lymphocyte responses was examined in 3,162 patients in three European laboratories using MELISA(R), an optimized lymphocyte proliferation test. The patients suffered from local and systemic symptoms attributed to dental restorations. The effect of dental metal removal was studied in 111 patients with metal hypersensitivity and symptoms resembling Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). After consultation with a dentist the patients decided to replace their metal restorations with non-metallic materials. The changes in health and in vitro lymphocyte reactivity were studied by inquiries and follow-up MELISA(R). Lymphocyte reactivity was also analyzed in 116 healthy subjects with no complaints of metal allergy. A significant number of patients had metal-specific lymphocytes in the blood. Nickel was the most common sensitizer, followed by inorganic mercury, gold, phenylmercury, cadmium and palladium. As compared to lymphocyte responses in healthy subjects, the CFS group had significantly increased responses to several metals, especially to inorganic mercury, phenylmercury and gold. Following dental metal removal, 83 patients (76%) reported long-term health improvement. Twenty-four patients (22%) reported unchanged health and two (2%) reported worsening of symptoms. Following dental metal replacement, the lymphocyte reactivity to metals decreased as well. We propose that an inflammatory process induced by metals may modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) and trigger multiple non-specific symptoms characterizing CFS and other chronic conditions like myalgic encephalitis (ME) and multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS). PMID:11460087

  13. Some features of beryllium corrosion behavior in Be-liquid Li-V-4Ti-4Cr alloy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent experimental results on beryllium corrosion behavior in a V-4Ti-4Cr alloy, liquid lithium static system during testing for 200-500 h at temperatures from 600 to 800 deg. C are presented. The influence of test conditions (temperature, duration and lithium purity) and beryllium characteristics (microstructure, grain size and chemical composition) on weight loss of beryllium and penetration of lithium into beryllium are discussed. Results of compressive tests for beryllium specimens before and after corrosion testing are also introduced

  14. Does programmed CTL proliferation optimize virus control?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wodarz, Dominik; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2005-01-01

    CD8 T-cell or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses develop through an antigen-independent proliferation and differentiation program. This is in contrast to the previous thinking, which was that continuous antigenic stimulation was required. This Opinion discusses why nature has chosen the proliferation...... program and how it compares to continuous stimulation. Although the two mechanisms should not lead to significantly different dynamics during chronic infection, they do make a difference in acute infection. We argue that programmed proliferation is better at clearance, whereas continuous stimulation is...... better at limiting acute symptoms. The 7-10 programmed cell divisions observed in vivo might be an optimization of this trade-off. We also discuss the conditions under which the program does or does not require CD4 T-cell help for clearance....

  15. Hanford Site Beryllium Program: Past, Present, and Future - 12428

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a long history of beryllium use because of the element's broad application to many nuclear operations and processes. At the Hanford Site beryllium alloy was used to fabricate parts for reactors, including fuel rods for the N-Reactor during plutonium production. Because of continued confirmed cases of chronic beryllium disease (CBD), and data suggesting CBD occurs at exposures to low-level concentrations, the DOE decided to issue a rule to further protect federal and contractor workers from hazards associated with exposure to beryllium. When the beryllium rule was issued in 1999, each of the Hanford Site contractors developed a Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) and initial site wide beryllium inventories. A new site-wide CBDPP, applicable to all Hanford contractors, was issued in May, 2009. In the spring of 2010 the DOE Headquarters Office of Health, Safety, and Security (HSS) conducted an independent inspection to evaluate the status of implementation of the Hanford Site Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP). The report identified four Findings and 12 cross-cutting Opportunities for Improvement (OFIs). A corrective action plan (CAP) was developed to address the Findings and crosscutting OFIs. The DOE directed affected site contractors to identify dedicated resources to participate in development of the CAP, along with involving stakeholders. The CAP included general and contractor-specific recommendations. Following initiation of actions to implement the approved CAP, it became apparent that additional definition of product deliverables was necessary to assure that expectations were adequately addressed and CAP actions could be closed. Consequently, a supplement to the original CAP was prepared and transmitted to DOE-HQ for approval. Development of the supplemental CAP was an eight month effort. From the onset a core group of CAP development members were identified to develop a mechanism for

  16. Analysis of IL-2-like factor in lymphocyte culture supernatant of olive flounder, Paralichthys oliveaceus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Riqin; Zhang, Peijun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli

    2005-03-01

    To study immune mechanism of fish lymphocyte we performed a proliferation assay and ELISA using monoclonal antibody against human IL-2. The result showed that an interleukin-2 (IL-2)-like factor was detected in the supernatant of plant haemoglutinin (PHA)-stimulated lymphocyte culture from peripheral blood, spleen and head kidney of olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The quantities of IL-2-like factor in the supernatant from different lymphoid tissues were quite different. The IL-2 like factor in the supernatant from cultured head kidney lymphocytes was much higher than those of peripheral blood lymphocytes and spleen lymphocytes ( Precombinant human IL-2, (rhIL-2) was able to stimulate flounder thymocyte proliferation and used to detect the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) on the surface of flounder lymphocyte. The cross-reaction between the lymphocytes of flounder peripheral blood and CD25(IL-2R) was detected with flow cytometry and shown that the percentage of CD25-positive cell in peripheral blood was 7.74±0.67%.

  17. Lymphocyte migration studies in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the author outlines what is known of the migration and recirculation of the lymphocyte in man and animals. He then attempts to demonstrate how a better grasp of these phenomena may contribute to an understanding of the pathophysiology of human diseases such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, Hodgkin's, and other diseases

  18. Investigations of the ternary system beryllium-carbon-tungsten and analyses of beryllium on carbon surfaces; Untersuchung des ternaeren Systems Beryllium-Kohlenstoff-Wolfram und Betrachtungen von Beryllium auf Kohlenstoffoberflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, Florian

    2009-05-25

    Beryllium, carbon and tungsten are planned to be used as first wall materials in the future fusion reactor ITER. The aim of this work is a characterization of mixed material formation induced by thermal load. To this end, model systems (layers) were prepared and investigated, which give insight into the basic physical and chemical concepts. Before investigating ternary systems, the first step was to analyze the binary systems Be/C and Be/W (bottom-up approach), where the differences between the substrates PG (pyrolytic graphite) and HOPG (highly oriented pyrolytic graphite) were of special interest. Particularly X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low energy ion scattering (ISS) and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) were used as analysis methods. Beryllium evaporated on carbon shows an island growth mode, whereas a closed layer can be assumed for layer thicknesses above 0.7 nm. Annealing of the Be/C system induces Be{sub 2}C island formation for T{>=}770 K. At high temperatures (T{>=}1170 K), beryllium carbide dissociates, resulting in (metallic) beryllium desorption. For HOPG, carbide formation starts at higher temperatures compared to PG. Activation energies for the diffusion processes were determined by analyzing the decreasing beryllium amount versus annealing time. Surface morphologies were characterized using angle-resolved XPS (ARXPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Experiments were performed to study processes in the Be/W system in the temperature range from 570 to 1270 K. Be{sub 2}W formation starts at 670 K, a complete loss of Be{sub 2}W is observed at 1170 K due to dissociation (and subsequent beryllium desorption). Regarding ternary systems, particularly Be/C/W and C/Be/W were investigated, attaching importance to layer thickness (reservoir) variations. At room temperature, Be{sub 2}C, W{sub 2}C, WC and Be{sub 2}W formation at the respective interfaces was observed. Further Be{sub 2}C is forming with increasing annealing temperatures

  19. Fallout beryllium-7 as a soil and sediment tracer in river basins: current status and needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Alex; Blake, Will H.; Smith, Hugh G.; Mabit, Lionel; Keith-Roach, Miranda J.

    2013-04-01

    Beryllium-7 is a cosmogenic radionuclide formed in the upper atmosphere by cosmic ray spallation of nitrogen and oxygen. Its constant natural production and fallout via precipitation coupled with its ability to bind to soil particles have underpinned its application as a sediment tracer. The short half-life of beryllium-7 (53.3 days) lends itself to tracing sediment dynamics over short time periods, thus, enabling assessment of the effect of land use change upon soil redistribution. Although beryllium-7 has been widely applied as a tracer to date, there remain crucial gaps in understanding relating to the assumptions for its use. To further support the application of beryllium-7 as a tracer across a range of environments requires consideration of both the current strengths and shortcomings of the technique to direct research needs. Here we review research surrounding the assumptions underpinning beryllium-7 use as a tracer and identify key knowledge gaps relating to i) the effects of rain shadowing and vegetation interception upon beryllium-7 fallout uniformity at the hillslope-scale; ii) the effect of preferential flow pathways upon beryllium-7 depth distribution in soil and overland flow upon beryllium-7 inventory uniformity and iii) the potential for beryllium-7 desorption in saline and reducing environments. To provide continued support for the use of beryllium-7 as a hillslope and catchment-scale tracer, there is an urgent need to undertake further research to quantify the effect of these factors upon tracer estimates.

  20. In Vitro Influence of Mycophenolic Acid on Selected Parameters of Stimulated Peripheral Canine Lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzera, Maciej; Szulc-Dąbrowska, Lidia; Cywińska, Anna; Archer, Joy; Winnicka, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is an active metabolite of mycophenolate mofetil, a new immunosuppressive drug effective in the treatment of canine autoimmune diseases. The impact of MPA on immunity is ambiguous and its influence on the canine immune system is unknown. The aim of the study was to determine markers of changes in stimulated peripheral canine lymphocytes after treatment with MPA in vitro. Twenty nine healthy dogs were studied. Phenotypic and functional analysis of lymphocytes was performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultured with mitogens and different MPA concentrations– 1 μM (10−3 mol/m3), 10 μM or 100 μM. Apoptotic cells were detected by Annexin V and 7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD). The expression of antigens (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD21, CD25, forkhead box P3 [FoxP3] and proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA]) was assessed with monoclonal antibodies. The proliferation indices were analyzed in carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-labeled cells. All analyses were performed using flow cytometry. The influence of MPA on apoptosis was dependent on the mechanism of cell activation and MPA concentration. MPA caused a decrease in the expression of lymphocyte surface antigens, CD3, CD8 and CD25. Its impact on the expression of CD4 and CD21 was negligible. Its negative influence on the expression of FoxP3 was dependent on cell stimulation. MPA inhibited lymphocyte proliferation. In conclusion, MPA inhibited the activity of stimulated canine lymphocytes by blocking lymphocyte activation and proliferation. The influence of MPA on the development of immune tolerance–expansion of Treg cells and lymphocyte apoptosis–was ambiguous and was dependent on the mechanism of cellular activation. The concentration that MPA reaches in the blood may lead to inhibition of the functions of the canine immune system. The applied panel of markers can be used for evaluation of the effects of immunosuppressive compounds in the dog. PMID:27138877

  1. Moderate exercise increases the metabolism and immune function of lymphocytes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Francisco; Bacurau, Aline Villa Nova; Pereira, Guilherme Borges; Araújo, Ronaldo Carvalho; Almeida, Sandro Soares; Moraes, Milton Rocha; Uchida, Marco Carlos; Costa Rosa, Luis Fernando Bicudo Pereira; Navalta, James; Prestes, Jonato; Bacurau, Reury Frank Pereira

    2013-05-01

    Exercise modulates both glucose and glutamine metabolism which influences lymphocyte function. We investigated the influence of chronic moderate exercise on glucose and glutamine metabolism in lymphocytes, the associated influence on proliferation, and cytokine and immunoglobulin production. Male Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were placed in an exercise training group (N = 15, 1 h day(-1) at 60 % VO₂max, 5 days week(-1)) for 8 weeks of exercise, or a sedentary control group. Twenty-four hours following the final training session, lymphocytes were separated, and the incorporation of [U-14C]-glucose, [U-14C]-glutamine, and [2-14C]-thymidine from the supernatant was measured. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, hexokinase, and glutaminase was measured. Lymphocytes were stimulated with ConA and LPS and incubated with the Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine and plasma IgG and IgE were measured. Glutamine metabolism increased in both T and B lymphocytes in the trained group. In the trained group, proliferative capacity increased T lymphocytes under ConA stimulation, and increased B lymphocytes with LPS. There was a significant increase in IL-2 production and decrease in IL-4 in the trained group compared with sedentary controls. IL-2R and TNFR increased in trained rats while IL-4R decreased and were more pronounced in T lymphocytes compared with B lymphocytes. In both lymphocyte subsets, exercise training significantly increased the expression of CD54+ and CD30+ cell markers. Exercise training increased plasma IgG compared with the sedentary group. In conclusion, moderate exercise training improves immune function and metabolism in T and B lymphocytes, reflecting an increased ability to respond to immune challenges. PMID:23212119

  2. Activation of lymphocytes induced by bronchial epithelial cells with prolonged RSV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Qin

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV preferentially infects airway epithelial cells,which might be responsible for susceptibility to asthma; however, the underlying mechanism is not clear. This study determined the activation of lymphocytes and drift of helper T (Th subsets induced by RSV-infected human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs in vitro. HBECs had prolonged infection with RSV, and lymphocytes isolated from human peripheral blood were co-cultured with RSV-infected HBECs. Four groups were established, as follows: lymphocytes (group L; lymphocytes infected with RSV (group RL; co-culture of lymphocytes with non-infected HBECs (group HL; and co-culture of lymphocytes with infected HBECs (group HRL. After co-culture with HBECs for 24 hours, lymphocytes were collected and the following were determined in the 4 groups: cell cycle status; apoptosis rate; and concentrations of IL-4, IFN-γ, and IL-17 in the supernatants. Cell cycle analysis for lymphocytes showed a significant increase in S phase cells, a decrease in G1 phase cells, and a higher apoptosis rate in group HRL compared with the other three groups. In group HRL, the levels of IL-4, IFN-γ, and IL-17 in supernatants were also higher than the other three groups. For further study, lymphocytes were individually treated with supernatants from non-infected and RSV-infected HBECs for 24 h. We showed that supernatants from RSV-infected HBECs induced the differentiation of Th2 and Th17 subsets, and suppressed the differentiation of Treg subsets. Our results showed that HBECs with prolonged RSV infection can induce lymphocyte proliferation and apoptosis, and enhance the release of cytokines by lymphocytes. Moreover, subset drift might be caused by RSV-infected HBECs.

  3. Study on psoriatic peripheral blood T-lymphocytes:effects of CD147-targeting small interfering RNA on the expression of CD147 and on cell proliferation and activation%CD147 siRNA转染对银屑病患者外周血T淋巴细胞CD147的表达及细胞增殖、活化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常静; 陈翔; 粟娟; 匡叶红; 鲁慧; 彭胜

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of small interfering RNA(siRNA)on the expression of CD147 on peripheral blood T-lymphocytes from patients with psoriasis vulgaris,and its effect on the proliferation and activation of these cells.Methods Peripheral blood monouclear cells(PBMC)were obtained from 10 patients with psoriasis vulgaris,and T lymphocytes were isolated.CD147 siRNA was chemically synthesized,then electroporated into the peripheral T-lymphocytes.Untransfected cells,blank-transfected cells and unspecifically transfected cells served as the control.After 24-,48-,72-and 96-hour incubation,RT-PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of CD147 in these cells.MTT assay and flow cytometry were utilized to assess the proliferation of these cellas,and the expression Of CD25 at 24,48,and 72 hours after the transfection.Results Compared with untransfected cells,the mRNA expression of CD147 declined significantly in CD147 siRNA-transfected cells at 24 hours(P<0.05),reached to the minimum at 48 hours (P<0.01):there was no significant difierence in the expression of CD147 between the two groups of cells at 96 hours after the transfection(P>0.05).There was a decrease of cell proliferation level by(44.5±3.13)%,(50.7±3.5)%and(53.98±4.15)%in CD147 siRNA-transfected cells 24,48 and 72 hours following the transfection,respectively;the corresponding decrease in blank-transfected cells was (37.28±3.56)%,(33.73±3.29)%,and(28.80±1.49)%,respectively,and that in unspecifically transfected cells,(31.29±2.46)%,(36.1±2.62)%and(32.08±2.78)%,respectively.A significant decrease was observed in the proliferation of CD147 siRNA-transfected cells compared with that of blank-transfected cells and unspecifically transfected cells at these three time points(P<0.05,0.01,0.01 respectively).The expression rate of CD25 at 24,48 and 72 hours was(47.23±3.65)%,(31.50±4.22)%and(23.05±4.15)%,respectively,on CD147 siRNA-transfected cells,and,(80.2±4.8)%,(81.6±3.35)%and(83.5±4

  4. In vitro effects of mesenchymal stem cells on secreting function of T lymphocytes and CD4~+CD25~+T cells from patients with immune thrombo-cytopenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵霞

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze in vitro the effect of mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs)on secreting cytokines by T lymphocytes and ratio of CD4+CD25+T cells from patients with immune thrombocytopenia(ITP).Methods Human bone marrow-derived MSCs were isolated by Ficoll Hypaque and cultured for proliferating to passage cells.Allogeneic T lymphocytes

  5. Radiosensitivity of lymphocytes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation-induced impairment of human T-lymphocytes was studied after in vitro exposure to 25.8 - 825.6 mC/kg (100 - 3200 R) of 60Co γ-radiation by ascertaining the change in lymphocyte response to phytohaemagglutin stimulation. Following methods were used: (1) measurement of 3H-thymidine uptake, (2) E-rosette test, and (3) morphological examination of transformed T-cells. The results revealed a dose-dependent decline in T-cell number which was still somewhat more marked with lymphocytes purified over Ficoll-Isopaque prior to irradiation. (author)

  6. Proceedings of the 8th specialist meeting on recycling of irradiated Beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the documents presented in the 8th Specialist Meeting on Recycling of Irradiated Beryllium, which was held on October 28, 2013, in Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina, hosted by INVAP and CNEA (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica). The objective of the meeting is to exchange the information of current status and future plan for beryllium study in the Research/Testing reactors, and to make a discussion of “How to cooperate”. There were 20 participants from USA, Japan, Korea, Austria and Argentina. In this meeting, information exchange of current status and future plan for beryllium study was carried out for the Research/Testing reactor fields, and evaluation results of beryllium materials were discussed based on new irradiated beryllium data such as swelling, deformation, gas release and so on. The subject of the used beryllium recycling was also discussed for the enforcement of demonstration recycling tests. (author)

  7. JET-ISX-B beryllium limiter experiment safety analysis report and operational safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment to evaluate the suitability of beryllium as a limiter material has been completed on the ISX-B tokamak. The experiment consisted of two phases: (1) the initial operation and characterization in the ISX experiment, and a period of continued operation to the specified surface fluence (1022 atoms/cm2) of hydrogen ions; and (2) the disassembly, decontamination, or disposal of the ISX facility. During these two phases of the project, the possibility existed for beryllium and/or beryllium oxide powder to be produced inside the vacuum vessel. Beryllium dust is a highly toxic material, and extensive precautions are required to prevent the release of the beryllium into the experimental work area and to prevent the contamination of personnel working on the device. Details of the health hazards associated with beryllium and the appropriate precautions are presented. Also described in appendixes to this report are the various operational safety requirements for the project

  8. Beryllium coating produced by evaporation-condensation method and some their properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepekin, G.I.; Anisimov, A.B.; Chernikov, A.S.; Mozherinn, S.I.; Pirogov, A.A. [SRI SIA Lutch., Podolsk (Russian Federation)

    1998-01-01

    The method of vacuum evaporation-condensation for deposition of beryllium coatings on metal substrates, considered in the paper, side by side with a plasma-spray method is attractive fon ITER application. In particular this technique may be useful for repair the surface of eroded tiles which is operated in a strong magnetic field. The possibility of deposition of beryllium coatings with the rate of layer growth 0.1-0.2 mm/h is shown. The compatibility of beryllium coating with copper or stainless steel substrate is provided due to intermediate barrier. The results of examination of microstructure, microhardness, porosity, thermal and physical properties and stability under thermal cycling of beryllium materials are presented. The value of thermal expansion coefficient and thermal conductivity of condensed beryllium are approximately the same as for industrial grade material produced by powder mettalurgy technique. However, the condensed beryllium has higher purity (up to 99.9-99.99 % wt.). (author)

  9. 5. IEA International workshop on beryllium technology for fusion. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection includes the abstracts of reports presented to the 5-th IEA international workshop on beryllium technology for fusion. The themes of reports are as follows: status of beryllium technology for fusion in Russia; manufacturing and testing of Be armoured first wall mock-up for ITER; development of the process of diffusion welding of metals stainless steel-copper-beryllium into a single composite; some features of beryllium-laser beam interaction; the effect of irradiation dose on tritium and helium release from neutron irradiated beryllium; thermal properties of neutron irradiated Be12Ti. The results of investigating the mechanical properties variation and swelling of beryllium under high temperature neutron irradiation are presented

  10. Arctigenin from Arctium lappa inhibits interleukin-2 and interferon gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Shwu-Fen; Lee Tzong-Huei; Wang Guei-Jane; Chang Chu-Ting; Tsai Wei-Jern; Lu Shao-Chun; Kuo Yuh-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Arctium lappa (Niubang), a Chinese herbal medicine, is used to treat tissue inflammation. This study investigates the effects of arctigenin (AC), isolated from A. lappa, on anti-CD3/CD28 Ab-stimulated cell proliferation and cytokine gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes. Methods Cell proliferation was determined with enzyme immunoassays and the tritiated thymidine uptake method. Cytokine production and gene expression were analyzed with reverse transcription-polym...

  11. Quantum-chemical approach to cohesive properties of metallic beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations based upon the incremental approach, i.e. an expansion of the correlation energy in terms of one-body, two-body, and higher-order contributions from localized orbital groups, have been performed for metallic beryllium. We apply an embedding scheme which has been successfully applied recently to ground-state properties of magnesium and group 12 elements. This scheme forces localization in metallic-like model systems and allows for a gradual delocalization within the incremental approach. Quantum-chemical methods of the coupled-cluster and multi-reference configuration interaction type are used for evaluating individual increments. Results are given for the cohesive energy and lattice constants of beryllium, and it is shown that further development of the approach is needed for this difficult case

  12. Effects of beryllium-compounds on the hen. 2. Comm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After oral application of 7Be2+ this cation is relative slowly absorbed from the intestine. The highest proportion of 7Be appeared in the feces. The absorbed 7Be has been found in the feathers, the bones and in the muscles as well as in the mucosa of the stomach and the intestine. Relative low is the accumulation in the liver and the kidneys as well as in the brain and the spinal cord. After i.v. application a high proportion of 7Be has been observed in the eggs. The rest of the applied radio-beryllium has been accumulated 7Be in the metabolically active tissues is removed very slowly. In contrast to this observation radio-beryllium disappeared relatively rapidly from the blood. (orig.)

  13. A charge-density study of crystalline beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The X-ray structure factors for crystalline beryllium measured by Brown [Phil. Mag. (1972), 26, 1377] have been analyzed with multipole deformation functions for charge-density information. Single exponential radial functions were used for the valence charge density. A valence monopole plus the three harmonics, P35(cos theta) sin 3phi, P6(cos theta) and P37(cos theta) sin 3phi, provide a least-squares fit to the data with Rsub(w)=0.0081. The superposition of these density functions describes a bonding charge density between Be atoms along the c axis through the tetrahedral vacancy. The results reported here are in qualitative agreement with a recent pseudo-potential calculation of metallic beryllium. The final residuals in the analysis are largest at high sin theta/lambda values. This suggests that core charge deformation is present and/or anharmonic motion of the nuclei is appreciable. (Auth.)

  14. Fabrication methods for beryllium spacecraft components (Series 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this paper are to conserve and yet promote the use of one of the most versatile metal elements available to the practising engineer. The scope of the work described involves the selection of candidate components suitable for manufacture in beryllium. Evaluation by mathematical modelling using finite element techniques is used as an aid in determining the principal load paths in a structural component. Cost effective techniques which are objectively analysed suggest that the conservation of raw beryllia can best be achieved using recently developed plasma spray methods. The British Aircraft Corporation have been investigating methods of plasma spraying beryllium with A.W.R.E. and current developments are giving clear indications that for certain future space applications plasma spray is the technique which most nearly meets the conservation objective. (author)

  15. Fabrication of beryllium spheres and its validation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sphere-pack blanket concept using small size spheres of beryllium is one of the promising design concept of the ITER blanket, because the sphere-pack can accommodate the size deformation due to neutron irradiation damage, helium swelling and cyclic temperature changes. Preliminary R and D for an industrial fabrication technology of beryllium spheres (1.0 ± 0.3 mm in diameter) has been started as part of feasibility study of Japanese blanket concept of layered sphere-pack configuration. The following tests were performed in the several demo-fabrications; feasibility of size distribution control, material characterization such as macroscopic and microscopic structure analysis, impurity analysis, and attainable packing density, mechanical integrity under various thermal cycling conditions. (author)

  16. Low-energy electronic stopping for boron in beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The range distribution for 50-keV boron bombarding beryllium was measured by an energetic ion-beam backscattering technique using helium ions. This distribution was compared with the range calculated with computer code EDEP1, with the result k 0.101 ± 0.013 for the electronic-stopping k-value. This value is compared with the results of recent interpolations from measurements of other elements. (author)

  17. Thermal fatigue behavior of US and Russian grades of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel technique has been used to test the relative low cycle thermal fatigue resistance of different grades of US and Russian beryllium which is proposed as plasma facing armor for fusion reactor first wall, limiter, and divertor components. The 30 KW electron beam test system at Sandia National Laboratories was used to sweep the beam spot along one direction at 1 Hz. This produces a localized temperature ''spike'' of 750 degrees C for each pass of the beam. Large thermal stress in excess of the yield strength are generated due to very high spot heat flux, 250 MW/m2. Cyclic plastic strains on the order of 0.6% produced visible cracking on the heated surface in less than 3000 cycles. An in-vacuo fiber optic borescope was used to visually inspect the beryllium surfaces for crack initiation. Grades of US beryllium tested included: S-65C, S-65H, S-200F, S-300F-H, Sr-200, I-400, extruded high purity. HIP'd sperical powder, porous beryllium (94% and 98% dense), Be/30% BeO, Be/60% BeO, and TiBe12. Russian grades included: TGP-56, TShGT, DShG-200, and TShG-56. Both the number of cycles to crack initiation, and the depth of crack propagation, were measured. The most fatigue resistant grades were S-65C, DShG-200, TShGT, and TShG-56. Rolled sheet Be(SR-200) showed excellent crack propagation resistance in the plane of rolling, despite early formation of delamination cracks. Only one sample showed no evidence of surface melting, Extruded (T). Metallographic and chemical analyses are provided. Good agreement was found between the measured depth of cracks and a 2-D elastic-plastic finite element stress analysis

  18. Impact of HFIR LEU Conversion on Beryllium Reflector Degradation Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilas, Dan [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    An assessment of the impact of low enriched uranium (LEU) conversion on the factors that may cause the degradation of the beryllium reflector is performed for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The computational methods, models, and tools, comparisons with previous work, along with the results obtained are documented and discussed in this report. The report documents the results for the gas and neutronic poison production, and the heating in the beryllium reflector for both the highly enriched uranium (HEU) and LEU HFIR configurations, and discusses the impact that the conversion to LEU may have on these quantities. A time-averaging procedure was developed to calculate the isotopic (gas and poisons) production in reflector. The sensitivity of this approach to different approximations is gauged and documented. The results show that the gas is produced in the beryllium reflector at a total rate of 0.304 g/cycle for the HEU configuration; this rate increases by ~12% for the LEU case. The total tritium production rate in reflector is 0.098 g/cycle for the HEU core and approximately 11% higher for the LEU core. A significant increase (up to ~25%) in the neutronic poisons production in the reflector during the operation cycles is observed for the LEU core, compared to the HEU case, for regions close to the core s horizontal midplane. The poisoning level of the reflector may increase by more than two orders of magnitude during long periods of downtime. The heating rate in the reflector is estimated to be approximately 20% lower for the LEU core than for the HEU core. The decrease is due to a significantly lower contribution of the heating produced by the gamma radiation for the LEU core. Both the isotopic (gas and neutronic poisons) production and the heating rates are spatially non-uniform throughout the beryllium reflector volume. The maximum values typically occur in the removable reflector and close to the midplane.

  19. Analysis of features of the deformation of auxetic beryllium

    OpenAIRE

    Гунько, Михаил Николаевич; Олейнич-Лысюк, Алла Васильевна; Раранский, Николай Дмитриевич; Тащук, Александр Юрьевич

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the linear elasticity theory using the experimentally obtained elastic stiffness modules, temperature dependences of the elastic compliance modules and tensor components of Poisson's ratios    of beryllium in a wide range of temperatures and directions in the crystal lattice were calculated, and it was shown that with increasing temperature, the value and signs of Poisson's ratios  change differently in various temperature intervals. In the interval 0-300K,  become negativ...

  20. Dose Rates from Plutonium Metal and Beryllium Metal in a 9975 Shipping Container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A parametric study was performed of the radiation dose rates that might be produced if plutonium metal and beryllium metal were shipped in the 9975 shipping package. These materials consist of heterogeneous combinations plutonium metal and beryllium. The plutonium metal content varies up to 4.4 kilograms while the beryllium metal varies up to 4 kilograms. This paper presents the results of that study

  1. Electrostimulation of rat callus cells and human lymphocytes in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aro, H.; Eerola, E.; Aho, A.J.; Penttinen, R.

    1984-01-01

    Asymmetrical pulsing low voltage current was supplied via electrodes to cultured rat fracture callus cells and human peripheral blood lymphocytes. The (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation of the callus cells and 5-(/sup 125/I)iodo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation of the lymphocytes were determined. The growth pattern of callus cells (estimated by cellular density) did not respond to electrical stimulation. However, the uptake of (/sup 3/H)thymidine was increased at the early phase of cell proliferation and inhibited at later phases of proliferation. The (/sup 3/H)thymidine uptake of confluent callus cell cultures did not respond to electrical stimulation. Lymphocytes reacted in a similar way; stimulated cells took up more DNA precursor than control cells at the early phase of stimulation. During cell division, induced by the mitogens phytohemagglutinin and Concanavalin-A, the uptake of DNA precursor by stimulated cells was constantly inhibited. The results suggest that electrical stimuli affect the uptake mechanisms of cell membranes. The duality of the effect seems to be dependent on the cell cycle.

  2. Elastic, micro- and macroplastic properties of polycrystalline beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardashev, B. K.; Kupriyanov, I. B.

    2011-12-01

    The Young's modulus and the internal friction of beryllium polycrystals (size grain from 6 to 60 μm) prepared by the powder metallurgy method have been studied as functions of the amplitude and temperature in the range from 100 to 873 K. The measurements have been performed using the composite piezoelectric vibrator method for longitudinal vibrations at frequencies about 100 kHz. Based on the acoustic measurements, the data have been obtained on the elastic and inelastic (microplastic) properties as functions of vibration stress amplitudes within the limits from 0.2 to 30-60 MPa. The microplastic deformation diagram is shown to become nonlinear at the amplitudes higher than 5 MPa. The beryllium mechanical characteristics (the yield strength σ 0.2, the ultimate strength σ u , and the conventional microscopic yield strength σ y ) obtained with various grain sizes are compared. At room temperature, all the parameters satisfactorily obey the Hall-Petch relationship, although there is no complete similarity. The temperature dependences are quite different, namely: σ 0.2( T) and σ u ( T) decrease monotonically during heating from room temperature to higher temperatures; however, σ y ( T) behaves unusually, and it has a minimum near 400 K. The different levels of stresses and the absence of similarity indicate that the scattering of the ultrasound energy and the formation of a level of the macroscopic flow stresses in beryllium occur on dislocation motion obstacles of different origins.

  3. Electron microscope study of thin beryllium lamellae (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin SR beryllium lamellae are examined by electron microscopy after various treatments, together with other samples made up of Be - Fe at 1 per cent and 0.2 per cent iron. The SR beryllium is examined after annealing at 750 deg C and 900 deg C, strongly cold-worked and quenched at 900 deg C. At 950 deg C the metal is perfectly annealed; at 750 deg C the polygonisation is almost complete, the dislocations are arranged either is dislocation walls in the prismatic planes, or in hexagonal lattices with non-dissociated nodes suggesting a high stacking defect energy. The cold-worked structure has a high dislocation density and already existing crystal walls. In the quenched state, the few dislocations are very straight and are aligned in the crystallographic directions. Iron-precipitation is studied in two alloys during tempering at 660 deg after quenching in salt water. The precipitate appears at the grain boundaries and then spreads through the matrix leaving a depleted zone in the neighbourhood of the joints. These precipitates, in the form of platelets parallel to the base planes of the beryllium lattice have been identified as the inter metallic phase Be11 Fe oriented in relation to the matrix (0 0 0 1)//(0 0 0 1) (1 0 1-bar 0)//(1 1 2-bar 0). (authors)

  4. What Is Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic Normal bone marrow, blood, and lymphoid tissue What is chronic lymphocytic leukemia? Cancer starts when cells ... body, including the lymph nodes, liver, and spleen. What is leukemia? Leukemia is a cancer that starts ...

  5. Beryllium Science: US-UK agreement on the use of Atomic Energy for mutual defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanafee, J.E. (ed.)

    1988-02-19

    Twenty-seven papers are presented on beryllium supply, production, fabrication, safe handling, analysis, powder technology, and coatings. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (DLC)

  6. The impact of beryllium chloride and oxide on sexual function and offspring development in female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparative study of the action of soluble chloride and difficultly soluble beryllium oxide on sexual cycle in female rats and their conception capability, revealing of embryotoxic and teratogenic effect of these compounds and determination of significance of terms of their impact on pregnant female as well as beryllium capability to penetrate through the placenta and accumulate in the offspring organism have been performed. A great potential danger of impact on animal reproductive function of soluble (chloride) beryllium compounds as compared with low soluble ones (oxide). In the genesis of embryotoxic teratonic effect probably along with beryllium impact on progeny through the maternal organism there occurs its direct impact on the offspring

  7. Vacuum Brazing of Beryllium Copper Components for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process for vacuum brazing beryllium copper anode assemblies was required for the Plasma Electrode Pockels Cell System, or PEPC, a component for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Initial problems with the joint design and wettability of the beryllium copper drove some minor design changes. Brazing was facilitated by plating the joint surface of the beryllium copper rod with silver 0.0006 inch thick. Individual air sampling during processing and swipe tests of the furnace interior after brazing revealed no traceable levels of beryllium

  8. Beryllium Science: US-UK agreement on the use of Atomic Energy for mutual defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-seven papers are presented on beryllium supply, production, fabrication, safe handling, analysis, powder technology, and coatings. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers

  9. Problems and future plan on material development of beryllium in materials testing reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium has been utilized as a moderator and/or reflector in a number of material testing reactors. The attractive nuclear properties of beryllium are its low atomic number, low atomic weight, low parasitic capture cross section for thermal neutrons, readiness to part with one of its own neutrons, and good neutron elastic scattering characteristics. However, it is difficult to reprocess irradiated beryllium because of high induced radioactivity. Disposal has also been difficult because of toxicity issues and special nuclear material controls. In this paper, problems and future plans of beryllium technology are introduced for nuclear reactors. (author)

  10. Effect of fucoidan on splenic lymphocyte apoptosis induced by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the effect of immunologic function of fucoidan at different doses given preventively to rats exposed to γ-rays and its mechanism. Methods: The Wistar rats were given fucoidan at different doses orally for 10 d before whole-body irradiation with 60Co γ-rays. The related indexes of humoral, cellular and nonspecific immunologic functions and apoptosis ratio of lymphocytes were measured 18 hs later. Results: Fucoidan at 100 mg/kg was able to significantly enhance the ability of proliferation responses of T, B lymphocytes, the number and phagocytosis of macrophage, serum hemolysin contents, the delayed type hypersensitivity response (DTH) of rats exposed to γ-rays and to reduce apoptosis ratio of lymphocytes in irradiated rats. There were dose-effect relationships in these observation indexes of the fucoidan groups. There were significant differences between these indexes of the fucoidan groups and those of the positive control group (P<0.01). Conclusion: These results indicate that fucoidan as an immunoregulatory chemical could promote the recovery of immunologic function in irradiated rats. The mechanism is associated with the arrest of lymphocyte apoptosis by fucoidan

  11. [Chronic lymphocytic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Sadao

    2016-03-01

    Currently, several novel drugs are available for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in Western countries. Of these drugs, those that inhibit the B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway are the most promising. Ibrutinib inhibits BTK in the BCR pathway and can be administered orally. The results of several clinical trials suggest that ibrutinib is highly effective against relapsed/resistant (RR) and treatment-naïve CLL. Furthermore, ibrutinib shows equivalent efficacy on CLL with the 17p deletion. Idelalisib, which also blocks the BCR pathway, inhibits PIK3delta and induces CLL cell death. Clinical trials have shown outstanding efficacy of idelalisib against RR-CLL, especially when administered with antiCD20 antibodies. This drug is also effective against CLL with the 17p deletion. ABT-199 is another novel drug; it inhibits BCL2 signaling, not the BCR pathway, and can be administered orally. The efficacy of ABT-199 against RR-CLL has been demonstrated in a number of clinical trials. These drugs have only mild toxicity and can be used for patients in poor general condition. Unfortunately, none of these drugs have yet been approved in Japan. Rapid resolution of the 'drug lag' problem is necessary. PMID:27076234

  12. Phase equilibria, compatibility studies and thermal properties of beryllium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality control of commercial beryllium, the examinations of the phase equilibria in beryllium systems as well as the broad field of incompatibility and the reaction kinetics of beryllium with other materials necessitate a sophisticated method for the analysis of this element in micrometer areas. A powerful tool is the wavelength dispersive X-ray microanalyser. Therefore, a commercial synthetic Mo-B4C multilayer X-ray diffracting device with 2 d = 22.2 nm periodicity was used to extend X-ray microanalysis to the ultra-light elements Be and B in an existing instrument. The spectrometer covers a wavelength range between 5.2 and 13 nm. The wavelength of the Be Kα emission line from elemental Be is λ = 11.35 nm and the full width at half maximum is ΔE = 7.2 eV. The optimum working voltage Uo is 10 kV for moderate X-ray mass absorption of the targets. The determination of Be in oxides is less favourable owing to the high mass absorption. Uo has to be reduced to 5 kV. The chemical shift of the Be Kα line in BeO is Δλ = + 0.3 nm relative to pure Be. Beryllium pebbles are foreseen as neutron multipliers in future fusion reactor blanket concepts. Industrial intermediate Be products which had been produced by a modified Kroll process and subsequent reduction of BeF2 using Mg were investigated by X-ray microanalysis. The following precipitates in the Be matrix of 2 mm pebbles partially annealed up to 790 C could be detected: (Mg, Zr, U) Be13, MgBe13, Mg2Si, Al2Mg3 and (Fe, Cr) alloys. The maximum solubility of selected metallic impurities in beryllium annealed at 800 C is: 0.06 mass % Fe, 0.03 mass % Al, 0.02 mass % Si, 5Fe2, Be2C and Cr-Fe-Si were observed in specimens annealed between 870 and 690 C. It is interesting that Al5Fe2 precipitates were observed; however, the phase AlFeBe4 that would have been expected according to the phase diagram of the ternary Al-Be-Fe system was not found. Probably the Fe/Al ratio is too low for AlFeBe4 formation. The high annealing

  13. Beryllium Project: developing in CDTN of uranium dioxide fuel pellets with addition of beryllium oxide to increase the thermal conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Ricardo Alberto Neto; Camarano, Denise das Merces; Miranda, Odair; Grossi, Pablo Andrade; Andrade, Antonio Santos; Queiroz, Carolinne Mol; Gonzaga, Mariana de Carvalho Leal, E-mail: ranf@cdtn.br, E-mail: dmc@cdtn.br, E-mail: odairm@cdtn.br, E-mail: pabloag@cdtn.br, E-mail: antdrade@gmail.com, E-mail: carolmol@gmail.com, E-mail: mari_clgonzaga@hotmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Pampulha, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Although the nuclear fuel currently based on pellets of uranium dioxide be very safe and stable, the biggest problem is that this material is not a good conductor of heat. This results in an elevated temperature gradient between the center and its lateral surface, which leads to a premature degradation of the fuel, which restricts the performance of the reactor, being necessary to change the fuel before its full utilization. An increase of only 5 to 10 percent in its thermal conductivity, would be a significant increase. An increase of 50 percent would be a great improvement. A project entitled 'Beryllium Project' was developed in CDTN - Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, which aimed to develop fuel pellets made from a mixture of uranium dioxide microspheres and beryllium oxide powder to obtain a better heat conductor phase, filling the voids between the microspheres to increase the thermal conductivity of the pellet. Increases in the thermal conductivity in the range of 8.6% to 125%, depending on the level of addition employed in the range of 1% to 14% by weight of beryllium oxide, were obtained. This type of fuel promises to be safer than current fuels, improving the performance of the reactor, in addition to last longer, resulting in great savings. (author)

  14. Mercury-specific lymphocytes: an indication of mercury allergy in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stejskal, V D; Forsbeck, M; Cederbrant, K E; Asteman, O

    1996-01-01

    In this study, 18 patients with oral lichen planus (OLP), adjacent to amalgam fillings, were tested in vitro with an optimized lymphocyte proliferation test, MELISA (memory lymphocyte immunostimulation assay) and with a patch test. Twenty subjects with amalgam fillings but without oral discomfort and 12 amalgam-free subjects served as controls. The results show that patients with OLP have significantly higher lymphocyte reactivity to inorganic mercury, a corrosion product of amalgam, compared to control groups. Removal of amalgam fillings resulted in the disappearance of oral mucosal changes, thus indicating a causal relationship. Positive responses to phenylmercury (phenyl-Hg), a bactericidal agent in root fillings and in pharmaceutical preparations, were also noted in the oral lichen group but not in the control groups. Thus, low-grade chronic exposure to mercury may induce a state of systemic sensitization as verified by Hg-specific lymphocyte reactivity in vitro. PMID:8926283

  15. SERUM HAPTOGLOBIN SUPPRESSES T-LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTIONS FOLLOWING BURNS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤君; 黄文华; 黎鳌

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that serum immunosuppressive factors play an important role in the mechanismi of postburn immunosuppression.This study was intended to investigate the effect of haptoglobin,purified from the serum of burned patients by affinity chromatography,on the proliferation and interleukin-2(IL-2)secretion of normal nurine thymocytes induced by conA and the proliferation of IL-2 dependent cell line (CTLL-2) stimulated by recombinant human IL-2,so as to elucidate the role of serum haptoglobin in postburn T-lymphocyte dysfunction.The results showed that purified haptoglobin,at the level equivalent to the concentration found in serum of burned patients,significantly inhibited the prolifration and IL-2 secretion of normal murine thymocytes as well as CTLL-2 proliferation;wheres it exhibited no immunosuppressive effects at the level equivalent to the concentration found in serum of normal vohmteers.According to the results reported here,it is suggested that extraordinary increase in serum haptoglobin level may be an important factor of impaired T-lymphocyte responses following burns.

  16. Potentiation of lymphocyte proliferative responses by nickel sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, A.; Sonnenfeld, G.

    1992-01-01

    Crystalline nickel sulfide (NiS) induced a spleen cell proliferation that resembles a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). It depended on cell-cell interaction, induced high levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) and the responding cell subpopulation was composed of CD4+ T lymphocytes. Furthermore, the proliferation was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by magnesium. Crystalline NiS also increased significantly the spleen cell proliferative response to concanavalin A (Con A) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with magnesium potentiating the combined effects of crystalline NiS and mitogens. Interestingly, crystalline NiS did not show any effect on the induction of IL-2 by Con A. The results described herein suggest that crystalline NiS can potentiate both antigenic (MLR) and mitogenic (Con A and LPS) proliferative responses in vitro. Crystalline NiS appears to potentiate these responses by acting in the form of ionic nickel on several intracellular targets for which magnesium ions have different noncompetitive interactions. The effects of magnesium on the potentiating action of crystalline NiS are different depending upon the type of primary stimulatory signal for proliferation (mitogenic or antigenic).

  17. Immunosuppression in Human Peripheral Blood T Lymphocytes by Fluvastatin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Hua WU; Yun-Le WAN; Hai-Yang XIE; Wen-Jin ZHANG; Shu-Sen ZHENG

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the immunosuppressive effect offluvastatin on the PHA-activated T lymphocytes.T lymphocytes were isolated from the blood of healthy volunteers, cell proliferation and the activation markers expression were examined by flow cytometric analysis. Cytokine secretion was assayed by ELISA.LDH-release assay was used to detect activity of killer cells. NFAT activation was evaluated by TransAMTM ELISA kit. Results were as following. (1) Whereas no modification in CD25 expression was seen, fluvastatin at 5 μM caused a lower level of CD69 expression, accompanied by an essential suppression on proliferation,IL-2 production and cytotoxicity development in PHA-stimulated T cells. However, the level of secreted IL-10 had no change, and the level of IL-4 even experienced a significant increase. (2) Combined with cyclosporine A (CsA), fluvastatin would further repress CD69 expression, cells proliferation and activity of killer cells, meanwhile significantly induced the secretion of IL-4 and IL-10. (3) Fluvastatin treatment also resulted in a strong inhibition of NFAT activation. In conclusion, partly involving the blockage of activation of NFAT, fluvastatin exhibited an immunosuppressive effect in vitro.

  18. Comparison of Changes in Immunological Parameters in Human Lymphocytes in 2D Versus 3D Clinostats-Goal Towards Microgravity Analog Calibration for Future Space Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresan, Alamelu; Russomano, Thais; Pellis, Neal R.

    2008-06-01

    Exposure to microgravity may produce changes in the performance of the immunological system at the cellular level as well as in the major physiological systems of the body. Studies in true spaceflight and similar studies in 2D clinostats (Rotating wall vessels) related to decreased immune function in astronaut blood and normal human lymphocytes indicate a decrease in cell proliferation, T cell activation, locomotion and altered lymphocyte signal transduction (Sundaresan and Pellis, 2008, Sundaresan et al., 2004). The present study was designed to investigate whether the proliferation and viability of lymphocytes are reduced by exposure to rotation in a 3D-Clinostat, which is used to simulate microgravity for cells.

  19. Curcumin reduces brain-infiltrating T lymphocytes after intracerebral hemorrhage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Yuan, Jichao; Zhu, Haitao; Zhang, Xuan; Li, Lan; Liao, Xiaojun; Wen, Zexian; Chen, Yaxing; Feng, Hua; Lin, Jiangkai

    2016-05-01

    T lymphocytes contribute to inflammation, thereby exacerbating neuronal injury after cerebral ischemia. An increasing amount of evidence indicates that inflammation is a key contributor to intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced secondary brain injury. Curcumin, a low-molecular-weight curry spice that is derived from the Curcuma longa plant, suppresses T lymphocyte proliferation and migration. Based on these findings, we investigated whether treatment with curcumin would reduce the number of cerebral T lymphocytes in mice with experimentally induced ICH. We found that a large number of T lymphocytes infiltrated the brain at 3days post-ICH. Curcumin significantly improved neurological scores and reduced brain edema in mice with ICH, consistent with a role in reducing neuroinflammation and neurovascular injury. Using flow cytometry, we observed significantly fewer T lymphocytes in brain samples obtained from the curcumin-treated group than in samples obtained from the vehicle-treated group. Moreover, Western blot analysis and immunostaining indicated that treatment with curcumin significantly reduced the expression of a vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), interferon-γ (INF-γ) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) in the mouse brain at 72h post-ICH. Our results suggest that administering curcumin may alleviate cerebral inflammation resulting from ICH, at least in part by reducing the infiltration of T lymphocytes into the brain. Therefore, preventing T lymphocytes from infiltrating the brain may become a new strategy for treating clinical ICH. PMID:27026486

  20. CD4+ lymphocytes control gut epithelial apoptosis and mediate survival in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, Paul E; Woolsey, Cheryl A; Clark, Andrew T; Clark, Jessica A; Turnbull, Isaiah R; McConnell, Kevin W; Chang, Katherine C; Chung, Chun-Shiang; Ayala, Alfred; Buchman, Timothy G; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2009-06-01

    Lymphocytes help determine whether gut epithelial cells proliferate or differentiate but are not known to affect whether they live or die. Here, we report that lymphocytes play a controlling role in mediating gut epithelial apoptosis in sepsis but not under basal conditions. Gut epithelial apoptosis is similar in unmanipulated Rag-1(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice. However, Rag-1(-/-) animals have a 5-fold augmentation in gut epithelial apoptosis following cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) compared to septic WT mice. Reconstitution of lymphocytes in Rag-1(-/-) mice via adoptive transfer decreases intestinal apoptosis to levels seen in WT animals. Subset analysis indicates that CD4(+) but not CD8(+), gammadelta, or B cells are responsible for the antiapoptotic effect of lymphocytes on the gut epithelium. Gut-specific overexpression of Bcl-2 in transgenic mice decreases mortality following CLP. This survival benefit is lymphocyte dependent since gut-specific overexpression of Bcl-2 fails to alter survival when the transgene is overexpressed in Rag-1(-/-) mice. Further, adoptively transferring lymphocytes to Rag-1(-/-) mice that simultaneously overexpress gut-specific Bcl-2 results in improved mortality following sepsis. Thus, sepsis unmasks CD4(+) lymphocyte control of gut apoptosis that is not present under homeostatic conditions, which acts as a key determinant of both cellular survival and host mortality. PMID:19158156

  1. Serotype b of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans increases osteoclast and memory T-lymphocyte activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgar-Rodríguez, S; Díaz-Zúñiga, J; Alvarez, C; Rojas, L; Monasterio, G; Carvajal, P; Escobar, A; Sanz, M; Vernal, R

    2016-04-01

    During periodontitis, alveolar bone resorption is associated with activation of T helper type 17 (Th17) lymphocytes and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) -induced osteoclasts. We previously reported that serotype b of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans has a higher capacity to trigger Th17-type differentiation and function in activated T lymphocytes and its lipopolysaccharide is a more potent immunogen compared with the other serotypes. This study aimed to investigate whether serotype b of A. actinomycetemcomitans induces higher Th17-associated RANKL production, RANKL-induced osteoclast activation, and antigen-specific memory T lymphocyte proliferation. On naive CD4(+) T lymphocytes stimulated with autologous dendritic cells primed with different A. actinomycetemcomitans serotypes, RANKL production, T-bet, GATA-3, RORC2 and Foxp3 expression, RORC2/RANKL intracellular double-expression, TRAP(+) osteoclast activation, and bone resorption were quantified. The frequency of proliferating memory T lymphocytes in response to A. actinomycetemcomitans serotypes was determined in periodontitis and healthy subjects. Naive CD4(+) T lymphocytes stimulated by serotype b-primed dendritic cells elicited higher levels of RANKL, RORC2, TRAP(+) osteoclasts, and bone resorption than the same cells stimulated with the other serotypes. RANKL positively correlated and co-expressed with RORC2. Memory T lymphocytes responding to serotype b were more frequently detected in periodontitis patients than healthy subjects. These results indicate that serotype b of A. actinomycetemcomitans is associated with higher production of RANKL and these increased levels are associated with Th17 lymphocyte induction, osteoclast activation, and bone resorption. PMID:26172400

  2. Preimmunization of donor lymphocytes enhances antitumor immunity of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymphopenia-induced homeostatic proliferation (HP) of T cells following autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) skews the T-cell repertoire by engaging tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), leading to an induction of antitumor immunity. Here, as the tumor-reactive lymphocytes preferentially proliferate during the condition of HP, we examined whether the priming of a donor lymphocytes to TAAs could enhance HP-induced antitumor immunity in autologous HSCT recipients. First, to examine whether the tumor-bearing condition of donor influences the antitumor effect of HSCT, the lymphocytes isolated from CT26 tumor-bearing mice were infused into lethally irradiated mice. The growth of tumors was substantially suppressed in the mice that received HSCT from a tumor-bearing donor compared with a naïve donor, suggesting that a fraction of donor lymphocytes from tumor-bearing mice are primed in response to TAAs and remain responsive upon transplantation. We previously reported that type I interferon (IFN) maturates the dendritic cells and promotes the priming of T cells. We then investigated whether the further priming of donor cells by IFN-α can strengthen the antitumor effect of HSCT. The intratumoral IFN-α gene transfer significantly increased the number of IFN-γ-positive lymphocytes in response to CT26 cells but not the syngeneic lymphocytes in donor mice. The infusion of primed donor lymphocytes markedly suppressed the tumor growth in recipient mice, and cured 64% of the treated mice. Autologous HSCT with the infusion of primed donor lymphocytes is a promising strategy to induce an effective antitumor immunity for solid cancers

  3. Inhibitory Effects of Berberine on the Activation and Cell Cycle Progression of Human Peripheral Lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihui Xu; Yi Liu; Xianhui He

    2005-01-01

    The immunosuppressive property of berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, has been well documented, but the mechanism of its action on lymphocytes has not been completely elucidated. The present study is to investigate the effect of berberine on the activation and proliferation of lymphocytes, in particular T lymphocytes. Whole peripheral blood from healthy donors was stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) alone or phorbol dibutyrate (PDB) plus ionomycin, and the expression of CD69 and CD25 on T lymphocytes was evaluated with flow cytometry.The distribution of cell cycles and cell viability were analyzed by staining with propidium iodide (PI) and 7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD), respectively. The results showed that 100 μmol/L and 50 μmol/L of berberine significantly inhibited CD69 expression on T cells stimulated with PDB plus ionomycin or PHA, whereas the effect of 25 μmol/L berberine was not significant. As the incubation time increased, the extent of inhibition decreased.Similarly, the expression of CD25 was also reduced by berberine in a dose-dependent manner over the concentration range of 25-100 μmol/L. Besides, this alkaloid could block lymphocyte cell cycle progression from G0/G1 phase to S and G2/M phase without phase specificity. Moreover, analysis following 7-AAD staining revealed that berberine had no significant cytotoxicity on lymphocytes. Taken together, berberine significantly inhibits the expression of activation antigens on T lymphocytes and also blocks the progression of cell cycles of lymphocytes,suggesting that berberine may exert immunosuppressive effect through inhibiting the activation and proliferation of T cells.

  4. Low in vitro response to PPD and PHA in lymphocytes from BCG-induced pleurisy in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study any correlation between functional properties of lymphocytes in BCG-induced pleural exudation and the development of the pleurisy a previously described experimental model was used. This model with a duration of effusion of more than 17 days has characteristic stages. From the third day and onwards there are lymphocytes in sufficient amount for in vitro cultures. Proliferation of lymphocytes from the fluid was measured as uptake of 14C-thymidine. The response of the lymphocytes to PPD tuberculin and to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) was studied, and their spontaneous activity was measured. Comparisons were made with lymphocytes from regional lymph nodes. Pleural lymphocytes sampled on the third post-induction day did not respond to PPD or PHA stimulation. In later stages, pleural lymphocytes were stimulated by PPD to approximately the same degree as the lymph node lymphocytes. The response to PHA was weak at all stages of pleurisy, though in later stages there were some cases with high values. Variations in activation ability, related to disease staging, were demonstrated. However, low activities, and variability of the responces, without concomitant variations in disease, speak against a connection between the course of disease and functional status of the lymphocytes as measured in this study. (authors)

  5. Changes in count and function of splenic lymphocytes from patients with portal hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong-Fang Li; Shu Zhang; Gao-Bo Lv; Ying Huang; Wei Zhang; Song Ren; Jun Yang; Shuang-Suo Dang

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate changes in numbers and proliferative function of splenic lymphocytes in patients with hypersplenism due to portal hypertension (PH), to provide evidence for further study of immune status of the spleen during PH.METHODS: Twelve spleens from patients with hypersplenism due to PH served as the PH group, and four spleens from cases of traumatic spleen rupture were regarded as the control group. After weighing the spleen, lymphocytes were separated and counted using a cell counting plate to calculate the lymphocyte count per gram of spleen tissue (relative quantity) and total lymphocyte count in whole spleen (absolute quantity). The immunohistochemical SP method was used to observe the density and distribution of lymphocytes in the spleen. The MTT method was used to observe changes in lymphocyte proliferative function.RESULTS: As compared to the control group, the splenic lymphocytes in the PH group showed that: (1) There was no difference in distribution but a significant decrease in density; (2) the number of lymphocytes per gram of spleen (relative quantity) decreased significantly [(0.822±0.157) × 108 vs (1.174±0.254) × 108, P < 0.01];(3) with the significant increase in the weight of the PH spleen (832.6±278.2 g vs 211.7±85.6 g, P < 0.01),the total quantity of lymphocytes (absolute quantity)increased significantly [(0.685±0.072) × 1011 vs (0.366±0.057) × 1011, P < 0.01]; and (4) the proliferative function of lymphocytes was enhanced: T lymphocytes,(0.022±0.005 vs 0.015±0.003, P < 0.05), and B lymphocytes (0.034±0.006 vs 0.023±0.001, P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: Although lymphocyte density in the spleen decreased in patients with PH, the total quantity of lymphoytes increased because spleen weight increased greatly, along with the proliferating function. With respect to changes in lymphocytes, PH spleens may still have immune function, although it may be disordered. However,complete evaluation of the immune function of the spleenin PH

  6. Surfactant Protein A integrates activation signal strength to differentially modulate T cell proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Sambuddho; Giamberardino, Charles; Thomas, Joseph; Evans, Kathy; GOTO, HISATSUGU; Ledford, Julie G.; Hsia, Bethany; Pastva, Amy M.; Wright, Jo Rae

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant lipoproteins lower the surface tension at the alveolar:airway interface of the lung and participate in host defense. Previous studies reported that surfactant protein A (SP-A) inhibits lymphocyte proliferation. We hypothesized that SP-A mediated modulation of T cell activation depends upon the strength, duration and type of lymphocyte activating signals. Modulation of T cell signal strength imparted by different activating agents ex and in vivo in different mouse models, ...

  7. Proceedings of the third IEA international workshop on beryllium technology for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the Proceedings of the Third International Energy Agency International Workshop on Beryllium Technology for Fusion. The workshop was held on October 22-24, 1997, at the Sangyou Kaikan in Mito City with 68 participants who attended from the Europe, the Russian Federation, the Kazakstan, the United States and Japan. The topics for papers were arranged into 9 sessions; beryllium applications for ITER, production and characterization, chemical compatibility and corrosion, forming and joining, plasma/tritium interactions, beryllium coating, first wall applications, neutron irradiation effects, health and safety. To utilize beryllium in the pebble type blanket, a series of discussions were intensified in multiple view points such as the swelling, He/T release from beryllium pebble irradiated up to high He content, effective thermal conductivity, tritium permeation and coating, and fabrication cost, and so on. As the plasma facing material, life time of beryllium and coated beryllium, dust and particle production, joining, waste treatment, mechanical properties and deformation by swelling were discussed as important issues. Especially, it was recognized throughout the discussions that the comparative study by the different researchers should be carried out to establish the reliability of the data reported in the workshop and in others. To enhance the comparative study, the world wide collaboration for the relative evaluation of the beryllium was proposed by the International Organization Committee and the proposal was approved by all of the participants. The 45 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  8. Theoretical Chemistry to assess the risk from the Beryllium in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bestair project was recently awarded the IRSN prize for creativity in exploratory research. The objective of this study was to assess the potential release of beryllium, an extremely toxic element, into the environment in the event of an accident through improved knowledge of the beryllium-based chemical forms present inside the ITER containment. (author)

  9. Tritium release from highly neutron irradiated constrained and unconstrained beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakin, V., E-mail: vladimir.chakin@kit.edu; Rolli, R.; Vladimirov, P.; Moeslang, A.

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • For the irradiated constrained beryllium pebbles, the tritium release occurs easier than for the unconstrained ones. • Tritium retention in the irradiated constrained and unconstrained beryllium pebbles decreases with increasing irradiation temperature. • Formation of sub-grains in the constrained beryllium pebbles facilitate the open porosity network formation. - Abstract: Beryllium is the reference neutron multiplier material in the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) breeding blanket of fusion power plants. Significant tritium inventory accumulated in beryllium as a result of neutron-induced transmutations could become a safety issue for the operation of such blankets as well as for the nuclear waste utilization. To provide a related materials database, a neutron irradiation campaign of beryllium pebbles with diameters of 0.5 and 1 mm at 686–1006 K, the HIDOBE-01 experiment, has been performed in the HFR in Petten, the Netherlands, producing up to 3020 appm helium and 298 appm tritium. Thermal desorption tests of irradiated unconstrained and constrained beryllium pebbles were performed in a purge gas flow using a quadrupole mass-spectrometer (QMS) and an ionization chamber. Compared to unconstrained pebbles, constrained beryllium pebbles have an enhanced tritium release at all temperatures investigated. Small elongated sub-grains formed under irradiation in the constrained pebbles promote formation of numerous channels for facilitated tritium release.

  10. Reduction evaporation of BeO to provide a beryllium metal sample for accelerator radiometric dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique is described for preparing beryllium metal samples from beryllium oxide for use in accelerator ion sources. These samples are used to measure minute 10Be/9Be ratios for radiometric dating at the University of Washington tandem Van de Graaff accelerator. (orig.)

  11. Analysis of the KANT experiment on beryllium using TRIPOLI-4 Monte Carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium is an important material in fusion technology for multiplying neutrons in blankets. However, beryllium nuclear data are differently presented in modern nuclear data evaluations. Recent investigations with the TRIPOLI-4 Monte Carlo simulation of the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) demonstrated that beryllium reaction data are the main source of the calculation uncertainties between ENDF/B-VII.0 and JEFF-3.1. To clarify the calculation uncertainties from data libraries on beryllium, in this study TRIPOLI-4 calculations of the Karlsruhe Neutron Transmission (KANT) experiment have been performed by using ENDF/B-VII.0 and new JEFF-3.1.1 data libraries. The KANT Experiment on beryllium has been used to validate neutron transport codes and nuclear data libraries. An elaborated KANT experiment benchmark has been compiled and published in the NEA/SINBAD database and it has been used as reference in the present work. The neutron multiplication in bulk beryllium assemblies was considered with a central D-T neutron source. Neutron leakage spectra through the 5, 10, and 17 cm thick spherical beryllium shells were calculated and five-group partial leakage multiplications were reported and discussed. In general, improved C/E ratios on neutron leakage multiplications have been obtained. Both ENDF/B-VII.0 and JEFF-3.1.1 beryllium data libraries of TRIPOLI-4 are acceptable now for fusion neutronics calculations.

  12. Proceedings of the third IEA international workshop on beryllium technology for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Makoto [eds.

    1998-01-01

    This report is the Proceedings of the Third International Energy Agency International Workshop on Beryllium Technology for Fusion. The workshop was held on October 22-24, 1997, at the Sangyou Kaikan in Mito City with 68 participants who attended from the Europe, the Russian Federation, the Kazakstan, the United States and Japan. The topics for papers were arranged into 9 sessions; beryllium applications for ITER, production and characterization, chemical compatibility and corrosion, forming and joining, plasma/tritium interactions, beryllium coating, first wall applications, neutron irradiation effects, health and safety. To utilize beryllium in the pebble type blanket, a series of discussions were intensified in multiple view points such as the swelling, He/T release from beryllium pebble irradiated up to high He content, effective thermal conductivity, tritium permeation and coating, and fabrication cost, and so on. As the plasma facing material, life time of beryllium and coated beryllium, dust and particle production, joining, waste treatment, mechanical properties and deformation by swelling were discussed as important issues. Especially, it was recognized throughout the discussions that the comparative study by the different researchers should be carried out to establish the reliability of the data reported in the workshop and in others. To enhance the comparative study, the world wide collaboration for the relative evaluation of the beryllium was proposed by the International Organization Committee and the proposal was approved by all of the participants. The 45 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  13. Tritium release from highly neutron irradiated constrained and unconstrained beryllium pebbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • For the irradiated constrained beryllium pebbles, the tritium release occurs easier than for the unconstrained ones. • Tritium retention in the irradiated constrained and unconstrained beryllium pebbles decreases with increasing irradiation temperature. • Formation of sub-grains in the constrained beryllium pebbles facilitate the open porosity network formation. - Abstract: Beryllium is the reference neutron multiplier material in the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) breeding blanket of fusion power plants. Significant tritium inventory accumulated in beryllium as a result of neutron-induced transmutations could become a safety issue for the operation of such blankets as well as for the nuclear waste utilization. To provide a related materials database, a neutron irradiation campaign of beryllium pebbles with diameters of 0.5 and 1 mm at 686–1006 K, the HIDOBE-01 experiment, has been performed in the HFR in Petten, the Netherlands, producing up to 3020 appm helium and 298 appm tritium. Thermal desorption tests of irradiated unconstrained and constrained beryllium pebbles were performed in a purge gas flow using a quadrupole mass-spectrometer (QMS) and an ionization chamber. Compared to unconstrained pebbles, constrained beryllium pebbles have an enhanced tritium release at all temperatures investigated. Small elongated sub-grains formed under irradiation in the constrained pebbles promote formation of numerous channels for facilitated tritium release

  14. Protection of beryllium metal against microbial influenced corrosion using silane self-assembled monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Rajendra U.; Deshpande, Alina; Hersman, Larry; Brozik, Susan M.; Butt, Darryl

    1999-08-01

    The effectiveness of a self-assembled silane monolayer as protection for beryllium against microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) was demonstrated. Four-point bend tests on coated and uncoated beryllium samples were conducted after microbiological exposures, and the effectiveness of these coatings as MIC protection was reported through mechanical property evaluations. Application of the silane monolayer to the beryllium surfaces was found to prevent degradation of the failure strength and displacement-to-failure of beryllium in bending. In contrast, the uncoated beryllium samples exhibited a severe reduction in these mechanical properties in the presence of the marine Pseudomonas bacteria. The potentiodynamic measurements showed that both the uncoated and coated samples pitted at the open-circuit potential. However, the size and distribution of the corrosion pits formed on the surface of the beryllium samples were significantly different for the various cases (coated vs uncoated samples exposed to control vs inoculated medium). This study demonstrates the following: (1) the deleterious effects of MIC on the mechanical properties of beryllium and (2) the potential for developing fast, easy, and cost-effective MIC protection for beryllium metal using silane self-assemblies.

  15. Reduction of surface erosion caused by helium blistering in sintered beryllium and sintered aluminum powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have been conducted to find materials with microstructures which minimize the formation of blisters. A promising class of materials appears to be sintered metal powder with small average grain sizes and low atomic number Z. Studies of the surface erosion of sintered aluminum powder (SAP 895) and of aluminum held at 4000C due to blistering by 100 keV helium ions have been conducted and the results are compared to those obtained earlier for room temperature irradiation. A significant reduction of the erosion rate in SAP 895 in comparison to annealed aluminum and SAP 930 is observed. In addition results on the blistering of sintered beryllium powder (type I) irradiated at room temperature and 6000C by 100 keV helium ions are given. These results will be compared with those reported recently for vacuum cast beryllium foil and a foil of sintered beryllium powder (type II) which was fabricated differently, than type I. For room temperature irradiation only a few blisters could be observed in sintered beryllium powder type I and type II and they are smaller in size and in number than in vacuum cast beryllium. For irradiation at 6000C large scale exfoliation of blisters was observed for vacuum cast beryllium but much less exfoliation was seen for sintered beryllium powder, type I, and type II. The results show a reduction in erosion rate cast beryllium, for both room temperature and 6000C

  16. 20 CFR 30.207 - How does a claimant prove a diagnosis of a beryllium disease covered under Part B?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... this section), together with lung pathology consistent with chronic beryllium disease, including the...) Occupational or environmental history, or epidemiologic evidence of beryllium exposure; and (ii) Any three of...) Lung pathology consistent with chronic beryllium disease. (D) Clinical course consistent with a...

  17. Detection of beryllium treatment of natural sapphires by NRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, P.C., E-mail: carolina.gutierrez@uam.e [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ynsa, M.-D.; Climent-Font, A. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Dpto. Fisica Aplicada C-12, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Calligaro, T. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des musees de France C2RMF, CNRS-UMR171, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France)

    2010-06-15

    Since the 1990's, artificial treatment of natural sapphires (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals coloured by impurities) by diffusion of beryllium at high temperature has become a growing practice. This process permits to enhance the colour of these gemstones, and thus to increase their value. Detection of such a treatment - diffusion of tens of {mu}g/g of beryllium in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals - is usually achieved using high sensitivity techniques like laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP/MS) or laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) which are unfortunately micro-destructive (leaving 50-100-{mu}m diameter craters on the gems). The simple and non-destructive alternative method proposed in this work is based on the nuclear reaction {sup 9}Be({alpha}, n{gamma}){sup 12}C with an external helium ion beam impinging on the gem directly placed in air. The 4439 keV prompt {gamma}-ray tagging Be atoms are detected with a high efficiency bismuth germanate scintillator. Beam dose is monitored using the 2235 keV prompt {gamma}-ray produced during irradiation by the aluminium of the sapphire matrix through the {sup 27}Al({alpha}, p{gamma}){sup 30}Si nuclear reaction. The method is tested on a series of Be-treated sapphires previously analyzed by LA-ICP/MS to determine the optimal conditions to obtain a peak to background appropriate to reach the required {mu}g/g sensitivity. Using a 2.8-MeV external He beam and a beam dose of 200 {mu}C, beryllium concentrations from 5 to 16 {mu}g/g have been measured in the samples, with a detection limit of 1 {mu}g/g.

  18. Detection of beryllium treatment of natural sapphires by NRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, P. C.; Ynsa, M.-D.; Climent-Font, A.; Calligaro, T.

    2010-06-01

    Since the 1990's, artificial treatment of natural sapphires (Al 2O 3 crystals coloured by impurities) by diffusion of beryllium at high temperature has become a growing practice. This process permits to enhance the colour of these gemstones, and thus to increase their value. Detection of such a treatment - diffusion of tens of μg/g of beryllium in Al 2O 3 crystals - is usually achieved using high sensitivity techniques like laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP/MS) or laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) which are unfortunately micro-destructive (leaving 50-100-μm diameter craters on the gems). The simple and non-destructive alternative method proposed in this work is based on the nuclear reaction 9Be(α, nγ) 12C with an external helium ion beam impinging on the gem directly placed in air. The 4439 keV prompt γ-ray tagging Be atoms are detected with a high efficiency bismuth germanate scintillator. Beam dose is monitored using the 2235 keV prompt γ-ray produced during irradiation by the aluminium of the sapphire matrix through the 27Al(α, pγ) 30Si nuclear reaction. The method is tested on a series of Be-treated sapphires previously analyzed by LA-ICP/MS to determine the optimal conditions to obtain a peak to background appropriate to reach the required μg/g sensitivity. Using a 2.8-MeV external He beam and a beam dose of 200 μC, beryllium concentrations from 5 to 16 μg/g have been measured in the samples, with a detection limit of 1 μg/g.

  19. Preliminary irradiation test for new material selection on lifetime extension of beryllium reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium has been utilized as a moderator and/or reflector in Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR), because of nuclear properties of beryllium, low neutron capture and high neutron scattering cross sections. At present, the amount of irradiated beryllium frames in JMTR is about 2 tons in the JMTR canal. In this study, preliminary irradiation test was performed from 162nd to 165th operation cycles of JMTR as irradiation and PIE technique development for lifetime expansion of beryllium frames. The design study of irradiation capsule, development of dismount device of irradiation capsule and the high accuracy size measurement device were carried out. The PIEs such as tensile tests, metallurgical observation, and size change measurement were carried out with two kinds of irradiated beryllium metals (S-200F and S-65C)

  20. Preliminary irradiation test for new material selection on lifetime extension of beryllium reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium has been utilized as a moderator and/or reflector in Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR), because of nuclear properties of beryllium, low neutron capture and high neutron scattering cross sections. At present, the amount of irradiated beryllium frames in JMTR is about 2 tons in the JMTR canal. In this study, preliminary irradiation test was performed from 162nd to 165th operation cycles of JMTR as irradiation and PIE technique development for lifetime expansion of beryllium frames. The design study of irradiation capsule, development of dismount device of irradiation capsule and the high accuracy size measurement device were carried out. The PIEs such as tensile tests, metallurgical observation, and size change measurement were also carried out with two kinds of irradiated beryllium metals (S-200F and S-65C). (author)

  1. HEINBE; the calculation program for helium production in beryllium under neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEINBE is a program on personal computer for calculating helium production in beryllium under neutron irradiation. The program can also calculate the tritium production in beryllium. Considering many nuclear reactions and their multi-step reactions, helium and tritium productions in beryllium materials irradiated at fusion reactor or fission reactor may be calculated with high accuracy. The calculation method, user's manual, calculated examples and comparison with experimental data were described. This report also describes a neutronics simulation method to generate additional data on swelling of beryllium, 3,000-15,000 appm helium range, for end-of-life of the proposed design for fusion blanket of the ITER. The calculation results indicate that helium production for beryllium sample doped lithium by 50 days irradiation in the fission reactor, such as the JMTR, could be achieved to 2,000-8,000 appm. (author)

  2. Deformation behaviour of fine grained high purity beryllium - influence of fabrication parameters, temperature and copper additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deformation behaviour of high-purity beryllium was tested on hot isostatically pressed samples of different initial grain size and compared with material manufactured commercially from pure beryllium and with beryllium-copper alloys containing 0.44, 1.1 and 2.1 at.% copper. Initial grain size of these high purity material was 0C. Grain structure of the samples was subsequently analysed by light, rastor and transmission electron microscopy. The influence of copper additions on deformation of high-purity beryllium was analysed. A further aim of this study was to investigate, by suitable methods, the mode of action of relevant impurities and to throw light on their influence on grain formation. This should enable reliable information to be provided for the manufacture of high-purity beryllium which, in turn, will lead to an improvement in ductility. (orig./IHOE)

  3. Use of notched beams to establish fracture criteria for beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fracture of an improved form of pure beryllium was studied under triaxial tensile stresses. This state of stress was produced by testing notched beams, which were thick enough to be in a state of plane strain at the center. A plane strain, elastic-incremental plasticity finite element program was then used to determine the stress and strain distributions at fracture. A four-point bend fixture was used to load the specimens. It was carefully designed and manufactured to eliminate virtually all of the shear stresses at the reduced section of the notched beams. The unixial properties were obtained

  4. Technique of beryllium determination using an (α,n) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of detecting small amounts of 9Be using the (α, n) reaction has been investigated. It is shown that at a 210Po α-particle source intensity of 3x108 s-1 for limit of the detectable amount of beryllium is equal to 0.1 μg in the case of recording neutron-gamma (>= 3.6 MeV) coincidences. Other light elements (B, F, Al, Mg, Si etc.) do not produce a noticeable background under such conditions

  5. Accumulation of tritium in beryllium material under neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work the programming code is created on the basis of which the accumulation kinetics of tritium and isotope of He4 in the Be9 sample is analyzed depending on the time. The program is written in C++ programming language and for the calculations Monte Carlo method was applied. This program scoped on the calculation of concentration of helium and tritium in beryllium samples depending on the spectrum of the neutron flux in different experimental reactors such as JMTR, JOYO and IPEN/MB. The processes of accumulation of helium and tritium for each neutron energy spectrum of these reactors were analyzed. (author)

  6. Atomic, Crystal, Elastic, Thermal, Nuclear, and Other Properties of Beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, A

    2006-02-01

    This report is part of a series of documents that provide a background to those involved in the construction of beryllium components and their applications. This report is divided into five sub-sections: Atomic/Crystal Structure, Elastic Properties, Thermal Properties, Nuclear Properties, and Miscellaneous Properties. In searching through different sources for the various properties to be included in this report, inconsistencies were at times observed between these sources. In such cases, the values reported by the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics was usually used. In equations, except where indicated otherwise, temperature (T) is in degrees Kelvin.

  7. Double K-shell photoionization of atomic beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, F. L. [Departamento de Quimica, Modulo 13, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Martin, F. [Departamento de Quimica, Modulo 13, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto Madrilen(tilde sign)o de Estudios Avanzados en Nanociencia, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); McCurdy, C. W. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Chemical Sciences, and Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Rescigno, T. N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Chemical Sciences, and Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Double photoionization of the core 1s electrons in atomic beryllium is theoretically studied using a hybrid approach that combines orbital and grid-based representations of the Hamiltonian. The {sup 1} S ground state and {sup 1} P final state contain a double occupancy of the 2s valence shell in all configurations used to represent the correlated wave function. Triply differential cross sections are evaluated, with particular attention focused on a comparison of the effects of scattering the ejected electrons through the spherically symmetric valence shell with similar cross sections for helium, representing a purely two-electron target with an analogous initial-state configuration.

  8. Electromagnetic properties of the Beryllium-11 nucleus in Halo EFT

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer H.-W.; Phillips D.R.

    2010-01-01

    We compute electromagnetic properties of the Beryllium-11 nucleus using an effective field theory that exploits the separation of scales in this halo system. We fix the parameters of the EFT from measured data on levels and scattering lengths in the 10Be plus neutron system. We then obtain predictions for the B(E1) strength of the 1/2+ to 1/2− transition in the 11Be nucleus. We also compute the charge radius of the ground state of 11Be. Agreement with experiment within the expected accurac...

  9. Portable Beryllium Prospecting Instrument With Large Sensitive Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The instrument described was designed on the basis of the photoneutron method of determining beryllium in rock surfaces and developed with a view to prospecting beryllium minerals in the Ilímaussaq intrusion, south Greenland. These minerals occur,mainly in hydrothermal veins which are from 1 mm to about 2 m wide. Of the ten beryllium minerals found until now, chkalovite (12% BeO) is the most common. The distinctive feature of the prospecting instrument is a comparatively large effective measuring area (∼500 cm2). Since the instrument is intended for use in a difficult terrain without roads, it has been necessary to limit its weight and size as much as possible. The instrument consists of a detector unit and a control unit. The detector unit has the dimensions 46 x 21 x 10 cm, weighs 20 kg, and contains a 30 cm long gamma-activation device, a biological radiation shield, and two 30-cm long 3He-filled neutron proportional detectors embedded in paraffin wax. The gamma- activation device consists of 31 identical 12Sb-sources placed in a steel tube with spacings decreasing towards the ends of the tube and with a total activity of 20 mCi. During transport of the instrument the gamma-activation device is placed at the centre of the radiation shield, when the maximum dose-rate on the surface of the detector unit is 200 mR/h. When the instrument is in use, the activation device is turned to a position just above the bottom of the detector unit. The sensitivity per cm2 of the bottom surface to a 5-cm thick layer of beryllium is 20% of its value at the centre of the bottom surface along a curve which is roughly an ellipse with axes 34 and 18 cm The total sensitivity of the instrument is about 35 counts/min per % BeO per mCi 124Sb, and the background count-rate is 12-20 counts/mm. The corresponding theoretical detection limit for a single measurement of 8-min duration is 35-50 ppm BeO. (author)

  10. Microstructure and mechanical properties of neutron irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishitsuka, E.; Kawamura, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Terai, T.; Tanaka, S.

    1998-01-01

    Microstructure and mechanical properties of the neutron irradiated beryllium with total fast neutron fluences of 1.3 - 4.3 x 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} (E>1 MeV) at 327 - 616degC were studied. Swelling increased by high irradiation temperature, high fluence, and by the small grain size and high impurity. Obvious decreasing of the fracture stress was observed in the bending test and in small grain specimens which had many helium bubbles on the grain boundary. Decreasing of the fracture stress for small grain specimens was presumably caused by crack propagation on the grain boundaries which weekend by helium bubbles. (author)

  11. On solid-phase interaction of beryllium oxide with mullite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of beryllium oxide with mullite has been analyzed thermodynamically. It is shown that the reaction between the above substances must proceed with separation of chrysoberyl but without yielding phenacite, which is inconsistent with some data published. It has been found experimentally that the interaction of pure BeO and mullite is described by equation 3Al2Ox2SiO2+3BeO→3BeAl2O4+2SiO2

  12. Dosage of boron traces in graphite, uranium and beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of the dosage of the boron in the materials serving to the construction of nuclear reactors arises of the following way: to determine to about 0,1 ppm close to the quantities of boron of the order of tenth ppm. We have chosen the colorimetric analysis with curcumin as method of dosage. To reach the indicated contents, it is necessary to do a previous separation of the boron and the materials of basis, either by extraction of tetraphenylarsonium fluoborate in the case of the boron dosage in uranium and the beryllium oxide, either by the use of a cations exchanger resin of in the case of graphite. (M.B.)

  13. Tritium analyses of COBRA-1A2 beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, D.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Selected tritium measurements have been completed for the COBRA-1A2 experiment C03 and D03 beryllium pebbles. The completed results, shown in Tables 1, 2, and 3, include the tritium assay results for the 1-mm and 3-mm C03 pebbles, and the 1-mm D03 pebbles, stepped anneal test results for both types of 1-mm pebbles, and the residual analyses for the stepped-anneal specimens. All results have been reported with date-of-count and are not corrected for decay. Stepped-anneal tritium release response is provided in addenda.

  14. Physicochemical characteristics of aerosol particles generated during the milling of beryllium silicate ores: implications for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Chipera, Steve J; Day, Gregory A; Sabey, Phil; Dickerson, Robert M; Sbarra, Deborah C; Duling, Mathew G; Lawrence, Robert B; Stanton, Marcia L; Scripsick, Ronald C

    2008-01-01

    Inhalation of beryllium dusts generated during milling of ores and cutting of beryl-containing gemstones is associated with development of beryllium sensitization and low prevalence of chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Inhalation of beryllium aerosols generated during primary beryllium production and machining of the metal, alloys, and ceramics are associated with sensitization and high rates of CBD, despite similar airborne beryllium mass concentrations among these industries. Understanding the physicochemical properties of exposure aerosols may help to understand the differential immunopathologic mechanisms of sensitization and CBD and lead to more biologically relevant exposure standards. Properties of aerosols generated during the industrial milling of bertrandite and beryl ores were evaluated. Airborne beryllium mass concentrations among work areas ranged from 0.001 microg/m(3) (beryl ore grinding) to 2.1 microg/m(3) (beryl ore crushing). Respirable mass fractions of airborne beryllium-containing particles were 80% in high-energy input areas (beryl melting, beryl grinding). Particle specific surface area decreased with processing from feedstock ores to drumming final product beryllium hydroxide. Among work areas, beryllium was identified in three crystalline forms: beryl, poorly crystalline beryllium oxide, and beryllium hydroxide. In comparison to aerosols generated by high-CBD risk primary production processes, aerosol particles encountered during milling had similar mass concentrations, generally lower number concentrations and surface area, and contained no identifiable highly crystalline beryllium oxide. One possible explanation for the apparent low prevalence of CBD among workers exposed to beryllium mineral dusts may be that characteristics of the exposure material do not contribute to the development of lung burdens sufficient for progression from sensitization to CBD. In comparison to high-CBD risk exposures where the chemical nature of aerosol

  15. Immunomodulation by neutrophil myeloperoxidase and hydrogen peroxide: differential susceptibility of human lymphocyte functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Hag, A; Lipsky, P E; Bennett, M; Clark, R A

    1986-05-01

    The coexistence of activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes and lymphocytes in tumor masses and inflammatory tissues suggests the possibility of interaction between secreted neutrophil products and nearby lymphocytes. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of neutrophil myeloperoxidase and H2O2 on lymphocytes. Human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes were exposed to myeloperoxidase, an H2O2-generating system (glucose + glucose oxidase), and a halide, and were then tested for functional activities. Natural killer activity against K562 cells, lymphocyte proliferation in response to mitogens, and generation of immunoglobulin-secreting cells were all susceptible to oxidative injury by myeloperoxidase and H2O2. The degree as well as the mechanism of suppression was dependent on the glucose oxidase concentration (i.e., the rate of H2O2 delivery). At low H2O2 flux, myeloperoxidase was essential for induction of lymphocyte suppression; as the rate of H2O2 generation increased, suppression became myeloperoxidase-independent and was mediated by H2O2 alone. Various lymphocyte functions were differentially susceptible to oxidative injury by myeloperoxidase and H2O2. The proliferative response to poke-weed mitogen was the least sensitive, whereas antibody formation was the most sensitive. Proliferative responses to concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin as well as natural killer activity displayed intermediate degrees of susceptibility. In all assays, lymphocyte viability was greater than 90%. Removal of monocytes from mononuclear leukocytes by adherence to glass increased susceptibility of lymphocytes to oxidative injury. Monocytes in proportions within the range present in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes protected lymphocyte functions against oxidative injury by myeloperoxidase and H2O2. This study demonstrates a differential susceptibility of various immune functions to oxidative injury by the neutrophil products myeloperoxidase and H2O2, and shows, in

  16. Treatment Options by Stage (Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ALL Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Chronic ...

  17. Treatment Option Overview (Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ALL Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Chronic ...

  18. Opinion: Interactions of innate and adaptive lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Gasteiger, Georg; Rudensky, Alexander Y.

    2014-01-01

    Innate lymphocytes, including natural killer (NK) cells and the recently discovered innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have crucial roles during infection, tissue injury and inflammation. Innate signals regulate the activation and homeostasis of innate lymphocytes. Less well understood is the contribution of the adaptive immune system to the orchestration of innate lymphocyte responses. We review our current understanding of the interactions between adaptive and innate lymphocytes, and propose a mo...

  19. Proliferation: myth or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article analyzes the proliferation approach, its technical condition and political motivation, and the share between the myth (political deception, assumptions and extrapolations) and the reality of proliferation. Its appreciation is complicated by the irrational behaviour of some political actors and by the significant loss of the non-use taboo. The control of technologies is an important element for proliferation slowing down but an efficient and autonomous intelligence system remains indispensable. (J.S.)

  20. Effect of copper on crack propagation in beryllium single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of copper additives on the fracture energy and the development of cracks parallel to the basal plane was studied in zone-refined single crystalline beryllium. At 770K the cleavage planes are very smooth, so the crack propagation energy, which is independent of copper content (less than 2 at. percent Cu) in the range of measurement accuracy, is only a little higher than the surface energy of the basal plane. At room temperature, due to intense plastic processes taking place in front of the crack tip, the fracture energy is an order of magnitude higher than at low temperatures. The effect of copper on the plastic processes can be divided into two regions. In region I (less than 1.2 at. percent Cu), in which the crack propagation energy increases sharply with increasing copper content, crack propagation is controlled by prism slips. The decrease in crack propagation energy in region II (greater than 1.2 at. percent Cu) can be attributed to a reduction of beryllium twinning energy with increasing copper content. (auth)

  1. A non-chemical spectroscopic determination of atmospheric beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium in the atmosphere is determined by emission spectroscopy using a non-chemical method of analysis. Long term effects of beryllium poisoning result in respiratory and skin disease, and this is partly reflected by the low threshold limits (0.002 mg/m3). In comparison the threshhold values for lead and cadmium are 0.2 and 0.16 mg/m3 respectively. Air samples are collected at 2 litres/ minute using cellulose filters, and sampling time is dependent on the individual process being monitored, but can be as short as five minutes, eg. dental laboratories. The filters are initially divided in two parts, and one portion is carefully pelletised using a steel press. The pellet is placed in an electrode cup and 'wetted' using isopropanol and ethylene glycol. Wetting is necessary because the pellets tended to explode out of the arcing zone. Calibration graphs were produced using an internal cobalt standard, and the 234.8 nm, 313.0 nm emission lines were used. No spectral and inter-element effects were observed, and the minimum detection limit was one nanogram. Under normal working conditions a 25% precision was obtained. (author)

  2. Steam chemical reactivity of plasma-sprayed beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, R.A.; Pawelko, R.J.; Smolik, G.R. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Castro, R.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Plasma-spraying with the potential for in-situ repair makes beryllium a primary candidate for plasma facing and structural components in experimental magnetic fusion machines. Deposits with good thermal conductivity and resistance to thermal cycling have been produced with low pressure plasma-spraying (LPPS). A concern during a potential accident with steam ingress is the amount of hydrogen produced by the reactions of steam with hot components. In this study the authors measure the reaction rates of various deposits produced by LPPS with steam from 350 C to above 1,000 C. They correlate these reaction rates with measurements of density, open porosity and BET surface areas. They find the reactivity to be largely dependent upon effective surface area. Promising results were obtained below 600 C from a 94% theoretical dense (TD) deposit with a BET specific surface area of 0.085 m{sup 2}/g. Although reaction rates were higher than those for dense consolidated beryllium they were substantially lower, i.e., about two orders of magnitude, than those obtained from previously tested lower density plasma-sprayed deposits.

  3. Calculations for electron-impact excitation and ionization of beryllium

    CERN Document Server

    Zatsarinny, Oleg; Fursa, Dmitry V; Bray, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The B-spline R-matrix and the convergent close-coupling methods are used to study electron collisions with neutral beryllium over an energy range from threshold to 100 eV. Coupling to the target continuum significantly affects the results for transitions from the ground state, but to a lesser extent the strong transitions between excited states. Cross sections are presented for selected transitions between low-lying physical bound states of beryllium, as well as for elastic scattering, momentum transfer, and ionization. The present cross sections for transitions from the ground state from the two methods are in excellent agreement with each other, and also with other available results based on nonperturbative convergent pseudo-state and time-dependent close-coupling models. The elastic cross section at low energies is dominated by a prominent shape resonance. The ionization from the $(2s2p)^3P$ and $(2s2p)^1P$ states strongly depends on the respective term. The current predictions represent an extensive set o...

  4. Influence of neutron irradiation on the tritium retention in beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolli, R.; Ruebel, S.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Wu, C.H.

    1998-01-01

    Carbon-based materials and beryllium are the candidates for protective layers on the components of fusion reactors facing plasma. In contact with D-T plasma, these materials absorb tritium, and it is anticipated that tritium retention increases with the neutron damage due to neutron-induced traps. Because of the poor data base for beryllium, the work was concentrated on it. Tritium was loaded into the samples from stagnant T{sub 2}/H{sub 2} atmosphere, and afterwards, the quantity of the loaded tritium was determined by purged thermal annealing. The specification of the samples is shown. The samples were analyzed by SEM before and after irradiation. The loading and the annealing equipments are contained in two different glove boxes with N{sub 2} inert atmosphere. The methods of loading and annealing are explained. The separation of neutron-produced and loaded tritium and the determination of loaded tritium in irradiated samples are reported. Also the determination of loaded tritium in unirradiated samples is reported. It is evident that irradiated samples contained much more loaded tritium than unirradiated samples. The main results of this investigation are summarized in the table. (K.I.)

  5. Remarkable Hydrogen Storage on Beryllium Oxide Clusters: First Principles Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Ravindra

    2016-01-01

    Since the current transportation sector is the largest consumer of oil, and subsequently responsible for major air pollutants, it is inevitable to use alternative renewable sources of energies for vehicular applications. The hydrogen energy seems to be a promising candidate. To explore the possibility of achieving a solid-state high-capacity storage of hydrogen for onboard applications, we have performed first principles density functional theoretical calculations of hydrogen storage properties of beryllium oxide clusters (BeO)$_{n}$ (n=2 -- 8). We observed that polar BeO bond is responsible for H$_{2}$ adsorption. The problem of cohesion of beryllium atoms does not arise, as they are an integral part of BeO clusters. The (BeO)$_{n}$ (n=2 -- 8) adsorbs 8--12 H$_{2}$ molecules with an adsorption energy in the desirable range of reversible hydrogen storage. The gravimetric density of H$_{2}$ adsorbed on BeO clusters meets the ultimate 7.5 wt% limit, recommended for onboard practical applications. In conclusion,...

  6. Responses of bovine lymphocytes to heat shock as modified by breed and antioxidant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamwanja, L A; Chase, C C; Gutierrez, J A; Guerriero, V; Olson, T A; Hammond, A C; Hansen, P J

    1994-02-01

    We tested whether resistance of lymphocytes to heat stress is modified by breed, intracellular glutathione content, and extracellular antioxidants. In the first experiment, lymphocytes from Angus (Bos taurus, non-heat-tolerant), Brahman (B. indicus, heat-tolerant), and Senepol (B. taurus, heat-tolerant) heifers (12 heifers per breed) were cultured at 45 degrees C for 3 h to evaluate thermal killing, at 42 degrees C for 12 h in a 60-h phytohemagglutinin-induced proliferation test, and at 42 degrees C for 1 h to measure induction of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Killing at 45 degrees C was affected by breed x temperature (P Angus than for Brahman or Senepol. For phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes, heating to 42 degrees C reduced [3H]thymidine incorporation equally for all breeds. Viability at the end of culture was affected (P x temperature interaction because the decrease in viability caused by culture at 42 degrees C was greatest for lymphocytes from Angus heifers. Heat shock for 1 h at 42 degrees C caused a two- to threefold increase in intracellular concentrations of HSP70, but there was no interaction of temperature with breed. In another experiment (with lymphocytes harvested from three Holstein cows), buthionine sulfoximine, a glutathione synthesis inhibitor, inhibited (P < .01) proliferation of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes at 38.5 and 42 degrees C. Addition of the antioxidants glutathione or thioredoxin to culture did not reduce the effects of heating to 42 degrees C on proliferation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8157528

  7. Lymphocyte receptors for pertussis toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated human T-lymphocyte receptors for pertussis toxin by affinity isolation and photoaffinity labeling procedures. T lymphocytes were obtained from peripheral human blood, surface iodinated, and solubilized in Triton X-100. The iodinated mixture was then passed through pertussis toxin-agarose, and the fractions were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Autoradiography of the fixed, dried gels revealed several bands in the pertussis toxin-bound fraction that were not observed in fractions obtained from histone or fetuin-agarose. Further investigations employed a photoaffinity labeling reagent, sulfosuccinimidyl 2-(p-azido-salicylamido)-1,3'-dithiopropionate, to identify pertussis toxin receptors in freshly isolated peripheral blood monocytic cells, T lymphocytes, and Jurkat cells. In all three cell systems, the pertussis toxin affinity probe specifically labeled a single protein species with an apparent molecular weight of 70,000 that was not observed when the procedure was performed in the presence of excess unmodified pertussis toxin. A protein comparable in molecular weight to the one detected by the photoaffinity labeling technique was also observed among the species that bound to pertussis toxin-agarose. The results suggest that pertussis toxin may bind to a 70,000-Da receptor in human T lymphocytes

  8. Recurrent abortions and lymphocyte transfusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjercke, S

    1994-05-01

    Normal pregnancies depend on successful implantation of the placenta in the uterus. The trophoblast which forms the ultimate interface between the fetal and maternal tissue seems to lack the foreign (allo) antigens (namely HLA/TLX) required to induce immunological rejection reactions in the mother. It was previously believed that the trophoblast expressed paternal allo antigens and that successful pregnancies were dependent on so called 'kind' (non-cytotoxic or non-complement binding) blocking antibodies in order to protect the fetal unit from maternal cytotoxic T-cells and -antibodies. Blocking antibodies attached to paternal antigens on the trophoblast were assumed to prevent maternal cytotoxic T cell and cytotoxic antibodies from recognising the trophoblast as foreign tissue. On this assumption it was reasoned that transfusions of paternal HLA-expressing lymphocytes would increase maternal antipaternal HLA (TLX) blocking antibodies and thus be beneficial to women who experienced multiple miscarriages. There is, however, no scientific evidence for a specific immune response after lymphocyte transfusions that fulfil this function. Immunological tests, as for example mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC), on peripheral blood lymphocytes do not seem to reflect the local immune state in the uterus, either in the pregnant or the non-pregnant state. Since the trophoblast forms the ultimate interface between fetal and maternal tissue, its structure, secretions, and interaction with the decidua must be of definite importance for implantation of the blastocyst and growth of the embryo. PMID:8009967

  9. The course of lymphocytic hypophysitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitton, R N; Slavin, M; Decker, R E; Zito, J; Schneider, B S

    1991-07-01

    A 27-year-old woman presented to our institution in her seventh month of pregnancy with complaints of headache and visual field disturbance. Workup revealed bitemporal hemianopia, a markedly enlarged pituitary gland on computed tomography scan, and biochemical evidence of partial hypopituitarism. At surgery, a biopsy specimen of the pituitary gland was taken revealing lymphocytic hypophysitis. The patient was treated with steroids and replacement doses of thyroid hormone. Visual fields improved postoperatively. A repeat computed tomography scan obtained 2 months after an uneventful pregnancy showed that her pituitary had regained normal size and contour. Over the next 9 months she had gradual recovery of all pituitary function. This case allowed us to follow and document the course of lymphocytic hypophysitis from its presentation as a macroadenoma with partial hypopituitarism to full recovery of both size and hormonal function of the pituitary. Lymphocytic hypophysitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a pituitary mass or pituitary dysfunction presenting in pregnancy. In patients with suspected lymphocytic hypophysitis and a pituitary mass, a trial of steroids may be therapeutic. PMID:2053072

  10. Radiosensitivity of lymphocytes among Filipinos: final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is about the studies on the radiosensitivity of Filipino lymphocytes to radiation that can elucidate on the potential of blood chromosomes as biological dosimeters. The objective of this study is to determine the radiosensitivity of lymphocytes among Filipinos and to establish the radiation-induced chromosome anomaly standard curve in lymphocytes for radiological dosimetry. 47 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  11. Adverse effects of T-2 toxin on chicken lymphocytes blastogenesis and its protection with Vitamin E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T-2 toxin, a trichothecene mycotoxin that is produced by fusarium species, is prevalent mainly in cereal crops and poultry feed. One of the major effects of this toxin is immunomodulation. The effect of T-2 toxin on chicken lymphocyte proliferation in the presence of mitogens and the subsequent protection with Vitamin E in both fat and water soluble forms was studied using an MTT colorimetric assay. T-2 toxin was administered in concentrations ranging from 0 to 10 ng/mL of lymphocytes in the presence of either concanavalin A (ConA) or phytohemagglutinine (PHA-M) at optimum concentration of 333 ng/mL and a dilution of 1:160 for ConA and PHA-M, respectively. Lymphocyte proliferation in response to ConA and PHA-M mitogens was depressed at T-2 doses of 1 ng/mL or higher (p < 0.05). The proliferation was completely abolished at 10 ng/mL when the toxin was added at 0 time, while it was decreased by 80% when the toxin was added to the lymphocytes after 24 h. The addition of Vitamin E in the fat soluble form (α-tocopheryl acetate) did not exert any protection effect against the toxin when it was added at either 25 or 100 μg. However, when the water soluble form (Trolox) was added at a concentration of (200 μg) (equivalent to 100 μM of α-tocopherol), it provided considerable protection (p < 0.05) against T-2 toxin inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation. The difference in the effect between the two forms of Vitamin E might be related to their relative solubility in the culture media which in turn may affect their availability for protection

  12. Reduction of surface erosion caused by helium blistering: comparison between vacuum-cast and sintered-beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The blister formation and the erosion associated with blistering in a vacuum cast beryllium foil and in a foil of sintered beryllium powder have been investigated for irradiation at room temperature and at 6000C with 100 keV 4He+ ions for total doses of 0.5 to 1.0 C cm-2. For room temperature irradiation the blisters in sintered beryllium powder are smaller in size than in vacuum cast beryllium. For irradiation at 6000C large scale exfoliation of blisters was observed for vacuum cast beryllium but only small amount of exfoliation was seen for sintered beryllium powder. The results show a reduction in erosion rate in sintered beryllium as compared to the erosion rate in vacuum cast beryllium. For room temperature irradiation no erosion rate could be determined for the sintered beryllium foil since no blister exfoliation was observed. For 6000C irradiation the erosion rate for sintered beryllium foil is more than an order of magnitude smaller than for vacuum cast beryllium

  13. Fludarabine Phosphate and Total-Body Irradiation Before Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-18

    B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; T-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia

  14. Ibrutinib or Idelalisib in Treating Patients With Persistent or Relapsed Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma, or Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma After Donor Stem Cell Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  15. S15176 and S16950 interaction with Cyclosporin A antiproliferative effect on cultured human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albengres, E; Le Louët, H; d'Athis, P; Tillement, J P

    2001-02-01

    S15176 and S16950 are trimetazidine derivatives that antagonize more strongly than the parent drug mitochondrial toxicity, which leads to cellular hypoxia and nephrotoxicity in kidneys experimentally exposed to cyclosporin A. We have investigated whether every derivative might interact or not with the inhibitory effect of Cyclosporin A on the proliferation of cultured human lymphocytes. S15176 significantly increased the antilymphoproliferative effect of Cyclosporin A, whereas S15176 by itself neither displayed any antilymphoproliferative effect, nor did it induce any apoptotic process in cultured human lymphocytes. The effect of S16950 was not significant. PMID:11468012

  16. Immunomodulatory activity of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom on human T lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Casella-Martins, Andrea; Ayres, Lorena R; Burin, Sandra M; Morais, Fabiana R.; Pereira, Juliana C.; Faccioli, Lucia H.; Sampaio, Suely V; Arantes, Eliane C.; Castro, Fabiola A; Pereira-Crott, Luciana S

    2015-01-01

    Background Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom (TsV) contains toxins that act on K+ and Na+ channels and account for the venom’s toxic effects. TsV can activate murine peritoneal macrophages, but its effects on human lymphocytes have been poorly investigated. Considering that lymphocytes may play an important role in envenomation, we assessed whether TsV affects the expression of phenotypic (CD3, CD4, and CD8) and activation (CD69, CD25, and HLA-DR) markers, cell proliferation, and cytokine prod...

  17. Compatibility test between beryllium and ferritic stainless steel(F82H)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a fusion blanket, beryllium has been identified for use as neutron multiplier, where it will be in contact with the structural material. Austenitic stainless steel, 316SS has been considered as the structural material. However, from some studies, it is reported that beryllium reacts with 316SS above 600 C. In our investigations, we found that the reaction product between beryllium and nickel, BeNi was formed on 316SS side at 600 C. Therefore, the compatibility between beryllium and ferritic stainless steel without nickel, F82H(Fe - 8%Cr - 2%W - 0.2%V) as the new structural material in JAERI was investigated to determine if it was more compatible with beryllium. In this study, for clarifying the chemical interaction between beryllium and F82H, the out-of-pile compatibility test has been carried out with diffusion couples of beryllium and F82H which were inserted in the capsule filled with high purity helium gas. Annealing temperatures was 400, 600 and 800 C, and annealing periods was 100, 300 and 1000 h, respectively. From the results of this test, it is obvious that the thickness of reaction layer in F82H is 2/3 of that in 316SS in the case of annealing at 800 C for 1000 h. (orig.)

  18. Immobilisation of beryllium in solid waste (red-mud) by fixation and vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, P N; Ghosh, D K; Desai, M V M

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain information on the immobilization of beryllium (Be) in solid waste generated in the extraction process of beryllium from its ore, Beryl. This solid waste, termed red-mud, contains oxides of iron, aluminium, calcium, magnesium and beryllium. The red-mud waste contains beryllium at levels above the permissible limit, which prevents its disposal as solid waste. The total beryllium content in the red-mud analysed showed value ranging from 0.39 to 0.59% Be The studies showed that 50% of the total beryllium in red-mud can be extracted by water by repeated leaching over a period of 45 days. The cement mix, casting into cement blocks, was subjected to leachability studies over a period of 105 days and immobilization factor (IF factor) was determined. These IF values, of the order of 102, were compared with those obtained by performing leachability study on vitrified red-mud masses produced at different temperature conditions. Direct heating of the red-mud gave the gray coloured, non-transparent vitreous mass (as 'bad glass') showed effective immobilisation factor for beryllium in red-mud of the order of 10(4). PMID:12092765

  19. New and Emerging Technologies for Real-Time Air and Surface Beryllium Monitoring; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, five emerging technologies were identified for real-time monitoring of airborne beryllium: Microwave-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (MIPS), Aerosol Beam-Focused Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (ABFLIPS), Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Surfaced-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Spectroscopy, and Micro-Calorimetric Spectroscopy (CalSpec). Desired features of real-time air beryllium monitoring instrumentation were developed from the Y-12 CBDPP. These features were used as guidelines for the identification of potential technologies as well as their unique demonstrated capability to provide real-time monitoring of similar materials. However, best available technologies were considered, regardless of their ability to comply with the desired features. None of the five technologies have the capability to measure the particle size of airborne beryllium. Although reducing the total concentration of airborne beryllium is important, current literature suggests that reducing or eliminating the concentration of respirable beryllium is critical for worker health protection. Eight emerging technologies were identified for surface monitoring of beryllium. CalSpec, MIPS, SERS, LIBS, Laser Ablation, Absorptive Stripping Voltametry (ASV), Modified Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Spectroscopy, and Gamma BeAST. Desired features of real-time surface beryllium monitoring were developed from the Y-12 CBDPP. These features were used as guidelines for the identification of potential technologies. However, the best available technologies were considered regardless of their ability to comply with the desired features

  20. Development of radiation resistant grades of beryllium for nuclear and fusion facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriyanov, I.B.; Gorokhov, V.A.; Nikolaev, G.N. [Russia Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-09-01

    R&D results on beryllium with high radiation resistance obtained recently are described in this report. The data are presented on nine different grades of isotropic beryllium manufactured by VNIINM and distinguished by both initial powder characteristics and properties of billets, made of these powders. The average grain size of the investigated beryllium grades varied from 8 to 26 {mu}m, the content of beryllium oxide was 0.9 - 3.9 wt.%, the dispersity of beryllium oxide - 0.04 - 0.5 {mu}m, tensile strength -- 250 - 650 MPa. All materials were irradiated in SM - 2 reactor over the temperature range 550 - 780{degrees}C. The results of the investigation showed, that HIP beryllium grades are less susceptible to swelling at higher temperatures in comparison with hot pressed and extruded grades. Beryllium samples, having the smallest grain size, demonstrated minimal swelling, which was less than 0.8 % at 750{degrees}C and Fs = 3.7 {center_dot}10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} (E>0.1 MeV). The mechanical properties, creep and microstructure parameters, measured before and after irradiation, are presented.

  1. New and Emerging Technologies for Real-Time Air and Surface Beryllium Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.; Churnetski, E.L.; Cooke, L.E.; Reed, J.J.; Howell, M.L.; Smith, V.D.

    2001-09-01

    In this study, five emerging technologies were identified for real-time monitoring of airborne beryllium: Microwave-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (MIPS), Aerosol Beam-Focused Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (ABFLIPS), Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Surfaced-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Spectroscopy, and Micro-Calorimetric Spectroscopy (CalSpec). Desired features of real-time air beryllium monitoring instrumentation were developed from the Y-12 CBDPP. These features were used as guidelines for the identification of potential technologies as well as their unique demonstrated capability to provide real-time monitoring of similar materials. However, best available technologies were considered, regardless of their ability to comply with the desired features. None of the five technologies have the capability to measure the particle size of airborne beryllium. Although reducing the total concentration of airborne beryllium is important, current literature suggests that reducing or eliminating the concentration of respirable beryllium is critical for worker health protection. Eight emerging technologies were identified for surface monitoring of beryllium. CalSpec, MIPS, SERS, LIBS, Laser Ablation, Absorptive Stripping Voltametry (ASV), Modified Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Spectroscopy, and Gamma BeAST. Desired features of real-time surface beryllium monitoring were developed from the Y-12 CBDPP. These features were used as guidelines for the identification of potential technologies. However, the best available technologies were considered regardless of their ability to comply with the desired features.

  2. The development and advantages of beryllium capsules for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capsules with beryllium ablators have long been considered as alternatives to plastic for the National Ignition Facility laser; now the superior performance of beryllium is becoming well substantiated. Beryllium capsules have the advantages of relative insensitivity to instability growth, low opacity, high tensile strength, and high thermal conductivity. 3-D calculation with the HYDRA code NTIS Document No. DE-96004569 (M. M. Marinak et.al. in UCRL-LR-105821-95-3) confirm 2-D LASNEX U. B. Zimmerman and W. L. Kruer, Comments Plasmas Phys. Controlled Thermonucl. Fusion, 2, 51(2975) results that particular beryllium capsule designs are several times less sensitive than the CH point design to instability growth from DT ice roughness. These capsule designs contain more ablator mass and leave some beryllium unablated at ignition. By adjusting the level of copper dopant, the unablated mass can increase or decrease, with a corresponding decrease or increase in sensitivity to perturbations. A plastic capsule with the same ablator mass as the beryllium and leaving the same unablated mass also shows this reduced perturbation sensitivity. Beryllium's low opacity permits the creation of 250 eV capsule designs. Its high tensile strength allows it to contain DT fuel at room temperature. Its high thermal conductivity simplifies cryogenic fielding

  3. Mechanical compression tests of beryllium pebbles after neutron irradiation up to 3000 appm helium production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakin, V., E-mail: vladimir.chakin@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institite for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Rolli, R.; Moeslang, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institite for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Zmitko, M. [The European Joint Undertaking for ITER and the Development of Fusion Energy, c/Josep Pla, no. 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Compression tests of highly neutron irradiated beryllium pebbles have been performed. • Irradiation hardening of beryllium pebbles decreases the steady-state strain-rates. • The steady-state strain-rates of irradiated beryllium pebbles exceed their swelling rates. - Abstract: Results: of mechanical compression tests of irradiated and non-irradiated beryllium pebbles with diameters of 1 and 2 mm are presented. The neutron irradiation was performed in the HFR in Petten, The Netherlands at 686–968 K up to 1890–2950 appm helium production. The irradiation at 686 and 753 K cause irradiation hardening due to the gas bubble formation in beryllium. The irradiation-induced hardening leads to decrease of steady-state strain-rates of irradiated beryllium pebbles compared to non-irradiated ones. In contrary, after irradiation at higher temperatures of 861 and 968 K, the steady-state strain-rates of the pebbles increase because annealing of irradiation defects and softening of the material take place. It was shown that the steady-state strain-rates of irradiated beryllium pebbles always exceed their swelling rates.

  4. Romania non-proliferation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Non-proliferation concept in Romania is based on the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, which was ratified in 1970. According to the Article III of the Treaty, Romania ratified in 1972, the Agreement between Romania and IAEA for the application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. In 2000 Romania ratified the Additional Protocol to contribute through increased transparency, to confidence that no undeclared nuclear activities are concealed within the declared programme or make use of elements of that programme. Under the Additional Protocol Romania understands to increase the transparency of its nuclear activities lengthways fuel cycle. Romania has a strong legal framework to control nuclear material and nuclear activities. The Law 111/1996, republished is the Law on the safe deployment of nuclear activities. CNCAN issued National Regulations for Safeguards and Physical Protection. Prospecting for uranium in Romania was initiated in 1950. Between 1962 and 1978 all the uranium ore production was stockpiled at the mine sites. In 1978 the Feldioara Powder Plant was commissioned, since then both ore stockpiles and ore exploited have been processed to uranium chemical concentrates. The Powder Plant Feldioara was conceived and built following the necessity of milling and processing the uranium ore to UO2, in concordance with the national nuclear programme in order to produce electric energy from nuclear fuel. The Nuclear Fuel Plant has capability to manufacture CANDU-6 nuclear fuel. Nuclear Fuel Plant consists of two Production areas, the Quality Assurance and Engineering Departments. There are two Production Departments: Pelleting area including granulation, pressing, sintering, pellet grinding, uranium recycling and Assembling area including components fabrication, beryllium coating, brazing, graphite coating, fuel element and bundle assembly welding. Romania's Strategy for Energy Sector is

  5. Toll-like receptor 4-mediated lymphocyte influx induces neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Charlotte E; Sodhi, Chhinder P; Good, Misty; Lin, Joyce; Jia, Hongpeng; Yamaguchi, Yukihiro; Lu, Peng; Ma, Congrong; Branca, Maria F; Weyandt, Samantha; Fulton, William B; Niño, Diego F; Prindle, Thomas; Ozolek, John A; Hackam, David J

    2016-02-01

    The nature and role of the intestinal leukocytes in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a severe disease affecting premature infants, remain unknown. We now show that the intestine in mouse and human NEC is rich in lymphocytes that are required for NEC development, as recombination activating gene 1–deficient (Rag1–/–) mice were protected from NEC and transfer of intestinal lymphocytes from NEC mice into naive mice induced intestinal inflammation. The intestinal expression of the lipopolysaccharide receptor TLR4, which is higher in the premature compared with full-term human and mouse intestine, is required for lymphocyte influx through TLR4-mediated upregulation of CCR9/CCL25 signaling. TLR4 also mediates a STAT3-dependent polarization toward increased proinflammatory CD3+CD4+IL-17+ and reduced tolerogenic Foxp3+ Treg lymphocytes (Tregs). Th17 lymphocytes were required for NEC development, as inhibition of STAT3 or IL-17 receptor signaling attenuated NEC in mice, while IL-17 release impaired enterocyte tight junctions, increased enterocyte apoptosis, and reduced enterocyte proliferation, leading to NEC. Importantly, TLR4-dependent Th17 polarization could be reversed by the enteral administration of retinoic acid, which induced Tregs and decreased NEC severity. These findings identify an important role for proinflammatory lymphocytes in NEC development via intestinal epithelial TLR4 that could be reversed through dietary modification. PMID:26690704

  6. Oxidative Damage in Lymphocytes of Copper Smelter Workers Correlated to Higher Levels of Excreted Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Jorge; Varela-Nallar, Lorena; Coddou, Claudio; Nelson, Pablo; Maisey, Kevin; Valdés, Daniel; Aspee, Alexis; Espinosa, Victoria; Rozas, Carlos; Montoya, Margarita; Mandiola, Cristian; Rodríguez, Felipe E.; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Escobar, Alejandro; Fernández, Ricardo; Diaz, Hernán; Sandoval, Mario; Imarai, Mónica; Rios, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic has been associated with multiple harmful effects at the cellular level. Indirectly these defects could be related to impairment of the integrity of the immune system, in particular in lymphoid population. To characterize the effect of Arsenic on redox status on this population, copper smelter workers and arsenic unexposed donors were recruited for this study. We analyzed urine samples and lymphocyte enriched fractions from donors to determinate arsenic levels and lymphocyte proliferation. Moreover, we studied the presence of oxidative markers MDA, vitamin E and SOD activity in donor plasma. Here we demonstrated that in human beings exposed to high arsenic concentrations, lymphocyte MDA and arsenic urinary levels showed a positive correlation with SOD activity, and a negative correlation with vitamin E serum levels. Strikingly, lymphocytes from the arsenic exposed population respond to a polyclonal stimulator, phytohemaglutinin, with higher rates of thymidine incorporation than lymphocytes of a control population. As well, similar in vitro responses to arsenic were observed using a T cell line. Our results suggest that chronic human exposure to arsenic induces oxidative damage in lymphocytes and could be considered more relevant than evaluation of T cell surveillance. PMID:21253489

  7. Analysis of impurities in beryllium, affecting evaluation of the tritium breeding ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In most conceptual fusion power reactor designs, it is proposed to use beryllium as a neutron multiplier in the blanket. Detailed chemical composition of beryllium is necessary for evaluation of the tritium breeding ratio, and estimating the activation and transmutation of beryllium in the fusion reactor. In the present report, special attention was paid to a detailed analysis of impurities in beryllium, relevant to the tritium breeding ratio evaluation. Two different methods were used for the study of impurities: an analysis of the local sample by the ICP-MS method, and an integral analysis of the beryllium assembly, using the pulsed neutron method. The latter method was proposed as the most effective way of analyzing the integral effect to impurities in beryllium on production of the tritium on the lithium-6. The evaluation of the integral effect was based on time behaviour observations of the thermal neutron flux, following the injection of a burst of D-T neutrons into the beryllium assembly. Structural beryllium grade (S-200-F, Brush Wellman Inc.) was used in the study. The influence of the impurities has resulted in a smaller experimental reaction rate for production of the tritium on lithium-6, due to an increase in the parasitic neutron absorption. Experimental data was compared with the reference data and the MCNP Monte Carlo calculations using the JENDL-3.2 data set. Results indicate, that the measured absorption cross section of thermal neutrons in beryllium blocks is approximately 30% larger than the calculated value, based on the data, specified by the manufacturing company. ICP-MS analysis indicated that the impurities include elements such as Li, B, Cd and others. These elements affect the absorption cross section even if the content of impurities is less than 10 ppm. (author)

  8. Isotopic Transmutations in Irradiated Beryllium and Their Implications on MARIA Reactor Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium irradiated by neutrons with energies above 0.7 MeV undergoes (n,α) and (n,2n) reactions. The Be(n,α) reaction results in subsequent buildup of 6Li and 3He isotopes with large thermal neutron absorption cross sections causing poisoning of irradiated beryllium. The amount of the poison isotopes depends on the neutron flux level and spectrum. The high-flux MARIA reactor operated in Poland since 1975 consists of a beryllium matrix with fuel channels in cutouts of beryllium blocks. As the experimental determination of 6Li, 3H, and 3He content in the operational reactor is impossible, a systematic computational study of the effect of 3He and 6Li presence in beryllium blocks on MARIA reactor reactivity and power density distribution has been undertaken. The analysis of equations governing the transmutation has been done for neutron flux parameters typical for MARIA beryllium blocks. Study of the mutual influence of reactor operational parameters and the buildup of 6Li, 3H, and 3He in beryllium blocks has shown the necessity of a detailed spatial solution of transmutation equations in the reactor, taking into account the whole history of its operation. Therefore, fuel management calculations using the REBUS code with included chains for Be(n,α)-initiated reactions have been done for the whole reactor lifetime. The calculated poisoning of beryllium blocks has been verified against the critical experiment of 1993. Finally, the current 6Li, 3H, and 3He contents, averaged for each beryllium block, have been calculated. The reactivity drop caused by this poisoning is ∼7%

  9. Device for continuous control of beryllium content in atmosphere and on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As known, beryllium and its compounds are characterized by high toxicity, therefore it is necessary to control constantly the content of beryllium and its compounds in the air and also on the surfaces of production areas and equipment to provide safety. The device for a quick measuring of beryllium content in the air, surface deposits and precipitations is described in the report. The mode of functioning of the device is based on nuclear reaction 9Be(αnγ)12C with the use of alpha-source based on plutonium-238, i.e. beryllium can be in any chemical state - metal, oxide, salt, etc. Gamma-quantums with energies 7,65 MeV (10%) and 4,43 MeV (90%), typical for beryllium, are generated as a result of interaction between alpha-particles and beryllium nuclei. The mentioned reaction with beryllium gives maximum release if comparing with another nuclides and along with high energy of gamma-quantums provides maximum sensibility of analysis without any disturbance from another elements. The number of generated gamma-quantums is in proportion to beryllium content in a probe. The device consists of the probe-preparation unit, control unit and two-way communication line. The unit of probe extraction can be placed in different points of an area, at a large distance - up to 30 meters. This device is compact and easy to transport by one person. The device control can be realized by operator via the remote control unit or automatically by the given program. The time of the probe data processing is 10-15 min. The use of the device allows to carry out beryllium content measuring in the mode of current time. (author)

  10. Director's series on proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is an occasional publication of essays on the topics of nuclear, chemical, biological, and missile proliferation. The views represented are those of the author's. Essay topics include: Nuclear Proliferation: Myth and Reality; Problems of Enforcing Compliance with Arms Control Agreements; The Unreliability of the Russian Officer Corps: Reluctant Domestic Warriors; and Russia's Nuclear Legacy

  11. Role of CD80 in stimulating T lymphocyte activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-Chun Li; Xing-Guo Zhu; Yong Zhang; Jian-Xin Fu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To observe biological characteristics of hepatocarcinoma cells before and after CD80 transfection and to compare the effect of CD80-transfected hepatocarcinoma cells on T lymphocyte activation. METHODS: Retro virus vector carrying CD80 gene was transfected into HepG2 cells to establish CD80-transfected hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2/hCD80). Flow cytometry (FCM) was performed to detect CD80 expression in the transfected cells. RT-PCR was used to evaluate CD80 expression at mRNA level. In the presence of anti-CD3 mAb, the proliferation of T lymphocyte was observed by MTT. Meanwhile, the expression of activated molecule marker CD25 was analyzed through FCM.RESULTS: A stable cell line HepG2/hCD80 expressing the human CD80 was established. Growth curve showed that the molecule CD80 could obviously decrease the growth of tumor cells. HepG2/hCD80 was evidenced to have a potency to enhance T cell proliferation and upregulate CD25 expression.CONCLUSION: CD80 transfection can lower malignant phenotype of hepatocarcinoma cells. CD80transfection has a down-regulatory effect to activated T cells in vitro.

  12. Proliferation Networks and Financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to propose practical solutions aimed at completing and strengthening the existing arrangement for the control of nuclear proliferation through a control of financial as well as material or immaterial flows. In a first part, the author proposes a systemic analysis of networks of suppliers and demanders. He notably evokes the Khan's network and the Iraqi acquisition network during the 1993-2001 period. He also proposes a modelling of proliferation networks (supplier networks and acquisition networks) and of their interactions. In a second part, the author examines possible means and policies aimed at neutralising proliferation networks: organisation, adaptation and improvement of intelligence tools in front of proliferation networks, and means, limitations and perspectives of network neutralisation. He also briefly addresses the possibility of military action to contain proliferation flows

  13. The HFR Petten high dose irradiation programme of beryllium for blanket application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the objectives of a high dose irradiation of beryllium in the High Flux Reactor in Petten. In addition, the nuclear parameters, irradiation parameters and the provisional test-matrix, i.e. Beryllium grades and pebbles is presented. The irradiation will be performed in the frame of the European Programme for the development of the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) to study the irradiation behaviour of Beryllium. Part of the materials will be provided by Japanese and Russian partners, for which cooperation through IEA agreements is being put into place. (author)

  14. Loading beryllium targets to extend the high flux isotope reactor's cycle length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various arrangements of beryllium loadings to create an internal neutron reflector in the flux trap region of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) have been investigated. In particular, the impact upon fuel cycle length has been studied by performing calculations using the HFIR MCNP-based model HFV4.0. This study included examining perturbations in reactivity, flux, and power distribution caused by the various beryllium loadings. The HFIR Cycle 400 core configuration was used as a reference to calculate the impact of beryllium loadings upon cycle length. Three different configurations of beryllium loadings were investigated and compared against the Cycle 400 benchmark calculations; Cases 1 through 3 modeled combinations of 12 and 18 beryllium rods loaded into unused experimental sites. Calculated eigenvalues have shown that potential increases in reactivity between 0.56 and 0.79 dollars are attainable, depending on the various beryllium configurations. These results correspond to possible increases in fuel cycle length ranging between 2.3% and 3.3%. On the basis of their practicality, cost versus benefit, and greater potential for implementation, Cases 2 and 3 (both with 18 beryllium rods) were studied further and are herein reported in greater detail. Neutron flux distributions for Cases 2 and 3 were calculated at the horizontal mid-plane of the flux trap region, which showed no significant changes in the thermal flux magnitude and radial profile in comparison to Cycle 400. Likewise, safety analysis related parameters were contrasted, revealing power increments of up to 2% near the inside edge of the inner fuel element, well below the maximum acceptable value of 9%, a standing guideline employed for experiments at the HFIR. Additionally, the average neutron heat generation rate in beryllium rods and the maximum heat generation rate were evaluated to confirm that the design provides adequate coolant flow inside the rod and around the

  15. Investigation of activation behind a beryllium slab under irradiation with 14 MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some concepts of a thermonuclear blanket include a neutron multiplier whose purpose is to breed tritium. The best neutron-multiplier is beryllium because the cross section (550 mb) of the (n,2n) reaction is large and the threshold energy (2.7 MeV) is low. The accuracy of the prediction of the tritium ratio depends strongly on the uncertainty of its (n,2n) reaction cross section. It is thus extremely important to check the consistency of the estimated data for beryllium, which are employed in theoretical investigations. The experimental results for beryllium assemblies disagree with the computational data. This makes it necessary to perform new experiments

  16. Conditions for preparation of ultrapure beryllium by electrolytic refining in molten alkali-metal chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlfarth, Hagen

    1982-02-01

    Electrolytic refining is regarded as the most suitable process for the production of beryllium with impurity contents below 1 at.-ppM. Several parameters are important for electrolytic refining of beryllium in a BeCl/sub 2/-containing LiCl-KCl melt: current density, BeCl/sub 2/ content, electrolyte temperature, composition of the unpurified beryllium and impurity-ion concentrations in the melt, as well as apparatus characteristics such as rotation speed of the cathode and condition of the crucible material. These factors were studied and optimized such that extensive removal of the maximum number of accompanying and alloying elements was achieved.

  17. Spectrophotometric determination of beryllium in air by a sensitised chrome azurol S reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although many spectrophotometric reagents for beryllium are known, their sensitivities do not approach that provided by the fluorimetric method using morin. A spectrophotometric method of comparable sensitivity is reported wherein addition of cetylpyridinium bromide considerably enhances the colour intensity of the beryllium - Chrome Azurol S complex. EDTA serves as a suitable masking agent for eliminating interferences from commonly associated ions. The results obtained are compared with those obtained with the morin method. Similar sensitisation of the beryllium - Chrome Azurol S system by polyoxyethylene dodecylamine and poly(vinyl alcohol) has been reported. (author)

  18. Study of beryllium redeposition under bombardment by high intensity -low energy- hydrogen ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gureev, V.M.; Guseva, M.I.; Danelyan, L.S. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1998-01-01

    The results of studying the erosion of beryllium under an effect of intense ion fluxes with the energy of 250 eV, at the fluences {approx}10{sup 2}1 cm{sup -2}, at the MAGRAS-stand are given. The operating conditions under which a practically-complete redeposition of the sputtered beryllium upon the target surface were experimentally-realized. A change in the microstructure of a beryllium target under sputtering and redeposition is analyzed. Some technological applications are considered. (author)

  19. Feasibility of organo-beryllium target mandrels using organo-germanium PECVD as a surrogate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inertial Confinement Fusion capsules incorporating beryllium are becoming attractive for use in implosion experiments designed for modest energy gain. This paper explores the feasibility of chemical vapor deposition of organo-beryllium precursors to form coating materials of interest as ablators and fuel containers. Experiments were performed in a surrogate chemical system utilizing tetramethylgermane as the organometallic precursor. Coatings with up to 60 mole percent germanium were obtained. These coatings compare favorably with those previously reported in the literature and provide increasing confidence that a similar deposition process with an organo-beryllium precursor would be successful

  20. Failure prediction of thin beryllium sheets used in spacecraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roschke, Paul N.; Mascorro, Edward; Papados, Photios; Serna, Oscar R.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to develop a method for prediction of failure of thin beryllium sheets that undergo complex states of stress. Major components of the research include experimental evaluation of strength parameters for cross-rolled beryllium sheet, application of the Tsai-Wu failure criterion to plate bending problems, development of a high order failure criterion, application of the new criterion to a variety of structures, and incorporation of both failure criteria into a finite element code. A Tsai-Wu failure model for SR-200 sheet material is developed from available tensile data, experiments carried out by NASA on two circular plates, and compression and off-axis experiments performed in this study. The failure surface obtained from the resulting criterion forms an ellipsoid. By supplementing experimental data used in the the two-dimensional criterion and modifying previously suggested failure criteria, a multi-dimensional failure surface is proposed for thin beryllium structures. The new criterion for orthotropic material is represented by a failure surface in six-dimensional stress space. In order to determine coefficients of the governing equation, a number of uniaxial, biaxial, and triaxial experiments are required. Details of these experiments and a complementary ultrasonic investigation are described in detail. Finally, validity of the criterion and newly determined mechanical properties is established through experiments on structures composed of SR200 sheet material. These experiments include a plate-plug arrangement under a complex state of stress and a series of plates with an out-of-plane central point load. Both criteria have been incorporated into a general purpose finite element analysis code. Numerical simulation incrementally applied loads to a structural component that is being designed and checks each nodal point in the model for exceedance of a failure criterion. If stresses at all locations do not exceed the failure