Sample records for beryllium disposal workshop

  1. Irradiated Beryllium Disposal Workshop, Idaho Falls, ID, May 29-30, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, Glen Reed; Anderson, Gail; Mullen, Carlan K; West, William Howard


    In 2001, while performing routine radioactive decay heat rate calculations for beryllium reflector blocks for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), it became evident that there may be sufficient concentrations of transuranic isotopes to require classification of this irradiated beryllium as transuranic waste. Measurements on samples from ATR reflector blocks and further calculations confirmed that for reflector blocks and outer shim control cylinders now in the ATR canal, transuranic activities are about five times the threshold for classification. That situation implies that there is no apparent disposal pathway for this material. The problem is not unique to the ATR. The High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Missouri University Research Reactor at Columbia, Missouri and other reactors abroad must also deal with this issue. A workshop was held in Idaho Falls Idaho on May 29-30, 2002 to acquaint stakeholders with these findings and consider a path forward in resolving the issues attendant to disposition of irradiated material. Among the findings from this workshop were (1) there is a real potential for the US to be dependent on foreign sources for metallic beryllium within about a decade; (2) there is a need for a national policy on beryllium utilization and disposition and for a beryllium coordinating committee to be assembled to provide guidance on that policy; (3) it appears it will be difficult to dispose of this material at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico due to issues of Defense classification, facility radioactivity inventory limits, and transportation to WIPP; (4) there is a need for a funded DOE program to seek resolution of these issues including research on processing techniques that may make this waste acceptable in an existing disposal pathway or allow for its recycle.

  2. Proceedings of the third IEA international workshop on beryllium technology for fusion

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    Kawamura, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Makoto [eds.


    This report is the Proceedings of the Third International Energy Agency International Workshop on Beryllium Technology for Fusion. The workshop was held on October 22-24, 1997, at the Sangyou Kaikan in Mito City with 68 participants who attended from the Europe, the Russian Federation, the Kazakstan, the United States and Japan. The topics for papers were arranged into 9 sessions; beryllium applications for ITER, production and characterization, chemical compatibility and corrosion, forming and joining, plasma/tritium interactions, beryllium coating, first wall applications, neutron irradiation effects, health and safety. To utilize beryllium in the pebble type blanket, a series of discussions were intensified in multiple view points such as the swelling, He/T release from beryllium pebble irradiated up to high He content, effective thermal conductivity, tritium permeation and coating, and fabrication cost, and so on. As the plasma facing material, life time of beryllium and coated beryllium, dust and particle production, joining, waste treatment, mechanical properties and deformation by swelling were discussed as important issues. Especially, it was recognized throughout the discussions that the comparative study by the different researchers should be carried out to establish the reliability of the data reported in the workshop and in others. To enhance the comparative study, the world wide collaboration for the relative evaluation of the beryllium was proposed by the International Organization Committee and the proposal was approved by all of the participants. The 45 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  3. Disposal of beryllium and cadmium from research reactors; Entsorgung von Beryllium und Cadmium aus Forschungsreaktoren

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    Lierse von Gostomski, C.; Remmert, A.; Stoewer, W. [Inst. fuer Radiochemie, Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Bach, F.W.; Wilk, P.; Kutlu, I. [Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde, Univ. Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Blenski, H.J.; Berthold, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany); Nerlich, K.D.; Plank, W. [TUeV Sueddeutschland Bau und Betrieb GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)


    Beryllium and cadmium mostly occur in metal form as radioactive special materials during the deconstruction of research reactors. Beryllium is usually used in these reactors as a neutron reflector and moderator, while cadmium is used above all as a neutron absorber. Both metals together have a high chemotoxicity as well as an inventory of radionuclides which has not been more closely characterised up to now. A high tritium content is to be expected, particularly in the case of beryllium; this tritium is due to the reaction of the metal with thermal reactor neutrons in particular. However, other nuclides which may be formed by neutron capture from impurities also contribute to the activity inventory. Up to now there is no qualified process for proper treatment, conditioning and intermediate and final repository in Germany. (orig.)

  4. Proceedings of the 1981 subseabed disposal program. Annual workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The 1981 Annual Workshop was the twelfth meeting of the principal investigators and program management personnel participating in the Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP). The first workshop was held in June 1973, to address the development of a program (initially known as Ocean Basin Floors Program) to assess the deep sea disposal of nuclear wastes. Workshops were held semi-annually until late 1977. Since November 1977, the workshops have been conducted following the end of each fiscal year so that the program participants could review and critique the total scope of work. This volume contains a synopsis, as given by each Technical Program Coordinator, abstracts of each of the talks, and copies of the visual materials, as presented by each of the principal investigators, for each of the technical elements of the SDP for the fiscal year 1981. The talks were grouped under the following categories; general topics; site studies; thermal response studies; emplacement studies; systems analysis; chemical response studies; biological oceanography studies; physical oceanographic studies; instrumentation development; transportation studies; social environment; and international seabed disposal.

  5. Workshop on the role of natural analogs in geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste

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    Murphy, W.M. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulations Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States); Kovach, L.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)


    A workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste (HLW) was held in San Antonio, Texas, on July 22-25, 1991. It was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA). Invitations to the workshop were extended to a large number of individuals with a variety of technical and professional interests related to geologic disposal of nuclear waste and natural analog studies. The objective of the workshop was to examine the role of natural analog studies in performance assessment, site characterization, and prioritization of research related to geologic disposal of HLW.

  6. Proceedings of the workshop on transite decontamination dismantlement and recycle/disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    On February 3--4, 1993, a workshop was conducted to examine issues associated with the decontamination, dismantlement, and recycle/disposal of transite located at the US Department of Energy Fernald site near Cincinnati, OH. The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) is a Superfund Site currently undergoing remediation. A major objective of the workshop was to assess the state-of-the-art of transite remediation, and generate concepts that could be useful to the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Co. (FERMCO) for remediation of transite. Transite is a building material consisting of asbestos fiber and cement and may be radioactively contaminated as a result of past uranium processing operations at the FEMP. Many of the 100 buildings within the former uranium production area were constructed of transite siding and roofing and consequently, over 180,000 m{sup 2} of transite must be disposed or recycled. Thirty-six participants representing industry, academia, and government institutions such as the EPA and DOE assembled at the workshop to present their experience with transite, describe work in progress, and address the issues involved in remediating transite.

  7. Beryllium 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Roskill report on beryllium gives information on the occurrence and reserves, production technology, geographic distribution, consumption and end-uses, stocks, prices and beryllium and health. There is an appendix on international trade statistics. (author).

  8. Proceedings. NETEC workshop on shallow land disposal technology, 1997. 10. 20 - 10. 21, Taejon, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This proceedings cover the design and operational experience of shallow land disposal facility, and safety assessment and licensing issues of shallow land disposal facility. Ten articles are submitted.

  9. Regulator's Workshop on The Role of Future Society and Biosphere in Demonstrating Compliance with High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Standards and Regulations

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    Avila, R. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden); Blommaert, W. [Agence Federale de Controle Nucleaire, Bruxelles (Belgium); Clark, R. [US Environmental Protection Agency (United States)] [and others


    This report summarizes the proceedings of a workshop, co-sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The invitations to participate in the Workshop were primarily extended to authorities in countries with major nuclear waste programs involving geological disposal and using performance assessment methodology. The main objective of the Workshop was to develop a common understanding among regulators of the role of society and the biosphere in demonstrating compliance with regulations.

  10. 10 CFR 850.32 - Waste disposal. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waste disposal. 850.32 Section 850.32 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.32 Waste disposal. (a) The responsible employer must control the generation of beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium-contaminated equipment and other...

  11. Chronic Beryllium Disease (United States)

    ... Science Education & Training Home Conditions Chronic Beryllium Disease Chronic Beryllium Disease Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... MD, MSPH, FCCP (February 01, 2016) What is chronic beryllium disease (CBD)? Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is ...

  12. Third international seabed high-level waste disposal assessment workshop, Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 6--7, 1978: a report to the NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.R. (ed.)


    The task groups of the Third International Workshop were staffed by scientists from the attending countries. Reviews of the progress of programs within each nation were given and plans for cooperative task group workshops, data interchanges, newsletters, ocean cruises, sample exchanges, and critical laboratory and field measurements were coordinated. Although a considerable amount of work remains to be done to assure safety and feasibility, no technical or environmental reasons were identified that would preclude the disposal of radioactive wastes beneeath the ocean floor.

  13. Workshop on the role of natural analogs in geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste: Proceedings

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    Kovach, L.A. [ed.] [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Regulatory Applications; Murphy, W.M. [ed.] [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses


    A Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste was held in San Antonio, Texas on July 22--25, 1991. The proceedings comprise seventeen papers submitted by participants at the workshop. A series of papers addresses the relation of natural analog studies to the regulation, performance assessment, and licensing of a geologic repository. Applications of reasoning by analogy are illustrated in papers on the role of natural analogs in studies of earthquakes, petroleum, and mineral exploration. A summary is provided of a recently completed, internationally coordinated natural analog study at Pocos de Caldas, Brazil. Papers also cover problems and applications of natural analog studies in four technical areas of nuclear waste management-. waste form and waste package, near-field processes and environment, far-field processes and environment, and volcanism and tectonics. Summaries of working group deliberations in these four technical areas provide reviews and proposals for natural analog applications. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  14. US/Japan workshop on global change land disposal of CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, R.T. [Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (Canada)


    The general responses proposed to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions to the atmosphere are conservation, improved efficiency and fuel substitution. These are valid options but other alternatives such as CO{sub 2} capture and disposal may be more attractive for specific areas. There are good reasons why the capture and disposal option fits the situation in Western Canada. The first and obvious reason is the importance of hydrocarbon energy to the regional economy. Here the economy is based on the production, utilization and sale of hydrocarbons such as coal, oil and natural gas and we intend to stay in business. Besides meeting the Canadian demand, natural gas from Alberta is used in the US as far away as Boston and Los Angeles. Canadian heavy crude oil serves much of the American Midwest and coal from the Canadian Rocky Mountains is exported to Japan. Although many may consider these hydrocarbon reserves and fossil fuel production as part of the greenhouse gas problem, they may offer part of the solution through the capture and disposal of CO{sub 2}.


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    Glen R. Longhurst


    A Beryllium Technology Update meeting was held at the Idaho National Laboratory on July 18, 2007. Participants came from the U.S., Japan, and Russia. There were two main objectives of this meeting. One was a discussion of current technologies for beryllium in fission reactors, particularly the Advanced Test Reactor and the Japan Materials Test Reactor, and prospects for material availability in the coming years. The second objective of the meeting was a discussion of a project of the International Science and Technology Center regarding treatment of irradiated beryllium for disposal. This paper highlights discussions held during that meeting and major conclusions reached

  16. Controlling Beryllium Contaminated Material And Equipment For The Building 9201-5 Legacy Material Disposition Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, T. D.; Easterling, S. D.


    This position paper addresses the management of beryllium contamination on legacy waste. The goal of the beryllium management program is to protect human health and the environment by preventing the release of beryllium through controlling surface contamination. Studies have shown by controlling beryllium surface contamination, potential airborne contamination is reduced or eliminated. Although there are areas in Building 9201-5 that are contaminated with radioactive materials and mercury, only beryllium contamination is addressed in this management plan. The overall goal of this initiative is the compliant packaging and disposal of beryllium waste from the 9201-5 Legacy Material Removal (LMR) Project to ensure that beryllium surface contamination and any potential airborne release of beryllium is controlled to levels as low as practicable in accordance with 10 CFR 850.25.

  17. Beryllium chemistry and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Kenneth A


    This book introduces beryllium; its history, its chemical, mechanical, and physical properties including nuclear properties. The 29 chapters include the mineralogy of beryllium and the preferred global sources of ore bodies. The identification and specifics of the industrial metallurgical processes used to form oxide from the ore and then metal from the oxide are thoroughly described. The special features of beryllium chemistry are introduced, including analytical chemical practices. Beryllium compounds of industrial interest are identified and discussed. Alloying, casting, powder processing, forming, metal removal, joining and other manufacturing processes are covered. The effect of composition and process on the mechanical and physical properties of beryllium alloys assists the reader in material selection. The physical metallurgy chapter brings conformity between chemical and physical metallurgical processing of beryllium, metal, alloys, and compounds. The environmental degradation of beryllium and its all...

  18. An industrial risk: Beryllium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Çaylak


    Full Text Available Beryllium is a vocational disease factor and berylliumexposure can potentially lead to Chronic Beryllium Disease(CBD in 2-6 % of workers. While acute lymphocyticpneumonia occurred in individuals who were exposedto high doses of beryllium, low dose exposure to berylliumfollowed by a long subclinical period can cause CBDcharacterized with chronic granulomatosis. It has beenobserved that varying amounts of beryllium exposureare necessary to produce symptoms of CBD or berylliumsensitization (BeS. Genetic differences between patientsmay be the underlying cause of these dose-effects andfurther study of the differences in patients exposed to berylliummay lead to earlier diagnosis and the identificationof biomarkers of CBD. In this review, it is summarizedthe general properties of beryllium exposure, the immunopathogenesisand genetic differences of beryllium-induceddiseases, genotoxicity and the carcinogenic effectsof beryllium. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3(1: 141-148

  19. (Beryllium). Internal Report No. 137, Jan. 15, 1958; Le beryllium

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    Mouret, P.; Rigaud, A


    After a brief summary of the physical and chemical properties of beryllium, the various chemical treatments which can be applied to beryllium minerals either directly or after a physical enrichment are discussed. These various treatments give either the hydroxide or beryllium salts, from which either beryllium oxide or metallic beryllium can easily be obtained. The purification, analysis and uses of beryllium are also briefly discussed. (author)

  20. Beryllium: genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. (United States)

    Gordon, Terry; Bowser, Darlene


    Beryllium (Be) has physical-chemical properties, including low density and high tensile strength, which make it useful in the manufacture of products ranging from space shuttles to golf clubs. Despite its utility, a number of standard setting agencies have determined that beryllium is a carcinogen. Only a limited number of studies, however, have addressed the underlying mechanisms of the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of beryllium. Importantly, mutation and chromosomal aberration assays have yielded somewhat contradictory results for beryllium compounds and whereas bacterial tests were largely negative, mammalian test systems showed evidence of beryllium-induced mutations, chromosomal aberrations, and cell transformation. Although inter-laboratory differences may play a role in the variability observed in genotoxicity assays, it is more likely that the different chemical forms of beryllium have a significant effect on mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Because workers are predominantly exposed to airborne particles which are generated during the machining of beryllium metal, ceramics, or alloys, testing of the mechanisms of the mutagenic and carcinogenic activity of beryllium should be performed with relevant chemical forms of beryllium.

  1. Beryllium Desorption from Sediments (United States)

    Boschi, V.; Willenbring, J. K.


    Beryllium isotopes have provided a useful tool in the field of geochronology and geomorphology over the last 25 years. The amount of cosmogenic meteoric 10Be and native 9Be absorbed to soils often scales with the residence time and chemical weathering of sediments in a landscape, respectively. Thus, the concentrations in river sediment may be used to quantify the denudation of specific watersheds. When deposited in ocean sediment, these concentrations are thought to record the history of denudation on Earth over the last ~10 Ma. The use of both isotopes often relies on the premise of beryllium retention to sediment surfaces in order to preserve a landscape's erosion and weathering signature. Changes in setting, en route from the soil to fluvial system to the ocean, can cause beryllium desorption and may preclude some applications of the 10Be/9Be system. Four mechanisms were tested to determine the desorption potential of beryllium including a reduction in pH, an increase in ionic strength and complexation with soluble organic and inorganic species. These processes have the potential to mobilize beryllium into solution. For example, by both reducing the pH and increasing the ionic strength, competition for adsorption sites increases, potentially liberating beryllium from the sediment surface. In addition, organic and inorganic ligands can complex beryllium causing it to become mobilized. To determine which of these alterations influence beryllium desorption and to quantify the effect, we prepared separate solutions of beryllium bound to minerals and organic compounds and measured beryllium concentrations in solution before and after adjusting the pH, ionic strength, and changing inorganic and organic ligand concentrations. We conclude from our observations that overall, beryllium sorbed to organic compounds was more resistant to desorption relative to mineral-associated beryllium. Among the methods tested, a reduction in pH resulted in the greatest amount of

  2. Fluorimetric method for determination of Beryllium; Determinazione fluorimetrica del berillio

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    Sparacino, N.; Sabbioneda, S. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Saluggia, Vercelli (Italy). Dip. Energia


    The old fluorimetric method for the determination of Beryllium, based essentially on the fluorescence of the Beryllium-Morine complex in a strongly alkaline solution, is still competitive and stands the comparison with more modern methods or at least three reasons: in the presence of solid or gaseous samples (powders), the times necessary to finalize an analytic determination are comparable since the stage of the process which lasts the longest is the mineralization of the solid particles containing Beryllium, the cost of a good fluorimeter is by far Inferior to the cost, e. g., of an Emission Spectrophotometer provided with ICP torch and magnets for exploiting the Zeeman effect and of an Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer provided with Graphite furnace; it is possible to determine, fluorimetrically, rather small Beryllium levels (about 30 ng of Beryllium/sample), this potentiality is more than sufficient to guarantee the respect of all the work safety and hygiene rules now in force. The study which is the subject of this publication is designed to the analysis procedure which allows one to reach good results in the determination of Beryllium, chiefly through the control and measurement of the interference effect due to the presence of some metals which might accompany the environmental samples of workshops and laboratories where Beryllium is handled, either at the pure state or in its alloys. The results obtained satisfactorily point out the merits and limits of this analytic procedure.

  3. Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Knowledge Enhancement Events: Agricultural Waste Disposal Workshop After Action Report (United States)


    carcass swelling. Need open top trailers. Cleaning and disinfection of the transport mechanism is critical. Wash down truck bed , tires methane gas concerns would be high. There is a short distance to the landfill. Could transport the livestock and then depopulate at landfill...testing/sampling prior to disposal. Out-of-Box: Could coal fired electrical plants be used to handle large volumes of animals (burns extremely hot

  4. Cooperativity in beryllium bonds. (United States)

    Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José; Yáñez, Manuel; Mó, Otilia


    A theoretical study of the beryllium bonded clusters of the (iminomethyl)beryllium hydride and (iminomethyl)beryllium fluoride [HC(BeX)=NH, X = H, F] molecules has been carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,2p) level of theory. Linear and cyclic clusters have been characterized up to the decamer. The geometric, energetic, electronic and NMR properties of the clusters clearly indicate positive cooperativity. The evolution of the molecular properties, as the size of the cluster increases, is similar to those reported in polymers held together by hydrogen bonds.

  5. Beryllium Manufacturing Processes

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    Goldberg, A


    This report is one of a number of reports that will be combined into a handbook on beryllium. Each report covers a specific topic. To-date, the following reports have been published: (1) Consolidation and Grades of Beryllium; (2) Mechanical Properties of Beryllium and the Factors Affecting these Properties; (3) Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of Beryllium; (4) Joining of Beryllium; (5) Atomic, Crystal, Elastic, Thermal, Nuclear, and other Properties of Beryllium; and (6) Beryllium Coating (Deposition) Processes and the Influence of Processing Parameters on Properties and Microstructure. The conventional method of using ingot-cast material is unsuitable for manufacturing a beryllium product. Beryllium is a highly reactive metal with a high melting point, making it susceptible to react with mold-wall materials forming beryllium compounds (BeO, etc.) that become entrapped in the solidified metal. In addition, the grain size is excessively large, being 50 to 100 {micro}m in diameter, while grain sizes of 15 {micro}m or less are required to meet acceptable strength and ductility requirements. Attempts at refining the as-cast-grain size have been unsuccessful. Because of the large grain size and limited slip systems, the casting will invariably crack during a hot-working step, which is an important step in the microstructural-refining process. The high reactivity of beryllium together with its high viscosity (even with substantial superheat) also makes it an unsuitable candidate for precision casting. In order to overcome these problems, alternative methods have been developed for the manufacturing of beryllium. The vast majority of these methods involve the use of beryllium powders. The powders are consolidated under pressure in vacuum at an elevated temperature to produce vacuum hot-pressed (VHP) blocks and vacuum hot-isostatic-pressed (HIP) forms and billets. The blocks (typically cylindrical), which are produced over a wide range of sizes (up to 183 cm dia. by 61

  6. Reprocessing technology development for irradiated beryllium

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    Kawamura, H.; Sakamoto, N. [Oarai Research Establishment, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Tatenuma, K. [KAKEN Co., Ibaraki-ken (Japan)] [and others


    At present, beryllium is under consideration as a main candidate material for neutron multiplier and plasma facing material in a fusion reactor. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the beryllium reprocessing technology for effective resource use. And, we have proposed reprocessing technology development on irradiated beryllium used in a fusion reactor. The preliminary reprocessing tests were performed using un-irradiated and irradiated beryllium. At first, we performed beryllium separation tests using un-irradiated beryllium specimens. Un-irradiated beryllium with beryllium oxide which is a main impurity and some other impurities were heat-treated under chlorine gas flow diluted with Ar gas. As the results high purity beryllium chloride was obtained in high yield. And it appeared that beryllium oxide and some other impurities were removed as the unreactive matter, and the other chloride impurities were separated by the difference of sublimation temperature on beryllium chloride. Next, we performed some kinds of beryllium purification tests from beryllium chloride. And, metallic beryllium could be recovered from beryllium chloride by the reduction with dry process. In addition, as the results of separation and purification tests using irradiated beryllium specimens, it appeared that separation efficiency of Co-60 from beryllium was above 96%. It is considered that about 4% Co-60 was carried from irradiated beryllium specimen in the form of cobalt chloride. And removal efficiency of tritium from irradiated beryllium was above 95%.

  7. Aerosols generated during beryllium machining. (United States)

    Martyny, J W; Hoover, M D; Mroz, M M; Ellis, K; Maier, L A; Sheff, K L; Newman, L S


    Some beryllium processes, especially machining, are associated with an increased risk of beryllium sensitization and disease. Little is known about exposure characteristics contributing to risk, such as particle size. This study examined the characteristics of beryllium machining exposures under actual working conditions. Stationary samples, using eight-stage Lovelace Multijet Cascade Impactors, were taken at the process point of operation and at the closest point that the worker would routinely approach. Paired samples were collected at the operator's breathing zone by using a Marple Personal Cascade Impactor and a 35-mm closed-faced cassette. More than 50% of the beryllium machining particles in the breathing zone were less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter. This small particle size may result in beryllium deposition into the deepest portion of the lung and may explain elevated rates of sensitization among beryllium machinists.

  8. T cell recognition of beryllium. (United States)

    Dai, Shaodong; Falta, Michael T; Bowerman, Natalie A; McKee, Amy S; Fontenot, Andrew P


    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a granulomatous lung disorder caused by a hypersensitivity to beryllium and characterized by the accumulation of beryllium-specific CD4(+) T cells in the lung. Genetic susceptibility to beryllium-induced disease is strongly associated with HLA-DP alleles possessing a glutamic acid at the 69th position of the β-chain (βGlu69). The structure of HLA-DP2, the most prevalent βGlu69-containing molecule, revealed a unique solvent-exposed acidic pocket that includes βGlu69 and represents the putative beryllium-binding site. The delineation of mimotopes and endogenous self-peptides that complete the αβTCR ligand for beryllium-specific CD4(+) T cells suggests a unique role of these peptides in metal ion coordination and the generation of altered self-peptides, blurring the distinction between hypersensitivity and autoimmunity.

  9. Characterization of shocked beryllium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papin P.A.


    Full Text Available While numerous studies have investigated the low-strain-rate constitutive response of beryllium, the combined influence of high strain rate and temperature on the mechanical behavior and microstructure of beryllium has received limited attention over the last 40 years. In the current work, high strain rate tests were conducted using both explosive drive and a gas gun to accelerate the material. Prior studies have focused on tensile loading behavior, or limited conditions of dynamic strain rate and/or temperature. Two constitutive strength (plasticity models, the Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW and Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS models, were calibrated using common quasi-static and Hopkinson bar data. However, simulations with the two models give noticeably different results when compared with the measured experimental wave profiles. The experimental results indicate that, even if fractured by the initial shock loading, the Be remains sufficiently intact to support a shear stress following partial release and subsequent shock re-loading. Additional “arrested” drive shots were designed and tested to minimize the reflected tensile pulse in the sample. These tests were done to both validate the model and to put large shock induced compressive loads into the beryllium sample.

  10. Joining of Beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, A


    A handbook dealing with the many aspects of beryllium that would be important for the users of this metal is currently being prepared. With an introduction on the applications, advantages and limitations in the use of this metal the following topics will be discussed in this handbook: physical, thermal, and nuclear properties; extraction from the ores; purification and casting of ingots; production and types of beryllium powders; consolidation methods, grades, and properties; mechanical properties with emphasis on the various factors affecting these properties; forming and mechanical working; welding, brazing, bonding, and fastening; machining; powder deposition; corrosion; health aspects; and examples of production of components. This report consists of ''Section X--Joining'' from the handbook. The prefix X is maintained here for the figures, tables and references. In this section the different methods used for joining beryllium and the advantages, disadvantages and limitations of each are presented. The methods discussed are fusion welding, brazing, solid state bonding (diffusion bonding and deformation bonding), soldering, and mechanical fastening. Since beryllium has a high affinity for oxygen and nitrogen with the formation of oxides and nitrides, considerable care must be taken on heating the metal, to protect it from the ambient atmosphere. In addition, mating surfaces must be cleaned and joints must be designed to minimize residual stresses as well as locations for stress concentration (notch effects). In joining any two metals the danger exists of having galvanic corrosion if the part is subjected to moisture or to any type of corroding environment. This becomes a problem if the less noble (anodic) metal has a significantly smaller area than the more noble (cathodic) metal since the ions (positive charges) from the anodic (corroding) metal must correspond to the number of electrons (negative charges) involved at the cathode. Beryllium

  11. Technical Basis for PNNL Beryllium Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Michelle Lynn


    The Department of Energy (DOE) issued Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 850, “Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program” (the Beryllium Rule) in 1999 and required full compliance by no later than January 7, 2002. The Beryllium Rule requires the development of a baseline beryllium inventory of the locations of beryllium operations and other locations of potential beryllium contamination at DOE facilities. The baseline beryllium inventory is also required to identify workers exposed or potentially exposed to beryllium at those locations. Prior to DOE issuing 10 CFR 850, Pacific Northwest Nuclear Laboratory (PNNL) had documented the beryllium characterization and worker exposure potential for multiple facilities in compliance with DOE’s 1997 Notice 440.1, “Interim Chronic Beryllium Disease.” After DOE’s issuance of 10 CFR 850, PNNL developed an implementation plan to be compliant by 2002. In 2014, an internal self-assessment (ITS #E-00748) of PNNL’s Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) identified several deficiencies. One deficiency is that the technical basis for establishing the baseline beryllium inventory when the Beryllium Rule was implemented was either not documented or not retrievable. In addition, the beryllium inventory itself had not been adequately documented and maintained since PNNL established its own CBDPP, separate from Hanford Site’s program. This document reconstructs PNNL’s baseline beryllium inventory as it would have existed when it achieved compliance with the Beryllium Rule in 2001 and provides the technical basis for the baseline beryllium inventory.

  12. Thermal fatigue of beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deksnis, E.; Ciric, D.; Falter, H. [JET Joint undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom)] [and others


    Thermal fatigue life of S65c beryllium castellated to a geometry 6 x 6 x (8-10)mm deep has been tested for steady heat fluxes of 3 MW/m{sup 2} to 5 MW/m{sup 2} and under pulsed heat fluxes (10-20 MW/m{sup 2}) for which the time averaged heat flux is 5 MW/m{sup 2}. These tests were carried out in the JET neutral beam test facility A test sequence with peak surface temperatures {le} 600{degrees}C produced no visible fatigue cracks. In the second series of tests, with T{sub max} {le} 750{degrees}C evidence for fatigue appeared after a minimum of 1350 stress cycles. These fatigue data are discussed in view of the observed lack of thermal fatigue in JET plasma operations with beryllium PFC. JET experience with S65b and S65c is reviewed; recent operations with {Phi} = 25 MW/m{sup 2} and sustained melting/resolidification are also presented. The need for a failure criterion for finite element analyses of Be PFC lifetimes is discussed.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In response to the report ''Investigation of Beryllium Exposure Cases Discovered at the North Las Vegas Facility of the National Nuclear Security Administration'', published by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) in August 2003, Bechtel Nevada (BN) President and General Manager Dr. F. A. Tarantino appointed the Beryllium Investigation & Assessment Team (BIAT) to identify both the source and pathway for the beryllium found in the North Las Vegas (NLV) B-Complex. From September 8 to December 18, 2003, the BIAT investigated the pathway for beryllium and determined that a number of locations existed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which could have contained sufficient quantities of beryllium to result in contamination if transported. Operations performed in the B-1 Building as a result of characterization activities at the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (EMAD); Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (RMAD); Test Cells A and C; and the Central Support Facility in Area 25 had the greatest opportunity for transport of beryllium. Investigative monitoring and sampling was performed at these sites with subsequent transport of sample materials, equipment, and personnel from the NTS to the B-1 Building. The timeline established by the BIAT for potential transport of the beryllium contamination into the B-1 Building was from September 1997 through November 2002. Based on results of recently completed swipe sampling, no evidence of transport of beryllium from test areas has been confirmed. Results less than the DOE beryllium action level of 0.2 ???g/100 cm2 were noted for work support facilities located in Area 25. All of the identified sites in Area 25 worked within the B-1 tenant's residency timeline have been remediated. Legacy contaminants have either been disposed of or capped with clean borrow material. As such, no current opportunity exists for release or spread of beryllium

  14. Beryllium Related Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaylord, R F


    In recent months, LLNL has identified, commenced, and implemented a series of interim controls, compensatory measures, and initiatives to ensure worker safety, and improve safety processes with regards to potential worker exposure to beryllium. Many of these actions have been undertaken in response to the NNSA Independent Review (COR-TS-5/15/2008-8550) received by LLNL in November of 2008. Others are the result of recent discoveries, events or incidents, and lessons learned, or were scheduled corrective actions from earlier commitments. Many of these actions are very recent in nature, or are still in progress, and vary in the formality of implementation. Actions are being reviewed for effectiveness as they progress. The documentation of implementation, and review of effectiveness, when appropriate, of these actions will be addressed as part of the formal Corrective Action Plan addressing the Independent Review. The mitigating actions taken fall into the following categories: (1) Responses to specific events/concerns; (2) Development of interim controls; (3) Review of ongoing activities; and (4) Performance improvement measures.

  15. Mineral resource of the month: beryllium (United States)



    The article discusses information about Beryllium. It notes that Beryllium is a light metal that has a gray color. The metal is used in the production of parts and devices including bearings, computer-chip heat sinks, and output windows of X-ray tubes. The article mentions Beryllium's discovery in 1798 by French chemist, Louis-Nicolas Vanquelin. It cites that bertrandite and beryl are the principal mineral components for the commercial production of beryllium.

  16. Beryllium--important for national defense (United States)

    Boland, M.A.


    Beryllium is one of the lightest and stiffest metals, but there was little industrial demand for it until the 1930s and 1940s when the aerospace, defense, and nuclear sectors began using beryllium and its compounds. Beryllium is now classified by the U.S. Department of Defense as a strategic and critical material because it is used in products that are vital to national security. The oxide form of beryllium was identified in 1797, and scientists first isolated metallic beryllium in 1828. The United States is the world's leading source of beryllium. A single mine at Spor Mountain, Utah, produced more than 85 percent of the beryllium mined worldwide in 2010. China produced most of the remainder, and less than 2 percent came from Mozambique and other countries. National stockpiles also provide significant amounts of beryllium for processing. To help predict where future beryllium supplies might be located, U.S.Geological Survey (USGS) scientists study how and where beryllium resources are concentrated in Earth's crust and use that knowledge to assess the likelihood that undiscovered beryllium resources may exist. Techniques to assess mineral resources have been developed by the USGS to support the stewardship of Federal lands and to better evaluate mineral resource availability in a global context. The USGS also compiles statistics and information on the worldwide supply of, demand for, and flow of beryllium. These data are used to inform U.S. national policymaking.

  17. 10 CFR 850.33 - Beryllium emergencies. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beryllium emergencies. 850.33 Section 850.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.33 Beryllium emergencies. (a) The responsible employer must comply with 29 CFR 1910.120(l) for...

  18. Extraction and optical fluorescence method for the measurement of trace beryllium in soils. (United States)

    Agrawal, Anoop; Cronin, John P; Agrawal, Akshay; Tonazzi, Juan C L; Adams, Lori; Ashley, Kevin; Brisson, Michael J; Duran, Brandy; Whitney, Gary; Burrell, Anthony K; McCleskey, T Mark; Robbins, James; White, Kenneth T


    Beryllium metal and beryllium oxide are important industrial materials used in a variety of applications in the electronics, nuclear energy, and aerospace industries. These materials are highly toxic, they must be disposed of with care, and exposed workers need to be protected. Recently, a new analytical method was developed that uses dilute ammonium bifluoride for extraction of beryllium and a high quantum yield optical fluorescence reagent to determine trace amounts of beryllium in airborne and surface samples. The sample preparation and analysis procedure was published by both ASTM International and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The main advantages of this method are its sensitivity, simplicity, use of lower toxicity materials, and low capital costs. Use of the technique for analyzing soils has been initiated to help meet a need at several of the U.S. Department of Energy legacy sites. So far this work has mainly concentrated on developing a dissolution protocol for effectively extracting beryllium from a variety of soils and sediments so that these can be analyzed by optical fluorescence. Certified reference materials (CRM) of crushed rock and soils were analyzed for beryllium content using fluorescence, and results agree quantitatively with reference values.

  19. The Status of Beryllium Research for Fusion in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glen R. Longhurst


    Use of beryllium in fusion reactors has been considered for neutron multiplication in breeding blankets and as an oxygen getter for plasma-facing surfaces. Previous beryllium research for fusion in the United States included issues of interest to fission (swelling and changes in mechanical and thermal properties) as well as interactions with plasmas and hydrogen isotopes and methods of fabrication. When the United States formally withdrew its participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) program, much of this effort was terminated. The focus in the U.S. has been mainly on toxic effects of beryllium and on industrial hygiene and health-related issues. Work continued at the INEEL and elsewhere on beryllium-containing molten salts. This activity is part of the JUPITER II Agreement. Plasma spray of ITER first wall samples at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been performed under the European Fusion Development Agreement. Effects of irradiation on beryllium structure are being studied at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Numerical and phenomenological models are being developed and applied to better understand important processes and to assist with design. Presently, studies are underway at the University of California Los Angeles to investigate thermo-mechanical characteristics of beryllium pebble beds, similar to research being carried out at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and elsewhere. Additional work, not funded by the fusion program, has dealt with issues of disposal, and recycling.

  20. Neutron irradiation of beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelles, D.S.; Ermi, R.M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Tsai, H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)


    Seven subcapsules from the FFTF/MOTA 2B irradiation experiment containing 97 or 100% dense sintered beryllium cylindrical specimens in depleted lithium have been opened and the specimens retrieved for postirradiation examination. Irradiation conditions included 370 C to 1.6 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}, 425 C to 4.8 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}, and 550 C to 5.0 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}. TEM specimens contained in these capsules were also retrieved, but many were broken. Density measurements of the cylindrical specimens showed as much as 1.59% swelling following irradiation at 500 C in 100% dense beryllium. Beryllium at 97% density generally gave slightly lower swelling values.

  1. Beryllium strain under dynamic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushkov Victor


    Full Text Available There are some data (not much on dynamic characteristics of beryllium that are important, for example, when estimating construction performance at NPP emergencies. A number of data on stress-strain curves, spall strength, shear strength, fracture and structure responses of shock loaded beryllium have obtained in US and Russian laboratories. For today the model description of this complex metal behavior does not have a reasonable agreement with the experimental data, thus a wider spectrum of experimental data is required. This work presents data on dynamic compression-test diagrams of Russian beryllium. Experiments are performed using Hopkinson bar method (SHPB. Strain rates were ε ∼ 103 s−1.

  2. Reactivity test between beryllium and copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Kato, M. [NGK Insulators, Ltd., Aichi-ken (Japan)


    Beryllium has been expected for using as plasma facing material on ITER. And, copper alloy has been proposed as heat sink material behind plasma facing components. Therefore, both materials must be joined. However, the elementary process of reaction between beryllium and copper alloy does not clear in detail. For example, other authors reported that beryllium reacted with copper at high temperature, but it was not obvious about the generation of reaction products and increasing of the reaction layer. In the present work, from this point, for clarifying the elementary process of reaction between beryllium and copper, the out-of-pile compatibility tests were conducted with diffusion couples of beryllium and copper which were inserted in the capsule filled with high purity helium gas (6N). Annealing temperatures were 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700{degrees}C, and annealing periods were 100, 300 and 1000h. Beryllium specimens were hot pressed beryllium, and copper specimens were OFC (Oxygen Free Copper).

  3. Worker Environment Beryllium Characterization Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environment, Safety, Health & Quality


    This report summarizes the conclusion of regular monitoring of occupied buildings at the Nevada Test Site and North Las Vegas facility to determine the extent of beryllium (Be) contamination in accordance with Judgment of Needs 6 of the August 14, 2003, “Minnema Report.”


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisson, M


    Because of its unique properties as a lightweight metal with high tensile strength, beryllium is widely used in applications including cell phones, golf clubs, aerospace, and nuclear weapons. Beryllium is also encountered in industries such as aluminium manufacturing, and in environmental remediation projects. Workplace exposure to beryllium particulates is a growing concern, as exposure to minute quantities of anthropogenic forms of beryllium may lead to sensitization and to chronic beryllium disease, which can be fatal and for which no cure is currently known. Furthermore, there is no known exposure-response relationship with which to establish a 'safe' maximum level of beryllium exposure. As a result, the current trend is toward ever lower occupational exposure limits, which in turn make exposure assessment, both in terms of sampling and analysis, more challenging. The problems are exacerbated by difficulties in sample preparation for refractory forms of beryllium, such as beryllium oxide, and by indications that some beryllium forms may be more toxic than others. This chapter provides an overview of sources and uses of beryllium, health risks, and occupational exposure limits. It also provides a general overview of sampling, analysis, and data evaluation issues that will be explored in greater depth in the remaining chapters. The goal of this book is to provide a comprehensive resource to aid personnel in a wide variety of disciplines in selecting sampling and analysis methods that will facilitate informed decision-making in workplace and environmental settings.

  5. Defense programs beryllium good practice guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, M.


    Within the DOE, it has recently become apparent that some contractor employees who have worked (or are currently working) with and around beryllium have developed chronic beryllium disease (CBD), an occupational granulomatous lung disorder. Respiratory exposure to aerosolized beryllium, in susceptible individuals, causes an immunological reaction that can result in granulomatous scarring of the lung parenchyma, shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, weight loss, and, ultimately, respiratory failure. Beryllium disease was originally identified in the 1940s, largely in the fluorescent light industry. In 1950, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) introduced strict exposure standards that generally curtailed both the acute and chronic forms of the disease. Beginning in 1984, with the identification of a CBD case in a DOE contractor worker, there was increased scrutiny of both industrial hygiene practices and individuals in this workforce. To date, over 100 additional cases of beryllium-specific sensitization and/or CBD have been identified. Thus, a disease previously thought to be largely eliminated by the adoption of permissible exposure standards 45 years ago is still a health risk in certain workforces. This good practice guide forms the basis of an acceptable program for controlling workplace exposure to beryllium. It provides (1) Guidance for minimizing worker exposure to beryllium in Defense Programs facilities during all phases of beryllium-related work, including the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities. (2) Recommended controls to be applied to the handling of metallic beryllium and beryllium alloys, beryllium oxide, and other beryllium compounds. (3) Recommendations for medical monitoring and surveillance of workers exposed (or potentially exposed) to beryllium, based on the best current understanding of beryllium disease and medical diagnostic tests available. (4) Site-specific safety procedures for all processes of beryllium that is likely to

  6. Beryllium Lymphocyte Proliferation Test Surveillance Identifies Clinically Significant Beryllium Disease (United States)

    Mroz, Margaret M.; Maier, Lisa A.; Strand, Matthew; Silviera, Lori; Newman, Lee S.


    Background Workplace surveillance identifies chronic beryllium disease (CBD) but it remains unknown over what time frame mild CBD will progress to a more severe form. Methods We examined physiology and treatment in 229 beryllium sensitization (BeS) and 171 CBD surveillance-identified cases diagnosed from 1982 to 2002. Never smoking CBD cases (81) were compared to never smoking BeS patients (83) to assess disease progression. We compared CBD machinists to non-machinists to examine effects of exposure. Results At baseline, CBD and BeS cases did not differ significantly in exposure time or physiology. CBD patients were more likely to have machined beryllium. Of CBD cases, 19.3% went on to require oral immunosuppressive therapy. At 30 years from first exposure, measures of gas exchange were significantly worse and total lung capacity was lower for CBD subjects. Machinists had faster disease progression as measured by pulmonary function testing and gas exchange. Conclusions Medical surveillance for CBD identifies individuals at significant risk of disease progression and impairment with sufficient time since first exposure. PMID:19681064

  7. Mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and teratogenicity of beryllium. (United States)

    Léonard, A; Lauwerys, R


    The carcinogenicity of a number of beryllium compounds has been confirmed in experiments on laboratory animals and this metal has to be treated as a possible carcinogenic threat to man. These carcinogenic properties are associated with mutagenic activity as shown by the results of short-term tests performed in vitro with beryllium chloride and beryllium sulfate. These soluble beryllium compounds can produce some infidelity of in vitro synthesis, forward gene mutations in microorganisms and in mammalian cells. They are also able to induce cell transformation. In addition to the positive results obtained in several short-term assays beryllium compounds have been found to bind to nucleoproteins, to inhibit certain enzymes needed for DNA synthesis, to bind nucleic acids to cell membranes and to inhibit microtubule polymerization. The teratogenicity of beryllium salts is relatively unknown and needs additional investigation.

  8. Advances in identifying beryllium sensitization and disease. (United States)

    Middleton, Dan; Kowalski, Peter


    Beryllium is a lightweight metal with unique qualities related to stiffness, corrosion resistance, and conductivity. While there are many useful applications, researchers in the 1930s and 1940s linked beryllium exposure to a progressive occupational lung disease. Acute beryllium disease is a pulmonary irritant response to high exposure levels, whereas chronic beryllium disease (CBD) typically results from a hypersensitivity response to lower exposure levels. A blood test, the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT), was an important advance in identifying individuals who are sensitized to beryllium (BeS) and thus at risk for developing CBD. While there is no true "gold standard" for BeS, basic epidemiologic concepts have been used to advance our understanding of the different screening algorithms.

  9. Inhibited solid propellant composition containing beryllium hydride (United States)

    Thompson, W. W. (Inventor)


    An object of this invention is to provide a composition of beryllium hydride and carboxy-terminated polybutadiene which is stable. Another object of this invention is to provide a method for inhibiting the reactivity of beryllium hydride toward carboxy-terminated polybutadiene. It was found that a small amount of lecithin inhibits the reaction of beryllium hydride with the acid groups in carboxy terminated polybutadiene.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZHAO,Y.; WANG,H.


    The electrical conductivity of beryllium at radio frequency (800 MHz) and liquid nitrogen temperature were investigated and measured. This summary addresses a collection of beryllium properties in the literature, an analysis of the anomalous skin effect, the test model, the experimental setup and improvements, MAFIA simulations, the measurement results and data analyses. The final results show that the conductivity of beryllium is not as good as indicated by the handbook, yet very close to copper at liquid nitrogen temperature.

  11. Beryllium particulate exposure and disease relations in a beryllium machining plant. (United States)

    Kelleher, P C; Martyny, J W; Mroz, M M; Maier, L A; Ruttenber, A J; Young, D A; Newman, L S


    We examined the relationship between exposure to beryllium and the presence of beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in a cohort of workers in a beryllium precision machining facility. Twenty workers with BeS or CBD (cases) were compared with 206 worker-controls in a case-control study. Exposure for each job title was measured using cascade impactors placed in the workers' breathing zone to measure total beryllium exposure and exposure to particles 0.20. In conclusion, increased cumulative and LTW exposure to total and respirable beryllium was observed in workers with CBD or BeS compared with the controls. These results support efforts to control beryllium exposure in the workplace.

  12. Modeling of hydrogen interactions with beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, G.R. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    In this paper, improved mathematical models are developed for hydrogen interactions with beryllium. This includes the saturation effect observed for high-flux implantation of ions from plasmas and retention of tritium produced from neutronic transmutations in beryllium. Use of the models developed is justified by showing how they can replicated experimental data using the TMAP4 tritium transport code. (author)

  13. Investigation of beryllium/steam interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekhonadskikh, A.M.; Vurim, A.D.; Vasilyev, Yu.S.; Pivovarov, O.S. [Inst. of Atomic Energy National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakstan Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan); Shestakov, V.P.; Tazhibayeva, I.L.


    In this report program on investigations of beryllium emissivity and transient processes on overheated beryllium surface attacked by water steam to be carried out in IAE NNC RK within Task S81 TT 2096-07-16 FR. The experimental facility design is elaborated in this Report. (author)

  14. Benchmark Experiment for Beryllium Slab Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE; Yang-bo; BAO; Jie; HAN; Rui; RUAN; Xi-chao; REN; Jie; HUANG; Han-xiong; ZHOU; Zu-ying


    In order to validate the evaluated nuclear data on beryllium,a benchmark experiment has been performed at China Institution of Atomic Energy(CIAE).Neutron leakage spectra from pure beryllium slab samples(10cm×10cm×11cm)were measured at 61°and 121°using timeof-

  15. Diffusion-bonded beryllium aluminum optical structures (United States)

    Grapes, Thomas F.


    Beryllium aluminum material can present significant advantages for optical support structures. A likely advantage of beryllium aluminum compared to aluminum or titanium for such structures is its higher specific stiffness. However, beryllium aluminum material is significantly more expensive than most competing materials. The cost problem with beryllium aluminum is exacerbated if fabrication methods that result in near net shape parts are not used. Near net shape methods result in the least amount of material "thrown away" in the fabrication process. Casting is a primary example of near net shape manufacturing that is appropriate for some optical support structures. Casting aluminum, and other materials as well, is common. Casting of beryllium aluminum is very difficult, however, and has not had significant success. Diffusion bonding - a different approach for achieving near net shape beryllium aluminum optical support structures, was pursued and accomplished. Diffusion bonding is a term used to describe the joining of solid metal pieces under high temperature and pressure, but without melting. Three different optical support structures were designed and built of beryllium aluminum using diffusion bonding. Relatively small solid beryllium aluminum pieces were arranged together and then joined under hot isostatic pressure conditions. The resulting relatively large pressure bonded part was then machined to achieve the final product. Significant cost savings as compared to machining the part from a solid block were realized. Difficulties achieving diffusion bonds in complex joints were experienced and addressed.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youmans-Mcdonald, L.


    Analysis for beryllium by fluorescence is now an established method which is used in many government-run laboratories and commercial facilities. This study investigates the use of this technique using commercially available wet wipes. The fluorescence method is widely documented and has been approved as a standard test method by ASTM International and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The procedure involves dissolution of samples in aqueous ammonium bifluoride solution and then adding a small aliquot to a basic hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate fluorescent dye (Berylliant{trademark} Inc. Detection Solution Part No. CH-2) , and measuring the fluorescence. This method is specific to beryllium. This work explores the use of three different commercial wipes spiked with beryllium, as beryllium acetate or as beryllium oxide and subsequent analysis by optical fluorescence. The effect of possible interfering metals such as Fe, Ti and Pu in the wipe medium is also examined.

  17. Some characteristics of fine beryllium particle combustion (United States)

    Davydov, D. A.; Kholopova, O. V.; Kolbasov, B. N.


    Beryllium dust will be produced under plasma interaction with beryllium armor of the first wall in ITER. Exothermal reaction of this dust with water steam or air, which can leak into the reactor vacuum chamber in some accidents, gives concern in respect to reactor safety. Results of studies devoted to combustion of fine beryllium particles are reviewed in the paper. A chemically active medium and elevated temperature are prerequisite to the combustion of beryllium particles. Their ignition is hampered by oxide films, which form a diffusion barrier on the particle surface as a result of pre-flame oxidation. The temperature to initiate combustion of particles depends on flame temperature, particle size, composition of combustible mixture, heating rate and other factors. In mixtures enriched with combustible, the flame temperature necessary to ignite individual particles approaches the beryllium boiling temperature.

  18. Beryllium coating on Inconel tiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailescu, V.; Burcea, G.; Lungu, C.P.; Mustata, I.; Lungu, A.M. [Association EURATOM-MEC Romania, National Institute of Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Rubel, M. [Alfven Laboratory, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Coad, J.P. [Culham Science Centre, EURATOM-UKAEA Fusion Association, Abingdon, OX, Oxon (United Kingdom); Matthews, G.; Pedrick, L.; Handley, R. [UKAEA Fusion, Association Euratom-UKAEA, Culham Science and Engineering Centre, OX 3DB ABINGDON, Oxon (United Kingdom)


    Full text of publication follows: The Joint European Torus (JET) is a large experimental nuclear fusion device. Its aim is to confine and study the behaviour of plasma in conditions and dimensions approaching those required for a fusion reactor. The plasma is created in the toroidal shaped vacuum vessel of the machine in which it is confined by magnetic fields. In preparation for ITER a new ITER-like Wall (ILW) will be installed on Joint European Torus (JET), a wall not having any carbon facing the plasma [1]. In places Inconel tiles are to be installed, these tiles shall be coated with Beryllium. MEdC represented by the National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele, Bucharest and in direct cooperation with Nuclear Fuel Plant Pitesti started to coat Inconel tiles with 8 {mu}m of Beryllium in accordance with the requirements of technical specification and fit for installation in the JET machine. This contribution provides an overview of the principles of manufacturing processes using thermal evaporation method in vacuum and the properties of the prepared coatings. The optimization of the manufacturing process (layer thickness, structure and purity) has been carried out on Inconel substrates (polished and sand blasted) The results of the optimization process and analysis (SEM, TEM, XRD, Auger, RBS, AFM) of the coatings will be presented. Reference [1] Takeshi Hirai, H. Maier, M. Rubel, Ph. Mertens, R. Neu, O. Neubauer, E. Gauthier, J. Likonen, C. Lungu, G. Maddaluno, G. F. Matthews, R. Mitteau, G. Piazza, V. Philipps, B. Riccardi, C. Ruset, I. Uytdenhouwen, R and D on full tungsten divertor and beryllium wall for JET TIER-like Wall Project, 24. Symposium on Fusion Technology - 11-15 September 2006 -Warsaw, Poland. (authors)

  19. Postirradiation examination of beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    Postirradiation examinations of COBRA-1A beryllium pebbles irradiated in the EBR-II fast reactor at neutron fluences which generated 2700--3700 appm helium have been performed. Measurements included density change, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The major change in microstructure is development of unusually shaped helium bubbles forming as highly non-equiaxed thin platelet-like cavities on the basal plane. Measurement of the swelling due to cavity formation was in good agreement with density change measurements.

  20. 40 CFR 421.150 - Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory. (United States)


    ... primary beryllium subcategory. 421.150 Section 421.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Primary Beryllium Subcategory § 421.150 Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium... beryllium by primary beryllium facilities processing beryllium ore concentrates or beryllium hydroxide...

  1. Technical issues for beryllium use in fusion blanket applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarville, T.J.; Berwald, D.H.; Wolfer, W.; Fulton, F.J.; Lee, J.D.; Maninger, R.C.; Moir, R.W.; Beeston, J.M.; Miller, L.G.


    Beryllium is an excellent non-fissioning neutron multiplier for fusion breeder and fusion electric blanket applications. This report is a compilation of information related to the use of beryllium with primary emphasis on the fusion breeder application. Beryllium resources, production, fabrication, properties, radiation damage and activation are discussed. A new theoretical model for beryllium swelling is presented.

  2. Exposure-response analysis for beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease among workers in a beryllium metal machining plant. (United States)

    Madl, Amy K; Unice, Ken; Brown, Jay L; Kolanz, Marc E; Kent, Michael S


    The current occupational exposure limit (OEL) for beryllium has been in place for more than 50 years and was believed to be protective against chronic beryllium disease (CBD) until studies in the 1990s identified beryllium sensitization (BeS) and subclinical CBD in the absence of physical symptoms. Inconsistent sampling and exposure assessment methodologies have often prevented the characterization of a clear exposure-response relationship for BeS and CBD. Industrial hygiene (3831 personal lapel and 616 general area samples) and health surveillance data from a beryllium machining facility provided an opportunity to reconstruct worker exposures prior to the ascertainment of BeS or the diagnosis of CBD. Airborne beryllium concentrations for different job titles were evaluated, historical trends of beryllium levels were compared for pre- and postengineering control measures, and mean and upper bound exposure estimates were developed for workers identified as beryllium sensitized or diagnosed with subclinical or clinical CBD. Five approaches were used to reconstruct historical exposures of each worker: industrial hygiene data were pooled by year, job title, era of engineering controls, and the complete work history (lifetime weighted average) prior to diagnosis. Results showed that exposure metrics based on shorter averaging times (i.e., year vs. complete work history) better represented the upper bound worker exposures that could have contributed to the development of BeS or CBD. Results showed that beryllium-sensitized and CBD workers were exposed to beryllium concentrations greater than 0.2 microg/m3 (95th percentile), and 90% were exposed to concentrations greater than 0.4 microg/m3 (95th percentile) within a given year of their work history. Based on this analysis, BeS and CBD generally occurred as a result of exposures greater than 0.4 microg/m3 and maintaining exposures below 0.2 microg/m3 95% of the time may prevent BeS and CBD in the workplace.

  3. Recommended design correlations for S-65 beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billone, M.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)


    The properties of tritium and helium behavior in irradiated beryllium are reviewed, along with the thermal-mechanical properties needed for ITER design analysis. Correlations are developed to describe the performance of beryllium in a fusion reactor environment. While this paper focuses on the use of beryllium as a plasma-facing component (PFC) material, the correlations presented here can also be used to describe the performance of beryllium as a neutron multiplier for a tritium breeding blanket. The performance properties for beryllium are subdivided into two categories: properties which do not change with irradiation damage to the bulk of the material; and properties which are degraded by neutron irradiation. The irradiation-independent properties described within are: thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, thermal expansion, and elastic constants. Irradiation-dependent properties include: yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, plastic tangent modulus, uniform and total tensile elongation, thermal and irradiation-induced creep strength, He-induced swelling and tritium retention/release. The approach taken in developing properties correlations is to describe the behavior of dense, pressed S-65 beryllium -- the material chosen for ITER PFC application -- as a function of temperature. As there are essentially no data on the performance of porous and/or irradiated S-65 beryllium, the degradation of properties with as-fabricated porosity and irradiation are determined from the broad data base on S-200F, as well as other types and grades, and applied to S-65 beryllium by scaling factors. The resulting correlations can be used for Be produced by vacuum hot pressing (VHP) and cold-pressing (CP)/sintering(S)/hot-isostatic-pressing (HIP). The performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium is discussed but not quantified.

  4. Metallurgical viewpoints on the brittleness of beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerberg, G.


    At present the development and use of beryllium metal for structural applications is severely hampered by its brittleness. Reasons for this lack of ductility are reviewed in discussing the deformation behaviour of beryllium in relation to other hexagonal metals. The ease of fracturing in beryllium is assumed to be a consequence of a limited number of deformation modes in combination with high deformation resistance. Models for the nucleation of fracture are suggested. The relation of ductility to elastic constants as well as to grain size, texture and alloying additions is discussed.

  5. Efficacy of serial medical surveillance for chronic beryllium disease in a beryllium machining plant. (United States)

    Newman, L S; Mroz, M M; Maier, L A; Daniloff, E M; Balkissoon, R


    There is limited information on the use of the blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) at regular intervals in medical surveillance. Employees of a beryllium machining plant were screened with the BeLPT biennially, and new employees were screened within 3 months of hire. Of 235 employees screened from 1995 to 1997, a total of 15 (6.4%) had confirmed abnormal BeLPT results indicating beryllium sensitization; nine of these employees were diagnosed with chronic beryllium disease. Four of the 15 cases were diagnosed within 3 months of first exposure. When 187 of the 235 employees participated in biennial screening in 1997 to 1999, seven more had developed beryllium sensitization or chronic beryllium disease, increasing the overall rate to 9.4% (22 of 235). The blood BeLPT should be used serially in beryllium disease surveillance to capture new or missed cases of sensitization and disease. Beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease can occur within 50 days of first exposure in modern industry.

  6. Hydrogen release from reactor-irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepikov, A.Kh. [Kazakh State Univ., Alma-Ata (Kazakstan); Tazhibaeva, I.L. [Kazakh State Univ., Alma-Ata (Kazakstan); Shestakov, V.P. [Kazakh State Univ., Alma-Ata (Kazakstan); Romanenko, O.G. [Kazakh State Univ., Alma-Ata (Kazakstan); Chikhray, Y.V. [Kazakh State Univ., Alma-Ata (Kazakstan); Kenzhin, E.A. [IAE NNC RK, Semipalatinsk-21 (Russian Federation); Cherepnin, Yu.S. [IAE NNC RK, Semipalatinsk-21 (Russian Federation); Tikhomirov, L.N. [IAE NNC RK, Semipalatinsk-21 (Russian Federation)


    Experiments on gas release of reactor-irradiated beryllium samples were carried out and compared to control samples. The simultaneous influence of reactor irradiation and exposure to hydrogen results in more hydrogen retention in beryllium, than if beryllium is initially irradiated and then exposed to hydrogen. Appearance of low temperature peaks at 460 K and 540 K with 0.71 eV/atom and 0.84 eV/atom desorption activation energies, respectively, assessed in a frame of a second order desorption model, is mainly responsible for the increase in hydrogen content. These peaks can be attributed to chemical hydrogen bonds with surface oxide. The simultaneous influence of hydrogen and nuclear reactor irradiation at a temperature of 1150 K was assumed to increase significantly microcrack formation near the surface of beryllium samples, resulting in an increase in low temperature peak intensities. (orig.).

  7. Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S


    This document describes how Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) meets the requirements and management practices of federal regulation 10 CFR 850, 'Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP).' This revision of the LLNL CBDPP incorporates clarification and editorial changes based on lessons learned from employee discussions, observations and reviews of Department of Energy (DOE) Complex and commercial industry beryllium (Be) safety programs. The information is used to strengthen beryllium safety practices at LLNL, particularly in the areas of: (1) Management of small parts and components; and (2) Communication of program status to employees. Future changes to LLNL beryllium activities and on-going operating experience will be incorporated into the program as described in Section S, 'Performance Feedback.'

  8. Synthesis and ceramization of polycarbosilane containing beryllium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小忠; 周珊; 程勇; 杜作娟; 段曦东; 王超英


    Polycarbosilane containing beryllium (BPCS) precursors was prepared by the reaction of polycarbosilane (PCS) with beryllium acetylacetone (Be (acac)2). The analysis of structures and components of BPCS demonstrates that their main structures are basically the same as PCS. Ceramization of BPCS precursors shows that BPCS precursors are organic below 600 °C and inorganic at 800 °C. At 1400 °C, BPCS precursors convert into silicon carbide ceramics. The ceramization of different beryllium content precursors were studied, which show that beryllium plays an important role in the inhibition of crystalline grain growth ofβ-SiC at high temperature and it can adjust the dielectric constant of silicon carbide ceramics.

  9. Benchmark Experiment for Beryllium Slab Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE; Yang-bo; BAO; Jie; HAN; Rui; RUAN; Xi-chao; REN; Jie; HUANG; Han-xiong; ZHOU; Zu-ying


    The neutron leakage spectra were measured at 60°from pure beryllium slab samples(10 cm×10 cm×5 cm and 10 cm×10 cm×11 cm)by TOF method.The experimental results were compared with the calculated ones by MCNP5 simulation,using the evaluated data of beryllium from CENDL3.1,

  10. Beryllium concentration in pharyngeal tonsils in children. (United States)

    Nogaj, Ewa; Kwapulinski, Jerzy; Misiołek, Maciej; Golusiński, Wojciech; Kowol, Jolanta; Wiechuła, Danuta


    Power plant dust is believed to be the main source of the increased presence of the element beryllium in the environment which has been detected in the atmospheric air, surface waters, groundwater, soil, food, and cigarette smoke. In humans, beryllium absorption occurs mainly via the respiratory system. The pharyngeal tonsils are located on the roof of the nasopharynx and are in direct contact with dust particles in inhaled air. As a result, the concentration levels of beryllium in the pharyngeal tonsils are likely to be a good indicator of concentration levels in the air. The presented study had two primary aims: to investigate the beryllium concentration in pharyngeal tonsils in children living in southern Poland, and the appropriate reference range for this element in children's pharyngeal tonsils. Pharyngeal tonsils were extracted from a total of 379 children (age 2-17 years, mean 6.2 ± 2.7 years) living in southern Poland. Tonsil samples were mineralized in a closed cycle in a pressure mineralizer PDS 6, using 65% spectrally pure nitric acid. Beryllium concentration was determined using the ICP-AES method with a Perkin Elmer Optima 5300DVTM. The software Statistica v. 9 was used for the statistical analysis. It was found that girls had a significantly greater beryllium concentration in their pharyngeal tonsils than boys. Beryllium concentration varies greatly, mostly according to the place of residence. Based on the study results, the reference value for beryllium in pharyngeal tonsils of children is recommended to be determined at 0.02-0.04 µg/g.

  11. Beryllium concentration in pharyngeal tonsils in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Nogaj


    Full Text Available Power plant dust is believed to be the main source of the increased presence of the element beryllium in the environment which has been detected in the atmospheric air, surface waters, groundwater, soil, food, and cigarette smoke. In humans, beryllium absorption occurs mainly via the respiratory system. The pharyngeal tonsils are located on the roof of the nasopharynx and are in direct contact with dust particles in inhaled air. As a result, the concentration levels of beryllium in the pharyngeal tonsils are likely to be a good indicator of concentration levels in the air. The presented study had two primary aims: to investigate the beryllium concentration in pharyngeal tonsils in children living in southern Poland, and the appropriate reference range for this element in children’s pharyngeal tonsils. Pharyngeal tonsils were extracted from a total of 379 children (age 2–17 years, mean 6.2 ± 2.7 years living in southern Poland. Tonsil samples were mineralized in a closed cycle in a pressure mineralizer PDS 6, using 65% spectrally pure nitric acid. Beryllium concentration was determined using the ICP-AES method with a Perkin Elmer Optima 5300DVTM. The software Statistica v. 9 was used for the statistical analysis. It was found that girls had a significantly greater beryllium concentration in their pharyngeal tonsils than boys. Beryllium concentration varies greatly, mostly according to the place of residence. Based on the study results, the reference value for beryllium in pharyngeal tonsils of children is recommended to be determined at 0.02–0.04 µg/g.

  12. Hydrogen release from deposited beryllium layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shestakov, V.P.; Klepikov, A.Kh.; Chikhray, Y.V.; Tazhibaeva, I.L. [NIIETF of Al Farabi Kazakh State Univ., Almaty (Kazakhstan)


    The analysis of hydrogen retained in deposited beryllium layers deposited by magnetron sputtering was carried out by means of thermodesorption (TDS) technique. Two hydrogen release peaks were clearly seen on the thermodesorption curves at the temperatures 760-800 K and 920-970 K. Hydrogen concentrations in the deposited beryllium layers were calculated from the gas release curves corresponding to the number of Be atoms in the beryllium layer of 100% theoretical density. Average hydrogen concentration in the beryllium samples loaded in the process of magnetron sputtering was equal to 3800{+-}200 appm. The experiments with beryllium layers, enriched with carbon, revealed the increase of retained hydrogen concentration up to 9600{+-}200 appm. Assuming that gas release can be described within the framework of model of diffusion from layer system BeO-Be-BeO, hydrogen diffusion coefficient in BeO and the trapping and detrapping constants for the traps appearing in beryllium in the process of deposition were evaluated. (orig.)

  13. Tritium release from neutron irradiated beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reactortechnik


    One of the most important open issues related to beryllium for fusion applications refers to the kinetics of the tritium release as a function of neutron fluence and temperature. The EXOTIC-7 as well as the `Beryllium` experiments carried out in the HFR reactor in Petten are considered as the most detailed and significant tests for investigating the beryllium response under neutron irradiation. This paper reviews the present status of beryllium post-irradiation examinations performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe with samples from the above mentioned irradiation experiments, trying to elucidate the tritium release controlling processes. In agreement with previous studies it has been found that release starts at about 500-550degC and achieves a maximum at about 700-750degC. The observed release at about 500-550degC is probably due to tritium escaping from chemical traps, while the maximum release at about 700-750degC is due to tritium escaping from physical traps. The consequences of a direct contact between beryllium and ceramics during irradiation, causing tritium implanting in a surface layer of beryllium up to a depth of about 40 mm and leading to an additional inventory which is usually several times larger than the neutron-produced one, are also presented and the effects on the tritium release are discussed. (author)

  14. Characteristics of beryllium bonds; a QTAIM study. (United States)

    Eskandari, K


    The nature of beryllium bonds formed between BeX2 (X is H, F and Cl) and some Lewis bases have been investigated. The distribution of the Laplacian of electron density shows that there is a region of charge depletion around the Be atom, which, according to Laplacian complementary principal, can interact with a region of charge concentration of an atom in the base and form a beryllium bond. The molecular graphs of the investigated complexes indicate that beryllium in BeH2 and BeF2 can form “beryllium bonds” with O, N and P atoms but not with halogens. In addition, eight criteria based on QTAIM properties, including the values of electron density and its Laplacian at the BCP, penetration of beryllium and acceptor atom, charge, energy, volume and first atomic moment of beryllium atom, have been considered and compared with the corresponding ones in conventional hydrogen bonds. These bonds share many common features with very strong hydrogen bonds, however,some differences have also been observed.

  15. Occupational Exposure to Beryllium. Final rule. (United States)


    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is amending its existing standards for occupational exposure to beryllium and beryllium compounds. OSHA has determined that employees exposed to beryllium at the previous permissible exposure limits face a significant risk of material impairment to their health. The evidence in the record for this rulemaking indicates that workers exposed to beryllium are at increased risk of developing chronic beryllium disease and lung cancer. This final rule establishes new permissible exposure limits of 0.2 micrograms of beryllium per cubic meter of air (0.2 [mu]g/m\\3\\) as an 8-hour time-weighted average and 2.0 [mu]g/m\\3\\ as a short-term exposure limit determined over a sampling period of 15 minutes. It also includes other provisions to protect employees, such as requirements for exposure assessment, methods for controlling exposure, respiratory protection, personal protective clothing and equipment, housekeeping, medical surveillance, hazard communication, and recordkeeping. OSHA is issuing three separate standards--for general industry, for shipyards, and for construction--in order to tailor requirements to the circumstances found in these sectors.

  16. Sanitary-hygienic and ecological aspects of beryllium production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvinskykh, E.M.; Savchuk, V.V.; Sidorov, V.L.; Slobodin, D.B.; Tuzov, Y.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant, Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan)


    The Report describes An organization of sanitary-hygienic and ecological control of beryllium production at Ulba metallurgical plant. It involves: (1) the consideration of main methods for protection of beryllium production personnel from unhealthy effect of beryllium, (2) main kinds of filters, used in gas purification systems at different process areas, (3) data on beryllium monitoring in water, soil, on equipment. This Report also outlines problems connected with designing devices for a rapid analysis of beryllium in air as well as problems of beryllium production on ecological situation in the town. (author)

  17. Mobile fission and activation products in nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeki, H.; Evans, N.; Czervinski, K.; Bruggeman, Ch.; Poineau, F.; Breynaert, A.; Reiler, P.; Pablo, J. de; Pipon, Y.; Molnar, M.; Nishimura, T.; Kienzler, B.; Van Iseghem, P.; Crovisier, J.L.; Wieland, E.; Mace, N.; Pablo, J. de; Spahiu, K.; Cui, D.; Lida, Y.; Charlet, L.; Liu, X.; Sato, H.; Goutelard, F.; Savoye, S.; Glaus, M.; Poinssot, C.; Seby, F.; Sato, H.; Tournassat, Ch.; Montavon, G.; Rotenberg, B.; Spahiu, K.; Smith, G.; Marivoet, J.; Landais, P.; Bruno, J.; Johnson, H.; Umeki, L.; Geckeis, H.; Giffaut, E.; Grambow, B.; Dierckx, A


    This document gathers 33 oral presentations that were made at this workshop dedicated to the mobility of some radionuclides in nuclear waste disposal. The workshop was organized into 6 sessions: 1) performance assessment, 2) speciation/interaction in aqueous media, 3) radioactive wastes, 4) redox processes at interfaces, 5) diffusion processes, and 6) retention processes.

  18. Disposable rabbit (United States)

    Lewis, Leroy C.; Trammell, David R.


    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  19. Disposal rabbit (United States)

    Lewis, L.C.; Trammell, D.R.


    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.T. Kendrick; Steven Saggese


    element in the sample. The monitor can be operated in one of two modes, as a continuous air monitor (CAM), or as a wipe monitor. In its CAM mode, the monitor collects an air sample for a user programmable sampling time on a conventional mixed cellulose ester (MCE) filter. The monitor can also be used in a wipe analysis mode, where the user can load up to 60 previously collected wipe samples, typically obtained on 47 mm filter media, into disposable filter cassettes. Under this effort, a beryllium monitor was designed, fabricated and tested. During laboratory testing, the monitor's measurement performance met the stated measurement objectives at the outset of the project. A typical minimum detectable beryllium mass for the monitor is below the 0.2 mg/m{sup 3} goal of the project. Field-testing of the monitor show it to exhibit extremely good sensitivity to very low levels of beryllium. On a per spark basis, the monitor has been shown to be capable of detecting a few tens of picograms of beryllium. At the culmination of the project, the beryllium CAM unit was delivered to the U.S. DOE-Rocky Flats Environmental Management Site where it is undergoing additional on-site evaluations.

  1. Mechanical performance of irradiated beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Dalle-Donne, M.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik


    For the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) Blanket, which is one of the two reference concepts studied within the European Fusion Technology Programme, the neutron multiplier consists of a mixed bed of about 2 and 0.1-0.2 mm diameter beryllium pebbles. Beryllium has no structural function in the blanket, however microstructural and mechanical properties are important, as they might influence the material behavior under neutron irradiation. The EXOTIC-7 as well as the `Beryllium` experiments carried out in the HFR reactor in Petten are considered as the most detailed and significant tests for investigating it. This paper reviews the present status of beryllium post-irradiation examinations performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe with samples from these irradiation experiments, emphasizing the effects of irradiation of essential material properties and trying to elucidate the processes controlling the property changes. The microstructure, the porosity distribution, the impurity content, the behavior under compression loads and the compatibility of the beryllium pebbles with lithium orthosilicate (Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}) during the in-pile irradiation are presented and critically discussed. Qualitative information on ductility and creep obtained by hardness-type measurements are also supplied. (author)

  2. Illness Absences Among Beryllium Sensitized Workers (United States)

    Watkins, Janice P.; Ellis, Elizabeth D.; Girardi, David J.; Cragle, Donna L.


    Objectives. This study examined absence rates among US Department of Energy workers who had beryllium sensitization (BeS) or were diagnosed with chronic beryllium disease (CBD) compared with those of other workers. Methods. We used the lymphocyte proliferation test to determine beryllium sensitivity. In addition, we applied multivariable logistic regression to compare absences from 2002 to 2011 between workers with BeS or CBD to those without, and survival analysis to compare time to first absence by beryllium sensitization status. Finally, we examined beryllium status by occupational group. Results. Fewer than 3% of the 19 305 workers were BeS, and workers with BeS or CBD had more total absences (odds ratio [OR] = 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18, 1.46) and respiratory absences (OR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.24, 1.84) than did other workers. Time to first absence for all causes and for respiratory conditions occurred earlier for workers with BeS or CBD than for other workers. Line operators and crafts personnel were at increased risk for BeS or CBD. Conclusions. Although not considered “diseased,” workers with BeS have higher absenteeism compared with nonsensitized workers. PMID:25211750

  3. 75 FR 80734 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (United States)


    ... CFR Part 850 RIN 1992-AA39 Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program AGENCY: Office of Health... beryllium disease prevention program. The Department solicits comment and information on the permissible... course of action regarding its chronic beryllium disease prevention program. DATES: All comments on...

  4. Occupational and non-occupational allergic contact dermatitis from beryllium. (United States)

    Vilaplana, J; Romaguera, C; Grimalt, F


    There are various references to sensitization to beryllium in the literature. Since introducing a patch testing series for patients with suspected sensitization to metals, we have found 3 cases of sensitization to beryllium. Of these 3 cases, we regard the first 2 as having relevant sensitization. Beryllium chloride (1% pet.) was positive in 3 patients and negative in 150 controls.

  5. 20 CFR 30.508 - What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? 30... and Offsets; Overpayments Payment of Claims and Offset for Certain Payments § 30.508 What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? Beryllium sensitivity monitoring shall consist of medical examinations to confirm...

  6. Characteristics of beryllium exposure to small particles at a beryllium production facility. (United States)

    Virji, M Abbas; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Day, Gregory A; Stanton, Marcia L; Kent, Michael S; Kreiss, Kathleen; Schuler, Christine R


    Epidemiological studies have reported process-specific elevated prevalence of beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) among workers. However, exposure-response relationships have been inconsistent, possibly due to incomplete characterization of many biologically relevant aspects of exposure, including particle size. In 1999, two surveys were conducted 3-5 months apart at a beryllium metal, oxide, and alloy production facility during which personal impactor samples (n = 198) and personal 37-mm closed-face cassette (CFC) 'total' samples (n = 4026) were collected. Among process areas, median particle mass median aerodynamic diameter ranged from 5 to 14 μm. A large fraction of the beryllium aerosol was in the nonrespirable size range. Respirable beryllium concentrations were among the highest for oxide production [geometric mean (GM) = 2.02 μg m⁻³, geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 1.3] and pebbles plant (GM = 1.05 μg m⁻³, GSD = 2.9), areas historically associated with high risk of BeS and CBD. The relationship between GM 'CFC total' and GM respirable beryllium for jobs varied by process areas; the rank order of the jobs showed high overall consistency (Spearman r = 0.84), but the overall correlation was moderate (Pearson r = 0.43). Total beryllium concentrations varied greatly within and between workers among process areas; within-worker variance was larger than between-worker variance for most processes. A review of exposure characteristics among process areas revealed variation in chemical forms and solubility. Process areas with high risk of BeS and CBD had exposure to both soluble and insoluble forms of beryllium. Consideration of biologically relevant aspects of exposure such as beryllium particle size distribution, chemical form, and solubility will likely improve exposure assessment.

  7. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia


    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail ( For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container. type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3). nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.). building concerned. details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting o...

  8. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia


    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail ( For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container; type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3); nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.); building concerned; details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting...

  9. [Effects of beryllium chloride on cultured cells]. (United States)

    Sakaguchi, T; Sakaguchi, S; Nakamura, I; Kagami, M


    The effects of beryllium on cultured cells were investigated. Three cell-lines (HeLa-S3, Vero, HEL-R66) were used in these experiments and they were cultured in Eagle's MEM plus 5 or 10% FBS (Fetal Bovine Serum) containing beryllium in various concentrations. HeLa cells or Vero cells were able to grow in the medium with 10 micrograms Be/ml (1.1 mM). On the other hand, the growth of HEL cells were strongly inhibited, even when cultured in the medium with 1 microgram Be/ml (1.1 X 10(-1) mM) and the number of living cells showed markedly low level as compared to that of the control samples cultured in the medium without beryllium. The cytotoxic effects of beryllium on these cells, which were cultured for three days in the medium with beryllium, were observed. None of cytotoxic effects were found on HeLa cells cultured with 0.5 micrograms/ml (5.5 X 10(-2) mM) and on Vero cells cultured with 0.05 micrograms Be/ml (5.5 X 10(-3) mM), while HEL cells received cytotoxic effects even when cultured in the medium containing 0.05 micrograms Be/ml (5.5 X 10(-3) mM), and these effects on the cells appeared strong when cultured in the medium without FBS. It was revealed from these experiments that HEL cells are very sensitive in terms of toxic effects of beryllium. Therefore, there cells can be used for the toxicological study on low level concentrations of the metal.

  10. Mineral resource of the month: beryllium (United States)

    Shedd, Kim B.


    Beryllium metal is lighter than aluminum and stiffer than steel. These and other properties, including its strength, dimensional stability, thermal properties and reflectivity, make it useful for aerospace and defense applications, such as satellite and space-vehicle structural components. Beryllium’s nuclear properties, combined with its low density, make it useful as a neutron reflector and moderator in nuclear reactors. Because it is transparent to most X rays, beryllium is used as X-ray windows in medical, industrial and analytical equipment.

  11. INDICO Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Fabbrichesi, Marco


    The INtegrated DIgital COnferencing EU project has finished building a complete software solution to facilitate the MANAGEMENT OF CONFERENCES, workshops, schools or simple meetings from their announcement to their archival. Everybody involved in the organization of events is welcome to join this workshop, in order to understand the scope of the project and to see demonstrations of the various features.

  12. ENTRIA workshop: Emotions in the implementation of a final nuclear disposal site; ENTRIA-Werkstattgespraech: ''Emotionen bei der Realisierung eines Endlagers fuer Atommuell''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kattau, Alke [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Rechtswissenschaften


    On 21 June 2016, prior to the publication of the report of the Commission Storage of High Radioactive Waste, ''Emotions in the realisation of a repository for nuclear waste'' were the topic of a workshop. The workshop was organised in the context of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) interdisciplinary research platform ENTRIA. In his opening remarks, Prof.Dr. Ulrich Smeddinck (Institute of Law of the University of Braunschweig) noticed, that emotions have been neglected in the scientific analysis so far, but fears and feelings to be considered with a special view.

  13. Preliminary results for explosion bonding of beryllium to copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, D.J. [Northwest Technical Industries, Inc., Sequim, WA (United States); Dombrowski, D.E. [Brush Wellman, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)


    This program was undertaken to determine if explosive bonding is a viable technique for joining beryllium to copper substrates. The effort was a cursory attempt at trying to solve some of the problems associated with explosive bonding beryllium and should not be considered a comprehensive research effort. There are two issues that this program addressed. Can beryllium be explosive bonded to copper substrates and can the bonding take place without shattering the beryllium? Thirteen different explosive bonding iterations were completed using various thicknesses of beryllium that were manufactured with three different techniques.

  14. Use of a Paraffin Based Grout to Stabilize Buried Beryllium and Other Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gretchen Matthern; Duane Hanson; Neal Yancey; Darrell Knudson


    The long term durability of WAXFIXi, a paraffin based grout, was evaluated for in situ grouting of activated beryllium wastes in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA), a radioactive landfill at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, part of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The evaluation considered radiological and biological mechanisms that could degrade the grout using data from an extensive literature search and previous tests of in situ grouting at the INL. Conservative radioactive doses for WAXFIX were calculated from the "hottest" (i.e., highest-activity) Advanced Test Reactor beryllium block in the SDA.. These results indicate that WAXFIX would not experience extensive radiation damage for many hundreds of years. Calculation of radiation induced hydrogen generation in WAXFIX indicated that grout physical performance should not be reduced beyond the effects of radiation dose on the molecular structure. Degradation of a paraffin-based grout by microorganisms in the SDA is possible and perhaps likely, but the rate of degradation will be at a slower rate than found in the literature reviewed. The calculations showed the outer 0.46 m (18 in.) layer of each monolith, which represents the minimum expected distance to the beryllium block, was calculated to require 1,000 to 3,600 years to be consumed. The existing data and estimations of biodegradation and radiolysis rates

  15. Status of beryllium development for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billone, M.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Donne, M.D. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Institut fuer Neutronphysik and Reaktortechnik; Macaulay-Newcombe, R.G. [McMaster Univ., Ontario, CA (United States). Dept. of Engineering Physics


    Beryllium is a leading candidate material for the neutron multiplier of tritium breeding blankets and the plasma facing component of first wall and divertor systems. Depending on the application, the fabrication methods proposed include hot-pressing, hot-isostatic-pressing, cold isostatic pressing/sintering, rotary electrode processing and plasma spraying. Product forms include blocks, tubes, pebbles, tiles and coatings. While, in general, beryllium is not a leading structural material candidate, its mechanical performance, as well its performance with regard to sputtering, heat transport, tritium retention/release, helium-induced swelling and chemical compatibility, is an important consideration in first-wall/blanket design. Differential expansion within the beryllium causes internal stresses which may result in cracking, thereby affecting the heat transport and barrier performance of the material. Overall deformation can result in loading of neighboring structural material. Thus, in assessing the performance of beryllium for fusion applications, it is important to have a good database in all of these performance areas, as well as a set of properties correlations and models for the purpose of interpolation/extrapolation.

  16. Historical analysis of airborne beryllium concentrations at a copper beryllium machining facility (1964-2000). (United States)

    McAtee, B L; Donovan, E P; Gaffney, S H; Frede, W; Knutsen, J S; Paustenbach, D J


    Copper beryllium alloys are the most commonly used form of beryllium; however, there have been few studies assessing occupational exposure in facilities that worked exclusively with this alloy versus those where pure metal or beryllium oxide may also have been present. In this paper, we evaluated the airborne beryllium concentrations at a machining plant using historical industrial hygiene samples collected between 1964 and 2000. With the exception of a few projects conducted in the 1960s, it is believed that >95% of the operations used copper beryllium alloy exclusively. Long-term (>120 min) and short-term (machining of copper beryllium-containing parts, as well as finishing operations (e.g., deburring and polishing) and decontamination of machinery. A total of 580 beryllium air samples were analyzed (311 personal and 269 area samples). The average concentration based on area samples (1964-2000) was 0.021 microg m(-3) (SD 0.17 microg m(-3); range 0.00012-2.5 microg m(-3)); 68.8% were below the analytical limit of detection (LOD). The average airborne beryllium concentration, based on all personal samples available from 1964 through the end of 2000 (n = 311), was 0.026 microg m(-3) (SD 0.059 microg m(-3); range 0.019-0.8 microg m(-3)); 97.4% were below the LOD. Personal samples collected from machinists (n = 78) had an average airborne concentration of 0.021 microg m(-3) (SD 0.014 microg m(-3); range 0.019-0.14 microg m(-3)); 97.4% were below the LOD. Airborne concentrations were consistently below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit for beryllium (2 microg m(-3)). Overall, the data indicate that for machining operations involving copper beryllium, the airborne concentrations for >95% of the samples were below the contemporaneous occupational exposure limits or the 1999 Department of Energy action level of 0.2 microg m(-3) and, in most cases, were below the LOD.

  17. Virtual Workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Lillian; Bygholm, Ann

    In relation to the Tutor course in the Mediterranean Virtual University (MVU) project, a virtual workshop “Getting experiences with different synchronous communication media, collaboration, and group work” was held with all partner institutions in January 2006. More than 25 key-tutors within MVU...... participated from different institutions in the workshop. The result of the workshop was experiences with different communication tools and media. Facing the difficulties and possibilities in collaborateting virtually concerned around group work and development of a shared presentation. All based on getting...... experiences for the learning design of MVU courses. The workshop intented to give the participants the possibility to draw their own experiences with issues on computer supported collaboration, group work in a virtual environment, synchronous and asynchronous communication media, and different perspectives...

  18. Workshop Proceedings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    , the main focus there is on spoken languages in their written and spoken forms. This series of workshops, however, offers a forum for researchers focussing on sign languages. For the third time, the workshop had sign language corpora as its main topic. This time, the focus was on the interaction between......This collection of papers stems from the Fifth Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages, held in May 2012 as a satellite to the Language Resources and Evaluation Conference in Istanbul. While there has been occasional attention for sign languages at the main LREC conference...... corpus and lexicon. More than half of the papers presented contribute to this topic. Once again, the papers at this workshop clearly identify the potentials of even closer cooperation between sign linguists and sign language engineers, and we think it is events like this that contribute a lot to a better...

  19. Characterization of plasma sprayed beryllium ITER first wall mockups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, R.G.; Vaidya, R.U.; Hollis, K.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Material Science and Technology Div.


    ITER first wall beryllium mockups, which were fabricated by vacuum plasma spraying the beryllium armor, have survived 3000 thermal fatigue cycles at 1 MW/m{sup 2} without damage during high heat flux testing at the Plasma Materials Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratory in New Mexico. The thermal and mechanical properties of the plasma sprayed beryllium armor have been characterized. Results are reported on the chemical composition of the beryllium armor in the as-deposited condition, the through thickness and normal to the through thickness thermal conductivity and thermal expansion, the four-point bend flexure strength and edge-notch fracture toughness of the beryllium armor, the bond strength between the beryllium armor and the underlying heat sink material, and ultrasonic C-scans of the Be/heat sink interface. (author)

  20. Mechanisms of hydrogen retention in metallic beryllium and beryllium oxide and properties of ion-induced beryllium nitride; Rueckhaltemechanismen fuer Wasserstoff in metallischem Beryllium und Berylliumoxid sowie Eigenschaften von ioneninduziertem Berylliumnitrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberkofler, Martin


    In the framework of this thesis laboratory experiments on atomically clean beryllium surfaces were performed. They aim at a basic understanding of the mechanisms occurring upon interaction of a fusion plasma with a beryllium first wall. The retention and the temperature dependent release of implanted deuterium ions are investigated. An atomistic description is developed through simulations and through the comparison with calculations based on density functional theory. The results of these investigations are compared to the behaviour of hydrogen upon implantation into thermally grown beryllium oxide layers. Furthermore, beryllium nitride is produced by implantation of nitrogen into metallic beryllium and its properties are investigated. The results are interpreted with regard to the use of beryllium in a fusion reactor. (orig.)

  1. PIGE analysis of magnesium and beryllium (United States)

    Fonseca, M.; Jesus, A. P.; Luís, H.; Mateus, R.; Cruz, J.; Gasques, L.; Galaviz, D.; Ribeiro, J. P.


    In this work, we present an alternative method for PIGE analysis of magnesium and beryllium in thick samples. This method is based on the ERYA - Emitted Radiation Yield Analysis - code, which integrates the nuclear reaction excitation function along the depth of the sample. For this purpose, the excitations functions of the 25Mg(p,p'γ) 25Mg ( Eγ = 585 keV) and 9Be(p,γ) 10B ( Eγ = 718 keV) reactions were employed. Calculated gamma-ray yields were compared, at several proton energy values, with experimental yields for thick samples made of inorganic compounds containing magnesium or beryllium. The agreement is better than 5%. Taking into consideration the experimental uncertainty of the measured yields and the errors related to the stopping power values, this agreement shows that effects as the beam energy straggling, ignored in the calculation, seem to play a minor role.

  2. Plasma cleaning of beryllium coated mirrors (United States)

    Moser, L.; Marot, L.; Steiner, R.; Newman, M.; Widdowson, A.; Ivanova, D.; Likonen, J.; Petersson, P.; Pintsuk, G.; Rubel, M.; Meyer, E.; Contributors, JET


    Cleaning systems of metallic first mirrors are needed in more than 20 optical diagnostic systems from ITER to avoid reflectivity losses. Currently, plasma sputtering is considered as one of the most promising techniques to remove deposits coming from the main wall (mainly beryllium and tungsten). This work presents the results of plasma cleaning of rhodium and molybdenum mirrors exposed in JET-ILW and contaminated with typical tokamak elements (including beryllium and tungsten). Using radio frequency (13.56 MHz) argon or helium plasma, the removal of mixed layers was demonstrated and mirror reflectivity improved towards initial values. The cleaning was evaluated by performing reflectivity measurements, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ion beam analysis.

  3. Electronic bistability in linear beryllium chains. (United States)

    Helal, Wissam; Monari, Antonio; Evangelisti, Stefano; Leininger, Thierry


    A theoretical investigation on the mixed-valence behavior (bistability) of a series of cationic linear chains composed of beryllium atoms, Be(N)(+) (with N = 6,..., 12), is presented. The calculations were performed at CAS-SCF and MR-CI levels by using an ANO basis set containing 6s4p3d2f orbitals for each atom. Our results show a consistent gradual shift between different classes of mixed-valence compounds as the number of beryllium atoms increases, from class III strong coupling toward class II valence trapped. Indeed, in the largest cases (N > 10), the cationic chains were found to be closer to class I, where the coupling vanishes. The intramolecular electron transfer parameters V(ab), E(a), and E(opt) were calculated for each atomic chain. It is shown that the decrease of V(ab) with increasing N follows an exponential pattern.

  4. Quantitative method of determining beryllium or a compound thereof in a sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Ehler, Deborah S. (Los Alamos, NM); John, Kevin D. (Santa Fe, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Collis, Gavin E. (Los Alamos, NM); Minogue, Edel M. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM)


    A method of determining beryllium or a beryllium compound thereof in a sample, includes providing a sample suspected of comprising beryllium or a compound thereof, extracting beryllium or a compound thereof from the sample by dissolving in a solution, adding a fluorescent indicator to the solution to thereby bind any beryllium or a compound thereof to the fluorescent indicator, and determining the presence or amount of any beryllium or a compound thereof in the sample by measuring fluorescence.

  5. Quantitative method of determining beryllium or a compound thereof in a sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Ehler, Deborah S.; John, Kevin D.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Collis, Gavin E.; Minogue, Edel M.; Warner, Benjamin P.


    A method of determining beryllium or a beryllium compound thereof in a sample, includes providing a sample suspected of comprising beryllium or a compound thereof, extracting beryllium or a compound thereof from the sample by dissolving in a solution, adding a fluorescent indicator to the solution to thereby bind any beryllium or a compound thereof to the fluorescent indicator, and determining the presence or amount of any beryllium or a compound thereof in the sample by measuring fluorescence.

  6. Beryllium induces premature senescence in human fibroblasts. (United States)

    Coates, Shannon S A; Lehnert, Bruce E; Sharma, Sunil; Kindell, Susan M; Gary, Ronald K


    After cells have completed a sufficient number of cell divisions, they exit the cell cycle and enter replicative senescence. Here, we report that beryllium causes proliferation arrest with premature expression of the principal markers of senescence. After young presenescent human fibroblasts were treated with 3 microM BeSO(4) for 24 h, p21 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor mRNA increased by >200%. Longer periods of exposure caused mRNA and protein levels to increase for both p21 and p16(Ink4a), a senescence regulator that prevents pRb-mediated cell cycle progression. BeSO(4) also caused dose-dependent induction of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity (SA-beta-gal). Untreated cells had 48 relative fluorescence units (RFU)/microg/h of SA-beta-gal, whereas 3 microM BeSO(4) caused activity to increase to 84 RFU/microg/h. In chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, BeSO(4) caused p53 protein to associate with its DNA binding site in the promoter region of the p21 gene, indicating that p53 transcriptional activity is responsible for the large increase in p21 mRNA elicited by beryllium. Forced expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) rendered HFL-1 cells incapable of normal replicative senescence. However, there was no difference in the responsiveness of normal HFL-1 fibroblasts (IC(50) = 1.9 microM) and hTERT-immortalized cells (IC(50) = 1.7 microM) to BeSO(4) in a 9-day proliferation assay. The effects of beryllium resemble those of histone deacetylase-inhibiting drugs, which also cause large increases in p21. However, beryllium produced no changes in histone acetylation, suggesting that Be(2+) acts as a novel and potent pharmacological inducer of premature senescence.

  7. Neutron counter based on beryllium activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienkowska, B.; Prokopowicz, R.; Kaczmarczyk, J.; Paducha, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM), Hery 23, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Scholz, M.; Igielski, A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAS (IFJPAN), Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Karpinski, L. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Rzeszow University of Technology, Pola 2, 35-959 Rzeszow (Poland); Pytel, K. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), Soltana 7, 05-400 Otwock - Swierk (Poland)


    The fusion reaction occurring in DD plasma is followed by emission of 2.45 MeV neutrons, which carry out information about fusion reaction rate and plasma parameters and properties as well. Neutron activation of beryllium has been chosen for detection of DD fusion neutrons. The cross-section for reaction {sup 9}Be(n, α){sup 6}He has a useful threshold near 1 MeV, which means that undesirable multiple-scattered neutrons do not undergo that reaction and therefore are not recorded. The product of the reaction, {sup 6}He, decays with half-life T{sub 1/2} = 0.807 s emitting β{sup −} particles which are easy to detect. Large area gas sealed proportional detector has been chosen as a counter of β–particles leaving activated beryllium plate. The plate with optimized dimensions adjoins the proportional counter entrance window. Such set-up is also equipped with appropriate electronic components and forms beryllium neutron activation counter. The neutron flux density on beryllium plate can be determined from the number of counts. The proper calibration procedure needs to be performed, therefore, to establish such relation. The measurements with the use of known β–source have been done. In order to determine the detector response function such experiment have been modeled by means of MCNP5–the Monte Carlo transport code. It allowed proper application of the results of transport calculations of β{sup −} particles emitted from radioactive {sup 6}He and reaching proportional detector active volume. In order to test the counter system and measuring procedure a number of experiments have been performed on PF devices. The experimental conditions have been simulated by means of MCNP5. The correctness of simulation outcome have been proved by measurements with known radioactive neutron source. The results of the DD fusion neutron measurements have been compared with other neutron diagnostics.

  8. Neutron counter based on beryllium activation (United States)

    Bienkowska, B.; Prokopowicz, R.; Scholz, M.; Kaczmarczyk, J.; Igielski, A.; Karpinski, L.; Paducha, M.; Pytel, K.


    The fusion reaction occurring in DD plasma is followed by emission of 2.45 MeV neutrons, which carry out information about fusion reaction rate and plasma parameters and properties as well. Neutron activation of beryllium has been chosen for detection of DD fusion neutrons. The cross-section for reaction 9Be(n, α)6He has a useful threshold near 1 MeV, which means that undesirable multiple-scattered neutrons do not undergo that reaction and therefore are not recorded. The product of the reaction, 6He, decays with half-life T1/2 = 0.807 s emitting β- particles which are easy to detect. Large area gas sealed proportional detector has been chosen as a counter of β-particles leaving activated beryllium plate. The plate with optimized dimensions adjoins the proportional counter entrance window. Such set-up is also equipped with appropriate electronic components and forms beryllium neutron activation counter. The neutron flux density on beryllium plate can be determined from the number of counts. The proper calibration procedure needs to be performed, therefore, to establish such relation. The measurements with the use of known β-source have been done. In order to determine the detector response function such experiment have been modeled by means of MCNP5-the Monte Carlo transport code. It allowed proper application of the results of transport calculations of β- particles emitted from radioactive 6He and reaching proportional detector active volume. In order to test the counter system and measuring procedure a number of experiments have been performed on PF devices. The experimental conditions have been simulated by means of MCNP5. The correctness of simulation outcome have been proved by measurements with known radioactive neutron source. The results of the DD fusion neutron measurements have been compared with other neutron diagnostics.

  9. Computer simulation of electronic excitations in beryllium

    CERN Document Server

    Popov, A V


    An effective method for the quantitative description of the electronic excited states of polyatomic systems is developed by using computer technology. The proposed method allows calculating various properties of matter at the atomic level within the uniform scheme. A special attention is paid to the description of beryllium atoms interactions with the external fields, comparable by power to the fields in atoms, molecules and clusters.

  10. Possible health risks from low level exposure to beryllium. (United States)

    Stange, A W; Hilmas, D E; Furman, F J


    The first case of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats) was diagnosed in a machinist in 1984. Rocky Flats, located 16 miles northwest of Denver, Colorado, is part of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons complex. Research and development operations using beryllium began at Rocky Flats in 1953, and beryllium production operations began in 1957. Exposures could have occurred during foundry operations, casting, shearing, rolling, cutting, welding, machining, sanding, polishing, assembly, and chemical analysis operations. The Beryllium Health Surveillance Program (BHSP) was established in June 1991 at Rocky Flats to provide health surveillance for beryllium exposed employees using the Lymphocyte Proliferation Test (LPT) to identify sensitized individuals. Of the 29 cases of CBD and 76 cases of beryllium sensitization identified since 1991, several cases appear to have had only minimal opportunistic exposures to beryllium, since they were employed in administrative functions rather than primary beryllium operations. In conjunction with other health surveillance programs, a questionnaire and interview are administered to obtain detailed work and health histories. These histories, along with other data, are utilized to estimate the extent of an individual's exposure. Additional surveillance is in progress to attempt to characterize the possible risks from intermittent or brief exposures to beryllium in the workplace.

  11. Behavior of beryllium pebbles under irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalle-Donne, M.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reactortechnik; Baldwin, D.L.; Gelles, D.S.; Greenwood, L.R.; Kawamura, H.; Oliver, B.M.


    Beryllium pebbles are being considered in fusion reactor blanket designs as neutron multiplier. An example is the European `Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Blanket.` Several forms of beryllium pebbles are commercially available but little is known about these forms in response to fast neutron irradiation. Commercially available beryllium pebbles have been irradiated to approximately 1.3 x 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2} (E>1 MeV) at 390degC. Pebbles 1-mm in diameter manufactured by Brush Wellman, USA and by Nippon Gaishi Company, Japan, and 3-mm pebbles manufactured by Brush Wellman were included. All were irradiated in the below-core area of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II in Idaho Falls, USA, in molybdenum alloy capsules containing helium. Post-irradiation results are presented on density change measurements, tritium release by assay, stepped-temperature anneal, and thermal ramp desorption tests, and helium release by assay and stepped-temperature anneal measurements, for Be pebbles from two manufacturing methods, and with two specimen diameters. The experimental results on density change and tritium and helium release are compared with the predictions of the code ANFIBE. (author)

  12. Network workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Evans, Robert Harry


    This paper describes the background for, realisation of and author reflections on a network workshop held at ESERA2013. As a new research area in science education, networks offer a unique opportunity to visualise and find patterns and relationships in complicated social or academic network data....... These include student relations and interactions and epistemic and linguistic networks of words, concepts and actions. Network methodology has already found use in science education research. However, while networks hold the potential for new insights, they have not yet found wide use in the science education...... research community. With this workshop, participants were offered a way into network science based on authentic educational research data. The workshop was constructed as an inquiry lesson with emphasis on user autonomy. Learning activities had participants choose to work with one of two cases of networks...

  13. Network workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Evans, Robert Harry


    research community. With this workshop, participants were offered a way into network science based on authentic educational research data. The workshop was constructed as an inquiry lesson with emphasis on user autonomy. Learning activities had participants choose to work with one of two cases of networks......This paper describes the background for, realisation of and author reflections on a network workshop held at ESERA2013. As a new research area in science education, networks offer a unique opportunity to visualise and find patterns and relationships in complicated social or academic network data....... These include student relations and interactions and epistemic and linguistic networks of words, concepts and actions. Network methodology has already found use in science education research. However, while networks hold the potential for new insights, they have not yet found wide use in the science education...

  14. Functionally Graded Nanophase Beryllium/Carbon Composites (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.


    Beryllium, beryllium alloys, beryllium carbide, and carbon are the ingredients of a class of nanophase Be/Be2C/C composite materials that can be formulated and functionally graded to suit a variety of applications. In a typical case, such a composite consists of a first layer of either pure beryllium or a beryllium alloy, a second layer of B2C, and a third layer of nanophase sintered carbon derived from fullerenes and nanotubes. The three layers are interconnected through interpenetrating spongelike structures. These Be/Be2C/C composite materials are similar to Co/WC/diamond functionally graded composite materials, except that (1) W and Co are replaced by Be and alloys thereof and (2) diamond is replaced by sintered carbon derived from fullerenes and nanotubes. (Optionally, one could form a Be/Be2C/diamond composite.) Because Be is lighter than W and Co, the present Be/Be2C/C composites weigh less than do the corresponding Co/WC/diamond composites. The nanophase carbon is almost as hard as diamond. WC/Co is the toughest material. It is widely used for drilling, digging, and machining. However, the fact that W is a heavy element (that is, has high atomic mass and mass density) makes W unattractive for applications in which weight is a severe disadvantage. Be is the lightest tough element, but its toughness is less than that of WC/Co alloy. Be strengthened by nanophase carbon is much tougher than pure or alloy Be. The nanophase carbon has an unsurpassed strength-to-weight ratio. The Be/Be2C/C composite materials are especially attractive for terrestrial and aerospace applications in which there are requirements for light weight along with the high strength and toughness of the denser Co/WC/diamond materials. These materials could be incorporated into diverse components, including cutting tools, bearings, rocket nozzles, and shields. Moreover, because Be and C are effective as neutron moderators, Be/Be2C/C composites could be attractive for some nuclear applications.

  15. Beryllium metal II. a review of the available toxicity data. (United States)

    Strupp, Christian


    Beryllium metal was classified in Europe collectively with beryllium compounds, e.g. soluble salts. Toxicological equivalence was assumed despite greatly differing physicochemical properties. Following introduction of the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) regulation, beryllium metal was classified as individual substance and more investigational efforts to appropriately characterize beryllium metal as a specific substance apart from soluble beryllium compounds was required. A literature search on toxicity of beryllium metal was conducted, and the resulting literature compiled together with the results of a recently performed study package into a comprehensive data set. Testing performed under Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development guidelines and Good Laboratory Practice concluded that beryllium metal was neither a skin irritant, an eye irritant, a skin sensitizer nor evoked any clinical signs of acute oral toxicity; discrepancies between the current legal classification of beryllium metal in the European Union (EU) and the experimental results were identified. Furthermore, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity were discussed in the context of the literature data and the new experimental data. It was concluded that beryllium metal is unlikely to be a classical nonthreshold mutagen. Effects on DNA repair and morphological cell transformation were observed but need further investigation to evaluate their relevance in vivo. Animal carcinogenicity studies deliver evidence of carcinogenicity in the rat; however, lung overload may be a species-specific confounding factor in the existing studies, and studies in other species do not give convincing evidence of carcinogenicity. Epidemiology has been intensively discussed over the last years and has the problem that the studies base on the same US beryllium production population and do not distinguish between metal and soluble compounds. It is noted that the correlation

  16. Poetry Workshop. (United States)

    Janeczko, Paul B.


    This workshop offers activities to teach students about poetry. After describing haiku as a brief snapshot rather than a story, it explains how to teach poetry using an attached reproducible and poster. The tear-out reproducible sheet teaches students how to write their own haiku, offering a sample one as a model. The poster presents three sample…

  17. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850.20 Energy... Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The responsible employer must develop a baseline inventory of the... inventory, the responsible employer must: (1) Review current and historical records; (2) Interview...

  18. Joining of beryllium by braze welding technique: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banaim, P.; Abramov, E. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel); Zalkind, S.; Eden, S.


    Within the framework of some applications, there is a need to join beryllium parts to each other. Gas Tungsten Arc Braze Welds were made in beryllium using 0.3 mm commercially Aluminum (1100) shim preplaced at the joint. The welds exhibited a tendency to form microcracks in the Fusion Zone and Heat Affected Zone. All the microcracks were backfilled with Aluminum. (author)

  19. Ionization energies of beryllium in strong magnetic fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUANXiao-xu; ZHANGYue-xia


    We have develop an effective frozen core approximation to calculate energy levels and ionization enegies of the beryllium atom in magnetic field strengths up to 2.35 × 105T. Systematic improvement over the Hartree-Fock results for the beryllium low-lying states has been accomplished.

  20. Ionization energies of beryllium in strong magnetic fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Xiao-xu; ZHANG Yue-xia


    We have develop an effective frozen core approximation to calculate energy levels and ionization enegies of the beryllium atom in magnetic field strengths up to 2.35×105T. Systematic improvement over the Hartree-Fock results for the beryllium low-lying states has been accomplished.

  1. Beryllium toxicity testing in the suspension culture of mouse fibroblasts. (United States)

    Rössner, P; Bencko, V


    Suspension culture of mouse fibroblast cell line L-A 115 was used to test beryllium toxicity in the presence of magnesium ions. Beryllium added to the MEM cultivation medium was bound in a complex with sulphosalicylic acid BeSSA complex, because the use of beryllium chloride turned out to yield ineffective beryllium phosphate that formed macroscopically detectable insoluble opacities. The BeSSA complex was used in the concentration range: 10(-3)--10(-9)M, magnesium was used in 3 concentrations: 10(-1)M, 5 x 10(-2)M and 10(-2)M. Growth curve analysis revealed pronounced beryllium toxicity at the concentration of 10(-3)M, magnesium-produced toxic changes were observed only at the concentration of 10(-1)M. No competition between the beryllium and magnesium ions was recorded. It is assumed that the possible beryllium-magnesium competition was significantly modified by the use of BeSSA complex-bound beryllium.

  2. Dissolution of beryllium in artificial lung alveolar macrophage phagolysosomal fluid. (United States)

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Virji, M Abbas; Day, Gregory A


    Dissolution of a lung burden of poorly soluble beryllium particles is hypothesized to be necessary for development of chronic beryllium lung disease (CBD) in humans. As such, particle dissolution rate must be sufficient to activate the lung immune response and dissolution lifetime sufficient to maintain chronic inflammation for months to years to support development of disease. The purpose of this research was to investigate the hypothesis that poorly soluble beryllium compounds release ions via dissolution in lung fluid. Dissolution kinetics of 17 poorly soluble particulate beryllium materials that span extraction through ceramics machining (ores, hydroxide, metal, copper-beryllium [CuBe] fume, oxides) and three CuBe alloy reference materials (chips, solid block) were measured over 31 d using artificial lung alveolar macrophage phagolysosomal fluid (pH 4.5). Differences in beryllium-containing particle physicochemical properties translated into differences in dissolution rates and lifetimes in artificial phagolysosomal fluid. Among all materials, dissolution rate constant values ranged from 10(-5) to 10(-10)gcm(-2)d(-1) and half-times ranged from tens to thousands of days. The presence of magnesium trisilicate in some beryllium oxide materials may have slowed dissolution rates. Materials associated with elevated prevalence of CBD had faster beryllium dissolution rates [10(-7)-10(-8)gcm(-2)d(-1)] than materials not associated with elevated prevalence (p<0.05).


    EPA's assessment of the noncancer health effects and carcinogenic potential of Beryllium was added to the IRIS database in 1998. The IRIS program is updating the IRIS assessment for Beryllium. This update will incorporate health effects information published since the last assess...

  4. Protection of air in premises and environment against beryllium aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitkolov, N.Z.; Vishnevsky, E.P.; Krupkin, A.V. [Research Inst. of Industrial and Marine Medicine, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)


    First and foremost, the danger of beryllium aerosols concerns a possibility of their inhalation. The situation is aggravated with high biological activity of the beryllium in a human lung. The small allowable beryllium aerosols` concentration in air poses a rather complex and expensive problem of the pollution prevention and clearing up of air. The delivery and transportation of beryllium aerosols from sites of their formation are defined by the circuit of ventilation, that forms aerodynamics of air flows in premises, and aerodynamic links between premises. The causes of aerosols release in air of premises from hoods, isolated and hermetically sealed vessels can be vibrations, as well as pulses of temperature and pressure. Furthermore, it is possible the redispersion of aerosols from dirty surfaces. The effective protection of air against beryllium aerosols at industrial plants is provided by a complex of hygienic measures: from individual means of breath protection up to collective means of the prevention of air pollution. (J.P.N.)

  5. Estimating occupational beryllium exposure from compliance monitoring data. (United States)

    Hamm, Michele P; Burstyn, Igor


    Occupational exposure to beryllium is widespread and is a health risk. The objectives of this study were to develop plausible models to estimate occupational airborne beryllium exposure. Compliance monitoring data were obtained from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration for 12,148 personal measurements of beryllium exposure from 1979 to 2005. Industry codes were maintained as reported or collapsed based on the number of measurements per cell of a job-exposure matrix (JEM). Probability of exposure was predicted based on year, industry, job, and sampling duration. In these models, probability of exposure decreased over time, was highest in full-shift personal samples, and varied with industry and job. The probability of exposure was calculated using 6 JEMs, each providing similar rankings of the likelihood of non-negligible exposure to beryllium. These statistical models, with expert appraisal, are suitable for the assessment of the probability of elevated occupational exposure to beryllium.

  6. Toxicological effects of beryllium on platelets and vascular endothelium. (United States)

    Togna, G; Togna, A R; Russo, P; Caprino, L


    Although ample research has described the toxic effects of the metal beryllium on the respiratory apparatus, less is known about its effects on the vascular apparatus, including pulmonary blood vessels. We investigated the in vitro effects of beryllium on endothelial vascular adenosine diphosphatase activity and prostacyclin production in bovine aortic endothelium, and on nitric oxide release in isolated rabbit arteries. Rabbit and human platelet responsiveness was also evaluated. Beryllium inhibited vascular endothelial adenosine diphosphatase activity, prostacyclin production, and nitric oxide release, thus inducing functional alterations in vascular endothelial cells. It also induced platelet hyperreactivity to arachidonic acid, as shown by a lowering of the threshold of aggregating concentration and by concurrently increasing thromboxane production. In contrast, beryllium left the response to aggregating and nonaggregating concentrations of ADP and collagen unchanged. These findings show that beryllium may impair some vascular endothelial functions and alter the interaction between platelet and endothelial mediators.

  7. Release of beryllium into artificial airway epithelial lining fluid. (United States)

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Virji, M Abbas; Day, Gregory A


    Inhaled beryllium particles that deposit in the lung airway lining fluid may dissolve and interact with immune-competent cells resulting in sensitization. As such, solubilization of 17 beryllium-containing materials (ore, hydroxide, metal, oxide, alloys, and process intermediates) was investigated using artificial human airway epithelial lining fluid. The maximum beryllium release in 7 days was 11.78% (from a beryl ore melter dust), although release from most materials was beryllium ions may be released in the respiratory tract via dissolution in airway lining fluid. Beryllium-containing particles that deposit in the respiratory tract dissolve in artificial lung epithelial lining fluid, thereby providing ions for absorption in the lung and interaction with immune-competent cells in the respiratory tract.


    Gilliland, R.G.; Patriarca, P.; Slaughter, G.M.; Williams, L.C.


    A new and improved ternary alloy is described which is of particular utility in braze-bonding parts made of a refractory metal selected from Group IV, V, and VI of the periodic table and alloys containing said metal as a predominating alloying ingredient. The brazing alloy contains, by weight, 40 to 50 per cent zirconium, 40 to 50 per cent titanium, and the balance beryllium in amounts ranging from 1 to 20 per cent, said alloy having a melting point in the range 950 to 1400 deg C. (AEC)

  9. Neutron beams from protons on beryllium. (United States)

    Bewley, D K; Meulders, J P; Octave-Prignot, M; Page, B C


    Measurements of dose rate and penetration in water have been made for neutron beams produced by 30--75 MeV protons on beryllium. The effects of Polythene filters added on the target side of the collimator have also been studied. A neutron beam comparable with a photon beam from a 4--8 MeV linear accelerator can be produced with p/Be neutrons plus 5 cm Polythene filtrations, with protons in the range 50--75 MeV. This is a more economical method than use of the d/Be reaction.

  10. 40 CFR 63.11166 - What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities? (United States)


    ... primary beryllium production facilities? 63.11166 Section 63.11166 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Primary Beryllium Production Facilities § 63.11166 What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities? (a) You...

  11. Creating Fantastic PI Workshops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biedermann, Laura B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Clark, Blythe G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Colbert, Rachel S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dagel, Amber Lynn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gupta, Vipin P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hibbs, Michael R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Perkins, David Nikolaus [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); West, Roger Derek [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The goal of this SAND report is to provide guidance for other groups hosting workshops and peerto-peer learning events at Sandia. Thus this SAND report provides detail about our team structure, how we brainstormed workshop topics and developed the workshop structure. A Workshop “Nuts and Bolts” section provides our timeline and check-list for workshop activities. The survey section provides examples of the questions we asked and how we adapted the workshop in response to the feedback.

  12. Beryllium nitrate inhibits fibroblast migration to disrupt epimorphic regeneration. (United States)

    Cook, Adam B; Seifert, Ashley W


    Epimorphic regeneration proceeds with or without formation of a blastema, as observed for the limb and skin, respectively. Inhibition of epimorphic regeneration provides a means to interrogate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate it. In this study, we show that exposing amputated limbs to beryllium nitrate disrupts blastema formation and causes severe patterning defects in limb regeneration. In contrast, exposing full-thickness skin wounds to beryllium only causes a delay in skin regeneration. By transplanting full-thickness skin from ubiquitous GFP-expressing axolotls to wild-type hosts, we demonstrate that beryllium inhibits fibroblast migration during limb and skin regeneration in vivo Moreover, we show that beryllium also inhibits cell migration in vitro using axolotl and human fibroblasts. Interestingly, beryllium did not act as an immunostimulatory agent as it does in Anurans and mammals, nor did it affect keratinocyte migration, proliferation or re-epithelialization, suggesting that the effect of beryllium is cell type-specific. While we did not detect an increase in cell death during regeneration in response to beryllium, it did disrupt cell proliferation in mesenchymal cells. Taken together, our data show that normal blastema organogenesis cannot occur without timely infiltration of local fibroblasts and highlights the importance of positional information to instruct pattern formation during regeneration. In contrast, non-blastemal-based skin regeneration can occur despite early inhibition of fibroblast migration and cell proliferation.

  13. Quantum molecular dynamics simulations of beryllium at high pressures (United States)

    Desjarlais, Michael; Knudson, Marcus


    The phase boundaries and high pressure melt properties of beryllium have been the subject of several recent experimental and theoretical studies. The interest is motivated in part by the use of beryllium as an ablator material in inertial confinement fusion capsule designs. In this work, the high pressure melt curve, Hugoniot crossings, sound speeds, and phase boundaries of beryllium are explored with DFT based quantum molecular dynamics calculations. The entropy differences between the various phases of beryllium are extracted in the vicinity of the melt curve and agree favorably with earlier theoretical work on normal melting. High velocity flyer plate experiments with beryllium targets on Sandia's Z machine have generated high quality data for the Hugoniot, bulk sound speeds, and longitudinal sound speeds. This data provides a tight constraint on the pressure for the onset of shock melting of beryllium and intriguing information on the solid phase prior to melt. The results of the QMD calculations and the experimental results will be compared, and implications for the HCP and BCC phase boundaries of beryllium will be presented.

  14. Sarcoidosis and chronic beryllium disease: similarities and differences. (United States)

    Mayer, Annyce S; Hamzeh, Nabeel; Maier, Lisa A


    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a granulomatous lung disease that may be pathologically and clinically indistinguishable from pulmonary sarcoidosis, except through use of immunologic testing, such as the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT). Similar to sarcoidosis, the pulmonary manifestations of CBD are variable and overlap with other respiratory diseases. Definitive diagnosis of CBD is established by evidence of immune sensitization to beryllium and diagnostic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy. However, the diagnosis of CBD can also be established on a medically probable basis in beryllium-exposed patients with consistent radiographic imaging and clinical course. Beryllium workers exposed too much higher levels of beryllium in the past demonstrated a much more fulminant disease than is usually seen today. Some extrapulmonary manifestations similar to sarcoidosis were noted in these historic cohorts, although with a narrower spectrum. Extrapulmonary manifestations of CBD are rare today. Since lung-predominant sarcoidosis can very closely resemble CBD, CBD is still misdiagnosed as sarcoidosis when current or past exposure to beryllium is not recognized and no BeLPT is obtained. This article describes the similarities and differences between CBD and sarcoidosis, including clinical and diagnostic features that can help physicians consider CBD in patients with apparent lung-predominant sarcoidosis.

  15. Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Treated non-hazardous and non-radioactive liquid wastes are collected and then disposed of through the systems at the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). More...

  16. Angiotensin-1 converting enzyme polymorphisms in chronic beryllium disease. (United States)

    Maier, L A; Raynolds, M V; Young, D A; Barker, E A; Newman, L S


    To test the hypothesis that the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) genotype is associated with chronic beryllium disease (CBD) and disease severity, we studied 50 cases of CBD and compared their ACE genotype to that of two different control groups, consisting of: (1) 50 participants from a beryllium machining facility; and (2) 50 participants from a non-beryllium-associated workplace. We found no statistically significant difference in the frequency of the I or D allele or of the DD genotype among cases of CBD and either control group. The odds ratio (OR) for the CBD DD genotype as compared with the non-DD genotype was 1.58 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.68 to 3.66, p = 0.12) for the beryllium-exposed control group, and 1.09 (95% CI: 0.48 to 2.46, p = 0.56) for the non-beryllium-exposed controls. We found an association between serum ACE activity and the ACE genotype, with DD cases having the highest median serum ACE activity (p = 0.005). We evaluated the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell components, chest radiography, pulmonary function test results, and exercise physiology in our CBD cases. No statistically significant associations with these disease markers were found for the CBD cases with the DD genotype. Although the difference was not statistically significant, the DD cases had a shorter median duration of exposure to beryllium before diagnosis of CBD, and tended to have a weaker response in their blood and BAL BeLPT than did the non-DD cases. These findings may indicate that the ACE genotype is important in the immune response to beryllium and in progression to beryllium disease.

  17. Beryllium Health and Safety Committee Data Reporting Task Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, D H


    On December 8, 1999, the Department of Energy (DOE) published Title 10 CFR 850 (hereafter referred to as the Rule) to establish a chronic beryllium disease prevention program (CBDPP) to: {sm_bullet} reduce the number of workers currently exposed to beryllium in the course of their work at DOE facilities managed by DOE or its contractors, {sm_bullet} minimize the levels of, and potential for, expos exposure to beryllium, and {sm_bullet} establish medical surveillance requirements to ensure early detection of the disease.

  18. Inhibitory effects of beryllium chloride on rat liver microsomal enzymes. (United States)

    Teixeira, C F; Yasaka, W J; Silva, L F; Oshiro, T T; Oga, S


    A single i.v. dose (0.1 mmol Be2+/kg) of beryllium chloride prolonged the duration of pentobarbital-induced sleep and zoxazolamine-induced paralysis, in rats. The effects are correlated with changes of the pharmacokinetic parameters and with the in vitro inhibition of both aliphatic and aromatic hydroxylation of pentobarbital and zoxazolamine. In vitro N-demethylation of meperidine and aminopyrine was partially inhibited while O-demethylation of quinidine was unaffected by liver microsomes of rats pretreated with beryllium salt. The findings give clues that beryllium chloride inhibits some forms of cytochrome P-450, especially those responsible for hydroxylation of substrates, like pentobarbital and zoxazolamine.

  19. Development of Beryllium Vacuum Chamber Technology for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Veness, R; Dorn, C


    Beryllium is the material of choice for the beam vacuum chambers around collision points in particle colliders due to a combination of transparency to particles, high specific stiffness and compatibility with ultra-high vacuum. New requirements for these chambers in the LHC experiments have driven the development of new methods for the manufacture of beryllium chambers. This paper reviews the requirements for experimental vacuum chambers. It describes the new beryllium technology adopted for the LHC and experience gained in the manufacture and installation.

  20. Workshop experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Holt


    Full Text Available The setting for the workshop was a heady mix of history, multiculturalism and picturesque riverscapes. Within the group there was, as in many food studies, a preponderance of female scientists (or ethnographers, but the group interacted on lively, non-gendered terms - focusing instead on an appreciation of locals food and enthusiasm for research shared by all, and points of theoretical variance within that.The food provided by our hosts was of the very highest eating and local food qualities...

  1. Workshop proceedings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    investigation already, but for many other domains, such as books, news, scientific articles, and Web pages we do not know if and how these data sources should be combined to provided the best recommendation performance. The CBRecSys 2014 workshop aims to address this by providing a dedicated venue for papers...... dedicated to all aspects of content-based recommendation. We issued a Call for Papers asking for submissions of novel research papers (both long and short) addressing recommendation in do- mains where textual content is abundant (e.g., books, news, scientific articles, jobs, educational resources, Web pages...

  2. Measurement of Beryllium in Biological Samples by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry: Applications for Studying Chronic Beryllium Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarappa-Zucca, M L; Finkel, R C; Martinelli, R E; McAninch, J E; Nelson, D O; Turtletaub, K W


    A method using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has been developed for quantifying attomoles of beryllium (Be) in biological samples. This method provides the sensitivity to trace Be in biological samples at very low doses with the purpose of identifying the molecular targets involved in chronic beryllium disease. Proof of the method was tested by administering 0.001, 0.05, 0.5 and 5.0 {micro}g {sup 9}Be and {sup 10}Be by intraperitoneal injection to male mice and removing spleen, liver, femurs, blood, lung, and kidneys after 24 h exposure. These samples were prepared for AMS analysis by tissue digestion in nitric acid, followed by further organic oxidation with hydrogen peroxide and ammonium persulfate and lastly, precipitation of Be with ammonium hydroxide, and conversion to beryllium oxide at 800 C. The {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratio of the extracted beryllium oxide was measured by AMS and Be in the original sample was calculated. Results indicate that Be levels were dose-dependent in all tissues and the highest levels were measured in the spleen and liver. The measured {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratios spanned 4 orders of magnitude, from 10{sup -10} to 10{sup -14}, with a detection limit of 3.0 x 10{sup -14}, which is equivalent to 0.8 attomoles of {sup 10}Be. These results show that routine quantification of nanogram levels of Be in tissues is possible and that AMS is a sensitive method that can be used in biological studies to understand the molecular dosimetry of Be and mechanisms of toxicity.

  3. Extraction of beryllium from refractory beryllium oxide with dilute ammonium bifluoride and determination by fluorescence: a multiparameter performance evaluation. (United States)

    Goldcamp, Michael J; Goldcamp, Diane M; Ashley, Kevin; Fernback, Joseph E; Agrawal, Anoop; Millson, Mark; Marlow, David; Harrison, Kenneth


    Beryllium exposure can cause a number of deleterious health effects, including beryllium sensitization and the potentially fatal chronic beryllium disease. Efficient methods for monitoring beryllium contamination in workplaces are valuable to help prevent dangerous exposures to this element. In this work, performance data on the extraction of beryllium from various size fractions of high-fired beryllium oxide (BeO) particles (from Beryllium concentrations were determined by fluorescence using a hydroxybenzoquinoline fluorophore. The effects of ABF concentration and volume, extraction temperature, sample tube types, and presence of filter or wipe media were examined. Three percent ABF extracts beryllium nearly twice as quickly as 1% ABF; extraction solution volume has minimal influence. Elevated temperatures increase the rate of extraction dramatically compared with room temperature extraction. Sample tubes with constricted tips yield poor extraction rates owing to the inability of the extraction medium to access the undissolved particles. The relative rates of extraction of Be from BeO of varying particle sizes were examined. Beryllium from BeO particles in fractions ranging from less than 32 microm up to 212 microm were subjected to various extraction schemes. The smallest BeO particles are extracted more quickly than the largest particles, although at 90 degrees C even the largest BeO particles reach nearly quantitative extraction within 4 hr in 3% ABF. Extraction from mixed cellulosic-ester filters, cellulosic surface-sampling filters, wetted cellulosic dust wipes, and cotton gloves yielded 90% or greater recoveries. Scanning electron microscopy of BeO particles, including partially dissolved particles, shows that dissolution in dilute ABF occurs not just on the exterior surface but also via accessing particles' interiors due to porosity of the BeO material. Comparison of dissolution kinetics data shows that as particle diameter approximately doubles, extraction

  4. Recent Workshops

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F. J.

    Since the previous edition of ATLAS e-news, the NIKHEF Institute in Amsterdam has hosted not just one but two workshops related to ATLAS TDAQ activities. The first in October was dedicated to the Detector Control System (DCS). Just three institutes, CERN, NIKHEF and St Petersburg, provide the effort for the central DCS services, but each ATLAS sub-detector provides effort for their own controls. Some 30 people attended, including representatives for all of the ATLAS sub-detectors, representatives of the institutes working on the central services and the project leader of JCOP, which brings together common aspects of detector controls across the LHC experiments. During the three-day workshop the common components were discussed, and each sub-detector described their experiences and plans for their future systems. Whilst many of the components to be used are standard commercial components, a key custom item for ATLAS is the ELMB (Embedded Local Monitor Board). Prototypes for this have now been extensively test...

  5. Investigation of the ion beryllium surface interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guseva, M.I.; Birukov, A.Yu.; Gureev, V.M. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others


    The self -sputtering yield of the Be was measured. The energy dependence of the Be self-sputtering yield agrees well with that calculated by W. Eckstein et. al. Below 770 K the self-sputtering yield is temperature independent; at T{sub irr}.> 870 K it increases sharply. Hot-pressed samples at 370 K were implanted with monoenergetic 5 keV hydrogen ions and with a stationary plasma (flux power {approximately} 5 MW/m{sup 2}). The investigation of hydrogen behavior in beryllium shows that at low doses hydrogen is solved, but at doses {ge} 5x10{sup 22} m{sup -2} the bubbles and channels are formed. It results in hydrogen profile shift to the surface and decrease of its concentration. The sputtering results in further concentration decrease at doses > 10{sup 25}m{sup -2}.

  6. Primordial beryllium as a big bang calorimeter. (United States)

    Pospelov, Maxim; Pradler, Josef


    Many models of new physics including variants of supersymmetry predict metastable long-lived particles that can decay during or after primordial nucleosynthesis, releasing significant amounts of nonthermal energy. The hadronic energy injection in these decays leads to the formation of ⁹Be via the chain of nonequilibrium transformations: Energy(h)→T, ³He→⁶He, ⁶Li→⁹Be. We calculate the efficiency of this transformation and show that if the injection happens at cosmic times of a few hours the release of O(10 MeV) per baryon can be sufficient for obtaining a sizable ⁹Be abundance. The absence of a plateau structure in the ⁹Be/H abundance down to a O(10⁻¹⁴) level allows one to use beryllium as a robust constraint on new physics models with decaying or annihilating particles.

  7. Photodesorption from copper, beryllium, and thin films (United States)

    Foerster, C. L.; Halama, H. J.; Korn, G.

    Ever increasing circulating currents in electron-positron colliders and light sources demand lower and lower photodesportion (PSD) from the surfaces of their vacuum chambers and their photon absorbers. This is particularly important in compact electron storage rings and B meson factories where photon power of several kw cm(exp -1) is deposited on the surfaces. Given the above factors, we have measured PSD from 1 m long bars of solid copper and solid beryllium, and TiN, Au and C thin films deposited on solid copper bars. Each sample was exposed to about 10(exp 23) photons/m with a critical energy of 500 eV at the VUV ring of the NSLS. PSD was recorded for two conditions: after a 200 C bake-out and after an Ar glow discharge cleaning. In addition, we also measured reflected photons, photoelectrons and desorption as functions of normal, 75 mrad, 100 mrad, and 125 mrad incident photons.

  8. New facility for post irradiation examination of neutron irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Kawamura, Hiroshi [Oarai Research Establishment, Ibaraki-Ken (Japan)


    Beryllium is expected as a neutron multiplier and plasma facing materials in the fusion reactor, and the neutron irradiation data on properties of beryllium up to 800{degrees}C need for the engineering design. The acquisition of data on the tritium behavior, swelling, thermal and mechanical properties are first priority in ITER design. Facility for the post irradiation examination of neutron irradiated beryllium was constructed in the hot laboratory of Japan Materials Testing Reactor to get the engineering design data mentioned above. This facility consist of the four glove boxes, dry air supplier, tritium monitoring and removal system, storage box of neutron irradiated samples. Beryllium handling are restricted by the amount of tritium;7.4 GBq/day and {sup 60}Co;7.4 MBq/day.

  9. The uses and adverse effects of beryllium on health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Ross G.; Harrison, Adrian Paul


    Context: This review describes the health effects of beryllium exposure in the workplace and the environment. Aim: To collate information on the consequences of occupational and environmental exposure to beryllium on physiological function and well being. Materials and Methods: The criteria used...... in the current review for selecting articles were adopted from proposed criteria in The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Articles were classified based on acute and chronic exposure and toxicity of beryllium. Results: The proportions of utilized and nonutilized articles were...... published in sources unobtainable through requests at the British Library, and some had no impact factor and were excluded. Conclusion: Beryllium has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being. Measures needed to be taken to prevent hazardous exposure to this element, making its...

  10. Development of Biomarkers for Chronic Beryllium Disease in Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Terry


    Beryllium is a strategic metal, indispensable for national defense programs in aerospace, telecommunications, electronics, and weaponry. Exposure to beryllium is an extensively documented occupational hazard that causes irreversible, debilitating granulomatous lung disease in as much as 3 - 5% of exposed workers. Mechanistic research on beryllium exposure-disease relationships has been severely limited by a general lack of a sufficient CBD animal model. We have now developed and tested an animal model which can be used for dissecting dose-response relationships and pathogenic mechanisms and for testing new diagnostic and treatment paradigms. We have created 3 strains of transgenic mice in which the human antigen-presenting moiety, HLA-DP, was inserted into the mouse genome. Each mouse strain contains HLA-DPB1 alleles that confer different magnitude of risk for chronic beryllium disease (CBD): HLA-DPB1*0401 (odds ratio = 0.2), HLA-DPB1*0201 (odds ratio = 15), HLA-DPB1*1701 (odds ratio = 240). Our preliminary work has demonstrated that the *1701 allele, as predicted by human studies, results in the greatest degree of sensitization in a mouse ear swelling test. We have also completed dose-response experiments examining beryllium-induced lung granulomas and identified susceptible and resistant inbred strains of mice (without the human transgenes) as well as quantitative trait loci that may contain gene(s) that modify the immune response to beryllium. In this grant application, we propose to use the transgenic and normal inbred strains of mice to identify biomarkers for the progression of beryllium sensitization and CBD. To achieve this goal, we propose to compare the sensitivity and accuracy of the lymphocyte proliferation test (blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) with the ELISPOT test in the three HLA-DP transgenic mice strains throughout a 6 month treatment with beryllium particles. Because of the availability of high-throughput proteomics, we will also identify

  11. The beryllium production at Ulba metallurgical plant (Ust-Kamenogrsk, Kazakhstan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvinskykh, E.M.; Savchuk, V.V.; Tuzov, Y.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant (Zavod), Ust-Kamenogorsk, Abay prospect 102 (Kazakhstan)


    The Report includes data on beryllium production of Ulba metallurgical plant, located in Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan). Beryllium production is showed to have extended technological opportunities in manufacturing semi-products (beryllium ingots, master alloys, metallic beryllium powders, beryllium oxide) and in production of structural beryllium and its parts. Ulba metallurgical plant owns a unique technology of beryllium vacuum distillation, which allows to produce reactor grades of beryllium with a low content of metallic impurities. At present Ulba plant does not depend on raw materials suppliers. The quantity of stored raw materials and semi-products will allow to provide a 25-years work of beryllium production at a full capacity. The plant has a satisfactory experience in solving ecological problems, which could be useful in ITER program. (author)

  12. Nanostructured Alloys as an Alternative to Copper-Beryllium (United States)


    bushing applications;  2) Nanometal/composite for high specific strength/stiffness components; and  3) Nanometal cobalt / copper enabled...performance of Integran’s Nanovate cobalt -based and nickel- cobalt metals is superior to copper beryllium (peak hardness); Mechanical Property Summary...Nanostructured Cobalt Alloy 285 ksi (1967 MPa) 225 ksi (1550 MPa) 290 ksi (2000 MPa) 18855 ksi (130 GPa) Copper Beryllium (C17200-TH04) 142 ksi

  13. Actinide/beryllium neutron sources with reduced dispersion characteristics (United States)

    Schulte, Louis D.


    Neutron source comprising a composite, said composite comprising crystals comprising BeO and AmBe.sub.13, and an excess of beryllium, wherein the crystals have an average size of less than 2 microns; the size distribution of the crystals is less than 2 microns; and the beryllium is present in a 7-fold to a 75-fold excess by weight of the amount of AmBe.sub.13; and methods of making thereof.

  14. Beryllium contamination and exposure monitoring in an inhalation laboratory setting. (United States)

    Muller, Caroline; Audusseau, Séverine; Salehi, Fariba; Truchon, Ginette; Chevalier, Gaston; Mazer, Bruce; Kennedy, Greg; Zayed, Joseph


    Beryllium (Be) is used in several forms: pure metal, beryllium oxide, and as an alloy with copper, aluminum, or nickel. Beryllium oxide, beryllium metal, and beryllium alloys are the main forms present in the workplace, with inhalation being the primary route of exposure. Cases of workers with sensitization or chronic beryllium disease challenge the scientific community for a better understanding of Be toxicity. Therefore, a toxicological inhalation study using a murine model was performed in our laboratory in order to identify the toxic effects related to different particle sizes and chemical forms of Be. This article attempts to provide information regarding the relative effectiveness of the environmental monitoring and exposure protection program that was enacted to protect staff (students and researchers) in this controlled animal beryllium inhalation exposure experiment. This includes specific attention to particle migration control through intensive housekeeping and systematic airborne and surface monitoring. Results show that the protective measures applied during this research have been effective. The highest airborne Be concentration in the laboratory was less than one-tenth of the Quebec OEL (occupational exposure limit) of 0.15 microg/m(3). Considering the protection factor of 10(3) of the powered air-purifying respirator used in this research, the average exposure level would be 0.03 x 10(- 4) microg/m(3), which is extremely low. Moreover, with the exception of one value, all average Be concentrations on surfaces were below the Quebec Standard guideline level of 3 microg/100 cm(2) for Be contamination. Finally, all beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests for the staff were not higher than controls.

  15. Impurities effect on the swelling of neutron irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donne, M.D.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F. [Institut fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik, Karlsruhe (Germany)


    An important factor controlling the swelling behaviour of fast neutron irradiated beryllium is the impurity content which can strongly affect both the surface tension and the creep strength of this material. Being the volume swelling of the old beryllium (early sixties) systematically higher than that of the more modem one (end of the seventies), a sensitivity analysis with the aid of the computer code ANFIBE (ANalysis of Fusion Irradiated BEryllium) to investigate the effect of these material properties on the swelling behaviour of neutron irradiated beryllium has been performed. Two sets of experimental data have been selected: the first one named Western refers to quite recently produced Western beryllium, whilst the second one, named Russian refers to relatively old (early sixties) Russian beryllium containing a higher impurity rate than the Western one. The results obtained with the ANFIBE Code were assessed by comparison with experimental data and the used material properties were compared with the data available in the literature. Good agreement between calculated and measured values has been found.

  16. Determination of beryllium by using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. (United States)

    Zawisza, Beata


    X-ray fluorescence spectrometry method is subject to certain difficulties and inconveniences for the elements having the atomic number 9 or less. These difficulties become progressively more severe as the atomic number decreases, and are quite serious for beryllium, which is practically indeterminable directly by XRF. Therefore, an indirect determination of beryllium that is based on the evaluation of cobalt in the precipitate is taken into consideration. In the thesis below, there is a description of a new, simple, and precise method by selective precipitation using hexamminecobalt(III) chloride and ammonium carbonate-EDTA solution as a complexing agent for the determining of a trace amount of beryllium using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The optimum conditions for [Co(NH(3))(6)][Be(2)(OH)(3)(CO(3))(2)(H(2)O)(2)].(3)H(2)O complex formation were studied. The complex was collected on the membrane filter, and the Co Kalpha line was measured by XRF. The method presents the advantages of the sample preparation and the elimination of the matrix effects due to the thin film obtained. The detection limit of the proposed method is 0.2 mg of beryllium. The method was successfully applied to beryllium determination in copper/ beryllium/cobalt alloys.

  17. MICCAI Workshops

    CERN Document Server

    Nedjati-Gilani, Gemma; Venkataraman, Archana; O'Donnell, Lauren; Panagiotaki, Eleftheria


    This volume contains the proceedings from two closely related workshops: Computational Diffusion MRI (CDMRI’13) and Mathematical Methods from Brain Connectivity (MMBC’13), held under the auspices of the 16th International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention, which took place in Nagoya, Japan, September 2013. Inside, readers will find contributions ranging from mathematical foundations and novel methods for the validation of inferring large-scale connectivity from neuroimaging data to the statistical analysis of the data, accelerated methods for data acquisition, and the most recent developments on mathematical diffusion modeling. This volume offers a valuable starting point for anyone interested in learning computational diffusion MRI and mathematical methods for brain connectivity as well as offers new perspectives and insights on current research challenges for those currently in the field. It will be of interest to researchers and practitioners in computer science, ...

  18. NASA Lunar Dust Filtration and Separations Workshop Report (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Stocker, Dennis P.


    NASA Glenn Research Center hosted a 2.5-day workshop, entitled "NASA Lunar Dust Filtration and Separations Workshop" at the Ohio Aerospace Institute in Cleveland, Ohio, on November 18 to 20, 2008. The purpose of the workshop was to address the issues and challenges of particulate matter removal from the cabin atmospheres in the Altair lunar lander, lunar habitats, and in pressurized rovers. The presence of lunar regolith dust inside the pressurized volumes was a theme of particular interest. The workshop provided an opportunity for NASA, industry experts, and academia to identify and discuss the capabilities of current and developing air and gas particulate matter filtration and separations technologies as they may apply to NASA s needs. A goal of the workshop was to provide recommendations for strategic research areas in cabin atmospheric particulate matter removal and disposal technologies that will advance and/or supplement the baseline approach for these future lunar surface exploration missions.

  19. Proton irradiation effects on beryllium - A macroscopic assessment (United States)

    Simos, Nikolaos; Elbakhshwan, Mohamed; Zhong, Zhong; Camino, Fernando


    Beryllium, due to its excellent neutron multiplication and moderation properties, in conjunction with its good thermal properties, is under consideration for use as plasma facing material in fusion reactors and as a very effective neutron reflector in fission reactors. While it is characterized by unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section it suffers, however, from irradiation generated transmutation gases such as helium and tritium which exhibit low solubility leading to supersaturation of the Be matrix and tend to precipitate into bubbles that coalesce and induce swelling and embrittlement thus degrading the metal and limiting its lifetime. Utilization of beryllium as a pion production low-Z target in high power proton accelerators has been sought both for its low Z and good thermal properties in an effort to mitigate thermos-mechanical shock that is expected to be induced under the multi-MW power demand. To assess irradiation-induced changes in the thermal and mechanical properties of Beryllium, a study focusing on proton irradiation damage effects has been undertaken using 200 MeV protons from the Brookhaven National Laboratory Linac and followed by a multi-faceted post-irradiation analysis that included the thermal and volumetric stability of irradiated beryllium, the stress-strain behavior and its ductility loss as a function of proton fluence and the effects of proton irradiation on the microstructure using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The mimicking of high temperature irradiation of Beryllium via high temperature annealing schemes has been conducted as part of the post-irradiation study. This paper focuses on the thermal stability and mechanical property changes of the proton irradiated beryllium and presents results of the macroscopic property changes of Beryllium deduced from thermal and mechanical tests.

  20. Beryllium processing technology review for applications in plasma-facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, R.G.; Jacobson, L.A.; Stanek, P.W.


    Materials research and development activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), i.e., the next generation fusion reactor, are investigating beryllium as the first-wall containment material for the reactor. Important in the selection of beryllium is the ability to process, fabricate and repair beryllium first-wall components using existing technologies. Two issues that will need to be addressed during the engineering design activity will be the bonding of beryllium tiles in high-heat-flux areas of the reactor, and the in situ repair of damaged beryllium tiles. The following review summarizes the current technology associated with welding and joining of beryllium to itself and other materials, and the state-of-the-art in plasma-spray technology as an in situ repair technique for damaged beryllium tiles. In addition, a review of the current status of beryllium technology in the former Soviet Union is also included.

  1. The structure, properties and performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Elliott, K.E. [and others


    Plasma-spray technology is under investigation as a method for producing high thermal conductivity beryllium coatings for use in magnetic fusion applications. Recent investigations have focused on optimizing the plasma-spray process for depositing beryllium coatings on damaged beryllium surfaces. Of particular interest has been optimizing the processing parameters to maximize the through-thickness thermal conductivity of the beryllium coatings. Experimental results will be reported on the use of secondary H{sub 2} gas additions to improve the melting of the beryllium powder and transferred-arc cleaning to improve the bonding between the beryllium coatings and the underlying surface. Information will also be presented on thermal fatigue tests which were done on beryllium coated ISX-B beryllium limiter tiles using 10 sec cycle times with 60 sec cooldowns and an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) relevant divertor heat flux slightly in excess of 5 MW/m{sup 2}.

  2. 40 CFR 468.20 - Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory. (United States)


    ... of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works from the forming of beryllium copper alloys. ... beryllium copper forming subcategory. 468.20 Section 468.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COPPER FORMING POINT SOURCE...

  3. Validation of cleaning method for various parts fabricated at a Beryllium facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Cynthia M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This study evaluated and documented a cleaning process that is used to clean parts that are fabricated at a beryllium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of evaluating this cleaning process was to validate and approve it for future use to assure beryllium surface levels are below the Department of Energy’s release limits without the need to sample all parts leaving the facility. Inhaling or coming in contact with beryllium can cause an immune response that can result in an individual becoming sensitized to beryllium, which can then lead to a disease of the lungs called chronic beryllium disease, and possibly lung cancer. Thirty aluminum and thirty stainless steel parts were fabricated on a lathe in the beryllium facility, as well as thirty-two beryllium parts, for the purpose of testing a parts cleaning method that involved the use of ultrasonic cleaners. A cleaning method was created, documented, validated, and approved, to reduce beryllium contamination.

  4. Steam-chemical reactivity for irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, R.A.; McCarthy, K.A.; Oates, M.A.; Petti, D.A.; Pawelko, R.J.; Smolik, G.R. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation to determine the influence of neutron irradiation effects and annealing on the chemical reactivity of beryllium exposed to steam. The work entailed measurements of the H{sub 2} generation rates for unirradiated and irradiated Be and for irradiated Be that had been previously annealed at different temperatures ranging from 450degC to 1200degC. H{sub 2} generation rates were similar for irradiated and unirradiated Be in steam-chemical reactivity experiments at temperatures between 450degC and 600degC. For irradiated Be exposed to steam at 700degC, the chemical reactivity accelerated rapidly and the specimen experienced a temperature excursion. Enhanced chemical reactivity at temperatures between 400degC and 600degC was observed for irradiated Be annealed at temperatures of 700degC and higher. This reactivity enhancement could be accounted for by the increased specific surface area resulting from development of a surface-connected porosity in the irradiated-annealed Be. (author)

  5. Beryllium abundances in stars hosting giant planets

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, N C; Israelian, G; Mayor, M; Rebolo, R; García-Gíl, A; Pérez de Taoro, M R; Randich, S


    We have derived beryllium abundances in a wide sample of stars hosting planets, with spectral types in the range F7V-K0V, aimed at studying in detail the effects of the presence of planets on the structure and evolution of the associated stars. Predictions from current models are compared with the derived abundances and suggestions are provided to explain the observed inconsistencies. We show that while still not clear, the results suggest that theoretical models may have to be revised for stars with Teff<5500K. On the other hand, a comparison between planet host and non-planet host stars shows no clear difference between both populations. Although preliminary, this result favors a ``primordial'' origin for the metallicity ``excess'' observed for the planetary host stars. Under this assumption, i.e. that there would be no differences between stars with and without giant planets, the light element depletion pattern of our sample of stars may also be used to further investigate and constraint Li and Be deple...

  6. Disposable Diapers Are OK. (United States)

    Poore, Patricia


    A personal account of measuring the pros and cons of disposable diaper usage leads the author to differentiate between a garbage problem and environmental problem. Concludes the disposable diaper issue is a political and economic issue with a local environmental impact and well within our abilities to manage. (MCO)

  7. Erosion of beryllium under ITER – Relevant transient plasma loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriyanov, I.B., E-mail: [A.A. Bochvar High Technology Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Rogova St. 5a, 123060 Moscow (Russian Federation); Nikolaev, G.N.; Kurbatova, L.A.; Porezanov, N.P. [A.A. Bochvar High Technology Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Rogova St. 5a, 123060 Moscow (Russian Federation); Podkovyrov, V.L.; Muzichenko, A.D.; Zhitlukhin, A.M. [TRINITI, Troitsk, Moscow reg. (Russian Federation); Gervash, A.A. [Efremov Research Institute, S-Peterburg (Russian Federation); Safronov, V.M. [Project Center of ITER, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Highlights: • We study the erosion, mass loss/gain and surface structure evolution of Be/CuCrZr mock-ups, armored with beryllium of TGP-56FW grade after irradiation by deuterium plasma heat load of 0.5 MJ/m{sup 2} at 250 °C and 500 °C. • Beryllium mass loss/erosion under plasma heat load at 250 °C is rather small (no more than 0.2 g/m{sup 2} shot and 0.11 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 40 shots) and tends to decrease with increasing number of shots. • Beryllium mass loss/erosion under plasma heat load at 500 °C is much higher (∼2.3 g/m{sup 2} shot and 1.2 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 10 shot) and tends to decrease with increasing the number of shots (∼0.26 g/m{sup 2} pulse and 0.14 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 100 shot). • Beryllium erosion value derived from the measurements of profile of irradiated surface is much higher than erosion value derived from mass loss data. - Abstract: Beryllium will be used as a armor material for the ITER first wall. It is expected that erosion of beryllium under transient plasma loads such as the edge-localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions will mainly determine a lifetime of the ITER first wall. This paper presents the results of recent experiments with the Russian beryllium of TGP-56FW ITER grade on QSPA-Be plasma gun facility. The Be/CuCrZr mock-ups were exposed to up to 100 shots by deuterium plasma streams (5 cm in diameter) with pulse duration of 0.5 ms and heat loads range of 0.2–0.5 MJ/m{sup 2} at different temperature of beryllium tiles. The temperature of Be tiles has been maintained about 250 and 500 °C during the experiments. After 10, 40 and 100 shots, the beryllium mass loss/gain under erosion process were investigated as well as evolution of surface microstructure and cracks morphology.

  8. A Report on the Validation of Beryllium Strength Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Derek Elswick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This report discusses work on validating beryllium strength models with flyer plate and Taylor rod experimental data. Strength models are calibrated with Hopkinson bar and quasi-static data. The Hopkinson bar data for beryllium provides strain rates up to about 4000 per second. A limitation of the Hopkinson bar data for beryllium is that it only provides information on strain up to about 0.15. The lack of high strain data at high strain rates makes it difficult to distinguish between various strength model settings. The PTW model has been calibrated many different times over the last 12 years. The lack of high strain data for high strain rates has resulted in these calibrated PTW models for beryllium exhibiting significantly different behavior when extrapolated to high strain. For beryllium, the α parameter of PTW has recently been calibrated to high precision shear modulus data. In the past the α value for beryllium was set based on expert judgment. The new α value for beryllium was used in a calibration of the beryllium PTW model by Sky Sjue. The calibration by Sjue used EOS table information to model the temperature dependence of the heat capacity. Also, the calibration by Sjue used EOS table information to model the density changes of the beryllium sample during the Hopkinson bar and quasi-static experiments. In this paper, the calibrated PTW model by Sjue is compared against experimental data and other strength models. The other strength models being considered are a PTW model calibrated by Shuh- Rong Chen and a Steinberg-Guinan type model by John Pedicini. The three strength models are used in a comparison against flyer plate and Taylor rod data. The results show that the Chen PTW model provides better agreement to this data. The Chen PTW model settings have been previously adjusted to provide a better fit to flyer plate data, whereas the Sjue PTW model has not been changed based on flyer plate data. However, the Sjue model provides a reasonable fit to

  9. Genetic determinants of sensitivity to beryllium in mice. (United States)

    Tarantino-Hutchison, Lauren M; Sorrentino, Claudio; Nadas, Arthur; Zhu, Yiwen; Rubin, Edward M; Tinkle, Sally S; Weston, Ainsley; Gordon, Terry


    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD), an irreversible, debilitating granulomatous lung disease is caused by exposure to beryllium. This occupational hazard occurs in primary production and machining of Be-metal, BeO, beryllium - containing alloys, and other beryllium products. CBD begins as an MHC Class II-restricted, T(H)1 hypersensitivity, and the Human Leukocyte Antigen, HLA-DPB1E(69), is associated with risk of developing CBD. Because inbred strains of mice have not provided good models of CBD to date, three strains of HLA-DPB1 transgenic mice in an FVB/N background were developed; each contains a single allele of HLA-DPB1 that confers a different magnitude of risk for chronic beryllium disease: HLA-DPB1*0401 (OR approximately 0.2), HLA-DPB1*0201 (OR approximately 3), and HLA-DPB1*1701 (OR approximately 46). The mouse ear swelling test (MEST) was employed to determine if these different alleles would support a hypersensitivity response to beryllium. Mice were first sensitized on the back and subsequently challenged on the ear. In separate experiments, mice were placed into one of three groups (sensitization/challenge): C/C, C/Be, and Be/Be. In the HLA-DPB1*1701 mice, the strain with the highest risk transgene, the Be/Be group was the only group that displayed significant maximum increased ear thickness of 19.6% +/- 3.0% over the baseline measurement (p beryllium in seven inbred strains were investigated through use of the MEST, these included: FVB/N, AKR, Balb/c, C3H/HeJ, C57/BL6, DBA/2, and SJL/J. The FVB/N strain was least responsive, while the SJL/J and C57/BL6 strains were the highest responders. Our results suggest that the HLA-DPB1*1701 transgene product is an important risk factor for induction of the beryllium-sensitive phenotype. This model should be a useful tool for investigating beryllium sensitization.

  10. Report of a technical evaluation panel on the use of beryllium for ITER plasma facing material and blanket breeder material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrickson, M.A. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Manly, W.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dombrowski, D.E. [Brush Wellman, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others


    Beryllium because of its low atomic number and high thermal conductivity, is a candidate for both ITER first wall and divertor surfaces. This study addresses the following: why beryllium; design requirements for the ITER divertor; beryllium supply and unirradiated physical/mechanical property database; effects of irradiation on beryllium properties; tritium issues; beryllium health and safety; beryllium-coolant interactions and safety; thermal and mechanical tests; plasma erosion of beryllium; recommended beryllium grades for ITER plasma facing components; proposed manufacturing methods to produce beryllium parts for ITER; emerging beryllium materials; proposed inspection and maintenance techniques for beryllium components and coatings; time table and costs; and the importance of integrating materials and manufacturing personnel with designers.

  11. Identification of beryllium-dependent peptides recognized by CD4+ T cells in chronic beryllium disease. (United States)

    Falta, Michael T; Pinilla, Clemencia; Mack, Douglas G; Tinega, Alex N; Crawford, Frances; Giulianotti, Marc; Santos, Radleigh; Clayton, Gina M; Wang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Xuewu; Maier, Lisa A; Marrack, Philippa; Kappler, John W; Fontenot, Andrew P


    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a granulomatous disorder characterized by an influx of beryllium (Be)-specific CD4⁺ T cells into the lung. The vast majority of these T cells recognize Be in an HLA-DP–restricted manner, and peptide is required for T cell recognition. However, the peptides that stimulate Be-specific T cells are unknown. Using positional scanning libraries and fibroblasts expressing HLA-DP2, the most prevalent HLA-DP molecule linked to disease, we identified mimotopes and endogenous self-peptides that bind to MHCII and Be, forming a complex recognized by pathogenic CD4⁺ T cells in CBD. These peptides possess aspartic and glutamic acid residues at p4 and p7, respectively, that surround the putative Be-binding site and cooperate with HLA-DP2 in Be coordination. Endogenous plexin A peptides and proteins, which share the core motif and are expressed in lung, also stimulate these TCRs. Be-loaded HLA-DP2–mimotope and HLA-DP2–plexin A4 tetramers detected high frequencies of CD4⁺ T cells specific for these ligands in all HLADP2+ CBD patients tested. Thus, our findings identify the first ligand for a CD4⁺ T cell involved in metal-induced hypersensitivity and suggest a unique role of these peptides in metal ion coordination and the generation of a common antigen specificity in CBD.

  12. Behavior of carboxylic acids upon complexation with beryllium compounds. (United States)

    Mykolayivna-Lemishko, Kateryna; Montero-Campillo, M Merced; Mó, Otilia; Yáñez, Manuel


    A significant acidity enhancement and changes on aromaticity were previously observed in squaric acid and its derivatives when beryllium bonds are present in those systems. In order to know if these changes on the chemical properties could be considered a general behavior of carboxylic acids upon complexation with beryllium compounds, complexes between a set of representative carboxylic acids RCOOH (formic acid, acetic acid, propanoic acid, benzoic acid, and oxalic acid) and beryllium compounds BeX2 (X = H, F, Cl) were studied by means of density functional theory calculations. Complexes that contain a dihydrogen bond or a OH···X interaction are the most stable in comparison with other possible BeX2 complexation patterns in which no other weak interactions are involved apart from the beryllium bond. Formic, acetic, propanoic, benzoic, and oxalic acid complexes with BeX2 are much stronger acids than their related free forms. The analysis of the topology of the electron density helps to clarify the reasons behind this acidity enhancement. Importantly, when the halogen atom is replaced by hydrogen in the beryllium compound, the dihydrogen bond complex spontaneously generates a new neutral complex [RCOO:BeH] in which a hydrogen molecule is lost. This seems to be a trend for carboxylic acids on complexing BeX2 compounds.

  13. Design and cooling of BESIII beryllium beam pipe (United States)

    Li, Xunfeng; Ji, Quan; Wang, Li; Zheng, Lifang


    The beryllium beam pipe was restructured according to the requirements of the upgraded BESIII (Beijing Spectrometer) experiment. SMO-1 (sparking machining oil no. 1) was selected as the coolant for the central beryllium beam pipe. The cooling gap width of the beryllium beam pipe was calculated, the influence of concentrated heat load on the wall temperature of the beryllium beam pipe was studied, and the optimal velocity of the SMO-1 in the gap was determined at the maximum heat load. A cooling system for the beam pipe was developed to control the outer wall temperature of the beam pipe. The cooling system is reported in this paper with regard to the following two aspects: the layouts and the automation. The performance of the cooling system was tested on the beam pipe model with trim size. The test results show that the design of the beryllium beam pipe is reasonable and that the cooling system achieves the BESIII experimental aim. The cooling system has already passed the acceptance test and has been installed in position. It will be put into practice for the BESIII experiment in 2008.

  14. Experimental studies and modeling of processes of hydrogen isotopes interaction with beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazhibaeva, I.L.; Chikhray, Y.V.; Romanenko, O.G.; Klepikov, A.Kh.; Shestakov, V.P.; Kulsartov, T.V. [Science Research Inst. of Experimental and Theoretical Physics of Kazakh State Univ., Almaty (Kazakhstan); Kenzhin, E.A.


    The objective of this work was to clarify the surface beryllium oxide influence on hydrogen-beryllium interaction characteristics. Analysis of experimental data and modeling of processes of hydrogen isotopes accumulation, diffusion and release from neutron irradiated beryllium was used to achieve this purpose as well as the investigations of the changes of beryllium surface element composition being treated by H{sup +} and Ar{sup +} plasma glowing discharge. (author)

  15. IPHE Infrastructure Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This proceedings contains information from the IPHE Infrastructure Workshop, a two-day interactive workshop held on February 25-26, 2010, to explore the market implementation needs for hydrogen fueling station development.

  16. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 850 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form A Appendix A to Part 850 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Pt. 850, App. A Appendix A to Part 850—Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program...

  17. 10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material... RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL General Licenses § 71.23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. (a... form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be) special form sealed sources, or to deliver Pu-Be sealed sources...

  18. Chemical hazard evaluation of material disposal area (MDA) B closure project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laul, Jagdish C [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    TA-21, MDA-B (NES) is the 'contaminated dump,' landfill with radionuclides and chemicals from process waste disposed in 1940s. This paper focuses on chemical hazard categorization and hazard evaluation of chemicals of concern (e.g., peroxide, beryllium). About 170 chemicals were disposed in the landfill. Chemicals included products, unused and residual chemicals, spent, waste chemicals, non-flammable oils, mineral oil, etc. MDA-B was considered a High hazard site. However, based on historical records and best engineering judgment, the chemical contents are probably at best 5% of the chemical inventory. Many chemicals probably have oxidized, degraded or evaporated for volatile elements due to some fire and limited shelf-life over 60 yrs, which made it possible to downgrade from High to Low chemical hazard site. Knowing the site history and physical and chemical properties are very important in characterizing a NES site. Public site boundary is only 20 m, which is a major concern. Chemicals of concern during remediation are peroxide that can cause potential explosion and beryllium exposure due to chronic beryllium disease (CBD). These can be prevented or mitigated using engineering control (EC) and safety management program (SMP) to protect the involved workers and public.

  19. Estimation of beryllium ground state energy by Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabir, K. M. Ariful [Department of Physical Sciences, School of Engineering and Computer Science, Independent University, Bangladesh (IUB) Dhaka (Bangladesh); Halder, Amal [Department of Mathematics, University of Dhaka Dhaka (Bangladesh)


    Quantum Monte Carlo method represent a powerful and broadly applicable computational tool for finding very accurate solution of the stationary Schrödinger equation for atoms, molecules, solids and a variety of model systems. Using variational Monte Carlo method we have calculated the ground state energy of the Beryllium atom. Our calculation are based on using a modified four parameters trial wave function which leads to good result comparing with the few parameters trial wave functions presented before. Based on random Numbers we can generate a large sample of electron locations to estimate the ground state energy of Beryllium. Our calculation gives good estimation for the ground state energy of the Beryllium atom comparing with the corresponding exact data.

  20. Field-emission spectroscopy of beryllium atoms adsorbed on tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czyzewski, J.J.; Grzesiak, W.; Krajniak, J. (Politechnika Wroclawska (Poland))


    Field emission energy distributions (FEED) have been measured for the beryllium-tungsten (023) adsorption system over the 78-450 K temperature range. A temperature dependence of the normalized half-width,, of FEED peaks changed significantly due to beryllium adsorption; and the curve, vs p, for the Be/W adsorption system was identical in character to the calculated curve based on the free electron model in contrast to the curve for the clean tungsten surface. In the last part of this paper Gadzuk's theory of the resonance-tunneling effect is applied to the beryllium atom on tungsten. Experimental and theoretical curves of the enhancement factor as a function of energy have been discussed.

  1. Monte Carlo uncertainty analyses for integral beryllium experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, U; Tsige-Tamirat, H


    The novel Monte Carlo technique for calculating point detector sensitivities has been applied to two representative beryllium transmission experiments with the objective to investigate the sensitivity of important responses such as the neutron multiplication and to assess the related uncertainties due to the underlying cross-section data uncertainties. As an important result, it has been revealed that the neutron multiplication power of beryllium can be predicted with good accuracy using state-of-the-art nuclear data evaluations. Severe discrepancies do exist for the spectral neutron flux distribution that would transmit into significant uncertainties of the calculated neutron spectra and of the nuclear blanket performance in blanket design calculations. With regard to this, it is suggested to re-analyse the secondary energy and angle distribution data of beryllium by means of Monte Carlo based sensitivity and uncertainty calculations. Related code development work is underway.

  2. Color Enhancement by Diffusion of Beryllium in Dark Blue Sapphire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kyungj in Kim; Yongkil Ahn


    Diffusion of beryllium was performed on dark blue sapphire from China and Australia.The samples were heated with beryllium as a dopant in a furnace at 1 600 ℃ for 42 h in air.After beryllium diffusion,sam-ples were analyzed by UV-Vis,FTIR,and WD-XRF spectroscopy.After heat-treatment with Be as a catalyst, the irons of the ferrous state were changed to the ferric state.Therefore,reaction of Fe2+/Ti4+ IVCT was de-creased.The absorption peaks at 3 309 cm-1 attributed to OH radical were disappeared completely due to carry out heat treatment.Consequently,the intensity of absorption band was decreased in the visible region.Espe-cially,decreased absorption band in the vicinity of 570 nm was responsible for the lighter blue color.There-fore,we confirmed that the dark blue sapphires from China and Australia were changed to vivid blue.

  3. MOOC Design Workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Rikke Toft; Mor, Yishay; Warburton, Steven


    For the last two years we have been running a series of successful MOOC design workshops. These workshops build on previous work in learning design and MOOC design patterns. The aim of these workshops is to aid practitioners in defining and conceptualising educational innovations (predominantly...

  4. ICP-MS Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carman, April J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Eiden, Gregory C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    This is a short document that explains the materials that will be transmitted to LLNL and DNN HQ regarding the ICP-MS Workshop held at PNNL June 17-19th. The goal of the information is to pass on to LLNL information regarding the planning and preparations for the Workshop at PNNL in preparation of the SIMS workshop at LLNL.

  5. Neutron irradiation behavior of ITER candidate beryllium grades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriyanov, I.B.; Gorokhov, V.A.; Nikolaev, G.N. [A.A.Bochvar All-Russia Scientific Research Inst. of Inorganic Materials (VNIINM), Moscow (Russian Federation); Melder, R.R.; Ostrovsky, Z.E.


    Beryllium is one of the main candidate materials both for the neutron multiplier in a solid breeding blanket and for the plasma facing components. That is why its behaviour under the typical for fusion reactor loading, in particular, under the neutron irradiation is of a great importance. This paper presents mechanical properties, swelling and microstructure of six beryllium grades (DshG-200, TR-30, TshG-56, TRR, TE-30, TIP-30) fabricated by VNIINM, Russia and also one - (S-65) fabricated by Brush Wellman, USA. The average grain size of the beryllium grades varied from 8 to 25 {mu}m, beryllium oxide content was 0.8-3.2 wt. %, initial tensile strength was 250-680 MPa. All the samples were irradiated in active zone of SM-3 reactor up to the fast neutron fluence (5.5-6.2) {center_dot} 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} (2.7-3.0 dpa, helium content up to 1150 appm), E > 0.1 MeV at two temperature ranges: T{sub 1} = 130-180degC and T{sub 2} = 650-700degC. After irradiation at 130-180degC no changes in samples dimensions were revealed. After irradiation at 650-700degC swelling of the materials was found to be in the range 0.1-2.1 %. Beryllium grades TR-30 and TRR, having the smallest grain size and highest beryllium oxide content, demonstrated minimal swelling, which was no more than 0.1 % at 650-700degC and fluence 5.5 {center_dot} 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}. Tensile and compression test results and microstructure parameters measured before and after irradiation are also presented. (author)

  6. Method for removal of beryllium contamination from an article (United States)

    Simandl, Ronald F.; Hollenbeck, Scott M.


    A method of removal of beryllium contamination from an article is disclosed. The method typically involves dissolving polyisobutylene in a solvent such as hexane to form a tackifier solution, soaking the substrate in the tackifier to produce a preform, and then drying the preform to produce the cleaning medium. The cleaning media are typically used dry, without any liquid cleaning agent to rub the surface of the article and remove the beryllium contamination below a non-detect level. In some embodiments no detectible residue is transferred from the cleaning wipe to the article as a result of the cleaning process.

  7. Relativistic and QED corrections for the beryllium atom. (United States)

    Pachucki, Krzysztof; Komasa, Jacek


    Complete relativistic and quantum electrodynamics corrections of order alpha(2) Ry and alpha(3) Ry are calculated for the ground state of the beryllium atom and its positive ion. A basis set of correlated Gaussian functions is used, with exponents optimized against nonrelativistic binding energies. The results for Bethe logarithms ln(k(0)(Be)=5.750 34(3) and ln(k(0)(Be+)=5.751 67(3) demonstrate the availability of high precision theoretical predictions for energy levels of the beryllium atom and light ions. Our recommended value of the ionization potential 75 192.514(80) cm(-1) agrees with equally accurate available experimental values.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, A


    The most common method of analysis for beryllium is inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). This method, along with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), is discussed in Chapter 6. However, other methods exist and have been used for different applications. These methods include spectroscopic, chromatographic, colorimetric, and electrochemical. This chapter provides an overview of beryllium analysis methods other than plasma spectrometry (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry or mass spectrometry). The basic methods, detection limits and interferences are described. Specific applications from the literature are also presented.

  9. 20 CFR 30.207 - How does a claimant prove a diagnosis of a beryllium disease covered under Part B? (United States)


    ... beryllium disease covered under Part B? 30.207 Section 30.207 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS... Beryllium Illness Under Part B of Eeoicpa § 30.207 How does a claimant prove a diagnosis of a beryllium... employee developed a covered beryllium illness. Proof that the employee developed a covered...

  10. Extraction of beryllium sulfate by a long chain amine; Extraction du sulfate de beryllium par une amine a longue chaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etaix, E.S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The extraction of sulfuric acid in aqueous solution by a primary amine in benzene solution, 3-9 (diethyl) - 6-amino tri-decane (D.E.T. ) - i.e., with American nomenclature 1-3 (ethyl-pentyl) - 4-ethyl-octyl amine (E.P.O.) - has made it possible to calculate the formation constants of alkyl-ammonium sulfate and acid sulfate. The formula of the beryllium and alkyl-ammonium sulfate complex formed in benzene has next been determined, for various initial acidity of the aqueous solution. Lastly, evidence has been given of negatively charged complexes of beryllium and sulfate in aqueous solution, through the dependence of the aqueous sulfate ions concentration upon beryllium extraction. The formation constant of these anionic complexes has been evaluated. (author) [French] L'etude de l'extraction de l'acide sulfurique en solution aqueuse par une amine primaire en solution dans le benzene, le diethyl-3,9 amino-6 tridecane (D.E.T.) - autre nom americain 1-3 (ethylpentyl) - 4-ethyloctylamine (E.P.O.) a permis de calculer les constantes de formation du sulfate et de l'hydrogenosulfate d'alkyl-ammonium. La formule du complexe de sulfate de beryllium et d'alkyl-ammonium forme en solution benzenique a ete ensuite determinee pour diverses acidites initiales de la solution aqueuse. Enfin, l'influence de la concentration des ions sulfate de la phase aqueuse sur l'extraction du beryllium a mis en evidence la formation en solution aqueuse de complexes anioniques de sulfate et de beryllium dont la constante de formation a ete evaluee. (auteur)

  11. Integrated Disposal Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the center of the 586-square-mile Hanford Site is the Integrated Disposal Facility, also known as the IDF.This facility is a landfill similar in concept...

  12. Beryllium solubility in occupational airborne particles: Sequential extraction procedure and workplace application. (United States)

    Rousset, Davy; Durand, Thibaut


    Modification of an existing sequential extraction procedure for inorganic beryllium species in the particulate matter of emissions and in working areas is described. The speciation protocol was adapted to carry out beryllium extraction in closed-face cassette sampler to take wall deposits into account. This four-step sequential extraction procedure aims to separate beryllium salts, metal, and oxides from airborne particles for individual quantification. Characterization of the beryllium species according to their solubility in air samples may provide information relative to toxicity, which is potentially related to the different beryllium chemical forms. Beryllium salts (BeF(2), BeSO(4)), metallic beryllium (Bemet), and beryllium oxide (BeO) were first individually tested, and then tested in mixtures. Cassettes were spiked with these species and recovery rates were calculated. Quantitative analyses with matched matrix were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Method Detection Limits (MDLs) were calculated for the four matrices used in the different extraction steps. In all cases, the MDL was below 4.2 ng/sample. This method is appropriate for assessing occupational exposure to beryllium as the lowest recommended threshold limit values are 0.01 µg.m(-3) in France([) (1) (]) and 0.05 µg.m(-3) in the USA.([ 2 ]) The protocol was then tested on samples from French factories where occupational beryllium exposure was suspected. Beryllium solubility was variable between factories and among the same workplace between different tasks.


    Spedding, F.H.; Wilhelm, H.A.; Keller, W.H.


    >The preparation is described of thorium-berylium alloys from halides of the metals by stmultaneously reducing thorium fluoride and beryllium fluoride with calcium at approximately 650 deg C and maintaining the temperature until the thorium-beryhltum alloy separates from the slag.

  14. Thermal cycling tests of actively cooled beryllium copper joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedig, M.; Duwe, R.; Linke, J.; Schuster, A.; Wiechers, B. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)


    Screening tests (steady state heating) and thermal fatigue tests with several kinds of beryllium-copper joints have been performed in an electron beam facility. Joining techniques under investigation were brazing with silver containing and silver-free braze materials, hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and diffusion bonding (hot pressing). Best thermal fatigue performance was found for the brazed samples. (author)

  15. TEM study of impurity segregations in beryllium pebbles (United States)

    Klimenkov, M.; Chakin, V.; Moeslang, A.; Rolli, R.


    Beryllium is planned to be used as a neutron multiplier in the Helium-cooled Pebble Bed European concept of a breeding blanket of demonstration power reactor DEMO. In order to evaluate the irradiation performance, individual pebbles and constrained pebble beds were neutron-irradiated at temperatures typical of fusion blankets. Beryllium pebbles 1 mm in diameter produced by the rotating electrode method were subjected to a TEM study before and after irradiation at High Flux Reactor, Petten, Netherlands at 861 K. The grain size varied in a wide range from sub-micron size up to several tens of micrometers, which indicated formation bimodal grain size distribution. Based on the application of combined electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy methods, we suggest that impurity precipitates play an important role in controlling the mechanical properties of beryllium. The impurity elements were present in beryllium at a sub-percent concentration form beryllide particles of a complex (Fe/Al/Mn/Cr)B composition. These particles are often ordered along dislocations lines, forming several micron-long chains. It can be suggested that fracture surfaces often extended along these chains in irradiated material.

  16. Codeposition of deuterium ions with beryllium oxide at elevated temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Markin, A V; Gorodetsky, A E; Negodaev, M A; Rozhanskii, N V; Scaffidi-Argentina, F; Werle, H; Wu, C H; Zalavutdinov, R K; Zakharov, A P


    Deuterium-loaded BeO films were produced by sputtering the beryllium target with 10 keV Ne ions in D sub 2 gas at a pressure of approximately 1 Pa. The sputtered beryllium reacts - on the substrate surface - with the residual oxygen, thus forming a beryllium oxide layer. Biasing the substrate negatively with respect to the target provides the simultaneous bombardment of the growing film surface with D ions formed by Ne-D sub 2 collisions. Substrate potential governs the maximum energy of ions striking the growing film surface while its size governs the flux density. According to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) data, the beryllium is deposited in the form of polycrystalline hcp-BeO layers with negligible (about 1 at.%) carbon and neon retention. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) data shows a strong deuterium bonding, with a desorption peak at 950 K, in the films deposited at -50 and -400 V substrate potentia...

  17. TEM study of impurity segregations in beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimenkov, M., E-mail: [Institute for Applied Materials – Applied Materials Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Chakin, V.; Moeslang, A. [Institute for Applied Materials – Applied Materials Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Rolli, R. [Institute for Applied Materials – Materials and Biomechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)


    Beryllium is planned to be used as a neutron multiplier in the Helium-cooled Pebble Bed European concept of a breeding blanket of demonstration power reactor DEMO. In order to evaluate the irradiation performance, individual pebbles and constrained pebble beds were neutron-irradiated at temperatures typical of fusion blankets. Beryllium pebbles 1 mm in diameter produced by the rotating electrode method were subjected to a TEM study before and after irradiation at High Flux Reactor, Petten, Netherlands at 861 K. The grain size varied in a wide range from sub-micron size up to several tens of micrometers, which indicated formation bimodal grain size distribution. Based on the application of combined electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy methods, we suggest that impurity precipitates play an important role in controlling the mechanical properties of beryllium. The impurity elements were present in beryllium at a sub-percent concentration form beryllide particles of a complex (Fe/Al/Mn/Cr)B composition. These particles are often ordered along dislocations lines, forming several micron-long chains. It can be suggested that fracture surfaces often extended along these chains in irradiated material.

  18. Fluorometric determination of beryllium with 2-(o-hydroxylphenyl)benzoxazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladilovich, D.B.; Stolyarov, K.P.


    According to the authors, of great interest for the fluorometric determination of small quantities of beryllium is 2-(o-hydroxyphenyl)benzthiazole (HPBT). In this work, 2-(o-hydroxyphenyl)benzoaxzole (HPBO), which is an analog of HPBT and differs from it in that the sulfur atom in the heterocyclic portion of the molecule is replaced by an oxygen atom, is proposed as a reagent for the fluorometric determination of beryllium. The fluorescent reaction of HPBO with beryllium is studied in this paper, in addition to the selection of the optimum conditions for the determination and the development of a procedure for the analysis of complex objects on this basis. The reaction proceeds in aqueous ethanol medium at pH 7.2-7.5. The limit of detection is 0.6 ng/ml. Methods have been developed for the determination of 10/sup -2/% beryllium in alloys based on copper and 10/sup -3/-10/sup -4/% in standard samples of silicate rocks.

  19. On-line separation of short-lived beryllium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Köster, U; Catherall, R; Fedosseev, V; Georg, U; Huber, G; Jading, Y; Jonsson, O; Koizumi, M; Kratz, K L; Kugler, E; Lettry, Jacques; Mishin, V I; Ravn, H L; Sebastian, V; Tamburella, C; Wöhr, A


    With the development of a new laser ionization scheme, it became possible to ionize beryllium efficiently in the hot cavity of the ISOLDE laser ion source. The high target and ion source temperatures enable the release of short-lived beryllium isotopes. Thus all particle-stable beryllium isotopes could be extracted from a standard uranium carbide/graphite target. For the first time the short-lived isotopes /sup 12/Be and /sup 14/Be could be identified at an ISOL facility, /sup 14/Be being among the most short-lived isotopes separated so far at ISOLDE. The release time from the UC/graphite target was studied with several beryllium isotopes. Profiting from the element selectivity of laser ionization, the strong and isotopically pure beam of /sup 12/Be allowed to determine the half- life to T/sub 1/2 /=21.34(23) ms and the probability of beta-delayed neutron emission to P/sub n/=0.48/sub -0.10//sup +0.12/(23 refs).

  20. The uses and adverse effects of beryllium on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Ross


    Full Text Available Context: This review describes the health effects of beryllium exposure in the workplace and the environment. Aim: To collate information on the consequences of occupational and environmental exposure to beryllium on physiological function and well being. Materials and Methods: The criteria used in the current review for selecting articles were adopted from proposed criteria in The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Articles were classified based on acute and chronic exposure and toxicity of beryllium. Results: The proportions of utilized and nonutilized articles were tabulated. Years 2001-10 gave the greatest match (45.9% for methodological parameters, followed by 27.71% for 1991-2000. Years 1971-80 and 1981-90 were not significantly different in the information published and available whereas years 1951-1960 showed a lack of suitable articles. Some articles were published in sources unobtainable through requests at the British Library, and some had no impact factor and were excluded. Conclusion: Beryllium has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being. Measures need to be taken to prevent hazardous exposure to this element, making its biological monitoring in the workplace essential.

  1. Biological exposure metrics of beryllium-exposed dental technicians. (United States)

    Stark, Moshe; Lerman, Yehuda; Kapel, Arik; Pardo, Asher; Schwarz, Yehuda; Newman, Lee; Maier, Lisa; Fireman, Elizabeth


    Beryllium is commonly used in the dental industry. This study investigates the association between particle size and shape in induced sputum (IS) with beryllium exposure and oxidative stress in 83 dental technicians. Particle size and shape were defined by laser and video, whereas beryllium exposure data came from self-reports and beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) results. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO1) gene expression in IS was evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A high content of particles (92%) in IS >5 μ in size is correlated to a positive BeLPT risk (odds ratio [OR] = 3.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.9-13). Use of masks, hoods, and type of exposure yielded differences in the transparency of IS particles (gray level) and modulate HO1 levels. These results indicate that parameters of size and shape of particles in IS are sensitive to workplace hygiene, affect the level of oxidative stress, and may be potential markers for monitoring hazardous dust exposures.

  2. Determination of beryllium concentrations in UK ambient air (United States)

    Goddard, Sharon L.; Brown, Richard J. C.; Ghatora, Baljit K.


    Air quality monitoring of ambient air is essential to minimise the exposure of the general population to toxic substances such as heavy metals, and thus the health risks associated with them. In the UK, ambient air is already monitored under the UK Heavy Metals Monitoring Network for a number of heavy metals, including nickel (Ni), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) to ensure compliance with legislative limits. However, the UK Expert Panel on Air Quality Standards (EPAQS) has highlighted a need to limit concentrations of beryllium (Be) in air, which is not currently monitored, because of its toxicity. The aim of this work was to analyse airborne particulate matter (PM) sampled onto filter papers from the UK Heavy Metals Monitoring Network for quantitative, trace level beryllium determination and compare the results to the guideline concentration specified by EPAQS. Samples were prepared by microwave acid digestion in a matrix of 2% sulphuric acid and 14% nitric acid, verified by the use of Certified Reference Materials (CRMs). The digested samples were then analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The filters from the UK Heavy Metals Monitoring Network were tested using this procedure and the average beryllium concentration across the network for the duration of the study period was 7.87 pg m-3. The highest site average concentration was 32.0 pg m-3 at Scunthorpe Low Santon, which is significantly lower than levels that are thought to cause harm. However the highest levels were observed at sites monitoring industrial point sources, indicating that beryllium is being used and emitted, albeit at very low levels, from these point sources. Comparison with other metals concentrations and data from the UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory suggests that current emissions of beryllium may be significantly overestimated.

  3. Unsuspected exposure to beryllium: potential implications for sarcoidosis diagnoses. (United States)

    Laczniak, Andrew N; Gross, Nathan A; Fuortes, Laurence J; Field, R William


    Exposure to Beryllium (Be) can cause sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in some individuals.  Even relatively low exposures may be sufficient to generate an asymptomatic, or in some cases a symptomatic, immune response. Since the clinical presentation of CBD is similar to that of sarcoidosis, it is helpful to have information on exposure to beryllium in order to reduce misdiagnosis. The purpose of this pilot study is to explore the occurrence of Be surface deposits at worksites with little or no previous reported use of commercially available Be products.  The workplaces chosen for this study represent a convenience sample of businesses in eastern Iowa. One hundred thirty-six surface dust samples were collected from 27 businesses for analysis of Be. The results were then divided into categories by the amount of detected Be according to U.S. Department of Energy guidelines as described in 10 CFR 850.30 and 10 CFR 850.31. Overall, at least one of the samples at 78% of the work sites tested contained deposited Be above the analytical limit of quantitation (0.035 µg beryllium per sample).  Beryllium was detected in 46% of the samples collected. Twelve percent of the samples exceeded 0.2 µg/100 cm² and 4% of the samples exceeded a Be concentration of 3 µg/100 cm². The findings from this study suggest that there may be a wider range and greater number of work environments that have the potential for Be exposure than has been documented previously.  These findings could have implications for the accurate diagnosis of sarcoidosis.

  4. Workshop on Preserving High Purity Uranium-233

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krichinsky, Alan M [ORNL; Giaquinto, Joseph [ORNL; Canaan, R Douglas {Doug} [ORNL


    A workshop was held on at the MARC X conference to provide a forum for the scientific community to communicate needs for high-purity 233U and its by-products in order to preserve critical items otherwise slated for downblending and disposal. Currently, only a small portion of the U.S. holdings of separated 233U is being preserved. However, many additional kilograms of 233U (>97% pure) still are destined to be downblended which will permanently destroy their potential value for many other applications. It is not likely that this material will ever be replaced due to a lack of operating production capability. Summaries of information conveyed at the workshop and feedback obtained from the scientific community are presented herein.

  5. Evaluation of historical beryllium abundance in soils, airborne particulates and facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. (United States)

    Sutton, Mark; Bibby, Richard K; Eppich, Gary R; Lee, Steven; Lindvall, Rachel E; Wilson, Kent; Esser, Bradley K


    Beryllium has been historically machined, handled and stored in facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) since the 1950s. Additionally, outdoor testing of beryllium-containing components has been performed at LLNL's Site 300 facility. Beryllium levels in local soils and atmospheric particulates have been measured over three decades and are comparable to those found elsewhere in the natural environment. While localized areas of beryllium contamination have been identified, laboratory operations do not appear to have increased the concentration of beryllium in local air or water. Variation in airborne beryllium correlates to local weather patterns, PM10 levels, normal sources (such as resuspension of soil and emissions from coal power stations) but not to LLNL activities. Regional and national atmospheric beryllium levels have decreased since the implementation of the EPA's 1990 Clean-Air-Act. Multi-element analysis of local soil and air samples allowed for the determination of comparative ratios for beryllium with over 50 other metals to distinguish between natural beryllium and process-induced contamination. Ten comparative elemental markers (Al, Cs, Eu, Gd, La, Nd, Pr, Sm, Th and Tl) that were selected to ensure background variations in other metals did not collectively interfere with the determination of beryllium sources in work-place samples at LLNL. Multi-element analysis and comparative evaluation are recommended for all workplace and environmental samples suspected of beryllium contamination. The multi-element analyses of soils and surface dusts were helpful in differentiating between beryllium of environmental origin and beryllium from laboratory operations. Some surfaces can act as "sinks" for particulate matter, including carpet, which retains entrained insoluble material even after liquid based cleaning. At LLNL, most facility carpets had beryllium concentrations at or below the upper tolerance limit determined by sampling facilities

  6. Beryllium detection in human lung tissue using electron probe X-ray microanalysis. (United States)

    Butnor, Kelly J; Sporn, Thomas A; Ingram, Peter; Gunasegaram, Sue; Pinto, John F; Roggli, Victor L


    Chronic berylliosis is an uncommon disease that is caused by the inhalation of beryllium particles, dust, or fumes. The distinction between chronic berylliosis and sarcoidosis can be difficult both clinically and histologically, as both entities can have similar presentations and exhibit nonnecrotizing granulomatous inflammation of the lungs. The diagnosis of chronic berylliosis relies on a history of exposure to beryllium, roentgenographic evidence of diffuse nodular disease, and demonstration of beryllium hypersensitivity by ancillary studies, such as lymphocyte proliferation testing. Additional support may be gained by the demonstration of beryllium in lung tissue. Unlike other exogenous particulates, such as asbestos, detection of beryllium in human lung tissue is problematic. The low atomic number of beryllium usually makes it unsuitable for conventional microprobe analysis. We describe a case of chronic berylliosis in which beryllium was detected in lung tissue using atmospheric thin-window energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (ATW EDXA). A woman with a history of occupational exposure to beryllium at a nuclear weapons testing facility presented with progressive cough and dyspnea and a nodular pattern on chest roentgenograph. Open lung biopsy showed nonnecrotizing granulomatous inflammation that was histologically indistinguishable from sarcoidosis. Scanning electron microscopy and ATW EDXA demonstrated particulates containing beryllium within the granulomas. This application of EDXA offers significant advantages over existing methods of beryllium detection in that it is nondestructive, more widely available, and can be performed using routine paraffin sections.

  7. Beryllium alters lipopolysaccharide-mediated intracellular phosphorylation and cytokine release in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (United States)

    Silva, Shannon; Ganguly, Kumkum; Fresquez, Theresa M; Gupta, Goutam; McCleskey, T Mark; Chaudhary, Anu


    Beryllium exposure in susceptible individuals leads to the development of chronic beryllium disease, a lung disorder marked by release of inflammatory cytokine and granuloma formation. We have previously reported that beryllium induces an immune response even in blood mononuclear cells from healthy individuals. In this study, we investigate the effects of beryllium on lipopolysaccharide-mediated cytokine release in blood mononuclear and dendritic cells from healthy individuals. We found that in vitro treatment of beryllium sulfate inhibits the secretion of lipopolysaccharide-mediated interleukin 10, while the release of interleukin 1beta is enhanced. In addition, not all lipopolysaccharide-mediated responses are altered, as interleukin 6 release in unaffected upon beryllium treatment. Beryllium sulfate-treated cells show altered phosphotyrosine levels upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Significantly, beryllium inhibits the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transducer 3, induced by lipopolysaccharide. Finally, inhibitors of phosphoinositide-3 kinase mimic the effects of beryllium in inhibition of interleukin 10 release, while they have no effect on interleukin 1beta secretion. This study strongly suggests that prior exposures to beryllium could alter host immune responses to bacterial infections in healthy individuals, by altering intracellular signaling.

  8. Investigations of the ternary system beryllium-carbon-tungsten and analyses of beryllium on carbon surfaces; Untersuchung des ternaeren Systems Beryllium-Kohlenstoff-Wolfram und Betrachtungen von Beryllium auf Kohlenstoffoberflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, Florian


    Beryllium, carbon and tungsten are planned to be used as first wall materials in the future fusion reactor ITER. The aim of this work is a characterization of mixed material formation induced by thermal load. To this end, model systems (layers) were prepared and investigated, which give insight into the basic physical and chemical concepts. Before investigating ternary systems, the first step was to analyze the binary systems Be/C and Be/W (bottom-up approach), where the differences between the substrates PG (pyrolytic graphite) and HOPG (highly oriented pyrolytic graphite) were of special interest. Particularly X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low energy ion scattering (ISS) and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) were used as analysis methods. Beryllium evaporated on carbon shows an island growth mode, whereas a closed layer can be assumed for layer thicknesses above 0.7 nm. Annealing of the Be/C system induces Be{sub 2}C island formation for T{>=}770 K. At high temperatures (T{>=}1170 K), beryllium carbide dissociates, resulting in (metallic) beryllium desorption. For HOPG, carbide formation starts at higher temperatures compared to PG. Activation energies for the diffusion processes were determined by analyzing the decreasing beryllium amount versus annealing time. Surface morphologies were characterized using angle-resolved XPS (ARXPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Experiments were performed to study processes in the Be/W system in the temperature range from 570 to 1270 K. Be{sub 2}W formation starts at 670 K, a complete loss of Be{sub 2}W is observed at 1170 K due to dissociation (and subsequent beryllium desorption). Regarding ternary systems, particularly Be/C/W and C/Be/W were investigated, attaching importance to layer thickness (reservoir) variations. At room temperature, Be{sub 2}C, W{sub 2}C, WC and Be{sub 2}W formation at the respective interfaces was observed. Further Be{sub 2}C is forming with increasing annealing temperatures

  9. 国内外铍及含铍材料的研究进展%Advances in beryllium and beryllium-containing materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许德美; 秦高梧; 李峰; 王战宏; 钟景明; 何季麟; 何力军


    The research progress of beryllium and beryllium-containing materials was reviewed in the past two decades in the world, and much effort in this work was focused on beryllium metallurgy, beryllium alloys, beryllium oxide, beryllium matrix composites and intermetallics. The advances of beryllium materials in both research and production techniques in China were summarized, especially in technique gap as compared to that in the developed countries. Finally, the new beryllium materials and their key techniques conforming to the requirements of industry were proposed in the next one decade in China.%综述近20年来国外铍及含铍材料的研究进展,主要包括铍的冶金制备、铍合金、铍和氧化铍金属基复合材料、铍金属间化合物等。概括我国在铍材料方面取得的研究与生产技术进展,以及与国外研发水平的差距。并展望未来10年我国铍及含铍材料需要重点发展的新材料以及突破的关键技术。

  10. European workshop on spent catalysts. Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In 1999 and 2002 two well attended workshops on recycling, regeneration, reuse and disposal of spent catalysts took place in Frankfurt. This series has been continued in Berlin. The workshop was organized in collaboration with DGMK, the German Society for Petroleum and Coal Science and Technology. Contributions were in the following areas of catalyst deactivation: recycling of spent catalysts in chemical and petrochemical industry, recycling of precious metal catalysts and heterogenous base metal catalysts, legal aspects of transboundary movements, catalyst regeneration, quality control, slurry catalysts, commercial reactivation of hydrotreating catalysts. (uke)

  11. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.


    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) in Arkansas. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the PBA and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site- specific study. This dependent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at PBA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources, and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.


    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) in Hermiston, Oregon. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the Umatilla Depot Activity and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site-specific study. This independent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at UMDA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources; seismicity; and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Waste disposal package (United States)

    Smith, M.J.


    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  14. Challenges in Disposing of Anthrax Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Stein, Steven L.; Upton, Jaki F.; Toomey, Christopher


    Disasters often create large amounts of waste that must be managed as part of both immediate response and long-term recovery. While many federal, state, and local agencies have debris management plans, these plans often do not address chemical, biological, and radiological contamination. The Interagency Biological Restoration Demonstration’s (IBRD) purpose was to holistically assess all aspects of an anthrax incident and assist the development of a plan for long-term recovery. In the case of wide-area anthrax contamination and the follow-on response and recovery activities, a significant amount of material will require decontamination and disposal. Accordingly, IBRD facilitated the development of debris management plans to address contaminated waste through a series of interviews and workshops with local, state, and federal representatives. The outcome of these discussion was the identification of three primary topical areas that must be addressed: 1) Planning; 2) Unresolved research questions, and resolving regulatory issues.

  15. Beryllium coating produced by evaporation-condensation method and some their properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepekin, G.I.; Anisimov, A.B.; Chernikov, A.S.; Mozherinn, S.I.; Pirogov, A.A. [SRI SIA Lutch., Podolsk (Russian Federation)


    The method of vacuum evaporation-condensation for deposition of beryllium coatings on metal substrates, considered in the paper, side by side with a plasma-spray method is attractive fon ITER application. In particular this technique may be useful for repair the surface of eroded tiles which is operated in a strong magnetic field. The possibility of deposition of beryllium coatings with the rate of layer growth 0.1-0.2 mm/h is shown. The compatibility of beryllium coating with copper or stainless steel substrate is provided due to intermediate barrier. The results of examination of microstructure, microhardness, porosity, thermal and physical properties and stability under thermal cycling of beryllium materials are presented. The value of thermal expansion coefficient and thermal conductivity of condensed beryllium are approximately the same as for industrial grade material produced by powder mettalurgy technique. However, the condensed beryllium has higher purity (up to 99.9-99.99 % wt.). (author)

  16. Beryllium Dust Generation in PISCES-B Due to Plasma-Material Interactions (United States)

    Doerner, R.; Mays, C.; Hirooka, Y.; Luckhardt, S. C.; Sze, C. F.; Won, J.; Conn, R. W.


    The PISCES-B device has started plasma-beryllium experiments in its new location at U.C. San Diego. An improved controlled atmosphere enclosure was constructed to assure safe operation with beryllium materials. In the previous experimental campaign we found that a total of 600 mg of beryllium had been eroded during materials tests. This provided us with a unique opportunity to investigate the lost beryllium. Swipe sampling and vacuum sampling of the PISCES-B vacuum chamber revealed that 3% of the eroded beryllium resided as uniformly distributed loose dust within the vacuum chamber. An additional 33% of the eroded beryllium was coated onto the chamber wall. Filtering through a series of decreasing pore size meshes revealed a uniform distribution of particle sizes in the respirable range (between 10mm - 0.1mm), fewer larger particles (>50mm) were observed. This work is supported by USDOE under grant DE-FG03-95ER-54301.

  17. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, Christi D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Hansen, Francis D.


    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from

  18. Warehouse Sanitation Workshop Handbook. (United States)

    Food and Drug Administration (DHHS/PHS), Washington, DC.

    This workshop handbook contains information and reference materials on proper food warehouse sanitation. The materials have been used at Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food warehouse sanitation workshops, and are selected by the FDA for use by food warehouse operators and for training warehouse sanitation employees. The handbook is divided…

  19. SPLASH'13 workshops summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, S.; Schultz, U. P.


    Following its long-standing tradition, SPLASH 2013 will host 19 high-quality workshops, allowing their participants to meet and discuss research questions with peers, to mature new and exciting ideas, and to build up communities and start new collaborations. SPLASH workshops complement the main t...

  20. A joint fracture toughness evaluation of hot-pressed beryllium (United States)

    Conrad, H.; Sargent, G. A.; Brown, W. F., Jr.


    Fracture toughness tests at room temperature were made on three-point bend specimens cut from hot-pressed beryllium obtained from two suppliers. The test specimens had dimensions conforming to ASTM fracture toughness standard E399-72. A total of 42 specimens were machined from each batch of material. Six specimens from each batch were then distributed to seven independent laboratories for testing. The test data from the laboratories were collected and analyzed for differences between the laboratories and the two batches of material. It is concluded that ASTM 399-72 can be used as a valid test procedure for determining the fracture toughness of beryllium, providing that Kf(max) in fatigue cracking could be up to 80 percent of the K(0) value.

  1. Ultrasonic evaluation of beryllium-copper diffusion bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, E.E.


    A study was performed to compare the effectiveness of several advanced ultrasonic techniques when used to determine the strength of diffusion bonded beryllium-copper, which heretofore have each been applied to only a few material systems. The use of integrated backscatter calculations, frequency domain reflection coefficients, and time-of-flight variance was compared in their ability to characterize the bond strength in a series of beryllium-copper diffusion bond samples having a wide variation in bond quality. Correlation of integrated backscatter calculations and time-of-flight variance with bond strength was good. Some correlation of the slope of the frequency based reflection coefficient was shown for medium and high strength bonds, while its Y-intercept showed moderate correlation for all bond strengths.

  2. Beryllium dimer: a bond based on non-dynamical correlation. (United States)

    El Khatib, Muammar; Bendazzoli, Gian Luigi; Evangelisti, Stefano; Helal, Wissam; Leininger, Thierry; Tenti, Lorenzo; Angeli, Celestino


    The bond nature in beryllium dimer has been theoretically investigated using high-level ab initio methods. A series of ANO basis sets of increasing quality, going from sp to spdf ghi contractions, has been employed, combined with HF, CAS-SCF, CISD, and MRCI calculations with several different active spaces. The quality of these calculations has been checked by comparing the results with valence Full-CI calculations, performed with the same basis sets. It is shown that two quasi-degenerated partly occupied orbitals play a crucial role to give a qualitatively correct description of the bond. Their nature is similar to that of the edge orbitals that give rise to the quasi-degenerated singlet-triplet states in longer beryllium chains.

  3. Fabricating thin beryllium windows for X-ray applications (United States)

    Truhan, John J.; Wagner, Lawrence M.


    X-ray windows for diagnostics into vacuum chambers are commonly made of beryllium, which must be as thin as possible to minimize attenuation of the X rays. The windows must be bonded to mounting flanges, and the bond must be leak-tight and able to withstand a pressure differential of one atmosphere. A solid-state bonding process can be used to attach windows of thickness from 0.025 down to 0.015 mm. The process bonds the beryllium window, a silver intermediate layer, and the mounting flange together using compression and heat. The process is not sensitive to the bonding parameters; usual ranges are: pressures of 83-172 MPa, temperatures of 750-950 K, and holding times of 5-60 min. Unsuccessful bonds can often be repaired, or parts can be salvaged for re-use. A variety of window geometries can be accommodated.

  4. Beryllium Drive Disc Characterization for Laboratory Astrophysics Experiments (United States)

    Ditmar, J. R.; Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.; Grosskopf, M. J.


    Laboratory Astrophysics scales large-scale phenomena, such as core-collapse supernovae shocks, down to the sub-millimeter scale for investigation in a laboratory setting. In some experiments, targets are constructed with a 20μm thick beryllium disc attached to a polyimide tube. A shockwave is created by irradiating the Be disc with ˜ 4kJ of energy from the Omega Laser. The Be material is rolled into a 20μm sheet and then machined to a 2.5mm diameter. Characterizing the roughness and knowing if there are any major features on the initial surface could affect interpretations of data taken during experiments. Structure in the Beryllium discs could become an important parameter in future high-fidelity computer simulations. Surfaces were characterized with a Scanning Electron Microscope and an Atomic Force Microscope.

  5. VLT beryllium secondary mirror no. 1: performance review (United States)

    Cayrel, Marc


    The four Very Large Telescope secondary mirrors are 1.2-m Beryllium lightweight convex mirrors. REOSC has been selected for the design and manufacturing of the optics and of their supporting system. The first mirror unit has been delivered in September, 1997. Operating from visible to near infrared, the mirror defines the telescope aperture stop and may be chopped during observation. The optical requirements are tight and a high stiffness, low weight and inertia are requested as well. Using beryllium is a technical challenge for such a large optic manufacturing, in particular regarding its stability. The requirements and design are presented, we review the mirror manufacturing steps: blank production, machining, grinding, Nickel plating, polishing, integration and testing. The optical quality control method, a problem for large convex mirrors control, is detailed. The results of acceptance testing of mirror No. 1 are summarized, we present conclusions about the mirror figure stability. The status of the three additional mirrors manufacturing is presented to conclude.

  6. Multiscale modelling of hydrogen behaviour on beryllium (0001 surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Stihl


    Full Text Available Beryllium is proposed to be a neutron multiplier and plasma facing material in future fusion devices. Therefore, it is crucial to acquire an understanding of the microscopic mechanisms of tritium accumulation and release as a result of transmutation processes that Be undergoes under neutron irradiation. A multiscale simulation of ad- and desorption of hydrogen isotopes on the beryllium (0001 surface is developed. It consists of ab initio calculations of certain H adsorption configurations, a suitable cluster expansion approximating the energies of arbitrary configurations, and a kinetic Monte Carlo method for dynamic simulations of adsorption and desorption. The processes implemented in the kinetic Monte Carlo simulation are deduced from further ab initio calculations comprising both, static relaxation as well as molecular dynamics runs. The simulation is used to reproduce experimental data and the results are compared and discussed. Based on the observed results, proposals for a refined model are made.

  7. Beryllium uptake and related biological effects studied in THP-1 differentiated macrophages. (United States)

    Ding, Jian; Lin, Lin; Hang, Wei; Yan, Xiaomei


    Investigation of cellular uptake of metal compounds is important in understanding metal-related toxicity and diseases. Inhalation of beryllium aerosols can cause chronic beryllium disease, a progressive, granulomatous fibrosis of the lung. Studies in laboratory animals and cultured animal cells indicate that alveolar macrophages take up beryllium compounds and participate in a hypersensitivity immune response to a beryllium-containing antigen. In the present work, human monocyte cell line THP-1 was induced with phorbol myristate acetate to differentiate into a macrophage. This cell with characteristics of human alveolar macrophages was employed to study cellular beryllium uptake and related biological effects. Morphological changes, phagocytosis of fluorescent latex beads, and cell surface CD14 expression were used to verify the successful differentiation of THP-1 monocytes into macrophages. An improved mass spectrometry method for quantitative analysis of intracellular beryllium as opposed to the traditional radioisotopic approach was developed using ICP-MS. The influence of the solubility of beryllium compounds, exposure duration, and beryllium concentration on the incorporation of beryllium was studied. Our data indicated that the uptake of particulate BeO was much more significant than that of soluble BeSO(4), suggesting the major cellular uptake pathway is phagocytosis. Nevertheless, subsequent DAPI nuclear staining and PARP cleavage study indicated that beryllium uptake had a negligible effect on the apoptosis of THP-1 macrophages compared to the unstimulated macrophage control. Meanwhile, no substantial variation of tumour necrosis factor-alpha production was observed for THP-1 macrophages upon beryllium exposure. These data imply alveolar macrophages could have some level of tolerance to beryllium and this may explain why most Be-exposed individuals remain healthy throughout life.

  8. Studies on extraction of beryllium from thiocyanate solutions by quaternary ammonium halides. (United States)

    El-Yamani, I S; El-Messieh, E N

    A 0.4M tricaprylmethylammonium chloride solution in n-hexane was used for the quantitative extraction of beryllium from hydrochloric acid (pH 3) and 5M potassium thiocyanate. Beryllium was stripped from the organic phase with 1M sodium hydroxide, then determined volumetrically with bismuthyl perchlorate and bromocresol green indicator. Beryllium was extracted in presence of a large number of elements which are usually associated with it in beryl and in fission products of nuclear fuel.

  9. Minority Carrier Lifetime in Beryllium-Doped InAs/InAsSb Strained Layer Superlattices (United States)


    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Minority carrier lifetimes in undoped and Beryllium -doped Type-2 Ga-free, InAs/InAsSb strained layer superlattices (SLS) unlimited. Minority Carrier Lifetime in Beryllium -Doped InAs/InAsSb Strained Layer Superlattices The views, opinions and/or findings contained in...Brook University W-5510 Melville Library West Sayville, NY 11796 -3362 1 ABSTRACT Minority Carrier Lifetime in Beryllium -Doped InAs/InAsSb Strained

  10. Presence of Beryllium (Be) in urban soils: human health risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A.; Gonzalez, M. J.; Lobo, M. C.


    Berylium (Be) is, together with As, Cd, Hg, Pb and Ti, one of the trace elements more toxic for human being (Vaessen) and Szteke, 2000; Yaman and Avci, 2006), but in spite of the exponential increment of its applications during the last decades, surprisingly there isn't hardly information about its presence and environmental distribution. The aim of this work is to evaluate the presence of Beryllium in urban soils in Alcala de Henares, (Madrid Spain).

  11. Beryllium, Lithium and Oxygen Abundances in F-type Stars

    CERN Document Server

    García-López, R J; Pérez de Taoro, M R; Casares, C; Rasilla, J L; Rebolo, R; Allende-Prieto, C


    Beryllium and oxygen abundances have been derived in a sample of F-type field stars for which lithium abundances had been measured previously, with the aim of obtaining observational constraints to discriminate between the different mixing mechanisms proposed. Mixing associated with the transport of angular momentum in the stellar interior and internal gravity waves within the framework of rotating evolutionary models, appear to be promising ways to explain the observations.

  12. Impact of HFIR LEU Conversion on Beryllium Reflector Degradation Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilas, Dan [ORNL


    An assessment of the impact of low enriched uranium (LEU) conversion on the factors that may cause the degradation of the beryllium reflector is performed for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The computational methods, models, and tools, comparisons with previous work, along with the results obtained are documented and discussed in this report. The report documents the results for the gas and neutronic poison production, and the heating in the beryllium reflector for both the highly enriched uranium (HEU) and LEU HFIR configurations, and discusses the impact that the conversion to LEU may have on these quantities. A time-averaging procedure was developed to calculate the isotopic (gas and poisons) production in reflector. The sensitivity of this approach to different approximations is gauged and documented. The results show that the gas is produced in the beryllium reflector at a total rate of 0.304 g/cycle for the HEU configuration; this rate increases by ~12% for the LEU case. The total tritium production rate in reflector is 0.098 g/cycle for the HEU core and approximately 11% higher for the LEU core. A significant increase (up to ~25%) in the neutronic poisons production in the reflector during the operation cycles is observed for the LEU core, compared to the HEU case, for regions close to the core s horizontal midplane. The poisoning level of the reflector may increase by more than two orders of magnitude during long periods of downtime. The heating rate in the reflector is estimated to be approximately 20% lower for the LEU core than for the HEU core. The decrease is due to a significantly lower contribution of the heating produced by the gamma radiation for the LEU core. Both the isotopic (gas and neutronic poisons) production and the heating rates are spatially non-uniform throughout the beryllium reflector volume. The maximum values typically occur in the removable reflector and close to the midplane.

  13. Final disposal in deep boreholes using multiple geological barriers. Digging deeper for safety. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracke, Guido; Hurst, Stephanie; Merkel, Broder; Mueller, Birgit; Schilling, Frank


    The proceedings of the workshop on final disposal in deep boreholes using multiple geological barriers - digging deeper for safety include contributions on the following topics: international status and safety requirements; geological and physical barriers; deep drilling - shaft building; technical barriers and emplacement technology for high P/T conditions; recovery (waste retrieval); geochemistry and monitoring.

  14. 75 FR 25281 - Food Protection Workshop; Public Workshop (United States)


    ... about food safety, food defense, the regulations authorized by the Public Health Security and..., visit or contact Steven C... visit to register online...

  15. The beryllium quandary: will the lower exposure limits spur new developments in sampling and analysis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisson, Michael


    At the time this article was written, new rulemakings were under consideration at OSHA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that would propose changes to occupational exposure limits for beryllium. Given these developments, it’s a good time to review the tools and methods available to IHs for assessing beryllium air and surface contamination in the workplace—what’s new and different, and what’s tried and true. The article discusses limit values and action levels for beryllium, problematic aspects of beryllium air sampling, sample preparation, sample analysis, and data evaluation.

  16. Vacuum Brazing of Beryllium Copper Components for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyhurst, C.C.; Cunningham, M.A.


    A process for vacuum brazing beryllium copper anode assemblies was required for the Plasma Electrode Pockels Cell System, or PEPC, a component for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Initial problems with the joint design and wettability of the beryllium copper drove some minor design changes. Brazing was facilitated by plating the joint surface of the beryllium copper rod with silver 0.0006 inch thick. Individual air sampling during processing and swipe tests of the furnace interior after brazing revealed no traceable levels of beryllium.

  17. Proteomic analysis of beryllium-induced genotoxicity in an Escherichia coli mutant model system. (United States)

    Taylor-McCabe, Kirsten J; Wang, Zaolin; Sauer, Nancy N; Marrone, Babetta L


    Beryllium is the second lightest metal, has a high melting point and high strength-to-weight ratio, and is chemically stable. These unique chemical characteristics make beryllium metal an ideal choice as a component material for a wide variety of applications in aerospace, defense, nuclear weapons, and industry. However, inhalation of beryllium dust or fumes induces significant health effects, including chronic beryllium disease and lung cancer. In this study, the mutagenicity of beryllium sulfate (BeSO(4)) and the comutagenicity of beryllium with a known mutagen 1-methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) were evaluated using a forward mutant detection system developed in Escherichia coli. In this system, BeSO(4) was shown to be weakly mutagenic alone and significantly enhanced the mutagenicity of MNNG up to 3.5-fold over MNNG alone. Based on these results a proteomic study was conducted to identify the proteins regulated by BeSO(4). Using the techniques of 2-DE and oMALDI-TOF MS, we successfully identified 32 proteins being differentially regulated by beryllium and/or MNNG in the E. coli test system. This is the first study to describe the proteins regulated by beryllium in vitro, and the results suggest several potential pathways for the focus of further research into the mechanisms underlying beryllium-induced genotoxicity.

  18. Chest wall shrapnel-induced beryllium-sensitization and associated pulmonary disease. (United States)

    Fireman, E; Shai, A Bar; Lerman, Y; Topilsky, M; Blanc, P D; Maier, L; Li, L; Chandra, S; Abraham, J M; Fomin, I; Aviram, G; Abraham, J L


    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is an exposure-related granulomatous disease mimicking sarcoidosis. Beryllium exposure-associated disease occurs mainly via inhalation, but skin may also be a source of sensitization. A 65-year-old male with a history of war-related shrapnel wounds was initially diagnosed with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Twenty years later, the possibility of a metal-related etiology for the lung disease was raised. A beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test, elemental analysis of removed shrapnel, and genetic studies were consistent with a diagnosis of CBD. This case demonstrates that retained beryllium-containing foreign bodies can be linked to a pathophysiologic response in the lung consistent with CBD.

  19. Calculations for electron-impact excitation and ionization of beryllium (United States)

    Zatsarinny, Oleg; Bartschat, Klaus; Fursa, Dmitry V.; Bray, Igor


    The B-spline R-matrix and the convergent close-coupling methods are used to study electron collisions with neutral beryllium over an energy range from threshold to 100 eV. Coupling to the target continuum significantly affects the results for transitions from the ground state, but to a lesser extent the strong transitions between excited states. Cross sections are presented for selected transitions between low-lying physical bound states of beryllium, as well as for elastic scattering, momentum transfer, and ionization. The present cross sections for transitions from the ground state from the two methods are in excellent agreement with each other, and also with other available results based on nonperturbative convergent pseudostate and time-dependent close-coupling models. The elastic cross section at low energies is dominated by a prominent shape resonance. The ionization from the {(2s2p)}3P and {(2s2p)}1P states strongly depends on the respective term. The current predictions represent an extensive set of electron scattering data for neutral beryllium, which should be sufficient for most modeling applications.

  20. A diethylhydroxylaminate based mixed lithium/beryllium aggregate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Raphael J.F. [Paris-Lodron Universitaet Salzburg (Austria). Fachbereich fuer Materialwissenschaften und Physik; Jana, Surajit [Asansol Girls College, West-Bengal (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Froehlich, Roland [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Organisch-Chemisches Inst.; Mitzel, Norbert W. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Anorganische Chemie und Strukturchemie


    A mixed lithium/beryllium diethylhydroxylaminate compound containing {sup n}butyl beryllium units of total molecular composition {sup n}Be(ONEt{sub 2}){sub 2} [(LiONEt{sub 2}){sup 2} {sup n}BuBeONEt{sub 2}]{sub 2} (1) was isolated from a reaction mixture of {sup n}butyl lithium, N,N-diethylhydroxylamine and BeCl{sub 2} in diethylether/thf. The crystal structure of 1 has been determined by X-ray diffraction. The aggregate is composed of two ladder-type subunits connected in a beryllium-centered distorted tetrahedron of four oxygen atoms. Only the lithium atoms are engaged in coordination with the nitrogen donor atoms. The DFT calculations support the positional occupation determined for Li and Be in the crystal structure. The DFT and the solid-state structure are in excellent agreement, indicating only weak intermolecular interactions in the solid state. Structural details of metal atom coordination are discussed.

  1. Diaper area and disposable diapers. (United States)

    Erasala, G N; Romain, C; Merlay, I


    Since the 1960s, cloth diapers have been replaced by disposable diapers. The evolution of healthier skin in the diaper area has been demonstrated in parallel to that of disposable diapers. The improvements of disposable diapers--fit, dryness, comfort--have been based on the understanding of factors playing a role in the development of diaper dermatitis.

  2. Geological disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Fourteen papers dealing with disposal of high-level radioactive wastes are presented. These cover disposal in salt deposits, geologic deposits and marine disposal. Also included are papers on nuclear waste characterization, transport, waste processing technology, and safety analysis. All of these papers have been abstracted and indexed. (AT)

  3. Space disposal of nuclear wastes (United States)

    Priest, C. C.; Nixon, R. F.; Rice, E. E.


    The DOE has been studying several options for nuclear waste disposal, among them space disposal, which NASA has been assessing. Attention is given to space disposal destinations noting that a circular heliocentric orbit about halfway between Earth and Venus is the reference option in space disposal studies. Discussion also covers the waste form, showing that parameters to be considered include high waste loading, high thermal conductivity, thermochemical stability, resistance to leaching, fabrication, resistance to oxidation and to thermal shock. Finally, the Space Shuttle nuclear waste disposal mission profile is presented.

  4. Nuclear Innovation Workshops Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, John Howard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Allen, Todd Randall [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hildebrandt, Philip Clay [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Baker, Suzanne Hobbs [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    The Nuclear Innovation Workshops were held at six locations across the United States on March 3-5, 2015. The data collected during these workshops has been analyzed and sorted to bring out consistent themes toward enhancing innovation in nuclear energy. These themes include development of a test bed and demonstration platform, improved regulatory processes, improved communications, and increased public-private partnerships. This report contains a discussion of the workshops and resulting themes. Actionable steps are suggested at the end of the report. This revision has a small amount of the data in Appendix C removed in order to avoid potential confusion.

  5. Ocean margins workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Department of Energy (DOE) is announcing the refocusing of its marine research program to emphasize the study of ocean margins and their role in modulating, controlling, and driving Global Change phenomena. This is a proposal to conduct a workshop that will establish priorities and an implementation plan for a new research initiative by the Department of Energy on the ocean margins. The workshop will be attended by about 70 scientists who specialize in ocean margin research. The workshop will be held in the Norfolk, Virginia area in late June 1990.

  6. Beryllium metal I. experimental results on acute oral toxicity, local skin and eye effects, and genotoxicity. (United States)

    Strupp, Christian


    The toxicity of soluble metal compounds is often different from that of the parent metal. Since no reliable data on acute toxicity, local effects, and mutagenicity of beryllium metal have ever been generated, beryllium metal powder was tested according to the respective Organisation for Economical Co-Operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. Acute oral toxicity of beryllium metal was investigated in rats and local effects on skin and eye in rabbits. Skin-sensitizing properties were investigated in guinea pigs (maximization method). Basic knowledge about systemic bioavailability is important for the design of genotoxicity tests on poorly soluble substances. Therefore, it was necessary to experimentally compare the capacities of beryllium chloride and beryllium metal to form ions under simulated human lung conditions. Solubility of beryllium metal in artificial lung fluid was low, while solubility in artificial lysosomal fluid was moderate. Beryllium chloride dissolution kinetics were largely different, and thus, metal extracts were used in the in vitro genotoxicity tests. Genotoxicity was investigated in vitro in a bacterial reverse mutagenicity assay, a mammalian cell gene mutation assay, a mammalian cell chromosome aberration assay, and an unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay. In addition, cell transformation was tested in a Syrian hamster embryo cell assay, and potential inhibition of DNA repair was tested by modification of the UDS assay. Beryllium metal was found not to be mutagenic or clastogenic based on the experimental in vitro results. Furthermore, treatment with beryllium metal extracts did not induce DNA repair synthesis, indicative of no DNA-damaging potential of beryllium metal. A cell-transforming potential and a tendency to inhibit DNA repair when the cell is severely damaged by an external stimulus were observed. Beryllium metal was also found not to be a skin or eye irritant, not to be a skin sensitizer, and not to have relevant acute oral

  7. Release of beryllium from mineral ores in artificial lung and skin surface fluids. (United States)

    Duling, Matthew G; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Lawrence, Robert B; Chipera, Steve J; Virji, M Abbas


    Exposure to some manufactured beryllium compounds via skin contact or inhalation can cause sensitization. A portion of sensitized persons who inhale beryllium may develop chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Little is understood about exposures to naturally occurring beryllium minerals. The purpose of this study was to assess the bioaccessibility of beryllium from bertrandite ore. Dissolution of bertrandite from two mine pits (Monitor and Blue Chalk) was evaluated for both the dermal and inhalation exposure pathways by determining bioaccessibility in artificial sweat (pH 5.3 and pH 6.5), airway lining fluid (SUF, pH 7.3), and alveolar macrophage phagolysosomal fluid (PSF, pH 4.5). Significantly more beryllium was released from Monitor pit ore than Blue Chalk pit ore in artificial sweat buffered to pH 5.3 (0.88 ± 0.01% vs. 0.36 ± 0.00%) and pH 6.5 (0.09 ± 0.00% vs. 0.03 ± 0.01%). Rates of beryllium released from the ores in artificial sweat were faster than previously measured for manufactured forms of beryllium (e.g., beryllium oxide), known to induce sensitization in mice. In SUF, levels of beryllium were below the analytical limit of detection. In PSF, beryllium dissolution was biphasic (initial rapid diffusion followed by latter slower surface reactions). During the latter phase, dissolution half-times were 1,400 to 2,000 days, and rate constants were ~7 × 10(-10) g/(cm(2)·day), indicating that bertrandite is persistent in the lung. These data indicate that it is prudent to control skin and inhalation exposures to bertrandite dusts.

  8. Cybernetics and Workshop Design. (United States)

    Eckstein, Daniel G.


    Cybernetic sessions allow for the investigation of several variables concurrently, resulting in a large volume of input compacted into a concise time frame. Three session questions are reproduced to illustrate the variety of ideas generated relative to workshop design. (Author)

  9. Workshop: Teaching Primitive Arts. (United States)

    Jordison, Jerry


    Discusses the concrete and spiritual aspects of teaching workshops on survival skills or primitive arts. Gives details on lostproofing, or ways to teach a child not to get lost in the outdoors; building a survival shelter; and wilderness cooking. (CDS)

  10. Printed Spacecraft Workshop Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objectives of this workshop are to engage the engineering community at JPL that is knowledgeable in this technology in guiding/developing/critiquing  its...

  11. Transportation Management Workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report is a compilation of discussions presented at the Transportation Management Workshop held in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Topics include waste packaging, personnel training, robotics, transportation routing, certification, containers, and waste classification.

  12. Complex Flow Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report documents findings from a workshop on the impacts of complex wind flows in and out of wind turbine environments, the research needs, and the challenges of meteorological and engineering modeling at regional, wind plant, and wind turbine scales.

  13. Waterfowl identification workshops (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary of waterfowl identification workshops conducted by Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge and J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge. Objectives of the...

  14. Workshop I: Gender Studies (United States)

    Hennessey, Eden; Kurup, Anitha; Meza-Montes, Lilia; Shastri, Prajval; Ghose, Shohini


    Participants in the Gender Studies workshop of the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics discussed the gender question in science practice from a policy perspective, informed by investigations from the social science disciplines. The workshop's three sessions—"Equity and Education: Examining Gender Stigma in Science," "A Comparative Study of Women Scientists and Engineers: Experiences in India and the US," and "Toward Gender Equity Through Policy: Characterizing the Social Impact of Interventions—are summarized, and the resulting recommendations presented.

  15. AAAI-07 Workshop Reports


    Anand, Sarabjot Singh; Bahls, Daniel; Burghart, Catherina R.; Burstein, Mark; Chen, Huajun; Collins, John; Dietterich, Tom; Doyle, Jon; Drummond, Chris; Elazmeh, William; Geib, Christopher; Goldsmith, Judy; Guesgen, Hans W.; Hendler, Jim; Jannach, Dietmar


    The AAAI-07 workshop program was held Sunday and Monday, July 22-23, in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The program included the following thirteen workshops: (1) Acquiring Planning Knowledge via Demonstration; (2) Configuration; (3) Evaluating Architectures for Intelligence; (4) Evaluation Methods for Machine Learning; (5) Explanation-Aware Computing; (6) Human Implications of Human-Robot Interaction; (7) Intelligent Techniques for Web Personalization; (8) Plan, Activity, and Intent Rec...

  16. A Workshop that Works

    CERN Document Server

    Yunes, Nicolas


    The main goal of a scientific workshop is to bring together experts in a specific field or related fields to collaborate, to discuss, and to creatively make progress in a particular area. The organizational aspects of such a meeting play a critical role in achieving these goals. We here present suggestions from scientists to scientists that hopefully help in organizing a successful scientific workshop that maximizes collaboration and creativity.

  17. Industrial Fuel Flexibility Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    On September 28, 2006, in Washington, DC, ITP and Booz Allen Hamilton conducted a fuel flexibility workshop with attendance from various stakeholder groups. Workshop participants included representatives from the petrochemical, refining, food and beverage, steel and metals, pulp and paper, cement and glass manufacturing industries; as well as representatives from industrial boiler manufacturers, technology providers, energy and waste service providers, the federal government and national laboratories, and developers and financiers.

  18. 20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may... (United States)


    ... beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may disqualify certain claimants from receiving benefits under... Special Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers § 30.615 What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...

  19. 20 CFR 30.507 - What compensation will be provided to covered Part B employees who only establish beryllium... (United States)


    ... Part B employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA? 30.507 Section 30... Part B employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA? The establishment of beryllium sensitivity does not entitle a covered Part B employee, or the eligible surviving beneficiary...

  20. 20 CFR 30.205 - What are the criteria for eligibility for benefits relating to beryllium illnesses covered under... (United States)


    ... benefits relating to beryllium illnesses covered under Part B of EEOICPA? 30.205 Section 30.205 Employees... Relating to Covered Beryllium Illness Under Part B of Eeoicpa § 30.205 What are the criteria for eligibility for benefits relating to beryllium illnesses covered under Part B of EEOICPA? To...


    A direct graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy method for the analysis of beryllium in drinking water has been derived from a method for determining beryllium in urine. Ammonium phosphomolybdate and ascorbic acid were employed as matrix modifiers. The matrix modifiers s...

  2. The development and advantages of beryllium capsules for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D.C.; Bradley, P.A.; Hoffman, N.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others


    Capsules with beryllium ablators have long been considered as alternatives to plastic for the National Ignition Facility laser ; now the superior performance of beryllium is becoming well substantiated. Beryllium capsules have the advantages of relative insensitivity to instability growth, low opacity, high tensile strength, and high thermal conductivity. 3-D calculation with the HYDRA code NTIS Document No. DE-96004569 (M. M. Marinak in UCRL-LR-105821-95-3) confirm 2-D LASNEX U. B. Zimmerman and W. L. Kruer, Comments Plasmas Phys. Controlled Thermonucl. Fusion, 2, 51(2975) results that particular beryllium capsule designs are several times less sensitive than the CH point design to instability growth from DT ice roughness. These capsule designs contain more ablator mass and leave some beryllium unablated at ignition. By adjusting the level of copper dopant, the unablated mass can increase or decrease, with a corresponding decrease or increase in sensitivity to perturbations. A plastic capsule with the same ablator mass as the beryllium and leaving the same unablated mass also shows this reduced perturbation sensitivity. Beryllium`s low opacity permits the creation of 250 eV capsule designs. Its high tensile strength allows it to contain DT fuel at room temperature. Its high thermal conductivity simplifies cryogenic fielding.

  3. HLW Disposal System Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J. W.; Choi, H. J.; Lee, J. Y. (and others)


    A KRS is suggested through design requirement analysis of the buffer and the canister which are the constituent of disposal system engineered barrier and HLW management plans are proposed. In the aspect of radionuclide retention capacity, the thickness of the buffer is determined 0.5m, the shape to be disc and ring and the dry density to be 1.6 g/cm{sup 3}. The maximum temperature of the buffer is below 100 .deg. which meets the design requirement. And bentonite blocks with 5 wt% of graphite showed more than 1.0 W/mK of thermal conductivity without the addition of sand. The result of the thermal analysis for proposed double-layered buffer shows that decrease of 7 .deg. C in maximum temperature of the buffer. For the disposal canister, the copper for the outer shell material and cast iron for the inner structure material is recommended considering the results analyzed in terms of performance of the canisters and manufacturability and the geochemical properties of deep groundwater sampled from the research area with granite, salt water intrusion, and the heavy weight of the canister. The results of safety analysis for the canister shows that the criticality for the normal case including uncertainty is the value of 0.816 which meets subcritical condition. Considering nation's 'Basic Plan for Electric Power Demand and Supply' and based on the scenario of disposing CANDU spent fuels in the first phase, the disposal system that the repository will be excavated in eight phases with the construction of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) beginning in 2020 and commissioning in 2040 until the closure of the repository is proposed. Since there is close correlation between domestic HLW management plans and front-end/back-end fuel cycle plans causing such a great sensitivity of international environment factor, items related to assuring the non-proliferation and observing the international standard are showed to be the influential factor and acceptability

  4. Coolant choice for the central beryllium pipe of the BESIII beam pipe (United States)

    Zheng, Li-Fang; Wang, Li; Wu, Ping; Ji, Quan; Li, Xun-Feng; Liu, Jian-Ping


    In order to take away much more heat on the BESIII beam pipe to guarantee the normal particle detection, EDM-1 (oil No.1 for electric discharge machining), with good thermal and flow properties was selected as the candidate coolant for the central beryllium pipe of the BESIII beam pipe. Its cooling character was studied and dynamic corrosion experiment was undertaken to examine its corrosion on beryllium. The experiment results show that EDM-1 would corrode the beryllium 19.9 μm in the depth in 10 years, which is weak and can be neglected. Finite element simulation and experiment research were taken to check the cooling capacity of EDM-1. The results show that EDM-1 can meet the cooling requirement of the central beryllium pipe. Now EDM-1 is being used to cool the central beryllium pipe of the BESIII beam pipe.

  5. Simultaneous determination of aluminium and beryllium by first-derivative synchronous solid-phase spectrofluorimetry. (United States)

    Capitán, F; Manzano, E; Navalón, A; Luis Vilchez, J; Capitán-Vallvey, L F


    A method for the simultaneous determination of aluminium and beryllium in mixtures by first-deravative synchronous solid-phase spectrofluorimetry has been developed. Aluminium and beryllium reacted with morin to give fluorescent complexes, which were fixed on a dextran-type resin. The fluoresnce of the resin, packed in a 1-mm silica cell, was measured directly with a solid-surface attachment. The constant wavelength difference chosen to optimize the determination was Deltalambda = lambda(em) = 75 nm. Aluminium was measured at lambda(em)lambda = 445/520 nm and beryllium at lambda(em)lambda(em) = 430/505 nm. The range of application is between 0.5 and 5.0 ng/ml for both aluminium and beryllium. The accuracy and precision of the method are reported. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of aluminium and beryllium in synthetic mixtures and natural waters.

  6. Detection of beryllium treatment of natural sapphires by NRA (United States)

    Gutiérrez, P. C.; Ynsa, M.-D.; Climent-Font, A.; Calligaro, T.


    Since the 1990's, artificial treatment of natural sapphires (Al 2O 3 crystals coloured by impurities) by diffusion of beryllium at high temperature has become a growing practice. This process permits to enhance the colour of these gemstones, and thus to increase their value. Detection of such a treatment - diffusion of tens of μg/g of beryllium in Al 2O 3 crystals - is usually achieved using high sensitivity techniques like laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP/MS) or laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) which are unfortunately micro-destructive (leaving 50-100-μm diameter craters on the gems). The simple and non-destructive alternative method proposed in this work is based on the nuclear reaction 9Be(α, nγ) 12C with an external helium ion beam impinging on the gem directly placed in air. The 4439 keV prompt γ-ray tagging Be atoms are detected with a high efficiency bismuth germanate scintillator. Beam dose is monitored using the 2235 keV prompt γ-ray produced during irradiation by the aluminium of the sapphire matrix through the 27Al(α, pγ) 30Si nuclear reaction. The method is tested on a series of Be-treated sapphires previously analyzed by LA-ICP/MS to determine the optimal conditions to obtain a peak to background appropriate to reach the required μg/g sensitivity. Using a 2.8-MeV external He beam and a beam dose of 200 μC, beryllium concentrations from 5 to 16 μg/g have been measured in the samples, with a detection limit of 1 μg/g.

  7. Beryllium, an adjuvant that promotes gamma interferon production. (United States)

    Lee, J Y; Atochina, O; King, B; Taylor, L; Elloso, M; Scott, P; Rossman, M D


    Beryllium is associated with a human pulmonary granulomatosis characterized by an accumulation of CD4(+) T cells in the lungs and a heightened specific lymphocyte proliferative response to beryllium (Be) with gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) release (i.e., a T helper 1 [Th1] response). While an animal model of Be sensitization is not currently available, Be has exhibited adjuvant effects in animals. The effects of Be on BALB/c mice immunized with soluble leishmanial antigens (SLA) were investigated to determine if Be had adjuvant activity for IFN-gamma production, an indicator of the Th1 response. In this strain of Leishmania-susceptible BALB/c mice, a Th2 response is normally observed after in vivo SLA sensitization and in vitro restimulation with SLA. If interleukin-12 (IL-12) is given during in vivo sensitization with SLA, markedly increased IFN-gamma production and decreased IL-4 production are detected. We show here that when beryllium sulfate (BeSO(4)) was added during in vivo sensitization of BALB/c mice with SLA and IL-12, significantly increased IFN-gamma production and decreased IL-4 production from lymph node and spleen cells were detected upon in vitro SLA restimulation. No specific responses were observed to Be alone. Lymph node and spleen cells from all mice proliferated strongly and comparably upon in vitro restimulation with SLA and with SLA plus Be; no differences were noted among groups of mice that received different immunization regimens. In vivo, when Be was added to SLA and IL-12 for sensitization of BALB/c mice, more effective control of Leishmania infection was achieved. This finding has implications for understanding not only the development of granulomatous reactions but also the potential for developing Be as a vaccine adjuvant.

  8. Beryllium-stimulated apoptosis in macrophage cell lines. (United States)

    Sawyer, R T; Fadok, V A; Kittle, L A; Maier, L A; Newman, L S


    In vitro stimulation of bronchoalveolar lavage cells from patients with chronic beryllium disease (CBD) induces the production of TNF-alpha. We tested the hypothesis that beryllium (Be)-stimulated TNF-alpha might induce apoptosis in mouse and human macrophage cell lines. These cell lines were selected because they produce a range of Be-stimulated TNF-alpha. The mouse macrophage cell line H36.12j produces high levels of Be-stimulated TNF-alpha. The mouse macrophage cell line P388D.1 produces low, constitutive, levels of TNF-alpha and does not up-regulate Be-stimulated TNF-alpha production. The DEOHS-1 human CBD macrophage cell line does not produce constitutive or Be-stimulated TNF-alpha. Apoptosis was determined by microscopic observation of propidium iodide stained fragmented nuclei in unstimulated and BeSO(4)-stimulated macrophage cell lines. BeSO(4) induced apoptosis in all macrophage cell lines tested. Beryllium-stimulated apoptosis was dose-responsive and maximal after 24 h of exposure to 100 microM BeSO(4). In contrast, unstimulated and Al(2)(SO(4))(3)-stimulated macrophage cell lines did not undergo apoptosis. The general caspase inhibitor BD-fmk inhibited Be-stimulated macrophage cell line apoptosis at concentrations above 50 microM. Our data show that Be-stimulated macrophage cell line apoptosis was caspase-dependent and not solely dependent on Be-stimulated TNF-alpha levels. We speculate that the release of Be-antigen from apoptotic macrophages may serve to re-introduce Be material back into the lung microenvironment, make it available for uptake by new macrophages, and thereby amplify Be-stimulated cytokine production, promoting ongoing inflammation and granuloma maintenance in CBD.

  9. Detection of beryllium treatment of natural sapphires by NRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, P.C., E-mail: carolina.gutierrez@uam.e [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ynsa, M.-D.; Climent-Font, A. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Dpto. Fisica Aplicada C-12, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Calligaro, T. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des musees de France C2RMF, CNRS-UMR171, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France)


    Since the 1990's, artificial treatment of natural sapphires (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals coloured by impurities) by diffusion of beryllium at high temperature has become a growing practice. This process permits to enhance the colour of these gemstones, and thus to increase their value. Detection of such a treatment - diffusion of tens of {mu}g/g of beryllium in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals - is usually achieved using high sensitivity techniques like laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP/MS) or laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) which are unfortunately micro-destructive (leaving 50-100-{mu}m diameter craters on the gems). The simple and non-destructive alternative method proposed in this work is based on the nuclear reaction {sup 9}Be({alpha}, n{gamma}){sup 12}C with an external helium ion beam impinging on the gem directly placed in air. The 4439 keV prompt {gamma}-ray tagging Be atoms are detected with a high efficiency bismuth germanate scintillator. Beam dose is monitored using the 2235 keV prompt {gamma}-ray produced during irradiation by the aluminium of the sapphire matrix through the {sup 27}Al({alpha}, p{gamma}){sup 30}Si nuclear reaction. The method is tested on a series of Be-treated sapphires previously analyzed by LA-ICP/MS to determine the optimal conditions to obtain a peak to background appropriate to reach the required {mu}g/g sensitivity. Using a 2.8-MeV external He beam and a beam dose of 200 {mu}C, beryllium concentrations from 5 to 16 {mu}g/g have been measured in the samples, with a detection limit of 1 {mu}g/g.

  10. Model study in chemisorption: atomic hydrogen on beryllium clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauschlicher, C.W. Jr.


    The interaction between atomic hydrogen and the (0001) surface of Be metal has been studied by ab initio electronic structure theory. Self-consistent-field (SCF) calculations have been performed using minimum, optimized minimum, double zeta and mixed basis sets for clusters as large as 22 Be atoms. The binding energy and equilibrium geometry (the distance to the surface) were determined for 4 sites. Both spatially restricted (the wavefunction was constrained to transform as one of the irreducible representations of the molecular point group) and unrestricted SCF calculations were performed. Using only the optimized minimum basis set, clusters containing as many as 22 beryllium atoms have been investigated. From a variety of considerations, this cluster is seen to be nearly converged within the model used, providing the most reliable results for chemisorption. The site dependence of the frequency is shown to be a geometrical effect depending on the number and angle of the bonds. The diffusion of atomic hydrogen through a perfect beryllium crystal is predicted to be energetically unfavorable. The cohesive energy, the ionization energy and the singlet-triplet separation were computed for the clusters without hydrogen. These quantities can be seen as a measure of the total amount of edge effects. The chemisorptive properties are not related to the total amount of edge effects, but rather the edge effects felt by the adsorbate bonding berylliums. This lack of correlation with the total edge effects illustrates the local nature of the bonding, further strengthening the cluster model for chemisorption. A detailed discussion of the bonding and electronic structure is included. The remaining edge effects for the Be/sub 22/ cluster are discussed.

  11. Microstructure and mechanical properties of neutron irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishitsuka, E.; Kawamura, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Terai, T.; Tanaka, S.


    Microstructure and mechanical properties of the neutron irradiated beryllium with total fast neutron fluences of 1.3 - 4.3 x 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} (E>1 MeV) at 327 - 616degC were studied. Swelling increased by high irradiation temperature, high fluence, and by the small grain size and high impurity. Obvious decreasing of the fracture stress was observed in the bending test and in small grain specimens which had many helium bubbles on the grain boundary. Decreasing of the fracture stress for small grain specimens was presumably caused by crack propagation on the grain boundaries which weekend by helium bubbles. (author)

  12. Use of notched beams to establish fracture criteria for beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayville, R.A.


    The fracture of an improved form of pure beryllium was studied under triaxial tensile stresses. This state of stress was produced by testing notched beams, which were thick enough to be in a state of plane strain at the center. A plane strain, elastic-incremental plasticity finite element program was then used to determine the stress and strain distributions at fracture. A four-point bend fixture was used to load the specimens. It was carefully designed and manufactured to eliminate virtually all of the shear stresses at the reduced section of the notched beams. The unixial properties were obtained.

  13. Atomic, Crystal, Elastic, Thermal, Nuclear, and Other Properties of Beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, A


    This report is part of a series of documents that provide a background to those involved in the construction of beryllium components and their applications. This report is divided into five sub-sections: Atomic/Crystal Structure, Elastic Properties, Thermal Properties, Nuclear Properties, and Miscellaneous Properties. In searching through different sources for the various properties to be included in this report, inconsistencies were at times observed between these sources. In such cases, the values reported by the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics was usually used. In equations, except where indicated otherwise, temperature (T) is in degrees Kelvin.

  14. Inorganic arrangement crystal beryllium, lithium, selenium and silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Gobato, Ricardo; Fedrigo, Desire Francine Gobato


    The use of inorganic crystals technology has been widely date. Since quartz crystals for watches in the nineteenth century, and common way radio in the early twentieth century, to computer chips with new semiconductor materials. Chemical elements such as beryllium, lithium, selenium and silicon, are widely used in technology. The development of new crystals arising from that arrangement can bring technological advances in several areas of knowledge. The likely difficulty of finding such crystals in nature or synthesized, suggest an advanced study of the subject. A study using computer programs with ab initio method was applied. As a result of the likely molecular structure of the arrangement of a crystal was obtained.

  15. Tritium analyses of COBRA-1A2 beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, D.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    Selected tritium measurements have been completed for the COBRA-1A2 experiment C03 and D03 beryllium pebbles. The completed results, shown in Tables 1, 2, and 3, include the tritium assay results for the 1-mm and 3-mm C03 pebbles, and the 1-mm D03 pebbles, stepped anneal test results for both types of 1-mm pebbles, and the residual analyses for the stepped-anneal specimens. All results have been reported with date-of-count and are not corrected for decay. Stepped-anneal tritium release response is provided in addenda.

  16. Beryllium ignition target design for indirect drive NIF experiments (United States)

    Simakov, A. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Yi, S. A.; Kline, J. L.; Salmonson, J. D.; Clark, D. S.; Milovich, J. L.; Marinak, M. M.


    Beryllium (Be) ablator offers multiple advantages over carbon based ablators for indirectly driven NIF ICF ignition targets. These are higher mass ablation rate, ablation pressure and ablation velocity, lower capsule albedo, and higher thermal conductivity at cryogenic temperatures. Such advantages can be used to improve the target robustness and performance. While previous NIF Be target designs exist, they were obtained a long time ago and do not incorporate the latest improved physical understanding and models based upon NIF experiments. Herein, we propose a new NIF Be ignition target design at 1.45 MJ, 430 TW that takes all this knowledge into account.

  17. Cryogenic optical tests of a lightweight HIP beryllium mirror (United States)

    Melugin, Ramsey K.; Miller, Jacob H.; Young, J. A.; Howard, Steven D.; Pryor, G. Mark

    Five interferometric tests were conducted at cryogenic temperatures on a lightweight, 50 cm diameter, hot isostatic pressed (HIP) beryllium mirror in the Ames Research Center (ARC) Cryogenic Optics Test Facility. The purpose of the tests was to determine the stability of the mirror's figure when cooled to cryogenic temperatures. Test temperatures ranged from room ambient to 8 K. One cycle to 8 K and five cycles to 80 K were performed. Optical and thermal test methods are described. Data is presented to show the amount of cryogenic distortion and hysteresis present in the mirror when measured with an earlier, Shack interferometer, and with a newly-acquired, phase-measuring interferometer.

  18. Physicochemical characteristics of aerosol particles generated during the milling of beryllium silicate ores: implications for risk assessment. (United States)

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Chipera, Steve J; Day, Gregory A; Sabey, Phil; Dickerson, Robert M; Sbarra, Deborah C; Duling, Mathew G; Lawrence, Robert B; Stanton, Marcia L; Scripsick, Ronald C


    Inhalation of beryllium dusts generated during milling of ores and cutting of beryl-containing gemstones is associated with development of beryllium sensitization and low prevalence of chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Inhalation of beryllium aerosols generated during primary beryllium production and machining of the metal, alloys, and ceramics are associated with sensitization and high rates of CBD, despite similar airborne beryllium mass concentrations among these industries. Understanding the physicochemical properties of exposure aerosols may help to understand the differential immunopathologic mechanisms of sensitization and CBD and lead to more biologically relevant exposure standards. Properties of aerosols generated during the industrial milling of bertrandite and beryl ores were evaluated. Airborne beryllium mass concentrations among work areas ranged from 0.001 microg/m(3) (beryl ore grinding) to 2.1 microg/m(3) (beryl ore crushing). Respirable mass fractions of airborne beryllium-containing particles were 80% in high-energy input areas (beryl melting, beryl grinding). Particle specific surface area decreased with processing from feedstock ores to drumming final product beryllium hydroxide. Among work areas, beryllium was identified in three crystalline forms: beryl, poorly crystalline beryllium oxide, and beryllium hydroxide. In comparison to aerosols generated by high-CBD risk primary production processes, aerosol particles encountered during milling had similar mass concentrations, generally lower number concentrations and surface area, and contained no identifiable highly crystalline beryllium oxide. One possible explanation for the apparent low prevalence of CBD among workers exposed to beryllium mineral dusts may be that characteristics of the exposure material do not contribute to the development of lung burdens sufficient for progression from sensitization to CBD. In comparison to high-CBD risk exposures where the chemical nature of aerosol

  19. Offsite Source Recovery Program (OSRP) Workshop Module: Tianjin, China, July 16-July 17, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlton, Robert J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Recovering and disposal of radioactive sources that are no longer in service in their intended capacity is an area of high concern Globally. A joint effort to recover and dispose of such sources was formed between the US Department of Energy and the Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), in preparation for the 2008 Beijing Olympics. LANL involvement in this agreement continues today under the DOE-Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program. LANL will be presenting overview information on their Offsite Source Recovery (OSRP) and Source Disposal programs, in a workshop for the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) at Tianjin, China, on July 16 and 17, 2012.

  20. The mechanism for production of beryllium fluoride from the product of ammonium fluoride processing of beryllium- containing raw material (United States)

    Kraydenko, R. I.; Dyachenko, A. N.; Malyutin, L. N.; Petlin, I. V.


    The technique of fluorite-phenacite-bertrandite ores from Russian Ermakovskoe deposit processing by ammonium bifluoride is described. To determine the temperature mode and the thermal dissociation mechanism of ammonium tetrafluoroberyllate (the product of ammonium-fluoride leaching of the ore) the TG/DTA have been carried out. By IR spectroscopy and XRD the semi-products of ammonium tetrafluoroberyllate thermal dissociation have been identified. The hygroscopic low-temperature beryllium fluoride forms higher than 380°C. The less hydroscopic form of BeF2 have been produced at 600°C.

  1. The QED Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieper, G.W.


    On May 18--20, 1994, Argonne National Laboratory hosted the QED Workshop. The workshop was supported by special funding from the Office of Naval Research. The purpose of the workshop was to assemble of a group of researchers to consider whether it is desirable and feasible to build a proof-checked encyclopedia of mathematics, with an associated facility for theorem proving and proof checking. Among the projects represented were Coq, Eves, HOL, ILF, Imps, MathPert, Mizar, NQTHM, NuPrl, OTTER, Proof Pad, Qu-Prolog, and RRL. Although the content of the QED project is highly technical rigorously proof-checked mathematics of all sorts the discussions at the workshop were rarely technical. No prepared talks or papers were given. Instead, the discussions focused primarily on such political, sociological, practical, and aesthetic questions, such as Why do it? Who are the customers? How can one get mathematicians interested? What sort of interfaces are desirable? The most important conclusion of the workshop was that QED is an idea worthy pursuing, a statement with which virtually all the participants agreed. In this document, the authors capture some of the discussions and outline suggestions for the start of a QED scientific community.


    The report provides a summary of the information exchange at a workshop on the potential for release of semi- or non-volatile organic constituents at contaminated sites where sub-surface treatment has been used to control migration, and from waste that is disposed or re-used. The...

  3. Influence of neutron irradiation on the tritium retention in beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolli, R.; Ruebel, S.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Wu, C.H.


    Carbon-based materials and beryllium are the candidates for protective layers on the components of fusion reactors facing plasma. In contact with D-T plasma, these materials absorb tritium, and it is anticipated that tritium retention increases with the neutron damage due to neutron-induced traps. Because of the poor data base for beryllium, the work was concentrated on it. Tritium was loaded into the samples from stagnant T{sub 2}/H{sub 2} atmosphere, and afterwards, the quantity of the loaded tritium was determined by purged thermal annealing. The specification of the samples is shown. The samples were analyzed by SEM before and after irradiation. The loading and the annealing equipments are contained in two different glove boxes with N{sub 2} inert atmosphere. The methods of loading and annealing are explained. The separation of neutron-produced and loaded tritium and the determination of loaded tritium in irradiated samples are reported. Also the determination of loaded tritium in unirradiated samples is reported. It is evident that irradiated samples contained much more loaded tritium than unirradiated samples. The main results of this investigation are summarized in the table. (K.I.)

  4. Review and interpretation of recent cosmic ray beryllium isotope measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buffington, A.


    Be/sup 10/ has long been of interest for cosmic ray propagation, because its radioactive decay half-life is well matched to the expected cosmic ray age. Recent beryllium isotope measurements from satellites and balloons have covered an energy range from about 30 to 300 MeV/nucleon/sup 1-3/. At the lowest energies, most of the Be/sup 10/ is absent, indicating a cosmic ray lifetime of order 2 x 10/sup 7/ years and the rather low average density of 0.2 atoms/cc traversed by the cosmic rays. At higher energies, a greater proportion of Be/sup 10/ is observed, indicating a somewhat shorter lifetime. These experiments will be reviewed and then compared with a new experiment covering from 100 to 1000 Mev/nucleon/sup 4/. Although improved experiments will be necessary to realize the full potential of cosmic ray beryllium isotope measurements, these first results are already disclosing interesting and unexpected facts about cosmic ray acceleration and propagation.

  5. Calculations for electron-impact excitation and ionization of beryllium

    CERN Document Server

    Zatsarinny, Oleg; Fursa, Dmitry V; Bray, Igor


    The B-spline R-matrix and the convergent close-coupling methods are used to study electron collisions with neutral beryllium over an energy range from threshold to 100 eV. Coupling to the target continuum significantly affects the results for transitions from the ground state, but to a lesser extent the strong transitions between excited states. Cross sections are presented for selected transitions between low-lying physical bound states of beryllium, as well as for elastic scattering, momentum transfer, and ionization. The present cross sections for transitions from the ground state from the two methods are in excellent agreement with each other, and also with other available results based on nonperturbative convergent pseudo-state and time-dependent close-coupling models. The elastic cross section at low energies is dominated by a prominent shape resonance. The ionization from the $(2s2p)^3P$ and $(2s2p)^1P$ states strongly depends on the respective term. The current predictions represent an extensive set o...

  6. Microstructural Characterization of Beryllium Treated Al-Si Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Ibrahim


    Full Text Available The present study was carried out on B356 and B357 alloys using the thermal analysis technique. Metallographic samples prepared from these castings were examined using optical microscopy and FESEM. Results revealed that beryllium causes partial modification of the eutectic Si, similar to that reported for magnesium additions. Addition of 0.8 wt.% Mg reduces the eutectic temperature by ~10°C. During solidification of alloys containing high levels of Fe and Mg, but no Sr, formation of a Be-Fe phase was detected at 611°C, close to that of α-Al. The Be-Fe phase precipitates in script-like form at or close to the β-Al5SiFe platelets. A new reaction, composed of fine particles of Si and π-Fe phase, was observed to occur near the end of solidification in high Mg-, high Fe-, and Be-containing alloys. The amount of this reaction decreased with the addition of Sr. Occasionally, Be-containing phase particles were observed as part of the reaction. Addition of Be has a noticeable effect on decreasing the β-Al5FeSi platelet length; this effect may be enhanced by addition of Sr. Beryllium addition also results in precipitation of the β-Al5FeSi phase in nodular form, which lowers its harmful effects on the alloy mechanical properties.

  7. Remarkable Hydrogen Storage on Beryllium Oxide Clusters: First Principles Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Ravindra


    Since the current transportation sector is the largest consumer of oil, and subsequently responsible for major air pollutants, it is inevitable to use alternative renewable sources of energies for vehicular applications. The hydrogen energy seems to be a promising candidate. To explore the possibility of achieving a solid-state high-capacity storage of hydrogen for onboard applications, we have performed first principles density functional theoretical calculations of hydrogen storage properties of beryllium oxide clusters (BeO)$_{n}$ (n=2 -- 8). We observed that polar BeO bond is responsible for H$_{2}$ adsorption. The problem of cohesion of beryllium atoms does not arise, as they are an integral part of BeO clusters. The (BeO)$_{n}$ (n=2 -- 8) adsorbs 8--12 H$_{2}$ molecules with an adsorption energy in the desirable range of reversible hydrogen storage. The gravimetric density of H$_{2}$ adsorbed on BeO clusters meets the ultimate 7.5 wt% limit, recommended for onboard practical applications. In conclusion,...

  8. Measurement control workshop instructional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Crawford, Cary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGinnis, Brent [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Insolves LLC, Piketon, OH (United States)


    A workshop to teach the essential elements of an effective nuclear materials control and accountability (MC&A) programs are outlined, along with the modes of Instruction, and the roles and responsibilities of participants in the workshop.

  9. Measurement Control Workshop Instructional Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Crawford, Cary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGinnis, Brent [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States) and Insolves LLC


    A workshop to teach the essential elements of an effective nuclear materials control and accountability (MC&A) programs are outlined, along with the modes of Instruction, and the roles and responsibilities of participants in the workshop.

  10. Workshop on moisture buffer capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Summary report of a Nordtest workshop on moisture buffer capacity held at Copenhagen August 21-22 2003......Summary report of a Nordtest workshop on moisture buffer capacity held at Copenhagen August 21-22 2003...

  11. Proceedings of the 15. annual British Columbia MEND ML/ARD workshop : the management of tailings and tailings impoundments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This Mine Environment Neutral Drainage (MEND) workshop was held to promote the exchange of information and ideas on environmental protection and reclamation associated with mining. The workshop covered a broad spectrum of reclamation issues and the key environmental challenges facing the mining industry, such as acid mine drainage (AMD) control, and metal leaching and acid rock drainage (ML/ARD). The theme for the 2008 workshop was the management of tailings and tailings impoundments. Topics of discussion included hydrogeology and geochemistry; tailings disposal; mitigation; closure plans; and postclosure performance. The emphasis was on full-scale case studies, practical constraints and sustaining successful disposal strategies and remediation. The session on tailings management reviewed overarching policies and practices; methods of subaerial tailings disposal and case studies of tailings management; and detailed investigations of geochemical properties and processes. The conference featured 22 presentations, of which 4 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  12. Vulcano Workshop 2016

    CERN Document Server


    We announce the XVI Vulcano Workshop, which will be held from May 22nd to May 28th, 2016 in the Vulcano Island (Sicily, Italy). As in the past editions, the workshop will aim to gather people from High Energy Astrophysics and Particle Physics to discuss the most recent highlights in these fields. The workshop will cover the following topics: Astrophysics/Cosmology, Astrophysics/Gravity, Dark Matter, Particle Physics, Cosmic Rays, Gamma/Neutrino Astronomy, Neutrinos and Future Prospects. The scientific program will include several 30-minute review talks, to introduce the current problems, and 20-minute talks, giving new experimental and theoretical results. The participation is by invitation and limited to 80 people.

  13. QCD Evolution Workshop

    CERN Document Server


    These are the proceedings of the QCD Evolution 2015 Workshop which was held 26–30 May, 2015 at Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia, USA. The workshop is a continuation of a series of workshops held during four consecutive years 2011, 2012, 2013 at Jefferson Lab, and in 2014 in Santa Fe, NM. With the rapid developments in our understanding of the evolution of parton distributions including low-x, TMDs, GPDs, higher-twist correlation functions, and the associated progress in perturbative QCD, lattice QCD and effective field theory techniques we look forward with great enthusiasm to the 2015 meeting. A special attention was also paid to participation of experimentalists as the topics discussed are of immediate importance for the JLab 12 experimental program and a future Electron Ion Collider.

  14. African Otter Workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Reed-Smith


    Full Text Available All concerned thought this was an excellent workshop with important progress made towards creating a viable beginning of an African Otter Network. There is a long road ahead but the 2015 African Otter Workshop is a start on developing range country partners, activists and researchers as well as collaborating on issue identification and resolution which will assist in preserving at least some refugia for Africa’s otters. A list of actions was agreed on, including the creation of an African Otter Network website and social media network, apublic Otter Awareness facebook page, encouraging online reporting of otter sightings, conducting otter awareness surveys, and emphasising the need for communication with the public, other members of the network and other professionals. information not shared or documented is information LOST. A Second African Otter Workshop should be held in 2017 elsewhere in Africa to encourage attendance from a wider range of countries.

  15. Chromosome 19 International Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pericak-Vance, M.A. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Medical Center); Ropers, H.H. (Univ. Hospital Nijmegen, (The Netherlands). Dept. of Human Genetics); Carrano, A.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))


    The Second International Workshop on Human Chromosome 19 was hosted on January 25 and 26, 1992, by the Department of Human Genetics, University Hospital Nijmegen, The Netherlands, at the 'Meerdal Conference Center'. The workshop was supported by a grant from the European Community obtained through HUGO, the Dutch Research Organization (NWO) and the Muscular Dystrophy Association (MDA). Travel support for American participants was provided by the Department of Energy. The goals of this workshop were to produce genetic, physical and integrated maps of chromosome 19, to identify inconsistencies and gaps, and to discuss and exchange resources and techniques available for the completion of these maps. The second day of the meeting was largely devoted to region or disease specific efforts. In particular, the meeting served as a platform for assessing and discussing the recent progress made into the molecular elucidation of myotonic dystrophy.

  16. Workshop on molecular animation. (United States)

    Bromberg, Sarina; Chiu, Wah; Ferrin, Thomas E


    From February 25 to 26, 2010, in San Francisco, the Resource for Biocomputing, Visualization, and Informatics (RBVI) and the National Center for Macromolecular Imaging (NCMI) hosted a molecular animation workshop for 21 structural biologists, molecular animators, and creators of molecular visualization software. Molecular animation aims to visualize scientific understanding of biomolecular processes and structures. The primary goal of the workshop was to identify the necessary tools for producing high-quality molecular animations, understanding complex molecular and cellular structures, creating publication supplementary materials and conference presentations, and teaching science to students and the public. Another use of molecular animation emerged in the workshop: helping to focus scientific inquiry about the motions of molecules and enhancing informal communication within and between laboratories.

  17. WALLTURB International Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, Javier; Marusic, Ivan


    This book brings together selected contributions from the WALLTURB workshop on ”Understanding and modelling of wall turbulence” held in Lille, France, on April 21st to 23rd 2009. This workshop was organized by the WALLTURB consortium, in order to present to the relevant scientific community the main results of the project and to stimulate scientific discussions around the subject of wall turbulence. The workshop reviewed the recent progress in theoretical, experimental and numerical approaches to wall turbulence. The problems of zero pressure gradient, adverse pressure gradient and separating turbulent boundary layers were addressed in detail with the three approaches, using the most advanced tools. This book is a milestone in the research field, thanks to the high level of the invited speakers and the involvement of the contributors and a testimony of the achievement of the WALLTURB project.

  18. Development of radiation resistant grades of beryllium for nuclear and fusion facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriyanov, I.B.; Gorokhov, V.A.; Nikolaev, G.N. [Russia Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    R&D results on beryllium with high radiation resistance obtained recently are described in this report. The data are presented on nine different grades of isotropic beryllium manufactured by VNIINM and distinguished by both initial powder characteristics and properties of billets, made of these powders. The average grain size of the investigated beryllium grades varied from 8 to 26 {mu}m, the content of beryllium oxide was 0.9 - 3.9 wt.%, the dispersity of beryllium oxide - 0.04 - 0.5 {mu}m, tensile strength -- 250 - 650 MPa. All materials were irradiated in SM - 2 reactor over the temperature range 550 - 780{degrees}C. The results of the investigation showed, that HIP beryllium grades are less susceptible to swelling at higher temperatures in comparison with hot pressed and extruded grades. Beryllium samples, having the smallest grain size, demonstrated minimal swelling, which was less than 0.8 % at 750{degrees}C and Fs = 3.7 {center_dot}10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} (E>0.1 MeV). The mechanical properties, creep and microstructure parameters, measured before and after irradiation, are presented.

  19. Sampling and analysis plan for assessment of beryllium in soils surrounding TA-40 building 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruedig, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Technical Area (TA) 40 Building 15 (40-15) is an active firing site at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The weapons facility operations (WFO) group plans to build an enclosure over the site in 2017, so that test shots may be conducted year-round. The enclosure project is described in PRID 16P-0209. 40-15 is listed on LANL OSH-ISH’s beryllium inventory, which reflects the potential for beryllium in/on soils and building surfaces at 40-15. Some areas in and around 40-15 have previously been sampled for beryllium, but past sampling efforts did not achieve complete spatial coverage of the area. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) investigates the area surrounding 40-15 via 9 deep (≥1-ft.) soil samples and 11 shallow (6-in.) soil samples. These samples will fill the spatial data gaps for beryllium at 40-15, and will be used to support OSH-ISH’s final determination of 40-15’s beryllium registry status. This SAP has been prepared by the Environmental Health Physics program in consultation with the Industrial Hygiene program. Industrial Hygiene is the owner of LANL’s beryllium program, and will make a final determination with regard to the regulatory status of beryllium at 40-15.

  20. Target organ localization of memory CD4(+) T cells in patients with chronic beryllium disease. (United States)

    Fontenot, Andrew P; Canavera, Scott J; Gharavi, Laia; Newman, Lee S; Kotzin, Brian L


    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is caused by exposure to beryllium in the workplace, and it remains an important public health concern. Evidence suggests that CD4(+) T cells play a critical role in the development of this disease. Using intracellular cytokine staining, we found that the frequency of beryllium-specific CD4(+) T cells in the lungs (bronchoalveolar lavage) of 12 CBD patients ranged from 1.4% to 29% (mean 17.8%), and these T cells expressed a Th1-type phenotype in response to beryllium sulfate (BeSO(4)). Few, if any, beryllium-specific CD8(+) T cells were identified. In contrast, the frequency of beryllium-responsive CD4(+) T cells in the blood of these subjects ranged from undetectable to 1 in 500. No correlation was observed between the frequency of beryllium-responsive bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) CD4(+) T cells as detected by intracellular staining and lymphocyte proliferation in culture after BeSO(4) exposure. Staining for surface marker expression showed that nearly all BAL T cells exhibit an effector memory cell phenotype. These results demonstrate a dramatically high frequency and compartmentalization of antigen-specific effector memory CD4(+) cells in the lungs of CBD patients. These studies provide insight into the phenotypic and functional characteristics of antigen-specific T cells invading other inaccessible target organs in human disease.

  1. New and Emerging Technologies for Real-Time Air and Surface Beryllium Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.; Churnetski, E.L.; Cooke, L.E.; Reed, J.J.; Howell, M.L.; Smith, V.D.


    In this study, five emerging technologies were identified for real-time monitoring of airborne beryllium: Microwave-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (MIPS), Aerosol Beam-Focused Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (ABFLIPS), Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Surfaced-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Spectroscopy, and Micro-Calorimetric Spectroscopy (CalSpec). Desired features of real-time air beryllium monitoring instrumentation were developed from the Y-12 CBDPP. These features were used as guidelines for the identification of potential technologies as well as their unique demonstrated capability to provide real-time monitoring of similar materials. However, best available technologies were considered, regardless of their ability to comply with the desired features. None of the five technologies have the capability to measure the particle size of airborne beryllium. Although reducing the total concentration of airborne beryllium is important, current literature suggests that reducing or eliminating the concentration of respirable beryllium is critical for worker health protection. Eight emerging technologies were identified for surface monitoring of beryllium. CalSpec, MIPS, SERS, LIBS, Laser Ablation, Absorptive Stripping Voltametry (ASV), Modified Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Spectroscopy, and Gamma BeAST. Desired features of real-time surface beryllium monitoring were developed from the Y-12 CBDPP. These features were used as guidelines for the identification of potential technologies. However, the best available technologies were considered regardless of their ability to comply with the desired features.

  2. Machining risk of beryllium disease and sensitization with median exposures below 2 micrograms/m3. (United States)

    Kreiss, K; Mroz, M M; Newman, L S; Martyny, J; Zhen, B


    We examined the prevalence of beryllium sensitization in relation to work process and beryllium exposure measurements in a beryllia ceramics plant that had operated since 1980. We interviewed 136 employees (97.8% of the workforce), ascertained beryllium sensitization with the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation blood test, and reviewed historical industrial hygiene measurements. Of eight beryllium-sensitized employees (5.9%), six (4.4% of participating employees) had granulomatous disease on transbronchial lung biopsy. Machinists had a sensitization rate of 14.3% compared to a rate of 1.2% among other employees. Machining had significantly higher general area and breathing zone measurements than did other processes in the time period in which most beryllium-sensitized cases had started machining work. Daily weighted average (DWA) estimates of exposure for matching processes also exceeded estimates for other work processes in that time period, with a median DWA of 0.9 microgram/m3. Machining process DWAs accounted for the majority of DWAs exceeding the 2.0 micrograms/m3 OSHA standard, with 8.1% of machining DWAs above the standard. We conclude that lowering machining process-related exposures may be important to lowering risk of beryllium disease.

  3. Use of 41Ar production to measure ablator areal density in NIF beryllium implosions (United States)

    Wilson, D. C.; Cassata, W. B.; Sepke, S. M.; Velsko, C. A.; Huang, H.; Yeamans, C. B.; Kline, J. L.; Yi, A.; Simakov, A. N.; Haan, S. W.; Batha, S. H.; Dewald, E. L.; Rygg, J. R.; Tommasini, R.; Xu, H.; Kong, C.; Bae, J.; Rice, N.


    For the first time, 41Ar produced by the (n,ϒ) reaction from 40Ar in the beryllium shell of a DT filled Inertial Confinement Fusion capsule has been measured. Ar is co-deposited with beryllium in the sputter deposition of the capsule shell. Combined with a measurement of the neutron yield, the radioactive 41Ar then quantifies the areal density of beryllium during the DT neutron production. The measured 1.15 ± 0.17 × 10+8 atoms of 41Ar are 2.5 times that from the best post-shot calculation, suggesting that the Ar and Be areal densities are correspondingly higher than those calculated. Possible explanations are that (1) the beryllium shell is compressed more than calculated, (2) beryllium has mixed into the cold DT ice, or more likely (3) less beryllium is ablated than calculated. Since only one DT filled beryllium capsule has been fielded at NIF, these results can be confirmed and expanded in the future.

  4. Melter Disposal Strategic Planning Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document describes the proposed strategy for disposal of spent and failed melters from the tank waste treatment plant to be built by the Office of River Protection at the Hanford site in Washington. It describes program management activities, disposal and transportation systems, leachate management, permitting, and safety authorization basis approvals needed to execute the strategy.

  5. Disposable diapers: safe and effective. (United States)

    Singh, Namita; Purthi, P K; Sachdev, Anupam; Gupta, Suresh


    Nappy rash is a common problem in infants due to their thinner skin, wetness, heat and friction under cloth nappy, fecal enzymes and alkaline urine. The disposable diapers containing Super Absorbent Material (SAM) reduce the incidence of nappy rash. SAM quickly absorbs urine and keeps the skin dry. Also disposable diapers prevent fecal contamination by absorbing the urine and containing stools.

  6. Nuclear waste disposal in space (United States)

    Burns, R. E.; Causey, W. E.; Galloway, W. E.; Nelson, R. W.


    Work on nuclear waste disposal in space conducted by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and contractors are reported. From the aggregate studies, it is concluded that space disposal of nuclear waste is technically feasible.

  7. Korean Reference HLW Disposal System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. S. (and others)


    This report outlines the results related to the development of Korean Reference Disposal System for High-level radioactive wastes. The research has been supported around for 10 years through a long-term research plan by MOST. The reference disposal method was selected via the first stage of the research during which the technical guidelines for the geological disposal of HLW were determined too. At the second stage of the research, the conceptual design of the reference disposal system was made. For this purpose the characteristics of the reference spent fuels from PWR and CANDU reactors were specified, and the material and specifications of the canisters were determined in term of structural analysis and manufacturing capability in Korea. Also, the mechanical and chemical characteristics of the domestic Ca-bentonite were analyzed in order to supply the basic design parameters of the buffer. Based on these parameters the thermal and mechanical analysis of the near-field was carried out. Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical behavior of the disposal system was analyzed. The reference disposal system was proposed through the second year research. At the final third stage of the research, the Korean Reference disposal System including the engineered barrier, surface facilities, and underground facilities was proposed through the performance analysis of the disposal system.

  8. Report of the Orientation Workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunez, Heilyn Camacho; Buus, Lillian; Ogange, Betty


    This Orientation Workshops is part of MAAGART project. The workshop is divided in three parts: 1) pre-Orientation Workshop stage, 2) Face-to-Face stage and 3) post-Orientation stage. Pre and post stages will be developed online. All the activities will take place in a virtual learning environment...... the third stage....

  9. Considerations for the development of health-based surface dust cleanup criteria for beryllium. (United States)

    Shay, Erin; De Gandiaga, Elise; Madl, Amy K


    The exposure-response patterns with beryllium sensitization (BeS), chronic beryllium disease (CBD) and lung cancer are influenced by a number of biological and physicochemical factors. Recent studies have suggested dermal exposure as a pathway for BeS. In light of the current non-health-based DOE Beryllium Rule surface criteria, the feasibility of deriving a human health-based surface dust cleanup criteria (SDCC) for beryllium was assessed based on toxicology and health risk factors via all potential routes of exposure. Beryllium-specific and general exposure factors were evaluated, including (1) beryllium physicochemical characteristics, bioavailability and influence on disease prevalence, and (2) chemical dissipation, resuspension and transfer. SDCC for non-cancer (SDCC) and cancer (SDCC) endpoints were derived from a combination of modern methods applied for occupational, residential and building reentry surface dust criteria. The most conservative SDCC estimates were derived for dermal exposure (5-379 μg/100 cm for 0.1-1% damaged skin and 17-3337 μg/100 cm for intact skin), whereas the SDCC for inhalation exposure ranged from 51 to 485 μg/100 cm. Considering this analysis, the lowest DOE surface criterion of 0.2 μg/100 cm is conservative for minimizing exposure and potential risks associated with beryllium-contaminated surfaces released for non-beryllium industrial or public sector use. Although methodological challenges exist with sampling and analysis procedures, data variability and interpretation of surface dust information in relation to anthropogenic and natural background concentrations, this evaluation should provide useful guidance with regard to cleanup of manufacturing equipment or remediation of property for transfer to the general public or non-beryllium industrial facilities.

  10. NX15 science workshop

    CERN Multimedia


    Science. For some of us, it's daunting or maybe even terrifying. How to tell a good science story? That's the question we will explore together in this workshop. Conceived and produced by journalist and Scientific News producer Claudio Rosmino of Euronews, and presented by Euronews' Jeremy Wilks, the workshop will look at actual case studies (from Euronews and beyond) where science news proved exciting, inspiring and accessible to audiences around the world. These might include the Rosetta mission and CERN's work on Science for Peace. Together, we'll share ideas and knowledge around how science journalism and science news can increase its visibility in the media and maybe save the planet...!

  11. 2015 Workshop on Continuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    his volume contains the papers presented at WoC 2015, the Workshop on Continuations held at ETAPS 2015. There were four submissions. Each of them was reviewed by, on the average, three PC members. The committee decided to accept three papers. The program also includes one invited talk. It also...... documents the depth, variety, and richness of continuations with four distilled tutorials. Thanks are due to the local organizers of ETAPS 2015 for the infras- tructure and to the general chairman of WoC 2015, Ugo de'Liguoro, for initiating this workshop and making it happen...

  12. Study of beryllium redeposition under bombardment by high intensity -low energy- hydrogen ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gureev, V.M.; Guseva, M.I.; Danelyan, L.S. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others


    The results of studying the erosion of beryllium under an effect of intense ion fluxes with the energy of 250 eV, at the fluences {approx}10{sup 2}1 cm{sup -2}, at the MAGRAS-stand are given. The operating conditions under which a practically-complete redeposition of the sputtered beryllium upon the target surface were experimentally-realized. A change in the microstructure of a beryllium target under sputtering and redeposition is analyzed. Some technological applications are considered. (author)

  13. Conditions for preparation of ultrapure beryllium by electrolytic refining in molten alkali-metal chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlfarth, Hagen


    Electrolytic refining is regarded as the most suitable process for the production of beryllium with impurity contents below 1 at.-ppM. Several parameters are important for electrolytic refining of beryllium in a BeCl/sub 2/-containing LiCl-KCl melt: current density, BeCl/sub 2/ content, electrolyte temperature, composition of the unpurified beryllium and impurity-ion concentrations in the melt, as well as apparatus characteristics such as rotation speed of the cathode and condition of the crucible material. These factors were studied and optimized such that extensive removal of the maximum number of accompanying and alloying elements was achieved.

  14. The structure and the Raman vibrational spectrum of the beryllium aquacation. (United States)

    Rozmanov, Dmitry A; Sizova, Olga V; Skripkin, Mikhail Yu; Burkov, Kim A


    The experimental Raman vibrational spectrum of the 5.94 m water solution of the beryllium(II) chloride has been acquired. Theoretical frequencies, infrared and Raman intensities of the vibrational spectrum of the beryllium cation tetrahydrate have been calculated by means of quantum chemical approach. The peaks of the experimental spectrum have been assigned on the basis of the results of the quantum-chemical calculations. It has been shown that the hydrating surrounding of the aquacation increases effectively the frequency of the beryllium-oxygen stretching vibration by 16% in comparison with the free complex.

  15. Beryllium Exposure Control Program at the Cardiff Atomic Weapons Establishment in the United Kingdom. (United States)

    Johnson, J S; Foote, K; McClean, M; Cogbill, G


    The Cardiff Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) plant, located in Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom, used metallic beryllium in their beryllium facility during the years of operation 1961-1997. The beryllium production processes included melting and casting, powder production, pressing, machining, and heat and surface treatments. As part of Cardiff's industrial hygiene program, extensive area measurements and personal lapel measurements of airborne beryllium concentrations were collected for Cardiff workers over the 36-year period of operation. In addition to extensive air monitoring, the beryllium control program also utilized surface contamination controls, building design, engineering controls, worker controls, material controls, and medical surveillance. The electronic database includes 367,757 area sampling records at 101 locations and 217,681 personal lapel sampling records collected from 194 employees over the period 1981-1997. Similar workplace samples were collected from 1961 to 1980, but they were not analyzed because they were not available electronically. Annual personal mean sampling concentrations for all workers ranged from 0.11 to 0.72 micrograms per cubic meter (microg/m3) with 95th percentiles ranging from 0.22 to 1.89 microg/m3; foundry workers worked in the highest concentration areas with a mean of 0.87 microg/m3 and a 95th percentile of 2.9 microg/m3. Area sampling concentrations, as expected, were lower than personal sampling concentrations. Mean annual area sample concentrations for all locations ranged from 0.02 to 0.32 microg/m3. The area sample 95th percentile concentrations for all years were below 0.5 microg/m3. For the overwhelming majority of samples, airborne beryllium concentrations were below the 2.0 microg/m3 standard. Although blood lymphocyte testing for beryllium sensitization has not been routinely conducted among these workers, this metal beryllium processing facility is the only large scale beryllium facility of its kind to have

  16. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal In Engineered Trench #3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L. L.; Smith, F. G. III; Flach, G. P.; Hiergesell, R. A.; Butcher, B. T.


    Because Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) will be placed in the location previously designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12), Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

  17. Photoluminescence enhancement from GaN by beryllium doping (United States)

    García-Gutiérrez, R.; Ramos-Carrazco, A.; Berman-Mendoza, D.; Hirata, G. A.; Contreras, O. E.; Barboza-Flores, M.


    High quality Be-doped (Be = 0.19 at.%) GaN powder has been grown by reacting high purity Ga diluted alloys (Be-Ga) with ultra high purity ammonia in a horizontal quartz tube reactor at 1200 °C. An initial low-temperature treatment to dissolve ammonia into the Ga melt produced GaN powders with 100% reaction efficiency. Doping was achieved by dissolving beryllium into the gallium metal. The powders synthesized by this method regularly consist of two particle size distributions: large hollow columns with lengths between 5 and 10 μm and small platelets in a range of diameters among 1 and 3 μm. The GaN:Be powders present a high quality polycrystalline profile with preferential growth on the [10 1 bar 1] plane, observed by means of X-ray diffraction. The three characteristics growth planes of the GaN crystalline phase were found by using high resolution TEM microscopy. The optical enhancing of the emission in the GaN powder is attributed to defects created with the beryllium doping. The room temperature photoluminescence emission spectra of GaN:Be powders, revealed the presence of beryllium on a shoulder peak at 3.39 eV and an unusual Y6 emission at 3.32eV related to surface donor-acceptor pairs. Also, a donor-acceptor-pair transition at 3.17 eV and a phonon replica transition at 3.1 eV were observed at low temperature (10 K). The well-known yellow luminescence band coming from defects was observed in both spectra at room and low temperature. Cathodoluminescence emission from GaN:Be powders presents two main peaks associated with an ultraviolet band emission and the yellow emission known from defects. To study the trapping levels related with the defects formed in the GaN:Be, thermoluminescence glow curves were obtained using UV and β radiation in the range of 50 and 150 °C.

  18. Flywheel energy storage workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Kain, D.; Carmack, J. [comps.


    Since the November 1993 Flywheel Workshop, there has been a major surge of interest in Flywheel Energy Storage. Numerous flywheel programs have been funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), by the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Hybrid Vehicle Program, and by private investment. Several new prototype systems have been built and are being tested. The operational performance characteristics of flywheel energy storage are being recognized as attractive for a number of potential applications. Programs are underway to develop flywheels for cars, buses, boats, trains, satellites, and for electric utility applications such as power quality, uninterruptible power supplies, and load leveling. With the tremendous amount of flywheel activity during the last two years, this workshop should again provide an excellent opportunity for presentation of new information. This workshop is jointly sponsored by ARPA and DOE to provide a review of the status of current flywheel programs and to provide a forum for presentation of new flywheel technology. Technology areas of interest include flywheel applications, flywheel systems, design, materials, fabrication, assembly, safety & containment, ball bearings, magnetic bearings, motor/generators, power electronics, mounting systems, test procedures, and systems integration. Information from the workshop will help guide ARPA & DOE planning for future flywheel programs. This document is comprised of detailed viewgraphs.

  19. Workshop One : Risk Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlson, T.J.; Jong, C.A.F. de; Dekeling, R.P.A.


    The workshop looked at the assessment of risk to aquatic animals exposed to anthropogenic sound. The discussion focused on marine mammals given the worldwide attention being paid to them at the present time, particularly in relationship to oil and gas exploration, ocean power, and increases in ship

  20. Workshop on hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    FAO, in collaboration with FEDEARROZ in Colombia and EMBRAPA / CNPAF in Brail, organized a workshop on the Establishment of a Coorperative Research Network on Hybrid Rice in Latin America and the Caribbean held from Mar 16 to 18, 1994 at EMBRAPA/CNPAF in Brazil. Dr MAO Changxiang,

  1. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.


    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  2. Second Quaternary dating workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The second Quaternary dating methods workshop was held at Lucas Heights and sponsored by ANSTO and AINSE. Topics covered include, isotope and thermoluminescence dating, usage of accelerator and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry in environmental studies emphasizing on the methodologies used and sample preparation

  3. FINPIE/97. Workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This publication contains the proceedings of 1997 Finnish Workshop on Power and Industrial Electronics, held in Espoo, Finland, on 26 August, 1997. The programme consisted of technical sessions on Advanced AC Motor Control, Electric Machines and Drives, Advanced Control and Measurement, Power Electronics Systems, Modelling and Simulation, and Power Converters

  4. Workshop on DNA repair.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Lehmann (Alan); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); A.A. van Zeeland (Albert); C.M.P. Backendorf (Claude); B.A. Bridges; A. Collins; R.P.D. Fuchs; G.P. Margison; R. Montesano; E. Moustacchi; A.T. Natarajan; M. Radman; A. Sarasin; E. Seeberg; C.A. Smith; M. Stefanini (Miria); L.H. Thompson; G.P. van der Schans; C.A. Weber (Christine); M.Z. Zdzienika


    textabstractA workshop on DNA repair with emphasis on eukaryotic systems was held, under the auspices of the EC Concerted Action on DNA Repair and Cancer, at Noordwijkerhout (The Netherlands) 14-19 April 1991. The local organization of the meeting was done under the auspices of the Medical Genetic C

  5. Beginnings Workshop: Mealtimes. (United States)

    Gordon, Sarah A. Mulligan; And Others


    Contains four workshop presentations on meals in child care: (1) "Enjoying Family-Style Meals in Child Care" (Sarah A. Mulligan Gordon); (2) "The Making of a Healthy Eater: Winning the Finicky Eater Battle" (James M. Thomas and others); (3) "Food for Thought: Mealtimes can be Educational and Enjoyable, Too" (Karen…

  6. ATLAS TRT 2002 Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    Capeans, M.

    Starting on 17th May, the ATLAS TRT 2002 Workshop was organised by Ken MacFarlane and his team at Hampton University, Virginia, USA. During a welcome break in the very dense workshop programme, the group enjoyed a half-day long boat trip along the waterways, offering a first-hand look at the history and heritage of this part of America. The attendance during the six-day workshop was about 50 people representing most of the collaborating institutes, although many Russian colleagues had stayed in their institutes to pursue the start-up of end-cap wheel production at PNPI and DUBNA. The meeting clearly showed that, during the year 2002, the TRT community is focusing on final design issues and module/wheel construction, while moving at the same time towards acceptance testing and integration, including the front-end electronics. The two main topics treated at the workshop were the preparation for beginning full production of the FE electronics, and the wire-joint problem that the US barrel colleagues have been fa...

  7. Workshop on Mathematical Physics

    CERN Document Server


    This two-day workshop will include seminars by mathematicians and physicists on topics of mutual interest. It will precede the 31st International Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics which will be held in Rio de Janeiro from June 19-25.

  8. Dynamic defense workshop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, Sean Michael; Doak, Justin E.; Haas, Jason Juedes.; Helinski, Ryan; Lamb, Christopher C.


    On September 5th and 6th, 2012, the Dynamic Defense Workshop: From Research to Practice brought together researchers from academia, industry, and Sandia with the goals of increasing collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and external organizations, de ning and un- derstanding dynamic, or moving target, defense concepts and directions, and gaining a greater understanding of the state of the art for dynamic defense. Through the workshop, we broadened and re ned our de nition and understanding, identi ed new approaches to inherent challenges, and de ned principles of dynamic defense. Half of the workshop was devoted to presentations of current state-of-the-art work. Presentation topics included areas such as the failure of current defenses, threats, techniques, goals of dynamic defense, theory, foundations of dynamic defense, future directions and open research questions related to dynamic defense. The remainder of the workshop was discussion, which was broken down into sessions on de ning challenges, applications to host or mobile environments, applications to enterprise network environments, exploring research and operational taxonomies, and determining how to apply scienti c rigor to and investigating the eld of dynamic defense.

  9. Summary of cosmology workshop

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tarun Sandeep


    Cosmology is passing through a golden phase of rapid advance. The cosmology workshop at ICGC-2004 attracted a large number of research contributions to diverse topics of cosmology. I attempt to classify and summarize the research work and results of the oral and poster presentations made at the meeting.

  10. Beryllium Separation from Beryllium Containing Solution with Solvent Extraction Method%溶剂萃取法从含铍溶液中分离铍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘珍珍; 刘勇; 刘牡丹


    Beryllium was extracted from the sulphuric acid leaching solution of complex low grade beryllium ore with solvent extraction process. The effecting factors on beryllium single stage extraction rate were researched. The results show that the optimal conditions were pH in aqueous phase of 2?. 5, concentration of beryllium in leaching solution of 1. 5~2. 5 g/L, volume fraction of P204 of 30%, extraction time of 20 min, and W/O=l. In this conditions, more than 98. 50% beryllium is separated by four stage countercur-rent extraction.%采用溶剂萃取法从某复杂低品位铍矿的硫酸浸出液中进行铍的分离,研究了不同因素对铍的单级萃取效果的影响.结果表明,最佳条件为:水相pH=2~2.5、浸出液初始铍浓度1.5~2.5 g/L、P204体积分数30%、萃取时间20 min、相比为1.在此条件下四级逆流萃取后铍萃取率可达到98.50%.

  11. Geological disposal system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chul Hyung; Kuh, J. E.; Kim, S. K. and others


    Spent fuel inventories to be disposed of finally and design base spent fuel were determined. Technical and safety criteria for a geological repository system in Korea were established. Based on the properties of spent PWR and CANDU fuels, seven repository alternatives were developed and the most promising repository option was selected by the pair-wise comparison method from the technology point of view. With this option preliminary conceptual design studies were carried out. Several module, e.g., gap module, congruent release module were developed for the overall assessment code MASCOT-K. The prominent overseas databases such as OECD/NEA FEP list were are fully reviewed and then screened to identify the feasible ones to reflect the Korean geo-hydrological conditions. In addition to this the well known scenario development methods such as PID, RES were reviewed. To confirm the radiological safety of the proposed KAERI repository concept the preliminary PA was pursued. Thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the near field of repository were performed to verify thermal and mechanical stability for KAERI repository system. The requirements of buffer material were analyzed, and based on the results, the quantitative functional criteria for buffer material were established. The hydraulic and swelling property, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity, the organic carbon content, and the evolution of pore water chemistry were investigated. Based on the results, the candidate buffer material was selected.

  12. Workshops as a Research Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Levinsen, Karin Tweddell


    This paper contributes to knowledge on workshops as a research methodology, and specifically on how such workshops pertain to e-learning. A literature review illustrated that workshops are discussed according to three different perspectives: workshops as a means, workshops as practice......, and workshops as a research methodology. Focusing primarily on the latter, this paper presents five studies on upper secondary and higher education teachers’ professional development and on teaching and learning through video conferencing. Through analysis and discussion of these studies’ findings, we argue...... that workshops provide a platform that can aid researchers in identifying and exploring relevant factors in a given domain by providing means for understanding complex work and knowledge processes that are supported by technology (for example, e-learning). The approach supports identifying factors...

  13. Modes of Occurrence and Geological Origin of Beryllium in Coals from the Pu'an Coalfield, Guizhou, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jianye


    The concentration, modes of occurrence and geological origin of beryllium in five workable coal beds from the Pu'an Coalfield of Guizbou were studied using the inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), floating and sinking experiments (FSE) and sequential chemical extraction procedures (SCEP). The results show that the average concentration of beryllium in coals from the Pu'an Coalfield is 1.54 μg/g, much lower than that in most Chinese and worldwide coals.Beryllium in the Pu'an coals was not significantly enriched. However, it should be noted that the No. 8 coal bed from the study area has a high concentration of beryllium, 6.89 μg/g, three times higher than the background value of beryllium in coal. Beryllium in coal mainly occurs as organic association and has predominantly originated from coal-forming plants when its concentration is relatively low. The concentration of beryllium occurring as organic association is close to that distributed in inorganic matter when beryllium concentration of coal is similar to its background value, and in addition to coal-forming plants, beryllium is mainly derived from detrital materials of terrigenous origin. When beryllium is anomalously enriched in coal, it mainly occurs as organic association and is derived from volcanic tonsteins leached for a long geological time and then adsorbed by organic matter in peat mire.

  14. Optical properties and structure of beryllium lead silicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhidkov, I. S., E-mail: [Ural Federal University, Mira Str. 19, Yekaterinburg, 620002, Russia and Institute of Metal Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences-Ural Division, S. Kovalevskoi Str. 18, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Zatsepin, A. F.; Cholakh, S. O.; Kuznetsova, Yu. A. [Ural Federal University, Mira Str. 19, Yekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation)


    Luminescence and optical properties and structural features of (BeO){sub x}(PbO⋅SiO{sub 2}){sub 1−x} glasses (x = 0 ÷ 0.3) are investigated by means of optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The regularities of the formation of the optical absorption edge and static disorder are studied. It is shown that the optical absorption and luminescence are determined by transitions between localized states of lead ions. The impact of beryllium oxide on optical and luminescence properties and electronic structure of bands tails is discussed. The presence of two different concentration ranges with various short-range order structure and band tails nature has been established.

  15. Optical properties and structure of beryllium lead silicate glasses (United States)

    Zhidkov, I. S.; Zatsepin, A. F.; Cholakh, S. O.; Kuznetsova, Yu. A.


    Luminescence and optical properties and structural features of (BeO)x(PbOṡSiO2)1-x glasses (x = 0 ÷ 0.3) are investigated by means of optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The regularities of the formation of the optical absorption edge and static disorder are studied. It is shown that the optical absorption and luminescence are determined by transitions between localized states of lead ions. The impact of beryllium oxide on optical and luminescence properties and electronic structure of bands tails is discussed. The presence of two different concentration ranges with various short-range order structure and band tails nature has been established.

  16. Near real-time fluorescence detection of beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCleskey, T. M. (Thomas Mark); Ehler, D. S. (Deborah S.); Minogue, E. M. (Edel Mary); Collis, G. E. (Gavin E.); Keizer, T. S. (Timothy S.); Burrell, A. K. (Anthony K.); Sauer, N. N. (Nancy N.); John, K. D. (Kevin D.)


    We report on a fluorescent test for beryllium designed for analyzing swipes. The detection is rapid, quantitative and deployable in the field with $5,000 portable fluorimeter. Swipes are placed in a vial and a dilution solution is added. The vials are then rotated for 30 minutes and then syringe filtered. An aliquot of 100 pL is added to a detector solution and fluorescence measured with a portable ocean optics unit. We can readily detect down to 0.02 {micro}g on a filter paper. Interference studies have been carried out with various metals including Al, Fe, Pb, U, Ca, W, Ni, Co and Cu. The technique has proven to be successful under various conditions including a variety of surfaces both in the lab and in field. It is a user-friendly, cost effective method.

  17. Tensile and fracture toughness test results of neutron irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaouadi, R.; Moons, F.; Puzzolante, J.L. [Centre d`Etude de l`Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium)


    Tensile and fracture toughness test results of four Beryllium grades are reported here. The flow and fracture properties are investigated by using small size tensile and round compact tension specimens. Irradiation was performed at the BR2 material testing reactor which allows various temperature and irradiation conditions. The fast neutron fluence (>1 MeV) ranges between 0.65 and 2.45 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2}. In the meantime, un-irradiated specimens were aged at the irradiation temperatures to separate if any the effect of temperature from irradiation damage. Test results are analyzed and discussed, in particular in terms of the effects of material grade, test temperature, thermal ageing and neutron irradiation. (author)

  18. Nuclear charge radius measurements of radioactive beryllium isotopes

    CERN Multimedia


    We propose to measure the nuclear charge radii of the beryllium isotopes $^{7,9,10}$Be and the one-neutron halo isotope $^{11}$Be using laser spectroscopy of trapped ions. Ions produced at ISOLDE and ionized with the laser ion source will be cooled and bunched in the radio-frequency buncher of the ISOLTRAP experiment and then transferred into a specially designed Paul trap. Here, they will be cooled to temperatures in the mK range employing sympathetic and direct laser cooling. Precision laser spectroscopy of the isotope shift on the cooled ensemble in combination with accurate atomic structure calculations will provide nuclear charge radii with a precision of better than 3%. This will be the first model-independent determination of a one-neutron halo nuclear charge radius.

  19. Specification for nuclear-grade beryllium oxide powder

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This specification defines the physical and chemical requirements of nuclear-grade beryllium oxide (BeO) powder to be used in fabricating nuclear components. 1.2 This specification does not include requirements for health and safety. , , It recognizes the material as a Class B poison and suggests that producers and users become thoroughly familiar with and comply to applicable federal, state, and local regulations and handling guidelines. 1.3 Special tests and procedures are given in Annex A1 and Annex A2. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

  20. Notched strength of beryllium powder and ingot sheets. (United States)

    Moss, R. G.


    The effects of notches in thin beryllium sheets were studied as functions of material variables and notch severity. Double edge notched samples having stress concentration factors of 1.0 to 15.4 were prepared by milling to size, etching, and electrical discharge machining the notches. Strength was not reduced greatly by sharp notches, and duller notches were more deleterious than sharp notches. The trend was for reduced strength for dull notches, increased strength for sharper notches, and reduced strength for very sharp notches. Differences in material purity or source of the sheet had little affect on notch sensitivity. The most important factors appear to be oxide content and directionality of the sheet microstructure; high oxide content and highly directional microstructure tend to give more notch sensitivity than low oxide content, and more bidirectional microstructure. Postulated causes of the change in notched/unnotched strength are given.

  1. Electromagnetic properties of the Beryllium-11 nucleus in Halo EFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammer H.-W.


    Full Text Available We compute electromagnetic properties of the Beryllium-11 nucleus using an effective field theory that exploits the separation of scales in this halo system. We fix the parameters of the EFT from measured data on levels and scattering lengths in the 10Be plus neutron system. We then obtain predictions for the B(E1 strength of the 1/2+ to 1/2− transition in the 11Be nucleus. We also compute the charge radius of the ground state of 11Be. Agreement with experiment within the expected accuracy of a leading-order computation in this EFT is obtained. We also indicate how higher-order corrections that affect both s-wave and p-wave 10 Be-neutron interactions will affect our results.

  2. Damage production in atomic displacement cascades in beryllium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Borodin


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a molecular dynamics simulation of cascade damage production in beryllium caused by self-ion recoils in the energy range of 0.5–3keV. It is demonstrated that point defects are produced in Be preferentially in well-separated subcascades generated by secondary and higher order recoils. A linear dependence of the point defect number on the primary recoil energy is obtained with the slope that corresponds to formal atom displacement energy of ∼21eV. Most of the damage is created as single defects and the relatively high part of created point defects (∼50% survives the correlated recombination following the ballistic cascade stage and becomes freely-migrating.

  3. Disposable diapers: a hygienic alternative. (United States)

    Kamat, Maithili; Malkani, Ram


    The use of disposable diapers has offered improved health care benefits. Urine and fecal matter leakage from the cloth nappies and the hand-to-mouth behavior in infants leads to many illnesses with a feco-oral mode of transmission. Also, the tender skin of the infant is more prone to nappy rash. The modern age disposable diapers, when compared to cloth nappy, have displayed a superior ability in containment of urine and feces, thereby reducing contamination and transmission of infection. Also disposable diapers contain Super Absorbent Material (SAM) that successfully reduces the incidence of nappy rash.

  4. First beryllium capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility (United States)

    Kline, J. L.; Yi, S. A.; Simakov, A. N.; Olson, R. E.; Wilson, D. C.; Kyrala, G. A.; Perry, T. S.; Batha, S. H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Dewald, E. L.; Tommasini, R.; Ralph, J. E.; Strozzi, D. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Callahan, D. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Hurricane, O. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Rygg, J. R.; Khan, S. F.; Haan, S. W.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Kozioziemski, B.; Schneider, M. B.; Marinak, M. M.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Patel, P. K.; Ma, T.; Edwards, M. J.; Stadermann, M.; Baxamusa, S.; Alford, C.; Wang, M.; Nikroo, A.; Rice, N.; Hoover, D.; Youngblood, K. P.; Xu, H.; Huang, H.; Sio, H.


    The first indirect drive implosion experiments using Beryllium (Be) capsules at the National Ignition Facility confirm the superior ablation properties and elucidate possible Be-ablator issues such as hohlraum filling by ablator material. Since the 1990s, Be has been the preferred Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ablator because of its higher mass ablation rate compared to that of carbon-based ablators. This enables ICF target designs with higher implosion velocities at lower radiation temperatures and improved hydrodynamic stability through greater ablative stabilization. Recent experiments to demonstrate the viability of Be ablator target designs measured the backscattered laser energy, capsule implosion velocity, core implosion shape from self-emission, and in-flight capsule shape from backlit imaging. The laser backscatter is similar to that from comparable plastic (CH) targets under the same hohlraum conditions. Implosion velocity measurements from backlit streaked radiography show that laser energy coupling to the hohlraum wall is comparable to plastic ablators. The measured implosion shape indicates no significant reduction of laser energy from the inner laser cone beams reaching the hohlraum wall as compared with plastic and high-density carbon ablators. These results indicate that the high mass ablation rate for beryllium capsules does not significantly alter hohlraum energetics. In addition, these data, together with data for low fill-density hohlraum performance, indicate that laser power multipliers, required to reconcile simulations with experimental observations, are likely due to our limited understanding of the hohlraum rather than the capsule physics since similar multipliers are needed for both Be and CH capsules as seen in experiments.

  5. Cost effective aluminum beryllium mirrors for critical optics applications (United States)

    Say, Carissa; Duich, Jack; Huskamp, Chris; White, Ray


    The unique performance of aluminum-beryllium frequently makes it an ideal material for manufacturing precision optical-grade metal mirrors. Traditional methods of manufacture utilize hot-pressed powder block in billet form which is subsequently machined to final dimensions. Complex component geometries such as lightweighted, non-plano mirrors require extensive tool path programming, fixturing, and CNC machining time and result in a high buy-to-fly ratio (the ratio of the mass of raw material purchased to the mass of the finished part). This increases the cost of the mirror structure as a significant percentage of the procurement cost is consumed in the form of machining, tooling, and scrap material that do not add value to the final part. Inrad Optics, Inc. and IBC Advanced Alloys Corp. undertook a joint study to evaluate the suitability of investment-cast Beralcast® 191 and 363 aluminum-beryllium as a precision mirror substrate material. Net shape investment castings of the desired geometry minimizes machining to just cleanup stock, thereby reducing the recurring procurement cost while still maintaining performance. The thermal stability of two mirrors, (one each of Beralcast® 191 and Beralcast® 363), was characterized from -40°F to +150°F. A representative pocketed mirror was developed, including the creation of a relevant geometry and production of a cast component to validate the approach. Information from the demonstration unit was used as a basis for a comparative cost study of the representative mirror produced in Beralcast® and one machined from a billet of AlBeMet® 162 (AlBeMet® is a registered trademark of Materion Corporation). The technical and financial results of these studies will be discussed in detail.

  6. Environmental impacts of ocean disposal of CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, E.; Herzog, H.; Auerbach, D. [and others


    One option to reduce atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels is to capture and sequester power plant CO{sub 2} Commercial CO{sub 2} capture technology, though expensive, exists today. However, the ability to dispose of large quantities of CO{sub 2} is highly uncertain. The deep ocean is one of only a few possible CO{sub 2} disposal options (others are depleted oil and gas wells or deep, confined aquifers) and is a prime candidate because the deep ocean is vast and highly unsaturated in CO{sub 2}. The term disposal is really a misnomer because the atmosphere and ocean eventually equilibrate on a timescale of 1000 years regardless of where the CO{sub 2} is originally discharged. However, peak atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations expected to occur in the next few centuries could be significantly reduced by ocean disposal. The magnitude of this reduction will depend upon the quantity of CO{sub 2} injected in the ocean, as well as the depth and location of injection. Ocean disposal of CO{sub 2} will only make sense if the environmental impacts to the ocean are significantly less than the avoided impacts of atmospheric release. Our project has been examining these ocean impacts through a multi-disciplinary effort designed to summarize the current state of knowledge. The end-product will be a report issued during the summer of 1996 consisting of two volumes an executive summary (Vol I) and a series of six, individually authored topical reports (Vol II). A workshop with invited participants from the U.S. and abroad will review the draft findings in January, 1996.

  7. Solvent extraction of beryllium from malonate solutions with liquid anion exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, R.R.; Khopkar, S.M.


    Beryllium was quantitatively extracted at pH 5.5-7.0 in microgram amounts with 0.06 M Aliquat 336S in xylene from 5 x 10/sup -3/ M malonic acid solution, stripped with 0.5 M hydrochloric acid, and determined spectrophotometrically at 523 nm as its complex with thorin. Those metals which could not form anionic complexes with malonic acid and were not extracted with beryllium at pH 6.5 were separated from it. Metals forming weak malonato complexes were scrubbed from the organic phase with water. The elements like bismuth, antimony, iron, uranium, gallium, and vanadium which form strong malonato complexes were separated by selective stripping with hydrochloric, sulfuric, or nitric acid. The method was extended for the analysis of beryllium in beryl and beryllium alloys. 1 figure, 6 tables.

  8. Estimations of neutron yield from beryllium target irradiated by SPring-8 hard synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Gryaznykh, D A; Plokhoi, V V


    The possibility of creating a neutron source based on ''SPring-8'' synchrotron radiation interaction with beryllium targets is discussed. The possible neutron yield is estimated to be of order 10 sup 1 sup 2 s sup - sup 1 .


    The effectiveness of conventional drinking water treatment and lime softening was evaluated for beryllium removal from two drinking water sources. ar test studies were conducted to determine how common coagulants (aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride and lime softening performed ...

  10. The impact of particle size selective sampling methods on occupational assessment of airborne beryllium particulates. (United States)

    Sleeth, Darrah K


    In 2010, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) formally changed its Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for beryllium from a 'total' particulate sample to an inhalable particulate sample. This change may have important implications for workplace air sampling of beryllium. A history of particle size-selective sampling methods, with a special focus on beryllium, will be provided. The current state of the science on inhalable sampling will also be presented, including a look to the future at what new methods or technology may be on the horizon. This includes new sampling criteria focused on particle deposition in the lung, proposed changes to the existing inhalable convention, as well as how the issues facing beryllium sampling may help drive other changes in sampling technology.

  11. IRIS Toxicological Review of Beryllium and Compounds (2008 External Review Draft) (United States)

    EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of Beryllium that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  12. UVI Cyber-security Workshop Workshop Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuykendall, Tommie G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allsop, Jacob Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Anderson, Benjamin Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boumedine, Marc [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carter, Cedric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Galvin, Seanmichael Yurko [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gonzalez, Oscar [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lee, Wellington K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lin, Han Wei [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Morris, Tyler Jake [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nauer, Kevin S.; Potts, Beth A.; Ta, Kim Thanh; Trasti, Jennifer; White, David R.


    The cybersecurity consortium, which was established by DOE/NNSA’s Minority Serving Institutions Partnerships Program (MSIPP), allows students from any of the partner schools (13 HBCUs, two national laboratories, and a public school district) to have all consortia options available to them, to create career paths and to open doors to DOE sites and facilities to student members of the consortium. As a part of this year consortium activities, Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Virgin Islands conducted a week long cyber workshop that consisted of three courses; Digital Forensics and Malware Analysis, Python Programming, and ThunderBird Cup. These courses are designed to enhance cyber defense skills and promote learning within STEM related fields.

  13. Proceedings of the 5th US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research Design and Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Francis D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Leigh, Christi [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Walter [Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Bollingerfehr, Wilhelm [DBE Technology, Peine (Germany); Von Berlepsche, Thilo [DBE Technology, Peine (Germany)


    The 5th US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation was held in Santa Fe New Mexico September 8-10, 2014. The forty seven registered participants were equally divided between the United States (US) and Germany, with one participant from The Netherlands. The agenda for the 2014 workshop was under development immediately upon finishing the 4th Workshop. Ongoing, fundamental topics such as thermomechanical behavior of salt, plugging and sealing, the safety case, and performance assessment continue to advance the basis for disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt formations. The utility of a salt underground research laboratory (URL) remains an intriguing concept engendering discussion of testing protocol. By far the most interest in this years’ workshop pertained to operational safety. Given events at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), this discussion took on a new sense of relevance and urgency.

  14. Impact of beryllium reflector ageing on Safari–1 reactor core parameters / L.E. Moloko


    Moloko, Lesego Ernest


    The build–up of 6Li and 3He, that is, the strong thermal neutron absorbers or the so called "neutron poisons", in the beryllium reflector changes the physical characteristics of the reactor, such as reactivity, neutron spectra, neutron flux level, power distribution, etc.; furthermore,gaseous isotopes such as 3H and 4He induce swelling and embrittlement of the reflector. The SAFARI–1 research reactor, operated by Necsa at Pelindaba in South Africa, uses a beryllium reflector on...

  15. Calculated power distribution of a thermionic, beryllium oxide reflected, fast-spectrum reactor (United States)

    Mayo, W.; Lantz, E.


    A procedure is developed and used to calculate the detailed power distribution in the fuel elements next to a beryllium oxide reflector of a fast-spectrum, thermionic reactor. The results of the calculations show that, although the average power density in these outer fuel elements is not far from the core average, the power density at the very edge of the fuel closest to the beryllium oxide is about 1.8 times the core avearge.

  16. Characterization of phagolysosomal simulant fluid for study of beryllium aerosol particle dissolution. (United States)

    Stefaniak, A B; Guilmette, R A; Day, G A; Hoover, M D; Breysse, P N; Scripsick, R C


    A simulant of phagolysosomal fluid is needed for beryllium particle dissolution research because intraphagolysosomal dissolution is believed to be a necessary step in the cellular immune response associated with development of chronic beryllium disease. Thus, we refined and characterized a potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) buffered solution with pH 4.55, termed phagolysosomal simulant fluid (PSF), for use in a static dissolution technique. To characterize the simulant, beryllium dissolution in PSF was compared to dissolution in the J774A.1 murine cell line. The effects of ionic composition, buffer strength, and the presence of the antifungal agent alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chloride (ABDC) on beryllium dissolution in PSF were evaluated. Beryllium dissolution in PSF was not different from dissolution in the J774A.1 murine cell line (p = 0.78) or from dissolution in another simulant having the same pH but different ionic composition (p = 0.73). A buffer concentration of 0.01-M KHP did not appear adequate to maintain pH under all conditions. There was no difference between dissolution in PSF with 0.01-M KHP and 0.02-M KHP (p = 0.12). At 0.04-M KHP, beryllium dissolution was increased relative to 0.02-M KHP (p = 0.02). Use of a 0.02-M KHP buffer concentration in the standard formulation for PSF provided stability in pH without alteration of the dissolution rate. The presence of ABDC did not influence beryllium dissolution in PSF (p = 0.35). PSF appears to be a useful and appropriate model of in vitro beryllium dissolution when using a static dissolution technique. In addition, the critical approach used to evaluate and adjust the composition of PSF may serve as a framework for characterizing PSF to study dissolution of other metal and oxide particles.

  17. Suivi médical de salariés exposés au beryllium



    International audience; Purpose of the study: determination of a systematised procedure for medical follow-up of beryllium-exposed workers. Method: a medical follow-up of workers from a factory machining beryllium (Be) either plain or as an alloy started in 2001. Be Lymphocyte Proliferation Tests (LPT) were performed for screening Be sensitisation and were calculated again according to 1142-2001 speciation of the American Department Of Energy. A working group included occupational physicians,...

  18. Erosion behaviour of ultrathin carbon layers and hydrogen retention in beryllium; Untersuchungen zur Erosion ultraduenner Kohlenstoffschichten und Wasserstoffrueckhaltung in Beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinelt, Matthias


    Plasma-wall-interaction plays an important role on the way to technical feasibility of thermonuclear fusion. In this context, the erosion behavior of few nanometer thin amorphous carbon layers on different metallic substrates by energetic deuterium and helium ions is investigated. Several aspects of the interaction are distinguishable by XPS. Ion induced carbide formation is governed by kinematic intermixing of carbon and metal substrate. Several methods of quantification of XPS measurements are developed and discussed. Comparison of results from these methods with NRA measurements show that surface roughness and implantation of particles into the carbon layer and intermixing zone influence the XPS measurements, which are sensitive to parameters such as material density. The retention of 1 keV deuterium ions implanted into single crystalline and cleaned beryllium at room temperature is investigated by temperature programmed desorption (TPD). The residual BeO coverage was 0.2 ML. The retention is 78% at low fluences and saturates above a bombardment with a fluence of 2.10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}. The retained maximum areal density is 2.10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}. Above 900 K, no deuterium is retained in the sample. An onset of self diffusion is observed at this temperature and metallic beryllium from the bulk segregates though thin BeO layers on the surface. From deuterium desorption traces, retention mechanisms are obtained. The measured TPDspectra are modeled by TMAP7 and rate equations to obtain activation energies for the release processes. From these, binding energies for the system Be-D are derived. Up to a implantation fluence of 1.10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}, deuterium is trapped in ion induced defects in the beryllium lattice with binding energies of 1.69 eV and 1.86 eV and release temperatures of 770 K and 840 K, respectively. The occupation of these states shows a different isotope behavior for {sup 1}H and {sup 2}H. The states are filled by diffusion of deuterium at the

  19. Characterization of beryllium deformation using in-situ x-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnuson, Eric Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Donald William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clausen, Bjorn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sisneros, Thomas A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Park, Jun-Sang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    Beryllium’s unique mechanical properties are extremely important in a number of high performance applications. Consequently, accurate models for the mechanical behavior of beryllium are required. However, current models are not sufficiently microstructure aware to accurately predict the performance of beryllium under a range of processing and loading conditions. Previous experiments conducted using the SMARTS and HIPPO instruments at the Lujan Center(LANL), have studied the relationship between strain rate and texture development, but due to the limitations of neutron diffraction studies, it was not possible to measure the response of the material in real-time. In-situ diffraction experiments conducted at the Advanced Photon Source have allowed the real time measurement of the mechanical response of compressed beryllium. Samples of pre-strained beryllium were reloaded orthogonal to their original load path to show the reorientation of already twinned grains. Additionally, the in-situ experiments allowed the real time tracking of twin evolution in beryllium strained at high rates. The data gathered during these experiments will be used in the development and validation of a new, microstructure aware model of the constitutive behavior of beryllium.

  20. Sensitive detection of beryllium using a fiber optic liquid waveguide cell. (United States)

    Deng, Gang; Wei, Lily; Collins, Greg E


    The metallochromic chelating agent, Chromazurol S, has been utilized in conjunction with a fiber optic liquid waveguide capillary cell to enable the sensitive detection of beryllium in solution (30 ng l(-1) detection limit) and following extraction from a contaminated plexiglas surface (0.5 ng cm(-2) detection limit). The addition of a cationic surfactant, cetylpyridinium chloride, to Chromazurol S at pH 10 in Tris-HCl buffer results in the formation of two bathochromic peaks in the visible spectrum following metal chelation by beryllium. The first absorbance band, at 515 nm, is intermediate in nature, permitting maximal sensitivity for low beryllium concentrations, but diminishing in intensity at concentrations above 100 mug l(-1). The second absorbance band, centered at 610 nm, dominates for beryllium concentrations of 100 mug l(-1) and above. Experimental conditions including pH, buffer type, additive surfactants, masking agents, and dye concentration were investigated in order to optimize detection sensitivity and selectivity. A fiber optic spectrometer is used with both a liquid waveguide capillary cell and 1 cm cuvette cell, to give a sensitive and broad dynamic range for beryllium detection that capitalizes on both beryllium metal chelate absorbance bands formed under these conditions.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, D; Jeff Pike, J; Bill Wilmarth, B


    A workshop was held on January 23-24, 2007 to discuss the status of processes to leach constituents from High Level Waste (HLW) sludges at the Hanford and Savannah River Sites. The objective of the workshop was to examine the needs and requirements for the HLW flowsheet for each site, discuss the status of knowledge of the leaching processes, communicate the research plans, and identify opportunities for synergy to address knowledge gaps. The purpose of leaching of non-radioactive constituents from the sludge waste is to reduce the burden of material that must be vitrified in the HLW melter systems, resulting in reduced HLW glass waste volume, reduced disposal costs, shorter process schedules, and higher facility throughput rates. The leaching process is estimated to reduce the operating life cycle of SRS by seven years and decrease the number of HLW canisters to be disposed in the Repository by 1000 [Gillam et al., 2006]. Comparably at Hanford, the aluminum and chromium leaching processes are estimated to reduce the operating life cycle of the Waste Treatment Plant by 20 years and decrease the number of canisters to the Repository by 15,000-30,000 [Gilbert, 2007]. These leaching processes will save the Department of Energy (DOE) billions of dollars in clean up and disposal costs. The primary constituents targeted for removal by leaching are aluminum and chromium. It is desirable to have some aluminum in glass to improve its durability; however, too much aluminum can increase the sludge viscosity, glass viscosity, and reduce overall process throughput. Chromium leaching is necessary to prevent formation of crystalline compounds in the glass, but is only needed at Hanford because of differences in the sludge waste chemistry at the two sites. Improving glass formulations to increase tolerance of aluminum and chromium is another approach to decrease HLW glass volume. It is likely that an optimum condition can be found by both performing leaching and improving

  2. Final disposal of radioactive waste


    Freiesleben H.


    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of c...

  3. Clays in radioactive waste disposal


    Delage, Pierre; Cui, Yu-Jun; Tang, Anh-Minh


    Clays and argillites are considered in some countries as possible host rocks for nuclear waste disposal at great depth. The use of compacted swelling clays as engineered barriers is also considered within the framework of the multi-barrier concept. In relation to these concepts, various research programs have been conducted to assess the thermo-hydro-mechanical properties of radioactive waste disposal at great depth. After introducing the concepts of waste isolation developed in Belgium, Fran...

  4. Solar workshops financial incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Ten one-day workshops were held across the United States. Information in this workbook is compiled in conjunction with those workshops. The following discussions are included: solar as a fuel (history); why alternative fuels are being sought today; the need for conservation; advantages of solar energy; the potential of solar energy; why solar energy is not more widely used; a definition of solar; how solar can help meet energy demands; Federal policies and programs; what solar technologies exist today that can be effectively utilized (thermal applications, fuels from biomass, solar electric). Additional information is presented in three attachments: Energy-Conserving Methods; Domestic Policy Review of Solar Energy; and DOE Secretary's Annual Report to Congress-Solar Section. (MCW)

  5. MATHEON Workshop 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Calderbank, Robert; Kutyniok, Gitta; Vybíral, Jan


    Since publication of the initial papers in 2006, compressed sensing has captured the imagination of the international signal processing community, and the mathematical foundations are nowadays quite well understood. Parallel to the progress in mathematics, the potential applications of compressed sensing have been explored by many international groups of, in particular, engineers and applied mathematicians, achieving very promising advances in various areas such as communication theory, imaging sciences, optics, radar technology, sensor networks, or tomography. Since many applications have reached a mature state, the research center MATHEON in Berlin focusing on "Mathematics for Key Technologies", invited leading researchers on applications of compressed sensing from mathematics, computer science, and engineering to the "MATHEON Workshop 2013: Compressed Sensing and its Applications” in December 2013. It was the first workshop specifically focusing on the applications of compressed sensing. This book featur...

  6. PREFACE: Collapse Calderas Workshop (United States)

    Gottsmann, Jo; Aguirre-Diaz, Gerardo


    Caldera-formation is one of the most awe-inspiring and powerful displays of nature's force. Resultant deposits may cover vast areas and significantly alter the immediate topography. Post-collapse activity may include resurgence, unrest, intra-caldera volcanism and potentially the start of a new magmatic cycle, perhaps eventually leading to renewed collapse. Since volcanoes and their eruptions are the surface manifestation of magmatic processes, calderas provide key insights into the generation and evolution of large-volume silicic magma bodies in the Earth's crust. Despite their potentially ferocious nature, calderas play a crucial role in modern society's life. Collapse calderas host essential economic deposits and supply power for many via the exploitation of geothermal reservoirs, and thus receive considerable scientific, economic and industrial attention. Calderas also attract millions of visitors world-wide with their spectacular scenic displays. To build on the outcomes of the 2005 calderas workshop in Tenerife (Spain) and to assess the most recent advances on caldera research, a follow-up meeting was proposed to be held in Mexico in 2008. This abstract volume presents contributions to the 2nd Calderas Workshop held at Hotel Misión La Muralla, Querétaro, Mexico, 19-25 October 2008. The title of the workshop `Reconstructing the evolution of collapse calderas: Magma storage, mobilisation and eruption' set the theme for five days of presentations and discussions, both at the venue as well as during visits to the surrounding calderas of Amealco, Amazcala and Huichapan. The multi-disciplinary workshop was attended by more than 40 scientist from North, Central and South America, Europe, Australia and Asia. Contributions covered five thematic topics: geology, geochemistry/petrology, structural analysis/modelling, geophysics, and hazards. The workshop was generously supported by the International Association of Volcanology and the Chemistry of The Earth's Interior

  7. Spiral 2 workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The accelerator and experimental facilities at GANIL will be transformed over the next 5-10 years. The centerpiece of the additions to the accelerator complex will be Spiral-2. This is the first phase of a new radioactive beam facility based on the ISOL principle. The main aim of Spiral-2 will be to produce intense, high quality beams of neutron-rich nuclei created in neutron-induced fission of heavy elements and accelerated by the existing CIME cyclotron. The principal aims of this workshop will be a) to publicize the new facilities, b) to discuss and define the science which might be carried out with them, c) to discuss the instrumentation and infrastructure required to exploit the new facilities and d) to help form collaborations of scientists wishing to design and construct the equipment needed to undertake the science programme. This document gathers most of the slides presented in the workshop.

  8. Accelerator reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, L.; Duru, Ph.; Koch, J.M.; Revol, J.L.; Van Vaerenbergh, P.; Volpe, A.M.; Clugnet, K.; Dely, A.; Goodhew, D


    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop.

  9. Imaging Sciences Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candy, J.V.


    This report contains the proceedings of the Imaging Sciences Workshop sponsored by C.A.S.LS., the Center for Advanced Signal & Image Sciences. The Center, established primarily to provide a forum where researchers can freely exchange ideas on the signal and image sciences in a comfortable intellectual environment, has grown over the last two years with the opening of a Reference Library (located in Building 272). The Technical Program for the 1996 Workshop include a variety of efforts in the Imaging Sciences including applications in the Microwave Imaging, highlighted by the Micro-Impulse Radar (MIR) system invented at LLNL, as well as other applications in this area. Special sessions organized by various individuals in Speech, Acoustic Ocean Imaging, Radar Ocean Imaging, Ultrasonic Imaging, and Optical Imaging discuss various applica- tions of real world problems. For the more theoretical, sessions on Imaging Algorithms and Computed Tomography were organized as well as for the more pragmatic featuring a session on Imaging Systems.

  10. Aims of the Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Dornan, P J


    There are challenges and opportunities for the European particle physics community to engage with innovative and exciting developments which could lead to precision measurements in the neutrino sector. These have the potential to yield significant advances in the understanding of CP violation, the flavour riddle and theories beyond the Standard Model. This workshop aims to start the process of a dialogue in Europe so that informed decisions on the appropriate directions to pursue can be made in a few years time.

  11. Imaging sciences workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candy, J.V.


    This workshop on the Imaging Sciences sponsored by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory contains short abstracts/articles submitted by speakers. The topic areas covered include the following: Astronomical Imaging; biomedical imaging; vision/image display; imaging hardware; imaging software; Acoustic/oceanic imaging; microwave/acoustic imaging; computed tomography; physical imaging; imaging algorithms. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Grid and Entrepreneurship Workshop

    CERN Multimedia


    The CERN openlab is organising a special workshop about Grid opportunities for entrepreneurship. This one-day event will provide an overview of what is involved in spin-off technology, with a special reference to the context of computing and data Grids. Lectures by experienced entrepreneurs will introduce the key concepts of entrepreneurship and review, in particular, the industrial potential of EGEE (the EU co-funded Enabling Grids for E-sciencE project, led by CERN). Case studies will be given by CEOs of European start-ups already active in the Grid and computing cluster area, and regional experts will provide an overview of efforts in several European regions to stimulate entrepreneurship. This workshop is designed to encourage students and researchers involved or interested in Grid technology to consider the entrepreneurial opportunities that this technology may create in the coming years. This workshop is organized as part of the CERN openlab student programme, which is co-sponsored by CERN, HP, ...

  13. The ROS Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    Francis, D.

    The first week of February saw the taking place of the ReadOut Subsystem (ROS) workshop. The ROS is the subsystem of the Trigger, DAQ & DCS project which receives and buffers data from the detector ReadOut Drivers (RODs). On request it then provides a subset of this buffered data, the so-called Regions of Interest (RoI), to the Level 2 trigger. Using the subsequent Level 2 trigger decision, the ROS either removes the buffered event data from its buffers or sends the full event data to the Event Filter for further processing. The workshop took place over a four-day period at a location in the Jura. The average daily attendance was twenty people, which mainly represented the five main ATLAS institutes currently engaged in this Trigger, DAQ & DCS activity. The aim of the workshop was to bring to an end the current prototyping activities in this area and launch the next, final, phase of prototyping. This new phase of prototyping will build on the successful activities of the previous phase and will focus...

  14. 2014 Penn State Bioinorganic Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golbeck, John [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)


    The 3rd Penn State Bioinorganic Workshop took place in early June 2014 and was combined with the 3rd Penn State Frontiers in Metallobiochemistry Symposium. The workshop was even larger than the 2nd Penn State Bioinorganic Workshop we offered in 2012. It had even more participants (162 rather than 123 in 2012). Like the 2012 workshop, the 2014 workshop had three parts. The first part consisted of 16 90-minute lectures presented by faculty experts on the topic of their expertise (see below). Based on the suggestions from the 2012 workshop, we have recorded all 16 lectures professionally and make them available to the entire bioinorganic community via online streaming. In addition, hard copies of the recordings are available as backup.

  15. Adsorption of beryllium atoms and clusters both on graphene and in a bilayer of graphite investigated by DFT. (United States)

    Ferro, Yves; Fernandez, Nicolas; Allouche, Alain; Linsmeier, Christian


    We herein investigate the interaction of beryllium with a graphene sheet and in a bilayer of graphite by means of periodic DFT calculations. In all cases, we find the beryllium atoms to be more weakly bonded on graphene than in the bilayer. Be(2) forms both magnetic and non-magnetic structures on graphene depending on the geometrical configuration of adsorption. We find that the stability of the Be/bilayer system increases with the size of the beryllium clusters inserted into the bilayer of graphite. We also find a charge transfer from beryllium to the graphite layers. All these results are analysed in terms of electronic structure.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, R


    Stochastic or probabilistic modeling approaches are being applied more frequently in the United States and globally to quantify uncertainty and enhance understanding of model response in performance assessments for disposal of radioactive waste. This increased use has resulted in global interest in sharing results of research and applied studies that have been completed to date. This technical report reflects the results of a workshop that was held to share results of research and applied work related to performance assessments conducted at United States Department of Energy sites. Key findings of this research and applied work are discussed and recommendations for future activities are provided.

  17. Annual Workshop: Higgs Couplings 2016

    CERN Document Server


    Higgs Couplings 2016 is this year's installment of an annual workshop devoted to new experimental and theoretical results on the Higgs boson. The 2016 workshop will present the latest results from the LHC run 2 on the Higgs boson mass, spin/parity, and couplings and will present new theoretical work devoted to the measurement of Higgs parameters and possibilities for exotic Higgs decays. The workshop will provide an opportunity for critical discussion of the current strategies for studying the Higgs boson at the LHC and the next steps in the LHC program. The workshop will also include discussion of the longer-term Higgs boson program at future facilities.

  18. Optical Network Testbeds Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe Mambretti


    This is the summary report of the third annual Optical Networking Testbed Workshop (ONT3), which brought together leading members of the international advanced research community to address major challenges in creating next generation communication services and technologies. Networking research and development (R&D) communities throughout the world continue to discover new methods and technologies that are enabling breakthroughs in advanced communications. These discoveries are keystones for building the foundation of the future economy, which requires the sophisticated management of extremely large qualities of digital information through high performance communications. This innovation is made possible by basic research and experiments within laboratories and on specialized testbeds. Initial network research and development initiatives are driven by diverse motives, including attempts to solve existing complex problems, the desire to create powerful new technologies that do not exist using traditional methods, and the need to create tools to address specific challenges, including those mandated by large scale science or government agency mission agendas. Many new discoveries related to communications technologies transition to wide-spread deployment through standards organizations and commercialization. These transition paths allow for new communications capabilities that drive many sectors of the digital economy. In the last few years, networking R&D has increasingly focused on advancing multiple new capabilities enabled by next generation optical networking. Both US Federal networking R&D and other national R&D initiatives, such as those organized by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) of Japan are creating optical networking technologies that allow for new, powerful communication services. Among the most promising services are those based on new types of multi-service or hybrid networks, which use new optical networking

  19. Tank Waste Disposal Program redefinition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L.; Augustine, C.A.; Cahill, M.A.; Garfield, J.S.; Johnson, M.E.; Kupfer, M.J.; Meyer, G.A.; Roecker, J.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Holton, L.K.; Hunter, V.L.; Triplett, M.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    The record of decision (ROD) (DOE 1988) on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland Washington identifies the method for disposal of double-shell tank waste and cesium and strontium capsules at the Hanford Site. The ROD also identifies the need for additional evaluations before a final decision is made on the disposal of single-shell tank waste. This document presents the results of systematic evaluation of the present technical circumstances, alternatives, and regulatory requirements in light of the values of the leaders and constitutents of the program. It recommends a three-phased approach for disposing of tank wastes. This approach allows mature technologies to be applied to the treatment of well-understood waste forms in the near term, while providing time for the development and deployment of successively more advanced pretreatment technologies. The advanced technologies will accelerate disposal by reducing the volume of waste to be vitrified. This document also recommends integration of the double-and single-shell tank waste disposal programs, provides a target schedule for implementation of the selected approach, and describes the essential elements of a program to be baselined in 1992.

  20. In-pile thermocycling testing and post-test analysis of beryllium divertor mockups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giniatulin, R.; Mazul, I. [Efremov Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Melder, R.; Pokrovsky, A.; Sandakov, V.; Shiuchkin, A.


    The main damaging factors which impact the ITER divertor components are neutron irradiation, cyclic surface heat loads and hydrogen environment. One of the important questions in divertor mockups development is the reliability of beryllium/copper joints and the beryllium resistance under neutron irradiation and thermal cycling. This work presents the experiment, where neutron irradiation and thermocyclic heat loads were applied simultaneously for two beryllium/copper divertor mockups in a nuclear reactor channel to simulate divertor operational conditions. Two mockups with different beryllium grades were mounted facing each other with the tantalum heater placed between them. This device was installed in the active zone of the nuclear reactor SM-2 (Dimitrovgrad, Russia) and the tantalum block was heated by neutron irradiation up to a high temperature. The main part of the heat flux from the tantalum surface was transported to the beryllium surface through hydrogen, as a result the heat flux loaded two mockups simultaneously. The mockups were cooled by reactor water. The device was lowered to the active zone so as to obtain the heating regime and to provide cooling lifted. This experiment was performed under the following conditions: tantalum heater temperature - 1950degC; hydrogen environment -1000 Pa; surface heat flux density -3.2 MW/m{sup 2}; number of thermal cycles (lowering and lifting) -101; load time in each cycle - 200-5000 s; dwell time (no heat flux, no neutrons) - 300-2000 s; cooling water parameters: v - 1 m/s, Tin - 50degC, Pin - 5 MPa; neutron fluence -2.5 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2} ({approx}8 years of ITER divertor operation from the start up). The metallographic analysis was performed after experiment to investigate the beryllium and beryllium/copper joint structures, the results are presented in the paper. (author)

  1. Sub-micro level monitoring of beryllium ions with a novel beryllium sensor based on 2,6-diphenyl-4-benzo-9-crown-3-pyridine. (United States)

    Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi; Maddah, Bozorgmehr; Moghimi, Abolghasem; Faal-Rastegar, Madjid; Borhany, Shahin; Namazian, Mansour


    The 2,6-diphenyl-4-benzo-9-crown-3-pyridine (DPCP) was used as an excellent ionophore in construction of a coated graphite poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-based membrane sensor. The best performance was obtained with a membrane composition of 30% poly(vinyl chloride), 60% o-nitrophenyloctyl ether (NPOE), 5% 2,6-diphenyl-4-benzo-9-crown-3-pyridine and 5% sodium tetraphenyl borate (TBP). This sensor shows very good selectivity and sensitivity towards beryllium ion over a wide variety of cations, including alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions. The sensor revealed a great enhancement in selectivity coefficients and sensitivity for beryllium, in comparison with the previously reported beryllium electrodes. The electrode exhibits a Nernstian behavior (with slope of 29.6mV per decade) over a very wide concentration range (1.0x10(-7) to 1.0x10(-1)) with a detection limit of 4.0x10(-8)M (360pgml(-1)). It shows relatively fast response time, in whole concentration range (beryllium in mineral ore.

  2. 75 FR 74736 - Food Labeling Workshop; Public Workshop (United States)


    ... required due to disability, along with a check or money order for $250 payable to ``Iowa State University..., in collaboration with Iowa State University, is announcing a public workshop entitled ``Food Labeling... public workshop will be held at the Scheman Conference Center, Lincoln Way and University Avenue,...

  3. 75 FR 29775 - Food Labeling Workshop; Public Workshop (United States)


    ... and startups. Date and Time: This public workshop will be held on August 4 and 5, 2010, from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Location: The public workshop will be held at the Continuing Education Center, 2 East Center St., Fayetteville, AR (located downtown). Contact: David Arvelo, Food and Drug...

  4. Preparation of a sinterable beryllium oxide through decomposition of beryllium hydroxide (1963); Preparation d'un oxyde de beryllium frittable par decomposition de l'hydiloxyde (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernier, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    In the course of the present study, we have attempted to precise the factors which among the ones effective in the course of the preparation of the beryllium hydroxide and oxide and during the sintering have an influence on the final result: the density and homogeneity of the sintered body. Of the several varieties of hydroxides precipitated from a sulfate solution the {beta}-hydroxide only is always contaminated with beryllium sulfate and cannot be purified even by thorough washing. We noticed that those varieties of the hydroxide (gel, {alpha}, {beta}) have different decomposition rates; this behaviour is used to identify and even to dose the different species in ({alpha}, {beta}) mixtures. The various hydroxides transmit to the resulting oxides the shape they had when precipitated. Accordingly the history of the oxide is revealed by its behaviour during its fabrication and sintering. By comparing the results of the sintering operation with the various measurements performed on the oxide powders we are led to the conclusion that an oxide obtained from beryllium hydroxide is sinterable under vacuum if the following conditions are fulfilled: the particle size must lie between 0.1 and 0.2 {mu} and the BeSO{sub 4} content of the powder must be less than 0.25 per cent wt (expressed as SO{sub 3}/BeO). The best fitting is obtained with the oxide issued from an {alpha}-hydroxide precipitated as very small aggregates and with a low sulfur-content. We have observed that this is also the case for the oxide obtained by direct calcination of beryllium sulfate. (author) [French] Au cours de cette etude, nous avons cherche a preciser les facteurs qui, intervenant tout au long de la preparation de l'hydroxyde, puis de l'oxyde de beryllium et enfin du frittage, peuvent avoir une influence sur le resultat final: la densite et l'homogeneite du fritte. Parmi tous les hydroxydes precipites d'une solution de sulfate, seul l'hydroxyde {beta} est toujours

  5. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Waste Management Technology Div.


    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ``waste,`` but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity.

  6. Beryllium-induced immune response in C3H mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, J.M.; Bice, D.E.; Nikula, K.J. [and others


    Studies conducted at ITRI over the past several years have investigated whether Beagle dogs, monkeys, and mice are suitable models for human chronic beryllium-induced lung disease (CBD). Recent studies have focused on the histopathological and immunopathological changes occurring in A/J and C3H/HeJ mice acutely exposed by inhalation to Be metal. Lung lesions in both strains of mice included focal lymphocyte aggregates comprised primarily of B lymphocytes and lesser amounts of T-helper lymphocytes and microgranulomas consisting chiefly of macrophages and T-helper lymphocytes. The distribution of proliferating cells within the microgranulomas was similar to the distribution of T-helper cells. These results strongly suggested that A/J and C3H/HeJ mice responded to inhaled Be metal in a fashion similar to humans in terms of pulmonary lesions and the apparent in situ proliferation of T-helper cells. Results of these studies confirm lymphocyte involvement in the pulmonary response to inhaled Be metal.

  7. Inelastic Collisions of Positrons with Beryllium and Magnesium Ions (United States)

    El-Bakry, Salah-Yaseen

    The collision of positrons with beryllium and magnesium positive ions is treated for the first time as a three-channel problem with the assumption that the elastic, ground-positronium and excited-positronium formation channels are open. A one-valence-electron model for the targets, based on the Clementi-Roetti Slater basis functions, as well as an improved coupled-static approach allowing for the polarization of the excited positronium, are used for calculating the partial cross-sections of eight partial waves (corresponding to 0≤ℓ≤7, where ℓ is the total angular momentum of the scattering problem considered). The calculations are carried out, in each case, at 19 values of the incident energy lying above the excited positronium formation threshold (i.e. above 16.42 eV in e+-Be+ scattering and above 13.02 eV in e+-Mg+ scattering). The total elastic cross-sections of e+-Mg+ scattering show a peak around the ionization threshold of Mg+ (at 14.723 eV) but for e+-Be+ scattering, display a peak at 90 eV (remember that the ionization threshold of Be+ is 18.2 eV). Although the resulting total collisional positronium formation cross-sections are smaller than the elastic ones, their relatively large values should draw the attention of experimental and theoretical physicists to the field of positron-ion collisions.

  8. Spectroscopic Study on the Beryllium Abundances of Red Giant Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, Yoichi


    An extensive spectroscopic study was carried out for the beryllium abundances of 200 red giants (mostly of late G and early K type), which were determined from the near-UV Be II 3131.066 line based on high-dispersion spectra obtained by Subaru/HDS, with an aim of investigating the nature of surface Be contents in these evolved giants; e.g., dependence upon stellar parameters, degree of peculiarity along with its origin and build-up timing. We found that Be is considerably deficient (to widely different degree from star to star) in the photosphere of these evolved giants by ~1-3 dex (or more) compared to the initial abundance. While the resulting Be abundances (A(Be)) appear to weakly depend upon T_eff, log g, [Fe/H], M, age, and v_sin i, this may be attributed to the metallicity dependence of A(Be) coupled with the mutual correlation between these stellar parameters, since such tendencies almost disappear in the metallicity-scaled Be abundance ([Be/Fe]). By comparing the Be abundances (as well as their correl...

  9. Beryllium abundance in turn-off stars of NGC 6752

    CERN Document Server

    Pasquini, L; Randich, S; Galli, D; Gratton, R G; Wolff, B; Pasquini, Luca; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Randich, Sofia; Galli, Daniele; Gratton, Raffaele G.


    Aims: To measure the beryllium abundance in two TO stars of the Globular Cluster NGC 6752, one oxygen rich and sodium poor, the other presumably oxygen poor and sodium rich. Be abundances in these stars are used to put on firmer grounds the hypothesis of Be as cosmochronometer and to investigate the formation of Globular Clusters. Method:We present near UV spectra with resolution R$\\sim 45000$ obtained with the UVES spectrograph on the 8.2m VLT Kueyen telescope, analysed with spectrum synthesis based on plane parallel LTE model atmospheres. Results:Be is detected in the O rich star with log(Be/H)=-12.04 $\\pm$0.15, while Be is not detected in the other star for which we obtain the upper limit log(Be/H)$<$-12.2. A large difference in nitrogen abundance (1.6 dex) is found between the two stars. Conclusions:The Be measurement is compatible with what found in field stars with the same [Fe/H] and [O/H]. The 'Be age' of the cluster is found to be 13.3 Gyrs, in excellent agreement with the results from main sequen...

  10. Is there a sign of new physics in beryllium transitions? (United States)

    Fornal, Bartosz


    A 6.8 σ anomaly in the invariant mass distribution of e+e- pairs produced via internal pair creation in 8 Be nuclear transitions has been reported recently by Krasznahorkay et al. in Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 (2016) 042501. The data can be explained by a 17 MeV vector gauge boson X produced in the transition of an excited beryllium state to the ground state, 8Be* ->8 Be X , followed by the decay X ->e+e- . We find that the gauge boson X can be associated with a new ``protophobic'' fifth force (i.e.with a coupling to protons suppressed compared to its coupling to neutrons) with a characteristic range of 10 fm and milli-charged couplings to first generation quarks and electrons. We show that such a ``protophobic'' gauge boson is consistent with all available experimental constraints and we discuss several ways to embed this new particle into an anomaly-free extension of the Standard Model. One of the most appealing theories of this type is a model with gauged baryon number, in which the new gauge boson kinetically mixes with the photon, and provides a portal to the dark matter sector. Apart from the phenomenological richness of the model, it can also alleviate the current 3.6 σ discrepancy between the predicted and measured values of the muon's anomalous magnetic moment. B.F. acknowledges partial support from DOE Grant DE-SC0009919 and NSF Grant PHY-1316792.

  11. Design of the beryllium window for Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mapes, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Raparia, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    In the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) beam line, there were two Beryllium (Be) windows with an air gap to separate the high vacuum upstream side from low vacuum downstream side. There had been frequent window failures in the past which affected the machine productivity and increased the radiation dose received by workers due to unplanned maintenance. To improve the window life, design of Be window is reexamined. Detailed structural and thermal simulations are carried out on Be window for different design parameters and loading conditions to come up with better design to improve the window life. The new design removed the air gap and connect the both beam lines with a Be window in-between. The new design has multiple advantages such as 1) reduces the beam energy loss (because of one window with no air gap), 2) reduces air activation due to nuclear radiation and 3) increased the machine reliability as there is no direct pressure load during operation. For quick replacement of this window, an aluminum bellow coupled with load binder was designed. There hasn’t been a single window failure since the new design was implemented in 2012.

  12. Beryllium-Induced Hypersensitivity: Genetic Susceptibility and Neoantigen Generation. (United States)

    Fontenot, Andrew P; Falta, Michael T; Kappler, John W; Dai, Shaodong; McKee, Amy S


    Chronic beryllium (Be) disease is a granulomatous lung disorder that results from Be exposure in a genetically susceptible host. The disease is characterized by the accumulation of Be-responsive CD4(+) T cells in the lung, and genetic susceptibility is primarily linked to HLA-DPB1 alleles possessing a glutamic acid at position 69 of the β-chain. Recent structural analysis of a Be-specific TCR interacting with a Be-loaded HLA-DP2-peptide complex revealed that Be is coordinated by amino acid residues derived from the HLA-DP2 β-chain and peptide and showed that the TCR does not directly interact with the Be(2+) cation. Rather, the TCR recognizes a modified HLA-DP2-peptide complex with charge and conformational changes. Collectively, these findings provide a structural basis for the development of this occupational lung disease through the ability of Be to induce posttranslational modifications in preexisting HLA-DP2-peptide complexes, resulting in the creation of neoantigens.

  13. Beryllium increases the CD14(dim)CD16+ subset in the lung of chronic beryllium disease. (United States)

    Li, Li; Hamzeh, Nabeel; Gillespie, May; Elliott, Jill; Wang, Jieru; Gottschall, Eva Brigitte; Mroz, Peggy M; Maier, Lisa A


    CD14dimCD16+ and CD14brightCD16+ cells, which compose a minor population of monocytes in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), have been implicated in several inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this phenotype was present as a subset of lung infiltrative alveolar macrophages (AMs) in the granulomatous lung disease, chronic beryllium disease (CBD). The monocytes subsets was determined from PBMC cells and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells from CBD, beryllium sensitized Non-smoker (BeS-NS) and healthy subjects (HS) using flow cytometry. The impact of smoking on the AMs cell phenotype was determined by using BAL cells from BeS smokers (BeS-S). In comparison with the other monocyte subpopulations, CD14dimCD16+ cells were at decreased frequency in PBMCs of both BeS-NS and CBD and showed higher HLA-DR expression, compared to HS. The AMs from CBD and BeS-NS demonstrated a CD14dimCD16+phenotype, while CD14brightCD16+ cells were found at increased frequency in AMs of BeS, compared to HS. Fresh AMs from BeS-NS and CBD demonstrated significantly greater CD16, CD40, CD86 and HLA-DR than HS and BeS-S. The expression of CD16 on AMs from both CBD and BeS-NS was downregulated significantly after 10μM BeSO4 stimulation. The phagocytic activity of AMs decreased after 10μM BeSO4 treatment in both BeS-NS and CBD, although was altered or reduced in HS and BeS-S. These results suggest that Be increases the CD14dimCD16+ subsets in the lung of CBD subjects. We speculate that Be-stimulates the compartmentalization of a more mature CD16+ macrophage phenotype and that in turn these macrophages are a source of Th1 cytokines and chemokines that perpetuate the Be immune response in CBD. The protective effect of cigarette smoking in BeS-S may be due to the low expression of co-stimulatory markers on AMs from smokers as well as the decreased phagocytic function.

  14. Beryllium increases the CD14(dimCD16+ subset in the lung of chronic beryllium disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    Full Text Available CD14dimCD16+ and CD14brightCD16+ cells, which compose a minor population of monocytes in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, have been implicated in several inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this phenotype was present as a subset of lung infiltrative alveolar macrophages (AMs in the granulomatous lung disease, chronic beryllium disease (CBD. The monocytes subsets was determined from PBMC cells and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL cells from CBD, beryllium sensitized Non-smoker (BeS-NS and healthy subjects (HS using flow cytometry. The impact of smoking on the AMs cell phenotype was determined by using BAL cells from BeS smokers (BeS-S. In comparison with the other monocyte subpopulations, CD14dimCD16+ cells were at decreased frequency in PBMCs of both BeS-NS and CBD and showed higher HLA-DR expression, compared to HS. The AMs from CBD and BeS-NS demonstrated a CD14dimCD16+phenotype, while CD14brightCD16+ cells were found at increased frequency in AMs of BeS, compared to HS. Fresh AMs from BeS-NS and CBD demonstrated significantly greater CD16, CD40, CD86 and HLA-DR than HS and BeS-S. The expression of CD16 on AMs from both CBD and BeS-NS was downregulated significantly after 10μM BeSO4 stimulation. The phagocytic activity of AMs decreased after 10μM BeSO4 treatment in both BeS-NS and CBD, although was altered or reduced in HS and BeS-S. These results suggest that Be increases the CD14dimCD16+ subsets in the lung of CBD subjects. We speculate that Be-stimulates the compartmentalization of a more mature CD16+ macrophage phenotype and that in turn these macrophages are a source of Th1 cytokines and chemokines that perpetuate the Be immune response in CBD. The protective effect of cigarette smoking in BeS-S may be due to the low expression of co-stimulatory markers on AMs from smokers as well as the decreased phagocytic function.

  15. RFI Mitigation Workshop (United States)


    The increased sensitivity of passive instrumentation in radio astronomy and remote sensing and the intensifying active use of the spectrum have led to an increasing level of radio frequency interference (RFI) of the active services on the passive use of the spectrum. Advances in technology and computing have opened up new possibilities for mitigating the effects of certain classes of interference in the observing data. Interference in allocated bands always leads to data loss for the passive users of the spectrum even if interference mitigation is applied. However, interference mitigation in non-allocated spectral bands may facilitate the partial use of this spectrum for passive (non-interfering) observations. There is no generic method to mitigate all types of interference, so a multi-layered system approach may be advisable to reduce detrimental effects for a congested interference environment. Specific mitigation methods implemented at different points in the data acquisition chain will thus result in a cumulative mitigation effect on the data. This third RFI Mitigation Workshop considered RFI mitigation in radio astronomy in all its facets with the aim of facilitating the implementation of instrumental and data processing techniques. This workshop aimed to take a forward look at applications for the next generation of radio instruments, such as the SKA and its pathfinders and LOFAR, as well as considering their application to existing instruments. This workshop has been organized by ASTRON and NAIC, with support from the Engineering Forum of FP7 RadioNet, the SKA Project Development Office, and in collaboration with CRAF and IUCAF.

  16. Final disposal of radioactive waste (United States)

    Freiesleben, H.


    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste - LLW, intermediate-level waste - ILW, high-level waste - HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  17. CENDI Indexing Workshop (United States)


    The CENDI Indexing Workshop held at NASA Headquarters, Two Independence Square, 300 E Street, Washington, DC, on September 21-22, 1994 focused on the following topics: machine aided indexing, indexing quality, an indexing pilot project, the MedIndEx Prototype, Department of Energy/Office of Scientific and Technical Information indexing activities, high-tech coding structures, category indexing schemes, and the Government Information Locator Service. This publication consists mostly of viewgraphs related to the above noted topics. In an appendix is a description of the Government Information Locator Service.

  18. Workshop on Gas Channels (United States)


    Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, Clevelanders was that Workshop was a great success—in terms of the quality of the participants, the presentations, and the discussions that... Garvin , Ph.D. Title: “NO transport by aquaporin 1” 2:35pm - 2:45pm: Question/Answer Session 2:45pm - 3:10pm: Afternoon Break 3:10pm

  19. Craniofacial morphogenesis workshop report. (United States)

    Solursh, M; Murray, J


    The following report highlights the discussions and interaction at the workshop on craniofacial morphogenesis, sponsored by The Human Frontier Science Program, held in April 1993 at the University of Iowa. A brief summary of selected sessions is included to exemplify the benefits of bringing together individuals from various disciplines and backgrounds in order to establish a unified theory of craniofacial morphogenesis. The synthesis of information and experience of a wide range of approaches made the 4-day period an invaluable experience for the participants from nine different countries.

  20. SIMS applications workshop. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The first ANSTO/AINSE SIMS Workshop drew together a mixture of Surface Analysis experts and Surface Analysis users with the concept that SIMS analysis has to be enfolded within the spectrum of surface analysis techniques and that the user should select the technique most applicable to the problem. With this concept in mind the program was structured as sessions on SIMS Facilities; Applications to Mineral Surfaces; Applications to Biological Systems, Applications to Surfaces as Semi- conductors, Catalysts and Surface Coatings; and Applications to Ceramics

  1. 15th Cluster workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Laakso, Harri; Escoubet, C. Philippe; The Cluster Active Archive : Studying the Earth’s Space Plasma Environment


    Since the year 2000 the ESA Cluster mission has been investigating the small-scale structures and processes of the Earth's plasma environment, such as those involved in the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetospheric plasma, in global magnetotail dynamics, in cross-tail currents, and in the formation and dynamics of the neutral line and of plasmoids. This book contains presentations made at the 15th Cluster workshop held in March 2008. It also presents several articles about the Cluster Active Archive and its datasets, a few overview papers on the Cluster mission, and articles reporting on scientific findings on the solar wind, the magnetosheath, the magnetopause and the magnetotail.

  2. Accelerator mass spectrometry detection of beryllium ions in the antigen processing and presentation pathway. (United States)

    Tooker, Brian C; Brindley, Stephen M; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L; Turteltaub, Kenneth W; Newman, Lee S


    Exposure to small amounts of beryllium (Be) can result in beryllium sensitization and progression to Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD). In CBD, beryllium is presented to Be-responsive T-cells by professional antigen-presenting cells (APC). This presentation drives T-cell proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-2, TNFα, and IFNγ) production and leads to granuloma formation. The mechanism by which beryllium enters an APC and is processed to become part of the beryllium antigen complex has not yet been elucidated. Developing techniques for beryllium detection with enough sensitivity has presented a barrier to further investigation. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is sensitive enough to quantify the amount of beryllium presented by APC to stimulate Be-responsive T-cells. To achieve this goal, APC - which may or may not stimulate Be-responsive T-cells - were cultured with Be-ferritin. Then, by utilizing AMS, the amount of beryllium processed for presentation was determined. Further, IFNγ intracellular cytokine assays were performed to demonstrate that Be-ferritin (at levels used in the experiments) could stimulate Be-responsive T-cells when presented by an APC of the correct HLA type (HLA-DP0201). The results indicated that Be-responsive T-cells expressed IFNγ only when APC with the correct HLA type were able to process Be for presentation. Utilizing AMS, it was determined that APC with HLA-DP0201 had membrane fractions containing 0.17-0.59 ng Be and APC with HLA-DP0401 had membrane fractions bearing 0.40-0.45 ng Be. However, HLA-DP0401 APC had 20-times more Be associated with the whole cells (57.68-61.12 ng) than HLA-DP0201 APC (0.90-3.49 ng). As these findings demonstrate, AMS detection of picogram levels of Be processed by APC is possible. Further, regardless of form, Be requires processing by APC to successfully stimulate Be-responsive T-cells to generate IFNγ.

  3. Migration of Beryllium via Multiple Exposure Pathways among Work Processes in Four Different Facilities. (United States)

    Armstrong, Jenna L; Day, Gregory A; Park, Ji Young; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Stanton, Marcia L; Deubner, David C; Kent, Michael S; Schuler, Christine R; Virji, M Abbas


    Inhalation of beryllium is associated with the development of sensitization; however, dermal exposure may also be important. The primary aim of this study was to elucidate relationships among exposure pathways in four different manufacturing and finishing facilities. Secondary aims were to identify jobs with increased levels of beryllium in air, on skin, and on surfaces; identify potential discrepancies in exposure pathways, and determine if these are related to jobs with previously identified risk. Beryllium was measured in air, on cotton gloves, and on work surfaces. Summary statistics were calculated and correlations among all three measurement types were examined at the facility and job level. Exposure ranking strategies were used to identify jobs with higher exposures. The highest air, glove, and surface measurements were observed in beryllium metal production and beryllium oxide ceramics manufacturing jobs that involved hot processes and handling powders. Two finishing and distribution facilities that handle solid alloy products had lower exposures than the primary production facilities, and there were differences observed among jobs. For all facilities combined, strong correlations were found between air-surface (rp ≥ 0.77), glove-surface (rp ≥ 0.76), and air-glove measurements (rp ≥ 0.69). In jobs where higher risk of beryllium sensitization or disease has been reported, exposure levels for all three measurement types were higher than in jobs with lower risk, though they were not the highest. Some jobs with low air concentrations had higher levels of beryllium on glove and surface wipe samples, suggesting a need to further evaluate the causes of the discrepant levels. Although such correlations provide insight on where beryllium is located throughout the workplace, they cannot identify the direction of the pathways between air, surface, or skin. Ranking strategies helped to identify jobs with the highest combined air, glove, and/or surface exposures

  4. Strategy for identifying natural analogs of the long-term performance of low-level waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatters, J.C.; Waugh, W.J.; Foley, M.G.; Kincaid, C.T.


    The US Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Program has asked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to explore the feasibility of using natural analogs of anticipated waste site and conditions to help validate predictions of the performance of LLW disposal sites. Current regulations require LLW facilities to control the spread of hazardous substances into the environment for at least the next 500 years. Natural analog studies can provide information about processes affecting waste containment that cannot be fully explored through laboratory experimentation and modeling because of the extended period of required performance. For LLW applications, natural analogs include geochemical systems, pedogenic (soil formation) indicators, proxy climate data, and ecological and archaeological settings that portray long-term changes in disposal site environments and the survivability of proposed waste containment materials and structures. Analog data consist of estimates of performance assessment (PA) model input parameters that define possible future environmental states of waste sites, validation parameters that can be predicted by PA models, and descriptive information that can build public confidence in waste disposal practices. This document describes PNL's overall stategy for identifying analogs for LLW disposal systems, reviews lessons learned from past analogs work, outlines the findings of the workshop, and presents examples of analog studies that workshop participants found to be applicable to LLW performance assessment. The lessons from the high-level waste analogs experience and workshop discussions will be used to develop detailed study plans during FY 1990. 39 refs.

  5. Beta Cell Workshop 2013 Kyoto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, R Scott; Madsen, Ole D; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis


    The very modern Kyoto International Conference Center provided the site for the 8th workshop on Beta cells on April 23-26, 2013. The preceding workshops were held in Boston, USA (1991); Kyoto, Japan (1994); Helsingør, Denmark (1997); Helsinki, Finland (2003); El Perello, Spain (2006); Peebles...

  6. Presentation Skills Workshops for Nurses. (United States)

    Kinn, S.; Kenyon, M.


    Workshops were held to prepare nurses (n=87) to present results of professional activities. One year after the course, 20 had made oral and 30 written presentations. The workshops increased their confidence and were considered practical, informal, and nonthreatening. (Contains 31 references.) (SK)

  7. Workshop Polli Talu Loomingulises Keskuses

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    MAP Intermedia Performance Collaboration'i (USA) workshop. Brendan McCall (liikumine), N. B. Aldrich (heli) ja Zach Poff (video) workshop tutvustab kolme kunstniku koostööd. Näidatakse ka multimeedia etendust, mis on külaliskunstnikel valminud Polli talus

  8. Marketing Cooperative Education. A Workshop. (United States)

    Mosser, John W.; Rea, Peter J.

    This document is a guide for a workshop on marketing college cooperative education programs. The guide takes the reader/workshop participant through the marketing process, from defining needs and resources to planning a marketing campaign, implementing it, and evaluating its success. Samples and sources also are provided. Topics covered in the…

  9. Hydrogen Technology Education Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document outlines activities for educating key target audiences, as suggested by workshop participants. Held December 4-5, 2002, the Hydrogen Technology Education Workshop kicked off a new education effort coordinated by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, & Infrastructure Technologies Program of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  10. A Portable Computer Security Workshop (United States)

    Wagner, Paul J.; Phillips, Andrew T.


    We have developed a computer security workshop designed to instruct post-secondary instructors who want to start a course or laboratory exercise sequence in computer security. This workshop has also been used to provide computer security education to IT professionals and students. It is effective in communicating basic computer security principles…

  11. Management of the radioactive waste of European Spallation Source within the Swedish waste disposal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ene, Daniela [European Spallation Source AB, ESS-AB (Sweden); Forsstroem, H. [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB, SKB (Sweden)


    waste with the maximum total activity limits of SKB existing and planned disposal facilities. It resulted from this analysis that the ESS waste will take up a substantial part, about 15 %, of the planned disposal volume for the Swedish radioactive waste management system. It was found also that the compilation of completely new waste type descriptions for qualification of the ESS waste for disposal will be necessary. Particular attention was devoted to 'problematic waste' as Beryllium reflector, C-14 from graphite used as core zone of the beam-dump or waste arising from the purification systems of both Helium and water cooling circuits. (authors)

  12. Manufacturing and thermomechanical testing of actively cooled all beryllium high heat flux test pieces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, N.N.; Sokolov, Yu.A.; Shatalov, G.E. [and others


    One of the problems affiliated to ITER high heat flux elements development is a problem of interface of beryllium protection with heat sink routinely made of copper alloys. To get rid of this problem all beryllium elements could be used as heat receivers in places of enhanced thermal loads. In accordance with this objectives four beryllium test pieces of two types have been manufactured in {open_quotes}Institute of Beryllium{close_quotes} for succeeding thermomechanical testing. Two of them were manufactured in accordance with JET team design; they are round {open_quotes}hypervapotron type{close_quotes} test pieces. Another two ones are rectangular test sections with a twisted tape installed inside of the circular channel. Preliminary stress-strain analysis have been performed for both type of the test pieces. Hypervapotrons have been shipped to JET where they were tested on JET test bed. Thermomechanical testing of pieces of the type of {open_quotes}swirl tape inside of tube{close_quotes} have been performed on Kurchatov Institute test bed. Chosen beryllium grade properties, some details of manufacturing, results of preliminary stress-strain analysis and thermomechanical testing of the test pieces {open_quotes}swirl tape inside of tube{close_quotes} type are given in this report.

  13. Inherent structure features of beryllium and their influence on the performance polycrystalline metal under different conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khomutov, A.M.; Mikhailov, V.S.; Pronin, V.N.; Pakhomov, Ya.D. [State Scientific Center of Russian Federation `A.A. Bochvar All-Russia Research Inst. of Inorganic Materials (VNIINM)`, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The anisotropy of physical properties of beryllium single crystals resulting from covalent bonds in crystal lattice leads to significant residual thermal microstresses (RTM) in the polycrystalline metal. It is demonstrated experimentally that there is a simple linear dependence between the magnitude of RTM and the ultimate tensile strength. The factors controlling RTM are analysed and in the framework of powder metallurgy process the technological methods of producing beryllium with the needed properties are recommended. Primarily it is necessary to control the quantity and extent of dispersity of intergranular oxide inclusions and mean grain size in combination with the high degree of macro- and microhomogenity of the structure. The requirements to beryllium microstructure for different operating conditions including neutron fluxes and transient temperature fields are formulated. In the framework of the concept under development one can explain formerly not fully understandable effects, which are characteristic of polycrystalline beryllium such as unexpected Petch-Stro curve, the role of twinning etc., and predict new ones. In particular, it can be possible to expect the growth of ductility of high strength beryllium grades as neutron irradiated. (author)

  14. Solid state bonding of beryllium-copper for an ITER first wall application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odegard, B.C. Jr.; Cadden, C.H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)


    Several different joint assemblies were evaluated in support of a manufacturing technology for diffusion bonding a beryllium armor tile to a copper alloy heat sink for fusion reactor applications. Because beryllium reacts with all but a few elements to form intermetallic compounds, this study considered several different surface treatments as a means of both inhibiting these reactions and promoting a good diffusion bond between the two substrates. All diffusion bonded assemblies used aluminum or an aluminum-beryllium composite (AlBeMet-150) as the interfacial material in contact with beryllium. In most cases, explosive bonding was utilized as a technique for joining the copper alloy heat sink to an aluminum or AlBeMet-150 substrate, which was subsequently diffusion bonded to an aluminum coated beryllium tile. In this approach, a 250 {mu}m thick titanium foil was used as a diffusion barrier between the copper and aluminum to prevent the formation of Cu-Al intermetallic phases. In all cases, a hot isostatic pressing (HIP) furnace was used in conjunction with canned assemblies in order to minimize oxidation and apply sufficient pressure on the assembly for excellent metal-to-metal contact and subsequent bonding. Several different processing schedules were evaluated during the course of this study; bonded assemblies were produced that failed outside the bond area indicating a 100% joint efficiency. (author)

  15. X-ray drive of beryllium capsule implosions at the National Ignition Facility (United States)

    Wilson, D. C.; Yi, S. A.; Simakov, A. N.; Kline, J. L.; Kyrala, G. A.; Dewald, E. L.; Tommasini, R.; Ralph, J. E.; Olson, R. E.; Strozzi, D. J.; Celliers, P. M.; Schneider, M. B.; MacPhee, A. G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Hinkel, D. E.; Rygg, J. R.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sio, H.; Perry, T. S.; Batha, S.


    National Ignition Facility experiments with beryllium capsules have followed a path begun with “high-foot” plastic capsule implosions. Three shock timing keyhole targets, one symmetry capsule, a streaked backlit capsule, and a 2D backlit capsule were fielded before the DT layered shot. After backscatter subtraction, laser drive degradation is needed to match observed X-ray drives. VISAR measurements determined drive degradation for the picket, trough, and second pulse. Time dependence of the total Dante flux reflects degradation of the of the third laser pulse. The same drive degradation that matches Dante data for three beryllium shots matches Dante and bangtimes for plastic shots N130501 and N130812. In the picket of both Be and CH hohlraums, calculations over-estimate the x-ray flux > 1.8 keV by ∼100X, while calculating the total flux correctly. In beryllium calculations these X-rays cause an early expansion of the beryllium/fuel interface at ∼3 km/s. VISAR measurements gave only ∼0.3 km/s. The X-ray drive on the Be DT capsule was further degraded by an unplanned decrease of 9% in the total picket flux. This small change caused the fuel adiabat to rise from 1.8 to 2.3. The first NIF beryllium DT implosion achieved 29% of calculated yield, compared to CH capsules with 68% and 21%.

  16. Study the effect of beryllium reflector poisoning on the Syrian MNSR. (United States)

    Omar, H; Ghazi, N; Haddad, Kh; Ezzuddin, H


    Neutron interactions with beryllium lead to formation of (3)H and strong neutron absorbers (3)He and (6)Li in the reflector (so called beryllium poisoning). After the reactor shutdown, the concentration of (3)He increases in time due to tritium decay. This paper illustrates the impact of poisoning accumulation in the beryllium reflectors on reactivity for the Syrian MNSR research reactor. The prediction of (6)Li and (3)He poison concentrations, initiated by the 9Be(n,α) reaction, in the beryllium reflectors of the MNSR was also presented. The results were based on MCNP Monte Carlo calculations and solutions to the differential equations which describe the time dependent poison concentrations as a function of reactor operation time and shutdown periods. The whole reactor history was taken into account to predict reliable values of parasitic isotope concentrations. It was found that the (3)He and (6)Li accumulations in the beryllium reflectors during the actual working history decreased the excess reactivity by about 28%. While, the effect became more significant at the reactor life's end and the reactor became subcritical after 25,000 h operation. The results contained in this paper could be used in assess the safety analysis of the MNSR reactor.

  17. Search for chronic beryllium disease among sarcoidosis patients in Ontario, Canada. (United States)

    Ribeiro, Marcos; Fritscher, Leandro G; Al-Musaed, Ahmed M; Balter, Meyer S; Hoffstein, Victor; Mazer, Bruce D; Maier, Lisa A; Liss, Gary M; Tarlo, Susan M


    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is clinically similar to other granulomatous diseases such as sarcoidosis. It is often misdiagnosed if a thorough occupational history is not taken. When appropriate, a beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests (BeLPT) need to be performed. We aimed to search for CBD among currently diagnosed pulmonary sarcoidosis patients and to identify the occupations and exposures in Ontario leading to CBD. Questionnaire items included work history and details of possible exposure to beryllium. Participants who provided a history of previous work with metals underwent BeLPTs and an ELISPOT on the basis of having a higher pretest probability of CBD. Among 121 sarcoid patients enrolled, 87 (72%) reported no known previous metal dust or fume exposure, while 34 (28%) had metal exposure, including 17 (14%) with beryllium exposure at work or home. However, none of these 34 who underwent testing had positive test results. Self-reported exposure to beryllium or metals was relatively common in these patients with clinical sarcoidosis, but CBD was not confirmed using blood assays in this population.

  18. Occupational exposure to beryllium and cancer risk: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. (United States)

    Boffetta, Paolo; Fryzek, Jon P; Mandel, Jack S


    There is controversy on whether occupational exposure to beryllium causes lung cancer. We conducted a systematic review of epidemiologic studies on cancer among workers exposed to beryllium, including a study of seven U.S. production plants which has been recently updated, a study of patients with beryllium disease (largely overlapping with the former study) and several smaller studies. A small excess mortality from lung cancer was detected in the large cohort, which was partially explained by confounding by tobacco smoking and urban residence. Other potential confounders have not been addressed. The excess mortality was mainly among workers employed (often for a short duration) in the early phase of the manufacturing industry. There was no relation with duration of employment or cumulative exposure, whereas average and maximum exposure were associated with lung cancer risk. The use of lagged exposure variables resulted in associations with lung cancer risk; however, these associations were due to confounding by year of birth and year of hire. The studies of beryllium disease patients do not provide independent evidence and the results from other studies do not support the hypothesis of an increased risk of lung cancer or any other cancer. Overall, the available evidence does not support a conclusion that a causal association has been established between occupational exposure to beryllium and the risk of cancer.

  19. Long-term follow-up of beryllium sensitized workers from a single employer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis Anne M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Up to 12% of beryllium-exposed American workers would test positive on beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT screening, but the implications of sensitization remain uncertain. Methods Seventy two current and former employees of a beryllium manufacturer, including 22 with pathologic changes of chronic beryllium disease (CBD, and 50 without, with a confirmed positive test were followed-up for 7.4 +/-3.1 years. Results Beyond predicted effects of aging, flow rates and lung volumes changed little from baseline, while DLCO dropped 17.4% of predicted on average. Despite this group decline, only 8 subjects (11.1% demonstrated physiologic or radiologic abnormalities typical of CBD. Other than baseline status, no clinical or laboratory feature distinguished those who clinically manifested CBD at follow-up from those who did not. Conclusions The clinical outlook remains favorable for beryllium-sensitized individuals over the first 5-12 years. However, declines in DLCO may presage further and more serious clinical manifestations in the future. These conclusions are tempered by the possibility of selection bias and other study limitations.

  20. GammaWorkshops Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramebaeck, H. (ed.) (Swedish Defence Research Agency (Sweden)); Straalberg, E. (Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway)); Klemola, S. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, STUK (Finland)); Nielsen, Sven P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Palsson, S.E. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority (Iceland))


    Due to a sparse interaction during the last years between practioners in gamma ray spectrometry in the Nordic countries, a NKS activity was started in 2009. This GammaSem was focused on seminars relevant to gamma spectrometry. A follow up seminar was held in 2010. As an outcome of these activities it was suggested that the 2011 meeting should be focused on practical issues, e.g. different corrections needed in gamma spectrometric measurements. This three day's meeting, GammaWorkshops, was held in September at Risoe-DTU. Experts on different topics relevant for gamma spectrometric measurements were invited to the GammaWorkshops. The topics included efficiency transfer, true coincidence summing corrections, self-attenuation corrections, measurement of natural radionuclides (natural decay series), combined measurement uncertainty calculations, and detection limits. These topics covered both lectures and practical sessions. The practical sessions included demonstrations of tools for e.g. corrections and calculations of the above meantioned topics. (Author)

  1. First JECSS Workshop (United States)

    Ichiye, Takashi

    The first Japan and East China Seas Study (JECSS) workshop convened at Tsukuba University, about 60 km north of Tokyo, Japan, June 1-4, 1981, to assess hydrographic data, review descriptive and theoretical Work, and promote future cooperation for studying the Japan Sea and East China Sea and marginal seas of the Western North Pacific Ocean. The conveners were Takashi Ichiye of Texas A&M University and Kenzo Takano of Tsukuba University, and the workshop was funded by the Hidaka Foundation, which was founded by Koji Hidaka, patriarch of dynamic oceanography in Japan.There were 41 participants: seven from the United States, six from Korea, one from the Peoples Republic of China, and 27 from Japan. Twenty-four papers were presented, and topics included the Japan Sea, the East China Sea, and marginal seas in general. Subjects concerned descriptive physical oceanography; internal waves, tides, and shelf waves; circulation modeling; data assessment; remote sensing; and sedimentology and marine chemistry. The seasonal change of the Tsushima Current, a branch of the Kuroshio in the Japan Sea, was determined by the Tohoku University group; preliminary results of the NOAA R/V Oceanographer cruise in Spring 1980 were presented; and the numerical modeling of the Japan Sea circulation, the tides of the Yellow Sea, and the barotropic current of the East China Sea were discussed. The papers presented will be published in 1982 in La Mer, a journal of the Japanese-French Oceanographical Society.

  2. 20 CFR 30.206 - How does a claimant prove that the employee was a “covered beryllium employee” exposed to... (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a claimant prove that the employee was a âcovered beryllium employeeâ exposed to beryllium dust, particles or vapor in the performance of....206 How does a claimant prove that the employee was a “covered beryllium employee” exposed...

  3. Post irradiation characterization of beryllium and beryllides after high temperature irradiation up to 3000 appm helium production in HIDOBE-01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, A.V., E-mail: [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Westerduinweg 3, Postbus 25, Petten, 1755 ZG (Netherlands); Til, S. van; Stijkel, M.P. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Westerduinweg 3, Postbus 25, Petten, 1755 ZG (Netherlands); Nakamichi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho (Japan); Zmitko, M. [The European Joint Undertaking for ITER and the Development of Fusion Energy, c/ Josep Pla, n° 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, Barcelona 08019 (Spain)


    Titanium beryllides are considered as advanced candidate material for neutron multiplier for the helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB) and/or the water cooled ceramic breeder (WCCB) breeder blankets. In the HIDOBE-01 (HIgh DOse irradiation of BEryllium) experiment, beryllium and beryllide pellets with 5 at% and 7 at% Ti are irradiated at four different target temperatures (T{sub irr}): 425 °C, 525 °C, 650 °C and 750 °C up to the dose corresponding to 3000 appm He production in beryllium. The pellets were supplied by JAEA. During post irradiation examinations the critical properties of volumetric swelling and tritium retention were studied. Both titanium beryllide grades show significantly less swelling than the beryllium grade, with the difference increasing with the irradiation temperature. The irradiation induced swelling was studied by using direct dimensions. Both beryllide grades showed much less swelling as compare to the reference beryllium grade. Densities of the grades were studied by Archimedean immersion and by He-pycnometry, giving indications of porosity formation. While both beryllide grades show no significant reduction in density at all irradiation temperatures, the beryllium density falls steeply at higher T{sub irr}. Finally, the tritium release and retention were studied by temperature programmed desorption (TPD). Beryllium shows the same strong tritium retention as earlier observed in studies on beryllium pebbles, while the tritium inventory of the beryllides is significantly less, already at the lowest T{sub irr} of 425 °C.

  4. Beryllium chloride-induced oxidative DNA damage and alteration in the expression patterns of DNA repair-related genes. (United States)

    Attia, Sabry M; Harisa, Gamaleldin I; Hassan, Memy H; Bakheet, Saleh A


    Beryllium metal has physical properties that make its use essential for very specific applications, such as medical diagnostics, nuclear/fusion reactors and aerospace applications. Because of the widespread human exposure to beryllium metals and the discrepancy of the genotoxic results in the reported literature, detail assessments of the genetic damage of beryllium are warranted. Mice exposed to beryllium chloride at an oral dose of 23mg/kg for seven consecutive days exhibited a significant increase in the level of DNA-strand breaking and micronuclei formation as detected by a bone marrow standard comet assay and micronucleus test. Whereas slight beryllium chloride-induced oxidative DNA damage was detected following formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase digestion, digestion with endonuclease III resulted in considerable increases in oxidative DNA damage after the 11.5 and 23mg/kg/day treatment as detected by enzyme-modified comet assays. Increased 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was also directly correlated with increased bone marrow micronuclei formation and DNA strand breaks, which further confirm the involvement of oxidative stress in the induction of bone marrow genetic damage after exposure to beryllium chloride. Gene expression analysis on the bone marrow cells from beryllium chloride-exposed mice showed significant alterations in genes associated with DNA damage repair. Therefore, beryllium chloride may cause genetic damage to bone marrow cells due to the oxidative stress and the induced unrepaired DNA damage is probably due to the down-regulation in the expression of DNA repair genes, which may lead to genotoxicity and eventually cause carcinogenicity.

  5. General Instructions for Disposable Respirators

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast, intended for the general public, demonstrates how to put on and take off disposable respirators that are to be used in areas affected by the influenza outbreak.  Created: 4/9/2009 by CDC, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 4/29/2009.

  6. Proceedings of 2nd Internaitonal workshop on tritium effects in plasma facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Kenji [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Engineering; Noda, Nobuaki [eds.


    This workshop was held at Nagoya University on May 19 and 20, 1994. Approximately 1/3 of the lectures discussed the migration and retention of tritium in graphite and the other forms of carbon. As to this topic, most of the different aspects of the tritium reactions with carbon were generally agreed on. At the temperature lower than 800 K, tritium plasma interacts with graphite by forming a saturated layer on the surface, by forming a codeposited layer of sputtered carbon and tritium, and by allowing tritium diffusion through Pores. At the temperature higher than 800 K, the principal reaction of tritium with carbon is intergranular diffusion with high energy trapping. Because beryllium is the reference plasma-facing material for the ITER, several presentations on the reactions of tritium with beryllium were made. Also the tritium permeation through other metals was the topics. The results of TFTR D-T experiment were reported in the first talk. In this book, the gists of these lectures are collected. (K.I.).

  7. Advanced research workshop: nuclear materials safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, L J; Moshkov, M M


    The Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on Nuclear Materials Safety held June 8-10, 1998, in St. Petersburg, Russia, was attended by 27 Russian experts from 14 different Russian organizations, seven European experts from six different organizations, and 14 U.S. experts from seven different organizations. The ARW was conducted at the State Education Center (SEC), a former Minatom nuclear training center in St. Petersburg. Thirty-three technical presentations were made using simultaneous translations. These presentations are reprinted in this volume as a formal ARW Proceedings in the NATO Science Series. The representative technical papers contained here cover nuclear material safety topics on the storage and disposition of excess plutonium and high enriched uranium (HEU) fissile materials, including vitrification, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication, plutonium ceramics, reprocessing, geologic disposal, transportation, and Russian regulatory processes. This ARW completed discussions by experts of the nuclear materials safety topics that were not covered in the previous, companion ARW on Nuclear Materials Safety held in Amarillo, Texas, in March 1997. These two workshops, when viewed together as a set, have addressed most nuclear material aspects of the storage and disposition operations required for excess HEU and plutonium. As a result, specific experts in nuclear materials safety have been identified, know each other from their participation in t he two ARW interactions, and have developed a partial consensus and dialogue on the most urgent nuclear materials safety topics to be addressed in a formal bilateral program on t he subject. A strong basis now exists for maintaining and developing a continuing dialogue between Russian, European, and U.S. experts in nuclear materials safety that will improve the safety of future nuclear materials operations in all the countries involved because of t he positive synergistic effects of focusing these diverse backgrounds of

  8. Examination of Beryllium Under Intense High Energy Proton Beam at CERN's HiRadMat Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Ammigan, K; Hurh, P; Zwaska, R; Atherton, A; Caretta, O; Davenne, t; Densham, C; Fitton, M; Loveridge, P; O'Dell, J; Roberts, S; Kuksenko, v; Butcher, M; Calviani, M; Guinchard, M; Losito, R


    Beryllium is extensively used in various accelerator beam lines and target facilities as material for beam win- dows, and to a lesser extent, as secondary particle produc- tion targets. With increasing beam intensities of future ac- celerator facilities, it is critical to understand the response of beryllium under extreme conditions to avoid compro- mising particle production efficiency by limiting beam pa- rameters. As a result, the planned experiment at CERN’s HiRadMat facility will take advantage of the test facility’s tunable high intensity proton beam to probe and investigate the damage mechanisms of several grades of beryllium. The test matrix will consist of multiple arrays of thin discs of varying thicknesses as well as cylinders, each exposed to increasing beam intensities. Online instrumentations will acquire real time temperature, strain, and vibration data of the cylinders, while Post-Irradiation-Examination (PIE) of the discs will exploit advanced microstructural characteri- zation and imagin...

  9. Effect of beryllium nitrate on early and late pregnancy in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, R.; Sharma, S.; Mathur, S.; Prakash, A.O.


    Beryllium is widely used in fatigue-resistant alloys, nuclear reactors, space device, missiles parts, electronics and other specialized purposes. Workers both in industries and mines are constantly exposed through inhalation or direct skin contact. A number of investigations have been made in different laboratories in relation to its toxicological effects in laboratory animals and humans. The lethal dose (LD/sub 50/) of beryllium nitrate through intravenous route in rats has been reported from our laboratory to be 3.16 mg/kg body weight. But not much is known about its effects on reproductive physiology. The present communication deals with the effect of beryllium nitrate on early and late pregnancy in the albino rats.

  10. Time-lapse cinematographic analysis of beryllium--lung fibroblast interactions. (United States)

    Absher, M; Sylwester, D; Hart, B A


    The proliferative response to beryllium chloride of cells in a population of human lung fibroblasts was quantitatively assessed using time-lapse cinematography. A dose of 0.02 microgram Be/ml, known to decrease the growth rate of fibroblasts, affects an estimated 75% of the cells in the population, increasing their interdivision time (IDT) by approximately 5 hr. The differences in mean 1n(IDT) between treated and control cells were essentially constant for comparable culture sizes ranging from 25 to 250 cells. There was no correlation between mother and daughter cell IDTs in control or treated culture at any culture size. IDTs of sister pairs were highly correlated in control cultures at selected culture sizes while sister pair IDTs of treated cultures were not. The data suggest that while beryllium alters the IDT of fibroblasts, an effect not related to culture size, any given cell affected by beryllium does not impart effects of the mineral to its progeny.

  11. Equation of State Determination from Quasi-Isentropic Compression of Solid Beryllium Liners on Z (United States)

    Martin, Matthew; Lemke, Raymond; McBride, Ryan; Knudson, Marcus; Davis, Jean-Paul


    We investigate the beryllium equation of state through constraining magneto-hydrodynamic and magneto-solid dynamic simulation with experimentally determined density profiles of a compressed beryllium cylindrical liner. Experiments utilizing pulse shaping techniques on Z have achieved quasi-isentropic compression of cylindrical beryllium liners to approximately 3 Megabars, and simulation results suggest that a large fraction of the liner remains in the solid phase through peak pressure for a 20 MA current pulse on Z. This opens up the possibility of extending the range of pressures we can explore with magnetic drive by utilizing cylindrical convergence. However, the cylindrical geometry limits the usefulness of diagnostics commonly applied to planar equation of state measurements on pulsed power machines and requires the development of new methods to unfold isentropes from the experimental data.

  12. A mortality study of workers exposed to insoluble forms of beryllium. (United States)

    Boffetta, Paolo; Fordyce, Tiffani; Mandel, Jack S


    This study investigated lung cancer and other diseases related to insoluble beryllium compounds. A cohort of 4950 workers from four US insoluble beryllium manufacturing facilities were followed through 2009. Expected deaths were calculated using local and national rates. On the basis of local rates, all-cause mortality was significantly reduced. Mortality from lung cancer (standardized mortality ratio 96.0; 95% confidence interval 80.0, 114.3) and from nonmalignant respiratory diseases was also reduced. There were no significant trends for either cause of death according to duration of employment or time since first employment. Uterine cancer among women was the only cause of death with a significantly increased standardized mortality ratio. Five of the seven women worked in office jobs. This study confirmed the lack of an increase in mortality from lung cancer and nonmalignant respiratory diseases related to insoluble beryllium compounds.

  13. Structures and formation mechanisms of aquo/hydroxo oligomeric beryllium in aqueous solution: a density functional theory study. (United States)

    Jin, Xiaoyan; Liao, Rongbao; Wu, Hai; Huang, Zhengjie; Zhang, Hong


    The structures and formation mechanisms of a wide variety of aquo/hydroxo oligomeric beryllium clusters were investigated using density functional theory. The structural parameters of beryllium clusters were found to vary regularly with the stepwise substitution of bound water molecules in the inner coordination sphere by hydroxyl groups. According to the Gibbs free energies deduced from SMD solvation model computations, unhydrolyzed oligomeric beryllium species are the most favorable products of polymerization, independent of the degrees of hydrolysis of the reactants. Simulation of the formation processes of oligomeric beryllium showed that polymerization, in essence, involves the nucleophilic attack of a terminal hydroxyl group in one BeO4 tetrahedron on the beryllium center in another BeO4 tetrahedron, leading to the bridging of two BeO4 tetrahedrons by a hydroxyl group.

  14. A theoretical framework for evaluating analytical digestion methods for poorly soluble particulate beryllium. (United States)

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Brink, Christopher A; Dickerson, Robert M; Day, Gregory A; Brisson, Michael J; Hoover, Mark D; Scripsick, Ronald C


    Complete digestion of all chemical forms and sizes of particulate analytes in environmental samples is usually necessary to obtain accurate results with atomic spectroscopy. In the current study, we investigate the physicochemical properties of beryllium particles likely to be encountered in samples collected from different occupational environments and present a hypothesis that a dissolution theory can be used as a conceptual framework to guide development of strategies for digestion procedures. For monodisperse single-chemical constituent primary particles, such as those encountered when handling some types of beryllium oxide (BeO) powder, theory predicts that a digestion procedure is sufficient when it completely dissolves all primary particles, independent of cluster size. For polydisperse single-chemical constituent particles, such as those encountered during the handling of some types of beryllium metal powder, theory predicts that a digestion procedure is sufficient only when it completely dissolves the largest particle in the sample. For samples with unknown or multi-chemical constituent particles and with particles having undefined sizes, e.g., fume emissions from a copper-beryllium alloy furnace operation or dust from a beryl ore crushing operation, a surface area-limited and single-constituent-dependent dissolution theory may not predict complete dissolution, thereby requiring non-routine robust treatment procedures with post-digestion filtration, followed by examination of residual particulate material. Additionally, for beryllium, and likely other poorly soluble materials, particulate reference materials of various chemical forms and size distributions are needed to better evaluate and harmonize analytical digestion procedures. Figure Generation of aerosol particles during machining of beryllium oxide.

  15. Oxide segregation and melting behavior of transient heat load exposed beryllium (United States)

    Spilker, B.; Linke, J.; Pintsuk, G.; Wirtz, M.


    In the experimental fusion reactor ITER, beryllium will be applied as first wall armor material. However, the ITER-like wall project at JET already experienced that the relatively low melting temperature of beryllium can easily be exceeded during plasma operation. Therefore, a detailed study was carried out on S-65 beryllium under various transient, ITER-relevant heat loads that were simulated in the electron beam facility JUDITH 1. Hereby, the absorbed power densities were in the range of 0.15-1.0 GW m-2 in combination with pulse durations of 1-10 ms and pulse numbers of 1-1000. In metallographic cross sections, the emergence of a transition region in a depth of ~70-120 µm was revealed. This transition region was characterized by a strong segregation of oxygen at the grain boundaries, determined with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy element mappings. The oxide segregation strongly depended on the maximum temperature reached at the end of the transient heat pulse in combination with the pulse duration. A threshold for this process was found at 936 °C for a pulse duration of 10 ms. Further transient heat pulses applied to specimens that had already formed this transition region resulted in the overheating and melting of the material. The latter occurred between the surface and the transition region and was associated with a strong decrease of the thermal conductivity due to the weakly bound grains across the transition region. Additionally, the transition region caused a partial separation of the melt layer from the bulk material, which could ultimately result in a full detachment of the solidified beryllium layers from the bulk armor. Furthermore, solidified beryllium filaments evolved in several locations of the loaded area and are related to the thermally induced crack formation. However, these filaments are not expected to account for an increase of the beryllium net erosion.

  16. Tritium and helium retention and release from irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, R.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Oates, M.A.; Pawelko, R.J. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    This paper reports the results of an experimental effort to anneal irradiated beryllium specimens and characterize them for steam-chemical reactivity experiments. Fully-dense, consolidated powder metallurgy Be cylinders, irradiated in the EBR-II to a fast neutron (>0.1 MeV) fluence of {approx}6 x 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}, were annealed at temperatures from 450degC to 1200degC. The releases of tritium and helium were measured during the heat-up phase and during the high-temperature anneals. These experiments revealed that, at 600degC and below, there was insignificant gas release. Tritium release at 700degC exhibited a delayed increase in the release rate, while the specimen was at 700degC. For anneal temperatures of 800degC and higher, tritium and helium release was concurrent and the release behavior was characterized by gas-burst peaks. Essentially all of the tritium and helium was released at temperatures of 1000degC and higher, whereas about 1/10 of the tritium was released during the anneals at 700degC and 800degC. Measurements were made to determine the bulk density, porosity and specific surface area for each specimen before and after annealing. These measurements indicated that annealing caused the irradiated Be to swell, by as much as 14% at 700degC and 56% at 1200degC. Kr gas adsorption measurements for samples annealed at 1000degC and 1200degC determined specific surface areas between 0.04 m{sup 2}/g and 0.1 m{sup 2}/g for these annealed specimens. The tritium and helium gas release measurements and the specific surface area measurements indicated that annealing of irradiated Be caused a porosity network to evolve and become surface-connected to relieve internal gas pressure. (author)

  17. Structure of beryllium isotopes in fermionic molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torabi, Bahram Ramin


    Modern theoretical nuclear physics faces two major challenges. The first is finding a suitable interaction, which describes the forces between nucleons. The second challenge is the solution of the nuclear many-body problem for a given nucleus while applying a realistic potential. The potential used in the framework of this thesis is based on the Argonne AV18 potential. It was transformed by means of the Unitary Correlation Operator Method (UCOM) to optimize convergence. The usual phenomenological corrections were applied to improve the potential for the Hilbert space used in Fermionic Molecular Dynamics (FMD). FMD is an approach to solve the nuclear many-body problem. It uses a single-particle basis which is a superposition of Gaussian distributions in phase-space. The most simple many-body state is the antisymmetric product of the singleparticle states: a Slater determinant, the so called intrinsic state. This intrinsic state is projected on parity, total angular momentum and a center of mass momentum zero. The Hilbert space is spanned by several of these projected states. The states are obtained by minimizing their energy while demanding certain constraints. The expectation values of Slater determinants, parity projected and additionally total angular momentum projected Slater determinants are used. The states that are relevant in the low energy regime are obtained by diagonalization. The lowest moments of the mass-, proton- or neutron-distribution and the excitation in proton- and neutron-shells of a harmonic oscillator are some of the used constraints. The low energy regime of the Beryllium isotopes with masses 7 to 14 is calculated by using these states. Energies, radii, electromagnetic transitions, magnetic moments and point density distributions of the low lying states are calculated and are presented in this thesis. (orig.)

  18. Inhibition of normal human lung fibroblast growth by beryllium. (United States)

    Lehnert, N M; Gary, R K; Marrone, B L; Lehnert, B E


    Inhalation of particulate beryllium (Be) and its compounds causes chronic Be disease (CBD) in a relatively small subset ( approximately 1-6%) of exposed individuals. Hallmarks of this pulmonary disease include increases in several cell types, including lung fibroblasts, that contribute to the fibrotic component of the disorder. In this regard, enhancements in cell proliferation appear to play a fundamental role in CBD development and progression. Paradoxically, however, some existing evidence suggests that Be actually has antiproliferative effects. In order to gain further information about the effects of Be on cell growth, we: (1) assessed cell proliferation and cell cycle effects of low concentrations of Be in normal human diploid fibroblasts, and (2) investigated the molecular pathway(s) by which the cell cycle disturbing effects of Be may be mediated. Treatment of human lung and skin fibroblasts with Be added in the soluble form of BeSO(4) (0.1-100 microM) caused inhibitions of their growth in culture in a concentration-dependent manner. Such growth inhibition was found to persist, even after cells were further cultured in Be(2+)-free medium. Flow cytometric analyses of cellular DNA labeled with the DNA-binding fluorochrome DAPI revealed that Be causes a G(0)-G(1)/pre-S phase arrest. Western blot analyses indicated that the Be-induced G(0)-G(1)/pre-S phase arrest involves elevations in TP53 (p53) and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN1A (p21(Waf-1,Cip1)). That Be at low concentrations inhibits the growth of normal human fibroblasts suggests the possibility of the existence of abnormal cell cycle inhibitory responses to Be in individuals who are sensitive to the metal and ultimately develop CBD.

  19. Fundamental hydrogen interactions with beryllium : a magnetic fusion perspective.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wampler, William R. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Felter, Thomas E.; Whaley, Josh A.; Kolasinski, Robert D.; Bartelt, Norman Charles


    Increasingly, basic models such as density functional theory and molecular dynamics are being used to simulate different aspects of hydrogen recycling from plasma facing materials. These models provide valuable insight into hydrogen diffusion, trapping, and recombination from surfaces, but their validation relies on knowledge of the detailed behavior of hydrogen at an atomic scale. Despite being the first wall material for ITER, basic single crystal beryllium surfaces have been studied only sparsely from an experimental standpoint. In prior cases researchers used electron spectroscopy to examine surface reconstruction or adsorption kinetics during exposure to a hydrogen atmosphere. While valuable, these approaches lack the ability to directly detect the positioning of hydrogen on the surface. Ion beam techniques, such as low energy ion scattering (LEIS) and direct recoil spectroscopy (DRS), are two of the only experimental approaches capable of providing this information. In this study, we applied both LEIS and DRS to examine how hydrogen binds to the Be(0001) surface. Our measurements were performed using an angle-resolved ion energy spectrometer (ARIES) to probe the surface with low energy ions (500 eV - 3 keV He{sup +} and Ne{sup +}). We were able to obtain a 'scattering maps' of the crystal surface, providing insight on how low energy ions are focused along open surface channels. Once we completed a characterization of the clean surface, we dosed the sample with atomic hydrogen using a heated tungsten capillary. A distinct signal associated with adsorbed hydrogen emerged that was consistent with hydrogen residing between atom rows. To aid in the interpretation of the experimental results, we developed a computational model to simulate ion scattering at grazing incidence. For this purpose, we incorporated a simplified surface model into the Kalypso molecular dynamics code. This approach allowed us to understand how the incident ions interacted with the

  20. Beryllium Chelation by Dicarboxylic Acids in Aqueous Solution. (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael; Bauer, Andreas; Schmidbaur, Hubert


    Maleic and phthalic acids are found to react with Be(OH)(2), generated in situ from BeSO(4)(aq) and Ba(OH)(2)(aq), in aqueous solution at pH 3.0 or 4.4, respectively (25 degrees C), to give solutions containing the complexes (H(2)O)(2)Be[(OOCCH)(2)] (1) and (H(2)O)(2)Be[(OOC)(2)C(6)H(4)] (3). The products can be isolated in high yield and identified by microanalytical data. With 2 equiv of the dicarboxylic acids and the pH adjusted to 5.5 and 5.9, respectively, by addition of ammonia, the bis-chelate complexes [(NH(4))(+)](2){[Be[(OOCCH)(2)](2)}(2)(-) (2) and [(NH(4))(+)](2){Be[(OOC)(2)C(6)H(4)](2)}(2)(-) (4) are obtained, which can also be isolated. The compounds show distinct (9)Be, (1)H, and (13)C resonances in their NMR spectra in aqueous solutions. Layering of an aqueous solution of compound 4 with acetone at ambient temperature leads to the precipitation of single crystals suitable for an X-ray structure determination. This salt (5) was found to contain the bis-chelated dianion {Be[(OOC)(2)C(6)H(4)](2)}(2)(-) with the beryllium atom in the spiro center of two seven-membered rings and an overall geometry approaching closely C(2) symmetry. These anions are associated with two crystallographically independent but structurally similar counterions [MeC(O)CH(2)CMe(2)NH(3)](+), which are the product of a condensation reaction of the ammonium cation with the acetone solvent. In the crystal the ammonium hydrogen atoms of the cations form N-H.O hydrogen bonds with the oxo functions of the dianion.

  1. Retention and release mechanisms of deuterium implanted into beryllium (United States)

    Oberkofler, M.; Reinelt, M.; Linsmeier, Ch.


    The fraction of deuterium (D) that is retained upon irradiation of beryllium (Be) as well as the temperatures at which implanted D is released are of importance for the international fusion experiment ITER, where Be will be used as an armor material. The influence of single parameters on retention and release is investigated in laboratory experiments performed under well defined conditions with the aim to identify dominant underlying mechanisms and thus be able to predict the behavior of the Be wall in ITER. Recent progress in the quantification of retained fractions and release temperatures as well as in the understanding of the governing mechanisms is presented. The retained fraction upon implantation of D at 1 keV into Be(1 1 2¯ 0) to fluences far below the saturation threshold of 10 21 m -2 is almost 95%, the remaining 5% being attributed to reflection at the surface. At these low fluences, no dependence of the retained fractions on implantation energy is observed. At fluences of the order of 10 21 m -2 and higher, saturation of the irradiated material affects the retention, leading to lower retained fractions. Furthermore, at these fluences the retained fractions decrease with decreasing implantation energies. Differences in the retained fractions from implanted Be(1 1 2¯ 0) and polycrystalline Be are explained by anisotropic diffusion of interstitials during implantation, leading to an amount of surviving D-trap complexes that depends on surface-orientation. Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) spectra are recorded after implantation of fluences of the order of 10 19 m -2 at various energies and simulated by means of a newly developed code based on coupled reaction-diffusion systems (CRDS). The asymmetric shape of the TPD peaks is reproduced by introducing a local D accumulation process into the model.

  2. Adaptation prevents the extinction of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under toxic beryllium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Baselga-Cervera


    Full Text Available The current biodiversity crisis represents a historic challenge for natural communities: the environmental rate of change exceeds the population’s adaptation capability. Integrating both ecological and evolutionary responses is necessary to make reliable predictions regarding the loss of biodiversity. The race against extinction from an eco-evolutionary perspective is gaining importance in ecological risk assessment. Here, we performed a classical study of population dynamics—a fluctuation analysis—and evaluated the results from an adaption perspective. Fluctuation analysis, widely used with microorganisms, is an effective empirical procedure to study adaptation under strong selective pressure because it incorporates the factors that influence demographic, genetic and environmental changes. The adaptation of phytoplankton to beryllium (Be is of interest because human activities are increasing the concentration of Be in freshwater reserves; therefore, predicting the effects of human-induced pollutants is necessary for proper risk assessment. The fluctuation analysis was performed with phytoplankton, specifically, the freshwater microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, under acute Be exposure. High doses of Be led to massive microalgae death; however, by conducting a fluctuation analysis experiment, we found that C. reinhardtii was able to adapt to 33 mg/l of Be due to pre-existing genetic variability. The rescuing adapting genotype presented a mutation rate of 9.61 × 10−6 and a frequency of 10.42 resistant cells per million wild-type cells. The genetic adaptation pathway that was experimentally obtained agreed with the theoretical models of evolutionary rescue (ER. Furthermore, the rescuing genotype presented phenotypic and physiologic differences from the wild-type genotype, was 25% smaller than the Be-resistant genotype and presented a lower fitness and quantum yield performance. The abrupt distinctions between the wild-type and the Be

  3. The Third ATLAS ROD Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    Poggioli, L.

    A new-style Workshop After two successful ATLAS ROD Workshops dedicated to the ROD hardware and held at the Geneva University in 1998 and in 2000, a new style Workshop took place at LAPP in Annecy on November 14-15, 2002. This time the Workshop was fully dedicated to the ROD-TDAQ integration and software in view of the near future integration activities of the final RODs for the detector assembly and commissioning. More precisely, the aim of this workshop was to get from the sub-detectors the parameters needed for T-DAQ, as well as status and plans from ROD builders. On the other hand, what was decided and assumed had to be stated (like EB decisions and URDs), and also support plans. The Workshop gathered about 70 participants from all ATLAS sub-detectors and the T-DAQ community. The quite dense agenda allowed nevertheless for many lively discussions, and for a dinner in the old town of Annecy. The Sessions The Workshop was organized in five main sessions: Assumptions and recommendations Sub-de...

  4. 48 CFR 245.603 - Disposal methods. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal methods. 245.603 Section 245.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Contractor Inventory 245.603 Disposal methods....

  5. Wavefunction and energy of the 1s22sns configuration in a beryllium atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Shi-Zhong; Ma Kun; Yu Jia-Ming; Liu Fen


    A new set of trial functions for 1s22sns configurations in a beryllium atom is suggested.A Mathematica program baaed on the variational method is developed to calculate the wavefunctions and energies of 1s22sns (n=3-6)configurations in a beryllium atom.Non-relativistic energy,polarization correction and relativistic correction which include mass correction,one- and two-body Darwin corrections,spin-spin contact interaction and orbit-orbit interaction,are calculated respectively.The results are in good agreement with experimental data.

  6. Measurement of neutron yield by 62 MeV proton beam on a thick Beryllium target

    CERN Document Server

    Alba, R; Boccaccio, P; Celentano, A; Colonna, N; Cosentino, G; Del Zoppo, A; Di Pietro, A; Esposito, J; Figuera, P; Finocchiaro, P; Kostyukov, A; Maiolino, C; Osipenko, M; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Viberti, C M; Santonocito, D; Schillaci, M


    In the framework of research on IVth generation reactors and high intensity neutron sources a low-power prototype neutron amplifier was recently proposed by INFN. It is based on a low-energy, high current proton cyclotron, whose beam, impinging on a thick Beryllium converter, produces a fast neutron spectrum. The world database on the neutron yield from thick Beryllium target in the 70 MeV proton energy domain is rather scarce. The new measurement was performed at LNS, covering a wide angular range from 0 to 150 degrees and an almost complete neutron energy interval. In this contribution the preliminary data are discussed together with the proposed ADS facility.

  7. Second hyperpolarizability of delta shaped disubstituted acetylene complexes of beryllium, magnesium, and calcium. (United States)

    Hatua, Kaushik; Nandi, Prasanta K


    Present theoretical study involves the delta shape complexes of beryllium, magnesium, and calcium where the metal atom interacts perpendicularly with disubstituted acetylene. Most of the complexes are found to be fairly stable. The dependence of second-hyperpolarizability on the basis set with increasing polarization and diffuse functions has been examined which showed the importance of 'f-type' type polarization function for heavy metal (Mg, Ca) and 'd-type' polarization function for beryllium. Larger second hyperpolarizability has been predicted for complexes having significant ground state polarization and low lying excited states favoring strong electronic coupling. Transition energy plays the most significant role in modulating the second hyperpolarizability.

  8. Beryllium plasma-facing components for the ITER-like wall project at JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubel, M J; Sundelin, P [Alfven Laboratory, Royal Institute of Technology, Association Euratom-VR (Sweden); Bailescu, V [Nuclear Fuel Plant, Pitesti (Romania); Coad, J P; Matthews, G F; Pedrick, L; Riccardo, V; Villedieu, E [Culham Science Centre, Euratom-UKAEA Fusion Association, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Hirai, T; Linke, J [IEF-2, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Association Euratom-FZJ, Juelich (Germany); Likonen, J [VTT, Association Euratom-Tekes, 02044 VTT (Finland); Lungu, C P [NILPRP, Association Euratom-MEdC, Bucharest (Romania)], E-mail:


    ITER-Like Wall Project has been launched at the JET tokamak in order to study a tokamak operation with beryllium components on the main chamber wall and tungsten in the divertor. To perform this first comprehensive test of both materials in a thermonuclear fusion environment, a broad program has been undertaken to develop plasma-facing components and assess their performance under high power loads. The paper provides a concise report on scientific and technical issues in the development of a beryllium first wall at JET.

  9. Cold melting of beryllium: Atomistic view on Z-machine experiments (United States)

    Dremov, V. V.; Rykounov, A. A.; Sapozhnikov, F. A.; Karavaev, A. V.; Yakovlev, S. V.; Ionov, G. V.; Ryzhkov, M. V.


    Analysis of phase diagram of beryllium at high pressures and temperatures obtained as a result of ab initio calculations and large scale classical molecular dynamics simulations of beryllium shock loading have shown that the so called cold melting takes place when shock wave propagates through polycrystalline samples. Comparison of ab initio calculation results on sound speed along the Hugoniot with experimental data obtained on Z-machine also evidences for possible manifestation of the cold melting. The last may explain the discrepancy between atomistic simulations and experimental data on the onset of the melting on the Hugoniot.

  10. Power deposition modelling of the ITER-like wall beryllium tiles at JET (United States)

    Firdaouss, M.; Mitteau, R.; Villedieu, E.; Riccardo, V.; Lomas, P.; Vizvary, Z.; Portafaix, C.; Ferrand, L.; Thomas, P.; Nunes, I.; de Vries, P.; Chappuis, P.; Stephan, Y.


    A precise geometric method is used to calculate the power deposition on the future JET ITER-Like Wall beryllium tiles with particular emphasis on the internal edge loads. If over-heated surfaces are identified, these can be modified before the machining or failing that actively monitored during operations. This paper presents the methodology applied to the assessment of the main chamber beryllium limiters. The detailed analysis of one limiter is described. The conclusion of this study is that operation will not be limited by edges exposed to plasma convective loads.

  11. Efficacy of surface sampling methods for different types of beryllium compounds. (United States)

    Dufresne, A; Mocanu, T; Viau, S; Perrault, G; Dion, C


    The objective of the research work was to evaluate the efficiency of three different sampling methods (Ghost Wipe™, micro-vacuum, and ChemTest®) in the recovery of Be dust by assessing: (1) four Be compounds (beryllium acetate, beryllium chloride, beryllium oxide and beryllium aluminium), (2) three different surfaces (polystyrene, glass and aluminium) and (3) inter-operator variation. The three sampling methods were also tested on site in a laboratory of a dental school for validation purposes. The Ghost Wipe™ method showed recovery ranging from 43.3% to 85.8% for all four Be compounds and for all three quantities of Be spiked on Petri dishes, while recovery with the micro-vacuum method ranged from 0.1% to 12.4%. On polystyrene dishes with 0.4 µg Be, the recovery ranged from 48.3% to 81.7%, with an average recovery of 59.4% for Operator 1 and 68.4% for Operator 2. The ChemTest® wipe method with beryllium acetate, beryllium chloride, and AlBeMet® showed analogous results that are in line with the manufacturer's manual, but collection of beryllium oxide was negative. In the dental laboratory, Ghost Wipe™ samplings showed better recovery than the micro-vacuum method. The ratios between the recovered quantities of Be in each location where the Ghost Wipe™ was tested differed substantially, ranging from 1.45 to 64. In the dental laboratory, a faint blue color indicating the presence of Be was observed on the ChemTest® wipes used in two locations out of six. In summary, the Ghost Wipe™ method was more efficient than micro-vacuuming in collecting the Be dust from smooth, non-porous surfaces such as Petri dishes by a factor of approximately 18. The results obtained on site in a dental laboratory also showed better recovery with Ghost Wipes™. However, the ratio of Be recovered by Ghost Wipes™ versus micro-vacuuming was much lower for surfaces where a large amount of dust was present. Wet wiping is preferred over micro-vacuuming for beryllium forms, but

  12. Summary of the PSI workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The PSI workshop had been held at JAERI-Naka, from March 15th to 16th, 2002. This workshop is held twice a year as the skull practice session to report the recent progress on the plasma - surface interactions of the experimental reactors such as ITER, JT-60, LHD, etc. and the development of the plasma facing components. There were 34 participants from the university and 18 participants from JAERI and 26 papers were presented. This booklet was published for the purpose of saving a record of this workshop performed in oral lecture form. (author)

  13. 77 FR 12313 - Food Labeling Workshop; Public Workshop (United States)


    ... University (OSU), Robert M. Kerr Food & Agricultural Products Center (FAPC), is announcing a public workshop... special accommodations due to a disability, please contact Karen Smith (see Contact) at least 7 days...

  14. Workshop on Teaching Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server


    It seemed appropriate to arrange a meeting of teachers of thermodynamics in the United Kingdom, a meeting held in the pleasant surroundings of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, in Sept~mber, 1984. This volume records the ideas put forward by authors, the discussion generated and an account of the action that discussion has initiated. Emphasis was placed on the Teaching of Thermodynamics to degree-level students in their first and second years. The meeting, a workshop for practitioners in which all were expected to take part, was remarkably well supported. This was notable in the representation of essentially every UK university and polytechnic engaged in teaching engineering thermodynamics and has led to a stimulating spread of ideas. By intention, the emphasis for attendance was put on teachers of engineering concerned with thermodynamics, both mechanical and chemical engineering disciplines. Attendance from others was encouraged but limited as follows: non-engineering acad­ emics, 10%, industrialists, 10%. The ...

  15. Workshop on Computational Optimization

    CERN Document Server


    This volume is a comprehensive collection of extended contributions from the Workshop on Computational Optimization 2014, held at Warsaw, Poland, September 7-10, 2014. The book presents recent advances in computational optimization. The volume includes important real problems like parameter settings for controlling processes in bioreactor and other processes, resource constrained project scheduling, infection distribution, molecule distance geometry, quantum computing, real-time management and optimal control, bin packing, medical image processing, localization the abrupt atmospheric contamination source and so on. It shows how to develop algorithms for them based on new metaheuristic methods like evolutionary computation, ant colony optimization, constrain programming and others. This research demonstrates how some real-world problems arising in engineering, economics, medicine and other domains can be formulated as optimization tasks.

  16. Student interaction in workshops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evers, Winie


    A kind of teaching for active learning has been experimented with at SDU Sønderborg as part of the course Supply Chain Dynamics. In this course the students learn about complex systems, system dynamics as well as supply chain instability and oscillation, the course lecturer invited the author...... to experiment with novel workshop methods and techniques, where objects are used to illustrate and model business issues (Heinemann et al, 2011, Buur et al, 2013). The idea was to see how students could be engaged in a different and more interactive way to learn about these topics, by assigning the students...... teaching should reflect this diversity by embracing and experimenting with multiple forms, including activation of students by students’ interaction and manipulation with objects....

  17. NOMA 2013 International Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Fournier-Prunaret, Danièle; Nishio, Yoshifumi; Grácio, Clara


    In the field of Dynamical Systems, nonlinear iterative processes play an important role. Nonlinear mappings can be found as immediate models for many systems from different scientific areas, such as engineering, economics, biology, or can also be obtained via numerical methods permitting to solve non-linear differential equations. In both cases, the understanding of specific dynamical behaviors and phenomena is of the greatest interest for scientists. This volume contains papers that were presented at the International Workshop on Nonlinear Maps and their Applications (NOMA 2013) held in Zaragoza, Spain, on September 3-4, 2013. This kind of collaborative effort is of paramount importance in promoting communication among the various groups that work in dynamical systems and networks in their research theoretical studies as well as for applications. This volume is suitable for graduate students as well as researchers in the field.

  18. 2010 ENLIGHT Workshops

    CERN Multimedia

    ENLIGHT - European Network for LIGht ion Hadron Therapy; Manuela Cirilli


    ENLIGHT was established in 2002 to coordinate the European efforts in hadron therapy. Manjit Dosanjh, CERN’s Life Sciences Advisor (KTT), is also co-ordinator of the ENLIGHT network and some of the related programs. Under the umbrella of ENLIGHT, there are currently four EC-funded projects; PARTNER, ENVISION and ENTERVISION, co-ordinated by CERN and ULICE, co-ordinated by CNAO. The video brings you to the prestigious Nobel Forum at the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, where the ENLIGHT community gathered in September 2010 for the annual workshop. Meet the young researchers of the PARTNER Initial Training Network, and learn about the outcome of the Mid Term Review of the project conducted by the European Commission.

  19. Workshop on Computational Optimization

    CERN Document Server


    Our everyday life is unthinkable without optimization. We try to minimize our effort and to maximize the achieved profit. Many real world and industrial problems arising in engineering, economics, medicine and other domains can be formulated as optimization tasks. This volume is a comprehensive collection of extended contributions from the Workshop on Computational Optimization 2013. It presents recent advances in computational optimization. The volume includes important real life problems like parameter settings for controlling processes in bioreactor, resource constrained project scheduling, problems arising in transport services, error correcting codes, optimal system performance and energy consumption and so on. It shows how to develop algorithms for them based on new metaheuristic methods like evolutionary computation, ant colony optimization, constrain programming and others.

  20. Workshop Econophys-2015

    CERN Document Server

    Aoyama, Hideaki; Chakrabarti, Bikas; Chakraborti, Anirban; Deo, Nivedita; Raina, Dhruv; Vodenska, Irena


    This book presents the proceedings from ECONOPHYS-2015, an international workshop held in New Delhi, India, on the interrelated fields of “econophysics” and “sociophysics”, which have emerged from the application of statistical physics to economics and sociology. Leading researchers from varied communities, including economists, sociologists, financial analysts, mathematicians, physicists, statisticians, and others, report on their recent work, discuss topical issues, and review the relevant contemporary literature. A society can be described as a group of people who inhabit the same geographical or social territory and are mutually involved through their shared participation in different aspects of life. It is possible to observe and characterize average behaviors of members of a society, an example being voting behavior. Moreover, the dynamic nature of interaction within any economic sector comprising numerous cooperatively interacting agents has many features in common with the interacting systems ...

  1. Workshop on Interface Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Kreuzer, Hans


    This book contains the proceedings of the first Workshop on Interface Phenomena, organized jointly by the surface science groups at Dalhousie University and the University of Maine. It was our intention to concentrate on just three topics related to the kinetics of interface reactions which, in our opinion, were frequently obscured unnecessarily in the literature and whose fundamental nature warranted an extensive discussion to help clarify the issues, very much in the spirit of the Discussions of the Faraday Society. Each session (day) saw two principal speakers expounding the different views; the session chairmen were asked to summarize the ensuing discussions. To understand the complexity of interface reactions, paradigms must be formulated to provide a framework for the interpretation of experimen­ tal data and for the construction of theoretical models. Phenomenological approaches have been based on a small number of rate equations for the concentrations or mole numbers of the various species involved i...

  2. 2014 MICCAI Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Nedjati-Gilani, Gemma; Rathi, Yogesh; Reisert, Marco; Schneider, Torben


    This book contains papers presented at the 2014 MICCAI Workshop on Computational Diffusion MRI, CDMRI’14. Detailing new computational methods applied to diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data, it offers readers a snapshot of the current state of the art and covers a wide range of topics from fundamental theoretical work on mathematical modeling to the development and evaluation of robust algorithms and applications in neuroscientific studies and clinical practice.   Inside, readers will find information on brain network analysis, mathematical modeling for clinical applications, tissue microstructure imaging, super-resolution methods, signal reconstruction, visualization, and more. Contributions include both careful mathematical derivations and a large number of rich full-color visualizations.   Computational techniques are key to the continued success and development of diffusion MRI and to its widespread transfer into the clinic. This volume will offer a valuable starting point for anyone interested i...

  3. Proceedings of the First Hanford Separation Science Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The First Hanford Separation Science Workshop, sponsored by PNL had two main objectives: (1) assess the applicability of available separation methods for environmental restoration and for minimization, recovery, and recycle of mixed and radioactive mutes; and (2) identify research needs that must be addressed to create new or improved technologies. The information gathered at this workshop not only applies to Hanford but could be adapted to DOE facilities throughout the nation as well. These proceedings have been divided into three components: Background and Introduction to the Problem gives an overview of the history of the Site and the cleanup mission, including waste management operations, past disposal practices, current operations, and plans for the future. Also included in this section is a discussion of specific problems concerning the chemistry of the Hanford wastes. Separation Methodologies contains the papers given at the workshop by national experts in the field of separation science regarding the state-of-the-art of various methods and their applicability/adaptability to Hanford. Research Needs identifies further research areas developed in working group sessions. Individual papers are indexed separately.

  4. 48 CFR 2845.603 - Disposal methods. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Disposal methods. 2845.603 Section 2845.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Contract Management GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 2845.603 Disposal...

  5. 48 CFR 945.603 - Disposal methods. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal methods. 945.603 Section 945.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 945.603 Disposal methods....

  6. Concept for Underground Disposal of Nuclear Waste (United States)

    Bowyer, J. M.


    Packaged waste placed in empty oil-shale mines. Concept for disposal of nuclear waste economically synergistic with earlier proposal concerning backfilling of oil-shale mines. New disposal concept superior to earlier schemes for disposal in hard-rock and salt mines because less uncertainty about ability of oil-shale mine to contain waste safely for millenium.

  7. The Astronomy Workshop (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas P.


    Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): The Astronomy Workshop ( is a collection of interactive online educational tools developed for use by students, educators, professional astronomers, and the general public. The more than 20 tools in the Astronomy Workshop are rated for ease-of-use, and have been extensively tested in large university survey courses as well as more specialized classes for undergraduate majors and graduate students. Here we briefly describe the tools most relevant for the Professional Dynamical Astronomer. Solar Systems Visualizer: The orbital motions of planets, moons, and asteroids in the Solar System as well as many of the planets in exoplanetary systems are animated at their correct relative speeds in accurate to-scale drawings. Zoom in from the chaotic outer satellite systems of the giant planets all the way to their innermost ring systems. Orbital Integrators: Determine the orbital evolution of your initial conditions for a number of different scenarios including motions subject to general central forces, the classic three-body problem, and satellites of planets and exoplanets. Zero velocity curves are calculated and automatically included on relevant plots. Orbital Elements: Convert quickly and easily between state vectors and orbital elements with Changing the Elements. Use other routines to visualize your three-dimensional orbit and to convert between the different commonly used sets of orbital elements including the true, mean, and eccentric anomalies. Solar System Calculators: These tools calculate a user-defined mathematical expression simultaneously for all of the Solar System's planets (Planetary Calculator) or moons (Satellite Calculator). Key physical and orbital data are automatically accessed as needed.

  8. Chronic Beryllium Disease: revealing the role of beryllium ion and small peptides binding to HLA-DP2. (United States)

    Petukh, Marharyta; Wu, Bohua; Stefl, Shannon; Smith, Nick; Hyde-Volpe, David; Wang, Li; Alexov, Emil


    Chronic Beryllium (Be) Disease (CBD) is a granulomatous disorder that predominantly affects the lung. The CBD is caused by Be exposure of individuals carrying the HLA-DP2 protein of the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII). While the involvement of Be in the development of CBD is obvious and the binding site and the sequence of Be and peptide binding were recently experimentally revealed [1], the interplay between induced conformational changes and the changes of the peptide binding affinity in presence of Be were not investigated. Here we carry out in silico modeling and predict the Be binding to be within the acidic pocket (Glu26, Glu68 and Glu69) present on the HLA-DP2 protein in accordance with the experimental work [1]. In addition, the modeling indicates that the Be ion binds to the HLA-DP2 before the corresponding peptide is able to bind to it. Further analysis of the MD generated trajectories reveals that in the presence of the Be ion in the binding pocket of HLA-DP2, all the different types of peptides induce very similar conformational changes, but their binding affinities are quite different. Since these conformational changes are distinctly different from the changes caused by peptides normally found in the cell in the absence of Be, it can be speculated that CBD can be caused by any peptide in presence of Be ion. However, the affinities of peptides for Be loaded HLA-DP2 were found to depend of their amino acid composition and the peptides carrying acidic group at positions 4 and 7 are among the strongest binders. Thus, it is proposed that CBD is caused by the exposure of Be of an individual carrying the HLA-DP2*0201 allele and that the binding of Be to HLA-DP2 protein alters the conformational and ionization properties of HLA-DP2 such that the binding of a peptide triggers a wrong signaling cascade.

  9. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freiesleben H.


    Full Text Available In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  10. LLNL Input to SNL L2 MS: Report on the Basis for Selection of Disposal Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M; Blink, J A; Halsey, W G


    This mid-year deliverable has two parts. The first part is a synopsis of J. Blink's interview of the former Nevada Attorney General, Frankie Sue Del Papa, which was done in preparation for the May 18-19, 2010 Legal and Regulatory Framework Workshop held in Albuquerque. The second part is a series of sections written as input for the SNL L2 Milestone M21UF033701, due March 31, 2011. Disposal of high-level radioactive waste is categorized in this review into several categories. Section II discusses alternatives to geologic disposal: space, ice-sheets, and an engineered mountain or mausoleum. Section III discusses alternative locations for mined geologic disposal: islands, coastlines, mid-continent, and saturated versus unsaturated zone. Section IV discusses geologic disposal alternatives other than emplacement in a mine: well injection, rock melt, sub-seabed, and deep boreholes in igneous or metamorphic basement rock. Finally, Secton V discusses alternative media for mined geologic disposal: basalt, tuff, granite and other igneous/metamorphic rock, alluvium, sandstone, carbonates and chalk, shale and clay, and salt.

  11. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report addresses the topic of the mined geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). Although some fuel processing options are identified, most of the information in this report relates to the isolation of spent fuel in the form it is removed from the reactor. The characteristics of the waste management system and research which relate to spent fuel isolation are discussed. The differences between spent fuel and processed HLW which impact the waste isolation system are defined and evaluated for the nature and extent of that impact. What is known and what needs to be determined about spent fuel as a waste form to design a viable waste isolation system is presented. Other waste forms and programs such as geologic exploration, site characterization and licensing which are generic to all waste forms are also discussed. R and D is being carried out to establish the technical information to develop the methods used for disposal of spent fuel. All evidence to date indicates that there is no reason, based on safety considerations, that spent fuel should not be disposed of as a waste.

  12. Skills Labs: workshop EMERGO toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurvers, Hub; Slootmaker, Aad


    Kurvers, H. J., & Slootmaker, A. (2009). Skills Labs: workshop EMERGO toolkit. Presentation given at project members of Skills Labs. March, 31, 2009 and April, 24, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  13. Women in Astronomy Workshop Report

    CERN Document Server

    Brough, Sarah; Brooks, Kate; Hopkins, Andrew; Maddison, Sarah


    Here we report on the Women in Astronomy Workshop (, which was held on 13 May 2011 in Sydney, Australia. The workshop was organised by the Astronomical Society of Australia's Chapter on Women in Astronomy, to discuss some of the issues that face women in astronomy and make recommendations to help support the success of women in Australian astronomy but came to broader conclusions that have value for the whole astronomical community. The workshop consisted of four sessions, with presentations by invited speakers on demographics, leadership, varied career paths, and how institutions & individuals can help. The workshop ended with a discussion panel that summarised the day's debate and presented a list of recommendations for the Australian astronomical community (both individuals and institutions) that are provided in this report.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Branimir


    Full Text Available The application of oilfield and solution mining technology to subsurface disposal of technological wastes has proven to be an environmentally, technically and economically suitable method for the disposal of the waste generated in petroleum industry as well as other industrial branches. This paper describes the subsurface injection technology, the disposal formation characteristics, the waste disposal well design, evaluates the environmental impact of above mentioned technology and proposes a solutions for disposing of technological wastes in Croatia or nerby region by implementing underground injection technology according to the world experience (the paper is published in Croatian.

  15. Social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, Armin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis


    Nuclear waste disposal is a two-faceted challenge: a scientific and technological endeavour, on the one hand, and confronted with social dimensions, on the other. In this paper I will sketch the respective social dimensions and will give a plea for interdisciplinary research approaches. Relevant social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal are concerning safety standards, the disposal 'philosophy', the process of determining the disposal site, and the operation of a waste disposal facility. Overall, cross-cutting issues of justice, responsibility, and fairness are of major importance in all of these fields.

  16. 6th International Microbeam Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr Kevin M. Prise


    The extended abstracts which are submitted here present a summary of the proceedings of the 6th International Workshop/12th LH Gray Workshop: Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response, held at St. Catherine's College, University of Oxford, UK on March, 29th-31st, 2003. In 1993 the 4th LH Gray Workshop entitled ''Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response'' was held at the Gray Cancer Institute in Northwood. This was organized by Prof BD Michael, Dr M. Folkard and Dr KM Prise and brought together 40 participants interested in developing and applying new microbeam technology to problems in radiation biology (1). The workshop was an undoubted success and has spawned a series of subsequent workshops every two years. In the past, these workshops have been highly successful in bringing together groups interested in developing and applying micro-irradiation techniques to the study of cell and tissue damage by ionizing radiations. Following the first microbeam workshop, there has been a rapid growth in the number of centres developing radiobiology microbeams, or planning to do so and there are currently 15-20 worldwide. Much of the recent research using microbeams has used them to study low-dose effects and ''non-targeted'' responses such bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive responses. The goal of the 6th workshop was to build on our knowledge of the development of microbeam approaches and the application to radiation biology in the future with the meeting stretching over a 3 day period. Over 80 participants reviewed the current state of radiobiology microbeam research worldwide and reported on new technological developments both in the fields of physics and biology.

  17. IFPA meeting 2008 workshops report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lash, G.E.; Ansari, T.; Bischof, P.


    Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting. At the IFPA meeting 2008 diverse topics were discussed in 12 themed workshops. Topics covered included: immunology of placentation; galectins and trophoblast invasion; signaling in implantation and invasion; markers to identify trophoblast...... subpopulations; placental pathology; placental toxicology; sterology; placental transport of fatty acids; placental mesenchymal stem cells; comparative placentation; trophoblst and neoplasia; trophoblast differentiation. This report is a summary of the various topics covered....

  18. Proceedings of the workshop on geochemical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The following collection of papers was presented at a workshop on geochemical modeling that was sponsored by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The LLNL Waste Management Program sponsored this conference based on their belief that geochemical modeling is particularly important to the radioactive waste disposal project because of the need to predict the consequences of long-term water-rock interactions at the proposed repository site. The papers included in this volume represent a subset of the papers presented at the Fallen Leaf Lake Conference and cover a broad spectrum of detail and breadth in a subject that reflects the diverse research interests of the conference participants. These papers provide an insightful look into the current status of geochemical modeling and illustrate how various geochemical modeling codes have been applied to problems of geochemical interest. The emphasis of these papers includes traditional geochemical modeling studies of individual geochemical systems, the mathematical and theoretical development and refinement of new modeling capabilities, and enhancements of data bases on which the computations are based. The papers in this proceedings volume have been organized into the following four areas: Geochemical Model Development, Hydrothermal and Geothermal Systems, Sedimentary and Low Temperature Environments, and Data Base Development. The participants of this symposium and a complete list of the talks presented are listed in the appendices.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul A.J. Mohamed


    Full Text Available The occurrence of carcinogenic and heavy metals in groundwater sources in Urban-west region of Zanzibar Island is an issue that is not very well known. This could be also coupled with the absence of drinking water treatment plants. This study for the first time reports on the occurrence and the levels of three carcinogenic metals-Arsenic (As, Beryllium (Be and lead (Pb in thirty groundwater samples collected from Zanzibar’s Urban/West region. The levels of alkalinity, Magnesium (Mg and Thallium (Tl were also determined. The concentrations of As, Be, TI and Pb in the water samples were determined by the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES. Palintest photometry procedures were used to determine the levels of total alkalinity and magnesium. Be, As, Tl and Pb were not detected (nd in some water samples. The ranges of concentrations of Be, As, TI and Pb in the samples were; nd to 6100 ng L-1, nd to 6600 ng L-1, nd to 11600 ng L-1 and nd to 31400 ng L-1 respectively. The levels of total alkalinity varied from 38 to 380 (mg L-1 as CaCO3. The proportions of water samples contaminated with Be, Tl, As and Pb were 43.3, 66.7, 70 and 96.7% respectively. About 23% of the water samples had Pb concentrations beyond WHO limits for safe drinking water, while 30 and 56.67% of the samples had Be and Tl concentrations beyond the US EPA’s maximum limits. The concentration of arsenic in each water sample was within WHO limits. The occurrence and the levels of carcinogenic metals in water sources could be a potential cause of cancer cases in Zanzibar. Therefore, prompt action is required to control the levels of these hazardous metals, and other possible contaminants in Zanzibar’s domestic water systems.

  20. The relationship between gross and net erosion of beryllium at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerner, R.P., E-mail: [Center for Energy Research, University of California in San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0417 (United States); Jepu, I. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, NILPRP, Magurele, Bucharest 077125 (Romania); Nishijima, D. [Center for Energy Research, University of California in San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0417 (United States); Safi, E.; Bukonte, L.; Lasa, A.; Nordlund, K. [Association EURATOM-Tekes, University of Helsinki, PO Box 43, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Schwarz-Selinger, T. [Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)


    Surface temperature is a critical variable governing plasma–material interactions. PISCES-B injects controllable amounts of Be impurities into the plasma to balance, or exceed, the erosion rate of beryllium from samples in un-seeded plasma exposures. At low temperature, an order of magnitude more beryllium, than the beryllium mass loss measured in un-seeded discharges, needs to be seeded into the plasma to achieve no mass loss from a sample. At elevated temperature, no mass loss is achieved when the beryllium-seeding rate equals the mass loss rate in un-seeded discharges. Molecular dynamics simulations show that below 500 K, Be adatoms have difficulty surmounting the Ehrlich–Schwoebel barrier at the edge of a terrace. Above this temperature, an Arrhenius behavior is observed with an activation energy of 0.32 eV. Qualitatively, this indicates that at low surface temperature the deposited atoms may be more easily re-eroded, accounting for the increased seeding needed to balance the erosion.

  1. Beryllium assessment and recommendation for application in ITER plasma facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabash, V.; Tanaka, S.; Matera, R. [ITER Joint Central Team, Muenchen (Germany)


    The design status of the ITER Plasma Facing Components (PFC) is presented. The operational conditions of the armour material for the different components are summarized. Beryllium is the reference armour material for the Primary Wall, Baffle and Limiter and the back-up material for the Divertor Dome. The activities on the selection of the Be grades and the joining technologies are reviewed. (author)

  2. Deep layer-resolved core-level shifts in the beryllium surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldén, Magnus; Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Johansson, Börje


    Core-level energy shifts for the beryllium surface region are calculated by means of a Green’s function technique within the tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbitals method. Both initial- and final-state effects in the core-ionization process are fully accounted for. Anomalously large energy shifts...

  3. Progress on a Cavity with Beryllium Walls for Muon Ionization Cooling Channel R&D.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowring, D. L.; DeMello, A. J.; Lambert, A. R.; Li, D.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Kaplan, D.; Palmer, R. B.


    The Muon Accelerator Program (MAP) collaboration is working to develop an ionization cooling channel for muon beams. An ionization cooling channel requires the operation of high-gradient, normal-conducting RF cavities in multi-Tesla solenoidal magnetic fields. However, experiments conducted at Fermilab?s MuCool Test Area (MTA) show that increasing the solenoidal field strength reduces the maximum achievable cavity gradient. This gradient limit is characterized by an RF breakdown process that has caused significant damage to copper cavity interiors. The damage may be caused by field-emitted electrons, focused by the solenoidal magnetic field onto small areas of the inner cavity surface. Local heating may then induce material fatigue and surface damage. Fabricating a cavity with beryllium walls would mitigate this damage due to beryllium?s low density, low thermal expansion, and high electrical and thermal conductivity. We address the design and fabrication of a pillbox RF cavity with beryllium walls, in order to evaluate the performance of high-gradient cavities in strong magnetic fields.

  4. Tritium release from advanced beryllium materials after loading by tritium/hydrogen gas mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakin, Vladimir, E-mail: [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Rolli, Rolf; Moeslang, Anton; Kurinskiy, Petr; Vladimirov, Pavel [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Dorn, Christopher [Materion Beryllium & Composites, 6070 Parkland Boulevard, Mayfield Heights, OH 44124-4191 (United States); Kupriyanov, Igor [Bochvar Russian Scientific Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Rogova str., 5, 123098 Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Highlights: • A major tritium release peak for beryllium samples occurs at temperatures higher than 1250 K. • A beryllium grade with comparatively smaller grain size has a comparatively higher tritium release compared to the grade with larger grain size. • The pebbles of irregular shape with the grain size of 10–30 μm produced by the crushing method demonstrate the highest tritium release rate. - Abstract: Comparison of different beryllium samples on tritium release and retention properties after high-temperature loading by tritium/hydrogen gas mixture and following temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) tests has been performed. The I-220-H grade produced by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) having the smallest grain size, the pebbles of irregular shape with the smallest grain size (10–30 μm) produced by the crushing method (CM), and the pebbles with 1 mm diameter produced by the fluoride reduction method (FRM) having a highly developed inherent porosity show the highest release rate. Grain size and porosity are considered as key structural parameters for comparison and ranking of different beryllium materials on tritium release and retention properties.

  5. Lifetime Measurements for Electric-Dipole △ n = 0 Transitions in the Beryllium-Like Sulfur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Shu-Bin; YANG Zhi-Hu; CHANG Hong-Wei; SU Hong


    @@ We have measured lifetimes of △n = 0 allowed transitions in beryllium-like sulfur using beam foil spectroscopic techniques. The measured values, derived from analysis of arbitrarily normalized decay curves, are presented and compared with theoretical calculations and previous measurements. Accurate probabilities have been determined by the well-known relationship.

  6. Thermal ramp tritium release in COBRA-1A2 C03 beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, D.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    Tritium release kinetics, using the method of thermal ramp heating at three linear ramp rates, were measured on the COBRA-1A2 C03 1-mm beryllium pebbles. This report includes a brief discussion of the test, and the test data in graph format.

  7. Beryllium abundances in parent stars of extrasolar planets 16 Cyg A & B and $\\rho^{1}$ Cnc$^{*}$

    CERN Document Server

    García-López, R J


    The Be II 3131 A doublet has been observed in the solar-type stars 16 Cyg A & B and in the late G-type star rho 1 Cnc, to derive their beryllium abundances. 16 Cyg A & B show similar (solar) beryllium abundances while 16 Cyg B, which has been proposed to have a planetary companion of ~2 M_Jup, is known to be depleted in lithium by a factor larger than 6 with respect to 16 Cyg A. Differences in their rotational histories which could induce different rates of internal mixing of material, and the ingestion of a similar planet by 16 Cyg A are discussed as potential explanations. The existence of two other solar-type stars which are candidates to harbour planetary-mass companions and which show lithium and beryllium abundances close to those of 16 Cyg A, requires a more detailed inspection of the peculiarities of the 16 Cyg system. For rho 1 Cnc, which is the coolest known object candidate to harbour a planetary-mass companion (M > 0.85 M_Jup), we establish a precise upper limit for its beryllium abundance...

  8. Experimental bremsstrahlung yields for MeV proton bombardment of beryllium and carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, David D. [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Private Mail Bag 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)], E-mail:; Stelcer, Eduard; Siegele, Rainer; Ionescu, Mihail; Prior, Michael [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Private Mail Bag 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)


    Experimental bremsstrahlung yields for 2, 3 and 4 MeV protons on thin beryllium and carbon targets have been measured. The yields have been corrected for detector efficiency, self-absorption in the target and fitted to 9th order polynomials over the X-ray energy range 1-10 keV for easy comparison with theoretical calculations.

  9. (n,p) emission channeling measurements on ion-implanted beryllium

    CERN Multimedia

    Jakubek, J; Uher, J


    We propose to perform emission-channeling measurements using thermal neutron induced proton emission from ion-implanted $^{7}$Be. The physics questions addressed concern the beryllium doping of III-V and II-VI semiconductors and the host dependence of the electron capture half-life of $^{7}$Be.

  10. Thermo-optical properties of beryllium containing oxide crystals as materials for high power laser systems (United States)

    Pestryakov, E. V.; Petrov, V. V.; Trunov, V. I.; Kirpichnikov, A. V.; Laptev, A. V.; Matrosov, V. N.


    The elastic and thermo-optical properties of chrysoberyl, beryllium hexaaluminate and beryllium-lanthanum hexaaluminate crystals have been experimentally studied. The velocities of elastic-wave propagation in the crystals are measured by acousto-optic interference method. The values of all the independent components of elastic-constant tensor are determined and used to calculate a number of important dynamic parameters of the crystals such as the Young's and shear moduli, the modulus of volume elasticity, Poisson's ratio, the Debye temperature. Also measurements of refractive indices in 25 - 75 C temperature range in VIS spectral region were performed. Using experimental data the dispersion of thermal optical coefficients (dn/dT) was calculated, these data were employed to evaluate the thermal lens in beryllium containing laser crystals. The experimental and calculated data are compared with similar parameters for well-known laser hosts. Some of beryllium containing oxide crystals was shown to be candidates for master oscillator and amplifying stages of high power femtosecond laser systems.

  11. Improved vacuum evaporation unit for beryllium coating for biological X-ray microanalysis. (United States)

    Marshall, A T; Carde, D; Kent, M


    An improved vacuum evaporator is described for coating frozen-hydrated biological samples with beryllium for X-ray microanalysis. The evaporator permits repeated coatings without bringing the main chamber to atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. The use of a glass sleeve in the evaporation chamber facilitates cleaning.

  12. Lattice Dynamics of Beryllium from a First-Principles Nonlocal Pseudopotential Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, F. King; Cutler, P. H.


    The lattice dynamics of beryllium, a metal with hexagonal close-packed structure and two atoms per unit cell, is investigated within the framework of Harrison's first-principles pseudopotential theory, using (i) the Slater approximation for the conduction-band-core exchange, and (ii) a modified...

  13. Investigation of damages induced by ITER-relevant heat loads during massive gas injections on Beryllium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Spilker


    Full Text Available Massive gas injections (MGIs will be used in ITER to mitigate the strong damaging effect of full performance plasma disruptions on the plasma facing components. The MGI method transforms the stored plasma energy to radiation that is spread across the vacuum vessel with poloidal and toroidal asymmetries. This work investigated the impact of MGI like heat loading on the first wall armor material beryllium. ITER-relevant power densities of 90-260MWm−2in combination with pulse durations of 5-10ms were exerted onto the S-65 grade beryllium specimens in the electron beam facility JUDITH 1. All tested loading conditions led to noticeable surface morphology changes and in the expected worst case scenario, a crater with thermally induced cracks with a depth of up to ∼340µm formed in the loaded area. The level of destruction in the loaded area was strongly dependent on the pulse number but also on the formation of beryllium oxide. The cyclic melting of beryllium could lead to an armor thinning mechanism under the presence of melt motion driving forces such as surface tension, magnetic forces, and plasma pressure.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Requirements for collision data on helium, beryllium and boron are reviewed in the light of the directions of present and planned tokamak fusion experiments. The occurrence of the atoms and ions of these species and their roles in plasma behaviour and diagnostic measurements are described. Special e

  15. The analysis of beryllium-copper diffusion joint after HHF test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiniatouline, R.N.; Mazul, I.V. [Efremov Research Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Rubkin, S.Y. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others


    The development of beryllium-copper joints which can withstand to relevant ITER divertor conditions is one of the important tasks at present time. One of the main problem for beryllium-copperjoints, is the inter-metallic layers, the strength and life time of joints significantly depends from the width and contents of the intermetallic layers. The objective of this work is to study the diffusion joint of TGP-56 beryllium to OFHC copper after thermal response and thermocyclic tests with beryllium-copper mockup. The BEY test were performed at e-beam facility (EBTS, SNLA). The following methods were used for analyses: the roentgenographic analysis; X-ray spectrum analysis; the fracture graphic analysis. During the investigation the followed studies were done: the analysis of diffusion boundary Be-Cu, which was obtained at the crossection of one of the tiles, the analysis of the debonded surfaces of a few beryllium tiles and corresponding copper parts; the analysis of upper surface of one of the tiles after HHF tests. The results of this work have showed that: the joint roentgenographic and elements analyses indicated the following phases in the diffusion zone: Cu{sub 2}Be ({approximately}170 {mu}m), CuBe ({approximately}30{mu}m), CuBe{sub 2} ({approximately}1 {mu}m) and solid solution of copper in beryllium. The phases Cu{sub 2}Be, CuBe and solid solution of copper in beryllium were indicated using quantitative microanalysis and phases CuBe, CuBe{sub 2}, Cu, Be - by roentgenographic analysis; the source of fracture (initial crack) is located in the central part of the tiles, the crack caused by the influence of residual stresses during cooling of a mock-up after fabrication and developed under the conditions of slow elastic-plastic growing during the process of thermal fatigue testing. The analysis gives the important data about joint`s quality and also may be used for any type of joints and its comparison for ITER applications.

  16. Tritium release from neutron irradiated beryllium: Kinetics, long-time annealing and effect or crack formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, (Germany)


    Since beryllium is considered as one of the best neutron multiplier materials in the blanket of the next generation fusion reactors, several studies have been started to evaluate its behaviour under irradiation during both operating and accidental conditions. Based on safety considerations, tritium produced in beryllium during neutron irradiation represents one important issue, therefore it is necessary to investigate tritium transport processes by using a comprehensive mathematical model and comparing its predictions with well characterized experimental tests. Because of the difficulties in extrapolating the short-time tritium release tests to a longer time scale, also long-time annealing experiments with beryllium samples from the SIBELIUS irradiation. have been carried out at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. Samples were annealed up to 12 months at temperatures up to 650{degrees}C. The inventory after annealing was determined by heating the samples up to 1050{degrees}C with a He+0.1 vo1% H{sub 2} purge gas. Furthermore, in order to investigate the likely effects of cracks formation eventually causing a faster tritium release from beryllium, the behaviour of samples irradiated at low temperature (40-50{degrees}C) but up to very high fast neutron fluences (0.8-3.9{center_dot}10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}, E{sub n}{ge}1 MeV) in the BR2 reactor has been investigated. Tritium was released by heating the beryllium samples up to 1050{degrees}C and purging them with He+0.1 vo1% H{sub 2}. Tritium release from high-irradiated beryllium samples showed a much faster kinetics than from the low-irradiated ones, probably because of crack formation caused by thermal stresses in the brittle material and/or by helium bubbles migration. The obtained experimental data have been compared with predictions of the code ANFIBE with the goal to better understand the physical mechanisms governing tritium behaviour in beryllium and to assess the prediction capabilities of the code.

  17. Physical properties of beryllium oxide - Irradiation effects; Proprietes physiques et caracteristiques mecaniques de l'oxyde de beryllium fritte - Effet de l'irradiation et guerison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elston, J.; Caillat, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    This work has been carried out in view of determining several physical properties of hot-pressed beryllium oxide under various conditions and the change of these properties after irradiation. Special attention has been paid on to the measurement of the thermal conductivity coefficient and thermal diffusivity coefficient. Several designs for the measurement of the thermal conductivity coefficient have been achieved. They permit its determination between 50 and 300 deg. C, between 400 and 800 deg. C. Some measurements have been made above 1000 deg. C. In order to measure the thermal diffusivity coefficient, we heat a perfectly flat surface of a sample in such a way that the heat flux is modulated (amplitude and frequency being adjustable). The thermal diffusivity coefficient is deduced from the variations of temperature observed on several spots. Tensile strength; compressive strength; expansion coefficient; sound velocity and crystal parameters have been also measured. Some of the measurements have been carried out after neutron irradiation. Some data have been obtained on the change of the properties of beryllium oxide depending on the integrated neutron flux. (author)Fren. [French] L'objet de cette etude est la determination de plusieurs proprietes physiques de l'oxyde de beryllium fritte sous charge dans differentes conditions et l'evolution de ces proprietes apres irradiation. Une attention particuliere a ete portee sur la mesure de la conductibilite et de la diffusivite thermiques. Differents montages ont ete realises pour mesurer la conductibilite thermique. Ils permettent la determination entre 50 et 300 deg. C, entre 400 et 800 deg. C; quelques mesures ont ete faites au-dessus de 1000 deg. C. Pour la mesure du coefficient de diffusivite thermique, on realise une attaque thermique, de frequence et d'amplitude reglables d'une face parfaitement plane d'un echantillon d'oxyde de beryllium. Les variations de temperature sont

  18. Beryllium-10 in the Taylor Dome ice core: Applications to Antarctic glaciology and paleoclimatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steig, E.J.


    An ice core was drilled at Taylor dome, East Antarctica, reaching to bedrock at 554 meters. Oxygen-isotope measurements reveal climatic fluctuations through the last interglacial period. To facilitate comparison of the Taylor Dome paleoclimate record with geologic data and results from other deep ice cores, several glaciological issues need to be addressed. In particular, accumulation data are necessary as input for numerical ice-flow-models, for determining the flux of chemical constituents from measured concentrations, and for calculation of the offset in age between ice and trapped air in the core. The analysis of cosmogenic beryllium-10 provides a geochemical method for constraining the accumulation-rate history at Taylor Dome. High-resolution measurements were made in shallow firn cores and snow pits to determine the relationship among beryllium-10 concentrations, wet and dry deposition mechanisms, and snow-accumulation rates. Comparison between theoretical and measured variations in deposition over the last 75 years constrains the relationship between beryllium-10 deposition and global average production rates. The results indicate that variations in geomagnetically-modulated production-rate do not strongly influence beryllium-10 deposition at Taylor Dome. Although solar modulation of production rate is important for time scales of years to centuries, snow-accumulation rate is the dominant control on ice-core beryllium-10 concentrations for longer periods. Results show that the Taylor Dome core can be used to provide new constraints on regional climate over the last 130,000 years, complementing the terrestrial and marine geological record from the Dry Valley, Transantarctic Mountains and western Ross Sea.

  19. Helium analyses of 1-mm beryllium microspheres from COBRA-1A2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, B.M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    Multiple helium analyses on four beryllium microspheres irradiated in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W), are reported. The purpose of the analyses was to determine the total helium content of the beryllium, and to determine the helium release characteristics of the beryllium as a function of time and temperature. For the helium release measurements, sequential helium analyses were conducted on two of the samples over a temperature range from 500 C to 1100 C in 100 C increments. Total helium measurements were conducted separately using the normal analysis method of vaporizing the material in a single analysis run. Observed helium release in the two beryllium samples was nonlinear with time at each temperature interval, with each step being characterized by a rather rapid initial release rate, followed by a gradual slowing of the rate over time. Sample Be-C03-1 released virtually all of its helium after approximately 30 minutes at 1000 C, reaching a final value of 2722 appm. Sample Be-D03-1, on the other hand, released only about 62% of its helium after about 1 hour at 1100 c, reaching a final value of 1519 appm. Combining these results with subsequent vaporization runs on the two samples, yielded total helium concentrations of 2724 and 2459 appm. Corresponding helium concentrations measured in the two other C03 and D03 samples, by vaporization alone, were 2941 and 2574 appm. Both sets of concentrations are in reasonable agreement with predicted values of 2723 and 2662 appm. Helium-3 levels measured during the latter two vaporization runs were 2.80 appm for Be-C03-2, and 2.62 appm for Be-D03-2. Calculated {sup 3}He values are slightly lower at 2.55 and 2.50 appm, respectively, suggesting somewhat higher tritium levels in the beryllium than predicted.

  20. Validation of a standardised method for determining beryllium in human urine at nanogram level. (United States)

    Devoy, Jérôme; Melczer, Mathieu; Antoine, Guillaume; Remy, Aurélie; Heilier, Jean-François


    The potential toxicity of beryllium at low levels of exposure means that a biological and/or air monitoring strategy may be required to monitor the exposure of subjects. The main objective of the work presented in this manuscript was to develop and validate a sensitive and reproducible method for determining levels of beryllium in human urine and to establish reference values in workers and in non-occupationally exposed people. A chelate of beryllium acetylacetonate formed from beryllium(II) in human urine was pre-concentrated on a SPE C18 cartridge and eluted with methanol. After drying the eluate, the residue was solubilised in nitric acid and analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry and/or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The proposed method is 4 to 100 times more sensitive than other methods currently in routine use. The new method was validated with the concordance correlation coefficient test for beryllium concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 ng/L. Creatinine concentration, urine pH, interfering compounds and freeze-thaw cycles were found to have only slight effects on the performance of the method (less than 6%). The effectiveness of the two analytical techniques was compared statistically with each other and to direct analysis techniques. Even with a detection limit of 0.6 ng/L (obtained with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry), the method is not sensitive enough to detect levels in non-occupationally exposed persons. The method performance does however appear to be suitable for monitoring worker exposure in some industrial settings and it could therefore be of use in biological monitoring strategies.